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Sample records for parasitic giardia lamblia

  1. Lectin Activation in Giardia lamblia by Host Protease: A Novel Host-Parasite Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev, Boaz; Ward, Honorine; Keusch, Gerald T.; Pereira, Miercio E. A.

    1986-04-01

    A lectin in Giardia lamblia was activated by secretions from the human duodenum, the environment where the parasite lives. Incubation of the secretions with trypsin inhibitors prevented the appearance of lectin activity, implicating proteases as the activating agent. Accordingly, lectin activation was also produced by crystalline trypsin and Pronase; other proteases tested were ineffective. When activated, the lectin agglutinated intestinal cells to which the parasite adheres in vivo. The lectin was most specific to mannose-6-phosphate and apparently was bound to the plasma membrane. Activation of a parasite lectin by a host protease represents a novel mechanism of hostparasite interaction and may contribute to the affinity of Giardia lamblia to the infection site.

  2. X-ray structure and characterization of carbamate kinase from the human parasite Giardia lamblia

    OpenAIRE

    Galkin, Andrey; Kulakova, Liudmila; Wu, Rui; Nash, Theodore E.; Dunaway-mariano, Debra; Herzberg, Osnat

    2010-01-01

    The three-dimensional structure of carbamate kinase from the human parasite G. lamblia has been determined at 3?Å resolution. Steady-state kinetic parameters have been determined and dsRNA-silencing experiments indicate that the enzyme is essential for the survival of G. lamblia.

  3. Giardia lamblia: a major parasitic cause of childhood diarrhoea in patients attending a district hospital in Ghana

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    Nguah Samuel

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute childhood diarrhoea remains one of the leading causes of childhood morbidity and mortality in developing countries. The WHO has accordingly underlined the need for epidemiological surveys of infantile diarrhoea in all geographical areas. This study was conducted to determine the incidence of intestinal parasites among stool samples from children examined at a secondary health care facility in a rural area of Ghana. Method A retrospective study was conducted to investigate the incidence of intestinal parasites among children who had their stools examined at the Agogo Hospital laboratory. Stool microscopy results from January 2006 through May 2009 were obtained from archived records of the laboratory. Results for children less than 18 years were transcribed unto a standardized datasheet, entered into an electronic database designed using Microsoft® access 2007 and analyzed using Stata/SE11.1 statistical software. The incidences of the parasites were determined and presented with their Poisson exact 95% confidence intervals for the various ages. Results The median age of the 1080 children included in the study was 5 years (IQR: 2-12 years with 51.9% being females. The overall incidence of all parasites was 114 per 1000 with Giardia lamblia being the most common (89.5%. Children aged less than a year had the lowest parasite incidence of 13 per 1000 with all being Giardia lamblia, while those aged 15-17 years had the highest of 169 per 1000. The incidence for Giardia lamblia only was lowest at 13 per 1000 for those under a year old, highest at 152 per 1000 for the 15-17 year group and 97 per 1000 for all ages combined. There was a significant rise in incidence of Giardia lamblia with age (Trend x2 = 18.6, p Enterobius vermicularis, Taenia spp and Trichuris trichiura were not seen in any of the stool samples. Conclusion Giardia lamblia is the most prevalent intestinal parasite in examined stool samples of children within the Ashanti Akim North Municipality and its prevalence significantly increases with age. Measures must be put in place to educate the community on proper personal hygiene to reduce giardiasis.

  4. A Rare Cause of Reactive Arthritis: Giardia Lamblia

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    Dilek Karaku?; Nilüfer Kutay Ordu Gökkaya; Fügen Oktay; Halil Uçan

    2009-01-01

    Although many of parasitic infestations are known to cause arthritis development, articular findings related to parasitosis is rarely discussed in literature. The protozoa, Giardia lamblia is often known as gastroenteritis agent, on the other hand rarely causes reactive arthritis. The clinical presentation related to articulation are arthritis and arthralgia. In our report, a case with reactive arthritis due to Giardia lamblia is presented with emphasis on the differences in diagnosis and tre...

  5. Binding of cholera toxin to Giardia lamblia.

    OpenAIRE

    McCardell, B. A.; Madden, J. M.; Stanfield, J T; Tall, B. D.; Stephens, M. J.

    1987-01-01

    Binding of cholera toxin to Giardia lamblia was demonstrated by two slightly different methods: an immunofluorescence technique using antibody to cholera toxin and anti-rabbit immunoglobulin G conjugated to fluorescein isothiocyanate, and a one-step fluorescence method in which G. lamblia was incubated with the B subunit of cholera toxin conjugated to fluorescein isothiocyanate.

  6. Whole genome sequencing of clinical isolates of Giardia lamblia.

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    Hanevik, K; Bakken, R; Brattbakk, H R; Saghaug, C S; Langeland, N

    2015-02-01

    Clinical isolates from protozoan parasites such as Giardia lamblia are at present practically impossible to culture. By using simple cyst purification methods, we show that Giardia whole genome sequencing of clinical stool samples is possible. Immunomagnetic separation after sucrose gradient flotation gave superior results compared to sucrose gradient flotation alone. The method enables detailed analysis of a wide range of genes of interest for genotyping, virulence and drug resistance. PMID:25596782

  7. Azasterols impair Giardia lamblia proliferation and induces encystation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of sterol biosynthesis inhibitors on growth and fine structure of Giardia lamblia P1 strain cultures were analyzed. Azasterols demonstrated high efficacy in killing cells. The IC50 values for 22,26-azasterol and 24(R,S),25-epiminolanosterol were 7 ?M and 170 nM, respectively. Morphological analysis showed that azasterols induced changes in G. lamblia ultrastructure. The most significant alterations were: (a) considerable increase of the size of the peripheral vesicles, which are part of the parasite endosomal-lysosomal system; (b) appearance of autophagosomal structures; and (c) induction of differentiation, followed by an abnormal enlargement of encystation secretory vesicles. We propose that azasterols are effective chemotherapeutic drugs against Giardia lamblia in vitro and may have another target in cells besides sterol biosynthesis

  8. PURE CULTURE METHOD: GIARDIA LAMBLIA FROM DIFFERENT STOOL SAMPLES

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    H.A YOUSEFI

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Giardiasis is one of the health problems in the world including Iran. To determine the biochemical and biological problems and also identification of various strains, it is essential to obtain pure culture and then mass production of Giardia lamblia. The goal of this study was to isolate this protozoa purely.
    Methods. Giardia lamblia cysts were isolated from 50 stool samples by use of floating of a four - layer of sucrose method. The cysts were transfered to an inducing solution. Subsequently, they were cultured in a modified culture medium (TYIS-33. Following excystation of trophozoite and its multiplication, the parasite was caltured and purified.
    Findings. Excitation of trophozoite was observed in 40 samples (80 percent from which 22 samples (55 percent yielded pure culture. The doubling time was approximately 13hr and the peak of parasite was observed between third and fourth days.
    Conclusion. The proliferation and growth rate of Giardia lamblia have enabled us to use this method widely. Cystein and ascorbic acid which are present in the induction solution, have a key role in excystation of trophozoite. Purification and passage of samples has facilitated the culture of this parasite in vitro. Therefore this method has yielded better results in comparison with other studies. This is probably due to a decrease in the amount of bovine bile or using different strains of Giardia lamblia in the present study.

  9. Lactose hydrogen breath test in Giardia lamblia-positive patients.

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    Rana, S V; Bhasin, D K; Vinayak, V K

    2005-02-01

    The study was conducted in 54 adult patients with Giardia lamblia infection and 54 adult controls to detect lactose maldigestion employing the noninvasive lactose hydrogen breath test. Forty of 54 (74%) patients with Giardia lamblia and 24 of 54 (44.4%) controls showed lactose maldigestion (P < 0.01). In conclusion, this study shows that the frequency of lactose maldigestion is significantly higher in adult Indians suffering from Giardia lamblia infection compared to healthy individuals. PMID:15745082

  10. Giardia lamblia and Helicobater pylori Coinfection

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    R Shafie

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Giardia lamblia and Helicobacter pylori are two flagellate microorganisms that grow in duodenum and stom­ach. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of them in patients with dyspepsia and other GI disorders. "nMethods: In this cross-sectional study, co-infection of above-mentioned agents was investigated in a group of 130 patients [me­dian age of 40 yr (range=11-79 including 76 males (58.8%] with dyspepsia using three methods of duodenal aspiration sam­ple, duodenal biopsy samples and evaluation of stool samples."nResults: : From 105 patients (59 males, 46 females, median age 40 years, range 11-79 entering this study from 3 hospitals, 4 patients (3.8% had G. lamblia and 61 patients (58% had H. pylori. All 4 patients infected by Giardia had also H. pylori infec­tion. Tenesmus (3 out of 4 patients was the most common symptom in patients with H. pylori infection (48 out of 61 pa­tients was reflux. Other symptoms in patients infected with both organisms (4 patients included diarrhea (2 cases, weight loss (2 cases, and loss of appetite (1 case but no report of vomiting."nConclusion: In patients co-infected with Giardia, H.pylori differentiation by physical examination is not possible. So in those patients with positive Rapid Urease Test (RUT, stool examination for Giardia detection is recommended. In addition, met­ronidazole (broad spectrum, anti-protozoal drug can be useful in H. pylori infection.

  11. Effect of corticosteroid and irradiation on experimental Giardia lamblia infection in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following infection with the parasite, Giardia lamblia, the faecal excretion rate of these cysts was studied in mice pre-treated with cortisone and/or whole body irradiation compared to controls. The cortisone/irradiation treatment increased the susceptibility to infection, as shown by the higher cyst excretion rate. Thus these treatments presumably depressed the cellular and humoral immunity normally present in G. lamblia infected mice. (UK)

  12. PREVALENCE OF GIARDIA LAMBLIA AND OTHER INTESTINAL PARASITES IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN AND ITS RELATION TO RESIDENCE PLACE, SEX AND BLOOD GROUP IN ILAM COUNTY OF IRAN

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    Pourbabak

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available 1711' object of this study was to determine the prevalence oj asymptomatic infestation with Giardia lamblia lind other intestinal parasites in children of urban anti rural communities oj /lam county and its relation with dwelling place, sex and blood grollp!.. 77w study designed as (l five-month pUTasitoulgica! .m,..£!' oj fecal ami blood specimens from humans anti performed in 10 urban hcalih-trcatmcru clinics of llam city, two urban health treatment clinics of Eyvun city, two rural health-treatment clinics oj Chavar and Sartaf villages, llam province west of fran, 17,e examined population was preschool {, to 7 year-old children without any 'gastrointestinal compliarus. Prevalence oj infestation in subject grOllp W(l."' 32.54% (n=3100. Among intestinal parasites' G. lambliu with 85.43o/c (27.8% oj all, n=JO(JI prevalence rate was the most common. Infestation with 11. nnrm with 1'/.93% and E. coli with 3.07';, were in the second and third ranks, respectively, Infestation shows a distinct relationship with gender (P<0.05 and dwelling place, but it lacks a significant relation with blood groups. This study ."lIOWS that the prevalence of intestinal infestation in 6 to 7 year old child oj llam county hi equivalent to the top oj tile line oj the statistical percentage all over the world. 17,e relation between the severity oj infestation and residence place may arouse the suspicion oj sever contamination oj imbibing water.

  13. Isolation and identification of a Giardia lamblia-specific stool antigen (GSA 65) useful in coprodiagnosis of giardiasis.

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    Rosoff, J. D.; Stibbs, H. H.

    1986-01-01

    A Giardia lamblia-specific antigen (GSA 65) was isolated from stools of G. lamblia-positive patients by crossed- and line-immunoelectrophoresis and counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIE) in agarose by using rabbit antiserum prepared against G. lamblia cysts. CIE with rabbit anti-GSA 65 monospecific antiserum revealed that GSA 65 was present in aqueous stool eluates of giardiasis patients and in cysts and trophozoites of the parasite. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of im...

  14. Comparação de quatro métodos laboratoriais para diagnóstico da Giardia lamblia em fezes de crianças residentes em Belém, Pará / Evaluation of four techniques for diagnosis of Giardia lamblia in children's stool from Belém city, Para State, Brazil

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    Ricardo Luiz Dantas, Machado; Maria Cristina, Figueredo; Amanda Farage, Frade; Mônica Eriko, Kudó; Manoel Gomes, Silva Filho; Marinete Marins, Póvoa.

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Relatamos a comparação de quatro metodologias para o diagnóstico da Giardia lamblia em material fecal de crianças, Belém/PA. A Hematoxilina Férrica e o método direto apresentaram menor positividade, enquanto que o Método de Faust continua uma boa escolha para o diagnóstico e o Ensaio imunoenzimático [...] melhora a qualidade da detecção deste parasito. Abstract in english We report the evaluation of four techniques for Giardia lamblia diagnosis in children's stool. The Iron haematoxilin staining and direct examination with lugol showed lower positivity, while the method of Faust et al. Continues to be a good option for G. lamblia diagnosis and Immunoenzymatic assay i [...] ncreases the detection of this parasite.

  15. Comparação de quatro métodos laboratoriais para diagnóstico da Giardia lamblia em fezes de crianças residentes em Belém, Pará Evaluation of four techniques for diagnosis of Giardia lamblia in children's stool from Belém city, Para State, Brazil

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    Ricardo Luiz Dantas Machado

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Relatamos a comparação de quatro metodologias para o diagnóstico da Giardia lamblia em material fecal de crianças, Belém/PA. A Hematoxilina Férrica e o método direto apresentaram menor positividade, enquanto que o Método de Faust continua uma boa escolha para o diagnóstico e o Ensaio imunoenzimático melhora a qualidade da detecção deste parasito.We report the evaluation of four techniques for Giardia lamblia diagnosis in children's stool. The Iron haematoxilin staining and direct examination with lugol showed lower positivity, while the method of Faust et al. Continues to be a good option for G. lamblia diagnosis and Immunoenzymatic assay increases the detection of this parasite.

  16. Effect of Giardia lamblia on duodenal disaccharidase levels in humans.

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    Singh, K D; Bhasin, D K; Rana, S V; Vaiphei, K; Katyal, R; Vinayak, V K; Singh, K

    2000-01-01

    The study was conducted to detect the effect of giardiasis on human disaccharidase levels. Forty patients attending the medical outpatient department of PGIMER, Chandigarh were enrolled. Twenty patients, positive for Giardia lamblia comprised the study group while 20 patients negative for Giardia lamblia were taken as controls. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was performed in all patients. Estimation of lactase, sucrase, maltase and trehalase was done in biopsies. Histopathological investigation was carried out in all biopsy specimens after Haematoxylin and Eosin staining. Complaints of pain abdomen and bloating occurred commonly in giardiasis. Four biopsy samples in study group showed mild increase in lymphomononuclear infiltrate. Giardia lamblia was detected in 7 biopsies. Lactase levels were decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in giardiasis. Rest of the enzymes were comparable to the controls. No differences in the enzyme activities were observed between males and females in either group and with the duration of symptoms. PMID:11194577

  17. Proteomic analysis of the ventral disc of Giardia lamblia

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    Lourenço Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Giardia lamblia is a multiflagellated protozoan that inhabits the small intestine of vertebrates, causing giardiasis. To colonize the small intestine, the trophozoites form of the parasite remains attached to intestinal epithelial cells by means of cytoskeletal elements that form a structure known as the ventral disc. Previous studies have shown that the ventral disc is made of tubulin and giardins. Results To obtain further information on the composition of the ventral disc, we developed a new protocol and evaluated the purity of the isolation by transmission electron microscopy. Using 1D- and 2D-PAGE and mass spectrometry, we identified proteins with functions associated with the disc. In addition to finding tubulin and giardin, proteins known to be associated with the ventral disc, we also identified proteins annotated in the Giardia genome, but whose function was previously unknown. Conclusions The isolation of the ventral disc shown in this work, compared to previously published protocols, proved to be more efficient. Proteomic analysis showed the presence of several proteins whose further characterization may help in the elucidation of the mechanisms involved in the attachment of the protozoan to epithelial cells.

  18. / Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia lamblia y Encephalitozoon intestinalis emergent opportunists / Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia lamblia y Encephalitozoon intestinalis, oportunistas emergentes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Joana, Barbosa; Maria José, Espinar; Acácio, Gonçalves Rodrigues; Cidália, Pina-Vaz.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Es un hecho conocido que las infecciones oportunistas por protozoos y hongos han aumentado en los últimos años, debido especialmente al aumento de las infecciones por VIH. Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia lamblia y Encephalitozoon intestinalis son protozoos y hongo, respectivamente, mundialmente recono [...] cidos como agentes oportunistas emergentes, responsables de brotes epidémicos provocados por la ingestión de agua potable contaminada, incluso después de una correcta desinfección. La ingestión de estos protozoos puede provocar diferentes grados de enfermedad, entre aguda o leve (población sana) hasta situaciones más graves y agresivas, hasta a veces mortales (pacientes inmunocomprometidos y/o inmunodeprimidos). A pesar de ser responsables de muchos brotes epidémicos, su diagnóstico de laboratorio permanece arduo y trabajoso, incluso utilizando las nuevas técnicas desarrolladas en los últimos años. En esta revisión se resumen las consideraciones generales de estos oportunistas emergentes, así como los métodos de diagnóstico más usuales, incluso los más recientes y específicos. Abstract in english Epidemiological data, regarding parasitic and fungi opportunist infections, have changed in the last years, especially due to HIV infection. Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia lamblia and Encephalitozoon intestinalis are protozoan and fungi, respectively, worldwide known as opportunistic emergent agents, [...] being responsible by epidemic outbreaks after ingestion of contaminated water, even following a correct disinfection treatment. Its ingestion can cause different effects on individuals’ health, from light or acute among the healthy population, to serious, aggressive or even deadly among the immunodepressed or immunocompromised patients. Contaminated water ingestion can result in outbreaks but protozoa laboratory diagnosis still remains very laborious, even after the development of more sensitive and specific techniques in the last years. In this paper, a revision of these emergent opportunists, their main characteristics and diagnostic tools are described, including the most recent and specific techniques.

  19. Chitin synthetase in encysting Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba invadens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giardia lamblia (Gl) and Entamoeba invadens (Ei) are protozoan parasites with two morphologic stages in their life cycles. Motile trophozoites colonize the intestine of humans and reptiles respectively. Water resistant cysts, which can survive outside the host, transmit infection. In vitro cyst formation of Ei from trophozoites has been reported, and the authors have recently induced in vitro encystation of Gl. Although the cyst walls of both parasites contain chitin, it synthesis by encysting trophozoites has not been reported. The authors now show that encystation conditions greatly increase chitin synthetase (CS) specific activity (incorporation of 3H GlcNAc from UDP-GlcNAc into TCA-or alcohol-precipitable material). Extracts of encysting Gl incorporated 3.6 nmol/mg protein in 5 hr compared to < 0.005 in controls. Extracts of encysting Fi incorporated 4.8 n mol/mg protein, compared to 1.7 in the control. CS activity of both parasites requires preformed chitin. The Gl enzyme requires a reducing agent, is inhibited by digitonin and the CS inhibitors, polyoxin D and Nikkomycin, but not by tunicamycin. The product is digested by chitinase. Ei enzyme does not require a reducing agent and is stimulated by 1 mg/ml digitonin, but inhibited by higher concentrations. These studies demonstrate CS enzymes which may play important roles in encystation of Gl and Ei

  20. Pacientes con Giardia lamblia diagnosticada por frotis duodenal / Patients with Giardia lamblia diagnosed through duodenal smear

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hidelisa, Herrero Aguirre; Jesús, Fernández Duharte; Suleidy, Vega Sam; José Antonio, Candel Herrero.

    1636-16-01

    Full Text Available Se efectuó un estudio descriptivo y transversal de 105 pacientes mayores de 15 años con infección por Giardia lamblia, diagnosticada por frotis duodenal mediante endoscopia en el Servicio de Gastroenterología del Policlínico de Especialidades del Hospital Provincial Docente Clinicoquirúrgico "Saturn [...] ino Lora Torres" de Santiago de Cuba, desde enero hasta diciembre del 2012, con vistas a caracterizarles. Entre las variables analizadas figuraron: edad, sexo, síntomas digestivos referidos, positividad del frotis e imagen endoscópica. Se utilizó el porcentaje como medida de resumen. Predominaron el sexo femenino (58,0 %), el grupo etario de 29-39 años (38,0 %), la epigastralgia como síntoma principal (66,6 %) y las imágenes endoscópicas grados I y II como las más frecuentes (68,4 y 41,3 %, respectivamente). El índice de positividad a la giardiasis fue relevante Abstract in english A descriptive and cross sectional study of 105 patients older than 15 years with infection by Giardia lamblia, diagnosed through duodenal smear by means of endoscopy was carried out in the Gastroenterology Service of the Specialties Polyclinic from "Saturnino Lora Torres" Teaching Provincial Clinica [...] l Surgical Hospital in Santiago de Cuba, from January to December, 2012, with the objective of characterizing them. Among the analyzed variables there were: age, sex, referred digestive symptoms, positivity of the smear and endoscopic image. The percentage was used as summary measure. Female sex (58.0%), the age group 29-39 years (38.0%), the epigastralgia as main symptom (66.6%) and the endoscopic images grades I and II prevailed as the most frequent (68.4 and 41.3%, respectively). The positivity index for giardiasis was relevant

  1. REMOVAL OF 'GIARDIA LAMBLIA' CYSTS BY DRINKING WATER TREATMENT PLANTS

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    A study was conducted to evaluate the removal of Giardia lamblia cysts and cyst-sized particles by coagulation/sedimentation and filtration, or direct filtration using 2.3 L/min (0.6 gpm) pilot plants and by diatomaceous earth (DE) filtration using a 3.8 L/min DE pilot filter. Th...

  2. Synergic effect of metronidazole and pyrantel pamoate on Giardia lamblia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausen, Moema A; Menna-Barreto, Rubem F S; Lira, Dalvaci C; de Carvalho, Laís; Barbosa, Helene S

    2011-01-01

    Giardia lamblia is a pathogenic protozoan presenting as the main characteristic, the trophozoite capacity to adhere in host intestinal epithelium, infecting mammals, including humans. The clinical treatment of this disease is based on metronidazole (Mz) that acts as an alternative electron acceptor, and its reduction promotes DNA impairment. In veterinary treatment, one of the best options is pyrantel pamoate (Pm), which the mode of action has not elucidated yet. Different strategies for Giardia treatment have been explored to avoid side effects to the host. In this context, the efficiency of treatment combining drugs raise as an interesting alternative for protozoan diseases. Here, we evaluated in vitro synergic effect of Mz and Pm on trophozoites and on its adherence to IEC-6 cells. The treatment with Mz or Pm was effective on trophozoites, with IC(50)/24h values of 5.3±0.9 ?M and 13.8±1.4 ?M, respectively. The treatment of trophozoites with different combinations of Mz and Pm were also evaluated, as showed by fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) under 0.5 in all conditions tested, corresponding to the synergic effect. This synergic activity was also observed when the combinations of 5.3 ?M Mz+0.4 ?M Pm and 13.8 ?M Pm+0.1 ?M Mz induced a remarkable reduction in % adhesion (85-90% and 52-59%, respectively) and in number of adhered parasites per 100 cells. The low cytotoxicity to the host cells of the combinations, associated to the strong synergic potential of the combination, encourage us to further investigate its effect in in vivo models. PMID:20946968

  3. A comparison of the Giardia lamblia trophozoite and cyst transcriptome using microarrays

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    Widmer Giovanni

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Compared with many protists, Giardia lamblia has a simple life cycle alternating between cyst and trophozoite. Most research on the molecular biology of Giardia parasites has focused on trophozoites and the processes of excystation and encystation, whereas cysts have attracted less interest. The striking morphological differences between the dormant cyst and the rapidly dividing and motile trophozoite implies profound changes in the metabolism as the parasite encysts in the host's intestine and excysts upon ingestion by a new host. Results To investigate the magnitude of the transcriptional changes occurring during the G. lamblia life cycle we compared the transcriptome of G. lamblia trophozoites and cysts using single-color oligonucleotide microarrays. Cysts were found to possess a much smaller transcriptome, both in terms of mRNA diversity and abundance. Genes encoding proteins related to ribosomal functions are highly over-represented. The comparison of the transcriptome of cysts generated in culture or extracted from feces revealed little overlap, raising the possibility of significant biological differences between the two types of cysts. Conclusions The comparison of the G. lamblia cyst and trophozoite transcriptome showed that transcripts of most genes are present at a lower level in cysts. This global view of the cyst and trophozoite transcriptome complements studies focused on the expression of selected genes during trophozoite multiplication, encystation and excystation.

  4. Vacuolar Protein Sorting Receptor in Giardia lamblia

    OpenAIRE

    Rivero, Maria R.; Miras, Silvana L.; Feliziani, Constanza; Zamponi, Nahuel; Quiroga, Rodrigo; Hayes, Stanley F.; Andrea S. Rópolo; Touz, Maria C.

    2012-01-01

    In Giardia, lysosome-like peripheral vacuoles (PVs) need to specifically coordinate their endosomal and lysosomal functions to be able to successfully perform endocytosis, protein degradation and protein delivery, but how cargo, ligands and molecular components generate specific routes to the PVs remains poorly understood. Recently, we found that delivering membrane Cathepsin C and the soluble acid phosphatase (AcPh) to the PVs is adaptin (AP1)-dependent. However, the receptor that links AcPh...

  5. Some hematimetric findings in human Giardia lambia infection / Valores hematimétricos na infecção humana causada por Giardia lamblia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jairo Ivo dos, Santos; Cidônia de Lourdes, Vituri.

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Até este momento poucos relatos de alterações hematológicas causadas pela Giardia lamblia têm sido descritos. Procuramos então avaliar alguns parâmetros hematológicos em pacientes infectados exclusivamente com G. lamblia (n=55), provenientes do Hospital Universitário, comparando-os com pacientes, pa [...] reados por sexo e idade, sem nenhum parasitismo (n=55). Foram avaliados: volume corpuscular médio (VCM), níveis de hemoglobina e contagem absoluta e relativa de eosinófilos e linfócitos. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas entre os valores médios de VCM, níveis de hemoglobina e contagem absoluta e relativa de linfócitos para os dois grupos estudados. No caso dos eosinófilos, tanto as contagens relativas quanto as absolutas diferiram significativamente nas faixas etárias acima de 18 anos (percentagem média de eosinófilos de 8,1 para pacientes com giardíase, e de 3,1 para pacientes não-parasitados, com P=0,0042; e contagens absolutas com média de 609 para pacientes com giardíase, comparado com média de 257, para pacientes-controle, com P=0,0120). No caso de faixas etárias abaixo de 18 anos não foram encontradas diferenças significantes entre os dois grupos. Diante disto, nossos achados sugerem que a G. lamblia poderia secretar um ou mais alérgenos, que seriam responsáveis pelo aumento do número de eosinófilos no sangue periférico de pessoas adultas, e que tal fenômeno deva ser melhor avaliado em crianças Abstract in english Up to now few reports about haematological alterations induced by Giardia lamblia infection have been described. Because there are questions on this matter still not answered, we carried out a study to evaluate some erythrometric and leucometric parameters in a sample that consisted of 55 patients e [...] xclusively infected with G. lamblia and of 55 sex and age matched parasite-free individuals. The haematological parameters evaluated were: mean corpuscular volume (MCV), hemoglobin concentration, and relative and absolute number of eosinophils and lymphocytes. No significant differences in the mean values of MCV, hemoglobin levels and absolute relative lymphocyte numbers between the two groups could be detected. When the giardiasis and control groups were separated by pediatric (0-18 years old) and adult (older than 18 years) classes, a very significant difference in both relative and absolute number of eosinophils in the adult class was observed. With respect of the pediatric class, no differences, either in relative and absolute number of eosinophils, could be observed. Our findings suggest that, during G. lamblia infection, some kind of parasite allergen(s) could be secreted and be responsible for the increasing of eosinophil counts in peripheral blood of adults.

  6. Citocinas séricas en niños infectados con Giardia Lamblia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jorymar, Leal M; Pablo, Ortega; Tania, Romero A.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Introdución: La giardiasis intestinal es un problema de salud pública en los países en desarrollo. Aunque los mecanismos de inmunidad innata y adquirida son necesarios para el control de la infección, son escasos los estudios sobre la participación de las citocinas Th1 y Th2 en el control de la infe [...] cción en humanos. Objetivo: Determinar en niños infectados con Giardia lamblia (G. lamblia) las concentraciones séricas de las citocinas Th1 (IL-2 e IFNgamma) y Th2 (IL-4 e IL-10). Métodos: Se seleccionaron 101 niños (3-6 años; F=52, M=49) nutricionalmente eutróficos; 62 niños no parasitados y 39 niños con trofozoitos y/o quistes de G. lamblia según estudio coproparasitológico. Las concentraciones séricas de IFN-gamma, IL-4 e IL-10 (pg/mL) fueron determinadas por el método ELISA y la IL-2 (U/mL) por el método EAISA. Para comparar las medias de los grupos se utilizó la prueba t de Student. Se consideró el 95% de confiabilidad estadística (p Abstract in english Introduction: Intestinal giardiasis is a public health problem in developing countries. Although the innate and adaptative immunity mechanisms are necessary for proper control of the infection, few studies have been published in humans on the role of cytokine Th1-Th2 in infection control. The aim of [...] the present study was to analyze the serum concentration of Th1 cytokine (IL-2 and IFN-gamma) and Th2 (IL-4 and IL-10) in euthrophic children infected or not with Giardia lamblia (G. lamblia). Methods:Were analyzed 101 children (3-6y; F=52, M=49) nutritionally eutrophic. Sixty two children free of G. lamblia and 39 infected. The serum concentration of IFN-gamma, IL-4 and IL-10 (pg/mL) were determined by ELISA method and IL-2 (U/mL) by EAISA method. The Student’s t test was applied to compare the groups. We considered 95% statistical significance (p

  7. Cryptosporidium Parvum y Giardia Lamblia en aguas crudas y tratadas del estado Bolívar, Venezuela / CRYPTOSPORIDIUM PARVUM AND GIARDIA LAMBLIA IN RAW AND TREATED WATERS OF THE BOLIVAR STATE

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Julman, Cermeño; Jewel, Arenas; Neyla, Yori; Isabel, Hernández.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se identificó la presencia de Cryptosporidium parvum y Giardia lamblia en aguas de consumo humano antes y después del tratamiento físico-químico y en pozos profundos del estado Bolívar, utilizando el método de inmunofluorescencia con anticuerpos monoclonales (MeriFluor C/G® (Meridian Diagnostic, Inc [...] ) para Cryptosporidium parvum y Giardia y el método de tinción tricrómica para Microsporidium spp. Se demostró Cryptosporidium parvum (28,57%) y Giardia lamblia (23,81%) antes de tratamiento de las aguas y 14,2% de ambos protozoarios después del tratamiento. Ninguna muestra evidenció Microsporidium spp. Sólo uno de los pozos de agua presentó C. parvum (4,76%). Se concluye que Cryptosporidium parvum y Giardia lamblia son resistentes al tratamiento físico-químico de las aguas, lo cual constituye un riesgo para las personas que utilicen esas fuentes. Abstract in english The presence of Cryptosporidium Parvum and Giardia Lamblia was found in human drinking water before and after physical-chemical treatment in deep wells of the Bolívar State using the immunofluorescence method with monoclonal antibodies (MeriFluor C/G ® (Meridian Diagnostic, Inc) for Cryptosporidium [...] Parvum and Giardia, and the trichromic stain method for Microsporidium spp. The presence of Cryptosporidium Parvum (28.57%) and Giardia Lamblia (23.81%) was detected before the treatment of the water, and 14.2% of both protozoa after the treatment. No evidence of Microsporidium spp was found. Only one of the water wells revealed C. Parvum (4.76%). It is concluded that the Cryptosporidium Parvum and Giardia Lamblia are resistant to the physical-chemical treatment of the waters which constitutes a risk factor for the people using these sources.

  8. Utilidad terapéutica del albendazol en el tratamiento de niños infectados con Giardia lamblia / Therapeutic usefulness of albendazole in the treatment of infected children with Giardia lamblia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mayra, Risco; Iván, Amaya; Ixora, Requena; Ytalia, Blanco; Rodolfo, Devera.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio con 22 escolares parasitados con Giardia lamblia para verificar la utilidad terapéutica del albendazol (400 mg en dosis única por 5 días). Después de tratar a los niños se realizaron controles posttratamiento a los 7, 15 y 21 días mediante examen clínico y métodos coproparasitó [...] logicos (examen directo, Kato y sedimentación espontánea). El porcentaje global de cura parasitológica fue de 44,4% (8/18) constituidos por 8 niños en quienes se erradicó el parásito posterior al tratamiento. De este análisis se excluyeron 4 niños de los 22 tratados debido a que no acudieron a uno o más controles post-tratamiento. De esos 18 niños, 72,2% tenían manifestaciones clínicas sugestivas de infección por G. lamblia antes de recibir el fármaco; después de concluido el tratamiento solo dos escolares (11,1%) presentaron manifestaciones clínicas. Sin embargo, la diferencia no fue estadísticamente significativa (X2 = 0,5098 g. l. = 1). Dos niños (11,1%) que recibieron tratamiento con albendazol tuvieron efectos adversos (sabor amargo y dolor abdominal). En conclusión, en el grupo estudiado y debido a su bajo porcentaje de cura parasitológica, el albendazol no parece ser una droga de elección y su uso debería reservarse en casos comprobados de resistencia al metronidazol o cuando exista intolerancia a esta droga. Abstract in english A study was conducted with 22 parasitized school children with Giardia lamblia to verify the therapeutic usefulness of albendazole (400 mg single dose for 5 days). After treating the children post-treatment controls were made at 7, 15 and 21 days by clinical examination and parasitological methods ( [...] direct examination, Kato and spontaneous sedimentation). The overall rate of parasitological cure was 44.4% (8/18) consisting of 8 children in whom the parasite was eradicated after treatment. This analysis excluded 4 of the treated children because they had missed one or more post-treatment controls. Of these 18 children, 72.2% (13 children) had clinical manifestations suggestive of infection with G. lamblia before receiving the drug; after completion of treatment only two school children (11.1%) had clinical manifestations. However, the difference was not statistically significant (X2 = 0.5098 d.f. = 1). Two (11.1%) of the children who received albendazole had adverse effects (bitter taste and abdominal pain). In conclusion, the study group and due to its low parasitological cure rate, albendazole does not seem to be a drug of choice and use should be reserved in proven cases of resistance to metronidazole or when there is intolerance to this drug.

  9. Identification and characterization of an excretory-secretory product from Giardia lamblia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, H; Ghosh, S; Samra, H; Vinayak, V K; Ganguly, N K

    2001-10-01

    A 58 kDa excretory-secretory product (ESP) of Giardia lamblia has been characterized. The ESP was purified over 508-fold by a combination of ammonium sulphate precipitation and sequential chromatography on affinity matrix and a gel filtration column. The homogeneity of the purified protein was established by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (Mr, 58 kDa) and analytical isoelectrophoresis (pI 4.75). The purified protein was recognized by the pooled sera of G. lamblia-positive patients as well as an antiserum raised against crude Giardia extract, thus indicating it to be an immunodominant parasite product. The ESP was found to agglutinate rabbit erythrocytes. The haemagglutinating activity of this protein was inhibited strongly by thyroglobulin, fetuin, asialofetuin and monosialoganglioside but not by simple sugars. The purified protein was characterized immunochemically and was found to be heat stable as well as protease sensitive. Lectin-binding studies of the purified ESP and its sensitivity to periodic-acid silver staining as well as to metaperiodate treatment clearly indicated its glycoprotein nature. The major localization site of the ESP was found to be on the surface of the parasite as revealed by flow cytometric analysis. Further, this glycoprotein induced fluid accumulation in ligated rabbit ileal loops and revealed a positive skin permeability reaction in the rabbit. PMID:11676366

  10. Field portable mobile phone based fluorescence microscopy for detection of Giardia lamblia cysts in water samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceylan Koydemir, Hatice; Gorocs, Zoltan; McLeod, Euan; Tseng, Derek; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2015-03-01

    Giardia lamblia is a waterborne parasite that causes an intestinal infection, known as giardiasis, and it is found not only in countries with inadequate sanitation and unsafe water but also streams and lakes of developed countries. Simple, sensitive, and rapid detection of this pathogen is important for monitoring of drinking water. Here we present a cost-effective and field portable mobile-phone based fluorescence microscopy platform designed for automated detection of Giardia lamblia cysts in large volume water samples (i.e., 10 ml) to be used in low-resource field settings. This fluorescence microscope is integrated with a disposable water-sampling cassette, which is based on a flow-through porous polycarbonate membrane and provides a wide surface area for fluorescence imaging and enumeration of the captured Giardia cysts on the membrane. Water sample of interest, containing fluorescently labeled Giardia cysts, is introduced into the absorbent pads that are in contact with the membrane in the cassette by capillary action, which eliminates the need for electrically driven flow for sample processing. Our fluorescence microscope weighs ~170 grams in total and has all the components of a regular microscope, capable of detecting individual fluorescently labeled cysts under light-emitting-diode (LED) based excitation. Including all the sample preparation, labeling and imaging steps, the entire measurement takes less than one hour for a sample volume of 10 ml. This mobile phone based compact and cost-effective fluorescent imaging platform together with its machine learning based cyst counting interface is easy to use and can even work in resource limited and field settings for spatio-temporal monitoring of water quality.

  11. Giardiasis in travellers: evaluation of an antigen-capture ELISA for the detection of Giardia lamblia-antigen in stool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelinek, T; peyerl, G; Löscher, T; Nothdurft, H D

    1996-04-01

    Diagnosis of giardiasis relies largely on the microscopical detection of trophozoites or cysts in feces. However, this method is labour- and time-intensive and depends highly on the skill of an experienced microscopist. In order to identify the prevalence of Giardia lamblia in travellers returning from overseas, we evaluated sensitivity and specificity of a commercially available ELISA kit for the detection of Giardia-lamblia-antigen in stool. Nine hundred seventy-eight stool samples from 795 patients were examined by microscopy (iron-hematoxyilin-stain, SAF-concentration) and ELISA. Altogether, Giardia infection could be detected in 74 subjects. On evaluation of all samples, the ELISA turned out to be more sensitive than microscopy (95.5% vs. 81.8%) and 99.7% specific for Giardia lamblia. Especially with microscopy, the examination of more than one stool specimen did improve diagnostic sensitivity. It seems therefore advisable to retain the practise of examining at least three stool samples before considering a patient as not infected. The coproantigen-ELISA is especially advantageous in situations where only a single stool sample can be examined. It should not, however, replace microscopical examination of stool specimens for ova and parasites since other potential pathogens would otherwise escape detection. PMID:8686351

  12. Still around and still dangerous: Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L A

    1997-01-01

    The discovery of new infectious agents often overshadows the continuing impact and importance of well-established organisms. In the case of diarrheal disease, Entamoeba histolytica and its complications remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Although it is also present in developing countries, Giardia lamblia is a primary cause of waterborne outbreaks of diarrhea in developed countries. Persons at risk of developing giardiasis in these countries include backpackers and campers who drink untreated stream water or persons who drink improperly treated municipal water containing infective cysts. Investigators have recently identified the mechanisms used by these organisms to colonize the intestinal tract and to cause disease. New methods of identification using immunologic principles have been added to the traditional microscopic methods of identification. PMID:10177206

  13. ENCYSTATION AND EXPRESSION OF CYST ANTIGENS BY 'GIARDIA LAMBLIA' IN VITRO

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cyst form of Giardia lamblia is responsible for transmission of giardiasis, a major waterborne intestinal disease. These studies demonstrate for the first time expression of cyst antigens and encystation of G. lamblia in vitro by both morphologic and immunologic criteria. The...

  14. Detection of anti-Giardia lamblia serum antibody among children of day care centers Detecção de anticorpos séricos anti-Giardia lamblia em crianças de creches

    OpenAIRE

    Semíramis Guimarães; Sogayar, Maria Ine?s L.

    2002-01-01

    OBJETIVES: To detect anti-Giardia lamblia serum antibodies in healthy children attending public day care centers and to assess serological tests as tools for estimating the prevalence of G. lamblia in endemic areas. METHODS: Three separate stool specimens and filter paper blood samples were collected from 147 children ranging from 0 to 6 years old. Each stool sample was processed using spontaneous sedimentation and zinc sulfate flotation methods. Blood samples were tested by indirect immunofl...

  15. Aislamiento y axenización de Giardia lamblia en niños procedentes de círculos infantiles de Ciudad de La Habana

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Dinorah, Torres; Fidel, Núñez; Carlos, Finlay.

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Se reporta el aislamiento de Giardia lamblia procedentes de niños de 3 círculos infantiles de Ciudad de La Habana. El 2,8 % de los aislamientos fue logrado utilizando la desenquistación in vitro, mientras que utilizando al gerbil como modelo animal para la desenquistación del parásito se logró el 97 [...] ,2 %, lo que demostró la superioridad de este último método. Abstract in english It is reported the isolation of Giardia lamblia in children from three day care centers in Havana City. The 2,8 % of the isolations were obtained by using the disencystment in vitro, whereas using gerbil as an animal model for the parasite disencystment 97,2 % was attained. This result shows the sup [...] eriority ot he latter.

  16. Aislamiento y axenización de Giardia lamblia en niños procedentes de círculos infantiles de Ciudad de La Habana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinorah Torres

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Se reporta el aislamiento de Giardia lamblia procedentes de niños de 3 círculos infantiles de Ciudad de La Habana. El 2,8 % de los aislamientos fue logrado utilizando la desenquistación in vitro, mientras que utilizando al gerbil como modelo animal para la desenquistación del parásito se logró el 97,2 %, lo que demostró la superioridad de este último método.It is reported the isolation of Giardia lamblia in children from three day care centers in Havana City. The 2,8 % of the isolations were obtained by using the disencystment in vitro, whereas using gerbil as an animal model for the parasite disencystment 97,2 % was attained. This result shows the superiority ot he latter.

  17. An ancient spliceosomal intron in the ribosomal protein L7a gene (Rpl7a of Giardia lamblia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gray Michael W

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Only one spliceosomal-type intron has previously been identified in the unicellular eukaryotic parasite, Giardia lamblia (a diplomonad. This intron is only 35 nucleotides in length and is unusual in possessing a non-canonical 5' intron boundary sequence, CT, instead of GT. Results We have identified a second spliceosomal-type intron in G. lamblia, in the ribosomal protein L7a gene (Rpl7a, that possesses a canonical GT 5' intron boundary sequence. A comparison of the two known Giardia intron sequences revealed extensive nucleotide identity at both the 5' and 3' intron boundaries, similar to the conserved sequence motifs recently identified at the boundaries of spliceosomal-type introns in Trichomonas vaginalis (a parabasalid. Based on these observations, we searched the partial G. lamblia genome sequence for these conserved features and identified a third spliceosomal intron, in an unassigned open reading frame. Our comprehensive analysis of the Rpl7a intron in other eukaryotic taxa demonstrates that it is evolutionarily conserved and is an ancient eukaryotic intron. Conclusion An analysis of the phylogenetic distribution and properties of the Rpl7a intron suggests its utility as a phylogenetic marker to evaluate particular eukaryotic groupings. Additionally, analysis of the G. lamblia introns has provided further insight into some of the conserved and unique features possessed by the recently identified spliceosomal introns in related organisms such as T. vaginalis and Carpediemonas membranifera.

  18. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of ?-11 giardin from Giardia lamblia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ?-11 giardin from the intestinal protozoan parasite, G. lamblia has been cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized under two different conditions and in two different space groups. Crystals from the first condition diffracted to 1.1 Å and belong to a primitive orthorhombic space group and crystals obtained in the second condition diffracted to 2.93 Å and belong to a primitive monoclinic space group. ?-11 Giardin, a protein from the annexin superfamily, is a 35.0 kDa protein from the intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia which triggers a form of diarrhea called giardiasis. Here, the cloning, expression, purification and the crystallization of ?-11 giardin under two different conditions and in two different space groups is reported. Crystals from the first condition diffracted to 1.1 Å and belong to a primitive orthorhombic space group, while crystals from the second condition, which included calcium in the crystallization solution, diffracted to 2.93 Å and belong to a primitive monoclinic space group. Determination of the detailed atomic structure of ?-11 giardin will provide a better insight into its biological function and might establish whether this class of proteins is a potential drug target against giardiasis

  19. ELISA y técnica de sedimentación espontánea para el diagnóstico de infección por Giardia lamblia en muestras fecales de niños de Perú ELISA and spontaneous sedimentation technique for the diagnosis of Giardia lamblia infection in stool samples of Peruvian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Rodríguez-Ulloa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar un kit ELISA comercial para coproantígenos y la técnica de sedimentación espontánea en tubo (TSET para el diagnóstico de Giardia lamblia en muestras fecales de niños de una zona endémica peruana. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Fueron analizadas 174 muestras mediante la TSET y el kit Giardia 2nd Generation ELISA. RESULTADOS: Fueron positivas 51 muestras por ELISA y 49 por TSET. CONCLUSIONES: El ELISA resultó ser altamente sensible y específico, sencillo y rápido; sin embargo, la muy buena concordancia, alta precisión, bajo costo y capacidad para detectar otros enteroparásitos hace que la TSET sea recomendable para el diagnóstico en zonas endémicas del Perú.OBJETIVE: To compare a commercial coproantigen ELISA kit and the technique of spontaneous sedimentation in tube (TSET for the diagnosis of Giardia lamblia in fecal specimens from children in a Peruvian endemic area. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 174 fecal samples were analyzed by TSET and 2nd Generation Giardia ELISA kit. RESULTS: 51 samples were positive by ELISA and 49 by TSET. CONCLUSIONS: The ELISA was highly sensitive and specific, simple and fast. However, the very good agreement, high precision, low cost and ability to detect other intestinal parasites makes use of TSET recommended for laboratory diagnosis in endemic areas of Peru.

  20. Giardia lamblia e alergia respiratória: estudo em uma amostra de crianças de área urbana com frequência elevada da protozoose / Giardia lamblia and respiratory allergies: a study of children from an urban area with a high incidence of protozoan infections

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Valdênia M. O., Souza; Iana R. F., Sales; Décio M., Peixoto; Vláudia M. Assis, Costa; José A., Rizzo; Almerinda R., Silva; Roberta Faria, Camilo; Felipe Faria, Pierotti; Dirceu, Solé; Emanuel S. C., Sarinho.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Uma elevada incidência de enteroparasitoses é encontrada em regiões urbanas do nordeste brasileiro. As infecções por Giardia lamblia têm sido relacionadas com aumento da prevalência de alergias cutâneas e gastrointestinais. Contudo, ainda existe pouca informação sobre a associação entre a [...] giardíase e doenças alérgicas das vias aéreas. Diante disso, o presente estudo se propôs a verificar a relação entre a infecção por G. lamblia em crianças de área urbana e reatividade alérgica respiratória. MÉTODOS: O estudo incluiu 110 pacientes, de ambos os sexos e idades, entre 5 e 15 anos. Os pacientes foram submetidos a questionários de avaliação dos sintomas clínicos, testes cutâneos de leitura imediata e exames coproparasitológicos e sorológicos. RESULTADOS: Foi verificada uma frequência elevada de crianças infectadas por G. lamblia (45%, 50/110). A infecção pelo protozoário não foi associada com maior risco de alergias respiratórias (p = 0,075), elevação de IgE total (p = 0,701), IgE específica (p = 0,250) ou teste cutâneo positivo para diferentes alérgenos ambientais (p = 0,239). CONCLUSÃO: O estudo demonstrou que a presença dos sintomas de asma, atopia cutânea e marcadores sorológicos não foram associados com a presença de infecção pela G. lamblia nessa amostra de crianças. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: There is a high incidence of intestinal parasite infection in urban areas in the Northeast of Brazil. Giardia lamblia infections have been associated with increased prevalence of cutaneous allergies and gastrointestinal disorders. However, little is known about the relationship between g [...] iardiasis and allergic diseases of the airways. The present study aimed to investigate the possible association between respiratory allergic diseases and infections by G. lamblia in children from urban areas. METHODS: This study recruited 110 patients of both sexes aged 5-15 years. Patients were administered a questionnaire evaluating clinical symptoms and were given skin tests, parasite tests and serum tests. RESULTS: A high incidence of G. lamblia was observed (45%, 50/110). Infections by this protozoan were not associated with increased risk of respiratory allergy (p = 0.075), high total IgE levels (p = 0.701), positive specific IgE tests (p = 0.250), or positive skin tests for a range of environmental allergens (p = 0.239). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that symptoms of asthma, skin allergy and serum markers were not associated with G. lamblia infections in this sample of children from urban areas.

  1. Identification of Giardia lamblia DHHC Proteins and the Role of Protein S-palmitoylation in the Encystation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, María C.; Zamponi, Nahuel; Vranych, Cecilia V.; Touz, María C.; Rópolo, Andrea S.

    2014-01-01

    Protein S-palmitoylation, a hydrophobic post-translational modification, is performed by protein acyltransferases that have a common DHHC Cys-rich domain (DHHC proteins), and provides a regulatory switch for protein membrane association. In this work, we analyzed the presence of DHHC proteins in the protozoa parasite Giardia lamblia and the function of the reversible S-palmitoylation of proteins during parasite differentiation into cyst. Two specific events were observed: encysting cells displayed a larger amount of palmitoylated proteins, and parasites treated with palmitoylation inhibitors produced a reduced number of mature cysts. With bioinformatics tools, we found nine DHHC proteins, potential protein acyltransferases, in the Giardia proteome. These proteins displayed a conserved structure when compared to different organisms and are distributed in different monophyletic clades. Although all Giardia DHHC proteins were found to be present in trophozoites and encysting cells, these proteins showed a different intracellular localization in trophozoites and seemed to be differently involved in the encystation process when they were overexpressed. dhhc transgenic parasites showed a different pattern of cyst wall protein expression and yielded different amounts of mature cysts when they were induced to encyst. Our findings disclosed some important issues regarding the role of DHHC proteins and palmitoylation during Giardia encystation. PMID:25058047

  2. Chromosome-size variation in Giardia lamblia: the role of rDNA repeats.

    OpenAIRE

    Adam, R D

    1992-01-01

    Giardia lamblia trophozoites contain at least five sets of chromosomes that have been categorized by chromosome-specific probes. Pulsed field separations of G. lamblia chromosomes also demonstrated minor bands in some isolates which stained less intensely with ethidium than the major chromosomal bands. Two of the minor bands of the E11 clone of the ISR isolate, MBa and MBb, were similar to each other and to chromosomal band I by hybridization to total chromosomal DNA and by hybridization of s...

  3. ?1-giardin based live heterologous vaccine protects against Giardia lamblia infection in a murine model

    OpenAIRE

    Jenikova, Gabriela; Hruz, Petr; Andersson, Karl M.; Tejman-Yarden, Noa; Ferreira, Patricia C. D.; Andersen, Yolanda S.; Davids, Barbara J.; Gillin, Frances D.; Svärd, Staffan G.; Curtiss, Roy, III; Eckmann, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Giardia lamblia is a leading protozoan cause of diarrheal disease worldwide, yet preventive medical strategies are not available. A crude veterinary vaccine has been licensed for cats and dogs, but no defined human vaccine is available. We tested the vaccine potential of three conserved antigens previously identified in human and murine giardiasis, ?1-giardin, ?-enolase, and ornithine carbamoyl transferase, in a murine model of G. lamblia infection. Live recombinant attenuated Salmonella ente...

  4. Efecto de un extracto de Petiveria Alliacea Lin sobre el crecimiento de Giardia lamblia in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimée Echevarría

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto de un extracto fluido elaborado con un menstruo de Petiveria alliacea (anamú sobre el crecimiento in vitro de Giardia lamblia. Para este ensayo se empleó una cepa aislada en el Instituto de Medicina Tropical "Pedro Kourí", procedente de un paciente infestado. Los cultivos fueron incubados a 37 °C durante 48 h y posteriormente ajustada su concentración a 2 ´105 parásitos por 0,5 mL. Los resultados obtenidos muestran un marcado efecto antigiardiásico, por los altos porcentajes inhibitorios del crecimiento con las 5 concentraciones probadas (17,2; 4,3; 1,075; 0,54 y 0,135 mg/mL, que alcanzó el 96,81 % con la mayor concentración y el 5,03 % con la de 0,135 mg/mL. La concentración media inhibitoria resultó de 2,05 mg/mL.The effect of a fluid extract made with a menstruum of Petiveria alliacea (anamú on the growth of Giardia lamblia in vitro was evaluated. A strain isolated from an infected patient at “Pedro Kouri” Institute of Tropical Medicine was used in this trial. The cultures were incubated at 37 ºC during 48 hours and later their concentrations of 2 x 105 parasites per 0.5 mL were adjusted. The results obtained showed a marked antigiardiasis effect due to the high inhibitory percentages of growth with the 5 tested concentrations (17.2; 4.3; 1.075; 0.54 and 0.135 mg//mL. An effect of 96.81 % was attained with the highest concentration and of 5.03 % with the concentration of 0.135 mg/mL. The mean inhibitory concentration was 2.05 mg/mL.

  5. Efecto de un extracto de Petiveria Alliacea Lin sobre el crecimiento de Giardia lamblia in vitro

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aimée, Echevarría; Dinorah, Torres Idavoy.

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto de un extracto fluido elaborado con un menstruo de Petiveria alliacea (anamú) sobre el crecimiento in vitro de Giardia lamblia. Para este ensayo se empleó una cepa aislada en el Instituto de Medicina Tropical "Pedro Kourí", procedente de un paciente infestado. Los cultivos fueron [...] incubados a 37 °C durante 48 h y posteriormente ajustada su concentración a 2 ´105 parásitos por 0,5 mL. Los resultados obtenidos muestran un marcado efecto antigiardiásico, por los altos porcentajes inhibitorios del crecimiento con las 5 concentraciones probadas (17,2; 4,3; 1,075; 0,54 y 0,135 mg/mL), que alcanzó el 96,81 % con la mayor concentración y el 5,03 % con la de 0,135 mg/mL. La concentración media inhibitoria resultó de 2,05 mg/mL. Abstract in english The effect of a fluid extract made with a menstruum of Petiveria alliacea (anamú) on the growth of Giardia lamblia in vitro was evaluated. A strain isolated from an infected patient at “Pedro Kouri” Institute of Tropical Medicine was used in this trial. The cultures were incubated at 37 ºC during 48 [...] hours and later their concentrations of 2 x 105 parasites per 0.5 mL were adjusted. The results obtained showed a marked antigiardiasis effect due to the high inhibitory percentages of growth with the 5 tested concentrations (17.2; 4.3; 1.075; 0.54 and 0.135 mg//mL). An effect of 96.81 % was attained with the highest concentration and of 5.03 % with the concentration of 0.135 mg/mL. The mean inhibitory concentration was 2.05 mg/mL.

  6. Conocimientos, percepciones y prácticas de los dermatólogos en relación con la infección por Giardia lamblia / Knowledge, perceptions and practice of dermatologists with respect to Giardia lamblia infection

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Tania, Iglesias Hernández; Saleh, Ali Almannoni; María Elena, Rodríguez; Lizet, Sánchez Valdés; Deisy, Martín Pupo; Julián, Manzur Katrib; Luis, Fonte Galindo.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: conocer sobre los conocimientos, percepciones y prácticas de los dermatólogos de Ciudad de La Habana en relación con la infección por Giardia lamblia. MÉTODOS: previo consentimiento informado de los dermatólogos de Ciudad de La Habana, a un número próximo al universo de estos (50 de 58), s [...] e le aplicó una encuesta sobre conocimientos, percepciones y prácticas en relación con esta parasitosis. La preparación de la encuesta pasó por 4 fases: entrevistas a médicos relacionados con el diagnóstico, tratamiento y control de la giardiasis; preparación de un cuestionario preliminar sobre la base de los resultados de esas entrevistas; sometimiento del instrumento a criterio de expertos; y validación de este mediante su aplicación a un pequeño grupo de galenos. RESULTADOS: se evidenció que en relación con la giardiasis y, de manera particular, con las manifestaciones cutáneas asociadas a esta, los dermatólogos de Ciudad de La Habana mostraban conocimientos insuficientes (de 19 interrogantes que evaluaban aspectos cognoscitivos, la media de respuestas correctas entre todos los participantes fue 10,18), percepciones inadecuadas y prácticas incorrectas. CONCLUSIONES: en la dirección de atenuar estas dificultades se hace necesario una intervención de tipo académica, que haga énfasis en los aspectos formativos relacionados con las enfermedades parasitarias, en general, y la giardiasis, en particular. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: to ascertain the level of knowledge, the perceptions and practice of dermatologists in the City of Havana with respect to Giardia lamblia infection. METHODS: with prior informed consent given by the dermatologists from the City of Havana, 50 dermatologists- a number very close to the univ [...] erse of these experts in the province- were administered a survey of their knowledge, perceptions and practice about this parasitosis. The survey was prepared in 4 phases; that is, interviews to physicians on diagnosis, treatment and control of giardiasis; drafting of a preliminary questionnaire based on the interview results; submission of this instruments to the experts, and finally its validation through its application to a small group of physicians. RESULTS: it was evinced that the dermatologists in the City of Havana had poor knowledge about giardiasis, particularly its cutaneous manifestations (out of 19 questions on cognitive aspects, the correct answer mean was 10,18), inadequate perceptions on this disease and practice was not good. CONCLUSIONS: with the aim of mitigating these difficulties, some academic intervention is needed to make emphasis on the formative aspects related to parasitic diseases in general and giardiasis in particular.

  7. Conocimientos, percepciones y prácticas de los dermatólogos en relación con la infección por Giardia lamblia Knowledge, perceptions and practice of dermatologists with respect to Giardia lamblia infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Iglesias Hernández

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: conocer sobre los conocimientos, percepciones y prácticas de los dermatólogos de Ciudad de La Habana en relación con la infección por Giardia lamblia. MÉTODOS: previo consentimiento informado de los dermatólogos de Ciudad de La Habana, a un número próximo al universo de estos (50 de 58, se le aplicó una encuesta sobre conocimientos, percepciones y prácticas en relación con esta parasitosis. La preparación de la encuesta pasó por 4 fases: entrevistas a médicos relacionados con el diagnóstico, tratamiento y control de la giardiasis; preparación de un cuestionario preliminar sobre la base de los resultados de esas entrevistas; sometimiento del instrumento a criterio de expertos; y validación de este mediante su aplicación a un pequeño grupo de galenos. RESULTADOS: se evidenció que en relación con la giardiasis y, de manera particular, con las manifestaciones cutáneas asociadas a esta, los dermatólogos de Ciudad de La Habana mostraban conocimientos insuficientes (de 19 interrogantes que evaluaban aspectos cognoscitivos, la media de respuestas correctas entre todos los participantes fue 10,18, percepciones inadecuadas y prácticas incorrectas. CONCLUSIONES: en la dirección de atenuar estas dificultades se hace necesario una intervención de tipo académica, que haga énfasis en los aspectos formativos relacionados con las enfermedades parasitarias, en general, y la giardiasis, en particular.OBJECTIVE: to ascertain the level of knowledge, the perceptions and practice of dermatologists in the City of Havana with respect to Giardia lamblia infection. METHODS: with prior informed consent given by the dermatologists from the City of Havana, 50 dermatologists- a number very close to the universe of these experts in the province- were administered a survey of their knowledge, perceptions and practice about this parasitosis. The survey was prepared in 4 phases; that is, interviews to physicians on diagnosis, treatment and control of giardiasis; drafting of a preliminary questionnaire based on the interview results; submission of this instruments to the experts, and finally its validation through its application to a small group of physicians. RESULTS: it was evinced that the dermatologists in the City of Havana had poor knowledge about giardiasis, particularly its cutaneous manifestations (out of 19 questions on cognitive aspects, the correct answer mean was 10,18, inadequate perceptions on this disease and practice was not good. CONCLUSIONS: with the aim of mitigating these difficulties, some academic intervention is needed to make emphasis on the formative aspects related to parasitic diseases in general and giardiasis in particular.

  8. Giardial triosephosphate isomerase as possible target of the cytotoxic effect of omeprazole in Giardia lamblia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Vivas, Horacio; de la Mora-de la Mora, Ignacio; Castillo-Villanueva, Adriana; Yépez-Mulia, Lilian; Hernández-Alcántara, Gloria; Figueroa-Salazar, Rosalia; García-Torres, Itzhel; Gómez-Manzo, Saúl; Méndez, Sara T; Vanoye-Carlo, América; Marcial-Quino, Jaime; Torres-Arroyo, Angélica; Oria-Hernández, Jesús; Gutiérrez-Castrellón, Pedro; Enríquez-Flores, Sergio; López-Velázquez, Gabriel

    2014-12-01

    Giardiasis is highly prevalent in the developing world, and treatment failures with the standard drugs are common. This work deals with the proposal of omeprazole as a novel antigiardial drug, focusing on a giardial glycolytic enzyme used to follow the cytotoxic effect at the molecular level. We used recombinant technology and enzyme inactivation to demonstrate the capacity of omeprazole to inactivate giardial triosephosphate isomerase, with no adverse effects on its human counterpart. To establish the specific target in the enzyme, we used single mutants of every cysteine residue in triosephosphate isomerase. The effect on cellular triosephosphate isomerase was evaluated by following the remnant enzyme activity on trophozoites treated with omeprazole. The interaction of omeprazole with giardial proteins was analyzed by fluorescence spectroscopy. The susceptibility to omeprazole of drug-susceptible and drug-resistant strains of Giardia lamblia was evaluated to demonstrate its potential as a novel antigiardial drug. Our results demonstrate that omeprazole inhibits giardial triosephosphate isomerase in a species-specific manner through interaction with cysteine at position 222. Omeprazole enters the cytoplasmic compartment of the trophozoites and inhibits cellular triosephosphate isomerase activity in a dose-dependent manner. Such inhibition takes place concomitantly with the cytotoxic effect caused by omeprazole on trophozoites. G. lamblia triosephosphate isomerase (GlTIM) is a cytoplasmic protein which can help analyses of how omeprazole works against the proteins of this parasite and in the effort to understand its mechanism of cytotoxicity. Our results demonstrate the mechanism of giardial triosephosphate isomerase inhibition by omeprazole and show that this drug is effective in vitro against drug-resistant and drug-susceptible strains of G. lamblia. PMID:25223993

  9. ELISA y técnica de sedimentación espontánea para el diagnóstico de infección por Giardia lamblia en muestras fecales de niños de Perú / ELISA and spontaneous sedimentation technique for the diagnosis of Giardia lamblia infection in stool samples of Peruvian children

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Claudia, Rodríguez-Ulloa; Marco, Rivera-Jacinto.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar un kit ELISA comercial para coproantígenos y la técnica de sedimentación espontánea en tubo (TSET) para el diagnóstico de Giardia lamblia en muestras fecales de niños de una zona endémica peruana. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Fueron analizadas 174 muestras mediante la TSET y el kit Giardia [...] 2nd Generation ELISA. RESULTADOS: Fueron positivas 51 muestras por ELISA y 49 por TSET. CONCLUSIONES: El ELISA resultó ser altamente sensible y específico, sencillo y rápido; sin embargo, la muy buena concordancia, alta precisión, bajo costo y capacidad para detectar otros enteroparásitos hace que la TSET sea recomendable para el diagnóstico en zonas endémicas del Perú. Abstract in english OBJETIVE: To compare a commercial coproantigen ELISA kit and the technique of spontaneous sedimentation in tube (TSET) for the diagnosis of Giardia lamblia in fecal specimens from children in a Peruvian endemic area. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 174 fecal samples were analyzed by TSET and 2nd Generation Gi [...] ardia ELISA kit. RESULTS: 51 samples were positive by ELISA and 49 by TSET. CONCLUSIONS: The ELISA was highly sensitive and specific, simple and fast. However, the very good agreement, high precision, low cost and ability to detect other intestinal parasites makes use of TSET recommended for laboratory diagnosis in endemic areas of Peru.

  10. Inducible nitric oxide synthase in duodenum of children with Giardia lamblia infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Kolasa; Ma?gorzata Mokrzycka; Anita Kosierkiewicz; Barbara Wiszniewska

    2010-01-01

    The investigation were performed on children with Giardia lamblia infection, diagnosed on the basis of positive stool tests for Giardia antigen (Elisa) or by microscopical detection of trophozoites in duodenal fluid. In duodenal biopsies morphological studies and immunohistochemical reaction for inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were performed. The control group was made up of duodenal tissue of children with excluded giardiasis and inflammation of the upper part of gastrointestinal trac...

  11. Comparación de métodos de lisis y extracción de ADN de trofozoítos de Giardia lamblia COMPARISON OF LYSIS METHODS AND DNA EXTRACTION OF GIARDIA LAMBLIA TROPHOZOITES

    OpenAIRE

    Nora B Molina; DANIELA POLVERINO; Marta C Minvielle; MARÍA APEZTEGUÍA; MARIO AGUILAR; Juan A Basualdo

    2006-01-01

    Se evaluó la eficiencia de procedimientos de lisis y tratamientos de extracción de ADN de trofozoítos de Giardia lamblia respecto a la eficiencia de ruptura, cantidad y pureza de ADN, además de los tiempos de procesamiento y costos. Se testearon cinco métodos de lisis (agua destilada y calor; agua destilada, calor y proteinasa K; buffer de lisis D; buffer de lisis E y un kit comercial) y tres métodos de purificación de ADN (fenol:cloroformo: isoamílico; Chelex 100 y un kit comercial)....

  12. Evaluation Of Cytokines Changes In Patients Infected With Giardia lamblia In Comparison With Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Zarebavani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Human Giardisis infection is caused by the flagellate protozoa. Giardia lamblia, which lives in the small intestine, causing damage and may also cause gastrointestinal symptoms. This parasitic disease has a worldwide distribution and prevalence varies from 5% to 30%. The role of both humeral and cellular immune response in the host defense against parasites has proven. Since an immune response is directly affected by cytokine, study of cytokines changes in patients with giardiosis is of particular importance. Materials and Methods: In this study the serum levels of IL-2 - 4 - 6 to 17 and 23 in patients and healthy subjects were measured and compared. Fasting blood samples were taken from the volunteers, ELISA was performed to measure cytokines. Results: In this study, the amount of IL-2 and IL-6 in infected patients was significantly more than the controls, but IL-4 levels were significantly lower in infected individuals (P=0.0001. Also for the first time in people with giardiasis IL-17 and IL-23 was measured and there was a significant aifference in these cytokines between the infected patients healthy controls(respectively P=0.044 and P=0.03 Conclusion: Host defense response against parasitic infections, is directly and affected by cytokines. Increased interleukin 2, 6, 17 and 23 in patients with Giardiosis was probably caused by immune response and local intestinal inflammation.

  13. CLONING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CDNA ENCODING GIARDIA LAMBLIA d-GIARDIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    A cDNA coding for d-giardin was cloned from Giardia lamblia trophozoites in order to localize the protein and study its function in mediating surface attachment. Recombinant d-giardin antigen was produced in Escherichia coli as a poly-histidine fusion protein and was purified by affinity chromatogr...

  14. Development and testing of a filter system for isolation of Giardia lamblia cysts from water.

    OpenAIRE

    Hausler, W. J.; Davis, W. E.; Moyer, N. P.

    1984-01-01

    An inexpensive, practical, and reliable method for isolation of Giardia lamblia cysts from potable and environmental water has been developed from commercially available components. This system was successfully used to isolate cysts from well water associated with a family outbreak of giardiasis.

  15. DETERMINATION OF GIARDIA LAMBLIA CYST INFECTIVE DOSE FOR THE MONGOLIAN GERBIL (MERIONES UNQUICULATUS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the I.D.50 for Giardia lamblia (CDC:0284:1) cysts in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unquiculatus) and compare it to human infectivity data. ysts were purified from Mongolian gerbil feces and diluted to produce inocula for each dosage group....

  16. Detection of anti-Giardia lamblia serum antibody among children of day care centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guimarães Semíramis

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVES: To detect anti-Giardia lamblia serum antibodies in healthy children attending public day care centers and to assess serological tests as tools for estimating the prevalence of G. lamblia in endemic areas. METHODS: Three separate stool specimens and filter paper blood samples were collected from 147 children ranging from 0 to 6 years old. Each stool sample was processed using spontaneous sedimentation and zinc sulfate flotation methods. Blood samples were tested by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for Giardia IgG. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Of 147 individuals tested, 93 (63.3% showed Giardia cysts in their feces. Using IIF and ELISA, serum antibodies were detected in 93 (63.3% and 100 (68% samples , respectively. Sensitivity of IIF and ELISA was 82% and 72%, respectively. However, ELISA revealed to be less specific (39% than IIF (70%. IIF also showed a higher concordance with microscopic examination than ELISA.

  17. Crystal structure of a macrophage migration inhibitory factor from Giardia lamblia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchko, Garry W.; Abendroth, Jan; Robinson, Howard; Zhang, Yanfeng; Hewitt, Stephen N.; Edwards, Tom E.; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Myler, Peter J.

    2013-06-15

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a eukaryotic cytokine that affects a broad spectrum of immune responses and its activation/inactivation is associated with numerous diseases. During protozoan infections MIF is not only expressed by the host, but, has also been observed to be expressed by some parasites and released into the host. To better understand the biological role of parasitic MIF proteins, the crystal structure of the MIF protein from Giardia lamblia (Gl-MIF), the etiological agent responsible for giardiasis, has been determined at 2.30 Å resolution. The 114-residue protein adopts an ?/? fold consisting of a four-stranded ?-sheet with two anti-parallel ?-helices packed against a face of the ?-sheet. An additional short ?-strand aligns anti-parallel to ?4 of the ?-sheet in the adjacent protein unit to help stabilize a trimer, the biologically relevant unit observed in all solved MIF crystal structures to date, and form a discontinuous ?-barrel. The structure of Gl-MIF is compared to the MIF structures from humans (Hs-MIF) and three Plasmodium species (falciparum, berghei, and yoelii). The structure of all five MIF proteins are generally similar with the exception of a channel that runs through the center of each trimer complex. Relative to Hs-MIF, there are differences in solvent accessibility and electrostatic potential distribution in the channel of Gl-MIF and the Plasmodium-MIFs due primarily to two “gate-keeper” residues in the parasitic MIFs. For the Plasmodium MIFs the gate-keeper residues are at positions 44 (Y==>R) and 100 (V==>D) and for Gl-MIF it is at position 100 (V==>R). If these gate-keeper residues have a biological function and contribute to the progression of parasitemia they may also form the basis for structure-based drug design targeting parasitic MIF proteins.

  18. Identification of an immunogenic protein of Giardia lamblia using monoclonal antibodies generated from infected mice

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jael, Quintero; Diana Carolina, Figueroa; Rafael, Barcelo; Linda, Breci; Humberto, Astiazaran-Garcia; Lucila, Rascon; Ramon, Robles-Zepeda; Adriana, Garibay-Escobar; Enrique, Velazquez-Contreras; Gloria Leon, Avila; Jose Manuel, Hernandez-Hernandez; Carlos, Velazquez.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The humoral immune response plays an important role in the clearance of Giardia lamblia. However, our knowledge about the specific antigens of G. lamblia that induce a protective immune response is limited. The purpose of this study was to identify and characterise the immunogenic proteins of G. lam [...] blia in a mouse model. We generated monoclonal antibodies (moAbs) specific to G. lamblia (1B10, 2C9.D11, 3C10.E5, 3D10, 5G8.B5, 5F4, 4C7, 3C5 and 3C6) by fusing splenocytes derived from infected mice. Most of these moAbs recognised a band of ± 71 kDa (5G8 protein) and this protein was also recognised by serum from the infected mice. We found that the moAbs recognised conformational epitopes of the 5G8 protein and that this antigen is expressed on the cell surface and inside trophozoites. Additionally, antibodies specific to the 5G8 protein induced strong agglutination (> 70-90%) of trophozoites. We have thus identified a highly immunogenic antigen of G. lamblia that is recognised by the immune system of infected mice. In summary, this study describes the identification and partial characterisation of an immunogenic protein of G. lamblia. Additionally, we generated a panel of moAbs specific for this protein that will be useful for the biochemical and immunological characterisation of this immunologically interesting Giardia molecule.

  19. Inducible nitric oxide synthase in duodenum of children with Giardia lamblia infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kolasa

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The investigation were performed on children with Giardia lamblia infection, diagnosed on the basis of positive stool tests for Giardia antigen (Elisa or by microscopical detection of trophozoites in duodenal fluid. In duodenal biopsies morphological studies and immunohistochemical reaction for inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS were performed. The control group was made up of duodenal tissue of children with excluded giardiasis and inflammation of the upper part of gastrointestinal tract. The duodenal biopsies from children without Giardia lamblia infection were found to have a high immunoreactivity for iNOS in enterocytes, the cells of intestinal crypts, endothelial cells of vessels and connective tissue cells of lamina propria. In children with giardiasis: in some biopsies the expression of iNOS was as high as in control group, in others was weaker detectable and the shortening of intestinal villi was seen. There were also duodenal biopsies with the lack of immunoreactivity for iNOS, with shorter villi and a large amount of mucus in the intestinal epithelium. Beside of goblet cells, also enterocytes were loaded with mucus. The pathological changes may cause malabsorption and also may have a negative influence on the defense of the intestinal wall against Giardia lamblia infection. The different morphological and immunohistochemical results in the duodenum of children with giardiasis can elucidate a variety of clinical symptoms from asymptomatic to severe infection.

  20. Identification and analysis of the RNA degrading complexes and machinery of Giardia lamblia using an in silico approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Christopher W

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RNA degradation is critical to the survival of all cells. With increasing evidence for pervasive transcription in cells, RNA degradation has gained recognition as a means of regulating gene expression. Yet, RNA degradation machinery has been studied extensively in only a few eukaryotic organisms, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae and humans. Giardia lamblia is a parasitic protist with unusual genomic traits: it is binucleated and tetraploid, has a very compact genome, displays a theme of genomic minimalism with cellular machinery commonly comprised of a reduced number of protein components, and has a remarkably large population of long, stable, noncoding, antisense RNAs. Results Here we use in silico approaches to investigate the major RNA degradation machinery in Giardia lamblia and compare it to a broad array of other parasitic protists. We have found key constituents of the deadenylation and decapping machinery and of the 5'-3' RNA degradation pathway. We have similarly found that all of the major 3'-5' RNA degradation pathways are present in Giardia, including both exosome-dependent and exosome-independent machinery. However, we observe significant loss of RNA degradation machinery genes that will result in important differences in the protein composition, and potentially functionality, of the various RNA degradation pathways. This is most apparent in the exosome, the central mediator of 3'-5' degradation, which apparently contains an altered core configuration in both Giardia and Plasmodium, with only four, instead of the canonical six, distinct subunits. Additionally the exosome in Giardia is missing both the Rrp6, Nab3, and Nrd1 proteins, known to be key regulators of noncoding transcript stability in other cells. Conclusions These findings suggest that although the full complement of the major RNA degradation mechanisms were present - and likely functional - early in eukaryotic evolution, the composition and function of the complexes is more variable than previously appreciated. We suggest that the missing components of the exosome complex provide an explanation for the stable abundance of sterile RNA species in Giardia.

  1. Unraveling the mechanisms of tryptophan fluorescence quenching in the triosephosphate isomerase from Giardia lamblia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Alcántara, Gloria; Rodríguez-Romero, Adela; Reyes-Vivas, Horacio; Peon, Jorge; Cabrera, Nallely; Ortiz, Carmen; Enríquez-Flores, Sergio; De la Mora-De la Mora, Ignacio; López-Velázquez, Gabriel

    2008-11-01

    In the native state several proteins exhibit a quenching of fluorescence of their tryptophans. We studied triosephosphate isomerase from Giardia lamblia (GlTIM) to dissect the mechanisms that account for the quenching of fluorescence of its Trp. GlTIM contains four Trp per monomer (Trp75, Trp162, Trp173, and Trp196) distributed throughout the 3D structure. The fluorescence of the denatured enzyme is 3-fold higher than that of native GlTIM. To ascertain the origin of this phenomenon, single and triple mutants of Trp per Phe were made. The intrinsic fluorescence was determined, and the data were interpreted on the basis of the crystal structure of the enzyme. Our data show that the fluorescence of all Trp residues is quenched through two different mechanisms. In one, fluorescence is quenched by aromatic-aromatic interactions due to the proximity and orientation of the indole groups of Trp196 and Trp162. The magnitude of the quenching of fluorescence in Trp162 is higher than in the other three Trp. Fluorescence quenching is also due to energy transfer to the charged residues that surround Trp 75, 173 and 196. Further analysis of the fluorescence of GlTIM showed that, among TIMs from other parasites, Trp at position 12 exhibits rather unique properties. PMID:18620084

  2. Enzyme immunoassay for detection of Giardia lamblia cyst antigens in formalin-fixed and unfixed human stool.

    OpenAIRE

    Stibbs, H. H.; Samadpour, M.; Manning, J. F.

    1988-01-01

    An antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay employing rabbit and mouse antisera to Giardia lamblia cyst antigens was developed for the diagnosis of Giardia infection through detection of G. lamblia-specific stool antigens in cell-free aqueous eluates of human stool. This is the first report of the use of anti-cyst antibodies in an enzyme immunoassay for G. lamblia. The assay gave a positive result with 54 of 59 stools from patients with symptomatic, clinically diagnosed giardiasis, g...

  3. Genotypic heterogeneity within Giardia lamblia isolates demonstrated by M13 DNA fingerprinting.

    OpenAIRE

    Carnaby, S.; Katelaris, P. H.; Naeem, A.; Farthing, M. J.

    1994-01-01

    There has been considerable speculation regarding the possible relationship between the phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity seen among human isolates of Giardia lamblia and the wide clinical spectrum of human giardiasis. Several workers have suggested that human giardiasis may be a mixed infection consisting of variant strains or subgroups which are present in the same infection and which are selectable, but it is not clear whether these apparent variant strains represent a truly heterogen...

  4. A contiguous compartment functions as endoplasmic reticulum and endosome/lysosome in Giardia lamblia

    OpenAIRE

    Abodeely, M.; Dubois, K. N.; Hehl, A. B.; Stefanic, S.; Sajid, M.; Desouza, W.; Attias, M.; Engel, J. C.; Hsieh, I.; Fetter, R. D.; Mckerrow, J. H.

    2009-01-01

    The dynamic evolution of organelle compartmentalization in eukaryotes and how strictly compartmentalization is maintained are matters of ongoing debate. While the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is classically envisioned as the site of protein cotranslational translocation, it has recently been proposed to have pluripotent functions. Using transfected reporter constructs, organelle-specific markers, and functional enzyme assays, we now show that in an early-diverging protozoan, Giardia lamblia, en...

  5. COMPARACIÓN DE MÉTODOS CONVENCIONALES Y MOLECULARES PARA LA DETECCIÓN DE Giardia lamblia EN HECES HUMANAS / COMPARISON OF CONVENTIONAL AND MOLECULAR METHODS FOR DETECTION OF Giardia lamblia IN HUMAN FEACES

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Edwin, Cardona; Silvia, Castañeda; María Elena, Álvarez; Jorge Enrique, Pérez; Fredy Arvey, Rivera Páez; Germán Ariel, López Gartner.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Los protozoarios del género Giardia representan algunos de los parásitos humanos más comunes en el mundo y están entre los principales causantes de infecciones gastrointestinales y enfermedades diarreicas en humanos. La detección del parásito se fundamenta generalmente en los métodos por concentraci [...] ón y microscopía convencional, pero estas técnicas presentan limitaciones por su baja sensibilidad e inespecificidad en el diagnóstico. En procura de mejorar los métodos de diagnóstico, las técnicas moleculares se perfilan como una alternativa promisoria. En este estudio se analizaron 88 muestras de heces provenientes de pacientes de una empresa prestadora de servicios de salud (ASSBASALUD) de la ciudad de Manizales (Caldas). Para la detección de Giardia lamblia en heces se compararon tres métodos diferentes por medio del porcentaje de positividad: los métodos convencionales de concentración de la muestra y observación microscópica, análisis por inmunoensayo (ELISA indirecto) y finalmente la amplificación de dos secuencias génicas nucleares por PCR. Se obtuvieron tres muestras positivas por concentración y microscopía convencional, dos por inmunoensayo y 26 por técnicas moleculares. El estudio sugiere que las pruebas diagnósticas rutinarias basadas en microscopía convencional e inmunoensayo, tienen más bajo porcentaje de detección de este parásito y que esta deficiencia puede ser compensada por medio de la implementación de métodos de diagnóstico molecular basados en PCR, como una estrategia complementaria de apoyo en el diagnóstico de este protozoo. Abstract in english The protozoa of the genus Giardia represent one of the most common human parasites in the world and are among the main causes of gastrointestinal infections and diarrheal diseases in humans. Parasite detection is generally based on concentration and conventional microscopy methods, but these techniq [...] ues have limitations due to their low sensitivity and specificity in diagnosis. In an attempt to improve the diagnostic methods, molecular techniques are emerging as a promising alternative. In this study 88 stool samples from patients of a company that provides health services (ASSBASALUD) in the city of Manizales (Caldas) were analyzed. In order to detect Giardia lamblia in stool, three different methods were compared using the positivity percent: conventional methods for concentration of the sample and microscopic observation, analysis by immunoassay (indirect ELISA) and finally the amplification of two nuclear gene sequences by PCR. Three positive samples were obtained by concentration and conventional microscopy, two by immunoassay and 26 by molecular techniques. The study suggests that routine diagnostic tests based on conventional microscopy and immunoassay have lower detection rate of this parasite and that this deficiency can be compensated by means of the implementation of molecular diagnostic methods based on PCR, as a complementary strategy to support the diagnosis of this protozoan.

  6. COMPARISON OF CONVENTIONAL AND MOLECULAR METHODS FOR DETECTION OF Giardia lamblia IN HUMAN FEACES / COMPARACIÓN DE MÉTODOS CONVENCIONALES Y MOLECULARES PARA LA DETECCIÓN DE Giardia lamblia EN HECES HUMANAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Cardona

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The protozoa of the genus Giardia represent one of the most common human parasites in the world and are among the main causes of gastrointestinal infections and diarrheal diseases in humans. Parasite detection is generally based on concentration and conventional microscopy methods, but these techniques have limitations due to their low sensitivity and specificity in diagnosis. In an attempt to improve the diagnostic methods, molecular techniques are emerging as a promising alternative. In this study 88 stool samples from patients of a company that provides health services (ASSBASALUD in the city of Manizales (Caldas were analyzed. In order to detect Giardia lamblia in stool, three different methods were compared using the positivity percent: conventional methods for concentration of the sample and microscopic observation, analysis by immunoassay (indirect ELISA and finally the amplification of two nuclear gene sequences by PCR. Three positive samples were obtained by concentration and conventional microscopy, two by immunoassay and 26 by molecular techniques. The study suggests that routine diagnostic tests based on conventional microscopy and immunoassay have lower detection rate of this parasite and that this deficiency can be compensated by means of the implementation of molecular diagnostic methods based on PCR, as a complementary strategy to support the diagnosis of this protozoan. RESUMEN: Los protozoarios del género Giardia representan algunos de los parásitos humanos más comunes en el mundo y están entre los principales causantes de infecciones gastrointestinales y enfermedades diarreicas en humanos. La detección del parásito se fundamenta generalmente en los métodos por concentración y microscopía convencional, pero estas técnicas presentan limitaciones por su baja sensibilidad e inespecificidad en el diagnóstico. En procura de mejorar los métodos de diagnóstico, las técnicas moleculares se perfilan como una alternativa promisoria. En este estudio se analizaron 88 muestras de heces provenientes de pacientes de una empresa prestadora de servicios de salud (ASSBASALUD de la ciudad de Manizales (Caldas. Para la detección de Giardia lamblia en heces se compararon tres métodos diferentes por medio del porcentaje de positividad: los métodos convencionales de concentración de la muestra y observación microscópica, análisis por inmunoensayo (ELISA indirecto y finalmente la amplificación de dos secuencias génicas nucleares por PCR. Se obtuvieron tres muestras positivas por concentración y microscopía convencional, dos por inmunoensayo y 26 por técnicas moleculares. El estudio sugiere que las pruebas diagnósticas rutinarias basadas en microscopía convencional e inmunoensayo, tienen más bajo porcentaje de detección de este parásito y que esta deficiencia puede ser compensada por medio de la implementación de métodos de diagnóstico molecular basados en PCR, como una estrategia complementaria de apoyo en el diagnóstico de este protozoo.

  7. Dual Acylation Accounts for the Localization of ?19-Giardin in the Ventral Flagellum Pair of Giardia lamblia? †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šari?, Mirela; Vahrmann, Anke; Niebur, Daniela; Kluempers, Verena; Hehl, Adrian B.; Scholze, Henning

    2009-01-01

    A Giardia-specific protein family denominated as ?-giardins, represents the major protein component, besides tubulin, of the cytoskeleton of the human pathogenic parasite Giardia lamblia. One of its members, ?19-giardin, carries an N-terminal sequence extension of MGCXXS, which in many proteins serves as a target for dual lipid conjugation: myristoylation at the glycine residue after removal of the methionine and palmitoylation at the cysteine residue. As the first experimental evidence of a lipid modification, we found ?19-giardin to be associated with the membrane fraction of disrupted trophozoites. After heterologous coexpression of ?19-giardin with giardial N-myristoyltransferase (NMT) in Escherichia coli, we found the protein in a myristoylated form. Additionally, after heterologous expression together with the palmitoyl transferase Pfa3 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, ?19-giardin associates with the membrane of the main vacuole. Immunocytochemical colocalization studies on wild-type Giardia trophozoites with tubulin provide evidence that ?19-giardin exclusively localizes to the ventral pair of the giardial flagella. A mutant in which the putatively myristoylated N-terminal glycine residue was replaced by alanine lost this specific localization. Our findings suggest that the dual lipidation of ?19-giardin is responsible for its specific flagellar localization. PMID:19684283

  8. Effects of Dietary Zinc Manipulation on Growth Performance, Zinc Status and Immune Response during Giardia lamblia Infection: A Study in CD-1 Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Astiazarán-García

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Associations between Giardia lamblia infection and low serum concentrations of zinc have been reported in young children. Interestingly, relatively few studies have examined the effects of different dietary zinc levels on the parasite-infected host. The aims of this study were to compare the growth performance and zinc status in response to varying levels of dietary zinc and to measure the antibody-mediated response of mice during G. lamblia infection. Male CD-1 mice were fed using 1 of 4 experimental diets: adequate-zinc (ZnA, low-zinc (ZnL, high-zinc (ZnH and supplemented-zinc (ZnS diet containing 30, 10, 223 and 1383 mg Zn/kg respectively. After a 10 days feeding period, mice were inoculated orally with 5 × 106 G. lamblia trophozoites and were maintained on the assigned diet during the course of infection (30 days. Giardia-free mice fed ZnL diets were able to attain normal growth and antibody-mediated response. Giardia-infected mice fed ZnL and ZnA diets presented a significant growth retardation compared to non-infected controls. Zinc supplementation avoided this weight loss during G. lamblia infection and up-regulated the host’s humoral immune response by improving the production of specific antibodies. Clinical outcomes of zinc supplementation during giardiasis included significant weight gain, higher anti-G. lamblia IgG antibodies and improved serum zinc levels despite the ongoing infection. A maximum growth rate and antibody-mediated response were attained in mice fed ZnH diet. No further increases in body weight, zinc status and humoral immune capacity were noted by feeding higher zinc levels (ZnS than the ZnH diet. These findings probably reflect biological effect of zinc that could be of public health importance in endemic areas of infection.

  9. Detection of Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum by direct immunofluorescence assay in stool specimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M M; Hossain, M A; Paul, S K; Ahmed, S; Islam, A; Ehsan, M A; Alam, M M; Kabir, M R; Sarkar, S R

    2014-07-01

    Giardia and Cryptosporidium are the pathogens which transmitted through contaminated soil and contaminated water are significant causes of diarrhea and nutritional disorders in institutional and community peoples. Children and immune compromise persons are more vulnerable for these infections. Both Giardiasis and Cryptosporidiosis were included in 2004 as WHO Neglected Disease. So this is a major public health problem in developing countries. The present study was carried out to detect the Giardia and Cryptosporidium from diarrheic or patient having loose stool by Direct Immunofluorescence assay. The study was conducted during July 20012 to February 2013 and the work was done in Mymensingh Medical College in the department of Microbiology and in Bangladesh Agricultural University in the department of Veterinary Medicine. A total of 100 loose stools were collected from school children of different area and hospital under sadar upazilla, Mymensingh. The detection of Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum showed the individual prevalence 8% and 4% respectively. The highest cyst/oocyst count was 85,000 and 1,000/gm of stool and the lowest being 100 and 50/gm of stool for Giardiasis and Cryptosporidiosis respectively. The detection rate of Giardia and Cryptosporidium by Immunofluorescence assay was relatively higher than the previous study done in Bangladesh and this was the first report from Bangladesh over human stool specimen using Immunofluorescence assay. So, Immunofluorescence assay could be adapted for rapid and accurate detection of Giardia and Cryptosporidium. PMID:25178591

  10. Development of a combined in vitro cell culture--quantitative PCR assay for evaluating the disinfection performance of pulsed light for treating the waterborne enteroparasite Giardia lamblia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, Mary; Stocca, Alessia; Rowan, Neil

    2014-09-01

    Giardia lamblia is a flagellated protozoan parasite that is recognised as a frequent cause of water-borne disease in humans and animals. We report for the first time on the use of a combined in vitro HCT-8 cell culture-quantitative PCR assay for evaluating the efficacy of using pulsed UV light for treating G. lamblia parasites. Findings showed that current methods that are limited to using vital stains before and after cyst excystation are not appropriate for monitoring or evaluating cyst destruction post PUV-treatments. Use of the human ileocecal HCT-8 cell line was superior to that of the human colon Caco-2 cell line for in vitro culture and determining PUV sensitivity of treated cysts. G. lamblia cysts were also shown to be more resistant to PUV irradiation compared to treating similar numbers of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts. These observations also show that the use of this HCT-8 cell culture assay may replace use of animal models for determining disinfection performances of PUV for treating both C. parvum and G. lamblia. PMID:24929148

  11. Physical and chemical characterization of a Giardia lamblia-specific antigen useful in the coprodiagnosis of giardiasis.

    OpenAIRE

    Rosoff, J. D.; Stibbs, H. H.

    1986-01-01

    We recently reported the isolation and identification of a Giardia lamblia-specific antigen (GSA 65) that is shed in the stool of giardiasis patients. In the present study, this antigen was affinity purified from sonic extracts of axenically cultured G. lamblia trophozoites and characterized to better understand its biological function and its potential usefulness in the design of coprodiagnostic assays for giardiasis. GSA 65 was resistant to proteolytic digestion with trypsin, chymotrypsin, ...

  12. Antibodies to cysts of Giardia lamblia in primary giardiasis and in the absence of giardiasis.

    OpenAIRE

    Jokipii, L.; Miettinen, A.; Jokipii, A. M.

    1988-01-01

    The significance of serum antibodies binding to cysts of Giardia lamblia was evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence. Titers of 10 or higher were found in 85.6% of adults, who had probably never had giardiasis. Titers in 118 adults (geometric mean, 29.9) were higher than in 35 children (16.4), and titers in women (42.3) were higher than in men (20.0). Titers in 150 patients with primary giardiasis (80.4) were higher than in control adults, but overlapping precluded serological diagnosis. Tit...

  13. Heterogeneity of quaternary structure of glucosamine-6-phosphate deaminase from Giardia lamblia

    OpenAIRE

    Kwiatkowska-semrau, Karolina; Czarnecka, Justyna; Wojciechowski, Marek; Milewski, S?awomir

    2014-01-01

    The oligoHis-tagged versions of glucosamine-6-phosphate deaminase from Giardia lamblia (GlmNagB-HisN, GlmNagB-HisC) were constructed and purified to hear homogeneity, and their kinetic and structural properties were compared to those of the wild-type enzyme (GlmNagB). Introduction of the oligoHis tag at the GlmNagB C-terminus resulted in almost complete loss of the catalytic activity, while the catalytic properties of GlmNagB-HisN and GlmNagB were very similar. The recombinant and wild-type e...

  14. Detection of a Giardia lamblia coproantigen by using a commercially available immunoenzymatic assay, in Belo Horizonte, Brazil Avaliação do ProSpeT Giardia ensaio em microplaca na detecção de coproantígenos de Giardia lamblia, em fezes de pacientes de Belo Horizonte, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Míriam Oliveira e ROCHA

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available It is known that fecal examination to detect Giardia lamblia cysts or trophozoites produces a high percentage of false-negative results. A commercially available immunoenzymatic assay (ProSpecT Giardia Microplate Assay, Alexon, Inc., BIOBRÁS to detect G. lamblia specific coproantigen was evaluated for the first time in Brazil. A total of 90 specimens were tested. Each specimen was first tested as unpreserved stool, and then it was preserved in 10% Formalin to be tested 2 months later. The assay was able to identify all the 30 positive patients (sensitivity = 100.0% by visual or spectrophotometric examination in the unpreserved specimens and was negative in 57 of the 60 patients without G. lamblia (specificity = 95.0%. The assay identified 27 of the 30 positive patients (sensitivity = 90.0% and was negative in 59 of the 60 negatives (specificity = 98.3% in the preserved stools according to both readings. A marked difference was observed in the optical densities in both groups, preserved and unpreserved stools, when the G. lamblia-positive specimens were compared to the negative or positive for other intestinal parasites than G. lamblia. The assay seems a good alternative for giardiasis diagnosis, especially when the fecal examination was repeatedly negative and the patient presents giardiasislike symptoms.O diagnóstico da giardíase através da pesquisa de trofozoítos ou cistos do parasita nas fezes apresenta uma elevada percentagem de resultados falso-negativos. No presente trabalho foi feita, pela primeira vez no Brasil, uma avaliação do ProSpecT Giardia Ensaio em Microplaca (Alexon, Inc., BIOBRÁS, utilizando amostras fecais de pacientes de Belo Horizonte, Brasil. Um total de 90 amostras fecais foram testadas, primeiramente como fezes frescas e, então, preservadas em formalina 10%, para um novo teste 2 meses após. Com as amostras frescas, o ensaio imunoenzimático, através de leitura visual ou no espectrofotômetro, foi capaz de identificar todos os 30 pacientes positivos no exame parasitológico de fezes (EPF e foi negativo em 57 dos 60 pacientes sem G. lamblia (sensibilidade = 100,0%, especificidade = 95,0%. Com as amostras preservadas em formalina 10% durante 2 meses, o teste identificou 27 das 30 amostras fecais positivas (sensibilidade = 90,0% e foi negativo em 59 das 60 amostras negativas no EPF (especificidade = 98,3%. Comparando-se as leituras das densidades óticas nas amostras fecais positivas para G. lamblia com as amostras com EPF negativo ou contendo outros parasitas intestinais que não a G. lamblia, foi observada uma nítida diferença, tanto nas fezes frescas como nas fezes conservadas em formalina 10% durante 2 meses. O ProSpecT Giardia Ensaio em Microplaca mostrou-se uma boa alternativa para o diagnóstico da G. lamblia, especialmente para aqueles casos em que o EPF foi repetidamente negativo e o paciente apresenta sintomas compatíveis com a giardíase.

  15. Detection of a Giardia lamblia coproantigen by using a commercially available immunoenzymatic assay, in Belo Horizonte, Brazil / Avaliação do ProSpeT Giardia ensaio em microplaca na detecção de coproantígenos de Giardia lamblia, em fezes de pacientes de Belo Horizonte, Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Míriam Oliveira e, ROCHA; Rômulo Teixeira de, MELLO; Tânia Mara Pinto Dabés, GUIMARÃES; Vicente de Paulo Coelho Peixoto de, TOLEDO; Maria da Conceição Carneiro Gonçalves, MOREIRA; Carlos Alberto da, COSTA.

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available O diagnóstico da giardíase através da pesquisa de trofozoítos ou cistos do parasita nas fezes apresenta uma elevada percentagem de resultados falso-negativos. No presente trabalho foi feita, pela primeira vez no Brasil, uma avaliação do ProSpecT Giardia Ensaio em Microplaca (Alexon, Inc., BIOBRÁS), [...] utilizando amostras fecais de pacientes de Belo Horizonte, Brasil. Um total de 90 amostras fecais foram testadas, primeiramente como fezes frescas e, então, preservadas em formalina 10%, para um novo teste 2 meses após. Com as amostras frescas, o ensaio imunoenzimático, através de leitura visual ou no espectrofotômetro, foi capaz de identificar todos os 30 pacientes positivos no exame parasitológico de fezes (EPF) e foi negativo em 57 dos 60 pacientes sem G. lamblia (sensibilidade = 100,0%, especificidade = 95,0%). Com as amostras preservadas em formalina 10% durante 2 meses, o teste identificou 27 das 30 amostras fecais positivas (sensibilidade = 90,0%) e foi negativo em 59 das 60 amostras negativas no EPF (especificidade = 98,3%). Comparando-se as leituras das densidades óticas nas amostras fecais positivas para G. lamblia com as amostras com EPF negativo ou contendo outros parasitas intestinais que não a G. lamblia, foi observada uma nítida diferença, tanto nas fezes frescas como nas fezes conservadas em formalina 10% durante 2 meses. O ProSpecT Giardia Ensaio em Microplaca mostrou-se uma boa alternativa para o diagnóstico da G. lamblia, especialmente para aqueles casos em que o EPF foi repetidamente negativo e o paciente apresenta sintomas compatíveis com a giardíase. Abstract in english It is known that fecal examination to detect Giardia lamblia cysts or trophozoites produces a high percentage of false-negative results. A commercially available immunoenzymatic assay (ProSpecT Giardia Microplate Assay, Alexon, Inc., BIOBRÁS) to detect G. lamblia specific coproantigen was evaluated [...] for the first time in Brazil. A total of 90 specimens were tested. Each specimen was first tested as unpreserved stool, and then it was preserved in 10% Formalin to be tested 2 months later. The assay was able to identify all the 30 positive patients (sensitivity = 100.0%) by visual or spectrophotometric examination in the unpreserved specimens and was negative in 57 of the 60 patients without G. lamblia (specificity = 95.0%). The assay identified 27 of the 30 positive patients (sensitivity = 90.0%) and was negative in 59 of the 60 negatives (specificity = 98.3%) in the preserved stools according to both readings. A marked difference was observed in the optical densities in both groups, preserved and unpreserved stools, when the G. lamblia-positive specimens were compared to the negative or positive for other intestinal parasites than G. lamblia. The assay seems a good alternative for giardiasis diagnosis, especially when the fecal examination was repeatedly negative and the patient presents giardiasislike symptoms.

  16. Molecular Characterization of the Iranian Isolates of Giardia Lamblia: Application of the Glutamate Dehydrogenase Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Akhlaghi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was conducted to determine of molecular epidemiology of the Giardia lamblia by PCR-RFLP method in Tehran, capital of Iran. Methods: Thirty eight stool samples were randomly selected from 125 patients diagnosed with giardiasis using microscopy in Tehran. DNA extraction of some samples were performed by phenol/chloroform/isoamyl alcohol method and to raise the sensitivity of the PCR assay, the genomic DNA of the others were extracted using glass beads and the QIAamp Stool Mini Kit in order to effectively remove the PCR inhibitors. A single step PCR-RFLP assay, targeting the glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh locus, was used to differentiate within and between assemblages A and B that have been found in humans. Results: Of the 38 isolates, 33 samples (87% were found as G. lamblia (genotype AII, 3 (7.8% belonged to assemblage B, genotype BIII, the mixed of genotype AII and B were detected only in two samples (5.2%. Conclusions: PCR-RFLP is a sensitive and powerful analytical tool that allows effective genotype discrimination within and between assemblages at targeting gdh gene, and makes it possible to identify the presence of mixed genotypes. Our data suggest that there is an anthroponotic origin of the infection route, assemblage A group II, in Tehran so it seems that the main reservoir of Giardia infection is humans in the area studies.

  17. Association between Whipple's disease and Giardia lamblia infection / Asociación de enfermedad de Whipple e infección por Giardia lamblia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J. A., Gil Ruiz; P., Gil Simón; R., Aparicio Duque; J. L., Mayor Jerez.

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available La enfermedad de Whipple se caracteriza por afectar principalmente al aparato digestivo, aunque puede ser un proceso multisistémico con variadas manifestaciones clínicas. En el año 2000 se ha conseguido aislar y cultivar el bacilo causante y recientemente, en el 2003, se ha analizado la secuencia co [...] mpleta del genoma, lo que supone nuevas perspectivas para el diagnóstico y el tratamiento. La giardiasis es una infección originada por un protozoo que puede evolucionar de forma subclínica o dar lugar a un síndrome de malabsorción. Describimos el caso de un paciente varón de mediana edad, que tras un periodo de tres años de artralgias migratorias en articulaciones periféricas, presentó un cuadro de pérdida de peso, con aumento del número de deposiciones y molestias abdominales siendo diagnosticado de Giardiasis y ante la persistencia de los síntomas y la posterior realización de diferentes estudios, de enfermedad de Whipple. Están descritos en la literatura 19 casos de coinfección Giardia-Whipple, sin que en el momento actual esté aclarado el por qué de esta asociación. Se mantiene la discusión sobre si existe una alteración en el sistema inmunitario que facilite las infecciones o si, por otro lado, el desarrollo de una infección favorece el origen de la otra. Abstract in english Whipple'disease is mainly characterized by affecting the digestive system, although it can be a multisystemic process with different clinical symptoms. The bacillus causing the disease has been isolated and cultivated in 2000 and the genome sequence has been recently analyzed in 2003, which means ne [...] w perspectives for its diagnosis and treatment. Giardiasis is an infestation caused by a protozoo and may cause a malabsorption syndrome or run in a subclinic way. The case of a middle-aged male is described, who after a three-year period of migratory arthralgias, showed weight loss, diarrheas and abdominal pain, being diagnosed of Giardiasis, and after the persistent symptoms and a number of studies, was diagnosed with Whipple disease. Nineteen cases of Giardia-Whipple coinfection have been described in the literature, but the reason of this association has not been found yet. The discussion on whether there is an alteration in the inmunitary system which facilitates infections or, the development of an infection lead to the other one, goes on.

  18. Association between Whipple's disease and Giardia lamblia infection Asociación de enfermedad de Whipple e infección por Giardia lamblia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Gil Ruiz

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Whipple'disease is mainly characterized by affecting the digestive system, although it can be a multisystemic process with different clinical symptoms. The bacillus causing the disease has been isolated and cultivated in 2000 and the genome sequence has been recently analyzed in 2003, which means new perspectives for its diagnosis and treatment. Giardiasis is an infestation caused by a protozoo and may cause a malabsorption syndrome or run in a subclinic way. The case of a middle-aged male is described, who after a three-year period of migratory arthralgias, showed weight loss, diarrheas and abdominal pain, being diagnosed of Giardiasis, and after the persistent symptoms and a number of studies, was diagnosed with Whipple disease. Nineteen cases of Giardia-Whipple coinfection have been described in the literature, but the reason of this association has not been found yet. The discussion on whether there is an alteration in the inmunitary system which facilitates infections or, the development of an infection lead to the other one, goes on.La enfermedad de Whipple se caracteriza por afectar principalmente al aparato digestivo, aunque puede ser un proceso multisistémico con variadas manifestaciones clínicas. En el año 2000 se ha conseguido aislar y cultivar el bacilo causante y recientemente, en el 2003, se ha analizado la secuencia completa del genoma, lo que supone nuevas perspectivas para el diagnóstico y el tratamiento. La giardiasis es una infección originada por un protozoo que puede evolucionar de forma subclínica o dar lugar a un síndrome de malabsorción. Describimos el caso de un paciente varón de mediana edad, que tras un periodo de tres años de artralgias migratorias en articulaciones periféricas, presentó un cuadro de pérdida de peso, con aumento del número de deposiciones y molestias abdominales siendo diagnosticado de Giardiasis y ante la persistencia de los síntomas y la posterior realización de diferentes estudios, de enfermedad de Whipple. Están descritos en la literatura 19 casos de coinfección Giardia-Whipple, sin que en el momento actual esté aclarado el por qué de esta asociación. Se mantiene la discusión sobre si existe una alteración en el sistema inmunitario que facilite las infecciones o si, por otro lado, el desarrollo de una infección favorece el origen de la otra.

  19. Rapid imaging, detection and quantification of Giardia lamblia cysts using mobile-phone based fluorescent microscopy and machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koydemir, Hatice Ceylan; Gorocs, Zoltan; Tseng, Derek; Cortazar, Bingen; Feng, Steve; Chan, Raymond Yan Lok; Burbano, Jordi; McLeod, Euan; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2015-03-01

    Rapid and sensitive detection of waterborne pathogens in drinkable and recreational water sources is crucial for treating and preventing the spread of water related diseases, especially in resource-limited settings. Here we present a field-portable and cost-effective platform for detection and quantification of Giardia lamblia cysts, one of the most common waterborne parasites, which has a thick cell wall that makes it resistant to most water disinfection techniques including chlorination. The platform consists of a smartphone coupled with an opto-mechanical attachment weighing ~205 g, which utilizes a hand-held fluorescence microscope design aligned with the camera unit of the smartphone to image custom-designed disposable water sample cassettes. Each sample cassette is composed of absorbent pads and mechanical filter membranes; a membrane with 8 ?m pore size is used as a porous spacing layer to prevent the backflow of particles to the upper membrane, while the top membrane with 5 ?m pore size is used to capture the individual Giardia cysts that are fluorescently labeled. A fluorescence image of the filter surface (field-of-view: ~0.8 cm(2)) is captured and wirelessly transmitted via the mobile-phone to our servers for rapid processing using a machine learning algorithm that is trained on statistical features of Giardia cysts to automatically detect and count the cysts captured on the membrane. The results are then transmitted back to the mobile-phone in less than 2 minutes and are displayed through a smart application running on the phone. This mobile platform, along with our custom-developed sample preparation protocol, enables analysis of large volumes of water (e.g., 10-20 mL) for automated detection and enumeration of Giardia cysts in ~1 hour, including all the steps of sample preparation and analysis. We evaluated the performance of this approach using flow-cytometer-enumerated Giardia-contaminated water samples, demonstrating an average cyst capture efficiency of ~79% on our filter membrane along with a machine learning based cyst counting sensitivity of ~84%, yielding a limit-of-detection of ~12 cysts per 10 mL. Providing rapid detection and quantification of microorganisms, this field-portable imaging and sensing platform running on a mobile-phone could be useful for water quality monitoring in field and resource-limited settings. PMID:25537426

  20. First genotyping of Giardia lamblia from human and animal feces in Argentina, South America

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marta C, Minvielle; Nora B, Molina; Daniela, Polverino; Juan A, Basualdo.

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the genotypes of Giardia lamblia from human and animal feces and their epidemiological and clinical characteristics in Argentina, South America. Seventy isolates, 60 from humans (adults and children), eight from dogs and two from cows were processed by po [...] lymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Data corresponding to demographic, socio-cultural and environmental variables and presence/absence of signs/symptoms were collected. The triosephosphate isomerase gene was amplified from 43 (71.66%) of the 60 human fecal samples. Among these, 3/43 (6.98%) were genotype AII and 40/43 (93.02%) were genotype B. Assemblage AII was detected in three children who lived together in a shantytown and they were oligosymptomatic and none had diarrhea. This genotype was not found in animals. Genotype B showed a high prevalence in both adults and children. It was also found in polysymptomatic people, many of whom presented diarrhea. It was also found only in one dog. The present study represents the first contribution to the knowledge of G. lamblia genotypes in Argentina.

  1. Heterogeneity of quaternary structure of glucosamine-6-phosphate deaminase from Giardia lamblia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowska-Semrau, Karolina; Czarnecka, Justyna; Wojciechowski, Marek; Milewski, S?awomir

    2015-01-01

    The oligoHis-tagged versions of glucosamine-6-phosphate deaminase from Giardia lamblia (GlmNagB-HisN, GlmNagB-HisC) were constructed and purified to hear homogeneity, and their kinetic and structural properties were compared to those of the wild-type enzyme (GlmNagB). Introduction of the oligoHis tag at the GlmNagB C-terminus resulted in almost complete loss of the catalytic activity, while the catalytic properties of GlmNagB-HisN and GlmNagB were very similar. The recombinant and wild-type enzyme exhibits heterogeneity of the quaternary structure and in solution exists in three interconvertible forms, namely, monomeric, homodimeric, and homotetrameric. Although the monomeric form is prevalent, the monomer/dimer/tetramer ratios depended on protein concentration and fell within the range from 72:27:1 to 39:23:38. The enzyme is fully active in each of the oligomeric structures, efficiently catalyzes synthesis of D-glucosamine-6-phosphate from D-fructose-6-phosphate and ammonia, and its activity is not modified by GlcNAc6P, UDP-GlcNAc, or UDP-GalNAc. GlcN6P deaminase of G. lamblia represents a novel structural and functional type of enzyme of the NagB subfamily. PMID:25326378

  2. The effect of UV light on the inactivation of Giardia lamblia and Giardia muris cysts as determined by animal infectivity assay (P-2951-01).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mofidi, Alexander A; Meyer, Ernest A; Wallis, Peter M; Chou, Connie I; Meyer, Barbara P; Ramalingam, Shivaji; Coffey, Bradley M

    2002-04-01

    This study measured the effect of germicidal ultraviolet (UV) light on Giardia lamblia and Giardia muris cysts, as determined by their infectivity in Mongolian gerbils and CD-1 mice, respectively. Reduction of cyst infectivity due to UV exposure was quantified by applying most probable number techniques. Controlled bench-scale, collimated-beam tests exposed cysts suspended in filtered natural water to light from a low-pressure UV lamp. Both G. lamblia and G. muris cysts showed similar sensitivity to UV light. At 3 mJ/cm2, a dose 10-fold lower than what large-scale UV reactors may be designed to provide, > 2-log10 (99 percent) inactivation was observed. These results, combined with previously published data showing other protozoa and bacteria have similar, high sensitivity to UV light, establish that UV disinfection of drinking water is controlled by viruses which may require over 10-fold more UV dose for the same level of control. PMID:12092585

  3. Evidence for Lateral Transfer of Genes Encoding Ferredoxins, Nitroreductases, NADH Oxidase, and Alcohol Dehydrogenase 3 from Anaerobic Prokaryotes to Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica

    OpenAIRE

    Nixon, Julie E. J.; Wang, Amy; Field, Jessica; Morrison, Hilary G.; McArthur, Andrew G; Sogin, Mitchell L.; Loftus, Brendan J.; Samuelson, John

    2002-01-01

    Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica are amitochondriate, microaerophilic protists which use fermentation enzymes like those of bacteria to survive anaerobic conditions within the intestinal lumen. Genes encoding fermentation enzymes and related electron transport peptides (e.g., ferredoxins) in giardia organisms and amebae are hypothesized to be derived from either an ancient anaerobic eukaryote (amitochondriate fossil hypothesis), a mitochondrial endosymbiont (hydrogen hypothesis), or ...

  4. DNA Topoisomerase II Is Involved in Regulation of Cyst Wall Protein Genes and Differentiation in Giardia lamblia

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Bo-Chi; Su, Li-Hsin; Weng, Shih-Che; Pan, Yu-Jiao; Chan, Nei-Li; Li, Tsai-Kun; Wang, Hsin-Chih; Sun, Chin-Hung

    2013-01-01

    The protozoan Giardia lamblia differentiates into infectious cysts within the human intestinal tract for disease transmission. Expression of the cyst wall protein (cwp) genes increases with similar kinetics during encystation. However, little is known how their gene regulation shares common mechanisms. DNA topoisomerases maintain normal topology of genomic DNA. They are necessary for cell proliferation and tissue development as they are involved in transcription, DNA replication, and chromoso...

  5. Immunodominant proteins ?-1 giardin and ?-giardin are expressed in both assemblages A and B of Giardia lamblia

    OpenAIRE

    Feliziani, Constanza; Merino, Mari?a C.; Rivero, Mari?a R.; Hellman, Ulf; Pistoresi-palencia, Mari?a C.; Ro?polo, Andrea S.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To date, eight assemblages of Giardia lamblia have been described, but only assemblages A and B are known to infect humans. Despite the fact that the genomic, biological, and clinical differences found between these two assemblages has raised the possibility that they may be considered different species, there is relatively limited information on their phenotypic differences. In the present study, we developed monoclonal antibodies against alpha-1 and beta giardin, two immunodomin...

  6. INHIBICIÓN DEL CRECIMIENTO DE Giardia lamblia POR ACCIÓN DEL EXTRACTO ACUOSO Y METANÓLICO DE SEMILLAS DE Cucurbita pepo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Porfiria Barrón González

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Giardia lamblia es el protozoario parásito causante de la giardiasis, la cual se caracteriza por molestia abdominal, pérdida de peso y desnutrición. La droga de elección para su tratamiento es el metronidazol sin embargo, presenta diversos efectos secundarios adversos en el paciente. Por otra parte, en la herbolaria se conoce a la semilla de Cucurbita pepo por sus propiedades desparasitante, principalmente sobre Entamoeba histolytica y Taenia solium. Por lo anterior se planteó la hipótesis de que las semillas de C. pepo contienen principios activos capaces de inhibir el crecimiento de G. lamblia bajo condiciones axénicas in vitro. El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar la actividad biológica del extracto acuoso y metanólico de las semillas de C. pepo sobre el crecimiento de G. lamblia. Tanto el extracto metanólico como el acuoso se identificaron siete grupos funcionales y la actividad antioxidante no fue significativa

  7. Freqüencia da infecção por Giardia lamblia (Kunstler, 1882) em cães (Canis familiaris) avaliada pelo Método de Faust e cols. (1939) e pela Coloração da Auramina, no município de Canoas, RS, Brasil / Frequence of infection by Giardia lamblia (Kunstler, 1882) in dogs (Canis familiaris) available trough the Faust and Collaborators Method (1939) and Auramine Staining in Canoas, RS, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cristiane, Beck; Flávio Antônio Pacheco de, Araújo; Adriana Tarnowski, Olicheski; Adriana Schneider, Breyer.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Giardia lamblia é um protozoário que acomete mais comumente animais jovens e que convivem em grupos. Apesar da alta prevalência, nem todos os animais apresentam a forma clínica da doença. Mesmo assim, a giardíase tem importância epidemiológica por possuir um elevado potencial zoonótico. O presente e [...] studo teve como objetivo determinar a freqüência de Giardia lamblia em cães no município de Canoas, RS, Brasil, através do Método de Faust e cols. (1939) e da Técnica de Coloração da Auramina. Os grupos experimentais foram divididos de acordo com a procedência e o sexo. Das 332 amostras analisadas pelo Método de Faust e cols, a freqüência obtida foi de 34,04%, podendo variar de 28,95 a 39,13%, dentro de um intervalo de confiança de 95%. Destas amostras positivas, 40,96% foram de canil e 27,11% de cães de rua. O Teste Exato de Fisher aplicado a esses dados revelou existir uma diferença significativa (p=0,0107) entre as variáveis resultado e procedência. A variável sexo, neste método, não apresentou diferença significativa em relação ao resultado (P=0,8162) totalizando 33,11% de machos e 34,08% de fêmeas infectadas com o parasita. Das 147 amostras realizadas pela Técnica de Coloração da Auramina, 23 foram positivas, totalizando 15,65%. A análise estatística pelo Teste McNemar revelou existir diferença significativa entre as duas técnicas (P=0,0004). O valor Kappa foi igual a 0,07, considerado como um grau de concordância fraco. Os resultados encontrados neste estudo nos permitem afirmar que o Método de Faust e cols. foi o mais adequado para o diagnóstico da infecção por Giardia lamblia, sendo este parasita altamente prevalente na região estudada. Abstract in english Giardia lamblia is a protozoan that commonly infects young animals which live in groups. Despite its high prevalence many animals don’t exhibit clinical signs. Giardiasis is epidemiologically important concerning the zoonotic potential of the disease. The objective of this study was to determine the [...] frequence of Giardia lamblia in the canine population of Canoas, RS, Brazil, applying the Faust and Collaborators Method (1939) and the Auramine Staining Technique. The dogs were classified according to the origin and gender. Feces samples of 332 dogs were analyzed by the Faust and Collaborators Method. The frequency of the infection obtained was 34.04%, ranging from 28.95% to 39.13% (confident interval at a 95% level). For kennel bred animals 40,96% of the samples were positive and for stray dogs 27.11%. Applying Fisher’s Exact Test to these figures there was a significant difference (P=0.0107) when comparing the origin of the animals and the results of the tests. However when comparing genders there was no significant difference (P=0.8162), the former with 33.11% of positive males and 34.08% positive females. When submitted to the Auramine Staining Technique(147 samples), 15.67% (23) of the samples resulted positive. The statistical analysis using the McNemar Test exposed a significant difference between both techniques (P=0.0004). The Kappa value of 0.07 obtained was considered of low rate. The results allow one to affirm that the Faust and Collaborators Method was the most suitable diagnostic test for Giardia lamblia infection, considering the high prevalence of this parasite in the studied region.

  8. Freqüencia da infecção por Giardia lamblia (Kunstler, 1882 em cães (Canis familiaris avaliada pelo Método de Faust e cols. (1939 e pela Coloração da Auramina, no município de Canoas, RS, Brasil Frequence of infection by Giardia lamblia (Kunstler, 1882 in dogs (Canis familiaris available trough the Faust and Collaborators Method (1939 and Auramine Staining in Canoas, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Beck

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Giardia lamblia é um protozoário que acomete mais comumente animais jovens e que convivem em grupos. Apesar da alta prevalência, nem todos os animais apresentam a forma clínica da doença. Mesmo assim, a giardíase tem importância epidemiológica por possuir um elevado potencial zoonótico. O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar a freqüência de Giardia lamblia em cães no município de Canoas, RS, Brasil, através do Método de Faust e cols. (1939 e da Técnica de Coloração da Auramina. Os grupos experimentais foram divididos de acordo com a procedência e o sexo. Das 332 amostras analisadas pelo Método de Faust e cols, a freqüência obtida foi de 34,04%, podendo variar de 28,95 a 39,13%, dentro de um intervalo de confiança de 95%. Destas amostras positivas, 40,96% foram de canil e 27,11% de cães de rua. O Teste Exato de Fisher aplicado a esses dados revelou existir uma diferença significativa (p=0,0107 entre as variáveis resultado e procedência. A variável sexo, neste método, não apresentou diferença significativa em relação ao resultado (P=0,8162 totalizando 33,11% de machos e 34,08% de fêmeas infectadas com o parasita. Das 147 amostras realizadas pela Técnica de Coloração da Auramina, 23 foram positivas, totalizando 15,65%. A análise estatística pelo Teste McNemar revelou existir diferença significativa entre as duas técnicas (P=0,0004. O valor Kappa foi igual a 0,07, considerado como um grau de concordância fraco. Os resultados encontrados neste estudo nos permitem afirmar que o Método de Faust e cols. foi o mais adequado para o diagnóstico da infecção por Giardia lamblia, sendo este parasita altamente prevalente na região estudada.Giardia lamblia is a protozoan that commonly infects young animals which live in groups. Despite its high prevalence many animals don’t exhibit clinical signs. Giardiasis is epidemiologically important concerning the zoonotic potential of the disease. The objective of this study was to determine the frequence of Giardia lamblia in the canine population of Canoas, RS, Brazil, applying the Faust and Collaborators Method (1939 and the Auramine Staining Technique. The dogs were classified according to the origin and gender. Feces samples of 332 dogs were analyzed by the Faust and Collaborators Method. The frequency of the infection obtained was 34.04%, ranging from 28.95% to 39.13% (confident interval at a 95% level. For kennel bred animals 40,96% of the samples were positive and for stray dogs 27.11%. Applying Fisher’s Exact Test to these figures there was a significant difference (P=0.0107 when comparing the origin of the animals and the results of the tests. However when comparing genders there was no significant difference (P=0.8162, the former with 33.11% of positive males and 34.08% positive females. When submitted to the Auramine Staining Technique(147 samples, 15.67% (23 of the samples resulted positive. The statistical analysis using the McNemar Test exposed a significant difference between both techniques (P=0.0004. The Kappa value of 0.07 obtained was considered of low rate. The results allow one to affirm that the Faust and Collaborators Method was the most suitable diagnostic test for Giardia lamblia infection, considering the high prevalence of this parasite in the studied region.

  9. Freqüencia da infecção por Giardia lamblia (Kunstler, 1882) em cães (Canis familiaris) avaliada pelo Método de Faust e cols. (1939) e pela Coloração da Auramina, no município de Canoas, RS, Brasil Frequence of infection by Giardia lamblia (Kunstler, 1882) in dogs (Canis familiaris) available trough the Faust and Collaborators Method (1939) and Auramine Staining in Canoas, RS, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Cristiane Beck; Flávio Antônio Pacheco de Araújo; Adriana Tarnowski Olicheski; Adriana Schneider Breyer

    2005-01-01

    Giardia lamblia é um protozoário que acomete mais comumente animais jovens e que convivem em grupos. Apesar da alta prevalência, nem todos os animais apresentam a forma clínica da doença. Mesmo assim, a giardíase tem importância epidemiológica por possuir um elevado potencial zoonótico. O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar a freqüência de Giardia lamblia em cães no município de Canoas, RS, Brasil, através do Método de Faust e cols. (1939) e da Técnica de Coloração...

  10. Adaptor Protein Complex 1 Mediates the Transport of Lysosomal Proteins from a Golgi-like Organelle to Peripheral Vacuoles in the Primitive Eukaryote Giardia lamblia

    OpenAIRE

    Touz, María C.; Kulakova, Liudmila; Nash, Theodore E

    2004-01-01

    Giardia lamblia is an early branching protist that possesses peripheral vacuoles (PVs) with characteristics of lysosome-like organelles, located underneath the plasma membrane. In more evolved cells, lysosomal protein trafficking is achieved by cargo recognition involving adaptor protein (AP) complexes that recognize specific amino acid sequences (tyrosine and/or dileucine motifs) within the cytoplasmic tail of membrane proteins. Previously, we reported that Giardia has a tyrosine-based sorti...

  11. MALDI-MIS INVESTIGATIONS OF DRINKING WATER PATHOGENS--GIARDIA AND CRYPTOSPORIDIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The protozoan parasites, Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia, have been responsible for numerous waterborne outbreaks of gastrointestinal illness in the United States. The 1993 cryptosporidiosis outbreak in Milwaukee affected approximately 400,000 people and resulted in o...

  12. Prevalence and associated risk factors for Giardia lamblia infection among children hospitalized for diarrhea in Goiânia, Goiás State, Brazil / Prevalência e fatores de risco associados à infecção por Giardia lamblia em crianças hospitalizadas com diarréia em Goiânia, Goiás, Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria das Graças Cabral, Pereira; Edward Robert, Atwill; Alverne Passos, Barbosa.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse estudo foi estimar a prevalência e identificar fatores de risco associados à infecção por Giardia lamblia em crianças hospitalizadas com diarréia no município de Goiânia, Estado de Goiás, Brasil. Foi realizado um estudo transversal e um questionário estruturado foi administrado ao r [...] esponsável pela criança. Análise multivariada foi realizada por meio de regressão logística para se determinar a associação entre infecção por G. lamblia e as variáveis sociodemográficas, ambientais e zoonóticas relacionadas ao hospedeiro. Das 445 amostras de fezes coletadas e processadas pelo método de imunofluorescência direta (DFA), 44 (9,9%) apresentaram cisto de G. lamblia. Uma variedade de fatores de risco foi encontrada associada à giardíase: idade da criança (OR, 1,18; 90% CI, 1,0 - 1,36; p = 0,052), número de crianças na família (OR, 1,45; 90% CI, 1,13 - 1,86; p = 0,015), número de gatos pertecentes à família (OR, 1,26; 90% CI, 1,03 - 1,53; p = 0,059), higiene alimentar (OR, 2,9; 90% CI, 1,34 - 6,43; p = 0,024), usuários de creches (OR, 2,3; 90% CI, 1,20 - 4,36; p = 0,034), ter residido em área rural seis meses precedendo à hospitalização (OR, 5,4; 90% CI, 1,5 - 20,1; p = 0,03) e número de adultos na família (OR, 0,59; 90% CI, 0,42 - 0,83; p = 0,012). Tais fatores, devidamente controlados podem contribuir para redução anual da incidência desta parasitose na população estudada. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and to identify risk factors associated with Giardia lamblia infection in diarrheic children hospitalized for diarrhea in Goiânia, State of Goiás, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted and a comprehensive questionnaire was administe [...] red to the child's primary custodian. Fixed effects logistic regression was used to determine the association between infection status for G. lamblia and host, sociodemographic, environmental and zoonotic risk factors. A total of 445 fecal samples were collected and processed by the DFA methodology, and G. lamblia cysts were present in the feces of 44 diarrheic children (9.9%). A variety of factors were found to be associated with giardiasis in these population: age of children (OR, 1.18; 90% CI, 1.0 - 1.36; p = 0.052), number of children in the household (OR 1.45; 90% CI, 1.13 - 1.86; p = 0.015), number of cats in the household (OR, 1.26; 90% CI, 1.03 -1.53; p = 0.059), food hygiene (OR, 2.9; 90% CI, 1.34 - 6.43; p = 0.024), day-care centers attendance (OR, 2.3; 90% CI, 1.20 - 4.36; p = 0.034), living on a rural farm within the past six months prior hospitalization (OR, 5.4; CI 90%, 1.5 - 20.1; p = 0.03) and the number of household adults (OR, 0.59; 90% CI, 0.42 - 0.83; p = 0.012). Such factors appropriately managed may help to reduce the annual incidence of this protozoal infection in the studied population.

  13. Prevalence and associated risk factors for Giardia lamblia infection among children hospitalized for diarrhea in Goiânia, Goiás State, Brazil Prevalência e fatores de risco associados à infecção por Giardia lamblia em crianças hospitalizadas com diarréia em Goiânia, Goiás, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria das Graças Cabral Pereira

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and to identify risk factors associated with Giardia lamblia infection in diarrheic children hospitalized for diarrhea in Goiânia, State of Goiás, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted and a comprehensive questionnaire was administered to the child's primary custodian. Fixed effects logistic regression was used to determine the association between infection status for G. lamblia and host, sociodemographic, environmental and zoonotic risk factors. A total of 445 fecal samples were collected and processed by the DFA methodology, and G. lamblia cysts were present in the feces of 44 diarrheic children (9.9%. A variety of factors were found to be associated with giardiasis in these population: age of children (OR, 1.18; 90% CI, 1.0 - 1.36; p = 0.052, number of children in the household (OR 1.45; 90% CI, 1.13 - 1.86; p = 0.015, number of cats in the household (OR, 1.26; 90% CI, 1.03 -1.53; p = 0.059, food hygiene (OR, 2.9; 90% CI, 1.34 - 6.43; p = 0.024, day-care centers attendance (OR, 2.3; 90% CI, 1.20 - 4.36; p = 0.034, living on a rural farm within the past six months prior hospitalization (OR, 5.4; CI 90%, 1.5 - 20.1; p = 0.03 and the number of household adults (OR, 0.59; 90% CI, 0.42 - 0.83; p = 0.012. Such factors appropriately managed may help to reduce the annual incidence of this protozoal infection in the studied population.O objetivo desse estudo foi estimar a prevalência e identificar fatores de risco associados à infecção por Giardia lamblia em crianças hospitalizadas com diarréia no município de Goiânia, Estado de Goiás, Brasil. Foi realizado um estudo transversal e um questionário estruturado foi administrado ao responsável pela criança. Análise multivariada foi realizada por meio de regressão logística para se determinar a associação entre infecção por G. lamblia e as variáveis sociodemográficas, ambientais e zoonóticas relacionadas ao hospedeiro. Das 445 amostras de fezes coletadas e processadas pelo método de imunofluorescência direta (DFA, 44 (9,9% apresentaram cisto de G. lamblia. Uma variedade de fatores de risco foi encontrada associada à giardíase: idade da criança (OR, 1,18; 90% CI, 1,0 - 1,36; p = 0,052, número de crianças na família (OR, 1,45; 90% CI, 1,13 - 1,86; p = 0,015, número de gatos pertecentes à família (OR, 1,26; 90% CI, 1,03 - 1,53; p = 0,059, higiene alimentar (OR, 2,9; 90% CI, 1,34 - 6,43; p = 0,024, usuários de creches (OR, 2,3; 90% CI, 1,20 - 4,36; p = 0,034, ter residido em área rural seis meses precedendo à hospitalização (OR, 5,4; 90% CI, 1,5 - 20,1; p = 0,03 e número de adultos na família (OR, 0,59; 90% CI, 0,42 - 0,83; p = 0,012. Tais fatores, devidamente controlados podem contribuir para redução anual da incidência desta parasitose na população estudada.

  14. The Comparison of the Efficacy of Various Fixatives on Diverse Staining Methods of Giardia lamblia Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Badparva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The definite and exact diagnosis of protozoa is possible using high magnification objective lenses, provided that suitable stained smears are prepared. Therefore, the appropriateness of both fixative and staining methods to the species of parasite, which is the main objective of this study, is important. In this study, five various fixatives including (Merthiolate iodine formalin MIF, (Sodium acetate-acetic acid formalin SAF, (Polyvinyl alcohol PVA, formalin and schaudinn and four types of stains including Hematoxylin I, Hematoxylin II, Trichrome and Carbol-fuchsin were prepared using standard procedures. After the smears of stool samples containing Giadria lamblia cyst were prepared and kept for 24 h in various fixatives, the study was carried out using the four above-mentioned stains by changing the ingredients and time as well as by repeating the experiments. After fixing and staining all the smears in identical conditions along with the implementing interferences in the staining process, the following results were eventually obtained considering the morphologic indexes and negative and positive scores (from 1 to 20: formalin with 17 scores in hematoxylin I staining, formalin and SAF with 15 and 14 scores, respectively in Hematoxylin II staining, MIF with 13 scores in Trichrome staining and SAF, PVA, MIF with 11.5, 11.5 and 11 scores, respectively in carbol-fuchsin staining were found to be the best fixatives. Hematoxylin I staining using formalin fixative with 17 scores showed the best result while the maximum score for Carbol-fuchsin staining was 11.5 showing a necessity for more expenditure, time and expert cooperation to reach ideal results.

  15. Occurence of Giardia lamblia in children of municipal day-care centers from Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil Ocorrência de Giardia lamblia em crianças atendidas em creches municipais de Botucatu, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semíramis Guimarães

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering that the number of day-care centers for pre-school-age children has expanded rapidly in developing countries, and that these institutions presenting conditions that facilitate the transmission of many enteric agents, a parasitological survey was carried out in three municipal day-cares from Botucatu: two in the urban area (one in downtown area and the other one in the city periphery area and the third in the rural area. Three separate stool specimens were collected from 147 children ranging from 0 to 72 months old and 20 staff members. Each stool specimen was processed by Lutz and zinc sulfate flotation methods. The frequency of giardiasis observed among children of downtown, periphery and rural day-cares was 69.6%, 52.7% and 69.6%, respectively. Only one employee was positive for G. lamblia. The examination of three stool specimens increased the positivity for G. lamblia: from the ninety three final positive examinations, 24 (25.5% and 8 (8.5% were positives only after examination of the second and third samples, respectively. Others intestinal organisms like Ascaris lumbricoides (20.4%, Trichuris trichiura (19.0%. Hymenolepis nana (8.8%, Entamoeba coli (22.4% and Blastocystis hominis (32.0% were frequently found in the children. There was no significant association among localization of the day-cares, sex of the children and the levels of G. lamblia infection. According to the age, G. lamblia was found mainly in children between 12 to 47 months old.Foi realizado um levantamento parasitológico em três creches da rede municipal: duas na área urbana, uma no centro da cidade e a outra na periferia, e a terceira na zona rural. Três amostras de fezes, coletadas com intervalo de 7 dias, foram obtidas de 147 crianças com idade variando de 0 a 6 anos e de 20 funcionários. Cada amostra foi processada pelos métodos de sedimentação espontânea e centrífugo - flutuação com sulfato de zinco. Os resultados demonstraram que das 147 crianças examinadas, 93 (63,3% apresentaram cistos de G. lamblia nas fezes. Apenas 1 funcionário foi positivo para G. lamblia. O uso de 3 amostras de fezes aumentou a positividade do exame para o diagnóstico deste parasita, uma vez que dos 93 casos positivos, 24 (25,5% e 8 (8,5% foram diagnosticados somente após exame da segunda e terceira amostras, respectivamente. Outros parasitas e comensais intestinais como Ascaris lumbricoides (20,4%, Trichuris trichiura (19,0%, Hymenolepis nana (8,8%, Entamoeba coli (22,4% e Blastocystis hominis (32,0% foram diagnosticados. A análise estatística revelou não haver associação entre localização das creches, sexo e a frequência de infecção por G. lamblia. As porcentagens mais altas de infecção por Giardia foram observadas entre as crianças com idade variando de 1 a 4 anos.

  16. Occurence of Giardia lamblia in children of municipal day-care centers from Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil / Ocorrência de Giardia lamblia em crianças atendidas em creches municipais de Botucatu, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Semíramis, Guimarães; Maria Inês L., Sogayar.

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um levantamento parasitológico em três creches da rede municipal: duas na área urbana, uma no centro da cidade e a outra na periferia, e a terceira na zona rural. Três amostras de fezes, coletadas com intervalo de 7 dias, foram obtidas de 147 crianças com idade variando de 0 a 6 anos e [...] de 20 funcionários. Cada amostra foi processada pelos métodos de sedimentação espontânea e centrífugo - flutuação com sulfato de zinco. Os resultados demonstraram que das 147 crianças examinadas, 93 (63,3%) apresentaram cistos de G. lamblia nas fezes. Apenas 1 funcionário foi positivo para G. lamblia. O uso de 3 amostras de fezes aumentou a positividade do exame para o diagnóstico deste parasita, uma vez que dos 93 casos positivos, 24 (25,5%) e 8 (8,5%) foram diagnosticados somente após exame da segunda e terceira amostras, respectivamente. Outros parasitas e comensais intestinais como Ascaris lumbricoides (20,4%), Trichuris trichiura (19,0%), Hymenolepis nana (8,8%), Entamoeba coli (22,4%) e Blastocystis hominis (32,0%) foram diagnosticados. A análise estatística revelou não haver associação entre localização das creches, sexo e a frequência de infecção por G. lamblia. As porcentagens mais altas de infecção por Giardia foram observadas entre as crianças com idade variando de 1 a 4 anos. Abstract in english Considering that the number of day-care centers for pre-school-age children has expanded rapidly in developing countries, and that these institutions presenting conditions that facilitate the transmission of many enteric agents, a parasitological survey was carried out in three municipal day-cares f [...] rom Botucatu: two in the urban area (one in downtown area and the other one in the city periphery area) and the third in the rural area. Three separate stool specimens were collected from 147 children ranging from 0 to 72 months old and 20 staff members. Each stool specimen was processed by Lutz and zinc sulfate flotation methods. The frequency of giardiasis observed among children of downtown, periphery and rural day-cares was 69.6%, 52.7% and 69.6%, respectively. Only one employee was positive for G. lamblia. The examination of three stool specimens increased the positivity for G. lamblia: from the ninety three final positive examinations, 24 (25.5%) and 8 (8.5%) were positives only after examination of the second and third samples, respectively. Others intestinal organisms like Ascaris lumbricoides (20.4%), Trichuris trichiura (19.0%). Hymenolepis nana (8.8%), Entamoeba coli (22.4%) and Blastocystis hominis (32.0%) were frequently found in the children. There was no significant association among localization of the day-cares, sex of the children and the levels of G. lamblia infection. According to the age, G. lamblia was found mainly in children between 12 to 47 months old.

  17. Antibody-magnetite method for selective concentration of Giardia lamblia cysts from water samples.

    OpenAIRE

    Bifulco, J. M.; Schaefer, F. W.

    1993-01-01

    An antibody-magnetite method was developed in order to selectively concentrate Giardia cysts from water samples. The indirect technique employed a mouse immunoglobulin G anti-Giardia antibody as a primary antibody and an anti-mouse immunoglobulin G antibody-coated magnetite particle as a secondary labeling reagent. The magnetically labeled cysts were then concentrated by high-gradient magnetic separation. Ninety percent of the seeded cysts were recovered from buffer when this method was emplo...

  18. In vitro susceptibility of Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia to plants used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzada, Fernando; Yépez-Mulia, Lilian; Aguilar, Abigaíl

    2006-12-01

    In our search for new antiprotozoal chemotherapy, we collected a selection of 26 plants used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. Methanolic extracts of these species were screened for their antiprotozoal activity against Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia trophozoites using in vitro tests. Among the tested extracts, the derivates of following species showed selectivity and significant antiprotozoal activity: Chiranthodendron pentadactylon, Annona cherimola and Punica granatum were the most active on Entamoeba histolytica with IC50 < 30 microg/ml. Dorstenia contrajerva, Senna villosa and Ruta chalepensis were the most active toward Giardia lamblia with IC50 < 38 microg/ml. The potency of Chiranthodendron pentadactylon (IC50 2.5 microg/ml) on Entamoeba histolytica was close that of to emetine, but far less than metronidazole, drugs used as control. The results of the antiprotozoal screening support the popular uses of the studied species for the treatment of diarrhoea and dysentery in Mexican traditional medicine. PMID:16846708

  19. Comparison between immunomagnetic separation, coupled with immunofluorescence, and the techniques of Faust et al. and of Lutz for the diagnosis of Giardia lamblia cysts in human feces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza Doris Sobral Marques

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the performance of Immunomagnetic Separation technique, coupled with Immunofluorescence (IMS-IFA, was compared with the FAUST et al. and Lutz parasitological techniques for the detection of Giardia lamblia cysts in human feces. One hundred and twenty-seven samples were evaluated by the three techniques at the same time showing a rate of cyst detection of 27.5% by IMS-IFA and 15.7% by both Faust et al. and Lutz techniques. Data analysis showed a higher sensitivity of IMS-IFA for the detection of G. lamblia cysts in comparison with the techniques of FAUST et al. and Lutz. The use of this methodology as a routine procedure enables the processing of many samples simultaneously, in order to increase recovery rate of G. lamblia cysts and reduce the time of sample storage.

  20. Factores de riesgo de la infección por Giardia lamblia en niños de guarderías infantiles de Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba Risk factors for Giardia lamblia in children in daycare centers in Havana, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidel Ángel Núñez

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available En un estudio longitudinal sobre giardiasis desarrollado durante 18 meses en tres guarderías infantiles de Ciudad de La Habana, describimos un grupo de niños con tendencia o "predisposición" a la infección por Giardia lamblia; a los que se les encontró con síntomas clínicos más asociados a las diarreas. Este estudio de casos y controles se desarrolló para conocer si algunos factores socioeconómicos y hábitos higiénicos estaban asociados con este fenómeno. No se encontraron diferencias entre ambos grupos en las tasas de hacinamiento, el índice de personas por cama, en la carencia de determinados equipos eléctricos, en el nivel escolar de las madres, y en el promedio del ingreso familiar; sin embargo, predominó una frecuencia mayor de padres con nivel escolar menor de 12 grado en los casos que en los controles. No se encontraron diferencias entre ambos grupos en cuanto a la ausencia de lavado de manos antes de comer y después de defecar, pero se encontró un mayor porcentaje de lavado incorrecto de vegetales, y una menor frecuencia del hábito de hervir el agua de consumo en las familias de los casos. Estos resultados demuestran el papel del agua como vehículo de transmisión en la giardiasis y la importancia de algunos factores epidemiológicos.We conducted a longitudinal study on giardiasis in three daycare centers in Havana City for a period of 18 months and described a group of children with a "predisposition" or tendency towards re-infection with Giardia lamblia. This group was found to be more frequently associated with clinical symptoms such as diarrhea. A case-control study was designed to determine whether socioeconomic factors and hygiene were associated with this phenomenon. We found no differences between the groups with regard to overcrowding rates, number of persons per bed, absence of certain electric appliances, mother's schooling, or mean family income. However, there were proportionally more fathers with less than complete secondary education among cases as compared to controls. In addition, we found no differences in lack of hand-washing before eating and after defecation; however, we found a higher percentage of families who washed vegetables insufficiently among predisposed children. Finally, a lower percentage of families with predisposed children boiled their water. Our results demonstrate the important role of water as a vehicle for transmission of giardiasis and the importance of various epidemiologic factors.

  1. Atrofia Villositaria Duodenal, un Hallazgo Inesperadamente Frecuente en Infestación por Giardia Lamblia / Duodenal villous atrophy, an unexpectedly common finding in giardia lamblia infestation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fernando, Arévalo; Violeta, Aragón; Domingo, Morales L.; Domingo, Morales Caramutti; Jannitza, Arandia; Gabriel, Alcocer.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudiar la presencia y frecuencia de los cambios histopatológicos tales como atrofia villositaria, linfocitosis intraepitelial, hiperplasia linfoide nodular y presencia de eosinófilos en biopsis duodenales informadas como Giardiasis. METODOLOGÍA: Se recolectó todos los casos diagnosticado [...] s como giardiasis duodenal durante el período 2005 a 2009 en 5 diferentes servicios de anatomía patológica y fueron revisados por un grupo de patólogos. RESULTADOS: Se incluyeron 30 casos. Se observó atrofia de las vellosidades en el 61,2%, incremento de linfocitos intraepiteliales en 63,3%, presencia de folículos linfoides en el 43,3% el promedio de eosinófilos en lámina propia por campo de alto poder fue aprox. 7. DISCUSIÓN: Nuestro porcentaje de atrofia villositaria es mucho mayor que lo reportado por otros autores, los casos con atrofia presentaron mayor frecuencia de linfocitosis 83,3% que los casos sin atrofia. (30%). Este hallazgo coincide con la relación directa entre linfocitos intraepiteliales /atrofia de vellosidades descrita por varios autores. Ninguno de los casos con hiperplasia linfoide, presentó ausencia de células plasmáticas que nos hiciera sospechar histológicamente de algún tipo de inmunodepresión humoral. El número de eosinófilos encontrado fue levemente elevado. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To study the histological changes observed in Giardia positive biopsies obtained from the duodenum.: The number of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL), grade of villous atrophy, presence of lymph follicles and number of eosinophils in the lamina propria per HPF were assessed. METHODS: All g [...] iardia positive biopsies diagnosed during period 2005-2009 in 5 pathology units were reevaluated by a group of pathologists. RESULTS: Thirty cases were included. Atrophic villous architecture was seen in 61,2%, increase in number of intraepithelial lymphocytes in 63,3% The occurrence of lymphoid follicles in 43,3%. DISCUSSION: Villous atrophy was higher than reported by others authors, cases with atrophy showed greater frequency of increase in the number of intraepithelial lymphocytes than cases without atrophy. No cases with lymph follicle showed lack of plasmatic cells, the number of eosinophils was subtly increased.

  2. Factores de riesgo de la infección por Giardia lamblia en niños de guarderías infantiles de Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núñez Fidel Ángel

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En un estudio longitudinal sobre giardiasis desarrollado durante 18 meses en tres guarderías infantiles de Ciudad de La Habana, describimos un grupo de niños con tendencia o "predisposición" a la infección por Giardia lamblia; a los que se les encontró con síntomas clínicos más asociados a las diarreas. Este estudio de casos y controles se desarrolló para conocer si algunos factores socioeconómicos y hábitos higiénicos estaban asociados con este fenómeno. No se encontraron diferencias entre ambos grupos en las tasas de hacinamiento, el índice de personas por cama, en la carencia de determinados equipos eléctricos, en el nivel escolar de las madres, y en el promedio del ingreso familiar; sin embargo, predominó una frecuencia mayor de padres con nivel escolar menor de 12 grado en los casos que en los controles. No se encontraron diferencias entre ambos grupos en cuanto a la ausencia de lavado de manos antes de comer y después de defecar, pero se encontró un mayor porcentaje de lavado incorrecto de vegetales, y una menor frecuencia del hábito de hervir el agua de consumo en las familias de los casos. Estos resultados demuestran el papel del agua como vehículo de transmisión en la giardiasis y la importancia de algunos factores epidemiológicos.

  3. CYTOCHEMICAL METHODS FOR ASSESSING 'GIARDIA' CYST VIABILITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardia lamblia is the most common human intestinal protozoan parasite reported in the United States and England. The objective of the study was to develop a practical, reliable, rapid, microscopically-read method, comparable to excystation for determining the viability of Giardi...

  4. Giardia y giardiasis Giardia and giardiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo D. Luján

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Giardia lamblia es un protozoario parásito que habita el intestino delgado de los seres humanos y de muchos otros vertebrados y es una de las más comunes causas de diarrea en todo el mundo. Durante su ciclo de vida Giardia sufre significativos cambios bioquímicos y morfológicos que le permiten sobrevivir en ambientes y condiciones que de otro modo lo destruirían. Para sobrevivir fuera del intestino del hospedador, los trofozoítos de Giardia se diferencian a quistes, los que se caracterizan por poseer una rígida pared glicoproteica externa que les permiten sobrevivir inclusive frente a la acción de los desinfectantes más comunes. Otro de los mecanismos de adaptación de este parásito es la variación de los antígenos de superficie que le permite a los trofozoítos evadir la respuesta inmune del huésped y generar infecciones tanto agudas como crónicas o recurrentes en individuos infectados. Durante los últimos años se han producido importantes avances en el conocimiento de las bases moleculares de los procesos de enquistamiento y variación antigénica en Giardia que pronostican el pronto hallazgo de nuevos agentes quimioterapéuticos y/o inmunoprofilácticos contra este importante parásito intestinal.Giardia lamblia is a protozoan parasite that inhabits the upper small intestine of humans and several other vertebrates and one of the most frequent cause of intestinal disease worldwide. During its life cycle, G. lamblia undergoes significant biochemical and morphological changes that allow the parasite to survive under hostile environmental conditions. To survive outside the host’s intestine, Giardia differentiates into resistant cysts, which are characterized by a rigid extracellular cyst wall that protect the parasite even to the action of the most common chemical disinfectants. Another adaptive mechanism of Giardia is the switching of its surface antigens, a mechanism that allows the trophozoites to evade the host’s immune responses and produce acute, chronic and/or recurrent infections. During the last years, important advances in the knowledge of the molecular basis underlying the mechanisms of encystation and antigenic variation in Giardia suggest that novel chemotherapeutic and/or immunoprophylactic reagents against this important human pathogen could soon be available.

  5. Comparison between immunomagnetic separation, coupled with immunofluorescence, and the techniques of Faust et al. and of Lutz for the diagnosis of Giardia lamblia cysts in human feces / Comparação entre a imuno-separação magnética, acoplada à imunofluorescência, e as técnicas de Faust et al. e de Lutz para o diagnóstico de cistos de Giardia lamblia em fezes humanas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Doris Sobral Marques, Souza; Juliana Teixeira, Barreiros; Karina Maria, Papp; Mário, Steindel; Cláudia Maria Oliveira, Simões; Célia Regina Monte, Barardi.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho, o desempenho da técnica de Imunoseparação Magnética, acoplada à Imunofluorescência (IMS-IFA), foi comparado com aqueles das técnicas parasitológicas de FAUST et al. e de Lutz na detecção de cistos de Giardia lamblia em fezes humanas. Foram processadas 127 amostras de fezes pela [...] s três técnicas paralelamente e a detecção de cistos foi de 27,5% para IMS-IFA e de 15,7% para as técnicas de FAUST et al. e de Lutz concomitantemente. A análise dos resultados mostrou maior sensibilidade da IMS-IFA na detecção de cistos de G. lamblia quando comparada aos métodos de FAUST et al. e Lutz. A utilização desta metodologia como procedimento de rotina proporciona o processamento de várias amostras simultaneamente, além de aumentar a recuperação de cistos de G. lamblia e reduzir o tempo de estocagem das amostras. Abstract in english In the present study, the performance of Immunomagnetic Separation technique, coupled with Immunofluorescence (IMS-IFA), was compared with the FAUST et al. and Lutz parasitological techniques for the detection of Giardia lamblia cysts in human feces. One hundred and twenty-seven samples were evaluat [...] ed by the three techniques at the same time showing a rate of cyst detection of 27.5% by IMS-IFA and 15.7% by both Faust et al. and Lutz techniques. Data analysis showed a higher sensitivity of IMS-IFA for the detection of G. lamblia cysts in comparison with the techniques of FAUST et al. and Lutz. The use of this methodology as a routine procedure enables the processing of many samples simultaneously, in order to increase recovery rate of G. lamblia cysts and reduce the time of sample storage.

  6. Giardia y giardiasis / Giardia and giardiasis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hugo D., Luján.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Giardia lamblia es un protozoario parásito que habita el intestino delgado de los seres humanos y de muchos otros vertebrados y es una de las más comunes causas de diarrea en todo el mundo. Durante su ciclo de vida Giardia sufre significativos cambios bioquímicos y morfológicos que le permiten sobre [...] vivir en ambientes y condiciones que de otro modo lo destruirían. Para sobrevivir fuera del intestino del hospedador, los trofozoítos de Giardia se diferencian a quistes, los que se caracterizan por poseer una rígida pared glicoproteica externa que les permiten sobrevivir inclusive frente a la acción de los desinfectantes más comunes. Otro de los mecanismos de adaptación de este parásito es la variación de los antígenos de superficie que le permite a los trofozoítos evadir la respuesta inmune del huésped y generar infecciones tanto agudas como crónicas o recurrentes en individuos infectados. Durante los últimos años se han producido importantes avances en el conocimiento de las bases moleculares de los procesos de enquistamiento y variación antigénica en Giardia que pronostican el pronto hallazgo de nuevos agentes quimioterapéuticos y/o inmunoprofilácticos contra este importante parásito intestinal. Abstract in english Giardia lamblia is a protozoan parasite that inhabits the upper small intestine of humans and several other vertebrates and one of the most frequent cause of intestinal disease worldwide. During its life cycle, G. lamblia undergoes significant biochemical and morphological changes that allow the par [...] asite to survive under hostile environmental conditions. To survive outside the host’s intestine, Giardia differentiates into resistant cysts, which are characterized by a rigid extracellular cyst wall that protect the parasite even to the action of the most common chemical disinfectants. Another adaptive mechanism of Giardia is the switching of its surface antigens, a mechanism that allows the trophozoites to evade the host’s immune responses and produce acute, chronic and/or recurrent infections. During the last years, important advances in the knowledge of the molecular basis underlying the mechanisms of encystation and antigenic variation in Giardia suggest that novel chemotherapeutic and/or immunoprophylactic reagents against this important human pathogen could soon be available.

  7. An ER-directed transcriptional response to unfolded protein stress in the absence of conserved sensor-transducer proteins in Giardia lamblia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spycher, Cornelia; Herman, Emily K; Morf, Laura; Qi, Weihong; Rehrauer, Hubert; Aquino Fournier, Catharine; Dacks, Joel B; Hehl, Adrian B

    2013-05-01

    The protozoan Giardia lamblia has a minimized organelle repertoire, and most strikingly lacks a classical stacked Golgi apparatus. Nevertheless, Giardia trophozoites constitutively secrete variant surface proteins, and dramatically increase the volume of protein secretion during differentiation to cysts. Eukaryotic cells have evolved an elaborate system for quality control (QC) of protein folding and capacity in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Upon ER-overload, an unfolded protein response (UPR) is triggered on transcriptional/translational level aiming at alleviating ER stress. In Giardia, a minimized secretory machinery and absence of glycan-dependent QC suggests that a genetically conserved UPR (or functional equivalent) to cope with insults to the secretory system has been eliminated. We tested this hypothesis of UPR elimination by profiling the transcriptional response during induced ER-folding stress. We show that on the contrary, ER-folding stress triggers a stressor-specific, ER-directed response with upregulation of only ~ 30 genes, with different kinetics and scope compared with the UPR of other eukaryotes. Computational genomics revealed conserved cis-acting motifs in upstream regions of responder genes capable of stressor-specific gene regulation in transfected cells. Interestingly, the sensors/transducers of folding stress, well conserved in model eukaryotes, are absent in Giardia suggesting the presence of a novel version of this essential eukaryotic function. PMID:23617761

  8. Presencia de Giardia lamblia y Cryptosporidium spp. en aguas residuales depuradas reutilizadas para riego agrícola en la isla de Tenerife, España. Efectos del transporte a larga distancia sobre la calidad del agua reutilizada Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. Presence in treated wastewater reutilised for irrigation in Tenerife island, Spain. Long-distance transport effects in the reutilised water quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escolástico Aguiar González

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available El empleo de aguas residuales depuradas para riego agrícola es la alternativa de reutilización con más relevancia hoy día, siempre y cuando se desarrolle con garantías sanitarias y medioambientales.Giardia lamblia y Cryptosporidium spp. son dos protozoos patógenos entéricos de amplia distribución ambiental, frecuentes en hábitats acuáticos. La investigación y detección de estos parásitos en aguas ha adquirido importancia en los últimos años debido a que poseen formas de dispersión resistentes a los tratamientos habituales, aplicados tanto en procesos de potabilización como de depuración, y a que han sido clasificados como patógenos emergentes causantes de importantes brotes de transmisión hídrica.En este trabajo se estudia la presencia de quistes de Giardia lamblia y ooquistes de Cryptosporidium spp. en el agua residual depurada de la ciudad de Santa Cruz de Tenerife que es transportada hasta el sur de la isla de Tenerife para su reutilización en agricultura. Asimismo se investiga el efecto del transporte, el almacenamiento y el tratamiento avanzado sobre la concentración de quistes y ooquistes a través del sistema, y la existencia de relaciones con otros parámetros bacteriológicos y físico-químicos.Los resultados obtenidos ponen de manifiesto comportamientos variables de los contenidos en quistes y ooquistes frente a los tratamientos aplicados, y el efecto depurador que el transporte a larga distancia, parece tener sobre el agua residual depurada.No se han encontrado relaciones entre las concentraciones de quistes y ooquistes en el agua residual depurada y el contenido de los indicadores tradicionales de contaminación fecal.Treated wastewater use for irrigation is, nowadays, the more relevant reutilization alternative of wastewater, if it is developed with sanitary and environmental warranties.Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. two wide distributed enteric pathogen protozoan, which are frequent in aquatic habitats. These protozoan investigation and detection have acquired importance in the last years due to their dispersion forms, which show resistance to the habitual treatments of potabilization and purification, and their classification as emerging pathogens which are the causative agents of important hydrical transmission outbreaks.In our work, Giardia lamblia cyst and Cryptosporidium spp. oocyst presence in Santa Cruz de Tenerife treated wastewater which is transported to the South of the island to be reutilised in agriculture. Furthermore, transport, storage and advanced treatment effects against cyst and oocyst concentration throughout the system and relation existence with other bacteriological and physical-chemical parameters, are also investigated.The obtained results demonstrate variable behaviours in cyst and oocyst concentration against applied treatments, and the depurative effect of the long-distance transport which seems to have in treated wastewater.There was not found any relation between cyst and oocyst concentration in treated wastewater and the traditional indicators of faecal contamination.

  9. NL MIND-BEST: a web server for ligands and proteins discovery--theoretic-experimental study of proteins of Giardia lamblia and new compounds active against Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Díaz, Humberto; Prado-Prado, Francisco; Sobarzo-Sánchez, Eduardo; Haddad, Mohamed; Maurel Chevalley, Séverine; Valentin, Alexis; Quetin-Leclercq, Joëlle; Dea-Ayuela, María A; Teresa Gomez-Muños, María; Munteanu, Cristian R; José Torres-Labandeira, Juan; García-Mera, Xerardo; Tapia, Ricardo A; Ubeira, Florencio M

    2011-05-01

    There are many protein ligands and/or drugs described with very different affinity to a large number of target proteins or receptors. In this work, we selected Ligands or Drug-target pairs (DTPs/nDTPs) of drugs with high affinity/non-affinity for different targets. Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSAR) models become a very useful tool in this context to substantially reduce time and resources consuming experiments. Unfortunately most QSAR models predict activity against only one protein target and/or have not been implemented in the form of public web server freely accessible online to the scientific community. To solve this problem, we developed here a multi-target QSAR (mt-QSAR) classifier using the MARCH-INSIDE technique to calculate structural parameters of drug and target plus one Artificial Neuronal Network (ANN) to seek the model. The best ANN model found is a Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) with profile MLP 20:20-15-1:1. This MLP classifies correctly 611 out of 678 DTPs (sensitivity=90.12%) and 3083 out of 3408 nDTPs (specificity=90.46%), corresponding to training accuracy=90.41%. The validation of the model was carried out by means of external predicting series. The model classifies correctly 310 out of 338 DTPs (sensitivity=91.72%) and 1527 out of 1674 nDTP (specificity=91.22%) in validation series, corresponding to total accuracy=91.30% for validation series (predictability). This model favorably compares with other ANN models developed in this work and Machine Learning classifiers published before to address the same problem in different aspects. We implemented the present model at web portal Bio-AIMS in the form of an online server called: Non-Linear MARCH-INSIDE Nested Drug-Bank Exploration & Screening Tool (NL MIND-BEST), which is located at URL: http://miaja.tic.udc.es/Bio-AIMS/NL-MIND-BEST.php. This online tool is based on PHP/HTML/Python and MARCH-INSIDE routines. Finally we illustrated two practical uses of this server with two different experiments. In experiment 1, we report by first time Quantum QSAR study, synthesis, characterization, and experimental assay of antiplasmodial and cytotoxic activities of oxoisoaporphine alkaloids derivatives as well as NL MIND-BEST prediction of potential target proteins. In experiment 2, we report sampling, parasite culture, sample preparation, 2-DE, MALDI-TOF, and -TOF/TOF MS, MASCOT search, MM/MD 3D structure modeling, and NL MIND-BEST prediction for different peptides a new protein of the found in the proteome of the human parasite Giardia lamblia, which is promising for anti-parasite drug-targets discovery. PMID:21277861

  10. Impacto de la dieta sobre la inducción de infección con quistes de Giardia lamblia en ratas Sprague-Dawley / The effect of malnourishment on the development of giardiosis in Sprague-Dawley rats

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Martha Elvia, Díaz-Cinco; Martha Nydia, Ballesteros-Vázquez; Rosalba, Pérez-Morales; Verónica, Mata-Haro.

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar el efecto de la desnutrición en la inducción de la giardiosis con diferentes concentraciones de quistes de Giardia lamblia utilizando como modelo animal ratas Sprague-Dawley. Material y métodos. Es un estudio experimental efectuado entre 1995 y 1999, en el Centro de Investigación e [...] n Alimentación y Desarrollo, de la ciudad de Hermosillo, estado de Sonora, México, y cuya muestra estuvo integrada por dos grupos de 6 a 8 unidades experimentales, las cuales recibieron dos tipos de dieta y cinco tratamientos con diferente concentración de inóculo de quistes de Giardia lamblia. Durante la fase experimental se monitoreó la excreción de quistes, ganancia de peso, consumo de alimento, análisis del contenido intestinal y daños macro y microscópicos en mucosa intestinal. El tratamiento estadístico de los datos consistió en análisis de varianza, y de residuales cuando fue necesario. Resultados. En los animales alimentados con una dieta que cubre sus requerimientos nutricionales (DN) se observó que es posible provocar la infección con 60 quistes, mientras que en los animales desnutridos (dieta DLN) la concentración que se requiere es de únicamente seis quistes para establecer daños a nivel de mucosa intestinal. Conclusiones. La ganancia de peso monitoreada durante los 10 días de ensayo no resultó ser un buen indicador de la infección por Giardia lamblia. El porcentaje de infección depende de la concentración de quistes inoculados y del estado de nutrición de los animales evaluados. Abstract in english Objective. To assess the effect of malnutrition on the development of giardiosis in Sprague-Dawley rats, using different inoculum sizes of Giardia lamblia cysts. Material and Methods. An experimental study was conducted between 1995 and 1999 at Centro de Investigación, Alimentación y Desarrollo (Cen [...] ter for Research, Food, and Development), in Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico. The study population consisted of two groups of six to eight experimental units that were fed two different diets and inoculated five different concentrations of Giardia lamblia cysts. Data were collected on excretion of cysts, weight gain, food intake, bowel contents, and macro and microscopic lesions in the intestinal mucosa. Statistical analysis consisted of analysis of variance and residuals. Results. Animals fed with a diet meeting nutritional requirements required an infecting inoculum of 60 cysts, while malnourished rats required only six cysts to develop mucosal lesions. Conclusions. Weight gain monitored during ten days was not a good indicator of Giardia lamblia infection. Infection depended on cyst inoculum size as well as on the nutritional status of the tested animals.

  11. Prevalence of intestinal parasites and genotyping of Giardia intestinalis in pet shop puppies in east Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, N; Itagaki, T; Kawabata, T; Konaka, T; Muraoka, N; Saeki, H; Kanai, K; Chikazawa, S; Hori, Y; Hoshi, F; Higuchi, S

    2011-02-28

    The current study examined the prevalence of intestinal parasites and genotypes of Giardia intestinalis in puppies from nine pet shops in east Japan. Fresh fecal samples from 1794 puppies (?3 months old) were collected on one occasion. Giardia spp. was examined for specific coproantigen using ELISA kit (SNAP®Giardia, IDEXX Laboratories, Inc., USA). Other intestinal parasites were detected microscopically using the formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation technique. Genotyping was determined for the random 29 stool samples identified as Giardia spp. positive using PCR and direct sequencing of the glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) gene. Overall prevalence of protozoan Giardia spp. and Cystoisospora spp. revealed 23.4% and 11.3%, respectively. Prevalence of ascarids, Strongyloides spp. and hookworms were recorded 1.8%, 1.1% and 0.1%, respectively. Protozoan Giardia spp. and Cystoisospora spp., thus, represent important pathogens among pet shop puppies. All genotyped G. intestinalis isolates were belonged to assemblage C or D, identified as dog-specific genotypes. Zoonotic assemblage A and B were not demonstrated. The result suggests that the risk of zoonotic transmission of G. intestinalis from pet shops puppies to humans may be quite low in Japan. PMID:21093154

  12. Genome and transcriptome studies of the protozoan parasites Trypanosoma cruzi and Giardia intestinalis

    OpenAIRE

    Franze?n, Oscar

    2012-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi and Giardia intestinalis are two human pathogens and protozoan parasites responsible for the diseases Chagas disease and giardiasis, respectively. Both diseases cause su ering and illness in several million individuals. The former disease occurs primarily in South America and Central America, and the latter disease occurs worldwide. Current therapeutics are toxic and lack e cacy, and potential vaccines are far from the market. Increased knowledge about the bio...

  13. Functional characterization of peroxiredoxins from the human protozoan parasite Giardia intestinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastronicola, Daniela; Falabella, Micol; Testa, Fabrizio; Pucillo, Leopoldo Paolo; Teixeira, Miguel; Sarti, Paolo; Saraiva, Lígia M; Giuffrè, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    The microaerophilic protozoan parasite Giardia intestinalis, causative of one of the most common human intestinal diseases worldwide, infects the mucosa of the proximal small intestine, where it has to cope with O2 and nitric oxide (NO). Elucidating the antioxidant defense system of this pathogen lacking catalase and other conventional antioxidant enzymes is thus important to unveil novel potential drug targets. Enzymes metabolizing O2, NO and superoxide anion (O2 (-•)) have been recently reported for Giardia, but it is yet unknown how the parasite copes with H2O2 and peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)). Giardia encodes two yet uncharacterized 2-cys peroxiredoxins (Prxs), GiPrx1a and GiPrx1b. Peroxiredoxins are peroxidases implicated in virulence and drug resistance in several parasitic protozoa, able to protect from nitroxidative stress and repair oxidatively damaged molecules. GiPrx1a and a truncated form of GiPrx1b (deltaGiPrx1b) were expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and functionally characterized. Both Prxs effectively metabolize H2O2 and alkyl-hydroperoxides (cumyl- and tert-butyl-hydroperoxide) in the presence of NADPH and E. coli thioredoxin reductase/thioredoxin as the reducing system. Stopped-flow experiments show that both proteins in the reduced state react with ONOO(-) rapidly (k?=?4×10(5) M(-1) s(-1) and 2×10(5) M(-1) s(-1) at 4°C, for GiPrx1a and deltaGiPrx1b, respectively). Consistent with a protective role against oxidative stress, expression of GiPrx1a (but not deltaGiPrx1b) is induced in parasitic cells exposed to air O2 for 24 h. Based on these results, GiPrx1a and deltaGiPrx1b are suggested to play an important role in the antioxidant defense of Giardia, possibly contributing to pathogenesis. PMID:24416465

  14. Giardia and other intestinal parasites in dogs from veterinary clinics in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Naoyuki; Kanai, Kazutaka; Tominaga, Hirohide; Kawamata, Jun; Kaneshima, Takashi; Chikazawa, Seishiro; Hori, Yasutomo; Hoshi, Fumio; Higuchi, Seiichi

    2011-07-01

    The present study is the first report that describes the national survey of intestinal parasites in private household dogs brought to veterinary clinics in Japan. A total of 2,365 fresh feces were collected. Giardia-specific coproantigen was examined by ELISA kit (SNAP(®) Giardia, IDEXX Laboratories, Inc.; Maine, USA). Other intestinal parasites were determined microscopically using the formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation technique. According to age categories, Giardia duodenalis, Cystoisospora spp., Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, and Strongyloides spp., at ?6-months-old showed significantly (P?6 months old (31.5% vs. 2.3%, 9.1% vs. 0.05%, 1.8% vs. 0.4%, 1.1% vs. 0%, and 1.1% vs. 0.05%, respectively). In clinical categories, prevalences of G. duodenalis (14.8%) and Cystoisospora spp. (4.7%) in symptomatic dogs were significantly (P?parasites in private household dogs in Japan, especially ?6-month-old dogs. PMID:21279384

  15. Extra-intestinal and long term consequences of Giardia duodenalis infections

    OpenAIRE

    Halliez, Marie Cm; Buret, Andre? G.

    2013-01-01

    Giardiasis is the most common waterborne parasitic infection of the human intestine worldwide. The etiological agent, Giardia duodenalis (syn. G. intestinalis, G. lamblia), is a flagellated, binucleated protozoan parasite which infects a wide array of mammalian hosts. Human giardiasis is a true cosmopolitan pathogen, with highest prevalence in developing countries. Giardiasis can present with a broad range of clinical manifestations from asymptomatic, to acute or chronic diarrheal disease ass...

  16. Presencia de Giardia lamblia y Cryptosporidium spp. en aguas residuales depuradas reutilizadas para riego agrícola en la isla de Tenerife, España. Efectos del transporte a larga distancia sobre la calidad del agua reutilizada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Abreu Acosta

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available El empleo de aguas residuales depuradas para riego agrícola es la alternativa de reutilización con más relevancia hoy día, siempre y cuando se desarrolle con garantías sanitarias y medioambientales.Giardia lamblia y Cryptosporidium spp. son dos protozoos patógenos entéricos de amplia distribución ambiental, frecuentes en hábitats acuáticos. La investigación y detección de estos parásitos en aguas ha adquirido importancia en los últimos años debido a que poseen formas de dispersión resistentes a los tratamientos habituales, aplicados tanto en procesos de potabilización como de depuración, y a que han sido clasificados como patógenos emergentes causantes de importantes brotes de transmisión hídrica.En este trabajo se estudia la presencia de quistes de Giardia lamblia y ooquistes de Cryptosporidium spp. en el agua residual depurada de la ciudad de Santa Cruz de Tenerife que es transportada hasta el sur de la isla de Tenerife para su reutilización en agricultura. Asimismo se investiga el efecto del transporte, el almacenamiento y el tratamiento avanzado sobre la concentración de quistes y ooquistes a través del sistema, y la existencia de relaciones con otros parámetros bacteriológicos y físico-químicos.Los resultados obtenidos ponen de manifiesto comportamientos variables de los contenidos en quistes y ooquistes frente a los tratamientos aplicados, y el efecto depurador que el transporte a larga distancia, parece tener sobre el agua residual depurada.No se han encontrado relaciones entre las concentraciones de quistes y ooquistes en el agua residual depurada y el contenido de los indicadores tradicionales de contaminación fecal.

  17. Everyday and exotic foodborne parasites

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Marilyn B

    2000-01-01

    Everyday foodborne parasites, which are endemic in Canada, include the protozoans Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum. However, these parasites are most frequently acquired through unfiltered drinking water, homosexual activity or close personal contact such as in daycare centres and occasionally via a food vehicle. It is likely that many foodborne outbreaks from these protozoa go undetected. Transmission of helminth infections, such as tapeworms, is rare in Cana...

  18. Parasites of Periplaneta americana linnaeus "domestic cockroach" from Ica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Fernádez B.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available 244 specimens of Periplaneta americana Linnaeus from 13 localities of Ica were studied. Nematodes and protozoa were identified. They are Lophomonas blattarum, Leptomonas sp., Leidynema appendiculatum and Hammerschmidtiella diesingi. Also, parasites of man were found, three of which are pathogenic: Giardia lamblia, Blastocystis hominis and Cryptosporidium sp.

  19. Parasitic Prevalence in a Suburban School of Famaillá, Tucumán, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Dib, Julia?n; Oquilla, Juana; Lazarte, Silvia G.; Gonzalez, Silvia N.

    2012-01-01

    Prevalence of intestinal parasites was investigated in rural primary school children in Famaillá city, Tucumán province, Argentina. Stool specimens from 149 school children were collected. The prevalence rate of intestinal parasite infections was 86.6%. No significant differences were observed in the distribution by age or by sex. Blastocystis hominis was the most commonly found protozoan parasite (54.4%), followed by Entamoeba coli (35.6%), Giardia lamblia (24.8%), and others (16.7%). Ente...

  20. Parasitic Prevalence in a Suburban School of Famaillá, Tucumán, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Julián Dib; Juana Oquilla; Silvia G. Lazarte; Gonzalez, Silvia N.

    2012-01-01

    Prevalence of intestinal parasites was investigated in rural primary school children in Famaillá city, Tucumán province, Argentina. Stool specimens from 149 school children were collected. The prevalence rate of intestinal parasite infections was 86.6%. No significant differences were observed in the distribution by age or by sex. Blastocystis hominis was the most commonly found protozoan parasite (54.4%), followed by Entamoeba coli (35.6%), Giardia lamblia (24.8%), and others (16.7%). Entero...

  1. Detección de parásitos intestinales en agua y alimentos de Trujillo, Perú / Detection of water-Borne and food-borne intestinal parasites of Trujillo, Perú

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gregorio, Pérez-Cordón; María J., Rosales; Renzo A., Valdez; Franklin, Vargas-Vásquez; Ofelia, Cordova.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Detectamos distintas especies de parásitos intestinales, tanto protozoos como helmintos, presentes en muestras de agua provenientes de acequias y pozos (Giardia lamblia, Blastocystis hominis, Entamoeba coli, Cyclospora cayetanensis, Cryptosporidium spp. y Balantidium coli), así como en alimentos cru [...] dos y cocidos (Giardia lamblia, Cyclospora cayetanensis., Endolimax nana, Iodamoeba butschlii y Blastocystis hominis Fasciola hepatica y Ascaris lumbricoides) recolectadas en varios distritos de la provincia de Trujillo, Perú. Abstract in english We report the detection of different intestinal parasites, protozoan and helminthes, in samples of water from ditches and wells (Giardia lamblia, Blastocystis hominis, Entamoeba coli, Cyclospora cayetanensis, Cryptosporidium spp. y Balantidium coli), as well as in raw and cooked foods (Giardia lambl [...] ia, Cyclospora cayetanensis., Endolimax nana, Iodamoeba butschlii y Blastocystis hominis Fasciola hepatica y Ascaris lumbricoides) collected in several districts of the province of Trujillo, Peru.

  2. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in the Greek population: local people and refugees

    OpenAIRE

    M G Papazahariadou, E. G. Papadopoulos S. E. Frydas; Siochu, A. E.

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY A total of 455 faecal samples from the Greek population and refugees was examined and 18.02% were found to be infected with one or more species of parasites. The prevalence of infection with intestinal parasites of the Greek (264) population was 11.36% and that of foreigners (191) originating from Europe, Africa and Asia was 27.23%. Found were a) protozoan parasites: Blastocystis hominis, Cryptosporidium parvum, Entamoeba coli and Giardia lamblia (found in both groups examined) and b)...

  3. Antagonism between two intestinal parasites in humans: the importance of co-infection for infection risk and recovery dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Aaron D.; Martin, Melanie; Kaplan, Hillard; Gurven, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Co-infection may affect transmission and recovery from infection, but remains an understudied element of disease ecology, particularly with regard to antagonism between parasites sharing a host. Helminth and giardia infections are often endemic in the same populations and both occupy the small intestine; yet few studies have examined interactions between these parasites. We report on helminth–giardia co-infections in a panel study of forager–horticulturalists in the Bolivian lowlands. Parasites were identified in faecal samples from 3275 participants, collected during 5235 medical exams over 6 years. Longitudinal co-infection patterns were examined using logistic mixed and multi-state Markov models. The most prevalent infections were hookworm (56%), Giardia lamblia (30%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (15%). Cross-sectionally, hookworm and A. lumbricoides were negatively associated with G. lamblia (OR = 0.60; OR = 0.65, respectively). Longitudinally, giardia infection was less likely in helminth-infected individuals (HR: 0.46). Infection with helminths was also less likely for individuals infected with giardia (HR: 0.71). Finally, treatment with mebendazole reduced subsequent hookworm infections, but resulted in a marginal increase in the odds of G. lamblia infection. Our results provide evidence for an antagonistic relationship between helminths and giardia, and suggest that co-infection should be considered in disease transmission models and treatment decisions. PMID:23986108

  4. Genotyping of Giardia isolates in Scotland: a descriptive epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, C; Jones, B; Inverarity, D; Pollock, K G J

    2014-08-01

    Giardiasis, caused by the intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia intestinalis (synonyms: G. lamblia, G. duodenalis), is one of the most frequent parasites to infect the Scottish population. Transmission of the infective cysts in faecal matter is commonly via food and/or water. Giardia is subdivided into assemblages, where clinical and epidemiological differences have been described between assemblages A and B. This snapshot descriptive epidemiological study examines 30 positive cases of Giardia of which 72% (n = 21) were shown to be assemblage A, 14% (n = 4) assemblage B and 10% (n = 3) mixed assemblages (A and B). There was a 2:3 female:male ratio of affected individuals with foreign travel recorded in 22 of these cases. The commonest symptom was diarrhoea which was reported in 80% of cases followed by tiredness. Five cases required hospitalization emphasizing the importance of gaining a greater understanding of how Giardia assemblages influence clinical outcomes to assist in formulating guidelines to manage potential Giardia outbreaks. PMID:24125434

  5. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in a population in Eghbalieh city from Qazvin Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, H; Bakht, M; Saghafi, H; Shahsavari, T

    2015-06-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections are endemic worldwide and have been described as constituting the greatest single worldwide cause of illness and disease. The prevalence of Intestinal parasitic infections was estimated to be 5.92 %. Entamoeba coli was the most common parasite followed by Giardia lamblia and Blastocystis hominis. About 5.15 % of samples contained a single parasite and 0.76 % contained multiple parasites. In this study, the prevalence of intestinal parasites especially helminthic infections was low. The study aimed to estimate prevalence of intestinal parasites in Eghbalieh city from Qazvin Province, Iran. PMID:26063984

  6. GASTROINTESTINAL PARASITES OF SCHOOL CHILDREN IN BENIN CITY, NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Ce, Okaka; Ao, Awharitoma; Jn, Okonji

    2000-01-01

    Examination of faecal samples of 6,430 school children aged between 2 and 20 years, for gastrointestinal parasites using sedimentation and Kato smear techniques was carried out in Benin City, Nigeria between January 1997 and December 1998. Four thousand two hundred and thirty six (65.8%) were infected. Three species of protozoa and 8 species of helminths were recorded as follows: Entamoeba histolytica (6%), Entomoeba coli (4.8%), Giardia lamblia (5.2%), Schistosoma mansoni (2.4%), Fasciola gi...

  7. Giardia and Vilem Dusan Lambl.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lipoldová, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Ro?. 8, ?. 5 (2014), e2686. ISSN 1935-2735 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12049 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : History of Science * Giardia lamblia * Infectious disease Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.489, year: 2013

  8. Preventing Giardia Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, W. Nicholas

    1993-01-01

    Outdoor recreationists are at risk for developing giardia infection from drinking contaminated stream water. Giardia is the most common human parasite found in contaminated water that causes gastrointestinal illness. Describes medical treatment and ways of preventing infection through water treatment, including heat, filtration, and chemical…

  9. Diarrea crónica refractaria y malabsorción secundaria a hipogammaglobulinemia común variable, infestación crónica por giardia lamblia y gastrectomía total por adenocarcinoma gástrico: un manejo nutricional complejo / Chonic diarrhea and malabsorption due to common variable immunodeficiency, gastrectomy and giardiasis infection: a difficult nutritional management

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M. E., Domínguez-López; I., González-Molero; C. P., Ramírez-Plaza; F., Soriguer; G., Olveira.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available El adenocarcinoma gástrico es una de las causas más frecuentes de mortalidad en el mundo, siendo la cirugía el único tratamiento potencialmente curativo, aunque los efectos adversos digestivos y nutricionales son frecuentes y abundantes. La hipogammaglobulinemia variable común es causa de frecuentes [...] manifestaciones digestivas, derivándose las más importantes en diarrea crónica causada por giardiasis, hiperplasia nodular linfoide o atrofia vellosa, siendo frecuente la malabsorción y la desnutrición. Los déficits nutricionales secundarios a la malabsorción (postgastrectomía y asociada a la atrofia vellosa y la giardiasis por hipogammaglobulinemia variable común) son asimismo frecuentes. Presentamos el caso de un paciente gastrectomizado por adenocarcinoma gástrico y con hipogammaglobulinemia variable común e infestación crónica por giardiasis que presenta una importante diarrea crónica refractaria a tratamiento y malabsorción. Abstract in english Gastric cancer is a frequent cause of cancer-related mortality in the world. Surgery is the only potentially curative therapy, although the adverse effects of surgery are common and considerable. Common variable immunodeficiency is in many cases cause of gastrointestinal system problems such as chro [...] nic diarrhea caused by infestation with giardia lamblia, nodular lymphoid hiperplasia ad loss of villi leading frequently to malapsortion and malnutrition. Nutritional deficiencies due to malapsorption (postgastrectomy and secondary to loss of villi, giardiasis and common variable inmunodeficiency) are common. We present the case of a patient with gastric cancer who underwent a gastrectomy with common variable hipogammaglobulinemia and chronic infestation by giardia lamblia, with serious diarrhea resistant to treatment and malabsorption.

  10. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia spp. and other pathogenic intestinal parasites in the Beberibe River in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Dayana Andrade de, Freitas; Anderson Luiz Ribeiro de, Paiva; José Adson Andrade de, Carvalho Filho; Jaime Joaquim da Silva Pereira, Cabral; Francisca Janaína Soares, Rocha.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Transmission of pathogenic protozoa and helminths by water is a serious public health problem. In this study, we analyzed the presence of these organisms in the Beberibe River in Pernambuco, Brazil. METHODS: Parasite analysis was performed using the Hoffman, Pons, & Janer method follo [...] wed by centrifugation and preparation of slides by staining with acetic acid and Lugol's solution. Protozoan oocysts were isolated by the modified Ziehl Neelsen method. RESULTS: Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia spp. and other parasites were found in the Beberibe River. CONCLUSIONS: Sanitation companies must assess pathogenic intestinal parasites in water basins providing public water and subsequently develop improved treatment systems for removal of such parasites.

  11. Intestinal parasitic infections in hosted Saharawi children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, J M; Domènech, G; Martínez, M C; Mañes, J; Soriano, F

    2011-12-01

    Literatures on intestinal parasitic infections in Saharawi children were scarce and distributed in non parasitological journals. This was the first article that specifically highlighted on the prevalence of these infections in 270 Saharawi children aged from 6 to 12 years hosted in Spain. Six different intestinal parasites were identified in this study and 78, 46, 40, 24, 13 and 5 were positive for Giardia lamblia (29%), Entamoeba coli (17%), Blastocystis hominis (15%), Endolimax nana (9%), Hymenolepis nana (5%) and Enterobius vermicularis (2%), respectively. Mixed intestinal parasitic infections were seen in 12 (4.4%) studied children. Six (2.2%) double infections for G. lamblia and B. hominis were seen in these children while in four (1.5%) had G. lamblia and H. nana. Triple intestinal parasitic infections of G. lamblia, B. hominis and H. nana were observed in two (0.7%) of the children studied. In the other hand, about 14.8% of the studied children had a mild anaemia and 15.5 and 16.6% had iron deficiency and eosinophilia, respectively. PMID:22433884

  12. O(2)-dependent efficacy of novel piperidine- and piperazine-based chalcones against the human parasite Giardia intestinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadur, Vijay; Mastronicola, Daniela; Tiwari, Hemandra Kumar; Kumar, Yogesh; Falabella, Micol; Pucillo, Leopoldo Paolo; Sarti, Paolo; Giuffrè, Alessandro; Singh, Brajendra Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Giardia intestinalis is the most frequent protozoan agent of intestinal diseases worldwide. Though commonly regarded as an anaerobic pathogen, it preferentially colonizes the fairly oxygen-rich mucosa of the proximal small intestine. Therefore, when testing new potential antigiardial drugs, O2 should be taken into account, since it also reduces the efficacy of metronidazole, the gold standard drug against giardiasis. In this study, 46 novel chalcones were synthesized by microwave-assisted Claisen-Schmidt condensation, purified, characterized by high-resolution mass spectrometry, (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance, and infrared spectroscopy, and tested for their toxicity against G. intestinalis under standard anaerobic conditions. As a novel approach, compounds showing antigiardial activity under anaerobiosis were also assayed under microaerobic conditions, and their selectivity against parasitic cells was assessed in a counterscreen on human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. Among the tested compounds, three [30(a), 31(e), and 33] were more effective in the presence of O2 than under anaerobic conditions and killed the parasite 2 to 4 times more efficiently than metronidazole under anaerobiosis. Two of them [30(a) and 31(e)] proved to be selective against parasitic cells, thus representing potential candidates for the design of novel antigiardial drugs. This study highlights the importance of testing new potential antigiardial agents not only under anaerobic conditions but also at low, more physiological O2 concentrations. PMID:24217695

  13. O2-Dependent Efficacy of Novel Piperidine- and Piperazine-Based Chalcones against the Human Parasite Giardia intestinalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadur, Vijay; Mastronicola, Daniela; Tiwari, Hemandra Kumar; Kumar, Yogesh; Falabella, Micol; Pucillo, Leopoldo Paolo; Sarti, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Giardia intestinalis is the most frequent protozoan agent of intestinal diseases worldwide. Though commonly regarded as an anaerobic pathogen, it preferentially colonizes the fairly oxygen-rich mucosa of the proximal small intestine. Therefore, when testing new potential antigiardial drugs, O2 should be taken into account, since it also reduces the efficacy of metronidazole, the gold standard drug against giardiasis. In this study, 46 novel chalcones were synthesized by microwave-assisted Claisen-Schmidt condensation, purified, characterized by high-resolution mass spectrometry, 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance, and infrared spectroscopy, and tested for their toxicity against G. intestinalis under standard anaerobic conditions. As a novel approach, compounds showing antigiardial activity under anaerobiosis were also assayed under microaerobic conditions, and their selectivity against parasitic cells was assessed in a counterscreen on human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. Among the tested compounds, three [30(a), 31(e), and 33] were more effective in the presence of O2 than under anaerobic conditions and killed the parasite 2 to 4 times more efficiently than metronidazole under anaerobiosis. Two of them [30(a) and 31(e)] proved to be selective against parasitic cells, thus representing potential candidates for the design of novel antigiardial drugs. This study highlights the importance of testing new potential antigiardial agents not only under anaerobic conditions but also at low, more physiological O2 concentrations. PMID:24217695

  14. Giardiasis and other intestinal parasitic infections in a Manitoba residential school for the mentally retarded.

    OpenAIRE

    Naiman, H. L.; Sekla, L.; Albritton, W. L.

    1980-01-01

    A case of severely symptomatic giardiasis in a school for the mentally retarded prompted an epidemiologic survey of the institution. The rate of parasitic infection in the children were just under 50%. Multiple infections were common and one child harboured five different protozoa. The yield included known pathogens (Giardia lamblia, Metorchis conjunctus and Diphyllobothrium sp.), protozoa of potential pathogenicity (Dientamoeba fragilis) and other protozoa, the significance of which has yet ...

  15. Hsp90 Inhibitors as New Leads To Target Parasitic Diarrheal Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Debnath, Anjan; Shahinas, Dea; Bryant, Clifford; Hirata, Ken; Miyamoto, Yukiko; Hwang, Grace; Gut, Jiri; Renslo, Adam R.; Pillai, Dylan R.; Eckmann, Lars; Reed, Sharon L.; Mckerrow, James H.

    2014-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia are anaerobic protozoan parasites that cause amebiasis and giardiasis, two of the most common diarrheal diseases worldwide. Current therapy relies on metronidazole, but resistance has been reported and the drug has significant adverse effects. Therefore, it is critical to search for effective, better-tolerated antiamebic and antigiardial drugs. We synthesized several examples of a recently reported class of Hsp90 inhibitors and evaluated these compoun...

  16. Intestinal Parasite Infections in Symptomatic Children Attending Hospital in Siem Reap, Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Catrin E.; Nget, Phot; Saroeun, Mao; Kuong, Suy; Chanthou, Seng; Kumar, Varun; Bousfield, Rachel; Nader, Johanna; Bailey, J. Wendi; Beeching, Nicholas J.; Day, Nicholas P.; Parry, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Infections with helminths and other intestinal parasites are an important but neglected problem in children in developing countries. Accurate surveys of intestinal parasites in children inform empirical treatment regimens and can assess the impact of school based drug treatment programmes. There is limited information on this topic in Cambodia. Methods In a prospective study of intestinal parasites in symptomatic children attending Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap, Cambodia, April-June 2012, samples were examined by microscopy of a direct and concentrated fecal sample. Two culture methods for hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis were employed when sufficient sample was received. Demographic, clinical and epidemiological data were collected. Principal Findings We studied 970 samples from 865 children. The median (inter-quartile range) age of the children was 5.4 (1.9-9.2) years, 54% were male. The proportion of children with abdominal pain was 66.8%, diarrhea 34.9%, anemia 12.7% and malnutrition 7.4%. 458 parasitic infections were detected in 340 (39.3%) children. The most common parasites using all methods of detection were hookworm (14.3%), Strongyloides stercoralis (11.6%) and Giardia lamblia (11.2%). Giardia lamblia was most common in children aged 1-5 years, hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis were more common with increasing age. Hookworm, Strongloides stercoralis and Giardia lamblia were more common in children living outside of Siem Reap town. In a multivariate logistic regression increasing age was associated with all three infections, defecating in the forest for hookworm infection, the presence of cattle for S. stercoralis and not using soap for handwashing for G. lamblia. Conclusions/Significance This study confirms the importance of intestinal parasitic infections in symptomatic Cambodian children and the need for adequate facilities for laboratory diagnosis together with education to improve personal hygiene and sanitation. PMID:25951607

  17. EFFECT OF HALOGENS ON 'GIARDIA' CYST VIABILITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research was to determine the effect of chlorine and other disinfecting agents on Giardia lamblia cyst viability. The agents studied included free residual chlorine and six different methods recommended for emergency disinfection of small quantities of water...

  18. The Antimicrobial Effect of Methanol Extracts of Eucalyptus, Satureia Hortensis and Heracleum Glabrescens on Giardia Cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safarnejad Tameshkel, F.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Giardiasis is a parasitic infection of smallintestine, with a worldwide distribution and the prevalence of Giardia indifferent parts of the world varies between 1 to 25%. Plants have the vastrange of antimicrobial and antifungal activity that can be identified asalternative treatments for bacterial and parasitic pathogens, the same asGiardia. In this study, the methanol extracts of eucalyptus plants, Satureiahortensis and Heracleum glabrescens, on Giardia cysts were studied in vitro.Material and Methods: The cysts were isolated from the feces using amodified Bingham. After counting by Hemusytumetr, they were placed nearby 200 mg / ml, 100 mg / ml and 10 mg / ml of the extracts prepared byDMSO for 30 and 60 minutes. Then, the number of dead and live cysts wascounted under a microscope.Results: the fatality effect of the extracts in 60 minutes is higher than thoseof 30 minutes. The methanol extracts of Satureia hortensis, Eucalyptus andHeracleum glabrescens with the dilution of 200 mg/ml in 60 mins have thefatality effect of 84/3%, 63/3% and 44%, respectively. The highestfatality(84.3% on Giardia cysts is related to Satureia hortensis with thedilution of 200 mg/ml in 60 mins and the Lowest(27% is related toHeracleum glabrescens with the dilution of 10 mg/ml in 30-minute period.The significant relationship between the plant type and the fatality ofmethanol extracts is observed.Conclusion: the methanol extracts of Eucalyptus, Heracleum glabrescensand especially Satureia hortensis have anti-parasitic effects in the laboratoryconditions. Thus, they can be used in the future, instead of the chemicalantiparasitic drugs.Key words: Antibacterial Giardia lamblia cysts, Eucalyptus, Satureiahortensis, Heracleum glabrescens, Tonekabon

  19. Prevalencia de Giardiasis y Parásitos Intestinales en Preescolares de Hogares atendidos en un programa estatal en Armenia, Colombia / Prevalence of giardiasis and intestinal parasites in pre-school children from homes being attended as part of a state programme in Armenia, Colombia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jorge M, Giraldo-Gómez; Fabiana, Lora; Luz H, Henao; Shirley, Mejía; Jorge E, Gómez-Marín.

    2005-11-17

    Full Text Available Objetivo El propósito de este estudio es el de obtener datos sobre la giardiasis y el parasitismo intestinal en una muestra significativa de los niños en edades pre-escolares de los hogares de madres comunitarias del Instituto Colombiano de Bienestar Familiar (ICBF). Materiales y Métodos Se recolect [...] ó un seriado de tres muestras de heces en 328 niños, con previo consentimiento del tutor legal. Se le realizó el análisis de laboratorio por examen directo microscópico y macroscópico utilizando Lugol al 1 %, solución salina al 0,83 %, solución salina-eosina, Kato Katz y formol-éter o metodo de concentración de Ritchie (prueba comprobatoria). Las muestras positivas se conservaron en formol salino. Resultados Los parásitos con potencial patógeno tuvieron las siguientes prevalencias: Ascaris lumbricoides 2,4 %, Hymenolepsis nana 0,6 %, Trichuris trichura 2,1 %, Blastocystis hominis 6,1 % y Giardia lamblia 13 %. Conclusiones Este estudio muestra la baja frecuencia de los helmintos con respecto a los protozoos, por lo tanto estrategias de desparasitación masiva con dosis únicas de Albendazol no tienen utilidad. Se recomienda la vigilancia periódica de parásitos por exámenes en estos niños. Se confirma que el parásito patógeno mas prevalente es Giardia lamblia en los niños de las guarderias infantiles del ICBF. La prevalencia de Giardia no se relacionó de manera estadisticamente significativa con el estado nutricional de los niños de las guarderias del ICBF. La mayoria de niños infectados por Giardia son asintomáticos. Abstract in english Objective Determining the prevalence of giardiasis and intestinal parasitism in pre-school children from the Instituto Colombiano de Bienestar Familiar (ICBF). Material and Methods Three serial faecal samples were collected from 328 children following informed consent from their legal guardians. Mic [...] roscopic and macroscopic tests were made using 1% Lugol, 0,83 % saline solution, saline-eosin solution and Kato Katz and Ritchie’s test as a confirming test. Positive samples were preserved in saline formol solution. Results Pathogen parasites had the following prevalence frequencies: 2,4 % for Ascaris lumbricoides, 0,6 % for Hymenolepsis nana, 2,1 % for Trichuris trichura, 6,1 % for Blastocystis hominis and 13 % for Giardia lamblia. Conclusions The results of this work showed low helminth frequency compared to that for protozoa; control strategies using single doses of Albendazol are therefore not useful. The most prevalent pathogen parasite was Giardia lamblia in children from the ICBF in Armenia. Periodic surveillance of parasites in children is thereby recommended. The prevalence of Giardia lamblia was not statistically related to the children’s nutritional state. Most Giardia-infected children were asymptomatic.

  20. Prevalencia de giardiasis y parásitos intestinales en preescolares de hogares atendidos en un programa estatal en Armenia, Colombia / Prevalence of giardiasis and intestinal parasites in pre-school children from homes being attended as part of a state programme in Armenia, Colombia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jorge M., Giraldo-Gómez; Fabiana, Lora; Luz H., Henao; Shirley, Mejía; Jorge E., Gómez-Marín.

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: El propósito de este estudio es el de obtener datos sobre la giardiasis y el parasitismo intestinal en una muestra significativa de los niños en edades pre-escolares de los hogares de madres comunitarias del Instituto Colombiano de Bienestar Familiar (ICBF). MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Se recole [...] ctó un seriado de tres muestras de heces en 328 niños, con previo consentimiento del tutor legal. Se le realizó el análisis de laboratorio por examen directo microscópico y macroscópico utilizando Lugol al 1 %, solución salina al 0,83 %, solución salina-eosina, Kato Katz y formol-éter o metodo de concentración de Ritchie (prueba comprobatoria). Las muestras positivas se conservaron en formol salino. RESULTADOS: Los parásitos con potencial patógeno tuvieron las siguientes prevalencias: Ascaris lumbricoides 2,4 %, Hymenolepsis nana 0,6 %, Trichuris trichura 2,1 %, Blastocystis hominis 6,1 % y Giardia lamblia 13 %. CONCLUSIONES: Este estudio muestra la baja frecuencia de los helmintos con respecto a los protozoos, por lo tanto estrategias de desparasitación masiva con dosis únicas de Albendazol no tienen utilidad. Se recomienda la vigilancia periódica de parásitos por exámenes en estos niños. Se confirma que el parásito patógeno mas prevalente es Giardia lamblia en los niños de las guarderias infantiles del ICBF. La prevalencia de Giardia no se relacionó de manera estadisticamente significativa con el estado nutricional de los niños de las guarderias del ICBF. La mayoria de niños infectados por Giardia son asintomáticos. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: Determining the prevalence of giardiasis and intestinal parasitism in pre-school children from the Instituto Colombiano de Bienestar Familiar (ICBF). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Three serial faecal samples were collected from 328 children following informed consent from their legal guardians. M [...] icroscopic and macroscopic tests were made using 1% Lugol, 0,83 % saline solution, saline-eosin solution and Kato Katz and Ritchie's test as a confirming test. Positive samples were preserved in saline formol solution. RESULTS: Pathogen parasites had the following prevalence frequencies: 2,4 % for Ascaris lumbricoides, 0,6 % for Hymenolepsis nana, 2,1 % for Trichuris trichura, 6,1 % for Blastocystis hominis and 13 % for Giardia lamblia. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this work showed low helminth frequency compared to that for protozoa; control strategies using single doses of Albendazol are therefore not useful. The most prevalent pathogen parasite was Giardia lamblia in children from the ICBF in Armenia. Periodic surveillance of parasites in children is thereby recommended. The prevalence of Giardia lamblia was not statistically related to the children's nutritional state. Most Giardia-infected children were asymptomatic.

  1. Prevalencia de Giardiasis y Parásitos Intestinales en Preescolares de Hogares atendidos en un programa estatal en Armenia, Colombia Prevalence of giardiasis and intestinal parasites in pre-school children from homes being attended as part of a state programme in Armenia, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge M Giraldo-Gómez

    Full Text Available Objetivo El propósito de este estudio es el de obtener datos sobre la giardiasis y el parasitismo intestinal en una muestra significativa de los niños en edades pre-escolares de los hogares de madres comunitarias del Instituto Colombiano de Bienestar Familiar (ICBF. Materiales y Métodos Se recolectó un seriado de tres muestras de heces en 328 niños, con previo consentimiento del tutor legal. Se le realizó el análisis de laboratorio por examen directo microscópico y macroscópico utilizando Lugol al 1 %, solución salina al 0,83 %, solución salina-eosina, Kato Katz y formol-éter o metodo de concentración de Ritchie (prueba comprobatoria. Las muestras positivas se conservaron en formol salino. Resultados Los parásitos con potencial patógeno tuvieron las siguientes prevalencias: Ascaris lumbricoides 2,4 %, Hymenolepsis nana 0,6 %, Trichuris trichura 2,1 %, Blastocystis hominis 6,1 % y Giardia lamblia 13 %. Conclusiones Este estudio muestra la baja frecuencia de los helmintos con respecto a los protozoos, por lo tanto estrategias de desparasitación masiva con dosis únicas de Albendazol no tienen utilidad. Se recomienda la vigilancia periódica de parásitos por exámenes en estos niños. Se confirma que el parásito patógeno mas prevalente es Giardia lamblia en los niños de las guarderias infantiles del ICBF. La prevalencia de Giardia no se relacionó de manera estadisticamente significativa con el estado nutricional de los niños de las guarderias del ICBF. La mayoria de niños infectados por Giardia son asintomáticos.Objective Determining the prevalence of giardiasis and intestinal parasitism in pre-school children from the Instituto Colombiano de Bienestar Familiar (ICBF. Material and Methods Three serial faecal samples were collected from 328 children following informed consent from their legal guardians. Microscopic and macroscopic tests were made using 1% Lugol, 0,83 % saline solution, saline-eosin solution and Kato Katz and Ritchie’s test as a confirming test. Positive samples were preserved in saline formol solution. Results Pathogen parasites had the following prevalence frequencies: 2,4 % for Ascaris lumbricoides, 0,6 % for Hymenolepsis nana, 2,1 % for Trichuris trichura, 6,1 % for Blastocystis hominis and 13 % for Giardia lamblia. Conclusions The results of this work showed low helminth frequency compared to that for protozoa; control strategies using single doses of Albendazol are therefore not useful. The most prevalent pathogen parasite was Giardia lamblia in children from the ICBF in Armenia. Periodic surveillance of parasites in children is thereby recommended. The prevalence of Giardia lamblia was not statistically related to the children’s nutritional state. Most Giardia-infected children were asymptomatic.

  2. Reductive Evolution of the Mitochondrial Processing Peptidases of the Unicellular Parasites Trichomonas vaginalis and Giardia intestinalis.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šmíd, O.; Matušková, Anna; Harris, S. R.; Ku?era, Tomáš; Novotný, M.; Horváthová, L.; Hrdý, I.; Kutejová, E.; Hirt, R. P.; Embley, T. M.; Janata, Ji?í; Tachezy, J.

    2008-01-01

    Ro?. 4, ?. 12 (2008), s. 1-8. ISSN 1553-7366 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC07032; GA AV ?R IAA501110631 Grant ostatní: CZ(CZ) B-Bio166/2006 (O.S.). S.H., R.P.H. Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : peptidases * mitochondria * human parasites Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 9.125, year: 2008

  3. Prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis and other intestinal parasitic infections among mentally retarded residents in central institution of southern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokri, Azar; Sarasiabi, Khojasteh Sharifi; Teshnizi, Saeed Hosseini; Mahmoodi, Hamid

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among mentally retarded residents of rehabilitation center of Bandar Abbas, Hormozgan province, southern Iran. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in central rehabilitation institute of Hormozgan province in summer 2010. Fecal samples of all 133 residents (72 males, 61 females) aged 3–52, were collected in triplicate. Specimens were examined by direct smear, formalin-ether concentration techniques and stained by permanent Trichrome, Ziehl-Neelsen stains. Statistical analysis was conducted by SPSS 13.5. Results Intestinal parasitic infections were seen in 48.5% (64 out of 133 subjects: 53.4% in males and 46.6% in females). Strongyloides stercoralis with 17.3% showed the highest incidence followed by Entamoeba coli (9.8%), Blastocystis hominis (7.5%), Giardia lamblia (2.3%), Endolimax nana (2.3%), Hymenolepis nana (0.8%), Oxyuris vermicularis (0.8%), and Chilomasix mesnili (0.8%). Double infections were found to be as: Strongyloides stercoralis + Giardia lamblia (2.3%), Entamoeba coli + Giardia lamblia (1.5%), Entamoeba coli + Blastocystis hominis (1.5%), Oxyuris vermicularis + Entamoeba coli (0.8%), Strongyloides stercoralis + Entamoeba coli (0.8%), respectively. Conclusions Our findings reveal that strongyloidiasis is a common disease among mentally retarded population in southern Iran. PMID:23569874

  4. Real-Time PCR for Quantification of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in Environmental Water Samples and Sewage

    OpenAIRE

    Guy, Rebecca A.; Payment, Pierre; Ulrich J. Krull; Horgen, Paul A.

    2003-01-01

    The protozoan pathogens Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum are major causes of waterborne enteric disease throughout the world. Improved detection methods that are very sensitive and rapid are urgently needed. This is especially the case for analysis of environmental water samples in which the densities of Giardia and Cryptosporidium are very low. Primers and TaqMan probes based on the ?-giardin gene of G. lamblia and the COWP gene of C. parvum were developed and used to detect DNA co...

  5. Parasitic Contamination of Raw Vegetables in Shahroud, Semnan

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    Saeid Nazemi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Given the importance of healthy vegetables, the present study was conducted to determine parasitic infection of vegetable consumed in Shahroud.Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study has been conducted on 92 samples of various vegetables collected from 16 vegetable growing farms and 1 vegetable process workshop. Results: Sixty two percent of tested vegetables lacked parasites and the highest amount of parasites observed (34.78% was related to Giardia lamblia. A significant relationship was observed between parasite and having toilets in the farms as well as the extent of farms.Conclusion: safety of fertilizers consumed by farms and healthy fruits can have an effective role in reducing the parasitic infections.

  6. Intestinal Parasites in Children with Lymphohematopoietic Malignancy in Iran, Mashhad

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    Nona Zabolinejad

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intestinal parasitic disease can cause serious complications for Immunosuppressed patients.Objectives: This study determines the prevalence of intestinal parasites in children, with lymphohematopoietic malignancy in Mashhad, Iran.Patients and Methods: In this cross-sectional study stool samples were collected from 89 children (53 boys, 36 girls with lymphohematopoitic malignancies under chemotherapy, between the age of 1 and 18 years (mean age 7.5 years. Three fresh stool samples taken for three consecutive days were examined by direct smear, formalin-ether method, trichrome staining and ELISA test for Giardia lamblia coproantigens.Results: In this study 35.9% of our patients had parasitic infections and the following parasites were identified; G. lamblia (the most prevalent parasite in children 16 (18%, Entamoeba coli 6 (6.7% Blastocystis hominis 5 (5.6% Iodamoeba butschlii 2 (2.2%. Chilomastics mesnili 1 (1.1%, Hymenolepis nana 1 (1.1% and Enterobius vermicularis 1 (1.1%.Conclusions: With regards to the high incidence of gasterointestinal parasitic diseases and also because of asymptomatic cases of giardiasis, we recommend evaluation of pediatric patients with malignant lymphohematopoitic disease by at least two different diagnostic methods and three rounds of stool examination in order to prevent possible life threatening outcomes. Coproparasitoscopic study for oncologic patients should be performed and anti-parasitic treatment provided before starting chemotherapy to prevent disseminated parasitic infections. The coproantigen-ELISA is especially advantageous in situations where only a single stool sample can be examined.

  7. Cryptosporidium sp. y otros parásitos intestinales en niños menores de 5 años con diarrea y su relación con las pruebas coprocualitativas / Cryptosporidium sp. and Other Intestinal Parasites in Children under 5 Years Old with Diarrhea and their Relationship to Coproqualitative Tests

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ángela, Bracho M; Zulbey, Rivero-Rodríguez; Solneumar, Salazar F; Patricia, Jaimes R; Mariana, Semprún T; Francisca, Monsalve-Castillo; Rafael, Villalobos P.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Para determinar la presencia de Cryptosporidium sp. y otros parásitos intestinales; así como su relación con las pruebas coprocualitativas, se analizaron 100 muestras fecales de niños de 3 meses a 5 años de edad, que asistieron al Laboratorio de Parasitología del Servicio Autónomo del Hospital Unive [...] rsitario de Maracaibo (SAHUM) con diagnóstico clínico de diarrea. Estas muestras fueron sometidas a un examen macroscópico y microscópico con SSF (0,85%) y lugol, coloración de Kinyoun para la detección de coccidios intestinales y las pruebas coprocualitativas: sangre oculta, azucares reductores y pH. Del total de muestras estudiadas, el 12% evidenció parásitos. Las especies encontradas fueron Cryptosporidium sp., Giardia lamblia y Blastocystis hominis con 4% cada uno, Trichuris trichiura (2%), Ascaris lumbricoides (1%), Pentatrichomonas hominis (1%). No se encontró correlación entre las pruebas coprocualitativas y las especies parasitarias identificadas, así como tampoco entre parasitosis y sexo. Cryptosporidium sp. y Giardia lamblia fueron los parásitos patógenos más frecuentes en niños ? 2 años de edad. Abstract in english To determine the presence of Cryptosporidium sp. and other intestinal parasites, as well as their relation to coproqualitative tests, fecal samples were analyzed from 100 children ranging from 3 months to 5 years old, who attended the Autonomous Service Parasitology Laboratory at the University Hosp [...] ital of Maracaibo (SAHUM) with a clinical diagnosis of diarrhea. These samples were subjected to macroscopic and microscopic examination with SSF (0.85%) and iodine, Kinyoun stain for the detection of intestinal coccidia, coproqualitative tests (occult blood, reducing sugars and pH). Of all the samples studied, 12% evidenced parasites. The species found were Cryptosporidium sp. (4%), Ascaris lumbricoides (1%), Trichuris trichiura (2%) Pentatrichomonas hominis (1%), Giardia lamblia and Blastocystis hominis at (4%). There was no correlation between the coproqualitative tests and the parasitic species identified, nor was there any relationship between parasitosis and gender. Cryptosporidium sp. and Giardia lamblia were the most frequent pathogenic parasites in children ? 2 years old.

  8. Study on Variation of the Sera Folic Acid, Vitamin B12 and Iron Level in the 6-12 Years Old Patients Infected with Giardia Lamblia in South Tehran

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    Mohammad Taghi Haghi-Ashtiani

    Full Text Available Objective: Protozoa Giardia lambelia is caused to diarrhea in human and other mammals in worldwide. Giardia colonizes in duodenum and earliest jejunum. It can cover the intestinal surface and causes the stateorrhea, malabsorbtion syndrome and absorb disorder of vitamins A, E and D. Investigation the effect of Giardia on the vitamin B12, folic acid and iron of patients were the purpose of this study.Material & Methods: A total of 30 children with giardiasis, aged between 6-12 years- old, selected from 3000 patients, who were admitted to the Emam Khomeiny hospital and diagnosed by stool examinations (direct and formalin-ether methods. Blood of patients and control were collected. Amount of vitamin B12 and folic acid were evaluated with radioimmunoassay and iron was evaluated with Ferene method.Findings: According to the data, folic acid in the patient had no significant difference against control but vitamin B12 and iron in the patient with giardiosis was less than control and the differences were significant (P=0.01, P=0.04 respectively.Conclusion: According to the results diagnosis of giardiosis in the early stage may prohibit intestinal damage and clinical symptoms due to vitamins and mineral elements shortage in the children.

  9. Common intestinal parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucik, Corry Jeb; Martin, Gary L; Sortor, Brett V

    2004-03-01

    Intestinal parasites cause significant morbidity and mortality. Diseases caused by Enterobius vermicularis, Giardia lamblia, Ancylostoma duodenale, Necator americanus, and Entamoeba histolytica occur in the United States. E. vermicularis, or pinworm, causes irritation and sleep disturbances. Diagnosis can be made using the "cellophane tape test." Treatment includes mebendazole and household sanitation. Giardia causes nausea, vomiting, malabsorption, diarrhea, and weight loss. Stool ova and parasite studies are diagnostic. Treatment includes metronidazole. Sewage treatment, proper handwashing, and consumption of bottled water can be preventive. A. duodenale and N. americanus are hookworms that cause blood loss, anemia, pica, and wasting. Finding eggs in the feces is diagnostic. Treatments include albendazole, mebendazole, pyrantel pamoate, iron supplementation, and blood transfusion. Preventive measures include wearing shoes and treating sewage. E. histolytica can cause intestinal ulcerations, bloody diarrhea, weight loss, fever, gastrointestinal obstruction, and peritonitis. Amebas can cause abscesses in the liver that may rupture into the pleural space, peritoneum, or pericardium. Stool and serologic assays, biopsy, barium studies, and liver imaging have diagnostic merit. Therapy includes luminal and tissue amebicides to attack both life-cycle stages. Metronidazole, chloroquine, and aspiration are treatments for liver abscess. Careful sanitation and use of peeled foods and bottled water are preventive. PMID:15023017

  10. Giardiasis and other Parasitic Infections in Stool Specimens, Duodenal Biopsy and Duo-Denal Aspiration in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Kashi

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infestation of the gastrointestinal tract with parasites is one of the commonest causes of the digestive tract syndromes especially in developing countries. The aim of present study to determine the incidence of parasitic infestation in the stool specimens in pediatric age group. Methods: Stool specimens of all the children referred to Childrens;s Medical Center in Tehran, regardless of their clinical complaint, in the last 13 years, are examined microscopically. Findings: 14.27% of 64196 specimens were positive regarding parasites, isolated Giardia lamblia being 7.54%. Positive stool specimens of boys related to girls were more frequent. Conclusion: The incidence of infestation with Giardia is remarkable and regarding the possible complications of infestation, more intensive hygienic teaching of the public is recommended to prevent the expansion of the infestation.

  11. Parasitic prevalence in a suburban school of famaillá, tucumán, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dib, Julián; Oquilla, Juana; Lazarte, Silvia G; Gonzalez, Silvia N

    2012-01-01

    Prevalence of intestinal parasites was investigated in rural primary school children in Famaillá city, Tucumán province, Argentina. Stool specimens from 149 school children were collected. The prevalence rate of intestinal parasite infections was 86.6%. No significant differences were observed in the distribution by age or by sex. Blastocystis hominis was the most commonly found protozoan parasite (54.4%), followed by Entamoeba coli (35.6%), Giardia lamblia (24.8%), and others (16.7%). Enterobius vermicularis was the most prevalent intestinal helminth (27.5%), followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (20.8%), Trichuris trichiura (12.8%), and others (5.4%). Most of the patients had polyparasitism (62.4%), and protozoan infections prevailed over helminthic infections. These results show high rates of parasitism in the school children of Famaillá, which would be associated with socioeconomic factors and poor environmental sanitation conditions in this area. PMID:23724325

  12. "Parasitic Contamination of Vegetables from Farms and Markets in Tehran"

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    MJ Gharavi

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Because of endemic parasitological infectious diseases in Iran and contaminated vegetables, as one of the most important ways of contamination, carried out a parasitical study on 263 vegetable samples from 44 farms in the suburbs of Tehran city, and also 166 vegetables samples from 20 green grocery markets in the same city. From 263 samples of farms 147 cases (65% of contamination were recorded, of which 43 cases (16/5% of human pathogenic parasites were isolated. In this study various techniques were used such as: Baermann funnel, centrifuging of plants and soil, temporal precipitation procedure and so on. Ova and parasites such as Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Trichostrongylus sp. Toxocara sp. Larvae of Nematodes, protozoa cysts like Amoeba sp. Giardia lamblia and some flagellatae were seen. The highest percent of contamination was detected in leek and parsley and the lowest one was detected in tarragon. The results show that vegetables could be a potential source of parasitic infection.

  13. Intestinal parasites and genotyping of Giardia duodenalis in children: first report of genotype B in isolates from human clinical samples in Mexico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Julio César, Torres-Romero; Antonio de Jesus, Euan-Canto; Namibya, Benito-González; Nayely, Padilla-Montaño; Claribel, Huchin-Chan; Julio, Lara-Riegos; Roberto, Cedillo-Rivera.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Giardia duodenalis is one of the most prevalent enteroparasites in children. This parasite produces several clinical manifestations. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of genotypes of G. duodenalis causing infection in a region of southeastern Mexico. G. duodenalis cysts were iso [...] lated (33/429) from stool samples of children and molecular genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis, targeting the triosephosphate isomerase ( tpi ) and glutamate dehydrogenase ( gdh ) genes. The tpi gene was amplified in all of the cyst samples, either for assemblage A (27 samples) or assemblage B (6 samples). RFLP analysis classified the 27 tpi -A amplicons in assemblage A, subgenotype I. Samples classified as assemblage B were further analysed using PCR-RFLP of the gdh gene and identified as assemblage B, subgenotype III. To our knowledge, this is the first report of assemblage B of G. duodenalis in human clinical samples from Mexico.

  14. DO AUTOCHTHONOUS BACTERIA AFFECT GIARDIA CYST SURVIVAL IN NATURAL WATERS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardia lamblia survives in and is transmitted to susceptible human and animal populations via water, where it is present in an environmentally resistant cyst form. Previous research has highlighted the importance of water temperature in cyst survival, and has also suggested the ...

  15. DIATOMACEOUS EARTH FILTRATION OF 'GIARDIA' CYSTS AND OTHER SUBSTANCES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilot-plant tests resulted in virtually 100% removals of Giardia lamblia cysts for both coarse and fine grades of diatomaceous earth over a wide range of conditions. Removals of turbidity and total coliform bacteria were functionally dependent on the grade of diatomaceous earth. ...

  16. Parasitismo intestinal en niños de círculos infantiles en un municipio / Intestinal parasitism in children from daycare centers of a municipality

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María del Carmen, Hernández Alfaro; Catalina, Palacios Mesa.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el parasitismo intestinal representa un importante problema de salud mundial por su alta prevalencia y distribución universal. Constituye una importante causa de morbilidad y mortalidad en lactantes y niños de todo el orbe. Objetivo: identificar la prevalencia de las principales especi [...] es parasitarias intestinales en círculos infantiles del municipio La Palma. Método: se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo transversal, durante los meses de octubre y noviembre 2012, en el que se estudiaron 495 niños asistentes a los seis círculos infantiles del municipio La Palma. Fueron recolectadas por cada niño, 3 muestras fecales frescas, en días alternos, las que se procesaron con los métodos coproparasitológicos de examen directo y técnica de concentración de Ritchie- Willis. Resultados: el 48,3% de la muestra estaba parasitada, con una mayor prevalencia en el quinto año de vida (58,8%), predominó el sexo masculino (54,8%). Las especies más frecuentes fueron Giardia lamblia (38,1%), Entamoeba histolytica (30,1%) y Enterobius vermicularis (19,2%). El poliparasitismo se apreció (12,2%) de los niños, la asociación de parásitos muestra a Giardia lamblia en tres combinaciones. Junto al Enterobius vermicularis (37,2 %), con Entamoeba histolytica/E dispar (33,3 %) y los tres a la vez (29,4%). Conclusiones: aproximadamente la mitad de los niños estudiados se encontraban parasitados, estos resultados fueron más frecuentes a partir del cuarto año de vida, con una mayor prevalencia en el sexo masculino en todas las especies parasitarias, predominado las infecciones por protozoarios, con mayor frecuencia Giardia lamblia y asociaciones de parásitos en varios casos. Abstract in english Introduction: intestinal parasitism is a major global health problem because of its high prevalence and universal distribution. It is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in infants and children around the world. Objective: to identify the prevalence of major intestinal parasitic species in [...] daycare centers of La Palma. Method: an observational descriptive study was conducted during the months of October and November of 2012, in which 495 children were studied, attending the six daycare centers of La Palma Municipality. Three fresh fecal samples were collected from each child, on alternate days, and processed with direct parasitological methods and technical examination of Ritchie-Willis concentration. Results: 48.3% of the samples were parasitized, with a higher prevalence in the fifth year of life (58.8%), the male sex was the predominant one (54.8%). The most frequent species were Giardia lamblia (38.1%), Entamoeba (30.1%) and Enterobius vermicularis (19.2%). Polyparasitism was observed in 12.2% of the children, being the association of parasites Giardia lamblia shown in three combinations. Together with Enterobius vermicularis (37.2%), with histolytica Entamoeba (33.3%), and with the three of them at the same time (29.4%). Conclusions: about half of the children studied were parasitized; these results were more frequent after the fourth year of life, with a higher prevalence in male children and all parasitic species, with a predominance of protozoal infections, most often Giardia lamblia parasite associations in several cases.

  17. Intestinal Parasites Infection among Immunocompromised Patients in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafa A.I. Al-Megrin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites among immunocompromised patients in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Fecal samples were collected from 136 immunocompromised patients (52 females and 84 males, aged 2 to 69 years. Specimens were fixed with 10% formalin for 30 min (2-3 g fecal-1 and then concentrated by a formalin-ether sedimentation technique. Samples were examined as wet saline mounts and in iodine preparation for detection of protozoan oocysts, cysts, helminthic eggs and larvae. Permanent stained smears were performed for intestinal coccidian parasites by the modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique and the modified trichrome stain. Intestinal parasites were detected in 54 (39.7% most of them (25.7% were with diarrhea. More specifically the following parasites were detected Cryptosporidium parvum 11(8.1%, Giardia lamblia 9 (6.6%, Cyclospora cayetanensis 8 (5.9%, Blastocystis hominis 7 (5.2%, Entamoeba histolytica 7 (5.2%, Entamoeba coli 5 (3.7%, Strongyloides stercoralis 3 (2.2%, Ascaris lumbricoides 1 (0.7%, Hymenolepis nana 1 (0.7%, Dicrocoelium dendriticum 1 (0.7% and Hook worm 1 (0.7%. The most common parasite associated with diarrhea in patients, was C. parvum (p<0.001, followed by G. lamblia, C. cayetanensis and E. histolytica. However, differences between different age groups were statistically non-significant. Similarly, no significant difference in the infection rate were found between male and female patients.

  18. Comparison of Routine Method with Antibody and Antigen Ones for Diagnosing Giardia-Entamoeba Histolytica in Stool and Blood

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    Gharavi, MJ. (PhD

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica are the most prevalent human intestinal pathogenic protozoa, worldwide. The clinical features of Giardia infection are acute diarrhea, a chronic condition with continuous diarrhea and malabsorption. Entamoeba histolytica invade intestinal tract without any typical clinical indications, and it can involve liver and other organs too. Therefore, we aimed to study these protozoa by serological and parasitological methods. Material and Methods: In this comparative study, the stool and blood specimens were collected from 1025 patients selected via simple random sampling in three different laboratories located in Tehran and Karaj, Iran (2012. Formalin Detergent test was performed on all samples. Both serum and stool positive samples of this method were analyzed for antigen and antibodies related to Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica, respectively. Results: of 1025 stool specimens, 76 (4.7% were positive for Giardia lamblia and 19 (1.8% for Entamoeba histolytica using Formalin-detergent method. In ELISA, 81 (7.9% coproantibodies to Giardia lamblia and 24 (2.3% coproantibodies to Entamoeba histolytica, 78 (7.6% corproantigen for Giardia lamblia, and 5 (0.4% for Entamoeba histolytica were observed. circulatory antibodies to Entamoeba histlytica were detected in 22 cases (2.1% Conclusion: Sensitivity of microscopic method compared to serological methods is higher than 90%; therefore, Formalin-detergent method can be the best method for stool examination.

  19. In vitro activity of 'Mexican Arnica' Heterotheca inuloides Cass natural products and some derivatives against Giardia intestinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Chávez, José Luis; Rufino-González, Yadira; Ponce-Macotela, Martha; Delgado, Guillermo

    2015-04-01

    Giardiasis is a gastrointestinal disease that affects humans and other animals caused by parasitic protists of the genus Giardia. Giardia intestinalis (Syn. Giardia lamblia; Giardia duodenalis) infections can cause acute or chronic diarrhoea, dehydration, abdominal discomfort and weight loss. Metronidazole is the most widely used drug for treating giardiasis. Although effective, metronidazol has undesirable secondary effects. Plants used in traditional medicine as antidiarrhoeals or antiparasitics may represent alternative sources for new compounds to treat giardiasis. Heterotheca inuloides Cass. (Asteraceae/Compositae) plant is widely used in Mexican traditional medicine. The following secondary metabolites were isolated from H. inuloides flowers: 7-hydroxy-3,4-dihydrocadalene (1), 7-hydroxycadalene (2), 3,7-dihydroxy-3(4H)-isocadalen-4-one (3), 1R,4R-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrocadalen-15-oic acid (4), quercetin (5), quercetin-3,7,3'-trimethyl ether (6), quercetin-3,7,3',4'-tetramethyl ether (7) and eriodictyol-7,4'-dimethyl ether (8). The activity of these compounds against Giardia intestinalis trophozoites was assessed in vitro as was the activity of the semisynthetic compounds 7-acetoxy-3,4-dihydrocadalene (9), 7-benzoxy-3,4-dihydrocadalene (10), 7-acetoxycadalene (11), 7-benzoxycadalene (12), quercetin pentaacetate (13) and 7-hydroxycalamenene (14). Among these, 7-hydroxy-3,4-dihydrocadalene (1) and 7-hydroxycalamenene (14) were the most active, whereas the remaining compounds showed moderate or no activity. The G. intestinalis trophozoites exposed to compound 1 showed marked changes in cellular architecture along with ultrastructural disorganization. The aim of this study was to evaluate the giardicidal activity of selected H. inuloides metabolites and some semisynthetic derivatives using an in vitro experimental model of giardiasis. PMID:25363565

  20. GIARDIASIS EXTRAINTESTINAL: ENTRE REALIDADES Y MITOS Extra intestinal manifestations of Giardia Infection: Among myth and reality

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    Saleh Ali Almannoni

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Revisar lo publicado sobre las asociaciones entre giardiasis y manifestaciones extraintestinales y, en los casos de las mejor estudiadas, sobre los mecanismos por los que G. lamblia podría ser capaz de producir daños en órganos y tejidos distantes de la superficie intestinal a la que se adhiere. Se revisaron, previa búsqueda en Medline , todos los artículos publicados sobre manifestaciones extraintestinales de la giardiasis, o relacionados con este tema, durante el período 1985-2006. Puntualmente, algunas monografías y reportes de casos fechados con anterioridad al intervalo mencionado también fueron consultados. Muy variadas son las lesiones asociaciadas a giardiasis descritas en la literatura revisada. De todas ellas, la urticaria y el angiedema, la lesión en “sal y pimienta” del epitelio pigmentado de la retina, la glositis y la artritis reactiva son las más rigurosamente demostradas. En relación con las restantes, estudios adicionales, con el empleo de diseños e instrumentación adecuados, deben demostrar hasta qué punto no son un mito. En perspectivas, además de la continuación de las investigaciones que confirmen y expliquen la existencia de las asociaciones citadas, se hace necesario incursionar en la exploración de los conocimientos, percepciones y prácticas de los médicos relacionados con el diagnóstico, tratamiento y control de la giardiasis. Ello es así, sobre todo, si tenemos en cuenta que en nuestra red de salud se ha hecho habitual el diagnóstico de giardiasis a pacientes con lesiones dermatológicas de naturaleza muy variada y causa no conocida, muchas veces sin el hallazgo del protozoo en sus heces o en el fluido duodenal correspondiente.The purpose of this paper is to go through the literature to review what is published in connection with the association among giardia lamblia infection and extra intestinal manifestations of the disease and the mechanisms which intervene in producing such distant lesions taking in consideration the location of the parasite. Of all the lesions associated to the parasite, rash, angioedema, salt and pepper lesions in the pigments epithelium of the retina, glositis and reactive arthritis are the most rigorously long-established. Regarding others, experimental studies must be carried out to ascertain to which point they are a myth or not. In perspective, besides all the tests that are needed to confirmed the quoted associations, it is necessary to explore the knowledge, perception and practice of doctors related to the diagnosis, prevention and control of the giardia infection. In our Health Care System is very common to find a giardia infection diagnosis in the case of a dermatological infection of unknown origin, most of the times without the findings of the parasite in neither faeces nor bile.

  1. GIARDIASIS EXTRAINTESTINAL: ENTRE REALIDADES Y MITOS / Extra intestinal manifestations of Giardia Infection: Among myth and reality

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Saleh, Ali Almannoni; Deisy, Martín Pupo; Alexis, Monzote López; Luis, Fonte Galindo.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Revisar lo publicado sobre las asociaciones entre giardiasis y manifestaciones extraintestinales y, en los casos de las mejor estudiadas, sobre los mecanismos por los que G. lamblia podría ser capaz de producir daños en órganos y tejidos distantes de la superficie intestinal a la que se adhiere. Se [...] revisaron, previa búsqueda en Medline , todos los artículos publicados sobre manifestaciones extraintestinales de la giardiasis, o relacionados con este tema, durante el período 1985-2006. Puntualmente, algunas monografías y reportes de casos fechados con anterioridad al intervalo mencionado también fueron consultados. Muy variadas son las lesiones asociaciadas a giardiasis descritas en la literatura revisada. De todas ellas, la urticaria y el angiedema, la lesión en “sal y pimienta” del epitelio pigmentado de la retina, la glositis y la artritis reactiva son las más rigurosamente demostradas. En relación con las restantes, estudios adicionales, con el empleo de diseños e instrumentación adecuados, deben demostrar hasta qué punto no son un mito. En perspectivas, además de la continuación de las investigaciones que confirmen y expliquen la existencia de las asociaciones citadas, se hace necesario incursionar en la exploración de los conocimientos, percepciones y prácticas de los médicos relacionados con el diagnóstico, tratamiento y control de la giardiasis. Ello es así, sobre todo, si tenemos en cuenta que en nuestra red de salud se ha hecho habitual el diagnóstico de giardiasis a pacientes con lesiones dermatológicas de naturaleza muy variada y causa no conocida, muchas veces sin el hallazgo del protozoo en sus heces o en el fluido duodenal correspondiente. Abstract in english The purpose of this paper is to go through the literature to review what is published in connection with the association among giardia lamblia infection and extra intestinal manifestations of the disease and the mechanisms which intervene in producing such distant lesions taking in consideration the [...] location of the parasite. Of all the lesions associated to the parasite, rash, angioedema, salt and pepper lesions in the pigments epithelium of the retina, glositis and reactive arthritis are the most rigorously long-established. Regarding others, experimental studies must be carried out to ascertain to which point they are a myth or not. In perspective, besides all the tests that are needed to confirmed the quoted associations, it is necessary to explore the knowledge, perception and practice of doctors related to the diagnosis, prevention and control of the giardia infection. In our Health Care System is very common to find a giardia infection diagnosis in the case of a dermatological infection of unknown origin, most of the times without the findings of the parasite in neither faeces nor bile.

  2. Parasitic Infections among Restaurant Workers in Mukalla (Hadhramout/Yemen

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    AM AL-Haddad

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: To identify intestinal parasites among restaurant workers in Mukalla, Yemen in 2007."nMethods: Stool specimens were collected and examined from a total of 500 restaurant workers at Hadhramout University Health Center .Three types of techniques were used: direct examination, saline sedimentation and formol-ether concentration."nResults:  The positivity in majority of them was single infection whereas 6 cases were double infection that constituted 1.3% of the prevalence. The prevalence was 14.8 % for Entamoeba histolytica/dispor, and 5.2 % for Giardia lamblia, while it was 4.4% for Hymenolepis nana. Other intestinal parasites including Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostoma duodinale were also detected. Additionally, the blood parasite Schistosoma mansoni was also detected in 4 cases. The double infection was only with E. histolytica/dispor and Giardia. The infection with these parasites was also accompanied by abdominal troubles "diarrhea, constipation", nausea and vomiting."nConclusion:  These results lead to understand that sanitary measurements are not effective, and this hazardous situation facilitate parasitic agents' distribution among clients. The effectiveness of current pre-employment screening policy must be annual and systematic surveillance is needed in addition to health education.

  3. Intestinal parasitic infections in renal transplant recipients

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    Mehdi Azami

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The impact of intestinal parasitic infection in renal transplant recipients requires careful consideration in the developing world. However, there have been very few studies addressing this issue in Iran. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in renal transplant recipients in Iran. Stool specimens from renal transplant recipients and control groups were obtained between June 2006 and January 2007. The samples screened for intestinal parasitic infections using direct smear, formalin-ether sedimentation, Sheather's flotation and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining methods. Out of 150 renal transplant recipients, 33.3% (50, and out of 225 control group, 20% (45 were infected with one or more type of intestinal parasites. The parasites detected among patients included Entamoeba coli (10.6%, Endolimax nana (8.7%, Giardia lamblia (7.4%, Blastocystis spp. (4.7%, Iodamoeba butschlii (0.7%, Chilomastix mesnili (0.7% and Ascaris lumbricoides (0.7%. Multiple infections were more common among renal transplant recipients group (p < 0.05. This study highlights the importance of testing for intestinal parasites among Iranian renal transplant recipients. Routine examinations of stool samples for parasites would significantly benefit the renal transplant recipients by contributing to reduce severe infections.

  4. A study on parasites in Mexican rheumatic disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Balderas, F J; Camargo-Coronel, A; Gargia-Jaimes, J; Zonana-Nacach, A; Alcantara-Anguianoi, I; Carrillo-Becerril, L; Tapia-Romero, R; Gonzalez, T S; Villalobos-Gomez, F; Martinez-Hernandez, S; Ventura-Juarez, J; Jimenez-Balderas, E A; Méndez-Samperio, P; de-la-Rosa-Arana, J L

    2012-08-01

    Blastocystis hominis is a common human parasite with infection rates up to 50% in developing countries, and giardiasis is the commonest intestinal one in Mexico. No doubt, various parasites as Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica can cause rheumatic diseases. This study coproparasitoscopic analysis evaluated the cysts by B. hominis, G. lamblia, E. hartmani, E. coli and E. histolytica in Mexican rheumatic disease patients. Also, ELISA was used to detect E. histolytica, Ascaris lumbricoides, Toxocara canis, and Trichinella spiralis in Mexican patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Thirty-six patients (24 with AS and 12 with RA) and 77 healthy control individuals were enrolled in this study. The frequencies of protozoan cysts were comparable in rheumatic disease patients (AS and RA) and healthy control donors (33 and 25 vs. 26%, respectively; p > 0.05). The frequency of antibodies to T. canis was significantly higher in AS patients than in healthy control donors (16 vs. 2.6%, respectively; p = 0.027), whereas no differences were observed for the prevalence of antibodies for the other parasites (E. histolytica, A. lumbricoides and T. spiralis) (p > 0.05). This information indicates the need to intensify educational efforts for the prevention of parasite infections associated with AS disease that cannot be controlled only by drugs. PMID:23214207

  5. Intestinal parasitic infection among Egyptian children with chronic liver diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shazly, Lerine Bahy El-Dine; El-Faramawy, Amel Abdel Magid; El-Sayed, Nagwa Mostafa; Ismail, Khadiga Ahmed; Fouad, Sally Mohammed

    2015-03-01

    Patients with chronic liver diseases (CLD) are often highly susceptible to parasitic infection due to a depressed immune system. The objective of this study was to detect the most commonly intestinal parasites found among Egyptian children with CLD. The present study was conducted on 50 children with CLD of different etiology (25 were having different intestinal symptoms, 25 without intestinal symptoms) and 50 non-CLD children with gastrointestinal complaints served as controls. All cases were subjected to stool examination and investigated by liver function tests. Also, anthropometric measurements were taken for all children including weight and height. It was found that the most commonly intestinal protozoa identified in the patients with CLD in order of frequency were: Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar (16 %), Giardia lamblia (14 %), Blastocystis hominis (14 %), Cryptosporidium parvum (10 %), E. histolytica and G. lamblia (2 %), E. histolytica and B. hominis (2 %), G. lamblia and B. hominis (2 %), B. hominis and Entamoeba coli (2 %), Microsporidium (2 %) and no cases were found infected with Strongyloides stercoralis. As compared to the controls, the observed incidence of these organisms in CLD patients was significantly higher (p < 0.045) as regards stool examination by unstained techniques while, there was no significant difference between both groups as regards stool examination by stained techniques (p < 0.478). In addition, this study showed that the weight and height of studied patients were affected by parasitic infection while, there was no significant correlation between parasitic infection and liver function tests. In conclusion, chronic liver diseases affect the immunity of the patients as shown in significant increase in the incidence of intestinal parasites in cases compared to controls. PMID:25698851

  6. A Comparative Analysis of Intestinal Parasitic Infections between HIV+/AIDS Patients and Non-HIV Infected Individuals

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    EB Kia

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to verify the occurrence of intestinal parasitic infections in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS patients in Iran in comparison with non-HIV individuals. Methods: A total of HIV+/AIDS patients (Group I and 1220 clinically healthy individuals (Group II were submitted to coproparasitological examination from 2003 to 2005. Results: The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites in group I and group II was 11.4% and 11.6%, respectively, without significant difference between two groups. The prevalence of infection for each helminth and pathogenic protozoan, in every group, was as follows: Group I: Blastocystis hominis (6.1%; Giardia lamblia (4.2%; Cryptosporidium spp. (0.9%; Isospora belli (0.26%; Strongyloides stercoralis (0.26%; Hymenolepis nana (0.13%; and Rhabditis axei (0.13%. Group II: Blastocystis hominis (6.5%; Giardia lamblia (4.1%; Strongyloides stercoralis (0.33%; Hymenolepis nana (0.16%; and Trichostrongylus sp. (0.16%. Although the prevalence of infection for extracellular parasites was not statistically different between two groups, however, the infection rates for enteric coccidians including Cryptosporidium spp. and I. belli were significantly higher in patients at AIDS stage than Group II. Conclusion: The results emphasize the needs for especial consideration of enteropathogenic intracellular coccidians in immunocompromised patients.

  7. Frequency of Intestinal Parasites in Tehran

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    H Oormazdi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: For a long time, intestinal parasite infections are among the major problems of public health in Iran. Our aim was epidemiological studies on the frequency of intestinal parasites in patients re­ferred to three hospitals in Tehran during 2007-2008."nMethods: During 2007-2008, by simple random selection, 1000 stool samples were collected from Mi­lad, Hazrat-e-Rasoul and Shahid Fahmideh hospitals in Tehran, Iran. We examined the samples using di­rect smear, formol-ethyl acetate concentration, Agar-plate culture and Ziehl-Neelsen staining tech­nique."nResults: The frequency of intestinal parasites were: Blastocystis hominis 12.8%, Giardia lamblia 2.5%, En­tamoeba coli 4.8%, Iodamoeba butschlli 0.9%, unknown 4 nuclei cysts 0.4%, Endolimax nana 3.2%, Chilomastix mesnili 0.4%, Strongyloides stercoralis 0.1%, Hymenolepis nana 0.2% and Taenia sagi­nata 0.2%. Coccidian parasites were not found. Results show that infection with intestinal parasites does not statistically significant according to sex and age."nConclusion: The intestinal parasites, especially helminthic infections have been decreased during re­cent years.

  8. Intestinal Parasitic Infections in Renal Transplant Recipients

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    EB Kia

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Organ transplant recipients can experience serious diseases from infections due to emerging and reemerging parasitic infections. This study was carried out to evaluate the prevalence of intestinal parasites among renal transplant re-cipients of Iran. "nMethods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from June 2003 to August 2004 on renal transplant recipients in Iran. A total of 706 fecal samples obtained from randomly selected population originated from all over Iran. Patient's information was recorded in a questionnaire before sampling. A sample of stool was taken from each person. Direct wet smear exami-nation, formalin-ether concentration, Ziehl-neelsen staining, and agar plate culture were done for each sample. "nResults: Totally 32 patients (4.5% were positive for parasitic infections. In searching for emerging parasitic infections, the most prevalent parasites were found to be Blastocystis hominis, Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba coli, respectively. The merely ova which were seen were related to Hymenolepis nana. With investigation of healthy control, no significant differ-ence was found between transplanted and normal population. "nConclusion: The population showed controlled rate of intestinal infections probably due to regular awareness concerning risks of opportunistic infections; albeit regular surveillance through routine examination of stool samples for parasites seems considerably advantages the transplant recipient patients.

  9. Parasitismo intestinal en una población infantil venezolana / Intestinal parasitism in a Venezuelan pediatric population

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Heriberto, Arencibia Sosa; José Luis, Lobaina Lafita; Carlos, Terán Guardia; Rafael, Legrá Rodríguez; Aylin, Arencibia Aquino.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y transversal de 146 niños con parasitismo intestinal, como muestra representativa de los 227 pacientes de 0-14 años, pertenecientes al Sector 8, Parroquia de Cartanal, Estado Miranda, de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela, en el período 2007- 2008, a fin de cara [...] cterizarles según variables de interés. En la serie predominaron el grupo etario de 0 a 4 años, el sexo masculino, la Giardia lamblia como parásito más frecuente, además de la anemia, la diarrea persistente y el síndrome diarreico agudo como complicaciones más comunes. A fin de minimizar este problema, se recomendó incrementar las actividades de educación sanitaria a la población, para así promover hábitos y estilos de vida saludables. Abstract in english A descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted in 146 children with intestinal parasitism as a representative sample of 227 patients at age 0-14 years, belonging to the Sector 8, Cartanal parish, Miranda State, of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, from 2007 to 2008, in order to characteri [...] ze them according to variates of interest. In the series the age group of 0 to 4 years, male sex and Giardia lamblia as the most frequent parasite predominated, as well as anemia, persistent diarrhea and acute diarrheal syndrome as the most common complications. To resolve this problem, it was recommended to increase health education activities in the population, thus promoting healthy habits and lifestyles

  10. The Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites in Children Attending Day–Care Centers in Yazd City, Iran

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    Mohammad Hosein Anvari Tafti

    2014-07-01

    Results: In total 10 % of children harbored at least one type of intestinal parasite. The rates of infection were as follows: Blastocystis hominis 2.8%, Giardia lamblia 2.8%, Entamoeba coli 1.1%, Chilomastix mesnili 1.7%, Dientamoeba fragilis 1.1.%. Infection rate in male was 12.9% and in female it was 6.9%. The relationship between sex, age, anthropometric indicators, and parasitic infection was not statistically significant. A statistically significant difference was observed between infection, parents’ education and mothers' job (P<0.005. Conclusion: The results of this study, showed a considerable decrease in the rate of intestinal parasitic infections in comparison with other studies. This may be owing to the improvements in personal environment, and health which have occurred through public education campaigns, health information raising, sanitation facilities improvement, proper waste and wastewater disposal, control of drinking-water, and food safety.

  11. Intestinal Parasites Prevalence in Children from Day Care Centers in Sinop City-MT

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    B. Muchiutti

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the intestinal parasitosis prevalence of children from municipal day care centers in Sinop MT. Respecting ethical principles established by Resolution 196/96 of Health National Council/Ministry of Health of quantitative research, the anonymity of participants, as well accept and signature of parents of the Term of Free and Enlightened Consent were performed. Between Junes to October 2012 were applied coproparasitological methods for investigation. Fecal samples were analyzed by Hoffmans methods. From 103 students examined observed the prevalence rate of 19.42% of intestinal parasites. The intestinal parasites with highest prevalence rate were: Giardia lamblia (9.70% and Endolimax nana (5.82%. The results of this study demonstrate the need for sensitization of the population front of diagnosis importance, treatment and monitoring of positive cases and the necessity of more health professionals attention, especially with children.Key-words: Intestinal parasites, day care centers, children.

  12. Prevalence of intestinal parasites among food handlers in Western Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirandish, Farnaz; Tarahi, Mohammad Javad; Ezatpour, Behrouz

    2014-01-01

    Parasitic infection is one of the problems that affect human health, especially in developing countries. In this study, all of the fast food shops, restaurants, and roast meat outlets of Khorramabad (Western Iran) and all the staff employed by them, some 210 people, were selected through a census and their stools were examined for the presence of parasites. The parasitological tests of direct wet-mount, Lugol's iodine staining, formaldehyde-ether sedimentation and Trichrome staining techniques were performed on the samples. The data was analyzed with a chi-square test and logistic regression was selected as the analytical model. The results showed 19 (9%) stool specimens were positive for different intestinal parasites. These intestinal parasites included Giardia lamblia 2.9%, Entamoeba coli 4.3%, Blastocystis sp. 1.4%, and Hymenolepis nana 0.5%. There was a significant difference between the presence of a valid health card, awareness of transmission of intestinal parasites, participation in training courses in environmental health with intestinal parasites (p 0.05). To control parasitic infection in food handlers, several strategies are recommended such as stool examinations every three months, public education, application of health regulations, controlling the validity of health cards and training on parasitic infection transmission. In this regard, the findings of the present study can be used as a basis to develop preventive programs targeting food handlers because the spread of disease via them is a common problem worldwide. PMID:24626411

  13. Intestinal parasitic infections in renal transplant recipients

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mehdi, Azami; Mehran, Sharifi; Sayed Hossein, Hejazi; Mehdi, Tazhibi.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The impact of intestinal parasitic infection in renal transplant recipients requires careful consideration in the developing world. However, there have been very few studies addressing this issue in Iran. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in rena [...] l transplant recipients in Iran. Stool specimens from renal transplant recipients and control groups were obtained between June 2006 and January 2007. The samples screened for intestinal parasitic infections using direct smear, formalin-ether sedimentation, Sheather's flotation and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining methods. Out of 150 renal transplant recipients, 33.3% (50), and out of 225 control group, 20% (45) were infected with one or more type of intestinal parasites. The parasites detected among patients included Entamoeba coli (10.6%), Endolimax nana (8.7%), Giardia lamblia (7.4%), Blastocystis spp. (4.7%), Iodamoeba butschlii (0.7%), Chilomastix mesnili (0.7%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (0.7%). Multiple infections were more common among renal transplant recipients group (p

  14. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in the Greek population: local people and refugees

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    M.G. Papazahariadou, E.G. Papadopoulos S.E. Frydas, Ch. Mavrovouniotis,T.C. Constantinidis, K. Antoniadou-Sotiriadou,

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY A total of 455 faecal samples from the Greek population and refugees was examined and 18.02% were found to be infected with one or more species of parasites. The prevalence of infection with intestinal parasites of the Greek (264 population was 11.36% and that of foreigners (191 originating from Europe, Africa and Asia was 27.23%. Found were a protozoan parasites: Blastocystis hominis, Cryptosporidium parvum, Entamoeba coli and Giardia lamblia (found in both groups examined and b metazoan parasites: Enterobius vermicularis, Taenia spp. and Strongyloides stercoralis (in both groups and Ancylostoma duodenale, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and Schistosoma mansoni (only in foreigners. Among the parasites found in foreigners only the helminth species A. duodenale and S. mansoni are considered as imported parasites from tropical and subtropical regions to European countries. The use of the multiple logistic regression showed that the odds ratio comparing Greeks to refugees, adjusted for age and gender, was 3.8 for Africans, 3.0 for Europeans and 2.6 for Asians. No correlation was found between age, gender or symptoms (diarrhea or abdominal pain with the presence of parasites. The overall prevalence of infection with parasites was high in both the Greek population and refugees and therefore a screening for parasite infection is recommended for the prevention of further spread of the infections. Key words: parasites, immigrants, Greece

  15. Giardia assemblage A: human genotype in muskoxen in the Canadian Arctic

    OpenAIRE

    Nagy John; Wielinga Caroline M; Kandola Kami; Polley Lydden; Thompson RC Andrew; Kutz Susan J; Elkin Brett T

    2008-01-01

    Abstract As part of an ongoing program assessing the biodiversity and impacts of parasites in Arctic ungulates we examined 72 fecal samples from muskoxen on Banks Island, Northwest Territories, Canada for Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Cryptosporidium spp. were not detected, but 21% of the samples were positive for Giardia. Sequencing of four isolates of Giardia demonstrated G. duodenalis, Assemblage A, a zoonotic genotype.

  16. Evaluation of the EasyScreen™ enteric parasite detection kit for the detection of Blastocystis spp., Cryptosporidium spp., Dientamoeba fragilis, Entamoeba complex, and Giardia intestinalis from clinical stool samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, D; Roberts, T; Ellis, J T; Marriott, D; Harkness, J

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the EasyScreen™ Enteric Parasite Detection Kit (Genetic Signatures, Sydney, Australia) for the detection and identification of 5 common enteric parasites: Blastocystis spp., Cryptosporidium spp., Dientamoeba fragilis, Entamoeba complex, and Giardia intestinalis in human clinical samples. A total of 358 faecal samples were included in the study. When compared to real-time PCR and microscopy, the EasyScreen™ Enteric Parasite Detection Kit exhibited 92-100% sensitivity and 100% specificity and detected all commonly found genotypes and subtypes of clinically important human parasites. No cross reactivity was detected in stool samples containing various other bacterial, viral, and/or protozoan species. The EasyScreen™ PCR assay was able to provide rapid, sensitive, and specific simultaneous detection and identification of the 5 most important diarrhoea-causing enteric parasites that infect humans. It should be noted, however, that the EasyScreen™ Kit does not substitute for microscopy or for additional PCRs as it does not detect the pathogenic Coccidia spp. Cystoisospora belli or Cyclospora cayetanensis and it does not differentiate between pathogenic and nonpathogenic Entamoeba spp. This study also highlights the lack of sensitivity demonstrated by microscopy; as such, molecular methods should be considered the diagnostic method of choice for enteric parasites. PMID:24286625

  17. Zoonotic Parasites of Bobcats around Human Landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Carver, Scott; Scorza, Andrea V.; Bevins, Sarah N.; Riley, Seth P. D.; Crooks, Kevin R.; Vandewoude, Sue; Lappin, Michael R

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed Lynx rufus fecal parasites from California and Colorado, hypothesizing that bobcats shed zoonotic parasites around human landscapes. Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium, Ancylostoma, Uncinaria, and Toxocara cati were shed. Toxoplasma gondii serology demonstrated exposure. Giardia and Cryptosporidium shedding increased near large human populations. Genotyped Giardia may indicate indirect transmission with humans.

  18. REVIEW OF METHODS THAT ARE USED TO DETERMINE 'GIARDIA' CYST VIABILITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the past 55 years a number of methods have been described for excysting Giardia cysts as a means of determining viability. The excystation methods for G. muris cysts are reliable and reproducible. However, methods published to date for the excystation of G. lamblia cysts, th...

  19. DETERMINATION OF THE USE OF SOLID PARTICLE SAMPLERS FOR 'GIARDIA' CYSTS IN NATURAL WATERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The primary objective of this study was to improve the current methodology for concentrating, recovering, and detecting cysts of Giardia lamblia in water supplies. Two sampling processes for the concentration of cysts were examined. One process was diatomaceous earth filtration w...

  20. Ocular changes associated with Giardia lamblia infection in children

    OpenAIRE

    Corsi, A.; Nucci, C; Knafelz, D.; Bulgarini, D; Di, I; Polito, A.; De Risi, F; Morini, F; Paone, F

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND—The protozoan disease giardiasis can cause ocular complications, including "salt and pepper" retinal changes.?METHODS—Ophthalmic examinations were performed in 141 children (mean age 4.7 (SD 2.0) years) with active or past giardiasis diagnosed on the basis of microscopic examination of stool specimens or duodenal secretions—53 were newly diagnosed and untreated (group A), 50 had active infections in spite of metronidazole therapy (group B), and 38 had been successfully ...

  1. HUMAN PARASITE SURVEY ON NASI AND BERAS ISLANDS ACEH PROVINCE, SUMATRA

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    E. E. Stafford

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Survey parasit usus dan darah manusia terhadap penduduk pulau-pulau Nasi/Beras Propinsi Aceh, Sumatra, telah diadakan dihulan Januari, 1975. Sebanyak 83 pulasan darah dari 67 pria dan 16 wanita, serta 87 contoh tinja diperoleh dari 52 pria dan 35 wanita. Brugia malayi microfilaria ditemukan dalam 3 atau 3 persen dari darah yang diperiksa dan juga parasitemia yang disebabkan oleh Plasmodium malariae 1 atau 1 persen dan P. falciparum 2 atau 2 persen. Trichuris trichiura (86 persen , merupakan parasit usus yang paling banyak ditemukan, diikuti oleh cacing tambang (77 persen, Ascaris lumbricoides (60 persen, Entamoeba histolyrica (11 per sen, H. coli (10 persen . Endolimax nana hanya 5 atau 6 persen dan Iodamoeba butschlii dan Giardia lamblia, masing-masing 3 persen. Tidak ada ditemukan Schistosoma japonicum atau pun ova cestoda diantara penduduk yang diperiksa.

  2. Opportunistic parasites among immunosuppressed children in Minia District, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Hafeez, Ekhlas H; Ahmad, Azza K; Ali, Basma A; Moslam, Fadia A

    2012-03-01

    A total of 450 stool samples were collected from inpatient and outpatient clinics of Pediatric Department, Minia University Hospital, Minia District, Egypt. Two groups of patients were studied, including 200 immunosuppressed and 250 immunocompetent children. Stool samples were subjected to wet saline and iodine mounts. A concentration technique (formol-ether sedimentation method) was carried out for stool samples diagnosed negative by wet saline and iodine mounts. Samples were stained by 2 different methods; acid fast stain (modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain) and Giemsa stain. Total 188 cases (94%) were diagnosed positive for parasitic infections among immunosuppressed children, whereas 150 cases (60%) were positive in immunocompetent children (PBlastocystis hominis (12.1%), Isospora belli (9.7%), and Cyclospora caytenensis (7.8%). On the other hand, Entamoeba histolytica (24.6%) and Giardia lamblia (17.6%) were more common than other protozoans in immunocompetent children. PMID:22451735

  3. Giardia Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with trichrome. Credit: Waterborne Disease Prevention Branch, CDC Giardiasis is the most frequently diagnosed intestinal parasitic disease ... joints [ 2 , 7 , 8 ] . Sometimes, the symptoms of giardiasis might seem to resolve, only to come back ...

  4. Population-based laboratory surveillance for Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. infections in a large Canadian health region

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    Laupland Kevin B

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Giardia lamblia (intestinalis and Cryptosporidium parvum are the two most important intestinal parasites infecting North Americans but there is a paucity of active population-based surveillance data from Canada. This study determined the incidence of and demographic risk factors for developing Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. infections in a general Canadian population. Methods Population-based laboratory surveillance was conducted among all residents of the Calgary Health Region (CHR; population ? 1 million during May 1, 1999 and April 30, 2002. Results Giardia sp. infection occurred at a rate of 19.6 per 100,000 populations per year. Although the yearly incidence was stable, a significant seasonal variation was observed with a peak in late summer to early fall. Males were at higher risk for development of this infection as compared to females (21.2 vs. 17.9 per 100,000/yr; relative risk (RR 1.19; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.00–1.40, p = 0.047, and there was a significant decrease in risk associated with an increasing age. Cryptosporidium sp. infection occurred at an overall rate of 6.0 per 100,000 populations per year although a large outbreak of Cryptosporidium sp. infections occurred in the second half of the summer of 2001. During August and September of 2001, the incidence of cryptosporidiosis was 55.1 per 100,000 per year as compared to 3.1 per 100,000 per year for the remainder of the surveillance period (p Conclusion This study provides important information on the occurrence and demographic risk groups for acquisition of giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis in a non-selected Canadian population.

  5. INTESTINAL PARASITIC PREVALENCE IN HUMAN IMMUNO-DEFICIENT VIRUS (HIV INFECTED PATIENTS WITH AND WITHOUT DIARRHOEA AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH CD4 T CELLS COUNTS

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    Namita A. Raytekar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Intestinal parasitic infections are major cause of diarrhoea in HIV infected individuals. The present study was undertaken to detect intestinal parasites in HIV infected patients with and without diarrhoea and to determine association between enteric parasites and CD4 T cell count. Methods: The study was carried out at Department of Microbiology, Rural Medical College, Loni, India, between September 2010 and August 2012 among consecutively enrolled 127 HIV infected patients presenting with and without diarrhoea. Stool samples were collected and examined for enteric parasites by microscopy and special staining methods. CD4 cell counts records of patients were taken from Antiretroviral Treatment Centre (ARTC of the hospital. Results: Out of total 127 cases intestinal parasites were detected in 27 cases. The incidence of intestinal parasitic infection was 21.25%. Of 27 cases where parasites detected in total, Entamoeba histolytica 13 (48.14 % was found to be most prevalent parasite followed by Cryptosporidium parvum 9 (33.33% followed by Giardia lamblia 3 (11.11 % followed by Taenia spp. 2 (7.40%. In HIV infected patients with CD4 count < 200 cells/?l, C. parvum was the most commonly observed (88.88% parasite. Whereas the proportion of intestinal parasites in patients with CD4 count 200 – 499 cells/?l was significantly higher as compared with other two groups of patients with CD4 count < 200 and ? 500 cells/?l

  6. Detection of Cryptosporidium spp and other intestinal parasites in children with acute diarrhea and severe dehydration in Rio de Janeiro Detecção de Cryptosporidium spp e outros parasitas intestinais em crianças com diarréia aguda e desidratação grave no Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Anibal Carvalho-Costa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to estimate the frequency of infection by Cryptosporidium spp and other intestinal parasites in dehydrated children with gastroenteritis who were admitted to a pediatric hospital. Stool examinations from 218 children were performed. Cryptosporidium spp was identified in eighteen out of 193 stool samples (9.3% subjected to safranin-methylene blue staining. Giardia lamblia was detected in ten out of 213 (4.7% samples examined via the direct or Ritchie methods. Other parasites identified were Ascaris lumbricoides (4.2%, Blastocystis hominis (1.4%, Entamoeba coli (0.9%, Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar (0.5%, Endolimax nana (0.5%, Trichuris trichiura (0.5% and Enterobius vermicularis (0.5%.O objetivo do presente estudo foi estimar a freqüência das infecções por Cryptosporidium spp e outros parasitas intestinais em crianças desidratadas com gastroenterite, internadas em um hospital pediátrico. Exames de fezes de 218 crianças foram realizados. Cryptosporidium spp foi detectado em 18 de 193 (9,3% amostras fecais submetidas à coloração pela safranina/azul-de-metileno. Giardia lamblia foi detectada em dez de 213 (4,7% amostras submetidas ao exame direto ou ao método de Ritchie. Também foram identificados Ascaris lumbricoides (4,2%, Blastocystis hominis (1,4%, Entamoeba coli (0,9%, Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar (0,5%, Endolimax nana (0,5%, Trichuris trichiura (0,5% and Enterobius vermicularis (0,5%.

  7. Detection of Cryptosporidium spp and other intestinal parasites in children with acute diarrhea and severe dehydration in Rio de Janeiro / Detecção de Cryptosporidium spp e outros parasitas intestinais em crianças com diarréia aguda e desidratação grave no Rio de Janeiro

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Filipe Anibal, Carvalho-Costa; Alessandra Queiroga, Gonçalves; Sandra Laranjeira, Lassance; Carla Pontes de, Albuquerque; José Paulo Gagliardi, Leite; Márcio Neves, Bóia.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi estimar a freqüência das infecções por Cryptosporidium spp e outros parasitas intestinais em crianças desidratadas com gastroenterite, internadas em um hospital pediátrico. Exames de fezes de 218 crianças foram realizados. Cryptosporidium spp foi detectado em 18 de [...] 193 (9,3%) amostras fecais submetidas à coloração pela safranina/azul-de-metileno. Giardia lamblia foi detectada em dez de 213 (4,7%) amostras submetidas ao exame direto ou ao método de Ritchie. Também foram identificados Ascaris lumbricoides (4,2%), Blastocystis hominis (1,4%), Entamoeba coli (0,9%), Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar (0,5%), Endolimax nana (0,5%), Trichuris trichiura (0,5%) and Enterobius vermicularis (0,5%). Abstract in english The objective of the present study was to estimate the frequency of infection by Cryptosporidium spp and other intestinal parasites in dehydrated children with gastroenteritis who were admitted to a pediatric hospital. Stool examinations from 218 children were performed. Cryptosporidium spp was iden [...] tified in eighteen out of 193 stool samples (9.3%) subjected to safranin-methylene blue staining. Giardia lamblia was detected in ten out of 213 (4.7%) samples examined via the direct or Ritchie methods. Other parasites identified were Ascaris lumbricoides (4.2%), Blastocystis hominis (1.4%), Entamoeba coli (0.9%), Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar (0.5%), Endolimax nana (0.5%), Trichuris trichiura (0.5%) and Enterobius vermicularis (0.5%).

  8. Geographical location and age affects the incidence of parasitic infestations in school children

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    Rayan Paran

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Environmental factors affect the dissemination and distribution of intestinal parasites in human communities. To comprehend the prevalence of parasitic infestation and to examine whether geographical location and age also influence the prevalence of infection, fecal samples from 195 school children (rural = 95; male = 39; female = 56 (urban = 100; male = 60; female = 40 of five age groups ranging from 5 to 11 years in two different socio-economic zones (rural and urban were screened for specific intestinal parasites using standard histological techniques. Percentage incidences of parasitic species found in fecal wet mounts and concentrates in rural children were Entamoeba coli (25.3%, Giardia lamblia (17.9%, Blastocystis hominis (14.7%, Entamoeba histolytica (4.2%, Iodamoeba butschlii (1.1%, Hymenolepis nana (1.1% and Ascaris lumbricoides (1.1%. Whereas the percentage incidences among urban children were E. coli (26%, A. lumbricoides (21%, B. hominis (18%, G. lamblia (14%, T. trichiura (8%, I. butschlii (4% and A. duodenale (1%. Such findings may be related to dietary differences, living conditions and the greater use of natural anti-helminthic medicinal plants in rural communities. These results are important for both epidemiological data collection and for correlating dietary differences to intestinal parasitic diseases. Aims: We chose to investigate whether geographical location and age affect the prevalence and distribution of intestinal parasites among school children from two separate regions (rural and urban in areas surrounding, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. Settings and Design: A study of the prevalence of parasitic infestations was undertaken among primary school children, in rural and urban communities around Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. Materials and Methods: Faecal sample collection, direct microscopic techniques, macroscopic examination and concentration techniques for identifying the parasites. Statistical analysis used: Percentage incidences of parasitic species found in faecal wet mounts and concentrates were done instead of statistical analyses. Results: Both macroscopic and microscopic examinations of faecal samples revealed that the overall percentage prevalence of parasite species encountered in rural children were Entamoeba coli (25.3%, G. lamblia (17.9%, B. hominis (14.7%, Entamoeba histolytica (4.2%, I. butschlii (1.1%, H. nana (1.1%, Ascaris lumbricoides (1.1%. The prevalence among urban children were E. coli (26%, A. lumbricoides (21%, B. hominis (18%, G. lamblia (14%, T. trichiura (8%, I. butschlii (4% and A. duodenale (1%. Overall, comparative significant differences were noted between rural and urban children for E. histolytica (4.2 vs. 14%, G. lamblia (17.9 vs. 14%, A. lumbricoides (1.1 vs. 21% and T. trichiura (0 vs. 8%, with the major difference being the much higher occurrence of A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura infections in urban children. Conclusions: One of the greatest challenges for healthcare professionals is the prevention and treatment of protozoal and helminthic parasitic infections. From our study we conclude that the prevalence of different pathogenic species of amoeba such as Entamoeba histolytica (4.2 vs. 0% and G. lamblia (17.9 vs. 14%, (P value was equal to 1 was significantly higher among rural children compared to children from urban areas. In contrast, the prevalence of nematodes such as A. lumbricoides (21% vs. 1.1%, T. trichiura (8% vs. 0% and A. duodenale (1% was also significantly higher among rural children.

  9. Parasitosis intestinales en una población pediátrica de la ciudad de Rosario, Santa Fe, Argentina / Enteric parasites in children in Rosario, Santa Fe, Argentina / Parasitoses Intestinais numa população pediátrica da cidade de Rosario, Santa Fe, Argentina

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paula, Indelman; Claudia, Echenique; Griselda, Bertorini; Liliana, Racca; Carlos, Gomez; Alicia, Luque; Hortensia María, Magaró.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available As parasitoses intestinais afetam principalmente as crianças. O objetivo do trabalho é conhecer a situação atual numa população pediátrica de diferentes zonas da cidade de Rosario, Santa Fe (Argentina) e comparar a prevalência parasitária com estudos similares realizados nos períodos, 1983-1984 / 19 [...] 90-1991 / 1992-1993 / 2007-2008. Foram coletadas amostras de matéria fecal por evacuação espontânea de 112 pacientes, 51 meninas e 61 meninos, com idades compreendidas entre 4 meses e 16 anos, provenientes de 10 centros de atenção primária da saúde, (Secretaria de Saúde Pública-Prefeitura de Rosario). As amostras foram submetidas a exame macroscópico e microscópico direto e a métodos de concentração. No período 2007-2008 os parasitas mais encontrados foram Blastocystis hominis, Giardia lamblia e Ascaris lumbricoides. A prevalência parasitária diminuiu de 50 a 41%. Blastocystis hominis aumentou através do tempo; Giardia lamblia manteve valores constantes nas 4 etapas; Entamoeba coli diminuiu nos últimos 14 anos e Ascaris lumbricoides aumentou significativamente com relação ao período 1983-1984. Diminuíram os indivíduos poliparasitados e aumentaram os monoparasitados com relação a anos anteriores. A diminuição das enteroparasitoses poderia dar-se devido a políticas de saneamento ambiental, campanhas de prevenção e desparasitação realizadas desde os diversos centros de saúde municipal. Abstract in spanish Las parasitosis intestinales afectan principalmente a los niños. El objetivo de este trabajo es conocer la situación actual en una población pediátrica de diferentes zonas de la ciudad de Rosario, Santa Fe (Argentina) y comparar la prevalencia parasitaria con estudios similares realizados en los per [...] íodos 1983/1984, 1990/1991, 1992/1993 y 2007/2008. Se recolectaron muestras de materia fecal por deposición espontánea de 112 pacientes, 51 niñas y 61 niños, con edades comprendidas entre 4 meses y 16 años, provenientes de 10 Centros de Atención Primaria de la Salud (Secretaría de Salud Pública - Municipalidad de Rosario). Las muestras fueron sometidas a examen macroscópico y microscópico directo y a métodos de concentración. En el período 2007/2008 los parásitos más hallados fueron Blastocystis hominis, Giardia lamblia y Ascaris lumbricoides. La prevalencia parasitaria disminuyó del 50% al 41%. Blastocystis hominis aumentó a través del tiempo; Giardia lamblia mantuvo valores constantes en las cuatro etapas; Entamoeba coli disminuyó en los últimos 14 años y Ascaris lumbricoides aumentó significativamente en relación con el período 1983/1984. Disminuyeron los individuos poliparasitados y aumentaron los monoparasitados con respecto a años anteriores. La disminución de las enteroparasitosis podría deberse a políticas de saneamiento ambiental, campañas de prevención y desparasitación realizadas desde los distintos efectores de salud municipales. Abstract in english Faeces from 112 children patients (51 girls and 61 boys) ranging from 4 months old to 16 years old were studied. These patients were assisted in ten Public Health Care Centres in Rosario. The aim of this work was: to determine the incidence of enteric parasites in children, and to evaluate and compa [...] re parasite prevalence in the following periods: 1983/1984, 1990/1991, 1992/1993 and 2007/2008. Forty-one per cent of the samples showed protozoa and helmints. A decrease in the percentage of polyparasitized patients and an increase in the monoparasitized ones was observed when compared to previous years. Blastocystis hominis was found to increase in 2007/2008 while Giardia lamblia remained unaltered in the four periods studied. The occurrence of Entamoeba coli was found to decrease in the 1992/1993 period while Ascaris lumbricoides increased with time. These were the most common parasites found in the population studied. Enteric parasites decreased in children. The occurrence of parasites could be due to different socio-environmental factors: malnutrition, climat

  10. UV irradiation responses in Giardia intestinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarsson, Elin; Svärd, Staffan G; Troell, Karin

    2015-07-01

    The response to ultraviolet light (UV) radiation, a natural stressor to the intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia intestinalis, was studied to deepen the understanding of how the surrounding environment affects the parasite during transmission. UV radiation at 10 mJ/cm(2) kills Giardia cysts effectively whereas trophozoites and encysting parasites can recover from UV treatment at 100 mJ/cm(2) and 50 mJ/cm(2) respectively. Staining for phosphorylated histone H2A showed that UV treatment induces double-stranded DNA breaks and flow cytometry analyses revealed that UV treatment of trophozoites induces DNA replication arrest. Active DNA replication coupled to DNA repair could be an explanation to why UV light does not kill trophozoites and encysting cells as efficiently as the non-replicating cysts. We also examined UV-induced gene expression responses in both trophozoites and cysts using RNA sequencing (RNA seq). UV radiation induces small overall changes in gene expression in Giardia but cysts show a stronger response than trophozoites. Heat shock proteins, kinesins and Nek kinases are up-regulated, whereas alpha-giardins and histones are down-regulated in UV treated trophozoites. Expression of variable surface proteins (VSPs) is changed in both trophozoites and cysts. Our data show that Giardia cysts have limited ability to repair UV-induced damage and this may have implications for drinking- and waste-water treatment when setting criteria for the use of UV disinfection to ensure safe water. PMID:25825252

  11. Prevalencia de parásitos intestinales en niños de diferentes niveles de educación del distrito de San Marcos, Ancash, Perú. / Prevalence of intestinal parasites in children of different levels of education in the San Marcos district of Ancash, Peru

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eleuterio, Jacinto; Edwin, Aponte; Víctor, Arrunátegui-Correa.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Investigar la prevalencia de parasitosis intestinal en estudiantes del Distrito de San Marcos, en el departamento de Ancash, Perú. Material y métodos: Se analizaron en total 1303 muestras de heces de niños de nivel inicial, primario y secundario, mediante examen directo. Resultados: Se enc [...] ontró uno o más parásitos intestinales en 65,0% de los estudiantes. De las 845 muestras positivas para parásitos, se encontró un parasito en 82,0% dos en18,0% predominando los protozoarios sobre los helmintos. Los enteroparásitos patógenos encontrados según su frecuencia fueron: Giardia lamblia 23,7%, Ascaris lumbricoides 16,9% e Hymenolepis nana 9,6%. La frecuencia del enteroparásito no patógeno Entamoeba coli fue 31,8%. Conclusiones: Existe un alto índice de parasitismo en la población rural de la sierra de Ancash, lo que estaría en relación con las deficientes condiciones de saneamiento ambiental en esta zona, por lo que es necesario que en los colegios de la zona, se dé educación sobre higiene personal y además, mejorar las condiciones de saneamiento. Abstract in english Objective: To investigate the prevalence of intestinal parasites among students of the San Marcos district of Ancash, Peru. Methods: A total of 1303 stool samples of children from the kinder, primary and secondary school levels were investigated using direct examinations. Results: At least one paras [...] ite was found in 65% of students. Out of 845 positive stool samples, one parasite was found in 82% and two parasites were found in 18%; protozoan parasites predominated over nematodes. The most frequent parasites identified were Giardia lamblia 23.7%, Ascaris lumbricoides 16.9% and Hymenolepis nana 9.6%. Non-pathogenic Entamoeba coli was found in 31.8%. Conclusions: The prevalence of intestinal parasites in the rural highland population of Ancash is high, which may be related to deficient sanitary conditions of the region. Improving sanitary conditions and enhancing education on hygiene are needed in the region.

  12. Feconomics®; a new and more convenient method, the routine diagnosis of intestinal parasitic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koltas, Ismail Soner; Akyar, Is?n; Elgun, Gullu; Kocagoz, Tan?l

    2014-07-01

    Direct wet mount examination and concentration are the most commonly used methods for detecting intestinal parasites from fecal samples. Concentration methods are used when there are fewer protozoan cyst, coccidian oocyst, microsporidial spore, helminth egg, and larvae in the fecal samples. Early detection of the causative intestinal parasites plays a significant role in implementing timely and correct treatment, which relieves the patients' symptoms and also prevents recurrences. Formalin-ethyl acetate concentration (FEAC) is believed to be a gold standard method to detect most intestinal parasites. Thus, in this study, we evaluated the diagnostic value of Feconomics® [manufactured by Salubris Inc, Boston, USA. Patent application number (TR): 2010/07549] which is a simple, new, and rapid fecal concentration method for the detection of the intestinal parasites in human beings. We also compared the FEAC with Feconomics® and direct wet mount examination. A total of 918 fecal samples were collected from the patients suspected to have intestinal parasitic infection. Samples were examined with the direct wet mount, FEAC, and Feconomics® methods. Different parasite species 15.9% (146/918) with Feconomics®, 13.3% (122/918) with FEAC, and 9.8% (90/918) with direct wet mount examination, Feconomics®?>?FEAC?> direct wet mount examinations were detected. They were statistically compared considering FEAC as the gold standard for parasitological diagnosis; the sensitivity and specificity of Feconomics® were calculated as 96 and 97%, respectively. Blastocystis hominis was found to be the most common parasite, followed by Giardia lamblia with direct wet mount examination, FEAC, and Feconomics® methods. Feconomics® proved to be better than not only FEAC in concentrating parasite egg and cyst forms as well as in maintaining characteristic morphology but it is also better in direct wet mount examination. Feconomics® eliminates the need for centrifugation by using absorbent beads that help the homogenization and concentration of the sample. Feconomics® in this study was considerably better than FEAC in detecting the trophozoites of Giardia lamblia. We suggest that Feconomics® be used for the routine diagnosis of intestinal parasitic infection in rural areas of developing countries due to the fact that a centrifuge is not required and it eliminates large stool particles. PMID:24781020

  13. Waterborne transmission of protozoan parasites: review of worldwide outbreaks - an update 2004-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldursson, Selma; Karanis, Panagiotis

    2011-12-15

    The present update gives a comprehensive review of worldwide waterborne parasitic protozoan outbreaks that occurred and were published globally between January 2004 and December 2010. At least one hundred and ninety-nine outbreaks of human diseases due to the waterborne transmission of parasitic protozoa occurred and were reported during the time period from 2004 to 2010. 46.7% of the documented outbreaks occurred on the Australian continent, 30.6% in North America and 16.5% in Europe. Cryptosporidium spp. was the etiological agent in 60.3% (120) of the outbreaks, Giardia lamblia in 35.2% (70) and other protozoa in 4.5% (9). Four outbreaks (2%) were caused by Toxoplasma gondii, three (1.5%) by Cyclospora cayetanensis. In two outbreaks (1%) Acanthamoeba spp. was identified as the causative agent. In one outbreak, G. lamblia (in 17.6% of stool samples) and Cryptosporidium parvum (in 2.7% of stool samples) as well as Entamoeba histolytica (in 9.4% of stool samples) and Blastocystis hominis (in 8.1% of stool samples) were detected. In those countries that are likely affected most a lack of surveillance systems is noticeable. However, countries that established surveillance systems did not establish an international standardization of reporting systems. PMID:22048017

  14. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites and Clinical Manifestations in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ebadi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diagnosis and treatment of parasitic infections are very important because of pathologic changes and clinical symptoms produced in the host, and for taking measures against them. These diseases have more adverse effects and more importance in children. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence of intestinal parasites and their clinical manifestations in children 0-14 years old referred to Yazd Central Laboratory. Methods: The present cross- sectional descriptive study was performed during the April 2005 to September 2006, with data obtained from the stool samples of 1500 children, using both wet mount smear (physiologic saline and Lugol?s solutions and formalin-ethyl acetate concentration method for detection of the intestinal parasites and also with the tape test for eggs of Enterobius vermicularis and Taenia. Results: From 1500 examined stool samples, 128(8.5% cases were positive for one of the intestinal parasites, including 67(52.3% females and 61(47.7% males. Ninety five percent of positive cases were infected with protozoa and 5% with helminths. The most frequent protozoans were Blastocystis hominis 41.3%, Giardia lamblia 33.6%, and Entamoeba coli 14.7%. Enterobius vermicularis (4.3% and Hymenolepis nana (0.7% were the helminth species. The most abundant infection rate was shown in the 5-9 years old group, with a significant difference compared with other age groups (P< 0.05. About 87% of children infested with Blastocystis hominis showed more than 5 Blastocystis per 400x microscope fields, and 100% of children infested with Giardia lamblia and Chilomastix mesnili had clinical symptoms. Conclusion: In this study, lower contamination rates in comparison with the similar studies conducted in other regions of the country was seen, which may be as a result of the hot and dry climate and improved personal hygiene and public health services. There is a need for further studies about the prevalence and clinical symptoms of some parasites such as Blastocystis hominis and Chilomastix mesnili.

  15. First record of Giardia in cattle in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iburg, T.; Gasser, R.B.

    1996-01-01

    Faecal samples from asymptomatic dairy cows and calves from a farm on the Island Falster, Denmark, were examined by a sucrose gradient flotation technique. Giardia cysts were found in 7.6% of the 92 samples, and estimated cyst excretion rates ranged from 50-200 cysts per gram faeces. Given that Giardia has the potential to cause clinical disease in cattle and to be transmitted to other animal species and humans, finding the parasite in cattle may be of major epidemiological significance. Future work should focus on elucidating the pathogenicity, transmission patterns and the genetic structure of Giardia populations in cattle in Denmark.

  16. Detection of Giardia cysts with a cDNA probe and applications to water samples.

    OpenAIRE

    M. Abbaszadegan; Gerba, C. P.; Rose, J B

    1991-01-01

    Giardiasis is the most common human parasite infection in the United States, causing a lengthy course of diarrhea. Transmission of Giardia species is by the fecal-oral route, and numerous waterborne outbreaks have been documented. The Environmental Protection Agency has regulated Giardia species in drinking water through the Surface Water Treatment Rule. Current methods for detection of Giardia species in water rely primarily on microscopic observation of water concentrates with immunofluores...

  17. Giardia assemblage A: human genotype in muskoxen in the Canadian Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy John

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract As part of an ongoing program assessing the biodiversity and impacts of parasites in Arctic ungulates we examined 72 fecal samples from muskoxen on Banks Island, Northwest Territories, Canada for Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Cryptosporidium spp. were not detected, but 21% of the samples were positive for Giardia. Sequencing of four isolates of Giardia demonstrated G. duodenalis, Assemblage A, a zoonotic genotype.

  18. Multilocus Genotyping of Giardia duodenalis in Dairy Cattle in Henan, China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Haiyan; Zhao, Guanghui; Chen, Gongyi; Jian, Fuchun; ZHANG Sumei; Feng, Chao; Wang, Rongjun; Zhu, Jinfeng; Dong, Haiju; Hua, Jun; Wang, Ming; Zhang, Longxian

    2014-01-01

    Giardia duodenalis is a common and widespread intestinal protozoan parasite of both humans and animals. Previous epidemiological and molecular studies have identified Giardia infections in different animals and humans, but only limited information is available about the occurrence and genotypes of Giardia in cattle in China. In this study, we determined the occurrence of giardiasis and genetically characterized G. duodenalis in dairy cattle in Henan Province, central China. The overall preval...

  19. Intestinal parasites in ecotourism region of the state of Paraná, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Dina Lúcia Morais, Falavigna; Amanda Andrea de, Almeida; Renata Sayuri, Iwazaki; Silvana Marques de, Araújo.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A prevalência de enteroparasitas e comensais, de janeiro/2003 a dezembro/2004, foi determinada em residentes de região de ecoturismo do Paraná por meio de estudo retrospectivo. Foram examinados os resultados de 3.764 exames coproparasitológicos efetuados em laboratório privado de Ubiratã Entre indiv [...] íduos de 8 meses a 89 anos, 522 (13,9%) exames foram positivos. Giardia intestinalis (175/522; 24,2%) foi o parasita prevalente (p Abstract in english To determine the indices of prevalence of intestinal parasites and commensals in the residents of ecotourism region of Paraná State, a retrospective study was conducte, from January/2003 to December/2004 on 3,764 fecal parasitological examinations performed by a private laboratory of Ubiratã using t [...] he Baermann-Moraes, water-sedimentation and Willis methods. Among the individuals aged eight months to 89 years, 522 (13.9%) cases were positive. Giardia lamblia (175/522; 24.2%) was the most prevalent parasite (p

  20. Chronic fatigue syndrome after Giardia enteritis: clinical characteristics, disability and long-term sickness absence

    OpenAIRE

    Naess Halvor; Nyland Morten; Hausken Trygve; Follestad Inghild; Nyland Harald I

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background A waterborne outbreak of Giardia lamblia gastroenteritis led to a high prevalance of long-lasting fatigue and abdominal symptoms. The aim was to describe the clinical characteristics, disability and employmentloss in a case series of patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) after the infection. Methods Patients who reported persistent fatigue, lowered functional capacity and sickness leave or delayed education after a large community outbreak of giardiasis enteritis in...

  1. Evaluation of Five Membrane Filtration Methods for Recovery of Cryptosporidium and Giardia Isolates from Water Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Wohlsen, T.; Bates, J.; GRAY, B; Katouli, M.

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated the efficiency of five membrane filters for recovery of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and Giardia lamblia cysts. These filters included the Pall Life Sciences Envirochek (EC) standard filtration and Envirochek high-volume (EC-HV) membrane filters, the Millipore flatbed membrane filter, the Sartorius flatbed membrane filter (SMF), and the Filta-Max (FM) depth filter. Distilled and surface water samples were spiked with 10 oocysts and 10 cysts/liter. We also evaluated the recovery...

  2. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infections in Rehabilitation Centers in Golestan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soosaraie, M. (MSc

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Given the importance of having knowledge about intestinal parasitic infections in rehabilitation centers, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in the disabled. Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 196 stool specimens obtained from four rehabilitation centers in Golestan province, 2009. Triple fecal samples were collected and examined by direct wet Mount, Formalin-ether concentration technique and Trichrome permanent staining (with optical microscope. Results: Of 196 specimens, 24 (12.3 % had parasitic protozoan infection (5 species and worm (1 species. The prevalence of intestinal protozoa was 11.8 %, and the highest rate of infection was related to Blastocystishominis (4.2% and Giardia lamblia (3.1%. The rate of infection was the highest in under 9 and 20-29 years (4.1% and the lowest in over 40 (0.5%. The prevalence in mentally handicapped was 9.2% and in physically disabled was 2.5%. Conclusion: Due to serious complications of Amoebiasis, Giardiasis and other parasitic infections, it is essential to be careful about personal and social hygiene in these centers. Keywords: Intestinal Parasitic Infections; Disabled; Rehabilitation Centers; Golestan Province.

  3. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites in Bakery Workers in Khorramabad, Lorestan Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Kheirandish

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Food contamination may occur through production, processing, distribution and prepara­tion. In Iran especially in Khorramabad, 33° 29' 16" North, 48° 21' 21" East, due to kind of nutrition, cul­ture and economic status of people, bread is a part of the main meal and the consumption of bread is high. In this study, the bakery workers were studied for determining of intestinal parasites prevalence.Methods: The study was carried out during September to November 2010 in Khorramabad. All the 278 baker­ies and the bakery workers including 816 people were studied in a census method and their feces were examined for the presence of parasites by direct wet-mount, Lugol's iodine solution, and formalde­hyde-ether sedimentation, trichrome staining, and single round PCR (For discrimination of Entamoeba spp.Results: Ninety-six (11.9% stool specimens were positive for different intestinal parasites. Intestinal para­sites included Giardia lamblia 3.7%, Entamoeba coli 5.5%, Blastocystis sp. 2.1%, Entamoeba dispar 0.4%, Hymenolepis nana 0.1%, and Blastocystis sp. 0.1%.Conclusion: In order to reduce the contamination in these persons, some cases such as stool exam every three months with concentration methods, supervision and application of accurate health rules by health ex­perts, training in transmission of parasites are recommended.

  4. A clonal theory of parasitic protozoa: the population structures of Entamoeba, Giardia, Leishmania, Naegleria, Plasmodium, Trichomonas, and Trypanosoma and their medical and taxonomical consequences.

    OpenAIRE

    Tibayrenc, M.; Kjellberg, F.; Ayala, F. J.

    1990-01-01

    We propose a general theory of clonal reproduction for parasitic protozoa, which has important medical and biological consequences. Many parasitic protozoa have been assumed to reproduce sexually, because of diploidy and occasional sexuality in the laboratory. However, a population genetic analysis of extensive data on biochemical polymorphisms indicates that the two fundamental consequences of sexual reproduction (i.e., segregation and recombination) are apparently rare or absent in natural ...

  5. Determining the prevalence of intestinal parasites in three Orang Asli (Aborigines) communities in Perak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinniah, B; Sabaridah, I; Soe, M M; Sabitha, P; Awang, I P R; Ong, G P; Hassan, A K R

    2012-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites among children and adult Orang Aslis (Aborigines) from different locations in Perak. Faecal samples were collected and analyzed using the direct smear and formal ether sedimentation technique. Some of the faecal samples were stained using the Modified Acid fast stain for Cryptosporidium. Nail clippings of the respondents and the soil around their habitat were also analyzed. Of the 77 stool samples examined, 39 (50.6%) were positive for at least one intestinal parasite. The most common parasite detected was Trichuris trichiura (39.0%) followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (26.9%), Entamoeba coli (5.2%), Giardia lamblia (5.2%), Blastocystis hominis (3.9%), hookworm (3.9%), Entamoeba histolytica (1.3%), Iodamoeba butschlii (1.3%) and Cryptosporidium sp. (1.3%) respectively. Some respondents had single parasites (24.7%), some with two parasites (18.2%). Some with three parasites (6.5%) and one had four parasites species (1.3%). The parasites were slightly more common in females (54.7%) than males ((41.7%). The parasites were more common in the 13-20 year age group (90.9%) followed by 1-12 years (69.6%), 21-40 year age group (34.8%) and least in the 41-60 year age group (27.8%). Nail examinations of the respondents did not show any evidence of parasites. One had a mite, three had pollen grains and one had yeast cells isolated from the finger nails. Soil samples taken around their houses showed only one sample with a nematode ova and one with oocyst which was of a non human origin. PMID:22735840

  6. Prevalencia de parasitismo intestinal en escolares de 6-11 año / Prevalence of intestinal parasites in schoolchildren aged 6 -11 years

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Glenda, Pérez Sánchez; Guillermo, Redondo de la Fé; Hiram Guillermo, Fong Rodríguez; Marly, Sacerio Cruz; Oslandy, González Beltrán.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y transversal de 1 253 niños, como muestra representativa de la población infantil de 6-11 años de la provincia de Santiago de Cuba, desde septiembre del 2010 hasta junio del 2011, para determinar la prevalencia del parasitismo intestinal en ellos. Se procesaron las [...] pruebas de heces fecales mediante 2 métodos coproparasitológicos (directo y concentrado) y se obtuvo que 37,8 % de los integrantes de la serie estaban parasitados. Predominaron los protozoarios (22,7 %), con mayor frecuencia de Giardia lamblia, el parasitismo en el grupo etario de 6-8 años (66,7 %) y los escolares infectados que presentaban inadecuados hábitos higiénico-sanitarios, depósitos de residuales, agua de consumo y piso de la vivienda. A fin de minimizar este problema, se recomendó que debieran incrementarse las actividades de educación sanitaria a la población y discutirse estos resultados con los decisores de salud de la provincia, para así promover hábitos y estilos de vida saludables. Abstract in english A descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted in 1 253 children as a representative sample of children aged 6-11 years in the province of Santiago de Cuba, from September 2010 to June 2011, to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in them. Tests were processed by 2 stool parasitol [...] ogical methods (direct and concentrate) and it was found that 37.8% of the members of the series were parasitized. Protozoa (22.7%) with higher frequency of Giardia lamblia, parasitism in age group of 6-8 years(66.7%) and infected schoolchildren, who had poor health and hygiene habits, waste deposits, water consumption and floor of the house predominated. To minimize this problem it was recommended to increase health education to the population and discuss these results with health decision makers in the province, in order to promote healthy habits and lifestyles.

  7. Prevalencia de parasitismo intestinal en escolares de 6-11 año Prevalence of intestinal parasites in schoolchildren aged 6 -11 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenda Pérez Sánchez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y transversal de 1 253 niños, como muestra representativa de la población infantil de 6-11 años de la provincia de Santiago de Cuba, desde septiembre del 2010 hasta junio del 2011, para determinar la prevalencia del parasitismo intestinal en ellos. Se procesaron las pruebas de heces fecales mediante 2 métodos coproparasitológicos (directo y concentrado y se obtuvo que 37,8 % de los integrantes de la serie estaban parasitados. Predominaron los protozoarios (22,7 %, con mayor frecuencia de Giardia lamblia, el parasitismo en el grupo etario de 6-8 años (66,7 % y los escolares infectados que presentaban inadecuados hábitos higiénico-sanitarios, depósitos de residuales, agua de consumo y piso de la vivienda. A fin de minimizar este problema, se recomendó que debieran incrementarse las actividades de educación sanitaria a la población y discutirse estos resultados con los decisores de salud de la provincia, para así promover hábitos y estilos de vida saludables.A descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted in 1 253 children as a representative sample of children aged 6-11 years in the province of Santiago de Cuba, from September 2010 to June 2011, to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in them. Tests were processed by 2 stool parasitological methods (direct and concentrate and it was found that 37.8% of the members of the series were parasitized. Protozoa (22.7% with higher frequency of Giardia lamblia, parasitism in age group of 6-8 years(66.7% and infected schoolchildren, who had poor health and hygiene habits, waste deposits, water consumption and floor of the house predominated. To minimize this problem it was recommended to increase health education to the population and discuss these results with health decision makers in the province, in order to promote healthy habits and lifestyles.

  8. Perfil das enteroparasitoses diagnosticadas em pacientes com infecção pelo vírus HIV na era da terapia antiretroviral potente em um centro de referência em São Paulo, Brasil / PROFILE OF INTESTINAL PARASITES DIAGNOSED IN HIV INFECTED PATIENTS IN THE HAART ERA AT A REFERENCE CENTER IN SÃO PAULO, BRAZIL

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    SÉRGIO, CIMERMAN; CARLOS G., CASTAÑEDA; WILMA ASSUNÇÃO, IULIANO; RICARDO, PALACIOS.

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Intestinal parasites in HIV infected patients are a compelling issue in epidemiological settings with high prevalence of these parasites. The present study reviewed frequencies of diagnosis for common intestinal parasites in HIV infected patients in association with sex, age, HIV risk behavior and C [...] D4 lymphocyte count. Patients with confirmed HIV diagnosis and positive routine stool examination between January and December 2000 were selected. Diagnostic methods for Cyclospora cayetanensis and microsporidia were not included in the routine stool examination. A total of 146 patients had one or more positive samples (median 1.5) with age ranging between 2-75 years (mean: 34). Most of them were male (70.5%) and 53.6% had a CD4 count > 200 cells/mm³ (median: 158.5 cells/mm³). Endolimax nana (27.4%), Entamoeba coli (22.6%), Strongyloides stercoralis (21.9%), Giardia lamblia (13.0%), Isospora belli (12.3%), Ascaris lumbricoides (8.2%), Cryptosporidium parvum (6.8%) were the most frequent parasites diagnosed in this group. G. lamblia was more common in children with vertically transmitted HIV and men who have sex with men. No significant associations were found in relation to sex and age. Patients with CD4 count

  9. Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Chronic Fatigue 6 Years After Giardia Infection: A Controlled Prospective Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hanevik, Kurt; Wensaas, Knut-arne; Rortveit, Guri; Eide, Geir Egil; Mørch, Kristine; Langeland, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Giardia infection in a nonendemic setting is associated with an increased risk for irritable bowel syndrome and chronic fatigue 6 years later. These conditions should be considered a differential diagnosis in patients with persisting symptoms after eradication of the parasite.

  10. CROSS TRANSMISSION OF 'GIARDIA'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardia cysts isolated from fecal samples obtained from humans (Homo sapiens), beaver (Castor canadensis), dogs (Canis familiaris), cats (Felis domesticus), bighorn X mouflon sheep (Ovis canadensis X O. musimon), guinea pig (Cavis porcellus), muskrat (Ondatra ziethica) and mule d...

  11. Giardia Infection Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Infections : The Medical Letter; 2010. Escobedo AA, Cimerman S. Giardiasis: a pharmacotherapy review. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2007;8( ... 232-6348 Contact CDC–INFO Giardia General Information Giardiasis FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment ...

  12. Intestinal Parasitic Infection in Feraydoon Kenar, Mazandaran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Massoud

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was clearing the pattern of parasitic infections in Feraydoon-Kenar, a 30,000 population town on the Caspian sea area.A total of 2568 persons, refered to Feraydoon Kenar Laboratory for rutine stool examination by Direct Smear, scotsch tests for children and formalin ether, and Floatation tests.A total of 321 infected persons were in divided 2 groups living in urban and rural area. Also 386 Scotch tape tests were used in school children in different age and sex groups. Prevalences of parasites were : Giardia lamblia 16.93% , Enterebius vermicularis (pinworm 4.71% , E. histolytica 4.28% , Strengyloides 0.74%, H. nana 0.42%, Hook worms 0.19% and Taenia 0.19%. Non pathogen protozoa prevalences were : E.coli 3.5% , Blastocystis hominis 3.15%, Iodamoeba butschlii 0.66%, Endolimax nana 0.15% , and Dientamoebafragilis 0.11%.The highest prevalence were (41.2% belong to 5 to 9 years old children, and 4.1% of them had both Giardia and E.vermicularis at the same time.Giardia prevalence during spring and summer (18.9% had significant difference comparing with autumn and winter (14.81% P<0.005, but prevalences of E. vermicularis showd no seasonal variation.In rural area Prevalences (28.39% and in urban area (23.8% showed significant difference. P<0.005.In rural area prevalences of Ehistolytica (4.32%, Strengyloides stercolaris (1.85%, and Hook worms (0.62% had significant difference with urban area (2.51 %, 0.6%, 0%. H.nana (1.26%, E.vermicularis (8.17% prevalence in town had significant difference with urban area (0%, 6.17%,P<0.005.In 386 scotch tape tests the prevalence of E.vermicularis in young male was 23.46% but"nin yuung female was 32.63% , demonstrated significant difference (P<0.005.

  13. PREVALENCE OF INTESTINAL PARASITES AMONG FOOD HANDLERS OF SARI, NORTHERN IRAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHARIF, Mehdi; DARYANI, Ahmad; KIA, Elham; REZAEI, Fateme; NASIRI, Mehrdad; NASROLAHEI, Mohtaram

    2015-01-01

    Parasitic infection is highly prevalent throughout the developing countries of the world. Food handlers are a potential source of infection for many intestinal parasites and other enteropathogenic infections as well. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasite carriers among food handlers attending the public health center laboratory in Sari, Northern Iran for annual check-up. The study was performed from August 2011 through February 2012. Stool samples were collected from 1041 male and female food handlers of different jobs aged between 18 to 63 years and were examined following standard procedures. Sociodemographic, environmental and behavioral data analysis of the food handlers were recorded in a separate questionnaire. Intestinal parasites were found in 161 (15.5%) of the studied samples. Seven species of protozoan or helminth infections were detected. Most of the participants were infected with Giardia lamblia (53.9%) followed by Blastocystis hominis (18%), Entamoeba coli (15.5%), Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (5.5%), Cryptosporidium sp. (3.1%), Iodamoeba butschlii (3.1%) and Hymenolepis nana (1.9%) as the only helminth infection. The findings emphasized that food handlers with different pathogenic organisms may predispose consumers to significant health risks. Routine screening and treatment of food handlers is a proper tool in preventing food-borne infections. PMID:25923893

  14. The Prevalence of Blastocystis hominis and Other Protozoan Parasites in Soldiers Returning from Peacekeeping Missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Aleksandra; Kosik-Bogacka, Danuta; Lanocha-Arendarczyk, Natalia; Ko?odziejczyk, Lidia; Lanocha, Aleksandra

    2015-04-01

    Blastocystis hominis is a common intestinal parasite found in humans living in poor sanitary conditions, living in tropical and subtropical climates, exposed to infected animals, or consuming contaminated food or water. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of B. hominis in Polish military personnel returning from peacekeeping missions in Iraq and Afghanistan. In total, 1,826 stool samples were examined. Gastrointestinal parasites were detected in 17% of the soldiers. The examined stool samples most frequently contained vacuolar forms of B. hominis (15.3%) and cysts of Entamoeba coli (1.0%) or Giardia lamblia (0.7%). In 97.1% of stool samples from infected soldiers, we observed less than five developmental forms of B. hominis in the field of view (40×). The parasite infections in soldiers were diagnosed in the autumn and the spring. There was no statistical correlation between age and B. hominis infection. Our results show that peacekeeping missions in countries with tropical or subtropical climates could be associated with risk for parasitic diseases, including blastocystosis. PMID:25732683

  15. Intestinal parasitic infections in HIV/AIDS patients: epidemiological, nutritional and immunological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FAM Amâncio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study applied a socioeconomic questionnaire designed to evaluate the frequency of intestinal parasites and characterize epidemiological, nutritional, and immunological variables in 105 HIV/AIDS patients - with and without parasitic infections, attending the Day Hospital in Botucatu, UNESP, from 2007 to 2008. Body mass index was calculated and the following tests performed: parasitological stool examinations; eosinophil, IgE, CD4+ T and CD8+ T lymphocyte cell counts; albumin test; viral load measure; and TNF-?, IFN-?, IL-2, IL-5 and IL-10 cytokine levels. Results were positive for parasitic intestinal infections in 12.4% of individuals. Most patients had good socioeconomic conditions with basic sanitation, urban dwellings, treated water supply and sewage, good nutritional and immunological status and were undergoing HAART. Parasites were found at the following frequencies: Entamoeba - five patients (38.5%, Giardia lamblia - four (30.7%, Blastocystis hominis - three (23.0%, Endolimax nana - two (15.4%, and Ascaris lumbricoides - one (7.7%. There were no significant differences between the two groups for eosinophils, albumin, IgE, CD4+ T and CD8+ T lymphocytes, INF-?, IL-2, or IL-10. Most patients also showed undetectable viral load levels. Significant differences were found for TNF-? and IL-5. These results show the importance of new studies on immunodeficient individuals to increase understanding of such variables.

  16. Intestinal parasitic infections in HIV/AIDS patients: epidemiological, nutritional and immunological aspects

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    FAM, Amâncio; VM, Pascotto; LR, Souza; SA, Calvi; PCM, Pereira.

    Full Text Available This study applied a socioeconomic questionnaire designed to evaluate the frequency of intestinal parasites and characterize epidemiological, nutritional, and immunological variables in 105 HIV/AIDS patients - with and without parasitic infections, attending the Day Hospital in Botucatu, UNESP, from [...] 2007 to 2008. Body mass index was calculated and the following tests performed: parasitological stool examinations; eosinophil, IgE, CD4+ T and CD8+ T lymphocyte cell counts; albumin test; viral load measure; and TNF-?, IFN-?, IL-2, IL-5 and IL-10 cytokine levels. Results were positive for parasitic intestinal infections in 12.4% of individuals. Most patients had good socioeconomic conditions with basic sanitation, urban dwellings, treated water supply and sewage, good nutritional and immunological status and were undergoing HAART. Parasites were found at the following frequencies: Entamoeba - five patients (38.5%), Giardia lamblia - four (30.7%), Blastocystis hominis - three (23.0%), Endolimax nana - two (15.4%), and Ascaris lumbricoides - one (7.7%). There were no significant differences between the two groups for eosinophils, albumin, IgE, CD4+ T and CD8+ T lymphocytes, INF-?, IL-2, or IL-10. Most patients also showed undetectable viral load levels. Significant differences were found for TNF-? and IL-5. These results show the importance of new studies on immunodeficient individuals to increase understanding of such variables.

  17. Prevalence of intestinal parasites among food handlers of sari, northern iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Mehdi; Daryani, Ahmad; Kia, Elham; Rezaei, Fateme; Nasiri, Mehrdad; Nasrolahei, Mohtaram

    2015-01-01

    Parasitic infection is highly prevalent throughout the developing countries of the world. Food handlers are a potential source of infection for many intestinal parasites and other enteropathogenic infections as well. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasite carriers among food handlers attending the public health center laboratory in Sari, Northern Iran for annual check-up. The study was performed from August 2011 through February 2012. Stool samples were collected from 1041 male and female food handlers of different jobs aged between 18 to 63 years and were examined following standard procedures. Sociodemographic, environmental and behavioral data analysis of the food handlers were recorded in a separate questionnaire. Intestinal parasites were found in 161 (15.5%) of the studied samples. Seven species of protozoan or helminth infections were detected. Most of the participants were infected with Giardia lamblia (53.9%) followed by Blastocystis hominis (18%), Entamoeba coli (15.5%), Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (5.5%), Cryptosporidium sp. (3.1%), Iodamoeba butschlii (3.1%) and Hymenolepis nana (1.9%) as the only helminth infection. The findings emphasized that food handlers with different pathogenic organisms may predispose consumers to significant health risks. Routine screening and treatment of food handlers is a proper tool in preventing food-borne infections. PMID:25923893

  18. Parasites

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-05-06

    In this podcast, a listener wants to know what to do if he thinks he has a parasite or parasitic disease.  Created: 5/6/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/6/2010.

  19. Transcription of meiotic-like-pathway genes in Giardia intestinalis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sandra P, Melo; Vanessa, Gómez; Isabel C, Castellanos; Magda E, Alvarado; Paula C, Hernández; Amanda, Gallego; Moisés, Wasserman.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive mechanism of Giardia intestinalis, considered one of the earliest divergent eukaryotes, has not been fully defined yet. Some evidence supports the hypothesis that Giardia is an exclusively asexual organism with a clonal population structure. However, the high genetic variability, th [...] e variation in ploidy during its life cycle, the low heterozygosity and the existence of genes involved in the meiotic-like recombination pathway in the parasite's genome cast doubt on exclusively asexual nature of Giardia. In this work, semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis was used to assess the transcription pattern of three meiosis-like-specific genes involved in homologues recombination: dmc1, hop1 and spo11. The mRNAs were amplified during the parasite's differentiation processes, encystation and excystation, and expression was found at each stage of its life cycle. A semiquantitative assessment also suggests that expression of some of the genes is regulated during encystation process.

  20. Epidemiological survey of the prevalence of intestinal parasites among schoolchildren in Sari, northern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryani, A; Sharif, M; Nasrolahei, M; Khalilian, A; Mohammadi, A; Barzegar, Gh

    2012-08-01

    Parasitic infection is highly prevalent throughout the developing countries of the world. Research on the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in various geographic regions is a prerequisite for the development of appropriate control strategies. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among schoolchildren in public primary and secondary schools in the urban areas of Sari, Mazandaran province, northern Iran. The study was conducted from November 2009 to June 2010. A total of 1100 stool samples from 607 males and 493 females aged 7-14 years were examined by direct wet mounting, formalin-ether concentration, and Ziehl-Neelsen and trichrome permanent staining methods. A parental questionnaire for common risk factors was completed for each participant. Mono- or poly-parasitism was detected in 367 (33.3%) of the children (32.6% of males and 34.2% of females). Various species of protozoan or helminth infections were detected: Blastocystis hominis seemed to be the most prevalent parasite (13.5%) followed by Giardia lamblia (10.6%), Entamoeba coli (7.2%), Endolimax nana (1.5%), Enterobius vermicularis (2.2%), Trichostrongylus sp. (2.1%) and Strongyloides stercoralis (1.6%). The prevalence of intestinal parasite infections in females was slightly higher than in males, though without a statistically significant difference (p=0.56). No age association was detected, and a slightly lower positive association with increasing age was observed (p=0.33). A significant association was observed with parents' educational level, household income and practice of hand washing before meals (p<0.01). Although paediatric pathogenic intestinal parasite infections are not more prevalent in this geographical area than in other regions, improvements in personal hygienic conditions and behavioural characteristics is important to completely control parasitic infections in schoolchildren in northern Iran. PMID:22703897

  1. 'GIARDIA MURIS': SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY OF IN VITRO EXCYSTATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    A recently developed in vitro excystation procedure results in almost total excystation of Giardia muris, an intestinal parasite of mice. The present experiment examines the G. muris cyst morphology by scanning electron microscopy and evaluates the efficacy of the excystation pro...

  2. Parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... W X Y Z Parasites Topics Malaria An ancient disease that affects millions of people worldwide... Neglected ... Laboratory Diagnostic Assistance [DPDx] Information For: Children Travelers Women Health Professionals Public Health Departments Laboratory Science References ...

  3. Parasites

    OpenAIRE

    Mehlum, Halvor; Moene, Karl Ove; Torvik, Ragnat

    2003-01-01

    Unproductive enterprises that feed on productive businesses, are rampant in developing countries. These parasitic enterprises take divergent forms, some headed by violent bandits and brutal mafia bosses, others by organized middlemen or smart political insiders. All of them seem to have the profit motive in common. A consequence of parasitic enterprises is that societies may be locked into a self enforcing configuration of beliefs and practices that result in persistent poverty. In some insta...

  4. Conocimientos sobre parasitismo intestinal en personal médico / Knowledge about intestinal parasites among the medical personnel

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maylin, Rodríguez Pérez; María Elena, González López; Dailé, Espinosa Triana; Rita, Méndez Cayoll; Roberto, Cañete Villafranca.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: evaluar los conocimientos básicos sobre parasitismo intestinal de médicos que prestan servicios en la atención primaria de salud. Métodos: se realizó una encuesta que incluyó cuatro preguntas que evaluaban conocimientos generales acerca del parasitismo intestinal y una pregunta sobre Giard [...] ia lamblia, protozoo patógeno de elevada incidencia y prevalencia en nuestro medio. Se aplicó entre los meses de enero y marzo de 2011, con carácter anónimo, a un grupo de médicos de la atención primaria de salud. Resultados: todos los médicos que fueron encuestados tuvieron errores al responder el cuestionario. A pesar de que en los temas evaluados las respuestas correctas superaron el 50 %, el promedio de respuestas correctas de los 26 incisos que conformaban las cinco preguntas del cuestionario fue 20,73 %. Conclusiones: los médicos que prestan servicio en diferentes unidades de la atención primaria de salud, mostraron insuficiente conocimiento sobre el parasitismo intestinal, por lo que se impone el desarrollo de un programa educativo en aras de atenuar estas dificultades. Abstract in english Objective: evaluate the level of basic knowledge about intestinal parasites among primary health care doctors. Methods: an anonymous survey was conducted made up of four questions evaluating general knowledge about intestinal parasites and one question about Giardia lamblia, a pathogenic protozoan o [...] f high incidence and prevalence in our country. The survey was applied to a group of primary health care doctors between January and March 2011. Results: all the doctors surveyed had errors in their answers to the questionnaire. Despite the fact that correct answers about the topics evaluated exceeded 50 %, the average of correct answers for the 26 items included in the five questions was 20.73 %. Conclusions: primary health care doctors showed insufficient knowledge about intestinal parasites. Hence the need to develop an education program to attenuate those difficulties.

  5. Antibody response to Giardia muris trophozoites in mouse intestine.

    OpenAIRE

    Heyworth, M. F.

    1986-01-01

    The protozoan parasite Giardia muris colonizes the mouse small intestinal lumen. This parasite is cleared immunologically from the intestine of normal mice. In contrast, T-lymphocyte-deficient (nude) mice have an impaired immunological response to G. muris and become chronically infected. In the present study, trophozoites were harvested from the intestinal lumen of immunocompetent BALB/c mice and nude mice and examined for surface-bound mouse immunoglobulins by immunofluorescence microscopy....

  6. Parásitos intestinales en la población del Instituto Nacional del Menor, Ciudad Bolívar, Venezuela / Intestinal parasites in population of Instituto Nacional del Menor, Ciudad Bolívar, Venezuela

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rodolfo, Devera; Noenard, Ortega; Marlin, Suárez.

    Full Text Available Entre los meses de Junio y Agosto del 2005 se realizó un estudio para determinar la prevalencia de parasitosis intestinales en niños, niñas y adolescentes pertenecientes a las siete dependencias del Instituto Nacional del Menor de Ciudad Bolívar. Se determinó una prevalencia de parasitosis intestina [...] les de 45,7% (48/105). No hubo diferencias con relación al sexo de los afectados. A menor edad mayor prevalencia de parasitosis. El Centro de Diagnóstico y Tratamiento de Varones fue la dependencia más afectada con 75% de parasitosis entre sus usuarios, seguido del Jardín de infancia Negro Primero con 53,8%. Los protozoarios fueron más comunes que los helmintos. Se diagnosticaron 11 especies de enteroparásitos, siendo Blastocystis hominis (26,7%) y Giardia lamblia (13,3%) los más frecuentes. De los parasitados, 66,7% se encontraron monoparasitados y 33,3% poliparasitados. En conclusión, se determinó una elevada prevalencia de parasitosis intestinales en niños, niñas y adolescentes que forman parte de los programas del Instituto Nacional del Menor en Ciudad Bolívar, Estado Bolívar. La prevalencia de parasitosis intestinales fue independiente de la edad y el sexo de los evaluados. El Centro de Diagnóstico y Tratamiento para varones (75,0%) y el jardín de infancia Negro Primero (53,8%) fueron las dependencias donde se diagnosticó el mayor porcentaje de casos. Abstract in english A study to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in children and teenagers pertaining to the seven dependencies of the Instituto National del Menor of Ciudad Bolivar was made, between the months of June and August 2005. A prevalence of intestinal parasitism of 45.7% (48/105) was determine [...] d. There were no differences in relation to sex of the affected. The lower the age, the greater the prevalence of parasitism. The Centro de Diagnostico y Tratamiento de Varones was the most affected dependency with 75% of parasitism among its users, followed by the Negro Primero Kindergarten with 53.8% and The Home of Females with 47.1%. Eleven species of enteroparasites were diagnosed, being Blastocystis hominis with 26.7% and Giardia lamblia with 13.3% the most frequent. Of the parasited ones, 66.7% were monoparasited and 33.3% polyparasited. In conclusion, a high prevalence of intestinal parasitism in children and teenagers that form part of the Instituto National del Menor programs in Ciudad Bolivar, Bolivar State, was determined. The prevalence of intestinal parasitism was independent of age and sex of the evaluated ones. The Centro de Diagnostico y Tratamiento de Varones (75%) and Negro Primero kindergarten (53.8%) were the dependencies where the greater number of cases was diagnosed.

  7. XMLA Comparison of Direct Technique and Formalin-Ether Method in Determining Parasitic Infection among Health-Card Applicants in Shahroud City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amiri, A. (PhD

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Parasitic infection is one of the major health problems in the world. This study aimed at comparing the accuracy of two methods of direct examination and Formalin-Ether to detect the presence of parasitic infection among health-card applicants in Shahroud city, 2011. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 801 patients seeking health-card. From each patient, three consecutive stool samples were taken and investigated, using direct examination and formalin-ether method. Results: The use of formalin-ether method in recognizing the parasitic infection specially giardia lamblia and entamobea coli is more than the direct method. Conclusion: The formalin-ether method is a more sensitive method than the direct method. But in circumstances that is urgency to respond or aims to see the shape of trophozoite, the use of direct method is recommended. Keywords: Parasitic Infections; Health Card; Direct Method; Formalin-EtherKeywords: Parasitic Infections; Health Card; Direct Method; Formalin-Ether,

  8. "Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites among Children in Day-care Centers in Damghan - Iran"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Heidari

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify the prevalence of parasitic intestinal infections and to determine the impact of some factors, such as age, health houses, education, environmental health etc, on infection, this survey was carried out on 461 stool specimens and scotch tapes obtained from children resident in day-care centers in Damghan city, Semnan province, Iran. The samples were tested using formalin-ether concentration and Graham methods. The analysis of the results showed that at least 68.1 percent of the individuals tested, were infected with one species of pathogen or non-pathogen parasites. The rate of infection for Enterobius vermicularis, Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica, Ascaris lumbricoides, Hymenolepis nana, Entamoeba coli, Blastocystis hominis, Iodamoeba butschlii and Chilomastix mesnili was 33.8%, 26.2%, 2.4%, 3%, 4.8%, 5.8%, 4.8%, 2.7% and 4% respectively. A significant difference was seen between the rate of infection and parents’ education (P<0.005 but was negative regarding age, sex, and health houses. It is concluded that sanitary measurements should be conducted in such centers to decrease the rate of parasitic infection.

  9. Role of dogs in contamination of urban environment with causes of parasitic zoonoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlovi? Ivan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Dogs belong to the group of animals that were the first to be domesticated. They live in cohabitation with humans and share their environment much more intimately than any other animal specie. The close contact between strays and pets, on the one side, and the pollution of urban areas with the feces of these animals, on the other, close the chain of infection with parasites, which jeopardizes also human health in the final link of that chain. Dogs are carriers and the true hosts to large numbers of species of zoonotic parasites - Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia, Echinoccocus granulosus, Dipyllidium caninum, Toxocara canis, Ancylostomidae spp. and others, whose eggs or other developmental forms they eliminate into the environment through feces. The increase in the number of cases of toxocarosis in humans (syndrome of visceral larvae migrans, ancylostomosis (cutanea larvae migrans, hydatidosis, toxoplasmosis, or cryptosporidiosis are the best indicators of these relations. In order to resolve this problem, it is necessary to conduct systematic investigations of their parasitic fauna with the maximum cooperation of the animal owners, compulsory health education of the population in the area of the diseases that are transferred from animals to humans, and, certainly, carrying out the dehelminthization of dogs.

  10. ANSWER: A holiday bug.

    OpenAIRE

    Oo, Hla; Telisinghe, Pemasiri Upali; Kafeel, Ghazala; Rajaram, Sowmya Tatti

    2011-01-01

    Answer: Giardiasis.The slide shows duodenal biopsy with pear shaped protozoa of Giardia lamblia on the luminal surface of the villi. Giardia lamblia is a pear-shaped, flagellated protozoan that causes a wide variety of gastro-intestinal complaints. Giardia is possibly the most common parasite of humans worldwide and the second most common in the United States after pinworm.

  11. Health inequities: lower socio-economic conditions and higher incidences of intestinal parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limoncu M Emin

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intestinal parasitic infections affect child health and development and slow down growth, while reducing adults' productivity and work capacity. The aim of the present study was to determine and compare the incidences of intestinal parasitic infections and the socio-economic status of two near primary school children in Manisa, a western city of Turkey. Methods A total of 352 children were involved a questionnaire study from a private school (Ülkem Primary School – ÜPS, 116 children and a community-based school (?ehzadeler Primary School – ?PS, 236 children. Of these, stool samples could be obtained from a total of 294 students; 97 (83.6% from ÜPS, and 197 (83.5% from ?PS. The wet mount preparations of the stool samples were examined; samples were also fixed in polyvinyl alcohol and examined with modified formalin ethyl acetate sedimentation and trichrome staining techniques. Data were analyzed using SPSS for Windows version 10.0. The chi-squared test was used for the analytic assessment. Results The percentages of the students found to be infected with intestinal parasites, were 78 (39.6% and 13 (13.4% in ?PS and ÜPS, respectively. Totally 91 (31.0% of the students from both schools were found to be infected with at least one intestinal parasite. Giardia lamblia was found to be the most common pathogenic intestinal parasite and Blastocystis hominis was prevalent independently from the hygienic conditions. The factors which significantly (p Conclusion Intestinal parasitic infections in school children were found to be a public health problem that increased due to lower socio-economic conditions. We conclude that organization of education seminars including the topics such as prevention of the infectious diseases, improving general hygienic conditions, and application of supportive programs for the parents may be suggested not only to reduce intestinal parasitic infections, but also to elevate the socio-cultural levels.

  12. Absorption studies in patients with parasitic infestation before and after treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This investigation has attempted to explore intestinal morphology and function, particularly the absorptive process, in a group of subjects infested with intestinal parasites, and to examine the effects thereon of treatment for the infestation. The study group consisted of 40 adults, 18 male and 22 females, who on admission to hospital showed various intestinal disorders apparently not associated with organic digestive diseases, and in addition, as deduced by various standard methods, intestinal parasitic infestation. All patients were infested with Giardia lamblia; 6 were additionally infested with Strongyloides and 3 with Taenia. Investigations included various blood tests (serum proteins, electrophoresis, blood cell counts), assay of fecal fats, test of iron absorption by whole-body counting, test of vitamin B12 absorption by Schilling test, radiographic examination of stomach and small intestine, and histological examination of biopsy samples of mucosa from duodenum and jejunum. These investigations were performed prior to treatment, and 6 months and again one year later. Only 15 of the patients, including all 9 with Strongyloides or Taenia, showed recognizable morphological abnormalities in the biopsy specimens. Six of these (all with dual infestation) had abnormally low iron absorption, 5 (all with Giardia infestation only) showed abnormally low vitamin B12 absorption, 2 (both with dual infestation) showed moderate steatorrhea, and all showed, by x-ray, dyskinetic disturbances of the intestine. Of the remaining 25 patients, 13 showed dyskinesias of varying intensities but none yielded abnormal results from any of the other tests. At 6 months after treatment the abnormalities were greatly reduced, and at one year all were gone except for 5 cases of minor morphological changes in the biopsy specimens. The investigators concluded that malabsorption in patients with intestinal parasitic infestation is a reality and that it is associated with morphological changes in the mucosa

  13. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in water supplies of San Pedro Sula, Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solo-Gabriele Helena María

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available During June 1996, water supplies of the city of San Pedro Sula, Honduras, were sampled to obtain an assessment of Cryptosporidium oocyst and Giardia cyst concentrations. Each sample was concentrated and stained with an indirect immunofluorescent antibody, and parasites were counted through microscopic analysis. In three surface water supplies, Cryptosporidium oocyst concentrations ranged from 58 to 260 oocysts per 100 L, and Giardia cysts were present in concentrations ranging from 380 to 2100 cysts per 100 L. Unlike the surface water samples, groundwater had a higher concentration of Cryptosporidium oocysts (26/100 L than Giardia cysts (6/100 L, suggesting that the groundwater aquifer protects the water supply more effectively from larger Giardia cysts. Cryptosporidium oocyst concentrations are within the typical range for surface water supplies in North America whereas Giardia cyst concentrations are elevated. Efforts should be made to protect raw water from sources of contamination.

  14. Intestinal parasites in southeast Asian refugees two years after immigration.

    OpenAIRE

    Molina, C D; Molina, M M; Molina, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    We collected stool specimens from 2,520 Southeast Asian refugees who had resided in the United States for an average of 2.1 years. More than half reported receiving prior treatment of parasites. At least one parasite was discovered in 32%, and multiple parasites were found in 8% of patients. Hookworm, Giardia, Strongyloides, and Hymenolepis nana were most commonly found. In comparison to studies done at the time of immigration, all parasites had decreased in frequency, but Giardia, hookworm, ...

  15. Intestinal parasites in school food handlers in the city of Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil / Parasitas intestinais em manipuladores de merenda escolar na cidade de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Julia Maria, Costa-Cruz; Margareth Leitão Gennari, Cardoso; Daldy Endo, Marques.

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Para verificar a presença de parasitas intestinais em manipuladores de merenda escolar foram coletadas amostras fecais de 104 cantineiras e serventes que auxiliavam no preparo da alimentação de 20 Estabelecimentos da rede pública de ensino de 1º grau, localizados em diferentes bairros, da cidade de [...] Uberlândia, Minas Gerais. As amostras foram coletadas nos meses de novembro e dezembro de 1988 em frascos plásticos contendo formol a 10% e processadas pelo método de Hoffmann, Pons & Janer sendo o sedimento examinado em triplicata. Todos os indivíduos pertenciam ao sexo feminino com idade entre 24 e 69 anos. Foram detectados manipuladores de merenda escolar parasitados em 85% das Escolas estudadas. Das 104 amostras de fezes, 49 (47,1%) estavam positivas, sendo que 32 (65,3%) pertenciam a indivíduos monoparasitados e 17 (34,7%) a indivíduos biparasitados. Os parasitas em ordem decrescente de ocorrência foram: Giardia lamblia (21,1%), Entamoeba coli (21,1%), ancilostomídeos (9,6%), Ascaris lumbricoides (5,8%), Entamoeba histolytica (2,9%), Hymenolepis nana (1,9%) e Strongyloides stercoralis (1,0%). Conclui-se pela necessidade de rigoroso controle semestral, tratamento específico e orientação sobre os mecanismos de transmissão das enteroparasitoses a todos os manipuladores de merenda escolar dos Estabelecimentos de ensino. Abstract in english In order to verify the presence of intestinal parasites in food handlers, stool samples were collected from 104 cooks and their helpers that were working in food preparation in 20 public elementary schools, in various areas of the city of Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The samples were collected [...] during the months of November and December, 1988, in plastic flasks containing a 10% formaldehyde solution and processed by the Hoffmann, Pons & Janer method. The sediment was examined using triplicate slides. All individuals were females aged between 24 to 69 years. Intestinal parasites were found in 85.0% of the studied schools and 47.1% of the studied food handlers (cooks and helpers) were found to be positive. Among the 49 infected food handlers, 32 (65.3%) carried a single parasite and 17 (34.7%) carried two parasites. The following intestinal parasites were found: Giardia lamblia (21.1%), Entamoeba coli (21.1%), hookworms (9.6%), Ascaris lumbricoides (5.8%), Entamoeba histolytica (2.9%), Hymenolepis nana (1.9%), Strongyloides stercoralis (1.0%). These data emphasize the need for a rigid semi-annual control in all school food handlers, including diagnosis, specific treatment and orientation about the mechanisms of transmission of the intestinal parasites.

  16. A genomic survey of the fish parasite Spironucleus salmonicida indicates genomic plasticity among diplomonads and significant lateral gene transfer in eukaryote genome evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logsdon John M

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative genomic studies of the mitochondrion-lacking protist group Diplomonadida (diplomonads has been lacking, although Giardia lamblia has been intensively studied. We have performed a sequence survey project resulting in 2341 expressed sequence tags (EST corresponding to 853 unique clones, 5275 genome survey sequences (GSS, and eleven finished contigs from the diplomonad fish parasite Spironucleus salmonicida (previously described as S. barkhanus. Results The analyses revealed a compact genome with few, if any, introns and very short 3' untranslated regions. Strikingly different patterns of codon usage were observed in genes corresponding to frequently sampled ESTs versus genes poorly sampled, indicating that translational selection is influencing the codon usage of highly expressed genes. Rigorous phylogenomic analyses identified 84 genes – mostly encoding metabolic proteins – that have been acquired by diplomonads or their relatively close ancestors via lateral gene transfer (LGT. Although most acquisitions were from prokaryotes, more than a dozen represent likely transfers of genes between eukaryotic lineages. Many genes that provide novel insights into the genetic basis of the biology and pathogenicity of this parasitic protist were identified including 149 that putatively encode variant-surface cysteine-rich proteins which are candidate virulence factors. A number of genomic properties that distinguish S. salmonicida from its human parasitic relative G. lamblia were identified such as nineteen putative lineage-specific gene acquisitions, distinct mutational biases and codon usage and distinct polyadenylation signals. Conclusion Our results highlight the power of comparative genomic studies to yield insights into the biology of parasitic protists and the evolution of their genomes, and suggest that genetic exchange between distantly-related protist lineages may be occurring at an appreciable rate in eukaryote genome evolution.

  17. Hsp90 inhibitors as new leads to target parasitic diarrheal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Anjan; Shahinas, Dea; Bryant, Clifford; Hirata, Ken; Miyamoto, Yukiko; Hwang, Grace; Gut, Jiri; Renslo, Adam R; Pillai, Dylan R; Eckmann, Lars; Reed, Sharon L; McKerrow, James H

    2014-07-01

    Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia are anaerobic protozoan parasites that cause amebiasis and giardiasis, two of the most common diarrheal diseases worldwide. Current therapy relies on metronidazole, but resistance has been reported and the drug has significant adverse effects. Therefore, it is critical to search for effective, better-tolerated antiamebic and antigiardial drugs. We synthesized several examples of a recently reported class of Hsp90 inhibitors and evaluated these compounds as potential leads for antiparasitic chemotherapy. Several of these inhibitors showed strong in vitro activity against both E. histolytica and G. lamblia trophozoites. The inhibitors were rescreened to discriminate between amebicidal and giardicidal activity and general cytotoxicity toward a mammalian cell line. No mammalian cytotoxicity was found at >100 ?M for 48 h for any of the inhibitors. To understand the mechanism of action, a competitive binding assay was performed using the fluorescent ATP analogue bis-ANS (4,4'-dianilino-1,1'-binaphthyl-5,5'-disulfonic acid dipotassium salt) and recombinant E. histolytica Hsp90 preincubated in both the presence and absence of Hsp90 inhibitors. There was significant reduction in fluorescence compared to the level in the control, suggesting that E. histolytica Hsp90 is a selective target. The in vivo efficacy and safety of one Hsp90 inhibitor in a mouse model of amebic colitis and giardiasis was demonstrated by significant inhibition of parasite growth at a single oral dose of 5 mg/kg of body weight/day for 7 days and 10 mg/kg/day for 3 days. Considering the results for in vitro activity and in vivo efficacy, Hsp90 inhibitors represent a promising therapeutic option for amebiasis and giardiasis. PMID:24820073

  18. Intestinal Parasitic Infections in Chronic Psychiatric Patients in Sina Hospital Shahre-Kord, Iran

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    Bahman Khalili

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although the number of infectious diseases has sharply decreased in last few decades, parasitic diseases persist in developing countries. On the other hand, chronic psychiatric patients tend to have low self-control, poor personal hygiene, long term institutionalization and extremely low self-care should be monitored for parasitic diseases since psychosocial conditions can contribute to an affinity for infectious diseases..Objectives: The aim of study was to investigate intestinal parasites in chronic psychiatric patients..Patients and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, all chronic psychiatric patients from Sina Hospital of Shahre-Kord University of Medical Sciences were recruited from April to November 2010. From each patient, 3 stool samples were collected every other day. Samples were transferred to Department of Parasitology of Faculty of Medicine and were examined by wet direct smear, Ziehl-Neelsen and Rayan blue trichrome stains. Direct smear was examined microscopically by performing a standard direct smear using normal saline (0.85% and Iodine solution (Lugol. Stools were stained by Ziehl-Neelsen and Rayan blue trichrome in order to investigate Cryptosporidium and Microsporidia respectively..Results: Forty-seven patients (72% were male and 18 (28% were female.The minimum time of institution was 2 months and the longest period of incarceration was 152 months. The mean of hospitalization duration was 94.7 months. Forty-four cases (68% of participants were infected with intestinal parasites.The most frequent parasites were Blastocystis hominis in 15 cases (23% followed by Microsporidia in 12 cases (18.5%, Giardia lamblia in 7 cases (11%, Isospora in 5 cases (8% and Cryptosporidium in 4 cases (6.2%, respectively.Conclusions: Opportunistic protozoan parasites such as Microsporidia, Isospora and Cryptosporidium should be considered as a potential pathogen in this setting and more health care should be given to this specific group.

  19. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites in Leafy Vegetables in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

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    Wafa A.I. Al-Megrin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate some of the leafy vegetable plants sold in local markets for human consumption to check whether they harbor different parasites stages. A total of 470 leafy vegetable samples were collected from 12 different plant species randomly from local markets in the Riyadh city during the period April and March 2008. The samples were analysed in the laboratory for parasitic stages contained in these samples after washing them in physiological saline and then examining the sediment. Results of the present study has shown that 76 out of 470 samples (16.2% contained parasite stages. Depending on the type of leafy plant, examined the prevalence of parasitic stages in these plants, was found to be 27.8% (17/61 in lettuce, 22.8% (13/57 in watercress, 20.6% (7/34 in leek, 19.1% (9/47 in green onion, 17.4% (15/87 in parsley, 15.4% (4/26 in spinach, 13.6% (3/22 in basil, 11.5% (3/26 in coriander, 9.4% (3/32 in radish, 5.3% (1/19 in dill and 4.7% (2/42 in mint. No parasites were detected in 17 samples collected from cabbage. Stages of intestinal parasites detected were Entamoeba coli (35.5%, Giardia lamblia (31.6%, Dicrocoelium sp. (28.9%, Ascaris sp. (26.3%, Taenia sp. (19.7%, Blastocystis hominis (17.1%, Fasciola sp. (14.5%, Hymenolepis sp. (14.5%, Ancylostoma sp. (11.8%, Toxoplasma gondii (6.6% and Trichostrongylus sp. (2.6%. The results indicated a significant seasonal variation (p<0.05, with highest prevalence in spring (23.1%, followed in descending order by Summer (17.9%, Autumn (10.6% and Winter (9.9%.

  20. The Superoxide Reductase from the Early Diverging Eukaryote Giardia Intestinalis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unlike superoxide dismutases (SODs), superoxidereductases (SORs) eliminate superoxide anion (O2#sm_bullet#-) not through its dismutation, but via reduction to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the presence of an electron donor. The microaerobic protist Giardia intestinalis, responsible for a common intestinal disease in humans, though lacking SOD and other canonical reactive oxygen species-detoxifying systems, is among the very few eukaryotes encoding a SOR yet identified. In this study, the recombinant SOR from Giardia (SORGi) was purified and characterized by pulse radiolysis and stopped-flow spectrophotometry. The protein, isolated in the reduced state, after oxidation by superoxide or hexachloroiridate(IV), yields a resting species (Tfinal) with Fe3+ ligated to glutamate or hydroxide depending on pH (apparent pKa = 8.7). Although showing negligible SOD activity, reduced SORGi reacts with O2#sm_bullet#- with a pH-independent second-order rate constant k1 = 1.0 x 109 M-1 s-1 and yields the ferric-(hydro)peroxo intermediate T1; this in turn rapidly decays to the Tfinal state with pH-dependent rates, without populating other detectable intermediates. Immunoblotting assays show that SORGi is expressed in the disease-causing trophozoite of Giardia. We propose that the superoxide-scGiardia. We propose that the superoxide-scavenging activity of SOR in Giardia may promote the survival of this air-sensitive parasite in the fairly aerobic proximal human small intestine during infection.

  1. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in water supplies of San Pedro Sula, Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    Solo-Gabriele Helena María; Ager Jr.,Arba LeRoy; Lindo John Fitzgerald; Dubón José María; Neumeister Shondra Michelle; Baum Marianna Karas; Palmer Carol Jean

    1998-01-01

    During June 1996, water supplies of the city of San Pedro Sula, Honduras, were sampled to obtain an assessment of Cryptosporidium oocyst and Giardia cyst concentrations. Each sample was concentrated and stained with an indirect immunofluorescent antibody, and parasites were counted through microscopic analysis. In three surface water supplies, Cryptosporidium oocyst concentrations ranged from 58 to 260 oocysts per 100 L, and Giardia cysts were present in concentrations ranging from 380 to 210...

  2. Prevalencia de enteroparásitos en niños de la etnia Yukpa de Toromo, Estado Zulia, Venezuela Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites in Children of Yukpa Ethnia in Toromo, Zulia State, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Díaz A

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Yupkpa community in Perijá Sierra does not have drinking water or sewage elimination systems. Thus it becomes a propitious place for infection with intestinal parasites. Aim: To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in children, ages 0 to 14 years, in the Yukpa ethnic population of Toromo in the Perijá Mountains, Zulia State, Venezuela. Material and Methods: Ninety one fecal samples were analyzed by the following coproparasitologic methods: saline solution and lugol fresh mount, formalin-ether concentration (Ritchie, and Kinyoun stain for intestinal coccidians. Results: Overall parasite infection prevalence was 83.5%. The most frequently observed parasites were: Ascaris lumbricoides (57.1%, Trichuris trichiura (20.8%, Hymenolepis nana (14.2%, Blastocystis hominis (51.6%, Giardia lamblia (30.7%, and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar complex (21.9%. Coccidians were nont observed in any of the stool samples. Conclusions: The large number of infected people is directly related to the hygienic and sanitary conditions of the population studied

  3. Prevalencia de enteroparásitos en niños de la etnia Yukpa de Toromo, Estado Zulia, Venezuela / Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites in Children of Yukpa Ethnia in Toromo, Zulia State, Venezuela

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Iris, Díaz A; Zulbey, Rivero R; Ángela, Bracho M; María, Castellanos S; Ellen, Acurero; Marinella, Calchi L; Ricardo, Atencio T.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Background: Yupkpa community in Perijá Sierra does not have drinking water or sewage elimination systems. Thus it becomes a propitious place for infection with intestinal parasites. Aim: To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in children, ages 0 to 14 years, in the Yukpa ethnic populati [...] on of Toromo in the Perijá Mountains, Zulia State, Venezuela. Material and Methods: Ninety one fecal samples were analyzed by the following coproparasitologic methods: saline solution and lugol fresh mount, formalin-ether concentration (Ritchie), and Kinyoun stain for intestinal coccidians. Results: Overall parasite infection prevalence was 83.5%. The most frequently observed parasites were: Ascaris lumbricoides (57.1%), Trichuris trichiura (20.8%), Hymenolepis nana (14.2%), Blastocystis hominis (51.6%), Giardia lamblia (30.7%), and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar complex (21.9%). Coccidians were nont observed in any of the stool samples. Conclusions: The large number of infected people is directly related to the hygienic and sanitary conditions of the population studied

  4. Chapter 42. Waterborne and Foodborne Parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter identifies the most prominent parasites in North America that are acquired through contaminated food and water including protozoa (Acanthamoeba, Naegleria, Entamoeba, Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Cystoisospora, Cyclospora, Toxoplasma, and Balantidium), nematodes (Trichinella, Angiostrongyl...

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF APTAMERS TO WATERBORNE PARASITES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Safe Drinking Water Act Amendment of 1996 mandates that the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) evaluate public health risks associated with drinking water contaminants to include waterborne parasites, such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia. Additionally, the Agency est...

  6. Epidemiologia del parasitismo intestinal infantil en el Valle del Guadalquivir / Epidemiology of the children's intestinal parasitism in the Guadalquivir Valley (Spain)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cristina, Pérez Armengol; Concepción, Ariza Astolfi; José M., Úbeda Ontiveros; Diego C., Guevara Benítez; Manuel de, Rojas Alvarez; Carmen, Lozano Serrano.

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Las parasitosis intestinales en los niños constituyen un problema de salud pública que debe ser valorado periódicamente en cada región. En este trabajo se aborda, por primera vez en la región natural del Valle del Guadalquivir, un estudio amplio sobre la prevalencia del parasitismo intes [...] tinal en la población infantil de la zona. MÉTODOS: Durante el período 1994-1996, mediante análisis coprológico y método de Graham, se ha estudiado a 1.917 niños y niñas asintomáticos, con edades comprendidas entre seis y diez años, residentes en veinte localidades del Valle del Guadalquivir. RESULTADOS: El índice global de parasitación ha sido del 27,12 %. Las especies parásitas detectadas, así como sus prevalencias fueron: Enterobius vermicularis (20,44%), Giardia lamblia (5,05%), Entamoeba coli (2,45%), Endolimax nana (1,61%), Entamoeba histolytica (0,31%), Entamoeba hartmanni (0,05%), Iodamoeba bütschlii (0,05%). CONCLUSIONES: La prevalencia global encontrada es similar a la de otras regiones españolas, aunque quizás pueda considerarse algo más favorable. No se detectan geohelmintos, debido posiblemente a la mejora de la infraestructura higiénico-sanitaria y a los efectos de la prolongada sequía en la zona. La giardiasis, a diferencia de las restantes protozoosis, mantiene una prevalencia relativamente alta. Abstract in english BACKGROUND : Intestinal parasitisms represents a public health problem that should be periodically assessed in each region. In the present paper, a study about prevalence of intestinal parasites, has been carried out in children from the natural region of the Guadalquivir Valley. METHODS: During the [...] period 1994-1996, 1.917 children without symptoms, aging between 6 and 10, were studied by means of coprologycal analysis and Graham method, all of them living in 20 villages in the Guadalquivir valley. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitisms have been of 27,12%. The reported parasites and their prevalence are as follows: Enterobius vermicularis (20,44%), Giardia lamblia (5,05%), Entamoeba coli (2,45%), Endolimax nana (1,61%), Entamoeba histolytica (0,31%), Entamoeba hartmanni (0,05%), Iodamoeba bütschlii (0,05%). CONCLUSIONS: The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites is similar to that found in other spanish region, if only a little bit more favourable probably due to the long lasting drought and the improvements in health resourses, no geohelmints have been detected unlike other protozoosis, giardiasis mantains a relatively high prevalence.

  7. Differences in prevalence of parasites in stool samples between three distinct ethnic pediatric populations in southern Israel, 2007-2011.

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    Ben-Shimol, Shalom; Sagi, Orli; Greenberg, David

    2014-04-01

    Intestinal parasites cause significant morbidity worldwide, particularly in developing populations. At least three pediatric populations reside in southern Israel: the Bedouin population, the general Jewish population and Jewish children of Ethiopian origin. Our aim was to compare intestinal parasite prevalence between the three pediatric populations in southern Israel. This is a retrospective, laboratory, population-based surveillance. Most ova and parasite (O&P) tests in southern Israel (hospital and community obtained) are performed by the hospital parasitology laboratory. All pediatric stool O&P tests examined by the hospital laboratory between 2007 and 2011 were included. Overall, 45,978 samples were examined; 27,354, 16,969 and 1655 from Bedouin, non-Ethiopian Jewish and Ethiopian children, respectively. 16,317 parasites were identified in 12,325 (26.8%) positive samples. Total prevalences were 36%, 11% and 46% for Bedouin, non-Ethiopian Jewish and Ethiopian children, respectively. Blastocystis hominis, Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba species were the most common parasites identified, constituting ?80% of positive samples in all groups. Hymenolepis nana was rarely identified in non-Ethiopian Jewish children (0.04% of isolates compared with 2.6% and 0.5% in Bedouin and Ethiopian children, respectively). Other helminths, excluding H. nana and Enterobius vermicularis, were identified almost exclusively in Ethiopian children ?5years of age. In conclusion, the Bedouin and Ethiopian children were characterized by higher parasite prevalence in stool, compared with the non-Ethiopian Jewish children, probably reflecting higher intestinal parasitic disease rates. Certain helminthic infections were identified almost exclusively in the Ethiopian children. These differences may be associated with lifestyle differences between the three populations. PMID:24201297

  8. Prevalence and predisposing factors regarding intestinal parasitic infections among rural primary school pupils at Minia Governorate, Egypt

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    Fatma A.A. Ibrahium

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available About 400 million school-age children are infected with roundworm, whipworm and hookworm worldwide. This study aims to assess prevalence of parasitic infections among rural primary school pupils at Minia Governorate, Egypt, and to identify relevant predisposing factors of the school and pupils to intestinal parasitic infections. A total of 264 pupils out of 1053, aged 6-12 years, were randomly selected for parasitological investigation and the school was inspected on site for sanitary facilities and conditions of hygiene, as well as the conditions of hygiene of the pupils. The pupils were examined for ova, cysts and/or larvae of intestinal parasites using direct wet mount and formal-ether concentration techniques. Inspection of sanitary facilities and the conditions of hygiene of the school, as well pupil's conditions of hygiene, were carried out through observation checklists. Findings revealed the following intestinal parasites: Entamoeba coli (in 19.3% of pupils, Ascaris lumbricoides (3.8%, Hymenolepiasis nana (12.5%, Enterobious vermicularis (5.7% and Giardia lamblia (12.5%, with varying percentages between male and female pupils, and a highly statistical association between pupil sex and type of parasites (P<0.001. Unapproved sanitary facilities and conditions of hygiene of the school and pupils were observed. Many intestinal parasitic infections among the primary school pupils were found. Unapproved and low inventory school sanitary facilities were observed, in addition to poor conditions of hygiene of pupils which may play a crucial role in these infections. The school facilities and sanitary conditions, especially the quality of water in the toilets, should be improved. Pupils and school personnel have a real need for health education about modes of transmission and preventive methods of intestinal parasitic infections.

  9. Foodborne protozoan parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, David

    2005-08-25

    This report addresses Cryptosporidium, Giardia, Cyclospora, and more briefly, Toxoplasma as the main parasitic protozoa of concern to food production worldwide. Other parasitic protozoa may be spread in food or water but are not considered as great a risk to food manufacture. The protozoan parasites Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Cyclospora have proven potential to cause waterborne and foodborne disease. Toxoplasma gondii has been considered a risk in specific cases, but humans are not its primary host. Cryptosporidium and Giardia are widespread in the environment, particularly the aquatic environment, and major outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis have occurred as a result of contaminated drinking water. Large outbreaks of waterborne cyclosporiasis have not been identified. Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Cyclospora have potential significance in the preparation and consumption of fresh produce and in catering practice, in which ready-to-eat foods may be served that have not received heat treatment. None of the three organisms Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Cyclospora has been shown to be a problem for heat processed food or tap water that has undergone appropriate treatment at a water treatment works. All three are sensitive to standard pasteurisation techniques. Although humans are not a primary host for T. gondii, the potential exists for both waterborne and foodborne toxoplasmosis. Parasitic protozoa do not multiply in foods, but they may survive in or on moist foods for months in cool, damp environments. Their ecology makes control of these parasites difficult. For general control of parasitic protozoa in the food chain, the following steps are necessary: - Follow good hygienic practice in food service and catering industries.- Minimise dissemination of cysts and oocysts in the farming environment and via human waste management.- Include these microorganisms in Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) plans of water suppliers, industries or sectors that use fresh produce, and operations in which contaminated process or ingredient water could end up in the product (e.g., where water supplies may become contaminated). PMID:16083823

  10. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in a population in south of Tehran, Iran Prevalência de parasitas intestinais em população no sul do Teerã, Irã

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    Abolfath Shojaei Arani

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe epidemiologic characteristics of intestinal parasites in a population in south of Tehran, Iran. A retrospective cross-sectional study of patients with suspicious intestinal parasitic infections referred to the Zakaria Razi Laboratory in Shahre-Ray, southern Tehran, Iran, was conducted from April 21, 2004 to October 20, 2005. All stool samples were examined and socio-demographic informations were retrieved. Of 4,371 referred patients, 466 (239 males and 227 females were laboratory diagnosed with intestinal parasites, with a period prevalence of 10.7%. Blastocystis hominis (B. hominis and Giardia lamblia (G. lamblia were the most frequent intestinal parasites. More than half of patients aged ³ 18 years had a low level of educational attainment (e.g. illiterate, primary school, high school (170/331, 54.1%. Further, majority of patients were homemakers (42.3%, 140/331 or workers (28.1%, 93/331 employed in various business settings such as food industry and construction. Findings of this study showed that intestinal parasitic infections are still a major public health challenge in Iran that needs to be addressed. We believe that public education, improving sanitation conditions of underdeveloped areas/communities, community involvement, and supporting evidence-based practice/programs are the major keys to success in preventing the spread of intestinal parasitic infections in Iran.O própósito deste estudo foi descrever as características epidemiológicas dos parasitas intestinais em população do sul de Teerã, Irã. Um estudo retrospectivo seccional cruzado de pacientes com suspeita de infecções parasitárias intestinais enviados ao Laboratório Zakaria Razi em Shahre-Ray, sul do Teerã, Irã foi conduzido de 21 de abril de 2004 a 20 de outubro de 2005. Todas as amostras de fezes foram examinadas e as informações sócio-demográficas recuperadas. De 4371 pacientes enviados, 466 (239 homens e 227 mulheres foram diagnosticados laboratorialmente como portadores de parasitas intestinais com prevalência no período de 10,7%. Blastocystis hominis (B. hominis e Giardia lamblia (G. lamblia foram os parasitas intestinais mais frequentes. Mais da metade dos pacientes ³ 18 anos tinham baixo nível educacional (por exemplo: analfabetos, escola primária, 2º grau completo (170/331, 54,1%. Mais ainda, a maioria dos pacientes eram empregados domésticos (42,3%, 140/331 ou trabalhadores (28,1%, 93/331 empregados em diversos tipos de serviços, tais como a indústria de alimentos e construção. Achados deste estudo mostraram que as infecções parasitárias intestinais são ainda um desafio importante em saúde pública no Irã que necessita ser resolvido. Acreditamos que a educação pública, a melhoria das condições sanitárias em áreas pouco desenvolvidas/comunidades, envolvimento da comunidade, e programas práticos baseados nas evidências, são as principais chaves do sucesso na prevenção da disseminação das infecções parasitárias no Irã.

  11. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in a population in south of Tehran, Iran / Prevalência de parasitas intestinais em população no sul do Teerã, Irã

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Abolfath Shojaei, Arani; Reza, Alaghehbandan; Lame, Akhlaghi; Maryam, Shahi; Abdolaziz Rastegar, Lari.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O própósito deste estudo foi descrever as características epidemiológicas dos parasitas intestinais em população do sul de Teerã, Irã. Um estudo retrospectivo seccional cruzado de pacientes com suspeita de infecções parasitárias intestinais enviados ao Laboratório Zakaria Razi em Shahre-Ray, sul do [...] Teerã, Irã foi conduzido de 21 de abril de 2004 a 20 de outubro de 2005. Todas as amostras de fezes foram examinadas e as informações sócio-demográficas recuperadas. De 4371 pacientes enviados, 466 (239 homens e 227 mulheres) foram diagnosticados laboratorialmente como portadores de parasitas intestinais com prevalência no período de 10,7%. Blastocystis hominis (B. hominis) e Giardia lamblia (G. lamblia) foram os parasitas intestinais mais frequentes. Mais da metade dos pacientes ³ 18 anos tinham baixo nível educacional (por exemplo: analfabetos, escola primária, 2º grau completo) (170/331, 54,1%). Mais ainda, a maioria dos pacientes eram empregados domésticos (42,3%, 140/331) ou trabalhadores (28,1%, 93/331) empregados em diversos tipos de serviços, tais como a indústria de alimentos e construção. Achados deste estudo mostraram que as infecções parasitárias intestinais são ainda um desafio importante em saúde pública no Irã que necessita ser resolvido. Acreditamos que a educação pública, a melhoria das condições sanitárias em áreas pouco desenvolvidas/comunidades, envolvimento da comunidade, e programas práticos baseados nas evidências, são as principais chaves do sucesso na prevenção da disseminação das infecções parasitárias no Irã. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to describe epidemiologic characteristics of intestinal parasites in a population in south of Tehran, Iran. A retrospective cross-sectional study of patients with suspicious intestinal parasitic infections referred to the Zakaria Razi Laboratory in Shahre-Ray, southern Tehr [...] an, Iran, was conducted from April 21, 2004 to October 20, 2005. All stool samples were examined and socio-demographic informations were retrieved. Of 4,371 referred patients, 466 (239 males and 227 females) were laboratory diagnosed with intestinal parasites, with a period prevalence of 10.7%. Blastocystis hominis (B. hominis) and Giardia lamblia (G. lamblia) were the most frequent intestinal parasites. More than half of patients aged ³ 18 years had a low level of educational attainment (e.g. illiterate, primary school, high school) (170/331, 54.1%). Further, majority of patients were homemakers (42.3%, 140/331) or workers (28.1%, 93/331) employed in various business settings such as food industry and construction. Findings of this study showed that intestinal parasitic infections are still a major public health challenge in Iran that needs to be addressed. We believe that public education, improving sanitation conditions of underdeveloped areas/communities, community involvement, and supporting evidence-based practice/programs are the major keys to success in preventing the spread of intestinal parasitic infections in Iran.

  12. INTESTINAL PARASITIC INFECTION IN FOODHANDLERS: IN THE HOSPITALS AFFILIATED TO ISFAHAN UNIVERSITY OF MEDICAL SCIENCES – 1997

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    P KETABI

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Foodhandlers can be carriers of organisms such as salmonella, staphylococci and intestinal parasitic infections. Considering that some patients in hospitals may have impaired resistance to infection and the possible role of foodhandlers in this regard, it seems to be necessary to examine the role of foodhandlers in transmission of intestinal parasitic infection. Methods: 152 foodhandlers were evaluated for their intestinal protozoan and helminthic infections in the hospitals of the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. From each subject, three stool - specimens were taken in three consecutive days. Five methods (Scotch tape, Direct examination, Formalin - Ether, Telleman, Flotation were used to detect ova and cyst. Results: The overall infection rate was (55.3 percent. The most commonly protozoa was Entamoeba Coli (in 33.6 percent of specimens. Others were Endolimax nana (17.8 percent, Blastocystis hominis (9.2 percent, Giardia lamblia (7.9 percent, Iodamoeba butschlii (2 percent and Chilomastix mesnili (0.7 percent respectively. The helminths observed were Enterobius vermicularis (9.1 percent, Hymenolepis nana (1.3 percent, Ascaris lumbricoides (0.7 percent, Trichuris trichiura (0.7 percent and Trichostrongylus spp(0.7 percent. Discussion: Deficiencies in hygienic practices and poor basic environmental sanitation are the contributing factors in the maintenance of the high prevalence of the intestinal protozoan infections found.

  13. GASTROINTESTINAL PARASITES OF SCHOOL CHILDREN IN BENIN CITY, NIGERIA

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    CE Okaka

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Examination of faecal samples of 6,430 school children aged between 2 and 20 years, for gastrointestinal parasites using sedimentation and Kato smear techniques was carried out in Benin City, Nigeria between January 1997 and December 1998. Four thousand two hundred and thirty six (65.8% were infected. Three species of protozoa and 8 species of helminths were recorded as follows: Entamoeba histolytica (6%, Entomoeba coli (4.8%, Giardia lamblia (5.2%, Schistosoma mansoni (2.4%, Fasciola gigantica (2.3%, Taenia sp. (1.3%, Ascaris lumbricoides (17.0%, Enterobius vemicularis (1.5%, Trichuris trichiura (6.8%, Necator americanus (13.9%, and Strongyloides stercoralis (3.9%. Prevalence of infection increased with increase in age to a maximum value of 8.15% among the 6-9 years age group (junior primary pupils and thereafter decreased with increase in age, to the least value of 28.6% among the 17-20 years old (senior secondary. The nursery pupils recorded the highest prevalence for protozoa and the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides infections while the senior primary pupils had the highest infection rates for the fluke Schistosoma mansoni and for all other nematode parasites recorded (apart from Ascaris. The junior secondary pupils recorded the highest prevalence for the liver fluke, Fasicola gigantica while the senior secondary pupils recorded the least prevalence for all the parasitic infections. Infections were significantly high (P<0.05 in the rainy season (April-October and low in the dry season (November-March. The high infection rate is considered to be due to general poor sanitation in the environment and the poor sanitary habits of children.

  14. Prevalence, Risk Factors and Impacts of Schistosomal and Intestinal Parasitic Infections Among Rural School Children in Sohag Governorate

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    H. M. El-Masry; Y. A. Ahmed; A. A. Hassan; S. Zaky*; E. S. Abd-Allah

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic diseases represent a major cause of morbidity and mortality in childhood in most parts of the world. Hygiene and play habits make children especially vulnerable to schistosomal and parasitic infections. The aim of this study is to define the prevalence of different types of parasitic infections, to define their risk factors and to determine their impacts on health and scholastic absenteeism and achievement of rural school students in Sohag Governorate, Egypt. A cross-section, analytical study design was chosen to perform this research on 960 rural school students. All the students were interviewed and examined clinically and laboratory. The study showed that 38.5% of the students were infected by parasites. Entaemoeba histolytica, Enterobius vermicularis and Giardia lamblia had the highest percentages, 20.4%, 16.6% and 15.2%, respectively. Male sex, last birth order, poor personal hygiene, low socioeconomic level, 3 infected siblings, previous parasitic infections and no early consultation for therapy were important risk factors (ORs=1.41, 2.32, 2.63, 2.86, 4.17, 9.80 and 10.83, respectively. Also, 29.2% and 31.6% of infected students were below the 5th percentiles as regard weight-for-age and height-for-age, respectively. Anemia was present among 52.4% of infected students. Further, 3.2% of them had hepatomegaly. Also, 37.8% and 41.1% of infected students had 0-3 and 4-6 days/month absent, respectively, while, 34.3% of infected students had a scholastic achievement <50.0%. Improving personal and environmental hygiene and regular screening, treatment and health education for students as regard parasitic infections in Egypt is recommended.

  15. Genome analysis and comparative genomics of a Giardia intestinalis assemblage E isolate

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    Andersson Jan O

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Giardia intestinalis is a protozoan parasite that causes diarrhea in a wide range of mammalian species. To further understand the genetic diversity between the Giardia intestinalis species, we have performed genome sequencing and analysis of a wild-type Giardia intestinalis sample from the assemblage E group, isolated from a pig. Results We identified 5012 protein coding genes, the majority of which are conserved compared to the previously sequenced genomes of the WB and GS strains in terms of microsynteny and sequence identity. Despite this, there is an unexpectedly large number of chromosomal rearrangements and several smaller structural changes that are present in all chromosomes. Novel members of the VSP, NEK Kinase and HCMP gene families were identified, which may reveal possible mechanisms for host specificity and new avenues for antigenic variation. We used comparative genomics of the three diverse Giardia intestinalis isolates P15, GS and WB to define a core proteome for this species complex and to identify lineage-specific genes. Extensive analyses of polymorphisms in the core proteome of Giardia revealed differential rates of divergence among cellular processes. Conclusions Our results indicate that despite a well conserved core of genes there is significant genome variation between Giardia isolates, both in terms of gene content, gene polymorphisms, structural chromosomal variations and surface molecule repertoires. This study improves the annotation of the Giardia genomes and enables the identification of functionally important variation.

  16. Development of Sensitive Detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia from Surface Water in Iran

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    N Taghipour Lailabadi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The protozoan parasites Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia are known to occur widely in both raw and drinking waters. They are two of the causative agents of waterborne out-breaks of gastroenteritis throughout the world. In the present study, a PCR assay and FA were developed for detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cyst in environmental samples. Methods: We have detected Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts and Giardia cysts in seeded and un-seeded environmental water samples by PCR method. Water samples were spiked with oocysts (50, 100,300,500 and filtrated with a 1.2-µm pore size cellulose nitrate and follow by DNA extrac¬tion and purification by QIAamp DNA mini kit. Nested-PCR assay amplified an 850 bp fragment of 18s rRNA gene specific for Cryptosporidium and 435 bp fragment of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH target gene for Giardia. Also many river water from north of Iran, be checked by these methods. Results: Cryptosporidium and Giardia DNAs were detected in seeded water sample and Giardia was detected in all 5 water samples from river in north of Iran by nested- PCR and FA. Also in one river water sample, Cryptosporidium was detected.Conclusion: This protocol is effective for detection of these waterborne parasites in treated and untreated water samples. This study can also serve as a platform for further investigations and research water source in Iran.

  17. Intestinal parasites of Alouatta caraya (Primates, Ceboidea): preliminary study in semi-captivity and in the wild in Argentina / Parásitos intestinales de Alouatta caraya (Primates, Ceboidea): estudio preliminar en semi cautiverio y en vida silvestre en la Argentina

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carola, Milozzi; Gabriela, Bruno; Elisa, Cundom; Marta D, Mudry; Graciela T, Navone.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Las infecciones endo-parasíticas son frecuentes en los primates no humanos y factores importantes que regulan sus poblaciones naturales. Los primates son particularmente vulnerables a las infecciones por parásitos de transmisión directa debido a que usualmente éstos viven en grupos sociales que faci [...] litan su transmisión. El principal objetivo del presente estudio fue proveer información de los parásitos gastrointestinales que albergan tropas de monos aulladores Alouatta caraya en semi-cautiverio y en vida silvestre en Argentina. Colectamos 110 muestras de materia fecal de 38 monos aulladores pertenecientes a cuatro tropas, dos de ellas mantenidas en semicautiverio en el CRMAN, Córdoba y dos tropas silvestres en campo Las Lomas, Corrientes. Identificamos seis especies de parásitos: cuatro protozoos: Giardia lamblia, Blastocystis hominis, Eimeria sp. y Entamoeba coli; un cestode, Bertiella mucronata y un nematode, Strongyloides sp. El 86.8% de los individuos muestreados presentaron al menos un tipo de parásito gastrointestinal. Se encontraron protozoos en el 78.9% de los animales y helmintos en el 21.1%. Hallamos diferencias significativas en la prevalencia de tres especies de protozoos entre los sitios de estudio, donde los aulladores de Las Lomas mostraron la mayor prevalencia. Las diferencias encontradas pueden estar relacionadas con las condiciones ambientales, donde regiones más cálidas y húmedas (Las Lomas), favorecen la supervivencia de estadios infecciosos de algunas especies de parásitos. Abstract in english Endoparasitic infections are common in nonhuman primates and important factors in regulating their natural populations. Primates are particularly vulnerable to the infections of directly transmitted parasites because they often live in close social groups that facilitate their transmission. The main [...] objective of this study was to provide baseline data on gastrointestinal parasites of semi captive and wild howler monkeys Alouatta caraya troops from Argentina. We collected 110 fecal samples from 38 howler monkeys from four troops, two of them kept in semi-captivity at the CRMAN, Córdoba, and two wild troops from Las Lomas, Corrientes. We identified six species of parasites: four Protozoa, Giardia lamblia, Blastocystis hominis, Eimeria sp. and Entamoeba coli; one Cestoda, Bertiella mucronata and one Nematoda, Strongyloides sp. Of the individuals sampled, 86.8% harbored at least one type of gastrointestinal parasite. Protozoa were found in 78.9% of hosts and helminths in 21.1%. We found significant differences in the prevalence of three protozoan species between study sites; and howlers from Las Lomas showed the highest prevalence. The differences found may be related to environmental conditions, where warmer and wetter regions (Las Lomas) favor the survival of infectious stages of some parasitic species.

  18. Recombinase polymerase amplification-based assay to diagnose Giardia in stool samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crannell, Zachary Austin; Cabada, Miguel Mauricio; Castellanos-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Irani, Ayesha; White, Arthur Clinton; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2015-03-01

    Giardia duodenalis is one of the most commonly identified parasites in stool samples. Although relatively easy to treat, giardiasis can be difficult to detect as it presents similar to other diarrheal diseases. Here, we present a recombinase polymerase amplification-based Giardia (RPAG) assay to detect the presence of Giardia in stool samples. The RPAG assay was characterized on the bench top using stool samples spiked with Giardia cysts where it showed a limit-of-detection nearly as low as the gold standard polymerase chain reaction assay. The RPAG assay was then tested in the highlands of Peru on 104 stool samples collected from the surrounding communities where it showed 73% sensitivity and 95% specificity against a polymerase chain reaction and microscopy composite gold standard. Further improvements in clinical sensitivity will be needed for the RPAG assay to have clinical relevance. PMID:25510713

  19. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in domestic animals in peri-urban communities of Kafue district, Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwila, J.; Phiri, I. G. K.

    2013-01-01

    Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis are important parasites infecting a wide range of domestic animals worldwide. The aim of the present study was to determine the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia parasites in different domestic animals living in close contact with humans within rural/semiurban communities in Kafue district in Zambia. A single faecal sample per animal was collected from pigs, goats, dogs, ducks, chickens and pigeons and analysed by Merifluor Cryptosporidium/Giardia immunofluorescence antibody assay for the simultaneous detection of these parasites. The faecal consistency was noted and scored as non-diarrhoeic or diarrhoeic. A total of 236 samples were collected. Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected in pigs (11.5%, 17/148), goats (5.9%; 1/17), ducks (10.0%; 3/30) and chickens (14.3%; 2/14) while Giardia cysts were detected in pigs (8.1%; 12/148), goats (5.9%; 1/17), dogs (25.0%; 5/20) and ducks (6.7%; 2/30). Diarrhoea was not associated with either infection. Age was also not associated with either infection except in dogs where Giardia infection was only detected in animals aged less than six months (p=0.009). It is concluded from this study that Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia parasites are prevalent among domestic animals reared within communities in Kafue district thereby constituting a potential source for zoonotic infections.

  20. Parasitic infections and immune function: effect of helminth infections in a malaria endemic area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boef, Anna G C; May, Linda; van Bodegom, David; van Lieshout, Lisette; Verweij, Jaco J; Maier, Andrea B; Westendorp, Rudi G J; Eriksson, Ulrika K

    2013-05-01

    According to the hygiene hypothesis, reduced exposure to infections could explain the rise of atopic diseases in high-income countries. Helminths are hypothesised to alter the host's immune response in order to avoid elimination and, as a consequence, also reduce the host responsiveness to potential allergens. To elucidate the effect of current helminth infections on immune responsiveness in humans, we measured cytokine production in a rural Ghanaian population in an area with multiple endemic parasites including malaria, intestinal helminths and protozoa. Multiplex real-time PCR in stool samples was used for the detection of four gastrointestinal helminths, of which only Necator americanus was commonly present. A similar assay was used to test for Giardia lamblia in stool samples and malaria infection in venous blood samples. Levels of the cytokines interleukin (IL)-10, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-?, IL-17, IL-6, IL-13, and interferon (IFN)-? were determined in whole-blood samples ex vivo-stimulated either with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and zymosan (for innate cytokine production) or the T-cell mitogen phytohaemagglutinin (PHA). There were no significant differences in either innate or PHA-stimulated cytokine production dependent on current N. americanus infection. Plasmodium falciparum malarial infection was associated with a pro-inflammatory response indicated by increased innate production of TNF-?, IL-17 and IL-6. There was no clear pattern in cytokine responses dependent on G. lamblia-infection. In conclusion, in this rural Ghanaian population current N. americanus infections are not associated with altered immune function, while infection with P. falciparum is associated with pro-inflammatory innate immune responses. PMID:22999162

  1. Intraepithelial giardia intestinalis: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Gordillo, Mario Noé; González-Maciel, Angélica; Reynoso-Robles, Rafael; Montijo-Barrios, Ericka; Ponce-Macotela, Martha

    2014-12-01

    The giardiasis is a neglected parasitic disease. The WHO has estimated more than 280 million of human infections each year; however, intraepithelial giardiasis is a rare entity, there are only 5 reports showing invasive giardiasis. A pediatric female patient with chronic abdominal pain, diarrhea, or pasty stools, without fever, was seen in the Gastroenterology and Nutrition Service. The stool studies were negative for pathogens and lactose hydrogen breath test was positive. The presumptive clinical diagnosis was giardiasis and the patient was empirically treated with nitazoxanide. But, the patient persisted with abdominal pain and pasty stools. Endoscopy was indicated to search for Helicobacter and Giardia. Guardian and patient gave written informed consent. Hematological profile was normal. The endoscopy was performed under general anesthesia and the biopsies and duodenal aspirate were obtained. The microscopic analyses of duodenal fluid showed Giardia trophozoites. Electron microscopic analysis was negative for Helicobacter pylori, but Giardia trophozoites with a typical crescent shape within the tissue were found. The patient was treated with tinidazole, subsequent tests showed that lactose absorption was normal, stool examinations were negative for Giardia and abdominal pain had stopped. This case suggest that intraepithelial giardiasis could be a common entity but unseen because the giardiasis diagnosis is usually made on fecal samples. Future studies are necessary to determine the role of intraepithelial trophozoites in giardiasis pathogenic mechanisms. PMID:25546671

  2. New system for higher recovery rate of water borne Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Gad, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Background: The two most common water borne pathogenic protozoa, Cryptosporidium and Giardia, cause diarrhea worldwide. Detecting these parasites in water samples depends on effective parasite recovery from the water matrix. The reported low recovery rates of the currently used filter methods motivate the development of systems with higher recovery rates. Materials and methods: Five replicates of IMS purified Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts (N=2x103) were injected into a specially coated filter unit with a carefully chosen pore size. Following filtration, sonication was performed at predetermined time intervals to loosen all parasites and other particles from the filter and break up clusters. The concentrated parasite suspension was backwashed and counted after immuno-fluorescence staining. Results and discussion: Without sonication the recovery rates of both Cryptosporidium and Giardia were 85% were recorded when the filter was sonicated. Sonication usually affects parasite viability but could be tuned into a useful tool for enhanced backwash collection of parasites using a specially constructed filter unit and a sonication protocol. The filtration chamber further facilitated the concentration of parasites by ensuring a backwash volume of less than 1ml. The presented design of the filter system can be used as a cheap and time effective method of isolating water borne parasites in the laboratory.

  3. Imunolocalization of delta-giardin within the ventral disc of Giardia duodenalis using laser scanning confocal microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardia duodenalis is a ubiquitous protozoan parasite that colonizes the upper small intestine of humans and animals causing diarrheal disease. To maintain infection within the small intestine, trophozoites (the replicative stage of the parasite) attach to the epithelial layer of the gut and resist ...

  4. A Novel Galacto-Glycerolipid from Oxalis corniculata Kills Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia? †

    OpenAIRE

    Manna, Dipak; Dutta, Pradeep K.; Achari, Basudeb; Lohia, Anuradha

    2010-01-01

    Oxalis corniculata is a naturally occurring weed that has been used in traditional medicine for the cure of dysentery and diarrhea in India. One of the common causes of dysentery is due to infection by the protist pathogen Entamoeba histolytica. Bioactivity profiling of extracts from O. corniculata identified several compounds that showed antiamoebic activity in axenic cultures of E. histolytica. These were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared, and mass spectrometry as (i) Oc...

  5. Intestinal parasites in patients from the educational community, “Veragacha” School, Lara state, Venezuela (Enteroparasitosis en pacientes de la comunidad educativa, Escuela “Veragacha”, estado Lara, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez Daisy

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The parasites are a health problem.Objective: To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites instudents and school representatives.Methods: We assessed a descriptive and cross sectional study,which examined 204 individuals (114 children and 90 parents orguardians, analyzing their stool with techniques of saline solution,Lugol and Kato.Results: The frequency of intestinal parasitosis was 42.65%(73,6% for monoparasites and 26,4% multiparasitic predominantlybetween 11 and 14 years. 59% were female and 47,7%; were male.The parasites found: Blastocystis hominis (71,3%, Endolimaxnana (26,4%, Giardia lamblia (13,8%, Entamoeba coli (11,5%,Entamoeba histolytica (3.5%, Iodamoeba butschlii (1.2%, Chilomastixmesnili (1,2%, Trichuris trichiura (1,2% and Enterobiusvermicularis (1,2%.Conclusion: The relationship where the common presence of parasiteswas found. Only 18.1% of households had one or more parasitesin common, which seems to suggest that the infection in notnecessarily produced in the home. -RESUMEN: Introducción: Las parasitosis constituyen un problema de salud.Objetivo: Determinar la frecuencia de enteroparásitos en estudiantesy representantes de la escuela “Veragacha”.Material y Métodos: Se realizó un estudio de tipo descriptivo ytransversal, donde se estudiaron 204 individuos (114 niños y 90padres/representantes, analizando sus heces con las técnicas de soluciónsalina, lugol y Kato.Resultados: Se encontró una frecuencia de parasitosis intestinalde 42,65% (73,6% monoparasitados y 26,4% poliparasitados predominandoentre los 11 y 14 años (59% y en el sexo masculino(47,7%; los parásitos diagnosticados fueron: Blastocystis hominis(71,3%, Endolimax nana (26,4%, Giardia lamblia (13,8%, Entamoebacoli (11,5%, Entamoeba histolytica (3,5%, Iodamoebabutschlii (1,2%, Chilomastix mesnili (1,2%, Trichuris trichiura(1,2% y Enterobius vermicularis (1,2%.Conclusión: En la relación alumno-representante donde se indagóla presencia común de parásitos en cada familia, solo el 18,1% delos hogares, presentó uno o más parásitos en común, lo que hacepresumir que la infección no necesariamente se produjo en el hogar.

  6. Enteroparásitos asociados a diarrea aguda en niños menores de 12 años de edad / Intestinal Parasites Associated with Acute Diarrhea in Children Under 12 Years of Age

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Wintila, Rincón; Ellen, Acurero; Elvia, Serrano; Marisol, Quintero; Sharline, Beauchamp.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La enfermedad diarreica representa un problema importante de salud pública, siendo las parasitosis intestinales una de sus causas. El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar especies de enteroparásitos asociados a diarrea aguda en niños menores de 12 años de edad. Se estudiaron 58 niños de ambos se [...] xos estratificados en tres grupos de edad: menores de 1 año, de 1 a 4 años y de 5 a 12 años. A cada niño se le tomó una muestra fecal a la cual se le practicó los métodos coproparasitológicos con solución salina fisiológica, coloraciones temporales con lugol y azul de metileno amortiguado y coloraciones permanentes de Ziehl Neelsen modificado y Ácido Ràpido Tricrómica. El 36,20 % de los individuos presentaban enteroparásitos. Las especies parasitarias identificadas fueron las siguientes: Blastocystis hominis 17,24%, Complejo Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar 10,34%, Cryptosporidium parvum 6,90%, Giardia lamblia 6,90%, Entamoeba coli 3,45%, Chilomastix mesnili, Endolimax nana y Pentatrichomonas hominis 1,72% cada uno. El Chi cuadrado reveló diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre las variables parasitosis y sexo masculino, edad (5-12 años) y monoparasitismo (p Abstract in english Diarrhea is a serious public health problem and intestinal parasites are one of causes of the same. In order to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasite species involved in acute diarrhea in children under 12 years of age, this study was carried out. The sample was 58 children of both sexes s [...] tratified in three age groups: less than 1 year old, of 1 to 4 years old and older than 5, from whom fecal samples were obtained to which analysis with the coproparasitological exam was applied with physiologic saline solution, lugol, blue from cushioned methylene, the coloration techniques, permanent modified Ziehl Neelsen and Acid Fast Tricromic testing. The obtained results indicated that 36,20% of the individuals presented intestinal parasites. The prevalence of identified enteroparasites was the following: Blastocystis hominis 17.24%, Complex Entamoeba histolytica /Entamoeba dispar 10,34%, Cryptosporidium parvum y Giardia lamblia both with 6,90%, Entamoeba coli 3.45%, Chilomastix mesnili, Endolimax nana and Pentatrichomonas hominis 1.72% each one. Statistical squared Chi analysis revealed significance between the variables parasitosis and male sex, age (5-12 years old) and monoparasitism (p

  7. Características del parasitismo intestinal en niños de dos comunidades del policlínico "XX Aniversario" Intestinal parasitism features in children from two communities of "XX Aniversario" Polyclinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Antonia Cueto Montoya

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Dentro de las enfermedades infecciosas, aun en estos modernos tiempos, el parasitismo intestinal constituye un problema para países en vías de desarrollo y para los altamente desarrollados. Para caracterizar el parasitismo intestinal en niños de 1 a 12 años se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal durante los meses de mayo a julio de 2007, en 2 comunidades, una suburbana del reparto "América Latina" y otra urbana del reparto "Virginia", ambas pertenecientes al área de salud del Policlínico "XX Aniversario", del municipio de Santa Clara. Se visitaron las viviendas y se aplicó encuesta a los padres para obtener datos al respecto. Fueron estudiados 243 niños de ambas comunidades, a quienes se les tomó muestras de heces fecales y región anal por el método de Graham. La frecuencia general de parasitismo fue de 65,8 %, mayor en los niños del reparto "América Latina", y las especies más frecuentes fueron Giardia lamblia y Enterobius vermicularis. Una inadecuada desinfección del agua, la presencia de vectores, comerse las uñas, la poca higiene después del contacto con animales, la presencia de estos en el hogar, no lavar las verduras, andar descalzos y el hacinamiento, fueron factores que favorecieron las parasitosis.Included in infectious diseases, yet at present times, intestinal parasitism is a problem for underdeveloped countries, and for those highly developed. To characterize intestinal parasitism in children aged 1 and 12, we carried out a cross-sectional descriptive study during May to July, 2007 in 2 communities, one suburban of "América Latina" parcel and other urban of "Virginia" parcel, both served by "XX Aniversario" Polyclinic of Santa Clara municipality. We visited homes and we applied survey to parents to obtain data in this respect. A total of 243 children ware studied in both communities, taking samples of feces and of anal region by Graham method. General frequency of parasitism was of 6,8 % greater in the children of "América Latina" parcel, and more frequent species were Giardia lamblia and Enterobius vermicularis. An unsuitable water disinfection, presence of vectors, to bite nails, a poor hygiene after animal contacts, presence of these in home, not washed vegetables, barefoot, and overcrowding, were the factors that more favouring parasitosis.

  8. Características del parasitismo intestinal en niños de dos comunidades del policlínico "XX Aniversario" / Intestinal parasitism features in children from two communities of "XX Aniversario" Polyclinic

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gladys Antonia, Cueto Montoya; María del Carmen, Pérez Cueto; Silvia, Mildestein Verdés; María Elena, Núñez Linares; Milagros, Alegret Rodríguez; Nilda R, Martínez Flores.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Dentro de las enfermedades infecciosas, aun en estos modernos tiempos, el parasitismo intestinal constituye un problema para países en vías de desarrollo y para los altamente desarrollados. Para caracterizar el parasitismo intestinal en niños de 1 a 12 años se realizó un estudio descriptivo transver [...] sal durante los meses de mayo a julio de 2007, en 2 comunidades, una suburbana del reparto "América Latina" y otra urbana del reparto "Virginia", ambas pertenecientes al área de salud del Policlínico "XX Aniversario", del municipio de Santa Clara. Se visitaron las viviendas y se aplicó encuesta a los padres para obtener datos al respecto. Fueron estudiados 243 niños de ambas comunidades, a quienes se les tomó muestras de heces fecales y región anal por el método de Graham. La frecuencia general de parasitismo fue de 65,8 %, mayor en los niños del reparto "América Latina", y las especies más frecuentes fueron Giardia lamblia y Enterobius vermicularis. Una inadecuada desinfección del agua, la presencia de vectores, comerse las uñas, la poca higiene después del contacto con animales, la presencia de estos en el hogar, no lavar las verduras, andar descalzos y el hacinamiento, fueron factores que favorecieron las parasitosis. Abstract in english Included in infectious diseases, yet at present times, intestinal parasitism is a problem for underdeveloped countries, and for those highly developed. To characterize intestinal parasitism in children aged 1 and 12, we carried out a cross-sectional descriptive study during May to July, 2007 in 2 co [...] mmunities, one suburban of "América Latina" parcel and other urban of "Virginia" parcel, both served by "XX Aniversario" Polyclinic of Santa Clara municipality. We visited homes and we applied survey to parents to obtain data in this respect. A total of 243 children ware studied in both communities, taking samples of feces and of anal region by Graham method. General frequency of parasitism was of 6,8 % greater in the children of "América Latina" parcel, and more frequent species were Giardia lamblia and Enterobius vermicularis. An unsuitable water disinfection, presence of vectors, to bite nails, a poor hygiene after animal contacts, presence of these in home, not washed vegetables, barefoot, and overcrowding, were the factors that more favouring parasitosis.

  9. Relación "Saneamiento Básico y Prevalencia de Entero parásitos" en estudiantes del Colegio German Busch, La Paz - 2013 / "Basic sanitation an prevalence of Intestinal-parasites diseases" in students from German Busch from La Paz - 2013

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leandro, Ribeiro França; Julio Cesar, Luna Leyza.

    Full Text Available Las infecciones parasitarias intestinales son enfermedades que afectan a una gran parte de la población infantil en los países más subdesarrollados y en vías de desarrollo y en muchos casos se convierte en una causa de muerte. El objetivo de este estudio fue establecer un paralelo entre las condicio [...] nes sanitarias aportadas por la Comunidad Minera Bolsa Negra - La Paz - Bolivia y la presencia de enteroparasitos en niños entre 07 y 12 años de la referida comunidad. Se aplicó en este proyecto un método de estudio observacional descriptivo, a través del estudio de casos y controles. En cuanto a los resultados, mediante el análisis de materia fecal de los niños parte del universo de la investigación, donde encontró diferentes formas evolutivas de parásitos intestinales, con 100% de prevalencia para los géneros Blastocystis hominis, Giardia lamblia y Entamoeba coli. También se analizó el grado de conocimiento por parte de las madres de los niños que participaron en la investigación que indica un mal conocimiento general en lo que respecta a servicios de saneamiento básico y la higiene personal. También se presentaron las formas y medidas para la prevención de enfermedades relacionadas con los parásitos intestinales encontrados. Abstract in english Intestinal parasitic infections are diseases that affect a large proportion of the child population in the underdeveloped and developing countries and in many cases become a cause of death.The aim of this study was to establish a parallel between the health conditions contributed by Mining Community [...] Bolsa Negra - La Paz - Bolivia and the presence of intestinal parasites in children between 07 and 12 years of that community. It was applied in this project descriptive method and observational study, meaning through case study and control. As a result, by analyzing stool of children of the world of research, where it was found different forms of intestinal parasites with 100 % prevalence for gender Blastocystis hominis, Entamoeba coli and Giardia lamblia. The level of knowledge was also analyzed by the mothers of the children who participated in the research indicating poor general knowledge with regard to basic sanitation and personal hygiene. It was found the methods and measures for the prevention of related diseases associated with intestinal parasites.

  10. DISTRIBUSI PARASIT USUS PROTOZOA DI KABUPATEN HULU SUNGAI UTARA KALIMANTAN SELATAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anorital Anorital

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal infection disease caused by protozoa: amoeba is one of the public health problem with high incidence in the community. From the research activity conducted in Hulu Sungai Utara Regency in the year 2002, to obtain of prevalence of protozoa infection from stool examination from resident in 6 villages at 3 subdistrict in Hulu Sungai Utara Regency. The research has conducted to be carry out survey parasite to the community. Sample size will be examination are 230 persons per village, so that to 6 villages will be examed as 1.600 persons. The examination directly by using lugol 2% and checked on the microscope with magnification 10x10 and 10x40. For resident which its sample stool is positive the protozoa to be given a treatment by metronidazol. From stool examination result obtained prevalence resident which are positive the amoeba intestine protozoa is Entamoeba coli 19,8%, Endolimax nana 15,8%, and Entamoeba histolityca 15,4%. While prevalence resident which are positive the intestine flagellata/B. hominis is Blastocystis hominis 25,5% and Giardia lamblia 11,6%. From 5 micro-organism on the intestine. Entamoeba histolityca, Blastocystis hominis and Giardia lamblia are cause diarrhoea because having the pathogenic. From survey ot socio-cultural, known also the resident percentage which drinking no safe water 43,3%, source of drinking water obtained from river or swamp is 67,7%, human waste disposal in river and swamp is 79,5%, and take a bath and brush the teeth with water of river and swamp is 78,6%; showing bad condition of environmental sanitation, personal hygiene, and life behavior. Good personal hygiene and environmental sanitation practices are the major factors of this disease prevention. The main principle to prevent the spreading of protozoa infection is to cut off the link of infection sources to human beings. Personal hygiene is focused on the management of individual behaviour, meanwhile environmental sanitation prevention focus lies on the better environment management to cut off the link of disease cycle as like water supply and human waste disposal wich good condition. For this matter is Governmental role, in this case the health office and with local elite figure, important and absolute so that to a period to coming of prevalence intestine infection caused a protozoa can be depressed as low as possible.   Keywords: protozoa

  11. Effect of sample holding time on recovery of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts from water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, L J; Gjerde, B

    2000-04-01

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency methods for analysis of water for Cryptosporidium and Giardia stipulate maximum sample holding times which are not always practical to comply with. A spiking experiment indicated that holding times of up to 2 weeks had no significant effect on recovery of these parasites from 10-liter samples of raw water in plastic carboys. PMID:10742269

  12. Effect of Sample Holding Time on Recovery of Cryptosporidium Oocysts and Giardia Cysts from Water Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Robertson, L. J.; GJERDE, B.

    2000-01-01

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency methods for analysis of water for Cryptosporidium and Giardia stipulate maximum sample holding times which are not always practical to comply with. A spiking experiment indicated that holding times of up to 2 weeks had no significant effect on recovery of these parasites from 10-liter samples of raw water in plastic carboys.

  13. Adaptive Immunity-Dependent Intestinal Hypermotility Contributes to Host Defense against Giardia spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Yolanda S.; Gillin, Frances D.; Eckmann, Lars

    2006-01-01

    Humans infected with Giardia exhibit intestinal hypermotility, but the underlying mechanisms and functional significance are uncertain. Here we show in murine models of giardiasis that small-intestinal hypermotility occurs in a delayed fashion relative to peak parasite burden, is dependent on adaptive immune defenses, and contributes to giardial clearance.

  14. O&P (Ova and Parasite) Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... does not endorse non-AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities PLEASE NOTE: Your web browser does not have JavaScript enabled. Unless you enable Javascript , your ... helpful? Also known as: Ova and Parasite Exam Formal name: Parasitic Examination, Stool Related tests: Stool Culture , Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Entamoeba histolytica antigen tests At ...

  15. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites in the Inhabitants of Islam - Shahr District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rezaian

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence of various intestinal parasitic infections, we examined 966 randomly collected stool specimens from urban areas and 569 such samples from the ruralregions. These were examined using formalin-ether sedimentation and direct smearmethods. From the total of 1535 specimens, 143 that belonged to 1-6 years old children were examined by scatch tape method.The results indicated that 53.2% of the subjects were infected with intestinal protozoa and helminths with the following prevalence rates:Entamoeba histolytica 9.6%, E. coli 16%, E.hartmanni 7%, Endolimax nana 2.6%,Iodomoeba b itschlii 1.8%, Dientamoeba fragilis 1.5%, Chi/omastix mesnili 0.4%, Giardia lamblia 18.8%, Blastocysts hominis 16.5%, Dicrocoelium dendriticum 0.1%, Taenia saginata 0.2%, Hymenolopis nana 1.4%, Ascaris lambricodies 0.3%, Enterobiusvermincularis (using scatch tape method 0.7%, E.vermicularis (using formalin - ether method 28.7%, Trichostrongylus spp. 0.1%, Strongyhides siercorials 0.3% and Trichuris trichiura 0.1%.Rural people were significantly more likely to bear helminthic infections than urban residents (4.9% versus 2.1%.E.histofytica was more prevalent among men (11% versus 7.1% and, interestingly,age-specific infection rates for giardiasis and amebiasis showed contrasting patterns in this study.

  16. Impact of Giardia intestinalis on vitamin a status in schoolchildren from northwest Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quihui-Cota, L; Astiazarán-García, H; Valencia, M E; Morales-Figueroa, G G; Lopez-Mata, M A; Vazquez Ortiz, F

    2008-03-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study in northwest Mexico in order to investigate the association between giardiasis and serum vitamin A in 40 Giardia-infected and 70 Giardia-free schoolchildren who were covered by a regional school breakfast program. There were no significant differences in age, Z-scores for nutritional indices of height for age, weight for age, or weight for height, socioeconomic conditions (employment and education of the parents, household conditions, sanitation facilities, type of drinking water, and family income), and mean daily intakes of vitamin A in the Giardia-free (899 +/- 887 microg) and the Giardia-infected (711 +/- 433 microg) groups. A higher concentration of serum retinol was found in the Giardia-free group than in the Giardia-infected group (0.75 micromol/L versus 0.61 micromol/L, respectively; p free children (OR = 3.2; 95% CI = 1.2-8.5). Although 95% of the children met the daily-recommended intakes of vitamin A, half of them showed subclinical vitamin A deficiency. It is recognized that vitamin A deficiency is multifactorial and giardiasis was a factor significantly associated with this deficiency in this study. Mexican program developers and policymakers should be aware about the distinction between dietary deficiencies and deficiency diseases when current national program strategies for parasitic control and vitamin A supplementation are redesigned. PMID:18791972

  17. Individual Subject Meta-Analysis of Parameters for Giardia duodenalis Shedding in Animal Experimental Models

    OpenAIRE

    Adell, A. D.; Miller, W. A.; Harvey, D. J.; Wormer, E.; Wuertz, S.; Conrad, P. A.

    2014-01-01

    Giardia duodenalis is a zoonotic protozoan parasite with public health importance worldwide. While articles about animal model infectivity have been published for G. duodenalis, the studies have used diverse protocols and parameters to evaluate the infectivity of this protozoan parasite. Hence, the objectives of this study were to (1) conduct a meta-analysis of published literature for cyst shedding and diarrhea outcomes in animal models and (2) develop recommendations to help standardize exp...

  18. Impact of Environmental Conditions on the Survival of Cryptosporidium and Giardia on Environmental Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Absar Alum; Absar, Isra M.; Hamas Asaad; Rubino, Joseph R.; M. Khalid Ijaz

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to find out the impact of environmental conditions on the survival of intestinal parasites on environmental surfaces commonly implicated in the transmission of these parasites. The study was performed by incubating Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts on environmentally relevant surfaces such as brushed stainless steel, formica, ceramic, fabric, and skin. Parallel experiments were conducted using clean and soiled coupons incubated under three temperatures. The...

  19. A perspective on cryptosporidium and giardia, with an emphasis on bovines and recent epidemiological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeywardena, Harshanie; Jex, Aaron R; Gasser, Robin B

    2015-04-01

    Cryptosporidium and Giardia are two common aetiological agents of infectious enteritis in humans and animals worldwide. These parasitic protists are usually transmitted by the faecal-oral route, following the ingestion of infective stages (oocysts or cysts). An essential component of the control of these parasitic infections, from a public health perspective, is an understanding of the sources and routes of transmission in different geographical regions. Bovines are considered potential sources of infection for humans, because species and genotypes of Cryptosporidium and Giardia infecting humans have also been isolated from cattle in molecular parasitological studies. However, species and genotypes of Cryptosporidium and Giardia of bovids, and the extent of zoonotic transmission in different geographical regions in the world, are still relatively poorly understood. The purpose of this article is to (1) provide a brief background on Cryptosporidium and Giardia, (2) review some key aspects of the molecular epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis in animals, with an emphasis on bovines, (3) summarize research of Cryptosporidium and Giardia from cattle and water buffaloes in parts of Australasia and Sri Lanka, considering public health aspects and (4) provide a perspective on future avenues of study. Recent studies reinforce that bovines harbour Cryptosporidium and Giardia that likely pose a human health risk and highlight the need for future investigations of the biology, population genetics and transmission dynamics of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in cattle, water buffaloes and other ruminants in different geographical regions, the fate and transport of infective stages following their release into the environment, as well as for improved strategies for the control and prevention of cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis, guided by molecular epidemiological studies. PMID:25911369

  20. Study of Giardia Infection in Cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Zarebavani

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Giardiasis caused by the intestinal flagellate Giardia duodenalis. It is postulated that animals may be a reservoir for human infection and vice versa, thus, giardiasis classified as a zooanthroponotic disease. Therefore, accurate information about the Giardia infection in animals can help the control and prevention of disease in human. With respect to considerable population of cats in Iran and close relation to human, in the current study we tried to determine the infection rate of Giardia in stray, semi-stray and domestic cats. One hundred eighty one cat fecal specimens were collected and after formol-ether concentration, Giardia cysts were detected using light microscope. Twenty one samples (11.6% out of 166 samples were Giardia cyst positive. The highest levels of infection with Giardia were in domestic cats (75%. The findings prominence the necessity for cat owners to have knowledge about zoonotic transmission of Giardia.

  1. Giardia duodenalis-induced alterations of commensal bacteria kill Caenorhabditis elegans: a new model to study microbial-microbial interactions in the gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbaba, Teklu K; Gupta, Pratyush; Rioux, Kevin; Hansen, Dave; Buret, Andre G

    2015-03-15

    Giardia duodenalis is the most common cause of parasitic diarrhea worldwide and a well-established risk factor for postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome. We hypothesized that Giardia-induced disruptions in host-microbiota interactions may play a role in the pathogenesis of giardiasis and in postgiardiasis disease. Functional changes induced by Giardia in commensal bacteria and the resulting effects on Caenorhabditis elegans were determined. Although Giardia or bacteria alone did not affect worm viability, combining commensal Escherichia coli bacteria with Giardia became lethal to C. elegans. Giardia also induced killing of C. elegans with attenuated Citrobacter rodentium espF and map mutant strains, human microbiota from a healthy donor, and microbiota from inflamed colonic sites of ulcerative colitis patient. In contrast, combinations of Giardia with microbiota from noninflamed sites of the same patient allowed for worm survival. The synergistic lethal effects of Giardia and E. coli required the presence of live bacteria and were associated with the facilitation of bacterial colonization in the C. elegans intestine. Exposure to C. elegans and/or Giardia altered the expression of 172 genes in E. coli. The genes affected by Giardia included hydrogen sulfide biosynthesis (HSB) genes, and deletion of a positive regulator of HSB genes, cysB, was sufficient to kill C. elegans even in the absence of Giardia. Our findings indicate that Giardia induces functional changes in commensal bacteria, possibly making them opportunistic pathogens, and alters host-microbe homeostatic interactions. This report describes the use of a novel in vivo model to assess the toxicity of human microbiota. PMID:25573177

  2. Prevalencia de parasitosis intestinal en mujeres embarazadas del Centro de Salud Jaihuayco Julio-Septiembre 2012 / Prevalence of intestinal parasites in pregnant women from Jaihuayco's Health Center july-september 2012

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elias Lessin, Garcia Alba; Naida, Bernal Hinojosa; Sergio, Torrico Condarco; Veronica, Quicaña Andaluz; Ana Gilca, Santander Lopez.

    Full Text Available Las parasitosis intestinales afectan de manera especial a poblaciones con bajos recursos económicos, con una alta prevalencia en países en vías de desarrollo, probablemente debido a la falta educación (higiene o de manipulación de alimentos), poca accesibilidad a recursos básicos (agua potable, alca [...] ntarillado, etc.) y la pobreza. Los extremos de vida como niños y ancianos, al igual que las mujeres embarazadas son grupos poblacionales vulnerables a las parasitosis, siendo importante la repercusión en la salud de cada uno de estos grupos poblacionales pero, en este caso nos centraremos en los efectos negativos que traen consigo estas enfermedades en las mujeres embarazadas (anemia, desnutrición, niños con bajo peso al nacer, etc.). Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, de corte transversal, el universo fue de 111 mujeres embarazadas que acudieron a consulta del Centro de Salud Jaihuayco ubicado en la zona sud de la ciudad de Cochabamba - Bolivia; se encontró que 25 mujeres de las 111 mujeres embarazadas tenían parasitosis intestinal determinando una prevalencia de 22,5%. Los parásitos más frecuentes hallados fueron: Entamoeba histolitica/coli con 15,3% y Giardia lamblia con 3,6%; de las 25 mujeres con parasitosis; 10 presentaron anemia, a pesar de que en su visita de control se les proporciono las tabletas de hierro para evitar la anemia producida por su estado fisiológico. Abstract in english Intestinal parasites affect especially low-income populations with a high prevalence in developing countries, probably due to the lack of education (hygiene or food handling), poor accessibility to basic resources (water supply, sewerage, etc.) and poverty. The extreme ages like children and old peo [...] ple as the pregnant women are a sensitive population group to this kind of affection but, in this case the purpose of this work is to show the negative effects of this condition in pregnant women (anemia, malnutrition, children with low birth weight, etc.). It was realized a quantitative, descriptive and cross-sectional study, the universe was 111 pregnant women who attended to the consultation service in Jaihuayco's health center located in the south of Cochabamba's city, where it was achieved the following main results: 25 from the 111 pregnant women have intestinal parasites determining a prevalence of 22,5%. The most prevalent parasites were Entamoeba histolytica/coli with 15,3% and Giardia lamblia with 3,6%; in the 25 women with parasitosis; 10 of them presented anemia despite they were provided with iron tablets to prevent anemia caused by physiological state.

  3. DETERMINATION OF 'GIARDIA' CYST VIABILITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The principal objective of this research was the development of a sensitive, standardized method of determining whether or not Giardia cysts are viable. The availability of such a method is necessary to determine the effect of chemical and physical agents on the viability of thes...

  4. INTESTINAL PARASITES AND MALARIA IN MUSI BANYU ASIN AND OGAN KOMERING ULU REGENCIES, SOUTH SUMATRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Patrick Carney

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Pada bulan Mei 1973 diadakan survey tinja dan darah di lima desa di Sumatra Selatan untuk mengetahui aspek-aspek penyakit parasit pada penduduk asli dan para transmigran yang datang antara tahun 1935 dan 1955. Desa-desa Tanjung Kerang, Simpang Langkap dan Biuku di Kabupaten Musi Banyu Asin yang terletak di sebelah barat laut kota Palembang merupakan daerah hutan-ladang-huma dan perkebunan karet rakyat dikelilingi oleh rawa-rawa, yang di diami oleh penduduk asli. Desa-desa Sidomulyo dan Tanjung Raya di Kabupaten Ogan Komering Ulu, terletak di sebelah tenggara' kota Palembang, adalah tempat transmigrasi yang merupakan daerah persawahan." Dari 358 orang yang diperiksa tinjanya yang terdiri dari 193 laki-laki dan 165 wanita, di keiemukan 97 per cent terinfeksi oleh sedikitnya satu macam parasit, 87 per cent oleh 2 macam parasit atau lebih dan 55 per cent oleh 3 macam parasit atau lebih. Telur-telur cacing yang di temukan antara lain ialah: Trichuris trichiura. (83 per cent, Ascaris lumbricoides (78 per cent dan cacing tambang (59 per cent. Enterobius vermicularis (1 per cent dan Strongyloides stercoralis (0,3 per cent jarang di jumpai. Entamoeba coli (29 per cent merupakan parasit protozoa yang biasa di temukan. Jumlah rata-rata protozoa yang ada dalam usus ialah: Entamoeba histofytica (4 per cent, Entamoeba hartmanni (1 per cent, Endolimax nona (5 per cent, Iodamoeba butschlii (5 per cent, Giardia lamblia (3 per cent dan Chilomastbc mesnili (4 per cent. Distribusi dari parasit usus hampir sama di antara golongan laki-laki dan wanita; meskipun tanah memegang peranan yang sama dalam pemindahan cacing-cacing, tetapi A. lumbricoides dan T. trichiura lebih banyak di jumpai pada wanita, sedangkan cacing tambang lebih banyak pada laki-laki. Prevalensi parasit usus menurut golongan umur adalah sebagai berikut: A. lumbricoides lebih banyak pada golongan muda, T. trichiura merata pada semua golongan umur, tetapi yang terbanyak pada golongan umur antara 30-39 tahun. Infeksi cacing tambang terdapat tinggi, antara 50 sampai 60 per cent, sampai umur 50 tahun. Pada orang-orang yang berumur lebih dari 50 tahun, infeksi cacing tambang ini sangat menyolok meningkatnya sampai 92 per cent. Adanya perbedaan infeksi dari protozoa usus menurut golongan umur tidak dapat di buktikan. Pemeriksaan 472 sediaan darah yang berasal dari 5 desa tersebut diatas menemukan Plasmodium vivax dan Plasmodium falciparum pada 8 orang. Lima di antaranya adalah anak-anak yang berumur di bawah 10 tahun. Infeksi pada golongan laki-laki dan wanita tampak sama rata

  5. The Superoxide Reductase from the Early Diverging Eukaryote Giardia Intestinalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabelli, D.E.; Testa, F.; Mastronicola, D.; Bordi, E.; Pucillo, L.P.; Sarti, P.; Saraiva, L.M.; Giuffre, A.; Teixeira, M.

    2011-10-15

    Unlike superoxide dismutases (SODs), superoxidereductases (SORs) eliminate superoxide anion (O{sub 2}{sup {sm_bullet}-}) not through its dismutation, but via reduction to hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) in the presence of an electron donor. The microaerobic protist Giardia intestinalis, responsible for a common intestinal disease in humans, though lacking SOD and other canonical reactive oxygen species-detoxifying systems, is among the very few eukaryotes encoding a SOR yet identified. In this study, the recombinant SOR from Giardia (SOR{sub Gi}) was purified and characterized by pulse radiolysis and stopped-flow spectrophotometry. The protein, isolated in the reduced state, after oxidation by superoxide or hexachloroiridate(IV), yields a resting species (T{sub final}) with Fe{sup 3+} ligated to glutamate or hydroxide depending on pH (apparent pK{sub a} = 8.7). Although showing negligible SOD activity, reduced SOR{sub Gi} reacts with O{sub 2}{sup {sm_bullet}-} with a pH-independent second-order rate constant k{sub 1} = 1.0 x 10{sup 9} M{sup -1} s{sup -1} and yields the ferric-(hydro)peroxo intermediate T{sub 1}; this in turn rapidly decays to the T{sub final} state with pH-dependent rates, without populating other detectable intermediates. Immunoblotting assays show that SOR{sub Gi} is expressed in the disease-causing trophozoite of Giardia. We propose that the superoxide-scavenging activity of SOR in Giardia may promote the survival of this air-sensitive parasite in the fairly aerobic proximal human small intestine during infection.

  6. Control of Giardia infections with ronidazole and intensive hygiene management in a dog kennel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiechter, Ruth; Deplazes, Peter; Schnyder, Manuela

    2012-06-01

    Infections with the intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia in dogs and cats are common. Clinical signs vary from asymptomatic to small bowel diarrhea and associated discomfort. The control of infections in dogs is frequently a frustrating issue for animal owners and veterinarians. Drugs with antiprotozoal activity such as fenbendazole and metronidazole are recommended, however, they do not show 100% efficacy and superinfections occur regularly. Ronidazole is currently the drug of choice for the treatment of Tritrichomonas foetus in cats and there is now limited information available about its efficacy against Giardia spp. In the kennel investigated, dogs regularly showed loose feces and the presence of Giardia (assemblage C, renamed as G. canis) cysts. An elimination strategy of this parasite involving strict hygiene management and disinfection of the enclosures with 4-chlorine-M-cresol, oral treatment with ronidazole (30-50mg/kg BW bid for 7 days) and two shampooings (containing chlorhexidine) at the beginning and the end of the treatments was implemented for a group of 6 dogs. As a control another group of 7 dogs was transferred to the disinfected enclosures and shampooed, but left untreated. Dog feces were tested for the presence of Giardia cysts (SAF concentration technique) or Giardia antigen with a commercial ELISA (NOVITEC(®)) and a quick immunochromatography-based test (SensPERT(®)) before and between 5 and 40 days after the last treatment. All ronidazole-treated dogs were negative for Giardia cysts and antigen up to 26 days after the last treatment, while between 1 and 5 of the control animals tested positive in each of the test series. At this point, also dogs of the control group were again moved into clean enclosures, shampooed twice and treated with ronidazole. Five, 12 and 19 days after the last treatment, the dogs in the control group tested negative for Giardia cysts and antigen. However, all animals had again positive results at later time points in at least one of the three applied diagnostic techniques within 33-61 days after treatment. Furthermore, all dogs had episodes of diarrhea (for 1-4 days) within 14-31 days after treatment and unformed feces during the whole experiment. The positive effect of ronidazole against Giardia infections in dogs could be confirmed in this study. In particular, the combination of ronidazole treatment combined with the disinfection of the environment and shampooing of the dogs was highly effective in reducing Giardia cyst excretion and may therefore constitute an alternative control strategy for canine giardiosis. PMID:22240238

  7. PREVALENCE OF INTESTINAL PARASITES AMONG FOOD HANDLERS IN WESTERN IRAN / La prevalencia de parásitos intestinales entre los manipuladores de alimentos en el oeste de Irán

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Farnaz, Kheirandish; Mohammad Javad, Tarahi; Behrouz, Ezatpour.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Infección parasitaria es uno de los problemas de salud humana, especialmente en los países en desarrollo. En este estudio, todas las tiendas de comida rápida, restaurantes, y tiendas de carne asada en Khorramabad (oeste de Irán) y todo el personal que trabaja en ellos, incluyendo 210 personas fueron [...] seleccionadas a través de los censos y las heces fueron examinadas para detectar la presencia de parásitos. La prueba parasitológica directa de mojado de montaje, la tinción de Lugol's yodo, sedimentación formaldehído-éter y tricrómicas técnicas de tinción se realizaron sobre las muestras. Los datos fueron analizados con la prueba de chi-cuadrado y regresión logística seleccionado como el modelo analítico. Los resultados mostraron 19 (9%) muestras de heces fueron positivos para diferentes parásitos intestinales. Los parásitos intestinales incluyen Giardia lamblia 2.9%, Entamoeba coli 4.3%, Blastocystis sp. 1.4%, Hymenolepis nana 0.5%. Hubo diferencia significativa entre la presencia de la tarjeta sanitaria válida, el conocimiento de la transmisión de los parásitos intestinales, la participación en cursos de formación en materia de salud ambiental con parásitos intestinales (p 0.05). Para controlar la infección parasitaria en los manipuladores de alimentos se recomiendan varias estrategias, tales como examen de heces cada tres meses, la educación pública, se aplican las normas sanitarias, el control de validez de la tarjeta sanitaria y la transmisión formación infección parasitaria. En este sentido, los resultados del presente estudio se pueden utilizar como una base para desarrollar programas de prevención dirigidos a los manipuladores de alimentos debido a la propagación de enfermedades a través de ellos es un problema común en todo el mundo. Abstract in english Parasitic infection is one of the problems that affect human health, especially in developing countries. In this study, all of the fast food shops, restaurants, and roast meat outlets of Khorramabad (Western Iran) and all the staff employed by them, some 210 people, were selected through a census an [...] d their stools were examined for the presence of parasites. The parasitological tests of direct wet-mount, Lugol's iodine staining, formaldehyde-ether sedimentation and Trichrome staining techniques were performed on the samples. The data was analyzed with a chi-square test and logistic regression was selected as the analytical model. The results showed 19 (9%) stool specimens were positive for different intestinal parasites. These intestinal parasites included Giardia lamblia 2.9%, Entamoeba coli 4.3%, Blastocystis sp. 1.4%, and Hymenolepis nana 0.5%. There was a significant difference between the presence of a valid health card, awareness of transmission of intestinal parasites, participation in training courses in environmental health with intestinal parasites (p 0.05). To control parasitic infection in food handlers, several strategies are recommended such as stool examinations every three months, public education, application of health regulations, controlling the validity of health cards and training on parasitic infection transmission. In this regard, the findings of the present study can be used as a basis to develop preventive programs targeting food handlers because the spread of disease via them is a common problem worldwide.

  8. DIFFERENTIATION OF GIARDIA DUODENALIS FROM OTHER GIARDIA SPP. BASED ON THE POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION AND GENE PROBES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardia is a waterborne organism that is the most commonly identified pathogenic intestinal protozoan in the United States. urrent detection techniques for Giardia water include microscopy and immunofluorescence techniques. peciation of the genus Giardia has been based on taxonom...

  9. Evaluation of Giardia duodenalis viability after metronidazole treatment by flow cytometry

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Joana, Barbosa; Acácio Gonçalves, Rodrigues; Maria José, Pérez; Cidália, Pina-Vaz.

    1078-10-01

    Full Text Available Giardia duodenalis (syn. lamblia; syn. intestinalis) susceptibility testing is not routinely performed because the classical culture methods are very time-consuming and laborious. We developed a novel flow cytometry (FC) assay to evaluate the susceptibility of G. duodenalis t [...] rophozoites to metronidazole (MTZ). Different concentrations of MTZ were added to cultures of trophozoites (10 5 /mL) and the cultures were incubated for different periods. The 50% inhibitory concentration was calculated and propidium iodide (PI) was used to quantify the number of dead cells. After treatment, PI-positive trophozoites increased with increasing drug concentration and exposure time. An excellent correlation was found between FC and the classical method. A novel, accurate and reliable method is now available to evaluate G. duodenalis viability.

  10. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in water supplies of San Pedro Sula, Honduras

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Helena María, Solo-Gabriele; Arba LeRoy, Ager, Jr.; John Fitzgerald, Lindo; José María, Dubón; Shondra Michelle, Neumeister; Marianna Karas, Baum; Carol Jean, Palmer.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Para estimar las concentraciones de oocistos de Cryptosporidium y quistes de Giardia en los abastecimientos de agua de la ciudad de San Pedro Sula, se examinaron muestras del agua en junio de 1996. Cada muestra se concentró y se marcó con un anticuerpo inmunofluorescente indirecto y los parásitos se [...] contaron mediante análisis microscópico. En tres abatecimientos de agua, las concentraciones de oocistos de Cryptosporidium alcanzaron un recorrido de 58 a 260 oocistos por 100 L, mientras que los quistes de Giardia se encontraron en concentraciones de 380 a 2100 quistes por 100 L. Al contrario de las muestras de agua superficial, el agua subterránea tuvo mayor concentración de oocistos de Cryptosporidium (26/100 L) que de quistes de Giardia (6/100 L), lo que sugiere que el acuífero subterráneo protege mejor al abastecimiento de agua contra los quistes de Giardia, que son más grandes. Las concentraciones de oocistos de Cryptosporidium estuvieron dentro del recorrido típico de los abastecimientos de agua en Norteamérica, pero los de Giardia fueron más elevados. Deben tomarse medidas para proteger el agua sin depurar de las fuentes de contaminación. Abstract in english During June 1996, water supplies of the city of San Pedro Sula, Honduras, were sampled to obtain an assessment of Cryptosporidium oocyst and Giardia cyst concentrations. Each sample was concentrated and stained with an indirect immunofluorescent antibody, and parasites were counted through microscop [...] ic analysis. In three surface water supplies, Cryptosporidium oocyst concentrations ranged from 58 to 260 oocysts per 100 L, and Giardia cysts were present in concentrations ranging from 380 to 2100 cysts per 100 L. Unlike the surface water samples, groundwater had a higher concentration of Cryptosporidium oocysts (26/100 L) than Giardia cysts (6/100 L), suggesting that the groundwater aquifer protects the water supply more effectively from larger Giardia cysts. Cryptosporidium oocyst concentrations are within the typical range for surface water supplies in North America whereas Giardia cyst concentrations are elevated. Efforts should be made to protect raw water from sources of contamination.

  11. Study of Giardia Infection in Cats

    OpenAIRE

    Zarebavani, M; A Pezeshki; Sh Jamshidi; Rezaeian, M

    2006-01-01

    Giardiasis caused by the intestinal flagellate Giardia duodenalis. It is postulated that animals may be a reservoir for human infection and vice versa, thus, giardiasis classified as a zooanthroponotic disease. Therefore, accurate information about the Giardia infection in animals can help the control and prevention of disease in human. With respect to considerable population of cats in Iran and close relation to human, in the current study we tried to determine the infection rate of Giardia ...

  12. Survey of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus and intestinal parasites among food handlers working at Gondar University, Northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagnew Mulat

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food borne disease are major health problems in developing countries like Ethiopia. Food handlers with poor personal hygiene working in food establishments could be potential sources of disease due to pathogenic organisms. However; information on disease prevalence among food handlers working in University of Gondar cafeterias are very scarce. The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus, their drug resistance pattern and prevalence of intestinal parasites among food handlers working in University of Gondar student’s cafeterias. Method A cross sectional study was conducted among food handlers working in University of Gondar student’s cafeterias. A pretested structured questionnaire was used for collecting data. Nasal swab and stool were investigated for S. aureus and intestinal parasites; respectively as per the standard of the laboratory methods. Results Among 200 food handlers, females comprised 171(85.5%. The majority (67.5% of the food-handlers were young adults aged 18–39?years. One hundred ninety four (97% of the food handlers were not certified as a food handler. Forty one (20.5% food handlers were positive for nasal carriage of S. aureus, of these 4(9.8% was resistant for methicilin. Giardia lamblia was the most prevalent parasites 22 (11%, followed by Ascaris lumbricoides 13(6.5%, Entamoeba histolytica 12 (6%, Strongyloides stercolaris (0.5, Taenia species 1(0.5% and Schistosoma mansoni 1(0.5%. Conclusion The finding stressed that food handlers with different pathogenic micro organisms may pose significant risk on the consumers. Higher officials should implement food handler’s training on food safety, periodic medical checkup and continuous monitoring of personal hygiene of food handlers.

  13. Prevalence of parasitism among students of the Karen hill-tribe in Mae Chame district, Chiang Mai province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saksirisampant, Wilai; Prownebon, Jarruratt; Kanmarnee, Penjit; Thaisom, Sunida; Yenthakam, Sutin; Nuchprayoon, Surang

    2004-09-01

    Infection caused by intestinal parasites is still a common health problem in a poor-hygiene population especially for children in developing countries. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 781 Karen students (age: 3 to 19, males: 325, females: 456) to determine the current status of intestinal parasitic infections in a mountainous area in the North of Thailand. The study was drawn from three schools in the Doi Inthanon region, in Mae Chame district of Chiang Mai province, from December 2002 to June 2003. The techniques used for the diagnosis were: stool concentration by using the 'formalin-ether' technique and perianal region examination by using the 'Scotch-tape' technique. The average rate of intestinal parasites for the group tested using the stool concentration technique was 42.06% (male: 46.87%, females: 38.82%); and 22.66% (males: 28.92%, females: 18.20%) when using the Scotch-tape technique.Among helminth-infected individuals, enterobiasis was found at the highest prevalence (15.49%). Other common infections were ascariasis (9.78%), trichuriasis (5.90%) and hookworm infection (2.20%). Strongyloildiasis was found only in 0.92%. For protozoa infection, the major cause is the non-pathogenic species "Entamoeba coli" (27.68%). The other non-pathogenic protozoa (Endolimax nana, Chilomastix meslini and Iodamoeba butschlii) had a low prevalence from ranged 0.18%-4.79%. The prevalence of pathogenic Giardia lamblia infection was 2.21%. Entamoeba histolytica infection was found in only one case. Based on the two techniques used, the results from the Scotch-tape provided a higher sensitivity for the detection of Taenia spp. and Enterobius vermicularis eggs. Drug treatment was given to all the infected students. School-based health education should be implemented in order to prevent and control the infections. PMID:16083202

  14. High Malnutrition Rate in Venezuelan Yanomami Compared to Warao Amerindians and Creoles: Significant Associations WITH Intestinal Parasites and Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, Lilly M.; Incani, Renzo N.; Franco, Carolina R.; Ugarte, Alejandra; Cadenas, Yeneska; Sierra Ruiz, Carmen I.; Hermans, Peter W. M.; Hoek, Denise; Campos Ponce, Maiza; de Waard, Jacobus H.; Pinelli, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Background Children in rural areas experience the interrelated problems of poor growth, anemia and parasitic infections. We investigated the prevalence of and associations between intestinal helminth and protozoan infections, malnutrition and anemia in school-age Venezuelan children. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in 390 children aged 4-16 years from three rural areas of Venezuela: the Amazon Region, Orinoco Delta and Carabobo State. Stool samples were collected for direct parasitic examinations. Anthropometric indicators of chronic (height-for-age Z score) and acute (weight-for-height and Body Mass Index (BMI)-for-age Z score in respectively children under 5 years of age and children aged 5 years and above) malnutrition were calculated. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models were built to determine factors associated with nutritional status and polyparasitism. Results Hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis prevalences were highest in children from the Amazon rainforest (respectively 72% and 18%) while children from the Orinoco Delta and Carabobo State showed higher rates of Ascaris lumbricoides (respectively 28% and 37%) and Trichuris trichiura (40% in both regions). The prevalence of Giardia lamblia infection was not significantly different between regions (average: 18%). Anemia prevalence was highest in the Amazon Region (24%). Hemoglobin levels were significantly decreased in children with a hookworm infection. Malnutrition was present in respectively 84%, 30% and 13% of children from the Amazon Region, Orinoco Delta and Carabobo State. In multivariate analysis including all regions, G. lamblia and helminth infections were significantly and negatively associated with respectively height-for-age and weight-for-height/BMI-for-age Z scores. Furthermore, hemoglobin levels were positively associated with the height-for-age Z score (0.11, 95% CI 0.02 - 0.20). Conclusions In rural populations in Venezuela helminthiasis and giardiasis were associated with acute and chronic nutritional status respectively. These data highlight the need for an integrated approach to control transmission of parasites and improve the health status of rural Venezuelan children. PMID:24143243

  15. Estudo das parasitoses intestinais e da infecção chagásica no Município de Novo Airão, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil Cross-sectional study of intestinal parasites and Chagas' disease in the Municipality of Novo Airão, State of Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio N. Boia

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo seccional descritivo em uma amostra sistemática por conglomerado de uma em cada dez famílias residentes na sede do Município de Novo Airão, na meso-região norte do Estado do Amazonas, a 250 quilômetros de Manaus por via fluvial. De cada um dos residentes nos 89 domicílios da amostra foram solicitadas fezes para exame pelos métodos de sedimentação de Lutz e pelo Baermann-Moraes-Coutinho e colhido sangue por punção venosa para testes de ELISA e imunofluorescência para pesquisa de anticorpos anti-Trypanosoma cruzi. O exame de 316 amostras de fezes mostrou 87,6% com um ou mais parasitos: 35,1% com Ascaris lumbricoides, 29,1% com Entamoeba histolytica, 17,4% com Giardia lamblia e outros parasitos com menor prevalência. Estes resultados foram correlacionados com a falta de saneamento e de suprimento de água tratada. De 346 soros examinados 16 (4,6% foram reativos para anticorpos anti-Trypanosoma cruzi, mas somente em três deles houve correlação entre este resultado e o contacto das pessoas com triatomíneos silvestres, conhecidos localmente como "piolho da piaçava".A cross-sectional study was performed on the residents of one in every ten households in the town of Novo Airão, in the northern meso-region of the State of Amazonas, 250 kilometers from Manaus by riverboat. A family cluster sample of 89 dwellings was studied. A stool sample was requested from each of the inhabitants for examination using the Lutz sedimentation and Baermann-Moraes-Coutinho techniques, and blood was taken by venous puncture for Trypanosoma cruzi ELISA antibody testing and immunofluorescence. From a total of 316 stool samples, 87.6% had one or more parasites: Ascaris lumbricoides (35.1%, Entamoeba histolytica (29.1%, Giardia lamblia (17.4%, and other parasites with lower prevalence rates. These results were directly correlated with lack of sanitation and clean water supply. Of the 346 sera examined, 16 (4.6% were reactive to T. cruzi antibodies, but only three showed a correlation between this result and human contact with wild triatomines, known locally as "piassava lice".

  16. Blastocystis hominis and other intestinal parasites in a community of Pitanga City, Paraná State, Brazil Blatocystis hominis e outros parasitas intestinais em comunidade da cidade de Pitanga, Paraná, Brasil

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    Solange Aparecida Nascimento

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to estimate the prevalence of Blastocystis hominis, to evaluate the effectiveness of different techniques for its diagnosis as well as to estimate the prevalence of other intestinal parasites in the community of Campo Verde, a district of Pitanga. The work was carried out from August to October 2004. Samples of feces from children and adults were collected and submitted to the techniques of direct wet mount, flotation in zinc sulphate solution, tube sedimentation, sedimentation in formalin-ether and staining by Kinyoun and iron hematoxylin methods. From 181 studied individuals, 128 (70.7% showed protozoa and/or helminths in stool samples. The most prevalent species were Endolimax nana (33.7%; B. hominis (26.5%; Giardia lamblia (18.2%; Entamoeba coli (17.1%; Ascaris lumbricoides (16.6%; Iodamoeba bütschlii (9.4%; and ancylostomatidae (7.7%. B. hominis was only identified by the techniques of direct wet mount, sedimentation in formalin-ether and staining by iron hematoxylin, though the latter was less sensitive than the other methods. The high frequency of B. hominis demonstrated by this study indicates the need to include laboratory techniques that enable identification of the parasite on a routine basis.O presente trabalho foi realizado no período de agosto a outubro de 2004 com o objetivo de se estimar a prevalência de Blastocystis hominis, avaliar a eficácia de diferentes técnicas para o seu diagnóstico assim como estimar a prevalência de outros parasitas intestinais na comunidade de Campo Verde, município de Pitanga. Amostras de fezes de crianças e adultos foram coletadas e submetidas às técnicas de exame direto, de flutuação em solução de sulfato de zinco, de sedimentação em tubo, de sedimentação em formol-éter e de coloração pelos métodos de Kinyoun e de hematoxilina férrica. Protozoários e/ou helmintos intestinais foram detectados em 128 (70,7% das 181 amostras de fezes analisadas. As espécies mais prevalentes foram Endolimax nana (33,7%; B. hominis (26,5%; Giardia lamblia (18,2%; Entamoeba coli (17,1%; Ascaris lumbricoides (16,6%; Iodamoeba bütschlii (9,4% e ancilostomídeos (7,7%. B. hominis foi identificado apenas pelas técnicas de exame direto, de sedimentação em formol-éter e de coloração pela hematoxilina férrica, sendo que esta última se mostrou menos sensível que às demais. A alta freqüência de B. hominis evidenciada por este estudo indica a necessidade de se incluir na rotina do laboratório técnicas que permitam a identificação deste parasita.

  17. Protozoarios parásitos de importancia en salud pública transportados por Musca domestica Linnaeusen Lima, Perú / Parasite protozoa of importance in public health picked up by Musca domestica Linnaeus in Lima, Peru

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    Martín, Cárdenas; Rosa, Martínez.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo investiga los protozoarios parásitos de importancia para la salud pública transportados por Musca domestica. El estudio se llevó a cabo entre los meses de junio y diciembre de 1998, en los distritos de Comas y San Juan de Lurigancho de la provincia de Lima. Se estudiaron 3014 mos [...] cas colectadas en la basura acumulada en la vía pública de los pueblos jóvenes de los distritos mencionados. Las capturas se agruparon en lotes constituidos por un promedio de 30 moscas. Se estudiaron un total de 100 lotes. Las moscas fueron disecadas y procesadas con agua destilada estéril para obtener un macerado intestinal. Para la observación de los parásitos se utilizó el método directo simple y la coloración tricrómica de Gomori ácido resistente modificado. Se encontraron los siguientes protozoarios que parasitan al hombre: Blastocystis hominis (9,0%), Giardia lamblia (3,0%), Cryptosporidium sp. (2,0%), Cyclospora cayetanensis (1,0%), Iodamoeba bütschlii (17,0%), Endolimax nana (5,0%) y Chilomastix mesnili (3,0%). Se reporta por primera vez para el Perú a B. hominis y Cyclospora cayetanensis en M. domestica. Abstract in english At the present work we had investigated protozoa parasite picked up by Musca domestica. Surveys were carry out between June and December 1998 in districts of Lima (Comas and San Juan de Lurigancho). A total of 3014 flies were collected around garbage accumulated in the streets. Each survey were cons [...] idered a lot with a mean of 30 flies. A total of 100 lots were studied. The flies were dissected and processed with sterilised distilled water for obtain the intestinal macerated. Observations were made by the simple direct method and with Gomori trichromic stain modified acid-fast. The following protozoa parasites of human were found: Blastocystis hominis (9,0%), Giardia lamblia (3,0%), Cryptosporidium sp. (2,0%), Cyclospora cayetanensis (1,0%), Iodamoeba bütschlii (17,0%), Endolimax nana (5,0%) and Chilomastix mesnili (3,0%). B. hominis y Cyclospora cayetanensis were reported for the first time in M. domestica from Peru.

  18. Blastocystis hominis and other intestinal parasites in a community of Pitanga City, Paraná State, Brazil / Blatocystis hominis e outros parasitas intestinais em comunidade da cidade de Pitanga, Paraná, Brasil

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    Solange Aparecida, Nascimento; Maria da Luz Ribeiro, Moitinho.

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi realizado no período de agosto a outubro de 2004 com o objetivo de se estimar a prevalência de Blastocystis hominis, avaliar a eficácia de diferentes técnicas para o seu diagnóstico assim como estimar a prevalência de outros parasitas intestinais na comunidade de Campo Verde, [...] município de Pitanga. Amostras de fezes de crianças e adultos foram coletadas e submetidas às técnicas de exame direto, de flutuação em solução de sulfato de zinco, de sedimentação em tubo, de sedimentação em formol-éter e de coloração pelos métodos de Kinyoun e de hematoxilina férrica. Protozoários e/ou helmintos intestinais foram detectados em 128 (70,7%) das 181 amostras de fezes analisadas. As espécies mais prevalentes foram Endolimax nana (33,7%); B. hominis (26,5%); Giardia lamblia (18,2%); Entamoeba coli (17,1%); Ascaris lumbricoides (16,6%); Iodamoeba bütschlii (9,4%) e ancilostomídeos (7,7%). B. hominis foi identificado apenas pelas técnicas de exame direto, de sedimentação em formol-éter e de coloração pela hematoxilina férrica, sendo que esta última se mostrou menos sensível que às demais. A alta freqüência de B. hominis evidenciada por este estudo indica a necessidade de se incluir na rotina do laboratório técnicas que permitam a identificação deste parasita. Abstract in english The objective was to estimate the prevalence of Blastocystis hominis, to evaluate the effectiveness of different techniques for its diagnosis as well as to estimate the prevalence of other intestinal parasites in the community of Campo Verde, a district of Pitanga. The work was carried out from Augu [...] st to October 2004. Samples of feces from children and adults were collected and submitted to the techniques of direct wet mount, flotation in zinc sulphate solution, tube sedimentation, sedimentation in formalin-ether and staining by Kinyoun and iron hematoxylin methods. From 181 studied individuals, 128 (70.7%) showed protozoa and/or helminths in stool samples. The most prevalent species were Endolimax nana (33.7%); B. hominis (26.5%); Giardia lamblia (18.2%); Entamoeba coli (17.1%); Ascaris lumbricoides (16.6%); Iodamoeba bütschlii (9.4%); and ancylostomatidae (7.7%). B. hominis was only identified by the techniques of direct wet mount, sedimentation in formalin-ether and staining by iron hematoxylin, though the latter was less sensitive than the other methods. The high frequency of B. hominis demonstrated by this study indicates the need to include laboratory techniques that enable identification of the parasite on a routine basis.

  19. Enteric parasites in HIV-1/AIDS-infected patients from a Northwestern São Paulo reference unit in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era / Enteroparasitas em pacientes infectados pelo HIV-1/AIDS em uma unidade de referência do noroeste paulista na era da terapia antirretroviral de alto impacto

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    Luciana Ventura, Cardoso; Katia Jaira, Galisteu; Arlindo, Schiesari Júnior; Luana Aparecida Oliveira Abou, Chahla; Rafaela Moreira da Silva, Canille; Marcus Vinicius Tereza, Belloto; Célia, Franco; Irineu Luiz, Maia; Andréa Regina Baptista, Rossit; Ricardo Luiz Dantas, Machado.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Descrevemos a epidemiologia de enteroparasitoses em pacientes de um serviço de referência de AIDS, no noroeste paulista, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Durante o período de janeiro de 1998 a dezembro de 2008, foi realizado este estudo retrospectivo por meio da análise dos prontuários dos pacientes dia [...] gnosticados com HIV-1/AIDS atendidos no Ambulatório de Doenças Infecto-Parasitárias do Hospital de Base, São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo. As análises estatísticas foram realizadas usando a versão 2.4.1 do software estatístico R. O nível de significância adotado foi de 5%. RESULTADOS: O protozoário mais frequente foi o Isospora belli (4,2%), seguido da Giardia lamblia (3,5%), Entamoeba coli (2,8%) e Criptosporidium parvum (0,3%). O Ancylostoma duodenalis (1,4%) foi o helminto mais detectado, enquanto a Taenia saginata e o Strongiloides stercoralis foram observados em 0,7% das amostras. Os resultados mostraram que a diarreia foi significativamente associada com giardíase e isosporíase. Entretanto, nenhuma associação foi observada entre as contagens de células T CD4+, carga viral e da característica de qualquer parasita em particular. CONCLUSÕES: Nossos dados podem ser úteis para futuras comparações com outras regiões do Brasil e outros países em desenvolvimento. Os dados também podem fornecer pistas importantes para a melhoria da compreensão, prevenção e controle de parasitas entéricos em todo o mundo. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: We describe the epidemiology of intestinal parasites in patients from an AIDS reference service in Northeastern São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Retrospective evaluation was done for all HIV-1/AIDS-positive patients whose Hospital de Base/São José do Rio Preto laboratorial analysis was posi [...] tive for enteroparasites after diagnosis of HIV-1 infection, from January 1998 to December 2008. Statistical analysis was performed using the R statistical software version 2.4.1. The level of significance adopted was 5%. RESULTS: The most frequent protozoan was Isospora belli (4.2%), followed by Giardia lamblia (3.5%), Entamoeba coli (2.8%), and Cryptosporidium parvum (0.3%). Ancylostoma duodenale (1.4%) was the most frequently detected helminth, while Taenia saginata and Strongiloides stercoralis were found in 0.7% of the samples. The results showed that diarrhea was significantly associated with giardiasis and isosporiasis. However, no association was observed between CD4+ cell counts, viral load, and the characteristics of any particular parasite. CONCLUSIONS: Our data may be useful for further comparisons with other Brazilian regions and other developing countries. The data may also provide important clues toward improving the understanding, prevention, and control of enteric parasites around the world.

  20. Enteric parasites in HIV-1/AIDS-infected patients from a Northwestern São Paulo reference unit in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era Enteroparasitas em pacientes infectados pelo HIV-1/AIDS em uma unidade de referência do noroeste paulista na era da terapia antirretroviral de alto impacto

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    Luciana Ventura Cardoso

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: We describe the epidemiology of intestinal parasites in patients from an AIDS reference service in Northeastern São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Retrospective evaluation was done for all HIV-1/AIDS-positive patients whose Hospital de Base/São José do Rio Preto laboratorial analysis was positive for enteroparasites after diagnosis of HIV-1 infection, from January 1998 to December 2008. Statistical analysis was performed using the R statistical software version 2.4.1. The level of significance adopted was 5%. RESULTS: The most frequent protozoan was Isospora belli (4.2%, followed by Giardia lamblia (3.5%, Entamoeba coli (2.8%, and Cryptosporidium parvum (0.3%. Ancylostoma duodenale (1.4% was the most frequently detected helminth, while Taenia saginata and Strongiloides stercoralis were found in 0.7% of the samples. The results showed that diarrhea was significantly associated with giardiasis and isosporiasis. However, no association was observed between CD4+ cell counts, viral load, and the characteristics of any particular parasite. CONCLUSIONS: Our data may be useful for further comparisons with other Brazilian regions and other developing countries. The data may also provide important clues toward improving the understanding, prevention, and control of enteric parasites around the world.INTRODUÇÃO: Descrevemos a epidemiologia de enteroparasitoses em pacientes de um serviço de referência de AIDS, no noroeste paulista, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Durante o período de janeiro de 1998 a dezembro de 2008, foi realizado este estudo retrospectivo por meio da análise dos prontuários dos pacientes diagnosticados com HIV-1/AIDS atendidos no Ambulatório de Doenças Infecto-Parasitárias do Hospital de Base, São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo. As análises estatísticas foram realizadas usando a versão 2.4.1 do software estatístico R. O nível de significância adotado foi de 5%. RESULTADOS: O protozoário mais frequente foi o Isospora belli (4,2%, seguido da Giardia lamblia (3,5%, Entamoeba coli (2,8% e Criptosporidium parvum (0,3%. O Ancylostoma duodenalis (1,4% foi o helminto mais detectado, enquanto a Taenia saginata e o Strongiloides stercoralis foram observados em 0,7% das amostras. Os resultados mostraram que a diarreia foi significativamente associada com giardíase e isosporíase. Entretanto, nenhuma associação foi observada entre as contagens de células T CD4+, carga viral e da característica de qualquer parasita em particular. CONCLUS?ES: Nossos dados podem ser úteis para futuras comparações com outras regiões do Brasil e outros países em desenvolvimento. Os dados também podem fornecer pistas importantes para a melhoria da compreensão, prevenção e controle de parasitas entéricos em todo o mundo.

  1. Giardia muris and Giardia duodenalis groups: ultrastructural differences between the trophozoites

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    Maria Inês L. Sogayar

    1989-08-01

    Full Text Available Trophozoites of the Giardia muris group from hamsters, domestic rats and mice and of the Giardia duodenalis group from hamsters and domestic rats were examined by transmission electron microscopy. The basic ultrastructure of the trophozoites was similar. Differences were shown in the morphology of the ventrolateral flange of the trophozoites of Giardia muris and Giardia duodenalis groups. Marginal plates are less developed in the species of the Giardia duodenalis group. In this group, the distal extremity of the lateral flange is short and thick and the marginal plate does not penetrate into the distal extremity of the flange. In the Giardia muris group, the ventro-lateral flange is well developed and narrow and the marginal plate penetrates the distal extremity of the flange. The osmiophilic lamella, which accompanies the dorsal surface of the marginal plate is seen only in the Giardia muris group.Neste trabalho foi analisada, através de Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão, a morfologia de trofozoitos de Giardia muris obtidos de hamsters, ratos peridomiciliares e camundongos, bem como de trofozoitos de Giardia duodenalis obtidos de hamsters e ratos peridomiciliares. Basicamente a ultraestrutura dos trofozoitos estudados foi semelhante. Foram observadas, no entanto, diferenças na morfologia da franja ventro-lateral dos trofozoitos de Giardia muris quando comparados com os de Giardia duodenalis, diferenças estas relacionadas ao tamanho, arranjo das lâminas marginais e presença de lamela osmiofílica.

  2. Giardia muris and Giardia duodenalis groups: ultrastructural differences between the trophozoites

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    Maria Inês L., Sogayar; Elisa Aparecida, Gregório.

    1989-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi analisada, através de Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão, a morfologia de trofozoitos de Giardia muris obtidos de hamsters, ratos peridomiciliares e camundongos, bem como de trofozoitos de Giardia duodenalis obtidos de hamsters e ratos peridomiciliares. Basicamente a ultraestru [...] tura dos trofozoitos estudados foi semelhante. Foram observadas, no entanto, diferenças na morfologia da franja ventro-lateral dos trofozoitos de Giardia muris quando comparados com os de Giardia duodenalis, diferenças estas relacionadas ao tamanho, arranjo das lâminas marginais e presença de lamela osmiofílica. Abstract in english Trophozoites of the Giardia muris group from hamsters, domestic rats and mice and of the Giardia duodenalis group from hamsters and domestic rats were examined by transmission electron microscopy. The basic ultrastructure of the trophozoites was similar. Differences were shown in the morphology of t [...] he ventrolateral flange of the trophozoites of Giardia muris and Giardia duodenalis groups. Marginal plates are less developed in the species of the Giardia duodenalis group. In this group, the distal extremity of the lateral flange is short and thick and the marginal plate does not penetrate into the distal extremity of the flange. In the Giardia muris group, the ventro-lateral flange is well developed and narrow and the marginal plate penetrates the distal extremity of the flange. The osmiophilic lamella, which accompanies the dorsal surface of the marginal plate is seen only in the Giardia muris group.

  3. Prevalencia y Factores de Riesgo Asociados a Parasitismo Intestinal en Preescolares de Zona Urbana en Calarcá, Colombia / Prevalence and risk factors associated with intestinal parasitism in preschool children from the urban area of Calarcá, Colombia

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    Ángela L, Londoño; Shirley, Mejía; Jorge E, Gómez-Marín.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo Determinar prevalencia de parasitismo intestinal y su relación con factores de riesgo sociodemográficos, de saneamiento y prácticas de higiene. Materiales y métodos Se realizó un estudio "cross sectional" en 220 niños entre 6 y 60 meses (N:1 993) asistentes a hogares infantiles de estrato u [...] no y dos del área urbana de Calarcá (Colombia). Se estudió una muestra coprológica por método de concentración de Ritchie Resultados La prevalencia general de parasitismo entre los niños estudiados fue de un 54,7 %. Se encontró una prevalencia de Blastocystis de 36,4 % y de Giardia en 13,2 %. Se encontraron como factores de riesgo asociados estadísticamente con el parasitismo: edad mayor a dos años, no desparasitar las mascotas, tener hermanos, y recibir alimentos en el tetero diferentes a la leche. Conclusiones Este estudio muestra una alta frecuencia de Blastocystis en niños preescolares de un centro urbano con buen acceso a servicios públicos. Es necesario hacer enfasís en los programas de control de zoonosis y la desparasitación de mascotas. Se recomienda la vigilancia periódica de parásitos por exámenes en estos niños. Abstract in english Objectives Determining intestinal parasite prevalence and their relationship with social and demographic risk factors, hygiene procedures and sanitation in pre-school children. Material and Methods This was a cross-sectional study of a representative sample (n=220) of children aged 6 to 60 months, r [...] esiding in social strata one, two and three type homes (N:1,993) from the urban area of the city of Calarcá. Both microscopic and macroscopic studies were carried out using Ritchie's test to confirm the diagnosis. Results 54.7% parasitism prevalence was found. Pathogenic parasites had the following prevalence frequencies: 36.4% Blastocystis hominis and 13% Giardia lamblia . Bivariate analysis found intestinal parasite association with lack of parasite control of domestic animals, having brothers and sisters and having received food different to milk from a baby's bottle. Anemia was studied in 209 children and 3.3% prevalence found. Low weight prevalence was 9.6% and 7.5% for obesity. Conclusions A high Blastocystis prevalence was found in this group of preschool children residing in an urban setting and having good access to sanitary services. Controlling parasites on pets should be emphasized. This group of children should be submitted to periodical coprological analysis (once a year).

  4. Prevalencia y Factores de Riesgo Asociados a Parasitismo Intestinal en Preescolares de Zona Urbana en Calarcá, Colombia Prevalence and risk factors associated with intestinal parasitism in preschool children from the urban area of Calarcá, Colombia

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    Ángela L Londoño

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo Determinar prevalencia de parasitismo intestinal y su relación con factores de riesgo sociodemográficos, de saneamiento y prácticas de higiene. Materiales y métodos Se realizó un estudio "cross sectional" en 220 niños entre 6 y 60 meses (N:1 993 asistentes a hogares infantiles de estrato uno y dos del área urbana de Calarcá (Colombia. Se estudió una muestra coprológica por método de concentración de Ritchie Resultados La prevalencia general de parasitismo entre los niños estudiados fue de un 54,7 %. Se encontró una prevalencia de Blastocystis de 36,4 % y de Giardia en 13,2 %. Se encontraron como factores de riesgo asociados estadísticamente con el parasitismo: edad mayor a dos años, no desparasitar las mascotas, tener hermanos, y recibir alimentos en el tetero diferentes a la leche. Conclusiones Este estudio muestra una alta frecuencia de Blastocystis en niños preescolares de un centro urbano con buen acceso a servicios públicos. Es necesario hacer enfasís en los programas de control de zoonosis y la desparasitación de mascotas. Se recomienda la vigilancia periódica de parásitos por exámenes en estos niños.Objectives Determining intestinal parasite prevalence and their relationship with social and demographic risk factors, hygiene procedures and sanitation in pre-school children. Material and Methods This was a cross-sectional study of a representative sample (n=220 of children aged 6 to 60 months, residing in social strata one, two and three type homes (N:1,993 from the urban area of the city of Calarcá. Both microscopic and macroscopic studies were carried out using Ritchie's test to confirm the diagnosis. Results 54.7% parasitism prevalence was found. Pathogenic parasites had the following prevalence frequencies: 36.4% Blastocystis hominis and 13% Giardia lamblia . Bivariate analysis found intestinal parasite association with lack of parasite control of domestic animals, having brothers and sisters and having received food different to milk from a baby's bottle. Anemia was studied in 209 children and 3.3% prevalence found. Low weight prevalence was 9.6% and 7.5% for obesity. Conclusions A high Blastocystis prevalence was found in this group of preschool children residing in an urban setting and having good access to sanitary services. Controlling parasites on pets should be emphasized. This group of children should be submitted to periodical coprological analysis (once a year.

  5. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection in five farms in Holambra, São Paulo, Brazil Prevalência de enteroparasitoses em cinco fazendas de Holambra-SP, Brasil

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    Jun Kobayashi

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available A parasitological survey was carried out on 222 inhabitants of five farms in Holambra, located 30 km north of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, on October 1992. Approximately 70% of the inhabitants were found to be infected with at least one species of intestinal parasite. The positive rates of 6 helminths and 7 protozoan species detected are as follows: 5.4% Ascaris lumbricoides; 8.6% Trichuris trichiura; 19.8% Necator americanus; 10.4% Strongyloides stercoralis; 14% Enterobius vermicularis; 0.9% Hymenolepis nana; 3.2% Entamoeba histolytica; 2.7% E. hartmanni; 9.9% E. coli; 14.0% Endolimax nana; 2.3% Iodamoeba butschlii; 10.4% Giardia lamblia; 37.8% Blastocystis hominis. The positive rates of helminth infection were generaly higher in the younger-group under 16 years-old than those in the elder group aged 16 or more, whereas the infection rates of protozoan species were higher in the elder group. The infection rate of Strongyloides was found to be 10.4% by a newly developed sensitive method (an agarplate culture methods.Uma pesquisa coproparasitológica foi realizada em 222 habitantes de cinco fazendas de Holambra, localizada a 30 km ao norte de Campinas, SP, Brasil, em outubro de 1992. Aproximadamente 70% dos habitantes apresentaram pelo menos um tipo de parasitose intestinal. O índice de positividade das 6 espécies de helmintos e de 7 protozoários na população foi o seguinte: Ascaris lumbricoides (5,4%; Trichuris trichiura (8,6%; Necator americanus (19,8%; Strongyloides stercoralis (10,4%; Enterobius vermiculares (1,4%; Hymenolepis nana (0,9%; Entamoeba histolytica (3,2%; E. hartmanni (2,7%; E. coli (9,9%; Endolimax nana (14,0%; Iodamoeba butschlii (2,3%; Giardia lamblia (10,4%; Blastocystis hominis (37,4%. O índice de positividade para infecção por helmitos foi aparentemente maior na população mais jovem (menores de 16 anos do que no grupo de população com idades acima de 16 anos, ao contrário do índice de infecção pelos protozoários que foi mais elevado na população adulta. Utilizando um novo e sensível método através de cultura em ágar, encontrou-se um índice de infecção de 10.4% para Strongyloides sp.

  6. Plant species used in giardiasis treatment: ethnopharmacology and in vitro evaluation of anti-Giardia activity

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    Vanessa do A., Neiva; Maria Nilce S., Ribeiro; Flávia R. F., Nascimento; Maria do Socorro S., Cartágenes; Denise F., Coutinho-Moraes; Flavia M. M. do, Amaral.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compile the traditional knowledge about plants used for the treatment of giardiasis, and also to carry out experimental research to evaluate the anti-Giardia activity of five species.To reach this objective, 398 interviews were performed using a previously prepared quest [...] ionnaire, followed by an in vitro evaluation of giardicidal potential of hydroalcoholic leaf extracts of Anacardium occidentale L., Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Passiflora edulis Sims, Psidium guajava L., and Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich.) Vahl. Among the interviewed people, 55.53% reported the use of plants to treat diarrhea, the most severe symptom of giardiasis. The results indicated 36 species used by this population for these problems. The use of leaves (72.50%) of a single plant (64.25%) collected from backyards and gardens (44.34%) and prepared by decoction were predominant. The majority of the interviewees (85.52%) attributed their cure to the use of plants. In the experimental tests, all extracts inhibited the growth of Giardia lamblia trophozoites in different intensities: A. occidentale and P. guajava extracts elicited a moderate activity (250 ? IC50 ? 500 ?g/ml), C. ambrosioides and S. cayennensis extracts evoked a high activity (100 ? IC50 ? 250 ?g/ml), and P. edulis extract showed very high activity (IC50 ? 100 ?g/ml). This study shows that an ethnopharmacological approach is useful in the selection of plant materials with potential giardicidal activity.

  7. Frecuencia de parasitosis intestinales y características epidemiológicas de la población infantil de 1 a 12 años que consultan al Ambulatorio Urbano Tipo II de Cerro Gordo.: Barquisimeto, estado Lara. Enero-junio 2007 / Frequency of Intestinal Parasitism and Epidemiological Characteristics of the 1 to 12 Year-Old Child Population Treated at the Cerro Gordo Type II Urban Outpatient Clinic: Barquisimeto, State of Lara. January-June 2007

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Melisa, Fuentes; Liset, Galíndez; Dayana, García; Nora, González; Juan, Goyanes; Eddy, Herrera; Julia, Sánchez.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar la frecuencia de parasitosis intestinales en el área de influencia del Ambulatorio Urbano Tipo II de Cerro Gordo, Barquisimeto, Estado Lara, realizando un estudio descriptivo transversal. Se evaluaron 106 niños entre 1 y 12 años de edad, realizando a [...] cada uno examen de heces directo y concentrado con la técnica de Ritchie, demostrándose parasitosis intestinal en 42,5%, predominando en escolares (48,9%), sin diferencias según el género. El agente más frecuente fue B. hominis (42,2%), seguido de G. lamblia (37,8%), Complejo Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar (13,3%), H. nana (11,1%) y A. lumbricoides (4,4%). Se encontró parasitado 41,7% de niños con estado nutricional normal y 35,7% de malnutridos. La presencia de parasitos intestinales mostró relación con la disposición inadecuada de basura (p=0.048). El lavado inadecuado de las manos se relacionó con prurito anal (p=0.008). La calidad inadecuada del agua se relacionó con Blastocistosis (p= 0,025) y comensales (p= 0,035). No hubo relación entre parasitosis intestinales y síntomas gastrointestinales, estrato social, disposición de excretas, presencia de vectores en el hogar, lavado y conservación de alimentos, frecuencia de recolección de basura, lavado de manos, antecedente de tratamiento antiparasitario y familiar parasitado. Abstract in english A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine intestinal parasitism in children treated at the “Cerro Gordo” Type II Urban Outpatient Clinic in Barquisimeto, Lara. Feces samples were collected from 106 children (1-12 years old) and analyzed using both direct and Ritchie´s technique analyses, de [...] monstrating intestinal parasitism in 42.5% of the children, predominantly of school age (48.9%), but independent of gender. The most frequent agent was Blastocystis hominis (42.2%), followed by Giardia lamblia (37.8%), Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar Complex (13.3%), Hymenolepis nana (11.1%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (4.4%). For children with a normal nutritional condition, 41.7% had parasites, while this value was 35.7% for nutritionally undernourished children. The presence of intestinal parasites showed relations to the community’s trash collection management program status (p=0.048). Poor hand washing habits were significantly associated with anal pruritus (p=0.008). Inadequate water quality was related to blastocystosis (p= 0.025) and comensals (p= 0.035). The presence of parasites was not associated with specific gastrointestinal symptoms, socioeconomic status, disposition of excreta, presence of vectors in the home, food washing and storage, frequency of garbage collection, washing of hands, family parasitism history and anti-parasite treatment antecedents.

  8. Differences in the faecal microbiome of non-diarrhoeic clinically healthy dogs and cats associated with Giardia duodenalis infection: impact of hookworms and coccidia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šlapeta, Jan; Dowd, Scot E; Alanazi, Abdullah D; Westman, Mark E; Brown, Graeme K

    2015-08-01

    The protozoan parasite Giardia duodenalis causes a waterborne diarrhoeal disease in animals and humans, yet many Giardia-infected hosts remain asymptomatic. Mixed parasite infections are common in both animals and humans with unknown consequences for Giardia or other parasites. We compared the composition and diversity of bacterial communities from 40 dogs, including free-roaming dogs, and 21 surrendered cats from Australia. The dog cohort included 17 (42.5%) dogs positive for Giardia and 13 (32.5%) dogs positive for dog hookworm (Ancylostoma caninum). The cat samples included eight positive for Giardia and eight positive for Cystoisospora. The V4 region of 16S rRNA was sequenced at an average of 36,383 high quality sequences (>200bp) per sample using the Ion Torrent PGM™ platform. In dogs we found significant (P0.05, AnoSim). Cystoisospora-positive cats, however, exhibited significantly different profiles from Cystoisospora-negative cats (P=0.02, AnoSim) and UniFrac showed significant separation of Cystoisospora-positive and -negative samples (P<0.01). The results suggest that in clinically heathy dogs and cats, helminths and protozoa are associated with different microbiomes and possibly variable gut microbiota functions. Understanding the association of parasites and microbiomes has important consequences for the administration of antiparasitic drugs in animals and humans. PMID:25934152

  9. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in raw water from the Atibaia river, Campinas, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Regina Maura Bueno FRANCO; Rosângela ROCHA-EBERHARDT; CANTUSIO NETO Romeu

    2001-01-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia duodenalis are waterborne parasites that have caused several outbreaks of gastrointestinal disease associated with drinking water. Due to the lack of studies about the occurrence of these protozoa in water in the Southeast of Brazil, an investigation was conducted to verify the presence of cysts and oocysts in superficial raw water of the Atibaia River. The water samples were submitted to membrane filtration (3.0 mum) and elution was processed by (1) scrapin...

  10. Control of Giardia infections with ronidazole and intensive hygienemanagement in a dog kennel

    OpenAIRE

    Fiechter, Ruth M-E; Deplazes, P.; Schnyder , M

    2012-01-01

    Infections with the intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia in dogs and cats are common. Clinical signs vary from asymptomatic to small bowel diarrhea and associated discomfort. The control of infections in dogs is frequently a frustrating issue for animal owners and veterinarians. Drugs with antiprotozoal activity such as fenbendazole and metronidazole are recommended, however, they do not show 100% efficacy and superinfections occur regularly. Ronidazole is currently the drug of choice for th...

  11. Multiplex Assay Detection of Immunoglobulin G Antibodies That Recognize Giardia intestinalis and Cryptosporidium parvum Antigens ?

    OpenAIRE

    Priest, Jeffrey W.; Moss, Delynn M.; Visvesvara, Govinda S.; Jones, Cara C.; Li, Anna; Isaac-renton, Judith L.

    2010-01-01

    Giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis are common enteric parasitic diseases that have similar routes of transmission. In this work, we have identified epitopes within the Giardia variant-specific surface protein (VSP) sequences that are recognized by IgG antibodies from 13 of 14 (93%) sera from patients with stool-confirmed giardiasis. The conserved epitopes are shared among VSPs from both of the assemblages that commonly infect humans, and they are likely to be structural, as both sodium dodecyl ...

  12. Freqüência de Giardia spp. por duas técnicas de diagnóstico em fezes de cães

    OpenAIRE

    Mundim M.J.S.; Souza S.Z.; Hortêncio S.M.; Cury M.C.

    2003-01-01

    One hundred fecal samples from male and female dogs of several ages and breeds were collected in kennels of Uberlândia in Minas Gerais, Brazil. These samples were analyzed to determine the frequency of Giardia spp. using two different diagnostic methods: zinc sulfate flotation technique and merthiolate-iodine-formaldehyde concentration (MIFC). The frequency of giardiasis was 41%. Dogs, which were less than 12 months of age, were the most parasitized (68.4%). No difference between male and fe...

  13. [New methods for the diagnosis of Cryptosporidium and Giardia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciò, S M

    2004-06-01

    The accurate identification of a parasite at the species and/or genotype level has major implications for various aspects of human and veterinary parasitology, including the diagnosis, the taxonomy, the treatment and the control. The advent of molecular techniques, in particular those based on the in vitro amplification of nucleic acids, has dramatically improved our ability to detect infections caused by parasites. To illustrate the progress in molecular diagnostics, Cryptosporidium and Giardia are used here as examples of parasites for which both the diagnosis and the taxonomy have traditionally been problematic. These protozoan parasites, while very different for many aspects of their biology, shares a complex series of transmission routes, including anthroponotic and zoonotic transmission, as well as waterborne and foodborne transmission. The resistant stages produced by Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oocysts and cysts, respectively) are remarkably stable, and can survive for weeks to months in the environment. Further, the infective dose is low, and infectious dose studies and models suggest that even a single oocyst or cyst carries some probability of causing an infection. Finally, most faeces that contain (oo)cysts end up in the environment and can be spread to foods by irrigation or by direct contact, and can persist in the water, as routine treatments eliminate only a fraction of these stages. This situation explains the growing interest towards the development of methods that allows such stages to be detected with the highest sensitivity and specificity. A variety of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assays have been described for both Cryptosporidium and Giardia. The choice of a particular assay mainly depends on the amount of information carried by the genetic locus under analysis. Indeed, some assays can be used to identify the different species within a genus, while others allowed to distinguish between isolates of the same species (genotypes), and some can even be used for both purposes. Post-PCR analyses are usually based on the direct sequencing of the amplification products, or on the digestion with endonucleases followed by gel electrophoresis of the restriction fragments. In the last few years, the molecular characterization of a large number of isolates, collected from infected hosts and from the environment, has considerably changed our view of the epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis. Indeed, several species/genotypes have been established as human pathogens, and the nature of the parasites present in the water and in food have been investigated, allowing a better understanding of the complex circulation of the parasites in the environment, that may eventually led to implemented control measures. Finally, phylogenetic analysis of several nuclear genes is having a major impact in the revision of the taxonomy of Cryptosporidium and Giardia. The main limitation of PCR is that it doesn't provide information on the viability and infectivity of the pathogen. To obtain additional information on these important aspects, indirect methods, such as inclusion/exclusion assays using vital dyes or the Reverse-Transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR), can be used. Since RT-PCR relies on the integrity of mRNA, which usually has very short half-life (seconds), its use is thought to provide a more closely correlated indication of viability status compared to DNA-based methods. RT-PCR assays usually target the heat shock protein (hsp) 70 gene. The rationale behind this choice is that hsps are known to be synthesized with a high level of efficiency in stressed organisms; therefore, when (oo)cysts are exposed to a thermal shock, the induction of heat shock response provides both a level of amplification to increase detection sensitivity and an index of viability. Moreover, with the recent introduction of real-time PCR, that allows the continuous monitoring of amplicon formation throughout the reaction, quantitative aspect of the infection could be studied with exquisite sensitivity. This will, for example, allow (1) to detec

  14. Multilocus sequence typing of canine Giardia duodenalis from South Eastern European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, M F; Beck, R; Ionita, M; Stefanovska, J; Vasi?, A; Zdravkovi?, N; Hamel, D; Rehbein, S; Knaus, M; Mitrea, I L; Shukullari, E; Kirkova, Z; Rapti, D; Capári, B; Silaghi, C

    2015-06-01

    Giardia duodenalis is a worldwide occurring protozoan that can infect various mammalian hosts. While living conditions are getting closer between pet animals and owners, there is discussion whether dogs may contribute to the transmission of these pathogens to humans. The present study was conducted in order to identify the Giardia assemblages in dogs from South Eastern Europe. For this purpose, 1645 faecal samples of household and shelter dogs from Albania, Bulgaria, Hungary, Macedonia, Romania and Serbia were tested for Giardia coproantigen by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A subset of 107 faecal samples demonstrating Giardia cysts by direct immunofluorescence assay (IFA) or microscopy (15-22 per country) plus 26 IFA-positive canine faecal samples from Croatia were used for DNA extraction and multilocus sequence typing with nested PCRs targeting five different gene loci: SSU rRNA, ITS1-5.8S-ITS2, beta giardin (bg), glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) and triosephosphate isomerase (tpi). One third (33.7 %) of the samples tested positive for Giardia antigen in the coproantigen ELISA. Shelter dogs were infected more frequently than household dogs (57.2 vs. 29.7 %, p?parasite in dogs from South Eastern Europe. However, there was no evidence for zoonotic Giardia assemblages in the investigated canine subpopulation. PMID:25804971

  15. Parasitismo intestinal infantil: factores epidemiológicos en Orange Walk, Belice Intestinal parasitism in children: epidemiological factors in Orange Walk, Belize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liset Corrales Fuentes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El parasitismo intestinal (PI continúa siendo un problema de salud en Centroamérica y el Caribe. Se realizó una investigación aplicada, epidemiológica, descriptiva, transversal, en el Distrito urbano de Orange Walk, (Belice, año 2009, con el objetivo de identificar los factores causales de riesgo epidemiológico. El universo lo constituyeron los 566 niños de 0 - 4 años, la muestra fue 400 niños; mediante un muestreo no probabilístico intencional se realizó el examen directo de heces fecales, constituyéndose dos estratos muestrales. Fueron utilizados los métodos empíricos de investigación: cuestionario, guía de observación y teóricos; utilizando para el procesamiento de datos la estadística descriptiva, frecuencias absolutas, relativas, proporción, índice y riesgo relativo, comparación de dos y k- proporciones, prueba no paramétrica ji cuadrado. Resultaron más heces fecales positivas que negativas, no estuvo relacionado el sexo con aparición de parásitos, edad predominante de 3 - 4 años, índice de atenciones médicas de 41.34/100 habitantes, parásito más frecuente: Giardia lamblia. Las manifestaciones clínicas predominantes: dolor abdominal, diarrea y la pérdida de peso. Principales factores causales epidemiológicos: no hervir el agua, disposición inadecuada de residuales y juegos con tierra, hubo una recurrencia de 2 episodios/niño y un riesgo relativo de contraer PI de 1.3 veces, más elevado para niños en condiciones higiénicas desfavorables, población con una educación sanitaria no adecuada y baja escolaridad de padres. Se concluyó que el PI constituye un problema de salud.Intestinal parasitism (IP is still a health problem in Central America and Caribbean Countries. An applied, epidemiological, descriptive, cross-sectional research was conducted at the urban district of «Orange Walk», Belize in 2009 with the purpose of identifying the causal factors of epidemiological risk. The target group was comprised of 566 children (0-4 years old, the sample (400 children was taken by means of intentional non-probabilistic sampling and a direct feces examination; representing two sampling strata. Empiric methods of investigation were used: questionnaires, observation guidebook and theoretical. To process the data, descriptive statistics, absolute and relative frequencies were used; ratios, rate with relative risk, comparison of two and k-proportions, plus non-parametric chi square test as well. More positive feces prevailed over negative ones, observing no relation to the sex and the onset of parasites, children of 3-4 years old prevailed. The rate of medical care was 41.34/100 inhabitants, Giardia lamblia was the most frequent parasite found. The clinical signs of: abdominal pain, diarrhea, weight loss. The main causal epidemiological factors were: no water boiling, inadequate sewage disposal and plays on the ground. Recurrence had 2 events per child and a relative risk of suffering from the infection of 1.3 times, greater for children living in unfavourable hygienic situation: inhabitants with poor sanitary education and parents with low-schooling level. Intestinal Parasitism constitutes a health problem.

  16. Parasitismo intestinal infantil: factores epidemiológicos en Orange Walk, Belice / Intestinal parasitism in children: epidemiological factors in Orange Walk, Belize

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Liset, Corrales Fuentes; Sandra, Hernández García; Miguel Angel, Rodríguez Arencibia; Aydely, Hernández Pérez.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El parasitismo intestinal (PI) continúa siendo un problema de salud en Centroamérica y el Caribe. Se realizó una investigación aplicada, epidemiológica, descriptiva, transversal, en el Distrito urbano de Orange Walk, (Belice), año 2009, con el objetivo de identificar los factores causales de riesgo [...] epidemiológico. El universo lo constituyeron los 566 niños de 0 - 4 años, la muestra fue 400 niños; mediante un muestreo no probabilístico intencional se realizó el examen directo de heces fecales, constituyéndose dos estratos muestrales. Fueron utilizados los métodos empíricos de investigación: cuestionario, guía de observación y teóricos; utilizando para el procesamiento de datos la estadística descriptiva, frecuencias absolutas, relativas, proporción, índice y riesgo relativo, comparación de dos y k- proporciones, prueba no paramétrica ji cuadrado. Resultaron más heces fecales positivas que negativas, no estuvo relacionado el sexo con aparición de parásitos, edad predominante de 3 - 4 años, índice de atenciones médicas de 41.34/100 habitantes, parásito más frecuente: Giardia lamblia. Las manifestaciones clínicas predominantes: dolor abdominal, diarrea y la pérdida de peso. Principales factores causales epidemiológicos: no hervir el agua, disposición inadecuada de residuales y juegos con tierra, hubo una recurrencia de 2 episodios/niño y un riesgo relativo de contraer PI de 1.3 veces, más elevado para niños en condiciones higiénicas desfavorables, población con una educación sanitaria no adecuada y baja escolaridad de padres. Se concluyó que el PI constituye un problema de salud. Abstract in english Intestinal parasitism (IP) is still a health problem in Central America and Caribbean Countries. An applied, epidemiological, descriptive, cross-sectional research was conducted at the urban district of «Orange Walk», Belize in 2009 with the purpose of identifying the causal factors of epidemiologic [...] al risk. The target group was comprised of 566 children (0-4 years old), the sample (400 children) was taken by means of intentional non-probabilistic sampling and a direct feces examination; representing two sampling strata. Empiric methods of investigation were used: questionnaires, observation guidebook and theoretical. To process the data, descriptive statistics, absolute and relative frequencies were used; ratios, rate with relative risk, comparison of two and k-proportions, plus non-parametric chi square test as well. More positive feces prevailed over negative ones, observing no relation to the sex and the onset of parasites, children of 3-4 years old prevailed. The rate of medical care was 41.34/100 inhabitants, Giardia lamblia was the most frequent parasite found. The clinical signs of: abdominal pain, diarrhea, weight loss. The main causal epidemiological factors were: no water boiling, inadequate sewage disposal and plays on the ground. Recurrence had 2 events per child and a relative risk of suffering from the infection of 1.3 times, greater for children living in unfavourable hygienic situation: inhabitants with poor sanitary education and parents with low-schooling level. Intestinal Parasitism constitutes a health problem.

  17. Nutritional Status of Preschool Children Infected With Giardia Intestinalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SM Sadjjadi

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Giardia intestinalis is the most common intestinal parasite in human worldwide. It can produce a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. In order to assess the nutritional status of preschool children infected with Giardia intestinalis, a cross sectional study was made in Marvdasht city, Fars Province, Southern Iran. A total of 337 preschool boys and girls aged 3-6 years were randomly selected for stool examination of intestinal parasites as well as measurement of height, weight, head and arm circumferences. A total of 77 individuals were infected with G. intestinalis. Seventy-one individuals who had only G. intestinalis and 229 with no parasitic infections were selected as infected and control groups, respectively. Z-Score of -2SD was used as cut off point of malnutrition. A total of 9 (12.7% of infected children and 18 (7.9% of non infected individuals had a height for age Z-score (HAZ below -2SD. Eight (11.3% of former group had a weight for age Z-score (WAZ under-2SD. In control group 4.4% of preschool children had WAZ under-2SD. 4.2% of infected children had a weight for height Z-score (WHZ under-2SD but none of the controls had it. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference in height, weight, head circumference, HAZ, and WAZ between infected and control children (P<0.05. Also, HAZ and WAZ, was significantly different between these two groups, but not for WHZ. A higher infection with G. intestinalis in the children with lower parents’ education was observed. However the distribution of malnutrition was not significantly different between boys and girls. In conclusion the present study indicated that giardiasis retarded growth of preschool children in this region.

  18. Freqüência de Giardia spp. por duas técnicas de diagnóstico em fezes de cães / Frequency of Giardia spp. for two diagnosis methods in feces of dogs

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M.J.S., Mundim; S.Z., Souza; S.M., Hortêncio; M.C., Cury.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english One hundred fecal samples from male and female dogs of several ages and breeds were collected in kennels of Uberlândia in Minas Gerais, Brazil. These samples were analyzed to determine the frequency of Giardia spp. using two different diagnostic methods: zinc sulfate flotation technique and merthiol [...] ate-iodine-formaldehyde concentration (MIFC). The frequency of giardiasis was 41%. Dogs, which were less than 12 months of age, were the most parasitized (68.4%). No difference between male and female frequency of giardiasis (31.4% and 46.1%, respectively) was observed. MIFC detected 38% of positive samples and zinc sulfate flotation technique 29%. Giardia spp. is present in dogs of Uberlândia's kennels in a high frequency.

  19. Enteroparasitismo en Indígenas Terena en el Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil / Intestinal Parasitism in Terena Indigenous People of the Province of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antonio, Neres-Norberg; Fabiano, Guerra-Sanches; Paulo R, Blanco Moreira-Norberg; José Tadeu, Madeira-Oliveira; Aluízio Antonio, Santa-Helena; Nicolau Maués, Serra-Freire.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo Considerando que más de la mitad de la población mundial está infectada por protozoarios y helmintos intestinales, con alta prevalencia en las zonas más pobres, esta investigación tuvo como objetivo identificar la prevalencia de los parasitismos entre indígenas de la etnia Terena, estableci [...] dos en el Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul. Metodología Se examinaron 134 muestras de heces de individuos de la comunidad indígena. Estas se conservaron en solución de Merthiolate-iodo-formol (MIF). Los exámenes de laboratorio fueron realizados por las técnicas de Hoffman, Pons y Janer; Willis y Kinyoun. Resultados Se identificaron infecciones por helmintos nematodos de las especies Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostomidae, Enterobius vermicularis, Strongyloides stercoralis, y Trichuris trichiura; cestodos de la especie Hymenolepis nana, y Taeniaspp. También por protozoarios de las especies Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia lamblia, Endolimax nana, Entamoeba coli, y Entamoeba histolytica. De las muestras investigadas, 23,1% fueron negativas; de los 76,9 % parasitados hubo diferencia estadísticamente no significativa para el parasitismo en hombres y mujeres examinados, de unoa 33 años de edad, y sobre parasitismo mono específico, o con simultaneidad de especies. Como diversidad parasitaria fueron encontradas siete especies de helmintos nematodos y cestodos, y cinco de protozoarios Archamoebae, flagelados y enterozoários. Conclusiones Los resultados fueron la base para la orientación e intervención adecuada, revelando la necesidad de la implantación de medidas gubernamentales y socioeducativas para mejorar las condiciones de vida de esta comunidad. Abstract in english Objective Considering that intestinal protozoans and helminths infect more than half of the world population, with high prevalence in the poorest regions, the objective of this study was to conduct parasitological research among indigenous Terena people established in the state of MatoGrosso do Sul. [...] An inquiry was performed to find the incidence of parasitism in these communities. Methodology 134 aliquots of feces from individuals of the indigenous community were examined. Samples were conserved in Merthiolate-iodine-formol solution (MIF). The laboratory exams were carried out using the techniques of Hoffman, Pons and Janer; Willis and Kinyoun. Results We identified infections of nematode helminths of the species Ascarislumbricoides, Ancylostomidae, Enterobiusvermicularis, Strongyloidesstercoralis, and Trichuristrichiura; and cestodes of the species Hymenolepis nana and Taenia spp. Also found were the protozoan species: Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia lamblia, Endolimax nana, Entamoeba coli, and Entamoebahistolytica. 23.1 % of the samples studied were negative. Of the 76.9 % of samples with parasites, there were non-statistically significant differences in parasitism between men and women examined between 1 and 33 years-of-age. There were also no significant differences between monospecific parasitism and with concurrent species. In terms of parasitic diversity, seven species of nematode and cestodeshelminths were found along with five species of Archamoebae protozoa: flagellates and enterozoans. Conclusions These results were the basis for orientation and appropriate drug intervention and reveal the need for the implementation governmental, social and educational measures to improve the living conditions of that community.

  20. Enteroparasitismo en Indígenas Terena en el Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil / Intestinal Parasitism in Terena Indigenous People of the Province of MatoGrossodoSul, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antonio, Neres-Norberg; Fabiano, Guerra-Sanches; Paulo R, Blanco Moreira-Norberg; José Tadeu, Madeira-Oliveira; Aluízio Antonio, Santa-Helena; Nicolau Maués, Serra-Freire.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo Considerando que más de la mitad de la población mundial está infectada por protozoarios y helmintos intestinales, con alta prevalencia en las zonas más pobres, esta investigación tuvo como objetivo identificar la prevalencia de los parasitismos entre indígenas de la etnia Terena, estableci [...] dos en el Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul. Metodología Se examinaron 134 muestras de heces de individuos de la comunidad indígena. Estas se conservaron en solución de Merthiolate-iodo-formol (MIF). Los exámenes de laboratorio fueron realizados por las técnicas de Hoffman, Pons y Janer; Willis y Kinyoun. Resultados Se identificaron infecciones por helmintos nematodos de las especies Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostomidae, Enterobius vermicularis, Strongyloides stercoralis, y Trichuris trichiura; cestodos de la especie Hymenolepis nana, y Taeniaspp. También por protozoarios de las especies Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia lamblia, Endolimax nana, Entamoeba coli, y Entamoeba histolytica. De las muestras investigadas, 23,1% fueron negativas; de los 76,9 % parasitados hubo diferencia estadísticamente no significativa para el parasitismo en hombres y mujeres examinados, de unoa 33 años de edad, y sobre parasitismo mono específico, o con simultaneidad de especies. Como diversidad parasitaria fueron encontradas siete especies de helmintos nematodos y cestodos, y cinco de protozoarios Archamoebae, flagelados y enterozoários. Conclusiones Los resultados fueron la base para la orientación e intervención adecuada, revelando la necesidad de la implantación de medidas gubernamentales y socioeducativas para mejorar las condiciones de vida de esta comunidad. Abstract in english Objective Considering that intestinal protozoans and helminths infect more than half of the world population, with high prevalence in the poorest regions, the objective of this study was to conduct parasitological research among indigenous Terena people established in the state of MatoGrosso do Sul. [...] An inquiry was performed to find the incidence of parasitism in these communities. Methodology 134 aliquots of feces from individuals of the indigenous community were examined. Samples were conserved in Merthiolate-iodine-formol solution (MIF). The laboratory exams were carried out using the techniques of Hoffman, Pons and Janer; Willis and Kinyoun. Results We identified infections of nematode helminths of the species Ascarislumbricoides, Ancylostomidae, Enterobiusvermicularis, Strongyloidesstercoralis, and Trichuristrichiura; and cestodes of the species Hymenolepis nana and Taenia spp. Also found were the protozoan species: Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia lamblia, Endolimax nana, Entamoeba coli, and Entamoebahistolytica. 23.1 % of the samples studied were negative. Of the 76.9 % of samples with parasites, there were non-statistically significant differences in parasitism between men and women examined between 1 and 33 years-of-age. There were also no significant differences between monospecific parasitism and with concurrent species. In terms of parasitic diversity, seven species of nematode and cestodeshelminths were found along with five species of Archamoebae protozoa: flagellates and enterozoans. Conclusions These results were the basis for orientation and appropriate drug intervention and reveal the need for the implementation governmental, social and educational measures to improve the living conditions of that community.

  1. Prevalencia de parásitos intestinales en niños de la ciudad de Mendoza, Argentina / PREVALENCE OF INTESTINAL PARASITES IN CHILDREN LIVING IN MENDOZA CITY, ARGENTINA

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    MARIA C, SALOMON; ROSA L, TONELLI; CARLOS G, BORREMANS; DANIEL, BERTELLO; LAURA I, DE JONG; CLAUDIO A, JOFRÉ; VERÓNICA, ENRIQUEZ; LILIANA C, CARRIZO; SIXTO RAÚL, COSTAMAGNA.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio epidemiológico descriptivo, se investigó la presencia de parásitos intestinales en 221 niños de una escuela de la ciudad de Mendoza, Argentina, residentes en zona urbana con agua potable y red sanitaria completa. La comunidad educativa fue motivada a participar mediante la rea [...] lización de talleres explicativos dirigidos a los docentes y padres en forma separada y en grupos no mayores a 30 personas, lográndose una participación de 89,5% del cuerpo docente y 70,0% de los padres. Las muestras de materia fecal se colectaron durante siete días en solución de acetato sódico - ácido acético - formalina (S AF) y el mucus anal, mediante la prueba Graham modificado en igual período de tiempo. Las heces fueron procesadas por el método de Telemann modificado y se realizaron coloraciones de Kinyoun para la investigación de coccidios intestinales. Para el prueba de Graham modificado, las gasas se colocaron en 30 mi. de solución formolada al 5%. Los resultados mostraron una prevalencia global de parásitos intestinales del 80,5%, con valores que oscilaron entre el 88% (grupo etario de 5 a 10 años) y el 63,8% (grupo etario de 11 a 14 años). No se encontraron diferencias significativas en la distribución por sexo. El 37,6% de los positivos presentó una especie única, mientras que en el resto se hallaron asociaciones parasitarias de hasta 4 géneros diferentes. Se identificaron: Blastocystis hominis, Giardia lamblia, Endolimax nana, Entamoeba coli, Dientamoeba fragilis, Chilomastix mesnilii, Enterobius vermicularis e Hymenolepis nana, siendo detectada esta última a partir de los 6 años Abstract in english This descriptive epidemiological research studies the prevalence of intestinal parasites in 221 children attending school in Mendoza, Argentina, and living in an urban area with potable water and complete sanitary system. Samples of faeces were collected and kept in a sodium acetate-acetic acid-form [...] alin (SAF) solution during 7 days and anal mucus was collected by means of the modified Graham test during the same period of time. Samples were processed by means of the modified Telemann method and Kinyoun staining. Gauzes were put in 30 ml of 5%-formol solution. Results reveal an 80.5% prevalence of intestinal parasites, with values varying between 88% (age group from 5 to 10) and 63.8% (age group from 11 to 14). No significant differences were observed in the distribution by sex. A 37.6% of the positive group showed a unique species whereas the rest of the studied population showed parasite associations of up to 4 different genera. Blastocystis hominis, Giardia lamblia, Endolimax nana, Entamoeba coli, Dientamoeba fragilis, Chilomastix mesnilii, Enterobius vermicularis and Hymenolepis nana were identified, the latter being detected as from the age of 6 years. The study reveals a high prevalence of intestinal parasites in 1-to 14-year-old children. Although both appropriate potable water and sewer system are available, we conclude that the high prevalence of intestinal parasites is due to inappropriate hygienic habits of the population and that education for the prevention of health is therefore as important as appropriate sanitary conditions

  2. Population-based analyses of Giardia duodenalis is consistent with the clonal assemblage structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takumi Katsuhisa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Giardia duodenalis is a common protozoan parasite of humans and animals. Genetic characterization of single loci indicates the existence of eight groups called assemblages, which differ in their host distribution. Molecular analyses challenged the idea that G. duodenalis is a strictly clonal diplomonad by providing evidence of recombination within and between assemblages. Particularly, inter-assemblage recombination events would complicate the interpretation of multi-locus genotyping data from field isolates: where is a host infected with multiple Giardia genotypes or with a single, recombined Giardia genotype. Methods Population genetic analyses on the single and multiple-locus level on an extensive dataset of G. duodenalis isolates from humans and animals were performed. Results Our analyses indicate that recombination between isolates from different assemblages are apparently very rare or absent in the natural population of Giardia duodenalis. At the multi-locus level, our statistical analyses are more congruent with clonal reproduction and can equally well be explained with the presence of multiple G. duodenalis genotypes within one field isolate. Conclusions We conclude that recombination between G. duodenalis assemblages is either very rare or absent. Recombination between genotypes from the same assemblage and genetic exchange between the nuclei of a single cyst needs further investigation.

  3. Administration of kefir-fermented milk protects mice against Giardia intestinalis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Mariana Correa; Golowczyc, Marina A; De Antoni, Graciela L; Pérez, Pablo F; Humen, Martín; Serradell, María de los Angeles

    2013-12-01

    Giardiasis, caused by the protozoan Giardia intestinalis, is one of the most common intestinal diseases worldwide and constitutes an important problem for the public health systems of various countries. Kefir is a probiotic drink obtained by fermenting milk with 'kefir grains', which consist mainly of bacteria and yeasts that coexist in a complex symbiotic association. In this work, we studied the ability of kefir to protect mice from G. intestinalis infection, and characterized the host immune response to this probiotic in the context of the intestinal infection. Six- to 8-week-old C75BL/6 mice were separated into four groups: controls, kefir mice (receiving 1?:?100 dilution of kefir in drinking water for 14 days), Giardia mice (infected orally with 4×10(7) trophozoites of G. intestinalis at day 7) and Giardia-kefir mice (kefir-treated G. intestinalis-infected mice), and killed at 2 or 7 days post-infection. Kefir administration was able to significantly reduce the intensity of Giardia infection at 7 days post-infection. An increase in the percentage of CD4(+) T cells at 2 days post-infection was observed in the Peyer's patches (PP) of mice belonging to the Giardia group compared with the control and kefir groups, while the percentage of CD4(+) T cells in PP in the Giardia-kefir group was similar to that of controls. At 2 days post-infection, a reduction in the percentage of B220-positive major histocompatibility complex class II medium cells in PP was observed in infected mice compared with the other groups. At 7 days post-infection, Giardia-infected mice showed a reduction in RcFc?-positive cells compared with the control group, suggesting a downregulation of the inflammatory response. However, the percentages of RcFc?-positive cells did not differ from controls in the kefir and Giardia-kefir groups. An increase in IgA-positive cells was observed in the lamina propria of the kefir group compared with controls at 2 days post-infection. Interestingly, the diminished number of IgA-positive cells registered in the Giardia group at 7 days post-infection was restored by kefir feeding, although the increase in IgA-positive cells was no longer observed in the kefir group at that time. No significant differences in CXCL10 expression were registered between groups, in concordance with the absence of inflammation in small-intestinal tissue. Interestingly, a slight reduction in CCL20 expression was observed in the Giardia group, suggesting that G. intestinalis might downregulate its expression as a way of evading the inflammatory immune response. On the other hand, a trend towards an increase in TNF-? expression was observed in the kefir group, while the Giardia-kefir group showed a significant increase in TNF-? expression. Moreover, kefir-receiving mice (kefir and Giardia-kefir groups) showed an increase in the expression of IFN-?, the most relevant Th1 cytokine, at 2 days post-infection. Our results demonstrate that feeding mice with kefir reduces G. intestinalis infection and promotes the activation of different mechanisms of humoral and cellular immunity that are downregulated by parasitic infection, thus contributing to protection. PMID:24072759

  4. A new system for higher recovery rate of water borne Cryptosporidium and Giardia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Gad, J.

    2012-01-01

    The two most common water borne pathogenic protozoa, Cryptosporidium and Giardia, are a common cause of outbreaks of diarrhea. Detecting these parasites in water samples depends on effective parasite recovery from the water matrix. The recovery rates of the currently used filter methods are low and the procedures are expensive and time consuming. These facts have motivated us to develop a new robust system for higher recovery of protozoan cysts from any fluid matrix. The new system consists of a sample collection chamber in which the fluid passes through a specially coated metallic filter with a carefully chosen pore size. On the reverse side of the filter a transducer delivers ultrasound waves in order to release trapped cysts and particles from the filter and break up parasite clusters. Purified Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts were injected into the concentration unit and exposed to varying levels of ultrasonication. The concentrated parasite suspension was backwashed using air and the change in viability of the parasites was assessed by flowcytometry. Without sonication, the recovery rate of Cryptosporidium was around 2%. After short term sonication for 5, 10 or 20 seconds, the recovery rates were stable and ranging from 75-83%. While sonication is usually used for cell lyses, it can be tuned into a useful tool for enhanced separation of retinates of parasites using a specially constructed filter unit and a sonication protocol. The filtration chamber further facilitated the concentration of parasites by ensuring a backwash volume of less than 1ml. The collected parasites may be used for molecular typing and other diagnostic and research purposes. The presented design of the filter system can be used as a robust, cheap, and time effective method of isolating water borne parasites in the laboratory.

  5. Parasitological and serological studies on Amoebiasis and other intestinal parasitic infections in Recife and its suburban area, northeast Brazil Estudos sorológicos e parasitologies na Amebíase e em outras infecções parasitárias intestinais em Recife e áreas circunvizinhas, nordeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsu Okazaki

    1988-08-01

    Full Text Available Parasitological examinations were carried out during April to August, 1987, with 187 out-patients of the IMIP hospital, located in the center of Recife City, and 464 inhabitants of several villages around Cabo City, 50 Km southeast of Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. Approximately 71% of the IMIP patients and 92% of the Cabo inhabitants were infected with at least one species of intestinal parasite. There was minimum difference in the prevalence rate of Trichuris trichiura between two areas, whereas the prevalence rates of Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworms, Strongyloides stercoralis, Schistosoma mansoni and Entamoeba histolytica were higher in the inhabitants of the Cabo City area. Only Giardia lamblia was more prevalent in the out-patients of IMIP hospital. Test tube cultivation revealed that the prevalence rate of Necator americanus in both areas was much higher than that of Ancylostoma duodenale , and also that the prevalence rate of S. stercoralis of the IMIP patients and Cabo inhabitants were 4.5% and 9.6%, respectively. Six hundred and fifteen sera were serologically examined for amoebiasis by the gel diffusion precipitation test (GDP and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA using the antigen prepared from axenically cultured trophozoite of E. histolytica (strain HM-ITMSS. No positive reaction was observed in all of the sera as examined by GDP, while 32 out of 615 sera were positive on ELISA.Exames parasitológies foram realizados em 187 pacientes do Hospital do IMIP e 464 habitantes de vários vilarejos no município do Cabo, 50 Km à sudeste de Recife, durante os meses de abril a agosto. Aproximadamente 71% dos pacientes examinados do IMIP e 92% dos examinados do Cabo apresentavam-se infectados com, no mínimo, uma espécie de parasita intestinal. Houve uma diferença mínima na taxa de prevalência de Trichuris trichiura entre as duas áreas, entretanto a prevalência de Ascaris lumbricoides, família Ancylostomidae, Strongyloides stercoralis, Schistosoma mansoni e Entamoeba histolytica foi maior entre os habitantes do Cabo. Somente a Giardia lamblia apresentou uma taxa de prevalência maior nos pacientes do IMIP. O cultivo em tubo de ensaio revelou que a prevalência do Necator americanus em relação a do Ancylostoma duodenale era muito maior em ambas as áreas e que a do S. stercoralis entre os pacientes do IMIP e dos habitantes do Cabo era, respectivamente, 4.5% e 9.6%. A amebíase foi verificada através de exames sorológicos, imunodifusão em gel (GDP e enzima imunoensaio (ELISA, usando como antígeno extrato bruto preparado a partir dos trofozoitos de E. histolytica (cepa HM-1: IMSS, realizados em 615 soros, onde nenhuma reação positiva aparente foi observada através da imunodifusão, contudo foram observados resultados positivos em 32 dos 615 casos através da enzima imunoensaio.

  6. Giardia and Drinking Water from Private Wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Drinking Water from Private Wells What is giardiasis? Giardiasis (GEE-are-DYE-uh-sis) is a diarrheal ... of the United States. For more information about giardiasis and treatment, please visit CDC's Giardia website. Where ...

  7. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Mentally Disabled Children and Adults of Urmia, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kh Hazrati Tappeh

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of intestinal parasites infection in institutions for mental retarda­tion of Ur­mia City, West Azerbaijan Province, Iran was investigated.Methods: This descriptive - cross sectional study was carried out in of Urmia city in 2007-2008. Fecal samples of 225 less than 29 year old mentally disabled individu­als were examined using direct smear, formalin - ether concen­tration. Beside their scotch tape samples were observed for Enterobius eggs. Statisti­cal evaluation was per­formed by SPSS 10.Results: Of 225 mentally retarded persons, 118(52.4% and 107(47.6% were female and male. The over­all prevalence of infection was 20.4% and that of male, and female were 20.5% and 20.3%, respectively. 17.3% of examined individuals had protozoa infection and 3.1% showed Entero­bius vermicularis eggs. The infection rates of detected intestinal protozoa were Enta­moeba coli 9.7%, Giardia lamblia 6.2%, Io­doamoeba butschlii 5.7%, Blastocystis hominis 4%, and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar 0.4%. Forty per­cent of 1-5 year, 22.8% of 6-14 year, 22.2% of 15-18 year, and 16.8% of more than 18-year age groups, had positive results in their tests. Accord­ing to IQ test results, 23.8% of less than 25 score group, 19.6% of 25-50, 17.2% of 50-75, and 40% of 75-90 groups were infected.Conclusion: More efforts for increasing sanitation level and prompt diagnosis and treat­ment of infected persons in these institutions are necessary.

  8. Giardia transmission in a swimming pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, J D; Ragazzoni, H P; Buchanon, J D; Waskin, H A; Juranek, D D; Parkin, W E

    1988-06-01

    In the fall of 1985, an outbreak of giardiasis occurred among several swimming groups at an indoor pool in northeast New Jersey. Nine clinical cases were identified, eight of whom had Giardia positive stool specimens. All were female; seven were adults (greater than 18 years) and two were children. The attack rate was highest (39 per cent, 5/13) for the ladies lap group who had exposure on one day. These cases had no direct contact with children or other risk factors for acquiring Giardia. Infection most likely occurred following the ingestion of swimming pool water contaminated with Giardia cysts. The source of Giardia contamination was a handicapped child who had a fecal accident in the pool. He was a member of a group that swam at the same time as the ladies lap group. A stool survey of the handicapped group showed that of the 20 persons tested, nine were positive for Giardia, including the specimen from this child. Examination of the pool records showed that no chlorine levels had been taken on the day of the fecal accident and that on the following day the chlorine level was zero. This is the second report of Giardia transmission among swimming pool attendees. It emphasizes the need to maintain appropriate chlorine levels in swimming pools and to institute measures to clear pools after a fecal accident. PMID:3369596

  9. Variables socio-epidemiológicas de las enteroparásitosis en escolares de la Escuela Bolivariana "Manuel Molina Hernández", Boca de Tocuyo. Estado Falcón, Venezuela / Socioepidemiological variables of intestinal parasites in students of the Bolivarian School "Manuel Molina Hernández"; Boca del Tocuyo. Falcón, States, Venezuela

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María, Hernández A; Agnedys, Edward M; Eduardo, Conde M; Andrés, Reyes B; Mirna, Stranieri; Ivana, Silva.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Los enteroparásitos constituyen un problema de Salud Pública en los países sub-desarrollados; su identificación mediante el coproanálisis es esencial para el manejo global del escolar. Con el objetivo de caracterizar las enteroparásitosis en escolares de la primera etapa de la Escuela Bolivariana "M [...] anuel Molina Hernández", Boca de Tocuyo-Municipio Monseñor Iturriza durante los meses de Mayo y Junio, 2011, se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal en una muestra de 36 escolares, cuyos representantes, previo consentimiento informado, autorizaron la toma de muestras de heces para el diagnóstico de enteroparasitosis. Los datos fueron analizados mediante estadística univariada y bivariada. Los Resultados obtenidos reflejaron que la presencia de parasitosis predominó en los escolares de sexo masculino (47,2%); y las edades en que prevaleció la parasitosis fue en 8años 27,8%, 7años 19,4% y 6 años 16,7%. En 58,3% de los escolares se les diagnosticó 2 y3 tipos de parasitosis. Las especies parasitarias más frecuentes fueron: Blastocystis hominis 43,3%, Endolimax nana 20%, Entamoeba histolytica 10%, Entamoeba coli 8,3% y Giardia lamblia con 6,7%. Se asoció estadísticamente el sexo con los quistes parasitarios, pero no se encontró significancia. La caracterización de la condición social aplicando el Modelo de Graffar Modificado por Méndez Castellanos, reporto que 58,3% de los escolares se ubicaron en el estrato V de Graffar. Se concluye que la parasitosis más frecuente fue B. hominis en todas las edades, seguida de E. nana, predominando la B. hominis en el sexo masculino, los escolares de 6 a 8 años fueron los más afectados que se ubican en el estrato social V. Abstract in english The intestinal parasites are a public health problem in underdeveloped countries, its identification by coproanalisis is essential for the overall management of the school. The objetive was to determine the presence of intestinal parasitosis and nutritional diagnosis in schoolchildren of the first s [...] tage of the Bolivarian School "Manuel Molina Hernandez," Boca de Tocuyo-City Iturriza Municipality from May to June of 2011. A descriptive cross-sectional sample of 36 schools at the Bolivarian School "Manuel Molina Hernandez." The data collection was through a card, stool samples were taken diagnosing intestinal parasites or not and the type, display the results in absolute and relative frequency. The results observed, the most common parasites: Blastocystis hominis 27 (75%), Endolimax nanny with 12 (33.3%) and Entamoeba coli with 6 (16.6%). Entamoeba histolytica less frequent with 5 (13.8%) and Giardia lamblia with 4 (11.1%). The distribution of parasitized schoolchildren by age group, the group from 7 to 8 years had higher parasite, with 17 (47.2%) schoolchildren. The rate of parasitism by age group, the group of 5-6 and 7-8 years Blastocystis hominis with 7 predominated (63.6%) and 16 (76.19%) pupils respectively. The classification of schools by level of layer prevailed Graffar V. The nutritional diagnosis in 23 parasitized group (79.3%) was normal. The predominant parasite was B. hominis in all ages, followed by E. nana, prevailing B. hominis in men, schoolchildren 6 to 8 years were affected and in the social stratum V.

  10. Social determinants associated with Giardia duodenalis infection in southern Côte d'Ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrilli, F; Di Cave, D; N'Guessan, R; Kaboré, Y; Giangaspero, A; Sorge, R P; D'Alfonso, R

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the association between different social determinants of health at the local scale and Giardia duodenalis infection in diverse settlements in southern Côte d'Ivoire. Stool samples from 306 individuals aged 1-16 years were collected from six rural villages and a small town. Five variables were categorized to classify the increasing risk levels of acquiring intestinal parasites. Giardia prevalences (%) and odds ratios (ORs) were evaluated. Correlation and regression analyses were conducted to determine the correlation coefficients and to propose predictive models based on social determinants to forecast the risk of giardiasis. The overall observed prevalence of Giardia was 21.6 %. When the analysis was conducted at the local level, the percentage of infected people varied from a minimum of 12.7 up to 36.4 %. A significant association (p?giardiasis at the local scale. Both predictive models could be suitable in order to assess the likelihood of the transmission of intestinal parasitic infection in developing countries. PMID:24832024

  11. PREVALENCE OF INTESTINAL PARASITES AMONG FOOD HANDLERS OF SARI, NORTHERN IRAN / Prevalência de parasitas intestinais entre manipuladores de alimentos de Sari, Norte do Iran

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mehdi, SHARIF; Ahmad, DARYANI; Elham, KIA; Fateme, REZAEI; Mehrdad, NASIRI; Mohtaram, NASROLAHEI.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Infecção parasitária é altamente prevalente entre os países em desenvolvimento do mundo. Manipuladores de alimentos são fonte potencial de infecção de muitos parasitas intestinais assim como de outras infecções entero-patogênicas. O propósito deste estudo foi determinar a prevalência de portadores d [...] e parasitas intestinais entre pessoas que manipulam alimentos e atendem o centro de saúde pública em Sari, norte do Iran para possível check-up. O estudo foi conduzido de agosto de 2011 até fevereiro de 2012. Amostras de fezes foram coletadas de 1041 manipuladores de ambos os sexos e de diferentes funções entre a idade de 18 e 63 anos e foram examinados de acordo com procedimentos standard. Em questionário separado foram colocadas as análises sóciodemográficas, ambientais e de comportamento dos manipuladores de alimentos. Parasitas intestinais foram encontrados em 161 (15,5%) das amostras estudadas. Sete espécies de protozoários ou infecções por helmintos foram observadas. A maior parte dos participantes estava infectada com Giardia lamblia (53,9%) seguida por Blastocystis hominis (18%), Entamoeba coli (15,5%), Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (5,5%), Cryptosporidium sp. (3,1%), Iodamoeba butschlii (3,1%) e Hymenolepis nana (1,9%) como a única infecção por helminto. Os achados enfatizaram que os manipuladores de alimentos, com diferentes organismos patogênicos podem se constituir risco significante para os consumidores. Exames rotineiros e tratamento dos manipuladores de alimentos são as ferramentas apropriadas para prevenir as infecções originadas de alimentos. Abstract in english Parasitic infection is highly prevalent throughout the developing countries of the world. Food handlers are a potential source of infection for many intestinal parasites and other enteropathogenic infections as well. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasite carrie [...] rs among food handlers attending the public health center laboratory in Sari, Northern Iran for annual check-up. The study was performed from August 2011 through February 2012. Stool samples were collected from 1041 male and female food handlers of different jobs aged between 18 to 63 years and were examined following standard procedures. Sociodemographic, environmental and behavioral data analysis of the food handlers were recorded in a separate questionnaire. Intestinal parasites were found in 161 (15.5%) of the studied samples. Seven species of protozoan or helminth infections were detected. Most of the participants were infected with Giardia lamblia (53.9%) followed by Blastocystis hominis (18%), Entamoeba coli (15.5%), Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (5.5%), Cryptosporidium sp. (3.1%), Iodamoeba butschlii (3.1%) and Hymenolepis nana (1.9%) as the only helminth infection. The findings emphasized that food handlers with different pathogenic organisms may predispose consumers to significant health risks. Routine screening and treatment of food handlers is a proper tool in preventing food-borne infections.

  12. Occurence of Giardia lamblia in children of municipal day-care centers from Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil Ocorrência de Giardia lamblia em crianças atendidas em creches municipais de Botucatu, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Semíramis Guimarães; Sogayar, Maria Ine?s L.

    1995-01-01

    Considering that the number of day-care centers for pre-school-age children has expanded rapidly in developing countries, and that these institutions presenting conditions that facilitate the transmission of many enteric agents, a parasitological survey was carried out in three municipal day-cares from Botucatu: two in the urban area (one in downtown area and the other one in the city periphery area) and the third in the rural area. Three separate stool specimens were collected from 147 child...

  13. Comparison of the performance of two spontaneous sedimentation techniques for the diagnosis of human intestinal parasites in the absence of a gold standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Alessandra Queiroga; Abellana, Rosa; Pereira-da-Silva, Hélio Doyle; Santos, Ivanildes; Serra, Paula Taquita; Julião, Genimar Rebouças; Orlandi, Patricia Puccinelli; Ascaso, Carlos

    2014-03-01

    Performance evaluation of diagnostic tests is critical in the search for accurate diagnoses. A gold standard test is usually absent in parasitology, thus rendering satisfactory assessment of diagnostic accuracy difficult. Moreover, reliability (assessed by the study of repeatability) is a rarely studied characteristic of diagnostic tests. This study compared and evaluated the performance (repeatability, concordance and accuracy) of the spontaneous sedimentation technique (SST) and the Paratest for the diagnosis of Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica complex, Blastocystis spp., Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, Trichuris trichiura and Calodium hepaticum. Fecal samples of 143 individuals were separated into three replicates for each test. Concordance and homogeneity of the results between replicates of each test and between tests were evaluated. Proportions of positives, sensitivity and specificity were estimated using a Bayesian Latent Class Model. High repeatability of both tests was found for the detection of intestinal parasites, except for Blastocystis spp. and hookworm. Concordance between tests was generally high (concordance correlation coefficient, 0.72-0.88), except for Blastocystis spp., hookworm and T. trichiura. The Paratest detected more cases of Blastocystis spp. and fewer of hookworm than the SST. The tests were quite discordant in the detection of T. trichiura. A low sensitivity (39.4-49.2% for SST, 35.8-53.8% for Paratest) and a high specificity (93.2-97.2%) were found for both tests. The Paratest presented a slightly higher sensitivity for the diagnosis of Blastocystis spp. (53.8%), and SST did so for hookworm (49.2%). This is the first study on repeatability and accuracy (using a Bayesian approach) of two spontaneous sedimentation techniques. These results suggest underdiagnosis of little dense parasitic forms due to technical limitations in both tests. We conclude that the combined study of repeatability, concordance and accuracy is a key strategy for better evaluation of the performance of tests and is also useful for the identification of technical limitations. PMID:24321383

  14. Effects of Ultrasound on the Survival and Characteristics of Cryptosporidium Oocysts and Giardia Cysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Gad, J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Sonication of fluids has been widely used for cell lyses and decontamination of water and food due to its three major physical and chemical effects: cavitation, implosion of water bubbles with subsequent increase in substrate temperature and liberation of free radicals such as O-. Additionally ultrasound has been used for cleaning filters used for water sampling and purification. Other studies have shown that backwash sampling of filtrates, and thereby collection of microorganisms, can be facilitated by sonication. Methods: We studied the effects of ultrasound with different sonication power and time durations on two of the most common waterborne protozoa Cryptosporidium and Giardia, and examined its effects on parasite characteristics and survival rate using immunofluorescence dyes; DAPI (4’,6-diamidino-2-phenylindol) staining/PI (propidium iodide), and analyzed by flow cytometry. Results: The results showed that exposure of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts to ultrasound could reduce their survival rate even if the exposure time was limited to a few seconds. When sonication time was extended, changes in parasite characteristics became clearly visible. Several other factors determine the effects of ultrasound on the parasite, including the sonication power of ultrasound as well as substrate temperature. Conclusions: Ultrasound is harmful for waterborne protozoa even when momentarily applied. However, a mode of operation may exist in which ultrasound can be used for collection of parasites for further study. The specific operational conditions may be tailored to control survival rates and collection efficiency.

  15. Efficacy of drugs against Giardia muris in mice Mus musculus naturally infected/ Eficácia de drogas contra Giardia muris em camundongos Mus musculus naturalmente infectados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Gonzalez Monteiro

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of metronidazole, fenbendazole and secnidazole against Giardia muris in mice naturally infected. Forty mice of the species Mus musculus were divided in four groups of ten each, being group A non treated, the control group and groups B, C and D treated with 4mg/ml of metronidazole, fenbendazole and secnidazole, respectively. Two feces collection, on day 0 and on day 10 after treatment, were done in order to evaluate the efficacy of the drugs. Samples were analyzed by the centrifugal-flotation method with zinc sulfate. Efficacy of 97,05% for metronidazole, 98,30% for fenbendazole and 100% for secnidazole were observed in the study. According to the results it was concluded that the tested drugs were effective for the treatment of mice parasitized by Giardia muris.Este estudo visou avaliar a eficácia do metronidazol, fenbendazole e secnidazol contra Giardia muris em camundongos naturalmente infectados. Foram utilizados 40 camundongos da espécie Mus musculus divididos em quatro grupos de 10 animais cada, sendo grupo A, grupo controle, não tratados, e grupos B, C e D tratados com 4mg/ml de metronidazol, fenbendazole e secnidazol, respectivamente. Para avaliar a eficácia dos medicamentos foram realizadas duas coletas de fezes uma no dia zero e outra 10 dias após tratamento. As amostras foram processadas e analisadas a partir do método de centrífugo-flutuação com sulfato de zinco. No estudo observou-se eficácia de 97,05% para metronidazol, 98,30% para fenbendazole e 100% para secnidazol no tratamento de giardiase murina. Com base nos resultados concluí-se que as drogas testadas apresentaram eficácia no tratamento de camundongos parasitados por Giardia muris.

  16. Spatial and temporal distribution of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in a drinking water resource: Implications for monitoring and risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of their significant public health impact, waterborne Cryptosporidium and Giardia have been monitored in surface water in order to assess microbial quality of water bodies used for drinking water production and/or for recreational purposes. In this context, sampling strategy is of key importance and should be representative enough to appropriately assess the related microbial risk. This, however, requires sound knowledge on the behaviour of both pathogens in water. In the present study, the spatial and temporal distribution of Cryptosporidium and Giardia was explored in the rural Upper-Sûre watershed used for drinking water production in Luxembourg. By subdividing it into three compartments including (i) sub-catchments, (ii) the Sûre River fed by the sub-catchments and (iii) the Upper-Sûre reservoir fed by the Sûre River, parasite distribution was assessed using sampling designs adapted to the hydro-dynamic characteristics of the respective compartments. Results highlighted the high spatial and temporal variability in parasite distribution at watershed scale, as well as the prevalence of Giardia over Cryptosporidium. Besides land use features and catchment characteristics, hydro-climatology appeared to be a major driver of parasite behaviour in the watershed. It introduced a seasonal trend in their occurrence, highest densities being detected during the wet season. Peaks of contamination triggered out by rainfall-induced runoff were further observed in the three compartments. In the Sûre River, Cryptosporidium and Giardia fluxes peaked at 109 and 1010 (oo)cysts.d?1, respectively, and were discharged into the drinking water reservoir, where they underwent a 2 to 3 log10 removal rate. Despite this, parasite fluxes entering the drinking water treatment plant were still high (106 to 107 (oo)cysts.d?1) and stressed on the need for improved watershed management upstream the water treatment barrier. The catchment-wide analysis described here constitutes a valuable tool for assessment of catchment microbial dynamics, especially within the framework of Water Safety Plans. - Highlights: • We investigated Cryptosporidium and Giardia distribution trends in a rural watershed. • Their distribution in water was heterogeneous over various spatial temporal scales. • Parasite fluxes (from 103 to 1011 (oo)cysts.day?1) varied with location and time. • Key drivers of parasite fluxes were rainfall, land use and catchment morphology. • Our study provides a methodology for catchment-wide study of parasites distribution

  17. Spatial and temporal distribution of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in a drinking water resource: Implications for monitoring and risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnet, Jean-Baptiste, E-mail: jeanbaptiste.burnet@gmail.com [Centre de Recherche Public - Gabriel Lippmann, Department of Environment and Agro-biotechnologies (EVA), 41, rue du Brill, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg); Université de Liège (ULg), Department of Environmental Sciences and Management, 165 avenue de Longwy, B-6700 Arlon (Belgium); Penny, Christian, E-mail: penny@lippmann.lu [Centre de Recherche Public - Gabriel Lippmann, Department of Environment and Agro-biotechnologies (EVA), 41, rue du Brill, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg); Ogorzaly, Leslie, E-mail: ogorzaly@lippmann.lu [Centre de Recherche Public - Gabriel Lippmann, Department of Environment and Agro-biotechnologies (EVA), 41, rue du Brill, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg); Cauchie, Henry-Michel, E-mail: cauchie@lippmann.lu [Centre de Recherche Public - Gabriel Lippmann, Department of Environment and Agro-biotechnologies (EVA), 41, rue du Brill, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg)

    2014-02-01

    Because of their significant public health impact, waterborne Cryptosporidium and Giardia have been monitored in surface water in order to assess microbial quality of water bodies used for drinking water production and/or for recreational purposes. In this context, sampling strategy is of key importance and should be representative enough to appropriately assess the related microbial risk. This, however, requires sound knowledge on the behaviour of both pathogens in water. In the present study, the spatial and temporal distribution of Cryptosporidium and Giardia was explored in the rural Upper-Sûre watershed used for drinking water production in Luxembourg. By subdividing it into three compartments including (i) sub-catchments, (ii) the Sûre River fed by the sub-catchments and (iii) the Upper-Sûre reservoir fed by the Sûre River, parasite distribution was assessed using sampling designs adapted to the hydro-dynamic characteristics of the respective compartments. Results highlighted the high spatial and temporal variability in parasite distribution at watershed scale, as well as the prevalence of Giardia over Cryptosporidium. Besides land use features and catchment characteristics, hydro-climatology appeared to be a major driver of parasite behaviour in the watershed. It introduced a seasonal trend in their occurrence, highest densities being detected during the wet season. Peaks of contamination triggered out by rainfall-induced runoff were further observed in the three compartments. In the Sûre River, Cryptosporidium and Giardia fluxes peaked at 10{sup 9} and 10{sup 10} (oo)cysts.d{sup ?1}, respectively, and were discharged into the drinking water reservoir, where they underwent a 2 to 3 log{sub 10} removal rate. Despite this, parasite fluxes entering the drinking water treatment plant were still high (10{sup 6} to 10{sup 7} (oo)cysts.d{sup ?1}) and stressed on the need for improved watershed management upstream the water treatment barrier. The catchment-wide analysis described here constitutes a valuable tool for assessment of catchment microbial dynamics, especially within the framework of Water Safety Plans. - Highlights: • We investigated Cryptosporidium and Giardia distribution trends in a rural watershed. • Their distribution in water was heterogeneous over various spatial temporal scales. • Parasite fluxes (from 10{sup 3} to 10{sup 11} (oo)cysts.day{sup ?1}) varied with location and time. • Key drivers of parasite fluxes were rainfall, land use and catchment morphology. • Our study provides a methodology for catchment-wide study of parasites distribution.

  18. Giardia spp en caninos y niños de comunidades campesinas de tres distritos de Puno, Perú / Giardia spp in dogs and children in rural communities of three districts of Puno, Peru

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Olguita, Pablo J; Amanda, Chávez V; Francisco, Suárez A; Rosa, Pinedo V; Néstor, Falcón P.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue determinar la prevalencia de Giardia spp en caninos y niños de comunidades campesinas de tres distritos de Puno, Perú. Se recolectaron 130 muestras fecales, tanto de niños como de canes aparentemente sanos, de ambos sexos y de diferentes edades. Se utilizaron las técnicas [...] de Sedimentación Espontánea y de Sheather para el diagnóstico de Giardia. Se consideró una muestra como positiva si se halló al menos un resultado positivo en una de las dos técnicas. Se halló una prevalencia global de 14.6 ± 6.1 y 28.5 ± 7.8% en caninos y niños, respectivamente. El sexo, edad y distrito de procedencia de los canes y niños no mostraron asociación estadística con la presencia del parásito. Los resultados positivos de Giardia spp hallados en canes y niños sugerirían un posible riesgo zoonótico. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Giardia spp in dogs and children in three rural communities in Puno, Peru. Fecal samples were collected (n = 130) from both children and apparently healthy dogs of both sexes and different ages. The Sheather and spontaneous sedimentation techn [...] ique were used for the diagnosis of Giardia. A sample was considered positive if at least one positive result in any of the two techniques was found. The overall prevalence was 14.6 ± 6.1 and 28.5 ± 7.8% in dogs and children respectively. Sex, age, and location in both children and dogs were not statistically associated with the presence of the parasite. The results of prevalence of Giardia in dogs and children suggest a possible zoonotic risk.

  19. Investigación de parásitos intestinales en una comunidad aborigen de la provincia de Salta / Survey of intestinal parasites among an aboriginal community in Salta

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Claudia I, Menghi; Franco R, Iuvaro; María A, Dellacasa; Claudia L, Gatta.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se investigó la presencia de protozoarios y helmintos intestinales en una comunidad aborigen ubicada a 6 km de Tartagal, provincia de Salta, Argentina. La edad de los individuos estudiados estaba comprendida entre 1 y 49 años. Ciento doce muestras de materia fecal se recogieron en solución acética f [...] ormolada (SAF). Cada muestra se recolectó en tres días, en forma alternada. Todas las muestras se procesaron por el método de concentración bifásico de Ritchie y la técnica de flotación de Faust. Para la investigación de Enterobius vermicularis, se recolectaron 68 muestras seriadas de 6 días en formol al 5% por escobillado anal. Para la búsqueda de Dientamoeba fragilis se utilizó la coloración tricrómica modificada de Gomori-Wheatley. Ciento seis individuos (94.6%) fueron positivos para parásitos entéricos. Cuarenta y cuatro sujetos (41.5%) estaban poliparasitados, con más de cuatro especies. Los parásitos más frecuentes entre los protozoarios fueron Blastocystis hominis (58.9%), Entamoeba coli (51.8%), Giardia lamblia (27.7%) y Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar (24.1%). Entre los helmintos, los hallados con mayor frecuencia fueron uncinarias (58.0%), Hymenolepis nana (31.2%) y Strongyloides stercoralis (24.1%). Por primera vez se informa Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar (24.1%) y Dientamoeba fragilis (2.7%) en una comunidad aborigen de los alrededores de Tartagal. Este estudio revela el problema de salud pública que constituyen las parasitosis intestinales en la comunidad indígena estudiada, en la que coexisten la falta de saneamiento y de abastecimiento de agua potable. Abstract in english The prevalence of intestinal parasitoses by protozoans and helminths was determined in an aboriginal community located 6 km from Tartagal, province of Salta, Argentina. The age of the inhabitants studied ranged from 1 to 49 years old. A total of 112 stool samples were collected in sodium acetate-ace [...] tic acid- formalin solution (SAF). Each sample was obtained in three different days, alternatively. Ritchie biphasic concentration method and Faust flotation technique were applied. For survey of Enterobius vermicularis, 68 samples were collected during six consecutive days using anal swabs. For the diagnosis of Dientamoeba fragilis, the modified trichrome Gomori-Wheatley staining technique was used. One hundred and six (94.6%) subjects resulted positive for enteric parasites. Forty-four (41.5%) individuals were positive for four or more parasites. The parasites more frequently found were, among the protozoans Blastocystis hominis (58.9%), Entamoeba coli (51.8%), Giardia lamblia (27.7%) and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar (24.1%). Among the helminths, the most frequent were hookworms (58.0%), Hymenolepis nana (31.2%) and Strongyloides stercoralis (24.1%). This is the first time that Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar (24.1%) and Dientamoeba fragilis (2.7%) have been registered in the suburbs of Tartagal. This study reveals how intestinal parasitoses constitute a critical problem of public health in aboriginal communities like the one examined, where the lack of adequate sanitation conditions and unsuitable supply of water coexist.

  20. Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Surface Water: A Case Study from Michigan, USA to Inform Management of Rural Water Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Dreelin, Erin A.; Rebecca L. Ives; Stephanie Molloy; Joan B. Rose

    2014-01-01

    Cryptosporidium and Giardia pose a threat to human health in rural environments where water supplies are commonly untreated and susceptible to contamination from agricultural animal waste/manure, animal wastewater, septic tank effluents and septage. Our goals for this paper are to: (1) explore the prevalence of these protozoan parasites, where they are found, in what quantities, and which genotypes are present; (2) examine relationships between disease and land use comparing human health risk...

  1. Viability of Giardia intestinalis Cysts and Viability and Sporulation State of Cyclospora cayetanensis Oocysts Determined by Electrorotation

    OpenAIRE

    Dalton, C; Goater, A. D.; Pethig, R; Smith, H V

    2001-01-01

    Electrorotation is a noninvasive technique that is capable of detecting changes in the morphology and physicochemical properties of microorganisms. Electrorotation studies are reported for two intestinal parasites, Giardia intestinalis and Cyclospora cayetanensis. It is concluded that viable and nonviable G. intestinalis cysts can be differentiated by this technique, and support for this conclusion was obtained using a fluorogenic vital dye assay and morphological indicators. The viability of...

  2. The occurrence and genetic characterization of Cryptosporidium and Giardia species in foals in Belgium, The Netherlands, Germany and Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostopoulou, D; Casaert, S; Tzanidakis, N; van Doorn, D; Demeler, J; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, G; Saratsis, A; Voutzourakis, N; Ehsan, A; Doornaert, T; Looijen, M; De Wilde, N; Sotiraki, S; Claerebout, E; Geurden, T

    2015-07-30

    Faecal samples were collected from foals between the age of 1 week and 6 months in Belgium, The Netherlands, Germany and Greece. A quantitative direct immunofluorescence assay based on the commercial MERIFLUOR Cryptosporidium/Giardia kit was performed to evaluate the presence of (oo) cysts. Parasite positive samples were genotyped, based on the 18S ribosomal DNA gene and the heat shock protein (HSP70) gene for Cryptosporidium and on the ?-giardin gene and the triose phosphate isomerase (TPI) gene for Giardia. In total, 134 foals from Belgium, 44 foals from The Netherlands, 30 foals from Germany and 190 foals from Greece were examined. No Cryptosporidium oocysts were identified in faecal samples from foals in Germany and The Netherlands. In Belgium and Greece, 4.5% and 1.1% of the foals examined were Cryptosporidium positive, respectively, all with a low oocyst excretion ranging from 100 to 2450 oocysts per gram of faeces. For Giardia, 14.2%, 11.4%, 10.0% and 11.6% of the foals in Belgium, The Netherlands, Germany and Greece, respectively, were found to excrete cysts, with a range of 50 up to 4,000,000 cysts per gram of faeces. Younger animals secreted significantly more Giardia cysts than older horses (p<0.05), but no significant correlation between Giardia infection and diarrhoea was observed. Most Giardia positive samples belonged to assemblage AI and/or BIV, but also assemblage E was detected in two samples. Together with the identification of Cryptosporidium horse genotype, this suggests only a low risk for zoonotic transmission. PMID:26012855

  3. Parasites - Lice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Parasites - Lice Parasites Home Share Compartir Lice are parasitic insects that ... Professionals Publications Information For Parents Schools Related Links Parasites A-Z Index Parasites Glossary Neglected Tropical Diseases ...

  4. Técnicas de purificación y ruptura de quistes de Giardia spp / Purification and breaking techniques of cysts of Giardia spp

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    D., Polverino; N.B., Molina; M.C., Minvielle; M.E., Lozano; J.A., Basualdo.

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue optimizar y evaluar las técnicas de purificación, aislamiento y ruptura de quistes de Giardia spp a partir de heces formoladas para la obtención de ADN. La materia fecal filtrada fue sometida a 3 técnicas de purificación, utilizando soluciones de formol-éter, sacarosa [...] y formol-éter más sacarosa. La solución de sacarosa permitió aislar los quistes con menos detritos. Los quistes purificados fueron tratados con 3 técnicas para la ruptura de los mismos: shock osmótico y calor, degradación química y shock térmico, acción enzimática y efecto mecánico. Solamente con la técnica de shock térmico, acción enzimática y efecto mecánico se observaron bandas fluorescentes en geles de agarosa. Los resultados de este trabajo permiten contar con una metodología de rutina, simple, que podría ser usada en los pasos previos a la técnica de PCR para la genotipificación de este parásito. Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to optimize and evaluate the purification techniques, isolation and breaking of cysts of Giardia spp from fecal samples to isolate DNA. Filtrated fecal samples were tested in 3 purification techniques: Telleman solution, sucrose and Telleman plus sucrose. The sucrose so [...] lution let us to isolate the cysts with less detritus. The cleaned cysts were splited in 3 techniques to test the breaking: osmotic shock and heat, chemistry degradation and thermic shock, enzymatic action and mechanic effect. Only the last method was successful and showed bands in agarose gel. The result of this study shows a routine and common method which could be used in the previous steps to the PCR technique for the genotypification of these parasites.

  5. Characterization of RNase MRP RNA and novel snoRNAs from Giardia intestinalis and Trichomonas vaginalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xiaowei S

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eukaryotic cells possess a complex network of RNA machineries which function in RNA-processing and cellular regulation which includes transcription, translation, silencing, editing and epigenetic control. Studies of model organisms have shown that many ncRNAs of the RNA-infrastructure are highly conserved, but little is known from non-model protists. In this study we have conducted a genome-scale survey of medium-length ncRNAs from the protozoan parasites Giardia intestinalis and Trichomonas vaginalis. Results We have identified the previously 'missing' Giardia RNase MRP RNA, which is a key ribozyme involved in pre-rRNA processing. We have also uncovered 18 new H/ACA box snoRNAs, expanding our knowledge of the H/ACA family of snoRNAs. Conclusions Results indicate that Giardia intestinalis and Trichomonas vaginalis, like their distant multicellular relatives, contain a rich infrastructure of RNA-based processing. From here we can investigate the evolution of RNA processing networks in eukaryotes.

  6. Multilocus genotyping of Giardia duodenalis in dairy cattle in Henan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haiyan; Zhao, Guanghui; Chen, Gongyi; Jian, Fuchun; Zhang, Sumei; Feng, Chao; Wang, Rongjun; Zhu, Jinfeng; Dong, Haiju; Hua, Jun; Wang, Ming; Zhang, Longxian

    2014-01-01

    Giardia duodenalis is a common and widespread intestinal protozoan parasite of both humans and animals. Previous epidemiological and molecular studies have identified Giardia infections in different animals and humans, but only limited information is available about the occurrence and genotypes of Giardia in cattle in China. In this study, we determined the occurrence of giardiasis and genetically characterized G. duodenalis in dairy cattle in Henan Province, central China. The overall prevalence of G. duodenalis was 7.2% (128/1777) on microscopic analysis, with the highest infection rate (22.7%) in calves aged less than 1 month. G. duodenalis assemblages and subtypes were identified with multilocus genotyping based on the SSU rRNA, ?-giardin (bg), glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), and triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) genes. Two assemblages were detected in the successfully sequenced samples: assemblage A (n?=?58), assemblage E (n?=?21), with a mixed E and A assemblage (n?=?2). Four novel subtypes of the gdh gene and seven of the bg gene were found among the G. duodenalis assemblage E isolates. Using the nomenclature for the multilocus genotype (MLG) model, nine novel multilocus genotypes E (MLGs E1-E9) and three MLGs A (a novel subtype AI, previously detected subtype AII-1, and a combination of both) were identified. MLG AII-1 identified in this study may be an important zoonotic subtype. The dairy cattle in Henan are a potential public health concern. PMID:24971639

  7. Molecular and phylogenetic characterization of Cryptosporidium and Giardia from pigs and cattle in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Rikke Breinhold; Vigre, Håkan

    2007-01-01

    The genetic diversity of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis from dairy cattle and pigs in Denmark was determined in the present study. Faecal samples from 1237 pigs and 1150 cattle originating from 50 sow herds and 50 dairy herds, respectively, were analysed for the presence of the two parasites by immunofluorescence microscopy. A large proportion of the (oo)cyst containing samples were selected for molecular characterization. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the 18S rDNA locus and/or the HSP70 gene of 183 pig and 154 cattle isolates of Cryptosporidium revealed the presence of C. suis, pig genotype II, C. parvum (cattle genotype), C. bovis, Cryptosporidium deer-like genotype and a novel C. suis-like genotype. For both cattle and pigs, a host age-related change in distribution of species/genotypes was observed. The zoonotic C. parvum (cattle genotype) was most prevalent in young calves. For Giardia, 82 and 145 isolates from pigs and cattle, respectively, were analysed at the 18S rDNA locus and/or the gdh gene. Giardia isolates belonging to the zoonotic Assemblage A was found in both young and older calves, as well as in weaners and piglets, whereas cows seemed to be infected purely by isolates of the livestock group, Assemblage E.

  8. 'GIARDIA' PREVALENCE IN COMMERCIALLY TRAPPED MAMMALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent outbreaks of giardiasis have been linked to Giardia contamination of municipal water supplies. Human or animal contamination of drinking water has been implicated in most of the outbreaks. Of particular interest to water utility operators and water supply engineers is the ...

  9. Pervalence of intestinal parasites in Ordu province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ülkü Karaman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The epidemiology of intestinal parasites vary according to country’s geographic location, sociocultural structure and diet. An epidemiological study of intestinal parasites has not been observed in Ordu Province and around. The aim of this study was determining the intestinal parasites data of Ordu Provincial Health Directorate retrosrectively. Methods: Between January 2006 and December 2013 the data of the provinceal Health Directorate of Ordu were retrospectively evaluated. Results: 7194 positivity has been reported in the study. Quantitative distribution of the parasites were as follows; 3415 Enterobius vermicularis, 2802 Ascaris lumbricoides, 1182 Entamoeba histolytica, 705 Giardia intestinalis, 682 Taenia spp, 245 Hookworm infection, 22 Trichuris trichiura, 17 Fasciola hepatica and 12 Strongiloides stercoralis. Conclusion: As a result intestinal parasites in Ordu Province is a major public health problem.

  10. A Preliminary Assessment of the Occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in the School Swimming Pool Water in Dubai, United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alia Ali Ahmad Aljanahi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the presence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in the water of school swimming pools located in Dubai, UAE. The swimming pool water samples from five schools were tested for Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts using direct immunofluorescence assay. Samples were also examined for the total coliform, fecal coliform and heterotrophic bacteria using the membrane filtration technique. The majority of the tested swimming pool water samples were found contaminated with either Cryptosporidium oocysts or Giardia cysts or both. Cryptosporidium oocysts were found to be in the higher range (1-15 oocysts per liter than that of Giardia cysts (1-4 cysts per liter. All of the swimming pool water samples were found negative for the presence of traditional bacterial indicators. However, direct DAPI staining detected several types of viable but nonculturable (VBNC bacteria on the membrane filter. In conclusion, based on the preliminary data obtained, Cryptosporidium and Giardia were found to be present in the tested schools’ swimming pool water. Future work on a long term monitoring of both parasites is highly recommended to enhance the swimming pool water quality and ensure the public health safety which will help in maintaining a hygienic and healthy recreational water environment.

  11. HSP90 is a target protein for ubiquitination in Giardia intestinalis / HSP90 é uma proteína alvo de ubiquitinação em Giardia intestinalis / HSP90 es una proteina blanco de ubiquitinación en Giardia intestinalis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jenny J, Chaparro-Gutiérrez; Moisés, Wasserman.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudos anteriores demonstraram a existência e expressão de genes essenciais para o processo de ubiquitinação de proteínas em Giardia intestinalis, indicando que o sistema ubiquitina-proteassoma podem estar envolvidos na degradação de proteínas do parasita durante seu ciclo de vida. Neste trabalho, [...] foi realizada a purificação da proteína ubiquitina de extratos de trofozoítos de G. intestinalis, foi produzido um antiicorpo anti-ubiquitina específico que permitiu a padronização de um ensaio para a detecção e avaliação de padrões de ubiquitinação e foi identificado a HSP90 como uma proteína ubiquitinada no protozoário. Esta modificação pós-transducional pode ter efeitos regulamentares associados com a funcionalidade das proteínas ou com o a substituição para regular eventos moleculares importantes durante o ciclo de vida do parasita. Abstract in spanish Estudios previos han demostrado la existencia y expresión de genes esenciales para el proceso de ubiquitinación de proteínas en Giardia intestinalis, indicando que el sistema ubiquitina-proteosoma puede estar involucrado en el proceso de degradación de proteínas de este parásito durante su ciclo de [...] vida. En el presente trabajo se realizó la purificación de ubiquitina a partir de extractos proteicos de trofozoítos de G. intestinalis, se produjo un anticuerpo anti-ubiquitina específico que permitió la estandarización de un ensayo para la detección y evaluación de los patrones de ubiquitinación, y se identificó la HSP90 como una proteína ubiquitinada en este protozoario. Esta modificación post-transduccional puede tener efectos regulatorios asociados con la funcionalidad de la proteína o con el recambio para regular eventos moleculares claves durante el ciclo de vida del parásito. Abstract in english Previous studies have demonstrated the existence and expression of genes essential to the process of protein ubiquitination in Giardia intestinalis, indicating that the ubiquitin-proteasome system may be involved in the degradation of proteins during its life cycle of the parasite. In this study, pu [...] rification of ubiquitin was conducted from protein extracts of G. intestinalis trophozoites. Then, an anti-ubiquitin specific antibody was obtained to standardize an assay for the detection and evaluation of ubiquitination patterns. Finally, HSP90 was identified as an ubiquitinated protein in this protozoan. This post-translational modification could have regulatory effects associated with the functionality of the protein or its turnover to regulate key molecular events during the parasite’s life cycle.

  12. HSP90 is a target protein for ubiquitination in Giardia intestinalis HSP90 es una proteina blanco de ubiquitinación en Giardia intestinalis HSP90 é uma proteína alvo de ubiquitinação em Giardia intestinalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny J Chaparro-Gutiérrez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated the existence and expression of genes essential to the process of protein ubiquitination in Giardia intestinalis, indicating that the ubiquitin-proteasome system may be involved in the degradation of proteins during its life cycle of the parasite. In this study, purification of ubiquitin was conducted from protein extracts of G. intestinalis trophozoites. Then, an anti-ubiquitin specific antibody was obtained to standardize an assay for the detection and evaluation of ubiquitination patterns. Finally, HSP90 was identified as an ubiquitinated protein in this protozoan. This post-translational modification could have regulatory effects associated with the functionality of the protein or its turnover to regulate key molecular events during the parasite’s life cycle.Estudios previos han demostrado la existencia y expresión de genes esenciales para el proceso de ubiquitinación de proteínas en Giardia intestinalis, indicando que el sistema ubiquitina-proteosoma puede estar involucrado en el proceso de degradación de proteínas de este parásito durante su ciclo de vida. En el presente trabajo se realizó la purificación de ubiquitina a partir de extractos proteicos de trofozoítos de G. intestinalis, se produjo un anticuerpo anti-ubiquitina específico que permitió la estandarización de un ensayo para la detección y evaluación de los patrones de ubiquitinación, y se identificó la HSP90 como una proteína ubiquitinada en este protozoario. Esta modificación post-transduccional puede tener efectos regulatorios asociados con la funcionalidad de la proteína o con el recambio para regular eventos moleculares claves durante el ciclo de vida del parásito.Estudos anteriores demonstraram a existência e expressão de genes essenciais para o processo de ubiquitinação de proteínas em Giardia intestinalis, indicando que o sistema ubiquitina-proteassoma podem estar envolvidos na degradação de proteínas do parasita durante seu ciclo de vida. Neste trabalho, foi realizada a purificação da proteína ubiquitina de extratos de trofozoítos de G. intestinalis, foi produzido um antiicorpo anti-ubiquitina específico que permitiu a padronização de um ensaio para a detecção e avaliação de padrões de ubiquitinação e foi identificado a HSP90 como uma proteína ubiquitinada no protozoário. Esta modificação pós-transducional pode ter efeitos regulamentares associados com a funcionalidade das proteínas ou com o a substituição para regular eventos moleculares importantes durante o ciclo de vida do parasita.

  13. DETECTION OF PROTOZOAN PARASITES IN SOURCE AND FINISHED WATER - 3RD EDITION ASM'S METHODS IN ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protozoans are eukaryotic organisms which can live either a free-living or parasitic existence. Some free-living forms, under the right conditions, can become opportunistic parasites. Enteric pathogenic protozoans, like Giardia and Cryptosporidium, which are now known to be tra...

  14. Identification of Giardia duodenalis and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in an epizoological investigation of a laboratory colony of prairie dogs, Cynomys ludovicianus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roellig, Dawn M; Salzer, Johanna S; Carroll, Darin S; Ritter, Jana M; Drew, Clifton; Gallardo-Romero, Nadia; Keckler, M Shannon; Langham, Gregory; Hutson, Christina L; Karem, Kevin L; Gillespie, Thomas R; Visvesvara, Govinda S; Metcalfe, Maureen G; Damon, Inger K; Xiao, Lihua

    2015-05-30

    Since 2005, black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) have been collected for use as research animals from field sites in Kansas, Colorado, and Texas. In January of 2012, Giardia trophozoites were identified by histology, thin-section electron microscopy, and immunofluorescent staining in the lumen of the small intestine and colon of a prairie dog euthanized because of extreme weight loss. With giardiasis suspected as the cause of weight loss, a survey of Giardia duodenalis in the laboratory colony of prairie dogs was initiated. Direct immunofluorescent testing of feces revealed active shedding of Giardia cysts in 40% (n=60) of animals held in the vivarium. All tested fecal samples (n=29) from animals in another holding facility where the index case originated were PCR positive for G. duodenalis with assemblages A and B identified from sequencing triosephosphate isomerase (tpi), glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), and ?-giardin (bg) genes. Both assemblages are considered zoonotic, thus the parasites in prairie dogs are potential human pathogens and indicate prairie dogs as a possible wildlife reservoir or the victims of pathogen spill-over. Molecular testing for other protozoan gastrointestinal parasites revealed no Cryptosporidium infections but identified a host-adapted Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotype group. PMID:25881801

  15. Cryptosporidium and Giardia in tropical recreational marine waters contaminated with domestic sewage: estimation of bathing-associated disease risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Walter Q; Duarte, Diana C; Vásquez, Rosa C; Gurian, Patrick L

    2014-08-15

    Sewage is a major contributor to pollution problems involving human pathogens in tropical coastal areas. This study investigated the occurrence of intestinal protozoan parasites (Giardia and Cryptosporidium) in tropical recreational marine waters contaminated with sewage. The potential risks of Cryptosporidium and Giardia infection from recreational water exposure were estimated from the levels of viable (oo) cysts (DIC+, DAPI+, PI-) found in near-shore swimming areas using an exponential dose response model. A Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis was performed in order to determine the probability distribution of risks. Microbial indicators of recreational water quality (enterococci, Clostridium perfringens) and genetic markers of sewage pollution (human-specific Bacteroidales marker [HF183] and Clostridium coccoides) were simultaneously evaluated in order to estimate the extent of water quality deterioration associated with human wastes. The study revealed the potential risk of parasite infections via primary contact with tropical marine waters contaminated with sewage; higher risk estimates for Giardia than for Cryptosporidium were found. Mean risks estimated by Monte Carlo were below the U.S. EPA upper bound on recreational risk of 0.036 for cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis for both children and adults. However, 95th percentile estimates for giardiasis for children exceeded the 0.036 level. Environmental surveillance of microbial pathogens is crucial in order to control and eradicate the effects that increasing anthropogenic impacts have on marine ecosystems and human health. PMID:24975093

  16. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium and Giardia occurring in natural water bodies in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamska, Ma?gorzata

    2015-02-01

    Cryptosporidium and Giardia protozoa are zoonotic parasites that cause human gastroenteritis and can be transmitted to human through the fecal-oral route and water or food. Several species belong to these genera and their resistant forms occur in water, but only some of them are infectious to human. Health risk depends on the occurrence of infectious Cryptosporidium and Giardia species and genotypes in water, and only molecular techniques allow detecting them, as well as enable to identify the contamination source. In this work, genotyping and phylogenetic analysis have been performed on the basis of 18S rDNA and ß-giardin genes sequences of Cryptosporidium and Giardia, respectively, in order to provide the molecular characterization of these parasites detected earlier in five natural water bodies in Poland and to track possible sources of their (oo)cysts in water. Genotyping revealed a high similarity (over 99 up to 100 %) of analyzed sequences to cattle genotype of C. parvum isolated from cattle and human and to G. intestinalis assemblage B isolated from human. The sequences obtained by others originated from patients with clinical symptoms of cryptosporidiosis or giardiasis and/or with the infection confirmed by different methods. The contamination of three examined lakes is probably human-originated, while the sources of contamination of two remaining lakes are wild and domestic animals. Obtained phylogenetic trees support suggestions of other authors that the bovine genotype of C. parvum should be a separate species, as well as A and B assemblages of G. intestinalis. PMID:25471902

  17. A study of the prevalence and genotypes of Giardia duodenalis infecting kennelled dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaramozzino, Paola; Di Cave, David; Berrilli, Federica; D'Orazi, Carlo; Spaziani, Alessandra; Mazzanti, Sabrina; Scholl, Francesco; De Liberato, Claudio

    2009-11-01

    Giardia duodenalis is a protozoan parasite of animals that is zoonotic. Given the capacity of this organism to spread via the faecal-oral route, animals held in overcrowded and unhygienic conditions are at high risk of infection. Faecal samples from dogs in three kennels in Rome were examined by microscopy and PCR for G. duodenalis, and the prevalence data generated were correlated with variables such as kennel identity, age of dog, length of time the dog had been kennelled and clinical signs. The overall prevalence of the parasite in the faecal samples was 20.5% and was higher in samples from the largest kennel, which had the greatest turnover of dogs, and in faecal samples from younger animals. Giardia cysts were found more frequently in diarrhoeic animals but were also found in dogs with no clinical signs. Although the finding that the majority of isolates were dog-specific rather than zoonotic genotypes suggests that the zoonotic risk from this pathogen is less than previously thought, the higher prevalence of infection in younger dogs may pose a specific public health issue as such animals are more frequently re-homed with families. PMID:18715807

  18. Identification of Zoonotic Genotypes of Giardia duodenalis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sprong, H.; Cacciò, S.M.

    2009-01-01

    Giardia duodenalis, originally regarded as a commensal organism, is the etiologic agent of giardiasis, a gastrointestinal disease of humans and animals. Giardiasis causes major public and veterinary health concerns worldwide. Transmission is either direct, through the faecal-oral route, or indirect, through ingestion of contaminated water or food. Genetic characterization of G. duodenalis isolates has revealed the existence of seven groups (assemblages A to G) which differ in their host distribution. Assemblages A and B are found in humans and in many other mammals, but the role of animals in the epidemiology of human infection is still unclear, despite the fact that the zoonotic potential of Giardia was recognised by the WHO some 30 years ago. Here, we performed an extensive genetic characterization of 978 human and 1440 animal isolates, which together comprise 3886 sequences from 4 genetic loci. The data were assembled into a molecular epidemiological database developed by a European network of public and veterinary health Institutions. Genotyping was performed at different levels of resolution (single and multiple loci on the same dataset). The zoonotic potential of both assemblages A and B is evident when studied at the level of assemblages, sub-assemblages, and even at each single locus. However, when genotypes are defined using a multi-locus sequence typing scheme, only 2 multi-locus genotypes (MLG) of assemblage A and none of assemblage B appear to have a zoonotic potential. Surprisingly, mixtures of genotypes in individual isolates were repeatedly observed. Possible explanations are the uptake of genetically different Giardia cysts by a host, or subsequent infection of an already infected host, likely without overt symptoms, with a different Giardia species, which may cause disease. Other explanations for mixed genotypes, particularly for assemblage B, are substantial allelic sequence heterogeneity and/or genetic recombination. Although the zoonotic potential of G. duodenalis is evident, evidence on the contribution and frequency is (still) lacking. This newly developed molecular database has the potential to tackle intricate epidemiological questions concerning protozoan diseases.

  19. The prevalence of Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar in Van Regional Training and Research Hospital: A four-year monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin Bayram

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this retrospective study was to determinethe frequency rates of Giardia and E.histolytica/E.dispar and their distribution by years as well as agegroups and gender distribution during a four-year period.Materials and methods: A total of 9911 stool samplessent to our laboratory between January 2008 and December2011 were tested for parasites. Native-Lugol and formolethyl acetate sedimentation methods were utilized formicroscopic identification of Entamoeba sp. and Giardiatrophozoites and cysts in fresh stool samples. Additionally,trichrome staining was performed in stool sampleswhere the distinctive diagnosis could not be confirmed.Results: From a total of 9911 stool samples analyzedduring the study, 4.7% were positive for Giardia and 6.2%were positive for Entemoeba histolytica/ Entemoeba dispar.Of Giardia-positive patients 57% were male and 43%female. Similarly, 56% of Entemoeba histolytica/ Entemoebadispar positive patients were male and 44% werefemale. Both parasites’ higher frequency rates seen inmale groups were found statistically significant (p<0.01.Conclusion: It is seen that intestinal protozoon infectionsare still present as an important public health problemin our region. In order to prevent this problem, personalhygiene and sanitation rules education for community aswell as infrastructure improvements are necessary.Key words: Giardia, Entemoeba histolytica/ Entemoeba dispar, prevalence

  20. Detección de parásitos protozoarios y hermintos en el molusco bivalvo Geukensia demissa (Dillwyn, 1817) presente en el sector de Nararét del Municipio Mara, Estado Zulia, Venezuela / Detection of protozoan and helminthes parasites in Geukensia demissa (Dillwyn, 1817) bivalve mollusk present in Mara Municipality, Zulia State, Venezuela

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lilibeth, Cabrera; Suhai, Díaz; Katynna, Parra; Graciela, Ojeda de Rodríguez.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Con el objeto de detectar parásitos protozoarios y metazoarios en Geukensia demissa, un mitílido que ha invadido el principal estuario de Venezuela, el Lago de Maracaibo y que se perfila con gran potencial acuícola, se procedió a realizar una colecta de 400 ejemplares vivos en el sector Nazarét del [...] municipio Mara del estado Zulia, Venezuela. Se realizaron muestreos en dos estaciones del año, seca (enero a mayo) y lluviosa (junio a octubre). Los organismos fueron sometidos a una disección para la extracción del tubo intestinal, tejidos gonadales, sifonales y branquiales. El estudio parasitológico contempló observaciones microscópicas del contenido intestinal utilizando coloración temporal de lugol y permanentes de hematoxilina férrica y kinyoun. Los tejidos fueron evaluados histológicamente, con la coloración de hematoxilina-eosina. Del total de los mejillones colectados, 42% resultaron parasitados en su contenido intestinal, con especies de interés clínico para el hombre, como los siguientes protozoarios: complejo Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba hartmanni, Giardia lamblia, Iodamoeba spp., Blastocystis spp. y Cryptosporidium spp., siendo la forma evolutiva quística la de mayor prevalencia. De los helmintos se recuperó Strongyloides stercoralis. En relación a la época del año, se observó una mayor presencia de parásitos en mejillones colectados durante la época seca (50%) en comparación con la estación lluviosa (34%). Las especies Entamoeba histolytica/dispar y Entamoeba coli, las que mostraron mayor prevalencia, 45 y 30% (época seca) y 26 y 19% (época lluviosa), respectivamente. La presencia de parásitos causantes de enfermedades gastrointestinales en un producto pesquero de gran comercialización alerta a los entes gubernamentales acerca de su potencial patogénico y preocupación para su control sanitario. Abstract in english In order to detect protozoa and metazoa parasites in Geukensia demissa, a mitilido that has invaded the main estuarine of Venezuela (Maracaibo Lake) and which has a high aquaculture potential, there were collected four hundred live microorganisms in the Nazareth Community of the Mara Municipality, Z [...] ulia State, Venezuela. The collection was done during two seasons of the year, dry (January to May) and rainy (June to October). The microorganisms were subjected to a dissection for the extraction of the intestine tube, as well as the gonads, siphons and gills tissues. The parasitological study was done by microscopy examinations of the intestinal content using a temporary dye of lugol and fixed dyes of ferric hematoxiline and kinyoun. The tissues were evaluated histological with the dye of hematoxiline-eosine. From the total amount of mussels collected 42% were parasitized in the intestinal content, with species of clinical concern for the human being like the following protozoa: Complex Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba hartmanni, Giardia lamblia, Iodamoeba spp., Blastocystis spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. The cystic stage was dominant in those species. Strongyloides stercoralis was recovered among the helminths. In regard to the season of the year, it was observed a higher presence of parasites in mussels collected during the dry season (50%) while in the rainy season was 34%. The species Entamoeba histolytica/dispar and Entamoeba coli were the most abundant, 45 and 30% (dry season) and 26% and 19% (rainy season), respectively. The presence of these parasites responsible for some gastrointestinal illness in a fish product with a high demand represents a warning for the governmental entities about its pathogenic potential and a worry for its sanitary control.

  1. Comparative biochemistry of Giardia, Hexamita and Spironucleus: Enigmatic diplomonads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, David; Williams, Catrin F

    2014-10-01

    The diplomonad genera are here represented by three highly diverse species, both free-living (Hexamita inflata), and parasitic (Spironucleus vortens and Giardia intestinalis). All three are moderately aerotolerant flagellates, inhabiting environments where O2 tensions are low and fluctuating. Many diplomonads are opportunistic pathogens of avian, terrestrial and aquatic animals. Hexamitids inhabit deep waters and sediments of lakes and marine basins, S. vortens commonly infects the intestinal tract of ornamental fish, particularly of cichlids and cyprinids, and G. intestinalis, the upper intestinal tracts of humans as well as domestic and farm animals. Despite these very different habitats, their known physiological and biochemical characteristics are similar, but they do differ in significant respects as their lifestyles and life cycles demand. They have efficient O2 scavenging systems, and are highly effective at countering rapid O2 fluctuations, or clustering away from its source (except for G. intestinalis when attached to the jejunal villi). Their core metabolic pathways (glycolysis using pyrophosphate), incomplete tricarboxylic acid cycle (lacking ?-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase), and amino acid metabolism (with an alternative energy-generating arginine dihydrolase pathway as a possibility in some cases), largely conform to those of other protists inhabiting low-O2 environments. Mitochondrial evolutionary reduction to give hydrogenosomes as seen in Spironucleus spp. has proceeded further to its minimal state in the mitosomes of G. intestinalis. Understanding of essential redox reactions and the maintentence of redox state, especially in the infective encysted stage of G. intestinalis provide increasing possibilities for parasite control. To this aim a plethora of new synthetic chemicals and natural products (especially those from garlic, Allium sativum) show promise as replacements for the highly effective (but potentially toxic to higher organisms) 5-nitroimidazoles (e.g., metronidazole) in the treatment and/or prevention of dimplomonad infection in humans and animals. PMID:25448769

  2. High sensitivity of Giardia duodenalis to tetrahydrolipstatin (orlistat) in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Juliane; Seeber, Frank; Kolodziej, Herbert; Ignatius, Ralf; Laue, Michael; Aebischer, Toni; Klotz, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Giardiasis, a gastrointestinal disease caused by Giardia duodenalis, is currently treated mainly with nitroimidazoles, primarily metronidazole (MTZ). Treatment failure rates of up to 20 percent reflect the compelling need for alternative treatment options. Here, we investigated whether orlistat, a drug approved to treat obesity, represents a potential therapeutic agent against giardiasis. We compared the growth inhibitory effects of orlistat and MTZ on a long-term in vitro culture adapted G. duodenalis strain, WB-C6, and on a new isolate, 14-03/F7, from a patient refractory to MTZ treatment using a resazurin assay. The giardiacidal concentration of the drugs and their combined in vitro efficacy was determined by median-effect analysis. Morphological changes after treatment were analysed by light and electron microscopy. Orlistat inhibited the in vitro growth of G. duodenalis at low micromolar concentrations, with isolate 14-03/F7 (IC50(24h)?=?2.8 µM) being more sensitive than WB-C6 (IC50(24h)?=?6.2 µM). The effect was significantly more potent compared to MTZ (IC50(24h)?=?4.3 µM and 11.0 µM, respectively) and led to specific undulated morphological alterations on the parasite surface. The giardiacidal concentration of orlistat was >14 µM for 14-03/F7 and >43 µM for WB-C6, respectively. Importantly, the combination of both drugs revealed no interaction on their inhibitory effects. We demonstrate that orlistat is a potent inhibitor of G. duodenalis growth in vitro and kills parasites at concentrations achievable in the gut by approved treatment regimens for obesity. We therefore propose to investigate orlistat in controlled clinical studies as a new drug in giardiasis. PMID:23977083

  3. First genotyping of Giardia duodenalis and prevalence of enteroparasites in children from Tetouan (Morocco).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Fatni, Chadia; Olmo, Francisco; El Fatni, Hoummad; Romero, Desiré; Rosales, Maria José

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal parasites are common in the Moroccan population. Enteroparasites in children from four schools in urban and rural areas of Tetouan (Morocco) were studied to treat these children and to design prevention and control programs. A total of 673 children were examined. The prevalence of parasitized children was 51%. The average number of enteroparasites was half in urban areas than in rural areas. Multiple parasitism appeared in 30% of the samples presenting two, three, or four parasites. The most prevalent parasite was Blastocystis hominis (64%). Giardia duodenalis was the most frequent pathogen, with an overall prevalence of 20% (24% in rural areas and 16% in urban areas). Other pathogenic enteroparasites were Cyclospora cayetanensis (5% in rural and urban areas), Iodamoeba butschlii, Hymenolepis spp., Trichuris trichiura and Enterobius vermicularis, with prevalence lower than 2%. In this work, G. duodenalis genotypes were molecularly characterized by a study of the glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) and 18S rRNA genes. This is the first study of molecular characterization of G. duodenalis in Moroccan children, and the sequence analysis revealed both Assemblage A (AII) and Assemblage B (BIII, BIV), with the predominance of Assemblage BIV (73%). PMID:25259605

  4. First genotyping of Giardia duodenalis and prevalence of enteroparasites in children from Tetouan (Morocco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Fatni, Chadia; Olmo, Francisco; El Fatni, Hoummad; Romero, Desiré; Rosales, Maria José

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal parasites are common in the Moroccan population. Enteroparasites in children from four schools in urban and rural areas of Tetouan (Morocco) were studied to treat these children and to design prevention and control programs. A total of 673 children were examined. The prevalence of parasitized children was 51%. The average number of enteroparasites was half in urban areas than in rural areas. Multiple parasitism appeared in 30% of the samples presenting two, three, or four parasites. The most prevalent parasite was Blastocystis hominis (64%). Giardia duodenalis was the most frequent pathogen, with an overall prevalence of 20% (24% in rural areas and 16% in urban areas). Other pathogenic enteroparasites were Cyclospora cayetanensis (5% in rural and urban areas), Iodamoeba butschlii, Hymenolepis spp., Trichuris trichiura and Enterobius vermicularis, with prevalence lower than 2%. In this work, G. duodenalis genotypes were molecularly characterized by a study of the glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) and 18S rRNA genes. This is the first study of molecular characterization of G. duodenalis in Moroccan children, and the sequence analysis revealed both Assemblage A (AII) and Assemblage B (BIII, BIV), with the predominance of Assemblage BIV (73%). PMID:25259605

  5. Detection of Cyclospora, Cryptosporidium, and Giardia in ready-to-eat packaged leafy greens in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Brent; Parrington, Lorna; Cook, Angela; Pollari, Frank; Farber, Jeffrey

    2013-02-01

    Numerous foodborne outbreaks of diarrheal illness associated with the consumption of produce contaminated with protozoan parasites have been reported in North America in recent years. The present study reports on the presence of Cyclospora, Cryptosporidium, and Giardia in precut salads and leafy greens purchased at retail in Ontario, Canada. A total of 544 retail samples were collected between April 2009 and March 2010 and included a variety of salad blends and individual leafy greens. Most of these products were grown in the United States, with some from Canada and Mexico. Parasites were eluted and concentrated before detection by PCR and immunofluorescence microscopy. DNA sequences were aligned with reference sequences in GenBank. Cyclospora spp. were identified by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism in nine (1.7 % ) samples and by DNA sequence analysis. Cryptosporidium spp. were identified in 32 (5.9%) samples; 29 were sequenced and aligned with the zoonotic species Cryptosporidium parvum. Giardia duodenalis was identified in 10 (1.8%) samples, and of the 9 samples successfully sequenced, 7 aligned with G. duodenalis assemblage B and 2 with assemblage A, both of which are also zoonotic. The presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts was confirmed in some of the PCR-positive samples using microscopy, while Cyclospora -like oocysts were observed in most of the Cyclospora PCR-positive samples. The relatively high prevalence of these parasites in packaged salads and leafy greens establishes a baseline for further studies and suggests a need for additional research with respect to the possible sources of contamination of these foods, the determination of parasite viability and virulence, and means to reduce foodborne transmission to humans. PMID:23433379

  6. CONTROL OF 'GIARDIA' CYSTS BY FILTRATION: THE LABORATORY'S ROLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    USEPA has sponsored research on the ability of slow sand, diatomaceous earth, and dual or multi-media filters to remove turbidity causing particles, coliforms, and Giardia cysts. The high volume Giardia sampler used during disease outbreaks was not appropriate for this research. ...

  7. Prevalence and risk factors for Giardia duodenalis infection among children: A case study in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Cláudia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Giardia duodenalis is a widespread parasite of mammalian species, including humans. The prevalence of this parasite in children residing in Portugal is currently unknown. This study intended to estimate G. duodenalis infection prevalence and identify possible associated risk factors in a healthy paediatric population living in the District of the Portuguese capital, Lisbon. Methods Between February 2002 and October 2008, 844 children were randomly selected at healthcare centres while attending the national vaccination program. A stool sample and a questionnaire with socio-demographic data were collected from each child. Giardia infection was diagnosed by direct examination of stools and antigen detection by ELISA. Results The population studied revealed a gender distribution of 52.8% male and 47.2% female. Age distribution was 47.4% between 0-5 years and 52.6% between 6-15 years. The prevalence of Giardia infection was 1.9% (16/844 when estimated by direct examination and increased to 6.8% (57/844 when ELISA results were added. The prevalence was higher among children aged 0-5 years (7.8%, than among older children (5.8%, and was similar among genders (6.9% in boys and 6.5% in girls. The following population-variables were shown to be associated risk factors for G. duodenalis infection: mother's educational level (odds ratio (OR= 4.49; confidence interval (CI: 1.20-16.84, father's educational level (OR = 12.26; CI: 4.08-36.82, presence of Helicobacter pylori infection (OR = 1.82; CI: 1.05-3.15, living in houses with own drainage system (OR = 0.10; CI: 0.02-0.64 and reported household pet contact, especially with dogs (OR = 0.53; CI: 0.31-0.93. Conclusion The prevalence of giardiasis in asymptomatic children residing in the region of Lisbon is high. Several risk factors were associated with Giardia prevalence and highlight the importance of parents' education and sanitation conditions in the children's well being. The association between G. duodenalis and H. pylori seems an important issue deserving further investigation in order to promote prevention or treatment strategies.

  8. Giardia duodenalis assemblages and Entamoeba species infecting non-human primates in an Italian zoological garden: zoonotic potential and management traits

    OpenAIRE

    Di Cave David; Di Cerbo Pilar; Friedrich Klaus G; Prisco Cristina; Berrilli Federica; De Liberato Claudio

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Giardia duodenalis and Entamoeba spp. are among the most common intestinal human protozoan parasites worldwide and they are frequently reported in captive non-human primates (NHP). From a public health point of view, infected animals in zoos constitute a risk for animal caretakers and visitors. In this study we carried out the molecular identification of G. duodenalis and Entamoeba spp. from nine species of primates housed in the zoological garden of Rome, to better ascert...

  9. Estado nutricional, parasitario y hematológico en niños de dos programas de atención del Instituto Colombiano de Bienestar Familiar (ICBF) / Nutritional status related to a hematological condition and parasitic infections in children supported by Instituto Colombiano de Bienestar Familiar (ICBF)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juan Carlos, Gil; Andrea, Mejía R; Helena María, Gaviria; Carolina, Parra; Francisco, Ochoa; Zuleima, Deossa.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la desnutrición afecta principalmente a los niños menores de cinco años. El Instituto Colombiano de Bienestar Familiar (ICBF) desarrolla, entre otros, algunos programas que buscan impactar positivamente en el estado nutricional de los menores de cinco años. Objetivo: describir el estad [...] o nutricional (según indicadores antropométricos), hematológico y parasitario de dos grupos de niños de los programas de Hogares Comunitarios (HC) y Desayunos Infantiles (DI) pertenecientes al ICBF en el centro zonal 4 de Medellín. Materiales y métodos: estudio descriptivo de corte en 164 menores de cinco años. Los datos se recolectaron mediante encuestas, peso corporal de los niños, estatura/longitud y toma de sangre y análisis coprológico. Resultados: 47,1% de la muestra eran niños, con edad promedio de tres años; 56,6% de los menores pertenecían al estrato 1, mayormente entre los niños de HC. El promedio del peso corporal fue 14,4 kg, sin diferencias estadísticas entre los grupos; 45% de los niños presentaron riesgo de desnutrición crónica, global el 32% de los menores y aguda el 14%, sin diferencias entre los dos grupos. De acuerdo a lo esperado para la edad el 21% de los menores tenía disminución de la hemoglobina y 11% del hematocrito. En la comparación de los grupos no hubo diferencias significativas de los parámetros hematológicos. En el 66,7% de los niños se encontraron parásitos intestinales, principalmente Giardia lamblia. Conclusión: se encontró un importante porcentaje de niños con desnutrición y anemia, que refleja la necesidad de fortalecer tanto los programas, como la educación de los menores y las familias, así como las condiciones sociales y económicas, los cuales influyen en la salud de la población evaluada y en su estado nutricional. Abstract in english Malnutrition is a condition affecting mostly children younger than five years. ICBF supports many nutritional programs, which is trying to improve the nutritional status for children younger than 5 five years. Objective: describe nutritional status related to a hematological condition and parasitic [...] infections in two groups of children participating in programs such as the ''Hogares comunitarios'' (HC) and ''Desayunos Infantiles'' (DI) supported by the ICBF in zone 1 Medellin-Colombia. Methods: it is a cross-sectional study, 164 children were recruted, data was collected, applying questionnaires, anthropometric measurements, and evaluating blood and stool samples. Results: 47,1% of the subjects were boys, mean age was 3 years, 56,6% of the children were in the lowest social economic level, mainly children participating in HC program. The average for weight was 14,4kg, no statistical significant differences between groups were found, but 45% of the children classified for chronic malnutrition risk, 32% for global malnutrition and 14% for acute malnutrition. According to the age 21% of the population studied had low hemoglobin level and 11% has low hematocrit level. No significant statistics between groups for hematological markers were found. Parasitic infection was present in 67%, they were mainly infected by Giardia lamblia. Conclusion: malnutrition and anemia was prevalent in this population. It is necessary to encourage and support programs that should benefit children and their families, improving education and social economic conditions could help to improve their nutritional status.

  10. Prevalencia de microsporidios intestinales y otros enteroparásitos en pacientes con VIH positivo de Maracaibo, Venezuela / Prevalence of intestinal microsporidia and other intestinal parasites in hiv positive patients from Maracaibo, Venezuela.

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Zulbey, Rivero-Rodríguez; Amparo, Hernández; Ángela, Bracho; Solneumar, Salazar; Rafael, Villalobos.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Desde 1985, los microsporidios se consideran parásitos causantes de infecciones emergentes y oportunistas en individuos inmunocomprometidos en todo el mundo. Objetivo. Detectar la presencia de microsporidios y otros enteroparásitos en pacientes con VIH/sida del Servicio Autónomo Hospit [...] al Universitario de Maracaibo (SAHUM), donde no existían estudios previos en este campo. Materiales y métodos. Las muestras fecales se analizaron mediante examen directo, método de concentración con formol-éter, coloración de Kinyoun y coloración Gram-cromotropo rápida. Se realizaron PCR separadas para diferenciar Entamoeba histolytica o Entamoeba dispar , cuando se observó el complejo E. histolytica/dispar al microscopio. Mediante historia clínica se obtuvo información del paciente. Resultados. De los 56 individuos participantes, 38 (67,86 %) presentaron alguna especie parasitaria comensal o patógena en su muestra fecal. Predominaron los individuos portadores de especies parásitas patógenas (26/38). Fueron diagnosticados protozoos como Isospora belli (17,65 %), Blastocystis spp .(17,65 %), Cryptosporidium spp. (7,84 %), complejo Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (5,88 %) , Entamoeba coli (3,92 %) , Giardia lamblia (3,92 %) , Endolimax nana (3,92 %) , Cyclospora cayetanensis (3,92 %) y Chilomastix mesnili (1,96 %). Entre los helmintos, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura y Strongyloides stercoralis, presentaron un porcentaje de 27,27 % cada uno, e Hymenolepis nana , de 18,18 %. Solo se detectó E. histolytica en uno de los tres casos que presentaron el complejo al examen microscópico. Mediante Gram-cromotropo, 17 muestras evidenciaron esporas del filo Microsporidia, lo que equivale a un 33,33 % de prevalencia. Conclusión. Los microsporidios pueden ocupar el primer lugar de prevalencia en pacientes con VIH positivo, cuando se utilizan técnicas diagnósticas específicas. Abstract in english Objective: To detect the presence of microsporidia and other enteric parasites in patients with HIVAIDS of the Autonomous Services University Hospital of Maracaibo (SAHUM), where there are no previous studies in this field. Materials and methods: Fecal samples were analyzed by means of direct exam, [...] concetration method with formal-ether, Kinyoun coloration and fast Gram-Chromotrope coloration. Separate PCR were perfomed to differentiate Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar , when the E. histolytica/E. dispar complex was observed in the microscope. Information on the patient was obtained trough clinical history. Results: Of 56 individuals that participated, 38 (67.86%) presented some commensal parasite and/ or pathogenic species in their fecal sample. Carriers of pathogenic species were predominat (26/38). Protozoa such as Isospora belli protozoa (17.65%), Blastocystis spp. (17.65%), Cryptosporidium spp. (7.84%), E. histolytica/E. dispar (5.88%), Entamoeba coli (3.92%), Giardia lamblia (3.92%), Endolimax nana (3.92%), Cyclospora cayetanensis (3.92%), and Chilomastix mesnilli (1.96%) were diagnosed. Among the helminths, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and Strongyloides stercoralis , had a percentage of 27.27% each, and Hymenolepis nana , 18.18%. Entamoeba histolytica was only detected in one of three cases presenting complex microscopic examination. By Gram-chromotrope, 17 samples showed spores of the Microsporidia phylum, equivalent to 33.33% prevalence. Conclusion: Microsporidia may be first prevalente in HIV positive patients when specific diagnostic techniques are used.

  11. Parasites: Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About CDC.gov . Parasites Parasites Home Share Compartir Water Parasites can live in natural water sources. When ... Index Policies Using this Site Link to Us Social Media Contact CDC Centers for Disease Control and ...

  12. The frequency of intestinal parasites in puppies from Mexican kennels

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    Adrián Cortés-Campos

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this investigation was to determine the intestinal parasite prevalence in puppies from six different kennels; four kennels were in Guadalajara and Zapopan cities (Jalisco State and two kennels were in Mexico City. From October 2006 to November 2007, we collected 441 fecal samples from 147 puppies, both male and female, ranging from 1 to 36 months of age. Three samples from every puppy were analyzed by using the Faust technique. The prevalence found were as follows: Giardia intestinalis (genotype A and B 6.8%; Cystoisospora 21.08%; Uncinaria 7.48%; Toxocara canis 12.29% and multiparasitism (Giardia, Toxocara and Uncinaria 4.76%. The highest prevalence for both Giardia and Cystoisospora were found in 2-3- month-old puppies; the highest prevalence for Toxocara canis was found in 3-4-month-old puppies. In the kennels of Mexico City we found mainly Giardia intestinalis, Cystoisospora to be most prevalent in Zapopan and Toxocara canis in Guadalajara. The high prevalence of intestinal parasites found in this study demonstrates an increased risk for infection in humans, as these animals are usually a common pet in many homes. This zoonotic phenomenon represents an important health problem for any community.

  13. Impact of environmental conditions on the survival of cryptosporidium and giardia on environmental surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alum, Absar; Absar, Isra M; Asaad, Hamas; Rubino, Joseph R; Ijaz, M Khalid

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to find out the impact of environmental conditions on the survival of intestinal parasites on environmental surfaces commonly implicated in the transmission of these parasites. The study was performed by incubating Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts on environmentally relevant surfaces such as brushed stainless steel, formica, ceramic, fabric, and skin. Parallel experiments were conducted using clean and soiled coupons incubated under three temperatures. The die-off coefficient rates (K) were calculated using first-order exponential formula. For both parasites, the fastest die-off was recorded on fabric, followed by ceramic, formica, skin, and steel. Die-off rates were directly correlated to the incubation temperatures and surface porosity. The presence of organic matter enhanced the survivability of the resting stages of test parasites. The decay rates calculated in this study can be used in models for public health decision-making process and highlights the mitigation role of hand hygiene agents in their prevention and control. PMID:25045350

  14. An antioxidant response is involved in resistance of Giardia duodenalis to albendazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argüello-García, Raúl; Cruz-Soto, Maricela; González-Trejo, Rolando; Paz-Maldonado, Luz María T; Bazán-Tejeda, M Luisa; Mendoza-Hernández, Guillermo; Ortega-Pierres, Guadalupe

    2015-01-01

    Albendazole (ABZ) is a therapeutic benzimidazole used to treat giardiasis that targets ?-tubulin. However, the molecular bases of ABZ resistance in Giardia duodenalis are not understood because ?-tubulin in ABZ-resistant clones lacks mutations explaining drug resistance. In previous work we compared ABZ-resistant (1.35, 8, and 250 ?M) and ABZ-susceptible clones by proteomic analysis and eight proteins involved in energy metabolism, cytoskeleton dynamics, and antioxidant response were found as differentially expressed among the clones. Since ABZ is converted into sulphoxide (ABZ-SO) and sulphone (ABZ-SOO) metabolites we measured the levels of these metabolites, the antioxidant enzymes and free thiols in the susceptible and resistant clones. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and levels of ABZ-SO/ABZ-SOO induced by ABZ were determined by fluorescein diacetate-based fluorescence and liquid chromatography respectively. The mRNA and protein levels of antioxidant enzymes (NADH oxidase, peroxiredoxin 1a, superoxide dismutase and flavodiiron protein) in these clones were determined by RT-PCR and proteomic analysis. The intracellular sulfhydryl (R-SH) pool was quantified using dinitrobenzoic acid. The results showed that ABZ induced ROS accumulation in the ABZ-susceptible Giardia cultures but not in the resistant ones whilst the accumulation of ABZ-SO and ABZ-SOO was lower in all ABZ-resistant cultures. Consistent with these findings, all the antioxidant enzymes detected and analyzed were upregulated in ABZ-resistant clones. Likewise the R-SH pool increased concomitantly to the degree of ABZ-resistance. These results indicate an association between accumulation of ABZ metabolites and a pro-oxidant effect of ABZ in Giardia-susceptible clones. Furthermore the antioxidant response involving ROS-metabolizing enzymes and intracellular free thiols in ABZ-resistant parasites suggest that this response may contribute to overcome the pro-oxidant cytotoxicity of ABZ. PMID:25914688

  15. Prevalence of Giardia Duodenalis Infection in Household Cats of Ahvaz District, South-West of Iran

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    AR Alborzi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The occurrence of Giardia duodenalis in cats is of potential significance from both clinical and public health perspectives. The object of this study was antigenic detection of G. duo­denalis in house­hold cats of Ahvaz district, South-West of Iran.Methods: The prevalence of G. duodenalis was determined in fecal samples by two techniques: centrifuga­tion-flotation and a commercial Giardia Antigen Test Kit (immunochromatography assay in 150 household cats of different ages among referred cases to Veterinary Hospital of Ahvaz University from January 2008 to February 2010.Results: Five out of 150 fecal samples (3.33% were positive for antigen of G. duodenalis by immunochromatography assay. The prevalence was significantly higher in young cats less than 6 months (15.79% compared with adult cats 6 months - 3 years (1.37% (P=0.027 and above 3 years (1.72% (P=0.044. The infection had more prevalence in diarrheic cats (17.39% com­pared with non-diarrheic cats (0.79% and the difference was significant (P=0.02 as well. The prevalence was higher in male cats (3.41% than females (3.23% and in the season of autumn (6.06%, but the difference was not significant between the prevalence of infection relative to host gender and season (P>0.05. Microscopy examination on fecal samples showed that 2% of the studied cats were positive.Conclusion: The parasite antigen was present as a zoonotic infection in Ahvaz district, South-west of Iran. More sensitive techniques, such as immunochromatography assay, might yield more reli­able results, in the detection of low levels of Giardia in fecal samples of cats.

  16. An antioxidant response is involved in resistance of Giardia duodenalis to albendazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argüello-García, Raúl; Cruz-Soto, Maricela; González-Trejo, Rolando; Paz-Maldonado, Luz María T.; Bazán-Tejeda, M. Luisa; Mendoza-Hernández, Guillermo; Ortega-Pierres, Guadalupe

    2015-01-01

    Albendazole (ABZ) is a therapeutic benzimidazole used to treat giardiasis that targets ?-tubulin. However, the molecular bases of ABZ resistance in Giardia duodenalis are not understood because ?-tubulin in ABZ-resistant clones lacks mutations explaining drug resistance. In previous work we compared ABZ-resistant (1.35, 8, and 250 ?M) and ABZ-susceptible clones by proteomic analysis and eight proteins involved in energy metabolism, cytoskeleton dynamics, and antioxidant response were found as differentially expressed among the clones. Since ABZ is converted into sulphoxide (ABZ-SO) and sulphone (ABZ-SOO) metabolites we measured the levels of these metabolites, the antioxidant enzymes and free thiols in the susceptible and resistant clones. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and levels of ABZ-SO/ABZ-SOO induced by ABZ were determined by fluorescein diacetate-based fluorescence and liquid chromatography respectively. The mRNA and protein levels of antioxidant enzymes (NADH oxidase, peroxiredoxin 1a, superoxide dismutase and flavodiiron protein) in these clones were determined by RT-PCR and proteomic analysis. The intracellular sulfhydryl (R-SH) pool was quantified using dinitrobenzoic acid. The results showed that ABZ induced ROS accumulation in the ABZ-susceptible Giardia cultures but not in the resistant ones whilst the accumulation of ABZ-SO and ABZ-SOO was lower in all ABZ-resistant cultures. Consistent with these findings, all the antioxidant enzymes detected and analyzed were upregulated in ABZ-resistant clones. Likewise the R-SH pool increased concomitantly to the degree of ABZ-resistance. These results indicate an association between accumulation of ABZ metabolites and a pro-oxidant effect of ABZ in Giardia-susceptible clones. Furthermore the antioxidant response involving ROS-metabolizing enzymes and intracellular free thiols in ABZ-resistant parasites suggest that this response may contribute to overcome the pro-oxidant cytotoxicity of ABZ. PMID:25914688

  17. Application of a basic monitoring strategy for Cryptosporidium and Giardia in drinking water

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    MV, Sigudu; HH, du Preez; F, Retief.

    2014-04-03

    Full Text Available Despite the health risks associated with exposure to Cryptosporidium and Giardia, there is no uniform approach to monitoring these protozoan parasites across the world. In the present study, a strategy for monitoring Cryptosporidium and Giardia in drinking water was developed in an effort to ensure [...] that the risk of exposure to these organisms and the risks of non-compliance to guidelines are reduced. The methodology developed will be applicable to all water supply systems irrespective of size and complexity of the purification works. It is based on monitoring procedures proposed by the US Environmental Protection Agency, the Drinking Water Inspectorate, Australia and New Zealand, as well as the risk-based procedure followed by Northern Ireland. The monitoring strategy developed represents a preventative approach for proactively monitoring Cryptosporidium and Giardia species in drinking water. The strategy consists of 10 steps: (i) assessment of the monitoring requirements, (ii) description and characterisation of the source water types, (iii) abstraction of source water, (iv) assessment of the water purification plant, (v) water quality monitoring, (vi) cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis outbreak, (vii) risk assessment, (viii) sample collection and laboratory processing, (ix) data evaluation, interpretation and storage, (x) process evaluation and review. Proper implementation of this protocol can contribute to the protection of drinking water consumers by identifying high-risk source water, identifying areas of improvement within the water treatment system, and also preventing further faecal pollution in the catchments. The protocol can also be integrated into the Water Safety Plans to optimise compliance. Furthermore, this methodology has a potential to contribute to Blue Drop certification as it should form part of the incident management protocols which are a requirement of Water Safety Plan implementation.

  18. Chronic fatigue syndrome after Giardia enteritis: clinical characteristics, disability and long-term sickness absence

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    Naess Halvor

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A waterborne outbreak of Giardia lamblia gastroenteritis led to a high prevalance of long-lasting fatigue and abdominal symptoms. The aim was to describe the clinical characteristics, disability and employmentloss in a case series of patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS after the infection. Methods Patients who reported persistent fatigue, lowered functional capacity and sickness leave or delayed education after a large community outbreak of giardiasis enteritis in the city of Bergen, Norway were evaluated with the established Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria for CFS. Fatigue was self-rated by the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS. Physical and mental health status and functional impairment was measured by the Medical Outcome Severity Scale-short Form-36 (SF-36. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS was used to measure co-morbid anxiety and depression. Inability to work or study because of fatigue was determined by sickness absence certified by a doctor. Results A total of 58 (60% out of 96 patients with long-lasting post-infectious fatigue after laboratory confirmed giardiasis were diagnosed with CFS. In all, 1262 patients had laboratory confirmed giardiasis. At the time of referral (mean illness duration 2.7 years 16% reported improvement, 28% reported no change, and 57% reported progressive course with gradual worsening. Mean FSS score was 6.6. A distinctive pattern of impairment was documented with the SF-36. The physical functioning, vitality (energy/fatigue and social functioning were especially reduced. Long-term sickness absence from studies and work was noted in all patients. Conclusion After giardiasis enteritis at least 5% developed clinical characteristics and functional impairment comparable to previously described post-infectious fatigue syndrome.

  19. Quantitative microbial risk assessment of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in well water from a native community of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balderrama-Carmona, Ana Paola; Gortáres-Moroyoqui, Pablo; Alvarez-Valencia, Luis Humberto; Castro-Espinoza, Luciano; Balderas-Cortés, José de Jesús; Mondaca-Fernández, Iram; Chaidez-Quiroz, Cristóbal; Meza-Montenegro, María Mercedes

    2014-12-10

    Cryptosporidium and Giardia are gastrointestinal disease-causing organisms transmitted by the fecal-oral route, zoonotic and prevalent in all socioeconomic segments with greater emphasis in rural communities. The goal of this study was to assess the risk of cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis of Potam dwellers consuming drinking water from communal well water. To achieve the goal, quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) was carried out as follows: (a) identification of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in well water samples by information collection rule method, (b) assessment of exposure to healthy Potam residents, (c) dose-response modelling, and (d) risk characterization using an exponential model. All well water samples tested were positive for Cryptosporidium and Giardia. The QMRA results indicate a mean of annual risks of 99:100 (0.99) for cryptosporidiosis and 1:1 (1.0) for giardiasis. The outcome of the present study may drive decision-makers to establish an educational and treatment program to reduce the incidence of parasite-borne intestinal infection in the Potam community, and to conduct risk analysis programs in other similar rural communities in Mexico. PMID:25494486

  20. Genotypic and phylogenetic characterization of Giardia intestinalis from human and dairy cattle in Kafr El Sheikh Governorate, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Said E R

    2013-04-01

    Giardiasis is a wide-spread intestinal disease of both humans and animals, with no morphological distinction between different assemblages and/or genotypes. The present study aimed to demonstrate the molecular identity of Giardia intestinalis parasites in clinical samples collected from infected cases screened at commercial laboratories and neonatal calves at dairy cattle farms, in Kafr El Sheikh. Molecular analysis based on PCR-sequence of triose phosphate isomerase (TPI) gene fragment. Results reported herein indicated that assemblage A was detected in 18/48 human isolates (37%) and 4/18 (22.2%) of the animal derived isolates, with subassemblage AII was the predominant in human samples and AI in the animal isolates. Whereas assemblage B was the predominant assemblage in the human infections (32/48: 66.7%), assemblage E was the major genotype in the animals samples (14/18: 77.8%). Genetic heterogeneity was pronounced feature in the generated sequences of all assemblages referring to wide diversity of Giardia population in Egypt. Also, results stressed the significance of neonatal calves as reservoir of zoonotic Giardia infections in human. Phylogenetic relationship of the analyzed isolates was inferred based on the reference sequences in the database. PMID:23697022

  1. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in raw water from the Atibaia river, Campinas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANCO Regina Maura Bueno

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia duodenalis are waterborne parasites that have caused several outbreaks of gastrointestinal disease associated with drinking water. Due to the lack of studies about the occurrence of these protozoa in water in the Southeast of Brazil, an investigation was conducted to verify the presence of cysts and oocysts in superficial raw water of the Atibaia River. The water samples were submitted to membrane filtration (3.0 mum and elution was processed by (1 scraping and rinsing of membrane (RM method and (2 acetone-dissolution (ADM method. Microbiologic and chemical parameters were analyzed. Aliquots of the pellets were examined by immunofluorescence (Merifluor, Meridian Diagnostics, Cincinnati, Ohio. All water samples were positive for Cryptosporidium and Giardia, in spite of the high turbidity. Higher recovery rates occurred in samples treated by the RM method than by the ADM technique. The goal for future work is the assessment of viability of cysts and oocysts to determine the public health significance of this finding.

  2. Prevalence and molecular characterization of Giardia duodenalis isolates from dairy cattle in northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Su, Yan; Zhou, Mengjiao; Zhao, Jixue; Zhang, Tianyu; Ahmad, Waqas; Lu, Huijun; Jiang, Ning; Chen, Qijun; Xiang, Mei; Yin, Jigang

    2015-07-01

    Giardia duodenalis is an important zoonotic intestinal parasite responsible for diarrhea in humans and other animals worldwide. The present study was conducted to assess the prevalence of bovine giardiosis and to perform molecular characterization of Giardia duodenalis in the northeast of China. A total of 655 fecal specimens were collected from dairy cattle in 15 farms located in three different provinces. G.?duodenalis assemblages and subtypes were determined by sequence analysis of the triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) gene. As a whole, the G.?duodenalis infection rate in dairy cattle was 7.9% (52/655), as determined by Lugol's iodine staining. Two assemblages were identified, namely, the potentially zoonotic assemblage A (n?=?1), the livestock-specific assemblage E (n?=?50), and a mixed infection case of assemblages A and E. Seven distinct subtypes of E assemblages were identified and E-XI, E-I and E-III are the major subtypes. Only subtype A-I was identified in assemblage A. Findings relevant to assemblage A are of public health importance. The results indicated the livestock-specific assemblage E is the major genotype and zoonotic assemblage A or B occurs very seldomly which is significantly different with previous report in the same area. So that determination of genotypes in individual epidemiological setting can make important contributions to public health. PMID:25845754

  3. Parasitosis intestinales en niños de edad preescolar y escolar: situación actual en poblaciones urbanas, periurbanas y rurales en Brandsen, Buenos Aires, Argentina / INTESTINAL PARASITES IN PRESCHOOL AND SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN: CURRENT SITUATION IN URBAN, PERIURBAN AND RURAL POPULATIONS IN BRANDSEN, BUENOS AIRES ARGENTINA

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    MARÍA LORENA, ZONTA; GRACIELA TERESA, NAVONE; EVELIA EDITH, OYHENART.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio describe las parasitosis más frecuentes en los niños de edad preescolar y escolar y establece las diferencias entre las zonas urbana (U), periurbana (PU) y rural (R) del Partido de Brandsen, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Se procesaron 119 muestras de materia fecal y escobillado anal d [...] e niños entre 1 y 14 años. Se utilizaron las técnicas de sedimentación (Ritchie) y flotación (Willis). El 63.9% resultó parasitado; el mayor porcentaje de infectados se encontró en PU (80,8%); seguido por R (63,4%) y por U (55,8%). Las comparaciones entre prevalencias indicaron diferencias significativas sólo entre PU y U (p = 0,05; OR = 0,30; IC95%: 0,08-1,00). No se hallaron diferencias significativas entre sexos ni entre individuos parasitados y no parasitados en cada una de las áreas (p > 0,05). Se identificaron E. vermicularis (U: 28,8%; PU: 30,8%; R: 39%), B. hominis (U: 26,9%; PU: 46,2%;R: 31,7%), E.coli(XJ: 11,5%;PU: 15,4%; R: 9,8%); G. lamblia (U: 9,6%; PU: 34,6%; R: 7,3%); A. lumbricoides (U: 9,6%; PU: 19,2%; R: 0%), T. trichiura (U: 9,6%; PU: 19,2%; R: 0%); E. hominis (U: 1,9%; PU: 0%; R: 2,4%); E. nana (U: 0%; PU: 7,7%; R: 4,9%) e /. butschlii (U: 0%; PU: 3,8%; R: 0%). Sólo hubo diferencias significativas entre las prevalencias de G. lamblia en U y PU (p Abstract in english The present study describes the parasitoses in preschool and schoolchildren and the differences among urban (U), periurban (PU) and rural (R) areas of the Partido of Brandsen, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Faecal samples and anal brushed were collected in 119 children between 1 and 14 years old. The sedi [...] mentation (Ritchie) and flotation (Willis) techniques were used. Sixty three percent of the samples were parasited. The highest percentage of infection was seen in PU (80,8%), followed by R (63,4%) and U (55,8%). The comparisons among prevalences only indicated significant differences between PU and U (p=0,05; OR = 0,30; IC95%: 0,08-1,00). We identified Enterobius vermicularis (U: 28,8%; PU: 30,8%; R: 39%), Blastocystis hominis (U: 26,9%; PU: 46,2%; R: 31,7%), Entamoeba coli (U: 11,5%; PU: 15,4%; R: 9,8%); Giardia lamblia (U: 9,6%; PU: 34,6%; R: 7,3%); Ascaris lumbricoides (U: 9,6%; PU: 19,2%; R: 0%), T. trichiura (U: 9,6%; PU: 19,2%; R: 0%); Enteromonas hominis (U: 1,9%; PU: 0%; R: 2,4%); E. nana (U: 0%; PU: 7,7%; R: 4,9%); lodamoeba butschlii (U: 0%; PU: 3,8%; R: 0%). Only G. lamblia was significantly higher in PU compared to U (p

  4. WATERBORNE 'GIARDIA' IT'S ENOUGH TO MAKE YOU SICK

    Science.gov (United States)

    The roundtable consisted of a moderator and six panelists discussing various aspects of Giardia and giardiasis. The topics covered included: The organism (description, life cycle, distribution); the disease; epidemiology; waterborne outbreaks; monitoring methods; water industry a...

  5. Methods for Cultivation of Luminal Parasitic Protists of Clinical Importance

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, C. Graham; Diamond, Louis S.

    2002-01-01

    Cultivation of luminal protistan parasites has a long history. In this review we discuss the methods and media that are most widely used for the establishment and maintenance of the following organisms in culture: Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia intestinalis, Trichomonas vaginalis, Dientamoeba fragilis, Blastocystis hominis, and Balantidium coli. While cultivation is of limited importance in the diagnostic laboratory, it is essential to most research laboratories, and it is toward the latter t...

  6. Chemotherapeutics of Neglected Waterborne Parasites: Current Status and Future Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Ratna Chakrabarti; Debopam Chakrabarti

    2009-01-01

    Waterborne protozoan parasites Cryptosporidium and Giardia cause diarrheal diseases worldwide. Cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis cause significant disease burden and economic impact much of the developed world and their treatment options are limited. These diseases are, therefore, included in the World Health Organization neglected disease initiative. These protozoans are also included as bioterrorism agents because of their potential ability for large-scale contamination of water supplies. Th...

  7. Waterborne Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in the Yukon, Canada.

    OpenAIRE

    Roach, P. D.; Olson, M. E.; Whitley, G.; Wallis, P. M.

    1993-01-01

    Several outbreaks of waterborne giardiasis have occurred in southern Canada, but nothing has been reported from the Canadian North. The objective of this study was to collect information relevant to waterborne giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis in the Yukon including epidemiological data and analyses of water, sewage, and animal fecal samples. Remote, pristine water samples were found to be contaminated with Giardia cysts (7 of 22 or 32%) but not with Cryptosporidium oocysts. Giardia cysts were...

  8. Zoonotic Potential and Molecular Epidemiology of Giardia Species and Giardiasis†

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Yaoyu; Xiao, Lihua

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Molecular diagnostic tools have been used recently in assessing the taxonomy, zoonotic potential, and transmission of Giardia species and giardiasis in humans and animals. The results of these studies have firmly established giardiasis as a zoonotic disease, although host adaptation at the genotype and subtype levels has reduced the likelihood of zoonotic transmission. These studies have also identified variations in the distribution of Giardia duodenalis genotypes among geographic a...

  9. Detection of Giardia duodenalis antigen in coprolites using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Marcelo Luiz Carvalho; Araújo, Adauto; Duarte, Rosemere; da Silva, Joaquim Pereira; Reinhard, Karl; Bouchet, Françoise; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to assess the utility of a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit for diagnosis of giardiasis in archaeological human remains. The kit, a monoclonal antibody assay, is used to detect the presence of Giardia-specific antigen 65 (GSA65) in human faeces. We utilized the assay in ancient faecal material. The material included desiccated faeces found in mummies or in archaeological sites, and sediments from latrines. A total of 83 specimens, previously examined microscopically for parasites, were examined. The ELISA detected 3 positive samples, dated to about 1200 AD, 1600 AD and 1700 AD. The ELISA was superior to direct observation. It was possible to identify G. duodenalis cysts by direct microscopy in only one of these samples. The results did not show cross-reactivity between this protozoan and helminths. The use of ELISA to detect G. duodenalis coproantigen could help the diagnosis of giardiasis in ancient human remains. PMID:12625140

  10. Introduction of New Parasites in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Heidi L.

    Movement of wildlife across borders and between different regions entail an increased risk of (re-) introduction and spread of new or otherwise low prevalent diseases, which may have consequences not only for the wildlife itself but also for pets, farm animals and humans. The lecture presents examples of such parasites/parasitic diseases: Setaria tundra, a mosquito-borne filarioid nematode which was detected for the first time in Danish deer in 2010. This parasite is usually considered harmless but is capable of causing peritonitis and mortality in ungulates. The newly detected parasite was genetically very similar to previously published isolates from France and Italy, and may have been spread to Denmark from southern Europe. Giardia spp. a zoonotic, unicellular parasite (protozoa) well known in Danish livestock but recently found in extremely high numbers in Danish deer with chronic diarrhea and emaciation. Molecular epidemiological studies are ongoing. At the present time it is unknown whether Giardia spp.in Danish deer has been introduced, and little is known about the transmission rate between deer and farmed ruminants. Echinococcus multilocularis (the small fox tapeworm) was detected for the first time in Denmark approximately 10 years ago in 3 foxes from the Copenhagen area. Since then, no systematic surveillance has been performed, and therefore the current prevalence among wildlife and pets is unknown. So far the parasite has not been found in intermediate hosts (rodents) in Denmark. Echinococcus multilocularis causes severe chronic liver damage (alveolar echinococcosis) in the intermediate host including humans, whereas the final host remains clinically unaffected. It is not known whether the parasite was introduced by dogs returning to Denmark after a stay in endemic areas or by wild carnivores entering the country. Increasing prevalences are observed in our neighboring countries, and migrating raccoon dogs from Germany are thought to entail a risk for transmission and spread of this much feared parasite. Likewise, invading foxes and raccoon dogs may cause a risk of increasing numbers of the roundworm Trichinella. This parasite infects not only wild animals but also pigs, horses and humans. There are no signs of infection in animals whereas humans, depending on ingested number of parasites, will suffer from e.g. fever, myalgia, edema, chronic muscle pain and even death. Today Denmark, contrary to our neighboring countries, is classified as an area with negligible risk of trichinellosis based on documented low prevalence of Trichinella spp. in Danish wildlife. Examples of other parasites that are already present in the country but may be

  11. Antigenic detection of Giardia duodenalis in companion dogs of Ahvaz area, south-west of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Alborzi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: Giardia duodenalis is a ubiquitous protozoan parasite in several animal species and humans. The objective of the present survey was to investigate the prevalence of G. duodenalis in the fecal samples of companion dogs in Ahvaz area, south-western Iran. Materials and methods: A total of 150 companion dogs of different ages were examined for antigenic detection of G. duodenalis in fecal samples by a commercial Giardia Antigen Test Kit. Fecal centrifugation-flotation technique was also used for identification of cyst by microscopic examination. The studied dogs were selected from those referring to Veterinary Hospital of Chamran University Ahvaz from June 2007 to January 2010. They were divided into two groups clinically (diarrheic and non-diarrheic and based on age into three groups (3 years. Results: Six out of 150 fecal samples (4% were positive for antigen of G. duodenalis by immunochromatography assay. Prevalence was significantly higher in young dogs less than 6 months (11.6% compared with adult dogs 6 months-3 years (1.6% (P=0.041. The infection was more common in diarrheic dogs (18.5% compared with non-diarrheic dogs (0.8% and the difference was significant (P=0.001. Microscopic examination on fecal samples showed that 2.7% (4 out of 150 of the studied dogs were positive.Conclusion: The infection rate of giardiasis in companion dogs' particularly in diarrheic dogs is considered to be critical from the viewpoint of public health. Our results indicate that this parasite is a zoonotic infection in Ahvaz district.

  12. Prevalence of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts and characterization of Giardia spp. isolated from drinking water in Canada.

    OpenAIRE

    Wallis, P M; Erlandsen, S L; Isaac-Renton, J. L.; Olson, M. E.; Robertson, W J; Keulen, H., van

    1996-01-01

    This study was carried out to estimate the prevalence and potential for human infectivity of Giardia cysts in Canadian drinking water supplies. The presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts was also noted, but isolates were not collected for further study. A total of 1,760 raw water samples, treated water samples, and raw sewage samples were collected from 72 municipalities across Canada for analysis, 58 of which treat their water by chlorination alone. Giardia cysts were found in 73% of raw sewage...

  13. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites of stray dogs impounded by the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA, Durban and Coast, South Africa : short communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.P. Singh

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Coprological examination was used to determine the prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal parasites of stray dogs impounded by the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA, Durban and Coast, South Africa. Helminth and protozoan parasites were found in faeces of 240 dogs with an overall prevalence of 82.5% (helminth parasites 93.1% and protozoan parasites 6.9 %. The following parasites and their prevalences were detected; Ancylostoma sp. (53.8 %, Trichuris vulpis (7.9 %, Spirocerca lupi (5.4 %, Toxocara canis (7.9 %, Toxascaris leonina (0.4 % Giardia intestinalis (5.6 % and Isospora sp. (1.3 %. Dogs harbouring a single parasite species were more common (41.7 % than those harbouring 2 (15 % or multiple (2.1 % species. Ancylostoma sp., Toxocara canis and Giardia intestinalis have zoonotic potential and were detected in 66.7 % of the samples.

  14. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites of stray dogs impounded by the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA), Durban and Coast, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukaratirwa, S; Singh, V P

    2010-06-01

    Coprological examination was used to determine the prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal parasites of stray dogs impounded by the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA), Durban and Coast, South Africa. Helminth and protozoan parasites were found in faeces of 240 dogs with an overall prevalence of 82.5% (helminth parasites 93.1% and protozoan parasites 6.9%). The following parasites and their prevalences were detected; Ancylostoma sp. (53.8%), Trichuris vulpis (7.9%), Spirocerca lupi (5.4%), Toxocara canis (7.9%), Toxascaris leonina (0.4%) Giardia intestinalis (5.6%) and Isospora sp. (1.3%). Dogs harbouring a single parasite species were more common (41.7%) than those harbouring 2 (15%) or multiple (2.1%) species. Ancylostoma sp., Toxocara canis and Giardia intestinalis have zoonotic potential and were detected in 66.7% of the samples. PMID:21247022

  15. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites of stray dogs impounded by the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA), Durban and Coast, South Africa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S, Mukaratirwa; V P, Singh.

    Full Text Available Coprological examination was used to determine the prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal parasites of stray dogs impounded by the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA), Durban and Coast, South Africa. Helminth and protozoan parasites were found in faeces of 240 dogs with an [...] overall prevalence of 82.5 % (helminth parasites 93.1 % and protozoan parasites 6.9 %). The following parasites and their prevalences were detected; Ancylostoma sp. (53.8 %), Trichuris vulpis (7.9 %), Spirocerca lupi (5.4 %), Toxocara canis (7.9 %), Toxascaris leonina (0.4 %) Giardia intestinalis (5.6 %) and Isospora sp. (1.3 %). Dogs harbouring a single parasite species were more common (41.7 %) than those harbouring 2 (15 %) or multiple (2.1 %) species. Ancylostoma sp., Toxocara canis and Giardia intestinalis have zoonotic potential and were detected in 66.7 % of the samples.

  16. Segunda encuesta nacional de infecciones parasitarias intestinales en Cuba, 2009 / Second national survey of intestinal parasitic infections in Cuba, 2009

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lázara, Rojas; Fidel Ángel, Núñez; Pablo Héctor, Aguiar; Luis Carlos, Silva Ayçaguer; Delmis, Álvarez; Raydel, Martínez; Mateo, Cabrera; Raúl, Cordoví; Gustavo, Kourí.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: en Cuba las parasitosis intestinales continúan siendo endémicas, con una mayor frecuencia en zonas rurales y montañosas. Después de haber transcurrido casi 25 años desde la última encuesta nacional, se hizo necesario hacer una nueva encuesta para conocer los índices de prevalencia de l [...] as parasitosis intestinales y comparar los resultados obtenidos entre ambos estudios. Tal conocimiento resultaría de gran valor para elaborar estrategias de salud y el diseño de programas de control de las infecciones parasitarias intestinales. Objetivo: determinar los índices actuales de prevalencia de las parasitosis intestinales, y comparar los resultados con los de la encuesta anterior luego de haber transcurrido 25 años. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte trasversal durante los meses de mayo a agosto de 2009 en una muestra de la población cubana. A cada uno se le recogió una muestra de heces que fue analizada por el método de examen directo, la técnica de concentración de Willis y el examen de Kato-Katz; también se le llenó un cuestionario. Resultados: al comparar los resultados de las encuestas nacionales de infecciones parasitarias intestinales realizadas en 1984 y 2009, se encontró que en general disminuyeron las infecciones por parásitos, tanto los helmintos como los protozoos patógenos, aunque los infectados con comensales aumentaron su frecuencia en la de 2009. También se produjo una disminución de las frecuencias de infecciones por todas las especies de geohelmintos, Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, ancylostomídeos, y Strongyloides stercoralis, así como por los protozoos patógenos Giardia lamblia y Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar, y los comensales: Endolimax nana y Entamoeba coli en 2009. La única especie de parásito intestinal que aumentó su frecuencia con respecto a la encuesta de 1984 fue Enterobius vermicularis. En ambos estudios la frecuencia de infección con parásitos o comensales fue mayor en el grupo de 5 a 14 años (edad escolar). Conclusiones: al comparar los resultados de las encuestas nacionales de infecciones parasitarias intestinales realizadas en 1984 y 2009, se encontró que en general disminuyeron las frecuencias de infecciones con parásitos intestinales. El hallazgo en ambos estudios de una frecuencia mayor de infección con parásitos o comensales en el grupo de 5 a 14 años (edad escolar), respalda la recomendación de poner énfasis en los programas de control para las parasitosis intestinales en este grupo de edad. Abstract in english Introduction: the intestinal parasitic infections are still endemic in Cuba, with a higher frequency in rural and mountain regions. Twenty five years after the last national survey, it deemed necessary to carry out a new national survey in order to know the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infecti [...] ons and to compare the obtained results between both studies. That knowledge would be valuable to work out strategies of health and to design a control program for intestinal parasitic infections in Cuba. Objective: to determine the current prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in Cuba and to compare these results with those obtained from the previous survey after a 25 year-period. Methods: a cross sectional study was conducted from May to August of 2009 in a sample of Cuban population. A stool sample was collected from each individual, which was analyzed by direct examination, Willis' brine flotation method and the Kato-Katz thick smear technique. Additionally, a questionnaire was administered. Results: the comparison between 1984 and 2009 surveys showed a general decrease of frequencies of intestinal parasitic infections caused by both helminths and pathogenic protozoa; however, the percentage of infections with commensal protozoa increased in 2009. In this last survey, there was observed decline of frequencies of infections with soil transmitted species, Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, and Strongyloides stercoralis and the pathogenic protozoa:

  17. Interacting parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2010-01-01

    Parasitism is the most popular life-style on Earth, and many vertebrates host more than one kind of parasite at a time. A common assumption is that parasite species rarely interact, because they often exploit different tissues in a host, and this use of discrete resources limits competition (1). On page 243 of this issue, however, Telfer et al. (2) provide a convincing case of a highly interactive parasite community in voles, and show how infection with one parasite can affect susceptibility to others. If some human parasites are equally interactive, our current, disease-by-disease approach to modeling and treating infectious diseases is inadequate (3).

  18. A large survey of Croatian wild mammals for Giardia duodenalis reveals a low prevalence and limited zoonotic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Relja; Sprong, Hein; Lucinger, Snjezana; Pozio, Edoardo; Cacciò, Simone M

    2011-08-01

    Wild mammals are considered an important source of potentially zoonotic Giardia duodenalis parasites, yet surprisingly little information is available on the actual prevalence and the genetic identity of the species they harbor. A large survey was conducted in Croatia by collecting 832 fecal samples from red deer (Cervus elaphus, n = 374), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus, n = 21), wild boars (Sus scrofa, n = 144), foxes (Vulpes vulpes, n = 66), bears (Ursus arctos, n = 19), wolves (Canis lupus, n = 127), jackals (Canis aureus, n = 8), and hares (Lepus europeus, n = 73). Fecal samples were tested for the presence of Giardia cysts using fluorescent microscopy. The observed prevalence ranged from low (1% in red deer, 1.7% in wild boars, and 4.5% in foxes) to moderate (10% in wolves and 12.5% in jackals) to high (24% in roe deer). No cysts were observed in bears and hares. Polymerase chain reaction was performed on microscopically positive samples to amplify fragments of the small subunit ribosomal gene, the ribosomal 5.8S gene and the two flanking internal transcribed sequences, and the triose phosphate isomerase gene. Sequence analysis showed a predominance of G. duodenalis assemblage A in both ruminants (genotypes A1 and A3) and carnivores (genotype A1). G. duodenalis assemblages B, C, and D, as well as Giardia microti, were also detected in this study. This is the first molecular description of the parasite from the red deer, the wolf, and the jackal. The data point to a minor role of wild mammals as reservoirs of zoonotic assemblages of G. duodenalis, albeit cycling between sylvatic and domestic animals is possible. PMID:21142957

  19. Occurrence of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in activated sludge samples in Campinas, SP, Brazil / Ocorrência de cistos de Giardia e oocistos de Cryptosporidium em amostras de lodo ativado em Campinas, SP, Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luciana Urbano, Santos; Taís Rondello, Bonatti; Romeu, Cantusio Neto; Regina Maura Bueno, Franco.

    2004-12-04

    Full Text Available Giardia e Cryptosporidium causaram vários surtos epidêmicos de gastroenterite, associados à água potável. Efluentes de esgoto contaminados foram incriminados como uma fonte potencial de cistos e oocistos. Uma investigação foi conduzida para verificar a presença de cistos de Giardia e oocistos de Cry [...] ptosporidium em amostras de lodo ativado de uma Estação de Tratamento de Esgoto. Para isto as amostras foram submetidas: i) a concentração pelo processo de clarificação com éter (ECP) e ii) método de purificação por flutuação em sacarose (SFM) e, as alíquotas dos sedimentos foram examinadas por imunofluorescência. Cistos de Giardia estiveram presentes em todas as amostras avaliadas (100,0%; n = 8) quando utilizado ECP e kit 1, enquanto o kit 2 resultou em 6 amostras positivas (85,7%; n = 7). Para SFM, cistos de Giardia foram detectados em 75,0% e 100,0% destas amostras (para kit 1 e 2 respectivamente). Considerando os oocistos de Cryptosporidium, duas amostras (25,0%; kit 1 e 28,5% kit 2) foram positivas usando-se ECP enquanto para SFM, apenas uma amostra (examinada pelo kit 1) foi positiva (12,5%). Os resultados do experimento-controle revelaram que as taxas de recuperação para Giardia e Cryptosporidium, quando utilizado ECP foi de 54,5% e 9,6% e para SFM, foi de 10,5% e 3,2%, respectivamente. Considerando a detecção de alta concentração desses protozoários, é recomendada a avaliação prévia do lodo ativado antes de sua aplicação na agricultura e, com alguma melhora, ECP pode ser uma técnica apropriada e simples para a detecção de protozoários em amostras de esgoto. Abstract in english Giardia and Cryptosporidium have caused several outbreaks of gastroenteritis in humans associated with drinking water. Contaminated sewage effluents are recognized as a potential source of waterborne protozoa. Due to the lack of studies about the occurrence of these parasites in sewage samples in Br [...] azil, we compared the efficiency of two procedures for concentrating cysts and oocysts in activated sludge samples of one sewage treatment plant. For this, the samples were submitted to i) concentration by the ether clarification procedure (ECP) and to ii) purification by sucrose flotation method (SFM) and aliquots of the pellets were examined by immunofluorescence. Giardia cysts were present in all samples (100.0%; n = 8) when using ECP and kit 1 reagents, while kit 2 resulted in six positive samples (85.7%; n = 7). As for SFM, cysts were detected in 75.0% and 100.0% of these samples (for kit 1 and 2, respectively). Regarding Cryptosporidium, two samples (25.0%; kit 1 and 28.5% for kit 2) were detected positive by using ECP, while for SFM, only one sample (examined by kit 1) was positive (12.5%). The results of the control trial revealed Giardia and Cryptosporidium recovery efficiency rates for ECP of 54.5% and 9.6%, while SFM was 10.5% and 3.2%, respectively. Considering the high concentration detected, a previous evaluation of the activated sludge before its application in agriculture is recommended and with some improvement, ECP would be an appropriate simple technique for protozoa detection in sewage samples.

  20. Obtención, purificación y caracterización de anticuerpos policlonales IgY desarrollados en gallina, dirigidos contra aislamientos colombianos de Giardia duodenalis / Obtention, purification and characterization of IgY polyclonal antibodies, developed in hens, directed against Colombian isolates of Giardia duodenalis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Dabeiba Adriana, García; Rubén Santiago, Nicholls; Adriana, Arévalo; Orlando, Torres; Sofía, Duque.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. El desarrollo de anticuerpos policlonales requiere de animales de laboratorio, generalmente, el conejo, que deben sangrarse para su obtención. Como alternativa, se han utilizado las gallinas. Objetivo. Desarrollar anticuerpos policlonales IgY anti- Giardia duodenalis y evaluar diferent [...] es métodos para su purificación a partir de yema de huevo. Materiales y métodos. Se inmunizaron tres gallinas intramuscularmente con trofozoítos del parásito: las inmunizaciones se realizaron a los 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 y 120 días. Se recolectaron huevos en cada etapa de la inmunización y se purificó la IgY por deslipidación (D) y precipitación (P) mediante cinco protocolos diferentes: M1: (P: sulfato de amonio/D: dextrán sulfato-cloruro de calcio), M2: (D: dextrán sulfato-cloruro de calcio/P: sulfato de amonio), M3: (D: cloroformo/ P: sulfato de amonio 50%), M4: (D: solución A/P:solución B) y M5: (D: cloroformo/P: sulfato de amonio 30%). Se realizó evaluación inmunoquímica de la IgY anti- Giardia duodenalis mediante inmunodifusión, contrainmunoelectroforesis e inmunoelectrotransferencia ( Western blot); la pureza de IgY por SDS-PAGE en presencia y ausencia de reductor y la concentración de la inmunoglobulina (mg/mL) por espectrofotometría y densitometría. Resultados. La IgY anti- G. duodenalis mediante evaluación inmunoquímica presentó títulos hasta de 1:32. La inmunoglobulina en ausencia de reductor mostró una banda de 180 kd y en su presencia bandas de 30 y 68 kd, características de sus cadenas liviana y pesada, respectivamente. Las mayores concentraciones de inmunoglobulina se recuperaron con el método dos (M2), 4,6 mg de IgY por mL de yema de partida. Conclusiones. Por su facilidad y economía de producción en gallinas, los anticuerpos policlonales IgY anti- Giardia así obtenidos podrán utilizarse para desarrollar inmunoensayos que detecten el parásito en eluídos de heces. Abstract in english Introduction. The development of polyclonal antibodies requires laboratory animals, as the usually rabbits, which are bled for obtaining the immunoglobulins.Hens are an alternative to developing IgY polyclonal antibodies. Objective. In the current study, hens were used to develop IgY anti- Giardia d [...] uodenalis antibodies and to evaluate five protocols for its purification. Materials and methods. Three hens were immunized intramuscularly immunized with Colombian Giardia duodenalis isolates trophozoites on day 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120. The hen eggs were collected before each immunization, and IgY purified from yolk by delipidation (D) and precipitation (P) using five different protocols: M1: (P: ammonium sulfate/D:dextran sulfate-calcium chloride), M2: (D: dextran sulfate-calcium chloride/P: ammonium sulfate), M3: (D: chloroform/P: ammonium sulfate 50%), M4: (D: solution A/P: solution B) and M5: (D: chloroform/P: ammonium sulfate 30%). The immunochemistry evaluation of IgY anti- Giardia duodenalis was assayed by immunodiffusion, counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIE) and Western blot. The purity of IgY was assayed by SDS-PAGE under reducing and nonreducing conditions. Immunoglobulin concentration (mg/mL) was estimated by spectrophotometry and densitometry. Results. IgY anti- Giardia duodenalis by CIE had titres up to 1:32. SDS-PAGE, without 2- mercaptoethanol showed a 180 kd band characteristic of the whole to IgY and, with 2- mercaptoethanol, two bands of 68 and 30 kd, characteristic of its light and heavy chains, respectively. The greatest concentrations of immunoglobulin were recovered by method two (M2), producing 4.6 mg of IgY per mL of initial egg yolk. Conclusions. The easy and inexpensive production of IgY anti- Giardia duodenalis in hens is an advantage for using it to develop immunoassays that detect the parasite in fecal eluates.

  1. ENTEROPATHOGENS DETECTED IN A DAYCARE CENTER, SOUTHEASTERN BRAZIL: BACTERIA, VIRUS, AND PARASITE RESEARCH / Enteropatógenos detectados em crianças de creche no Sudeste do Brasil: pesquisa de bactérias, vírus e parasitos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Edna Donizetti Rossi, Castro*; Marcela Cristina Braga Yassaka, Germini*; Joana D' Arc Pereira, Mascarenhas; Yvone Benchimol, Gabbay; Ian Carlos Gomes de, Lima; Patrícia dos Santos, Lobo; Valéria Daltibari, Fraga; Luciana Moran, Conceição; Ricardo Luiz Dantas, Machado; Andréa Regina Baptista, Rossit.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a prevalência e o perfil etiológico de enteropatógenos em crianças de uma creche. Métodos: No período de outubro de 2010 a fevereiro de 2011 foram coletadas e analisadas amo [...] stras de fezes de 100 crianças matriculadas em creche do governo no município de São José do Rio Preto, Estado de São Paulo. Resultados: Um total de 246 bactérias foram isoladas em 99% das amostras de fezes; 129 eram diarreicas e 117 não-diarreicas. Foram isoladas setenta e três cepas de Escherichia coli, 19 de Enterobacter, uma de Alcaligenes e uma de Proteus. Foram detectados 14 casos de colonização mista com Enterobacter e de E. coli. Norovírus e Astrovirus foram detectados em crianças com sinais clínicos sugestivos de diarréia. Estes vírus foram detectados exclusivamente entre as crianças residentes em áreas urbanas. Todas as amostras fecais foram negativas para a presença das espécies de rotavírus A e C. Foi observada a presença de Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba coli, Endolimax nana e ancilostomídeos. Foi encontrada associação significativa entre o consumo de alimentos fora do centro da casa e creche e a presença de parasitos intestinais. Conclusões: Para as crianças desta creche, a infecção intestinal por patógenos não parece ter contribuido para a ocorrência de diarreia ou outros sintomas intestinais. As diferenças observadas podem ser atribuídas à grande diversidade de características geográficas, sociais e econômicas e o clima do Brasil, as quais tem sido relatadas como fatores críticos para a modulação da frequência de diferentes enteropatógenos Abstract in english Introduction: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and etiological profile of enteropathogens in children from a daycare center. Methods: From October 2010 to February 2011 stool samples from 100 child [...] ren enrolled in a government daycare center in the municipality of São José do Rio Preto, in the state of São Paulo, were collected and analyzed. Results: A total of 246 bacteria were isolated in 99% of the fecal samples; 129 were in the diarrheal group and 117 in the non-diarrheal group. Seventy-three strains of Escherichia coli were isolated, 19 of Enterobacter, one of Alcaligenes and one of Proteus. There were 14 cases of mixed colonization with Enterobacter and E. coli. Norovirus and Astrovirus were detected in children with clinical signs suggestive of diarrhea. These viruses were detected exclusively among children residing in urban areas. All fecal samples were negative for the presence of the rotavirus species A and C. The presence of Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba coli, Endolimax nana and hookworm was observed. A significant association was found between food consumption outside home and daycare center and the presence of intestinal parasites. Conclusions: For children of this daycare center, intestinal infection due to pathogens does not seem to have contributed to the occurrence of diarrhea or other intestinal symptoms. The observed differences may be due to the wide diversity of geographical, social and economic characteristics and the climate of Brazil, all of which have been reported as critical factors in the modulation of the frequency of different enteropathogens.

  2. Viability of Giardia intestinalis cysts and viability and sporulation state of Cyclospora cayetanensis oocysts determined by electrorotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, C; Goater, A D; Pethig, R; Smith, H V

    2001-02-01

    Electrorotation is a noninvasive technique that is capable of detecting changes in the morphology and physicochemical properties of microorganisms. Electrorotation studies are reported for two intestinal parasites, Giardia intestinalis and Cyclospora cayetanensis. It is concluded that viable and nonviable G. intestinalis cysts can be differentiated by this technique, and support for this conclusion was obtained using a fluorogenic vital dye assay and morphological indicators. The viability of C. cayetanensis oocysts (for which no vital dye assay is currently available) can also be determined by electrorotation, as can their sporulation state. Modeling of the electrorotational response of these organisms was used to determine their dielectric properties and to gain an insight into the changes occurring within them. Electrorotation offers a new, simple, and rapid method for determining the viability of parasites in potable water and food products and as such has important healthcare implications. PMID:11157220

  3. Viability of Giardia intestinalis Cysts and Viability and Sporulation State of Cyclospora cayetanensis Oocysts Determined by Electrorotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, C.; Goater, A. D.; Pethig, R.; Smith, H. V.

    2001-01-01

    Electrorotation is a noninvasive technique that is capable of detecting changes in the morphology and physicochemical properties of microorganisms. Electrorotation studies are reported for two intestinal parasites, Giardia intestinalis and Cyclospora cayetanensis. It is concluded that viable and nonviable G. intestinalis cysts can be differentiated by this technique, and support for this conclusion was obtained using a fluorogenic vital dye assay and morphological indicators. The viability of C. cayetanensis oocysts (for which no vital dye assay is currently available) can also be determined by electrorotation, as can their sporulation state. Modeling of the electrorotational response of these organisms was used to determine their dielectric properties and to gain an insight into the changes occurring within them. Electrorotation offers a new, simple, and rapid method for determining the viability of parasites in potable water and food products and as such has important healthcare implications. PMID:11157220

  4. Co-infection of Giardia intestinalis and Cyclospora cayetanensis in an immunocompetent patient with prolonged diarrhea: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koru, Ozgur; Araz, Engin; Inci, Askin; Tanyuksel, Mehmet

    2006-06-01

    Cyclospora cayetanensis is an agent of emerging infectious disease, and a recognized cause of diarrhea in some patients. Also, the flagellated protozoan, Giardia intestinalis, induces a diarrheal illness of the small intestine. Cases of cyclosporiasis are frequently missed, primarily due to the fact that the parasite can be quite difficult to detect in human fecal samples, despite an increasing amount of data regarding this parasite. On the other hand, G. intestinalis can be readily recognized via the microscopic visualization of its trophozoite or cyst forms in stained preparations or unstained wet mounts. In this report, we describe an uncommon case of co-infection with G. intestinalis and C. cayetanensis in an immunocompetent patient with prolonged diarrhea, living in a non-tropical region of Turkey. PMID:16820767

  5. Chemotherapeutics of Neglected Waterborne Parasites: Current Status and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna Chakrabarti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Waterborne protozoan parasites Cryptosporidium and Giardia cause diarrheal diseases worldwide. Cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis cause significant disease burden and economic impact much of the developed world and their treatment options are limited. These diseases are, therefore, included in the World Health Organization neglected disease initiative. These protozoans are also included as bioterrorism agents because of their potential ability for large-scale contamination of water supplies. This mini review discusses ways for therapeutic options to control the diseases caused by these parasites.

  6. Parasitic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parasites are living things that use other living things - like your body - for food and a place ... diseases are easily treated and some are not. Parasites range in size from tiny, one-celled organisms ...

  7. Prevalência de Cryptosporidium spp e Giardia sp em eqüinos estabulados no Jockey Club de Santa Maria - RS, Brasil / Prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia sp. infection in horses stabled in the Jockey Club of Santa Maria - RS, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aline Diefenbach, Gomes; Clarissa, Barretta; Dhalile Plein, Ziegler; Lourenço, Sausen; Nathalia, Stoever; Luís Antônio, Sangioni; Fernanda Silveira Flores, Vogel; Silvia González, Monteiro; Andreia, Zanella.

    2662-26-01

    Full Text Available O Cryptosporidium spp. e a Giardia sp. são atualmente reconhecidos como os principais patógenos entéricos com potencial zoonótico. O presente estudo visou estabelecer a prevalência desses protozoários em eqüinos hospedados no Jockey Club de Santa Maria, RS, Brasil, no período de 19 de maio a 30 de j [...] unho de 2007. Foram coletadas amostras de fezes, diretamente da ampola retal, de 64 animais. As amostras de fezes foram processadas por meio do método de centrifugação-flutuação de Faust modificado. Posteriormente essas amostras foram visualizadas ao microscópio óptico para a pesquisa de cistos e oocistos. Os resultados encontrados revelaram a presença de Cryptosporidium spp. em 75% (48/64) das amostras. Cistos de Giardia sp. não foram encontrados nas amostras de fezes analisadas. A freqüência de Cryptosporidium spp. nas diferentes faixas etárias foi de 83,3% (15/18) nos potros até dois anos de idade, 71% (22/31) nos jovens entre dois e cinco anos e 80% (12/15) nos adultos. Os resultados demonstram que o Cryptosporidium spp. está amplamente disseminado na população de eqüinos do Jockey Club de Santa Maria e pode representar uma fonte de infecção significativa para a população da região. Abstract in english Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia sp. are currently recognised as the main enteric pathogens with potential zoonotic transmission risk. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of these parasites in horses stabled in the Santa Maria Jockey Club between May 19 and June 30, 2007. Fecal sam [...] ples from 64 horses were collected directly from the animals’ rectal ampoule. The 64 fecal samples were processed using modified Faust’s method through the centrifugation-floatation technique, and were then later visualized under optical microscope for detection of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts and Giardia sp. cysts. The results showed the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in 75% (48/64) of the samples. Giardia sp. cysts were not found in the fecal samples analysed. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in foals below two years of age was 83.3% (15/18); 71% (22/31) in young foals aged between three and five years of age, and 80% (12/15) in adult horses. These results show that Cryptosporidium spp. is widely disseminated in this population, and it can represent an important source of infection for the population in the region.

  8. Frequência de ocorrência de Giardia sp. e de Cryptosporidium spp. em equídeos naturalmente infectados e abatidos em um frigorífico / Frequency of occurrence of Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium spp. in equidae naturally infected and slaughtered in a slaughter house

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nayara Resende, Nasciutti; Dagmar Diniz, Cabral; Aline Diniz, Cabral; Rafael Rocha de, Souza; Patricia Magalhães de, Oliveira.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Dentre os protozoários de maior importância em saúde pública estão Cryptosporidium spp. e Giardia sp. pelo potencial zoonótico. Pesquisou-se a frequência de ocorrência desses parasitas em equídeos abatidos em um frigorífico no município de Araguari, Minas Gerais, durante o período de fevereiro a mar [...] ço de 2008, correlacionando com o sexo, espécie e procedência dos animais. Foram coletadas 150 amostras de fezes, utilizando-se técnicas coproparasitológicas específicas para a detecção de Cryptosporidium spp. e Giardia sp. Os resultados revelaram a presença de cistos de Giardia sp. em 4 % (6/150) das amostras. A porcentagem de fêmeas positivas foi 4,23% (3/71) e machos 3,80% (3/79). Entre os equídeos a porcentagem de positivos foi 10,53% (2/19) em muares e 3,05% (4/131) em equinos. Quanto à procedência dos animais positivos por estados brasileiros, a frequência foi 16,67% (1/6) na Bahia; 7,69% (1/13) em Tocantins; 3,61% (3/83) em Minas Gerais e 2,08% (1/48) em Goiás. Oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. não foram encontrados em nenhuma das 150 amostras de fezes analisadas. Conclui-se que é importante estudar a frequência desses protozoários em equídeos, acrescentando dados à literatura, bem como sugerir estudos moleculares para pesquisar o genótipo circulante e, desse modo, associar com a epidemiologia desses protozoários e a saúde pública. Abstract in english Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia sp are protozoan of larger importance by their zoonotic potential. We studied the frequency of occurrence of these parasites in equidae from Araguari - Minas Gerais, slaughtered during February to March of 2008 and correlated with sex, species and origin. A total of [...] 150 fecal samples were collected and specific techniques were used. The results showed 4% (6/150) of Giardia sp. in all the samples. The positivity was 4.23% (3/71) in females and 3.80% (3/79) in males. The positivity was 10.53% (2/19) in mules and 3.05% (4/131) in horses. The positive samples from Brazilian states was 16.67% (1/6) in Bahia, 7.69% (1/13) in Tocantins, 3.61% (3/83) in Minas Gerais and 2.08% (1/48) in Goiás. Cryptosporidium spp. were not found in any samples analyzed (n=150). We concluded that it is very important to study the frequency of these protozoans in horses, adding data to the; we also suggest molecular studies to associate with epidemiology and public health.

  9. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in breeding kennel dogs in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Naoyuki; Kanai, Kazutaka; Kimura, Yuya; Chikazawa, Seishiro; Hori, Yasutomo; Hoshi, Fumio

    2015-03-01

    The present study is the first to show overall prevalences of intestinal parasites among breeding kennel dogs in Japan. A total of 573 fresh fecal samples were collected from dogs at 12 breeding kennels. Giardia-specific coproantigen was examined by ELISA kit (SNAP(®) Giardia, IDEXX Laboratories, Inc., Maine, USA). Other intestinal parasites were determined microscopically using the formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation technique. Overall prevalences of two genera of protists, Giardia spp. and Cystoisospora spp., were 25.7 and 1.2 %, respectively. The prevalence of helminthes was recorded as: Toxocara canis 0.2 %, Toxascaris leonina 0.9 %, Ancylostoma caninum 0.2 %, Trichuris vulpis 2.1 %, and Spirometra erinacei 0.4 %. According to age categories, Giardia spp., Cystoisospora spp., and T. leonina in <1-year-old dogs were significantly more prevalent than in ? 1-year-old dogs (61.0 vs. 19.8 %, P < 0.0001; 7.3 vs. 0.2 %, P < 0.0001; and 4.9 vs. 0.2 %, P < 0.001; respectively). With respect to fecal condition, the prevalences of T. leonina and T. vulpis were significantly higher in unformed stool dogs than in formed ones (2.4 vs. 0 %, P < 0.01, and 4.3 vs. 0.8 %, P < 0.05, respectively). In all of the breeding kennels except for one kennel, intestinal parasite infections were found at the high prevalent, ranging from 16.0 to 70.0 %. PMID:25627028

  10. Prevalence of zoonotic and other gastrointestinal parasites in police and house dogs in Alexandria, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. M. Ahmed

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This work estimates the gastrointestinal parasites of police and house dogs in Egypt with reference to its zoonotic risk. Materials and Methods: Fecal samples of 180 from police and house dogs were collected and then examined by different flotation and sedimentation techniques. Results: Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in police dogs was 7.5% and, in house dogs was 40%. Fecal examination of 120 police dogs revealed Toxocara canis eggs in 0.8%, Ancylsotoma caninum 1.7%, Trichuris vulpis 0.8 %, Cystoisospora canis 4.2% and Giardia species1.7%. Examination of 60 house dogs revealed Toxocaracanis eggs in 5% and Toxoascaris leonina 1.7 %, Cystoisospora canis 3.3%, Giardia species 31.7%, Entamoeba histolytica 18.3% and Cryptosporidium spp. 1.7%. Furthermore, age, sex, uncooked feed and communal housing revealed significant enteric parasite (P <0.05. Moreover, the zoonotic risks of police and house dogs were T. canis, A. caninum, T. vulpis, Giardia species, E. Histolytica and Cryptosporidium species. The puppies are representing the most zoonotic risk. Conclusion: In spite of, hygienic measures, regular deworming and high quality feeding of police and house dogs, a range of different parasites were recorded in this work. Parasitic zoonosis from police and house dogs has to be considered, especially for dog trainers and owners.

  11. NL MIND-BEST: a web server for ligands & proteins discovery; theoretic-experimental study of proteins of Giardia lamblia and new compounds active against Plasmodium falciparum

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Abstract There are many protein ligands and/or drugs described with very different affinity to a large number of target proteins or receptors. In this work, we selected Ligands or Drug-Target pairs (DTPs/nDTPs) of drugs with high affinity/non-affinity for different targets. Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSAR) models become a very useful tool in this context to substantially reduce time and resources consuming experiments. Unfortunately, most QSAR models predict act...

  12. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in raw water from the Atibaia river, Campinas, Brazil / Ocorrência de oocistos de Cryptosporidium e cistos de Giardia em águas do Rio Atibaia, Campinas, Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Regina Maura Bueno, FRANCO; Rosângela, ROCHA-EBERHARDT; Romeu, CANTUSIO NETO.

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium parvum e Giardia duodenalis são parasitos transmitidos pela água e têm causado muitos surtos de doenças gastrointestinais associados à ingestão de água. Devido à falta de estudo sobre a ocorrência destes protozoários na água, no Sudeste do Brasil, uma investigação foi conduzida para [...] verificar a presença de cistos e oocistos na água superficial do rio Atibaia. As amostras de água foram submetidas à filtração em membrana e a eluição foi processada por: (1) lavagem e raspagem da membrana (RM) e (2) dissolução em acetona (ADM). Parâmetros microbiológicos e químicos foram analisados. Alíquotas do sedimento foram examinadas por imunofluorescência. Todas as amostras de água foram positivas, a despeito da alta turbidez. Maior taxa de recuperação ocorreu em amostras tratadas pelo RM que por ADM. A meta em futuros trabalhos é determinar a viabilidade de cistos e oocistos para se obter o significado deste achado em Saúde Pública. Abstract in english Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia duodenalis are waterborne parasites that have caused several outbreaks of gastrointestinal disease associated with drinking water. Due to the lack of studies about the occurrence of these protozoa in water in the Southeast of Brazil, an investigation was conducted [...] to verify the presence of cysts and oocysts in superficial raw water of the Atibaia River. The water samples were submitted to membrane filtration (3.0 mum) and elution was processed by (1) scraping and rinsing of membrane (RM method) and (2) acetone-dissolution (ADM method). Microbiologic and chemical parameters were analyzed. Aliquots of the pellets were examined by immunofluorescence (Merifluor, Meridian Diagnostics, Cincinnati, Ohio). All water samples were positive for Cryptosporidium and Giardia, in spite of the high turbidity. Higher recovery rates occurred in samples treated by the RM method than by the ADM technique. The goal for future work is the assessment of viability of cysts and oocysts to determine the public health significance of this finding.

  13. Social Parasites

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez, Miguel A.; Nguyen, HoangKim T.; Oberholzer, Michael; Hill, Kent L

    2011-01-01

    Protozoan parasites cause tremendous human suffering worldwide, but strategies for therapeutic intervention are limited. Recent studies illustrate that the paradigm of microbes as social organisms can be brought to bear on questions about parasite biology, transmission and pathogenesis. This review discusses recent work demonstrating adaptation of social behaviors by parasitic protozoa that cause African sleeping sickness and malaria. The recognition of social behavior and cell-cell communica...

  14. Ensaio terapêutico na infecção por Giardia muris em camundongo com metronidazole, tinidazole, secnidazole e furazolidone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Cristina Pedigone Cruz

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi testado in vivo a sensibilidade de Giardia muris a quatro drogas comumente usadas no tratamento da giardíase humana. Foram utilizados 7 grupos de animais, com 12 camundongos cada, sendo que o grupo controle recebeu apenas solução salina 0,15M (0,5ml/animal. Os demais grupos receberam em dose única: metronidazole e furazolidone (500mg/kg, tinidazole e secnidazole (200mg/kg. A eficácia das drogas foi avaliada através da contagem de cistos nas fezes e pela ausência de trofozoítos no intestino. O metronidazole foi a droga mais eficaz. Os cortes histológicos mostraram diferenças entre o padrão da mucosa intestinal de animais normais e parasitados. No entanto, não se observou diferença entre o padrão de mucosa de animais infectados tratados e não tratados, o que sugere que estas alterações podem ser causadas pelo parasito e não pelas drogas.A comparative study about the effectiveness of metronidazole, tinidazole, secnidazole and furazolidone was performed on Giardia muris from mice naturally infected. Groups of 12 animals each was constituted: the control treated with saline; one treated with metronidazole; one treated with furazolidone; one treated with tinidazole; one treated with secnidazole; histological normal control; histological infected. Samples of three stools were examined before and after treatment with quantification of cysts. Animals were cured when the trophozoites was not seen in the small bowel. The curative activity of drugs was 58.3% for metronidazole, 50% for furazolidone, 40% for secnidazole and 16% for tinidazole. It was also showed that there was a different pattern of the intestinal mucosa from the control and infected groups, treated or not, suggesting that the alterations encountered in the mucosa of infected animals were due to the parasitism either the action of the drugs.

  15. Neogenesis and maturation of transient Golgi-like cisternae in a simple eukaryote

    OpenAIRE

    Stefanic, S.; Morf, L.; Kulangara, C.; Rego?s, A.; Sonda, S.; Schraner, E. M.; Spycher, C.; Wild, P.; Hehl, A. B.

    2009-01-01

    The highly reduced protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia has minimal machinery for cellular processes such as protein trafficking. Giardia trophozoites maintain diverse and regulated secretory pathways but lack an identifiable Golgi complex. During differentiation to cysts, however, they produce specialized compartments termed encystation-specific vesicles (ESVs). ESVs are hypothesized to be unique developmentally regulated Golgi-like organelles dedicated to maturation and export of pre-sorted c...

  16. Freqüência de parasitos gastrintestinais em cães e gatos atendidos em hospital-escola veterinário da cidade de São Paulo Frequency of gastrointestinal parasites in dogs and cats referred to a veterinary school hospital in the city of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Funada

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Fecal samples from 1755 dogs and 327 cats were examined for the presence of helminths and protozoan forms. From the total samples, 486 (27.7% dogs and 103 (31.5% cats presented at least one parasite. The main genus of parasite in dogs were Ancylostoma (12.7%, Giardia (8.5%, Cystoisosopora (4.4%, Toxocara (2.6%, and Cryptosporidium (2.4%. The ocurrence of Ancylostoma was associated to male dogs, older than one year, while Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Cystoisospora and Toxocara were associated to dogs younger than one year (P<0.05. Among cats, the most frequent parasites were Cryptosporidium (11.3%, Giardia (8.3%, Cystoisosopora (8.3%, Toxocara (6.1%, and Ancylostoma (2.1%. Cryptosporidium and Cystoisosopora were more prevalent in cats younger than one year (P < 0.05.

  17. Parasitic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foundations of roentgenological semiotics of parasitic diseases of lungs, w hich are of the greatest practical value, are presented. Roentgenological pictu res of the following parasitic diseases: hydatid and alveolar echinococcosis, pa ragonimiasis, toxoplasmosis, ascariasis, amebiasis, bilharziasis (Schistosomias is) of lungs, are considered

  18. RECOVERY OF 'GIARDIA' CYSTS FROM WATER: CENTRIFUGATION VERSUS FILTRATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methods for the recovery of Giardia cysts from large volume (1900 L) water samples were experimentally examined in the laboratory and applied to 22 surface water supplies around Washington state. Orlon yarn-wound filters (7 and 1 micrometer porosity) were compared, with higher cy...

  19. COMPARISON OF SOME FILTRATION PROCESSES APPROPRIATE FOR GIARDIA CYST REMOVAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slow sand filtration, diatomaceous earth (DE) filtration, and coagulation-filtration (including conventional treatment, direct filtration, and in-line filtration), have been evaluated for Giardia cyst removal at pilot plant and/or field scale. Properly designed and operated, the ...

  20. Research concerning intestinal parasitosis in infant population discovered in two clinic laboratories from Oradea (Romania

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    Daniel-Dumitru PORTELECHI

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Considering the research made and the data offered by the specialists in parasitology from Oradea’s no.1 Polyclinic and Children’s Hospital, we have established that children from 1 to 18 years old have been found infected with 7 species of human parasites. Giardia lamblia, Blastocystis hominis, Ascaris lumbricoides, Oxyurus vermicularis, Trichurus trichiura, Hymenolepis nana, Hymenolepis diminuta.

  1. Research concerning intestinal parasitosis in infant population discovered in two clinic laboratories from Oradea (Romania)

    OpenAIRE

    Portelechi, Daniel-dumitru; Tomescu, Nicolae

    2006-01-01

    Considering the research made and the data offered by the specialists in parasitology from Oradea’s no.1 Polyclinic and Children’s Hospital, we have established that children from 1 to 18 years old have been found infected with 7 species of human parasites. Giardia lamblia, Blastocystis hominis, Ascaris lumbricoides, Oxyurus vermicularis, Trichurus trichiura, Hymenolepis nana, Hymenolepis diminuta.

  2. Seasonal fluctuations in the occurrence of enterotoxigenic bacteria and rotavirus in paediatric diarrhoea in Addis Ababa

    OpenAIRE

    Stintzing, G.; Ba?ck, E.; Tufvesson, B.; Johnsson, T.; Wadstro?m, T.; Habte, D.

    1981-01-01

    This study (March 1977—February 1978) was performed at the Ethio-Swedish Pediatric Clinic, Addis Ababa, to determine whether there were any seasonal fluctuations in the occurrence of diarrhoea associated with enterotoxigenic enterobacteria (ETEB), rotavirus and two parasites (Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica).

  3. CASE-CONTROL STUDY OF WATERBORNE GIARDIASIS IN RENO, NEVADA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterborne disease outbreaks are a growing problem in the United States (1), and several recent outbreaks have been linked to the parasite Giardia lamblia (2-8). Previous outbreaks of waterborne giardiasis have often been associated with unfiltered or inadequately filtered surfac...

  4. FREQUÊNCIA DE OCORRÊNCIA DE Giardia sp. E DE Cryptosporidium spp. EM EQUÍDEOS NATURALMENTE INFECTADOS E ABATIDOS EM UM FRIGORÍFICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayara Resende Nasciutti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia sp are protozoan of larger importance by their zoonotic potential. We studied the frequency of occurrence of these parasites in equidae from Araguari - Minas Gerais, slaughtered during February to March of 2008 and correlated with sex, species and origin. A total of 150 fecal samples were collected and specific techniques were used. The results showed 4% (6/150 of Giardia sp. in all the samples. The positivity was 4.23% (3/71 in females and 3.80% (3/79 in males. The positivity was 10.53% (2/19 in mules and 3.05% (4/131 in horses. The positive samples from Brazilian states was 16.67% (1/6 in Bahia, 7.69% (1/13 in Tocantins, 3.61% (3/83 in Minas Gerais and 2.08% (1/48 in Goiás. Cryptosporidium spp. were not found in any samples analyzed (n=150. We concluded that it is very important to study the frequency of these protozoans in horses, adding data to the; we also suggest molecular studies to associate with epidemiology and public health.

  5. THE EFFICIENCY OF YARN WOUND FILTERS IN GIARDIA CYSTS REMOVAL USING THE IMPROVED SUCROSE GRADIENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R SHAH MANSOURI

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The protozoan parasite Giardia is one of the important biological cotaminants in water. lts presence in water has caused the outbreak of a number of epidemics in various part of the world including the United States. The major impediment in detecting this particular parasite is unavailability of suitable filters capable of removing it from water. Regarding the fact yarn wound filters (cartridge used in removing Giardia under laboratory condition are currently difficult to obtain in Iran, attempts were made to design and manufacture the filters according to standards recommended in the literature. Methods. To determine the efficiency of filters manufactured in this way, a pilot system was established and parameters of concern were investigated. A given number of cysts were introduced in each case to the water in the pilot tank after being counted on the hemocytometer lamella After the entire tank water (at least 4001had been pumped through the filters, the filter were removed from the pilot system to have their yarns separated and washed. The cysts recovered were then counted and compared with the original input cysts to determine the efficiency of the filters. Formation of sediments on filters due to suspended solids in water was a great impediment in counting the cysts hidden in the sediments. To overcome this difficulty, the method of floatation in sucrose was used to remove the hidden cysts from the sediments. Regarding the morphological characteristics of the cysts, the method was also studied in terms of the sucrose film concentration and the effects of centrifugal speed and duration on the removal of cysts from sediments. Results. The results indicated an efficiency of 80.69±5.85, which was ideal for a first experience in Iran. a level of 2.5 molar of Sucrose with a duration of 10 minutes for the centrifugation time at 2,000 rpm were considered to be optimum levels to yield a certainty of 95 percent and an efficiency of 89.95±4.25 . Discussion. The comparison of the efficiency obtained with those obtained across the world from the application of other techniques associated with this method indicated that this filter was advantages to similar filters, keeping in mind also that this filter can be used in field situations. It is essential to modify in each region the method of cyst removal from sediments using Sucrose gradient according to the particular morphological characteristics and density of cystes. The optimization of Sucrose gradient and the centrifugation duration and speed seems equally important.

  6. Ocorrência de Giardia, Cryptosporidium e microsporídios em animais silvestres em área de desmatamento no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Occurrence of Giardia, Cryptosporidium and microsporidia in wild animals from a deforestation area in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Anete Lallo

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A ocorrência de Giardia, Cryptosporidium e microsporídios foi investigada por meio da análise de 98 amostras fecais de animais silvestres capturados em uma área de desmatamento para a construção das barragens de Paraitinga e Biritiba, localizadas nos Municípios de Mogi das Cruzes, Salesópolis e Biritiba-Mirim, no Estado de São Paulo. As amostras foram obtidas de 46 roedores, 21 marsupiais, 16 sapos, nove morcegos, três primatas e três lagartos. As técnicas de centrífugo-flutuação com sulfato de zinco, de Kinyoun e a coloração de Gram-Chromotrope foram utilizadas, respectivamente, para a pesquisa de Giardia, de Cryptosporidium e de microsporídios. O total de animais parasitados por um dos protozoários investigados foi de 17,35% (17/98. Cistos de Giardia foram encontrados em amostras fecais de dois pequenos roedores da espécie Coendou villosus (ouriço-cacheiro. Os três animais positivos para Cryptosporidium foram roedores das espécies Akodon montensis, Thaptomys nigrita (ambos conhecidos como ratos do mato e Sciurus aestuans (serelepe ou caxinguelê. Esporos de microsporídios foram encontrados nas fezes de 12 animais, sendo seis roedores das espécies Oligoryzomys sp.(um, Akodon montensis (três e Coendou villosus (dois, três marsupiais pertencentes às espécies Didelphis aurita (dois e Marmosops incanus (um e três morcegos da espécie Diphylla ecaudata. Este é o primeiro relato de microsporidiose em animais silvestres no Brasil. A presente investigação enfatiza a importância de animais silvestres, particularmente pequenos mamíferos, como potenciais fontes de infecção desses protozoários para outras populações animais, incluindo o homem, em áreas de desmatamento.The occurrence of Giardia, Cryptosporidium and microsporidia was investigated in 98 faecal specimens from wildlife animals, captured in an area of deforestation for the construction of two water reservoirs (Paraitinga and Biritiba, located in the municipalities of Mogi das Cruzes, Salesópolis and Biritiba-Mirim, in the state of São Paulo (Brazil. Samples were obtained from 46 rodents, 21 marsupials, 16 frogs, 9 bats, 3 tamarins and 3 lizards. For the detection of Giardia, Cryptosporidium and microsporidia it was used, respectively, the floatation technique with lead sulphate, the Kinyoun method and the Gram-Chromotrope staining. The total number of parasitized animals by one of these protozoans was 17.35% (17/98. Cysts of Giardia were found in faecal samples from 2 prehensile-tailed porcupines (Coendou villosus. The three positive animals for Cryptoporidium were rodents - 1 montane akodont (Akodon montensis, 1 ebony akodont (Thaptomyces nigrita and 1 guainan squirrel (Sciurus aestuans. Microporidia spores were seen in the stools of 12 animals - 6 small rodents, including 3 montane akodonts, 1 prehensile-tailed porcupine and 2 pigmy rice rats (Oligoryzomys sp.; 3 marsupials, including 1 gray slender mouse opossum (Marmosops incanus and 2 big eared opossums (Didelphis aurita; 3 hairy-legged vampire bats (Diphylla ecaudata. This is the first description of microsporidiosis in wildlife animals in Brazil. The present study emphasizes the importance of these animals, particularly small mammals, as potential sources of protozoan infection to other animal populations, including man, in areas of deforestation.

  7. Ocorrência de Giardia, Cryptosporidium e microsporídios em animais silvestres em área de desmatamento no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil / Occurrence of Giardia, Cryptosporidium and microsporidia in wild animals from a deforestation area in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Anete, Lallo; Adriano, Pereira; Ronalda, Araújo; Sandra Elisa, Favorito; Patrícia, Bertolla; Eduardo Fernandes, Bondan.

    1465-14-01

    Full Text Available A ocorrência de Giardia, Cryptosporidium e microsporídios foi investigada por meio da análise de 98 amostras fecais de animais silvestres capturados em uma área de desmatamento para a construção das barragens de Paraitinga e Biritiba, localizadas nos Municípios de Mogi das Cruzes, Salesópolis e Biri [...] tiba-Mirim, no Estado de São Paulo. As amostras foram obtidas de 46 roedores, 21 marsupiais, 16 sapos, nove morcegos, três primatas e três lagartos. As técnicas de centrífugo-flutuação com sulfato de zinco, de Kinyoun e a coloração de Gram-Chromotrope foram utilizadas, respectivamente, para a pesquisa de Giardia, de Cryptosporidium e de microsporídios. O total de animais parasitados por um dos protozoários investigados foi de 17,35% (17/98). Cistos de Giardia foram encontrados em amostras fecais de dois pequenos roedores da espécie Coendou villosus (ouriço-cacheiro). Os três animais positivos para Cryptosporidium foram roedores das espécies Akodon montensis, Thaptomys nigrita (ambos conhecidos como ratos do mato) e Sciurus aestuans (serelepe ou caxinguelê). Esporos de microsporídios foram encontrados nas fezes de 12 animais, sendo seis roedores das espécies Oligoryzomys sp.(um), Akodon montensis (três) e Coendou villosus (dois), três marsupiais pertencentes às espécies Didelphis aurita (dois) e Marmosops incanus (um) e três morcegos da espécie Diphylla ecaudata. Este é o primeiro relato de microsporidiose em animais silvestres no Brasil. A presente investigação enfatiza a importância de animais silvestres, particularmente pequenos mamíferos, como potenciais fontes de infecção desses protozoários para outras populações animais, incluindo o homem, em áreas de desmatamento. Abstract in english The occurrence of Giardia, Cryptosporidium and microsporidia was investigated in 98 faecal specimens from wildlife animals, captured in an area of deforestation for the construction of two water reservoirs (Paraitinga and Biritiba), located in the municipalities of Mogi das Cruzes, Salesópolis and B [...] iritiba-Mirim, in the state of São Paulo (Brazil). Samples were obtained from 46 rodents, 21 marsupials, 16 frogs, 9 bats, 3 tamarins and 3 lizards. For the detection of Giardia, Cryptosporidium and microsporidia it was used, respectively, the floatation technique with lead sulphate, the Kinyoun method and the Gram-Chromotrope staining. The total number of parasitized animals by one of these protozoans was 17.35% (17/98). Cysts of Giardia were found in faecal samples from 2 prehensile-tailed porcupines (Coendou villosus). The three positive animals for Cryptoporidium were rodents - 1 montane akodont (Akodon montensis), 1 ebony akodont (Thaptomyces nigrita) and 1 guainan squirrel (Sciurus aestuans). Microporidia spores were seen in the stools of 12 animals - 6 small rodents, including 3 montane akodonts, 1 prehensile-tailed porcupine and 2 pigmy rice rats (Oligoryzomys sp.); 3 marsupials, including 1 gray slender mouse opossum (Marmosops incanus) and 2 big eared opossums (Didelphis aurita); 3 hairy-legged vampire bats (Diphylla ecaudata). This is the first description of microsporidiosis in wildlife animals in Brazil. The present study emphasizes the importance of these animals, particularly small mammals, as potential sources of protozoan infection to other animal populations, including man, in areas of deforestation.

  8. MOLECULAR TYPING OF Giardia duodenalis ISOLATES FROM NONHUMAN PRIMATES HOUSED IN A BRAZILIAN ZOO / Genotipagem de isolados de Giardia duodenalis de primatas não humanos mantidos em zoológico do Brasil