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Sample records for parasitic giardia lamblia

  1. Gene duplication in the genome of parasitic Giardia lamblia

    Flores Roberto

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Giardia are a group of widespread intestinal protozoan parasites in a number of vertebrates. Much evidence from G. lamblia indicated they might be the most primitive extant eukaryotes. When and how such a group of the earliest branching unicellular eukaryotes developed the ability to successfully parasitize the latest branching higher eukaryotes (vertebrates is an intriguing question. Gene duplication has long been thought to be the most common mechanism in the production of primary resources for the origin of evolutionary novelties. In order to parse the evolutionary trajectory of Giardia parasitic lifestyle, here we carried out a genome-wide analysis about gene duplication patterns in G. lamblia. Results Although genomic comparison showed that in G. lamblia the contents of many fundamental biologic pathways are simplified and the whole genome is very compact, in our study 40% of its genes were identified as duplicated genes. Evolutionary distance analyses of these duplicated genes indicated two rounds of large scale duplication events had occurred in G. lamblia genome. Functional annotation of them further showed that the majority of recent duplicated genes are VSPs (Variant-specific Surface Proteins, which are essential for the successful parasitic life of Giardia in hosts. Based on evolutionary comparison with their hosts, it was found that the rapid expansion of VSPs in G. lamblia is consistent with the evolutionary radiation of placental mammals. Conclusions Based on the genome-wide analysis of duplicated genes in G. lamblia, we found that gene duplication was essential for the origin and evolution of Giardia parasitic lifestyle. The recent expansion of VSPs uniquely occurring in G. lamblia is consistent with the increment of its hosts. Therefore we proposed a hypothesis that the increment of Giradia hosts might be the driving force for the rapid expansion of VSPs.

  2. Significantly Diverged Did2/Vps46 Orthologues from the Protozoan Parasite Giardia lamblia.

    Dutta, Somnath; Saha, Nabanita; Ray, Atrayee; Sarkar, Srimonti

    2015-09-01

    The endosomal compartment performs extensive sorting functions in most eukaryotes, some of which are accomplished with the help of the multivesicular body (MVB) sorting pathway. This pathway depends on the sequential action of complexes, termed the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT). After successful sorting, the crucial step of recycling of the ESCRT complex components requires the activation of the AAA ATPase Vps4, and Did2/Vps46 plays an important role in this activation event. The endolysosomal system of the protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia appears to lack complexity, for instead of having distinct early endosomes, late endosomes and lysosomes, there are only peripheral vesicles (PVs) that are located close to the cell periphery. Additionally, comparative genomics studies predict the presence of only a subset of the ESCRT components in G. lamblia. Thus, it is possible that the MVB pathway is not functional in G. lamblia. To address this issue, the present study focused on the two putative orthologues of Did2/Vps46 of G. lamblia as their function is likely to be pivotal for a functional MVB sorting pathway. In spite of considerable sequence divergence, compared to other eukaryotic orthologues, the proteins encoded by both these genes have the ability to function as Did2/Vps46 in the context of the yeast ESCRT pathway. Furthermore, they also localized to the cellular periphery, where PVs are also located. Thus, this report is the first to provide experimental evidence indicating the presence of a functional ESCRT component in G. lamblia by characterizing the putative Did2/Vps46 orthologues. PMID:26068593

  3. STUDY OF LEPTIN CONCENTRATIONS IN CHILDREN INFECTED WITH ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA\\DISPARE AND GIARDIA LAMBLIA PARASITES

    SHAKER MOHAMMED JASIM

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leptin, a 16-kDa protein secreted from white adipocytes, has been implicated in the regulation of food intake, energy expenditure, and whole-body energy balance in humans, therefore may be a mediator of anorexia associated with acute and chronic inflammation. In all parasitic infections there is loss of appetite and anorexia. Objective: The aim of the present study is to analyze serum leptin concentration in children infected with intestinal parasites (Entamoeba histolytica\\dispare and Giardia lamblia and compare them with healthy controls. Patients and methods: A total of 70 males and females patients infected with intestinal parasites presented to the Central Teaching Hospital for Pediatric in Baghdad city - Iraq, during the period from April to September, 2013. The age of patients ranged from 5 to 15 years. Thirty healthy parasite-free individuals consider to be a control group. Stool samples were collected from patients for direct microscopic examination, then body weight, height and body mass index (BMI were measured for all patients and controls. Serum leptin concentrations were detected by immunoenzymometric assay using the DRG Company Leptin ELISA kit. Statistical analysis was made by Chi-Square test using SAS version 9.1. Results: In this study 70 Patients infected with intestinal parasites, 40 patients confirmed to be positive for E. histolytica\\dispare and 30 patients for G. lamblia. The results showed serum leptin levels were not statistically significant between patient: 2.234±0.13ng/ml and control: 2.171±0.23; p > 0.05, at the same time, highly differences noticed between two age groups of patients with concentration of leptin, related to that leptin levels are increased in aged paralleling changes in fat mass. In addition, we found significant differences between age, weight and BMI with concentration of leptin. but the height of patients were not statistically significant with concentration of leptin. Conclusion: We need further investigations with the different parasites for analyze the role of leptin in parasitic infections.

  4. X-ray structure and characterization of carbamate kinase from the human parasite Giardia lamblia

    Galkin, Andrey; Kulakova, Liudmila; Wu, Rui; Nash, Theodore E.; Dunaway-Mariano, Debra; Herzberg, Osnat

    2010-01-01

    The three-dimensional structure of carbamate kinase from the human parasite G. lamblia has been determined at 3 Å resolution. Steady-state kinetic parameters have been determined and dsRNA-silencing experiments indicate that the enzyme is essential for the survival of G. lamblia.

  5. Giardia lamblia: a major parasitic cause of childhood diarrhoea in patients attending a district hospital in Ghana

    Nguah Samuel

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute childhood diarrhoea remains one of the leading causes of childhood morbidity and mortality in developing countries. The WHO has accordingly underlined the need for epidemiological surveys of infantile diarrhoea in all geographical areas. This study was conducted to determine the incidence of intestinal parasites among stool samples from children examined at a secondary health care facility in a rural area of Ghana. Method A retrospective study was conducted to investigate the incidence of intestinal parasites among children who had their stools examined at the Agogo Hospital laboratory. Stool microscopy results from January 2006 through May 2009 were obtained from archived records of the laboratory. Results for children less than 18 years were transcribed unto a standardized datasheet, entered into an electronic database designed using Microsoft® access 2007 and analyzed using Stata/SE11.1 statistical software. The incidences of the parasites were determined and presented with their Poisson exact 95% confidence intervals for the various ages. Results The median age of the 1080 children included in the study was 5 years (IQR: 2-12 years with 51.9% being females. The overall incidence of all parasites was 114 per 1000 with Giardia lamblia being the most common (89.5%. Children aged less than a year had the lowest parasite incidence of 13 per 1000 with all being Giardia lamblia, while those aged 15-17 years had the highest of 169 per 1000. The incidence for Giardia lamblia only was lowest at 13 per 1000 for those under a year old, highest at 152 per 1000 for the 15-17 year group and 97 per 1000 for all ages combined. There was a significant rise in incidence of Giardia lamblia with age (Trend x2 = 18.6, p Enterobius vermicularis, Taenia spp and Trichuris trichiura were not seen in any of the stool samples. Conclusion Giardia lamblia is the most prevalent intestinal parasite in examined stool samples of children within the Ashanti Akim North Municipality and its prevalence significantly increases with age. Measures must be put in place to educate the community on proper personal hygiene to reduce giardiasis.

  6. A Rare Cause of Reactive Arthritis: Giardia Lamblia

    Dilek Karakuş; Nilüfer Kutay Ordu Gökkaya; Fügen Oktay; Halil Uçan

    2009-01-01

    Although many of parasitic infestations are known to cause arthritis development, articular findings related to parasitosis is rarely discussed in literature. The protozoa, Giardia lamblia is often known as gastroenteritis agent, on the other hand rarely causes reactive arthritis. The clinical presentation related to articulation are arthritis and arthralgia. In our report, a case with reactive arthritis due to Giardia lamblia is presented with emphasis on the differences in diagnosis and tre...

  7. Host defences against Giardia lamblia.

    Lopez-Romero, G; Quintero, J; Astiazarán-García, H; Velazquez, C

    2015-08-01

    Giardia spp. is a protozoan parasite that inhabits the upper small intestine of mammals and other species and is the aetiological agent of giardiasis. It has been demonstrated that nitric oxide, mast cells and dendritic cells are the first line of defence against Giardia. IL-6 and IL-17 play an important role during infection. Several cytokines possess overlapping functions in regulating innate and adaptive immune responses. IgA and CD4(+) T cells are fundamental to the process of Giardia clearance. It has been suggested that CD4(+) T cells play a double role during the anti-Giardia immune response. First, they activate and stimulate the differentiation of B cells to generate Giardia-specific antibodies. Second, they act through a B-cell-independent mechanism that is probably mediated by Th17 cells. Several Giardia proteins that stimulate humoral and cellular immune responses have been described. Variant surface proteins, α-1 giardin, and cyst wall protein 2 can induce host protective responses to future Giardia challenges. The characterization and evaluation of the protective potential of the immunogenic proteins that are associated with Giardia will offer new insights into host-parasite interactions and may aid in the development of an effective vaccine against the parasite. PMID:26072999

  8. Identification of scaffold/Matrix Attachment (S/MAR like DNA element from the gastrointestinal protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia

    Gautam Pennathur

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromatin in the nucleus of all eukaryotes is organized into a system of loops and domains. These loops remain fastened at their bases to the fundamental framework of the nucleus, the matrix or the scaffold. The DNA sequences which anchor the bases of the chromatin loops to the matrix are known as Scaffold/Matrix Attachment Regions or S/MARs. Though S/MARs have been studied in yeast and higher eukaryotes and they have been found to be associated with gene organization and regulation of gene expression, they have not been reported in protists like Giardia. Several tools have been discovered and formulated to predict S/MARs from a genome of a higher eukaryote which take into account a number of features. However, the lack of a definitive consensus sequence in S/MARs and the randomness of the protozoan genome in general, make it a challenge to predict and identify such sequences from protists. Results Here, we have analysed the Giardia genome for the probable S/MARs predicted by the available computational tools; and then shown these sequences to be physically associated with the nuclear matrix. Our study also reflects that while no single computational tool is competent to predict such complex elements from protist genomes, a combination of tools followed by experimental verification is the only way to confirm the presence of these elements from these organisms. Conclusion This is the first report of S/MAR elements from the protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia. This initial work is expected to lay a framework for future studies relating to genome organization as well as gene regulatory elements in this parasite.

  9. [Giardia lamblia as a rare cause of reactive arthritis].

    Krol, Arkadiusz

    2013-12-01

    Giardiasis is a disease of gut, which is caused by the non-invasive (it does not pass the gut/blood barrier) protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia. It infects humans and animals like beavers, dogs and cattle. Contaminated water or uncooked food is a major source of transmission and G. lamblia occurs worldwide. High-risk groups are young children, travellers and immunocompromised individuals. Good hand hygiene is necessary to prevent the transmission. PMID:25353256

  10. Binding of cholera toxin to Giardia lamblia.

    McCardell, B. A.; Madden, J. M.; Stanfield, J T; Tall, B D; Stephens, M. J.

    1987-01-01

    Binding of cholera toxin to Giardia lamblia was demonstrated by two slightly different methods: an immunofluorescence technique using antibody to cholera toxin and anti-rabbit immunoglobulin G conjugated to fluorescein isothiocyanate, and a one-step fluorescence method in which G. lamblia was incubated with the B subunit of cholera toxin conjugated to fluorescein isothiocyanate.

  11. Whole genome sequencing of clinical isolates of Giardia lamblia

    Hanevik, Kurt; Bakken, R.; Brattbakk, Hans-Richard; Saghaug, Christina Skår; Langeland, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Clinical isolates from protozoan parasites such as Giardia lamblia are at present practically impossible to culture. By using simple cyst purification methods, we show that Giardia whole genome sequencing of clinical stool samples is possible. Immunomagnetic separation after sucrose gradient flotation gave superior results compared to sucrose gradient flotation alone. The method enables detailed analysis of a wide range of genes of interest for genotyping, virulence and drug resistance.

  12. Giardiavirus-resistant Giardia lamblia lacks a virus receptor on the cell membrane surface.

    Sepp, T.; Wang, A. L.; WANG, C.C.

    1994-01-01

    Giardia lamblia virus (GLV) is a small nonenveloped double-stranded RNA virus that infects specifically the parasitic protozoan G. lamblia. Among the many collected strains of G. lamblia, a few turn out to be highly resistant to the virus infection. Two of these strains, Ac and JH, were subjected to electroporation with the RNA from GLV-infected G. lamblia WB strain. Subsequent studies indicated the presence of GLV double-stranded RNA and GLV protein in the electroporated and propagated cells...

  13. Azasterols impair Giardia lamblia proliferation and induces encystation

    The effects of sterol biosynthesis inhibitors on growth and fine structure of Giardia lamblia P1 strain cultures were analyzed. Azasterols demonstrated high efficacy in killing cells. The IC50 values for 22,26-azasterol and 24(R,S),25-epiminolanosterol were 7 μM and 170 nM, respectively. Morphological analysis showed that azasterols induced changes in G. lamblia ultrastructure. The most significant alterations were: (a) considerable increase of the size of the peripheral vesicles, which are part of the parasite endosomal-lysosomal system; (b) appearance of autophagosomal structures; and (c) induction of differentiation, followed by an abnormal enlargement of encystation secretory vesicles. We propose that azasterols are effective chemotherapeutic drugs against Giardia lamblia in vitro and may have another target in cells besides sterol biosynthesis

  14. PURE CULTURE METHOD: GIARDIA LAMBLIA FROM DIFFERENT STOOL SAMPLES

    H.A YOUSEFI

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Giardiasis is one of the health problems in the world including Iran. To determine the biochemical and biological problems and also identification of various strains, it is essential to obtain pure culture and then mass production of Giardia lamblia. The goal of this study was to isolate this protozoa purely.
    Methods. Giardia lamblia cysts were isolated from 50 stool samples by use of floating of a four - layer of sucrose method. The cysts were transfered to an inducing solution. Subsequently, they were cultured in a modified culture medium (TYIS-33. Following excystation of trophozoite and its multiplication, the parasite was caltured and purified.
    Findings. Excitation of trophozoite was observed in 40 samples (80 percent from which 22 samples (55 percent yielded pure culture. The doubling time was approximately 13hr and the peak of parasite was observed between third and fourth days.
    Conclusion. The proliferation and growth rate of Giardia lamblia have enabled us to use this method widely. Cystein and ascorbic acid which are present in the induction solution, have a key role in excystation of trophozoite. Purification and passage of samples has facilitated the culture of this parasite in vitro. Therefore this method has yielded better results in comparison with other studies. This is probably due to a decrease in the amount of bovine bile or using different strains of Giardia lamblia in the present study.

  15. Giardia lamblia and Helicobater pylori Coinfection

    R Shafie

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Giardia lamblia and Helicobacter pylori are two flagellate microorganisms that grow in duodenum and stom­ach. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of them in patients with dyspepsia and other GI disorders. "nMethods: In this cross-sectional study, co-infection of above-mentioned agents was investigated in a group of 130 patients [me­dian age of 40 yr (range=11-79 including 76 males (58.8%] with dyspepsia using three methods of duodenal aspiration sam­ple, duodenal biopsy samples and evaluation of stool samples."nResults: : From 105 patients (59 males, 46 females, median age 40 years, range 11-79 entering this study from 3 hospitals, 4 patients (3.8% had G. lamblia and 61 patients (58% had H. pylori. All 4 patients infected by Giardia had also H. pylori infec­tion. Tenesmus (3 out of 4 patients was the most common symptom in patients with H. pylori infection (48 out of 61 pa­tients was reflux. Other symptoms in patients infected with both organisms (4 patients included diarrhea (2 cases, weight loss (2 cases, and loss of appetite (1 case but no report of vomiting."nConclusion: In patients co-infected with Giardia, H.pylori differentiation by physical examination is not possible. So in those patients with positive Rapid Urease Test (RUT, stool examination for Giardia detection is recommended. In addition, met­ronidazole (broad spectrum, anti-protozoal drug can be useful in H. pylori infection.

  16. Kinetics of lymphocyte subpopulation in intestinal mucosa of protein deficient Giardia lamblia infected mice.

    Upadhyay, P; Ganguly, N.K.; Walia, B. N.; Mahajan, R.C.

    1986-01-01

    Kinetics of gut lymphocyte subpopulations were studied in normal and malnourished groups of mice infected with Giardia lamblia. The maximum parasite load was observed at second, third, and first week of postinfection in normal controls, moderate (8%) and severe (3%) protein deficient groups respectively. The number of G lamblia trophozoite in 3% protein deficient group was low compared with control groups. A significant increase in T cell population of intraepithelial lymphocytes and lamina p...

  17. PREVALENCE OF GIARDIA LAMBLIA AND OTHER INTESTINAL PARASITES IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN AND ITS RELATION TO RESIDENCE PLACE, SEX AND BLOOD GROUP IN ILAM COUNTY OF IRAN

    Pourbabak

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available 1711' object of this study was to determine the prevalence oj asymptomatic infestation with Giardia lamblia lind other intestinal parasites in children of urban anti rural communities oj /lam county and its relation with dwelling place, sex and blood grollp!.. 77w study designed as (l five-month pUTasitoulgica! .m,..£!' oj fecal ami blood specimens from humans anti performed in 10 urban hcalih-trcatmcru clinics of llam city, two urban health treatment clinics of Eyvun city, two rural health-treatment clinics oj Chavar and Sartaf villages, llam province west of fran, 17,e examined population was preschool {, to 7 year-old children without any 'gastrointestinal compliarus. Prevalence oj infestation in subject grOllp W(l."' 32.54% (n=3100. Among intestinal parasites' G. lambliu with 85.43o/c (27.8% oj all, n=JO(JI prevalence rate was the most common. Infestation with 11. nnrm with 1'/.93% and E. coli with 3.07';, were in the second and third ranks, respectively, Infestation shows a distinct relationship with gender (P<0.05 and dwelling place, but it lacks a significant relation with blood groups. This study ."lIOWS that the prevalence of intestinal infestation in 6 to 7 year old child oj llam county hi equivalent to the top oj tile line oj the statistical percentage all over the world. 17,e relation between the severity oj infestation and residence place may arouse the suspicion oj sever contamination oj imbibing water.

  18. Effect of Giardia lamblia Infection on the Cognitive Function of School children

    F Partovi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The association between helminthic parasitic infection and cognitive function has long been recognized, however there are few reports about Giardia lamblia infection. This paper describes a study about the effect of G. lamblia infection on the cognitive function. Methods: One hundred thirty two children infected with G. lamblia from Robat Karim south of western Tehran, Iran were compared with 150 children without any parasitic infection. These two groups were identical in socioeconomic and nutritional status. Cognitive function was assessed using, three tests from Wechsler Intelligence Scale for children and one subset of the Clinical Evolution of Language Function. Results: Comparison of two groups revealed that uninfected children improved significantly more than children who had G. lamblia infection in the tests of Fluency (P< 0.02 and Digit-span Forwards/ Backwards (P< 0.004. Conclusion: Regular stool examination is suggested in areas with low hygienic conditions, since G. lamblia infection might be present without any clinical manifestation.

  19. Genotyping of Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba spp from river waters in Iran.

    Mahmoudi, Mohammad Reza; Nazemalhosseini-Mojarad, Ehsan; Karanis, Panagiotis

    2015-12-01

    In this study, DNA from 55 surface and river water samples, which were collected from some water sources of Tehran and the Guilan Province, Iran, were extracted and examined for Entamoeba spp. and Giardia lamblia by PCR and genotyping. Twenty-seven samples, which were concentrated using the immunomagnetic separation technology (IMS) method, were examined for Giardia alone. Twenty-eight samples, which were concentrated using the sucrose flotation (SF) method, were examined for both Giardia and Entamoeba species. The results showed that 27/55 (17/27 and 10/28) (49 %), 4 /28 (14.28 %) and 3/28 (10.7 %) of the samples were positive for Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba spp and mixed infections (Entamoeba spp. and Giardia spp.), respectively. Sixteen out of 55 samples were negative. Entamoeba genus-specific PCR primers in single-round PCR were used to differentiate between the Entamoeba spp. (E. histolytica, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii). With respect to the 7 samples that were positive for Entamoeba, (14.28 %) 4 out of 28 were positive for E. moshkovskii, (7.14 %), 2 out of 28 were positive for E. histolytica and (3.57 %) 1 out of 28 was positive for E. dispar. Genus-specific PCR primers in a semi-nested PCR assay was performed to genotype Giardia species. Of the 27 samples that were positive for Giardia, 10 samples were sequences. All 10 successfully sequenced samples contained assemblage B of Giardia lamblia.This is first study to investigate the G. lamblia genotypes in the water supply of the Tehran and Guilan provinces, and it is the first study to investigate Entamoeba species in the water supplies of Iran. The investigated river water supplies, which are used for agriculture, camping and animal farming, were heavily contaminated by the human pathogenic Entamoeba and Giardia parasites. There is a potential risk of waterborne outbreaks in humans and animals. PMID:26350378

  20. Tetracyclines as antiparasitic agents: lipophilic derivatives are highly active against Giardia lamblia in vitro.

    Edlind, T D

    1989-01-01

    Comparisons of the inhibitory activities of different tetracyclines have been reported for Plasmodium falciparum but no other parasites. The in vitro response of the intestinal parasite Giardia lamblia to six tetracyclines in current use was determined. In addition, the experimental drug thiacycline (EMD 33,330) was evaluated. Three groups were discerned, with representative 50 and 90% inhibitory concentrations of, respectively, 36 and 130 (tetracycline), 6.4 and 22 (doxycycline), and 1.8 and...

  1. Detection and Genotyping of Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium parvum by Oligonucleotide Microarray

    Wang, Zheng; Vora, Gary J; Stenger, David A.

    2004-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium parvum are the most frequently identified protozoan parasites causing waterborne disease outbreaks. The morbidity and mortality associated with these intestinal parasitic infections warrant the development of rapid and accurate detection and genotyping methods to aid public health efforts aimed at preventing and controlling outbreaks. In this study, we describe the development of an oligonucleotide microarray capable of detecting and...

  2. Simultaneous Detection of Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium parvum in Fecal Samples by Using Multiplex Real-Time PCR

    Verweij, Jaco J; Blangé, Roy A.; Templeton, Kate; Schinkel, Janke; Brienen, Eric A. T.; van Rooyen, Marianne A. A.; van Lieshout, Lisette; Polderman, Anton M.

    2004-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium are three of the most important diarrhea-causing parasitic protozoa. For many years, microscopic examination of stool samples has been considered to be the “gold standard” for diagnosis of E. histolytica, G. lamblia, and C. parvum infections. Recently, more specific and sensitive alternative methods (PCR, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and direct fluorescent-antibody assay) have been introduced for all three of these parasitic in...

  3. Proteomic analysis of the ventral disc of Giardia lamblia

    Lourenço Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Giardia lamblia is a multiflagellated protozoan that inhabits the small intestine of vertebrates, causing giardiasis. To colonize the small intestine, the trophozoites form of the parasite remains attached to intestinal epithelial cells by means of cytoskeletal elements that form a structure known as the ventral disc. Previous studies have shown that the ventral disc is made of tubulin and giardins. Results To obtain further information on the composition of the ventral disc, we developed a new protocol and evaluated the purity of the isolation by transmission electron microscopy. Using 1D- and 2D-PAGE and mass spectrometry, we identified proteins with functions associated with the disc. In addition to finding tubulin and giardin, proteins known to be associated with the ventral disc, we also identified proteins annotated in the Giardia genome, but whose function was previously unknown. Conclusions The isolation of the ventral disc shown in this work, compared to previously published protocols, proved to be more efficient. Proteomic analysis showed the presence of several proteins whose further characterization may help in the elucidation of the mechanisms involved in the attachment of the protozoan to epithelial cells.

  4. Immunofluorescence and morphology of Giardia lamblia cysts exposed to chlorine.

    Sauch, J F; Berman, D.

    1991-01-01

    Giardia cyst-like objects detected by immunofluorescence in chlorinated water samples often cannot be positively identified by their morphological appearance. To determine the effect of chlorine on cyst immunofluorescence and morphology, Giardia lamblia cysts were exposed to chlorine for 48 h. The majority of cysts exposed to chlorine concentrations of 1 to 11 mg/liter at 5 and 15 degrees C lost their internal morphological characteristics necessary for identification, but most of them were s...

  5. Pacientes con Giardia lamblia diagnosticada por frotis duodenal / Patients with Giardia lamblia diagnosed through duodenal smear

    Hidelisa, Herrero Aguirre; Jess, Fernndez Duharte; Suleidy, Vega Sam; Jos Antonio, Candel Herrero.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Se efectu un estudio descriptivo y transversal de 105 pacientes mayores de 15 aos con infeccin por Giardia lamblia, diagnosticada por frotis duodenal mediante endoscopia en el Servicio de Gastroenterologa del Policlnico de Especialidades del Hospital Provincial Docente Clinicoquirrgico "Saturn [...] ino Lora Torres" de Santiago de Cuba, desde enero hasta diciembre del 2012, con vistas a caracterizarles. Entre las variables analizadas figuraron: edad, sexo, sntomas digestivos referidos, positividad del frotis e imagen endoscpica. Se utiliz el porcentaje como medida de resumen. Predominaron el sexo femenino (58,0 %), el grupo etario de 29-39 aos (38,0 %), la epigastralgia como sntoma principal (66,6 %) y las imgenes endoscpicas grados I y II como las ms frecuentes (68,4 y 41,3 %, respectivamente). El ndice de positividad a la giardiasis fue relevante Abstract in english A descriptive and cross sectional study of 105 patients older than 15 years with infection by Giardia lamblia, diagnosed through duodenal smear by means of endoscopy was carried out in the Gastroenterology Service of the Specialties Polyclinic from "Saturnino Lora Torres" Teaching Provincial Clinica [...] l Surgical Hospital in Santiago de Cuba, from January to December, 2012, with the objective of characterizing them. Among the analyzed variables there were: age, sex, referred digestive symptoms, positivity of the smear and endoscopic image. The percentage was used as summary measure. Female sex (58.0%), the age group 29-39 years (38.0%), the epigastralgia as main symptom (66.6%) and the endoscopic images grades I and II prevailed as the most frequent (68.4 and 41.3%, respectively). The positivity index for giardiasis was relevant

  6. Chitin synthetase in encysting Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba invadens

    Giardia lamblia (Gl) and Entamoeba invadens (Ei) are protozoan parasites with two morphologic stages in their life cycles. Motile trophozoites colonize the intestine of humans and reptiles respectively. Water resistant cysts, which can survive outside the host, transmit infection. In vitro cyst formation of Ei from trophozoites has been reported, and the authors have recently induced in vitro encystation of Gl. Although the cyst walls of both parasites contain chitin, it synthesis by encysting trophozoites has not been reported. The authors now show that encystation conditions greatly increase chitin synthetase (CS) specific activity (incorporation of 3H GlcNAc from UDP-GlcNAc into TCA-or alcohol-precipitable material). Extracts of encysting Gl incorporated 3.6 nmol/mg protein in 5 hr compared to < 0.005 in controls. Extracts of encysting Fi incorporated 4.8 n mol/mg protein, compared to 1.7 in the control. CS activity of both parasites requires preformed chitin. The Gl enzyme requires a reducing agent, is inhibited by digitonin and the CS inhibitors, polyoxin D and Nikkomycin, but not by tunicamycin. The product is digested by chitinase. Ei enzyme does not require a reducing agent and is stimulated by 1 mg/ml digitonin, but inhibited by higher concentrations. These studies demonstrate CS enzymes which may play important roles in encystation of Gl and Ei

  7. Chitin synthetase in encysting Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba invadens

    Das, S.; Gillin, F.D.

    1987-05-01

    Giardia lamblia (Gl) and Entamoeba invadens (Ei) are protozoan parasites with two morphologic stages in their life cycles. Motile trophozoites colonize the intestine of humans and reptiles respectively. Water resistant cysts, which can survive outside the host, transmit infection. In vitro cyst formation of Ei from trophozoites has been reported, and the authors have recently induced in vitro encystation of Gl. Although the cyst walls of both parasites contain chitin, it synthesis by encysting trophozoites has not been reported. The authors now show that encystation conditions greatly increase chitin synthetase (CS) specific activity (incorporation of /sup 3/H GlcNAc from UDP-GlcNAc into TCA-or alcohol-precipitable material). Extracts of encysting Gl incorporated 3.6 nmol/mg protein in 5 hr compared to < 0.005 in controls. Extracts of encysting Fi incorporated 4.8 n mol/mg protein, compared to 1.7 in the control. CS activity of both parasites requires preformed chitin. The Gl enzyme requires a reducing agent, is inhibited by digitonin and the CS inhibitors, polyoxin D and Nikkomycin, but not by tunicamycin. The product is digested by chitinase. Ei enzyme does not require a reducing agent and is stimulated by 1 mg/ml digitonin, but inhibited by higher concentrations. These studies demonstrate CS enzymes which may play important roles in encystation of Gl and Ei.

  8. Some hematimetric findings in human Giardia lambia infection Valores hematimétricos na infecção humana causada por Giardia lamblia

    Jairo Ivo dos Santos; Cidônia de Lourdes Vituri

    1996-01-01

    Up to now few reports about haematological alterations induced by Giardia lamblia infection have been described. Because there are questions on this matter still not answered, we carried out a study to evaluate some erythrometric and leucometric parameters in a sample that consisted of 55 patients exclusively infected with G. lamblia and of 55 sex and age matched parasite-free individuals. The haematological parameters evaluated were: mean corpuscular volume (MCV), hemoglobin concentration, a...

  9. Human Memory CD4+ T Cell Immune Responses against Giardia lamblia.

    Saghaug, Christina Skår; Sørnes, Steinar; Peirasmaki, Dimitra; Svärd, Staffan; Langeland, Nina; Hanevik, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia may cause severe prolonged diarrheal disease or pass unnoticed as an asymptomatic infection. T cells seem to play an important role in the immune response to Giardia infection, and memory responses may last years. Recently, TH17 responses have been found in three animal studies of Giardia infection. The aim of this study was to characterize the human CD4(+) T cell responses to Giardia. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were obtained from 21 returning travelers with recent or ongoing giardiasis and 12 low-risk healthy controls and stimulated in vitro with Giardia lamblia proteins. Production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), gamma interferon, interleukin-17A (IL-17A), IL-10, and IL-4 was measured in CD4(+) effector memory (EM) T cells after 24 h by flow cytometry. After 6 days of culture, activation and proliferation were measured by flow cytometry, while an array of inflammatory cytokine levels in supernatants were measured with multiplex assays. We found the number of IL-17A-producing CD4(+) EM T cells, as well as that of cells simultaneously producing both IL-17A and TNF-α, to be significantly elevated in the Giardia-exposed individuals after 24 h of antigen stimulation. In supernatants of PBMCs stimulated with Giardia antigens for 6 days, we found inflammation-associated cytokines, including 1L-17A, as well as CD4(+) T cell activation and proliferation, to be significantly elevated in the Giardia-exposed individuals. We conclude that symptomatic Giardia infection in humans induces a CD4(+) EM T cell response of which IL-17A production seems to be an important component. PMID:26376930

  10. A comparison of the Giardia lamblia trophozoite and cyst transcriptome using microarrays

    Widmer Giovanni

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Compared with many protists, Giardia lamblia has a simple life cycle alternating between cyst and trophozoite. Most research on the molecular biology of Giardia parasites has focused on trophozoites and the processes of excystation and encystation, whereas cysts have attracted less interest. The striking morphological differences between the dormant cyst and the rapidly dividing and motile trophozoite implies profound changes in the metabolism as the parasite encysts in the host's intestine and excysts upon ingestion by a new host. Results To investigate the magnitude of the transcriptional changes occurring during the G. lamblia life cycle we compared the transcriptome of G. lamblia trophozoites and cysts using single-color oligonucleotide microarrays. Cysts were found to possess a much smaller transcriptome, both in terms of mRNA diversity and abundance. Genes encoding proteins related to ribosomal functions are highly over-represented. The comparison of the transcriptome of cysts generated in culture or extracted from feces revealed little overlap, raising the possibility of significant biological differences between the two types of cysts. Conclusions The comparison of the G. lamblia cyst and trophozoite transcriptome showed that transcripts of most genes are present at a lower level in cysts. This global view of the cyst and trophozoite transcriptome complements studies focused on the expression of selected genes during trophozoite multiplication, encystation and excystation.

  11. The Study of the Multilayer Filtration Process Efficiency on Giardia lamblia Elimination in Isfahan Water Treatment Plant

    Zahra Mosaviyan; Ali-Asghar Rastegari; Saeed Abedi,

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Giardia lamblia is a waterborne highly infectious protozoan parasite capable of causing gastrointestinal illness. The multilayer filtration is used in many applications such as turbidity removes from surface waters and Bacteria, Viruses and protozoan removes. This study was investigated in full-scale the efficiency of filtration process during water treatment that remove Giardia cyst in water at Isfahan province. Materials and methods: We used Information Collection Rule meth...

  12. Ensayo inmunoenzimtico en fase slida para la deteccin de antgenos de Giardia lamblia

    DINORAH TORRES

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Se normaliz un sandwich ELISA para la deteccin de antgenos de Giardia lamblia en heces humanas. Se estudiaron 175 muestras: 77 positivas, 61 negativas a quistes y/o trofozotos por el examen directo de las heces y 19 muestras positivas a otros parsitos diferentes de G. lamblia. La sensibilidad de la tcnica fue de 94,8 % y la especificidad de 98,3 %; el mtodo detecta una concentracin de antgenos de 31 ng. El procedimiento es simple, sensible y especfico, por lo que pudiera ser til para el diagnstico y en estudios epidemiolgicos.An ELISA sandwich for the detection of Giardia lamblia antigens in human faeces was standardized. 175 samples were studied: 77 positive, 61 negative to cysts and/or trophozoites by direct faeces test, and 19 positive to other parasite different from G. lamblia. The sensitivity of the technique was 94,8 % and the specificity 98,3 %. The method detects an antigen concentration of 31 ng. The procedure is simple, sensitive and specific so, it may be useful for diagnosis and in epidemiological studies.

  13. Development of functional gastrointestinal disorders after Giardia lamblia infection

    Hanevik Kurt

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID may occur following acute gastroenteritis. This long-term complication has previously not been described after infection with the non-invasive protozoan Giardia lamblia. This study aims to characterize persistent abdominal symptoms elicited by Giardia infection according to Rome II criteria and symptoms scores. Methods Structured interview and questionnaires 1230 months after the onset of Giardia infection, and at least 6 months after Giardia eradication, among 82 patients with persisting abdominal symptoms elicited by the Giardia infection. All had been evaluated to exclude other causes. Results We found that 66 (80.5% of the 82 patients had symptoms consistent with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS and 17 (24.3% patients had functional dyspepsia (FD according to Rome II criteria. IBS was sub classified into D-IBS (47.0%, A-IBS (45.5% and C-IBS (7.6%. Bloating, diarrhoea and abdominal pain were reported to be most severe. Symptoms exacerbation related to specific foods were reported by 45 (57.7% patients and to physical or mental stress by 34 (44.7% patients. Conclusion In the presence of an IBS-subtype pattern consistent with post-infectious IBS (PI-IBS, and in the absence of any other plausible causes, we conclude that acute Giardia infection may elicit functional gastrointestinal diseases with food and stress related symptoms similar to FGID patients in general.

  14. Structure of the prolyl-tRNA synthetase from the eukaryotic pathogen Giardia lamblia

    Larson, Eric T.; Kim, Jessica E.; Napuli, Alberto J.; Verlinde, Christophe L. M. J.; Fan, Erkang; Zucker, Frank H.; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Buckner, Frederick S.; Hol, Wim G. J.; Merritt, Ethan A., E-mail: merritt@u.washington.edu [Medical Structural Genomics of Pathogenic Protozoa, (United States); University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2012-09-01

    The structure of Giardia prolyl-tRNA synthetase cocrystallized with proline and ATP shows evidence for half-of-the-sites activity, leading to a corresponding mixture of reaction substrates and product (prolyl-AMP) in the two active sites of the dimer. The genome of the human intestinal parasite Giardia lamblia contains only a single aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase gene for each amino acid. The Giardia prolyl-tRNA synthetase gene product was originally misidentified as a dual-specificity Pro/Cys enzyme, in part owing to its unexpectedly high off-target activation of cysteine, but is now believed to be a normal representative of the class of archaeal/eukaryotic prolyl-tRNA synthetases. The 2.2 Å resolution crystal structure of the G. lamblia enzyme presented here is thus the first structure determination of a prolyl-tRNA synthetase from a eukaryote. The relative occupancies of substrate (proline) and product (prolyl-AMP) in the active site are consistent with half-of-the-sites reactivity, as is the observed biphasic thermal denaturation curve for the protein in the presence of proline and MgATP. However, no corresponding induced asymmetry is evident in the structure of the protein. No thermal stabilization is observed in the presence of cysteine and ATP. The implied low affinity for the off-target activation product cysteinyl-AMP suggests that translational fidelity in Giardia is aided by the rapid release of misactivated cysteine.

  15. Comparison of microscopy, rapid immunoassay, and molecular techniques for the detection of Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum.

    Elsafi, Salah H; Al-Maqati, Thekra N; Hussein, Mohi I; Adam, Ahmed A; Hassan, Mohamed M Abu; Al Zahrani, Eidan M

    2013-04-01

    Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum are recognized as the most common protozoan infections in Saudi Arabia. Microscopic examination of stool samples, either direct or concentrated, for the recovery of G. lamblia cysts and trophozoites and C. parvum oocysts is still the most commonly used for the diagnosis of both parasites. We compared the conventional parasitological techniques of iodine-stained wet mount for G. lamblia and Kinyoun's acid-fast for C. parvum against ImmunoCard STAT Cryptosporidium/Giardia and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detecting the 18S rRNA gene of G. lamblia and conventional PCR detecting the same gene of C. parvum at a tertiary hospital in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. Out of 148 stool samples, 19 and 12 true positives were identified for G. lamblia and C. parvum, respectively, using a composite reference standard. In this case, true positives and negatives were considered as those with at least two positive or negative results out of the three tests. Both ImmunoCard STAT! and PCR methods were more sensitive than the microscopic tests of a single stool specimen of 85.7% (CI=62.6-96.2%) and 85.7% (CI=56.2-97.5%) for G. lamblia and C. parvum, respectively. However, specificity of microscopic tests was higher than other techniques for both parasites. Although PCR seems to be most sensitive for both G. lamblia and C. parvum, its low specificity may render its superiority over other techniques. When a single stool sample is used for detection of G. lamblia and C. parvum, better results can be obtained when coupled with serological testing. Although PCR is the most sensitive method for the detection of both G. lamblia and C. parvum, its use requires attention in relation to the increased possible false positives. PMID:23411740

  16. Excystation of in vitro-derived Giardia lamblia cysts.

    Boucher, S E; Gillin, F. D.

    1990-01-01

    This is the first in-depth analysis of the excystation of Giardia lamblia cysts prepared in vitro. Its goals were both to achieve efficient excystation and to gain insights into this crucial but poorly understood process. To identify the critical elements of excystation, we tested the sequential low-pH induction and protease treatments which had been reported to be important for excystation of fecal cysts. The optimal pH for induction of excystation was 4.0. Emergence was greatly (approximate...

  17. In-vitro giardicidal effect of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Asafoetida on Giardia lamblia cyst

    Mohammadreza Rezaiemanesh

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Giardia lamblia, Giardiasis causative protozoa, is one of the most common etiologic agents of diarrhea throughout the world especially in Iran. Asafoetida, an oleo-gum-resin (called Anjodan in Farsi obtained from an Iranian endemic herb, Ferula Assa-foetida has been used in treating of different diseases, particularly parasitic ones. The aim of this study was in-vitro evaluating of the effect of Asafoetida aqueous and alcoholic extracts on Giardia lamblia cysts. Materials and Methods: 500 µl of each of 1.25, 2.5, 5 and 20 mg/ml concentrtions of asafoetida aqueous and ethanol extracts was added to 500 µl of purified Giardia cysts,respectively. The mixtures were kept at 4, 24 and 37°C. The Giardicidal activity of the extracts was measured 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 hour (s after exposure through 0.1% eosin dye staining and microscopic enumeration method. The gathered data was analyzed by means of one- way variance, Pearson's correlation coefficient and Independent T-test. Results: The highest Giardicidal effect of Asafoetida ethanol extract was 100% at 37°C, belonging to 20 mg/ml and in the 4th hour after experiment, while the maximum Giardicidal effect of Asafoetida aqueous extract was 57.23% at the same temperature and with the same concentration, in the 5th hour. There was a significant difference between Giardicidal effect of ethanol and water extracts with all concentrations and at different whiles and temperatures (P<0.005. Giardicidal effect of both extracts significantly increased due to rising the concentration, time and temperature (P<0.0001. Conclusion: Ethanol and aqueous extracts of asafetida have in-vitro Giardicidal effect on Giardia lamblia cysts. Ethanol extract has more Giardicidal effect.

  18. Cryopreservation of Giardia lamblia with dimethyl sulfoxide using a Dewar flask.

    Lyman, J R; Marchin, G L

    1984-04-01

    This study examined the effect of varying freezing conditions on the human intestinal parasite Giardia lamblia (Portland-1 strain) using a constant vacuum in a Dewar flask and an ethanol bath to regulate the cooling rate. The cryopreservation of the trophozoite stage was investigated. Dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO), the cryoprotective agent of choice, was added directly to Giardia growth medium. Me2SO toxicity assays were conducted on those concentrations used in the freezing protocol. The results of this study indicated a 6.5% (v/v) Me2SO concentration yields a 90% survival based upon organism motility. A 30.9% cell viability was obtained by freezing in medium without a cryoprotective agent. Recommendations are offered concerning alternate viability criteria. PMID:6713946

  19. Rapid Detection and Enumeration of Giardia lamblia Cysts in Water Samples by Immunomagnetic Separation and Flow Cytometric Analysis ▿ †

    Keserue, Hans-Anton; Füchslin, Hans Peter; Egli, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Giardia lamblia is an important waterborne pathogen and is among the most common intestinal parasites of humans worldwide. Its fecal-oral transmission leads to the presence of cysts of this pathogen in the environment, and so far, quantitative rapid screening methods are not available for various matrices, such as surface waters, wastewater, or food. Thus, it is necessary to establish methods that enable reliable rapid detection of a single cyst in 10 to 100 liters of drinking water. Conventi...

  20. Cloning, Expression and Characterization of Recombinant, NADH Oxidase from Giardia lamblia.

    Castillo-Villanueva, Adriana; Méndez, Sara Teresa; Torres-Arroyo, Angélica; Reyes-Vivas, Horacio; Oria-Hernández, Jesús

    2016-02-01

    The NADH oxidase family of enzymes catalyzes the oxidation of NADH by reducing molecular O2 to H2O2, H2O or both. In the protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia, the NADH oxidase enzyme (GlNOX) produces H2O as end product without production of H2O2. GlNOX has been implicated in the parasite metabolism, the intracellular redox regulation and the resistance to drugs currently used against giardiasis; therefore, it is an interesting protein from diverse perspectives. In this work, the GlNOX gene was amplified from genomic G. lamblia DNA and expressed in Escherichia coli as a His-Tagged protein; then, the enzyme was purified by immobilized metal affinity chromatography, characterized, and its properties compared with those of the endogenous enzyme previously isolated from trophozoites (Brown et al. in Eur J Biochem 241(1):155-161, 1996). In comparison with the trophozoite-extracted enzyme, which was scarce and unstable, the recombinant heterologous expression system and one-step purification method produce a stable protein preparation with high yield and purity. The recombinant enzyme mostly resembles the endogenous protein; where differences were found, these were attributable to methodological discrepancies or artifacts. This homogenous, pure and functional protein preparation can be used for detailed structural or functional studies of GlNOX, which will provide a deeper understanding of the biology and pathogeny of G. lamblia. PMID:26685698

  1. Field portable mobile phone based fluorescence microscopy for detection of Giardia lamblia cysts in water samples

    Ceylan Koydemir, Hatice; Gorocs, Zoltan; McLeod, Euan; Tseng, Derek; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2015-03-01

    Giardia lamblia is a waterborne parasite that causes an intestinal infection, known as giardiasis, and it is found not only in countries with inadequate sanitation and unsafe water but also streams and lakes of developed countries. Simple, sensitive, and rapid detection of this pathogen is important for monitoring of drinking water. Here we present a cost-effective and field portable mobile-phone based fluorescence microscopy platform designed for automated detection of Giardia lamblia cysts in large volume water samples (i.e., 10 ml) to be used in low-resource field settings. This fluorescence microscope is integrated with a disposable water-sampling cassette, which is based on a flow-through porous polycarbonate membrane and provides a wide surface area for fluorescence imaging and enumeration of the captured Giardia cysts on the membrane. Water sample of interest, containing fluorescently labeled Giardia cysts, is introduced into the absorbent pads that are in contact with the membrane in the cassette by capillary action, which eliminates the need for electrically driven flow for sample processing. Our fluorescence microscope weighs ~170 grams in total and has all the components of a regular microscope, capable of detecting individual fluorescently labeled cysts under light-emitting-diode (LED) based excitation. Including all the sample preparation, labeling and imaging steps, the entire measurement takes less than one hour for a sample volume of 10 ml. This mobile phone based compact and cost-effective fluorescent imaging platform together with its machine learning based cyst counting interface is easy to use and can even work in resource limited and field settings for spatio-temporal monitoring of water quality.

  2. The application of on-chip optofluidic microscopy for imaging Giardia lamblia trophozoites and cysts.

    Lee, Lap Man; Cui, Xiquan; Yang, Changhuei

    2009-10-01

    The optofluidic microscope (OFM) is a lensless, low-cost and highly compact on-chip device that can enable high-resolution microscopy imaging. The OFM performs imaging by flowing/scanning the target objects across a slanted hole array; by measuring the time-varying light transmission changes through the holes, we can then render images of the target objects at a resolution that is comparable to the holes' size. This paper reports the adaptation of the OFM for imaging Giardia lamblia trophozoites and cysts, a disease-causing parasite species that is commonly found in poor-quality water sources. We also describe our study of the impact of pressure-based flow and DC electrokinetic-based flow in controlling the flow motion of Giardia cysts--rotation-free translation of the parasite is important for good OFM image acquisition. Finally, we report the successful microscopy imaging of both Giardia trophozoites and cysts with an OFM that has a focal plane resolution of 0.8 microns. PMID:19365730

  3. Effects of essential oils on the growth of Giardia lamblia trophozoites.

    Machado, Marisa; Sousa, Maria do Cu; Salgueiro, Lgia; Cavaleiro, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Giardia lamblia is one of the most important worldwide causes of intestinal infections produced by protozoa. Current therapy for giardiasis is unsatisfactory due to high incidence of undesirable side effects and significant failure in clearing parasites from the gastrointestinal tract. In the search for new therapeutic agents, we report on the effect of several essential oils on G. lamblia growth. Among eighteen tested essential oils, those with phenolic compositions were the most active, particularly if containing high contents of carvacrol, such as Thymbra capitata and Origanum virens (IC50 values of 71 and 85 microg x mL(-1), respectively). The oils from Syzygium aromaticum and Thymus zygis subsp. sylvestris (IC50 values from 100 to 200 microg x mL(-1)), as well as, those from Mentha x piperita and Lippia graveolens (IC50 values over 200 microg x mL(-1)) were less active. Results support the concept that several essential oils or some of their constituents may be useful in the clinical management of Giardia infections. PMID:20184039

  4. Sensitive and rapid detection of Giardia lamblia infection in pet dogs using loop-mediated isothermal amplification.

    Li, Jie; Wang, Peiyuan; Zhang, Aiguo; Zhang, Ping; Alsarakibi, Muhamd; Li, Guoqing

    2013-04-01

    Giardia lamblia is recognized as one of the most prevalent parasites in dogs. The present study aimed to establish a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid and specific detection of G. lamblia from dogs. The fecal samples were collected and prepared for microscopic analysis, and then the genomic DNA was extracted directly from purified cysts. The concentration of DNA samples of G. lamblia were diluted by 10-fold serially ranging from 10(-1) to 10(-5) ng/µl for LAMP and PCR assays. The LAMP assay allows the amplification to be finished within 60 min under isothermal conditions of 63℃ by employing 6 oligonucleotide primers designed based on G. lamblia elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1α) gene sequence. Our tests showed that the specific amplification products were obtained only with G. lamblia, while no amplification products were detected with DNA of other related protozoans. Sensitivity evaluation indicated that the LAMP assay was sensitive 10 times more than PCR. It is concluded that LAMP is a rapid, highly sensitive and specific DNA amplification technique for detection of G. lamblia, which has implications for effective control and prevention of giardiasis. PMID:23710094

  5. An ancient spliceosomal intron in the ribosomal protein L7a gene (Rpl7a of Giardia lamblia

    Gray Michael W

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Only one spliceosomal-type intron has previously been identified in the unicellular eukaryotic parasite, Giardia lamblia (a diplomonad. This intron is only 35 nucleotides in length and is unusual in possessing a non-canonical 5' intron boundary sequence, CT, instead of GT. Results We have identified a second spliceosomal-type intron in G. lamblia, in the ribosomal protein L7a gene (Rpl7a, that possesses a canonical GT 5' intron boundary sequence. A comparison of the two known Giardia intron sequences revealed extensive nucleotide identity at both the 5' and 3' intron boundaries, similar to the conserved sequence motifs recently identified at the boundaries of spliceosomal-type introns in Trichomonas vaginalis (a parabasalid. Based on these observations, we searched the partial G. lamblia genome sequence for these conserved features and identified a third spliceosomal intron, in an unassigned open reading frame. Our comprehensive analysis of the Rpl7a intron in other eukaryotic taxa demonstrates that it is evolutionarily conserved and is an ancient eukaryotic intron. Conclusion An analysis of the phylogenetic distribution and properties of the Rpl7a intron suggests its utility as a phylogenetic marker to evaluate particular eukaryotic groupings. Additionally, analysis of the G. lamblia introns has provided further insight into some of the conserved and unique features possessed by the recently identified spliceosomal introns in related organisms such as T. vaginalis and Carpediemonas membranifera.

  6. Survey on efficacy of chloroformic extract of Artemisia annua against Giardia lamblia trophozoite and cyst in vitro.

    Golami, Shirzad; Rahimi-Esboei, Bahman; Mousavi, Parisa; Marhaba, Zahra; Youssefi, Mohammad Reza; Rahimi, Mohammad Taghi

    2016-03-01

    Giardiasis is a parasitic cosmopolitan disease that the rate of infection in developing countries is considerable. This infection directly is associated with poor hygienic conditions, poor water quality control, and overcrowding. Reinfection and drug resistance are two major problems in endemic areas. Recently, researchers are concentrating on herbal drugs as a proper solution. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to survey on efficacy of chloroformic extract of Artemisia annua against Giardia lamblia trophozoite and cyst in vitro. G. lamblia cysts were prepared from faces of giardiasis patients from different hospitals of Mazandaran Medical University. Four concentrations (1, 10, 50 and 100 mg/ml) of chloroformic extract of A. annua were utilized for 1, 5, 30, 60 and 180 min. Viability of G. lamblia cysts was confirmed by 0.1 % Eosin staining. Cyst and trophozoite contact (intermix) of G. lamblia with extract of A. annua with variant concentrations (1, 10, 50 and 100 mg/ml) after 1 and 180 min caused following cyst and trophozoite elimination rates: (67, 69, 71 and 73 %), (65, 67, 67 and 72 %), (94, 96, 97 and 99 %) and (100, 100, 100 and 100 %), respectively. Authors from the current investigation draw a conclusion that chloroformic extract of A. annua has the ability to eliminate G. lamblia cysts and trophozoites in vitro. PMID:27065604

  7. Chromosome-size variation in Giardia lamblia: the role of rDNA repeats.

    Adam, R D

    1992-01-01

    Giardia lamblia trophozoites contain at least five sets of chromosomes that have been categorized by chromosome-specific probes. Pulsed field separations of G. lamblia chromosomes also demonstrated minor bands in some isolates which stained less intensely with ethidium than the major chromosomal bands. Two of the minor bands of the E11 clone of the ISR isolate, MBa and MBb, were similar to each other and to chromosomal band I by hybridization to total chromosomal DNA and by hybridization of s...

  8. Evaluation Of Cytokines Changes In Patients Infected With Giardia lamblia In Comparison With Healthy Subjects

    Mitra Zarebavani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Human Giardisis infection is caused by the flagellate protozoa. Giardia lamblia, which lives in the small intestine, causing damage and may also cause gastrointestinal symptoms. This parasitic disease has a worldwide distribution and prevalence varies from 5% to 30%. The role of both humeral and cellular immune response in the host defense against parasites has proven. Since an immune response is directly affected by cytokine, study of cytokines changes in patients with giardiosis is of particular importance. Materials and Methods: In this study the serum levels of IL-2 - 4 - 6 to 17 and 23 in patients and healthy subjects were measured and compared. Fasting blood samples were taken from the volunteers, ELISA was performed to measure cytokines. Results: In this study, the amount of IL-2 and IL-6 in infected patients was significantly more than the controls, but IL-4 levels were significantly lower in infected individuals (P=0.0001. Also for the first time in people with giardiasis IL-17 and IL-23 was measured and there was a significant aifference in these cytokines between the infected patients healthy controls(respectively P=0.044 and P=0.03 Conclusion: Host defense response against parasitic infections, is directly and affected by cytokines. Increased interleukin 2, 6, 17 and 23 in patients with Giardiosis was probably caused by immune response and local intestinal inflammation.

  9. EXPERIMENTAL INFECTION OF MONGREL DOGS WITH 'GIARDIA LAMBLIA' CYSTS AND CULTURED TROPHOZOITES

    In light of recent epidemiologic data implicating wild and domestic animals in the transmission of giardiasis, a study was undertaken to determine whether mongrel dogs could be infected with Giardia lamblia. After careful screening by stool examination (a minimum of six stools ex...

  10. Detection of anti-Giardia lamblia serum antibody among children of day care centers

    Semíramis Guimarães

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVES: To detect anti-Giardia lamblia serum antibodies in healthy children attending public day care centers and to assess serological tests as tools for estimating the prevalence of G. lamblia in endemic areas. METHODS: Three separate stool specimens and filter paper blood samples were collected from 147 children ranging from 0 to 6 years old. Each stool sample was processed using spontaneous sedimentation and zinc sulfate flotation methods. Blood samples were tested by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for Giardia IgG. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Of 147 individuals tested, 93 (63.3% showed Giardia cysts in their feces. Using IIF and ELISA, serum antibodies were detected in 93 (63.3% and 100 (68% samples , respectively. Sensitivity of IIF and ELISA was 82% and 72%, respectively. However, ELISA revealed to be less specific (39% than IIF (70%. IIF also showed a higher concordance with microscopic examination than ELISA.

  11. Detection of anti-Giardia lamblia serum antibody among children of day care centers

    Guimarães Semíramis

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVES: To detect anti-Giardia lamblia serum antibodies in healthy children attending public day care centers and to assess serological tests as tools for estimating the prevalence of G. lamblia in endemic areas. METHODS: Three separate stool specimens and filter paper blood samples were collected from 147 children ranging from 0 to 6 years old. Each stool sample was processed using spontaneous sedimentation and zinc sulfate flotation methods. Blood samples were tested by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for Giardia IgG. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Of 147 individuals tested, 93 (63.3% showed Giardia cysts in their feces. Using IIF and ELISA, serum antibodies were detected in 93 (63.3% and 100 (68% samples , respectively. Sensitivity of IIF and ELISA was 82% and 72%, respectively. However, ELISA revealed to be less specific (39% than IIF (70%. IIF also showed a higher concordance with microscopic examination than ELISA.

  12. Three-Dimensional Structure of a Protozoal Double-Stranded RNA Virus That Infects the Enteric Pathogen Giardia lamblia

    Janssen, Mandy E.W.; Takagi, Yuko; Parent, Kristin N.; Cardone, Giovanni; Nibert, Max L; Baker, Timothy S.

    2014-01-01

    Giardia lamblia virus (GLV) is a small, nonenveloped, nonsegmented double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus infecting Giardia lamblia, the most common protozoan pathogen of the human intestine and a major agent of waterborne diarrheal disease worldwide. GLV (genus Giardiavirus) is a member of family Totiviridae, along with several other groups of protozoal or fungal viruses, including Leishmania RNA viruses and Trichomonas vaginalis viruses. Interestingly, GLV is more closely related than other Toti...

  13. Crystal structure of a macrophage migration inhibitory factor from Giardia lamblia

    Buchko, Garry W.; Abendroth, Jan; Robinson, Howard; Zhang, Yanfeng; Hewitt, Stephen N.; Edwards, Tom E.; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Myler, Peter J.

    2013-06-15

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a eukaryotic cytokine that affects a broad spectrum of immune responses and its activation/inactivation is associated with numerous diseases. During protozoan infections MIF is not only expressed by the host, but, has also been observed to be expressed by some parasites and released into the host. To better understand the biological role of parasitic MIF proteins, the crystal structure of the MIF protein from Giardia lamblia (Gl-MIF), the etiological agent responsible for giardiasis, has been determined at 2.30 Å resolution. The 114-residue protein adopts an α/β fold consisting of a four-stranded β-sheet with two anti-parallel α-helices packed against a face of the β-sheet. An additional short β-strand aligns anti-parallel to β4 of the β-sheet in the adjacent protein unit to help stabilize a trimer, the biologically relevant unit observed in all solved MIF crystal structures to date, and form a discontinuous β-barrel. The structure of Gl-MIF is compared to the MIF structures from humans (Hs-MIF) and three Plasmodium species (falciparum, berghei, and yoelii). The structure of all five MIF proteins are generally similar with the exception of a channel that runs through the center of each trimer complex. Relative to Hs-MIF, there are differences in solvent accessibility and electrostatic potential distribution in the channel of Gl-MIF and the Plasmodium-MIFs due primarily to two “gate-keeper” residues in the parasitic MIFs. For the Plasmodium MIFs the gate-keeper residues are at positions 44 (Y==>R) and 100 (V==>D) and for Gl-MIF it is at position 100 (V==>R). If these gate-keeper residues have a biological function and contribute to the progression of parasitemia they may also form the basis for structure-based drug design targeting parasitic MIF proteins.

  14. Inducible nitric oxide synthase in duodenum of children with Giardia lamblia infection.

    Agnieszka Kolasa

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The investigation were performed on children with Giardia lamblia infection, diagnosed on the basis of positive stool tests for Giardia antigen (Elisa or by microscopical detection of trophozoites in duodenal fluid. In duodenal biopsies morphological studies and immunohistochemical reaction for inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS were performed. The control group was made up of duodenal tissue of children with excluded giardiasis and inflammation of the upper part of gastrointestinal tract. The duodenal biopsies from children without Giardia lamblia infection were found to have a high immunoreactivity for iNOS in enterocytes, the cells of intestinal crypts, endothelial cells of vessels and connective tissue cells of lamina propria. In children with giardiasis: in some biopsies the expression of iNOS was as high as in control group, in others was weaker detectable and the shortening of intestinal villi was seen. There were also duodenal biopsies with the lack of immunoreactivity for iNOS, with shorter villi and a large amount of mucus in the intestinal epithelium. Beside of goblet cells, also enterocytes were loaded with mucus. The pathological changes may cause malabsorption and also may have a negative influence on the defense of the intestinal wall against Giardia lamblia infection. The different morphological and immunohistochemical results in the duodenum of children with giardiasis can elucidate a variety of clinical symptoms from asymptomatic to severe infection.

  15. Hydrologic and vegetative removal of Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia, and Toxoplasma gondii Surrogate microspheres in coastal wetlands.

    Hogan, Jennifer N; Daniels, Miles E; Watson, Fred G; Oates, Stori C; Miller, Melissa A; Conrad, Patricia A; Shapiro, Karen; Hardin, Dane; Dominik, Clare; Melli, Ann; Jessup, David A; Miller, Woutrina A

    2013-03-01

    Constructed wetland systems are used to reduce pollutants and pathogens in wastewater effluent, but comparatively little is known about pathogen transport through natural wetland habitats. Fecal protozoans, including Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia, and Toxoplasma gondii, are waterborne pathogens of humans and animals, which are carried by surface waters from land-based sources into coastal waters. This study evaluated key factors of coastal wetlands for the reduction of protozoal parasites in surface waters using settling column and recirculating mesocosm tank experiments. Settling column experiments evaluated the effects of salinity, temperature, and water type ("pure" versus "environmental") on the vertical settling velocities of C. parvum, G. lamblia, and T. gondii surrogates, with salinity and water type found to significantly affect settling of the parasites. The mesocosm tank experiments evaluated the effects of salinity, flow rate, and vegetation parameters on parasite and surrogate counts, with increased salinity and the presence of vegetation found to be significant factors for removal of parasites in a unidirectional transport wetland system. Overall, this study highlights the importance of water type, salinity, and vegetation parameters for pathogen transport within wetland systems, with implications for wetland management, restoration efforts, and coastal water quality. PMID:23315738

  16. Age-related rate of seropositivity of antibody to Giardia lamblia in four diverse populations.

    Miotti, P. G.; Gilman, R. H.; Santosham, M.; Ryder, R. W.; Yolken, R. H.

    1986-01-01

    We used a solid-phase enzyme immunoassay to determine the age-specific rates of acquisition of antibody to Giardia lamblia in populations living in an inner city area of Baltimore, Md., on an Apache Indian reservation in Arizona, in a rural area of Panama, and in an urban area of Peru (Lima). Antibody to G. lamblia was found in a portion of the adults living in all of the study areas. Similar prevalence rates and quantitative levels of antibody were found in the adults living in Arizona (44%)...

  17. A detailed look at the cytoskeletal architecture of the Giardia lamblia ventral disc.

    Brown, Joanna R; Schwartz, Cindi L; Heumann, John M; Dawson, Scott C; Hoenger, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Giardia lamblia is a protistan parasite that infects and colonizes the small intestine of mammals. It is widespread and particularly endemic in the developing world. Here we present a detailed structural study by 3-D negative staining and cryo-electron tomography of a unique Giardia organelle, the ventral disc. The disc is composed of a regular array of microtubules and associated sheets, called microribbons that form a large spiral, held together by a myriad of mostly unknown associated proteins. In a previous study we analyzed by cryo-electron tomography the central microtubule portion (here called disc body) of the ventral disc and found a large portion of microtubule associated inner (MIPs) and outer proteins (MAPs) that render these microtubules hyper-stable. With this follow-up study we expanded our 3-D analysis to different parts of the disc such as the ventral and dorsal areas of the overlap zone, as well as the outer disc margin. There are intrinsic location-specific characteristics in the composition of microtubule-associated proteins between these regions, as well as large differences between the overall architecture of microtubules and microribbons. The lateral packing of microtubule-microribbon complexes varies substantially, and closer packing often comes with contracted lateral tethers that seem to hold the disc together. It appears that the marginal microtubule-microribbon complexes function as outer, laterally contractible lids that may help the cell to clamp onto the intestinal microvilli. Furthermore, we analyzed length, quantity, curvature and distribution between different zones of the disc, which we found to differ from previous publications. PMID:26821343

  18. Identification and analysis of the RNA degrading complexes and machinery of Giardia lamblia using an in silico approach

    Williams Christopher W

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RNA degradation is critical to the survival of all cells. With increasing evidence for pervasive transcription in cells, RNA degradation has gained recognition as a means of regulating gene expression. Yet, RNA degradation machinery has been studied extensively in only a few eukaryotic organisms, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae and humans. Giardia lamblia is a parasitic protist with unusual genomic traits: it is binucleated and tetraploid, has a very compact genome, displays a theme of genomic minimalism with cellular machinery commonly comprised of a reduced number of protein components, and has a remarkably large population of long, stable, noncoding, antisense RNAs. Results Here we use in silico approaches to investigate the major RNA degradation machinery in Giardia lamblia and compare it to a broad array of other parasitic protists. We have found key constituents of the deadenylation and decapping machinery and of the 5'-3' RNA degradation pathway. We have similarly found that all of the major 3'-5' RNA degradation pathways are present in Giardia, including both exosome-dependent and exosome-independent machinery. However, we observe significant loss of RNA degradation machinery genes that will result in important differences in the protein composition, and potentially functionality, of the various RNA degradation pathways. This is most apparent in the exosome, the central mediator of 3'-5' degradation, which apparently contains an altered core configuration in both Giardia and Plasmodium, with only four, instead of the canonical six, distinct subunits. Additionally the exosome in Giardia is missing both the Rrp6, Nab3, and Nrd1 proteins, known to be key regulators of noncoding transcript stability in other cells. Conclusions These findings suggest that although the full complement of the major RNA degradation mechanisms were present - and likely functional - early in eukaryotic evolution, the composition and function of the complexes is more variable than previously appreciated. We suggest that the missing components of the exosome complex provide an explanation for the stable abundance of sterile RNA species in Giardia.

  19. Long Double-stranded RNA Produces Specific Gene Downregulation in Giardia lamblia

    Rivero, Maria R.; Kulakova, Liudmila; Maria C. Touz

    2010-01-01

    In many eukaryotes, the introduction of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) into cells triggers the degradation of mRNAs through a posttranscriptional gene silencing mechanism called RNA interference or RNAi. In this study, we found that endogenous long-dsRNA was substantially more effective at producing interference than endogenous or exogenous short-dsRNA expression in Giardia lamblia. The effects of this interference were not evident in the highly expressed proteins tubulin or the stage-specific c...

  20. COMPARACIN DE MTODOS CONVENCIONALES Y MOLECULARES PARA LA DETECCIN DE Giardia lamblia EN HECES HUMANAS / COMPARISON OF CONVENTIONAL AND MOLECULAR METHODS FOR DETECTION OF Giardia lamblia IN HUMAN FEACES

    Edwin, Cardona; Silvia, Castaeda; Mara Elena, lvarez; Jorge Enrique, Prez; Fredy Arvey, Rivera Pez; Germn Ariel, Lpez Gartner.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Los protozoarios del gnero Giardia representan algunos de los parsitos humanos ms comunes en el mundo y estn entre los principales causantes de infecciones gastrointestinales y enfermedades diarreicas en humanos. La deteccin del parsito se fundamenta generalmente en los mtodos por concentraci [...] n y microscopa convencional, pero estas tcnicas presentan limitaciones por su baja sensibilidad e inespecificidad en el diagnstico. En procura de mejorar los mtodos de diagnstico, las tcnicas moleculares se perfilan como una alternativa promisoria. En este estudio se analizaron 88 muestras de heces provenientes de pacientes de una empresa prestadora de servicios de salud (ASSBASALUD) de la ciudad de Manizales (Caldas). Para la deteccin de Giardia lamblia en heces se compararon tres mtodos diferentes por medio del porcentaje de positividad: los mtodos convencionales de concentracin de la muestra y observacin microscpica, anlisis por inmunoensayo (ELISA indirecto) y finalmente la amplificacin de dos secuencias gnicas nucleares por PCR. Se obtuvieron tres muestras positivas por concentracin y microscopa convencional, dos por inmunoensayo y 26 por tcnicas moleculares. El estudio sugiere que las pruebas diagnsticas rutinarias basadas en microscopa convencional e inmunoensayo, tienen ms bajo porcentaje de deteccin de este parsito y que esta deficiencia puede ser compensada por medio de la implementacin de mtodos de diagnstico molecular basados en PCR, como una estrategia complementaria de apoyo en el diagnstico de este protozoo. Abstract in english The protozoa of the genus Giardia represent one of the most common human parasites in the world and are among the main causes of gastrointestinal infections and diarrheal diseases in humans. Parasite detection is generally based on concentration and conventional microscopy methods, but these techniq [...] ues have limitations due to their low sensitivity and specificity in diagnosis. In an attempt to improve the diagnostic methods, molecular techniques are emerging as a promising alternative. In this study 88 stool samples from patients of a company that provides health services (ASSBASALUD) in the city of Manizales (Caldas) were analyzed. In order to detect Giardia lamblia in stool, three different methods were compared using the positivity percent: conventional methods for concentration of the sample and microscopic observation, analysis by immunoassay (indirect ELISA) and finally the amplification of two nuclear gene sequences by PCR. Three positive samples were obtained by concentration and conventional microscopy, two by immunoassay and 26 by molecular techniques. The study suggests that routine diagnostic tests based on conventional microscopy and immunoassay have lower detection rate of this parasite and that this deficiency can be compensated by means of the implementation of molecular diagnostic methods based on PCR, as a complementary strategy to support the diagnosis of this protozoan.

  1. Sequence analysis and prokaryotic expression of Giardia lamblia α-18 giardin gene.

    Wu, Sheng; Yu, Xingang; Abdullahi, Auwalu Yusuf; Hu, Wei; Pan, Weida; Shi, Xianli; Tan, Liping; Song, Meiran; Li, Guoqing

    2016-03-01

    To study the genetic variation and prokaryotic expression of α18 giardin gene of Giardia lamblia zoonotic assemblage A and host-specific assemblage F, the α18 genes were amplified from G. lamblia assemblages A and F by PCR and sequenced. The PCR product was cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pET-28a(+) and the positive recombinant plasmid was transformed into Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3) strain for the expression. The expressed α18 giardin fusion protein was validated by SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis, and purified by Ni-Agarose resin. The putative sequence of α18 giardin amino acid was analyzed by bioinformatics software. Results showed that the α18 giardin gene was 861bp in length, encoding 286 amino acids; it was 100% homologous between human-derived and dog-derived G. lamblia assemblage A, but it was 86.8% homologous with G. lamblia assemblage F (cat-derived). Giardin α18 was about 36kDa in molecular weight, with good reactivity. Prediction based on in silico analyses: it had hydrophobicity, without signal peptide and transmembrane domain, and contained 11 alpha regions, 13 beta sheets, 1 beta turn and 7 random coils in secondary structure. The above information would lay the foundation for research about the subcellular localization and biological function of α18 giardin in G. lamblia. PMID:26656833

  2. Effects of Dietary Zinc Manipulation on Growth Performance, Zinc Status and Immune Response during Giardia lamblia Infection: A Study in CD-1 Mice

    Humberto Astiazarán-García

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Associations between Giardia lamblia infection and low serum concentrations of zinc have been reported in young children. Interestingly, relatively few studies have examined the effects of different dietary zinc levels on the parasite-infected host. The aims of this study were to compare the growth performance and zinc status in response to varying levels of dietary zinc and to measure the antibody-mediated response of mice during G. lamblia infection. Male CD-1 mice were fed using 1 of 4 experimental diets: adequate-zinc (ZnA, low-zinc (ZnL, high-zinc (ZnH and supplemented-zinc (ZnS diet containing 30, 10, 223 and 1383 mg Zn/kg respectively. After a 10 days feeding period, mice were inoculated orally with 5 × 106 G. lamblia trophozoites and were maintained on the assigned diet during the course of infection (30 days. Giardia-free mice fed ZnL diets were able to attain normal growth and antibody-mediated response. Giardia-infected mice fed ZnL and ZnA diets presented a significant growth retardation compared to non-infected controls. Zinc supplementation avoided this weight loss during G. lamblia infection and up-regulated the host’s humoral immune response by improving the production of specific antibodies. Clinical outcomes of zinc supplementation during giardiasis included significant weight gain, higher anti-G. lamblia IgG antibodies and improved serum zinc levels despite the ongoing infection. A maximum growth rate and antibody-mediated response were attained in mice fed ZnH diet. No further increases in body weight, zinc status and humoral immune capacity were noted by feeding higher zinc levels (ZnS than the ZnH diet. These findings probably reflect biological effect of zinc that could be of public health importance in endemic areas of infection.

  3. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of α-11 giardin from Giardia lamblia

    α-11 giardin from the intestinal protozoan parasite, G. lamblia has been cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized under two different conditions and in two different space groups. Crystals from the first condition diffracted to 1.1 Å and belong to a primitive orthorhombic space group and crystals obtained in the second condition diffracted to 2.93 Å and belong to a primitive monoclinic space group. α-11 Giardin, a protein from the annexin superfamily, is a 35.0 kDa protein from the intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia which triggers a form of diarrhea called giardiasis. Here, the cloning, expression, purification and the crystallization of α-11 giardin under two different conditions and in two different space groups is reported. Crystals from the first condition diffracted to 1.1 Å and belong to a primitive orthorhombic space group, while crystals from the second condition, which included calcium in the crystallization solution, diffracted to 2.93 Å and belong to a primitive monoclinic space group. Determination of the detailed atomic structure of α-11 giardin will provide a better insight into its biological function and might establish whether this class of proteins is a potential drug target against giardiasis

  4. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of α-11 giardin from Giardia lamblia

    Pathuri, Puja; Nguyen, Emily Tam [Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Luecke, Hartmut, E-mail: hudel@uci.edu [Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Department of Information and Computer Sciences, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States)

    2006-11-01

    α-11 giardin from the intestinal protozoan parasite, G. lamblia has been cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized under two different conditions and in two different space groups. Crystals from the first condition diffracted to 1.1 Å and belong to a primitive orthorhombic space group and crystals obtained in the second condition diffracted to 2.93 Å and belong to a primitive monoclinic space group. α-11 Giardin, a protein from the annexin superfamily, is a 35.0 kDa protein from the intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia which triggers a form of diarrhea called giardiasis. Here, the cloning, expression, purification and the crystallization of α-11 giardin under two different conditions and in two different space groups is reported. Crystals from the first condition diffracted to 1.1 Å and belong to a primitive orthorhombic space group, while crystals from the second condition, which included calcium in the crystallization solution, diffracted to 2.93 Å and belong to a primitive monoclinic space group. Determination of the detailed atomic structure of α-11 giardin will provide a better insight into its biological function and might establish whether this class of proteins is a potential drug target against giardiasis.

  5. Allelic sequence heterozygosity in single Giardia parasites

    Ankarklev Johan; Svärd Staffan G; Lebbad Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Genetic heterogeneity has become a major inconvenience in the genotyping and molecular epidemiology of the intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia intestinalis, in particular for the major human infecting genotype, assemblage B. Sequence-based genotyping of assemblage B Giardia from patient fecal samples, where one or several of the commonly used genotyping loci (beta-giardin, triosephosphate isomerase and glutamate dehydrogenase) are implemented, is often hampered due to th...

  6. What Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia tell us about the evolution of eukaryotic diversity

    J Samuelson

    2002-11-01

    Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia are microaerophilic protists, which have long been considered models of ancient pre-mitochondriate eukaryotes. As transitional eukaryotes, amoebae and giardia appeared to lack organelles of higher eukaryotes and to depend upon energy metabolism appropriate for anaerobic conditions, early in the history of the planet. However, our studies have shown that amoebae and giardia contain splicoeosomal introns, ras-family signal-transduction proteins, ATP-binding casettes (ABC)-family drug transporters, Golgi, and a mitochondrion-derived organelle (amoebae only). These results suggest that most of the organelles of higher eukaryotes were present in the common ancestor of all eukaryotes, and so dispute the notion of transitional eukaryotic forms. In addition, phylogenetic studies suggest many of the genes encoding the fermentation enzymes of amoebae and giardia derive from prokaryotes by lateral gene transfer (LGT). While LGT has recently been shown to be an important determinant of prokaryotic evolution, this is the first time that LGT has been shown to be an important determinant of eukaryotic evolution. Further, amoebae contain cyst wall-associated lectins, which resemble, but are distinct from lectins in the walls of insects (convergent evolution). Giardia have a novel microtubule-associated structure which tethers together pairs of nuclei during cell division. It appears then that amoebae and giardia tell us less about the origins of eukaryotes and more about the origins of eukaryotic diversity.

  7. Sonoran propolis and some of its chemical constituents inhibit in vitro growth of Giardia lamblia trophozoites.

    Alday-Provencio, Samuel; Diaz, Gabriela; Rascon, Lucila; Quintero, Jael; Alday, Efrain; Robles-Zepeda, Ramn; Garibay-Escobar, Adriana; Astiazaran, Humberto; Hernandez, Javier; Velazquez, Carlos

    2015-06-01

    Propolis is a cereus resin with a complex chemical composition that possesses a wide range of biological activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro anti-Giardia lamblia activity of Sonoran propolis collected from three different areas of Sonoran Desert in northwestern Mexico (Caborca, Pueblo de Alamos, and Ures) and some of its chemical constituents. Additionally, we also analyzed the seasonal effect on the anti-G. lamblia activity of propolis. G. lamblia trophozoite cultures were treated with different concentrations of Sonoran propolis or chemical compounds during 48?h cell proliferation and cell viability were determined. Ures propolis showed the highest inhibitory activity against G. lamblia (IC50 63.8??7.1?g/mL) in a dose-dependent manner (Ures > Pueblo de Alamos > Caborca). Season had a significant effect on the in vitro anti-G. lamblia activity of Ures propolis. Summer propolis showed the highest inhibitory effect on the G. lamblia trophozoite growth (IC50 23.8??2.3?g/mL), followed by propolis collected during winter (IC50 59.2??34.7?g/mL), spring (IC50 102.5??15.3?g/mL), and autumn (IC50 125.0??3.1?g/mL). Caffeic acid phenethyl ester, an Ures propolis exclusive constituent, had the highest growth-inhibitory activity towards G. lamblia [IC50 63.1??0.9?g/mL (222.1??3.2?M)]. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing that caffeic acid phenethyl ester possesses antiparasitic activity against G. lamblia. Naringenin [IC50 125.7??20.7?g/mL (461.8??76.3?M)], hesperetin [IC50 149.6??24.8?g/mL (494.9??82.2?M)], and pinocembrin [IC50 174.4??26.0?g/mL (680.6??101.7?M)] showed weak anti-G. lamblia activity. On the other hand, chrysin and rutin did not show significant antiparasitic activity. In conclusion, our results suggest that Sonoran propolis and some of its chemical constituents had inhibitory effects on the in vitro growth of G. lamblia trophozoites. PMID:26008200

  8. In vitro anti-Giardia lamblia activity of 2-aryl-3-hydroxymethyl imidazo[1,2-a]pyridines and -pyrimidines, individually and in combination with albendazole.

    Velázquez-Olvera, Stephanía; Salgado-Zamora, Héctor; Jiménez-Cardoso, Enedina; Campos-Aldrete, Maria-Elena; Pérez-González, Cuauhtémoc; Ben Hadda, Taibi

    2016-03-01

    Giardiasis is a major diarrheal disease found throughout the world, the causative agent being the flagellate protozoan Giardia intestinalis. Infection is more common in children than in adults. The appearance of drug resistance has complicated the treatment of several parasitic diseases, including giardiasis. Thus, the aim of this investigation was to make an in vitro evaluation of the antigiardia response of synthetic derivatives 2-aryl-3-hydroxymethylimidazo[1,2-a]pyridines 1 and -pyrimidines 2 against trophozoites of Giardia lamblia WB, in comparison with the reference drug, albendazole. Additionally, the synergistic action of albendazole in combination with each of the most active 2-aryl-3-hydroxymethyl imidazo[1,2-a]pyridines and pyrimidines was also assessed. Based on the IC50 values obtained, the best anti-Giardia activity was provided by the 3-hydroxymethyl-4-fluorophenylimidazo[1,2-a]pyrimidine derivative 2c and the corresponding imidazo[1,2-a]pyrimidine with the p-tolyl substituent 2d, followed by 2a and 2b. These four compounds showed effectiveness at a concentration similar to that of albendazole. Regarding synergism, the IC50 of the combination of albendazole with 2a, 2b or 2c gave the best anti-Giardia action, showing greater efficacy than albendazole alone. Hence, G. lamblia WB showed high susceptibility to some 2-aryl-3-hydroxymethyl imidazo[1,2-a] pyrimidines, which acted synergistically when used in combination with albendazole. PMID:26657313

  9. Effects of the extract and glycoalkaloids of Solanum lycocarpum St. Hill on Giardia lamblia trophozoites

    Gilmarcio Z Martins

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Solanum lycocarpum has great importance for food and medicinal traditional use. Recently, it was also evidenced that extracts of S. lycocarpum St. Hill (Solanaceae and its glycoalkaloids, solamargine (Sg and solasonine (Sn, are active against flagellated protozoa. Objective: The aim was to assess the effects of the extract of S. lycocarpum and its glycoalkaloids, Sn, and Sg, on Giardia lamblia trophozoites. Materials and Methods: A crude extract (96% ethanol (EB of fruits of S. lycocarpum was prepared and fractionated by partition with 40% ethanol and n-hexane: Ethyl acetate. Glycoalkaloids, Sn, and Sg were recognized in the ethanol fraction (EF and further isolated by column chromatography. EB, EF, the isolated Sn and Sg and a mixture (1:1 of both glycoalkaloids were tested on cultures of G. lamblia trophozoites and macrophages. Results: EB, EF and glycoalkaloids of S. lycocarpum showed activity against Giardia (95.0 < Inhibitory concentration 50 [IC 50 ] ≤120.3 μg/mL. The mixture of glycoalkaloids (1:1 was more active (IC 50 = 13.23 μg/mL than each one individually, suggesting a synergic effect. Moreover, the mixture is nontoxic to macrophage cells. Conclusion: Results are optimistic concerning the anti-Giardia potential of the mixture Sn + Sg. Further studies, in vitro and in vivo, will be required to consolidate the usefulness of the mixture of Sn + Sg in view of a new therapeutic strategy for giardiasis.

  10. Α1-giardin based live heterologous vaccine protects against Giardia lamblia infection in a murine model.

    Jenikova, Gabriela; Hruz, Petr; Andersson, Mattias K; Tejman-Yarden, Noa; Ferreira, Patricia C D; Andersen, Yolanda S; Davids, Barbara J; Gillin, Frances D; Svärd, Staffan G; Curtiss, Roy; Eckmann, Lars

    2011-11-28

    Giardia lamblia is a leading protozoan cause of diarrheal disease worldwide, yet preventive medical strategies are not available. A crude veterinary vaccine has been licensed for cats and dogs, but no defined human vaccine is available. We tested the vaccine potential of three conserved antigens previously identified in human and murine giardiasis, α1-giardin, α-enolase, and ornithine carbamoyl transferase, in a murine model of G. lamblia infection. Live recombinant attenuated Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium vaccine strains were constructed that stably expressed each antigen, maintained colonization capacity, and sustained total attenuation in the host. Oral administration of the vaccine strains induced antigen-specific serum IgG, particularly IgG(2A), and mucosal IgA for α1-giardin and α-enolase, but not for ornithine carbamoyl transferase. Immunization with the α1-giardin vaccine induced significant protection against subsequent G. lamblia challenge, which was further enhanced by boosting with cholera toxin or sublingual α1-giardin administration. The α-enolase vaccine afforded no protection. Analysis of α1-giardin from divergent assemblage A and B isolates of G. lamblia revealed >97% amino acid sequence conservation and immunological cross-reactivity, further supporting the potential utility of this antigen in vaccine development. Together. These results indicate that α1-giardin is a suitable candidate antigen for a vaccine against giardiasis. PMID:22001876

  11. A Novel WRKY-like Protein Involved in Transcriptional Activation of Cyst Wall Protein Genes in Giardia lamblia*

    Pan, Yu-Jiao; Cho, Chao-Cheng; Kao, Yu-Yun; Sun, Chin-Hung

    2009-01-01

    Synthesis of a protective cyst wall is required for survival outside of the host and for infection of Giardia lamblia. Little is known of gene regulation of the cyst wall proteins (CWPs) during differentiation into dormant cysts. WRKY homologues constitute a large family of DNA-binding proteins in plants that are involved in several key cellular functions, including disease resistance, stress response, dormancy, and development. A putative wrky gene has been identified in the G. lamblia genom...

  12. Efecto de un extracto de Petiveria Alliacea Lin sobre el crecimiento de Giardia lamblia in vitro

    Aimée Echevarría; Dinorah Torres Idavoy

    2001-01-01

    Se evaluó el efecto de un extracto fluido elaborado con un menstruo de Petiveria alliacea (anamú) sobre el crecimiento in vitro de Giardia lamblia. Para este ensayo se empleó una cepa aislada en el Instituto de Medicina Tropical "Pedro Kourí", procedente de un paciente infestado. Los cultivos fueron incubados a 37 °C durante 48 h y posteriormente ajustada su concentración a 2 ´105 parásitos por 0,5 mL. Los resultados obtenidos muestran un marcado efecto antigiardiásico, por los altos porcenta...

  13. Inactivation of gerbil-cultured Giardia lamblia cysts by free chlorine.

    Rubin, A J; Evers, D P; Eyman, C M; Jarroll, E.L.

    1989-01-01

    Giardia lamblia cysts were harvested from Mongolian gerbils and exposed to free chlorine in buffered water at pH 5, 7, and 9 at 15 degrees C. The contact times required to obtain a 2-log reduction in cyst survival (i.e., a 99% kill) were interpolated from survival curves generated at fixed concentrations of chlorine in the range of 0.25 to about 16 mg/liter. Concentration-time (C.t') products for 99% inactivation ranged from about 120 to nearly 1,500 mg.min/liter. These values are higher than...

  14. A real-time RT-PCR method to detect viable Giardia lamblia cysts in environmental waters.

    Baque, Robert H; Gilliam, Amy O; Robles, Liza D; Jakubowski, Walter; Slifko, Theresa R

    2011-05-01

    Currently, USEPA Method 1623 is the standard assay used for simultaneous detection of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in various water matrices. However, the method is unable to distinguish between species, genotype, or to assess viability. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to address the shortcomings of USEPA Method 1623 by developing a novel molecular-based method that can assess viability of Giardia cysts in environmental waters and identify genotypes that pose a human health threat (assemblage groups A and B). Primers and TaqMan() probes were designed to target the beta-giardin gene in order to discriminate among species and assemblages. Viability was determined by detection of de-novo mRNA synthesis after heat induction. The beta-giardin primer/probe sets were able to detect and differentiate between Giardia lamblia assemblages A and B, and did not detect Giardia muris (mouse species) or G. lamblia assemblages C, D, E and F (non-human), with the exception of Probe A which did detect G. lamblia assemblage F DNA. Additionally, DNA or cDNA of other waterborne organisms were not detected, suggesting that the method is specific to Giardia assemblages. Assay applicability was demonstrated by detection of viable G. lamblia cysts in spiked (assemblage B) and unspiked (assemblage A and B) reclaimed water samples. PMID:21501854

  15. MATRIX ASSISTED LASER DESORPTION/IONIZATION TIME OF FLIGHT MASS SPECTROMETRY BASED ANALYSIS OF GIARDIA LAMBLIA

    Giardia is the protozoan parasite that is the etiologic agent of giardiasis. This illness is the most common parasitic disease, estimated to infect 2.5 million people in the United States and up to 280 million people worldwide each year [8,19]. Symptoms of giardiasis range from ...

  16. Detection of a Giardia lamblia coproantigen by using a commercially available immunoenzymatic assay, in Belo Horizonte, Brazil Avaliação do ProSpeT Giardia ensaio em microplaca na detecção de coproantígenos de Giardia lamblia, em fezes de pacientes de Belo Horizonte, Brasil

    Míriam Oliveira e ROCHA

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available It is known that fecal examination to detect Giardia lamblia cysts or trophozoites produces a high percentage of false-negative results. A commercially available immunoenzymatic assay (ProSpecT Giardia Microplate Assay, Alexon, Inc., BIOBRÁS to detect G. lamblia specific coproantigen was evaluated for the first time in Brazil. A total of 90 specimens were tested. Each specimen was first tested as unpreserved stool, and then it was preserved in 10% Formalin to be tested 2 months later. The assay was able to identify all the 30 positive patients (sensitivity = 100.0% by visual or spectrophotometric examination in the unpreserved specimens and was negative in 57 of the 60 patients without G. lamblia (specificity = 95.0%. The assay identified 27 of the 30 positive patients (sensitivity = 90.0% and was negative in 59 of the 60 negatives (specificity = 98.3% in the preserved stools according to both readings. A marked difference was observed in the optical densities in both groups, preserved and unpreserved stools, when the G. lamblia-positive specimens were compared to the negative or positive for other intestinal parasites than G. lamblia. The assay seems a good alternative for giardiasis diagnosis, especially when the fecal examination was repeatedly negative and the patient presents giardiasislike symptoms.O diagnóstico da giardíase através da pesquisa de trofozoítos ou cistos do parasita nas fezes apresenta uma elevada percentagem de resultados falso-negativos. No presente trabalho foi feita, pela primeira vez no Brasil, uma avaliação do ProSpecT Giardia Ensaio em Microplaca (Alexon, Inc., BIOBRÁS, utilizando amostras fecais de pacientes de Belo Horizonte, Brasil. Um total de 90 amostras fecais foram testadas, primeiramente como fezes frescas e, então, preservadas em formalina 10%, para um novo teste 2 meses após. Com as amostras frescas, o ensaio imunoenzimático, através de leitura visual ou no espectrofotômetro, foi capaz de identificar todos os 30 pacientes positivos no exame parasitológico de fezes (EPF e foi negativo em 57 dos 60 pacientes sem G. lamblia (sensibilidade = 100,0%, especificidade = 95,0%. Com as amostras preservadas em formalina 10% durante 2 meses, o teste identificou 27 das 30 amostras fecais positivas (sensibilidade = 90,0% e foi negativo em 59 das 60 amostras negativas no EPF (especificidade = 98,3%. Comparando-se as leituras das densidades óticas nas amostras fecais positivas para G. lamblia com as amostras com EPF negativo ou contendo outros parasitas intestinais que não a G. lamblia, foi observada uma nítida diferença, tanto nas fezes frescas como nas fezes conservadas em formalina 10% durante 2 meses. O ProSpecT Giardia Ensaio em Microplaca mostrou-se uma boa alternativa para o diagnóstico da G. lamblia, especialmente para aqueles casos em que o EPF foi repetidamente negativo e o paciente apresenta sintomas compatíveis com a giardíase.

  17. A unique mechanism of nuclear division in Giardia lamblia involves components of the ventral disk and the nuclear envelope

    Alberto J. Solari

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The fine structure of the binucleate, parasitic protist Giardia lamblia during interphase and divisional stages was studied by serial thin sectioning and three-dimensional reconstructions. The earlier sign of nuclear division is the development of a few peripheral areas of densely packed chromatin directly attached to the inner nuclear envelope. An intracytoplasmic sheet of ventral disk components grows from the cell periphery towards one of the nuclei, apparently constricting this nucleus, which becomes located at a ventral bulge. After the basal bodies become duplicated, a full nuclear division occurs in trophozoites, giving two pairs of parent-daughter nuclei. This full division occurs in a dorsal-ventral direction, with the resulting nuclear pairs located at the sides of the two sets of basal bodies. A new ventral disk is formed from the disk-derived sheets in the cell harboring the four nuclei. Cytokinesis is polymorphic, but at early stages is dorsal-to-dorsal. Encysting trophozoites show the development of Golgi cisternae stacks and dense, specific secretory granules. 3-D reconstructions show that cysts contain a single pair of incompletely strangled nuclei. The dividing Giardia lacks a typical, microtubular spindle either inside or outside the nuclei. The nuclear envelope seems to be the only structure involved in the final division of the parent-daughter nuclei.

  18. An Improved PCR-RFLP Assay for Detection and Genotyping of Asymptomatic Giardia lamblia Infection in a Resource-Poor Setting.

    Hawash, Yoursry; Ghonaim, M M; Al-Shehri, S S

    2016-02-01

    Laboratory workers, in resource-poor countries, still consider PCR detection of Giardia lamblia more costly and more time-consuming than the classical parasitological techniques. Based on 2 published primers, an in-house one-round touchdown PCR-RFLP assay was developed. The assay was validated with an internal amplification control included in reactions. Performance of the assay was assessed with DNA samples of various purities, 91 control fecal samples with various parasite load, and 472 samples of unknown results. Two cysts per reaction were enough for PCR detection by the assay with exhibited specificity (Sp) and sensitivity (Se) of 100% and 93%, respectively. Taking a published small subunit rRNA reference PCR test results (6%; 29/472) as a nominated gold standard, G. lamblia was identified in 5.9% (28/472), 5.2%, (25/472), and 3.6% (17/472) by PCR assay, RIDA(®) Quick Giardia antigen detection test (R-Biopharm, Darmstadt, Germany), and iodine-stained smear microscopy, respectively. The percent agreements (kappa values) of 99.7% (0.745), 98.9% (0.900), and 97.7% (0.981) were exhibited between the assay results and that of the reference PCR, immunoassay, and microscopy, respectively. Restriction digestion of the 28 Giardia-positive samples revealed genotype A pattern in 12 and genotype B profile in 16 samples. The PCR assay with the described format and exhibited performance has a great potential to be adopted in basic clinical laboratories as a detection tool for G. lamblia especially in asymptomatic infections. This potential is increased more in particular situations where identification of the parasite genotype represents a major requirement as in epidemiological studies and infection outbreaks. PMID:26951972

  19. Incidence of Giardia lamblia Subspecies by PCR-RFLP in Stool Specimens of Hospitalized Children at Urmia Mutahhari Hospital, West Azerbaijan Province, Iran.

    Khosro Hazrati Tappeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Giardia lamblia is one of the most prevalent intestinal flagellate protozoa that infects a wide range of vertebrate hosts causing severe intestinal disorder in children.This study was performed to determine subspecies of G.lamblia by the PCR-RFLP method, targeting the glutamate dehydrogenase(gdhlocus, in hospitalized children at Urmia Mutahhari Hospital, West Azerbaijan Province,Iran and determining the infection transformational storages in this area.Overall, 720 stool specimens were collected from the hospitalized children, 34 samples were positive and Giardia cysts were detected under the microscope. Cysts were partially purified by the sucrose density gradient method and then washed with sterile distilled water to remove effectively the PCR inhibitors. Genomic DNA of G. lamblia isolates was extracted by freeze-thaw cycles followed by phenol/ chloroform/isoamyl alcohol method. The single step PCR-RFLP assay was used to differentiate the assemblages between A and B, which were found in humans. In this method, 432 bp expected size was amplified, and then for detection of subspecies, specific restriction RsaI and BspLI enzymes were used.Totally 34 samples were positive in terms of Giardia cyst out of 720 examined samples microscopically, so the parasite spread rate is reported 4.72%. Analysis PCR-RFLP on these samples revealed that 28 samples (93.3% have the genotype BIII and 2 samples (6.7% belong to the subgroup BIV.PCR-RFLP is a proper analytical method for determining the genotype among parasite types, using the glutamate dehydrogenizes zone's genes. Based on the results, an animal origin of infection cycle is suggested.

  20. Molecular Characterization of the Iranian Isolates of Giardia Lamblia: Application of the Glutamate Dehydrogenase Gene

    L Akhlaghi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was conducted to determine of molecular epidemiology of the Giardia lamblia by PCR-RFLP method in Tehran, capital of Iran. Methods: Thirty eight stool samples were randomly selected from 125 patients diagnosed with giardiasis using microscopy in Tehran. DNA extraction of some samples were performed by phenol/chloroform/isoamyl alcohol method and to raise the sensitivity of the PCR assay, the genomic DNA of the others were extracted using glass beads and the QIAamp Stool Mini Kit in order to effectively remove the PCR inhibitors. A single step PCR-RFLP assay, targeting the glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh locus, was used to differentiate within and between assemblages A and B that have been found in humans. Results: Of the 38 isolates, 33 samples (87% were found as G. lamblia (genotype AII, 3 (7.8% belonged to assemblage B, genotype BIII, the mixed of genotype AII and B were detected only in two samples (5.2%. Conclusions: PCR-RFLP is a sensitive and powerful analytical tool that allows effective genotype discrimination within and between assemblages at targeting gdh gene, and makes it possible to identify the presence of mixed genotypes. Our data suggest that there is an anthroponotic origin of the infection route, assemblage A group II, in Tehran so it seems that the main reservoir of Giardia infection is humans in the area studies.

  1. Allelic sequence heterozygosity in single Giardia parasites

    Ankarklev Johan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic heterogeneity has become a major inconvenience in the genotyping and molecular epidemiology of the intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia intestinalis, in particular for the major human infecting genotype, assemblage B. Sequence-based genotyping of assemblage B Giardia from patient fecal samples, where one or several of the commonly used genotyping loci (beta-giardin, triosephosphate isomerase and glutamate dehydrogenase are implemented, is often hampered due to the presence of sequence heterogeneity in the sequencing chromatograms. This can be due to allelic sequence heterozygosity (ASH and /or co-infections with parasites of different assemblage B sub-genotypes. Thus, two important questions have arisen; i does ASH occur at the single cell level, and/or ii do multiple sub-genotype infections commonly occur in patients infected with assemblage B, G. intestinalis isolates? Results We used micromanipulation in order to isolate single Giardia intestinalis, assemblage B trophozoites (GS isolate and cysts from human patients. Molecular analysis at the tpi loci of trophozoites from the GS lineage indicated that ASH is present at the single cell level. Analyses of assemblage B Giardia cysts from clinical samples at the bg and tpi loci also indicated ASH at the single cell level. Additionally, alignment of sequence data from several different cysts that originated from the same patient yielded different sequence patterns, thus suggesting the presence of multiple sub-assemblage infections in congruence with ASH within the same patient. Conclusions Our results conclusively show that ASH does occur at the single cell level in assemblage B Giardia. Furthermore, sequence heterogeneity generated during sequence-based genotyping of assemblage B isolates may possess the complexity of single cell ASH in concurrence with co-infections of different assemblage B sub-genotypes. These findings explain the high abundance of sequence heterogeneity commonly found when performing sequence based genotyping of assemblage B Giardia, and illuminates the necessity of developing new G. intestinalis genotyping tools.

  2. ELISA y técnica de sedimentación espontánea para el diagnóstico de infección por Giardia lamblia en muestras fecales de niños de Perú ELISA and spontaneous sedimentation technique for the diagnosis of Giardia lamblia infection in stool samples of Peruvian children

    Claudia Rodríguez-Ulloa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar un kit ELISA comercial para coproantígenos y la técnica de sedimentación espontánea en tubo (TSET para el diagnóstico de Giardia lamblia en muestras fecales de niños de una zona endémica peruana. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Fueron analizadas 174 muestras mediante la TSET y el kit Giardia 2nd Generation ELISA. RESULTADOS: Fueron positivas 51 muestras por ELISA y 49 por TSET. CONCLUSIONES: El ELISA resultó ser altamente sensible y específico, sencillo y rápido; sin embargo, la muy buena concordancia, alta precisión, bajo costo y capacidad para detectar otros enteroparásitos hace que la TSET sea recomendable para el diagnóstico en zonas endémicas del Perú.OBJETIVE: To compare a commercial coproantigen ELISA kit and the technique of spontaneous sedimentation in tube (TSET for the diagnosis of Giardia lamblia in fecal specimens from children in a Peruvian endemic area. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 174 fecal samples were analyzed by TSET and 2nd Generation Giardia ELISA kit. RESULTS: 51 samples were positive by ELISA and 49 by TSET. CONCLUSIONS: The ELISA was highly sensitive and specific, simple and fast. However, the very good agreement, high precision, low cost and ability to detect other intestinal parasites makes use of TSET recommended for laboratory diagnosis in endemic areas of Peru.

  3. Comparative characterisation of two nitroreductases from Giardia lamblia as potential activators of nitro compounds.

    Müller, Joachim; Rout, Samuel; Leitsch, David; Vaithilingam, Jathana; Hehl, Adrian; Müller, Norbert

    2015-08-01

    Giardia lamblia is a protozoan parasite that causes giardiasis, a diarrhoeal disease affecting humans and various animal species. Nitro drugs such as the nitroimidazole metronidazole and the nitrothiazolide nitazoxanide are used for treatment of giardiasis. Nitroreductases such as GlNR1 and GlNR2 may play a role in activation or inactivation of these drugs. The aim of this work is to characterise these two enyzmes using functional assays. For respective analyses recombinant analogues from GlNR1 and GlNR2 were produced in Escherichia coli. E. coli expressing GlNR1 and GlNR2 alone or together were grown in the presence of nitro compounds. Furthermore, pull-down assays were performed using HA-tagged GlNR1 and GlNR2 as baits. As expected, E. coli expressing GlNR1 were more susceptible to metronidazole under aerobic and semi-aerobic and to nitazoxanide under semi-aerobic growth conditions whereas E. coli expressing GlNR2 were susceptible to neither drug. Interestingly, expression of both nitroreductases gave the same results as expression of GlNR2 alone. In functional assays, both nitroreductases had their strongest activities on the quinone menadione (vitamin K3) and FAD, but reduction of nitro compounds including the nitro drugs metronidazole and nitazoxanide was clearly detected. Full reduction of 7-nitrocoumarin to 7-aminocoumarin was preferentially achieved with GlNR2. Pull-down assays revealed that GlNR1 and GlNR2 interacted in vivo forming a multienzyme complex. These findings suggest that both nitroreductases are multifunctional. Their main biological role may reside in the reduction of vitamin K analogues and FAD. Activation by GlNR1 or inactivation by GlNR2 of nitro drugs may be the consequence of a secondary enzymatic activity either yielding (GlNR1) or eliminating (GlNR2) toxic intermediates after reduction of these compounds. PMID:27099829

  4. COMPARISON OF CONVENTIONAL AND MOLECULAR METHODS FOR DETECTION OF Giardia lamblia IN HUMAN FEACES / COMPARACIÓN DE MÉTODOS CONVENCIONALES Y MOLECULARES PARA LA DETECCIÓN DE Giardia lamblia EN HECES HUMANAS

    Edwin Cardona

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The protozoa of the genus Giardia represent one of the most common human parasites in the world and are among the main causes of gastrointestinal infections and diarrheal diseases in humans. Parasite detection is generally based on concentration and conventional microscopy methods, but these techniques have limitations due to their low sensitivity and specificity in diagnosis. In an attempt to improve the diagnostic methods, molecular techniques are emerging as a promising alternative. In this study 88 stool samples from patients of a company that provides health services (ASSBASALUD in the city of Manizales (Caldas were analyzed. In order to detect Giardia lamblia in stool, three different methods were compared using the positivity percent: conventional methods for concentration of the sample and microscopic observation, analysis by immunoassay (indirect ELISA and finally the amplification of two nuclear gene sequences by PCR. Three positive samples were obtained by concentration and conventional microscopy, two by immunoassay and 26 by molecular techniques. The study suggests that routine diagnostic tests based on conventional microscopy and immunoassay have lower detection rate of this parasite and that this deficiency can be compensated by means of the implementation of molecular diagnostic methods based on PCR, as a complementary strategy to support the diagnosis of this protozoan. RESUMEN: Los protozoarios del género Giardia representan algunos de los parásitos humanos más comunes en el mundo y están entre los principales causantes de infecciones gastrointestinales y enfermedades diarreicas en humanos. La detección del parásito se fundamenta generalmente en los métodos por concentración y microscopía convencional, pero estas técnicas presentan limitaciones por su baja sensibilidad e inespecificidad en el diagnóstico. En procura de mejorar los métodos de diagnóstico, las técnicas moleculares se perfilan como una alternativa promisoria. En este estudio se analizaron 88 muestras de heces provenientes de pacientes de una empresa prestadora de servicios de salud (ASSBASALUD de la ciudad de Manizales (Caldas. Para la detección de Giardia lamblia en heces se compararon tres métodos diferentes por medio del porcentaje de positividad: los métodos convencionales de concentración de la muestra y observación microscópica, análisis por inmunoensayo (ELISA indirecto y finalmente la amplificación de dos secuencias génicas nucleares por PCR. Se obtuvieron tres muestras positivas por concentración y microscopía convencional, dos por inmunoensayo y 26 por técnicas moleculares. El estudio sugiere que las pruebas diagnósticas rutinarias basadas en microscopía convencional e inmunoensayo, tienen más bajo porcentaje de detección de este parásito y que esta deficiencia puede ser compensada por medio de la implementación de métodos de diagnóstico molecular basados en PCR, como una estrategia complementaria de apoyo en el diagnóstico de este protozoo.

  5. Commercial assay for detection of Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum antigens in human fecal specimens by rapid solid-phase qualitative immunochromatography.

    Garcia, Lynne S; Shimizu, Robyn Y; Novak, Susan; Carroll, Marilyn; Chan, Frank

    2003-01-01

    The ImmunoCard STAT! Cryptosporidium/Giardia rapid assay (Meridian Bioscience, Inc.) is a solid-phase qualitative immunochromatographic assay that detects and distinguishes between Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum in aqueous extracts of human fecal specimens (fresh, frozen, unfixed, or fixed in 5 or 10% formalin or sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin). By using specific antibodies, antigens specific for these organisms are isolated and immobilized on a substrate. After the addition of appropriate reagents, a positive test is detected visually by the presence of a gray-black color bar (regardless of the intensity) next to the organism name printed on the test device. A control is included in the device. Steps include tube preparation (buffer, patient specimen, conjugates A and B), testing (addition of sample onto the test device), and visual reading (total time, 12 min). Test performance was evaluated with known positive and negative stool specimens (170 specimens positive for Giardia and 231 specimens negative for Giardia) (85 specimens positive for Cryptosporidium and 316 specimens negative for Cryptosporidium); they were tested with trichrome, iron-hematoxylin, or modified acid-fast stains or the Meridian Bioscience, Inc., Giardia/Cryptosporidium Merifluor combination reagent; specimens with discrepant results were retested by using the Merifluor combination reagent. On the basis of the results of the reference methods, the sensitivities, specificities, and positive and negative predictive values were as follows: for G. lamblia, 93.5, 100, 100, and 95.5%, respectively; for C. parvum, 98.8, 100, 100, and 99.7%, respectively. False-negative results for G. lamblia were obtained with specimens with low parasite numbers (n = 7) or specimens containing trophozoites only (n = 3); one specimen with a false-negative result contained numerous cysts. The one specimen false negative for C. parvum was confirmed to be positive by immunofluorescence. No cross-reactivity was seen with 10 different protozoa (152 challenges), nine different helminths (35 challenges), or human cells (4 challenges) found in fecal specimens. This rapid test system may be very beneficial in the absence of trained microscopists; however, for patients who remain symptomatic after a negative result, the ova and parasite examination and special stains for other coccidia and the microsporidia should always remain options. PMID:12517850

  6. Viability and fate of Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia in tubular anaerobic digesters.

    Kinyua, Maureen N; Trimmer, John; Izurieta, Ricardo; Cunningham, Jeffrey; Ergas, Sarina J

    2016-06-01

    In many developing countries where pathogenic diseases of animal waste origin, such as giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis, are often prevalent, facilities are limited to treat livestock waste. However, household-scale anaerobic digesters are currently being promoted for bioenergy production from livestock manure. Since the effluent is often used as a fertilizer for food crops, it is critical to understand the effect of environmental conditions within household-scale digesters on the viability of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and Giardia lamblia cysts. In this study, key environmental parameters affecting (oo)cyst inactivation were measured in four tubular anaerobic digesters, which are a type of household-scale digester promoted for treatment of swine waste in rural Costa Rica. Interviews and participant observations were used to understand digester operation and maintenance procedures. Ambient temperatures (21-24°C), near-neutral pH, total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) concentrations<250mg/L and hydraulic retention times (HRTs) between 23 and 180days were observed. Laboratory (oo)cysts inactivation studies were performed in bench-scale digesters, which were maintained under conditions similar to those observed in the field. Apparent first-order inactivation rate coefficients for Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum were 0.155±0.041 and 0.054±0.006day(-1), respectively. Temperature and volatile fatty acids were the main factors contributing to Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia inactivation. A mathematical model was developed that predicts the concentration of (oo)cysts in the liquid effluent of tubular digesters like those observed in Costa Rica. A mathematical model was developed that predicts the concentration of (oo)cysts in the liquid effluent of tubular digesters like those observed in Costa Rica. Two dimensionless groups can be used to predict the performance of the digesters for inactivating pathogens; both dimensionless groups depend upon the average HRT in the digester. This is the first study to combine mathematical modeling with qualitative analysis, field and laboratory studies to predict the concentrations of (oo)cysts in tubular digester effluents. PMID:26950630

  7. Characteristics and risk factors for symptomatic Giardia lamblia infections in Germany

    Stark Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In developed countries, giardiasis is considered a travel related disease. However, routine surveillance data from Germany indicate that >50% of infections were acquired indigenously. We studied the epidemiological characteristics of symptomatic Giardia infections acquired in Germany and abroad, and verified the proportion of cases acquired in Germany in order to investigate risk factors for sporadic autochthonous Giardia infections. Methods We identified Giardia cases notified by 41 local health authorities between February 2007 and January 2008 and interviewed them on their clinical symptoms, underlying morbidities, travel abroad and potential risk factors for the disease. We conducted a case-control-study including laboratory-confirmed (microscopy or antigen-test autochthonous Giardia cases with clinical manifestations (diarrhoea, cramps, bloating and randomly selected controls from the local population registry matched by county of residence and age-group (0-5, 6-19, ?20 years. Secondary cases, controls with diarrhoea and persons who had travelled outside Germany in the three weeks prior to disease onset (exposure period were excluded. We calculated adjusted odds ratios (aOR with 95% confidence intervals (CI using conditional logistic regression. Results Of 273 interviewed cases, 131 (48% had not travelled abroad during the defined exposure period. Of these 131, 85 (65% were male, 68 (54% were living in communities with >100,000 inhabitants and 107 (83% were aged 20 years or older. We included 120 cases and 240 controls in the case-control study. Cases were more likely to be male (aOR 2.5 CI 1.4-4.4, immunocompromised (aOR 15.3 CI 1.8-127 and daily consumers of green salad (aOR 2.9 CI 1.2-7.2. Contact with animals (pets/farm animals and exposure to surface water (swimming/water sports were not associated with symptomatic disease. Conclusions A substantial proportion of Giardia lamblia cases in Germany are indigenously acquired. Symptomatic cases are significantly more likely to be immunocompromised than control persons from the general population. Physicians should consider Giardia infections among patients with no recent history of travel abroad, particularly if they have immune deficiencies. Green salads may be an important vehicle of infection. Information campaigns highlighting this food-borne risk should emphasise the risk to persons with immune deficiencies.

  8. Detection of anti-Giardia lamblia serum antibody among children of day care centers Detecção de anticorpos séricos anti-Giardia lamblia em crianças de creches

    Semíramis Guimarães

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVES: To detect anti-Giardia lamblia serum antibodies in healthy children attending public day care centers and to assess serological tests as tools for estimating the prevalence of G. lamblia in endemic areas. METHODS: Three separate stool specimens and filter paper blood samples were collected from 147 children ranging from 0 to 6 years old. Each stool sample was processed using spontaneous sedimentation and zinc sulfate flotation methods. Blood samples were tested by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for Giardia IgG. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Of 147 individuals tested, 93 (63.3% showed Giardia cysts in their feces. Using IIF and ELISA, serum antibodies were detected in 93 (63.3% and 100 (68% samples , respectively. Sensitivity of IIF and ELISA was 82% and 72%, respectively. However, ELISA revealed to be less specific (39% than IIF (70%. IIF also showed a higher concordance with microscopic examination than ELISA.OBJETIVOS: Detectar anticorpos séricos anti-Giardia lamblia entre crianças atendidas em creches e estimar a freqüência de infecção por Giardia lamblia em área endêmica. MÉTODOS: Foram coletadas três amostras de fezes de cada uma das 147 crianças de três creches da rede municipal de Botucatu, SP, com idade variando de 0 a 6 anos, e as amostras foram processadas pelos métodos de sedimentação espontânea e flutuação pelo sulfato de zinco. Amostras de sangue foram obtidas da polpa digital, coletadas em papel de filtro e testadas pelos métodos de imunofluorescência indireta (IFI e de reação imunoenzimática (Elisa para pesquisa de IgG anti-Giardia. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: De um total de 147 crianças, 93 (63,3% apresentaram cistos de Giardia nas fezes. Dos 147 eluatos testados, 93 (63,3% e 100 (68% foram positivos para Giardia em IFI e em Elisa, respectivamente. A sensibilidade de IFI foi de 82% e de Elisa, 72%. Contudo, Elisa foi menos específica (39% do que IFI (70%. A imunofluorescência indireta apresentou maior concordância com o exame de fezes do que Elisa.

  9. New Method Using Sedimentation and Immunomagnetic Separation for Isolation and Enumeration of Cryptosporidium parvum Oocysts and Giardia lamblia cysts

    Massanet-Nicolau, Jaime

    2003-01-01

    A new method for the isolation of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and Giardia lamblia cysts from biosolid samples has been developed that utilizes sedimentation and immunomagnetic separation. The method was used to recover stained cysts and oocysts (spike organisms) from primary settled sewage sludge, anaerobically digested sewage sludge, and bovine manure. Recovery efficiencies associated with this method were approximately 40 to 60% and were significantly greater than those associated with s...

  10. Hydrologic and Vegetative Removal of Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia, and Toxoplasma gondii Surrogate Microspheres in Coastal Wetlands

    Hogan, Jennifer N.; Daniels, Miles E.; Watson, Fred G.; Oates, Stori C.; Miller, Melissa A; Conrad, Patricia A; Shapiro, Karen; Hardin, Dane; Dominik, Clare; Melli, Ann; Jessup, David A.; Miller, Woutrina A.

    2013-01-01

    Constructed wetland systems are used to reduce pollutants and pathogens in wastewater effluent, but comparatively little is known about pathogen transport through natural wetland habitats. Fecal protozoans, including Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia, and Toxoplasma gondii, are waterborne pathogens of humans and animals, which are carried by surface waters from land-based sources into coastal waters. This study evaluated key factors of coastal wetlands for the reduction of protozoal par...

  11. Immunodominant proteins α-1 giardin and β-giardin are expressed in both assemblages A and B of Giardia lamblia

    Rópolo Andrea S; Hellman Ulf; Pistoresi-Palencia María C; Rivero María R; Merino María C; Feliziani Constanza

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background To date, eight assemblages of Giardia lamblia have been described, but only assemblages A and B are known to infect humans. Despite the fact that the genomic, biological, and clinical differences found between these two assemblages has raised the possibility that they may be considered different species, there is relatively limited information on their phenotypic differences. In the present study, we developed monoclonal antibodies against alpha-1 and beta giardin, two imm...

  12. Stop codon recognition in the early-diverged protozoans Giardia lamblia and Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Chai, Baofeng; Li, Cui; Yu, Jingfei; Hao, Yanrong; Guo, Ping; Shen, Quan

    2015-07-01

    Two classes of polypeptide release factors (RFs) are responsible for maintaining accuracy in translation termination; however, their detailed mechanism of action and evolutionary history of these factors remain elusive. The structure and function of RFs vary in bacteria and eukaryotes, a fact that is suggestive of evolutionary changes in the translation termination system. Giardia lamblia (Diplomonada) and Trichomonas vaginalis (Parabasalia) are considered as early-diverged eukaryotes. The class II release factor, eRF3, of Giardia (Gl-eRF3) appears to have only one domain that corresponds to EF-1α and lacks the N-terminal domain, similar to that of eRF3 of other organisms. In the present study, we show that the chimeric molecules Gl/Sc eRF1 and Tv/Sc eRF1, which are composed of the N-terminal domain of Gl-eRF1 or Tv-eRF1, fused to the core domain (M and C domain) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae eRF1 (Sc-eRF1), resulting in loss of the RF properties of the N-terminal domain. This suggests that the conformation of eRF1 for stop codon recognition in Giardia and Trichomonas varies from the eRF1s of other eukaryotes, including ciliates and yeast. Further studies using intra-N-terminal chimeras of eRF1 indicated that the combination of the GTS loop and NIKS motif from Gl-eRF1 and the Y-C-F motif from Sc-eRF1within the N terminal domain of hybrid eRF1 could restore UGA, but not UAG and UGA recognition. In contrast, the combination of the GTS loop and the NIKS motif of Sc-eRF1 and the Y-C-F motif of Gl-eRF1 could restore UAG and UAA recognition, but not UGA recognition. Thus, these results confirm the findings of previous studies that three motifs in eRF1 are necessary for discrimination of the three bases of stop codons. The NIKS motif is responsible for recognition of the first two bases of UAA and UAG, and the Y-C-F motif identifies the second base of UGA by Gl-eRF1. Amino acid residue substitutions in Gl/Sc-eRF1 by corresponding residues of Sc-eRF1 could change and even restore RF activity, further suggesting different conformation of eRF1 are used for stop codon recognition in Giardia and in Saccharomyces. PMID:26310515

  13. A comparative study of different methods used in the detection of Giardia lamblia on fecal specimens of children

    Muhammad Farooq Baig

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare results obtained using a single fecal specimen for ova and parasite (O and P examination, direct immunofluorescent assay (DFA, and two conventional staining methods. Design: Fecal specimens of 150 children were collected and examined by each method. The O and P and the DFA were used as the reference methods. Setting: The study was performed at the laboratory in the Basic Medical Science Institute JPMC Karachi. Materials and Methods: The fecal specimens were collected from children with a suspected Giardia lamblia infection. Agreement and disagreement between the methods was determined based on (1 the presence of giardiasis in our population and (2 the sensitivity and specificity of each method. Results: There was 45 (30% positive and 105 (70% negative cases found with DFA, 41 (27.4% positive and 109 (72.6% negative cases detected by iodine method, and 34 (22.6% positive and 116 (77.4% negative cases found with saline method. The sensitivity and specificity of DFA in comparison to iodine were 92.2 and 92.7%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of DFA in comparison to saline method were 91.2 and 87.9%, respectively. The sensitivities of iodine method and saline method in comparison to DFA were 82.2 and 68.8%, respectively. There is marked difference in sensitivity of DFA compared to conventional methods. Conclusion: The study supported the findings of other investigators who concluded that DFA method has the greatest sensitivity. The immunologic methods were more efficient and quicker than the conventional O and P method.

  14. Predominance of Giardia lamblia assemblage A among iron deficiency anaemic pre-school Egyptian children.

    Hussein, Eman M; Zaki, Wafaa M; Ahmed, Shahira A; Almatary, Amal M; Nemr, Nader I; Hussein, Abdalla M

    2016-04-01

    Intestinal parasites and nutritional deficiency can coexist and influence each other. This study aimed to clarify the association between Giardia genotypes and presence of iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) among pre-school Egyptian children. Two groups (IDA and non-anaemic) of giardiasis children (44/group) were selected according to their recovery response after treatment of giardiasis. Each group included 24 and 20 gastrointestinal symptomatic and asymptomatic, respectively. Giardia human genotypes were performed by intergenic spacer (IGS) gene based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with high-resolution melting curve (HRM). PCR/HRM proved that Tms of assemblage A and B ranged from 79.31 ± 0.29 to 84.77 ± 0.31. In IDA patients, assemblages A and B were found among 40/44 (90.9 %) and 4/44 (9.1 %), respectively, while in non-anaemic patients, assemblages A and B were found in 10/44 (22.7 %) and 32/44 (72.7 %), respectively, beside two (4.6 %) cases had mixed infection. The difference was statistically significant. No significant relation was found between symptomatic or asymptomatic assemblages and IDA as assemblage A was found in 21/24 (87.5 %) and 19/20 (95 %) of symptomatic and asymptomatic, respectively, while 3/24 (12.5 %) and 1/20 (5 %) of assemblage B were symptomatic was asymptomatic, respectively. A significant relation was found between assemblage A subtypes distribution among IDA patients as AI and AII were detected on 23 (52.3 %) and 16 (36.4 %) of patients, respectively, while one case (2.3 %) had mixed infection. In conclusion, assemblage A is predominant among IDA giardiasis children suggesting its role in enhancing the occurrence of IDA while B has a protective role. PMID:26758448

  15. MALDI-MIS INVESTIGATIONS OF DRINKING WATER PATHOGENS--GIARDIA AND CRYPTOSPORIDIUM

    The protozoan parasites, Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia, have been responsible for numerous waterborne outbreaks of gastrointestinal illness in the United States. The 1993 cryptosporidiosis outbreak in Milwaukee affected approximately 400,000 people and resulted in o...

  16. Identification and determination of the viability of Giardia lamblia cysts and Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis oocysts in human fecal and water supply samples by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and monoclonal antibodies

    Lemos, Vanessa; Graczyk, Thaddeus; Alves, Margarida; Lobo, Maria; Sousa, Maria; Antunes, Francisco; Matos, Olga

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were evaluated for species-specific detection and viability determination of Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Cryptosporidium hominis in human fecal and water supply samples. A total of 50 fecal human samples positive for G. lamblia cysts, 38 positive for C. parvum, and 23 positive for C. hominis were studied. Also, 18 water supply samples positive for Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium s...

  17. Association between Whipple's disease and Giardia lamblia infection Asociación de enfermedad de Whipple e infección por Giardia lamblia

    J. A. Gil Ruiz

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Whipple'disease is mainly characterized by affecting the digestive system, although it can be a multisystemic process with different clinical symptoms. The bacillus causing the disease has been isolated and cultivated in 2000 and the genome sequence has been recently analyzed in 2003, which means new perspectives for its diagnosis and treatment. Giardiasis is an infestation caused by a protozoo and may cause a malabsorption syndrome or run in a subclinic way. The case of a middle-aged male is described, who after a three-year period of migratory arthralgias, showed weight loss, diarrheas and abdominal pain, being diagnosed of Giardiasis, and after the persistent symptoms and a number of studies, was diagnosed with Whipple disease. Nineteen cases of Giardia-Whipple coinfection have been described in the literature, but the reason of this association has not been found yet. The discussion on whether there is an alteration in the inmunitary system which facilitates infections or, the development of an infection lead to the other one, goes on.La enfermedad de Whipple se caracteriza por afectar principalmente al aparato digestivo, aunque puede ser un proceso multisistémico con variadas manifestaciones clínicas. En el año 2000 se ha conseguido aislar y cultivar el bacilo causante y recientemente, en el 2003, se ha analizado la secuencia completa del genoma, lo que supone nuevas perspectivas para el diagnóstico y el tratamiento. La giardiasis es una infección originada por un protozoo que puede evolucionar de forma subclínica o dar lugar a un síndrome de malabsorción. Describimos el caso de un paciente varón de mediana edad, que tras un periodo de tres años de artralgias migratorias en articulaciones periféricas, presentó un cuadro de pérdida de peso, con aumento del número de deposiciones y molestias abdominales siendo diagnosticado de Giardiasis y ante la persistencia de los síntomas y la posterior realización de diferentes estudios, de enfermedad de Whipple. Están descritos en la literatura 19 casos de coinfección Giardia-Whipple, sin que en el momento actual esté aclarado el por qué de esta asociación. Se mantiene la discusión sobre si existe una alteración en el sistema inmunitario que facilite las infecciones o si, por otro lado, el desarrollo de una infección favorece el origen de la otra.

  18. Comparison between immunomagnetic separation, coupled with immunofluorescence, and the techniques of Faust et al. and of Lutz for the diagnosis of Giardia lamblia cysts in human feces

    Souza Doris Sobral Marques

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the performance of Immunomagnetic Separation technique, coupled with Immunofluorescence (IMS-IFA, was compared with the FAUST et al. and Lutz parasitological techniques for the detection of Giardia lamblia cysts in human feces. One hundred and twenty-seven samples were evaluated by the three techniques at the same time showing a rate of cyst detection of 27.5% by IMS-IFA and 15.7% by both Faust et al. and Lutz techniques. Data analysis showed a higher sensitivity of IMS-IFA for the detection of G. lamblia cysts in comparison with the techniques of FAUST et al. and Lutz. The use of this methodology as a routine procedure enables the processing of many samples simultaneously, in order to increase recovery rate of G. lamblia cysts and reduce the time of sample storage.

  19. Factores de riesgo de la infeccin por Giardia lamblia en nios de guarderas infantiles de Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba / Risk factors for Giardia lamblia in children in daycare centers in Havana, Cuba

    Fidel ngel, Nez; Jorge Luis, Lpez; Ana Margarita, de la Cruz; Carlos M., Finlay.

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available En un estudio longitudinal sobre giardiasis desarrollado durante 18 meses en tres guarderas infantiles de Ciudad de La Habana, describimos un grupo de nios con tendencia o "predisposicin" a la infeccin por Giardia lamblia; a los que se les encontr con sntomas clnicos ms asociados a las diarr [...] eas. Este estudio de casos y controles se desarroll para conocer si algunos factores socioeconmicos y hbitos higinicos estaban asociados con este fenmeno. No se encontraron diferencias entre ambos grupos en las tasas de hacinamiento, el ndice de personas por cama, en la carencia de determinados equipos elctricos, en el nivel escolar de las madres, y en el promedio del ingreso familiar; sin embargo, predomin una frecuencia mayor de padres con nivel escolar menor de 12 grado en los casos que en los controles. No se encontraron diferencias entre ambos grupos en cuanto a la ausencia de lavado de manos antes de comer y despus de defecar, pero se encontr un mayor porcentaje de lavado incorrecto de vegetales, y una menor frecuencia del hbito de hervir el agua de consumo en las familias de los casos. Estos resultados demuestran el papel del agua como vehculo de transmisin en la giardiasis y la importancia de algunos factores epidemiolgicos. Abstract in english We conducted a longitudinal study on giardiasis in three daycare centers in Havana City for a period of 18 months and described a group of children with a "predisposition" or tendency towards re-infection with Giardia lamblia. This group was found to be more frequently associated with clinical sympt [...] oms such as diarrhea. A case-control study was designed to determine whether socioeconomic factors and hygiene were associated with this phenomenon. We found no differences between the groups with regard to overcrowding rates, number of persons per bed, absence of certain electric appliances, mother's schooling, or mean family income. However, there were proportionally more fathers with less than complete secondary education among cases as compared to controls. In addition, we found no differences in lack of hand-washing before eating and after defecation; however, we found a higher percentage of families who washed vegetables insufficiently among predisposed children. Finally, a lower percentage of families with predisposed children boiled their water. Our results demonstrate the important role of water as a vehicle for transmission of giardiasis and the importance of various epidemiologic factors.

  20. Apo And Calcium-Bound Crystal Structures of Alpha-11 Giardin, An Unusual Annexin From 'Giardia Lamblia'

    Pathuri, P.; Nguyen, E.T.; Svard, S.G.; Luecke, H.; /UC, Irvine /Uppsala U. /Karolinska Inst.

    2007-07-12

    Alpha-11 giardin is a member of the multi-gene alpha-giardin family in the intestinal protozoan, Giardia lamblia. This gene family shares an ancestry with the annexin super family, whose common characteristic is calcium-dependent binding to membranes that contain acidic phospholipids. Several alpha giardins are highly expressed during parasite-induced diarrhea in humans. Despite being a member of a large family of proteins, little is known about the function and cellular localization of alpha-11 giardin, although giardins are often associated with the cytoskeleton. It has been shown that Giardia exhibits high levels of alpha-11 giardin mRNA transcript throughout its life cycle; however, constitutive over-expression of this protein is lethal to the parasite. Determining the three-dimensional structure of an alpha-giardin is essential to identifying functional domains shared in the alpha-giardin family. Here we report the crystal structures of the apo and Ca{sup 2+}-bound forms of alpha-11 giardin, the first alpha giardin to be characterized structurally. Crystals of apo and Ca{sup 2+}-bound alpha-11 giardin diffracted to 1.1 angstroms and 2.93 angstroms, respectively. The crystal structure of selenium-substituted apo alpha-11 giardin reveals a planar array of four tandem repeats of predominantly {alpha}-helical domains, reminiscent of previously determined annexin structures, making this the highest-resolution structure of an annexin to date. The apo alpha-11 giardin structure also reveals a hydrophobic core formed between repeats I/IV and II/III, a region typically hydrophilic in other annexins. Surprisingly, the Ca{sup 2+}-bound structure contains only a single calcium ion, located in the DE loop of repeat I and coordinated differently from the two types of calcium sites observed in previous annexin structures. The apo and Ca{sup 2+}-bound alpha-11 giardin structures assume overall similar conformations; however, Ca2+-bound alpha-11 giardin crystallized in a lower-symmetry space group with four molecules in the asymmetric unit. Vesicle-binding studies suggest that alpha-11 giardin, unlike most other annexins, does not bind to vesicles composed of acidic phospholipids in a calcium-dependent manner.

  1. INHIBICIÓN DEL CRECIMIENTO DE Giardia lamblia POR ACCIÓN DEL EXTRACTO ACUOSO Y METANÓLICO DE SEMILLAS DE Cucurbita pepo

    María Porfiria Barrón González; Ramón Gerardo Rodríguez Garza; Yadira Quiñones Gutiérrez

    2010-01-01

    Giardia lamblia es el protozoario parásito causante de la giardiasis, la cual se caracteriza por molestia abdominal, pérdida de peso y desnutrición. La droga de elección para su tratamiento es el metronidazol sin embargo, presenta diversos efectos secundarios adversos en el paciente. Por otra parte, en la herbolaria se conoce a la semilla de Cucurbita pepo por sus propiedades desparasitante, principalmente sobre Entamoeba histolytica y Taenia solium. Por lo anterior se planteó la hipótesis de...

  2. Comparison between immunomagnetic separation, coupled with immunofluorescence, and the techniques of Faust et al. and of Lutz for the diagnosis of Giardia lamblia cysts in human feces

    Souza Doris Sobral Marques; Barreiros Juliana Teixeira; Papp Karina Maria; Steindel Mário; Simões Cláudia Maria Oliveira; Barardi Célia Regina Monte

    2003-01-01

    In the present study, the performance of Immunomagnetic Separation technique, coupled with Immunofluorescence (IMS-IFA), was compared with the FAUST et al. and Lutz parasitological techniques for the detection of Giardia lamblia cysts in human feces. One hundred and twenty-seven samples were evaluated by the three techniques at the same time showing a rate of cyst detection of 27.5% by IMS-IFA and 15.7% by both Faust et al. and Lutz techniques. Data analysis showed a higher sensitivity of IMS...

  3. Rational Design Synthesis and Evaluation of First Generation Inhibitors of the Giardia Lamblia Fructose-1 6-biphosphate Aldolase

    Z Li; Z Liu; D Cho; J Zou; M Gong; R Breece; A Galkin; L Li; H Zhao; et al.

    2011-12-31

    Inhibitors of the Giardia lamblia fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (GlFBPA), which transforms fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) to dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, were designed based on 3-hydroxy-2-pyridone and 1,2-dihydroxypyridine scaffolds that position two negatively charged tetrahedral groups for interaction with substrate phosphate binding residues, a hydrogen bond donor to the catalytic Asp83, and a Zn{sup 2+} binding group. The inhibition activities for the GlFBPA catalyzed reaction of FBP of the prepared alkyl phosphonate/phosphate substituted 3-hydroxy-2-pyridinones and a dihydroxypyridine were determined. The 3-hydroxy-2-pyridone inhibitor 8 was found to bind to GlFBPA with an affinity (K{sub i} = 14 {micro}M) that is comparable to that of FBP (K{sub m} = 2 {micro}M) or its inert analog TBP (K{sub i} = 1 {micro}M). The X-ray structure of the GlFBPA-inhibitor 8 complex (2.3 {angstrom}) shows that 8 binds to the active site in the manner predicted by in silico docking with the exception of coordination with Zn{sup 2+}. The observed distances and orientation of the pyridone ring O=C-C-OH relative to Zn{sup 2+} are not consistent with a strong interaction. To determine if Zn{sup 2+} coordination occurs in the GlFBPA-inhibitor 8 complex in solution, EXAFS spectra were measured. A four coordinate geometry comprised of the three enzyme histidine ligands and an oxygen atom from the pyridone ring O=C-C-OH was indicated. Analysis of the Zn{sup 2+} coordination geometries in recently reported structures of class II FBPAs suggests that strong Zn{sup 2+} coordination is reserved for the enediolate-like transition state, accounting for minimal contribution of Zn{sup 2+} coordination to binding of 8 to GlFBPA.

  4. Giardia y giardiasis Giardia and giardiasis

    Hugo D. Luján

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Giardia lamblia es un protozoario parásito que habita el intestino delgado de los seres humanos y de muchos otros vertebrados y es una de las más comunes causas de diarrea en todo el mundo. Durante su ciclo de vida Giardia sufre significativos cambios bioquímicos y morfológicos que le permiten sobrevivir en ambientes y condiciones que de otro modo lo destruirían. Para sobrevivir fuera del intestino del hospedador, los trofozoítos de Giardia se diferencian a quistes, los que se caracterizan por poseer una rígida pared glicoproteica externa que les permiten sobrevivir inclusive frente a la acción de los desinfectantes más comunes. Otro de los mecanismos de adaptación de este parásito es la variación de los antígenos de superficie que le permite a los trofozoítos evadir la respuesta inmune del huésped y generar infecciones tanto agudas como crónicas o recurrentes en individuos infectados. Durante los últimos años se han producido importantes avances en el conocimiento de las bases moleculares de los procesos de enquistamiento y variación antigénica en Giardia que pronostican el pronto hallazgo de nuevos agentes quimioterapéuticos y/o inmunoprofilácticos contra este importante parásito intestinal.Giardia lamblia is a protozoan parasite that inhabits the upper small intestine of humans and several other vertebrates and one of the most frequent cause of intestinal disease worldwide. During its life cycle, G. lamblia undergoes significant biochemical and morphological changes that allow the parasite to survive under hostile environmental conditions. To survive outside the host’s intestine, Giardia differentiates into resistant cysts, which are characterized by a rigid extracellular cyst wall that protect the parasite even to the action of the most common chemical disinfectants. Another adaptive mechanism of Giardia is the switching of its surface antigens, a mechanism that allows the trophozoites to evade the host’s immune responses and produce acute, chronic and/or recurrent infections. During the last years, important advances in the knowledge of the molecular basis underlying the mechanisms of encystation and antigenic variation in Giardia suggest that novel chemotherapeutic and/or immunoprophylactic reagents against this important human pathogen could soon be available.

  5. Parasitismo por Giardia sp. e Cryptosporidium sp. em Coendou villosus Parasitism by Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. in Coendou villosus

    João Fabio Soares

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o possível parasitismo por Giardia sp. e Cryptosporidium sp. em amostras de fezes de ouriço-cacheiro (Coendou villosus. As amostras foram analisadas pelo método de centrífugo-flutuação com sulfato de zinco e apresentaram elevada infecção por cistos de Giardia sp. e por oocistos de Cryptosporidium sp., embora os animais não apresentassem sinal clínico decorrente disso.This research was aimed at verifing the possible parasitism by Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. in porcupine (Coendou villosus faeces samples. Samples were analyzed by the centrifugal-flotation method with zinc sulphate and showed high infection by cysts of Giardia sp. and by oocysts of Cryptosporidium sp., although the animals did not show any associated clinical sign.

  6. Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. Presence in treated wastewater reutilised for irrigation in Tenerife island, Spain. Long-distance transport effects in the reutilised water quality

    N. Abreu Acosta

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Treated wastewater use for irrigation is, nowadays, the more relevant reutilization alternative of wastewater, if it is developed with sanitary and environmental warranties.Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. two wide distributed enteric pathogen protozoan, which are frequent in aquatic habitats. These protozoan investigation and detection have acquired importance in the last years due to their dispersion forms, which show resistance to the habitual treatments of potabilization and purification, and their classification as emerging pathogens which are the causative agents of important hydrical transmission outbreaks.In our work, Giardia lamblia cyst and Cryptosporidium spp. oocyst presence in Santa Cruz de Tenerife treated wastewater which is transported to the South of the island to be reutilised in agriculture. Furthermore, transport, storage and advanced treatment effects against cyst and oocyst concentration throughout the system and relation existence with other bacteriological and physical-chemical parameters, are also investigated.The obtained results demonstrate variable behaviours in cyst and oocyst concentration against applied treatments, and the depurative effect of the long-distance transport which seems to have in treated wastewater.There was not found any relation between cyst and oocyst concentration in treated wastewater and the traditional indicators of faecal contamination.

  7. INHIBICIÓN DEL CRECIMIENTO DE Giardia lamblia POR ACCIÓN DEL EXTRACTO ACUOSO Y METANÓLICO DE SEMILLAS DE Cucurbita pepo

    María Porfiria Barrón González

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Giardia lamblia es el protozoario parásito causante de la giardiasis, la cual se caracteriza por molestia abdominal, pérdida de peso y desnutrición. La droga de elección para su tratamiento es el metronidazol sin embargo, presenta diversos efectos secundarios adversos en el paciente. Por otra parte, en la herbolaria se conoce a la semilla de Cucurbita pepo por sus propiedades desparasitante, principalmente sobre Entamoeba histolytica y Taenia solium. Por lo anterior se planteó la hipótesis de que las semillas de C. pepo contienen principios activos capaces de inhibir el crecimiento de G. lamblia bajo condiciones axénicas in vitro. El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar la actividad biológica del extracto acuoso y metanólico de las semillas de C. pepo sobre el crecimiento de G. lamblia. Tanto el extracto metanólico como el acuoso se identificaron siete grupos funcionales y la actividad antioxidante no fue significativa

  8. Freqüencia da infecção por Giardia lamblia (Kunstler, 1882 em cães (Canis familiaris avaliada pelo Método de Faust e cols. (1939 e pela Coloração da Auramina, no município de Canoas, RS, Brasil Frequence of infection by Giardia lamblia (Kunstler, 1882 in dogs (Canis familiaris available trough the Faust and Collaborators Method (1939 and Auramine Staining in Canoas, RS, Brazil

    Cristiane Beck

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Giardia lamblia é um protozoário que acomete mais comumente animais jovens e que convivem em grupos. Apesar da alta prevalência, nem todos os animais apresentam a forma clínica da doença. Mesmo assim, a giardíase tem importância epidemiológica por possuir um elevado potencial zoonótico. O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar a freqüência de Giardia lamblia em cães no município de Canoas, RS, Brasil, através do Método de Faust e cols. (1939 e da Técnica de Coloração da Auramina. Os grupos experimentais foram divididos de acordo com a procedência e o sexo. Das 332 amostras analisadas pelo Método de Faust e cols, a freqüência obtida foi de 34,04%, podendo variar de 28,95 a 39,13%, dentro de um intervalo de confiança de 95%. Destas amostras positivas, 40,96% foram de canil e 27,11% de cães de rua. O Teste Exato de Fisher aplicado a esses dados revelou existir uma diferença significativa (p=0,0107 entre as variáveis resultado e procedência. A variável sexo, neste método, não apresentou diferença significativa em relação ao resultado (P=0,8162 totalizando 33,11% de machos e 34,08% de fêmeas infectadas com o parasita. Das 147 amostras realizadas pela Técnica de Coloração da Auramina, 23 foram positivas, totalizando 15,65%. A análise estatística pelo Teste McNemar revelou existir diferença significativa entre as duas técnicas (P=0,0004. O valor Kappa foi igual a 0,07, considerado como um grau de concordância fraco. Os resultados encontrados neste estudo nos permitem afirmar que o Método de Faust e cols. foi o mais adequado para o diagnóstico da infecção por Giardia lamblia, sendo este parasita altamente prevalente na região estudada.Giardia lamblia is a protozoan that commonly infects young animals which live in groups. Despite its high prevalence many animals don’t exhibit clinical signs. Giardiasis is epidemiologically important concerning the zoonotic potential of the disease. The objective of this study was to determine the frequence of Giardia lamblia in the canine population of Canoas, RS, Brazil, applying the Faust and Collaborators Method (1939 and the Auramine Staining Technique. The dogs were classified according to the origin and gender. Feces samples of 332 dogs were analyzed by the Faust and Collaborators Method. The frequency of the infection obtained was 34.04%, ranging from 28.95% to 39.13% (confident interval at a 95% level. For kennel bred animals 40,96% of the samples were positive and for stray dogs 27.11%. Applying Fisher’s Exact Test to these figures there was a significant difference (P=0.0107 when comparing the origin of the animals and the results of the tests. However when comparing genders there was no significant difference (P=0.8162, the former with 33.11% of positive males and 34.08% positive females. When submitted to the Auramine Staining Technique(147 samples, 15.67% (23 of the samples resulted positive. The statistical analysis using the McNemar Test exposed a significant difference between both techniques (P=0.0004. The Kappa value of 0.07 obtained was considered of low rate. The results allow one to affirm that the Faust and Collaborators Method was the most suitable diagnostic test for Giardia lamblia infection, considering the high prevalence of this parasite in the studied region.

  9. IL-17A promotes protective IgA responses and expression of other potential effectors against the lumen-dwelling enteric parasite Giardia.

    Dann, Sara M; Manthey, Carolin F; Le, Christine; Miyamoto, Yukiko; Gima, Lauren; Abrahim, Andrew; Cao, Anthony T; Hanson, Elaine M; Kolls, Jay K; Raz, Eyal; Cong, Yingzi; Eckmann, Lars

    2015-09-01

    Giardia lamblia is a leading protozoan cause of diarrheal disease worldwide. It colonizes the lumen and epithelial surface of the small intestine, but does not invade the mucosa. Acute infection causes only minimal mucosal inflammation. Effective immune defenses exist, yet their identity and mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Interleukin (IL)-17A has emerged as an important cytokine involved in inflammation and antimicrobial defense against bacterial pathogens at mucosal surfaces. In this study, we demonstrate that IL-17A has a crucial function in host defense against Giardia infection. Using murine infection models with G. muris and G. lamblia, we observed marked and selective induction of intestinal IL-17A with peak expression after 2 weeks. Th17 cells in the lamina propria and innate immune cells in the epithelial compartment of the small intestine were responsible for the IL-17A response. Experiments in gene-targeted mice revealed that the cytokine, and its cognate receptor IL-17RA, were required for eradication of the parasite. The actions of the cytokine were mediated by hematopoietic cells, and were required for the transport of IgA into the intestinal lumen, since IL-17A deficiency led to marked reduction of fecal IgA levels, as well as for increased intestinal expression of several other potential effectors, including β-defensin 1 and resistin-like molecule β. In contrast, intestinal hypermotility, another major antigiardial defense mechanism, was not impacted by IL-17A loss. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that IL-17A and IL-17 receptor signaling are essential for intestinal defense against the important lumen-dwelling intestinal parasite Giardia. PMID:26071205

  10. NL MIND-BEST: a web server for ligands and proteins discovery--theoretic-experimental study of proteins of Giardia lamblia and new compounds active against Plasmodium falciparum.

    González-Díaz, Humberto; Prado-Prado, Francisco; Sobarzo-Sánchez, Eduardo; Haddad, Mohamed; Maurel Chevalley, Séverine; Valentin, Alexis; Quetin-Leclercq, Joëlle; Dea-Ayuela, María A; Teresa Gomez-Muños, María; Munteanu, Cristian R; José Torres-Labandeira, Juan; García-Mera, Xerardo; Tapia, Ricardo A; Ubeira, Florencio M

    2011-05-01

    There are many protein ligands and/or drugs described with very different affinity to a large number of target proteins or receptors. In this work, we selected Ligands or Drug-target pairs (DTPs/nDTPs) of drugs with high affinity/non-affinity for different targets. Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSAR) models become a very useful tool in this context to substantially reduce time and resources consuming experiments. Unfortunately most QSAR models predict activity against only one protein target and/or have not been implemented in the form of public web server freely accessible online to the scientific community. To solve this problem, we developed here a multi-target QSAR (mt-QSAR) classifier using the MARCH-INSIDE technique to calculate structural parameters of drug and target plus one Artificial Neuronal Network (ANN) to seek the model. The best ANN model found is a Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) with profile MLP 20:20-15-1:1. This MLP classifies correctly 611 out of 678 DTPs (sensitivity=90.12%) and 3083 out of 3408 nDTPs (specificity=90.46%), corresponding to training accuracy=90.41%. The validation of the model was carried out by means of external predicting series. The model classifies correctly 310 out of 338 DTPs (sensitivity=91.72%) and 1527 out of 1674 nDTP (specificity=91.22%) in validation series, corresponding to total accuracy=91.30% for validation series (predictability). This model favorably compares with other ANN models developed in this work and Machine Learning classifiers published before to address the same problem in different aspects. We implemented the present model at web portal Bio-AIMS in the form of an online server called: Non-Linear MARCH-INSIDE Nested Drug-Bank Exploration & Screening Tool (NL MIND-BEST), which is located at URL: http://miaja.tic.udc.es/Bio-AIMS/NL-MIND-BEST.php. This online tool is based on PHP/HTML/Python and MARCH-INSIDE routines. Finally we illustrated two practical uses of this server with two different experiments. In experiment 1, we report by first time Quantum QSAR study, synthesis, characterization, and experimental assay of antiplasmodial and cytotoxic activities of oxoisoaporphine alkaloids derivatives as well as NL MIND-BEST prediction of potential target proteins. In experiment 2, we report sampling, parasite culture, sample preparation, 2-DE, MALDI-TOF, and -TOF/TOF MS, MASCOT search, MM/MD 3D structure modeling, and NL MIND-BEST prediction for different peptides a new protein of the found in the proteome of the human parasite Giardia lamblia, which is promising for anti-parasite drug-targets discovery. PMID:21277861

  11. Identification and determination of the viability of Giardia lamblia cysts and Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis oocysts in human fecal and water supply samples by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and monoclonal antibodies.

    Lemos, Vanessa; Graczyk, Thaddeus K; Alves, Margarida; Lobo, Maria Lusa; Sousa, Maria C; Antunes, Francisco; Matos, Olga

    2005-12-01

    In the present study, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were evaluated for species-specific detection and viability determination of Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Cryptosporidium hominis in human fecal and water supply samples. A total of 50 fecal human samples positive for G. lamblia cysts, 38 positive for C. parvum, and 23 positive for C. hominis were studied. Also, 18 water supply samples positive for Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Method 1623 were studied by FISH and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated MAbs. Eighteen percent of the fecal samples parasitologically positive for G. lamblia presented viable and nonviable cysts, and 5% of those positive for Cryptosporidium spp. presented viable and nonviable oocysts. Of the 18 water supply samples analyzed, 6 (33%) presented Giardia spp. viable and nonviable cysts and 2 (11%) presented viable and nonviable Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts. G. lamblia identification was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing of the beta-giardin gene in the fecal and water samples found positive by FISH and FITC-conjugated MAbs. C. parvum and Cryptosporidium muris were identified, by PCR and sequencing of the small subunit of ribosomal RNA gene, in seven and one water samples, respectively. Our results confirm that this technique enables simultaneous visualization, species-specific identification, and viability determination of the organisms present in human fecal and water supply samples. PMID:16261356

  12. Validation of housekeeping genes as an internal control for gene expression studies in Giardia lamblia using quantitative real-time PCR.

    Marcial-Quino, Jaime; Fierro, Francisco; De la Mora-De la Mora, Ignacio; Enríquez-Flores, Sergio; Gómez-Manzo, Saúl; Vanoye-Carlo, America; Garcia-Torres, Itzhel; Sierra-Palacios, Edgar; Reyes-Vivas, Horacio

    2016-04-25

    The analysis of transcript levels of specific genes is important for understanding transcriptional regulation and for the characterization of gene function. Real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR) has become a powerful tool to quantify gene expression. The objective of this study was to identify reliable housekeeping genes in Giardia lamblia. Twelve genes were selected for this purpose, and their expression was analyzed in the wild type WB strain and in two strains with resistance to nitazoxanide (NTZ) and metronidazole (MTZ), respectively. RefFinder software analysis showed that the expression of the genes is different in the three strains. The integrated data from the four analyses showed that the NADH oxidase (NADH) and aldolase (ALD) genes were the most steadily expressed genes, whereas the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene was the most unstable. Additionally, the relative expression of seven genes were quantified in the NTZ- and MTZ-resistant strains by RT-qPCR, using the aldolase gene as the internal control, and the results showed a consistent differential pattern of expression in both strains. The housekeeping genes found in this work will facilitate the analysis of mRNA expression levels of other genes of interest in G. lamblia. PMID:26778241

  13. Evaluation of a tangential-flow multiple-filter technique for detection of Giardia lamblia cysts in water.

    Isaac-Renton, J L; Fung, C P; Lochan, A

    1986-01-01

    A system of tangential-flow filtration was evaluated for use in the detection of Giardia cysts in drinking water. This method was more sensitive in recovering cysts than a frequently used wound-orlon system of through-filtration.

  14. Occurence of Giardia lamblia in children of municipal day-care centers from Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil Ocorrência de Giardia lamblia em crianças atendidas em creches municipais de Botucatu, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil

    Semíramis Guimarães

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering that the number of day-care centers for pre-school-age children has expanded rapidly in developing countries, and that these institutions presenting conditions that facilitate the transmission of many enteric agents, a parasitological survey was carried out in three municipal day-cares from Botucatu: two in the urban area (one in downtown area and the other one in the city periphery area and the third in the rural area. Three separate stool specimens were collected from 147 children ranging from 0 to 72 months old and 20 staff members. Each stool specimen was processed by Lutz and zinc sulfate flotation methods. The frequency of giardiasis observed among children of downtown, periphery and rural day-cares was 69.6%, 52.7% and 69.6%, respectively. Only one employee was positive for G. lamblia. The examination of three stool specimens increased the positivity for G. lamblia: from the ninety three final positive examinations, 24 (25.5% and 8 (8.5% were positives only after examination of the second and third samples, respectively. Others intestinal organisms like Ascaris lumbricoides (20.4%, Trichuris trichiura (19.0%. Hymenolepis nana (8.8%, Entamoeba coli (22.4% and Blastocystis hominis (32.0% were frequently found in the children. There was no significant association among localization of the day-cares, sex of the children and the levels of G. lamblia infection. According to the age, G. lamblia was found mainly in children between 12 to 47 months old.Foi realizado um levantamento parasitológico em três creches da rede municipal: duas na área urbana, uma no centro da cidade e a outra na periferia, e a terceira na zona rural. Três amostras de fezes, coletadas com intervalo de 7 dias, foram obtidas de 147 crianças com idade variando de 0 a 6 anos e de 20 funcionários. Cada amostra foi processada pelos métodos de sedimentação espontânea e centrífugo - flutuação com sulfato de zinco. Os resultados demonstraram que das 147 crianças examinadas, 93 (63,3% apresentaram cistos de G. lamblia nas fezes. Apenas 1 funcionário foi positivo para G. lamblia. O uso de 3 amostras de fezes aumentou a positividade do exame para o diagnóstico deste parasita, uma vez que dos 93 casos positivos, 24 (25,5% e 8 (8,5% foram diagnosticados somente após exame da segunda e terceira amostras, respectivamente. Outros parasitas e comensais intestinais como Ascaris lumbricoides (20,4%, Trichuris trichiura (19,0%, Hymenolepis nana (8,8%, Entamoeba coli (22,4% e Blastocystis hominis (32,0% foram diagnosticados. A análise estatística revelou não haver associação entre localização das creches, sexo e a frequência de infecção por G. lamblia. As porcentagens mais altas de infecção por Giardia foram observadas entre as crianças com idade variando de 1 a 4 anos.

  15. Giardia lamblia e alergia respiratória: estudo em uma amostra de crianças de área urbana com frequência elevada da protozoose

    Valdênia M. O. Souza; Iana R. F. Sales; Peixoto, Décio M; Vláudia M. Assis Costa; Rizzo, José A.; Almerinda R. Silva; Roberta Faria Camilo; Felipe Faria Pierotti; Dirceu Solé; Sarinho, Emanuel S. C.

    2012-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Uma elevada incidência de enteroparasitoses é encontrada em regiões urbanas do nordeste brasileiro. As infecções por Giardia lamblia têm sido relacionadas com aumento da prevalência de alergias cutâneas e gastrointestinais. Contudo, ainda existe pouca informação sobre a associação entre a giardíase e doenças alérgicas das vias aéreas. Diante disso, o presente estudo se propôs a verificar a relação entre a infecção por G. lamblia em crianças de área urbana e reatividade alérgica resp...

  16. Impacto de la dieta sobre la inducción de infección con quistes de Giardia lamblia en ratas Sprague-Dawley The effect of malnourishment on the development of giardiosis in Sprague-Dawley rats

    Martha Elvia Díaz-Cinco

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar el efecto de la desnutrición en la inducción de la giardiosis con diferentes concentraciones de quistes de Giardia lamblia utilizando como modelo animal ratas Sprague-Dawley. Material y métodos. Es un estudio experimental efectuado entre 1995 y 1999, en el Centro de Investigación en Alimentación y Desarrollo, de la ciudad de Hermosillo, estado de Sonora, México, y cuya muestra estuvo integrada por dos grupos de 6 a 8 unidades experimentales, las cuales recibieron dos tipos de dieta y cinco tratamientos con diferente concentración de inóculo de quistes de Giardia lamblia. Durante la fase experimental se monitoreó la excreción de quistes, ganancia de peso, consumo de alimento, análisis del contenido intestinal y daños macro y microscópicos en mucosa intestinal. El tratamiento estadístico de los datos consistió en análisis de varianza, y de residuales cuando fue necesario. Resultados. En los animales alimentados con una dieta que cubre sus requerimientos nutricionales (DN se observó que es posible provocar la infección con 60 quistes, mientras que en los animales desnutridos (dieta DLN la concentración que se requiere es de únicamente seis quistes para establecer daños a nivel de mucosa intestinal. Conclusiones. La ganancia de peso monitoreada durante los 10 días de ensayo no resultó ser un buen indicador de la infección por Giardia lamblia. El porcentaje de infección depende de la concentración de quistes inoculados y del estado de nutrición de los animales evaluados.Objective. To assess the effect of malnutrition on the development of giardiosis in Sprague-Dawley rats, using different inoculum sizes of Giardia lamblia cysts. Material and Methods. An experimental study was conducted between 1995 and 1999 at Centro de Investigación, Alimentación y Desarrollo (Center for Research, Food, and Development, in Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico. The study population consisted of two groups of six to eight experimental units that were fed two different diets and inoculated five different concentrations of Giardia lamblia cysts. Data were collected on excretion of cysts, weight gain, food intake, bowel contents, and macro and microscopic lesions in the intestinal mucosa. Statistical analysis consisted of analysis of variance and residuals. Results. Animals fed with a diet meeting nutritional requirements required an infecting inoculum of 60 cysts, while malnourished rats required only six cysts to develop mucosal lesions. Conclusions. Weight gain monitored during ten days was not a good indicator of Giardia lamblia infection. Infection depended on cyst inoculum size as well as on the nutritional status of the tested animals.

  17. Functional characterization of peroxiredoxins from the human protozoan parasite Giardia intestinalis.

    Mastronicola, Daniela; Falabella, Micol; Testa, Fabrizio; Pucillo, Leopoldo Paolo; Teixeira, Miguel; Sarti, Paolo; Saraiva, Lígia M; Giuffrè, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    The microaerophilic protozoan parasite Giardia intestinalis, causative of one of the most common human intestinal diseases worldwide, infects the mucosa of the proximal small intestine, where it has to cope with O2 and nitric oxide (NO). Elucidating the antioxidant defense system of this pathogen lacking catalase and other conventional antioxidant enzymes is thus important to unveil novel potential drug targets. Enzymes metabolizing O2, NO and superoxide anion (O2 (-•)) have been recently reported for Giardia, but it is yet unknown how the parasite copes with H2O2 and peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)). Giardia encodes two yet uncharacterized 2-cys peroxiredoxins (Prxs), GiPrx1a and GiPrx1b. Peroxiredoxins are peroxidases implicated in virulence and drug resistance in several parasitic protozoa, able to protect from nitroxidative stress and repair oxidatively damaged molecules. GiPrx1a and a truncated form of GiPrx1b (deltaGiPrx1b) were expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and functionally characterized. Both Prxs effectively metabolize H2O2 and alkyl-hydroperoxides (cumyl- and tert-butyl-hydroperoxide) in the presence of NADPH and E. coli thioredoxin reductase/thioredoxin as the reducing system. Stopped-flow experiments show that both proteins in the reduced state react with ONOO(-) rapidly (k = 4×10(5) M(-1) s(-1) and 2×10(5) M(-1) s(-1) at 4°C, for GiPrx1a and deltaGiPrx1b, respectively). Consistent with a protective role against oxidative stress, expression of GiPrx1a (but not deltaGiPrx1b) is induced in parasitic cells exposed to air O2 for 24 h. Based on these results, GiPrx1a and deltaGiPrx1b are suggested to play an important role in the antioxidant defense of Giardia, possibly contributing to pathogenesis. PMID:24416465

  18. Genome and transcriptome studies of the protozoan parasites Trypanosoma cruzi and Giardia intestinalis

    Franzén, Oscar

    2012-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi and Giardia intestinalis are two human pathogens and protozoan parasites responsible for the diseases Chagas disease and giardiasis, respectively. Both diseases cause suffering and illness in several million individuals. The former disease occurs primarily in South America and Central America, and the latter disease occurs worldwide. Current therapeutics are toxic and lack efficacy, and potential vaccines are far from the market. Increased knowledge about the biology of thes...

  19. Genome and transcriptome studies of the protozoan parasites Trypanosoma cruzi and Giardia intestinalis

    Franzén, Oscar

    2012-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi and Giardia intestinalis are two human pathogens and protozoan parasites responsible for the diseases Chagas disease and giardiasis, respectively. Both diseases cause su ering and illness in several million individuals. The former disease occurs primarily in South America and Central America, and the latter disease occurs worldwide. Current therapeutics are toxic and lack e cacy, and potential vaccines are far from the market. Increased knowledge about the bio...

  20. Factores de riesgo de la infección por Giardia lamblia en niños de guarderías infantiles de Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba Risk factors for Giardia lamblia in children in daycare centers in Havana, Cuba

    Fidel Ángel Núñez

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available En un estudio longitudinal sobre giardiasis desarrollado durante 18 meses en tres guarderías infantiles de Ciudad de La Habana, describimos un grupo de niños con tendencia o "predisposición" a la infección por Giardia lamblia; a los que se les encontró con síntomas clínicos más asociados a las diarreas. Este estudio de casos y controles se desarrolló para conocer si algunos factores socioeconómicos y hábitos higiénicos estaban asociados con este fenómeno. No se encontraron diferencias entre ambos grupos en las tasas de hacinamiento, el índice de personas por cama, en la carencia de determinados equipos eléctricos, en el nivel escolar de las madres, y en el promedio del ingreso familiar; sin embargo, predominó una frecuencia mayor de padres con nivel escolar menor de 12 grado en los casos que en los controles. No se encontraron diferencias entre ambos grupos en cuanto a la ausencia de lavado de manos antes de comer y después de defecar, pero se encontró un mayor porcentaje de lavado incorrecto de vegetales, y una menor frecuencia del hábito de hervir el agua de consumo en las familias de los casos. Estos resultados demuestran el papel del agua como vehículo de transmisión en la giardiasis y la importancia de algunos factores epidemiológicos.We conducted a longitudinal study on giardiasis in three daycare centers in Havana City for a period of 18 months and described a group of children with a "predisposition" or tendency towards re-infection with Giardia lamblia. This group was found to be more frequently associated with clinical symptoms such as diarrhea. A case-control study was designed to determine whether socioeconomic factors and hygiene were associated with this phenomenon. We found no differences between the groups with regard to overcrowding rates, number of persons per bed, absence of certain electric appliances, mother's schooling, or mean family income. However, there were proportionally more fathers with less than complete secondary education among cases as compared to controls. In addition, we found no differences in lack of hand-washing before eating and after defecation; however, we found a higher percentage of families who washed vegetables insufficiently among predisposed children. Finally, a lower percentage of families with predisposed children boiled their water. Our results demonstrate the important role of water as a vehicle for transmission of giardiasis and the importance of various epidemiologic factors.

  1. OBSERVATION ON THE INTESTINAL PARASITIC INFECTIONS

    Rezaeian, M

    1986-01-01

    During 1980-82, a total number of 4143 stool samples, from 2332 males and 1811 females, referred to the Central Laboratory of the School of Public Health, were examined for intestinal parasites. All the specimens were examined for intestinal parasites. All the specimens were examined by formol-ether concentration and wet-mount (ringer solution) techniques. The main prevalent pathogenic parasites were Entamoeba histolytica (8.7%), Giardia lamblia (16.1%), and Hymenolepis nana (3.2%). The overa...

  2. Everyday and exotic foodborne parasites

    2000-01-01

    Everyday foodborne parasites, which are endemic in Canada, include the protozoans Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum. However, these parasites are most frequently acquired through unfiltered drinking water, homosexual activity or close personal contact such as in daycare centres and occasionally via a food vehicle. It is likely that many foodborne outbreaks from these protozoa go undetected. Transmission of helminth infections, such as tapeworms, is rare in Cana...

  3. Prevalence and associated risk factors for Giardia lamblia infection among children hospitalized for diarrhea in Goiânia, Goiás State, Brazil Prevalência e fatores de risco associados à infecção por Giardia lamblia em crianças hospitalizadas com diarréia em Goiânia, Goiás, Brasil

    Maria das Graças Cabral Pereira

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and to identify risk factors associated with Giardia lamblia infection in diarrheic children hospitalized for diarrhea in Goiânia, State of Goiás, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted and a comprehensive questionnaire was administered to the child's primary custodian. Fixed effects logistic regression was used to determine the association between infection status for G. lamblia and host, sociodemographic, environmental and zoonotic risk factors. A total of 445 fecal samples were collected and processed by the DFA methodology, and G. lamblia cysts were present in the feces of 44 diarrheic children (9.9%. A variety of factors were found to be associated with giardiasis in these population: age of children (OR, 1.18; 90% CI, 1.0 - 1.36; p = 0.052, number of children in the household (OR 1.45; 90% CI, 1.13 - 1.86; p = 0.015, number of cats in the household (OR, 1.26; 90% CI, 1.03 -1.53; p = 0.059, food hygiene (OR, 2.9; 90% CI, 1.34 - 6.43; p = 0.024, day-care centers attendance (OR, 2.3; 90% CI, 1.20 - 4.36; p = 0.034, living on a rural farm within the past six months prior hospitalization (OR, 5.4; CI 90%, 1.5 - 20.1; p = 0.03 and the number of household adults (OR, 0.59; 90% CI, 0.42 - 0.83; p = 0.012. Such factors appropriately managed may help to reduce the annual incidence of this protozoal infection in the studied population.O objetivo desse estudo foi estimar a prevalência e identificar fatores de risco associados à infecção por Giardia lamblia em crianças hospitalizadas com diarréia no município de Goiânia, Estado de Goiás, Brasil. Foi realizado um estudo transversal e um questionário estruturado foi administrado ao responsável pela criança. Análise multivariada foi realizada por meio de regressão logística para se determinar a associação entre infecção por G. lamblia e as variáveis sociodemográficas, ambientais e zoonóticas relacionadas ao hospedeiro. Das 445 amostras de fezes coletadas e processadas pelo método de imunofluorescência direta (DFA, 44 (9,9% apresentaram cisto de G. lamblia. Uma variedade de fatores de risco foi encontrada associada à giardíase: idade da criança (OR, 1,18; 90% CI, 1,0 - 1,36; p = 0,052, número de crianças na família (OR, 1,45; 90% CI, 1,13 - 1,86; p = 0,015, número de gatos pertecentes à família (OR, 1,26; 90% CI, 1,03 - 1,53; p = 0,059, higiene alimentar (OR, 2,9; 90% CI, 1,34 - 6,43; p = 0,024, usuários de creches (OR, 2,3; 90% CI, 1,20 - 4,36; p = 0,034, ter residido em área rural seis meses precedendo à hospitalização (OR, 5,4; 90% CI, 1,5 - 20,1; p = 0,03 e número de adultos na família (OR, 0,59; 90% CI, 0,42 - 0,83; p = 0,012. Tais fatores, devidamente controlados podem contribuir para redução anual da incidência desta parasitose na população estudada.

  4. Comparative Analysis of the 15.5kD Box C/D snoRNP Core Protein in the Primitive Eukaryote Giardia lamblia Reveals Unique Structural and Functional Features

    Biswas, Shyamasri; Buhrman, Greg; Gagnon, Keith; Mattos, Carla; Brown, II, Bernard A.; Maxwell, E. Stuart (NCSU); (UTSMC)

    2012-07-11

    Box C/D ribonucleoproteins (RNP) guide the 2'-O-methylation of targeted nucleotides in archaeal and eukaryotic rRNAs. The archaeal L7Ae and eukaryotic 15.5kD box C/D RNP core protein homologues initiate RNP assembly by recognizing kink-turn (K-turn) motifs. The crystal structure of the 15.5kD core protein from the primitive eukaryote Giardia lamblia is described here to a resolution of 1.8 {angstrom}. The Giardia 15.5kD protein exhibits the typical {alpha}-{beta}-{alpha} sandwich fold exhibited by both archaeal L7Ae and eukaryotic 15.5kD proteins. Characteristic of eukaryotic homologues, the Giardia 15.5kD protein binds the K-turn motif but not the variant K-loop motif. The highly conserved residues of loop 9, critical for RNA binding, also exhibit conformations similar to those of the human 15.5kD protein when bound to the K-turn motif. However, comparative sequence analysis indicated a distinct evolutionary position between Archaea and Eukarya. Indeed, assessment of the Giardia 15.5kD protein in denaturing experiments demonstrated an intermediate stability in protein structure when compared with that of the eukaryotic mouse 15.5kD and archaeal Methanocaldococcus jannaschii L7Ae proteins. Most notable was the ability of the Giardia 15.5kD protein to assemble in vitro a catalytically active chimeric box C/D RNP utilizing the archaeal M. jannaschii Nop56/58 and fibrillarin core proteins. In contrast, a catalytically competent chimeric RNP could not be assembled using the mouse 15.5kD protein. Collectively, these analyses suggest that the G. lamblia 15.5kD protein occupies a unique position in the evolution of this box C/D RNP core protein retaining structural and functional features characteristic of both archaeal L7Ae and higher eukaryotic 15.5kD homologues.

  5. Presencia de Giardia lamblia y Cryptosporidium spp. en aguas residuales depuradas reutilizadas para riego agrícola en la isla de Tenerife, España. Efectos del transporte a larga distancia sobre la calidad del agua reutilizada Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. Presence in treated wastewater reutilised for irrigation in Tenerife island, Spain. Long-distance transport effects in the reutilised water quality

    Escolástico Aguiar González

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available El empleo de aguas residuales depuradas para riego agrícola es la alternativa de reutilización con más relevancia hoy día, siempre y cuando se desarrolle con garantías sanitarias y medioambientales.Giardia lamblia y Cryptosporidium spp. son dos protozoos patógenos entéricos de amplia distribución ambiental, frecuentes en hábitats acuáticos. La investigación y detección de estos parásitos en aguas ha adquirido importancia en los últimos años debido a que poseen formas de dispersión resistentes a los tratamientos habituales, aplicados tanto en procesos de potabilización como de depuración, y a que han sido clasificados como patógenos emergentes causantes de importantes brotes de transmisión hídrica.En este trabajo se estudia la presencia de quistes de Giardia lamblia y ooquistes de Cryptosporidium spp. en el agua residual depurada de la ciudad de Santa Cruz de Tenerife que es transportada hasta el sur de la isla de Tenerife para su reutilización en agricultura. Asimismo se investiga el efecto del transporte, el almacenamiento y el tratamiento avanzado sobre la concentración de quistes y ooquistes a través del sistema, y la existencia de relaciones con otros parámetros bacteriológicos y físico-químicos.Los resultados obtenidos ponen de manifiesto comportamientos variables de los contenidos en quistes y ooquistes frente a los tratamientos aplicados, y el efecto depurador que el transporte a larga distancia, parece tener sobre el agua residual depurada.No se han encontrado relaciones entre las concentraciones de quistes y ooquistes en el agua residual depurada y el contenido de los indicadores tradicionales de contaminación fecal.Treated wastewater use for irrigation is, nowadays, the more relevant reutilization alternative of wastewater, if it is developed with sanitary and environmental warranties.Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. two wide distributed enteric pathogen protozoan, which are frequent in aquatic habitats. These protozoan investigation and detection have acquired importance in the last years due to their dispersion forms, which show resistance to the habitual treatments of potabilization and purification, and their classification as emerging pathogens which are the causative agents of important hydrical transmission outbreaks.In our work, Giardia lamblia cyst and Cryptosporidium spp. oocyst presence in Santa Cruz de Tenerife treated wastewater which is transported to the South of the island to be reutilised in agriculture. Furthermore, transport, storage and advanced treatment effects against cyst and oocyst concentration throughout the system and relation existence with other bacteriological and physical-chemical parameters, are also investigated.The obtained results demonstrate variable behaviours in cyst and oocyst concentration against applied treatments, and the depurative effect of the long-distance transport which seems to have in treated wastewater.There was not found any relation between cyst and oocyst concentration in treated wastewater and the traditional indicators of faecal contamination.

  6. Giardia lamblia e alergia respiratória: estudo em uma amostra de crianças de área urbana com frequência elevada da protozoose

    Valdênia M. O. Souza

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Uma elevada incidência de enteroparasitoses é encontrada em regiões urbanas do nordeste brasileiro. As infecções por Giardia lamblia têm sido relacionadas com aumento da prevalência de alergias cutâneas e gastrointestinais. Contudo, ainda existe pouca informação sobre a associação entre a giardíase e doenças alérgicas das vias aéreas. Diante disso, o presente estudo se propôs a verificar a relação entre a infecção por G. lamblia em crianças de área urbana e reatividade alérgica respiratória. MÉTODOS: O estudo incluiu 110 pacientes, de ambos os sexos e idades, entre 5 e 15 anos. Os pacientes foram submetidos a questionários de avaliação dos sintomas clínicos, testes cutâneos de leitura imediata e exames coproparasitológicos e sorológicos. RESULTADOS: Foi verificada uma frequência elevada de crianças infectadas por G. lamblia (45%, 50/110. A infecção pelo protozoário não foi associada com maior risco de alergias respiratórias (p = 0,075, elevação de IgE total (p = 0,701, IgE específica (p = 0,250 ou teste cutâneo positivo para diferentes alérgenos ambientais (p = 0,239. CONCLUSÃO: O estudo demonstrou que a presença dos sintomas de asma, atopia cutânea e marcadores sorológicos não foram associados com a presença de infecção pela G. lamblia nessa amostra de crianças.

  7. Freqüencia da infecção por Giardia lamblia (Kunstler, 1882) em cães (Canis familiaris) avaliada pelo Método de Faust e cols. (1939) e pela Coloração da Auramina, no município de Canoas, RS, Brasil

    Beck Cristiane; Araújo Flávio Antônio Pacheco de; Olicheski Adriana Tarnowski; Breyer Adriana Schneider

    2005-01-01

    Giardia lamblia é um protozoário que acomete mais comumente animais jovens e que convivem em grupos. Apesar da alta prevalência, nem todos os animais apresentam a forma clínica da doença. Mesmo assim, a giardíase tem importância epidemiológica por possuir um elevado potencial zoonótico. O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar a freqüência de Giardia lamblia em cães no município de Canoas, RS, Brasil, através do Método de Faust e cols. (1939) e da Técnica de Coloração da Auramina. Os g...

  8. Surveillance for parasites in unaccompanied minor refugees migrating to Germany in 2015

    Heudorf, U.; Karathana, M; Krackhardt, B; Huber, M.; Raupp, P.; Zinn, C

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, most of the refugees arriving in Germany originated from countries with poor hygienic and sanitary conditions. Stool samples of 1,230 minor refugees unaccompanied by adults were investigated for possible parasites. Giardia lamblia was by far the most frequently detected parasite (n=165); all other parasites were considerably less frequent and encountered in the following order: Hymenolepis nana (n=23), Entamoeba histolytica (n=17), Trichuris trichiura (n=8), and Blastocystis homi...

  9. THE CURRENT SITUATION OF PARASITIC INFECTIONS IN INDONESIA

    Sri Oemijati

    2012-01-01

    Parasitic infections are highly prevalent in Indonesia, especially in rural areas, suburbs and slums of big cities. Twenty two species of protozoa and 32 species of helminths have been reported infecting man in Indonesia. Among the 16 species of intestinal protozoa, nine are constantly found in stool surveys, but only Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia are real pathogens. Among the blood and tissue protozoa, the most important are the malaria parasites. The most frequently encountered ...

  10. Hospital-based surveillance of enteric parasites in Kolkata

    Ghosh Mrinmoy; Rajendran Krishnan; Bhattacharya Mihir; Chowdhury Punam; Mukherjee Avik; Ganguly Sandipan

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Diarrhoea is the second leading cause of illness and death in developing countries and the second commonest cause of death due to infectious diseases among children under five in such countries. Parasites, as well as bacterial and viral pathogens, are important causes of diarrhoea. However, parasitic infections are sometimes overlooked, leading after a period of time to an uncertain aetiology. In this paper we report the prevalence of Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica...

  11. Hospital-based surveillance of enteric parasites in Kolkata

    Ghosh Mrinmoy

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diarrhoea is the second leading cause of illness and death in developing countries and the second commonest cause of death due to infectious diseases among children under five in such countries. Parasites, as well as bacterial and viral pathogens, are important causes of diarrhoea. However, parasitic infections are sometimes overlooked, leading after a period of time to an uncertain aetiology. In this paper we report the prevalence of Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica and Cryptosporidium sp. in and around Kolkata. Findings A hospital-based laboratory surveillance study was conducted among the patients admitted between November 2007 and October 2008 to the Infectious Diseases (ID Hospital (Population = 1103 with diarrhoeal complaints. Of the 1103 samples collected, 147 were positive for Giardia lamblia, 84 for Cryptosporidium sp. and 51 for Entamoeba histolytica. For all these parasites there was a high rate of mixed infection with common enteric viruses and bacteria such as Rotavirus, Vibrio cholerae and Shigella sp. There were also cases of co-infection with all other diarrheogenic pathogens. The age group ≥ 5 years had the highest prevalence of parasites whereas the age group >5 – 10 years was predominantly infected with Giardia lamblia (p =10 – 20 years could also be considered at risk for G. lamblia (p = 0.009; OR = 2.231; 95% CI = 1.223 – 4.067. Month-wise occurrence data showed an endemic presence of G. lamblia whereas Cryptosporidium sp. and E. histolytica occurred sporadically. The GIS study revealed that parasites were more prevalent in areas such as Tangra, Tiljala and Rajarhat, which are mainly slum areas. Because most of the population surveyed was in the lower income group, consumption of contaminated water and food could be the major underlying cause of parasitic infestations. Conclusion This study provides important information on the occurrence and distribution of three important intestinal parasites and indicates their diarrheogenic capacity in Kolkata and surrounding areas.

  12. Review of Zoonotic Parasites in Medical and Veterinary Fields in the Republic of Korea

    Youn, Heejeong

    2009-01-01

    Zoonotic parasites are animal parasites that can infect humans. The major zoonotic protozoa in the Republic of Korea are Babesia bovis, Chilomastix mesnili, Cryptosporidium parvum, Endolimax nana, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba hitolytica, Giardia lamblia, Iodamoeba bütschlii, Pneumocystis carinii, Sarcocystis cruzi, and Toxoplasma gondii. The major zoonotic helminths in Korea include trematodes, cestodes, and nematodes. Trematodes are Clonorchis sinensis, Echinostoma hortense, Echinostoma spp., F...

  13. The Minimal Proteome in the Reduced Mitochondrion of the Parasitic Protist Giardia intestinalis

    Jedelsk, Petr L.; Doleal, Pavel; Rada, Petr; Pyrih, Jan; md, Ond?ej; Hrd, Ivan; edinov, Miroslava; Marcin?ikov, Michaela; Voleman, Lubomr; Perry, Andrew J.; Beltrn, Neritza Campo; Lithgow, Trevor; Tachezy, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The mitosomes of Giardia intestinalis are thought to be mitochondria highly-reduced in response to the oxygen-poor niche. We performed a quantitative proteomic assessment of Giardia mitosomes to increase understanding of the function and evolutionary origin of these enigmatic organelles. Mitosome-enriched fractions were obtained from cell homogenate using Optiprep gradient centrifugation. To distinguish mitosomal proteins from contamination, we used a quantitative shot-gun strategy based on i...

  14. Factores de riesgo de la infección por Giardia lamblia en niños de guarderías infantiles de Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba

    Fidel Ángel Núñez

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available En un estudio longitudinal sobre giardiasis desarrollado durante 18 meses en tres guarderías infantiles de Ciudad de La Habana, describimos un grupo de niños con tendencia o "predisposición" a la infección por Giardia lamblia; a los que se les encontró con síntomas clínicos más asociados a las diarreas. Este estudio de casos y controles se desarrolló para conocer si algunos factores socioeconómicos y hábitos higiénicos estaban asociados con este fenómeno. No se encontraron diferencias entre ambos grupos en las tasas de hacinamiento, el índice de personas por cama, en la carencia de determinados equipos eléctricos, en el nivel escolar de las madres, y en el promedio del ingreso familiar; sin embargo, predominó una frecuencia mayor de padres con nivel escolar menor de 12 grado en los casos que en los controles. No se encontraron diferencias entre ambos grupos en cuanto a la ausencia de lavado de manos antes de comer y después de defecar, pero se encontró un mayor porcentaje de lavado incorrecto de vegetales, y una menor frecuencia del hábito de hervir el agua de consumo en las familias de los casos. Estos resultados demuestran el papel del agua como vehículo de transmisión en la giardiasis y la importancia de algunos factores epidemiológicos.

  15. Factores de riesgo de la infección por Giardia lamblia en niños de guarderías infantiles de Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba

    Núñez Fidel Ángel

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En un estudio longitudinal sobre giardiasis desarrollado durante 18 meses en tres guarderías infantiles de Ciudad de La Habana, describimos un grupo de niños con tendencia o "predisposición" a la infección por Giardia lamblia; a los que se les encontró con síntomas clínicos más asociados a las diarreas. Este estudio de casos y controles se desarrolló para conocer si algunos factores socioeconómicos y hábitos higiénicos estaban asociados con este fenómeno. No se encontraron diferencias entre ambos grupos en las tasas de hacinamiento, el índice de personas por cama, en la carencia de determinados equipos eléctricos, en el nivel escolar de las madres, y en el promedio del ingreso familiar; sin embargo, predominó una frecuencia mayor de padres con nivel escolar menor de 12 grado en los casos que en los controles. No se encontraron diferencias entre ambos grupos en cuanto a la ausencia de lavado de manos antes de comer y después de defecar, pero se encontró un mayor porcentaje de lavado incorrecto de vegetales, y una menor frecuencia del hábito de hervir el agua de consumo en las familias de los casos. Estos resultados demuestran el papel del agua como vehículo de transmisión en la giardiasis y la importancia de algunos factores epidemiológicos.

  16. Simultaneous detection of the protozoan parasites Toxoplasma, Cryptosporidium and Giardia in food matrices and their persistence on basil leaves.

    Hohweyer, Jeanne; Cazeaux, Catherine; Travaillé, Emmanuelle; Languet, Emilie; Dumètre, Aurélien; Aubert, Dominique; Terryn, Christine; Dubey, Jitender P; Azas, Nadine; Houssin, Maryline; Loïc, Favennec; Villena, Isabelle; La Carbona, Stéphanie

    2016-08-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia intestinalis are emerging pathogen parasites in the food domain. However, without standardized methods for their detection in food matrices, parasitic foodborne outbreaks remain neglected. In this study, a new immunomagnetic separation assay (IMS Toxo) targeting the oocyst's wall of T. gondii was developed using a specific purified monoclonal antibody. Performance of this IMS Toxo coupled to microscopic and qPCR analyses was evaluated in terms of limit of detection (LOD) and recovery rate (RR) on: i) simple matrix (LOD = 5 oocysts; RR between 5 and 56%); ii) raspberries and basil (LOD = 33 oocysts/g; RR between 0.2 and 35%). Finally, to simultaneously extract the three protozoa from these food matrices, T. gondii oocysts were directly concentrated (without IMS Toxo) from the supernatant of the IMS of Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts. This strategy associated to qPCR detection led to LOD <1 to 3 (oo)cysts/g and RR between 2 and 35%. This procedure was coupled to RT-qPCR analyses and showed that the three protozoa persisted on the leaves of basil and remained viable following storage at 4 °C for 8 days. These data strengthen the need to consider these protozoa in food safety. PMID:27052700

  17. Giardia and Vilem Dusan Lambl

    Lipoldová, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 5 (2014), e2686. ISSN 1935-2735 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12049 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : History of Science * Giardia lamblia * Infectious disease Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.446, year: 2014

  18. The minimal proteome in the reduced mitochondrion of the parasitic protist Giardia intestinalis.

    Jedelsk, Petr L; Doleal, Pavel; Rada, Petr; Pyrih, Jan; Smd, Ond?ej; Hrd, Ivan; Sedinov, Miroslava; Marcin?ikov, Michaela; Voleman, Lubomr; Perry, Andrew J; Beltrn, Neritza Campo; Lithgow, Trevor; Tachezy, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The mitosomes of Giardia intestinalis are thought to be mitochondria highly-reduced in response to the oxygen-poor niche. We performed a quantitative proteomic assessment of Giardia mitosomes to increase understanding of the function and evolutionary origin of these enigmatic organelles. Mitosome-enriched fractions were obtained from cell homogenate using Optiprep gradient centrifugation. To distinguish mitosomal proteins from contamination, we used a quantitative shot-gun strategy based on isobaric tagging of peptides with iTRAQ and tandem mass spectrometry. Altogether, 638 proteins were identified in mitosome-enriched fractions. Of these, 139 proteins had iTRAQ ratio similar to that of the six known mitosomal markers. Proteins were selected for expression in Giardia to verify their cellular localizations and the mitosomal localization of 20 proteins was confirmed. These proteins include nine components of the FeS cluster assembly machinery, a novel diflavo-protein with NADPH reductase activity, a novel VAMP-associated protein, and a key component of the outer membrane protein translocase. None of the novel mitosomal proteins was predicted by previous genome analyses. The small proteome of the Giardia mitosome reflects the reduction in mitochondrial metabolism, which is limited to the FeS cluster assembly pathway, and a simplicity in the protein import pathway required for organelle biogenesis. PMID:21390322

  19. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia spp. and other pathogenic intestinal parasites in the Beberibe River in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil

    Dayana Andrade de Freitas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Transmission of pathogenic protozoa and helminths by water is a serious public health problem. In this study, we analyzed the presence of these organisms in the Beberibe River in Pernambuco, Brazil. METHODS: Parasite analysis was performed using the Hoffman, Pons, & Janer method followed by centrifugation and preparation of slides by staining with acetic acid and Lugol's solution. Protozoan oocysts were isolated by the modified Ziehl Neelsen method. RESULTS: Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia spp. and other parasites were found in the Beberibe River. CONCLUSIONS: Sanitation companies must assess pathogenic intestinal parasites in water basins providing public water and subsequently develop improved treatment systems for removal of such parasites.

  20. Giardiasis and other intestinal parasitic infections in a Manitoba residential school for the mentally retarded.

    Naiman, H. L.; Sekla, L; Albritton, W L

    1980-01-01

    A case of severely symptomatic giardiasis in a school for the mentally retarded prompted an epidemiologic survey of the institution. The rate of parasitic infection in the children were just under 50%. Multiple infections were common and one child harboured five different protozoa. The yield included known pathogens (Giardia lamblia, Metorchis conjunctus and Diphyllobothrium sp.), protozoa of potential pathogenicity (Dientamoeba fragilis) and other protozoa, the significance of which has yet ...

  1. Parasitic colitides.

    Goldberg, Joel E

    2007-02-01

    Parasitic infections are a major worldwide health problem, and they account for millions of infections and deaths each year. Most of the infections as well as the morbidity and mortality from these diseases occur in the developing world in rural regions. However, these diseases have become more common in Western countries and in big cities over the past 25 years. These changing disease patterns can be attributed to emigration from the third world to developed countries and migration of rural populations to the big cities in developing nations. These parasitic infections have protean manifestations and consequences. The medical problems range from chronic asymptomatic carrier to fulminant infections and even death. Several factors such as the host immune status, the infecting organism, and the availability of treatment all play key roles in the outcomes of parasitic colitides. The two major classes of parasites causing these infections are the helminthes (ascariasis, strongyloidiasis, enterobiasis, trichuriasis, and schistosomiasis) and the protozoa (Isospora, Cryptosporidium, Cyclospora, Trypanosoma cruzi, Giardia lamblia, and Balantidium coli). This article summarizes the salient features of each parasite with respect to epidemiology, transmission, pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment. The vast majority of these infections have a self-limited clinical course or are easily treated with medical management, and surgery is rarely needed. PMID:20011360

  2. Parasites and Foodborne Illness

    ... formerly called G. lamblia ) Giardia duodenalis , cause of giardiasis (GEE-are-DYE-uh-sis), is a one- ... in the United States. How do people get giardiasis? People get giardiasis the following ways: Giardiasis is ...

  3. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in effluent from sewage treatment plant from eastern Poland.

    Sroka, Jacek; Stojecki, Krzysztof; Zdybel, Jolanta; Karamon, Jacek; Cencek, Tomasz; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia lamblia (synonyms: Giardia duodenalis, Giardia intestinalis) are emerging protozoa causing disease in humans and animals worldwide. These parasites can pose a serious threat to immunocompromised people, for whom the symptoms are more severe and may include abdominal pain, watery diarrhoea, nausea, headaches, malaise, and fever. One of the sources of these parasites can be treated wastewater from wastewater treatment plants (WTPs). Samples of treated wastewater (effluent), each of 10 L volume, were collected from 13 municipal WTPs located in eastern Poland. Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts were separated by the immunomagnetic method. The presence and/or concentration of protozoan (oo)cysts in effluent samples were determined by direct immunofluorescent microscopy, nested PCR and Real Time PCR. Viability of (oo)cysts was determined by double-staining with the use of Live/Dead BacLight kit (Invitrogen). Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected in 8 WTPs (61.5%) and Giardia spp. cysts in 11 WTPs (84.6%) by microscopic analysis. Both pathogens were detected in samples from 7 WTPs. Median concentrations of Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts in 13 examined samples were 2.2/L and 6.6/L, respectively, while mean concentrations were 28.5/L and 113.6/L, respectively. In positive samples, Cryptosporidium oocysts concentrations ranged from 0.4 - 154.1 oocysts per litre, and Giardia cysts concentrations ranged from 0.7 - 660 cysts per litre. By nested PCR, Giardia DNA was detected in 4 samples of the 13 examined, (30.8%) while Cryptosporidium DNA was never detected. In Real Time PCR, positive results for Giardia were obtained in 5 samples (38.5%) and in none of the samples for Cryptosporidium, with the exception of one equivocal result. Viable (oo)cysts of Cryptosporidium and Giardia were detected in 3 out of 4 samples examined, in the ranges of 12.5 - 60% and 50 - 100% of total (oo)cysts, respectively. In view of our preliminary study, the presence of oocysts and cysts (largely viable) in effluents from WTPs imply a risk of transmission of waterborne protozoan parasites to humans. Therefore, additional wastewater purification procedures are necessary. PMID:25000844

  4. Surveillance for parasites in unaccompanied minor refugees migrating to Germany in 2015

    Heudorf, Ursel; Karathana, Maria; Krackhardt, Bernhard; Huber, Meike; Raupp, Peter; Zinn, Christian

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, most of the refugees arriving in Germany originated from countries with poor hygienic and sanitary conditions. Stool samples of 1,230 minor refugees unaccompanied by adults were investigated for possible parasites. Giardia lamblia was by far the most frequently detected parasite (n=165); all other parasites were considerably less frequent and encountered in the following order: Hymenolepis nana (n=23), Entamoeba histolytica (n=17), Trichuris trichiura (n=8), and Blastocystis hominis (n=1). Ascaris lumbricoides was not detected among any of the screened refugees. Considerable differences in prevalence rates in refugees originating from different countries could be observed. PMID:26958459

  5. Investigation of intestinal parasites in pig feces that are also human pathogens.

    Uysal, Hayriye Kirkoyun; Boral, Ozden; Metiner, Kemal; Ilgaz, Atilla

    2009-01-01

    A total of 238 pig fecal specimens were collected from pig farms in Corlu (Tekirdağ), Ayazma, and Arnavutköy (Istanbul) during the summer. Out of the 238 pig specimens, 105 were from pigs younger than 6 months and 133 from pigs older than 6 months. These were investigated for intestine parasites in particular the ones that are human pathogens. Cryptosporidium spp. was detected In 21 fecal specimens (8.8%), Giardia spp. in 9 (3.7%), Balantidium coli cysts in 4 (1.6%) and Ascaris suum eggs in 9 (4.1%). Giardia lamblia were found in 8 (7.6%) of 105 pigs younger than 6 months, Cryptosporidium spp. in 12 (11.4%), Balantidium coli cysts in 2 (1.5%). In the pigs older than 6 months Giardia lamblia were found in 1 (0.7%), Cryptosporidium spp. in 9 (6.7%), Balantidium coli cysts in 2 (1.5%). and Ascaris suum eggs in 9 (6.7%). The difference in the rate of G. lamblia (p=0.01) in pigs less than 6 months and of A. suum in those over 6 months was found to be statistically significant (p=0.005). Our results revealed that pigs are important sources of these parasites. PMID:19851968

  6. Genotyping of Giardia in Dutch patients and animals: a phylogenetic analysis of human and animal isolates.

    van der Giessen, J. W. B.; Vries, A. De; Roos, M; Wielinga, Peter; Kortbeek, L. M.; Mank, T. G.

    2006-01-01

    Giardia duodenalis (syn. Giardia lamblia, Giardia intestinalis) is a protozoan organism that can infect the intestinal tract of many animal species including mammals. Genetic heterogeneity of G. duodenalis is well described but the zoonotic potential is still not clear. In this study, we analysed 100 Giardia DNA samples directly isolated from human stool specimens, to get more insight in the different G. duodenalis assemblages present in the Dutch human population. Results showed that these h...

  7. EFFECT OF HALOGENS ON 'GIARDIA' CYST VIABILITY

    The objective of this research was to determine the effect of chlorine and other disinfecting agents on Giardia lamblia cyst viability. The agents studied included free residual chlorine and six different methods recommended for emergency disinfection of small quantities of water...

  8. COMPARISON OF DIRECT IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE, IODINE-SAL INE WET MOUNT AND MODIFIED ACID FAST STAINING METHODS F OR DETECTION OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM AND GIARDIA SPP. IN HU MAN FECAL SPECIMENS

    Prakriti

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidiosis and Giardiasis are leading causes o f parasitic intestinal diseases. There are various methods to d etect them including iodine-saline wet mount for Giardia, Modified Acid fast (MAF staining for Cryptosporidia and Direct Fluorescent Antigen detection (DFA method. OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to compare three methods f or the detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in fecal s amples. METHOD: 44 stool specimens from patients with history of diarrhea were examined for Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum by using a direct immunofluores cent-monoclonal antibody stain (for unspun specimens, Iodine- saline wet mount method fo r Giardia cysts & trophozoites and Modified acid-fast for Cryptosporidium oocysts. RESULTS: From the total of 44 specimens; 29 (65.9 % Cryptosporidia oocysts were isolated and 6 ( 13.6% Giardia cysts by all the Iodine- Saline wet mount, MAF, DFA methods. The direct immu nofluorescent-monoclonal antibody method resulted in a significantly increased detect ion of both Giardia cysts (5 versus 1 specimens, p value =0.01 and Cryptosporidium oocysts ( 19 versus 10 specimens, p value=0.01. CONCLUSIONS: DFA is a sensitive method for detection of Cryptospo ridium oocysts and Giardia cysts in fecal samples whereas M AF is a reliable screening method.

  9. Reductive Evolution of the Mitochondrial Processing Peptidases of the Unicellular Parasites Trichomonas vaginalis and Giardia intestinalis

    Šmíd, O.; Matušková, Anna; Harris, S. R.; Kučera, Tomáš; Novotný, M.; Horváthová, L.; Hrdý, I.; Kutejová, E.; Hirt, R. P.; Embley, T. M.; Janata, Jiří; Tachezy, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 12 (2008), s. 1-8. ISSN 1553-7366 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC07032; GA AV ČR IAA501110631 Grant ostatní: CZ(CZ) B-Bio166/2006 (O.S.). S.H., R.P.H. Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : peptidases * mitochondria * human parasites Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 9.125, year: 2008

  10. Giardia spp. Are Commonly Found in Mixed Assemblages in Surface Water, as Revealed by Molecular and Whole-Genome Characterization.

    Prystajecky, Natalie; Tsui, Clement K-M; Hsiao, William W L; Uyaguari-Diaz, Miguel I; Ho, Jordan; Tang, Patrick; Isaac-Renton, Judith

    2015-07-01

    Giardia is the most common parasitic cause of gastrointestinal infections worldwide, with transmission through surface water playing an important role in various parts of the world. Giardia duodenalis (synonyms: G. intestinalis and G. lamblia), a multispecies complex, has two zoonotic subtypes, assemblages A and B. When British Columbia (BC), a western Canadian province, experienced several waterborne giardiasis outbreaks due to unfiltered surface drinking water in the late 1980s, collection of isolates from surface water, as well as from humans and beavers (Castor canadensis), throughout the province was carried out. To better understand Giardia in surface water, 71 isolates, including 29 from raw surface water samples, 29 from human giardiasis cases, and 13 from beavers in watersheds from this historical library were characterized by PCR. Study isolates also included isolates from waterborne giardiasis outbreaks. Both assemblages A and B were identified in surface water, human, and beavers samples, including a mixture of both assemblages A and B in waterborne outbreaks. PCR results were confirmed by whole-genome sequencing (WGS) for one waterborne outbreak and supported the clustering of human, water, and beaver isolates within both assemblages. We concluded that contamination of surface water by Giardia is complex, that the majority of our surface water isolates were assemblage B, and that both assemblages A and B may cause waterborne outbreaks. The higher-resolution data provided by WGS warrants further study to better understand the spread of Giardia. PMID:25956776

  11. Real-Time PCR for Quantification of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in Environmental Water Samples and Sewage

    Guy, Rebecca A.; Payment, Pierre; Krull, Ulrich J.; Horgen, Paul A.

    2003-01-01

    The protozoan pathogens Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum are major causes of waterborne enteric disease throughout the world. Improved detection methods that are very sensitive and rapid are urgently needed. This is especially the case for analysis of environmental water samples in which the densities of Giardia and Cryptosporidium are very low. Primers and TaqMan probes based on the β-giardin gene of G. lamblia and the COWP gene of C. parvum were developed and used to detect DNA co...

  12. Parasitic Contamination of Raw Vegetables in Shahroud, Semnan

    Saeid Nazemi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Given the importance of healthy vegetables, the present study was conducted to determine parasitic infection of vegetable consumed in Shahroud.Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study has been conducted on 92 samples of various vegetables collected from 16 vegetable growing farms and 1 vegetable process workshop. Results: Sixty two percent of tested vegetables lacked parasites and the highest amount of parasites observed (34.78% was related to Giardia lamblia. A significant relationship was observed between parasite and having toilets in the farms as well as the extent of farms.Conclusion: safety of fertilizers consumed by farms and healthy fruits can have an effective role in reducing the parasitic infections.

  13. Common intestinal parasites.

    Kucik, Corry Jeb; Martin, Gary L; Sortor, Brett V

    2004-03-01

    Intestinal parasites cause significant morbidity and mortality. Diseases caused by Enterobius vermicularis, Giardia lamblia, Ancylostoma duodenale, Necator americanus, and Entamoeba histolytica occur in the United States. E. vermicularis, or pinworm, causes irritation and sleep disturbances. Diagnosis can be made using the "cellophane tape test." Treatment includes mebendazole and household sanitation. Giardia causes nausea, vomiting, malabsorption, diarrhea, and weight loss. Stool ova and parasite studies are diagnostic. Treatment includes metronidazole. Sewage treatment, proper handwashing, and consumption of bottled water can be preventive. A. duodenale and N. americanus are hookworms that cause blood loss, anemia, pica, and wasting. Finding eggs in the feces is diagnostic. Treatments include albendazole, mebendazole, pyrantel pamoate, iron supplementation, and blood transfusion. Preventive measures include wearing shoes and treating sewage. E. histolytica can cause intestinal ulcerations, bloody diarrhea, weight loss, fever, gastrointestinal obstruction, and peritonitis. Amebas can cause abscesses in the liver that may rupture into the pleural space, peritoneum, or pericardium. Stool and serologic assays, biopsy, barium studies, and liver imaging have diagnostic merit. Therapy includes luminal and tissue amebicides to attack both life-cycle stages. Metronidazole, chloroquine, and aspiration are treatments for liver abscess. Careful sanitation and use of peeled foods and bottled water are preventive. PMID:15023017

  14. Metronidazole-triazole conjugates: Activity against Clostridium difficile and parasites

    Jarrad, Angie M.; Karoli, Tomislav; Debnath, Anjan; Tay, Chin Yen; Huang, Johnny X.; Kaeslin, Geraldine; Elliott, Alysha G.; Miyamoto, Yukiko; Ramu, Soumya; Kavanagh, Angela M.; Zuegg, Johannes; Eckmann, Lars; Blaskovich, Mark A.T.; Cooper, Matthew A.

    2015-01-01

    Metronidazole has been used clinically for over 50 years as an antiparasitic and broad-spectrum antibacterial agent effective against anaerobic bacteria. However resistance to metronidazole in parasites and bacteria has been reported, and improved second-generation metronidazole analogues are needed. The copper catalysed Huigsen azide-alkyne 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition offers a way to efficiently assemble new libraries of metronidazole analogues. Several new metronidazole-triazole conjugates (Mtz-triazoles) have been identified with excellent broad spectrum antimicrobial and antiparasitic activity targeting Clostridium difficile, Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia. Cross resistance to metronidazole was observed against stable metronidazole resistant C.difficile and G.lamblia strains. However for the most potent Mtz-triazoles, the activity remained in a therapeutically relevant window. PMID:26117821

  15. Study on Variation of the Sera Folic Acid, Vitamin B12 and Iron Level in the 6-12 Years Old Patients Infected with Giardia Lamblia in South Tehran

    Mohammad Taghi Haghi-Ashtiani

    Full Text Available Objective: Protozoa Giardia lambelia is caused to diarrhea in human and other mammals in worldwide. Giardia colonizes in duodenum and earliest jejunum. It can cover the intestinal surface and causes the stateorrhea, malabsorbtion syndrome and absorb disorder of vitamins A, E and D. Investigation the effect of Giardia on the vitamin B12, folic acid and iron of patients were the purpose of this study.Material & Methods: A total of 30 children with giardiasis, aged between 6-12 years- old, selected from 3000 patients, who were admitted to the Emam Khomeiny hospital and diagnosed by stool examinations (direct and formalin-ether methods. Blood of patients and control were collected. Amount of vitamin B12 and folic acid were evaluated with radioimmunoassay and iron was evaluated with Ferene method.Findings: According to the data, folic acid in the patient had no significant difference against control but vitamin B12 and iron in the patient with giardiosis was less than control and the differences were significant (P=0.01, P=0.04 respectively.Conclusion: According to the results diagnosis of giardiosis in the early stage may prohibit intestinal damage and clinical symptoms due to vitamins and mineral elements shortage in the children.

  16. Giardiasis and other Parasitic Infections in Stool Specimens, Duodenal Biopsy and Duo-Denal Aspiration in Children

    L Kashi

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infestation of the gastrointestinal tract with parasites is one of the commonest causes of the digestive tract syndromes especially in developing countries. The aim of present study to determine the incidence of parasitic infestation in the stool specimens in pediatric age group. Methods: Stool specimens of all the children referred to Childrens;s Medical Center in Tehran, regardless of their clinical complaint, in the last 13 years, are examined microscopically. Findings: 14.27% of 64196 specimens were positive regarding parasites, isolated Giardia lamblia being 7.54%. Positive stool specimens of boys related to girls were more frequent. Conclusion: The incidence of infestation with Giardia is remarkable and regarding the possible complications of infestation, more intensive hygienic teaching of the public is recommended to prevent the expansion of the infestation.

  17. "Parasitic Contamination of Vegetables from Farms and Markets in Tehran"

    MJ Gharavi

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Because of endemic parasitological infectious diseases in Iran and contaminated vegetables, as one of the most important ways of contamination, carried out a parasitical study on 263 vegetable samples from 44 farms in the suburbs of Tehran city, and also 166 vegetables samples from 20 green grocery markets in the same city. From 263 samples of farms 147 cases (65% of contamination were recorded, of which 43 cases (16/5% of human pathogenic parasites were isolated. In this study various techniques were used such as: Baermann funnel, centrifuging of plants and soil, temporal precipitation procedure and so on. Ova and parasites such as Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Trichostrongylus sp. Toxocara sp. Larvae of Nematodes, protozoa cysts like Amoeba sp. Giardia lamblia and some flagellatae were seen. The highest percent of contamination was detected in leek and parsley and the lowest one was detected in tarragon. The results show that vegetables could be a potential source of parasitic infection.

  18. Anti-Giardia activity of phenolic-rich essential oils: effects of Thymbra capitata, Origanum virens, Thymus zygis subsp. sylvestris, and Lippia graveolens on trophozoites growth, viability, adherence, and ultrastructure.

    Machado, Marisa; Dinis, Augusto M; Salgueiro, Ligia; Cavaleiro, Carlos; Custdio, Jos B A; Sousa, Maria do Cu

    2010-04-01

    The present work evaluates the anti-Giardia activity of phenolic-rich essential oils obtained from Thymbra capitata, Origanum virens, Thymus zygis subsp. sylvestris chemotype thymol, and Lippia graveolens aromatic plants. The effects were evaluated on parasite growth, cell viability adherence, and morphology. The tested essential oils inhibited the growth of Giardia lamblia. T. capitata essential oil is the most active followed by O. virens, T. zygis subsp. sylvestris, and L. graveolens oils. The tested essential oils at IC50 (71-257) microg/ml inhibited parasite adherence (p < 0.001) since the first hour of incubation and were able to kill almost 50% of the parasites population in a time-dependent manner. The main ultrastructural alterations promoted by essential oils were deformations in typical trophozoite appearance, often roundly shape, irregular dorsal and ventral surface, presence of membrane blebs, electrodense precipitates in cytoplasm and nuclei, and internalization of flagella and ventral disc. Our data suggest that essential oils induced cell death probably by processes associated to the loss of osmoregulation caused by plasmatic membrane alterations. Experiments revealed that the essential oils did not present cytotoxic effects in mammalian cells. In conclusion, T. capitata, O. virens, T. zygis subsp. sylvestris chemotype thymol, and L. graveolens essential oils have antigiardial activity in vitro and seem to have potential for the treatment of the parasitic disease caused by the protozoan G. lamblia. PMID:20217133

  19. Intestinal parasites and genotyping of Giardia duodenalis in children: first report of genotype B in isolates from human clinical samples in Mexico

    Julio Csar Torres-Romero

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Giardia duodenalis is one of the most prevalent enteroparasites in children. This parasite produces several clinical manifestations. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of genotypes of G. duodenalis causing infection in a region of southeastern Mexico. G. duodenalis cysts were isolated (33/429 from stool samples of children and molecular genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP analysis, targeting the triosephosphate isomerase ( tpi and glutamate dehydrogenase ( gdh genes. The tpi gene was amplified in all of the cyst samples, either for assemblage A (27 samples or assemblage B (6 samples. RFLP analysis classified the 27 tpi -A amplicons in assemblage A, subgenotype I. Samples classified as assemblage B were further analysed using PCR-RFLP of the gdh gene and identified as assemblage B, subgenotype III. To our knowledge, this is the first report of assemblage B of G. duodenalis in human clinical samples from Mexico.

  20. Molecular typing of canine Giardia duodenalis isolates from Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Fava, Natlia M N; Soares, Rodrigo M; Scalia, Luana A M; Rodrigues da Cunha, Maria Jlia; Faria, Elaine S M; Cury, Mrcia Cristina

    2016-02-01

    Giardia duodenalis (syn. Giardia intestinalis and Giardia lamblia) is a widespread intestinal parasite in mammals, including humans and pets worldwide. It should be considered a species complex and comprises eight assemblage (A-H). This works aimed to determine the genotypic variability among G.duodenalis isolates from dogs from Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Fecal samples of 97 dogs, from 1-to-10 months old from 15 commercial kennels, were collected and analyzed by the zinc sulfate centrifugal flotation technique, to determine their positivity for G.duodenalis cysts. Cysts pellets were stored and submitted to PCR and nested-PCR reactions with gdh and tpi primers, and then sequencing. Among positive samples (n=19), fragment amplifications of gdh and tpi genes was observed in 16 (84,2%) and 14 (73,6%), respectively. In total, 30 sequences were obtained. Sequencing analysis showed that for gdh, all isolates were identified as host-specific genotype D, and for tpi, besides host-specific genotype C, were also observed zoonotic genotypes A and B. This study provides, for the first time, current information about genetic characterization of G.duodenalis isolates found in dogs in Minas Gerais state. PMID:26704664

  1. Longitudinal studies of Giardia contamination in two community drinking water supplies: cyst levels, parasite viability, and health impact.

    Isaac-Renton, J.; Moorehead, W; Ross, A.

    1996-01-01

    Giardia cyst concentrations were determined in an inventory of 153 raw and 91 chlorinated drinking water samples collected at 86 sites from throughout the western Canadian province of British Columbia. Sixty-four percent of raw water samples were cyst positive (69% of sites). Cyst concentrations were lower in chlorinated than in raw water. The viability of cysts in drinking water samples assessed by infectivity in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) was decreased in chlorinated water. T...

  2. Intestinal parasites in ecotourism region of the state of Paraná, Brazil

    Dina Lúcia Morais Falavigna; Amanda Andrea de Almeida; Renata Sayuri Iwazaki; Silvana Marques Araújo

    2008-01-01

    To determine the indices of prevalence of intestinal parasites and commensals in the residents of ecotourism region of Paraná State, a retrospective study was conducte, from January/2003 to December/2004 on 3,764 fecal parasitological examinations performed by a private laboratory of Ubiratã using the Baermann-Moraes, water-sedimentation and Willis methods. Among the individuals aged eight months to 89 years, 522 (13.9%) cases were positive. Giardia lamblia (175/522; 24.2%) was the most preva...

  3. Infection Strategies of Intestinal Parasite Pathogens and Host Cell Responses.

    Di Genova, Bruno M; Tonelli, Renata R

    2016-01-01

    Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium sp., and Entamoeba histolytica are important pathogenic intestinal parasites and are amongst the leading causes worldwide of diarrheal illness in humans. Diseases caused by these organisms, giardiasis, cryptosporidiosis, and amoebiasis, respectively, are characterized by self-limited diarrhea but can evolve to long-term complications. The cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of diarrhea associated with these three pathogens are being unraveled, with knowledge of both the strategies explored by the parasites to establish infection and the methods evolved by hosts to avoid it. Special attention is being given to molecules participating in parasite-host interaction and in the mechanisms implicated in the diseases' pathophysiologic processes. This review focuses on cell mechanisms that are modulated during infection, including gene transcription, cytoskeleton rearrangements, signal transduction pathways, and cell death. PMID:26973630

  4. Intestinal Parasites Infection among Immunocompromised Patients in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Wafa A.I. Al-Megrin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites among immunocompromised patients in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Fecal samples were collected from 136 immunocompromised patients (52 females and 84 males, aged 2 to 69 years. Specimens were fixed with 10% formalin for 30 min (2-3 g fecal-1 and then concentrated by a formalin-ether sedimentation technique. Samples were examined as wet saline mounts and in iodine preparation for detection of protozoan oocysts, cysts, helminthic eggs and larvae. Permanent stained smears were performed for intestinal coccidian parasites by the modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique and the modified trichrome stain. Intestinal parasites were detected in 54 (39.7% most of them (25.7% were with diarrhea. More specifically the following parasites were detected Cryptosporidium parvum 11(8.1%, Giardia lamblia 9 (6.6%, Cyclospora cayetanensis 8 (5.9%, Blastocystis hominis 7 (5.2%, Entamoeba histolytica 7 (5.2%, Entamoeba coli 5 (3.7%, Strongyloides stercoralis 3 (2.2%, Ascaris lumbricoides 1 (0.7%, Hymenolepis nana 1 (0.7%, Dicrocoelium dendriticum 1 (0.7% and Hook worm 1 (0.7%. The most common parasite associated with diarrhea in patients, was C. parvum (p<0.001, followed by G. lamblia, C. cayetanensis and E. histolytica. However, differences between different age groups were statistically non-significant. Similarly, no significant difference in the infection rate were found between male and female patients.

  5. Intestinal parasites infection among immunocompromised patients in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    Al-Megrin, Wafa A I

    2010-04-15

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites among immunocompromised patients in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Fecal samples were collected from 136 immunocompromised patients (52 females and 84 males), aged 2 to 69 years. Specimens were fixed with 10% formalin for 30 min (2-3 g fecal(-1)) and then concentrated by a formalin-ether sedimentation technique. Samples were examined as wet saline mounts and in iodine preparation for detection of protozoan oocysts, cysts, helminthic eggs and larvae. Permanent stained smears were performed for intestinal coccidian parasites by the modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique and the modified trichrome stain. Intestinal parasites were detected in 54 (39.7%) most of them (25.7%) were with diarrhea. More specifically the following parasites were detected Cryptosporidium parvum 11(8.1%), Giardia lamblia 9 (6.6%), Cyclospora cayetanensis 8 (5.9%), Blastocystis hominis 7 (5.2%), Entamoeba histolytica 7 (5.2%), Entamoeba coli 5 (3.7%), Strongyloides stercoralis 3 (2.2%), Ascaris lumbricoides 1 (0.7%), Hymenolepis nana 1 (0.7%), Dicrocoelium dendriticum 1 (0.7%) and Hook worm 1 (0.7%). The most common parasite associated with diarrhea in patients, was C. parvum (p < 0.001), followed by G. lamblia, C. cayetanensis and E. histolytica. However, differences between different age groups were statistically non-significant. Similarly, no significant difference in the infection rate were found between male and female patients. PMID:20836300

  6. Comparison of Routine Method with Antibody and Antigen Ones for Diagnosing Giardia-Entamoeba Histolytica in Stool and Blood

    Gharavi, MJ. (PhD

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica are the most prevalent human intestinal pathogenic protozoa, worldwide. The clinical features of Giardia infection are acute diarrhea, a chronic condition with continuous diarrhea and malabsorption. Entamoeba histolytica invade intestinal tract without any typical clinical indications, and it can involve liver and other organs too. Therefore, we aimed to study these protozoa by serological and parasitological methods. Material and Methods: In this comparative study, the stool and blood specimens were collected from 1025 patients selected via simple random sampling in three different laboratories located in Tehran and Karaj, Iran (2012. Formalin Detergent test was performed on all samples. Both serum and stool positive samples of this method were analyzed for antigen and antibodies related to Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica, respectively. Results: of 1025 stool specimens, 76 (4.7% were positive for Giardia lamblia and 19 (1.8% for Entamoeba histolytica using Formalin-detergent method. In ELISA, 81 (7.9% coproantibodies to Giardia lamblia and 24 (2.3% coproantibodies to Entamoeba histolytica, 78 (7.6% corproantigen for Giardia lamblia, and 5 (0.4% for Entamoeba histolytica were observed. circulatory antibodies to Entamoeba histlytica were detected in 22 cases (2.1% Conclusion: Sensitivity of microscopic method compared to serological methods is higher than 90%; therefore, Formalin-detergent method can be the best method for stool examination.

  7. Parasitic Infections among Restaurant Workers in Mukalla (Hadhramout/Yemen

    AM AL-Haddad

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: To identify intestinal parasites among restaurant workers in Mukalla, Yemen in 2007."nMethods: Stool specimens were collected and examined from a total of 500 restaurant workers at Hadhramout University Health Center .Three types of techniques were used: direct examination, saline sedimentation and formol-ether concentration."nResults:  The positivity in majority of them was single infection whereas 6 cases were double infection that constituted 1.3% of the prevalence. The prevalence was 14.8 % for Entamoeba histolytica/dispor, and 5.2 % for Giardia lamblia, while it was 4.4% for Hymenolepis nana. Other intestinal parasites including Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostoma duodinale were also detected. Additionally, the blood parasite Schistosoma mansoni was also detected in 4 cases. The double infection was only with E. histolytica/dispor and Giardia. The infection with these parasites was also accompanied by abdominal troubles "diarrhea, constipation", nausea and vomiting."nConclusion:  These results lead to understand that sanitary measurements are not effective, and this hazardous situation facilitate parasitic agents' distribution among clients. The effectiveness of current pre-employment screening policy must be annual and systematic surveillance is needed in addition to health education.

  8. In vitro activity of 'Mexican Arnica' Heterotheca inuloides Cass natural products and some derivatives against Giardia intestinalis.

    Rodrguez-Chvez, Jos Luis; Rufino-Gonzlez, Yadira; Ponce-Macotela, Martha; Delgado, Guillermo

    2015-04-01

    Giardiasis is a gastrointestinal disease that affects humans and other animals caused by parasitic protists of the genus Giardia. Giardia intestinalis (Syn. Giardia lamblia; Giardia duodenalis) infections can cause acute or chronic diarrhoea, dehydration, abdominal discomfort and weight loss. Metronidazole is the most widely used drug for treating giardiasis. Although effective, metronidazol has undesirable secondary effects. Plants used in traditional medicine as antidiarrhoeals or antiparasitics may represent alternative sources for new compounds to treat giardiasis. Heterotheca inuloides Cass. (Asteraceae/Compositae) plant is widely used in Mexican traditional medicine. The following secondary metabolites were isolated from H. inuloides flowers: 7-hydroxy-3,4-dihydrocadalene (1), 7-hydroxycadalene (2), 3,7-dihydroxy-3(4H)-isocadalen-4-one (3), 1R,4R-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrocadalen-15-oic acid (4), quercetin (5), quercetin-3,7,3'-trimethyl ether (6), quercetin-3,7,3',4'-tetramethyl ether (7) and eriodictyol-7,4'-dimethyl ether (8). The activity of these compounds against Giardia intestinalis trophozoites was assessed in vitro as was the activity of the semisynthetic compounds 7-acetoxy-3,4-dihydrocadalene (9), 7-benzoxy-3,4-dihydrocadalene (10), 7-acetoxycadalene (11), 7-benzoxycadalene (12), quercetin pentaacetate (13) and 7-hydroxycalamenene (14). Among these, 7-hydroxy-3,4-dihydrocadalene (1) and 7-hydroxycalamenene (14) were the most active, whereas the remaining compounds showed moderate or no activity. The G. intestinalis trophozoites exposed to compound 1 showed marked changes in cellular architecture along with ultrastructural disorganization. The aim of this study was to evaluate the giardicidal activity of selected H. inuloides metabolites and some semisynthetic derivatives using an in vitro experimental model of giardiasis. PMID:25363565

  9. Giardia & Pets

    ... follow-up appointments. References The Merck Veterinary Manual. Giardiasis: Introduction. United States: Merck; 2011. Thompson, RCA. The zoonotic significance and molecular epidemiology of Giardia and giardiasis. Vet Parasitol. 2004;126(1-2):15-35. ...

  10. Parasitas intestinais em centros de educação infantil municipal de Lages, SC, Brasil Intestinal parasites in nursey schools of Lages, southern Brazil

    Rosiléia Marinho de Quadros

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Infecção por enteroparasitas foi avaliada em 200 crianças em idade escolar, residentes em Lages. A prevalência geral entre helmintos e protozoários foi de 70,5% com 61,4% no sexo masculino e 74,5% no feminino. Os parasitos mais prevalentes foram Ascaris lumbricoides (35%, Giardia lamblia (14% e Trichuris trichiura (13%.Two hundred chinldren from nursery schools in Lages, southern Brazil, were associated as to parasitic ibfections. The overall prevalence of helminths and protozoa was 70.5%, affecting 61.4% of male and 74.5% of female children. The most prevalent parasites were Ascaris lumbricoides (35%, Giardia lambia (14% e Trichuris trichiura (13%.

  11. GIARDIASIS EXTRAINTESTINAL: ENTRE REALIDADES Y MITOS / Extra intestinal manifestations of Giardia Infection: Among myth and reality

    Saleh, Ali Almannoni; Deisy, Martn Pupo; Alexis, Monzote Lpez; Luis, Fonte Galindo.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Revisar lo publicado sobre las asociaciones entre giardiasis y manifestaciones extraintestinales y, en los casos de las mejor estudiadas, sobre los mecanismos por los que G. lamblia podra ser capaz de producir daos en rganos y tejidos distantes de la superficie intestinal a la que se adhiere. Se [...] revisaron, previa bsqueda en Medline , todos los artculos publicados sobre manifestaciones extraintestinales de la giardiasis, o relacionados con este tema, durante el perodo 1985-2006. Puntualmente, algunas monografas y reportes de casos fechados con anterioridad al intervalo mencionado tambin fueron consultados. Muy variadas son las lesiones asociaciadas a giardiasis descritas en la literatura revisada. De todas ellas, la urticaria y el angiedema, la lesin en sal y pimienta del epitelio pigmentado de la retina, la glositis y la artritis reactiva son las ms rigurosamente demostradas. En relacin con las restantes, estudios adicionales, con el empleo de diseos e instrumentacin adecuados, deben demostrar hasta qu punto no son un mito. En perspectivas, adems de la continuacin de las investigaciones que confirmen y expliquen la existencia de las asociaciones citadas, se hace necesario incursionar en la exploracin de los conocimientos, percepciones y prcticas de los mdicos relacionados con el diagnstico, tratamiento y control de la giardiasis. Ello es as, sobre todo, si tenemos en cuenta que en nuestra red de salud se ha hecho habitual el diagnstico de giardiasis a pacientes con lesiones dermatolgicas de naturaleza muy variada y causa no conocida, muchas veces sin el hallazgo del protozoo en sus heces o en el fluido duodenal correspondiente. Abstract in english The purpose of this paper is to go through the literature to review what is published in connection with the association among giardia lamblia infection and extra intestinal manifestations of the disease and the mechanisms which intervene in producing such distant lesions taking in consideration the [...] location of the parasite. Of all the lesions associated to the parasite, rash, angioedema, salt and pepper lesions in the pigments epithelium of the retina, glositis and reactive arthritis are the most rigorously long-established. Regarding others, experimental studies must be carried out to ascertain to which point they are a myth or not. In perspective, besides all the tests that are needed to confirmed the quoted associations, it is necessary to explore the knowledge, perception and practice of doctors related to the diagnosis, prevention and control of the giardia infection. In our Health Care System is very common to find a giardia infection diagnosis in the case of a dermatological infection of unknown origin, most of the times without the findings of the parasite in neither faeces nor bile.

  12. Infection Strategies of Intestinal Parasite Pathogens and Host Cell Responses

    Di Genova, Bruno M.; Tonelli, Renata R.

    2016-01-01

    Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium sp., and Entamoeba histolytica are important pathogenic intestinal parasites and are amongst the leading causes worldwide of diarrheal illness in humans. Diseases caused by these organisms, giardiasis, cryptosporidiosis, and amoebiasis, respectively, are characterized by self-limited diarrhea but can evolve to long-term complications. The cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of diarrhea associated with these three pathogens are being unraveled, with knowledge of both the strategies explored by the parasites to establish infection and the methods evolved by hosts to avoid it. Special attention is being given to molecules participating in parasite–host interaction and in the mechanisms implicated in the diseases’ pathophysiologic processes. This review focuses on cell mechanisms that are modulated during infection, including gene transcription, cytoskeleton rearrangements, signal transduction pathways, and cell death. PMID:26973630

  13. A Comparative Analysis of Intestinal Parasitic Infections between HIV+/AIDS Patients and Non-HIV Infected Individuals

    EB Kia

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to verify the occurrence of intestinal parasitic infections in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS patients in Iran in comparison with non-HIV individuals. Methods: A total of HIV+/AIDS patients (Group I and 1220 clinically healthy individuals (Group II were submitted to coproparasitological examination from 2003 to 2005. Results: The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites in group I and group II was 11.4% and 11.6%, respectively, without significant difference between two groups. The prevalence of infection for each helminth and pathogenic protozoan, in every group, was as follows: Group I: Blastocystis hominis (6.1%; Giardia lamblia (4.2%; Cryptosporidium spp. (0.9%; Isospora belli (0.26%; Strongyloides stercoralis (0.26%; Hymenolepis nana (0.13%; and Rhabditis axei (0.13%. Group II: Blastocystis hominis (6.5%; Giardia lamblia (4.1%; Strongyloides stercoralis (0.33%; Hymenolepis nana (0.16%; and Trichostrongylus sp. (0.16%. Although the prevalence of infection for extracellular parasites was not statistically different between two groups, however, the infection rates for enteric coccidians including Cryptosporidium spp. and I. belli were significantly higher in patients at AIDS stage than Group II. Conclusion: The results emphasize the needs for especial consideration of enteropathogenic intracellular coccidians in immunocompromised patients.

  14. HUMAN PARASITIC INFECTIONS IN BALI : A REVIEW

    Putu Sutisna

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic infections in humans in Bali are well documented, especially in the population who lived in rural areas. The most common infections are those of the soil-transmitted helminthiasis which are caused by Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm showing prevalence rates of 40 - 95%, 25 - 90% and 20 - 70% respectively. Enterobius vermicularis prevalence rate has been reported to be 18 - 53%. Taenniasis prevalence rate has been documented to be 0.8 - 23% in some villages, where Taenia saginata was found to be more prevalent than Taenia solium, and this might be due to the eating habit of the Balinese people who consumed both pork and beef lawar. Malaria is still found in Bali especially in regions along the coasts of some regencies, although generally the infection rate is low. The prevalence rates of intestinal protozoa such as Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica, Balantidium coli have been occasionally reported in low percentages.

  15. Gastrointestinal parasites and the neural control of gut functions

    Andre Gerald Buret

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal motility and transport of water and electrolytes play key roles in the pathophysiology of diarrhea upon exposure to enteric parasites. These processes are actively modulated by the enteric nervous system (ENS, which includes efferent, and afferent neurons, as well as interneurons. ENS integrity is essential to the maintenance of homeostatic gut responses. A number of gastrointestinal parasites are known to cause disease by altering the enteric nervous system. The mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia duodenalis (syn. G. intestinalis, G. lamblia, Trypanosoma cruzi, Schistosoma sp and others alter gastrointestinal motility, absorption, or secretion at least in part via effects on the ENS. Recent findings also implicate enteric parasites such as Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia duodenalis in the development of post-infectious complications such as irritable bowel syndrome, which further underscores their effects on the gut-brain axis. This article critically reviews recent advances and the current state of knowledge on the impact of enteric parasitism on the neural control of gut functions, and provides insights into mechanisms underlying these abnormalities.

  16. Intestinal Parasites Prevalence in Children from Day Care Centers in Sinop City-MT

    B. Muchiutti

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the intestinal parasitosis prevalence of children from municipal day care centers in Sinop MT. Respecting ethical principles established by Resolution 196/96 of Health National Council/Ministry of Health of quantitative research, the anonymity of participants, as well accept and signature of parents of the Term of Free and Enlightened Consent were performed. Between Junes to October 2012 were applied coproparasitological methods for investigation. Fecal samples were analyzed by Hoffmans methods. From 103 students examined observed the prevalence rate of 19.42% of intestinal parasites. The intestinal parasites with highest prevalence rate were: Giardia lamblia (9.70% and Endolimax nana (5.82%. The results of this study demonstrate the need for sensitization of the population front of diagnosis importance, treatment and monitoring of positive cases and the necessity of more health professionals attention, especially with children.Key-words: Intestinal parasites, day care centers, children.

  17. The Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites in Children Attending Day–Care Centers in Yazd City, Iran

    Mohammad Hosein Anvari Tafti

    2014-07-01

    Results: In total 10 % of children harbored at least one type of intestinal parasite. The rates of infection were as follows: Blastocystis hominis 2.8%, Giardia lamblia 2.8%, Entamoeba coli 1.1%, Chilomastix mesnili 1.7%, Dientamoeba fragilis 1.1.%. Infection rate in male was 12.9% and in female it was 6.9%. The relationship between sex, age, anthropometric indicators, and parasitic infection was not statistically significant. A statistically significant difference was observed between infection, parents’ education and mothers' job (P<0.005. Conclusion: The results of this study, showed a considerable decrease in the rate of intestinal parasitic infections in comparison with other studies. This may be owing to the improvements in personal environment, and health which have occurred through public education campaigns, health information raising, sanitation facilities improvement, proper waste and wastewater disposal, control of drinking-water, and food safety.

  18. PREVALENCE OF INTESTINAL PARASITES AMONG FOOD HANDLERS IN WESTERN IRAN

    Farnaz Kheirandish

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic infection is one of the problems that affect human health, especially in developing countries. In this study, all of the fast food shops, restaurants, and roast meat outlets of Khorramabad (Western Iran and all the staff employed by them, some 210 people, were selected through a census and their stools were examined for the presence of parasites. The parasitological tests of direct wet-mount, Lugol's iodine staining, formaldehyde-ether sedimentation and Trichrome staining techniques were performed on the samples. The data was analyzed with a chi-square test and logistic regression was selected as the analytical model. The results showed 19 (9% stool specimens were positive for different intestinal parasites. These intestinal parasites included Giardia lamblia2.9%, Entamoeba coli 4.3%, Blastocystis sp. 1.4%, and Hymenolepis nana 0.5%. There was a significant difference between the presence of a valid health card, awareness of transmission of intestinal parasites, participation in training courses in environmental health with intestinal parasites (p 0.05. To control parasitic infection in food handlers, several strategies are recommended such as stool examinations every three months, public education, application of health regulations, controlling the validity of health cards and training on parasitic infection transmission. In this regard, the findings of the present study can be used as a basis to develop preventive programs targeting food handlers because the spread of disease via them is a common problem worldwide.

  19. Review of zoonotic parasites in medical and veterinary fields in the Republic of Korea.

    Youn, Heejeong

    2009-10-01

    Zoonotic parasites are animal parasites that can infect humans. The major zoonotic protozoa in the Republic of Korea are Babesia bovis, Chilomastix mesnili, Cryptosporidium parvum, Endolimax nana, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba hitolytica, Giardia lamblia, Iodamoeba bütschlii, Pneumocystis carinii, Sarcocystis cruzi, and Toxoplasma gondii. The major zoonotic helminths in Korea include trematodes, cestodes, and nematodes. Trematodes are Clonorchis sinensis, Echinostoma hortense, Echinostoma spp., Fasciola hepatica, Heterophyes nocens, Metagonimus yokogawai, and Paragonimus westermani. Cestodes are Diphyllobothrium latum, Dipylidium caninum, Echinococcus granulosus, Hymenolepis nana, Raillietina tetragona, sparganum (Spirometra spp.), Taenia saginata, T. solium, and T. asiatica. Nematodes are Ancylostoma caninum, Brugia malayi, Capillaria hepatica, Dirofilaria immitis, Gnathostoma dololesi, Gnathostoma spinigerum, Loa loa, Onchocerca gibsoni, Strongyloides stercoralis, Thelazia callipaeda, Trichinella spiralis, Trichostrongylus orientalis, Trichuris trichiura, and Trichuris vulpis. The one arthropod is Sarcoptes scabiei. Many of these parasites have disappeared or were in decline after the 1990's. Since the late 1990's, the important zoonotic protozoa have been C. parvum, E. nana, E. coli, E. hitolytica, G. lamblia, I. buetschlii, P. carinii and T. gondii. The important zoonotic helminths have been C. sinensis, H. nocens, M. yokogawai, P. westermani, D. latum, T. asiatica, sparganum, B. malayi, T. orientalis, T. callipaeda and T. spiralis. However, outbreaks of these parasites are only in a few endemic areas. The outbreaks of Enterobius vermicularis and head lice, human parasites, have recently increased in the kindergartens and primary schools in the Republic of Korea. PMID:19885329

  20. INTESTINAL PARASITIC INFECTIONS AND ATOPIC DISEASES IN CHILDREN: A HOSPITAL BASED STUDY.

    Al Ghwass, Mohamed Me; El Dash, Hanaa H; Amin, Sayed A; Hussin, Shimaa S

    2015-08-01

    Different helminth parasites may have different effects on allergy depending on the timing of the exposure. A meta-analysis of many of studies reported the association between the presence of geohelminth eggs in stool samples and asthma provided some evidence for parasite-specific effects. This study evaluated the occurrence of allergy among different intestinal parasitic infected patients. A cross sectional study was carried out from June, 2013 to October, 2013 in the Pediatric Outpatient Clinic of Al-Fayoum University Hospitals among 55 children aged 2 years to 13 years. The data were collected using ISSAC questionnaire of allergy (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood) also laboratory analysis of complete blood picture, stool analysis and measurement of total serum IgE were performed for the patients. Among the patients 27 suffered from allergy and 28 had no allergic complain. Stool examinations showed Entrobius vernicularis (15), Trichostrongylus species (9), Hymenolepis nana (8), Entameba histolytica (8), Giardia lamblia (6), and mixed infections (9). The allergic group by parasitological examination 7 children (25.9%) had Entrobius vermicularis; 6 children (22.2%) Entameba histolytica; and 2 children (7.4 %) Giardia lamblia, with eosinophilic count was higher in the enterobiasis infected children than in protozoa infected ones. There were significantly high IgE levels in mixed parasitic infection (P= 0.006) and with Entrobius vermicularis infections (P=0.04). Also statistically significant difference between allergic groups by ISAAC score and the non allergic group regarding Ig E levels (P= 0.03). There was no significant difference between numbers of children with allergy and those without allergy among different parasitic infections. However, a marked significant association between the allergy and parasitic infected children was not declaimed. PMID:26485861

  1. Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Humans, Domestic Animals, and Village Water Sources in Rural India.

    Daniels, ME; Shrivastava, A.; Smith, WA; P. Sahu; Odagiri, M; Misra, PR; Panigrahi, P; Suar, M; Clasen, T; Jenkins, MW

    2015-01-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia are zoonotic enteric protozoa of significant health concern where sanitation, hygiene, and water supplies are inadequate. We examined 85 stool samples from diarrhea patients, 111 pooled fecal samples by species across seven domestic animal types, and water from tube wells (N = 207) and ponds (N = 94) across 60 villages in coastal Odisha, India, for Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts to measure occurrence, concentration/shedding, and environmen...

  2. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in the Greek population: local people and refugees

    M.G. Papazahariadou, E.G. Papadopoulos S.E. Frydas, Ch. Mavrovouniotis,T.C. Constantinidis, K. Antoniadou-Sotiriadou,

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY A total of 455 faecal samples from the Greek population and refugees was examined and 18.02% were found to be infected with one or more species of parasites. The prevalence of infection with intestinal parasites of the Greek (264 population was 11.36% and that of foreigners (191 originating from Europe, Africa and Asia was 27.23%. Found were a protozoan parasites: Blastocystis hominis, Cryptosporidium parvum, Entamoeba coli and Giardia lamblia (found in both groups examined and b metazoan parasites: Enterobius vermicularis, Taenia spp. and Strongyloides stercoralis (in both groups and Ancylostoma duodenale, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and Schistosoma mansoni (only in foreigners. Among the parasites found in foreigners only the helminth species A. duodenale and S. mansoni are considered as imported parasites from tropical and subtropical regions to European countries. The use of the multiple logistic regression showed that the odds ratio comparing Greeks to refugees, adjusted for age and gender, was 3.8 for Africans, 3.0 for Europeans and 2.6 for Asians. No correlation was found between age, gender or symptoms (diarrhea or abdominal pain with the presence of parasites. The overall prevalence of infection with parasites was high in both the Greek population and refugees and therefore a screening for parasite infection is recommended for the prevention of further spread of the infections. Key words: parasites, immigrants, Greece

  3. Thioureides of 2-(phenoxymethyl)benzoic acid 4-R substituted: a novel class of anti-parasitic compounds.

    Müller, Joachim; Limban, Carmen; Stadelmann, Britta; Missir, Alexandru Vasile; Chirita, Ileana Cornelia; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Nitulescu, George Mihai; Hemphill, Andrew

    2009-06-01

    Fifty members of a novel class of antimicrobial compounds, 2-(4-R-phenoxymethyl)benzoic acid thioureides, were synthesized and characterized with respect to their activities against three parasites of human relevance, namely the protozoa Giardia lamblia and Toxoplasma gondii, and the larval (metacestode) stage of the tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis. To determine the selective toxicity of these compounds, the human colon cancer cell line Caco2 and primary cultures of human foreskin fibroblasts (HFF) were also investigated. The new thioureides were obtained in a three-step-reaction process and subsequently characterized by their physical constants (melting point, solubility). The chemical structures were elucidated by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, IR spectral methods and elemental analysis. The analyses confirmed the final and intermediate compound structures and the synthesis. The compounds were then tested on the parasites in vitro. All thioureides, except two compounds with a nitro group, were totally ineffective against Giardia lamblia. 23 compounds inhibited the proliferation of T. gondii, three of them with an IC(50) of approximately 1 microM. The structural integrity of E. multilocularis metacestodes was affected by 22 compounds. In contrast, HFF were not susceptible to any of these thioureides, while Caco2 cells were affected by 17 compounds, two of them inhibiting proliferation with an IC(50) in the micromolar range. Thioureides may thus present a promising class of anti-infective agents. PMID:19162220

  4. INTESTINAL PARASITES DETECTED DURING PRE-EMPLOYMENT STOOL EXAMINATION AT TERTIARY HEALTH CARE CENTER IN MAKKAH, KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA.

    Ahmed, Mona A; Alam-Eldin, Yosra H; Eltaweel, Nagwa A; Elmorsy, Soha

    2015-08-01

    This retrospective study determined the intestinal parasites discovered in 2490 new employees in a tertiary health care center in Makah as regards nationalities, age groups and sex over the period from January 2010 to January 2014 to decrease introduction of communicable diseases. All the data were provided through the electronic hospital information system. The overall positive cases were 16%, significantly higher in females 57.4% than males 42.6%. Differences in distribution of positive records among different geographical areas were highly significant being highest in East Asia 59.8 %. Blastocystis hominis was the most common parasite. It occurred in 78,9% of positive cases followed by Entamoeba coli 9.3%, Giardia lamblia 5.8% and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar 5.3%. These findings should motivate any other country importing expatriate employees to have effective screening programs for intestinal parasites. PMID:26485855

  5. PARASITES OF MAN IN SERANG, WEST JAVA

    W. P. Carney

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Survey penyakit menular didesa Cikurai dan Barengkok, Jawa Barat pada bulan Juni 1974 ini adalah merupakan salah satu dari serangkaian survey yang dilakukan oleh Direktorat Jenderal P3.M. Dep. Kes. dan US Namru-2 guna menentukan distribusi dan prevalensi penyakit terutama malaria, filariasis dan penyakit parasit perut. Khususnya didaerah Cikurai dimana dilaporkan adanya Schistosoma incognitum secara hyperenzootik maka perlulah dilihat apakah parasit ini ditemukan pula diantara pend-duk setempat. Dari hasil survey didesa Cikurai dan Barengkok, Jawa Barat ini dilihat bahwa Plasmodium falciparum ditemukan pada 8 atau 3 persen dari sediaan darah 261 penduduk yang diperiksa dan tidak terlihat adanya microfilariae. Parasit perut yang menonjol terlihat pada sediaan tinja dari 335 penduduk yang diperiksa adalah Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura dan cacing tambang masing-masing sebesar 89 persen, 87 persen dan 65 persen ; parasit lainnya adalah Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba hart manni, Entamoeba coli, Endolinuu nana, lodamoeba butschlii, Giardia lamblia, Chilomastvc mesnili, Enterobius vermicularis, dan Echinostoma sp. Tidak terlihat adanya Schistosoma incognitum pada sediaan tinja dari 335 penduduk yang diperiksa dikedua desa ini.

  6. Intestinal parasitic infection among children and neonatus admitted to Ibn-Sina Hospital, Sirt, Libya.

    Kasssem, Hamed H; Zaed, Hana Abdalsalam; Sadaga, Gazala A

    2007-08-01

    A total of 350 stool samples from 196 males and 154 female children and neonatus admitted in Ibn-Sina hospital, Sirt, were examined from June 2001 to May 2002, to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites. Intestinal parasitic infections were identified in 196 (56%) of children and neonates. No intestinal helminthic parasites were detected but 13 intestinal protozoan parasites were detected. The most prevalent protozoan was Entamoeba histolytica /E. dispar (36.57%); Blastocystis hominis (12.57%), Giardia lamblia (10.29%), Isospora belli (3.14%) and Balantidium coli (0.86%), the latter was detected in non-Libyan children. The non-pathogenic ones were Entamoeba coli (15.14%), Endolimax nana (13.71%), Entamoeba hartmanni (4.29%), Chilomastix mesnilli (4.29%), Retortamonas intestinalis (3.43%), Dientamoeba fragilis (2%), Iodamoeba butschlii (0.86%) and Trichomonas hominis (0.86%). The result showed a significant difference exists between the prevalence of pathogenic and non-pathogenic protozoan parasites (P < 0.05). High prevalence of E. histolytica/ E. dispar followed by E. coli, E. nana, B. hominis and G. lamblia in both sexes of children, while the prevalence of other intestinal parasites were low in both sexes, significantly different existed in the prevalence of intestinal parasites between males and females children (t = 24.68; P < 0.05). Age groups had no effect on the prevalence of intestinal parasites (F = 0.66; P < 0.05). Significant differences existed in the prevalence between single and multiple infections with pathogenic protozoa. The socio-economic status of children parents revealed that high prevalence in children from medium socio-economic status. The family size had no significant effect on the prevalence of the intestinal parasites. PMID:17985574

  7. HUMAN PARASITE SURVEY ON NASI AND BERAS ISLANDS ACEH PROVINCE, SUMATRA

    E. E. Stafford

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Survey parasit usus dan darah manusia terhadap penduduk pulau-pulau Nasi/Beras Propinsi Aceh, Sumatra, telah diadakan dihulan Januari, 1975. Sebanyak 83 pulasan darah dari 67 pria dan 16 wanita, serta 87 contoh tinja diperoleh dari 52 pria dan 35 wanita. Brugia malayi microfilaria ditemukan dalam 3 atau 3 persen dari darah yang diperiksa dan juga parasitemia yang disebabkan oleh Plasmodium malariae 1 atau 1 persen dan P. falciparum 2 atau 2 persen. Trichuris trichiura (86 persen , merupakan parasit usus yang paling banyak ditemukan, diikuti oleh cacing tambang (77 persen, Ascaris lumbricoides (60 persen, Entamoeba histolyrica (11 per sen, H. coli (10 persen . Endolimax nana hanya 5 atau 6 persen dan Iodamoeba butschlii dan Giardia lamblia, masing-masing 3 persen. Tidak ada ditemukan Schistosoma japonicum atau pun ova cestoda diantara penduduk yang diperiksa.

  8. Prevalencia de Giardiasis y Parásitos Intestinales en Preescolares de Hogares atendidos en un programa estatal en Armenia, Colombia Prevalence of giardiasis and intestinal parasites in pre-school children from homes being attended as part of a state programme in Armenia, Colombia

    Jorge M Giraldo-Gómez

    Full Text Available Objetivo El propósito de este estudio es el de obtener datos sobre la giardiasis y el parasitismo intestinal en una muestra significativa de los niños en edades pre-escolares de los hogares de madres comunitarias del Instituto Colombiano de Bienestar Familiar (ICBF. Materiales y Métodos Se recolectó un seriado de tres muestras de heces en 328 niños, con previo consentimiento del tutor legal. Se le realizó el análisis de laboratorio por examen directo microscópico y macroscópico utilizando Lugol al 1 %, solución salina al 0,83 %, solución salina-eosina, Kato Katz y formol-éter o metodo de concentración de Ritchie (prueba comprobatoria. Las muestras positivas se conservaron en formol salino. Resultados Los parásitos con potencial patógeno tuvieron las siguientes prevalencias: Ascaris lumbricoides 2,4 %, Hymenolepsis nana 0,6 %, Trichuris trichura 2,1 %, Blastocystis hominis 6,1 % y Giardia lamblia 13 %. Conclusiones Este estudio muestra la baja frecuencia de los helmintos con respecto a los protozoos, por lo tanto estrategias de desparasitación masiva con dosis únicas de Albendazol no tienen utilidad. Se recomienda la vigilancia periódica de parásitos por exámenes en estos niños. Se confirma que el parásito patógeno mas prevalente es Giardia lamblia en los niños de las guarderias infantiles del ICBF. La prevalencia de Giardia no se relacionó de manera estadisticamente significativa con el estado nutricional de los niños de las guarderias del ICBF. La mayoria de niños infectados por Giardia son asintomáticos.Objective Determining the prevalence of giardiasis and intestinal parasitism in pre-school children from the Instituto Colombiano de Bienestar Familiar (ICBF. Material and Methods Three serial faecal samples were collected from 328 children following informed consent from their legal guardians. Microscopic and macroscopic tests were made using 1% Lugol, 0,83 % saline solution, saline-eosin solution and Kato Katz and Ritchie’s test as a confirming test. Positive samples were preserved in saline formol solution. Results Pathogen parasites had the following prevalence frequencies: 2,4 % for Ascaris lumbricoides, 0,6 % for Hymenolepsis nana, 2,1 % for Trichuris trichura, 6,1 % for Blastocystis hominis and 13 % for Giardia lamblia. Conclusions The results of this work showed low helminth frequency compared to that for protozoa; control strategies using single doses of Albendazol are therefore not useful. The most prevalent pathogen parasite was Giardia lamblia in children from the ICBF in Armenia. Periodic surveillance of parasites in children is thereby recommended. The prevalence of Giardia lamblia was not statistically related to the children’s nutritional state. Most Giardia-infected children were asymptomatic.

  9. Protozoan Parasites.

    Custodio, Haidee

    2016-02-01

    • Stool antigen detection for Cryptosporidium sp, Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica are now commercially available, have better sensitivity and specificity than the traditional stool microscopy, and are less dependent on personnel skill. Tests employing newer techniques with faster turnaround time are also available for diagnosing trichomoniasis.• Nitazoxanide, the only U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved medication for therapy of cryptosporidiosis, is effective among immunocompetent patients. However, on the basis of strong evidence from multiple clinical trials, nitazoxanide is considered ineffective among immunocompromised patients. (14) • Giardiasis can be asymptomatic or have a chronic course leading to malabsorption and failure to thrive. It can be treated with metronidazole, tinidazole, or nitazoxanide. On the basis of growing observational studies, postinfectious and extraintestinal manifestations of giardiasis occur, but the mechanisms are unclear. Given the high prevalence of giardiasis, public health implications need to be defined. (16) • Eradicating E histolytica from the gastrointestinal tract requires only intraluminal agent therapy. Therapy for invasive illnesses requires use of imidazole followed by intraluminal agents to eliminate persistent intraluminal parasites. • Malaria is considered the most lethal parasitic infection, with Plasmodium falciparum as the predominant cause of mortality. P vivax and P ovale can be dormant in the liver, and primaquine is necessary to resolve infection by P vivax and P ovale. • Among immunocompetent patients, infection with Toxoplasma gondii may be asymptomatic, involve localized lymphadenopathy, or cause ocular infection. In immunocompromised patients, reactivation or severe infection is not uncommon. On the basis of limited observational studies (there are no well-controlled randomized trials), therapy is recommended for acute infection during pregnancy to prevent transmission to the fetus/infant or decrease infectious sequelae to the fetus. (2) • On the basis of growing research evidence as well as consensus, trichomoniasis is associated with many health-related concerns, including adverse pregnancy outcomes and increased risk of acquisition and transmission of human immunodeficiency virus. (3)(25) Similar to toxoplasmosis,many infections are asymptomatic, and the true public health impact of trichomoniasis is difficult to define. Further research is warranted. PMID:26834225

  10. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites and Profile of CD4+ Counts in HIV+/AIDS People in North of Iran, 2007-2008

    A. Daryani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study 142 stool samples (64 HIV+/AIDS patients and 78 non-HIV infected individuals collected from Mazandaran province and screened for intestinal parasites, using direct wet mont, formalin-ether sedimentation concentration, modified Ziehl Neelsen and modified trichrome techniques. Each person in this study was examined for CD4+ counts. Intestinal parasites were found in 11/64 (17.2% of patients in HIV+/AIDS group and in 14/78 (17.9% of controls. Prevalence of parasites detected in HIV+/AIDS individuals was as follow: Cryptosporidium sp. 9.4%, Giardia lamblia 3.1%, Entamoeba coli 1.6%, E. histolytica 1.6% and Chilomastix mesnili 1.6%. Prevalence of parasites in controls was as follow: Trichostrongylus sp. 6.4%, G. lamblia 3.8%, Cryptosporidium sp. 2.5% , E. coli 2.5% , E. histolytica 1.2% , Hookworms 1.2%. The mean of CD4+ counts in HIV-positive group (430 cells ?L-1 was remarkedly less than controls (871 cells ?L-1 (p = 0.00l. As patients usually belong to poor socio-economic backgrounds and they can hardly afford treatment, therefore, it is suggested screening and free treatment of intestinal parasites in these individuals should be taken by health centers to prevent the occurrence of these diseases in HIV+/AIDS patients, as often the disease may take a fulminant form.

  11. Geographical location and age affects the incidence of parasitic infestations in school children

    Rayan Paran

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Environmental factors affect the dissemination and distribution of intestinal parasites in human communities. To comprehend the prevalence of parasitic infestation and to examine whether geographical location and age also influence the prevalence of infection, fecal samples from 195 school children (rural = 95; male = 39; female = 56 (urban = 100; male = 60; female = 40 of five age groups ranging from 5 to 11 years in two different socio-economic zones (rural and urban were screened for specific intestinal parasites using standard histological techniques. Percentage incidences of parasitic species found in fecal wet mounts and concentrates in rural children were Entamoeba coli (25.3%, Giardia lamblia (17.9%, Blastocystis hominis (14.7%, Entamoeba histolytica (4.2%, Iodamoeba butschlii (1.1%, Hymenolepis nana (1.1% and Ascaris lumbricoides (1.1%. Whereas the percentage incidences among urban children were E. coli (26%, A. lumbricoides (21%, B. hominis (18%, G. lamblia (14%, T. trichiura (8%, I. butschlii (4% and A. duodenale (1%. Such findings may be related to dietary differences, living conditions and the greater use of natural anti-helminthic medicinal plants in rural communities. These results are important for both epidemiological data collection and for correlating dietary differences to intestinal parasitic diseases. Aims: We chose to investigate whether geographical location and age affect the prevalence and distribution of intestinal parasites among school children from two separate regions (rural and urban in areas surrounding, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. Settings and Design: A study of the prevalence of parasitic infestations was undertaken among primary school children, in rural and urban communities around Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. Materials and Methods: Faecal sample collection, direct microscopic techniques, macroscopic examination and concentration techniques for identifying the parasites. Statistical analysis used: Percentage incidences of parasitic species found in faecal wet mounts and concentrates were done instead of statistical analyses. Results: Both macroscopic and microscopic examinations of faecal samples revealed that the overall percentage prevalence of parasite species encountered in rural children were Entamoeba coli (25.3%, G. lamblia (17.9%, B. hominis (14.7%, Entamoeba histolytica (4.2%, I. butschlii (1.1%, H. nana (1.1%, Ascaris lumbricoides (1.1%. The prevalence among urban children were E. coli (26%, A. lumbricoides (21%, B. hominis (18%, G. lamblia (14%, T. trichiura (8%, I. butschlii (4% and A. duodenale (1%. Overall, comparative significant differences were noted between rural and urban children for E. histolytica (4.2 vs. 14%, G. lamblia (17.9 vs. 14%, A. lumbricoides (1.1 vs. 21% and T. trichiura (0 vs. 8%, with the major difference being the much higher occurrence of A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura infections in urban children. Conclusions: One of the greatest challenges for healthcare professionals is the prevention and treatment of protozoal and helminthic parasitic infections. From our study we conclude that the prevalence of different pathogenic species of amoeba such as Entamoeba histolytica (4.2 vs. 0% and G. lamblia (17.9 vs. 14%, (P value was equal to 1 was significantly higher among rural children compared to children from urban areas. In contrast, the prevalence of nematodes such as A. lumbricoides (21% vs. 1.1%, T. trichiura (8% vs. 0% and A. duodenale (1% was also significantly higher among rural children.

  12. Population-based laboratory surveillance for Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. infections in a large Canadian health region

    Laupland Kevin B

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Giardia lamblia (intestinalis and Cryptosporidium parvum are the two most important intestinal parasites infecting North Americans but there is a paucity of active population-based surveillance data from Canada. This study determined the incidence of and demographic risk factors for developing Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. infections in a general Canadian population. Methods Population-based laboratory surveillance was conducted among all residents of the Calgary Health Region (CHR; population ≅ 1 million during May 1, 1999 and April 30, 2002. Results Giardia sp. infection occurred at a rate of 19.6 per 100,000 populations per year. Although the yearly incidence was stable, a significant seasonal variation was observed with a peak in late summer to early fall. Males were at higher risk for development of this infection as compared to females (21.2 vs. 17.9 per 100,000/yr; relative risk (RR 1.19; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.00–1.40, p = 0.047, and there was a significant decrease in risk associated with an increasing age. Cryptosporidium sp. infection occurred at an overall rate of 6.0 per 100,000 populations per year although a large outbreak of Cryptosporidium sp. infections occurred in the second half of the summer of 2001. During August and September of 2001, the incidence of cryptosporidiosis was 55.1 per 100,000 per year as compared to 3.1 per 100,000 per year for the remainder of the surveillance period (p Conclusion This study provides important information on the occurrence and demographic risk groups for acquisition of giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis in a non-selected Canadian population.

  13. Giardia infection

    ... beavers and muskrats, or domestic animals such as sheep, have left their waste Eat raw or undercooked food that has been contaminated with the parasite Have direct person-to-person contact in day ...

  14. Parasitic contamination of commonly consumed fresh leafy vegetables in benha, egypt.

    Eraky, Maysa Ahmad; Rashed, Samia Mostafa; Nasr, Mona El-Sayed; El-Hamshary, Azza Mohammed Salah; Salah El-Ghannam, Amera

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the degree of parasitic contamination of vegetables which are commercialized and consumed fresh in Benha, Egypt. It included 530 vegetables: lettuce, watercress, parsley, green onion, and leek. Vegetables were collected randomly from markets within Benha. Samples were washed in saline, and the resulting washing solution was filtered and centrifuged to concentrate the parasitic stages. Sediments and supernatants were examined by iodine and modified Ziehl-Neelsen stained smears. Intestinal parasites were detected in 157/530 (29.6%) samples. Giardia lamblia cysts were the most prevalent parasite (8.8%) followed by Entamoeba spp. cysts (6.8%), Enterobius vermicularis eggs (4.9%), various helminth larvae (3.6%), Hymenolepis nana eggs (2.8%), Hymenolepis diminuta eggs (2.1%), and Ascaris lumbricoides eggs (0.6%). The highest contaminated vegetable was lettuce (45.5%) followed by watercress (41.3%), parsley (34.3%), green onion (16.5%), and leek (10.7%). These results indicate a significant seasonal variation (P < 0.05), with highest prevalence in summer (49%) and the lowest in winter (10.8%). These findings provide evidence for the high risk of acquiring parasitic infection from the consumption of raw vegetables in Benha, Egypt. Effective measures are necessary to reduce parasitic contamination of vegetables. PMID:25024845

  15. Parasitic Diseases

    ... to worms that can be seen with the naked eye. Some parasitic diseases occur in the United States. Contaminated water supplies can lead to Giardia infections. Cats can transmit toxoplasmosis, which is dangerous for pregnant women. Others, like malaria, are common in other parts ...

  16. Pathophysiology of enteric infections with Giardia duodenalis

    Buret A.G.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Giardia is the most prevalent human intestinal parasitic protist in the world, and one of the most common parasite of companion animals and young livestock. Giardia is a major cause of diarrhea in children and in travelers. The host-microbial interactions that govern the outcome of infection remain incompletely understood. Findings available to date indicate that the infection causes diarrhea via a combination of intestinal malabsorption and hypersecretion. Malabsorption and maldigestion mainly result from a diffuse shortening of epithelial microvilli. This enterocytic injury is mediated by activated host T lymphocytes. Pathophysiological activation of lymphocytes is secondary to Giardia-induced disruption of epithelial tight junctions, which in turn increases intestinal permeability. Loss of epithelial barrier function is a result of Giardia-induced enterocyte apoptosis. Recent findings suggest that these effects may facilitate the development of chronic enteric disorders, including inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, and allergies, via mechanisms that remain poorly understood. A newly discovered SGLT-1 glucose uptake-mediated host cytoprotective mechanism may represent an effective modulator of the epithelial apoptosis induced by this parasite, and, possibly, by other enteropathogens. A better understanding of the pathogenesis of giardiasis will shed light on new potential therapeutic targets.

  17. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infections in Rehabilitation Centers in Golestan Province, Iran

    Soosaraie, M. (MSc

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Given the importance of having knowledge about intestinal parasitic infections in rehabilitation centers, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in the disabled. Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 196 stool specimens obtained from four rehabilitation centers in Golestan province, 2009. Triple fecal samples were collected and examined by direct wet Mount, Formalin-ether concentration technique and Trichrome permanent staining (with optical microscope. Results: Of 196 specimens, 24 (12.3 % had parasitic protozoan infection (5 species and worm (1 species. The prevalence of intestinal protozoa was 11.8 %, and the highest rate of infection was related to Blastocystishominis (4.2% and Giardia lamblia (3.1%. The rate of infection was the highest in under 9 and 20-29 years (4.1% and the lowest in over 40 (0.5%. The prevalence in mentally handicapped was 9.2% and in physically disabled was 2.5%. Conclusion: Due to serious complications of Amoebiasis, Giardiasis and other parasitic infections, it is essential to be careful about personal and social hygiene in these centers. Keywords: Intestinal Parasitic Infections; Disabled; Rehabilitation Centers; Golestan Province.

  18. Prevalence of intestinal parasites and bacteria among food handlers in a tertiary care hospital

    D A Zaglool

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this work is to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and bacteria among the food handlers. Materials and Methods: Two hundred food-handlers were subjected to a cross-sectional study working in the kitchen of a tertiary care hospital, i.e., Alnoor Specialist Hospital, Makkah, Saudi Arabia from February 2 to 27, 2009. The stool samples were examined for intestinal parasites following direct microscopic examination, formol ether concentration (Ritchie, and staining with modified acid fast staining techniques. For enteropathogenic bacteria samples were inoculated onto MacConkey′s agar, deoxycholate citrate agar, xylose lysine deoxycholate agar as per the World Health Organization protocol. Fingernail materials were examined microscopically for enteropathogenic bacteria and parasites. Results: The majority (80% of the food-handlers were young adults aged from 22 to 42 years. No intestinal parasites were detected from fingernail contents. Forty six (23% stool specimens were positive for intestinal paraͼsites. Giardia lamblia 18 (9% was most frequent among the 10 different types of detected intestinal parasites followed by Entamoeba histolytica 9 (4.5%. No pathogenic bacteria were detected in all stool samples, whereas finger nails showed isolation of microorganisms as coagulase-negative staphylococci 79 (39.5%, followed by Staphylococcus aureus 35 (17.5%. Conclusion: The findings emphasized the importance of food handlers as potential sources of infections and suggested health institutions for appropriate hygienic and sanitary control measures.

  19. Epidemiology of Intestinal Parasite Infections among Kindergarten Children in Mekelle Town, Northern Ethiopia

    Megbaru Alemu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Back ground: Intestinal parasitic infections are among the major public health problems in the Sub-Saharan Africa. However, surveys for intestinal parasites conducted in different areas of Ethiopia focused on school age children. Consequently, there is scarcity of data on the burden of intestinal parasites among children in Kindergartens. Material and Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted in three Kindergartens in Mekelle City, North Ethiopia from October to November 2013. A total of 400 (240 male and 160 female pre-school children were eligible to provide stool samples. Wet mount preparations and Kato Katz technique were applied to process stool samples. Results: The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection was 29.3% in the study. Six protozoan and helminthic parasites were indentified and Hymenelopis nana was the predominant species (8.75% followed by Giardia lamblia (5.75, Entamoeba histolytica (5%, Enterobius vermicularis (5% and Ascaris lumbricoides (4%. Hookworms and Schistosomiasis mansoni were the least prevalent species. Conclusions: Intestinal parasitosis was high in the study area which indicates a need for provision of anti protozoan and anti helminthics, sanitation, provision of safe water supply and latrines accompanied by appropriate health education.

  20. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites in Bakery Workers in Khorramabad, Lorestan Iran

    Kheirandish, F; Tarahi, MJ; Haghighi, A; Nazemalhosseini- Mojarad, E; Kheirandish, M

    2011-01-01

    Background Food contamination may occur through production, processing, distribution and preparation. In Iran especially in Khorramabad, 33° 29' 16" North, 48° 21' 21" East, due to kind of nutrition, culture and economic status of people, bread is a part of the main meal and the consumption of bread is high. In this study, the bakery workers were studied for determining of intestinal parasites prevalence. Methods The study was carried out during September to November 2010 in Khorramabad. All the 278 bakeries and the bakery workers including 816 people were studied in a census method and their feces were examined for the presence of parasites by direct wet-mount, Lugol's iodine solution, and formaldehyde-ether sedimentation, trichrome staining, and single round PCR (For discrimination of Entamoeba spp). Results Ninety-six (11.9%) stool specimens were positive for different intestinal parasites. Intestinal parasites included Giardia lamblia 3.7%, Entamoeba coli 5.5%, Blastocystis sp. 2.1%, Entamoeba dispar 0.4%, Hymenolepis nana 0.1%, and Blastocystis sp. 0.1%. Conclusion In order to reduce the contamination in these persons, some cases such as stool exam every three months with concentration methods, supervision and application of accurate health rules by health experts, training in transmission of parasites are recommended. PMID:22347316

  1. First record of Giardia in cattle in Denmark

    Iburg, T.; Gasser, R.B.; Henriksen, S.A.

    1996-01-01

    Faecal samples from asymptomatic dairy cows and calves from a farm on the Island Falster, Denmark, were examined by a sucrose gradient flotation technique. Giardia cysts were found in 7.6% of the 92 samples, and estimated cyst excretion rates ranged from 50-200 cysts per gram faeces. Given that...... Giardia has the potential to cause clinical disease in cattle and to be transmitted to other animal species and humans, finding the parasite in cattle may be of major epidemiological significance. Future work should focus on elucidating the pathogenicity, transmission patterns and the genetic structure of...... Giardia populations in cattle in Denmark....

  2. Parasites

    2010-05-06

    In this podcast, a listener wants to know what to do if he thinks he has a parasite or parasitic disease.  Created: 5/6/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/6/2010.

  3. A clonal theory of parasitic protozoa : the population structures of Entamoeba, Giardia, Leishmania, Naegleria, Plasmodium, Trichomonas, and Trypanosoma and their medical and taxonomical consequences

    Tibayrenc, M.; Kjellberg, F.; Ayala, F.J.

    1990-01-01

    We propose a general theory of clonal reproduction for parasitic protozoa, which has important medical and biological consequences. Many parasitic protozoa have been assumed to reproduce sexually, because of diploidy and occasional sexuality in the laboratory. However, a population genetic analysis of extensive data on biochemical polymorphisms indicates that the two fundamental consequences of sexual reproduction (i.e. segregation and recombination) are apparently rare or absent in natural p...

  4. Giardia assemblage A: human genotype in muskoxen in the Canadian Arctic

    Nagy John

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract As part of an ongoing program assessing the biodiversity and impacts of parasites in Arctic ungulates we examined 72 fecal samples from muskoxen on Banks Island, Northwest Territories, Canada for Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Cryptosporidium spp. were not detected, but 21% of the samples were positive for Giardia. Sequencing of four isolates of Giardia demonstrated G. duodenalis, Assemblage A, a zoonotic genotype.

  5. Parasites

    Mehlum, Halvor; Moene, Karl Ove; Torvik, Ragnat

    2003-01-01

    Unproductive enterprises that feed on productive businesses, are rampant in developing countries. These parasitic enterprises take divergent forms, some headed by violent bandits and brutal mafia bosses, others by organized middlemen or smart political insiders. All of them seem to have the profit motive in common. A consequence of parasitic enterprises is that societies may be locked into a self enforcing configuration of beliefs and practices that result in persistent poverty. In some insta...

  6. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Infestation in Surat City of South Gujarat. A Hospital Based Study

    Mandakini M Patel, Prashant R Patel, Bhavna Gamit, Jigna Modi, Suresh Padsala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pathological intestinal infection by parasites causes malnutrition, decreased immunity, protein loss, mucosal loss in infants and lymphatic leakage and local hemorrhage. In developing countries parasitic infections are more prevalent than bacterial infection and causes significant morbidities. This study was undertaken to comprehend the prevalence of parasitic infections. Material and Methods: Both outdoor as well as indoor patients taking treatment in New Civil Hospital, Surat were included in present study. Naked eye physical examination, microscopic examination was carried out. Pa-rasites were identified in the received stool samples. All data were entered into excel spreadsheet 2007. The percentages of the parasites presents were calculated to find out prevalence of parasite infestations and data were analyzed for interpretation. Results: Total 1170 samples were included in present study, out of which 65 (5.56% were positive either for protozoal or helminthic infections. Helminth Infestation found in 45 (65.21% cases while Protozoal infestation found in 24 (34.79% cases while 4 (6.15% cases showed mixed infection of helminth and protozoa. Children under 18 years of age (6.23% were more commonly affected than adults (4.92%. The most common parasite encountered in present study was Giardia Lamblia (28.99% followed by Hymenolepys Nana (20.29%. Conclusion: The present study showed low prevalence of intestinal parasites might be due to improved sanitary practices, personal hygiene, safe drinking water and health awareness. Children showed higher pre-valence for intestinal parasites in comparison with adults. Prevalence of helminthes was higher than protozoa in present study.

  7. The prevalence of Blastocystis hominis and other protozoan parasites in soldiers returning from peacekeeping missions.

    Duda, Aleksandra; Kosik-Bogacka, Danuta; Lanocha-Arendarczyk, Natalia; Ko?odziejczyk, Lidia; Lanocha, Aleksandra

    2015-04-01

    Blastocystis hominis is a common intestinal parasite found in humans living in poor sanitary conditions, living in tropical and subtropical climates, exposed to infected animals, or consuming contaminated food or water. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of B. hominis in Polish military personnel returning from peacekeeping missions in Iraq and Afghanistan. In total, 1,826 stool samples were examined. Gastrointestinal parasites were detected in 17% of the soldiers. The examined stool samples most frequently contained vacuolar forms of B. hominis (15.3%) and cysts of Entamoeba coli (1.0%) or Giardia lamblia (0.7%). In 97.1% of stool samples from infected soldiers, we observed less than five developmental forms of B. hominis in the field of view (40). The parasite infections in soldiers were diagnosed in the autumn and the spring. There was no statistical correlation between age and B. hominis infection. Our results show that peacekeeping missions in countries with tropical or subtropical climates could be associated with risk for parasitic diseases, including blastocystosis. PMID:25732683

  8. Intestinal parasitic infections and eosinophilia in an human immunedeficiency virus positive population in Honduras

    Rina G Kaminsky

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of intestinal parasites, their regional distribution and their relations to eosinophilia were studied in 133 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV positive individuals from Honduras. After signing an informed consent, participants answered a socio-demographic and risk factor questionnaire, a complete physical examination, medical history, and a series of laboratory tests. All participants were HIV positive but not acquired immunodeficiency syndrome positive. Of them, 67% were co-infected with pathogen and non pathogen parasites. Overall occurrence of nematodes was: 44.3% for Trichuris trichiura, 24% for Ascaris lumbricoides, 12% for Hookworm and 7.5% for Strongyloides stercoralis. No cases of Giardia lamblia, acute amebiasis or cryptosporidiasis were diagnosed. Mean eosinophil percents for participants were consistently and significantly higher in infected than in non infected individuals: 22% for Hookworm vs 7.2% (p < 0.001, 11% for Trichuris compared to 5.2% (p < 0.001, 13.2% compared to 7.5% for S. stercoralis (p < 0.05, and 12% compared to 6% for Ascaris cases (p < 0.05. Helminths and non pathogenic protozoa, as single or mixed infections, occurred among the participants. There was a strong correlation between eosinophilia and helminthiasis infections; however, none was identified between CD4 levels and eosinophilia. Because parasitic infections aggravate malnutrition and promote a disbalanced Th2 response in a potentially immuno-compromised host, their effect on HIV disease progression needs further study, mainly in countries were HIV and parasitic infections are highly prevalent.

  9. Overview of intestinal parasitic prevalence in rural and urban population in Lucknow, north India.

    Nitin, Shukla; Venkatesh, V; Husain, N; Masood, J; Agarwal, G G

    2007-12-01

    Intestinal parasitic infestations are a common finding in the developing world, however, the patterns of parasitic distribution and rates are different everywhere. Intestinal parasitic prevalece in urban and rural areas in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh were determined in this community-based study. Multistage random sampling was adopted to collect stool samples from urban and rural population in Lucknow district. Door to door survey was done. Stool samples were processed by standard methods for parasitological examination. One thousand and seventy one stool samples were collected from urban Alambagh, (n=648) and rural Mati, (n=343) areas. Overall one hundred and twenty three (11.5%) subjects had intestinal infection. Intestinal infestation rate was 5.4% and 20.8% in the urban and rural areas respectively. Giardia lamblia (22%) was the commonest pathogenic protozoan detected. The soil transmitted helminths detected were Ascaris (11.4%) and Hookworm (2.4%). Infection had no predilection for either sex or age group in both areas. The prevalence of parasitic infection appears to be relatively low in this region, probably due to improving access to health care. However due to the sheer numbers of affected individuals involved, intestinal parasitosis remains an important public health problem. PMID:18697590

  10. Enteric Protozoan Parasites in Rural Areas of Bandar-Abbas, Southern Iran: Comparison of Past and Present Situation

    A Bairami Kuzehkanani

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: The main goal was to address the prevalence of enteric protozoan parasites in rural areas of Bandar- Abbas, southern Iran and to compare the results with the only conducted study in 1978."nMethods: This descriptive study was performed from 2009 through 2010 on the 565 fecal samples. Formalin-ether concentration technique was performed and the analysis was carried out using Chi-square test in SPSS software version 13.5. Finally, the comparison of our results with the only previous study which was accomplished by Sheiban and Rezaeian in 1978 was done."nResults: The overall prevalence of the protozoan parasites was 48.8%. However, the prevalence of pathogen parasites was 23%. Previous research in 1978 showed 80.4% infectivity. The most protozoan parasites were Blas­tocystis hominis (25.53%, Giardia lamblia (17.2% and Entamoeba coli (15.95%. Previous study in 1978 found Entamoeba coli as the most common protozoa. Our finding revealed that the rate of single infectivity was much higher compared to previous research. The most frequency of infection was in children."nConclusion: The remarkable decrease of protozoan parasites is mainly due to progress in health care in the villages; however more effort should be done with the goal of eradicating infectious agents.

  11. Enteric Protozoan Parasites in Rural Areas of Bandar-Abbas, Southern Iran: Comparison of Past and Present Situation

    Kuzehkanani, A Bairami; Rezaei, S; Babaei, Z; Niyyati, M; Hashemi, SN; Rezaeian, M

    2011-01-01

    Background: The main goal was to address the prevalence of enteric protozoan parasites in rural areas of Bandar-Abbas, southern Iran and to compare the results with the only conducted study in 1978. Methods: This descriptive study was performed from 2009 through 2010 on the 565 fecal samples. Formalin-ether concentration technique was performed and the analysis was carried out using Chi-square test in SPSS software version 13.5. Finally, the comparison of our results with the only previous study which was accomplished by Sheiban and Rezaeian in 1978 was done. Results: The overall prevalence of the protozoan parasites was 48.8%. However, the prevalence of pathogen parasites was 23%. Previous research in 1978 showed 80.4% infectivity. The most protozoan parasites were Blastocystis hominis (25.53%), Giardia lamblia (17.2%) and Entamoeba coli (15.95%). Previous study in 1978 found Entamoeba coli as the most common protozoa. Our finding revealed that the rate of single infectivity was much higher compared to previous research. The most frequency of infection was in children. Conclusion: The remarkable decrease of protozoan parasites is mainly due to progress in health care in the villages; however more effort should be done with the goal of eradicating infectious agents. PMID:23113059

  12. Intestinal parasitic infections among expatriate workers in Al-Madina Al-Munawarah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    Taha, Hoda A; Soliman, Mohammed I; Banjar, Sanaa A N

    2013-03-01

    Al Madinah Al Munawarah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has one of the largest number of expatriate workers. Most of them are from Sri-Lanka, Indonesia, Philippines, India and Bangladesh. These countries are considered as endemic areas for intestinal parasites. A total of 2732 stool samples were screened for intestinal parasites. Positive cases were recorded among 407 stool samples (14.9%). The common parasitic infections were encountered among 20-29 age groups (18.5%) while, the lowest infection rate was among individual ? 50 years (11.8%). According to the nationality, the highest infections were recorded among Pakistanis (23.2%), followed by Philippines (22.2%), Sudanese workers (18.7%), and the lowest infection rates were recorded among Bangladeshi individuals. The infected persons were farmers, food handlers and shepherds. The detected intestinal parasites were Giardia lamblia (21.9%), Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba coli (17.8%), Trichuris trichiura (16.2%), Ascaris lumbricoides (15.8%), hookworm (13%), Hymenolepis nana (8.9%), Strongyloides sterocoralis (3.5%), Schistosoma mansoni (2.2%), and Enterobius vermicularis (0.43%). In conclusion, the high prevalence of parasites among expatriates may produce health problem among the Saudi society due to the nature of the expatriates' work. PMID:23665711

  13. A STUDY OF INTESTINAL PARASITIC INFESTATIONS AMONG SCHOOL CHILD R EN IN BAGEPALLI TALUK, CHIKKABALLAPUR DISTRICT, KARNATAKA- A C R OSS- SECTIONAL SCHOOL SU R VEY

    Ramakrishna Reddy

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A school survey was conducted to study the epidemiol ogy of intestinal parasitic infestations. Among school children in Bagepalli Taluk, Chikkaball apur District, Karnataka, a total of 438 stool samples were collected from school childre n selected from 5 rural and 3 urban schools. The stool samples collected were examined f or presence of parasitic infections by direct microscopic examination. Prevalence of intest inal parasites was 19.8%. There was a significant difference in prevalence between urban (16.3% and rural (23.0% school samples. Giardia lamblia (12.6%, Ascaris lumbricoides (4.3% and Entamoeba histolytica (1.8% were the commonest parasites isolated. The results indica te that intestinal parasitic infestations among school children are mainly water-borne. The b urden of parasitic infestations among the school children, and poor sanitary conditions in the schools, should be taken seriously by public health and school authorities. Our survey results s how the need for school periodic deworming, health education and improvement of school sanitati on under school health program.

  14. Mobile genetic elements in protozoan parasites

    Sudha Bhattacharya; Abhijeet Bakre; Alok Bhattacharya

    2002-08-01

    Mobile genetic elements, by virtue of their ability to move to new chromosomal locations, are considered important in shaping the evolutionary course of the genome. They are widespread in the biological kingdom. Among the protozoan parasites several types of transposable elements are encountered. The largest variety is seen in the trypanosomatids—Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi and Crithidia fasciculata. They contain elements that insert site-specifically in the spliced-leader RNA genes, and others that are dispersed in a variety of genomic locations. Giardia lamblia contains three families of transposable elements. Two of these are subtelomeric in location while one is chromosome-internal. Entamoeba histolytica has an abundant retrotransposon dispersed in the genome. Nucleotide sequence analysis of all the elements shows that they are all retrotransposons, and, with the exception of one class of elements in T. cruzi, all of them are non-long-terminal-repeat retrotransposons. Although most copies have accumulated mutations, they can potentially encode reverse transcriptase, endonuclease and nucleic-acid-binding activities. Functionally and phylogenetically they do not belong to a single lineage, showing that retrotransposons were acquired early in the evolution of protozoan parasites. Many of the potentially autonomous elements that encode their own transposition functions have nonautonomous counterparts that probably utilize the functions in trans. In this respect these elements are similar to the mammalian LINEs and SINEs (long and short interspersed DNA elements), showing a common theme in the evolution of retrotransposons. So far there is no report of a DNA transposon in any protozoan parasite. The genome projects that are under way for most of these organisms will help understand the evolution and possible function of these genetic elements.

  15. Ocorrência de Giardia spp. em bezerros leiteiros no Brasil

    Guimarães A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Fecal samples were collected from 50 female Holstein calves (1-90 days old from a commercial dairy cattle farm located in Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil and examined for presence of Giardia cysts using the zinc sulfate flotation method. A total of 120 samples were collected from March 1999 to April 2000, and fecal consistency (normal or diarrheic was noted prior to the examination for Giardia cysts. Giardia spp. cysts were found in 11 (9% of the 120 faecal samples of calves co-infected with Eimeria spp., in calves from 19 to 58 days of age (38±19. In 82% (9/11 calves assessed for mixed infections with Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia, oocysts of Cryptosporidium were found in three out of four diarrheic calves (75% positive for Giardia. Giardia cysts (n= 30 sized 13-16 x 10-12µm (mean of 15 x 11µm. They appeared to belong to the morphological group of G. intestinallis according to the size and morphological characteristic of the cysts. This is the first detection of Giardia spp. in calves in Brazil. Considering that Giardia has the potential to cause clinical disease in calves and that organisms infecting humans and domestic ruminants are morphologically and antigenically similar, and calves can shed Giardia cysts potentially infective for humans, the parasite in calves may be of major epidemiological significance, and suggests that naturally infected calves may be reservoirs of Giardia infections for man.

  16. MOLECULAR TYPING OF Giardia duodenalis ISOLATES FROM NONHUMAN PRIMATES HOUSED IN A BRAZILIAN ZOO

    Erica Boarato David; Mariella Patti; Silvana Torossian Coradi; Teresa Cristina Goulart Oliveira-Sequeira; Paulo Eduardo Martins Ribolla; Semiramis Guimaraes

    2014-01-01

    Giardia infections in captive nonhuman primates (NHP) housed at a Brazilian zoo were investigated in order to address their zoonotic potential. Fresh fecal samples were collected from the floors of 22 enclosures where 47 primates of 18 different species were housed. The diagnosis of intestinal parasites after concentration by sedimentation and flotation methods revealed the following parasites and their frequencies: Giardia (18%); Entamoeba spp. (18%); Endolimax nana (4.5%); Iodamoeba spp. (4...

  17. Molecular Diagnosis and Characterization of Two Intestinal Protozoa : Entamoeba histolytica & Giardia intestinalis

    Lebbad, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia intestinalis are two of the most important and most widespread diarrhea-related parasitic protozoa in the world. Approximately 1200 1500 cases of Giardia and 200 400 cases of Entamoeba are reported each year in Sweden, whereas the corresponding numbers are much higher in developing countries like Nicaragua. Traditionally, diagnosis of these parasites depends on microscopic detection of cysts or trophozoites, even though such methodology is ...

  18. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in preschool children in the region of Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Ana Lúcia Ribeiro Gonçalves

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Children are an important high-risk group for helminth and protozoa infections. Daycare centers are environments where children have proven to be more susceptible to acquiring intestinal parasites. Thus, the purpose of this study was to verify the prevalence of intestinal parasites in children who attended the two daycare centers maintained by the local government of Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. METHODS: Fecal samples were collected from 133 children (73 children at the Public Preschool for Early Childhood Education, PPECE A, and 60 at the PPECE B following identification according to sex and age and agreement to participate by parents or guardians who signed the free, informed consent form. The samples were examined by the Lutz method. RESULTS: Coproparasitological tests performed on 133 children showed that 29.3% of them were parasitized for enteroparasites or commensals, 6.7% of the children presented polyparasitism. Among the protozoa, Giardia lamblia were the most prevalent and Hymenolepis nana were the most frequent among the helminths. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, analysis of the results showed that intestinal parasites still represent a public health problem, especially among children and in areas where the socioeconomic and educational conditions are less favorable.

  19. Intestinal parasitic infection-intensity, prevalence and associated risk factors, a study in the general population from the Uttarakhand hills

    Swapna Kotian

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intestinal parasitic infection is an important public health problem in developing countries. Low socioeconomic conditions, lack of access to potable drinking water, poor personal hygiene and environmental sanitation are the factors associated with intestinal parasitic infection. Aim: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and identify the associated risk factors. Materials and Methods: Study was performed on 327 stool specimens of all age groups from August 2012 to May 2013. Specimen collected and examined with direct wet mount, formal ether sedimentation and salt flotation methods. Results: Out of the total 327 participants prevalence of intestinal infections was 11.62%. Among the Protozoa, Giardia lamblia (3.06% was the most common, followed by Entamoeba histolytica (0.92%. Hookworm (2.75% and Hymenolepis nana (2.14% were the most common helminthes found. Parasitosis was seen more in female (17.07% than male (8.33% and highest between 51 and 60 years (22.22% age group with risk factors like open defecation (22.69%, untreated river water (17.91% and among people living in rural areas (15.17%. Conclusion: There is a need to create awareness about safe drinking water, personal hygiene and environmental sanitation and to take urgent remedial steps to prevent and control intestinal parasitic infections.

  20. Factors of risk associated to intestinal parasite infections among public shoolchilden in Bahia

    Camila Pereira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This research was the aim of studying the prevalence of intestinal parasites in school children of the one public school on the periphery of the city of Jequié-BA, and the factors keys involved in the epidemiology of enteroparasites. They were analyzed fecal samples by the sedimentation technique. They obtained data on personal and socioeconomic parameters. Of the 179 parasitological stool tests, 136 (76% had one or more parasites. Prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides was the highest 47 (34,6%, followed by Schistosoma mansoni 36 (26,5%, Giardia lamblia 31 (22,8%, E. histolytica/E. dispar 25 (18,4%, E. coli 21 (15,4%, Trichuris trichiura 19 (14%, Hymenolepis nana 16 (11,8%, Ancilostomídeos 12 (8,8%, Iodamoeba butschili 3 (2,2%, Enterobius vermicularis 1 (0,74%. The positive cases were sent to public clinic for treatments. In the school, the children received educational orientation and their family too. It was observed association between the high prevalence of intestinal parasites and habitation, environments, hygiene and sanitary conditions. It was conclude that they need to improve their life conditions. The discussions about fight for the right to the health must be continuously troubled in the school environment so that future citizens could form a new mentality about the importance of protection against diseases.

  1. Role of dogs in contamination of urban environment with causes of parasitic zoonoses

    Pavlovi? Ivan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Dogs belong to the group of animals that were the first to be domesticated. They live in cohabitation with humans and share their environment much more intimately than any other animal specie. The close contact between strays and pets, on the one side, and the pollution of urban areas with the feces of these animals, on the other, close the chain of infection with parasites, which jeopardizes also human health in the final link of that chain. Dogs are carriers and the true hosts to large numbers of species of zoonotic parasites - Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia, Echinoccocus granulosus, Dipyllidium caninum, Toxocara canis, Ancylostomidae spp. and others, whose eggs or other developmental forms they eliminate into the environment through feces. The increase in the number of cases of toxocarosis in humans (syndrome of visceral larvae migrans, ancylostomosis (cutanea larvae migrans, hydatidosis, toxoplasmosis, or cryptosporidiosis are the best indicators of these relations. In order to resolve this problem, it is necessary to conduct systematic investigations of their parasitic fauna with the maximum cooperation of the animal owners, compulsory health education of the population in the area of the diseases that are transferred from animals to humans, and, certainly, carrying out the dehelminthization of dogs.

  2. XMLA Comparison of Direct Technique and Formalin-Ether Method in Determining Parasitic Infection among Health-Card Applicants in Shahroud City

    Amiri, A. (PhD

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Parasitic infection is one of the major health problems in the world. This study aimed at comparing the accuracy of two methods of direct examination and Formalin-Ether to detect the presence of parasitic infection among health-card applicants in Shahroud city, 2011. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 801 patients seeking health-card. From each patient, three consecutive stool samples were taken and investigated, using direct examination and formalin-ether method. Results: The use of formalin-ether method in recognizing the parasitic infection specially giardia lamblia and entamobea coli is more than the direct method. Conclusion: The formalin-ether method is a more sensitive method than the direct method. But in circumstances that is urgency to respond or aims to see the shape of trophozoite, the use of direct method is recommended. Keywords: Parasitic Infections; Health Card; Direct Method; Formalin-EtherKeywords: Parasitic Infections; Health Card; Direct Method; Formalin-Ether,

  3. Occurrence of Giardia sp. cysts and Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts in faeces from public parks in the west of Scotland.

    A.M. Grimason; Smith, H.V.; Parker, J. F.; Jackson, M. H.; Smith, P. G.; Girdwood, R W

    1993-01-01

    One hundred faecal specimens, randomly collected from various locations within seven public parks in the west of Scotland, were examined for the presence of Giardia sp. cysts and Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts. Eleven percent of samples contained Giardia sp. cysts and 1% contained Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts. Occurrence data from individual parks varied from 0 to 40% for Giardia and 0 to 2.4% for Cryptosporidium. The occurrence of parasitic organisms in public parks, especially in the vicinity o...

  4. Molecular epidemiology of Giardia and Cryptosporidium infections.

    Thompson, R C A; Ash, A

    2016-06-01

    Giardia and Cryptosporidium are ubiquitous enteric protozoan pathogens of vertebrates. Although recognised as the aetiological agents of disease in humans and domestic animals for many years, fundamental questions concerning their ecology have been unresolved. Molecular tools have helped to better understand their genetic diversity and in so doing have helped to resolve questions about their transmission patterns and associated impacts on public health. However, the value of molecular tools is often complicated by questions concerning their applications, interpretation of results and terminology. Taxonomic issues have, until recently, made it difficult to determine the epidemiology of infections with both Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Similarly, improved understanding of their respective phylogenetic relationships has helped to resolve questions about zoonotic potential and distribution in wildlife. In the case of Cryptosporidium, imaging technologies have complemented phylogenetic studies in demonstrating the parasite's affinities with gregarine protozoa and have further supported its extracellular developmental capability and potential role as an environmental pathogen. PMID:26458528

  5. Absorption studies in patients with parasitic infestation before and after treatment

    This investigation has attempted to explore intestinal morphology and function, particularly the absorptive process, in a group of subjects infested with intestinal parasites, and to examine the effects thereon of treatment for the infestation. The study group consisted of 40 adults, 18 male and 22 females, who on admission to hospital showed various intestinal disorders apparently not associated with organic digestive diseases, and in addition, as deduced by various standard methods, intestinal parasitic infestation. All patients were infested with Giardia lamblia; 6 were additionally infested with Strongyloides and 3 with Taenia. Investigations included various blood tests (serum proteins, electrophoresis, blood cell counts), assay of fecal fats, test of iron absorption by whole-body counting, test of vitamin B12 absorption by Schilling test, radiographic examination of stomach and small intestine, and histological examination of biopsy samples of mucosa from duodenum and jejunum. These investigations were performed prior to treatment, and 6 months and again one year later. Only 15 of the patients, including all 9 with Strongyloides or Taenia, showed recognizable morphological abnormalities in the biopsy specimens. Six of these (all with dual infestation) had abnormally low iron absorption, 5 (all with Giardia infestation only) showed abnormally low vitamin B12 absorption, 2 (both with dual infestation) showed moderate steatorrhea, and all showed, by x-ray, dyskinetic disturbances of the intestine. Of the remaining 25 patients, 13 showed dyskinesias of varying intensities but none yielded abnormal results from any of the other tests. At 6 months after treatment the abnormalities were greatly reduced, and at one year all were gone except for 5 cases of minor morphological changes in the biopsy specimens. The investigators concluded that malabsorption in patients with intestinal parasitic infestation is a reality and that it is associated with morphological changes in the mucosa

  6. Are adequate methods available to detect protist parasites on fresh produce?

    Human parasitic protists such as Cryptosporidium, Giardia and microsporidia contaminate a variety of fresh produce worldwide. Existing detection methods lack sensitivity and specificity for most foodborne parasites. Furthermore, detection has been problematic because these parasites adhere tenacious...

  7. Cryptosporidium and Giardia: new challenges to the water industry

    Medema, Gerriet Jan

    1999-01-01

    The protozoan parasites Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia intestinalis have emerged as significant waterborne pathogens over the past decades. Many outbreaks of waterborne cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis have been recorded, primarily in the United States and the United Kingdom.Chapter 1 gives an overview on the currently available knowledge on the parasites, the disease, the transmission through drinking water and the measures to prevent waterborne transmission. The disease caus...

  8. Evaluation of Luminex xTAG gastrointestinal pathogen analyte-specific reagents for high-throughput, simultaneous detection of bacteria, viruses, and parasites of clinical and public health importance.

    Navidad, Jose F; Griswold, David J; Gradus, M Stephen; Bhattacharyya, Sanjib

    2013-09-01

    Acute diarrheal disease (ADD) can be caused by a range of pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, and parasites. Conventional diagnostic methods, such as culture, microscopy, biochemical assays, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), are laborious and time-consuming and lack sensitivity. Combined, the array of tests performed on a single specimen can increase the turnaround time (TAT) significantly. We validated a 19plex laboratory-developed gastrointestinal pathogen panel (GPP) using Luminex xTAG analyte-specific reagents (ASRs) to simultaneously screen directly in fecal specimens for diarrhea-causing pathogens, including bacteria (Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli [ETEC], Shiga toxin-producing E. coli [STEC], E. coli O157:H7, Vibrio cholerae, Yersinia enterocolitica, and toxigenic Clostridium difficile), parasites (Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium spp., and Entamoeba histolytica), and viruses (norovirus GI and GII, adenovirus 40/41, and rotavirus A). Performance characteristics of GPP ASRs were determined using 48 reference isolates and 254 clinical specimens. Stool specimens from individuals with diarrhea were tested for pathogens using conventional and molecular methods. Using the predictive methods as standards, the sensitivities of the GPP ASRs were 100% for adenovirus 40/41, norovirus, rotavirus A, Vibrio cholerae, Yersinia enterocolitica, Entamoeba histolytica, Cryptosporidium spp., and E. coli O157:H7; 95% for Giardia lamblia; 94% for ETEC and STEC; 93% for Shigella spp.; 92% for Salmonella spp.; 91% for C. difficile A/B toxins; and 90% for Campylobacter jejuni. The overall comparative performance of the GPP ASRs with conventional methods in clinical samples was 94.5% (range, 90% to 97%), with 99% (99.0% to 99.9%) specificity. Implementation of the GPP ASRs enables our public health laboratory to offer highly sensitive and specific screening and identification of the major ADD-causing pathogens. PMID:23850948

  9. Giardia and Cryptosporidium in harp and hooded seals from the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada.

    Appelbee, A J; Thompson, R C A; Measures, L M; Olson, M E

    2010-10-11

    Giardia and Cryptosporidium are protozoan parasites known to cause enteric disease in terrestrial wildlife species (mammals, reptiles and birds). Few surveys for Giardia and Cryptosporidium in marine wildlife species, such as pinnipeds, have been reported. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and genotype of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in two species of pinnipeds, harp seal (Phoca groenlandica) and hooded seal (Cystophora cristata), from the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada. Faecal samples were collected from pup and adult seals and examined for the presence of cysts of Giardia and oocysts of Cryptosporidium using microscopy and immunofluorescent staining. Tissues from the small intestine of adult seals were also collected and examined for infections using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Giardia cysts were found in the faeces of 42% (16/38) of adult harp seals, but in none of the harp seal pups (0/20). Although Giardia cysts were not detected in faeces of adult hooded seals (0/10) using microscopy, 80% tested positive for Giardia using PCR of intestinal tissue indicative of a true replicating infection. Both harp and hooded seals harboured infections with the zoonotic strain, Giardia duodenalis Assemblage A, as determined using a nested-PCR technique to amplify a small subunit ribosomal (SSU-rRNA) gene of Giardia. Cryptosporidium was not detected by microscopy, nor using the PCR technique on intestinal tissues from any of the 68 seals examined. PMID:20594649

  10. A genomic survey of the fish parasite Spironucleus salmonicida indicates genomic plasticity among diplomonads and significant lateral gene transfer in eukaryote genome evolution

    Logsdon John M

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative genomic studies of the mitochondrion-lacking protist group Diplomonadida (diplomonads has been lacking, although Giardia lamblia has been intensively studied. We have performed a sequence survey project resulting in 2341 expressed sequence tags (EST corresponding to 853 unique clones, 5275 genome survey sequences (GSS, and eleven finished contigs from the diplomonad fish parasite Spironucleus salmonicida (previously described as S. barkhanus. Results The analyses revealed a compact genome with few, if any, introns and very short 3' untranslated regions. Strikingly different patterns of codon usage were observed in genes corresponding to frequently sampled ESTs versus genes poorly sampled, indicating that translational selection is influencing the codon usage of highly expressed genes. Rigorous phylogenomic analyses identified 84 genes – mostly encoding metabolic proteins – that have been acquired by diplomonads or their relatively close ancestors via lateral gene transfer (LGT. Although most acquisitions were from prokaryotes, more than a dozen represent likely transfers of genes between eukaryotic lineages. Many genes that provide novel insights into the genetic basis of the biology and pathogenicity of this parasitic protist were identified including 149 that putatively encode variant-surface cysteine-rich proteins which are candidate virulence factors. A number of genomic properties that distinguish S. salmonicida from its human parasitic relative G. lamblia were identified such as nineteen putative lineage-specific gene acquisitions, distinct mutational biases and codon usage and distinct polyadenylation signals. Conclusion Our results highlight the power of comparative genomic studies to yield insights into the biology of parasitic protists and the evolution of their genomes, and suggest that genetic exchange between distantly-related protist lineages may be occurring at an appreciable rate in eukaryote genome evolution.

  11. Estudio de la expresión de calmodulina y detección de posibles cambios en transducción de señales durante los procesos de diferenciación del parásito Giardia intestinalis / Study of calmodulin expression and detection of changes in signal transduction pathways during the differentiation processes of parasite Giardia intestinalis

    Alvarado Mora, Magda Elvira

    2009-01-01

    Giardia intestinalis es un parásito que infecta humanos. El proceso de exquistación es fundamental para que Giardia pueda infectar a un nuevo hospedero. Es un proceso biológico muy interesante, en donde la forma dormitante (quiste) detecta que las condiciones ambientales son las adecuadas para la reactivación celular. En este trabajo se estableció un método para la purificación de quistes del parásito, y se realizaron experimentos de exquistación. Se analizaron cambios en el patrón de fosfori...

  12. Urban park-related risks for Giardia spp. infection in dogs.

    Smith, A F; Rock, M; Neumann, N; Massolo, A

    2015-11-01

    Giardia spp. is a common gastrointestinal (GI) parasite of multiple host species, including dogs and humans, with the potential for zoonotic transmission. The risk of GI parasitism in dogs (including Giardia spp.) may increase with park use in urban areas. This study aimed to (1) determine whether park attendance is a risk factor for Giardia spp. infection in dogs and (2) characterize the behavioural and demographic risk factors for Giardia spp. infection in park-attending and non-park-attending dogs. From August to September 2012, a total of 1293 dog owners completed a survey and 860 corresponding dog faecal samples were collected. Dog faeces were screened for Giardia spp. using a direct immunofluorescence assay and associations assessed among behaviours, demographics, and Giardia spp. infection. Main results included off-leash and swimming frequencies within parks as significantly positively associated with Giardia spp. infection in dogs. Dog-owner age was negatively associated with off-leash and swimming frequencies in parks. The results suggest some recreational behaviours in parks and certain demographics are risk factors for parasitism in pet dogs. PMID:25865261

  13. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites in Leafy Vegetables in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Wafa A.I. Al-Megrin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate some of the leafy vegetable plants sold in local markets for human consumption to check whether they harbor different parasites stages. A total of 470 leafy vegetable samples were collected from 12 different plant species randomly from local markets in the Riyadh city during the period April and March 2008. The samples were analysed in the laboratory for parasitic stages contained in these samples after washing them in physiological saline and then examining the sediment. Results of the present study has shown that 76 out of 470 samples (16.2% contained parasite stages. Depending on the type of leafy plant, examined the prevalence of parasitic stages in these plants, was found to be 27.8% (17/61 in lettuce, 22.8% (13/57 in watercress, 20.6% (7/34 in leek, 19.1% (9/47 in green onion, 17.4% (15/87 in parsley, 15.4% (4/26 in spinach, 13.6% (3/22 in basil, 11.5% (3/26 in coriander, 9.4% (3/32 in radish, 5.3% (1/19 in dill and 4.7% (2/42 in mint. No parasites were detected in 17 samples collected from cabbage. Stages of intestinal parasites detected were Entamoeba coli (35.5%, Giardia lamblia (31.6%, Dicrocoelium sp. (28.9%, Ascaris sp. (26.3%, Taenia sp. (19.7%, Blastocystis hominis (17.1%, Fasciola sp. (14.5%, Hymenolepis sp. (14.5%, Ancylostoma sp. (11.8%, Toxoplasma gondii (6.6% and Trichostrongylus sp. (2.6%. The results indicated a significant seasonal variation (p<0.05, with highest prevalence in spring (23.1%, followed in descending order by Summer (17.9%, Autumn (10.6% and Winter (9.9%.

  14. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in water supplies of San Pedro Sula, Honduras

    Solo-Gabriele Helena Mara

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available During June 1996, water supplies of the city of San Pedro Sula, Honduras, were sampled to obtain an assessment of Cryptosporidium oocyst and Giardia cyst concentrations. Each sample was concentrated and stained with an indirect immunofluorescent antibody, and parasites were counted through microscopic analysis. In three surface water supplies, Cryptosporidium oocyst concentrations ranged from 58 to 260 oocysts per 100 L, and Giardia cysts were present in concentrations ranging from 380 to 2100 cysts per 100 L. Unlike the surface water samples, groundwater had a higher concentration of Cryptosporidium oocysts (26/100 L than Giardia cysts (6/100 L, suggesting that the groundwater aquifer protects the water supply more effectively from larger Giardia cysts. Cryptosporidium oocyst concentrations are within the typical range for surface water supplies in North America whereas Giardia cyst concentrations are elevated. Efforts should be made to protect raw water from sources of contamination.

  15. Chapter 42. Waterborne and Foodborne Parasites

    This chapter identifies the most prominent parasites in North America that are acquired through contaminated food and water including protozoa (Acanthamoeba, Naegleria, Entamoeba, Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Cystoisospora, Cyclospora, Toxoplasma, and Balantidium), nematodes (Trichinella, Angiostrongyl...

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF APTAMERS TO WATERBORNE PARASITES

    The Safe Drinking Water Act Amendment of 1996 mandates that the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) evaluate public health risks associated with drinking water contaminants to include waterborne parasites, such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia. Additionally, the Agency est...

  17. Differences in prevalence of parasites in stool samples between three distinct ethnic pediatric populations in southern Israel, 2007-2011.

    Ben-Shimol, Shalom; Sagi, Orli; Greenberg, David

    2014-04-01

    Intestinal parasites cause significant morbidity worldwide, particularly in developing populations. At least three pediatric populations reside in southern Israel: the Bedouin population, the general Jewish population and Jewish children of Ethiopian origin. Our aim was to compare intestinal parasite prevalence between the three pediatric populations in southern Israel. This is a retrospective, laboratory, population-based surveillance. Most ova and parasite (O&P) tests in southern Israel (hospital and community obtained) are performed by the hospital parasitology laboratory. All pediatric stool O&P tests examined by the hospital laboratory between 2007 and 2011 were included. Overall, 45,978 samples were examined; 27,354, 16,969 and 1655 from Bedouin, non-Ethiopian Jewish and Ethiopian children, respectively. 16,317 parasites were identified in 12,325 (26.8%) positive samples. Total prevalences were 36%, 11% and 46% for Bedouin, non-Ethiopian Jewish and Ethiopian children, respectively. Blastocystis hominis, Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba species were the most common parasites identified, constituting ?80% of positive samples in all groups. Hymenolepis nana was rarely identified in non-Ethiopian Jewish children (0.04% of isolates compared with 2.6% and 0.5% in Bedouin and Ethiopian children, respectively). Other helminths, excluding H. nana and Enterobius vermicularis, were identified almost exclusively in Ethiopian children ?5years of age. In conclusion, the Bedouin and Ethiopian children were characterized by higher parasite prevalence in stool, compared with the non-Ethiopian Jewish children, probably reflecting higher intestinal parasitic disease rates. Certain helminthic infections were identified almost exclusively in the Ethiopian children. These differences may be associated with lifestyle differences between the three populations. PMID:24201297

  18. Prevalence and predisposing factors regarding intestinal parasitic infections among rural primary school pupils at Minia Governorate, Egypt

    Fatma A.A. Ibrahium

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available About 400 million school-age children are infected with roundworm, whipworm and hookworm worldwide. This study aims to assess prevalence of parasitic infections among rural primary school pupils at Minia Governorate, Egypt, and to identify relevant predisposing factors of the school and pupils to intestinal parasitic infections. A total of 264 pupils out of 1053, aged 6-12 years, were randomly selected for parasitological investigation and the school was inspected on site for sanitary facilities and conditions of hygiene, as well as the conditions of hygiene of the pupils. The pupils were examined for ova, cysts and/or larvae of intestinal parasites using direct wet mount and formal-ether concentration techniques. Inspection of sanitary facilities and the conditions of hygiene of the school, as well pupil's conditions of hygiene, were carried out through observation checklists. Findings revealed the following intestinal parasites: Entamoeba coli (in 19.3% of pupils, Ascaris lumbricoides (3.8%, Hymenolepiasis nana (12.5%, Enterobious vermicularis (5.7% and Giardia lamblia (12.5%, with varying percentages between male and female pupils, and a highly statistical association between pupil sex and type of parasites (P<0.001. Unapproved sanitary facilities and conditions of hygiene of the school and pupils were observed. Many intestinal parasitic infections among the primary school pupils were found. Unapproved and low inventory school sanitary facilities were observed, in addition to poor conditions of hygiene of pupils which may play a crucial role in these infections. The school facilities and sanitary conditions, especially the quality of water in the toilets, should be improved. Pupils and school personnel have a real need for health education about modes of transmission and preventive methods of intestinal parasitic infections.

  19. Detection of Giardia duodenalis antigen in human fecal eluates by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using polyclonal antibodies

    Sofía Duque-Beltrán

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study developed and standardized an enzime-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA to detect Giardia antigen in feces using rabbit polyclonal antibodies. Giardia cysts were purified from human fecal samples by sucrose and percoll gradients. Gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus were infected to obtain trophozoites. Rabbits were inoculated with either cyst or trophozoite antigens of 14 Colombian Giardia isolates to develop antibodies against the respective stages. The IgG anti-Giardia were purified by sequential caprylic acid and ammonium sulfate precipitation. A portion of these polyclonal antibodies was linked to alkaline phosphatase (conjugate. One hundred and ninety six samples of human feces, from different patients, were tested by parasitologic diagnosis: 69 were positive for Giardia cysts, 56 had no Giardia parasites, and 71 revealed parasites other than Giardia. The optimal concentration of polyclonal antibodies for antigen capture was 40 µg/ml and the optimal conjugate dilution was 1:100. The absorbance cut-off value was 0.24. The parameters of the ELISA test for Giardia antigen detection were: sensitivity, 100% (95% CI: 93.4-100%; specificity, 95% (95% CI: 88.6-97.6%; positive predictive value, 91% (95% CI: 81.4-95.9%; and negative predictive value, 100% (95% CI: 96.1-100%. This ELISA will improve the diagnosis of Giardia infections in Colombia and will be useful in following patients after treatment.

  20. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in a population in south of Tehran, Iran Prevalncia de parasitas intestinais em populao no sul do Teer, Ir

    Abolfath Shojaei Arani

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe epidemiologic characteristics of intestinal parasites in a population in south of Tehran, Iran. A retrospective cross-sectional study of patients with suspicious intestinal parasitic infections referred to the Zakaria Razi Laboratory in Shahre-Ray, southern Tehran, Iran, was conducted from April 21, 2004 to October 20, 2005. All stool samples were examined and socio-demographic informations were retrieved. Of 4,371 referred patients, 466 (239 males and 227 females were laboratory diagnosed with intestinal parasites, with a period prevalence of 10.7%. Blastocystis hominis (B. hominis and Giardia lamblia (G. lamblia were the most frequent intestinal parasites. More than half of patients aged 18 years had a low level of educational attainment (e.g. illiterate, primary school, high school (170/331, 54.1%. Further, majority of patients were homemakers (42.3%, 140/331 or workers (28.1%, 93/331 employed in various business settings such as food industry and construction. Findings of this study showed that intestinal parasitic infections are still a major public health challenge in Iran that needs to be addressed. We believe that public education, improving sanitation conditions of underdeveloped areas/communities, community involvement, and supporting evidence-based practice/programs are the major keys to success in preventing the spread of intestinal parasitic infections in Iran.O prpsito deste estudo foi descrever as caractersticas epidemiolgicas dos parasitas intestinais em populao do sul de Teer, Ir. Um estudo retrospectivo seccional cruzado de pacientes com suspeita de infeces parasitrias intestinais enviados ao Laboratrio Zakaria Razi em Shahre-Ray, sul do Teer, Ir foi conduzido de 21 de abril de 2004 a 20 de outubro de 2005. Todas as amostras de fezes foram examinadas e as informaes scio-demogrficas recuperadas. De 4371 pacientes enviados, 466 (239 homens e 227 mulheres foram diagnosticados laboratorialmente como portadores de parasitas intestinais com prevalncia no perodo de 10,7%. Blastocystis hominis (B. hominis e Giardia lamblia (G. lamblia foram os parasitas intestinais mais frequentes. Mais da metade dos pacientes 18 anos tinham baixo nvel educacional (por exemplo: analfabetos, escola primria, 2 grau completo (170/331, 54,1%. Mais ainda, a maioria dos pacientes eram empregados domsticos (42,3%, 140/331 ou trabalhadores (28,1%, 93/331 empregados em diversos tipos de servios, tais como a indstria de alimentos e construo. Achados deste estudo mostraram que as infeces parasitrias intestinais so ainda um desafio importante em sade pblica no Ir que necessita ser resolvido. Acreditamos que a educao pblica, a melhoria das condies sanitrias em reas pouco desenvolvidas/comunidades, envolvimento da comunidade, e programas prticos baseados nas evidncias, so as principais chaves do sucesso na preveno da disseminao das infeces parasitrias no Ir.

  1. GASTROINTESTINAL PARASITES OF SCHOOL CHILDREN IN BENIN CITY, NIGERIA

    CE Okaka

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Examination of faecal samples of 6,430 school children aged between 2 and 20 years, for gastrointestinal parasites using sedimentation and Kato smear techniques was carried out in Benin City, Nigeria between January 1997 and December 1998. Four thousand two hundred and thirty six (65.8% were infected. Three species of protozoa and 8 species of helminths were recorded as follows: Entamoeba histolytica (6%, Entomoeba coli (4.8%, Giardia lamblia (5.2%, Schistosoma mansoni (2.4%, Fasciola gigantica (2.3%, Taenia sp. (1.3%, Ascaris lumbricoides (17.0%, Enterobius vemicularis (1.5%, Trichuris trichiura (6.8%, Necator americanus (13.9%, and Strongyloides stercoralis (3.9%. Prevalence of infection increased with increase in age to a maximum value of 8.15% among the 6-9 years age group (junior primary pupils and thereafter decreased with increase in age, to the least value of 28.6% among the 17-20 years old (senior secondary. The nursery pupils recorded the highest prevalence for protozoa and the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides infections while the senior primary pupils had the highest infection rates for the fluke Schistosoma mansoni and for all other nematode parasites recorded (apart from Ascaris. The junior secondary pupils recorded the highest prevalence for the liver fluke, Fasicola gigantica while the senior secondary pupils recorded the least prevalence for all the parasitic infections. Infections were significantly high (P<0.05 in the rainy season (April-October and low in the dry season (November-March. The high infection rate is considered to be due to general poor sanitation in the environment and the poor sanitary habits of children.

  2. Intestinal parasites in school-aged children in villages bordering Tonle Sap Lake, Cambodia.

    Chhakda, Tep; Muth, Sinuon; Socheat, Duong; Odermatt, Peter

    2006-09-01

    The objective of this study was to study Schistosoma mekongi and other intestinal parasitic infections, and intestinal symptoms and related complaints among school-age children and adolescents living around Tonle Sap Lake. Villages were selected where there were potential signs of schistosomiasis (hepatomegaly), and where subjects complained of intestinal symptoms. Stool samples were collected from 1,616 children and were examined by Kato-Katz, SAF concentration, and Baermann technique; short clinical examinations were also performed. No S. mekongi infection was detected, although a high level of intense human water contacts was reported. Helminth infection such as Ascaris lumbricoides (27.7%) and hookworms (29.7%) were common. Trichuris trichiura 4.4%), Hymenolepis nana (6.2%), Giardia lamblia (4.2%), and Entamoeba spp (14.4%) were also recorded. Strongyloides stercoralis was frequently diagnosed (20.2%). It was concluded that it is unlikely that S. mekongi is transmitted in Tonle Sap Lake. However, other intestinal parasitic infections are widespread. In particular, S. stercoralis should be considered an important etiologic agent in children and adolescents with abdominal complaints. PMID:17333726

  3. INTESTINAL PARASITIC INFECTION IN FOODHANDLERS: IN THE HOSPITALS AFFILIATED TO ISFAHAN UNIVERSITY OF MEDICAL SCIENCES 1997

    P KETABI

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Foodhandlers can be carriers of organisms such as salmonella, staphylococci and intestinal parasitic infections. Considering that some patients in hospitals may have impaired resistance to infection and the possible role of foodhandlers in this regard, it seems to be necessary to examine the role of foodhandlers in transmission of intestinal parasitic infection. Methods: 152 foodhandlers were evaluated for their intestinal protozoan and helminthic infections in the hospitals of the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. From each subject, three stool - specimens were taken in three consecutive days. Five methods (Scotch tape, Direct examination, Formalin - Ether, Telleman, Flotation were used to detect ova and cyst. Results: The overall infection rate was (55.3 percent. The most commonly protozoa was Entamoeba Coli (in 33.6 percent of specimens. Others were Endolimax nana (17.8 percent, Blastocystis hominis (9.2 percent, Giardia lamblia (7.9 percent, Iodamoeba butschlii (2 percent and Chilomastix mesnili (0.7 percent respectively. The helminths observed were Enterobius vermicularis (9.1 percent, Hymenolepis nana (1.3 percent, Ascaris lumbricoides (0.7 percent, Trichuris trichiura (0.7 percent and Trichostrongylus spp(0.7 percent. Discussion: Deficiencies in hygienic practices and poor basic environmental sanitation are the contributing factors in the maintenance of the high prevalence of the intestinal protozoan infections found.

  4. A new system for higher recovery rate of water borne Cryptosporidium and Giardia

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Gad, J.; Berg, T.; Mogensen, T.; Kurtzhals, J. A. L.; Enemark, Heidi L.

    2012-01-01

    The two most common water borne pathogenic protozoa, Cryptosporidium and Giardia, are a common cause of outbreaks of diarrhea. Detecting these parasites in water samples depends on effective parasite recovery from the water matrix. The recovery rates of the currently used filter methods are low and...... carefully chosen pore size. On the reverse side of the filter a transducer delivers ultrasound waves in order to release trapped cysts and particles from the filter and break up parasite clusters. Purified Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts were injected into the concentration unit and exposed to...

  5. New system for higher recovery rate of water borne Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Gad, Jens; Klinting, Mette; Mogensen, Claus; Kurtzhals, Jørgen; Enemark, Heidi L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The two most common water borne pathogenic protozoa, Cryptosporidium and Giardia, cause diarrhea worldwide. Detecting these parasites in water samples depends on effective parasite recovery from the water matrix. The reported low recovery rates of the currently used filter methods...... motivate the development of systems with higher recovery rates. Materials and methods: Five replicates of IMS purified Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts (N=2x103) were injected into a specially coated filter unit with a carefully chosen pore size. Following filtration, sonication was performed at...... predetermined time intervals to loosen all parasites and other particles from the filter and break up clusters. The concentrated parasite suspension was backwashed and counted after immuno-fluorescence staining. Results and discussion: Without sonication the recovery rates of both Cryptosporidium and Giardia...

  6. The epidemiology of infections with Giardia species and genotypes in well cared for dogs and cats in Germany

    Pallant, Louise; Barutzki, Dieter; Schaper, Roland; Thompson, RC Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Background Giardia is now considered the most common enteric parasite in well cared for dogs and cats in developed countries. The ecology, epidemiology and clinical impact of infections with this parasite in such animals is still not fully understood due to variable results across different studies. Methods Faecal samples were collected between 2009 and 2012 from privately owned cats and dogs in Germany presented to local veterinarians for a variety of reasons. Giardia positive samples were i...

  7. Crosstalk between Zinc Status and Giardia Infection: A New Approach

    Humberto Astiazarán-García

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Zinc supplementation has been shown to reduce the incidence and prevalence of diarrhea; however, its anti-diarrheal effect remains only partially understood. There is now growing evidence that zinc can have pathogen-specific protective effects. Giardiasis is a common yet neglected cause of acute-chronic diarrheal illness worldwide which causes disturbances in zinc metabolism of infected children, representing a risk factor for zinc deficiency. How zinc metabolism is compromised by Giardia is not well understood; zinc status could be altered by intestinal malabsorption, organ redistribution or host-pathogen competition. The potential metal-binding properties of Giardia suggest unusual ways that the parasite may interact with its host. Zinc supplementation was recently found to reduce the rate of diarrhea caused by Giardia in children and to upregulate humoral immune response in Giardia-infected mice; in vitro and in vivo, zinc-salts enhanced the activity of bacitracin in a zinc-dose-dependent way, and this was not due to zinc toxicity. These findings reflect biological effect of zinc that may impact significantly public health in endemic areas of infection. In this paper, we shall explore one direction of this complex interaction, discussing recent information regarding zinc status and its possible contribution to the outcome of the encounter between the host and Giardia.

  8. Inhibition of Giardia intestinalis by Extracellular Factors from Lactobacilli: an In Vitro Study

    Pérez, Pablo F.; Minnaard, Jessica; Rouvet, Martine; Knabenhans, Christian; Brassart, Dominique; Antoni, Graciela L. De; Schiffrin, Eduardo J.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of spent culture supernatants of different strains of lactobacilli on giardia trophozoites. The growth of Giardia intestinalis strain WB, as well as the attachment to the human intestinal epithelial cell line Caco-2, was evaluated by using proliferation and adhesion assays with radiolabeled parasites. In addition, scanning electron microscopy and flow cytometric analysis were performed. The effect of spent culture supernatants from lactob...

  9. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in water supplies of San Pedro Sula, Honduras

    Solo-Gabriele Helena María; Ager Jr.,Arba LeRoy; Lindo John Fitzgerald; Dubón José María; Neumeister Shondra Michelle; Baum Marianna Karas; Palmer Carol Jean

    1998-01-01

    During June 1996, water supplies of the city of San Pedro Sula, Honduras, were sampled to obtain an assessment of Cryptosporidium oocyst and Giardia cyst concentrations. Each sample was concentrated and stained with an indirect immunofluorescent antibody, and parasites were counted through microscopic analysis. In three surface water supplies, Cryptosporidium oocyst concentrations ranged from 58 to 260 oocysts per 100 L, and Giardia cysts were present in concentrations ranging from 380 to 210...

  10. Common Coinfections of Giardia intestinalis and Helicobacter pylori in Non-Symptomatic Ugandan Children

    Ankarklev, Johan; Hestvik, Elin; Lebbad, Marianne; Lindh, Johan; Kaddu-Mulindwa, Deogratias H.; Tylleskär, Thorkild

    2012-01-01

    Background: The protozoan parasite Giardia intestinalis and the pathogenic bacterium Helicobacter pylori are well known for their high prevalences in human hosts worldwide. The prevalence of both organisms is known to peak in densely populated, low resource settings and children are infected early in life. Different Giardia genotypes/assemblages have been associated with different symptoms and H. pylori with induction of cancer. Despite this, not much data are available from sub-Saharan...

  11. Prevalence, Risk Factors and Impacts of Schistosomal and Intestinal Parasitic Infections Among Rural School Children in Sohag Governorate

    H. M. El-Masry; Y. A. Ahmed; A. A. Hassan; S. Zaky*; E. S. Abd-Allah

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic diseases represent a major cause of morbidity and mortality in childhood in most parts of the world. Hygiene and play habits make children especially vulnerable to schistosomal and parasitic infections. The aim of this study is to define the prevalence of different types of parasitic infections, to define their risk factors and to determine their impacts on health and scholastic absenteeism and achievement of rural school students in Sohag Governorate, Egypt. A cross-section, analytical study design was chosen to perform this research on 960 rural school students. All the students were interviewed and examined clinically and laboratory. The study showed that 38.5% of the students were infected by parasites. Entaemoeba histolytica, Enterobius vermicularis and Giardia lamblia had the highest percentages, 20.4%, 16.6% and 15.2%, respectively. Male sex, last birth order, poor personal hygiene, low socioeconomic level, 3 infected siblings, previous parasitic infections and no early consultation for therapy were important risk factors (ORs=1.41, 2.32, 2.63, 2.86, 4.17, 9.80 and 10.83, respectively. Also, 29.2% and 31.6% of infected students were below the 5th percentiles as regard weight-for-age and height-for-age, respectively. Anemia was present among 52.4% of infected students. Further, 3.2% of them had hepatomegaly. Also, 37.8% and 41.1% of infected students had 0-3 and 4-6 days/month absent, respectively, while, 34.3% of infected students had a scholastic achievement <50.0%. Improving personal and environmental hygiene and regular screening, treatment and health education for students as regard parasitic infections in Egypt is recommended.

  12. Evaluation of three commercial assays for detection of Giardia and Cryptosporidium organisms in fecal specimens.

    Johnston, Stephanie P; Ballard, Melissa M; Beach, Michael J; Causer, Louise; Wilkins, Patricia P

    2003-02-01

    There is an increasing demand for diagnostic testing for Giardia intestinalis (G. lamblia) and Cryptosporidium parvum, with a priority being placed on obtaining diagnostic results in an efficient and timely manner. Several commercial companies have developed rapid diagnostic tests that are simple to perform and can be completed in less time than traditional methods for detecting Giardia and Cryptosporidium: We compared one of these rapid tests, the ImmunoCard STAT! (Meridian Bioscience, Inc.) lateral-flow immunoassay, with the MERIFLUOR direct fluorescent-antibody (DFA) test, the ProSpecT EZ microplate assay for Giardia and the ProSpecT microplate assay for Cryptosporidium, and modified Kinyoun's acid-fast stained smears for the detection of Cryptosporidium using 246 specimens. The MERIFLUOR DFA (Meridian Bioscience, Inc.) test detected the largest number of cases (32 Giardia and 37 Cryptosporidium) infections and was used to calculate the sensitivity and specificity of the other tests. For Giardia, the sensitivities of the ImmunoCard STAT! and the ProSpecT Giardia EZ microplate assay (Alexon-Trend, Inc.) were 81 and 91%, respectively. For detection of Cryptosporidium, the sensitivities of the ImmunoCard STAT!, the ProSpecT Cryptosporidium microplate assay (Alexon-Trend, Inc.), and modified Kinyoun's acid-fast stained smears were 68, 70, and 78%, respectively. Test specificities were equal to or greater than 99%. Specimens with very small numbers of organisms were not detected by the ImmunoCard STAT!, the ProSpecT microplate assay or modified Kinyoun's acid-fast stained smears. PMID:12574257

  13. Prevalencia de enteroparásitos en niños de la etnia Yukpa de Toromo, Estado Zulia, Venezuela Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites in Children of Yukpa Ethnia in Toromo, Zulia State, Venezuela

    Iris Díaz A

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Yupkpa community in Perijá Sierra does not have drinking water or sewage elimination systems. Thus it becomes a propitious place for infection with intestinal parasites. Aim: To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in children, ages 0 to 14 years, in the Yukpa ethnic population of Toromo in the Perijá Mountains, Zulia State, Venezuela. Material and Methods: Ninety one fecal samples were analyzed by the following coproparasitologic methods: saline solution and lugol fresh mount, formalin-ether concentration (Ritchie, and Kinyoun stain for intestinal coccidians. Results: Overall parasite infection prevalence was 83.5%. The most frequently observed parasites were: Ascaris lumbricoides (57.1%, Trichuris trichiura (20.8%, Hymenolepis nana (14.2%, Blastocystis hominis (51.6%, Giardia lamblia (30.7%, and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar complex (21.9%. Coccidians were nont observed in any of the stool samples. Conclusions: The large number of infected people is directly related to the hygienic and sanitary conditions of the population studied

  14. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in domestic animals in peri-urban communities of Kafue district, Zambia

    Siwila, J.; Phiri, I. G. K.; Enemark, Heidi L.; Nchito, M.; Olsen, A.

    Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis are important parasites infecting a wide range of domestic animals worldwide. The aim of the present study was to determine the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia parasites in different domestic animals living in close contact with humans...... within rural/semiurban communities in Kafue district in Zambia. A single faecal sample per animal was collected from pigs, goats, dogs, ducks, chickens and pigeons and analysed by Merifluor Cryptosporidium/Giardia immunofluorescence antibody assay for the simultaneous detection of these parasites. The...... faecal consistency was noted and scored as non-diarrhoeic or diarrhoeic. A total of 236 samples were collected. Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected in pigs (11.5%, 17/148), goats (5.9%; 1/17), ducks (10.0%; 3/30) and chickens (14.3%; 2/14) while Giardia cysts were detected in pigs (8.1%; 12...

  15. Enteric parasites in HIV-1/AIDS-infected patients from a Northwestern São Paulo reference unit in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era

    Luciana Ventura Cardoso

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: We describe the epidemiology of intestinal parasites in patients from an AIDS reference service in Northeastern São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Retrospective evaluation was done for all HIV-1/AIDS-positive patients whose Hospital de Base/São José do Rio Preto laboratorial analysis was positive for enteroparasites after diagnosis of HIV-1 infection, from January 1998 to December 2008. Statistical analysis was performed using the R statistical software version 2.4.1. The level of significance adopted was 5%. RESULTS: The most frequent protozoan was Isospora belli (4.2%, followed by Giardia lamblia (3.5%, Entamoeba coli (2.8%, and Cryptosporidium parvum (0.3%. Ancylostoma duodenale (1.4% was the most frequently detected helminth, while Taenia saginata and Strongiloides stercoralis were found in 0.7% of the samples. The results showed that diarrhea was significantly associated with giardiasis and isosporiasis. However, no association was observed between CD4+ cell counts, viral load, and the characteristics of any particular parasite. CONCLUSIONS: Our data may be useful for further comparisons with other Brazilian regions and other developing countries. The data may also provide important clues toward improving the understanding, prevention, and control of enteric parasites around the world.

  16. Prevalence of parasitic contamination of raw vegetables in villages of Qazvin Province, Iran.

    Shahnazi, Mojtaba; Jafari-Sabet, Majid

    2010-09-01

    We conducted a study to determine the extent of parasitic contamination of raw vegetables distributed by wholesalers in villages of Qazvin Province, Iran. Vegetables collected for the study were leek, parsley, lettuce, coriander, radish, spring onion, tarragon, basil, spearmint, and cress. Samples of each vegetable were collected at monthly intervals for 6 months from May to October 2008, yielding a total of 654 samples. Samples of each vegetable collected at each monthly interval were selected randomly and allocated to be washed or to remain unwashed before being analyzed for parasitic contamination. Of the 654 samples collected over the study period, 218 samples were analyzed for parasitic contamination without washing and 436 were washed before being analyzed, with the wash procedure consisting of submersion in a solution of 200 ppm of calcium hypochlorite and rinsing in an automated vegetable washer for 10 minutes. The samples were analyzed according to the method used by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for identifying parasitic contamination of raw fruits and vegetables, with specimens weighing 200 g each being prepared from the vegetable samples, followed by sonication of each specimen for 10 minutes in 1.5 L of detergent wash solution, collection and centrifugation of a 50-mL aliquot of the wash solution for 15 minutes at 1500 g, and examination of the resulting sediment for parasites by light microscopy. No parasitic contamination was found on any of the 436 washed samples of vegetables. Of the 218 unwashed samples of vegetables, 82 (37.6%) were found to be contaminated with parasites, of which 69 (31.6%) were contaminated with metazoa (helminth eggs in 9.6% and rhabditoid larvae in 22.0%), and 13 (6.0%) were contaminated with protozoa (Entamoeba coli cysts in 2.8%, Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar cysts in 1.4%, and Giardia lamblia cysts in 1.8%). The difference in parasitic contamination of the washed and unwashed groups of vegetables was significant at p Dicrocoelium dendriticum [1.4%]), and cestodes (Taenia spp. [1.8%] and Hymenolepis nana [0.5%]). The eggs recovered in greatest number were those of nematodes (n = 13), followed by those of cestodes (n = 5) and trematodes (n = 3). No helminth eggs were found on unwashed samples of spearmint, tarragon, coriander, or radish. The percent parasitic contamination of unwashed samples was highest for leek (66.7%) and lowest for radish (20.7%). The highest percent parasitic contamination was with rhabditoid larvae (22.0%) and the lowest with H. nana eggs (0.5%). These findings emphasize the importance of properly washing and disinfecting raw vegetables before they are consumed. PMID:20491596

  17. Microbial and parasitic contamination on circulating Pakistani Currency

    Afshan Butt

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fomites are nonliving objects that are capable of imbibing, harboring and spreading infectious microorganisms. Currency notes and coins, as exchangeable fomite, are constantly subjected to contamination. The objective of this study was to determine microbial and parasitic contamination of Pakistani currency thus highlighting the potential of money for spreading pathogens in the Pakistani community. Methods: In the present study, a total of 81 Pakistani currency notes and coins in circulation were randomly collected from different shopkeepers, vendors, canteen owners and restaurant cashiers in Lahore and analyzed for parasitological, fungal, aerobic and anaerobic microbial analyses by using various microbiological techniques. Results: The study revealed 92.5% of Pakistani currency to be contaminated with pathological microorganisms. Potential pathogens such as Staphylococcus spp. (48.05%, Streptococuss spp. (3.89%, Micrococcus spp. (5.19%, Bacillus subtilis (11.68%, Corynebacterium spp. (7.79%, Cronobacter sakazakii (2.59%, Burkholderia cepacia (1.29%, Klebsiella pneumoniae (2.59%, Serretia rubideae (1.29%, Bacteriodes spp. (34.46% and Yeast and Mold (3.89 % respectively were isolated. The parasitological analysis of the currency evinces 13.58% of the samples with parasitic ova and cysts. Predominant ova and cysts of Entamoeba histolytica & Giardia lamblia were identified. Conclusion: This study indicates that currency notes and coins are excellent fomites that can harbor the microorganisms very well. The current analyses points out towards the unhygienic practices of the people spending money in the form of currency notes and coins. Launching effective and frequent awareness campaigns in the society can help to stop the spread of microorganisms to a greater extent.

  18. Transcriptional profiling of Giardia intestinalis in response to oxidative stress.

    Ma'ayeh, Showgy Y; Knrr, Livia; Svrd, Staffan G

    2015-12-01

    Giardia intestinalis is a microaerophilic parasite that infects the human upper small intestine, an environment that is fairly aerobic with reactive oxygen species being produced to fight off the parasite. It is quite perplexing how Giardia, lacking conventional eukaryotic antioxidant machinery (e.g. catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase), can cope with the oxidative stress in this environment. We used transcriptomics (RNA sequencing and quantitative PCR) to study giardial gene expression changes in response to oxygen (O2; 1h) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2; 150?M, 500?M and 1mM for 1h). The results showed phenotypic and transcriptional differences between Giardia isolates of different genotypes (WB, assemblage A and GS, assemblage B), with GS being more tolerant to H2O2 and exhibiting higher basic transcript levels of antioxidant genes (e.g. NADH oxidase lateral transfer candidate, peroxiredoxin 1 (Prx1) and thioredoxin (Trx)-like proteins). Cysteine is a major antioxidant in Giardia and its role in oxidative defense could be highlighted here by the up-regulation of gene transcripts encoding the cysteine-rich variable surface proteins (VSPs) and high cysteine membrane proteins (HCMPs). Genes in the thioredoxin system (Prx1, Trx and Trx reductase) occupied a central role in the gene expression response to oxidative stress, together with genes encoding metabolic (NADPH-producing enzymes, glutathione and glycerol biosynthetic enzymes) and O2-consuming nitric oxide detoxification enzymes (e.g. nitroreductase, flavohemoprotein and a flavodiiron protein). This study reveals the intricate network of genes associated with the oxidative stress response in Giardia, and provides a stepping-stone towards future studies at the protein level. PMID:26341007

  19. Genome analysis and comparative genomics of a Giardia intestinalis assemblage E isolate

    Andersson Jan O

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Giardia intestinalis is a protozoan parasite that causes diarrhea in a wide range of mammalian species. To further understand the genetic diversity between the Giardia intestinalis species, we have performed genome sequencing and analysis of a wild-type Giardia intestinalis sample from the assemblage E group, isolated from a pig. Results We identified 5012 protein coding genes, the majority of which are conserved compared to the previously sequenced genomes of the WB and GS strains in terms of microsynteny and sequence identity. Despite this, there is an unexpectedly large number of chromosomal rearrangements and several smaller structural changes that are present in all chromosomes. Novel members of the VSP, NEK Kinase and HCMP gene families were identified, which may reveal possible mechanisms for host specificity and new avenues for antigenic variation. We used comparative genomics of the three diverse Giardia intestinalis isolates P15, GS and WB to define a core proteome for this species complex and to identify lineage-specific genes. Extensive analyses of polymorphisms in the core proteome of Giardia revealed differential rates of divergence among cellular processes. Conclusions Our results indicate that despite a well conserved core of genes there is significant genome variation between Giardia isolates, both in terms of gene content, gene polymorphisms, structural chromosomal variations and surface molecule repertoires. This study improves the annotation of the Giardia genomes and enables the identification of functionally important variation.

  20. Effects of Ultrasound on the Survival and Characteristics of Cryptosporidium Oocysts and Giardia Cysts

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Gad, J.; Klinting, M.; Mogensen, C.; Kurtzhals, J.; Enemark, Heidi L.

    2011-01-01

    power and time durations on two of the most common waterborne protozoa Cryptosporidium and Giardia, and examined its effects on parasite characteristics and survival rate using immunofluorescence dyes; DAPI (4’,6-diamidino-2-phenylindol) staining/PI (propidium iodide), and analyzed by flow cytometry....... Results: The results showed that exposure of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts to ultrasound could reduce their survival rate even if the exposure time was limited to a few seconds. When sonication time was extended, changes in parasite characteristics became clearly visible. Several other factors...

  1. Giardial Triosephosphate Isomerase as Possible Target of the Cytotoxic Effect of Omeprazole in Giardia lamblia

    Reyes-Vivas, Horacio; de la Mora-de la Mora, Ignacio; Castillo-Villanueva, Adriana; Ypez-Mulia, Lilian; Hernndez-Alcntara, Gloria; Figueroa-Salazar, Rosalia; Garca-Torres, Itzhel; Gmez-Manzo, Sal; Mndez, Sara T.; Vanoye-Carlo, Amrica; Marcial-Quino, Jaime; Torres-Arroyo, Anglica; Oria-Hernndez, Jess; Gutirrez-Castrelln, Pedro; Enrquez-Flores, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Giardiasis is highly prevalent in the developing world, and treatment failures with the standard drugs are common. This work deals with the proposal of omeprazole as a novel antigiardial drug, focusing on a giardial glycolytic enzyme used to follow the cytotoxic effect at the molecular level. We used recombinant technology and enzyme inactivation to demonstrate the capacity of omeprazole to inactivate giardial triosephosphate isomerase, with no adverse effects on its human counterpart. To est...

  2. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among highland and lowland dwellers in Gamo area, South Ethiopia

    Wegayehu Teklu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological information on the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in different regions is a prerequisite to develop appropriate control strategies. Therefore, this present study was conducted to assess the magnitude and pattern of intestinal parasitism in highland and lowland dwellers in Gamo area, South Ethiopia. Methods Community-based cross-sectional study was conducted between September 2010 and July 2011 at Lante, Kolla Shelle, Dorze and Geressie kebeles of Gamo Gofa Zone, South Ethiopia. The study sites and study participants were selected using multistage sampling method. Data were gathered through house-to-house survey. A total of 858 stool specimens were collected and processed using direct wet mount and formol-ether concentration techniques for the presence of parasite. Results Out of the total examined subjects, 342(39.9% were found positive for at least one intestinal parasite. The prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica/dispar was the highest 98(11.4%, followed by Giardia lamblia 91(10.6%, Ascaris lumbricoides 67(7.8%, Strongyloides stercoralis 51(5.9%, hookworm 42(4.9%, Trichuris trichiura 24(2.8%, Taenia species 18(2.1%, Hymenolepis nana 7(0.6% and Schistosoma mansoni 1(0.12%. No statistically significant difference was observed in the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among lowland (37.9% and highland dwellers (42.3% (P = 0.185. The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection was not significantly different among the study sites but it was relatively higher in Geressie (42.8% than other kebeles. Sex was not associated with parasitic infections (P = 0.481. No statistically significant difference of infection was observed among the age groups (P = 0.228 but it was higher in reproductive age group. Conclusions The high prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among the lowland and highland dwellers in Gamo area indicated that parasitic infections are important public health problems. Thus, infection control measures and the development of awareness strategies to improve sanitation and health education should be considered.

  3. DISTRIBUSI PARASIT USUS PROTOZOA DI KABUPATEN HULU SUNGAI UTARA KALIMANTAN SELATAN

    Anorital Anorital

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal infection disease caused by protozoa: amoeba is one of the public health problem with high incidence in the community. From the research activity conducted in Hulu Sungai Utara Regency in the year 2002, to obtain of prevalence of protozoa infection from stool examination from resident in 6 villages at 3 subdistrict in Hulu Sungai Utara Regency. The research has conducted to be carry out survey parasite to the community. Sample size will be examination are 230 persons per village, so that to 6 villages will be examed as 1.600 persons. The examination directly by using lugol 2% and checked on the microscope with magnification 10x10 and 10x40. For resident which its sample stool is positive the protozoa to be given a treatment by metronidazol. From stool examination result obtained prevalence resident which are positive the amoeba intestine protozoa is Entamoeba coli 19,8%, Endolimax nana 15,8%, and Entamoeba histolityca 15,4%. While prevalence resident which are positive the intestine flagellata/B. hominis is Blastocystis hominis 25,5% and Giardia lamblia 11,6%. From 5 micro-organism on the intestine. Entamoeba histolityca, Blastocystis hominis and Giardia lamblia are cause diarrhoea because having the pathogenic. From survey ot socio-cultural, known also the resident percentage which drinking no safe water 43,3%, source of drinking water obtained from river or swamp is 67,7%, human waste disposal in river and swamp is 79,5%, and take a bath and brush the teeth with water of river and swamp is 78,6%; showing bad condition of environmental sanitation, personal hygiene, and life behavior. Good personal hygiene and environmental sanitation practices are the major factors of this disease prevention. The main principle to prevent the spreading of protozoa infection is to cut off the link of infection sources to human beings. Personal hygiene is focused on the management of individual behaviour, meanwhile environmental sanitation prevention focus lies on the better environment management to cut off the link of disease cycle as like water supply and human waste disposal wich good condition. For this matter is Governmental role, in this case the health office and with local elite figure, important and absolute so that to a period to coming of prevalence intestine infection caused a protozoa can be depressed as low as possible.   Keywords: protozoa

  4. Intraepithelial giardia intestinalis: a case report and literature review.

    Martínez-Gordillo, Mario Noé; González-Maciel, Angélica; Reynoso-Robles, Rafael; Montijo-Barrios, Ericka; Ponce-Macotela, Martha

    2014-12-01

    The giardiasis is a neglected parasitic disease. The WHO has estimated more than 280 million of human infections each year; however, intraepithelial giardiasis is a rare entity, there are only 5 reports showing invasive giardiasis. A pediatric female patient with chronic abdominal pain, diarrhea, or pasty stools, without fever, was seen in the Gastroenterology and Nutrition Service. The stool studies were negative for pathogens and lactose hydrogen breath test was positive. The presumptive clinical diagnosis was giardiasis and the patient was empirically treated with nitazoxanide. But, the patient persisted with abdominal pain and pasty stools. Endoscopy was indicated to search for Helicobacter and Giardia. Guardian and patient gave written informed consent. Hematological profile was normal. The endoscopy was performed under general anesthesia and the biopsies and duodenal aspirate were obtained. The microscopic analyses of duodenal fluid showed Giardia trophozoites. Electron microscopic analysis was negative for Helicobacter pylori, but Giardia trophozoites with a typical crescent shape within the tissue were found. The patient was treated with tinidazole, subsequent tests showed that lactose absorption was normal, stool examinations were negative for Giardia and abdominal pain had stopped. This case suggest that intraepithelial giardiasis could be a common entity but unseen because the giardiasis diagnosis is usually made on fecal samples. Future studies are necessary to determine the role of intraepithelial trophozoites in giardiasis pathogenic mechanisms. PMID:25546671

  5. Parasitic infections based on 320 clinical samples submitted to Hanyang University, Korea (2004-2011).

    Choi, Sung-Chul; Lee, Soo-Young; Song, Hyun-Ouk; Ryu, Jae-Sook; Ahn, Myoung-Hee

    2014-04-01

    We analyzed 320 clinical samples of parasitic infections submitted to the Department of Environmental Biology and Medical Parasitology, Hanyang University from January 2004 to June 2011. They consisted of 211 nematode infections, 64 trematode or cestode infections, 32 protozoan infections, and 13 infections with arthropods. The nematode infections included 67 cases of trichuriasis, 62 of anisakiasis (Anisakis sp. and Pseudoterranova decipiens), 40 of enterobiasis, and 24 of ascariasis, as well as other infections including strongyloidiasis, thelaziasis, loiasis, and hookworm infecions. Among the cestode or trematode infections, we observed 27 cases of diphyllobothriasis, 14 of sparganosis, 9 of clonorchiasis, and 5 of paragonimiasis together with a few cases of taeniasis saginata, cysticercosis cellulosae, hymenolepiasis, and echinostomiasis. The protozoan infections included 14 cases of malaria, 4 of cryptosporidiosis, and 3 of trichomoniasis, in addition to infections with Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, Entamoeba coli, Endolimax nana, Giardia lamblia, and Toxoplasma gondii. Among the arthropods, we detected 6 cases of Ixodes sp., 5 of Phthirus pubis, 1 of Sarcoptes scabiei, and 1 of fly larva. The results revealed that trichuriasis, anisakiasis, enterobiasis, and diphyllobothriasis were the most frequently found parasitosis among the clinical samples. PMID:24850969

  6. Characterization and role of protozoan parasite proteasomes.

    Paugam, André; Bulteau, Anne Laure; Dupouy-Camet, Jean; Creuzet, Claudine; Friguet, Bertrand

    2003-02-01

    The proteasome, a large non-lysosomal multi-subunit protease complex, is ubiquitous in eukaryotic cells. In protozoan parasites, the proteasome is involved in cell differentiation and replication, and could therefore be a promising therapeutic target. This article reviews the present knowledge of proteasomes in protozoan parasites of medical importance such as Giardia, Entamoeba, Leishmania, Trypanosoma, Plasmodium and Toxoplasma spp. PMID:12586468

  7. Imunolocalization of delta-giardin within the ventral disc of Giardia duodenalis using laser scanning confocal microscopy

    Giardia duodenalis is a ubiquitous protozoan parasite that colonizes the upper small intestine of humans and animals causing diarrheal disease. To maintain infection within the small intestine, trophozoites (the replicative stage of the parasite) attach to the epithelial layer of the gut and resist ...

  8. PREVALENCE OF INTESTINAL PARASITIC INFECTIONS IN PATIENTS ATTENDING A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN EASTERN BIHAR

    Randhir

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Parasitic protozoa and helminths are responsible for some devastating and prevalent diseases of humans. Intestinal parasitic infections are a major health problem in India. While little study has been carried out regarding the problem in India, almost no study on the burden of intestinal infections has been done in Bihar. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to estimate the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections (IPI in the patients attending outdoor patient department in Katihar Medical College & Hospital. Fecal samples were examined for intestinal parasites by direct microscopy, and by microscopy following modified acid fast staining in HIV infected patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study was carried out from June 2011 to February 2013. The study population consisted of individuals of all age groups, belonging to both the sexes, including children, pregnant woman and elderly individuals. A total of 2780 samples were examined by saline and Lugol’s iodine preparation. The negative samples were examined by formol ether concentration technique. Modified acid fast staining of fecal samples in HIV infected patients was also done. RESULTS: The result showed that the prevalence of parasitic infection was 10.71%. Out of this ,86.6% were single infections, 12.8% were double infections and 0.67% showed triple infections. Ascaris lumbricoides (28.5% and Giardia lamblia (18.5% were the most common intesitinal helminthes and protozoans isolated. A single patient with HIV infection was co-infected with Cryptosporidium parvum. The infected cases were more in the age group between 1-10years, more commonly among the male population. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of the helminthic infections is more than the prevalence of protozoal infections in this geographic region. Clinical microbiologists must follow standard laboratory procedures when screening stool samples so as to improve the chances of finding the parasites. An integrated approach of drug treatment and focused participatory hygiene education is required to control the parasite load among rural population. These measures would mitigate the severity of frequent outbreak of parasitic infestations.

  9. Microscopic inter-observer reliability of intestinal parasitic infections in trained laboratory technicians, Mexico

    Joel Monárrez-Espino

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasitic infections caused by Giardia lamblia (GL, Ascaris lumbriocoides (AL and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (Eh/Ed are highly prevalent among indigenous groups in Mexico. In resource-constrained settings, direct microscopic fecal examination continues to be a common diagnostic method in spite its limited accuracy. This study aimed at illustrating the effect of training local laboratory technicians from a rural reference hospital located in a marginalized indigenous region of northern Mexico to assess the inter-observer reliability of GL, AL, and Eh/Ed diagnoses. Two experienced technicians working at the hospital were trained and standardized for two full weeks in the Parasitology Laboratory at the National Children’s Hospital from Mexico City. Diagnoses were made by microscopy of two serial stool samples processed using the modified Faust zinc sulphate centrifugal flotation technique to concentrate AL eggs and GL and Eh/Ed cysts. Observations were done independently, and the final diagnosis for each observer was established when at least one of the two samples resulted positive. Reliability analyses from serial stool samples were conducted using Cohen’s kappa correlation coefficient (ĸ for each parasite. Agreement between observers reached 88.7, 72.4, and 80.5% for Eh/Ed, AL, and GL, respectively. Largest kappa coefficient was observed for GL (ĸ=0.55, followed by Eh/Ed (ĸ=0.30, and AL (ĸ=0.08. Prevalence of Eh/Ed, AL and GL according to observers 1 and 2 were 3.4 vs. 13.5%, 4.0 vs. 28.2%, and 32.2 vs. 33.3%, respectively. Except for GL, reliability was very low leading to major differences in prevalence estimates. These results question the value of training technicians, as intestinal parasitic microscopic diagnoses seemed to be very difficult to replicate between observers questioning their validity, leading to differences in clinical decisions, and in prevalence estimates.

  10. Giardia: Illness & Symptoms

    ... with trichrome. Credit: Waterborne Disease Prevention Branch, CDC Giardiasis is the most frequently diagnosed intestinal parasitic disease ... joints 2 , 7 , 8 . Sometimes, the symptoms of giardiasis might seem to resolve, only to come back ...

  11. Giardia and Drinking Water from Private Wells

    ... remove Giardia from my drinking water? What is giardiasis? Giardiasis (GEE-are-DYE-uh-sis) is a diarrheal ... of the United States. For more information about giardiasis and treatment, please visit CDC's Giardia website. Where ...

  12. Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Humans, Domestic Animals, and Village Water Sources in Rural India.

    Daniels, Miles E; Shrivastava, Arpit; Smith, Woutrina A; Sahu, Priyadarshi; Odagiri, Mitsunori; Misra, Pravas R; Panigrahi, Pinaki; Suar, Mrutyunjay; Clasen, Thomas; Jenkins, Marion W

    2015-09-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia are zoonotic enteric protozoa of significant health concern where sanitation, hygiene, and water supplies are inadequate. We examined 85 stool samples from diarrhea patients, 111 pooled fecal samples by species across seven domestic animal types, and water from tube wells (N = 207) and ponds (N = 94) across 60 villages in coastal Odisha, India, for Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts to measure occurrence, concentration/shedding, and environmental loading rates. Oocysts/cysts were detected in 12% of diarrhea patients. Detection ranged from 0% to 35% for Cryptosporidium and 0% to 67% for Giardia across animal hosts. Animal loading estimates indicate the greatest contributors of environmental oocysts/cysts in the study region are cattle. Ponds were contaminated with both protozoa (oocysts: 37%, cysts: 74%), as were tube wells (oocysts: 10%, cysts: 14%). Future research should address the public health concern highlighted from these findings and investigate the role of domestic animals in diarrheal disease transmission in this and similar settings. PMID:26123963

  13. Características del parasitismo intestinal en niños de dos comunidades del policlínico "XX Aniversario" Intestinal parasitism features in children from two communities of "XX Aniversario" Polyclinic

    Gladys Antonia Cueto Montoya

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Dentro de las enfermedades infecciosas, aun en estos modernos tiempos, el parasitismo intestinal constituye un problema para países en vías de desarrollo y para los altamente desarrollados. Para caracterizar el parasitismo intestinal en niños de 1 a 12 años se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal durante los meses de mayo a julio de 2007, en 2 comunidades, una suburbana del reparto "América Latina" y otra urbana del reparto "Virginia", ambas pertenecientes al área de salud del Policlínico "XX Aniversario", del municipio de Santa Clara. Se visitaron las viviendas y se aplicó encuesta a los padres para obtener datos al respecto. Fueron estudiados 243 niños de ambas comunidades, a quienes se les tomó muestras de heces fecales y región anal por el método de Graham. La frecuencia general de parasitismo fue de 65,8 %, mayor en los niños del reparto "América Latina", y las especies más frecuentes fueron Giardia lamblia y Enterobius vermicularis. Una inadecuada desinfección del agua, la presencia de vectores, comerse las uñas, la poca higiene después del contacto con animales, la presencia de estos en el hogar, no lavar las verduras, andar descalzos y el hacinamiento, fueron factores que favorecieron las parasitosis.Included in infectious diseases, yet at present times, intestinal parasitism is a problem for underdeveloped countries, and for those highly developed. To characterize intestinal parasitism in children aged 1 and 12, we carried out a cross-sectional descriptive study during May to July, 2007 in 2 communities, one suburban of "América Latina" parcel and other urban of "Virginia" parcel, both served by "XX Aniversario" Polyclinic of Santa Clara municipality. We visited homes and we applied survey to parents to obtain data in this respect. A total of 243 children ware studied in both communities, taking samples of feces and of anal region by Graham method. General frequency of parasitism was of 6,8 % greater in the children of "América Latina" parcel, and more frequent species were Giardia lamblia and Enterobius vermicularis. An unsuitable water disinfection, presence of vectors, to bite nails, a poor hygiene after animal contacts, presence of these in home, not washed vegetables, barefoot, and overcrowding, were the factors that more favouring parasitosis.

  14. Intestinal parasites in patients from the educational community, “Veragacha” School, Lara state, Venezuela (Enteroparasitosis en pacientes de la comunidad educativa, Escuela “Veragacha”, estado Lara, Venezuela

    Pérez Daisy

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The parasites are a health problem.Objective: To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites instudents and school representatives.Methods: We assessed a descriptive and cross sectional study,which examined 204 individuals (114 children and 90 parents orguardians, analyzing their stool with techniques of saline solution,Lugol and Kato.Results: The frequency of intestinal parasitosis was 42.65%(73,6% for monoparasites and 26,4% multiparasitic predominantlybetween 11 and 14 years. 59% were female and 47,7%; were male.The parasites found: Blastocystis hominis (71,3%, Endolimaxnana (26,4%, Giardia lamblia (13,8%, Entamoeba coli (11,5%,Entamoeba histolytica (3.5%, Iodamoeba butschlii (1.2%, Chilomastixmesnili (1,2%, Trichuris trichiura (1,2% and Enterobiusvermicularis (1,2%.Conclusion: The relationship where the common presence of parasiteswas found. Only 18.1% of households had one or more parasitesin common, which seems to suggest that the infection in notnecessarily produced in the home. -RESUMEN: Introducción: Las parasitosis constituyen un problema de salud.Objetivo: Determinar la frecuencia de enteroparásitos en estudiantesy representantes de la escuela “Veragacha”.Material y Métodos: Se realizó un estudio de tipo descriptivo ytransversal, donde se estudiaron 204 individuos (114 niños y 90padres/representantes, analizando sus heces con las técnicas de soluciónsalina, lugol y Kato.Resultados: Se encontró una frecuencia de parasitosis intestinalde 42,65% (73,6% monoparasitados y 26,4% poliparasitados predominandoentre los 11 y 14 años (59% y en el sexo masculino(47,7%; los parásitos diagnosticados fueron: Blastocystis hominis(71,3%, Endolimax nana (26,4%, Giardia lamblia (13,8%, Entamoebacoli (11,5%, Entamoeba histolytica (3,5%, Iodamoebabutschlii (1,2%, Chilomastix mesnili (1,2%, Trichuris trichiura(1,2% y Enterobius vermicularis (1,2%.Conclusión: En la relación alumno-representante donde se indagóla presencia común de parásitos en cada familia, solo el 18,1% delos hogares, presentó uno o más parásitos en común, lo que hacepresumir que la infección no necesariamente se produjo en el hogar.

  15. Diagnosis of Giardia infections by PCR-based methods in children of an endemic area

    EB David

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to estimate the prevalence of Giardia infection in preschool- and school-aged children living in an endemic area. Fecal samples from 573 children were processed by zinc sulfate centrifugal flotation, centrifugal sedimentation (using a commercial device for fecal concentration - TF-Test kit® and polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based methods. Of the stool samples assessed, 277 (48.3% were positive for intestinal parasites and/or commensal protozoa. Centrifugal flotation presented the highest diagnostic sensitivity for Giardia infections. The kappa index revealed that both coproparasitological techniques closely agreed on the Giardia diagnosis (86% versus satisfactory (72% and poor (35% concordances for commensal protozoan and helminth infections, respectively. Concerning Giardia molecular diagnosis, from the 71 microscopy-positive samples, specific amplification of gdh and tpi fragments was noted in 68 (95.7% and 64 (90% samples, respectively. Amplification of gdh and tpi genes was observed, respectively, in 95.7% and 90% of microscopy-positive Giardia samples. For 144 microscopy-negative samples, gdh and tpi gene amplification products were obtained from 8.3% and 35.9% samples, respectively. The agreement between these genes was about 40%. The centrifuge-flotation based method was the most suitable means of Giardia diagnosis assessed in the present study by combining accuracy and low cost.

  16. The invasive potential of Giardia intestinalis in an in vivo model.

    Reynoso-Robles, R; Ponce-Macotela, M; Rosas-López, L E; Ramos-Morales, A; Martínez-Gordillo, M N; González-Maciel, A

    2015-01-01

    Giardiasis is a neglected parasitic disease that affects primarily children, in whom it delays physical and mental development. The pathophysiology of giardiasis in not well understood, and most reports have identified Giardia intestinalis trophozoites only in the lumen and on the brush border of the small intestine. We identified Giardia trophozoites within the epithelium of the small intestine of a lactose intolerance patient. The Giardia trophozoites were obtained and cultured in vitro. In addition, we demonstrated Giardia trophozoite invasion in an animal model. Giardia trophozoites invaded the intestinal mucosa and submucosa of infected gerbils. The invasive trophozoites were observed at 21, 30 and 60 days age, and the average numbers of invaded sites were 17 ± 5, 15 ± 4, and 9 ± 3, respectively. We found trophozoites between epithelial cells, at the base of empty goblet cells, in lacteal vessels and within the submucosa. The morphological integrity of the invasive trophozoites was demonstrated via electron microscopy. The analysis of the gerbils infected with the trophozoites of the WB reference strain did not show intraepithelial trophozoites. These results demonstrate another Giardia pathogenic mechanism, opening the door to numerous future studies. PMID:26470844

  17. Prevalence of Giardia in dairy cattle in Lusaka and Chilanga districts, Zambia.

    Kakandelwa, Cliff; Siwila, Joyce; Nalubamba, King S; Muma, John B; Phiri, Isaac G K

    2016-01-15

    Giardia is an intestinal protozoan parasite of mammals including humans. A cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate prevalence of Giardia infections in smallholder and commercial dairy herds in Chilanga and Lusaka districts of Zambia. A total of 377 calves aged from 1 to 365 days were sampled on 34 farms. All faecal samples were analyzed for Giardia antigen using a commercially available ELISA kit. Overall prevalence of Giardia was 34.5% (95% CI=29.7-39.3). Among smallholder farms, animal level prevalence ranged from 0 to 100% (mean=44.636.9 standard deviations) and 12.5 to 60.9% (mean=33.516.7 standard deviations) within commercial herds. Prevalence was highest in calves less than three months old (p=0.010), and there was no significant difference in the prevalence between smallholder and commercial farms (p=0.300). Giardia prevalence was not associated with occurrence of diarrhoea in the calves (p=0.205). The study demonstrates that Giardia infections are common in dairy herds in the study areas, especially in calves less than three months of age. PMID:26790746

  18. Diagnosis of Giardia infections by PCR-based methods in children of an endemic area

    EB, David; ST, Coradi; TCG, Oliveira-Sequeira; PEM, Ribolla; S, Katagiri; S, Guimares.

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to estimate the prevalence of Giardia infection in preschool- and school-aged children living in an endemic area. Fecal samples from 573 children were processed by zinc sulfate centrifugal flotation, centrifugal sedimentation (using a commercial device for fecal concen [...] tration - TF-Test kit) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods. Of the stool samples assessed, 277 (48.3%) were positive for intestinal parasites and/or commensal protozoa. Centrifugal flotation presented the highest diagnostic sensitivity for Giardia infections. The kappa index revealed that both coproparasitological techniques closely agreed on the Giardia diagnosis (86%) versus satisfactory (72%) and poor (35%) concordances for commensal protozoan and helminth infections, respectively. Concerning Giardia molecular diagnosis, from the 71 microscopy-positive samples, specific amplification of gdh and tpi fragments was noted in 68 (95.7%) and 64 (90%) samples, respectively. Amplification of gdh and tpi genes was observed, respectively, in 95.7% and 90% of microscopy-positive Giardia samples. For 144 microscopy-negative samples, gdh and tpi gene amplification products were obtained from 8.3% and 35.9% samples, respectively. The agreement between these genes was about 40%. The centrifuge-flotation based method was the most suitable means of Giardia diagnosis assessed in the present study by combining accuracy and low cost.

  19. Prevalence and awareness of zoonotic parasites of dogs on Curaçao

    Meijer, C.

    2013-01-01

    To study the perceived prevalence, awareness and client education of 7 selected emerging zoonoses on the island of Curaçao, 10 veterinarians and 10 general practitioners were interviewed. 300 inhabitants of Curaçao were asked to fill in a questionnaire about dog ownership and knowledge of zoonoses. The selection of the 7 included zoonoses was based on a literature study; Anaplasma spp, Ancylostoma spp., Dipylidium caninum, Dirofilaria immitis, Giardia lamblia, scabies, and Toxocara canis were...

  20. Impact of Environmental Conditions on the Survival of Cryptosporidium and Giardia on Environmental Surfaces

    Absar Alum; Isra M. Absar; Hamas Asaad; Joseph R. Rubino; M. Khalid Ijaz

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to find out the impact of environmental conditions on the survival of intestinal parasites on environmental surfaces commonly implicated in the transmission of these parasites. The study was performed by incubating Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts on environmentally relevant surfaces such as brushed stainless steel, formica, ceramic, fabric, and skin. Parallel experiments were conducted using clean and soiled coupons incubated under three temperatures. The...

  1. Health inequities: lower socio-economic conditions and higher incidences of intestinal parasites

    Limoncu M Emin

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intestinal parasitic infections affect child health and development and slow down growth, while reducing adults' productivity and work capacity. The aim of the present study was to determine and compare the incidences of intestinal parasitic infections and the socio-economic status of two near primary school children in Manisa, a western city of Turkey. Methods A total of 352 children were involved a questionnaire study from a private school (Ülkem Primary School – ÜPS, 116 children and a community-based school (Şehzadeler Primary School – ŞPS, 236 children. Of these, stool samples could be obtained from a total of 294 students; 97 (83.6% from ÜPS, and 197 (83.5% from ŞPS. The wet mount preparations of the stool samples were examined; samples were also fixed in polyvinyl alcohol and examined with modified formalin ethyl acetate sedimentation and trichrome staining techniques. Data were analyzed using SPSS for Windows version 10.0. The chi-squared test was used for the analytic assessment. Results The percentages of the students found to be infected with intestinal parasites, were 78 (39.6% and 13 (13.4% in ŞPS and ÜPS, respectively. Totally 91 (31.0% of the students from both schools were found to be infected with at least one intestinal parasite. Giardia lamblia was found to be the most common pathogenic intestinal parasite and Blastocystis hominis was prevalent independently from the hygienic conditions. The factors which significantly (p Conclusion Intestinal parasitic infections in school children were found to be a public health problem that increased due to lower socio-economic conditions. We conclude that organization of education seminars including the topics such as prevention of the infectious diseases, improving general hygienic conditions, and application of supportive programs for the parents may be suggested not only to reduce intestinal parasitic infections, but also to elevate the socio-cultural levels.

  2. INTESTINAL PARASITES AND MALARIA IN MUSI BANYU ASIN AND OGAN KOMERING ULU REGENCIES, SOUTH SUMATRA

    W. Patrick Carney

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Pada bulan Mei 1973 diadakan survey tinja dan darah di lima desa di Sumatra Selatan untuk mengetahui aspek-aspek penyakit parasit pada penduduk asli dan para transmigran yang datang antara tahun 1935 dan 1955. Desa-desa Tanjung Kerang, Simpang Langkap dan Biuku di Kabupaten Musi Banyu Asin yang terletak di sebelah barat laut kota Palembang merupakan daerah hutan-ladang-huma dan perkebunan karet rakyat dikelilingi oleh rawa-rawa, yang di diami oleh penduduk asli. Desa-desa Sidomulyo dan Tanjung Raya di Kabupaten Ogan Komering Ulu, terletak di sebelah tenggara' kota Palembang, adalah tempat transmigrasi yang merupakan daerah persawahan." Dari 358 orang yang diperiksa tinjanya yang terdiri dari 193 laki-laki dan 165 wanita, di keiemukan 97 per cent terinfeksi oleh sedikitnya satu macam parasit, 87 per cent oleh 2 macam parasit atau lebih dan 55 per cent oleh 3 macam parasit atau lebih. Telur-telur cacing yang di temukan antara lain ialah: Trichuris trichiura. (83 per cent, Ascaris lumbricoides (78 per cent dan cacing tambang (59 per cent. Enterobius vermicularis (1 per cent dan Strongyloides stercoralis (0,3 per cent jarang di jumpai. Entamoeba coli (29 per cent merupakan parasit protozoa yang biasa di temukan. Jumlah rata-rata protozoa yang ada dalam usus ialah: Entamoeba histofytica (4 per cent, Entamoeba hartmanni (1 per cent, Endolimax nona (5 per cent, Iodamoeba butschlii (5 per cent, Giardia lamblia (3 per cent dan Chilomastbc mesnili (4 per cent. Distribusi dari parasit usus hampir sama di antara golongan laki-laki dan wanita; meskipun tanah memegang peranan yang sama dalam pemindahan cacing-cacing, tetapi A. lumbricoides dan T. trichiura lebih banyak di jumpai pada wanita, sedangkan cacing tambang lebih banyak pada laki-laki. Prevalensi parasit usus menurut golongan umur adalah sebagai berikut: A. lumbricoides lebih banyak pada golongan muda, T. trichiura merata pada semua golongan umur, tetapi yang terbanyak pada golongan umur antara 30-39 tahun. Infeksi cacing tambang terdapat tinggi, antara 50 sampai 60 per cent, sampai umur 50 tahun. Pada orang-orang yang berumur lebih dari 50 tahun, infeksi cacing tambang ini sangat menyolok meningkatnya sampai 92 per cent. Adanya perbedaan infeksi dari protozoa usus menurut golongan umur tidak dapat di buktikan. Pemeriksaan 472 sediaan darah yang berasal dari 5 desa tersebut diatas menemukan Plasmodium vivax dan Plasmodium falciparum pada 8 orang. Lima di antaranya adalah anak-anak yang berumur di bawah 10 tahun. Infeksi pada golongan laki-laki dan wanita tampak sama rata

  3. Unexpected properties of NADP-dependent secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH-1) in Trichomonas vaginalis and other microaerophilic parasites.

    Leitsch, David; Williams, Catrin F; Lloyd, David; Duchne, Michael

    2013-07-01

    Our previous observation that NADP-dependent secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH-1) is down-regulated in metronidazole-resistant Trichomonas vaginalis isolates prompted us to further characterise the enzyme. In addition to its canonical enzyme activity as a secondary alcohol dehydrogenase, a pronounced, so far unknown, background NADPH-oxidising activity in absence of any added substrate was observed when the recombinant enzyme or T. vaginalis extract were used. This activity was strongly enhanced at low oxygen concentrations. Unexpectedly, all functions of ADH-1 were efficiently inhibited by coenzyme A which is a cofactor of a number of key enzymes in T. vaginalis metabolism, i.e. pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR). These observations could be extended to Entamoeba histolytica and Tritrichomonas foetus, both of which have a homologue of ADH-1, but not to Giardia lamblia which lacks an NADP-dependent secondary alcohol dehydrogenase. Although we could not identify the substrate of the observed background activity, we propose that ADH-1 functions as a major sink for NADPH in microaerophilic parasites at low oxygen tension. PMID:23578856

  4. Parasitological and serological studies on Amoebiasis and other intestinal parasitic infections in Recife and its suburban area, northeast Brazil

    Mitsu Okazaki

    1988-08-01

    Full Text Available Parasitological examinations were carried out during April to August, 1987, with 187 out-patients of the IMIP hospital, located in the center of Recife City, and 464 inhabitants of several villages around Cabo City, 50 Km southeast of Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. Approximately 71% of the IMIP patients and 92% of the Cabo inhabitants were infected with at least one species of intestinal parasite. There was minimum difference in the prevalence rate of Trichuris trichiura between two areas, whereas the prevalence rates of Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworms, Strongyloides stercoralis, Schistosoma mansoni and Entamoeba histolytica were higher in the inhabitants of the Cabo City area. Only Giardia lamblia was more prevalent in the out-patients of IMIP hospital. Test tube cultivation revealed that the prevalence rate of Necator americanus in both areas was much higher than that of Ancylostoma duodenale , and also that the prevalence rate of S. stercoralis of the IMIP patients and Cabo inhabitants were 4.5% and 9.6%, respectively. Six hundred and fifteen sera were serologically examined for amoebiasis by the gel diffusion precipitation test (GDP and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA using the antigen prepared from axenically cultured trophozoite of E. histolytica (strain HM-ITMSS. No positive reaction was observed in all of the sera as examined by GDP, while 32 out of 615 sera were positive on ELISA.

  5. PCR amplification and DNA sequence analysis of parasitic intestinal protozoa in specimens stained with Chlorazol Black E.

    Morimoto, Norihito; Korenaga, Masataka; Nishida, Yoshie; Takeuchi, Hiroaki; Kumon, Yoshitaka; Sugiura, Tetsuro

    2013-06-01

    Chlorazol Black E (CBE) stain has been used for the detection and identification of intestinal parasitic protozoa. In recent years, genotyping of protozoa has been performed to examine pathogenicity and for epidemiologic analysis. In this study, protozoan DNA was amplified from preserved human fecal specimens stained with CBE that were positive for Giardia intestinalis (syn. G. lamblia and G. duodenalis), Chilomastix mesnili, Pentatrichomonas hominis, and Entamoeba histolytica. DNA was amplified from 11 of the 12 (91.6%) samples examined. DNA from CBE-stained smears of G. intestinalis, E. histolytica, and P. hominis was amplified, whereas any amplification product could not be obtained from one of three smears of C. mesnili. Storage term and protozoan number had no association with results of PCR amplification. In genotyping of G. intestinalis, four out of six (66.7%) samples were of genotype AI, while the remaining two (33.3%) samples were of genotype B. The amplified DNA sequences showed high similarity (>99%) with that of G. intestinalis in the GenBank database. These results suggest that DNA remains stable in CBE-stained smears for long term. The present study demonstrates that nuclear extracts from specimens stained with CBE can be amplified by PCR and suggests that specimens stored for extended periods could be applied to genetic and prospective epidemiologic analyses. PMID:23666647

  6. PREVALENCE OF INTESTINAL PARASITES AMONG FOOD HANDLERS IN WESTERN IRAN / La prevalencia de parsitos intestinales entre los manipuladores de alimentos en el oeste de Irn

    Farnaz, Kheirandish; Mohammad Javad, Tarahi; Behrouz, Ezatpour.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Infeccin parasitaria es uno de los problemas de salud humana, especialmente en los pases en desarrollo. En este estudio, todas las tiendas de comida rpida, restaurantes, y tiendas de carne asada en Khorramabad (oeste de Irn) y todo el personal que trabaja en ellos, incluyendo 210 personas fueron [...] seleccionadas a travs de los censos y las heces fueron examinadas para detectar la presencia de parsitos. La prueba parasitolgica directa de mojado de montaje, la tincin de Lugol's yodo, sedimentacin formaldehdo-ter y tricrmicas tcnicas de tincin se realizaron sobre las muestras. Los datos fueron analizados con la prueba de chi-cuadrado y regresin logstica seleccionado como el modelo analtico. Los resultados mostraron 19 (9%) muestras de heces fueron positivos para diferentes parsitos intestinales. Los parsitos intestinales incluyen Giardia lamblia 2.9%, Entamoeba coli 4.3%, Blastocystis sp. 1.4%, Hymenolepis nana 0.5%. Hubo diferencia significativa entre la presencia de la tarjeta sanitaria vlida, el conocimiento de la transmisin de los parsitos intestinales, la participacin en cursos de formacin en materia de salud ambiental con parsitos intestinales (p 0.05). Para controlar la infeccin parasitaria en los manipuladores de alimentos se recomiendan varias estrategias, tales como examen de heces cada tres meses, la educacin pblica, se aplican las normas sanitarias, el control de validez de la tarjeta sanitaria y la transmisin formacin infeccin parasitaria. En este sentido, los resultados del presente estudio se pueden utilizar como una base para desarrollar programas de prevencin dirigidos a los manipuladores de alimentos debido a la propagacin de enfermedades a travs de ellos es un problema comn en todo el mundo. Abstract in english Parasitic infection is one of the problems that affect human health, especially in developing countries. In this study, all of the fast food shops, restaurants, and roast meat outlets of Khorramabad (Western Iran) and all the staff employed by them, some 210 people, were selected through a census an [...] d their stools were examined for the presence of parasites. The parasitological tests of direct wet-mount, Lugol's iodine staining, formaldehyde-ether sedimentation and Trichrome staining techniques were performed on the samples. The data was analyzed with a chi-square test and logistic regression was selected as the analytical model. The results showed 19 (9%) stool specimens were positive for different intestinal parasites. These intestinal parasites included Giardia lamblia 2.9%, Entamoeba coli 4.3%, Blastocystis sp. 1.4%, and Hymenolepis nana 0.5%. There was a significant difference between the presence of a valid health card, awareness of transmission of intestinal parasites, participation in training courses in environmental health with intestinal parasites (p 0.05). To control parasitic infection in food handlers, several strategies are recommended such as stool examinations every three months, public education, application of health regulations, controlling the validity of health cards and training on parasitic infection transmission. In this regard, the findings of the present study can be used as a basis to develop preventive programs targeting food handlers because the spread of disease via them is a common problem worldwide.

  7. High Malnutrition Rate in Venezuelan Yanomami Compared to Warao Amerindians andCreoles: Significant Associations WITH Intestinal Parasites and Anemia

    Verhagen, Lilly M.; Incani, Renzo N.; Franco, Carolina R.; Ugarte, Alejandra; Cadenas, Yeneska; Sierra Ruiz, Carmen I.; Hermans, Peter W. M.; Hoek, Denise; Campos Ponce, Maiza; de Waard, Jacobus H.; Pinelli, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Background Children in rural areas experience the interrelated problems of poor growth, anemia and parasitic infections. We investigated the prevalence of and associations between intestinal helminth and protozoan infections, malnutrition and anemia in school-age Venezuelan children. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in 390 children aged 4-16 years from three rural areas of Venezuela: the Amazon Region, Orinoco Delta and Carabobo State. Stool samples were collected for direct parasitic examinations. Anthropometric indicators of chronic (height-for-age Z score) and acute (weight-for-height and Body Mass Index (BMI)-for-age Z score in respectively children under 5 years of age and children aged 5 years and above) malnutrition were calculated. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models were built to determine factors associated with nutritional status and polyparasitism. Results Hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis prevalences were highest in children from the Amazon rainforest (respectively 72% and 18%) while children from the Orinoco Delta and Carabobo State showed higher rates of Ascaris lumbricoides (respectively 28% and 37%) and Trichuris trichiura (40% in both regions). The prevalence of Giardia lamblia infection was not significantly different between regions (average: 18%). Anemia prevalence was highest in the Amazon Region (24%). Hemoglobin levels were significantly decreased in children with a hookworm infection. Malnutrition was present in respectively 84%, 30% and 13% of children from the Amazon Region, Orinoco Delta and Carabobo State. In multivariate analysis including all regions, G. lamblia and helminth infections were significantly and negatively associated with respectively height-for-age and weight-for-height/BMI-for-age Z scores. Furthermore, hemoglobin levels were positively associated with the height-for-age Z score (0.11, 95% CI 0.02 - 0.20). Conclusions In rural populations in Venezuela helminthiasis and giardiasis were associated with acute and chronic nutritional status respectively. These data highlight the need for an integrated approach to control transmission of parasites and improve the health status of rural Venezuelan children. PMID:24143243

  8. Survey of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus and intestinal parasites among food handlers working at Gondar University, Northwest Ethiopia

    Dagnew Mulat

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food borne disease are major health problems in developing countries like Ethiopia. Food handlers with poor personal hygiene working in food establishments could be potential sources of disease due to pathogenic organisms. However; information on disease prevalence among food handlers working in University of Gondar cafeterias are very scarce. The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus, their drug resistance pattern and prevalence of intestinal parasites among food handlers working in University of Gondar student’s cafeterias. Method A cross sectional study was conducted among food handlers working in University of Gondar student’s cafeterias. A pretested structured questionnaire was used for collecting data. Nasal swab and stool were investigated for S. aureus and intestinal parasites; respectively as per the standard of the laboratory methods. Results Among 200 food handlers, females comprised 171(85.5%. The majority (67.5% of the food-handlers were young adults aged 18–39 years. One hundred ninety four (97% of the food handlers were not certified as a food handler. Forty one (20.5% food handlers were positive for nasal carriage of S. aureus, of these 4(9.8% was resistant for methicilin. Giardia lamblia was the most prevalent parasites 22 (11%, followed by Ascaris lumbricoides 13(6.5%, Entamoeba histolytica 12 (6%, Strongyloides stercolaris (0.5, Taenia species 1(0.5% and Schistosoma mansoni 1(0.5%. Conclusion The finding stressed that food handlers with different pathogenic micro organisms may pose significant risk on the consumers. Higher officials should implement food handler’s training on food safety, periodic medical checkup and continuous monitoring of personal hygiene of food handlers.

  9. First report of Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. in fecal samples in blue macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus in southern Brazil

    Matheus Hillard Farret

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the gastrointestinal parasitism by Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. in blue macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus in the southern region of Brazil. Fecal samples of two species kept in captivity in the state of Rio Grande do Sul were analyzed by the direct smear method, centrifugal flotation technique with zinc sulfate and Kinyoun staining technique for research of parasites. Mixed infection by eggs of Capillaria, cysts of Giardia sp. and oocysts of Cryptosporidium sp. was observed. This is the first report this protozoa in blue macaw.

  10. Giardia duodenalis in Damascus, Syria: Identification of Giardia genotypes in a sample of human fecal isolates using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analyzing method.

    Skhal, Dania; Aboualchamat, Ghalia; Al Nahhas, Samar

    2016-02-01

    Giardia duodenalis is a common gastrointestinal parasite that infects humans and many other mammals. It is most prevalent in many developing and industrialized countries. G. duodenalis is considered to be a complex species. While no morphological distinction among different assemblages exist, it can be genetically differentiated into eight major assemblages: A to H. The aim of this study was to determine the genetic heterogeneity of G. duodenalis in human isolates (a study conducted for the first time in Syria). 40 fecal samples were collected from three different hospitals during the hot summer season of 2014. Extraction of genomic DNA from all Giardia positive samples (based on a microscopic examination) was performed using QIAamp DNA Stool Mini Kit. β-giardin gene was used to differentiate between different Giardia assemblages. The 514 bp fragment was amplified using the Polymerase Chain Reaction method, followed by digestion in HaeIII restriction enzyme. Our result showed that genotype A was more frequent than genotype B, 27/40 (67.5%); 4/40 (10%) respectively. A mixed genotype of A+B was only detected in 9 isolates (22.5%). This is the first molecular study performed on G. duodenalis isolates in Syria in order to discriminate among the different genotypes. Further expanded studies using more genes are needed to detect and identify the Giardia parasite at the level of assemblage and sub-assemblage. PMID:26524628

  11. Evaluation of Giardia duodenalis viability after metronidazole treatment by flow cytometry

    Joana Barbosa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Giardia duodenalis (syn. lamblia; syn. intestinalis susceptibility testing is not routinely performed because the classical culture methods are very time-consuming and laborious. We developed a novel flow cytometry (FC assay to evaluate the susceptibility of G. duodenalis trophozoites to metronidazole (MTZ. Different concentrations of MTZ were added to cultures of trophozoites (10 5 /mL and the cultures were incubated for different periods. The 50% inhibitory concentration was calculated and propidium iodide (PI was used to quantify the number of dead cells. After treatment, PI-positive trophozoites increased with increasing drug concentration and exposure time. An excellent correlation was found between FC and the classical method. A novel, accurate and reliable method is now available to evaluate G. duodenalis viability.

  12. Estudo das parasitoses intestinais e da infeco chagsica no Municpio de Novo Airo, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil Cross-sectional study of intestinal parasites and Chagas' disease in the Municipality of Novo Airo, State of Amazonas, Brazil

    Marcio N. Boia

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo seccional descritivo em uma amostra sistemtica por conglomerado de uma em cada dez famlias residentes na sede do Municpio de Novo Airo, na meso-regio norte do Estado do Amazonas, a 250 quilmetros de Manaus por via fluvial. De cada um dos residentes nos 89 domiclios da amostra foram solicitadas fezes para exame pelos mtodos de sedimentao de Lutz e pelo Baermann-Moraes-Coutinho e colhido sangue por puno venosa para testes de ELISA e imunofluorescncia para pesquisa de anticorpos anti-Trypanosoma cruzi. O exame de 316 amostras de fezes mostrou 87,6% com um ou mais parasitos: 35,1% com Ascaris lumbricoides, 29,1% com Entamoeba histolytica, 17,4% com Giardia lamblia e outros parasitos com menor prevalncia. Estes resultados foram correlacionados com a falta de saneamento e de suprimento de gua tratada. De 346 soros examinados 16 (4,6% foram reativos para anticorpos anti-Trypanosoma cruzi, mas somente em trs deles houve correlao entre este resultado e o contacto das pessoas com triatomneos silvestres, conhecidos localmente como "piolho da piaava".A cross-sectional study was performed on the residents of one in every ten households in the town of Novo Airo, in the northern meso-region of the State of Amazonas, 250 kilometers from Manaus by riverboat. A family cluster sample of 89 dwellings was studied. A stool sample was requested from each of the inhabitants for examination using the Lutz sedimentation and Baermann-Moraes-Coutinho techniques, and blood was taken by venous puncture for Trypanosoma cruzi ELISA antibody testing and immunofluorescence. From a total of 316 stool samples, 87.6% had one or more parasites: Ascaris lumbricoides (35.1%, Entamoeba histolytica (29.1%, Giardia lamblia (17.4%, and other parasites with lower prevalence rates. These results were directly correlated with lack of sanitation and clean water supply. Of the 346 sera examined, 16 (4.6% were reactive to T. cruzi antibodies, but only three showed a correlation between this result and human contact with wild triatomines, known locally as "piassava lice".

  13. The Superoxide Reductase from the Early Diverging Eukaryote Giardia Intestinalis

    Cabelli, D.E.; Testa, F.; Mastronicola, D.; Bordi, E.; Pucillo, L.P.; Sarti, P.; Saraiva, L.M.; Giuffre, A.; Teixeira, M.

    2011-10-15

    Unlike superoxide dismutases (SODs), superoxidereductases (SORs) eliminate superoxide anion (O{sub 2}{sup {sm_bullet}-}) not through its dismutation, but via reduction to hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) in the presence of an electron donor. The microaerobic protist Giardia intestinalis, responsible for a common intestinal disease in humans, though lacking SOD and other canonical reactive oxygen species-detoxifying systems, is among the very few eukaryotes encoding a SOR yet identified. In this study, the recombinant SOR from Giardia (SOR{sub Gi}) was purified and characterized by pulse radiolysis and stopped-flow spectrophotometry. The protein, isolated in the reduced state, after oxidation by superoxide or hexachloroiridate(IV), yields a resting species (T{sub final}) with Fe{sup 3+} ligated to glutamate or hydroxide depending on pH (apparent pK{sub a} = 8.7). Although showing negligible SOD activity, reduced SOR{sub Gi} reacts with O{sub 2}{sup {sm_bullet}-} with a pH-independent second-order rate constant k{sub 1} = 1.0 x 10{sup 9} M{sup -1} s{sup -1} and yields the ferric-(hydro)peroxo intermediate T{sub 1}; this in turn rapidly decays to the T{sub final} state with pH-dependent rates, without populating other detectable intermediates. Immunoblotting assays show that SOR{sub Gi} is expressed in the disease-causing trophozoite of Giardia. We propose that the superoxide-scavenging activity of SOR in Giardia may promote the survival of this air-sensitive parasite in the fairly aerobic proximal human small intestine during infection.

  14. Control of Giardia infections with ronidazole and intensive hygiene management in a dog kennel.

    Fiechter, Ruth; Deplazes, Peter; Schnyder, Manuela

    2012-06-01

    Infections with the intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia in dogs and cats are common. Clinical signs vary from asymptomatic to small bowel diarrhea and associated discomfort. The control of infections in dogs is frequently a frustrating issue for animal owners and veterinarians. Drugs with antiprotozoal activity such as fenbendazole and metronidazole are recommended, however, they do not show 100% efficacy and superinfections occur regularly. Ronidazole is currently the drug of choice for the treatment of Tritrichomonas foetus in cats and there is now limited information available about its efficacy against Giardia spp. In the kennel investigated, dogs regularly showed loose feces and the presence of Giardia (assemblage C, renamed as G. canis) cysts. An elimination strategy of this parasite involving strict hygiene management and disinfection of the enclosures with 4-chlorine-M-cresol, oral treatment with ronidazole (30-50mg/kg BW bid for 7 days) and two shampooings (containing chlorhexidine) at the beginning and the end of the treatments was implemented for a group of 6 dogs. As a control another group of 7 dogs was transferred to the disinfected enclosures and shampooed, but left untreated. Dog feces were tested for the presence of Giardia cysts (SAF concentration technique) or Giardia antigen with a commercial ELISA (NOVITEC()) and a quick immunochromatography-based test (SensPERT()) before and between 5 and 40 days after the last treatment. All ronidazole-treated dogs were negative for Giardia cysts and antigen up to 26 days after the last treatment, while between 1 and 5 of the control animals tested positive in each of the test series. At this point, also dogs of the control group were again moved into clean enclosures, shampooed twice and treated with ronidazole. Five, 12 and 19 days after the last treatment, the dogs in the control group tested negative for Giardia cysts and antigen. However, all animals had again positive results at later time points in at least one of the three applied diagnostic techniques within 33-61 days after treatment. Furthermore, all dogs had episodes of diarrhea (for 1-4 days) within 14-31 days after treatment and unformed feces during the whole experiment. The positive effect of ronidazole against Giardia infections in dogs could be confirmed in this study. In particular, the combination of ronidazole treatment combined with the disinfection of the environment and shampooing of the dogs was highly effective in reducing Giardia cyst excretion and may therefore constitute an alternative control strategy for canine giardiosis. PMID:22240238

  15. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection in five farms in Holambra, So Paulo, Brazil Prevalncia de enteroparasitoses em cinco fazendas de Holambra-SP, Brasil

    Jun Kobayashi

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available A parasitological survey was carried out on 222 inhabitants of five farms in Holambra, located 30 km north of Campinas, So Paulo, Brazil, on October 1992. Approximately 70% of the inhabitants were found to be infected with at least one species of intestinal parasite. The positive rates of 6 helminths and 7 protozoan species detected are as follows: 5.4% Ascaris lumbricoides; 8.6% Trichuris trichiura; 19.8% Necator americanus; 10.4% Strongyloides stercoralis; 14% Enterobius vermicularis; 0.9% Hymenolepis nana; 3.2% Entamoeba histolytica; 2.7% E. hartmanni; 9.9% E. coli; 14.0% Endolimax nana; 2.3% Iodamoeba butschlii; 10.4% Giardia lamblia; 37.8% Blastocystis hominis. The positive rates of helminth infection were generaly higher in the younger-group under 16 years-old than those in the elder group aged 16 or more, whereas the infection rates of protozoan species were higher in the elder group. The infection rate of Strongyloides was found to be 10.4% by a newly developed sensitive method (an agarplate culture methods.Uma pesquisa coproparasitolgica foi realizada em 222 habitantes de cinco fazendas de Holambra, localizada a 30 km ao norte de Campinas, SP, Brasil, em outubro de 1992. Aproximadamente 70% dos habitantes apresentaram pelo menos um tipo de parasitose intestinal. O ndice de positividade das 6 espcies de helmintos e de 7 protozorios na populao foi o seguinte: Ascaris lumbricoides (5,4%; Trichuris trichiura (8,6%; Necator americanus (19,8%; Strongyloides stercoralis (10,4%; Enterobius vermiculares (1,4%; Hymenolepis nana (0,9%; Entamoeba histolytica (3,2%; E. hartmanni (2,7%; E. coli (9,9%; Endolimax nana (14,0%; Iodamoeba butschlii (2,3%; Giardia lamblia (10,4%; Blastocystis hominis (37,4%. O ndice de positividade para infeco por helmitos foi aparentemente maior na populao mais jovem (menores de 16 anos do que no grupo de populao com idades acima de 16 anos, ao contrrio do ndice de infeco pelos protozorios que foi mais elevado na populao adulta. Utilizando um novo e sensvel mtodo atravs de cultura em gar, encontrou-se um ndice de infeco de 10.4% para Strongyloides sp.

  16. Core histone genes of Giardia intestinalis: genomic organization, promoter structure, and expression

    Adam Rodney D

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Giardia intestinalis is a protist found in freshwaters worldwide, and is the most common cause of parasitic diarrhea in humans. The phylogenetic position of this parasite is still much debated. Histones are small, highly conserved proteins that associate tightly with DNA to form chromatin within the nucleus. There are two classes of core histone genes in higher eukaryotes: DNA replication-independent histones and DNA replication-dependent ones. Results We identified two copies each of the core histone H2a, H2b and H3 genes, and three copies of the H4 gene, at separate locations on chromosomes 3, 4 and 5 within the genome of Giardia intestinalis, but no gene encoding a H1 linker histone could be recognized. The copies of each gene share extensive DNA sequence identities throughout their coding and 5' noncoding regions, which suggests these copies have arisen from relatively recent gene duplications or gene conversions. The transcription start sites are at triplet A sequences 127 nucleotides upstream of the translation start codon for each gene. We determined that a 50 bp region upstream from the start of the histone H4 coding region is the minimal promoter, and a highly conserved 15 bp sequence called the histone motif (him is essential for its activity. The Giardia core histone genes are constitutively expressed at approximately equivalent levels and their mRNAs are polyadenylated. Competition gel-shift experiments suggest that a factor within the protein complex that binds him may also be a part of the protein complexes that bind other promoter elements described previously in Giardia. Conclusion In contrast to other eukaryotes, the Giardia genome has only a single class of core histone genes that encode replication-independent histones. Our inability to locate a gene encoding the linker histone H1 leads us to speculate that the H1 protein may not be required for the compaction of Giardia's small and gene-rich genome.

  17. Intestinal parasites in ecotourism region of the state of Paraná, Brazil

    Dina Lúcia Morais Falavigna

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available To determine the indices of prevalence of intestinal parasites and commensals in the residents of ecotourism region of Paraná State, a retrospective study was conducte, from January/2003 to December/2004 on 3,764 fecal parasitological examinations performed by a private laboratory of Ubiratã using the Baermann-Moraes, water-sedimentation and Willis methods. Among the individuals aged eight months to 89 years, 522 (13.9% cases were positive. Giardia lamblia (175/522; 24.2% was the most prevalent parasite (pA prevalência de enteroparasitas e comensais, de janeiro/2003 a dezembro/2004, foi determinada em residentes de região de ecoturismo do Paraná por meio de estudo retrospectivo. Foram examinados os resultados de 3.764 exames coproparasitológicos efetuados em laboratório privado de Ubiratã Entre indivíduos de 8 meses a 89 anos, 522 (13,9% exames foram positivos. Giardia intestinalis (175/522; 24,2% foi o parasita prevalente (p<0,000. Entamoeba coli mostrou-se o commensal mais comum, com 238/552 (32,9% casos (p<0,000, encontrando-se frequentemente associado com outras espécies, parasitas ou comensais. Crianças em idade pré-escolar (2-6 anos e escolar (7-14 anos apresentaram-se mais parasitados (66,0% de positividade; p<0,0000. A maioria dos indivíduos encontrava-se parasitado por uma única espécie (233; 44.6% do que por várias espécies (169; 32.4%. Estes resultados indicam um grau significativo de contaminação ambiental em cidades do Paraná, principalmente aquelas de médio e pequeno porte, representando fonte de preocupação em vista do crescimento do ecoturismo na região.

  18. Genotyping and subtyping of Giardia and Cryptosporidium isolates from commensal rodents in China.

    Zhao, Z; Wang, R; Zhao, W; Qi, M; Zhao, J; Zhang, L; Li, J; Liu, A

    2015-05-01

    Cryptosporidium and Giardia are two important zoonotic intestinal parasites responsible for diarrhoea in humans and other animals worldwide. Rodents, as reservoirs or carriers of Cryptosporidium and Giardia, are abundant and globally widespread. In the present study, we collected 232 fecal specimens from commensal rodents captured in animal farms and farm neighbourhoods in China. We collected 33 Asian house rats, 168 brown rats and 31 house mice. 6.0% (14/232) and 8.2% (19/232) of these rodents were microscopy-positive for Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts, respectively. All 14 Giardia isolates were identified as Giardia duodenalis assemblage G at a minimum of one or maximum of three gene loci (tpi, gdh and bg). By small subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA) gene sequencing, Cryptosporidium parvum (n = 12) and Cryptosporidium muris (n = 7) were identified. The gp60 gene encoding the 60-kDa glycoprotein was successfully amplified and sequenced in nine C. parvum isolates, all of which belonged to the IIdA15G1 subtype. Observation of the same IIdA15G1 subtype in humans (previously) and in rodents (here) suggests that rodents infected with Cryptosporidium have the potential to transmit cryptosporidiosis to humans. PMID:25579244

  19. Parasitismo intestinal infantil: factores epidemiolgicos en Orange Walk, Belice / Intestinal parasitism in children: epidemiological factors in Orange Walk, Belize

    Liset, Corrales Fuentes; Sandra, Hernndez Garca; Miguel Angel, Rodrguez Arencibia; Aydely, Hernndez Prez.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El parasitismo intestinal (PI) contina siendo un problema de salud en Centroamrica y el Caribe. Se realiz una investigacin aplicada, epidemiolgica, descriptiva, transversal, en el Distrito urbano de Orange Walk, (Belice), ao 2009, con el objetivo de identificar los factores causales de riesgo [...] epidemiolgico. El universo lo constituyeron los 566 nios de 0 - 4 aos, la muestra fue 400 nios; mediante un muestreo no probabilstico intencional se realiz el examen directo de heces fecales, constituyndose dos estratos muestrales. Fueron utilizados los mtodos empricos de investigacin: cuestionario, gua de observacin y tericos; utilizando para el procesamiento de datos la estadstica descriptiva, frecuencias absolutas, relativas, proporcin, ndice y riesgo relativo, comparacin de dos y k- proporciones, prueba no paramtrica ji cuadrado. Resultaron ms heces fecales positivas que negativas, no estuvo relacionado el sexo con aparicin de parsitos, edad predominante de 3 - 4 aos, ndice de atenciones mdicas de 41.34/100 habitantes, parsito ms frecuente: Giardia lamblia. Las manifestaciones clnicas predominantes: dolor abdominal, diarrea y la prdida de peso. Principales factores causales epidemiolgicos: no hervir el agua, disposicin inadecuada de residuales y juegos con tierra, hubo una recurrencia de 2 episodios/nio y un riesgo relativo de contraer PI de 1.3 veces, ms elevado para nios en condiciones higinicas desfavorables, poblacin con una educacin sanitaria no adecuada y baja escolaridad de padres. Se concluy que el PI constituye un problema de salud. Abstract in english Intestinal parasitism (IP) is still a health problem in Central America and Caribbean Countries. An applied, epidemiological, descriptive, cross-sectional research was conducted at the urban district of Orange Walk, Belize in 2009 with the purpose of identifying the causal factors of epidemiologic [...] al risk. The target group was comprised of 566 children (0-4 years old), the sample (400 children) was taken by means of intentional non-probabilistic sampling and a direct feces examination; representing two sampling strata. Empiric methods of investigation were used: questionnaires, observation guidebook and theoretical. To process the data, descriptive statistics, absolute and relative frequencies were used; ratios, rate with relative risk, comparison of two and k-proportions, plus non-parametric chi square test as well. More positive feces prevailed over negative ones, observing no relation to the sex and the onset of parasites, children of 3-4 years old prevailed. The rate of medical care was 41.34/100 inhabitants, Giardia lamblia was the most frequent parasite found. The clinical signs of: abdominal pain, diarrhea, weight loss. The main causal epidemiological factors were: no water boiling, inadequate sewage disposal and plays on the ground. Recurrence had 2 events per child and a relative risk of suffering from the infection of 1.3 times, greater for children living in unfavourable hygienic situation: inhabitants with poor sanitary education and parents with low-schooling level. Intestinal Parasitism constitutes a health problem.

  20. Plant species used in giardiasis treatment: ethnopharmacology and in vitro evaluation of anti-Giardia activity

    Vanessa do A., Neiva; Maria Nilce S., Ribeiro; Flvia R. F., Nascimento; Maria do Socorro S., Cartgenes; Denise F., Coutinho-Moraes; Flavia M. M. do, Amaral.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compile the traditional knowledge about plants used for the treatment of giardiasis, and also to carry out experimental research to evaluate the anti-Giardia activity of five species.To reach this objective, 398 interviews were performed using a previously prepared quest [...] ionnaire, followed by an in vitro evaluation of giardicidal potential of hydroalcoholic leaf extracts of Anacardium occidentale L., Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Passiflora edulis Sims, Psidium guajava L., and Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich.) Vahl. Among the interviewed people, 55.53% reported the use of plants to treat diarrhea, the most severe symptom of giardiasis. The results indicated 36 species used by this population for these problems. The use of leaves (72.50%) of a single plant (64.25%) collected from backyards and gardens (44.34%) and prepared by decoction were predominant. The majority of the interviewees (85.52%) attributed their cure to the use of plants. In the experimental tests, all extracts inhibited the growth of Giardia lamblia trophozoites in different intensities: A. occidentale and P. guajava extracts elicited a moderate activity (250 ? IC50 ? 500 ?g/ml), C. ambrosioides and S. cayennensis extracts evoked a high activity (100 ? IC50 ? 250 ?g/ml), and P. edulis extract showed very high activity (IC50 ? 100 ?g/ml). This study shows that an ethnopharmacological approach is useful in the selection of plant materials with potential giardicidal activity.

  1. Enteroparasitismo en Indgenas Terena en el Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil / Intestinal Parasitism in Terena Indigenous People of the Province of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Antonio, Neres-Norberg; Fabiano, Guerra-Sanches; Paulo R, Blanco Moreira-Norberg; Jos Tadeu, Madeira-Oliveira; Aluzio Antonio, Santa-Helena; Nicolau Maus, Serra-Freire.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo Considerando que ms de la mitad de la poblacin mundial est infectada por protozoarios y helmintos intestinales, con alta prevalencia en las zonas ms pobres, esta investigacin tuvo como objetivo identificar la prevalencia de los parasitismos entre indgenas de la etnia Terena, estableci [...] dos en el Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul. Metodologa Se examinaron 134 muestras de heces de individuos de la comunidad indgena. Estas se conservaron en solucin de Merthiolate-iodo-formol (MIF). Los exmenes de laboratorio fueron realizados por las tcnicas de Hoffman, Pons y Janer; Willis y Kinyoun. Resultados Se identificaron infecciones por helmintos nematodos de las especies Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostomidae, Enterobius vermicularis, Strongyloides stercoralis, y Trichuris trichiura; cestodos de la especie Hymenolepis nana, y Taeniaspp. Tambin por protozoarios de las especies Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia lamblia, Endolimax nana, Entamoeba coli, y Entamoeba histolytica. De las muestras investigadas, 23,1% fueron negativas; de los 76,9 % parasitados hubo diferencia estadsticamente no significativa para el parasitismo en hombres y mujeres examinados, de unoa 33 aos de edad, y sobre parasitismo mono especfico, o con simultaneidad de especies. Como diversidad parasitaria fueron encontradas siete especies de helmintos nematodos y cestodos, y cinco de protozoarios Archamoebae, flagelados y enterozorios. Conclusiones Los resultados fueron la base para la orientacin e intervencin adecuada, revelando la necesidad de la implantacin de medidas gubernamentales y socioeducativas para mejorar las condiciones de vida de esta comunidad. Abstract in english Objective Considering that intestinal protozoans and helminths infect more than half of the world population, with high prevalence in the poorest regions, the objective of this study was to conduct parasitological research among indigenous Terena people established in the state of MatoGrosso do Sul. [...] An inquiry was performed to find the incidence of parasitism in these communities. Methodology 134 aliquots of feces from individuals of the indigenous community were examined. Samples were conserved in Merthiolate-iodine-formol solution (MIF). The laboratory exams were carried out using the techniques of Hoffman, Pons and Janer; Willis and Kinyoun. Results We identified infections of nematode helminths of the species Ascarislumbricoides, Ancylostomidae, Enterobiusvermicularis, Strongyloidesstercoralis, and Trichuristrichiura; and cestodes of the species Hymenolepis nana and Taenia spp. Also found were the protozoan species: Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia lamblia, Endolimax nana, Entamoeba coli, and Entamoebahistolytica. 23.1 % of the samples studied were negative. Of the 76.9 % of samples with parasites, there were non-statistically significant differences in parasitism between men and women examined between 1 and 33 years-of-age. There were also no significant differences between monospecific parasitism and with concurrent species. In terms of parasitic diversity, seven species of nematode and cestodeshelminths were found along with five species of Archamoebae protozoa: flagellates and enterozoans. Conclusions These results were the basis for orientation and appropriate drug intervention and reveal the need for the implementation governmental, social and educational measures to improve the living conditions of that community.

  2. Enteroparasitismo en Indgenas Terena en el Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil / Intestinal Parasitism in Terena Indigenous People of the Province of MatoGrossodoSul, Brazil

    Antonio, Neres-Norberg; Fabiano, Guerra-Sanches; Paulo R, Blanco Moreira-Norberg; Jos Tadeu, Madeira-Oliveira; Aluzio Antonio, Santa-Helena; Nicolau Maus, Serra-Freire.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo Considerando que ms de la mitad de la poblacin mundial est infectada por protozoarios y helmintos intestinales, con alta prevalencia en las zonas ms pobres, esta investigacin tuvo como objetivo identificar la prevalencia de los parasitismos entre indgenas de la etnia Terena, estableci [...] dos en el Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul. Metodologa Se examinaron 134 muestras de heces de individuos de la comunidad indgena. Estas se conservaron en solucin de Merthiolate-iodo-formol (MIF). Los exmenes de laboratorio fueron realizados por las tcnicas de Hoffman, Pons y Janer; Willis y Kinyoun. Resultados Se identificaron infecciones por helmintos nematodos de las especies Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostomidae, Enterobius vermicularis, Strongyloides stercoralis, y Trichuris trichiura; cestodos de la especie Hymenolepis nana, y Taeniaspp. Tambin por protozoarios de las especies Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia lamblia, Endolimax nana, Entamoeba coli, y Entamoeba histolytica. De las muestras investigadas, 23,1% fueron negativas; de los 76,9 % parasitados hubo diferencia estadsticamente no significativa para el parasitismo en hombres y mujeres examinados, de unoa 33 aos de edad, y sobre parasitismo mono especfico, o con simultaneidad de especies. Como diversidad parasitaria fueron encontradas siete especies de helmintos nematodos y cestodos, y cinco de protozoarios Archamoebae, flagelados y enterozorios. Conclusiones Los resultados fueron la base para la orientacin e intervencin adecuada, revelando la necesidad de la implantacin de medidas gubernamentales y socioeducativas para mejorar las condiciones de vida de esta comunidad. Abstract in english Objective Considering that intestinal protozoans and helminths infect more than half of the world population, with high prevalence in the poorest regions, the objective of this study was to conduct parasitological research among indigenous Terena people established in the state of MatoGrosso do Sul. [...] An inquiry was performed to find the incidence of parasitism in these communities. Methodology 134 aliquots of feces from individuals of the indigenous community were examined. Samples were conserved in Merthiolate-iodine-formol solution (MIF). The laboratory exams were carried out using the techniques of Hoffman, Pons and Janer; Willis and Kinyoun. Results We identified infections of nematode helminths of the species Ascarislumbricoides, Ancylostomidae, Enterobiusvermicularis, Strongyloidesstercoralis, and Trichuristrichiura; and cestodes of the species Hymenolepis nana and Taenia spp. Also found were the protozoan species: Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia lamblia, Endolimax nana, Entamoeba coli, and Entamoebahistolytica. 23.1 % of the samples studied were negative. Of the 76.9 % of samples with parasites, there were non-statistically significant differences in parasitism between men and women examined between 1 and 33 years-of-age. There were also no significant differences between monospecific parasitism and with concurrent species. In terms of parasitic diversity, seven species of nematode and cestodeshelminths were found along with five species of Archamoebae protozoa: flagellates and enterozoans. Conclusions These results were the basis for orientation and appropriate drug intervention and reveal the need for the implementation governmental, social and educational measures to improve the living conditions of that community.

  3. Control of Giardia infections with ronidazole and intensive hygienemanagement in a dog kennel

    Fiechter, Ruth M-E; Deplazes, P.; Schnyder, M

    2012-01-01

    Infections with the intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia in dogs and cats are common. Clinical signs vary from asymptomatic to small bowel diarrhea and associated discomfort. The control of infections in dogs is frequently a frustrating issue for animal owners and veterinarians. Drugs with antiprotozoal activity such as fenbendazole and metronidazole are recommended, however, they do not show 100% efficacy and superinfections occur regularly. Ronidazole is currently the drug of choice for th...

  4. ENTEROPATHOGENS DETECTED IN A DAYCARE CENTER, SOUTHEASTERN BRAZIL: BACTERIA, VIRUS, AND PARASITE RESEARCH

    Edna Donizetti Rossi Castro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and etiological profile of enteropathogens in children from a daycare center. Methods: From October 2010 to February 2011 stool samples from 100 children enrolled in a government daycare center in the municipality of São José do Rio Preto, in the state of São Paulo, were collected and analyzed. Results: A total of 246 bacteria were isolated in 99% of the fecal samples; 129 were in the diarrheal group and 117 in the non-diarrheal group. Seventy-three strains of Escherichia coli were isolated, 19 of Enterobacter, one of Alcaligenes and one of Proteus. There were 14 cases of mixed colonization with Enterobacter and E. coli. Norovirus and Astrovirus were detected in children with clinical signs suggestive of diarrhea. These viruses were detected exclusively among children residing in urban areas. All fecal samples were negative for the presence of the rotavirus species A and C. The presence of Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba coli, Endolimax nana and hookworm was observed. A significant association was found between food consumption outside home and daycare center and the presence of intestinal parasites. Conclusions: For children of this daycare center, intestinal infection due to pathogens does not seem to have contributed to the occurrence of diarrhea or other intestinal symptoms. The observed differences may be due to the wide diversity of geographical, social and economic characteristics and the climate of Brazil, all of which have been reported as critical factors in the modulation of the frequency of different enteropathogens.

  5. Nutritional Status of Preschool Children Infected With Giardia Intestinalis

    SM Sadjjadi

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Giardia intestinalis is the most common intestinal parasite in human worldwide. It can produce a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. In order to assess the nutritional status of preschool children infected with Giardia intestinalis, a cross sectional study was made in Marvdasht city, Fars Province, Southern Iran. A total of 337 preschool boys and girls aged 3-6 years were randomly selected for stool examination of intestinal parasites as well as measurement of height, weight, head and arm circumferences. A total of 77 individuals were infected with G. intestinalis. Seventy-one individuals who had only G. intestinalis and 229 with no parasitic infections were selected as infected and control groups, respectively. Z-Score of -2SD was used as cut off point of malnutrition. A total of 9 (12.7% of infected children and 18 (7.9% of non infected individuals had a height for age Z-score (HAZ below -2SD. Eight (11.3% of former group had a weight for age Z-score (WAZ under-2SD. In control group 4.4% of preschool children had WAZ under-2SD. 4.2% of infected children had a weight for height Z-score (WHZ under-2SD but none of the controls had it. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference in height, weight, head circumference, HAZ, and WAZ between infected and control children (P<0.05. Also, HAZ and WAZ, was significantly different between these two groups, but not for WHZ. A higher infection with G. intestinalis in the children with lower parents’ education was observed. However the distribution of malnutrition was not significantly different between boys and girls. In conclusion the present study indicated that giardiasis retarded growth of preschool children in this region.

  6. Introduction of New Parasites in Denmark

    Enemark, Heidi L.

    genetically very similar to previously published isolates from France and Italy, and may have been spread to Denmark from southern Europe. Giardia spp. a zoonotic, unicellular parasite (protozoa) well known in Danish livestock but recently found in extremely high numbers in Danish deer with chronic diarrhea...... and emaciation. Molecular epidemiological studies are ongoing. At the present time it is unknown whether Giardia spp. in Danish deer has been introduced, and little is known about the transmission rate between deer and farmed ruminants. Echinococcus multilocularis (the small fox tapeworm) was detected...

  7. Molecular typing of Giardia duodenalis isolates from German travellers.

    Broglia, A; Weitzel, T; Harms, G; Cacció, S M; Nöckler, K

    2013-10-01

    Giardia duodenalis isolates from German travellers returning from tropical areas were characterised by PCR amplification and sequencing of fragments of the beta-giardin (bg), glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) and triose phosphate isomerase (tpi) genes. Assignment of isolates to specific G. duodenalis assemblages was found to differ according to the marker used. Indeed, at the bg locus, assemblages A and B were identified, with a higher prevalence of the former over the latter, whereas at the tpi and gdh loci, most samples were classified as assemblage B. In agreement with previous studies, sequence analysis showed that assemblage B isolates have a higher genetic polymorphism than assemblage A isolates, and novel variants were described. The degree of polymorphism was shown in a graphical representation of the polymorphic sites generating a novel sequence, the heterogeneous positions common to assemblages A and B (double peaks), that may represent mixed assemblage infection and the heterogeneous positions detected at random sites. Notably, assemblage D, which is considered to be adapted to dogs, was found at the gdh locus in two samples originating from southern Asia, as novel genotypes. By comparing the geographical origin of the infected cases and the number of German travellers visiting the areas considered, India and west Africa appeared to be the areas associated to the highest risk of acquiring Giardia infection. The analysis of the geographical distribution of the genotypes did not suggest any particular geographical clustering pattern, but it may be useful to evaluate these results with a higher number of isolates. Most of the samples typed at the three markers could not be assigned unequivocally to either assemblage A or B, and this was confirmed also by a real-time PCR assay, using a set of assemblage-specific primers. The results of this study reinforce the notion that genetic exchanges and allelic sequence heterogeneity represent major obstacles towards understanding the epidemiology of giardiasis and that exposure to Giardia parasites in endemic areas often results in mixed infections in returning travellers. PMID:23892479

  8. Separation and Mapping of Chromosomes of Parasitic Protozoa

    Rosaura Hernandez-Rivas; Artur Scherf

    1997-01-01

    Many protozoan parasites represent an important group of human pathogens. Pulsed Field Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis has been an important tool for fundamental genetic studies of parasites like Trypanosoma, Leishmania, Giardia or the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. We present PFGE conditions allowing a high resolution separation of chromosomes ranging from 500 to 4000 kb within a two day electrophoresis run. In addition, we present conditions for separating large ...

  9. Variables socio-epidemiolgicas de las enteroparsitosis en escolares de la Escuela Bolivariana "Manuel Molina Hernndez", Boca de Tocuyo. Estado Falcn, Venezuela / Socioepidemiological variables of intestinal parasites in students of the Bolivarian School "Manuel Molina Hernndez"; Boca del Tocuyo. Falcn, States, Venezuela

    Mara, Hernndez A; Agnedys, Edward M; Eduardo, Conde M; Andrs, Reyes B; Mirna, Stranieri; Ivana, Silva.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Los enteroparsitos constituyen un problema de Salud Pblica en los pases sub-desarrollados; su identificacin mediante el coproanlisis es esencial para el manejo global del escolar. Con el objetivo de caracterizar las enteroparsitosis en escolares de la primera etapa de la Escuela Bolivariana "M [...] anuel Molina Hernndez", Boca de Tocuyo-Municipio Monseor Iturriza durante los meses de Mayo y Junio, 2011, se realiz un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal en una muestra de 36 escolares, cuyos representantes, previo consentimiento informado, autorizaron la toma de muestras de heces para el diagnstico de enteroparasitosis. Los datos fueron analizados mediante estadstica univariada y bivariada. Los Resultados obtenidos reflejaron que la presencia de parasitosis predomin en los escolares de sexo masculino (47,2%); y las edades en que prevaleci la parasitosis fue en 8aos 27,8%, 7aos 19,4% y 6 aos 16,7%. En 58,3% de los escolares se les diagnostic 2 y3 tipos de parasitosis. Las especies parasitarias ms frecuentes fueron: Blastocystis hominis 43,3%, Endolimax nana 20%, Entamoeba histolytica 10%, Entamoeba coli 8,3% y Giardia lamblia con 6,7%. Se asoci estadsticamente el sexo con los quistes parasitarios, pero no se encontr significancia. La caracterizacin de la condicin social aplicando el Modelo de Graffar Modificado por Mndez Castellanos, reporto que 58,3% de los escolares se ubicaron en el estrato V de Graffar. Se concluye que la parasitosis ms frecuente fue B. hominis en todas las edades, seguida de E. nana, predominando la B. hominis en el sexo masculino, los escolares de 6 a 8 aos fueron los ms afectados que se ubican en el estrato social V. Abstract in english The intestinal parasites are a public health problem in underdeveloped countries, its identification by coproanalisis is essential for the overall management of the school. The objetive was to determine the presence of intestinal parasitosis and nutritional diagnosis in schoolchildren of the first s [...] tage of the Bolivarian School "Manuel Molina Hernandez," Boca de Tocuyo-City Iturriza Municipality from May to June of 2011. A descriptive cross-sectional sample of 36 schools at the Bolivarian School "Manuel Molina Hernandez." The data collection was through a card, stool samples were taken diagnosing intestinal parasites or not and the type, display the results in absolute and relative frequency. The results observed, the most common parasites: Blastocystis hominis 27 (75%), Endolimax nanny with 12 (33.3%) and Entamoeba coli with 6 (16.6%). Entamoeba histolytica less frequent with 5 (13.8%) and Giardia lamblia with 4 (11.1%). The distribution of parasitized schoolchildren by age group, the group from 7 to 8 years had higher parasite, with 17 (47.2%) schoolchildren. The rate of parasitism by age group, the group of 5-6 and 7-8 years Blastocystis hominis with 7 predominated (63.6%) and 16 (76.19%) pupils respectively. The classification of schools by level of layer prevailed Graffar V. The nutritional diagnosis in 23 parasitized group (79.3%) was normal. The predominant parasite was B. hominis in all ages, followed by E. nana, prevailing B. hominis in men, schoolchildren 6 to 8 years were affected and in the social stratum V.

  10. Parasitismo intestinal infantil: factores epidemiológicos en Orange Walk, Belice Intestinal parasitism in children: epidemiological factors in Orange Walk, Belize

    Liset Corrales Fuentes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El parasitismo intestinal (PI continúa siendo un problema de salud en Centroamérica y el Caribe. Se realizó una investigación aplicada, epidemiológica, descriptiva, transversal, en el Distrito urbano de Orange Walk, (Belice, año 2009, con el objetivo de identificar los factores causales de riesgo epidemiológico. El universo lo constituyeron los 566 niños de 0 - 4 años, la muestra fue 400 niños; mediante un muestreo no probabilístico intencional se realizó el examen directo de heces fecales, constituyéndose dos estratos muestrales. Fueron utilizados los métodos empíricos de investigación: cuestionario, guía de observación y teóricos; utilizando para el procesamiento de datos la estadística descriptiva, frecuencias absolutas, relativas, proporción, índice y riesgo relativo, comparación de dos y k- proporciones, prueba no paramétrica ji cuadrado. Resultaron más heces fecales positivas que negativas, no estuvo relacionado el sexo con aparición de parásitos, edad predominante de 3 - 4 años, índice de atenciones médicas de 41.34/100 habitantes, parásito más frecuente: Giardia lamblia. Las manifestaciones clínicas predominantes: dolor abdominal, diarrea y la pérdida de peso. Principales factores causales epidemiológicos: no hervir el agua, disposición inadecuada de residuales y juegos con tierra, hubo una recurrencia de 2 episodios/niño y un riesgo relativo de contraer PI de 1.3 veces, más elevado para niños en condiciones higiénicas desfavorables, población con una educación sanitaria no adecuada y baja escolaridad de padres. Se concluyó que el PI constituye un problema de salud.Intestinal parasitism (IP is still a health problem in Central America and Caribbean Countries. An applied, epidemiological, descriptive, cross-sectional research was conducted at the urban district of «Orange Walk», Belize in 2009 with the purpose of identifying the causal factors of epidemiological risk. The target group was comprised of 566 children (0-4 years old, the sample (400 children was taken by means of intentional non-probabilistic sampling and a direct feces examination; representing two sampling strata. Empiric methods of investigation were used: questionnaires, observation guidebook and theoretical. To process the data, descriptive statistics, absolute and relative frequencies were used; ratios, rate with relative risk, comparison of two and k-proportions, plus non-parametric chi square test as well. More positive feces prevailed over negative ones, observing no relation to the sex and the onset of parasites, children of 3-4 years old prevailed. The rate of medical care was 41.34/100 inhabitants, Giardia lamblia was the most frequent parasite found. The clinical signs of: abdominal pain, diarrhea, weight loss. The main causal epidemiological factors were: no water boiling, inadequate sewage disposal and plays on the ground. Recurrence had 2 events per child and a relative risk of suffering from the infection of 1.3 times, greater for children living in unfavourable hygienic situation: inhabitants with poor sanitary education and parents with low-schooling level. Intestinal Parasitism constitutes a health problem.

  11. PREVALENCE OF INTESTINAL PARASITES AMONG FOOD HANDLERS OF SARI, NORTHERN IRAN / Prevalncia de parasitas intestinais entre manipuladores de alimentos de Sari, Norte do Iran

    Mehdi, SHARIF; Ahmad, DARYANI; Elham, KIA; Fateme, REZAEI; Mehrdad, NASIRI; Mohtaram, NASROLAHEI.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Infeco parasitria altamente prevalente entre os pases em desenvolvimento do mundo. Manipuladores de alimentos so fonte potencial de infeco de muitos parasitas intestinais assim como de outras infeces entero-patognicas. O propsito deste estudo foi determinar a prevalncia de portadores d [...] e parasitas intestinais entre pessoas que manipulam alimentos e atendem o centro de sade pblica em Sari, norte do Iran para possvel check-up. O estudo foi conduzido de agosto de 2011 at fevereiro de 2012. Amostras de fezes foram coletadas de 1041 manipuladores de ambos os sexos e de diferentes funes entre a idade de 18 e 63 anos e foram examinados de acordo com procedimentos standard. Em questionrio separado foram colocadas as anlises sciodemogrficas, ambientais e de comportamento dos manipuladores de alimentos. Parasitas intestinais foram encontrados em 161 (15,5%) das amostras estudadas. Sete espcies de protozorios ou infeces por helmintos foram observadas. A maior parte dos participantes estava infectada com Giardia lamblia (53,9%) seguida por Blastocystis hominis (18%), Entamoeba coli (15,5%), Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (5,5%), Cryptosporidium sp. (3,1%), Iodamoeba butschlii (3,1%) e Hymenolepis nana (1,9%) como a nica infeco por helminto. Os achados enfatizaram que os manipuladores de alimentos, com diferentes organismos patognicos podem se constituir risco significante para os consumidores. Exames rotineiros e tratamento dos manipuladores de alimentos so as ferramentas apropriadas para prevenir as infeces originadas de alimentos. Abstract in english Parasitic infection is highly prevalent throughout the developing countries of the world. Food handlers are a potential source of infection for many intestinal parasites and other enteropathogenic infections as well. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasite carrie [...] rs among food handlers attending the public health center laboratory in Sari, Northern Iran for annual check-up. The study was performed from August 2011 through February 2012. Stool samples were collected from 1041 male and female food handlers of different jobs aged between 18 to 63 years and were examined following standard procedures. Sociodemographic, environmental and behavioral data analysis of the food handlers were recorded in a separate questionnaire. Intestinal parasites were found in 161 (15.5%) of the studied samples. Seven species of protozoan or helminth infections were detected. Most of the participants were infected with Giardia lamblia (53.9%) followed by Blastocystis hominis (18%), Entamoeba coli (15.5%), Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (5.5%), Cryptosporidium sp. (3.1%), Iodamoeba butschlii (3.1%) and Hymenolepis nana (1.9%) as the only helminth infection. The findings emphasized that food handlers with different pathogenic organisms may predispose consumers to significant health risks. Routine screening and treatment of food handlers is a proper tool in preventing food-borne infections.

  12. Population-based analyses of Giardia duodenalis is consistent with the clonal assemblage structure

    Takumi Katsuhisa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Giardia duodenalis is a common protozoan parasite of humans and animals. Genetic characterization of single loci indicates the existence of eight groups called assemblages, which differ in their host distribution. Molecular analyses challenged the idea that G. duodenalis is a strictly clonal diplomonad by providing evidence of recombination within and between assemblages. Particularly, inter-assemblage recombination events would complicate the interpretation of multi-locus genotyping data from field isolates: where is a host infected with multiple Giardia genotypes or with a single, recombined Giardia genotype. Methods Population genetic analyses on the single and multiple-locus level on an extensive dataset of G. duodenalis isolates from humans and animals were performed. Results Our analyses indicate that recombination between isolates from different assemblages are apparently very rare or absent in the natural population of Giardia duodenalis. At the multi-locus level, our statistical analyses are more congruent with clonal reproduction and can equally well be explained with the presence of multiple G. duodenalis genotypes within one field isolate. Conclusions We conclude that recombination between G. duodenalis assemblages is either very rare or absent. Recombination between genotypes from the same assemblage and genetic exchange between the nuclei of a single cyst needs further investigation.

  13. Giardia Prevention and Control: General Public

    ... important for children in diapers). If diagnosed with giardiasis, do not swim for at least 1 week ... Risk of Getting Shigellosis, which also applies to giardiasis. Clean up after ill pets and people. Giardia ...

  14. Study of Parasitic and Bacterial Infections in the Food-Handling Personnel, Ramadan, Iran

    Zahra Heidar Barghi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Food-handling personnel play an important role in ensuring food safety throughout the chain of production, processing, storage and preparation. Mishandling and disregard of hygienic measures on their part may enable pathogens to come into contact with food and to cause illness in the consumers. Occasionally, food-handling personnel may transfer to food pathogens that they are carrying in or on their bodies.

    Methods: In order to evaluate the role of persons who was working in food handling and processing centers, the study carried out in above-mentioned centers in Ramadan the west of Iran. A total of 938 stool samples collected of persons who were working in the restaurants, confectionaries, milk products stores, Chelo-Kabab houses, sandwich shops etc. All samples examined by culture for entero-pathogens bacteria and by formalin-ether concentration technique for ova and parasites.

    Results: A total of 21 samples were suspected to bacteria that, finally 7 samples confirmed by sere-typing identified. These were Shigella boydii (5 samples and Shigella flexeneri (2 samples. Over 74% of stool samples contained one species parasite. Entamoeba coli (45% was the most common parasite followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (39%, E.histolytica (14.5%, and Giardia lamblia (9%. Prevalence rate for helminthes, pathogenic and non-pathogenic protozoa were 43%, 26%, and 52.7% respectively. The prevalence of intestinal parasites, as well as intestinal helminthes in persons who had three-monthly check-up and health care were significantly less than others (p < 0.02 .

    Conclusion: This study showed food handling personnel are an important source of E. histolytica, G. lamblia pinworm and Shigella distribution in this city.

  15. Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium occurrence in Australian sea lions (Neophoca cinerea exposed to varied levels of human interaction

    Tiffany C. Delport

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Giardia and Cryptosporidium are amongst the most common protozoan parasites identified as causing enteric disease in pinnipeds. A number of Giardia assemblages and Cryptosporidium species and genotypes are common in humans and terrestrial mammals and have also been identified in marine mammals. To investigate the occurrence of these parasites in an endangered marine mammal, the Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea, genomic DNA was extracted from faecal samples collected from wild populations (n = 271 in Southern and Western Australia and three Australian captive populations (n = 19. These were screened using PCR targeting the 18S rRNA of Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Giardia duodenalis was detected in 28 wild sea lions and in seven captive individuals. Successful sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene assigned 27 Giardia isolates to assemblage B and one to assemblage A, both assemblages commonly found in humans. Subsequent screening at the gdh and β-giardin loci resulted in amplification of only one of the 35 18S rRNA positive samples at the β-giardin locus. Sequencing at the β-giardin locus assigned the assemblage B 18S rRNA confirmed isolate to assemblage AI. The geographic distribution of sea lion populations sampled in relation to human settlements indicated that Giardia presence in sea lions was highest in populations less than 25 km from humans. Cryptosporidium was not detected by PCR screening in either wild colonies or captive sea lion populations. These data suggest that the presence of G. duodenalis in the endangered Australian sea lion is likely the result of dispersal from human sources. Multilocus molecular analyses are essential for the determination of G. duodenalis assemblages and subsequent inferences on transmission routes to endangered marine mammal populations.

  16. The efficacy of potassium ferrate as a chemical disinfectant on E. coli, Vibrio cholera, human adenovirus, and Giardia lamblia

    Introduction: Drinking water and wastewater go through numerous treatments to remove microorganisms and other contaminants one of many processes along the treatment train is disinfection. There are different ways to disinfect these waters, however to date the most common disinf...

  17. The efficacy of potassium ferrate as a chemical disinfectant on E. coli, Vibrio cholera, human adenovirus, and Giardia lamblia - Abstract

    Introduction: Drinking water and wastewater effluents go through numerous treatments to remove microorganisms and other contaminants in the United States. One of many processes along the treatment train is disinfection, and to date the most common disinfectants still remain chemi...

  18. Imported parasitic infections in Serbia

    Daki?, Z.; Nikoli?, A.; Lavadinovi?, L.; Pelemi, M.; Klun, I.; Dulovi?, O.; Miloevi?, B.; Stevanovi?, G.; Ofori-Beli?, I.; Poluga, J.; Pavlovi?, M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Travel to the tropics is associated with a risk of parasitic infection, which is increasing in parallel with the rise in travel to these areas. We thus examined the prevalence and trend in the occurrence of parasitic infections in Serbian travelers. Methods A retrospective analysis of the medical records of all travelers returning from tropical and subtropical areas, who presented at the Institute for Infectious and Tropical Diseases in Belgrade between January 2001 and January 2008, was performed. Results Of a total of 2440 travelers, 169 (6.9%) were diagnosed with a parasitic infection, including malaria in 79, intestinal parasites in 84 (pathogenic species in 30 and non-pathogenic in 54), filariasis in four, and visceral leishmaniasis and fascioliasis in one patient each. Importantly, of the whole series only 583 (23.9%) were symptomatic, of which 19.4% were found to be infected with a parasite. The single pathogenic parasite occurring in asymptomatic patients was Giardia intestinalis. Conclusions Parasitic infection causing symptomatic disease among travelers returning from tropical areas to Serbia is not infrequent. In view of the expected increase in travel to the tropics, diagnostic protocols for tropical parasitic diseases should take these data into account. PMID:24466436

  19. Detection and molecular characterization of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) stranded along the Galician coast (Northwest Spain).

    Reboredo-Fernndez, A; Gmez-Couso, H; Martnez-Cedeira, J A; Cacci, S M; Ares-Mazs, E

    2014-05-28

    The ubiquitous protozoan parasites Giardia and Cryptosporidium have been detected from many species of captive and free-living wildlife, representing most mammalian orders. Twenty species of marine mammals have been reported to inhabit Galician waters and the region has one of the highest rates of stranding in Europe. Evidence from stranding, reported by-catches and sightings, suggests that the common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) is the most abundant cetacean on the Galician coast (Northwest Spain). The objective of this study was to detect and molecularly characterize isolates of Giardia and Cryptosporidium obtained from common dolphins stranded in this area. Between 2005 and 2012, sections of large intestine from 133 common dolphins stranded along the Galician coast were collected by the personnel of the Galician Stranding Network (Coordinadora para o Estudo dos Mamferos Marios, CEMMA). Using direct immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) and PCR amplification and sequencing of the SSU-rDNA, ?-giardin genes and the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region, Giardia and Cryptosporidium were detected in 8 (6.0%) and 12 samples (9.0%), respectively. In two samples, co-infection by both parasites was observed. The molecular characterization revealed the presence of Giardia duodenalis assemblages A (genotypes A1 and A2) and B and Cryptosporidium parvum in these samples. This constitutes the first study in which the presence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium has been investigated in common dolphins on the European Atlantic coast, and it is also the first report of C. parvum in this host. Our findings indicate that these animals could act as reservoir of these waterborne parasites or could be victims of the contamination originated by anthropogenic activities. PMID:24704342

  20. Terminalia ferdinandiana extracts as inhibitors of Giardia duodenalis proliferation: a new treatment for giardiasis.

    Rayan, P; Matthews, B; McDonnell, P A; Cock, I E

    2015-07-01

    Giardisis is a debilitating disease caused by gastrointestinal parasites of the genus Giardia. High-antioxidant T. ferdinandiana fruit extracts were investigated for the ability to block Giardia duodenalis growth. Methanolic and aqueous extracts had the most potent growth inhibitory activity (IC50 values of approximately 700 and 140 μg/ml, respectively). Ethyl acetate and chloroform extracts also inhibited G. duodenalis growth, albeit with lower potency. The hexane extract was completely devoid of G. duodenalis growth inhibitory activity. All extracts were nontoxic in the Artemia fransiscana bioassay. Nontargeted HPLC-quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) mass spectroscopy (with screening against three compound databases) putatively identified 17 compounds in all of the inhibitory extracts but not in the inactive hexane extract. The low toxicity of the Terminalia ferdinandiana fruit extracts and their potent G. duodenalis growth inhibitory bioactivity indicate their potential as medicinal agents in the treatment and prevention of this disease. PMID:25876047

  1. Data from a proteomic baseline study of Assemblage A in Giardia duodenalis

    Samantha J. Emery

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Eight Assemblage A strains from the protozoan parasite Giardia duodenalis were analysed using label-free quantitative shotgun proteomics, to evaluate inter- and intra-assemblage variation and complement available genetic and transcriptomic data. Isolates were grown in biological triplicate in axenic culture, and protein extracts were subjected to in-solution digest and online fractionation using Gas Phase Fractionation (GPF. Recent reclassification of genome databases for subassemblages was evaluated for database-dependent loss of information, and proteome composition of different isolates was analysed for biologically relevant assemblage-independent variation. The data from this study are related to the research article “Quantitative proteomics analysis of Giardia duodenalis Assemblage A – a baseline for host, assemblage and isolate variation” published in Proteomics (Emery et al., 2015 [1].

  2. Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Intestinal Parasitic Infection among Under five Children in University of Gondar Hospital, Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia

    Yetemwork Aleka

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intestinal parasitic infection is a serious health problem in developing countries mainly in children, whichleads to child mortality and morbidity. Objective: To assess the prevalence and associated risk factors of intestinal para- sitic infection among underfive children in UoG Hospital.Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted from May 2015 to June 2015, a total of 277 children were selected by using systematic random sampling technique. Direct wet mount and formol-ether concentration technique was used for identification of IP; also, an interview-based questioner was prepared to assess the socio-demographic status (of parents and children and associated risk factors of those under five children. Re- sult: A total of 277 children [(148 (53.4% females and 129 (46.6% males] aged 1 year to 5 years was examined for intestinal parasitic infections. The overall prevalence of this study was 25 (9.02% when examined by wet mount and48 (17.3% when examined by formol-ether concentration technique. Five (1.8 % children were infected by multiple parasites in concentra- tion technique. Both intestinal helminthes (84%, 81.1% and protozoan parasites (16%, 18.9% were detected in microscopic examination with wet mount and formol-ether concentration techniques respectively. Eight species of intestinal parasites were identified. Of those, the predominant were Ascaris lumbricoides (52%, 35.8%, Hymenolepis nana (20%, 24.5% and cyst of Giardia lamblia (12%, 9.4% when examined by wet mount and formol-ether concentration techniques respectively. The least prevalent were Strongyloides stercoralis (1.9%. There was statistically observed association for the prevalence of IP with age, hand washing habit of parents and shortening of fingernails habit of parents. Conclusion: The result of this study indicated that helminthic infection is more predominant than protozoan infection. Children who come from parents who had no hand wash- ing habit and had no shortening fingernails habit were more affected by IP; therefore, Personal hygiene of parents of underfive children must be improved. [Biomed Res Ther 2015; 2(8.000: 347-353

  3. Efficacy of drugs against Giardia muris in mice Mus musculus naturally infected/ Eficácia de drogas contra Giardia muris em camundongos Mus musculus naturalmente infectados

    Silvia Gonzalez Monteiro

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of metronidazole, fenbendazole and secnidazole against Giardia muris in mice naturally infected. Forty mice of the species Mus musculus were divided in four groups of ten each, being group A non treated, the control group and groups B, C and D treated with 4mg/ml of metronidazole, fenbendazole and secnidazole, respectively. Two feces collection, on day 0 and on day 10 after treatment, were done in order to evaluate the efficacy of the drugs. Samples were analyzed by the centrifugal-flotation method with zinc sulfate. Efficacy of 97,05% for metronidazole, 98,30% for fenbendazole and 100% for secnidazole were observed in the study. According to the results it was concluded that the tested drugs were effective for the treatment of mice parasitized by Giardia muris.Este estudo visou avaliar a eficácia do metronidazol, fenbendazole e secnidazol contra Giardia muris em camundongos naturalmente infectados. Foram utilizados 40 camundongos da espécie Mus musculus divididos em quatro grupos de 10 animais cada, sendo grupo A, grupo controle, não tratados, e grupos B, C e D tratados com 4mg/ml de metronidazol, fenbendazole e secnidazol, respectivamente. Para avaliar a eficácia dos medicamentos foram realizadas duas coletas de fezes uma no dia zero e outra 10 dias após tratamento. As amostras foram processadas e analisadas a partir do método de centrífugo-flutuação com sulfato de zinco. No estudo observou-se eficácia de 97,05% para metronidazol, 98,30% para fenbendazole e 100% para secnidazol no tratamento de giardiase murina. Com base nos resultados concluí-se que as drogas testadas apresentaram eficácia no tratamento de camundongos parasitados por Giardia muris.

  4. Spatial and temporal distribution of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in a drinking water resource: Implications for monitoring and risk assessment

    Burnet, Jean-Baptiste, E-mail: jeanbaptiste.burnet@gmail.com [Centre de Recherche Public - Gabriel Lippmann, Department of Environment and Agro-biotechnologies (EVA), 41, rue du Brill, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg); Université de Liège (ULg), Department of Environmental Sciences and Management, 165 avenue de Longwy, B-6700 Arlon (Belgium); Penny, Christian, E-mail: penny@lippmann.lu [Centre de Recherche Public - Gabriel Lippmann, Department of Environment and Agro-biotechnologies (EVA), 41, rue du Brill, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg); Ogorzaly, Leslie, E-mail: ogorzaly@lippmann.lu [Centre de Recherche Public - Gabriel Lippmann, Department of Environment and Agro-biotechnologies (EVA), 41, rue du Brill, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg); Cauchie, Henry-Michel, E-mail: cauchie@lippmann.lu [Centre de Recherche Public - Gabriel Lippmann, Department of Environment and Agro-biotechnologies (EVA), 41, rue du Brill, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg)

    2014-02-01

    Because of their significant public health impact, waterborne Cryptosporidium and Giardia have been monitored in surface water in order to assess microbial quality of water bodies used for drinking water production and/or for recreational purposes. In this context, sampling strategy is of key importance and should be representative enough to appropriately assess the related microbial risk. This, however, requires sound knowledge on the behaviour of both pathogens in water. In the present study, the spatial and temporal distribution of Cryptosporidium and Giardia was explored in the rural Upper-Sûre watershed used for drinking water production in Luxembourg. By subdividing it into three compartments including (i) sub-catchments, (ii) the Sûre River fed by the sub-catchments and (iii) the Upper-Sûre reservoir fed by the Sûre River, parasite distribution was assessed using sampling designs adapted to the hydro-dynamic characteristics of the respective compartments. Results highlighted the high spatial and temporal variability in parasite distribution at watershed scale, as well as the prevalence of Giardia over Cryptosporidium. Besides land use features and catchment characteristics, hydro-climatology appeared to be a major driver of parasite behaviour in the watershed. It introduced a seasonal trend in their occurrence, highest densities being detected during the wet season. Peaks of contamination triggered out by rainfall-induced runoff were further observed in the three compartments. In the Sûre River, Cryptosporidium and Giardia fluxes peaked at 10{sup 9} and 10{sup 10} (oo)cysts.d{sup −1}, respectively, and were discharged into the drinking water reservoir, where they underwent a 2 to 3 log{sub 10} removal rate. Despite this, parasite fluxes entering the drinking water treatment plant were still high (10{sup 6} to 10{sup 7} (oo)cysts.d{sup −1}) and stressed on the need for improved watershed management upstream the water treatment barrier. The catchment-wide analysis described here constitutes a valuable tool for assessment of catchment microbial dynamics, especially within the framework of Water Safety Plans. - Highlights: • We investigated Cryptosporidium and Giardia distribution trends in a rural watershed. • Their distribution in water was heterogeneous over various spatial temporal scales. • Parasite fluxes (from 10{sup 3} to 10{sup 11} (oo)cysts.day{sup −1}) varied with location and time. • Key drivers of parasite fluxes were rainfall, land use and catchment morphology. • Our study provides a methodology for catchment-wide study of parasites distribution.

  5. Spatial and temporal distribution of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in a drinking water resource: Implications for monitoring and risk assessment

    Because of their significant public health impact, waterborne Cryptosporidium and Giardia have been monitored in surface water in order to assess microbial quality of water bodies used for drinking water production and/or for recreational purposes. In this context, sampling strategy is of key importance and should be representative enough to appropriately assess the related microbial risk. This, however, requires sound knowledge on the behaviour of both pathogens in water. In the present study, the spatial and temporal distribution of Cryptosporidium and Giardia was explored in the rural Upper-Sûre watershed used for drinking water production in Luxembourg. By subdividing it into three compartments including (i) sub-catchments, (ii) the Sûre River fed by the sub-catchments and (iii) the Upper-Sûre reservoir fed by the Sûre River, parasite distribution was assessed using sampling designs adapted to the hydro-dynamic characteristics of the respective compartments. Results highlighted the high spatial and temporal variability in parasite distribution at watershed scale, as well as the prevalence of Giardia over Cryptosporidium. Besides land use features and catchment characteristics, hydro-climatology appeared to be a major driver of parasite behaviour in the watershed. It introduced a seasonal trend in their occurrence, highest densities being detected during the wet season. Peaks of contamination triggered out by rainfall-induced runoff were further observed in the three compartments. In the Sûre River, Cryptosporidium and Giardia fluxes peaked at 109 and 1010 (oo)cysts.d−1, respectively, and were discharged into the drinking water reservoir, where they underwent a 2 to 3 log10 removal rate. Despite this, parasite fluxes entering the drinking water treatment plant were still high (106 to 107 (oo)cysts.d−1) and stressed on the need for improved watershed management upstream the water treatment barrier. The catchment-wide analysis described here constitutes a valuable tool for assessment of catchment microbial dynamics, especially within the framework of Water Safety Plans. - Highlights: • We investigated Cryptosporidium and Giardia distribution trends in a rural watershed. • Their distribution in water was heterogeneous over various spatial temporal scales. • Parasite fluxes (from 103 to 1011 (oo)cysts.day−1) varied with location and time. • Key drivers of parasite fluxes were rainfall, land use and catchment morphology. • Our study provides a methodology for catchment-wide study of parasites distribution

  6. Identification and genotyping of Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. isolates in aquatic birds in the Salburua wetlands, Álava, Northern Spain.

    Cano, Lourdes; de Lucio, Aida; Bailo, Begoña; Cardona, Guillermo A; Muadica, Aly Salimo Omar; Lobo, Luis; Carmena, David

    2016-05-15

    Aquatic birds are known to be suitable hosts for a number of avian-specific species and genotypes of the enteric protozoan parasites Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Waterbirds have also been reported as sporadic carriers of species of both pathogens from human or domestic animal origin via environmental contamination. Because aquatic birds can shed substantial amounts of infective Giardia and Cryptosporidium (oo)cysts to the environment including surface waters intended for human consumption, this situation may pose a potential risk of waterbone zoonotic disease. A total of 265 waterbird faecal samples were collected from May 2014 to June 2015 at Salburua (Álava), one of the most valued continental wetlands in northern Spain. The detection of Giardia oocyst and Cryptosporidium oocysts was carried out by direct fluorescence microscopy and molecular (PCR and sequence analysis) methods targeting the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene of the parasites. Typing of Giardia duodenalis isolates at the sub-assemblage level was based on the specific amplification and sequencing of a partial fragment of the glutamate dehydrogenase gene. Overall, Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in 22 (8.3%) and 6 (2.3%), respectively, of the 265 faecal samples analysed. The two only Giardia isolates characterized (one novel, one known) were assigned to the sub-assemblage BIV of G. duodenalis, none of them previously reported in Spanish human isolates. This finding raises doubts about the actual origin of the infection and whether waterbirds may serve as potential source of infective Giardia cysts to humans via waterborne transmission or through direct contact. The six Cryptosporidium isolates obtained were characterized as avian genotype III (n=4), duck genotype b (n=1), and goose genotype Id (n=1), all considered avian-specific and therefore of negligible risk of zoonotic infection. PMID:27084487

  7. Population-based analyses of Giardia duodenalis is consistent with the clonal assemblage structure

    Takumi Katsuhisa; Swart Arno; Mank Theo; Lasek-Nesselquist Erica; Lebbad Marianne; Cacciò Simone M; Sprong Hein

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Giardia duodenalis is a common protozoan parasite of humans and animals. Genetic characterization of single loci indicates the existence of eight groups called assemblages, which differ in their host distribution. Molecular analyses challenged the idea that G. duodenalis is a strictly clonal diplomonad by providing evidence of recombination within and between assemblages. Particularly, inter-assemblage recombination events would complicate the interpretation of multi-locus...

  8. Detection of Giardia duodenalis Assemblages A and B in Human Feces by Simple, Assemblage-Specific PCR Assays

    Vanni, Ilaria; Caccio, Simone Mario; van Lith, Lindy; Lebbad, Marianne; Svärd, Staffan G; Pozio, Edoardo; Tosini, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    The flagellated protozoan Giardia duodenalis is a common gastrointestinal parasite of mammals, including humans. Molecular characterizations have shown the existence of eight genetic groups (or assemblages) in the G. duodenalis species complex. Human infections are caused by assemblages A and B, which infect other mammals as well. Whether transmission routes, animal reservoirs and associations with specific symptoms differ for assemblage A and assemblage B is not clear. Furthermore, the occur...

  9. Multilocus genotyping of human Giardia isolates suggests limited zoonotic transmission and association between assemblage B and flatulence in children

    LEBBAD, M.; Petersson, I; Karlsson, L; Botero-Kleiven, S; Andersson, JO; Svenungsson, B.; Svärd, SG

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Giardia intestinalis is one of the most common diarrhea-related parasites in humans, where infection ranges from asymptomatic to acute or chronic disease. G. intestinalis consists of eight genetically distinct genotypes or assemblages, designated A-H, and assemblages A and B can infect humans. Giardiasis has been classified as a possible zoonotic disease but the role of animals in human disease transmission still needs to be proven. We tried to link different assemblages and sub-a...

  10. Prevalence and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis in dairy cattle in Ningxia, northwestern China

    Huang, Jianying; Yue, Daoyou; Qi, Meng; Wang, Rongjun; Zhao, Jinfeng; Li, Junqiang; Shi, Ke; Wang, Ming; Zhang, Longxian

    2014-01-01

    Background Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis are important gastrointestinal protists in humans and animals worldwide. In China, bovine cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis are of increasing concern because cattle are important reservoirs of these parasites, which have become potential threats to public health and to large numbers of cattle in recent years. Results A total of 1366 fecal samples from the Ningxia Autonomous Region were examined. The overall infection rates for Cryptosporid...

  11. Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Surface Water: A Case Study from Michigan, USA to Inform Management of Rural Water Systems

    Dreelin, Erin A.; Ives, Rebecca L.; Stephanie Molloy; Rose, Joan B.

    2014-01-01

    Cryptosporidium and Giardia pose a threat to human health in rural environments where water supplies are commonly untreated and susceptible to contamination from agricultural animal waste/manure, animal wastewater, septic tank effluents and septage. Our goals for this paper are to: (1) explore the prevalence of these protozoan parasites, where they are found, in what quantities, and which genotypes are present; (2) examine relationships between disease and land use comparing human health risk...

  12. RNA Interference in Protozoan Parasites: Achievements and Challenges ▿

    Kolev, Nikolay G; Tschudi, Christian; ULLU, ELISABETTA

    2011-01-01

    Protozoan parasites that profoundly affect mankind represent an exceptionally diverse group of organisms, including Plasmodium, Toxoplasma, Entamoeba, Giardia, trypanosomes, and Leishmania. Despite the overwhelming impact of these parasites, there remain many aspects to be discovered about mechanisms of pathogenesis and how these organisms survive in the host. Combined with the ever-increasing availability of sequenced genomes, RNA interference (RNAi), discovered a mere 13 years ago, has enor...

  13. Pervalence of intestinal parasites in Ordu province

    lk Karaman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The epidemiology of intestinal parasites vary according to countrys geographic location, sociocultural structure and diet. An epidemiological study of intestinal parasites has not been observed in Ordu Province and around. The aim of this study was determining the intestinal parasites data of Ordu Provincial Health Directorate retrosrectively. Methods: Between January 2006 and December 2013 the data of the provinceal Health Directorate of Ordu were retrospectively evaluated. Results: 7194 positivity has been reported in the study. Quantitative distribution of the parasites were as follows; 3415 Enterobius vermicularis, 2802 Ascaris lumbricoides, 1182 Entamoeba histolytica, 705 Giardia intestinalis, 682 Taenia spp, 245 Hookworm infection, 22 Trichuris trichiura, 17 Fasciola hepatica and 12 Strongiloides stercoralis. Conclusion: As a result intestinal parasites in Ordu Province is a major public health problem.

  14. Molecular Identification of Giardia duodenalis Isolates from Fars Province, Iran.

    Mohammad Rayani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Giardia duodenalis is one of the most common human intestinal protozoan parasites worldwide and is endemic throughout the world with a vast range of mammalian hosts. The present study aimed to identify the prevalence of G. duodenalis isolates and determine the most common of its assemblages in the patients referring to health centers and hospitals in Fars province, Iran that will be subjected to further molecular investigation.We collected 1000 human fecal samples from health centers and hospitals in Shiraz, Iran in a one year period from September 2009 to August 2010. Microscopic examination for the presence of G. duodenalis cysts and trophozoites was performed by direct wet mount before and after the concentration techniques. Extraction of DNA was performed by Phenol-Chloroform-Isoamylalcohol (PCI. G. duodenalis-positive specimens were analyzed by PCR. A fragment of the SSU-rDNA (292 bp gene was amplified by PCR using the forward primer RH11 and the reverse primer RH4. Genotyping was performed using sequence analysis of G. duodenalis glutamate dehydrogenase gene using primers GDHeF, GDHiF, and GDHiR.The prevalence of Giardia infection was 10.7% (107/1000 examined based on microscopic examination. PCR identified 80% (40/50 of the samples as positive for G. duodenalis based on SSU-rDNA amplification on sucrose gradient samples. Besides, genotyping results indicated 32 isolates (80% as assemblage AII and 8 isolates (20% as assemblage BIII and BIV based on the DNA sequence analysis of the glutamate dehydrogenase locus of G. duodenalis.The findings of this study emphasize that Iran (Fars Province is a favorable area for giardiasis with an anthroponotic infection route.

  15. Molecular detection and prevalence of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. among long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in Thailand.

    Sricharern, Wanat; Inpankaew, Tawin; Keawmongkol, Sarawan; Supanam, Juthamas; Stich, Roger W; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn

    2016-06-01

    Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. are divergent protozoal intestinal parasites that infect human beings and other animals, including non-human primates. Although long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) reside in human communities in Thailand, the prevalence of Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. in these primates has not been previously investigated. The objective of this study was to evaluate long-tailed macaques living near human communities as possible hosts of these intestinal parasites. In 2014, 200 fecal samples were randomly collected from long-tailed macaques living in different areas of Lopburi province, Thailand, and tested with a panel of PCR assays for Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. G. duodenalis assemblage B was most frequently detected (6%), while assemblage A and an inconclusive assemblage were detected in single samples, for a total G. duodenalis infection rate of 7%. Two samples (1%) tested positive for Cryptosporidium spp., which were both classified as monkey genotypes. No significant associations were found between G. duodenalis infection and sex or location of macaques. This study indicates that long-tailed macaques can carry G. duodenalis and, to a lesser extent, Cryptosporidium spp. monkey genotype. These results warrant education of residents and tourists to limit contact with long-tailed macaques and to take hygienic precautions to mitigate risk of zoonotic and anthroponotic transmission of these parasites between people and macaques. PMID:26892616

  16. Intervention to prevent intestinal parasitic reinfections among Tarahumara indigenous schoolchildren in northern Mexico Intervención para prevenir las reinfecciones parasitarias intestinales en niños indígenas tarahumara en edad escolar en el norte de México

    Joel Monárrez-Espino; Cristina Rocío Pérez-Espejo; Guillermo Vázquez-Mendoza; Andrés Balleza-Carreón; Ramiro Caballero-Hoyos

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of a 20-week, broad intervention to prevent reinfection by Ascaris lumbricoides (AL) and Giardia lamblia (GL) among indigenous schoolchildren in northern Mexico. METHODS: A prospective, comparative, ecological study. Two isolated boarding schools, each hosting 100-120 children, 4-15 years of age, were selected based on physical infrastructure: intervention school (IS), modern; control school (CS), deprived. After initial diagnosis, children with positive...

  17. NEW METHOD FOR EXCYSTATION OF GIARDIA

    In vitro excystation of Giardia is used to estimate cyst viability and may also be used to obtain trophozoites and cyst walls for analysis. Recently published excystation procedures include the use of trypsin, serum or bile salts in the excystation step. Trypsin, serum or bile sa...

  18. Identification of Zoonotic Genotypes of Giardia duodenalis

    Sprong, H.; Cacciò, S.M.; van der Giessen, J.W.B; Enemark, Heidi L.; ZOOPNET network and partners, on behalf of the

    2009-01-01

    Giardia duodenalis, originally regarded as a commensal organism, is the etiologic agent of giardiasis, a gastrointestinal disease of humans and animals. Giardiasis causes major public and veterinary health concerns worldwide. Transmission is either direct, through the faecal-oral route, or indirect...

  19. Characterization of RNase MRP RNA and novel snoRNAs from Giardia intestinalis and Trichomonas vaginalis

    Chen Xiaowei S

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eukaryotic cells possess a complex network of RNA machineries which function in RNA-processing and cellular regulation which includes transcription, translation, silencing, editing and epigenetic control. Studies of model organisms have shown that many ncRNAs of the RNA-infrastructure are highly conserved, but little is known from non-model protists. In this study we have conducted a genome-scale survey of medium-length ncRNAs from the protozoan parasites Giardia intestinalis and Trichomonas vaginalis. Results We have identified the previously 'missing' Giardia RNase MRP RNA, which is a key ribozyme involved in pre-rRNA processing. We have also uncovered 18 new H/ACA box snoRNAs, expanding our knowledge of the H/ACA family of snoRNAs. Conclusions Results indicate that Giardia intestinalis and Trichomonas vaginalis, like their distant multicellular relatives, contain a rich infrastructure of RNA-based processing. From here we can investigate the evolution of RNA processing networks in eukaryotes.

  20. Genotyping Giardia intestinalis by Using DNA Extracted from Long-Term Preserved Human Specimens Stained with Chlorazol Black E.

    Nishida, Yoshie; Morimoto, Norihito; Korenaga, Masataka; Komatsu, Yutaka; Takeuchi, Hiroaki; Matsumura, Yoshihisa; Sugiura, Tetsuro

    2016-05-20

    Giardia intestinalis is a parasitic protozoan that causes diarrhea and abdominal pain in humans. Studies of the Giardia genotypes are thought to be important for understanding their infection routes and prevalence. However, few have reported pathogen genotyping in human giardiasis cases in Japan. In this study, we genotyped G. intestinalis by using DNA extracted from chlorazol black E-stained fecal smears from patients. The triosephosphate isomerase gene was amplified from 21 (91.3%) of 23 human fecal samples. Twelve (52.2%) of pathogens detected were of the genotype A, and 9 (39.1%) of the genotype B. A restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis showed that all genotype A found in the present study were of the genotype AI, which were presumed to be zoonotic. The source of Giardia infections was unclear in the present study. However, patients' histories of international travel appeared not to be associated with the Giardia genotypes. Thus, most cases were thought to be acquired sporadically and domestically. PMID:26255725

  1. Biological and genetic characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis isolates from five hydrographical basins in northern Portugal.

    Almeida, Andr; Moreira, Maria Joo; Soares, Snia; de Lurdes Delgado, Maria; Figueiredo, Joo; Magalhes, Elisabete Silva; Castro, Antnio; Viana Da Costa, Alexandra; Correia da Costa, Jos Manuel

    2010-06-01

    To understand the situation of water contamination with Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in the northern region of Portugal, we have established a long-term program aimed at pinpointing the sources of surface water and environmental contamination, working with the water-supply industry. Here, we describe the results obtained with raw water samples collected in rivers of the 5 hydrographical basins. A total of 283 samples were analyzed using the Method 1623 EPA, USA. Genetic characterization was performed by PCR and sequencing of genes 18S rRNA of Cryptosporidium spp. and beta-giardin of Giardia spp. Infectious stages of the protozoa were detected in 72.8% (206 of 283) of the water samples, with 15.2% (43 of 283) positive for Giardia duodenalis cysts, 9.5% (27 of 283) positive for Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts, and 48.1% (136 of 283) samples positive for both parasites. The most common zoonotic species found were G. duodenalis assemblages A-I, A-II, B, and E genotypes, and Cryptosporidium parvum, Cryptosporidium andersoni, Cryptosporidium hominis, and Cryptosporidium muris. These results suggest that cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis are important public health issues in northern Portugal. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report evaluating the concentration of environmental stages of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in raw water samples in the northern region of Portugal. PMID:20585525

  2. Evaluation of the BD Max Enteric Parasite Panel for Clinical Diagnostics.

    Mlling, Paula; Nilsson, Peter; Ennefors, Theresa; gren, Jessica; Florn, Kerstin; Thulin Hedberg, Sara; Sundqvist, Martin

    2016-02-01

    We compared the performance of the BD Max enteric parasite panel to routine microscopy and an in-house PCR for the detection of Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica, and Cryptosporidium spp. The enteric parasite panel showed good specificity for all targets and good sensitivity for E. histolytica and Cryptosporidium spp. Sensitivity for G. intestinalis with the BD Max enteric parasite panel was equivalent to that with microscopy. PMID:26582832

  3. The prevalence and diversity of intestinal parasitic infections in humans and domestic animals in a rural Cambodian village

    Schär, Fabian; Inpankaew, Tawin; Traub, Rebecca J.; Khieu, Virak; Dalsgaard, Anders; Chimnoi, Wissanuwat; Chhoun, Chamnan; Sok, Daream; Marti, Hanspeter; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter

    2014-01-01

    ., Giardia spp. and Blastocystis spp. Major gastrointestinal parasitic infections found in humans included hookworms (63.3%), Entamoeba spp. (27.1%) and Strongyloides stercoralis (24.3%). In dogs, hookworm (80.8%), Spirometra spp. (21.3%) and Strongyloides spp. (14.9%) were most commonly detected and in pigs......., Giardia duodenalis and Entamoeba spp. Five of the parasite species detected in pigs also have zoonotic potential, including Ascaris spp., Trichuris spp., Capillaria spp., Balantidium coli and Entamoeba spp. Further molecular epidemiological studies will aid characterisation of parasite species and...

  4. DETECTION OF PROTOZOAN PARASITES IN SOURCE AND FINISHED WATER - 3RD EDITION ASM'S METHODS IN ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY

    Protozoans are eukaryotic organisms which can live either a free-living or parasitic existence. Some free-living forms, under the right conditions, can become opportunistic parasites. Enteric pathogenic protozoans, like Giardia and Cryptosporidium, which are now known to be tra...

  5. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis in pigs in Lusaka, Zambia

    Joyce Siwila

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at determining the prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis in pigs which were being raised in intensive management systems. Faecal samples were collected from pigs of all age groups from three different piggery units. Samples were collected directly from the rectum for piglets and weaners and from the floor within 2 min – 5 min of excretion for sows and boars. At the time of collection, faecal consistency was noted as being normal, pasty or diarrhoeic. Samples were analysed further using the Merifluor® Cryptosporidium/Giardia immunofluorescence assay. All piggeries had at least one pig infected with either parasite. From a total 217 samples collected, 96 (44.2%; confidence interval [CI] = 37.6% – 50.9% were positive for Cryptosporidium spp., whilst 26 (12%; CI = 7.6% – 16.3% had G. duodenalis parasites. Of all the pigs, 6.9% (15/217 harboured both parasites. With regard to Cryptosporidium spp. infection, statistically significant differences were observed amongst the three units (p = 0.001, whereas no significant differences were observed for G. duodenalis infection (p = 0.13. Prevalence was higher in weaners as compared to other pig classes for both parasites, with significant differences being observed for G. duodenalis infection (p = 0.013. There was, however, no difference in infection between male and female pigs for both parasites. Furthermore, most infections were asymptomatic. From the study results it was clear that Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis infections were prevalent amongst pigs in the piggeries evaluated and, as such, may act as a source of infection for persons who come into contact with them.

  6. Molecular identification of Giardia and Cryptosporidium from dogs and cats

    Sotiriadou Isaia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to diagnose the presence of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in household animals using nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR and sequence analysis. One hundred faecal samples obtained from 81 dogs and 19 cats were investigated. The Cryptosporidium genotypes were determined by sequencing a fragment of the small subunit (SSU rRNA gene, while the Giardia Assemblages were determined through analysis of the glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH locus. Isolates from five dogs and two cats were positive by PCR for the presence of Giardia, and their sequences matched the zoonotic Assemblage A of Giardia. Cryptosporidium spp. isolated from one dog and one cat were both found to be C. parvum. One dog isolate harboured a mixed infection of C. parvum and Giardia Assemblage A. These findings support the growing evidence that household animals are potential reservoirs of the zoonotic pathogens Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. for infections in humans.

  7. Enteric parasites in HIV-1/AIDS-infected patients from a Northwestern São Paulo reference unit in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era Enteroparasitas em pacientes infectados pelo HIV-1/AIDS em uma unidade de referência do noroeste paulista na era da terapia antirretroviral de alto impacto

    Luciana Ventura Cardoso

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: We describe the epidemiology of intestinal parasites in patients from an AIDS reference service in Northeastern São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Retrospective evaluation was done for all HIV-1/AIDS-positive patients whose Hospital de Base/São José do Rio Preto laboratorial analysis was positive for enteroparasites after diagnosis of HIV-1 infection, from January 1998 to December 2008. Statistical analysis was performed using the R statistical software version 2.4.1. The level of significance adopted was 5%. RESULTS: The most frequent protozoan was Isospora belli (4.2%, followed by Giardia lamblia (3.5%, Entamoeba coli (2.8%, and Cryptosporidium parvum (0.3%. Ancylostoma duodenale (1.4% was the most frequently detected helminth, while Taenia saginata and Strongiloides stercoralis were found in 0.7% of the samples. The results showed that diarrhea was significantly associated with giardiasis and isosporiasis. However, no association was observed between CD4+ cell counts, viral load, and the characteristics of any particular parasite. CONCLUSIONS: Our data may be useful for further comparisons with other Brazilian regions and other developing countries. The data may also provide important clues toward improving the understanding, prevention, and control of enteric parasites around the world.INTRODUÇÃO: Descrevemos a epidemiologia de enteroparasitoses em pacientes de um serviço de referência de AIDS, no noroeste paulista, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Durante o período de janeiro de 1998 a dezembro de 2008, foi realizado este estudo retrospectivo por meio da análise dos prontuários dos pacientes diagnosticados com HIV-1/AIDS atendidos no Ambulatório de Doenças Infecto-Parasitárias do Hospital de Base, São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo. As análises estatísticas foram realizadas usando a versão 2.4.1 do software estatístico R. O nível de significância adotado foi de 5%. RESULTADOS: O protozoário mais frequente foi o Isospora belli (4,2%, seguido da Giardia lamblia (3,5%, Entamoeba coli (2,8% e Criptosporidium parvum (0,3%. O Ancylostoma duodenalis (1,4% foi o helminto mais detectado, enquanto a Taenia saginata e o Strongiloides stercoralis foram observados em 0,7% das amostras. Os resultados mostraram que a diarreia foi significativamente associada com giardíase e isosporíase. Entretanto, nenhuma associação foi observada entre as contagens de células T CD4+, carga viral e da característica de qualquer parasita em particular. CONCLUSÕES: Nossos dados podem ser úteis para futuras comparações com outras regiões do Brasil e outros países em desenvolvimento. Os dados também podem fornecer pistas importantes para a melhoria da compreensão, prevenção e controle de parasitas entéricos em todo o mundo.

  8. Giardia and Cryptosporidium in dairy calves in British Columbia.

    M. E. Olson; Guselle, N J; O'Handley, R M; Swift, M L; McAllister, T. A.; Jelinski, M D; Morck, D. W.

    1997-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Giardia infections in dairy calves and to compare Giardia and Cryptosporidium infections in calves of different ages. Fresh fecal samples were collected from 386 male and female Holstein calves (newborn to 24 wk) in 20 dairies located in the lower Fraser river valley area of British Columbia. Giardia intestinalis, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Cryptosporidium muris were enumerated in each sample after concentration by sucrose gradient centri...

  9. HSP90 is a target protein for ubiquitination in Giardia intestinalis HSP90 es una proteina blanco de ubiquitinacin en Giardia intestinalis HSP90 uma protena alvo de ubiquitinao em Giardia intestinalis

    Jenny J Chaparro-Gutirrez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated the existence and expression of genes essential to the process of protein ubiquitination in Giardia intestinalis, indicating that the ubiquitin-proteasome system may be involved in the degradation of proteins during its life cycle of the parasite. In this study, purification of ubiquitin was conducted from protein extracts of G. intestinalis trophozoites. Then, an anti-ubiquitin specific antibody was obtained to standardize an assay for the detection and evaluation of ubiquitination patterns. Finally, HSP90 was identified as an ubiquitinated protein in this protozoan. This post-translational modification could have regulatory effects associated with the functionality of the protein or its turnover to regulate key molecular events during the parasites life cycle.Estudios previos han demostrado la existencia y expresin de genes esenciales para el proceso de ubiquitinacin de protenas en Giardia intestinalis, indicando que el sistema ubiquitina-proteosoma puede estar involucrado en el proceso de degradacin de protenas de este parsito durante su ciclo de vida. En el presente trabajo se realiz la purificacin de ubiquitina a partir de extractos proteicos de trofozotos de G. intestinalis, se produjo un anticuerpo anti-ubiquitina especfico que permiti la estandarizacin de un ensayo para la deteccin y evaluacin de los patrones de ubiquitinacin, y se identific la HSP90 como una protena ubiquitinada en este protozoario. Esta modificacin post-transduccional puede tener efectos regulatorios asociados con la funcionalidad de la protena o con el recambio para regular eventos moleculares claves durante el ciclo de vida del parsito.Estudos anteriores demonstraram a existncia e expresso de genes essenciais para o processo de ubiquitinao de protenas em Giardia intestinalis, indicando que o sistema ubiquitina-proteassoma podem estar envolvidos na degradao de protenas do parasita durante seu ciclo de vida. Neste trabalho, foi realizada a purificao da protena ubiquitina de extratos de trofozotos de G. intestinalis, foi produzido um antiicorpo anti-ubiquitina especfico que permitiu a padronizao de um ensaio para a deteco e avaliao de padres de ubiquitinao e foi identificado a HSP90 como uma protena ubiquitinada no protozorio. Esta modificao ps-transducional pode ter efeitos regulamentares associados com a funcionalidade das protenas ou com o a substituio para regular eventos moleculares importantes durante o ciclo de vida do parasita.

  10. Filtration of Pathogenic Parasites Using Surfactant-Modified Zeolites

    Lehner, T.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; Bowman, R.

    2003-12-01

    Migration of pathogenic microorganisms, specifically Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia, in groundwater due to sewage effluent and mismanaged wastewater has become an increased concern for human health in many regions. Cryptosporididosis and Giardiasis produces moderate to severe intestinal illness for many weeks and is a serious threat for immunodeficient persons. Previous studies by Schulze-Makuch et al. (2002) indicated that surfactant-modified zeolites (SMZ) removed all of the bacteria and most viruses in laboratory experiments. This study focuses on the efficiency of the SMZ to prevent migration of the protozoan spores in groundwater. Adsorption of the spores involves interactions between the surface properties of the spores and the SMZ. The efficiency of removal is tested simulating natural conditions. Laboratory experiments are conducted in a plexiglass model aquifer and pathogen removal is measured by taking water samples from strategically placed piezometers in the model. Since C. parvum and G. lamblia are hazardous to humans and move primarily in spore state through groundwater, polystyrene microspheres of similar sizes and Bacillus subtilis, a sporulating bacterium, are used as analogues for the protozoa. Preliminary results show a significant decrease in concentration of the B. subtilis spores down-gradient of the barrier.

  11. MOLECULAR TYPING OF Giardia duodenalis ISOLATES FROM NONHUMAN PRIMATES HOUSED IN A BRAZILIAN ZOO

    Erica Boarato David

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Giardia infections in captive nonhuman primates (NHP housed at a Brazilian zoo were investigated in order to address their zoonotic potential. Fresh fecal samples were collected from the floors of 22 enclosures where 47 primates of 18 different species were housed. The diagnosis of intestinal parasites after concentration by sedimentation and flotation methods revealed the following parasites and their frequencies: Giardia (18%; Entamoeba spp. (18%; Endolimax nana (4.5%; Iodamoeba spp. (4.5%; Oxyurid (4.5% and Strongylid (4.5%. Genomic DNA extracted from all samples was processed by PCR methods in order to amplify fragments of gdh and tpi genes of Giardia. Amplicons were obtained from samples of Ateles belzebuth, Alouatta caraya, Alouatta fusca and Alouatta seniculus. Clear sequences were only obtained for the isolates from Ateles belzebuth (BA1, Alouatta fusca (BA2 and Alouatta caraya (BA3. According to the phenetic analyses of these sequences, all were classified as assemblage A. For the tpi gene, all three isolates were grouped into sub-assemblage AII (BA1, BA2 and BA3 whereas for the gdh gene, only BA3 was sub-assemblage AII, and the BA1 and BA2 were sub-assemblage AI. Considering the zoonotic potential of the assemblage A, and that the animals of the present study show no clinical signs of infection, the data obtained here stresses that regular coproparasitological surveys are necessary to implement preventive measures and safeguard the health of the captive animals, of their caretakers and of people visiting the zoological gardens.

  12. Identification of Giardia duodenalis and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in an epizoological investigation of a laboratory colony of prairie dogs, Cynomys ludovicianus.

    Roellig, Dawn M; Salzer, Johanna S; Carroll, Darin S; Ritter, Jana M; Drew, Clifton; Gallardo-Romero, Nadia; Keckler, M Shannon; Langham, Gregory; Hutson, Christina L; Karem, Kevin L; Gillespie, Thomas R; Visvesvara, Govinda S; Metcalfe, Maureen G; Damon, Inger K; Xiao, Lihua

    2015-05-30

    Since 2005, black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) have been collected for use as research animals from field sites in Kansas, Colorado, and Texas. In January of 2012, Giardia trophozoites were identified by histology, thin-section electron microscopy, and immunofluorescent staining in the lumen of the small intestine and colon of a prairie dog euthanized because of extreme weight loss. With giardiasis suspected as the cause of weight loss, a survey of Giardia duodenalis in the laboratory colony of prairie dogs was initiated. Direct immunofluorescent testing of feces revealed active shedding of Giardia cysts in 40% (n=60) of animals held in the vivarium. All tested fecal samples (n=29) from animals in another holding facility where the index case originated were PCR positive for G. duodenalis with assemblages A and B identified from sequencing triosephosphate isomerase (tpi), glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), and β-giardin (bg) genes. Both assemblages are considered zoonotic, thus the parasites in prairie dogs are potential human pathogens and indicate prairie dogs as a possible wildlife reservoir or the victims of pathogen spill-over. Molecular testing for other protozoan gastrointestinal parasites revealed no Cryptosporidium infections but identified a host-adapted Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotype group. PMID:25881801

  13. Freqüência de Giardia spp. por duas técnicas de diagnóstico em fezes de cães Frequency of Giardia spp. for two diagnosis methods in feces of dogs

    M.J.S. Mundim

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available One hundred fecal samples from male and female dogs of several ages and breeds were collected in kennels of Uberlândia in Minas Gerais, Brazil. These samples were analyzed to determine the frequency of Giardia spp. using two different diagnostic methods: zinc sulfate flotation technique and merthiolate-iodine-formaldehyde concentration (MIFC. The frequency of giardiasis was 41%. Dogs, which were less than 12 months of age, were the most parasitized (68.4%. No difference between male and female frequency of giardiasis (31.4% and 46.1%, respectively was observed. MIFC detected 38% of positive samples and zinc sulfate flotation technique 29%. Giardia spp. is present in dogs of Uberlândia's kennels in a high frequency.

  14. Toxoplasma gondii and Giardia duodenalis infections in domestic dogs in New York City public parks.

    Munoz, Jonathan; Mayer, D C Ghislaine

    2016-05-01

    Toxoplasma gondii and Giardia duodenalis have been widely reported to produce major diseases in humans and domestic animals. Little is known about the occurrence of these protozoan parasites in domestic dogs in the United States. The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence and genotypes of T. gondii and G. duodenalis among dogs in New York City. Fecal samples from domestic dogs were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Overall, 3% of the samples tested positive for T. gondii, while 15% were positive for G. duodenalis. PCR-RFLP of T. gondii-positive samples revealed genotypes I and III, while sequence analysis of the G. duodenalis-positive samples indicated that 94.1% of the dogs were infected with the zoonotic assemblage A. Further studies are needed to determine the prevalence of zoonotic protozoan parasites in domestic dogs. PMID:26988633

  15. Blastocystis hominis and other intestinal parasites in a community of Pitanga City, Paraná State, Brazil Blatocystis hominis e outros parasitas intestinais em comunidade da cidade de Pitanga, Paraná, Brasil

    Solange Aparecida Nascimento

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to estimate the prevalence of Blastocystis hominis, to evaluate the effectiveness of different techniques for its diagnosis as well as to estimate the prevalence of other intestinal parasites in the community of Campo Verde, a district of Pitanga. The work was carried out from August to October 2004. Samples of feces from children and adults were collected and submitted to the techniques of direct wet mount, flotation in zinc sulphate solution, tube sedimentation, sedimentation in formalin-ether and staining by Kinyoun and iron hematoxylin methods. From 181 studied individuals, 128 (70.7% showed protozoa and/or helminths in stool samples. The most prevalent species were Endolimax nana (33.7%; B. hominis (26.5%; Giardia lamblia (18.2%; Entamoeba coli (17.1%; Ascaris lumbricoides (16.6%; Iodamoeba bütschlii (9.4%; and ancylostomatidae (7.7%. B. hominis was only identified by the techniques of direct wet mount, sedimentation in formalin-ether and staining by iron hematoxylin, though the latter was less sensitive than the other methods. The high frequency of B. hominis demonstrated by this study indicates the need to include laboratory techniques that enable identification of the parasite on a routine basis.O presente trabalho foi realizado no período de agosto a outubro de 2004 com o objetivo de se estimar a prevalência de Blastocystis hominis, avaliar a eficácia de diferentes técnicas para o seu diagnóstico assim como estimar a prevalência de outros parasitas intestinais na comunidade de Campo Verde, município de Pitanga. Amostras de fezes de crianças e adultos foram coletadas e submetidas às técnicas de exame direto, de flutuação em solução de sulfato de zinco, de sedimentação em tubo, de sedimentação em formol-éter e de coloração pelos métodos de Kinyoun e de hematoxilina férrica. Protozoários e/ou helmintos intestinais foram detectados em 128 (70,7% das 181 amostras de fezes analisadas. As espécies mais prevalentes foram Endolimax nana (33,7%; B. hominis (26,5%; Giardia lamblia (18,2%; Entamoeba coli (17,1%; Ascaris lumbricoides (16,6%; Iodamoeba bütschlii (9,4% e ancilostomídeos (7,7%. B. hominis foi identificado apenas pelas técnicas de exame direto, de sedimentação em formol-éter e de coloração pela hematoxilina férrica, sendo que esta última se mostrou menos sensível que às demais. A alta freqüência de B. hominis evidenciada por este estudo indica a necessidade de se incluir na rotina do laboratório técnicas que permitam a identificação deste parasita.

  16. Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia intestinalis in Calf Diarrhoea in Sweden

    de Verdier K

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study conducted in 75 herds was to investigate the presence and significance of Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia intestinalis in Swedish dairy calves in comparison with rotavirus, coronavirus and Escherichia coli K99+. The farmers were asked to collect faecal samples from each heifer calf that had diarrhoea between birth and 90 days of age, and also from a healthy calf of the same age. In total, 270 samples were collected and analysed. C. parvum, either alone or together with G. intestinalis and/or rotavirus, was detected in 16 (11% and 6 (5% of the samples from diarrhoeic and healthy calves, respectively. Even though a higher proportion of diarrhoeic calves shed C. parvum, the difference between the groups was not statistically significant (p = 0.067, possibly due to the low number of positive samples. G. intestinalis was found in 42 (29% of the diarrhoea samples and in 29 (23% of the samples from healthy calves. Rotavirus and coronavirus were demonstrated in 24% and 3% of the diarrhoea samples, respectively, whereas E. coli K99+ was only found in samples from 2 healthy calves. C. parvum and G. intestinalis were found in samples from calves 7 to 84 days of age and during all seasons. The results confirm that C. parvum is present in Swedish dairy herds and might have clinical significance. G. intestinalis was the most common agent found but the importance of this parasite remains unclear. Both parasites have suggested zoonotic potential and thus warrant further attention. In addition, rotavirus is a major pathogen in neonatal enteritis in Sweden, whereas coronavirus and E. coli K99+ seem to be of less importance.

  17. Ocorrência de Giardia sp. e Cryptosporidium sp. em Leopardus weidii de vida livre Occurrence of Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. in Leopardus weidii of wild life

    Camila Belmonte Oliveira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Leopardus weiidi (gato-maracajá é um mamífero neotropical de ampla distribuição no Brasil. No município de Cachoeira do Sul, RS, um exemplar foi capturado para tratamento, quando se coletou uma amostra de fezes, que foi analisada pelo método de centrífugo-flutuação com sulfato de zinco para pesquisa de parasitos. Foi observada elevada infecção por cistos de Giardia sp. e oocistos de Cryptosporidium sp.. Com base nos resultados, conclui-se que L. weeidi é hospedeiro desses protozoários.Leopardus weiidi (gato-maracajá is a neo-tropical mammal with has a wide distribution in Brazil. In the municipality of Cachoeira do Sul, RS, a fecal sample from a specimen captured for treatment was collected and analyzed by the centrifugal-flotation method with zinc sulfate for research of parasites. A large number of cysts of Giardia sp. and oocysts of Cryptosporidium sp. was observed. The results indicate that L. weeidi is a host of these protozoa.

  18. Prevalencia y Factores de Riesgo Asociados a Parasitismo Intestinal en Preescolares de Zona Urbana en Calarcá, Colombia Prevalence and risk factors associated with intestinal parasitism in preschool children from the urban area of Calarcá, Colombia

    Ángela L Londoño

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo Determinar prevalencia de parasitismo intestinal y su relación con factores de riesgo sociodemográficos, de saneamiento y prácticas de higiene. Materiales y métodos Se realizó un estudio "cross sectional" en 220 niños entre 6 y 60 meses (N:1 993 asistentes a hogares infantiles de estrato uno y dos del área urbana de Calarcá (Colombia. Se estudió una muestra coprológica por método de concentración de Ritchie Resultados La prevalencia general de parasitismo entre los niños estudiados fue de un 54,7 %. Se encontró una prevalencia de Blastocystis de 36,4 % y de Giardia en 13,2 %. Se encontraron como factores de riesgo asociados estadísticamente con el parasitismo: edad mayor a dos años, no desparasitar las mascotas, tener hermanos, y recibir alimentos en el tetero diferentes a la leche. Conclusiones Este estudio muestra una alta frecuencia de Blastocystis en niños preescolares de un centro urbano con buen acceso a servicios públicos. Es necesario hacer enfasís en los programas de control de zoonosis y la desparasitación de mascotas. Se recomienda la vigilancia periódica de parásitos por exámenes en estos niños.Objectives Determining intestinal parasite prevalence and their relationship with social and demographic risk factors, hygiene procedures and sanitation in pre-school children. Material and Methods This was a cross-sectional study of a representative sample (n=220 of children aged 6 to 60 months, residing in social strata one, two and three type homes (N:1,993 from the urban area of the city of Calarcá. Both microscopic and macroscopic studies were carried out using Ritchie's test to confirm the diagnosis. Results 54.7% parasitism prevalence was found. Pathogenic parasites had the following prevalence frequencies: 36.4% Blastocystis hominis and 13% Giardia lamblia . Bivariate analysis found intestinal parasite association with lack of parasite control of domestic animals, having brothers and sisters and having received food different to milk from a baby's bottle. Anemia was studied in 209 children and 3.3% prevalence found. Low weight prevalence was 9.6% and 7.5% for obesity. Conclusions A high Blastocystis prevalence was found in this group of preschool children residing in an urban setting and having good access to sanitary services. Controlling parasites on pets should be emphasized. This group of children should be submitted to periodical coprological analysis (once a year.

  19. Prevalence and risk factors for Giardia duodenalis infection among children: A case study in Portugal

    Júlio Cláudia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Giardia duodenalis is a widespread parasite of mammalian species, including humans. The prevalence of this parasite in children residing in Portugal is currently unknown. This study intended to estimate G. duodenalis infection prevalence and identify possible associated risk factors in a healthy paediatric population living in the District of the Portuguese capital, Lisbon. Methods Between February 2002 and October 2008, 844 children were randomly selected at healthcare centres while attending the national vaccination program. A stool sample and a questionnaire with socio-demographic data were collected from each child. Giardia infection was diagnosed by direct examination of stools and antigen detection by ELISA. Results The population studied revealed a gender distribution of 52.8% male and 47.2% female. Age distribution was 47.4% between 0-5 years and 52.6% between 6-15 years. The prevalence of Giardia infection was 1.9% (16/844 when estimated by direct examination and increased to 6.8% (57/844 when ELISA results were added. The prevalence was higher among children aged 0-5 years (7.8%, than among older children (5.8%, and was similar among genders (6.9% in boys and 6.5% in girls. The following population-variables were shown to be associated risk factors for G. duodenalis infection: mother's educational level (odds ratio (OR= 4.49; confidence interval (CI: 1.20-16.84, father's educational level (OR = 12.26; CI: 4.08-36.82, presence of Helicobacter pylori infection (OR = 1.82; CI: 1.05-3.15, living in houses with own drainage system (OR = 0.10; CI: 0.02-0.64 and reported household pet contact, especially with dogs (OR = 0.53; CI: 0.31-0.93. Conclusion The prevalence of giardiasis in asymptomatic children residing in the region of Lisbon is high. Several risk factors were associated with Giardia prevalence and highlight the importance of parents' education and sanitation conditions in the children's well being. The association between G. duodenalis and H. pylori seems an important issue deserving further investigation in order to promote prevention or treatment strategies.

  20. Interacting parasites

    Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2010-01-01

    Parasitism is the most popular life-style on Earth, and many vertebrates host more than one kind of parasite at a time. A common assumption is that parasite species rarely interact, because they often exploit different tissues in a host, and this use of discrete resources limits competition (1). On page 243 of this issue, however, Telfer et al. (2) provide a convincing case of a highly interactive parasite community in voles, and show how infection with one parasite can affect susceptibility to others. If some human parasites are equally interactive, our current, disease-by-disease approach to modeling and treating infectious diseases is inadequate (3).

  1. İshalli hastalarda direkt fluoresan antikor-dfa yöntemi ile giardia ve cryptosporidium spp. araştırılması

    Özçelik, Semra -; Değerli, Serpil -; Yıldırım, Dilara -

    2014-01-01

    Aim. Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia intestinalis are important parasitic protozoan causing diarrhea in developing and developed countries. Diagnosis of the Cryptosporidium oocyst in stool samples by conventional microscopy is labor-intensive and time-consuming. Thus, we aimed the presence of these protozoa in patients with diarrhea and to evaluate the usefulness of direct fluoresan antibody (DFA) test in detecting Cryptosporidium spp and G.intestinalis. from fecal specimens. Methods. For th...

  2. Chronic fatigue syndrome after Giardia enteritis: clinical characteristics, disability and long-term sickness absence

    Naess Halvor

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A waterborne outbreak of Giardia lamblia gastroenteritis led to a high prevalance of long-lasting fatigue and abdominal symptoms. The aim was to describe the clinical characteristics, disability and employmentloss in a case series of patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS after the infection. Methods Patients who reported persistent fatigue, lowered functional capacity and sickness leave or delayed education after a large community outbreak of giardiasis enteritis in the city of Bergen, Norway were evaluated with the established Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria for CFS. Fatigue was self-rated by the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS. Physical and mental health status and functional impairment was measured by the Medical Outcome Severity Scale-short Form-36 (SF-36. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS was used to measure co-morbid anxiety and depression. Inability to work or study because of fatigue was determined by sickness absence certified by a doctor. Results A total of 58 (60% out of 96 patients with long-lasting post-infectious fatigue after laboratory confirmed giardiasis were diagnosed with CFS. In all, 1262 patients had laboratory confirmed giardiasis. At the time of referral (mean illness duration 2.7 years 16% reported improvement, 28% reported no change, and 57% reported progressive course with gradual worsening. Mean FSS score was 6.6. A distinctive pattern of impairment was documented with the SF-36. The physical functioning, vitality (energy/fatigue and social functioning were especially reduced. Long-term sickness absence from studies and work was noted in all patients. Conclusion After giardiasis enteritis at least 5% developed clinical characteristics and functional impairment comparable to previously described post-infectious fatigue syndrome.

  3. CONCERNS RELATED TO PROTOZOAN AND HELMINTH PARASITES IN BIOSOLIDS AND ANIMAL WASTES

    This in-depth review of parasites found in municipal wastewater effluents, biosolids, or animal wastes and considered to be a concern to public health includes the protozoa Cryptosporidium, Cyclospora, Toxoplasma, Microsporidia, Balantidium, Giardia, and Entamoeba as well as the helminths Trichuris,...

  4. Impact of environmental conditions on the survival of cryptosporidium and giardia on environmental surfaces.

    Alum, Absar; Absar, Isra M; Asaad, Hamas; Rubino, Joseph R; Ijaz, M Khalid

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to find out the impact of environmental conditions on the survival of intestinal parasites on environmental surfaces commonly implicated in the transmission of these parasites. The study was performed by incubating Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts on environmentally relevant surfaces such as brushed stainless steel, formica, ceramic, fabric, and skin. Parallel experiments were conducted using clean and soiled coupons incubated under three temperatures. The die-off coefficient rates (K) were calculated using first-order exponential formula. For both parasites, the fastest die-off was recorded on fabric, followed by ceramic, formica, skin, and steel. Die-off rates were directly correlated to the incubation temperatures and surface porosity. The presence of organic matter enhanced the survivability of the resting stages of test parasites. The decay rates calculated in this study can be used in models for public health decision-making process and highlights the mitigation role of hand hygiene agents in their prevention and control. PMID:25045350

  5. Methods for Cultivation of Luminal Parasitic Protists of Clinical Importance

    Clark, C. Graham; Diamond, Louis S.

    2002-01-01

    Cultivation of luminal protistan parasites has a long history. In this review we discuss the methods and media that are most widely used for the establishment and maintenance of the following organisms in culture: Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia intestinalis, Trichomonas vaginalis, Dientamoeba fragilis, Blastocystis hominis, and Balantidium coli. While cultivation is of limited importance in the diagnostic laboratory, it is essential to most research laboratories, and it is toward the latter t...

  6. The frequency of intestinal parasites in puppies from Mexican kennels

    Adrián Cortés-Campos; Leticia Eligio-García; Enedina Jiménez-Cardoso; Cynthia Noguera-Estrada; Apolinar Cano Estrada; Margarita Pinto-Sagahón

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the intestinal parasite prevalence in puppies from six different kennels; four kennels were in Guadalajara and Zapopan cities (Jalisco State) and two kennels were in Mexico City. From October 2006 to November 2007, we collected 441 fecal samples from 147 puppies, both male and female, ranging from 1 to 36 months of age. Three samples from every puppy were analyzed by using the Faust technique. The prevalence found were as follows: Giardia int...

  7. Cryptosporidium and Giardia removal by secondary and tertiary wastewater treatment.

    Taran-Benshoshan, Marina; Ofer, Naomi; Dalit, Vaizel-Ohayon; Aharoni, Avi; Revhun, Menahem; Nitzan, Yeshayahu; Nasser, Abidelfatah M

    2015-01-01

    Wastewater disposal may be a source of environmental contamination by Cryptosporidium and Giardia. This study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in raw and treated wastewater effluents. A prevalence of 100% was demonstrated for Giardia cysts in raw wastewater, at a concentration range of 10 to 12,225 cysts L(-1), whereas the concentration of Cryptosporidium oocysts in raw wastewater was 4 to 125 oocysts L(-1). The removal of Giardia cysts by secondary and tertiary treatment processes was greater than those observed for Cryptosporidium oocysts and turbidity. Cryptosporidium and Giardia were present in 68.5% and 76% of the tertiary effluent samples, respectively, at an average concentration of 0.93 cysts L(-1) and 9.94 oocysts L(-1). A higher detection limit of Cryptosporidium oocysts in wastewater was observed for nested PCR as compared to immune fluorescent assay (IFA). C. hominis was found to be the dominant genotype in wastewater effluents followed by C. parvum and C. andersoni or C. muris. Giardia was more prevalent than Cryptosporidium in the studied community and treatment processes were more efficient for the removal of Giardia than Cryptosporidium. Zoonotic genotypes of Cryptosporidium were also present in the human community. To assess the public health significance of Cryptosporidium oocysts present in tertiary effluent, viability (infectivity) needs to be assessed. PMID:26301853

  8. Cryptosporidium and Giardia in recreational water in Belgium.

    Ehsan, Md Amimul; Casaert, Stijn; Levecke, Bruno; Van Rooy, Liesbet; Pelicaen, Joachim; Smis, Anne; De Backer, Joke; Vervaeke, Bart; De Smedt, Sandra; Schoonbaert, Filip; Lammens, Saskia; Warmoes, Thierry; Geurden, Thomas; Claerebout, Edwin

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the presence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in different recreational water bodies in Belgium and to estimate the infection risk associated with swimming and other recreational activities. Cryptosporidium oocysts and/or Giardia cysts were detected in three out of 37 swimming pools, seven out of 10 recreational lakes, two out of seven splash parks and four out of 16 water fountains. In the swimming pools no infection risk for Cryptosporidium could be calculated, since oocysts were only detected in filter backwash water. The risk of Giardia infection in the swimming pools varied from 1.1310(-6) to 2.4910(-6) per swim per person. In recreational lakes, the infection risk varied from 2.7910(-5) to 5.7410(-5) per swim per person for Cryptosporidium and from 7.0410(-5) to 1.4610(-4) for Giardia. For other outdoor water recreation activities the estimated infection risk was 5.7110(-6) for Cryptosporidium and 1.4710(-5) for Giardia. However, most positive samples in the recreational lakes belonged to species/genotypes that are either animal-specific or predominantly found in animals. No Cryptosporidium was found in splash parks and water fountains, but the presence of Giardia cysts suggests a risk for human infection. The infection risk of Giardia infection during a 3.5-minute visit to a splash park for children equalled 1.6810(-4). PMID:26322773

  9. Application of a basic monitoring strategy for Cryptosporidium and Giardia in drinking water

    MV, Sigudu; HH, du Preez; F, Retief.

    2014-04-03

    Full Text Available Despite the health risks associated with exposure to Cryptosporidium and Giardia, there is no uniform approach to monitoring these protozoan parasites across the world. In the present study, a strategy for monitoring Cryptosporidium and Giardia in drinking water was developed in an effort to ensure [...] that the risk of exposure to these organisms and the risks of non-compliance to guidelines are reduced. The methodology developed will be applicable to all water supply systems irrespective of size and complexity of the purification works. It is based on monitoring procedures proposed by the US Environmental Protection Agency, the Drinking Water Inspectorate, Australia and New Zealand, as well as the risk-based procedure followed by Northern Ireland. The monitoring strategy developed represents a preventative approach for proactively monitoring Cryptosporidium and Giardia species in drinking water. The strategy consists of 10 steps: (i) assessment of the monitoring requirements, (ii) description and characterisation of the source water types, (iii) abstraction of source water, (iv) assessment of the water purification plant, (v) water quality monitoring, (vi) cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis outbreak, (vii) risk assessment, (viii) sample collection and laboratory processing, (ix) data evaluation, interpretation and storage, (x) process evaluation and review. Proper implementation of this protocol can contribute to the protection of drinking water consumers by identifying high-risk source water, identifying areas of improvement within the water treatment system, and also preventing further faecal pollution in the catchments. The protocol can also be integrated into the Water Safety Plans to optimise compliance. Furthermore, this methodology has a potential to contribute to Blue Drop certification as it should form part of the incident management protocols which are a requirement of Water Safety Plan implementation.

  10. Giardia duodenalis in feedlot cattle from the central and western United States

    Pereira Maria

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Giardia duodenalis is a ubiquitous protozoan parasite that has emerged as a significant opportunistic human pathogen. G. duodenalis may have a deleterious effect on animal growth and performance, therefore its potential as a production limiting organism should not be discounted. We therefore undertook this study to determine management and environmental factors in feedlots that influence the prevalence and environmental load of G. duodenalis cysts in fecal material deposited by feedlot cattle in the central and western United States. Results Twenty two feedlots from 7 states were included in the study, and up to 240 fecal samples were collected from pen floors of up to 6 pens per feedlot. Giardia duodenalis cysts were identified and counted using direct immunofluorescent microscopy. The estimated overall point prevalence of G. duodenalis was 19.1%, representing feedlots from a wide range of climates and management systems. Pen-level prevalence varied from 0 to 63.3%, with pen-level shedding estimates ranging from 0 to 261,000 cysts/g feces. Higher environmental temperatures, increased animal density, and increased time in the feedlot were associated with a lower prevalence of G. duodenalis. Removing manure before placing a new group of cattle in a pen was associated with a decreased prevalence of G. duodenalis in fecal pats. Using coccidiostats as a feed additive was associated with a higher prevalence of Giardia. Conclusion Management practices could be employed that would limit the probability that feedlot cattle shed G. duodenalis in their feces and therefore potentially limit contamination of their environment.

  11. Benthic macroinvertebrate communities as aquatic bioindicators of contamination by Giardia and Cryptosporidium.

    Reboredo-Fernndez, Aurora; Prado-Merini, scar; Garca-Bernadal, Teresa; Gmez-Couso, Hiplito; Ares-Mazs, Elvira

    2014-05-01

    Benthic macroinvertebrates (community composed mostly by aquatic forms of insects, such as stonefly nymphs, dragonfly nymphs, water bugs or beetle larvae) are often used in biological monitoring programmes to evaluate the ecological status of rivers and thus to indicate the repercussions of anthropogenic activities. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of this indicator community to detect human enteroprotozoan parasites that are transmitted via water. In total, 32 samples of macroinvertebrates were collected, with the aid of surber nets of mesh size 500 ?m, from nine rivers in Galicia (NW Spain), on different occasions between 2005 and 2009. The samples were homogenised (0.04 M phosphate buffered saline, pH 7.2), sieved (150 and 45 ?m mesh), and concentrated (by a diphasic method). Aliquots of the sediments were then analysed by a direct immunofluorescence technique with monoclonal antibodies against Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Giardia cysts were detected in one (3.1%) of the samples and Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in four (12.5%) of the samples. This work is the first study carried out to investigate the presence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in this benthic community. The results demonstrate that benthic invertebrates could be used as bioindicators of contamination by these waterborne protozoans. Moreover, as this aquatic organisms act as intermittent accumulators and its monitoring enables chronological analysis of perturbations, in both the short- and mid-term, this may represent a suitable alternative or complementary method to the usual techniques of detecting human and animal enteropathogens in water samples. PMID:24553978

  12. Cryptosporidium,Giardia, Cryptococcus, Pneumocystis genetic variability: cryptic biological species or clonal near-clades?

    Tibayrenc, Michel; Ayala, Francisco J

    2014-04-01

    An abundant literature dealing with the population genetics and taxonomy of Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., Pneumocystis spp., and Cryptococcus spp., pathogens of high medical and veterinary relevance, has been produced in recent years. We have analyzed these data in the light of new population genetic concepts dealing with predominant clonal evolution (PCE) recently proposed by us. In spite of the considerable phylogenetic diversity that exists among these pathogens, we have found striking similarities among them. The two main PCE features described by us, namely highly significant linkage disequilibrium and near-clading (stable phylogenetic clustering clouded by occasional recombination), are clearly observed in Cryptococcus and Giardia, and more limited indication of them is also present in Cryptosporidium and Pneumocystis. Moreover, in several cases, these features still obtain when the near-clades that subdivide the species are analyzed separately ("Russian doll pattern"). Lastly, several sets of data undermine the notion that certain microbes form clonal lineages simply owing to a lack of opportunity to outcross due to low transmission rates leading to lack of multiclonal infections ("starving sex hypothesis"). We propose that the divergent taxonomic and population genetic inferences advanced by various authors about these pathogens may not correspond to true evolutionary differences and could be, rather, the reflection of idiosyncratic practices among compartmentalized scientific communities. The PCE model provides an opportunity to revise the taxonomy and applied research dealing with these pathogens and others, such as viruses, bacteria, parasitic protozoa, and fungi. PMID:24722548

  13. The cenH3 histone variant defines centromeres in Giardia intestinalis.

    Dawson, S C; Sagolla, M S; Cande, W Z

    2007-04-01

    Histone H3 variants play critical roles in the functional specialization of chromatin by epigenetically marking centromeric chromatin and transcriptionally active or silent genes. Specifically, the cenH3 histone variant acts as the primary epigenetic determinant of the site of kinetochore assembly at centromeres. Although the function of histone variants is well studied in plants, animals, and fungi, there is little knowledge of the evolutionary conservation of histone variants and their function in most protists. We find that Giardia intestinalis--a diplomonad parasite with two equivalent nuclei--has two phylogenetically distinct histone H3 variants with N-terminal extensions and nonconserved promoters. To determine their role in chromatin dynamics, conventional H3 and the two H3 variants were GFP-tagged, and their subcellular location was monitored during interphase and mitosis. We demonstrate that one cenH3-like variant has a conserved function in epigenetically marking centromeres. The other H3 variant (H3B) has a punctate distribution on chromosomes, but does not colocalize with active transcriptional regions as indicated by H3K4 methylation. We suggest that H3B could instead mark noncentromeric heterochromatin. Giardia is a member of the Diplomonads and represents an ancient divergence from metazoans and fungi. We confirm the ancient role of histone H3 variants in modulating chromatin architecture, and suggest that monocentric chromosomes represent an ancestral chromosome morphology. PMID:17180675

  14. ENTEROPATHOGENS DETECTED IN A DAYCARE CENTER, SOUTHEASTERN BRAZIL: BACTERIA, VIRUS, AND PARASITE RESEARCH / Enteropatgenos detectados em crianas de creche no Sudeste do Brasil: pesquisa de bactrias, vrus e parasitos

    Edna Donizetti Rossi, Castro*; Marcela Cristina Braga Yassaka, Germini*; Joana D' Arc Pereira, Mascarenhas; Yvone Benchimol, Gabbay; Ian Carlos Gomes de, Lima; Patrcia dos Santos, Lobo; Valria Daltibari, Fraga; Luciana Moran, Conceio; Ricardo Luiz Dantas, Machado; Andra Regina Baptista, Rossit.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduo: O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a prevalncia e o perfil etiolgico de enteropatgenos em crianas de uma creche. Mtodos: No perodo de outubro de 2010 a fevereiro de 2011 foram coletadas e analisadas amo [...] stras de fezes de 100 crianas matriculadas em creche do governo no municpio de So Jos do Rio Preto, Estado de So Paulo. Resultados: Um total de 246 bactrias foram isoladas em 99% das amostras de fezes; 129 eram diarreicas e 117 no-diarreicas. Foram isoladas setenta e trs cepas de Escherichia coli, 19 de Enterobacter, uma de Alcaligenes e uma de Proteus. Foram detectados 14 casos de colonizao mista com Enterobacter e de E. coli. Norovrus e Astrovirus foram detectados em crianas com sinais clnicos sugestivos de diarria. Estes vrus foram detectados exclusivamente entre as crianas residentes em reas urbanas. Todas as amostras fecais foram negativas para a presena das espcies de rotavrus A e C. Foi observada a presena de Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba coli, Endolimax nana e ancilostomdeos. Foi encontrada associao significativa entre o consumo de alimentos fora do centro da casa e creche e a presena de parasitos intestinais. Concluses: Para as crianas desta creche, a infeco intestinal por patgenos no parece ter contribuido para a ocorrncia de diarreia ou outros sintomas intestinais. As diferenas observadas podem ser atribudas grande diversidade de caractersticas geogrficas, sociais e econmicas e o clima do Brasil, as quais tem sido relatadas como fatores crticos para a modulao da frequncia de diferentes enteropatgenos Abstract in english Introduction: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and etiological profile of enteropathogens in children from a daycare center. Methods: From October 2010 to February 2011 stool samples from 100 child [...] ren enrolled in a government daycare center in the municipality of So Jos do Rio Preto, in the state of So Paulo, were collected and analyzed. Results: A total of 246 bacteria were isolated in 99% of the fecal samples; 129 were in the diarrheal group and 117 in the non-diarrheal group. Seventy-three strains of Escherichia coli were isolated, 19 of Enterobacter, one of Alcaligenes and one of Proteus. There were 14 cases of mixed colonization with Enterobacter and E. coli. Norovirus and Astrovirus were detected in children with clinical signs suggestive of diarrhea. These viruses were detected exclusively among children residing in urban areas. All fecal samples were negative for the presence of the rotavirus species A and C. The presence of Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba coli, Endolimax nana and hookworm was observed. A significant association was found between food consumption outside home and daycare center and the presence of intestinal parasites. Conclusions: For children of this daycare center, intestinal infection due to pathogens does not seem to have contributed to the occurrence of diarrhea or other intestinal symptoms. The observed differences may be due to the wide diversity of geographical, social and economic characteristics and the climate of Brazil, all of which have been reported as critical factors in the modulation of the frequency of different enteropathogens.

  15. The prevalence of Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar in Van Regional Training and Research Hospital: A four-year monitoring

    Yasemin Bayram

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this retrospective study was to determinethe frequency rates of Giardia and E.histolytica/E.dispar and their distribution by years as well as agegroups and gender distribution during a four-year period.Materials and methods: A total of 9911 stool samplessent to our laboratory between January 2008 and December2011 were tested for parasites. Native-Lugol and formolethyl acetate sedimentation methods were utilized formicroscopic identification of Entamoeba sp. and Giardiatrophozoites and cysts in fresh stool samples. Additionally,trichrome staining was performed in stool sampleswhere the distinctive diagnosis could not be confirmed.Results: From a total of 9911 stool samples analyzedduring the study, 4.7% were positive for Giardia and 6.2%were positive for Entemoeba histolytica/ Entemoeba dispar.Of Giardia-positive patients 57% were male and 43%female. Similarly, 56% of Entemoeba histolytica/ Entemoebadispar positive patients were male and 44% werefemale. Both parasites’ higher frequency rates seen inmale groups were found statistically significant (p<0.01.Conclusion: It is seen that intestinal protozoon infectionsare still present as an important public health problemin our region. In order to prevent this problem, personalhygiene and sanitation rules education for community aswell as infrastructure improvements are necessary.Key words: Giardia, Entemoeba histolytica/ Entemoeba dispar, prevalence

  16. A meta-analysis of the efficacy of albendazole compared with tinidazole as treatments for Giardia infections in children.

    Escobedo, Angel A; Ballesteros, Javier; Gonzlez-Fraile, Eduardo; Almirall, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Metronidazole is frequently used against Giardia infection; however, it has been associated with significant failure rates in clearing parasites from the gut; additionally, as it should be taken for 5 to 10 days, it is associated with poor compliance, probably due to side effects. Other drugs, including tinidazole (TNZ) and albendazole (ABZ) have been included in the antigiardial armamentarium. Our aim was to assess the efficacy of ABZ compared with TNZ in Giardia infections in children. A systematic review and a meta-analysis were carried out. PubMed, Medline, EMBASE, CENTRAL, and LILACS were searched electronically until February 2015. Also relevant journals and references of studies included therein were hand-searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs). The meta-analysis was limited to RCTs evaluating the use of ABZ compared with TNZ in children with Giardia infection. The assessed outcome was parasitological efficacy. Prediction intervals (PI) were computed to better express uncertainties in the effect estimates. Five RCTs including 403 children were included. Overall, TNZ significantly outperformed ABZ without differences between subgroups defined by ABZ dosages [relative risk, (RR) 1.61 (95% CI): (1.40-1.85); P<0.0001]. The 95% prediction interval range is 1.28-2.02. There was no significant heterogeneity (I(2)=0%; Q-test of heterogeneity P=0.4507. The number-needed-to-treat, the average number of patients who need to be treated with TNZ to gain one additional good outcome as compared with ABZ was 4, 95% CI: 3-5. Our results show that TNZ outperforms ABZ in the treatment of Giardia infections in children from developing countries. PMID:26476393

  17. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites of stray dogs impounded by the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA, Durban and Coast, South Africa : short communication

    S. Mukaratirwa

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Coprological examination was used to determine the prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal parasites of stray dogs impounded by the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA, Durban and Coast, South Africa. Helminth and protozoan parasites were found in faeces of 240 dogs with an overall prevalence of 82.5% (helminth parasites 93.1% and protozoan parasites 6.9 %. The following parasites and their prevalences were detected; Ancylostoma sp. (53.8 %, Trichuris vulpis (7.9 %, Spirocerca lupi (5.4 %, Toxocara canis (7.9 %, Toxascaris leonina (0.4 % Giardia intestinalis (5.6 % and Isospora sp. (1.3 %. Dogs harbouring a single parasite species were more common (41.7 % than those harbouring 2 (15 % or multiple (2.1 % species. Ancylostoma sp., Toxocara canis and Giardia intestinalis have zoonotic potential and were detected in 66.7 % of the samples.

  18. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites of stray dogs impounded by the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA), Durban and Coast, South Africa.

    Mukaratirwa, S; Singh, V P

    2010-06-01

    Coprological examination was used to determine the prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal parasites of stray dogs impounded by the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA), Durban and Coast, South Africa. Helminth and protozoan parasites were found in faeces of 240 dogs with an overall prevalence of 82.5% (helminth parasites 93.1% and protozoan parasites 6.9%). The following parasites and their prevalences were detected; Ancylostoma sp. (53.8%), Trichuris vulpis (7.9%), Spirocerca lupi (5.4%), Toxocara canis (7.9%), Toxascaris leonina (0.4%) Giardia intestinalis (5.6%) and Isospora sp. (1.3%). Dogs harbouring a single parasite species were more common (41.7%) than those harbouring 2 (15%) or multiple (2.1%) species. Ancylostoma sp., Toxocara canis and Giardia intestinalis have zoonotic potential and were detected in 66.7% of the samples. PMID:21247022

  19. Chemotherapeutics of Neglected Waterborne Parasites: Current Status and Future Perspectives

    Ratna Chakrabarti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Waterborne protozoan parasites Cryptosporidium and Giardia cause diarrheal diseases worldwide. Cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis cause significant disease burden and economic impact much of the developed world and their treatment options are limited. These diseases are, therefore, included in the World Health Organization neglected disease initiative. These protozoans are also included as bioterrorism agents because of their potential ability for large-scale contamination of water supplies. This mini review discusses ways for therapeutic options to control the diseases caused by these parasites.

  20. Influence of selected stool concentration techniques on the effectiveness of PCR examination in Giardia intestinalis diagnostics.

    Stojecki, K; Sroka, J; Karamon, J; Kusyk, P; Cencek, T

    2014-01-01

    Giardia intestinalis is a widespread parasitic protozoa which has great significance as a public health threat. Molecular diagnostics of stool sample can be unreliable because of the presence of inhibitors of enzymatic reactions. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of selected pre-treatment methods of fecal samples for further PCR-based diagnostics of G. intestinalis, and the effect of each component of pre-treatment solutions on PCR reactions. Seven stool concentration techniques were compared. The results showed that the most efficient concentration method for stool sample preparation for detection of G. intestinalis by PCR is centrifugal flotation with Percoll (with saturated NaNO3 as the flotation solution). This method is relatively inexpensive, less labor-intensive, and suitable for epidemiological monitoring and clinical investigations. PMID:24724466

  1. Dog's genotype of Giardia duodenalis in human: first evidence in Europe.

    Štrkolcová, Gabriela; Maďar, Marián; Hinney, Barbara; Goldová, Mária; Mojžišová, Jana; Halánová, Monika

    2015-12-01

    The unicellular parasite Giardia duodenalis has been divided to eight assemblages (A-H) from which A and B have the most important zoonotic potential. All remaining genotypes have a strong commitment to various host animals. We present here the first clinical case of a human infection with the dog-specific genotype C of G. duodenalis in Slovakia. The patient, 44-year-old woman, suffered from long-term diarrhoea, abdominal pain, anorexia, weight loss, severe itching and dermatitis in the perianal area. The initial microscopic diagnosis was completed by a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) which revealed the first evidence of human giardiasis caused by the dog-specific genotype of G. duodenalis on a European scale. A possible role of dogs in zoonotic transmission of giardiasis and its epidemiological and public health relevance is accentuated. PMID:26408607

  2. Parasitic colitis.

    Hechenbleikner, Elizabeth M; McQuade, Jennifer A

    2015-06-01

    Over one billion people worldwide harbor intestinal parasites. Parasitic intestinal infections have a predilection for developing countries due to overcrowding and poor sanitation but are also found in developed nations, such as the United States, particularly in immigrants or in the setting of sporadic outbreaks. Although the majority of people are asymptomatically colonized with parasites, the clinical presentation can range from mild abdominal discomfort or diarrhea to serious complications, such as perforation or bleeding. Protozoa and helminths (worms) are the two major classes of intestinal parasites. Protozoal intestinal infections include cryptosporidiosis, cystoisosporiasis, cyclosporiasis, balantidiasis, giardiasis, amebiasis, and Chagas disease, while helminth infections include ascariasis, trichuriasis, strongyloidiasis, enterobiasis, and schistosomiasis. Intestinal parasites are predominantly small intestine pathogens but the large intestine is also frequently involved. This article highlights important aspects of parasitic infections of the colon including epidemiology, transmission, symptoms, and diagnostic methods as well as appropriate medical and surgical treatment. PMID:26034403

  3. Giardia duodenalis genetic assemblages and hosts

    Heyworth, Martin F.

    2016-01-01

    Techniques for sub-classifying morphologically identical Giardia duodenalis trophozoites have included comparisons of the electrophoretic mobility of enzymes and of chromosomes, and sequencing of genes encoding β-giardin, triose phosphate isomerase, the small subunit of ribosomal RNA and glutamate dehydrogenase. To date, G. duodenalis organisms have been sub-classified into eight genetic assemblages (designated A–H). Genotyping of G. duodenalis organisms isolated from various hosts has shown that assemblages A and B infect the largest range of host species, and appear to be the main (or possibly only) G. duodenalis assemblages that undeniably infect human subjects. In at least some cases of assemblage A or B infection in wild mammals, there is suggestive evidence that the infection had resulted from environmental contamination by G. duodenalis cysts of human origin. PMID:26984116

  4. Giardia duodenalis genetic assemblages and hosts

    Heyworth Martin F.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Techniques for sub-classifying morphologically identical Giardia duodenalis trophozoites have included comparisons of the electrophoretic mobility of enzymes and of chromosomes, and sequencing of genes encoding β-giardin, triose phosphate isomerase, the small subunit of ribosomal RNA and glutamate dehydrogenase. To date, G. duodenalis organisms have been sub-classified into eight genetic assemblages (designated A–H. Genotyping of G. duodenalis organisms isolated from various hosts has shown that assemblages A and B infect the largest range of host species, and appear to be the main (or possibly only G. duodenalis assemblages that undeniably infect human subjects. In at least some cases of assemblage A or B infection in wild mammals, there is suggestive evidence that the infection had resulted from environmental contamination by G. duodenalis cysts of human origin.

  5. Social Parasites

    Lopez, Miguel A; Nguyen, HoangKim T.; Oberholzer, Michael; Hill, Kent L

    2011-01-01

    Protozoan parasites cause tremendous human suffering worldwide, but strategies for therapeutic intervention are limited. Recent studies illustrate that the paradigm of microbes as social organisms can be brought to bear on questions about parasite biology, transmission and pathogenesis. This review discusses recent work demonstrating adaptation of social behaviors by parasitic protozoa that cause African sleeping sickness and malaria. The recognition of social behavior and cell-cell communica...

  6. Prevalence and risk factors of Giardia duodenalis in dogs from Romania.

    Mircean, Viorica; Györke, Adriana; Cozma, Vasile

    2012-03-23

    The protozoan Giardia duodenalis is a mammalian-infecting parasite that produces diarrhoea and malabsorption in its hosts. A survey to investigate canine infections with G. duodenalis in Romania was undertaken between June 2008 and December 2009. The objectives of the study were to (i) estimate the prevalence of infection in different dog populations (kennels, shelters, shepherd, household) using microscopy and a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test kit; (ii) to establish the level of agreement and characteristics of the tests; and (iii) to identify risk factors for infection by multivariate logistic regression models. Faecal samples were collected from 614 dogs aged from 1 month to 16 years (mean ± SD=2.88 ± 2.86 years). Each sample was tested for the presence of cysts using a flotation method with saturated sodium chloride solution and 416 out of 614 stool samples were further examined for the presence of G. duodenalis specific antigens using Giardia Microwell ELISA (SafePath™ Laboratories). Giardia cysts were identified in 8.5% of total dogs (52/614) and statistical significantly more frequently in dogs living in communities. The cysts prevalence according with dog populations was as follows: 7.2%(9/125) in kennel dogs; 16.5%(27/164 in shelter dogs; 4.3%(2/46) in shepherd dogs; 4.8%(4/84) in household dogs from urban areas; and 5.1%(10/195) in household dogs from rural areas. The overall prevalence of Giardia infection by ELISA was 34.6% (144/416). The prevalence was significantly higher in kennel dogs (50%; 13/26), shelter dogs (47.7%; 74/155) and shepherd dogs (40.5%; 17/42) than in household dogs from urban areas (34.1%; 15/44) and household dogs from rural areas (16.8%; 25/149). It was noticed poor agreement between microscopy and ELISA (k=0.19). The microscopy performed best, with an Youden Index of 0.74, a Se of 73.68% and a Sp of 100%. ELISA had 100% Sp, but only 19.44% Se. Young dogs (up to 12 months age) and living in communities were identified as risk factors for infection by multivariate logistic regression analysis. 71.2% (37/52) Giardia cysts positive dogs presented co-infections with other intestinal parasites: Toxocara canis (14/52; 26.9%), Isospora ohioensis (12/52; 23.1%), Ancylostoma caninum (9/52; 17.3%), Uncinaria stenocephala (7/52; 13.5%), Trichocephalus vulpis (6/52; 11.5%), Hammondia heydorni/Neospora caninum (5/52; 9.6%), Sarcocystis spp. (5/52; 9.6%), Isospora canis (4/52; 7.7%), Capillaria aerophila (3/52; 5.8%), Strongyloides stercoralis (2/52; 93.8%), Dipylidium caninum (1/52; 1.9%) and Toxascaris leonina (1/52; 1.9%). PMID:21899952

  7. From mouse to moose: multilocus genotyping of Giardia isolates from various animal species.

    Lebbad, Marianne; Mattsson, Jens G; Christensson, Bodil; Ljungström, Bitte; Backhans, Annette; Andersson, Jan O; Svärd, Staffan G

    2010-03-25

    Giardia intestinalis is a protozoan parasite that consists of seven genetically distinct assemblages (A to G). Assemblage A and B parasites have been detected in a wide range of animals including humans, while the other assemblages (C to G) appear to have a narrower host range. However, the knowledge about zoonotic transmission of G. intestinalis is limited. To address this question, 114 Giardia isolates from various animals in Sweden including pets, livestock, wildlife and captive non-human primates were investigated by a sequence-based analysis of three genes (beta-giardin, glutamate dehydrogenase and triose phosphate isomerase). Assemblage A infections were detected in nine ruminants, five cats and one dog, while three sheep were infected with both assemblages A and E. Multilocus genotypes (MLGs) were defined for assemblage A, and three of these MLGs have previously been detected in Giardia isolates from humans. The newly described sub-assemblage AIII, until now reported mainly in wild hoofed animals, was found in one cat isolate. Assemblage B occurred in three monkeys, one guinea pig and one rabbit. The rabbit isolate exhibited sequences at all three loci previously detected in human isolates. The non-zoonotic assemblages C, D, E, F or G were found in the remaining 83 G. intestinalis isolates, which were successfully amplified and genotyped, generating a wide variety of both novel and known sub-genotypes. Double peaks in chromatograms were seen in assemblage B, C, D and E isolates but were never observed in assemblage A, F and G isolates, which can reflect differences in allelic sequence divergence. No evidence of genetic exchange between assemblages was detected. The study shows that multilocus genotyping of G. intestinalis is a highly discriminatory and useful tool in the determination of zoonotic sub-groups within assemblage A, but less valuable for subtyping assemblages B, C, D and E due to the high frequency of double peaks in the chromatograms. The obtained data also suggest that zoonotic transmission of assemblages A and B might occur to a limited extent in Sweden. PMID:19969422

  8. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in shelter and hunting dogs in Catalonia, Northeastern Spain.

    Ortuño, Anna; Scorza, Valeria; Castellà, Joaquim; Lappin, Mike

    2014-03-01

    To compare the prevalence of intestinal parasites in shelter and hunting dogs in Catalonia, Northeastern Spain, fresh faecal samples from 81 shelter dogs and 88 hunting dogs were collected and analysed by faecal flotation. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 71.6% in each population. In the shelter dog group, 67.9% of dogs were positive for intestinal protozoa and 9.8% were positive for helminths. In the hunting dog group, 20.4% of dogs were positive for intestinal protozoa and 63.6% were positive for helminths. A subset of Giardia-positive samples was evaluated by PCR; Giardia assemblages C or D were detected. These results suggest that comprehensive parasite control measures should be implemented in both shelter and hunting dogs in Catalonia. PMID:24445136

  9. Prevalence of zoonotic and other gastrointestinal parasites in police and house dogs in Alexandria, Egypt

    W. M. Ahmed

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This work estimates the gastrointestinal parasites of police and house dogs in Egypt with reference to its zoonotic risk. Materials and Methods: Fecal samples of 180 from police and house dogs were collected and then examined by different flotation and sedimentation techniques. Results: Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in police dogs was 7.5% and, in house dogs was 40%. Fecal examination of 120 police dogs revealed Toxocara canis eggs in 0.8%, Ancylsotoma caninum 1.7%, Trichuris vulpis 0.8 %, Cystoisospora canis 4.2% and Giardia species1.7%. Examination of 60 house dogs revealed Toxocaracanis eggs in 5% and Toxoascaris leonina 1.7 %, Cystoisospora canis 3.3%, Giardia species 31.7%, Entamoeba histolytica 18.3% and Cryptosporidium spp. 1.7%. Furthermore, age, sex, uncooked feed and communal housing revealed significant enteric parasite (P <0.05. Moreover, the zoonotic risks of police and house dogs were T. canis, A. caninum, T. vulpis, Giardia species, E. Histolytica and Cryptosporidium species. The puppies are representing the most zoonotic risk. Conclusion: In spite of, hygienic measures, regular deworming and high quality feeding of police and house dogs, a range of different parasites were recorded in this work. Parasitic zoonosis from police and house dogs has to be considered, especially for dog trainers and owners.

  10. Fish parasites

    This book contains 22 chapters on some of the most important parasitic diseases in wild and farmed fish. International experts give updated reviews and provide solutions to the problems......This book contains 22 chapters on some of the most important parasitic diseases in wild and farmed fish. International experts give updated reviews and provide solutions to the problems...

  11. Parasitic diseases

    Foundations of roentgenological semiotics of parasitic diseases of lungs, w hich are of the greatest practical value, are presented. Roentgenological pictu res of the following parasitic diseases: hydatid and alveolar echinococcosis, pa ragonimiasis, toxoplasmosis, ascariasis, amebiasis, bilharziasis (Schistosomias is) of lungs, are considered

  12. Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Surface Water: A Case Study from Michigan, USA to Inform Management of Rural Water Systems

    Erin A. Dreelin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium and Giardia pose a threat to human health in rural environments where water supplies are commonly untreated and susceptible to contamination from agricultural animal waste/manure, animal wastewater, septic tank effluents and septage. Our goals for this paper are to: (1 explore the prevalence of these protozoan parasites, where they are found, in what quantities, and which genotypes are present; (2 examine relationships between disease and land use comparing human health risks between rural and urban environments; and (3 synthesize available information to gain a better understanding of risk and risk management for rural water supplies. Our results indicate that Cryptosporidium and Giardia were more prevalent in rural versus urban environments based on the number of positive samples. Genotyping showed that both the human and animal types of the parasites are found in rural and urban environments. Rural areas had a higher incidence of disease compared to urban areas based on the total number of disease cases. Cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis were both positively correlated (p < 0.001 with urban area, population size, and population density. Finally, a comprehensive strategy that creates knowledge pathways for data sharing among multiple levels of management may improve decision-making for protecting rural water supplies.

  13. Cryptosporidium and Giardia in surface water: a case study from Michigan, USA to inform management of rural water systems.

    Dreelin, Erin A; Ives, Rebecca L; Molloy, Stephanie; Rose, Joan B

    2014-01-01

    Cryptosporidium and Giardia pose a threat to human health in rural environments where water supplies are commonly untreated and susceptible to contamination from agricultural animal waste/manure, animal wastewater, septic tank effluents and septage. Our goals for this paper are to: (1) explore the prevalence of these protozoan parasites, where they are found, in what quantities, and which genotypes are present; (2) examine relationships between disease and land use comparing human health risks between rural and urban environments; and (3) synthesize available information to gain a better understanding of risk and risk management for rural water supplies. Our results indicate that Cryptosporidium and Giardia were more prevalent in rural versus urban environments based on the number of positive samples. Genotyping showed that both the human and animal types of the parasites are found in rural and urban environments. Rural areas had a higher incidence of disease compared to urban areas based on the total number of disease cases. Cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis were both positively correlated (p < 0.001) with urban area, population size, and population density. Finally, a comprehensive strategy that creates knowledge pathways for data sharing among multiple levels of management may improve decision-making for protecting rural water supplies. PMID:25317981

  14. Separation and Mapping of Chromosomes of Parasitic Protozoa

    Rosaura Hernandez-Rivas

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available Many protozoan parasites represent an important group of human pathogens. Pulsed Field Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE analysis has been an important tool for fundamental genetic studies of parasites like Trypanosoma, Leishmania, Giardia or the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. We present PFGE conditions allowing a high resolution separation of chromosomes ranging from 500 to 4000 kb within a two day electrophoresis run. In addition, we present conditions for separating large chromosomes (2000-6000 kb within 36 hr. We demontrate that the application of two dimentional PFGE (2D-PFGE technique to parasite karyotypes is a very useful method for the analysis of dispersed gene families and comparative studies of the intrachomosomal genome organization

  15. Preliminary data on the efficacy of a Giardia vaccine in puppies.

    Olson, M. E.; Morck, D W; Ceri, H.

    1997-01-01

    Twenty puppies were vaccinated with a trophozoite-derived Giardia vaccine on day 0 and boosted on day 21 (Group 1); 10 control puppies received only saline (Group 2). Both groups were experimentally infected on day 35 with 1 x 10(6) Giardia duodenalis trophozoites by intraduodenal injection. Immunization provided protection to experimental Giardia infection.

  16. Parasitic Meningitis

    ... Resources for Healthcare Professionals Related Links Vaccine Schedules Preteen & Teen Vaccines Meningococcal Disease Parasitic Meningitis Recommend on ... Related Page Naegleria fowleri Related Links Vaccine Schedules Preteen & Teen Vaccines Meningococcal Disease File Formats Help: How ...

  17. Encystation commitment in Giardia duodenalis: a long and winding road

    Argüello-Garciá R.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol and bile salts are relevant modulators of Giardia encystation. Although several molecules within signaling cascades have been identified, and changes in their expression observed during giardial encystation, their underlying interactions leading to expression of cyst wall markers (CWPs and precursors of the GalNAc homopolymer are not well defined. Recent experimental data and the completion of the Giardia Genome Project Database (GiardiaDB allow us now to consider the role of bile salts as “natural stimuli” and the potential involvement of a Raf/MEK/ERK pathway mediating cholesterol-regulated expression of cyst-specific genes. These new findings may provide promising targets for diagnostics, drug design and prophylactic intervention against giardiasis.

  18. Giardia and Cryptosporidium species and genotypes in coyotes (Canis latrans).

    Trout, James M; Santn, Mnica; Fayer, Ronald

    2006-06-01

    Feces and duodenal scrapings were collected from 22 coyotes (Canis latrans) killed in managed hunts in northeastern Pennsylvania. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods were used to detect Giardia and Cryptosporidium spp. PCR-amplified fragments of Giardia and Cryptosporidium spp. SSU-rRNA genes were subjected to DNA sequence analysis for species/genotype determination. Seven coyotes (32%) were positive for G. duodenalis: three assemblage C, three assemblage D, and one assemblage B. Six coyotes (27%) were positive for Cryptosporidium spp. One isolate shared 99.7% homology with C. muris, whereas five others (23%) shared 100% homology with C. canis, coyote genotype. This is the first report on multiple genotypes of Giardia spp. in coyotes and on the prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. genotypes in coyotes. PMID:17312792

  19. Progress report on the project: Studies with doubly labelled water of adaptation in human energy needs in Mexico

    A study was conducted to determine the prevalence and nutritional impact of Giardia lamblia on vitamin A status and growth. 125 children aged 3-6 years were studied. This paper reports about the experiments and the results. The results show an epidemilogical level that Giardia could be a factor contributing to impaired physical growth and that heavy loads of the parasites might have a negative effect on vitamin A levels. 8 refs

  20. Molecular identification of zoonotic and livestock-specific Giardia-species in faecal samples of calves in Southern Germany

    Gillhuber, Julia; Pallant, Louise; Ash, Amanda; Thompson, R.C. Andrew; Pfister, Kurt; Scheuerle, Miriam C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Giardia-infection in cattle is often subclinical or asymptomatic, but it can also cause diarrhoea. The livestock-specific species Giardia bovis is the most frequently observed in cattle, however, the two zoonotic species Giardia duodenalis and Giardia enterica have also been found. Therefore calves are thought to be of public health significance. The aim of this study was to obtain current data about the frequency of the different Giardia-species in calves in Southern Germany. Fin...

  1. Prevalence of Giardia spp. in young dogs using a combination of two diagnostic methods.

    Alves, João; Santos, Ana

    2016-06-01

    In this study, prevalence of the protozoan parasites from the genus Giardia spp, with zoonotic potential and worldwide dissemination, was accessed in young dogs, which are reported as having higher prevalence rates. With that purpose, 49 animals from the Grupo de Intervenção Cinotécnico of the Guarda Nacional Republicana (Portuguese Gendarmerie Canine Unit) were chosen. They were housed individually in areas with a high number of kennels (up to 100), with ages ragging from newborns to 10 years old. Dogs were divided in four groups, according their age: under 6 months (n = 16), 6-12 months (n = 6), 12-18 months (n = 13) and 18-24 months (n = 14), comprising 22 females and 27 males. Fecal samples were collected from every animal and all were submitted to two different diagnostic tests, a passive flotation technique with a ZnSO4 solution and a detection of fecal antigen using a commercially available ELISA test (Witness® Giardia - Zoetis). From the 49 samples, 5 (10.2%) were considered positive with ZnSO4 flotation technique and 6 (12.24%) with the Witness® Giardia test. When considering the combination of both tests, 5 animals (10.2%) were considered positive. Of these, 3 (60%) were from the group under 6 months old, 1 (20%) from the 6-12 months and 1 from the 18-24 (20%) months. Within each group, in the under 6 months group 18.75% (n = 16) were considered positive, 16.67% in the 6-12 month group (n = 6), 0% in the 12-18 month group (n=13) and 7.14% in 18-24 month group (n = 14). None of the animals had clinical signs and no significant differences were found when comparing prevalence according to age, breed or gender. A combination of fecal flotation and antigen ELISA tests have good sensitivity and are easy to perform in practice and, therefore, could be a good choice to perform a diagnostic and small animal veterinarians should have this possible diagnostic in mind when in the present of clinical signs, particularly in young dogs. PMID:27078649

  2. Development of a quantitative PCR (qPCR) for Giardia and analysis of the prevalence, cyst shedding and genotypes of Giardia present in sheep across four states in Australia.

    Yang, Rongchang; Jacobson, Caroline; Gardner, Graham; Carmichael, Ian; Campbell, Angus J D; Ryan, Una

    2014-02-01

    A novel quantitative PCR (qPCR) for Giardia at the glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) locus was developed and validated. The qPCR was used to screen a total of 3412 lamb faecal samples collected from approximately 1189 lambs at three sampling periods (weaning, post-weaning and pre-slaughter) from eight farms across South Australia (SA), New South Wales (NSW), Victoria (Vic) and Western Australia (WA). The overall prevalence was 20.2% (95% CI 18.9-21.6) and of the 690 positives, 473 were successfully typed. In general, the prevalence of Giardia varied widely across the different farms with the highest prevalence in one WA farm (42.1%) at pre-slaughter sampling and the lowest prevalence in one Victorian farm (7.2%) at weaning. The range of cyst shedding at weaning, post-weaning and pre-slaughter overall across all states was 63-1.310(9) cysts g(-1) (median=1.710(4)), 63-1.110(9) cysts g(-1) (median=9.610(3)), 63-4.710(9) cysts g(-1) (median=8.110(4)) respectively. Assemblage specific primers at the triose phosphate isomerase (tpi) locus identified assemblage A in 22.4% (106/473) of positive samples typed, assemblage E in 75.9% (359/473) and mixed A and E assemblages in 1.7% (8/473) of samples. A subset of representative samples from the 8 farms (n=32) were typed at both the gdh and beta-giardin loci and confirmed these results and identified sub-assemblage AII in 16 representative assemblage A isolates across the 8 farms. This demonstrates a prevalence of Giardia previously not recognised in Australian sheep, highlighting a need for further research to quantify the production impacts of this protozoan parasite. PMID:24355868

  3. Giardia duodenalis induces paracellular bacterial translocation and causes postinfectious visceral hypersensitivity.

    Halliez, Marie C M; Motta, Jean-Paul; Feener, Troy D; Guérin, Gaetan; LeGoff, Laetitia; François, Arnaud; Colasse, Elodie; Favennec, Loic; Gargala, Gilles; Lapointe, Tamia K; Altier, Christophe; Buret, André G

    2016-04-15

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most frequent functional gastrointestinal disorder. It is characterized by abdominal hypersensitivity, leading to discomfort and pain, as well as altered bowel habits. While it is common for IBS to develop following the resolution of infectious gastroenteritis [then termed postinfectious IBS (PI-IBS)], the mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Giardia duodenalis is a cosmopolitan water-borne enteropathogen that causes intestinal malabsorption, diarrhea, and postinfectious complications. Cause-and-effect studies using a human enteropathogen to help investigate the mechanisms of PI-IBS are sorely lacking. In an attempt to establish causality between giardiasis and postinfectious visceral hypersensitivity, this study describes a new model of PI-IBS in neonatal rats infected with G. duodenalis At 50 days postinfection with G. duodenalis (assemblage A or B), long after the parasite was cleared, rats developed visceral hypersensitivity to luminal balloon distension in the jejunum and rectum, activation of the nociceptive signaling pathway (increased c-fos expression), histological modifications (villus atrophy and crypt hyperplasia), and proliferation of mucosal intraepithelial lymphocytes and mast cells in the jejunum, but not in the rectum. G. duodenalis infection also disrupted the intestinal barrier, in vivo and in vitro, which in turn promoted the translocation of commensal bacteria. Giardia-induced bacterial paracellular translocation in vitro correlated with degradation of the tight junction proteins occludin and claudin-4. The extensive observations associated with gut hypersensitivity described here demonstrate that, indeed, in this new model of postgiardiasis IBS, alterations to the gut mucosa and c-fos are consistent with those associated with PI-IBS and, hence, offer avenues for new mechanistic research in the field. PMID:26744469

  4. ALBENDAZOLE AND ITS ANALOGUES

    J. El harti

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of albendazole gainst Echinococcus granulosus cysts is proved, but limited by its poor bioavailability. Some prodrugs of albendazole have been described but no bioavailability study has shown their interest to present. Other authors have synthesized analogues of albendazole that have a better activity against some parasites namely; Toxocara cani, Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica and Taenia crassiceps.

  5. The secondary structure of large-subunit rRNA divergent domains, a marker for protist evolution

    Lenaers, G; Nielsen, Henrik; Engberg, J; Herzog, M

    ), Tetrahymena thermophila (ciliate), Physarum polycephalum and Dictyostelium discoideum (slime moulds), Crithidia fasciculata and Giardia lamblia (parasitic flagellates). The folding for the D3, D7a and D10 divergent domains has been refined and a consensus model for the protist 24-26S rRNA structure is...

  6. Research concerning intestinal parasitosis in infant population discovered in two clinic laboratories from Oradea (Romania

    Daniel-Dumitru PORTELECHI

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Considering the research made and the data offered by the specialists in parasitology from Oradea’s no.1 Polyclinic and Children’s Hospital, we have established that children from 1 to 18 years old have been found infected with 7 species of human parasites. Giardia lamblia, Blastocystis hominis, Ascaris lumbricoides, Oxyurus vermicularis, Trichurus trichiura, Hymenolepis nana, Hymenolepis diminuta.

  7. CASE-CONTROL STUDY OF WATERBORNE GIARDIASIS IN RENO, NEVADA

    Waterborne disease outbreaks are a growing problem in the United States (1), and several recent outbreaks have been linked to the parasite Giardia lamblia (2-8). Previous outbreaks of waterborne giardiasis have often been associated with unfiltered or inadequately filtered surfac...

  8. Research concerning intestinal parasitosis in infant population discovered in two clinic laboratories from Oradea (Romania)

    Daniel-Dumitru PORTELECHI; Nicolae TOMESCU

    2006-01-01

    Considering the research made and the data offered by the specialists in parasitology from Oradea’s no.1 Polyclinic and Children’s Hospital, we have established that children from 1 to 18 years old have been found infected with 7 species of human parasites. Giardia lamblia, Blastocystis hominis, Ascaris lumbricoides, Oxyurus vermicularis, Trichurus trichiura, Hymenolepis nana, Hymenolepis diminuta.

  9. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in domestic dogs in Tabasco, southeastern Mexico.

    Torres-Chablé, Oswaldo Margarito; García-Herrera, Ricardo Alfonso; Hernández-Hernández, Melchor; Peralta-Torres, Jorge Alonso; Ojeda-Robertos, Nadia Florencia; Blitvich, Bradley John; Baak-Baak, Carlos Marcial; García-Rejón, Julián Everardo; Machain-Wiliams, Carlos Ignacio

    2015-12-01

    The overall goal of this study was to estimate the prevalence of gastrointestinal (GI) parasites in dogs in the city of Villahermosa in Tabasco, Mexico. The study population consisted of 302 owned dogs that had limited access to public areas. A fecal sample was collected from each animal and examined for GI parasites by conventional macroscopic analysis and centrifugal flotation. Fecal samples from 80 (26.5%) dogs contained GI parasites. Of these, 58 (19.2%) were positive for helminths and 22 (7.3%) were positive for protozoan parasites. At least seven parasitic species were identified. The most common parasite was Ancylostoma caninum which was detected in 48 (15.9%) dogs. Other parasites detected on multiple occasions were Cystoisospora spp. (n = 19), Toxocara canis (n = 7) and Giardia spp. (n = 3). Three additional parasites, Dipylidium caninum, Trichuris vulpis and Uncinaria spp., were each detected in a single dog. No mixed parasitic infections were identified. In summary, we report a moderately high prevalence of GI parasites in owned dogs in Villahermosa, Tabasco. Several parasitic species identified in this study are recognized zoonotic pathogens which illustrates the important need to routinely monitor and treat dogs that live in close proximity to humans for parasitic infections. PMID:26648011

  10. Prevalence of Stray Dogs with Intestinal Protozoan Parasites

    Mohammad Mirzaei

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Intestinal protozoan parasites are important enteropathogens in dogs. Moreover, several canine intestinal protozoan parasites are zoonotic and are considered important to public health. This study investigates the level of intestinal protozoan parasites in stray dogs, in Kerman city, Iran. Approach: Determination of the prevalence of infections was based on faecal examination. Stool samples (n = 98 collected from dogs of different ages and gender were analyzed using five techniques, i.e., centrifugal flotation in sucrose solution, centrifugal flotation in 33% Zinc solphate solution, Ziehl-Neelsen staining, trichrome staining and iodine staining. Results: The overall prevalence of parasitism was 13 (13.26% dogs. The parasites most frequently detected were: Giardia spp. (7.14%, Isospora spp. (5.1% and Cryptosporidium spp. (4.08%. Single parasitic infection was present in 11 (11.22% dogs. There was no significant difference in the prevalence between male (13.3% and female (13.2% dogs (p>0.05. There was significantly (pConclusion/Recommendations: The results of this research showed that stray dogs are reservoirs for zoonotic intestinal protozoan parasites and should be considered important to public health. So that, it is imperative for human to avoid faecal contamination in streets, public gardens and parks. Also stray dogs should be euthanized in dog population control program in Iran.

  11. Parasitic Apologies

    Galatolo, Renata; Ursi, Biagio; Bongelli, Ramona

    2016-01-01

    The action of apologizing can be accomplished as the main business of the interaction or incidentally while participants are doing something else. We refer to these apologies as "parasitic apologies," because they are produced "en passant" (Schegloff, 2007), and focus our analysis on this type of apology occurring at the…

  12. THE EFFICIENCY OF YARN WOUND FILTERS IN GIARDIA CYSTS REMOVAL USING THE IMPROVED SUCROSE GRADIENT

    M.R SHAH MANSOURI

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The protozoan parasite Giardia is one of the important biological cotaminants in water. lts presence in water has caused the outbreak of a number of epidemics in various part of the world including the United States. The major impediment in detecting this particular parasite is unavailability of suitable filters capable of removing it from water. Regarding the fact yarn wound filters (cartridge used in removing Giardia under laboratory condition are currently difficult to obtain in Iran, attempts were made to design and manufacture the filters according to standards recommended in the literature. Methods. To determine the efficiency of filters manufactured in this way, a pilot system was established and parameters of concern were investigated. A given number of cysts were introduced in each case to the water in the pilot tank after being counted on the hemocytometer lamella After the entire tank water (at least 4001had been pumped through the filters, the filter were removed from the pilot system to have their yarns separated and washed. The cysts recovered were then counted and compared with the original input cysts to determine the efficiency of the filters. Formation of sediments on filters due to suspended solids in water was a great impediment in counting the cysts hidden in the sediments. To overcome this difficulty, the method of floatation in sucrose was used to remove the hidden cysts from the sediments. Regarding the morphological characteristics of the cysts, the method was also studied in terms of the sucrose film concentration and the effects of centrifugal speed and duration on the removal of cysts from sediments. Results. The results indicated an efficiency of 80.69±5.85, which was ideal for a first experience in Iran. a level of 2.5 molar of Sucrose with a duration of 10 minutes for the centrifugation time at 2,000 rpm were considered to be optimum levels to yield a certainty of 95 percent and an efficiency of 89.95±4.25 . Discussion. The comparison of the efficiency obtained with those obtained across the world from the application of other techniques associated with this method indicated that this filter was advantages to similar filters, keeping in mind also that this filter can be used in field situations. It is essential to modify in each region the method of cyst removal from sediments using Sucrose gradient according to the particular morphological characteristics and density of cystes. The optimization of Sucrose gradient and the centrifugation duration and speed seems equally important.

  13. Comparative study on waterborne parasites between Malaysia and Thailand: A new insight.

    Kumar, Thulasi; Onichandran, Subashini; Lim, Yvonne A L; Sawangjaroen, Nongyao; Ithoi, Init; Andiappan, Hemah; Salibay, Cristina C; Dungca, Julieta Z; Chye, Tan Tian; Sulaiman, Wan Y W; Ling Lau, Yee; Nissapatorn, Veeranoot

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated the distribution of parasites as main contaminants in water environments of peninsular Malaysia (October 2011-December 2011) and the southeastern coast of Thailand (June 2012). Sixty-four water samples, 33 from Malaysia and 31 from Thailand, of various water types were examined according to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency guidelines. Drinking or household water types from both countries were free from parasitic contamination. The recreational/environmental (except a swimming pool in Malaysia) and effluent water types from these two countries were contaminated with waterborne parasites: Giardia (0.04-4 cysts/L), Cryptosporidium (0.06-2.33 oocysts/L), hookworm (6.67-350 ova/L), Ascaris (0.33-33.33 ova/L), and Schistosoma (9.25-13.33 ova/L). The most contaminated sites were recreational lake garden 3 in Malaysia and river 2 in Thailand. Higher concentrations of Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and hookworm were found in samples from Malaysia than in samples from Thailand. The presence of Giardia cysts showed a significant association with the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts (P < 0.005). PMID:24567315

  14. MOLECULAR TYPING OF Giardia duodenalis ISOLATES FROM NONHUMAN PRIMATES HOUSED IN A BRAZILIAN ZOO / Genotipagem de isolados de Giardia duodenalis de primatas no humanos mantidos em zoolgico do Brasil

    Erica Boarato, David; Mariella, Patti; Silvana Torossian, Coradi; Teresa Cristina Goulart, Oliveira-Sequeira; Paulo Eduardo Martins, Ribolla; Semiramis, Guimaraes.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa de infeces por Giardia e a caracterizao genotpica deste protozorio foi realizada em primatas no humanos (PNH) mantidos em Zoolgico a fim de avaliar o seu potencial zoontico. As amostras dos animais consistiram de fezes colhidas do piso de 22 baias onde eram mantidos 47 primatas d [...] e 18 diferentes espcies. Exames coproparasitolgicos foram realizados pelos mtodos de concentrao por sedimentao e centrfugo-flutuao e revelaram a presena dos seguintes parasitas e suas respectivas frequncias: Giardia (18%); Entamoeba spp. (18%); Endolimax nana (4.5%); Iodamoeba spp. (4.5%); oxiurdeos (4.5%) e estrongildeos (4.5%). O DNA extrado de todas as amostras fecais foi submetido tcnica de PCR para a amplificao dos genes gdh e tpi de Giardia, porm, s foram obtidos amplicons das quatro amostras positivas provenientes de Ateles belzebuth, Alouatta caraya, Alouatta fusca and Alouatta seniculus. O seqenciamento dos fragmentos amplificados foi possvel apenas para as amostras oriundas de Ateles belzebuth (BA1), Alouatta fusca (BA2) e Alouatta caraya (BA3), cuja anlise fentica de ambos os genes revelou pertencerem ao gentipo A. As anlises das sequncias de tpi revelaram que todas as amostras pertencem ao subgentipo AII. No que se refere ao gene gdh as anlises revelaram uma amostra pertencente ao subgentipo AII (BA3) e duas ao subgentipo A1 (BA1 e BA2). Considerando o potencial zoontico do gentipo A e o fato de que os animais no apresentavam sintomas de infeco, os dados do presente trabalho salientam a importncia de se realizar, periodicamente, exames coproparasitolgicos dos animais de zoolgico, para implementao de medidas preventivas para resguardar a sade dos animais em cativeiro, a de seus tratadores e dos visitantes de parques zoolgicos. Abstract in english Giardia infections in captive nonhuman primates (NHP) housed at a Brazilian zoo were investigated in order to address their zoonotic potential. Fresh fecal samples were collected from the floors of 22 enclosures where 47 primates of 18 different species were housed. The diagnosis of intestinal paras [...] ites after concentration by sedimentation and flotation methods revealed the following parasites and their frequencies: Giardia (18%); Entamoeba spp. (18%); Endolimax nana (4.5%); Iodamoeba spp. (4.5%); Oxyurid (4.5%) and Strongylid (4.5%). Genomic DNA extracted from all samples was processed by PCR methods in order to amplify fragments of gdh and tpi genes of Giardia. Amplicons were obtained from samples of Ateles belzebuth, Alouatta caraya, Alouatta fusca and Alouatta seniculus. Clear sequences were only obtained for the isolates from Ateles belzebuth (BA1), Alouatta fusca (BA2) and Alouatta caraya (BA3). According to the phenetic analyses of these sequences, all were classified as assemblage A. For the tpi gene, all three isolates were grouped into sub-assemblage AII (BA1, BA2 and BA3) whereas for the gdh gene, only BA3 was sub-assemblage AII, and the BA1 and BA2 were sub-assemblage AI. Considering the zoonotic potential of the assemblage A, and that the animals of the present study show no clinical signs of infection, the data obtained here stresses that regular coproparasitological surveys are necessary to implement preventive measures and safeguard the health of the captive animals, of their caretakers and of people visiting the zoological gardens.

  15. Parasitic Colitides

    Goldberg, Joel E.

    2007-01-01

    Parasitic infections are a major worldwide health problem, and they account for millions of infections and deaths each year. Most of the infections as well as the morbidity and mortality from these diseases occur in the developing world in rural regions. However, these diseases have become more common in Western countries and in big cities over the past 25 years. These changing disease patterns can be attributed to emigration from the third world to developed countries and migration of rural ...

  16. Gastrointestinal parasites and ectoparasites biodiversity of Rattus rattus trapped from Khan Younis and Jabalia in Gaza strip, Palestine.

    Al Hindi, Adnan Ibrahim; Abu-Haddaf, Eman

    2013-04-01

    This study identified the zoonotic endo-parasites and ecto-parasites of Rattus rattus. A total of 41 rats of house (black) rat and Norway (brown) rat were trapped from two regions of Gaza strip. After dissection, isolated protozoa, nematodes and cestodes were identified respectively according standard keys. The results showed that prevalence of intestinal parasites among rats was 24/41 (58.5%) and males were infected more than females. A high prevalence of protozoa was in autumn compared to other seasons. The intestinal parasites were encountered: G. lamblia 6 (14.6%); E. histolytica/dispar 7 (17.1%); Isospora 4 (9.8%); Acanthocephala 1 (2.4%); Syphacia obvelata 6 (20%); Heligmonoides josephi 3(10%); Strongyloides egg 1 (2.4%); Hymenolepis diminuta 15 (36.6%). The insects were Xenopsylla cheopis 7 (17.1%); Polyplax spinulosa 3 (7.3%). PMID:23697031

  17. Cryptosporidium and Giardia detection in water bodies of Galicia, Spain.

    Castro-Hermida, Jos Antonio; Garca-Presedo, Ignacio; Gonzlez-Warleta, Marta; Mezo, Mercedes

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the mean concentration (per litre) of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in recreational river areas (n=28), drinking water treatments plants (DWTPs; n=52) and wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs; n=50) in Galicia (NW Spain). Water samples from rivers and from the influent (50-100l) and the treated effluent (100l) of the water plants were filtered using Filta-Max filters (IDEXX Laboratories, Inc., Westbrook, ME, USA). A total of 232 samples were processed and the (oo)cysts were concentrated, clarified by IMS and then detected by IFAT. The viability was determined by applying fluorogenic vital dye (PI). In the recreational areas, infective forms of Cryptosporidium and Giardia were detected in 16(57.1%; 1-60 oocysts per litre) and 17 (60.7%; 1-160 cysts per litre) samples, respectively. In the water flowing into the water treatment plants, oocysts were detected in 21 DWTPs (40.4%; 1-13 oocysts per litre) and cysts were observed in 22 DWTPs (42.3%; 1-7 cysts per litre). In the effluents from the treatment plants, Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts were identified in 17 DWTPs (32.7%; 1-4 oocysts per litre) and in 19 DWTPs (36.5%; 1-5 cysts per litre), respectively. The highest concentrations of (oo)cysts were found in the WWTPs; specifically, oocysts were detected in 29 (58.0%; 1-80 oocysts per litre) and cysts in 49 (98.0%; 2-14.400 cysts per litre) WWTP effluents. Cryptosporidium and Giardia were detected in 32 (64.0%; 1-120 oocysts per litre) and 48 (96.0%; 2-6.000 cysts per litre) WWTP effluents, respectively. The percentage viability of the (oo)cysts ranged between 90.0% and 95.0%. In all samples analysed. Moreover, it was found that the effluents from coastal WWTPs were discharged directly into the sea, while inland WWTPs were discharged directly into rivers. The concentrations of both enteropathogens detected in effluents from WWTPs therefore represent a significant risk to human and animal health. These results demonstrate the wide distribution of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in the environment, the ineffectiveness of treatments in DWTPs and WWTPs in reducing/inactivating both protozoa and the need to monitor the presence, viability and infectivity of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in water bodies. In conclusion, the findings suggest the need for better monitoring of water quality and identification of sources of contamination. PMID:20673950

  18. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Intestinal Protozoan Infections with Cryptosporidium, Giardia, Blastocystis and Dientamoeba among Schoolchildren in Tripoli, Lebanon

    Benamrouz, Sadia; Nourrisson, Céline; Poirier, Philippe; Pereira, Bruno; Razakandrainibe, Romy; Pinon, Anthony; Lambert, Céline; Wawrzyniak, Ivan; Dabboussi, Fouad; Delbac, Frederic; Favennec, Loïc; Hamze, Monzer; Viscogliosi, Eric; Certad, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    Background Intestinal protozoan infections are confirmed as major causes of diarrhea, particularly in children, and represent a significant, but often neglected, threat to public health. No recent data were available in Lebanon concerning the molecular epidemiology of protozoan infections in children, a vulnerable population at high risk of infection. Methodology and Principal Findings In order to improve our understanding of the epidemiology of intestinal pathogenic protozoa, a cross-sectional study was conducted in a general pediatric population including both symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects. After obtaining informed consent from the parents or legal guardians, stool samples were collected in January 2013 from 249 children in 2 schools in Tripoli, Lebanon. Information obtained from a standard questionnaire included demographic characteristics, current symptoms, socioeconomic status, source of drinking water, and personal hygiene habits. After fecal examination by both microscopy and molecular tools, the overall prevalence of parasitic infections was recorded as 85%. Blastocystis spp. presented the highest infection rate (63%), followed by Dientamoeba fragilis (60.6%), Giardia duodenalis (28.5%) and Cryptosporidium spp. (10.4%). PCR was also performed to identify species and genotypes of Cryptosporidium, subtypes of Blastocystis, and assemblages of Giardia. Statistical analysis using a logistic regression model showed that contact with family members presenting gastrointestinal disorders was the primary risk factor for transmission of these protozoa. Conclusions This is the first study performed in Lebanon reporting the prevalence and the clinical and molecular epidemiological data associated with intestinal protozoan infections among schoolchildren in Tripoli. A high prevalence of protozoan parasites was found, with Blastocystis spp. being the most predominant protozoans. Although only 50% of children reported digestive symptoms, asymptomatic infection was observed, and these children may act as unidentified carriers. This survey provides necessary information for designing prevention and control strategies to reduce the burden of these protozoan infections, especially in children. PMID:26974335

  19. Simplified protocol for DNA extraction and amplification of 2 molecular markers to detect and type Giardia duodenalis.

    Uda-Shimoda, Carla Fernanda; Colli, Cristiane Maria; Pavanelli, Mariana Felgueira; Falavigna-Guilherme, Ana Lcia; Gomes, Mnica Lcia

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the ability of 3 kits: QIAmp DNA stool mini kit (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany), PureLink PCR Purification, and PureLink Genomic DNA (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA) for DNA extraction, and of 2 molecular markers (heat shock protein [HSP] and ?-giardin genes) for detection and genotyping of Giardia duodenalis stool samples. The detection and typing limits of the markers were determined by the DNA concentration of trophozoites and cysts and were tested in 26 clinical samples. Of the 3 kits tested, the PureLink PCR Purification gave the best results when tested with clinical samples with low, intermediate, and high numbers of cysts. The DNA extracted from trophozoites and cysts was diluted successively in 1:2 ratios until it was no longer possible to observe the amplified product in polyacrylamide gel. Similarly, a suspension of cysts was diluted until no cysts were observed, and then the DNA was extracted. The amount of DNA of trophozoites and cysts for the typing of the parasite was smaller for the HSP marker than for ?-giardin. Combined use of both markers allowed us to detect DNA of Giardia in parasitologically positive samples in a higher percentage (75%) than the results obtained for each marker and in 1 parasitologically negative sample, indicating that this combination increased the potential to accurately detect and genotype this parasite. We also concluded that the HSP marker has a higher limit of detection and typing than the ?-giardin marker and that the DNA extraction method tested for G. duodenalis is simpler and more efficient than those that are currently in use and can be applied on a large scale. PMID:24207076

  20. Freqüência de parasitos gastrintestinais em cães e gatos atendidos em hospital-escola veterinário da cidade de São Paulo Frequency of gastrointestinal parasites in dogs and cats referred to a veterinary school hospital in the city of São Paulo

    M.R. Funada

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Fecal samples from 1755 dogs and 327 cats were examined for the presence of helminths and protozoan forms. From the total samples, 486 (27.7% dogs and 103 (31.5% cats presented at least one parasite. The main genus of parasite in dogs were Ancylostoma (12.7%, Giardia (8.5%, Cystoisosopora (4.4%, Toxocara (2.6%, and Cryptosporidium (2.4%. The ocurrence of Ancylostoma was associated to male dogs, older than one year, while Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Cystoisospora and Toxocara were associated to dogs younger than one year (P<0.05. Among cats, the most frequent parasites were Cryptosporidium (11.3%, Giardia (8.3%, Cystoisosopora (8.3%, Toxocara (6.1%, and Ancylostoma (2.1%. Cryptosporidium and Cystoisosopora were more prevalent in cats younger than one year (P < 0.05.

  1. The prevalence and diversity of intestinal parasitic infections in humans and domestic animals in a rural Cambodian village.

    Schär, Fabian; Inpankaew, Tawin; Traub, Rebecca J; Khieu, Virak; Dalsgaard, Anders; Chimnoi, Wissanuwat; Chhoun, Chamnan; Sok, Daream; Marti, Hanspeter; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter

    2014-08-01

    In Cambodia, intestinal parasitic infections are prevalent in humans and particularly in children. Yet, information on potentially zoonotic parasites in animal reservoir hosts is lacking. In May 2012, faecal samples from 218 humans, 94 dogs and 76 pigs were collected from 67 households in Dong village, Preah Vihear province, Cambodia. Faecal samples were examined microscopically using sodium nitrate and zinc sulphate flotation methods, the Baermann method, Koga Agar plate culture, formalin-ether concentration technique and Kato Katz technique. PCR was used to confirm hookworm, Ascaris spp., Giardia spp. and Blastocystis spp. Major gastrointestinal parasitic infections found in humans included hookworms (63.3%), Entamoeba spp. (27.1%) and Strongyloides stercoralis (24.3%). In dogs, hookworm (80.8%), Spirometra spp. (21.3%) and Strongyloides spp. (14.9%) were most commonly detected and in pigs Isospora suis (75.0%), Oesophagostomum spp. (73.7%) and Entamoeba spp. (31.6%) were found. Eleven parasite species were detected in dogs (eight helminths and three protozoa), seven of which have zoonotic potential, including hookworm, Strongyloides spp., Trichuris spp., Toxocara canis, Echinostoma spp., Giardia duodenalis and Entamoeba spp. Five of the parasite species detected in pigs also have zoonotic potential, including Ascaris spp., Trichuris spp., Capillaria spp., Balantidium coli and Entamoeba spp. Further molecular epidemiological studies will aid characterisation of parasite species and genotypes and allow further insight into the potential for zoonotic cross transmission of parasites in this community. PMID:24704609

  2. Multilocus genotyping of potentially zoonotic Giardia duodenalis in pet chinchillas (Chinchilla lanigera) in China.

    Qi, Meng; Yu, Fuchang; Li, Shouyi; Wang, Haiyan; Luo, Nannan; Huang, Jianying; Zhang, Longxian

    2015-03-15

    Giardia duodenalis is a common protozoan that colonizes and reproduces in the small intestine, causing giardiasis. This parasite infects a wide range of vertebrate hosts, including humans, domestic animals and wildlife. It has been suggested that chinchillas (Chinchilla lanigera) kept as domestic pets are potential reservoirs for the zoonotic transmission of G. duodenalis. In this study, 140 chinchilla samples from four cities in China were examined to determine the prevalence of G. duodenalis. Thirty-eight (27.1%) chinchillas were found to be positive for G. duodenalis. The prevalence of infection was analyzed in relation to collection site, age and sex. Molecular characterization was also carried out on the 38 chinchilla samples to determine common genotypes. G. duodenalis assemblages A and B were identified in the chinchilla samples by analysis of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (ssur RNA) gene. Genotyping at the subtype level using multiple genes (glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), triose phosphate isomerase (tpi) and ?-giardin (bg) genes) determined that the majority of assemblage A isolate sequences were identical to subtype AI. Assemblage B isolates showed variability among the nucleotide sequences belonging to subtype BIV. This is the first report of G. duodenalis in chinchillas from China. As subtype AI and BIV are associated with human infection, G. duodenalis in chinchillas should be regarded as zoonotic. PMID:25704655

  3. Genotype identification and prevalence of Giardia duodenalis in pet dogs of Guangzhou, Southern China.

    Li, Jie; Zhang, Ping; Wang, Peiyuan; Alsarakibi, Muhamd; Zhu, Haibo; Liu, Yuanjia; Meng, Xianglong; Li, Jinping; Guo, Jianchao; Li, Guoqing

    2012-09-10

    Giardia duodenalis is a flagellated parasite and is considered one of the most common causes of protozoal diarrhea in both humans and animals worldwide. This paper represents the first study of the prevalence of G. duodenalis in pet dogs in Guangzhou, China. Faecal samples (209 specimens) were obtained from young (dogs (>3 years old). 8.61% (18/209) faecal samples were recorded positive using microscopy examination, and 11.00% (23/209) using PCR. The prevalence was significantly higher in diarrheic dogs (26.31%) compared with non-diarrheic dogs (5.10%), while it was higher in young (25.58%) than both adult (7.37%) and elder (7.04%) dogs and the difference was statistically significant (Pdogs 11.30% (13/115) was higher than females 10.87% (10/92), and in suburban dogs (12.15%) higher than urban 9.80%, but the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05). Sequence analysis of the 23 PCR-positive samples revealed the presence of Assemblage D (18/23), and zoonotic Assemblage A (5/23). The present investigation reported a high infection rate of G. duodenalis in pet dogs, especially in young dogs. Genotypic characterization demonstrated that the zoonotic Assemblage A was found, a fact that poses a potential risk of G. duodenalis transmission from pet dogs to humans. It is suggested that pet owners should take appropriate hygiene measures to prevent and control giardiasis in this region. PMID:22554420

  4. Diagnosis of Parasitic Diseases

    ... About CDC.gov . Parasites Parasites Home Share Compartir Diagnosis of Parasitic Diseases On this Page How are ... conditions you may have, and your travel history. Diagnosis may be difficult, so your health care provider ...

  5. Genome and transcriptome studies of the protozoan parasites Trypanosoma cruzi and Giardia intestinalis

    Farran, Alexandra J. E.

    Vocal fold (VF) diseases and disorders are difficult to treat surgically or therapeutically. Tissue engineering offers an alternative strategy for the restoration of functional VF. In this work, we have developed tissue engineering methodologies for the functional reconstruction of VF. As a first step, the structure, composition and mechanical properties of native VF tissues have been investigated. In pigs ranging from fetal to 2+ years old, the VF structure and viscoelastic properties were found to be age-dependent. Adult tissues were more organized, displaying a denser lamina propria, and mature elastin fibers compared to fetal tissues, resulting in higher storage moduli. Secondly, biomimetic scaffolds which recaptured the mechanical properties of the native VF were developed. Chemically-defined collagen-hyaluronic acid (HA) composite hydrogels, and elastin-mimetic hybrid polymers (EMHPs) were successfully used as conducive 3D matrices, and 2D elastic scaffolds respectively, to in vitro static culture of fibroblasts. While the collagen-HA hydrogels allowed for in situ cell encapsulation and supported cell attachment and proliferation in 3D, the integrin-binding domain RGDSP was needed for cell proliferation on EMHPs. To emulate in vitro the mechanical environment of the native VF tissue, a dynamic culture system capable of generating vibratory stimulations at human phonation frequencies was successfully created and characterized. Gene expression analysis of fibroblasts subjected to 1 hour vibrations in 2D revealed that the expression of ECM-related genes was altered in response to changes in vibratory frequency and amplitude. Finally, expanding on our previous studies, the dynamic culture system was modified to accommodate for the long-term dynamic culture of cell-laden hydrogels. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) encapsulated in a collagen/HA-based hydrogel, cultured in presence of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), and subjected to high frequency vibrations were shown to respond to all three type of external factors. In summary, microenvironments such as biomimetic scaffolds, soluble factors, and mechanical stimuli are important modulator of cellular function. The strategic combination of those microenvironments into a biomimicking VF tissue engineering 3D system did not only provide an in vitro platform for the investigation of VF diseases, but also have the potential to offer alternative treatments for VF disorders.

  6. Subclinical Giardia in dogs: a veterinary conundrum relevant to human infection.

    Tysnes, Kristoffer Relling; Skancke, Ellen; Robertson, Lucy J

    2014-11-01

    Human infection with Giardia duodenalis tends to be associated with diarrheal disease requiring treatment - despite our awareness that often it is asymptomatic and sometimes, perhaps, even protective. We discuss here whether canine giardiasis can serve as a model to help to understand why Giardia is pathogenic. We discuss factors that should be considered when Giardia is identified in dogs, challenging the assumption that infection necessarily means disease that requires chemotherapeutic treatment. To make the best treatment decision for canine Giardia infection we need to think about zoonotic risks, transmission possibilities, and risk factors for disease development. In addition, in both humans and dogs, Giardia sometimes may be considered as a harmless passenger, or even as a beneficial friend. PMID:25246022

  7. Parasitic Contamination of Fresh Vegetables Consumed in Tabriz, Iran

    S. Pooryagoobi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fresh vegetables are an important part of a healthy diet. In recent years there has been an increase in the number of reported cases of food-borne illness linked to fresh vegetables. The consumption of raw vegetables is a major way in the transmission of parasitic contaminations. The goal of this study was to determine the parasitological contamination of vegetables sold at markets and obtained from gardens. A total of 100 samples from different vegetables were randomly selected from the markets and gardens (markets: 50; gardens: 50 and then were examined by a concentration method. Each sample was washed with water, allowing sedimentation at room temperature for 24 h. About 5 mL of sediment were centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 5 min. Sediment was examined in lugol stained slides through light microscopy. About 40% (20/50 of markets vegetables and 76% (38/50 of gardens vegetables were contaminated with different parasites. Prevalences of pathogenic parasites in vegetables of markets and gardens were 20 and 25%, respectively. Parasites detected were Giardia cysts (7%, Dicrocoelium eggs (4%, Fasciola eggs (3% and Ascaris eggs (1%. In regard to results of this study, the importance of vegetables in the transmission of intestinal parasites in stressed and it is necessary to improve the sanitary conditions of these kinds of food.

  8. Parasitic diseases of lungs

    Roentgenologic semiotics of the main parasitic diseases of lungs is described: echinococcosis, paragonimiasis, cysticercosis, toxoplasmosis, ascariasis, amebiosis and some rarely met parasitic diseases

  9. Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Pregnant Women in Venezuela

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Intestinal parasitic infections, especially due to helminths, increase anemia in pregnant women. The results of this are low pregnancy weight gain and IUGR, followed by LBW, with its associated greater risks of infection and higher perinatal mortality rates. For these reasons, in the setting of no large previous studies in Venezuela about this problem, a national multicentric study was conducted. Methods. Pregnant women from nine states were studied, a prenatal evaluation with a coproparasitological study. Univariated and multivariated analyses were made to determine risk factors for intestinal parasitosis and related anemia. Results. During 19 months, 1038 pregnant women were included and evaluated. Intestinal parasitosis was evidenced in 73.9%: A lumbricoides 57.0%, T trichiura 36.0%, G lamblia 14.1%, E hystolitica 12.0%, N americanus 8.1%, E vermicularis 6.3%, S stercoralis 3.3%. Relative risk for anemia in those women with intestinal parasitosis was 2.56 ( P<.01 . Discussion. Intestinal parasitoses could be associated with conditions for development of anemia at pregnancy. These features reflect the need of routine coproparasitological study among pregnant women in rural and endemic zones for intestinal parasites. Further therapeutic and prophylactic protocols are needed. Additional research on pregnant intestinal parasitic infection impact on newborn health is also considered.

  10. Intestinal Parasitic Infections Among Pregnant Women in Venezuela

    Pedro Rifakis

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Intestinal parasitic infections, especially due to helminths, increase anemia in pregnant women. The results of this are low pregnancy weight gain and IUGR, followed by LBW, with its associated greater risks of infection and higher perinatal mortality rates. For these reasons, in the setting of no large previous studies in Venezuela about this problem, a national multicentric study was conducted. Methods. Pregnant women from nine states were studied, a prenatal evaluation with a coproparasitological study. Univariated and multivariated analyses were made to determine risk factors for intestinal parasitosis and related anemia. Results. During 19 months, 1038 pregnant women were included and evaluated. Intestinal parasitosis was evidenced in 73.9%: A lumbricoides 57.0%, T trichiura 36.0%, G lamblia 14.1%, E hystolitica 12.0%, N americanus 8.1%, E vermicularis 6.3%, S stercoralis 3.3%. Relative risk for anemia in those women with intestinal parasitosis was 2.56 (P<.01. Discussion. Intestinal parasitoses could be associated with conditions for development of anemia at pregnancy. These features reflect the need of routine coproparasitological study among pregnant women in rural and endemic zones for intestinal parasites. Further therapeutic and prophylactic protocols are needed. Additional research on pregnant intestinal parasitic infection impact on newborn health is also considered.

  11. Development of a Method for Detection of Giardia duodenalis Cysts on Lettuce and for Simultaneous Analysis of Salad Products for the Presence of Giardia Cysts and Cryptosporidium Oocysts▿

    Cook, N.; Nichols, R.A.B.; Wilkinson, N; Paton, C. A.; Barker, K; Smith, H.V.

    2007-01-01

    We report a method for detecting Giardia duodenalis cysts on lettuce, which we subsequently use to examine salad products for the presence of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts. The method is based on four basic steps: extraction of cysts from the foodstuffs, concentration of the extract and separation of the cysts from food materials, staining of the cysts to allow their visualization, and identification of cysts by microscopy. The concentration and separation steps are performed by c...

  12. Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Swimming Pools, Atlanta, Georgia

    2008-05-29

    In this podcast, Dan Rutz speaks with Dr. Joan Shields, a guest researcher with the Healthy Swimming Program at CDC, about an article in June 2008 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases reporting on the results of a test of swimming pools in the greater Atlanta, Georgia area. Dr. Shields tested 160 pools in metro Atlanta last year for Cryptosporidium and Giardia. These germs cause most recreational water associated outbreaks.  Created: 5/29/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 5/29/2008.

  13. Human behaviour and the epidemiology of parasitic zoonoses.

    Macpherson, Calum N L

    2005-10-01

    The behaviour of Homo sapiens has a pivotal role to play in the macro and microepidemiology of emerging or re-emerging parasitic zoonoses. Changing demographics and the concomitant alterations to the environment, climate, technology, land use and changes in human behavior, converge to favour the emergence and spread of parasitic zoonoses. The recent unprecedented movements of people, their animals and their parasites around the world, introduce and mix genes, cultural preferences, customs, and behavioral patterns. The increasing proclivity for eating meat, fish, crabs, shrimp, molluscs raw, undercooked, smoked, pickled or dried facilitates a number of protozoan (Toxoplasma), trematode (Fasciola sp., Paragonimus spp., Clonorchis sp., Opisthorchis spp., Heterophyes sp., Metagonimus sp., Echinostoma spp., Nanophyetus sp.) cestode (Taenia spp, Diphyllobothrum sp.) and nematode (Trichinella spp., Capillaria spp., Gnathostoma spp., Anisakis sp., Parastrongylus spp.) caused zoonoses. The increasing world population and the inability to keep pace with the provision of adequate sanitation and clean, safe drinking water, has led to an increased importance of waterborne zoonoses, such as those caused by Giardia, Cryptosporidium and Toxoplasma. Our close relationship with and the numerous uses to which we put companion animals and their ubiquitous distribution has resulted in dogs and cats unwitting participation in sharing over 60 parasite species including: Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Toxoplasma, most foodborne trematode species, Diphyllobothrum, Echinococcus spp., Ancylostoma and Toxocara. Changing human behaviour through education, to encourage the proper cooking of food, which may have cultural and social significance, will remain as challenging as controlling stray and feral pet populations, improving hygiene levels and the provision of safe drinking water and the proper use of sanctuary facilities. Long pre-patent periods and the normally insidious sub-clinical nature of most zoonoses makes advice requiring behavioural change for their control a difficult task. Our clearer understanding of the heterogeneity of susceptibility to infection, the complex genetic variations of people and parasite species and the development of molecular epidemiological tools is shedding more light on transmission routes and the spectrum of disease that is observed. Improved and new serological, molecular and imaging diagnostic tests and the development of broad spectrum chemotherapeutic agents has led to the attenuation of morbidity and mortality due to parasitic zoonoses in economically advantaged regions. Such advancements, in partnership with supportive behavioural change, has the potential for a sustainable global reduction in the burden of ill health due to parasitic zoonoses. Whether this will materialise is a challenge for us all. PMID:16102769

  14. Giardia duodenalis assemblages and Entamoeba species infecting non-human primates in an Italian zoological garden: zoonotic potential and management traits

    Di Cave David

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Giardia duodenalis and Entamoeba spp. are among the most common intestinal human protozoan parasites worldwide and they are frequently reported in captive non-human primates (NHP. From a public health point of view, infected animals in zoos constitute a risk for animal caretakers and visitors. In this study we carried out the molecular identification of G. duodenalis and Entamoeba spp. from nine species of primates housed in the zoological garden of Rome, to better ascertain their occurrence and zoonotic potential. Results G. duodenalis was found only in Lemur catta (47.0%. Entamoeba spp. were detected in all species studied, with the exception of Eulemur macaco and Varecia rubra. The number of positive pools ranged from 5.9% in L. catta to 81.2% in Mandrillus sphinx; in Pan troglodytes the observed prevalence was 53.6%. A mixed Entamoeba-Giardia infection was recorded only in one sample of L. catta. All G. duodenalis isolates belonged to the zoonotic assemblage B, sub assemblage BIV. Three Entamoeba species were identified: E. hartmanni, E. coli and E. dispar. Conclusions Our results highlight the importance of regularly testing animals kept in zoos for the diagnosis of zoonotic parasites, in order to evaluate their pathogenic role in the housed animals and the zoonotic risk linked to their presence. A quick detection of the arrival of pathogens into the enclosures could also be a prerequisite to limit their spread into the structure via the introduction of specific control strategies. The need for molecular identification of some parasite species/genotype in order to better define the zoonotic risk is also highlighted.

  15. Intestinal parasites in children, in highly deprived areas in the border region of Chiapas, Mexico Parasitosis intestinal en niños, en áreas de alta marginación socioeconómica de la región fronteriza de Chiapas, México

    Emma Marianela Morales-Espinoza

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among children in highly deprived areas, and its possible association with demographic and socioeconomic indicators. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From March to September 1998 in a convenience sample of 32 communities of the border region of Chiapas, Mexico, selected at random based on the level of poverty and distance from the community to the nearest health care unit (OBJETIVO: Estimar la prevalencia de parasitosis intestinal en niños de zonas de alta marginación y su asociación con indicadores demográficos y socioeconómicos de interés. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: En una muestra de 1478 menores de edad, de entre 1 a 14 años, provenientes de 32 comunidades de la región fronteriza de Chiapas, México, de marzo a septiembre de 1998, se recolectaron tres muestras de heces fecales, seleccionadas aleatoriamente a partir del grado de marginación (alto y muy alto del municipio al que pertenecen, y distancia de la unidad de salud más cercana a la comunidad (<1 hora; 1 hora o más. En una de cada cuatro viviendas con niños menores de 15 años de edad, seleccionadas aleatoriamente, se obtuvieron tres muestras de heces fecales de éstos. Se efectuaron análisis bivariados con la prueba de ji cuadrada y multivariados con modelos lineales generalizados. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia global de parasitosis fue de 67% (intervalo de confianza IC 95% 64-70%. Sesenta por ciento de los niños estaban multiparasitados. La prevalencia de Entamoeba histolytica/E dispar fue de 51.2%, de Giardia lamblia, 18.3% y de Ascaris lumbricoides, 14.5%. La mayor prevalencia de E histolytica/E dispar se asoció con la edad y hablar algún idioma indígena; la de Ascaris lumbricoides con el sitio de obtención de agua y la carencia de refrigerador y electricidad. CONCLUSIONES: Es necesario hacer intervenciones locales de salud (calidad del agua, sistemas de desagüe, programas de educación sanitaria (promoción de la lactancia materna y medidas higiénicas y promoción del habla de idiomas indígenas entre los médicos de la región.

  16. Prevalence of Cryptosporidia, Eimeria, Giardia, and Strongyloides in pre-weaned calves on smallholder dairy farms in Mukurwe-ini district, Kenya

    Getrude Shepelo Peter

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Gastrointestinal diseases are among the leading causes of calf morbidity and mortality in Kenya and elsewhere. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidia, Eimeria, Giardia, and Strongyloides in calves on smallholder dairy farms (SDF in Mukurwe-ini District, Nyeri County, Kenya. These infections have been associated with economic losses by decreased growth rates, decreased productivity, and increased susceptibility to other diseases. Materials and Methods: An observational study was conducted on 109 farms in Mukurwe-ini District, Nyeri County, Kenya, where 220 calf fecal samples (each calf at 4 and 6 weeks of age from 110 calves (1 set of twins were collected and analyzed for Cryptosporidia, Eimeria, Giardia, and helminth parasites. Results: Eimeria oocysts, Cryptosporidia oocysts, and Strongyloides eggs were detected in the fecal samples examined, but no Giardia cysts were found. The overall period prevalence of Eimeria, Cryptosporidia, and Strongyloides was 42.7% (47/110, 13.6% (15/110, and 5.4% (6/110, respectively. The prevalence at 4 weeks of age for Eimeria, Cryptosporidia, and Strongyloides was 30.0% (33/110, 8.2% (9/110, and 3.7% (4/109, respectively, while the prevalence at 6 weeks of age was 20.2% (22/109, 6.5% (7/107, and 2.7% (3/110, respectively. There was, however, no significant difference in the prevalence at 4 and 6 weeks (p>0.05. Conclusion: Findings from this study show that Eimeria, Cryptosporidia, and Strongyloides, are prevalent in the study area and indicate the need to adopt optimal management practices to control infections in calves.

  17. Parasitic Infections (Helminth and Protozoa in Cases Referring to Yazd Central Laboratory, 2002-2004

    AA Dehghani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intestinal parasites have world wide prevalence and are considered to be as one of the leading hygienic and economic problems in the world. It can be said that there is nowhere in the world without parasitic infestations. The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in patients referring to Yazd Central Laboratory in 2000-2002. Methods: The present study was a cross-sectional, analytic and descriptive study including 13388 stool specimens examined by two methods; Formalin-Ethyl Acetate and direct Method for intestinal parasites and Scotch tape method for Enterobius vermicularis. Results: 13388 samples examined included 6913 women and 6475 men. Parasites were observed in 1151 cases (8.6% including 618 (53.7% men and 533 (46.3% women, respectively. Of these, 98.6% were infected with protozoa and 1.4% with helminths. Giardia lambdia (41.05%, E.coli (27.45% and Blastocystis hominis (15.51% were the most common infecting organisms. Helminth infections were few, but the highest frequency was related to Hymenolepis nana and Enterobious vermicularis. Maximum frequency was reported in summer. There was a significant association between stool consistency and infestation by intestinal parasites (P=0.002. There was a significant relationship with sex, too (P=0.001 Conclusion: In the present study, the most common parasites were Giardia, E.coli and Blastocystis hominis (higher than five, but the prevalence was less as compared to previous similar studies in other regions, which could be because of the hot and dry weather, better personal hygiene and improved sewage system of Yazd.

  18. A wide diversity of zoonotic intestinal parasites infects urban and rural dogs in Neuquén, Patagonia, Argentina

    Soriano, Silvia Viviana; Pierángeli, Nora Beatriz; Roccia, Irene; Lazzarini, Lorena Evelina; Celescinco, Alejandra; Saiz, Mónica Susana; Kossman, Alejandra; Contreras, Pablo Adrián; Arias, Cecilia; Basualdo Farjat, Juan Ángel

    2010-01-01

    The presence of parasites was investigated by the examination of 1944 dog faecal samples collected from urban (n=646) and rural (n=1298) areas of the province of Neuquén, Patagonia, Argentina. Parasitic agents (PA) were found in 37.86% of samples. A total of 15 different PA were detected, including Toxocara canis (16.35%), Taenia spp./Echinococcus spp. (12.65%), Trichurisvulpis (6.06%), Giardia spp. (1.29%), Toxascaris leonina (0.56%), Ancylostomacaninum (0.41%), Dipylidium caninum (0.31%), D...

  19. Serological versus antigen detection methods for Giardia duodenalis diagnosis.

    Bashir, M; Farid, A; Rabia, I; Mostafa, B; El Amir, A

    2014-12-01

    Giardiasis constitutes an important public health problem in the world. Contamination of the water with fecal materials including viruses and pathogenic protozoa still represents an environmental health hazard, especially in rural areas. The survey study evaluated the relation between seropositivity and some risk factors. Moreover, the study compared between the serological IgG and IgM level and antigen detection methods for the diagnosis of giardiasis. The results indicate that sex distribution and age were the mean risk factors for seroprevelence. In this study, sera samples were employed in sandwich ELISA assay, to detect circulating Giardia antigens. None of the negative control serum samples gave a positive reaction, but cross reaction was encountered with 3 case of Cryptosporidium. The specificity of the assay was 94.830/a. On the other hand, the sensitivity of the Giardia patient's sera was 94.12% which was higher than that of IgG (86.25%) and IgM (87.50%) secretion measurements. In conclusion, antigen detection methods give better and earlier diagnosis for giardiasis can be performed quickly and do not require an experienced and skilled morphologist. PMID:25643512

  20. Molecular and phylogenetic characterization of Cryptosporidium and Giardia from pigs and cattle in Denmark

    Langkjær, Rikke Breinhold; Vigre, Håkan; Enemark, Heidi L.; Maddox-Hyttel, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    The genetic diversity of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis from dairy cattle and pigs in Denmark was determined in the present study. Faecal samples from 1237 pigs and 1150 cattle originating from 50 sow herds and 50 dairy herds, respectively, were analysed for the presence of the two...... calves. For Giardia, 82 and 145 isolates from pigs and cattle, respectively, were analysed at the 18S rDNA locus and/or the gdh gene. Giardia isolates belonging to the zoonotic Assemblage A was found in both young and older calves, as well as in weaners and piglets, whereas cows seemed to be infected...

  1. Detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia doudenalis in equines in Nineveh, Iraq

    E. T. Butty

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 107 fecal samples of equines from different regions in Nineveh, were colleted from January 2007 till December 2007 and examined for Cryptosporidium sp., and Giardia doudenalis by using different methods (wet mount, flotation, lugol's iodine, modified Ziehl Nelsecn (hot and Giemsa stain Just for Giardia doudenalis. The animal age examined ranged from 4 to 10 years. The total prevalence of cryptosporidium sp. was 27.10% (29 out of 107, while the prevalence of Giardia doudenalis was 19.63% (21 out of 107. This study represents the first trial to explore cryptosporidiosis, giardiasis in equines as in Nineveh there is no survey of these intestinal protozoa.

  2. [Biology, epidemiology and diagnostics of pathogenic waterborne protozoan parasites].

    Leońska-Duniec, Agata; Adamska, Małgorzata

    2010-01-01

    Cryptosporidium, Giardia intestinalis, Cyclospora cayetanensis, Isosopra belli and micropsoridia are the most important and common pathogens found in humans and many other species of vertebrates. In humans, mainly in immunocompromised patients, children, pregnant women and elderly people, they are the most frequently identified protozoan parasites causing gastrointestinal disease worldwide. These pathogens have several transmission routes, including anthroponotic and zoonotic transmission. What is more, in many cases of epidemics caused by mentioned pathogens the major cause of infection was contaminated with these organisms water and food. In spite of many existing regulations of clearing and making use of drinking water supplies and recreational water, cosmopolitan protozoan parasites are still the danger of public health. These organisms are responsible for many waterborne outbreaks worldwide. Light microscopy and immunofluorescence assay have been used to identify these organisms in most laboratories. However, these traditional techniques have major limitations in the specific diagnosis, these methods are not sensitive enough to detect cysts or oocysts in environmental samples, so the new molecular tools must be applied. Recently, PCR-based techniques have been developed for detection and genetic characterization of the different species and population variants of protozoan parasites is central to the prevention, surveillance and control of gastrointestinal diseases. In this review were characterized biology, epidemiology and the progress in technology for detection and surveillance of the most important waterborne protozoan parasites. PMID:20707296

  3. Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia intestinalis, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in Captive Non-Human Primates in Qinling Mountains.

    Du, Shuai-Zhi; Zhao, Guang-Hui; Shao, Jun-Feng; Fang, Yan-Qin; Tian, Ge-Ru; Zhang, Long-Xian; Wang, Rong-Jun; Wang, Hai-Yan; Qi, Meng; Yu, San-Ke

    2015-08-01

    Non-human primates (NHPs) are confirmed as reservoirs of Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia intestinalis, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi. In this study, 197 fresh fecal samples from 8 NHP species in Qinling Mountains, northwestern China, were collected and examined using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) method. The results showed that 35 (17.8%) samples were positive for tested parasites, including Cryptosporidium spp. (3.0%), G. intestinalis (2.0%), and E. bieneusi (12.7%). Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in 6 fecal samples of Macaca mulatta, and were identified as C. parvum (n=1) and C. andersoni (n=5). Subtyping analysis showed Cryptosporidium spp. belonged to the C. andersoni MLST subtype (A4, A4, A4, and A1) and C. parvum 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60) subtype IId A15G2R1. G. intestinalis assemblage E was detected in 3 M. mulatta and 1 Saimiri sciureus. Intra-variations were observed at the triose phosphate isomerase (tpi), beta giardin (bg), and glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) loci, with 3, 1, and 2 new subtypes found in respective locus. E. bieneusi was found in Cercopithecus neglectus (25.0%), Papio hamadrayas (16.7%), M. mulatta (16.3%), S. sciureus (10%), and Rhinopithecus roxellana (9.5%), with 5 ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) genotypes: 2 known genotypes (D and BEB6) and 3 novel genotypes (MH, XH, and BSH). These findings indicated the presence of zoonotic potential of Cryptosporidium spp. and E. bieneusi in NHPs in Qinling Mountains. This is the first report of C. andersoni in NHPs. The present study provided basic information for control of cryptosporidiosis, giardiasis, and microsporidiosis in human and animals in this area. PMID:26323837

  4. FREQUÊNCIA DE OCORRÊNCIA DE Giardia sp. E DE Cryptosporidium spp. EM EQUÍDEOS NATURALMENTE INFECTADOS E ABATIDOS EM UM FRIGORÍFICO

    Nayara Resende Nasciutti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia sp are protozoan of larger importance by their zoonotic potential. We studied the frequency of occurrence of these parasites in equidae from Araguari - Minas Gerais, slaughtered during February to March of 2008 and correlated with sex, species and origin. A total of 150 fecal samples were collected and specific techniques were used. The results showed 4% (6/150 of Giardia sp. in all the samples. The positivity was 4.23% (3/71 in females and 3.80% (3/79 in males. The positivity was 10.53% (2/19 in mules and 3.05% (4/131 in horses. The positive samples from Brazilian states was 16.67% (1/6 in Bahia, 7.69% (1/13 in Tocantins, 3.61% (3/83 in Minas Gerais and 2.08% (1/48 in Goiás. Cryptosporidium spp. were not found in any samples analyzed (n=150. We concluded that it is very important to study the frequency of these protozoans in horses, adding data to the; we also suggest molecular studies to associate with epidemiology and public health.

  5. Performance of Glutamate Dehydrogenase and Triose Phosphate Isomerase Genes in the Analysis of Genotypic Variability of Isolates of Giardia duodenalis from Livestocks

    Fava, Natália M. N.; Soares, Rodrigo M.; Scalia, Luana A. M.; Kalapothakis, Evanguedes; Pena, Isabella F.; Vieira, Carlos U.; Faria, Elaine S. M.; Cunha, Maria J.; Couto, Talles R.; Cury, Márcia Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Giardia duodenalis is a small intestinal protozoan parasite of several terrestrial vertebrates. This work aims to assess the genotypic variability of Giardia duodenalis isolates from cattle, sheep and pigs in the Southeast of Brazil, by comparing the standard characterization between glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) and triose phosphate isomerase (tpi) primers. Fecal samples from the three groups of animals were analyzed using the zinc sulphate centrifugal flotation technique. Out of 59 positive samples, 30 were from cattle, 26 from sheep and 3 from pigs. Cyst pellets were stored and submitted to PCR and nested-PCR reactions with gdh and tpi primers. Fragment amplification of gdh and tpi genes was observed in 25 (42.4%) and 36 (61.0%) samples, respectively. Regarding the sequencing, 24 sequences were obtained with gdh and 20 with tpi. For both genes, there was a prevalence of E specific species assemblage, although some isolates have been identified as A and B, by the tpi sequencing. This has also shown a larger number of heterogeneous sequences, which have been attribute to mixed infections between assemblages B and E. The largest variability of inter-assemblage associated to the frequency of heterogeneity provided by tpi sequencing reinforces the polymorphic nature of this gene and makes it an excellent target for studies on molecular epidemiology. PMID:24308010

  6. Epidemiology of Giardia duodenalis infection in ruminant livestock and children in the Ismailia province of Egypt: insights by genetic characterization

    2014-01-01

    Background Giardia duodenalis is a common flagellated protozoan parasite that infects the small intestine of a wide range of vertebrate hosts. This study aimed to determine whether tracing of G. duodenalis isolates by current genetic typing tools is possible using an exemplary set of samples from infected cattle, buffalo and children from the Ismailia province, Egypt. Method A total of 804 fecal samples from ruminant animals was collected from 191 herds and 165 samples from diarrheal children below the age of 10 years. Parasites were detected in these samples using the copro-antigen RIDA®QUICK test and by real-time PCR. Samples were then genetically characterized based on the triosephosphate isomerase, glutamate dehydrogenase and β-giardin genes. Results The prevalence of G. duodenalis was 53% in ruminants and 21% in symptomatic children and infection was not positively correlated with diarrheal symptoms. Sequence typing analysis confirmed predominance of B-type sequences (>67%) in humans and E-type sequences (>81%) in ruminants over A-type sequences. For 39 samples the complete sequence information of the three marker gene fragments could be derived. Integration of the concatenated sequence information of the three marker gene fragments with the spatial data of the respective sample revealed that identical or near identical (only up to 1 out of 1358 bp different) concatenated sequencing types were spatially related in 4 out of 5 cases. Conclusion The risk of zoonotic infection emanating from ruminants even in high prevalence areas is negligible. Genetic characterization indicated a predominant anthropogenic cycle of infection within the pediatric population studied. Integration of sequence typing data with information on geographic origins of samples allows parasite sub-population tracing using current typing tools. PMID:25015671

  7. [Data on intestinal parasites of lower monkeys in the Adler apery].

    Egorova, T P

    2010-01-01

    Under captive conditions, a parasite fauna connected with the changes in ecological conditions, feeding, and mode of life is usually formed in monkeys. Species composition of the intestinal parasites has been investigated in six species of the monkeys (Macaca mulatta, M. fascicularis, M. nemestrina, Ceropithecus aethiops, Papio hamadryas, and P. anubis), which were born in the Adler apery and live there for a long time. A comparison with similar investigations carried out in the Sukhumi apery, where the climatic and keeping conditions are practically identical with those in the Adler apery, was conducted. Parasite fauna of monkeys in the Adler apery was found to include three species of Nematoda (Ascaris sp., Trichocephalus sp., and Strongyloides sp.) and two species of Protozoa (Balantidium coli and Lamblia intestinalis). In our material, Trichocephalus sp. is the dominant parasite species among helminthes, and Balantidium coli is the most frequent species of Protozoa. The commonness in the transmission of these parasites and similarity in their life cycles contribute to the forming of polyinvasions in monkeys. PMID:21061593

  8. THE EPIDEMIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF HUMAN INTESTINAL PARASITES IN RURAL AREAS OF LARIJAN

    M. Rezaian

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available This Survey was carried out from June to October 1990, in order to evaluate the prevalence of intestinal parasites in the residents. A total of 2227 persons were selected from 44 Villages by using linear Systematic Sampling Method. The Samples of stool from these people were examined by formalin - ether concentration procedure. The collected data were analyzed by spss package. The result showed that 69.2% of the specimens were infected with intestinal parasites, which 58.4% of them were pathogenic (33.8% 16.9%, and 7.7% were infected with 1,2 and 3 species intestinal pathogen parasites respectively. Infection rates with intestinal pathogen parasites was higher in mountains (71.4% than plain areas (49.6%. and also higher in age groups 5-14 years (68.0% than other age groups. The difference of the infection rates was nonsignificant between males and females. Prevalence of different intestinal parasites was as follows: Protozoa; E.Coli 27.9% G. lamblia 17.2% I.butschlii 7/0% E.histolytica 5.9% E. hartmann 2.9% E. nana 2. 1% D. fragilis. 6% and C.. mesnili 0.4% Helminths; T. trichiura 26. 8% A. lumbricoides 17.8% Hook worm 8.9% S. stercoralis 8.5% E. vermicularis 3. 6% T.saginata 1. 4%, H.nana %1.0 and Trichostrongylus sp. 0.7%

  9. A survey study on gastrointestinal parasites of stray cats in northern region of Nile delta, Egypt.

    Khalafalla, Reda E

    2011-01-01

    A survey study on gastrointestinal parasites in 113 faecal samples from stray cats collected randomly from Kafrelsheikh province, northern region of Nile delta of Egypt; was conducted in the period between January and May 2010. The overall prevalence was 91%. The results of this study reported seven helminth species: Toxocara cati (9%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (4%), Toxascaris leonina (5%), Dipylidium caninum (5%), Capillaria spp. (3%), Taenia taeniformis (22%) and Heterophyes heterophyes (3%), four protozoal species: Toxoplasma gondii (9%), Sarcocyst spp. (1%), Isospora spp. (2%) and Giardia spp. (2%) and two arthropod species; Linguatula serrata (2%) and mites eggs (13%). The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites may continue to rise due to lack of functional veterinary clinics for cat care in Egypt. Therefore, there is a need to plan adequate control programs to diagnose, treat and control gastrointestinal parasites of companion as well as stray cats in the region. PMID:21760884

  10. SEM (SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY) EVIDENCE FOR A NEW SPECIES, 'GIARDIA PSITTACI' (JOURNAL VERSION)

    Giardia trophozoites were isolated from the small intestine of budgerigars (parakeets) and examined morphologically with light and scanning electron microscopy. The presence of a claw-hammer shape median body suggested classification of these trophozoites as G. duodenalis. Howeve...

  11. EVALUATING CRYPTOSPORIDIUM AND GIARDIA IN STORMWATER AS A THREAT TO DRINKING WATER SUPPLIES

    Since the first identified Cryptosporidium outbreak in the United Kingdom in 1983, thepathogens Cryptosporidium and Giardia have become the subject of growing local, state, andnational concern. Both organisms have been the causative agent of many gastrointestinalilln...

  12. FILTRATION OF 'GIARDIA' CYSTS AND OTHER SUBSTANCES. VOLUME 1. DIATOMACEOUS EARTH FILTRATION

    The effectiveness of diatomaceous earth filtration of drinking water was studied under various operating conditions for removal of Giardia cysts, total coliform bacteria, standard plate count bacteria, turbidity, and particles. Seven grades of diatomaceous earth were used. Temper...

  13. Method to enumerate oocysts of cryptosporidium and cysts of Giardia in water

    Cryptosporidium and Giardia have been recognized as etiological agents of gastrointestinal illness in humans with severe consequences on children and immunocompromised individuals. Water seems to be vehicle of infection. In last years many efforts have been done to evaluate a method to enumerate oocysts of Cryptosporidium and cysts of Giardia in waters. Throughout filtration and concentration steps, the two procedures proposed allow to enumerate oocysts and cysts belonging to the two genera of protozoa

  14. Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Giardia Infection among Indigenous Communities in Rural Malaysia

    Choy, Seow Huey; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Mahdy, Mohammed A K; Nasr, Nabil N.; Sulaiman, Maria; Lim, Yvonne A. L.; Surin, Johari

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of Giardia infection among indigenous people in rural Malaysia. Faecal samples were collected from 1,330 participants from seven states of Malaysia and examined by wet mount and formalin-ether sedimentation methods while demographic, socioeconomic and environmental information was collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. The overall prevalence of Giardia infection was 11.6% and was significantly higher among those ag...

  15. Giardia Patients in Bergen with Continued Complaints: Current Status on Gastrointestinal Complaints, anxiety, depression and neuroticism

    2008-01-01

    The aim was to investigate 111 former Giardia patients in Bergen, in context of the subjective health complaints field. Gastrointestinal complaints and its relation to anxiety, depression and neuroticism were assessed with GSRS, ROME II, HADS, and EPQ-R(N). Gender differences on these variables were investigated. We found that gender differences are related to complaints prior to Giardia infection. Anxiety and depression levels are high and only related to complaints prior to G...

  16. Comparative study of the prevalence of intestinal parasites in low socioeconomic areas from South chennai, India.

    Dhanabal, Jeevitha; Selvadoss, Pradeep Pushparaj; Muthuswamy, Kanchana

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal parasites cause one of the most important health problems through their effects in causing undernourishment morbidity and incapacitation due to their behavior particularly in children compared to adults. This study was intended to state the prevalence of intestinal parasites between the slum dwellers of different areas in south Chennai. Among the total of 256 samples collected between the ages of 0-50 yrs, 194 samples were positive. Standard laboratory techniques for parasitological diagnosis were carried out for each sample. Entamoeba coli (23%), Cyclospora sp. (22.2%), Entamoeba histolytica (21.8%), Giardia intestinalis (14.4%), Ascaris lumbricoides (6.2%), Trichuris trichiura (1.1%), and Hymenolepis nana (2.7%) were found in the dwellers of low socioeconomic areas. The data on the prevalence of parasites with respect to sex and age showed that the females harbored more numbers of parasites when compared to males. Further, with respect to age, children and teenagers had surplus parasites compared to old age groups. The percentage of educational status showed a reduction in the number of parasites in the higher education dwellers. These parasites could be prevented by possible grouping of better ecological design and hygiene. Conclusively, the examination of personal hygiene as well as routine medical examination and treatment is strongly recommended in the low socio-economic areas. PMID:24587897

  17. [A retrospective evaluation of the prevalence of intestinal parasites in Istanbul, Turkey].

    Kksal, Fatma; Ba?lanti, Ilknur; Samasti, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of intestinal parasites, in comparison to previous studies in Istanbul and different geographic regions of Turkey. Between January 1999-December 2009, a total of 27664 stool samples from patients with suspicious intestinal parasitic infections who were admitted to ?stanbul University Cerrahpasa Medical School Hospital were examined for intestinal parasites by using native lugol and formalin-ethyl acetate concentration technique, in adition to the scotch cellophane tape that was adapted to 1423 children to investigate the Enterobius vermicularis infection. Intestinal parasites were found in 1114 (4%) out of 27664 stool samples examined. The prevalence of intestinal parasites is as follows: Blastocystis hominis in 2.1%, Giardia intestinalis in 1.4%, Taenia saginata in 0.2%, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar in 0.05% and Ascaris lumbricoides in 0.03%. Hymenolepis nana (6), Trichuris trichiura (3), Strongyloides stercoralis (2), Fasciola hepatica (1), Dicrocoelium dendriticum (1) and Isospora belli (1) were found in small numbers. Furthermore Entamoeba coli (119), Iodamoeba btschlii (5), Trichomonas hominis (2), Chilomastix mesnili (1), parasites which exist as commensals in the intestines were also determined. Enterobius vermicularis was detected in 129 (9%) out of 1423 cellophane tape samples. This study showed that the intestinal parasites are still an important public health problem in Istanbul. PMID:20954117

  18. Molecular Characterization and Risk Factors of Giardia duodenalis among School Children from La Habana, Cuba.

    Jerez Puebla, Luis Enrique; Núñez, Fidel A; Martínez Silva, Isabel; Rojas Rivero, Lázara; Martínez González, Marta; Méndez Sutil, Yuliet; Ayllón Valdés, Lucía; Atencio Millán, Iraís; Müller, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Giardia duodenalis is considered the most common protozoan infecting humans worldwide. Molecular characterization of G. duodenalis isolates has revealed the existence of eight groups (assemblages A to H) which differ in their host distribution. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 639 children from La Habana between January and December 2013. Two assemblage-specific PCRs were carried out for the molecular characterization. The overall prevalence of Giardia infection was 11.9%. DNA from 63 of 76 (82.9%) samples was successfully amplified by PCR-tpi, while 58 from 76 (76.3%) were detected by PCRE1-HF. Similar results by both PCRs were obtained in 54 from 76 samples (71%). According to these analyses, assemblage B and mixed assemblages A + B account for most of the Giardia infections in the cohort of children tested. Our current study identified assemblage B as predominant genotype in children infected with Giardia. Univariate analysis indicated that omission of washing hands before eating and keeping dogs at home were significant risk factors for a Giardia infection. In the future, novel molecular tools for a better discrimination of assemblages at the subassemblages level are needed to verify possible correlations between Giardia genotypes and symptomatology of giardiasis. PMID:26693345

  19. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites among Food-handlers in Shiraz, Iran

    Mohammad Hossein MOTAZEDIAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parasitic intestinal infections are still among socioeconomic prob­lems in the world, especially in developing countries like Iran. Food-handlers that directly deal with production and distribution of foods between societies are one of the most important sources to transmit parasitic infections to humans. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among food-handlers in Shiraz, Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 1021 feces samples were randomly col­lected from food-handlers in Shiraz, central Iran from August to September 2013. Two different methods, routine direct fecal examination and Formalin –Ethyl ace­tate concentration as a complementary technique, were done to detect parasites.Results: The prevalence of parasitic organisms was 10.4% in the food-handlers. The most species of the protozoan parasites were G. lamblia, E. coli and B. hominis; meanwhile, only one infection by H. nana (0.1% was detected in this group. Mixed infections were observed in 13.2% (n=14/106 of positive cases. The majority of participants were male (57%; however, data analysis showed significant statistical difference in the rate of infection between females 11.9% (n=53/444 and males 9% (n=52/577 (P=0. 024. There was no significant statistical difference in the rate of infection among different educational and occupation groups.Conclusion: Although decreasing of helminthic infections is distinct, but infecting with protozoan parasites is still important in food-handlers. Concentration tech­nique is more useful than direct smear technique, especially for detection parasites in low number. High level of education in our study showed that training courses in this group could be effective in the implementation of control and prevention programs.

  20. Isolation of Intestinal Parasites of Public Health Importance from Cockroaches (Blattella germanica) in Jimma Town, Southwestern Ethiopia.

    Hamu, Haji; Debalke, Serkadis; Zemene, Endalew; Birlie, Belay; Mekonnen, Zeleke; Yewhalaw, Delenasaw

    2014-01-01

    Cockroaches are claimed to be mechanical transmitters of disease causing microorganisms such as intestinal parasites, bacteria, fungi, and viruses. This study assessed the potential of the German cockroach Blattella germanica in the mechanical transmission of intestinal parasites of public health importance. A total of 2010 cockroaches were collected from 404 households in Jimma Town, southwestern Ethiopia. All the collected cockroaches were identified to species as B. germanica. The contents of their gut and external body parts were examined for the presence of intestinal parasites. Overall, 152 (75.6%) of the 210 batches were found to harbor at least one species of human intestinal parasite. Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Taenia spp, Strongyloides-like parasite, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovski, Giardia duodenalis and Balantidium coli were detected from gut contents. Moreover, parasites were also isolated from the external surface in 22 (10.95%) of the batches. There was significant difference in parasite carriage rate of the cockroaches among the study sites (P = 0.013). In conclusion, B. germanica was found to harbor intestinal parasites of public health importance. Hence, awareness on the potential role of cockroaches in the mechanical transmission of human intestinal parasites needs to be created. Moreover, further identification of the Strongyloides-like worm is required using molecular diagnostics. PMID:24649356

  1. Cytoskeleton of Apicomplexan Parasites

    Morrissette, Naomi S.; Sibley, L. David

    2002-01-01

    The Apicomplexa are a phylum of diverse obligate intracellular parasites including Plasmodium spp., the cause of malaria; Toxoplasma gondii and Cryptosporidium parvum, opportunistic pathogens of immunocompromised individuals; and Eimeria spp. and Theileria spp., parasites of considerable agricultural importance. These protozoan parasites share distinctive morphological features, cytoskeletal organization, and modes of replication, motility, and invasion. This review summarizes our current und...

  2. Parasites of sheep herding dogs in central Germany.

    Rehbein, Steffen; Kaulfuß, Karl-heinz; Visser, Martin; Sommer, Maria Franziska; Grimm, Felix; Silaghi, Cornelia

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on endoparasite infections diagnosed in 2012 by standard coproscopical techniques and coproantigen Giardia ELISA in 165 dogs used for sheep herding in 36 farms in central Germany. The overall prevalence of dogs with evidence of endoparasite infections was 27.3% (95% CI 20.6-34.7). The most frequently identified faecal forms were those of ascarids (Toxocara, 6.7%; Toxascaris 3.6%), hookworms (5.5%) and taeniid cestodes (4.2%), followed by those of Trichuris whipworms (3.0%), Capillaria aerophila (1.8%), Angiostrongylus and Crenosoma lungworms (1.2% each) and Cystoisospora canis coccidians (0.6%). Molecular identification demonstrated the seven dogs shedding taeniid eggs positive for Taenia (T.) species tapeworms (five, T. hydatigena; one, T. ovis; one Taenia sp.). Screening of the faeces with the coproantigen ELISA revealed Giardia specific antigen in 5.5% of the samples. The majority of the dogs had evidence of single endoparasite infections (22.4%) while evidence for infection with two or three parasites concurrently was found in six (3.6%) and two (1.2%) of the dogs, respectively. Dogs ≤ 1 year (n = 19) were parasitized more frequently (p fleas and ticks (each up to five specimens per dog) on 13 and 108 dogs, respectively, with nine dogs carrying both fleas and ticks. Archaeopsylla erinacei, Ctenocephalides (C) canis, C. felis and Pulex irritans fleas were identified from one, three, two and eleven dogs, respectively. Dermacentor reticulatus, Ixodes (I.) hexagonus and I. ricinus ticks were isolated from 16, eight and 95 dogs, respectively. PMID:26904898

  3. Insights into the structure and inhibition of Giardia intestinalis arginine deiminase: homology modeling, docking, and molecular dynamics studies.

    Trejo-Soto, Pedro Josué; Aguayo-Ortiz, Rodrigo; Yépez-Mulia, Lilián; Hernández-Campos, Alicia; Medina-Franco, José Luis; Castillo, Rafael

    2016-04-01

    Giardia intestinalis arginine deiminase (GiADI) is an important metabolic enzyme involved in the energy production and defense of this protozoan parasite. The lack of this enzyme in the human host makes GiADI an attractive target for drug design against G. intestinalis. One approach in the design of inhibitors of GiADI could be computer-assisted studies of its crystal structure, such as docking; however, the required crystallographic structure of the enzyme still remains unresolved. Because of its relevance, in this work, we present a three-dimensional structure of GiADI obtained from its amino acid sequence using the homology modeling approximation. Furthermore, we present an approximation of the most stable dimeric structure of GiADI identified through molecular dynamics simulation studies. An in silico analysis of druggability using the structure of GiADI was carried out in order to know if it is a good target for design and optimization of selective inhibitors. Potential GiADI inhibitors were identified by docking of a set of 3196 commercial and 19 in-house benzimidazole derivatives, and molecular dynamics simulation studies were used to evaluate the stability of the ligand-enzyme complexes. PMID:26017138

  4. Multiplex PCR for the detection and quantification of zoonotic taxa of Giardia, Cryptosporidium and Toxoplasma in wastewater and mussels.

    Marangi, Marianna; Giangaspero, Annunziata; Lacasella, Vita; Lonigro, Antonio; Gasser, Robin B

    2015-04-01

    Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium parvum and Toxoplasma gondii are important parasitic protists linked to water- and food-borne diseases. The accurate detection of these pathogens is central to the diagnosis, tracking, monitoring and surveillance of these protists in humans, animals and the environment. In this study, we established a multiplex real-time PCR (qPCR), coupled to high resolution melting (HRM) analysis, for the specific detection and quantification of each G. duodenalis (assemblage A), C. parvum and T. gondii (Type I). Once optimised, this assay was applied to the testing of samples (n = 232) of treated wastewater and mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis). Of 119 water samples, 28.6% were test-positive for G. duodenalis, C. parvum and/or both pathogens; of 113 mussel samples, 66.6% were test-positive for G. duodenalis, C. parvum and/or both pathogens, and 13.2% were test-positive for only T. gondii. The specificity of all amplicons produced was verified by direct sequencing. The oo/cysts numbers (per 5 μl of DNA sample) ranged from 10 to 64. The present multiplex assay achieved an efficiency of 100% and a R(2) value of >0.99. Current evidence indicates that this assay provides a promising tool for the simultaneous detection and quantitation of three key protist taxa. PMID:25591902

  5. Molecular characterisation of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in cats (Felis catus) in Western Australia.

    Yang, Rongchang; Ying, Joyce Lau Jie; Monis, Paul; Ryan, Una

    2015-08-01

    Little is known of the prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in domestic cats in Western Australia and their potential role as zoonotic reservoirs for human infection. In the present study, a total of 345 faecal samples from four different sources were screened for the presence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia by PCR and genotyped by sequence analysis. Oocyst numbers and cyst numbers for Cryptosporidium and Giardia respectively were also determined using quantitative PCR assays. Cryptosporidium and Giardia were detected in 9.9% (95% CI 6.7-13.0) and 10.1% (95% CI 7.0-13.3) of cats in Western Australia respectively. Sequence analysis at the 18S rRNA locus identified five Cryptosporidium species/genotypes; C. felis (n = 8), C. muris (n = 1), C. ryanae (n = 1), Cryptosporidium rat genotype III (n = 5) and a novel genotype most closely related to Cryptosporidium rat genotype III in one isolate. This is the first report of C. ryanae and Cryptosporidium rat genotype III in cats. For Giardia, assemblage F the most commonly identified species, while only 1 assemblage sequence was detected. Since most human cases of cryptosporidiosis are caused by C. parvum and C. hominis and human cases of giardiasis are caused by G. duodenalis assemblage A and B, the domestic cats in the present study are likely to be of low zoonotic risk to pet owners in Perth. Risk analyses identified that elderly cats (more than 6 years) were more prone to Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections than kittens (less than 6 months) (P = 0.009). Clinical symptoms were not associated with the prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections in cats. PMID:25959691

  6. INTESTINAL PARASITIC INFECTIONS AMONG PATIENTS ATTE NDING A TERITIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN SOUTH INDIA

    Champa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Intestinal parasitic infections are among the most c ommon infections in the world and are responsible for cons iderable morbidity and mortality. "There is increased prevalence of these infections in rural ar eas of developing countries." AIM : The present study was done to determine the intest inal parasitic infection among patients attending to the hospital, who are residents of Sull ia taluk only. MATERIALS AND METHODS : Faecal samples from 500 randomly selected patients we re collected and screened using conventional saline and iodine wet mount and examin ed by direct microscopy. Samples were further concentrated by formal-ether sedimentation technique. RESULTS : In the present study the occurrence of intestinal parasitic infection was found to be 14.60%. The common parasite detected was A. lumbricoides (47.94% followed by hookworm (30.13%. However E. histolytica and G. lamblia were only 1.36%, 5.74% respectively. Multiple infec tion was detected only in 0.80% of infected cases. CONCLUSION : Soil transmitted helminthic infections are more c ommon than protozoal infections. Hence there is a need for health programmes to be held regularly that will involve health education regarding personal hyg iene, hand washing, importance of sanitary procedures and periodic deworming

  7. Infection rate and genetic diversity of Giardia duodenalis in pet and stray dogs in Henan Province, China.

    Qi, Meng; Dong, Haiju; Wang, Rongjun; Li, Junqiang; Zhao, Jinfeng; Zhang, Longxian; Luo, Jianxun

    2016-04-01

    Giardia duodenalis is an important protozoan parasite that is known to be zoonotic. To assess the potential zoonotic transmission of giardiasis from dogs and to identify genetic diversity of G. duodenalis in dog populations, we examined the infection rate and genotypes of G. duodenalis in both pet dogs (from pet dog farms, pet shops, pet hospitals, pet markets) and stray dogs of different ages in Henan Province, China. A total of 940 fresh fecal specimens were collected from 2007 to 2013 in Henan Province. The overall infection rate of G. duodenalis was 14.3% (134/940) as determined by microscopy, with the highest infection rate (17.3%) observed in dogs from shelters. Young dogs were more likely to be infected with G. duodenalis than adult dogs, and G. duodenalis cysts were found more frequently in diarrheic dogs. All G. duodenalis-positive isolates were characterized at the triose phosphate isomerase (tpi), glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), and β-giardin (bg) loci, and 37, 51, and 48 sequences were obtained, respectively. The dog-specific assemblages C and D were identified using multi-locus sequence analysis. Six novel sequences of the tpi locus, one novel sequence of the gdh locus and two novel sequences of the bg locus were detected among the G. duodenalis assemblage C isolates, while two novel sequences of the gdh locus were found among the G. duodenalis assemblage D isolates. Our data indicate that G. duodenalis is a common parasite and cause of diarrheal disease in dogs in Henan Province. However, there was no evidence for zoonotic G. duodenalis assemblages in the study population. PMID:26631754

  8. Unexpected finding of feline-specific Giardia duodenalis assemblage F and Cryptosporidium felis in asymptomatic adult cattle in Northern Spain.

    Cardona, Guillermo A; de Lucio, Aida; Bailo, Begoña; Cano, Lourdes; de Fuentes, Isabel; Carmena, David

    2015-04-30

    Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. are common enteric protozoan parasites in production animals, including cattle. Typically, both the clinical outcome of these infections and the distribution of G. duodenalis assemblages and Cryptosporidium species are age-dependent, with the occurrence of diarrhoeal disease being mainly associated with young animals and sub-clinical, low intensity infections being predominantly found in adult animals. To investigate the prevalence and genetic diversity of G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. in asymptomatic adult cattle, a total of 362 faecal samples were collected in four farms in the province of Álava, Northern Spain, between November 2011 and December 2012. The presence of G. duodenalis was estimated by real-time PCR, and the assemblages were determined by multilocus sequence-based genotyping of the glutamate dehydrogenase and β-giardin genes of the parasite. Detection and identification of Cryptosporidium species was carried out by sequencing of a partial fragment of the small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene. Overall, G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in 68 (18.8%) and 45 (12.4%), respectively, of the 362 animals tested. Strikingly, four isolates representing two novel sub-types of G. duodenalis assemblage F were identified at the gdh, but not the bg, locus. This is the first report describing the presence of the feline-specific G. duodenalis assemblage F in bovine isolates. Additionally, five (three novel and two known) sub-types of G. duodenalis assemblage E were also identified at the gdh locus and a single one (assigned to sub-assemblage EII) at the bg locus. Of nine Cryptosporidium isolates, four (including a novel sub-type) were assigned to the cat-specific C. felis, two were typed as C. bovis, and the remaining three were only characterized at the genus level. Data presented here provide epidemiological and molecular evidence demonstrating that the host range specificity of G. duodenalis assemblages and Cryptosporidium species may be wider than previously anticipated. PMID:25771933

  9. Presence of parasitic protozoa and helminth in sewage and efficiency of sewage treatment in Tunisia.

    Ben Ayed, L; Schijven, J; Alouini, Z; Jemli, M; Sabbahi, S

    2009-08-01

    Helminth eggs and protozoan cysts were enumerated in raw and treated wastewater in Tunisia in order to determine their removal by wastewater treatment and to provide quantitative data for developing regulations for wastewater quality that are currently lacking. Raw and treated wastewater samples were collected from 17 plants in Tunisia during 2006-2007 and analyzed for parasites using the modified Bailenger method. Two groups of parasites, namely, Ascaris sp., Entamoeba coli, Enterobius vermicularis, and Taenia sp. (group 1) and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia sp., and Taenia sp. (group 2) could statistically be distinguished according to their removal by wastewater treatment. Group 1 parasites were removed by 1.1 log(10) (92.4%) and group 2 parasites by 0.61 log(10) (76%). The ubiquitous presence of parasitic protozoa in Tunisian wastewater and ineffective wastewater treatment lead to their proliferation in surface waters with a high probability of exposure of human and animals to these parasites and consequent adverse health effects, as is apparent from epidemiologic data as well. This study provides a quantitative basis for risk assessment studies and development of mitigation strategies, such as improving wastewater treatment efficiency. PMID:19333622

  10. The past, present and future of fluorescent protein tags in anaerobic protozoan parasites.

    Morin-Adeline, Victoria; Šlapeta, Jan

    2016-03-01

    The world health organization currently recognizes diarrhoeal diseases as a significant cause of death in children globally. Protozoan parasites such as Giardia and Entamoeba that thrive in the oxygen-deprived environment of the human gut are common etiological agents of diarrhoea. In the urogenital tract of humans, the anaerobic protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis is notorious as the most common non-viral, sexually transmitted pathogen. Even with high medical impact, our understanding of anaerobic parasite physiology is scarce and as a result, treatment choices are limited. Fluorescent proteins (FPs) are invaluable tools as genetically encoded protein tags for advancing knowledge of cellular function. These FP tags emit fluorescent colours and once attached to a protein of interest, allow tracking of parasite proteins in the dynamic cellular space. Application of green FPs-like FPs in anaerobic protozoans is hindered by their oxygen dependency. In this review, we examine aspects of anaerobic parasite biology that clash with physio-chemical properties of FPs and limit their use as live-parasite protein tags. We expose novel FPs, such as miniSOG that do not require oxygen for signal production. The potential use of novel FPs has the opportunity to leverage the anaerobe parasitologist toolkit to that of aerobe parasitologist. PMID:26653973

  11. Intestinal parasite infections in immigrant children in the city of Rome, related risk factors and possible impact on nutritional status

    Manganelli Laura

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parasitic diseases can represent a social and economic problem among disadvantaged people - even in developed countries. Due to the limited data available concerning Europe, the aims of the present study were to evaluate the presence of parasites in immigrant children and the risk factors favouring the spread of parasites. Subsequently, the possible correlation between nutritional status and parasitic infections was also investigated. Findings A convenience sample of two hundred and forty seven immigrant children (aged 0–15 attending the Poliambulatorio della Medicina Solidale in Rome was examined. Data were collected using structured questionnaires, and parasitological and anthropometric tests were applied. Chi-squared test and binary logistic multiple-regression models were used for statistical analysis. Thirty-seven children (15% tested positive to parasites of the following species: Blastocystis hominis, Entamoeba coli, Giardia duodenalis, Enterobius vermicularis, Ascaris lumbricoides and Strongyloides stercoralis. A monospecific infection was detected in 30 (81% out of 37 parasitized children, while the others (19% presented a polyparasitism. The major risk factors were housing, i.e. living in shacks, and cohabitation with other families (p Conclusions This study shows that parasite infection in children is still quite common, even in a developed country and that children’s growth and parasitism may be related. Extensive improvements in the living, social and economic conditions of immigrants are urgently needed in order to overcome these problems.

  12. A study on Prevalence of Gastrointestinal Parasitic Infections in HIV (+ Patients Referred to Ahvaz Razi Hospital in 2008-2009

    Farid Yosefi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Accute Immune Deficiency Syndrom (AIDS is a serious and lethal disease in many parts of the world, rendering a patient sensitive to all opportunistic pathogens that can cause death as the disease progresses. Many patients suffer from intestinal opportunistic infections by parasites.Objectives: The aim of present study was to examine parasitic intestinal infections in AIDS patients in Razi Hospital, Ahvaz.Patients and Methods: We collected 100 stool samples from 60 HIV (+ patients who were referred to Razi Hospital, Ahvaz. The samples were examined by direct and MIF (merthiolate-iodine-formaldehyde method. All samples were stained with Ziehl-Neelsen (acid fast staining and trichrome. General data, such as clinical signs, duration of disease, route of infection, and habitat of patient, were obtained by questionnaire.Results: Thirty percent of HIV (+ patients were infected with intestinal protozoan parasites. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of parasite infections between sex or age. The prevalence of parasitic infections was as follows: Blastocystis hominis, 16. 7%; Cryptosporidium parvum, 8. 3%; Endolimax nana, 5%; Entamoeba coli, 5%; Giardia intestinalis, 3. 3%; E. histolytica cyst, 1. 7%, and Dientamoeba fragilis, 1. 7%.Conclusions: This study shows that the prevalence of parasitic infections is not high in HIV (+ patient in Ahvaz compared with other studies, but it is recommended that fecal examination be performed every 3 months to detect serious parasitic infections and that parasitic infections should be treated after laboratory diagnosis and in the presence of the gastrointestinal symptoms.

  13. Strategies To Discover the Structural Components of Cyst and Oocyst Walls

    Samuelson, John; Bushkin, G. Guy; Chatterjee, Aparajita; Robbins, Phillips W.

    2013-01-01

    Cysts of Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica and oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii and Cryptosporidium parvum are the infectious and sometimes diagnostic forms of these parasites. To discover the structural components of cyst and oocyst walls, we have developed strategies based upon a few simple assumptions. Briefly, the most abundant wall proteins are identified by monoclonal antibodies or mass spectrometry. Structural components include a sugar polysaccharide (chitin for Entamoeba, β-1,3-l...

  14. HOSPITAL BASED SURVEILLANCE OF ENTERIC PARASITES AN D COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF INTESTINAL PARASITIC INFECT IONS IN THE HOSPITAL CHILDREN WITH RURAL SCHOOL CHILDREN AT KANCHEEPURAM

    Kumudavathi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs are prevalent in developing countries like India and have been the important cau se of morbidity and mortality especially in children. OBJECTIVES: Estimate prevalence of various intestinal parasitic infections in hospital as well as in rural school children to obtain an ac curate understanding of the burden and cause of intestinal parasitic infections in Kancheepuram. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 2654 stool samples were collected, processed, and mic roscopically examined for intestinal parasites. 2267 were adults and remaining 387 were c hildren. In addition, 314 rural school children were also included in the study. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of IPIs was estimated as 32.59% (739/2267 in hospital adults an d 55.50% (215/387 in hospital children and 56.68% (178/314 in rural school children; high prevalence rate was found among hospital children and in school children when compared to adu lts. Among the protozoans E. histolytica was the highest, followed by Giardia and among the helminths hookworm was highest followed by Ascaris lumbricoides, Enterobius vermicularis, H ymenolepis nana and Strongoloides larvae respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Intestinal parasitic infections spreads due to low s tandards of personal hygiene, poor sanitation, open air defecatio n and an illiterate population, thus suggesting need for regular surveys to minimize the IPIs rate in the community.

  15. Ocorrência de Giardia, Cryptosporidium e microsporídios em animais silvestres em área de desmatamento no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Occurrence of Giardia, Cryptosporidium and microsporidia in wild animals from a deforestation area in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Maria Anete Lallo

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A ocorrência de Giardia, Cryptosporidium e microsporídios foi investigada por meio da análise de 98 amostras fecais de animais silvestres capturados em uma área de desmatamento para a construção das barragens de Paraitinga e Biritiba, localizadas nos Municípios de Mogi das Cruzes, Salesópolis e Biritiba-Mirim, no Estado de São Paulo. As amostras foram obtidas de 46 roedores, 21 marsupiais, 16 sapos, nove morcegos, três primatas e três lagartos. As técnicas de centrífugo-flutuação com sulfato de zinco, de Kinyoun e a coloração de Gram-Chromotrope foram utilizadas, respectivamente, para a pesquisa de Giardia, de Cryptosporidium e de microsporídios. O total de animais parasitados por um dos protozoários investigados foi de 17,35% (17/98. Cistos de Giardia foram encontrados em amostras fecais de dois pequenos roedores da espécie Coendou villosus (ouriço-cacheiro. Os três animais positivos para Cryptosporidium foram roedores das espécies Akodon montensis, Thaptomys nigrita (ambos conhecidos como ratos do mato e Sciurus aestuans (serelepe ou caxinguelê. Esporos de microsporídios foram encontrados nas fezes de 12 animais, sendo seis roedores das espécies Oligoryzomys sp.(um, Akodon montensis (três e Coendou villosus (dois, três marsupiais pertencentes às espécies Didelphis aurita (dois e Marmosops incanus (um e três morcegos da espécie Diphylla ecaudata. Este é o primeiro relato de microsporidiose em animais silvestres no Brasil. A presente investigação enfatiza a importância de animais silvestres, particularmente pequenos mamíferos, como potenciais fontes de infecção desses protozoários para outras populações animais, incluindo o homem, em áreas de desmatamento.The occurrence of Giardia, Cryptosporidium and microsporidia was investigated in 98 faecal specimens from wildlife animals, captured in an area of deforestation for the construction of two water reservoirs (Paraitinga and Biritiba, located in the municipalities of Mogi das Cruzes, Salesópolis and Biritiba-Mirim, in the state of São Paulo (Brazil. Samples were obtained from 46 rodents, 21 marsupials, 16 frogs, 9 bats, 3 tamarins and 3 lizards. For the detection of Giardia, Cryptosporidium and microsporidia it was used, respectively, the floatation technique with lead sulphate, the Kinyoun method and the Gram-Chromotrope staining. The total number of parasitized animals by one of these protozoans was 17.35% (17/98. Cysts of Giardia were found in faecal samples from 2 prehensile-tailed porcupines (Coendou villosus. The three positive animals for Cryptoporidium were rodents - 1 montane akodont (Akodon montensis, 1 ebony akodont (Thaptomyces nigrita and 1 guainan squirrel (Sciurus aestuans. Microporidia spores were seen in the stools of 12 animals - 6 small rodents, including 3 montane akodonts, 1 prehensile-tailed porcupine and 2 pigmy rice rats (Oligoryzomys sp.; 3 marsupials, including 1 gray slender mouse opossum (Marmosops incanus and 2 big eared opossums (Didelphis aurita; 3 hairy-legged vampire bats (Diphylla ecaudata. This is the first description of microsporidiosis in wildlife animals in Brazil. The present study emphasizes the importance of these animals, particularly small mammals, as potential sources of protozoan infection to other animal populations, including man, in areas of deforestation.

  16. Using native riparian barriers to reduce Giardia in agricultural runoff to freshwater ecosystems.

    Winkworth, Cynthia L; Matthaei, Christoph D; Townsend, Colin R

    2010-12-01

    Waterway degradation in agricultural settings is caused by direct and diffuse sources of pollution. Waterway fencing focuses on reducing direct faecal contamination, but the extent to which it reduces overland surface runoff of pathogens is unknown. This study evaluated the potential of four riparian treatments to reduce Giardia in saturation excess surface runoff entering the waterway. Treatment 1 comprised exotic pasture grass and weeds that regenerated from bare soil between the fence and the waterway in the absence of cattle grazing and was compared with three others comprising monocultural plantings of New Zealand native grassland plants. Runoff experiments involving Giardia were performed after planting, both prior to and following the summer growing season. Giardia was not detected from any plot prior to cyst addition. In spring the native 'C. secta', 'A. lessoniana' and 'C. richardii' treatments showed significantly greater reductions in Giardia in runoff than the 'exotic grasses' treatment, while in autumn the 'C. richardii' treatment reduced Giardia more than the 'exotic grasses/weeds'. A reduction in public health risk should follow from riparian vegetation, whether exotic or native, but with an added benefit in the case of the native tussock grass C. richardii, due to the associated lower runoff rate. PMID:20705977

  17. Occurrence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in wild birds in Galicia (Northwest Spain).

    Reboredo-Fernández, Aurora; Ares-Mazás, Elvira; Cacciò, Simone M; Gómez-Couso, Hipólito

    2015-06-01

    Faecal samples were obtained from 433 wild birds being treated in wildlife recovery centres in Galicia (Northwest Spain), between February 2007 and September 2009. The birds belonged to 64 species representing 17 different orders. Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected by an immunofluorescence antibody test and identified at the molecular level by established PCR-sequencing methods. The overall prevalence of Giardia was 2·1% and that of Cryptosporidium, 8·3%. To our knowledge, this is the first description of Giardia sp. in Tyto alba and Caprimulgus europaeus; and of Cryptosporidium sp. in Apus apus, Athene noctua, C. europaeus, Falco tinnunculus, Morus bassanus, Parabuteo unicinctus and Strix aluco. Furthermore, the first PCR-sequence confirmed detection of Giardia duodenalis assemblage B in, Buteo buteo, Coturnix coturnix and Pica pica; G. duodenalis assemblage D in Garrulus glandarius; and G. duodenalis assemblage F in Anas platyrhynchos; Cryptosporidium parvum in Accipiter nisus, B. buteo, Milvus migrans, Pernis apivorus and P. pica; and Cryptosporidium meleagridis in Streptopelia turtur. The study findings demonstrate the wide spread of Giardia and Cryptosporidium between wild birds. PMID:25669618

  18. Drinking Water Quality and Occurrence of Giardia in Finnish Small Groundwater Supplies

    Tarja Pitkänen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The microbiological and chemical drinking water quality of 20 vulnerable Finnish small groundwater supplies was studied in relation to environmental risk factors associated with potential sources of contamination. The microbiological parameters analyzed included the following enteric pathogens: Giardia and Cryptosporidium, Campylobacter species, noroviruses, as well as indicator microbes (Escherichia coli, intestinal enterococci, coliform bacteria, Clostridium perfringens, Aeromonas spp. and heterotrophic bacteria. Chemical analyses included the determination of pH, conductivity, TOC, color, turbidity, and phosphorus, nitrate and nitrite nitrogen, iron, and manganese concentrations. Giardia intestinalis was detected from four of the water supplies, all of which had wastewater treatment activities in the neighborhood. Mesophilic Aeromonas salmonicida, coliform bacteria and E. coli were also detected. None of the samples were positive for both coliforms and Giardia. Low pH and high iron and manganese concentrations in some samples compromised the water quality. Giardia intestinalis was isolated for the first time in Finland in groundwater wells of public water works. In Europe, small water supplies are of great importance since they serve a significant sector of the population. In our study, the presence of fecal indicator bacteria, Aeromonas and Giardia revealed surface water access to the wells and health risks associated with small water supplies.

  19. The parasite clearance curve

    White NJ

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Parasite clearance rates are important measures of anti-malarial drug efficacy. They are particularly important in the assessment of artemisinin resistance. The slope of the log-linear segment in the middle of the parasite clearance curve has the least inter-individual variance and is the focus of therapeutic assessment. The factors affecting parasite clearance are reviewed. Methods of presentation and the approaches to analysis are discussed.

  20. Foodborne parasites from wildlife

    Kapel, Christian Moliin Outzen; Fredensborg, Brian Lund

    2015-01-01

    The majority of wild foods consumed by humans are sourced from intensively managed or semi-farmed populations. Management practices inevitably affect wildlife density and habitat characteristics, which are key elements in the transmission of parasites. We consider the risk of transmission of food...... foodborne parasites to humans from wildlife maintained under natural or semi-natural conditions. A deeper understanding will be useful in counteracting foodborne parasites arising from the growing industry of novel and exotic foods....

  1. Canine fecal contamination in a metropolitan area (Milan, north-western Italy): prevalence of intestinal parasites and evaluation of health risks.

    Zanzani, Sergio Aurelio; Di Cerbo, Anna Rita; Gazzonis, Alessia Libera; Genchi, Marco; Rinaldi, Laura; Musella, Vincenzo; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Manfredi, Maria Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal parasites of dogs represent a serious threat to human health due to their zoonotic potential. Thus, metropolitan areas presenting high concentrations of pets and urban fecal contamination on public areas are at sanitary risk. Major aim of this survey was to determine prevalence of zoonotic parasites in dog fecal samples collected from public soil of Milan (north-western Italy). Differences in parasites prevalence distribution were explored by a geographical information system- (GIS-) based approach, and risk factors (human density, sizes of green parks, and dog areas) were considered. The metropolitan area was divided into 157 rectangular subareas and sampling was performed following a 1-kilometer straight transect. A total of 463 fecal samples were analyzed using centrifugation-flotation technique and ELISA to detect Giardia and Cryptosporidium coproantigens. A widespread fecal contamination of soil was highlighted, being fecal samples found in 86.8% of the subareas considered. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 16.63%. Zoonotic parasites were found, such as Trichuris vulpis (3.67%), Toxocara canis (1.72%), Strongyloides stercoralis (0.86%), Ancylostomatidae (0.43%), and Dipylidium caninum (0.43%). Giardia duodenalis was the most prevalent zoonotic protozoa (11.06%), followed by Cryptosporidium (1.10%). Faeces from subareas characterized by broad green areas showed to be particularly prone to infection. PMID:25478583

  2. Neglected Parasitic Infections: Toxocariasis

    2012-01-05

    This podcast is an overview of the Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) Call: Neglected Parasitic Infections in the United States. Neglected Parasitic Infections are a group of diseases that afflict vulnerable populations and are often not well studied or diagnosed. A subject matter expert from CDC's Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria describes the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of toxocariasis.  Created: 1/5/2012 by Center for Global Health, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria (DPDM); Emergency Risk Communication Branch (ERCB)/Joint Information Center (JIC), Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR).   Date Released: 1/9/2012.

  3. Low risk for transmission of zoonotic Giardia duodenalis from dogs to humans in rural Cambodia

    Inpankaew, Tawin; Schär, Fabian; Odermatt, Peter; Dalsgaard, Anders; Chimnoi, Wissanuwat; Khieu, Virak; Muth, Sinuon; Traub, Rebecca J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A number of epidemiological studies have demonstrated Giardia as prevalent in both humans and dogs worldwide and have postulated the occurrence of anthroponotic, zoonotic and animal-specific cycles of transmission, which may be geographically and regionally unique in its epidemiology....... The aim of this study was to utilise molecular tools to determine the prevalence and compare genotypes of Giardia duodenalis infecting humans and dogs living in a previously identified Giardia-endemic village in rural Cambodia in order to ascertain zoonotic transmission risk. FINDINGS: The prevalence...... 27.5% (11/40) of Giardia positive humans into assemblage AII and 72.5% (29/40) into assemblage BIII of G. duodenalis. In dogs, 20.0% (2/10) of Giardia-positive samples were characterised as G. duodenalis assemblage BIII, 40.0% (4/10) as assemblage C and 40.0% (4/10) as mix infection between...

  4. Evaluation of immunofluorescence microscopy and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections in asymptomatic dogs

    Rimhanen-Finne, R.; Enemark, Heidi L.; Kolehmainen, J.; Toropainen, P.; Hanninen, M.L.

    The performance of immunofluorescence microscopy (IF) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in canine feces was evaluated. IF and Cryptosporidium ELISA detected 10(5) oocysts/g, while the detection limit for Giardia ELISA was 10(4) cysts/g. The Cryptosporidium ELISA showed 94% specificity...... but only 71% sensitivity. The Giardia ELISA correlated well with IF (sensitivity 100%, specificity 96%) and was capable of detecting animal specific Giardia duodenalis genotypes. Visual interpretation appeared appropriate for assessment of ELISA results. The proportion of positive samples and possible...... zoonotic character of Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections in 150 asymptomatic Finnish dogs from the Helsinki area were studied. The overall proportion of dogs positive for Cryptosporidium was 5% (7/150) and that for Giardia 5% (8/150). In dogs...

  5. Risk Factors Associated with Parasitic Infection Among Municipality Solid-Waste Workers in an Egyptian Community.

    Eassa, Safaa M; El-Wahab, Ekram W Abd; Lotfi, Sameh E; El Masry, Sanaa A; Shatat, Hanan Z; Kotkat, Amira M

    2016-04-01

    Solid-waste management is associated with several health hazards, particularly parasitic infection. The objective of the study was to determine the association between risk factors and the occurrence of intestinal parasitic infections (potentially pathogenic) among municipal waste collectors in Alexandria, Egypt. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in the main municipality company in Alexandria. A total of 346 municipality solid-waste workers (MSWWs) was interviewed using an in-depth questionnaire. The type of parasitic infections among waste handlers was determined using formol-ether concentration and modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique. About half of the workers were infected with parasites. The profile of parasitic infection revealed 12 parasitic species. These were comprised of the following helminths: Schistosoma mansoni (13.3%), Enterobius vermicularis (1.7%), Ascaris lumbricoides (1.4%), and Hymenolepis nana ova (0.6%). Among protozoa were pathogenic Entamoeba histolytica (3.2%), Giardia intestinalis (2.9%), nonpathogenic protozoa such as Entamoeba coli (1.7%), and potentially pathogenic or opportunistic ones as Cryptosporidium (23.4%), Microsporidia (20.25%), Cyclospora (2.0%), Blastocystis hominis (1.7%), and Cystoisospora belli (1.2%). About 1.4% of MSWWs have pediculosis and phthiriasis in their scalp and eyelashes respectively. Risk factors for infection were associated with direct exposure to solid fecal waste (odds ratio [OR] = 1.8, confidence interval [CI] = 1.1-3.0) and occupational activities that allowed for direct exposure to solid fecal waste (OR = 2.3, CI = 1.4-4.0). Logistic regression model has revealed that educational level and residence were the factors that contribute to parasitic infection among MSWWs (P < 0.05). MSWWs are at high risk of acquiring parasitic infections. Data of the present study highlighted the need for greater biomonitoring of MSWWs and the improvement of environmental conditions and health care in such marginalized communities to prevent parasitic infection and associated morbidities. PMID:26606452

  6. [Prevalence of intestinal canine and feline parasites in Saitama Prefecture, Japan].

    Yamamoto, Norishige; Kon, Marina; Saito, Toshikazu; Maeno, Naohiro; Koyama, Masaya; Sunaoshi, Katsuhiko; Yamaguchi, Masanori; Morishima, Yasuyuki; Kawanaka, Masanori

    2009-05-01

    We studied the prevalence of intestinal parasites in animal companions in Saitama Prefecture, Japan, where no detailed data is currently available. Between May 1999 and December 2007, fecal samples were collected from 906 dogs and 1,079 cats in public animal shelters and examined by microscopy. Overall, prevalence of intestinal parasites in dogs was 38.6% and cats 43.1%. Trichuris vulpis was the most prevalent canine parasite species (22.3%), followed by Toxocara canis (12.5%), Ancylostoma caninum (10.4%), Isospora ohioensis (2.1%), Spirometra erinaceieuropaei (1.0%), Crypstosporidium sp. (0.9%), Giardia intestinalis (0.9%), I. canis (0.6%), Taeniidae (0.3%), Dipylidium caninum (0.2%), Echinostoma sp. (0.1%), and Pentatrichomonas hominis (0.1%). T. cati was the most prevalent feline parasite species (21.8%), followed by A. tubaeforme (13.2%), S. erinaceieuropaei (8.3%), I. felis (4.5%), Cryptosporidium sp. (2.8%), I. rivolta (2.2%), Pharyngostomum cordatum (1.6%), D. caninum (1.4%), Eimeria sp. (0.3%), Taeniidae (0.2%), Trichuris sp. (0.2%), Capillaria sp. (0.1%), Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense (0.1%), and Metagonimus yokogawai (0.1%). Further molecular analysis to identify canine Taeniidae species and canine and feline Cryptosporidium species identified one canine taeniid positive species as Echinococcus multilocularis. Cryptosporidium species were identified as C. canis and C. felis. Parasites E. multilocularis and Cryptosporidium spp. in animal hosts were the first to be recorded in this prefecture. Compared to previous surveys conducted in the same area, the endemicity of some parasites appeared to have decreased, but some others remain. Given that most of these parasites have zoonotic potential, indicates the importance of having current data on parasite dissemination among animal companions. Government public health agencies should be responsible for educating pet owners about the control and prevention of zoonotic risk from such parasites. PMID:19522305

  7. Tendencia de la prevalencia y factores asociados a la infeccin por Giardia duodenalis en escolares y preescolares de una zona rural de Cundinamarca Giardia duodenalis prevalence and associated risk factors in preschool and school-age children of rural Colombia

    Patricia Reyes

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduccin. La giardiasis contina siendo un problema de salud pblica en amplias regiones del mundo y en Colombia. Esta infeccin se encuentra asociada con la pobreza, el saneamiento ambiental inadecuado y la deficiencia de servicios pblicos.
    Objetivo. Describir la tendencia de la prevalencia de la infeccin por Giardia duodenalis en la poblacin escolar y preescolar de La Virgen, Quipile, Cundinamarca, y su posible asociacin con las variables socioeconmicas.
    Materiales y mtodos. Se tomaron tres puntos de corte realizados en los aos 1995, 2001 y 2005; en cada uno se realiz muestreo no aleatorio de nios entre 0 y 15 aos de edad, a quienes se les hizo examen coprolgico para determinar la infeccin por G. duodenalis y otros parsitos intestinales. En el 2005 se realiz, adems, una encuesta a los cuidadores de los sujetos de estudio sobre las condiciones sociodemogrficas, econmicas y las prcticas sanitarias del ncleo familiar.
    Resultados. La prevalencia de la infeccin por G. duodenalis no ha cambiado significativamente en el periodo de estudio: se encontr 13,60% en el corte de 1995, 12,84% en el 2001 y 15,16% en el 2005. Los resultados sugieren que el pertenecer al rgimen subsidiado se asocia con la infeccin por G. duodenalis (razn de prevalencias, RP=4,47; intervalo de confianza, IC95%:
    0,63-32,02, al igual que el no tener acueducto (RP=2,59; IC95%: 1,13-5,97 y el dedicarse a la agricultura (RP=2,53; IC95%:1,00-6,41.
    Conclusin. La giardiasis contina siendo un problema de salud pblica en esta poblacin; mientras persistan los factores ambientales y socioeconmicos asociados con la infeccin, esta protozoosis intestinal no podr ser controlada.Introduction. Giardia doudenalis infection remains an important public health problem worldwide, as well as in Colombia. This infection is associated with poverty and lack of public services.
    Objective. The study was designed to describe prevalence trends of Giardia duodenalis infections in preschool and school-age children from the village of La Virgen, Quipile, Cundinamarca, and its possible association with socioeconomic variables.
    Materials and methods. Three cross-sectional studies were undertaken in 1995, 2001 and 2005. In each, a non-random sample was selected among children aged <1 to 15 years. Fecal samples were collected for direct examination in order to determine G. duodenalis infection and other intestinal parasites. During the 2005 survey information was collected concerning the sociodemographic and economic conditions in each family group from which a child was sampled.
    Results. The prevalence of G. duodenalis infection did not change significantly during the study period-13.6% in 1995, 12.8% in 2001 and 15.2% in 2005. These results suggested that belonging to the subsidized health care regime was associated with G. duodenalis infection (prevalence rate [PR]: 4.47; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.6-32.0, not having water supply (PR 2.6; 95% CI 1.1-6.0 and involvement in agricultural activities (PR 2.5; 95% CI 1.0-6.4.
    Conclusion. Giardiasis is a continuing public health problem at La Virgen. As long as the environmental and socioeconomic factors associated with infection persist, this intestinal protozoan infection will not be controlled.

  8. Molecular Identification of Giardia duodenalis Isolates from Human and Animal Reservoirs by PCR-RFLP

    Esmaeel Fallah

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the genotypes of Giardia duodenalis from human and animal feces and their epidemiological in Iran. Molecular characterization of cysts of human and animal origin represents an objective means to approve or reject this hypothesis. In this study, cysts of Giardia duodenalis were collected from feces of naturally infected cats (n = 2, human (n = 34, dog (n = 2 and cattle (n = 3. PCR-RFLP analysis of the 34 specimens recovered from humans revealed 6 G. duodenalis assemblage AII, 8 G. duodenalis assemblage BIII and 4 G. duodenalis assemblage BIV. Among samples from cats, 1 was classified into assemblage AI. Genetic subgenotypes identified from human reveals that genetic diver