WorldWideScience
1

Impaired Parasite Attachment as Fitness Cost of Metronidazole Resistance in Giardia lamblia?  

OpenAIRE

Infections with the diarrheagenic protozoan pathogen Giardia lamblia are most commonly treated with metronidazole (Mz). Treatment failures with Mz occur in 10 to 20% of cases and Mz resistance develops in the laboratory, yet clinically, Mz-resistant (Mzr) G. lamblia has rarely been isolated from patients. To understand why clinical Mzr isolates are rare, we questioned whether Mz resistance entails fitness costs to the parasite. Our studies employed several newly generated and established isog...

Tejman-yarden, Noa; Millman, Maya; Lauwaet, Tineke; Davids, Barbara J.; Gillin, Frances D.; Dunn, Linda; Upcroft, Jacqueline A.; Miyamoto, Yukiko; Eckmann, Lars

2011-01-01

2

Biology of Giardia lamblia  

OpenAIRE

Giardia lamblia is a common cause of diarrhea in humans and other mammals throughout the world. It can be distinguished from other Giardia species by light or electron microscopy. The two major genotypes of G. lamblia that infect humans are so different genetically and biologically that they may warrant separate species or subspecies designations. Trophozoites have nuclei and a well-developed cytoskeleton but lack mitochondria, peroxisomes, and the components of oxidative phosphorylation. The...

Adam, Rodney D.

2001-01-01

3

A Rare Cause of Reactive Arthritis: Giardia Lamblia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although many of parasitic infestations are known to cause arthritis development, articular findings related to parasitosis is rarely discussed in literature. The protozoa, Giardia lamblia is often known as gastroenteritis agent, on the other hand rarely causes reactive arthritis. The clinical presentation related to articulation are arthritis and arthralgia. In our report, a case with reactive arthritis due to Giardia lamblia is presented with emphasis on the differences in diagnosis and treatment.

Dilek Karaku?

2009-03-01

4

A Rare Cause of Reactive Arthritis: Giardia Lamblia  

OpenAIRE

Although many of parasitic infestations are known to cause arthritis development, articular findings related to parasitosis is rarely discussed in literature. The protozoa, Giardia lamblia is often known as gastroenteritis agent, on the other hand rarely causes reactive arthritis. The clinical presentation related to articulation are arthritis and arthralgia. In our report, a case with reactive arthritis due to Giardia lamblia is presented with emphasis on the differences in diagnosis and tre...

Dilek Karaku?; Nilüfer Kutay Ordu Gökkaya; Fügen Oktay; Halil Uçan

2009-01-01

5

Attachment of Giardia lamblia to rat intestinal epithelial cells.  

OpenAIRE

The human enteric protozoan, Giardia lamblia, has surface membrane lectin activity which mediates parasite adherence to erythrocytes. To determine whether an intestinal binding site exists for this lectin we have studied the interaction in vitro between axenically cultured Giardia trophozoites and isolated rat intestinal epithelial cells. Scanning electron microscopy showed that Giardia attached to the apical microvillus membrane and basolateral membrane of rat enterocytes. Any location on th...

Inge, P. M.; Edson, C. M.; Farthing, M. J.

1988-01-01

6

Identification of scaffold/Matrix Attachment (S/MAR like DNA element from the gastrointestinal protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromatin in the nucleus of all eukaryotes is organized into a system of loops and domains. These loops remain fastened at their bases to the fundamental framework of the nucleus, the matrix or the scaffold. The DNA sequences which anchor the bases of the chromatin loops to the matrix are known as Scaffold/Matrix Attachment Regions or S/MARs. Though S/MARs have been studied in yeast and higher eukaryotes and they have been found to be associated with gene organization and regulation of gene expression, they have not been reported in protists like Giardia. Several tools have been discovered and formulated to predict S/MARs from a genome of a higher eukaryote which take into account a number of features. However, the lack of a definitive consensus sequence in S/MARs and the randomness of the protozoan genome in general, make it a challenge to predict and identify such sequences from protists. Results Here, we have analysed the Giardia genome for the probable S/MARs predicted by the available computational tools; and then shown these sequences to be physically associated with the nuclear matrix. Our study also reflects that while no single computational tool is competent to predict such complex elements from protist genomes, a combination of tools followed by experimental verification is the only way to confirm the presence of these elements from these organisms. Conclusion This is the first report of S/MAR elements from the protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia. This initial work is expected to lay a framework for future studies relating to genome organization as well as gene regulatory elements in this parasite.

Gautam Pennathur

2010-06-01

7

Description and characterization of a surface lectin from Giardia lamblia.  

OpenAIRE

The mechanisms by which the human enteric pathogen Giardia lamblia colonizes the proximal small intestine are poorly understood. Although the parasite possesses an attachment organelle on its ventral surface, the "sucking" disk, we considered that like many bacteria and some protozoa, G. lamblia might also have a surface membrane-associated modality for adherence to its host. Using an erythrocyte mixed-agglutination model, we demonstrated a parasite surface lectin with specificities for D-glu...

Farthing, M. J.; Pereira, M. E.; Keusch, G. T.

1986-01-01

8

INDUCTION OF ALBENDAZOLE RESISTANCE IN GIARDIA LAMBLIA  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies have shown that Giardia lamblia resistance to metronidazole can be induced in the laboratory, and treatment failures with this drug have also been documented. As replacement theraples, anthelmintic benzimidazoles have antigiardial activity with few clinical side ...

9

[Malabsorption syndrome caused by Giardia lamblia in gastrectomized patients].  

Science.gov (United States)

We report three adult patients with gastrectomy who had malabsorption caused by Giardia lamblia. Type II gastrectomy had been carried out in the three patients several years before, and the clinical presentation was similar: chronic diarrhea with malabsorption. A remarkable fact was that the search for parasites in feces was repeatedly negative in two patients, the protozoon being identified in the intestinal biopsy samples. In the third case, the diagnosis was made by the visualization of Giardia cysts in the feces. PMID:2490653

Castro, M; Sánchez Porto, A; Guillén, P; Martín, E; Guerrero, P; Vargas, J

1989-02-01

10

[Giardia lamblia gastritis. A case report].  

Science.gov (United States)

A 56 year-old male patient had a gastric resection (Billroth II) at age 33. In 1993 he had vague upper digestive complaints. During investigations for a moderate anaemia biopsies performed during an oesogastroduodenoscopy revealed a jejunitis with Giardia lamblia (G.l.) trophozoites which were also found on the gastric mucosa associated with Helicobacter pylori related chronic active gastritis. The few publications dealing with the presence of Giardia lamblia in the stomach either assert or cast some doubts on the pathogenicity of this protozoa for the gastric mucosa. Gastric involvement by G.l. is usually associated with duodeno-jejunal disease responsible for diarrhoea which may occur as epidemics of varying extension. Since Giardia lamblia infection is not submitted to reporting in Switzerland, the epidemiology in our country is scarcely known and investigated. In our opinion, however, health authorities in Switzerland should consider the need of reporting this infectious disease. PMID:11285698

Widgren, S; Pantet, B; Voirol, M

2001-02-01

11

Identification of Giardia lamblia in peritoneal fluid.  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardia lamblia, originally considered a commensal enteric organism, is now universally noted for its pathogenic potential in man. The mechanism of pathogenesis of giardiasis, however, remains unclear. We report a case of giardiasis diagnosed by analysis of peritoneal fluid obtained from a trauma victim. G lamblia trophozoite forms were found on microscopic examination of the fluid, and chemical studies of the fluid revealed bile and elevated amylase activity. The trophozoites may have entered the peritoneum through bowel perforation. PMID:3764534

Drew, P A; Krauss, J S

1986-10-01

12

Azasterols impair Giardia lamblia proliferation and induces encystation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of sterol biosynthesis inhibitors on growth and fine structure of Giardia lamblia P1 strain cultures were analyzed. Azasterols demonstrated high efficacy in killing cells. The IC50 values for 22,26-azasterol and 24(R,S),25-epiminolanosterol were 7 ?M and 170 nM, respectively. Morphological analysis showed that azasterols induced changes in G. lamblia ultrastructure. The most significant alterations were: (a) considerable increase of the size of the peripheral vesicles, which are part of the parasite endosomal-lysosomal system; (b) appearance of autophagosomal structures; and (c) induction of differentiation, followed by an abnormal enlargement of encystation secretory vesicles. We propose that azasterols are effective chemotherapeutic drugs against Giardia lamblia in vitro and may have another target in cells besides sterol biosynthesis

13

A spliceosomal intron in Giardia lamblia  

OpenAIRE

Short introns occur in numerous protist lineages, but there are no reports of intervening sequences in the protists Giardia lamblia and Trichomonas vaginalis, which may represent the deepest known branches in the eukaryotic line of descent. We have discovered a 35-bp spliceosomal intron in a gene encoding a putative [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin of G. lamblia. The Giardia intron contains a canonical splice site at its 3? end (AG), a noncanonical splice site at its 5? end (CT), and a branch point se...

Nixon, Julie E. J.; Wang, Amy; Morrison, Hilary G.; Mcarthur, Andrew G.; Sogin, Mitchell L.; Loftus, Brendan J.; Samuelson, John

2002-01-01

14

Giardia lamblia and Helicobater pylori Coinfection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "nBackground: Giardia lamblia and Helicobacter pylori are two flagellate microorganisms that grow in duodenum and stom­ach. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of them in patients with dyspepsia and other GI disorders. "nMethods: In this cross-sectional study, co-infection of above-mentioned agents was investigated in a group of 130 patients [me­dian age of 40 yr (range=11-79 including 76 males (58.8%] with dyspepsia using three methods of duodenal aspiration sam­ple, duodenal biopsy samples and evaluation of stool samples."nResults: : From 105 patients (59 males, 46 females, median age 40 years, range 11-79 entering this study from 3 hospitals, 4 patients (3.8% had G. lamblia and 61 patients (58% had H. pylori. All 4 patients infected by Giardia had also H. pylori infec­tion. Tenesmus (3 out of 4 patients was the most common symptom in patients with H. pylori infection (48 out of 61 pa­tients was reflux. Other symptoms in patients infected with both organisms (4 patients included diarrhea (2 cases, weight loss (2 cases, and loss of appetite (1 case but no report of vomiting."nConclusion: In patients co-infected with Giardia, H.pylori differentiation by physical examination is not possible. So in those patients with positive Rapid Urease Test (RUT, stool examination for Giardia detection is recommended. In addition, met­ronidazole (broad spectrum, anti-protozoal drug can be useful in H. pylori infection.

R Shafie

2009-03-01

15

Putative SF2 helicases of the early-branching eukaryote Giardia lamblia are involved in antigenic variation and parasite differentiation into cysts  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Regulation of surface antigenic variation in Giardia lamblia is controlled post-transcriptionally by an RNA-interference (RNAi) pathway that includes a Dicer-like bidentate RNase III (gDicer). This enzyme, however, lacks the RNA helicase domain present in Dicer enzymes from higher eukaryotes. The participation of several RNA helicases in practically all organisms in which RNAi was studied suggests that RNA helicases are potentially involved in antigenic variation, as well ...

Gargantini Pablo R; Serradell Marianela C; Torri Alessandro; Lujan Hugo D

2012-01-01

16

Giardia lamblia: Molecular Studies of an Early Branching Eukaryote  

Science.gov (United States)

The rapid advance in our understanding of the biology of Giardia lamblia over the last several years is due in part to the complete DNA sequencing of the 11.7 Mb genome of this diplomonad. Insight on the molecular nature of G. lamblia has been gained by searching the genome using query sequences fr...

17

Effect of Giardia lamblia Infection on the Cognitive Function of School children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The association between helminthic parasitic infection and cognitive function has long been recognized, however there are few reports about Giardia lamblia infection. This paper describes a study about the effect of G. lamblia infection on the cognitive function. Methods: One hundred thirty two children infected with G. lamblia from Robat Karim south of western Tehran, Iran were compared with 150 children without any parasitic infection. These two groups were identical in socioeconomic and nutritional status. Cognitive function was assessed using, three tests from Wechsler Intelligence Scale for children and one subset of the Clinical Evolution of Language Function. Results: Comparison of two groups revealed that uninfected children improved significantly more than children who had G. lamblia infection in the tests of Fluency (P< 0.02 and Digit-span Forwards/ Backwards (P< 0.004. Conclusion: Regular stool examination is suggested in areas with low hygienic conditions, since G. lamblia infection might be present without any clinical manifestation.

F Partovi

2007-05-01

18

Genotype Analysis of Giardia lamblia Isolated From Children in Ahvaz, Southwest of Iran  

OpenAIRE

Background: Giardia lamblia is an enteric protozoan parasite, which infects human and a wide range of vertebrate hosts.Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate genotypes of G. lamblia from children fecal samples in Ahvaz, South West of Iran by PCR-RFLP method.Materials and Methods: Fecal samples were collected from 58 children who were positive for G. lamblia. DNA extractions were performed by QIAamp Stool Mini Kit. DNA were evaluated by semi nested PCR-RFLP assay, targeting the g...

Mahdi Pourmahdi Borujeni; Ahmad Shamsizadeh; Ali Akbar Shayesteh; Ali Reza Samarbaf-Zadeh; Abdollah Rafiei; Elham Sadat Roointan

2013-01-01

19

Prevalence of Giardia lamblia infection in household dogs.  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of 1035 household dogs were examined for the presence of Giardia lamblia (G. lamblia) in their feces. Fecal samples from 151 (14.6%) of the dogs were positive for Giardia. The protozoan was more often detected in soft feces (26.4%) than in normal (10.0%) or diarrheic feces (13.7%) (p pet shops or breeding kennels was extremely high (21.5%) compared to that of dogs from individual households (4.3%) (p Pet owners should be taught appropriate hygiene measures to prevent Giardia transmission from dogs to humans. PMID:11558129

Itoh, N; Muraoka, N; Aoki, M; Itagaki, T

2001-08-01

20

Comparação de quatro métodos laboratoriais para diagnóstico da Giardia lamblia em fezes de crianças residentes em Belém, Pará Evaluation of four techniques for diagnosis of Giardia lamblia in children's stool from Belém city, Para State, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Relatamos a comparação de quatro metodologias para o diagnóstico da Giardia lamblia em material fecal de crianças, Belém/PA. A Hematoxilina Férrica e o método direto apresentaram menor positividade, enquanto que o Método de Faust continua uma boa escolha para o diagnóstico e o Ensaio imunoenzimático melhora a qualidade da detecção deste parasito.We report the evaluation of four techniques for Giardia lamblia diagnosis in children's stool. The Iron haematoxilin staining and direct examination with lugol showed lower positivity, while the method of Faust et al. Continues to be a good option for G. lamblia diagnosis and Immunoenzymatic assay increases the detection of this parasite.

Ricardo Luiz Dantas Machado

2001-02-01

21

Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase is Necessary for Elimination of Giardia lamblia Infections in Mice1  

OpenAIRE

Nitric oxide (NO) produced by inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2) is important for control of numerous infections. In vitro, NO inhibits replication and differentiation of the intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia. However, the role of NO against this parasite has not been tested in vivo. IL-6 deficient mice fail to control Giardia infections and these mice have reduced levels of NOS2 mRNA in the small intestine following infection compared to wild-type mice. However, NOS2 gene-tar...

Li, Erqiu; Zhou, Ping; Singer, Steven M.

2006-01-01

22

/ Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia lamblia y Encephalitozoon intestinalis emergent opportunists / Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia lamblia y Encephalitozoon intestinalis, oportunistas emergentes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Es un hecho conocido que las infecciones oportunistas por protozoos y hongos han aumentado en los últimos años, debido especialmente al aumento de las infecciones por VIH. Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia lamblia y Encephalitozoon intestinalis son protozoos y hongo, respectivamente, mundialmente recono [...] cidos como agentes oportunistas emergentes, responsables de brotes epidémicos provocados por la ingestión de agua potable contaminada, incluso después de una correcta desinfección. La ingestión de estos protozoos puede provocar diferentes grados de enfermedad, entre aguda o leve (población sana) hasta situaciones más graves y agresivas, hasta a veces mortales (pacientes inmunocomprometidos y/o inmunodeprimidos). A pesar de ser responsables de muchos brotes epidémicos, su diagnóstico de laboratorio permanece arduo y trabajoso, incluso utilizando las nuevas técnicas desarrolladas en los últimos años. En esta revisión se resumen las consideraciones generales de estos oportunistas emergentes, así como los métodos de diagnóstico más usuales, incluso los más recientes y específicos. Abstract in english Epidemiological data, regarding parasitic and fungi opportunist infections, have changed in the last years, especially due to HIV infection. Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia lamblia and Encephalitozoon intestinalis are protozoan and fungi, respectively, worldwide known as opportunistic emergent agents, [...] being responsible by epidemic outbreaks after ingestion of contaminated water, even following a correct disinfection treatment. Its ingestion can cause different effects on individuals’ health, from light or acute among the healthy population, to serious, aggressive or even deadly among the immunodepressed or immunocompromised patients. Contaminated water ingestion can result in outbreaks but protozoa laboratory diagnosis still remains very laborious, even after the development of more sensitive and specific techniques in the last years. In this paper, a revision of these emergent opportunists, their main characteristics and diagnostic tools are described, including the most recent and specific techniques.

Joana, Barbosa; Maria José, Espinar; Acácio, Gonçalves Rodrigues; Cidália, Pina-Vaz.

2013-12-01

23

Chitin synthetase in encysting Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba invadens  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Giardia lamblia (Gl) and Entamoeba invadens (Ei) are protozoan parasites with two morphologic stages in their life cycles. Motile trophozoites colonize the intestine of humans and reptiles respectively. Water resistant cysts, which can survive outside the host, transmit infection. In vitro cyst formation of Ei from trophozoites has been reported, and the authors have recently induced in vitro encystation of Gl. Although the cyst walls of both parasites contain chitin, it synthesis by encysting trophozoites has not been reported. The authors now show that encystation conditions greatly increase chitin synthetase (CS) specific activity (incorporation of 3H GlcNAc from UDP-GlcNAc into TCA-or alcohol-precipitable material). Extracts of encysting Gl incorporated 3.6 nmol/mg protein in 5 hr compared to < 0.005 in controls. Extracts of encysting Fi incorporated 4.8 n mol/mg protein, compared to 1.7 in the control. CS activity of both parasites requires preformed chitin. The Gl enzyme requires a reducing agent, is inhibited by digitonin and the CS inhibitors, polyoxin D and Nikkomycin, but not by tunicamycin. The product is digested by chitinase. Ei enzyme does not require a reducing agent and is stimulated by 1 mg/ml digitonin, but inhibited by higher concentrations. These studies demonstrate CS enzymes which may play important roles in encystation of Gl and Ei

24

REMOVAL OF 'GIARDIA LAMBLIA' CYSTS BY DRINKING WATER TREATMENT PLANTS  

Science.gov (United States)

A study was conducted to evaluate the removal of Giardia lamblia cysts and cyst-sized particles by coagulation/sedimentation and filtration, or direct filtration using 2.3 L/min (0.6 gpm) pilot plants and by diatomaceous earth (DE) filtration using a 3.8 L/min DE pilot filter. Th...

25

Susceptibility of Giardia lamblia to aminoglycoside protein synthesis inhibitors: correlation with rRNA structure.  

OpenAIRE

The very limited development of antiparasitic agents targeting protein synthesis stems in part from the belief that parasite and host ribosomes are sufficiently similar to preclude selective toxicity. However, recent studies have revealed that Giardia lamblia rRNA has an unusual size and sequence; consequently, this organism and its homogeneous rRNA provide a useful model for the development of protein synthesis inhibitors with antiparasitic activity. In this study, I determined the sequence ...

Edlind, T. D.

1989-01-01

26

Synergic effect of metronidazole and pyrantel pamoate on Giardia lamblia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardia lamblia is a pathogenic protozoan presenting as the main characteristic, the trophozoite capacity to adhere in host intestinal epithelium, infecting mammals, including humans. The clinical treatment of this disease is based on metronidazole (Mz) that acts as an alternative electron acceptor, and its reduction promotes DNA impairment. In veterinary treatment, one of the best options is pyrantel pamoate (Pm), which the mode of action has not elucidated yet. Different strategies for Giardia treatment have been explored to avoid side effects to the host. In this context, the efficiency of treatment combining drugs raise as an interesting alternative for protozoan diseases. Here, we evaluated in vitro synergic effect of Mz and Pm on trophozoites and on its adherence to IEC-6 cells. The treatment with Mz or Pm was effective on trophozoites, with IC(50)/24h values of 5.3±0.9 ?M and 13.8±1.4 ?M, respectively. The treatment of trophozoites with different combinations of Mz and Pm were also evaluated, as showed by fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) under 0.5 in all conditions tested, corresponding to the synergic effect. This synergic activity was also observed when the combinations of 5.3 ?M Mz+0.4 ?M Pm and 13.8 ?M Pm+0.1 ?M Mz induced a remarkable reduction in % adhesion (85-90% and 52-59%, respectively) and in number of adhered parasites per 100 cells. The low cytotoxicity to the host cells of the combinations, associated to the strong synergic potential of the combination, encourage us to further investigate its effect in in vivo models. PMID:20946968

Hausen, Moema A; Menna-Barreto, Rubem F S; Lira, Dalvaci C; de Carvalho, Laís; Barbosa, Helene S

2011-01-01

27

Giardia lamblia infection diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration.  

Science.gov (United States)

The protozoan Giardia lamblia is a major cause of gastrointestinal disease worldwide. We report the case of a 59-yr-old male who presented to his primary care physician with complaints of abdominal pain and weight loss. Imaging studies revealed a liver mass and a pancreatic head mass. Biopsy of the liver mass proved to be benign, and endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration of the mass in the head of the pancreas showed no evidence of malignancy; however, numerous pear-shaped, binucleated, flagellated organisms morphologically consistent with trophozoites of Giardia lamblia were identified in the specimen. With the increasing use of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration for sampling of gastrointestinal, hepatobiliary, and pancreatic lesions, cytopathologists examining such specimens will need to be familiar with the diagnostic characteristics of this protozoal parasite. PMID:17497659

Carter, J Elliot; Nelson, John J; Eves, Matthew; Boudreaux, Carole

2007-06-01

28

A comparison of the Giardia lamblia trophozoite and cyst transcriptome using microarrays  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Compared with many protists, Giardia lamblia has a simple life cycle alternating between cyst and trophozoite. Most research on the molecular biology of Giardia parasites has focused on trophozoites and the processes of excystation and encystation, whereas cysts have attracted less interest. The striking morphological differences between the dormant cyst and the rapidly dividing and motile trophozoite implies profound changes in the metabolism as the parasite encysts in the host's intestine and excysts upon ingestion by a new host. Results To investigate the magnitude of the transcriptional changes occurring during the G. lamblia life cycle we compared the transcriptome of G. lamblia trophozoites and cysts using single-color oligonucleotide microarrays. Cysts were found to possess a much smaller transcriptome, both in terms of mRNA diversity and abundance. Genes encoding proteins related to ribosomal functions are highly over-represented. The comparison of the transcriptome of cysts generated in culture or extracted from feces revealed little overlap, raising the possibility of significant biological differences between the two types of cysts. Conclusions The comparison of the G. lamblia cyst and trophozoite transcriptome showed that transcripts of most genes are present at a lower level in cysts. This global view of the cyst and trophozoite transcriptome complements studies focused on the expression of selected genes during trophozoite multiplication, encystation and excystation.

Widmer Giovanni

2011-05-01

29

Giardia lamblia infection in a patient with myotonic dystrophy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Myotonic dystrophy is an autosomal dominant muscle disorder characterized by muscle wasting and weakness and a number of other systemic abnormalities. Some patients have hypo-IgG that is asymptomatic in most of them. We report the case of a 42-year-old woman with myotonic dystrophy and hypo-IgG who experienced asthenia and weight loss secondary to Giardia lamblia bowel infection. PMID:12610429

Mouthon, Luc; Godmer, Pascal; Piqueras, Bernard; Cohen, Pascal; Lortholary, Olivier; Hofmann-Radvanyi, Hélène; Guillevin, Loïc

2002-12-01

30

Identification of a Giardia krr1 homolog gene and the secondarily anucleolate condition of Giaridia lamblia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Giaridia lamblia was long considered to be one of the most primitive eukaryotes and to lie close to the transition between prokaryotes and eukaryotes, but several supporting features, such as lack of mitochondrion and Golgi, have been challenged recently. It was also reported previously that G. lamblia lacked nucleolus, which is the site of pre-rRNA processing and ribosomal assembling in the other eukaryotic cells. Here, we report the identification of the yeast homolog gene, krr1, in the anucleolate eukaryote, G. lamblia. The krr1 gene, encoding one of the pre-rRNA processing proteins in yeast, is actively transcribed in G. lamblia. The deduced protein sequence of G. lamblia krr1 is highly similar to yeast KRR1p that contains a single-KH domain. Our database searches indicated that krr1 genes actually present in diverse eukaryotes and also seem to present in Archaea. However, only the eukaryotic homologs, including that of G. lamblia, have the single-KH domain, which contains the conserved motif KR(K)R. Fibrillarin, another important pre-rRNA processing protein has also been identified previously in G. lamblia. Moreover, our database search shows that nearly half of the other nucleolus-localized protein genes of eukaryotic cells also have their homologs in Giardia. Therefore, we suggest that a common mechanism of pre-RNA processing may operate in the anucleolate eukaryote G. lamblia and in the other eukaryotes and that like the case of "lack of mitochondrion," "lack of nucleolus" may not be a primitive feature, but a secondarily evolutionary condition of the parasite. PMID:15548749

Xin, De-Dong; Wen, Jian-Fan; He, De; Lu, Si-Qi

2005-03-01

31

Degradation of Giardia lamblia cysts in mixed human and swine wastes.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was conducted to determine the persistence of Giardia lamblia cysts in mixed septic tank effluent and swine manure slurry and to correlate fluorescein diacetate-propidium iodide staining of G. lamblia cysts with their morphology under low-voltage scanning electron microscopy. Under field conditions, G. lamblia cysts were degraded more rapidly in the mixed waste than in the control Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). For total and viable cysts, the mixed waste had D values (time for a 90% reduction in number of cysts) of 18.3 and 15.5 days, and the Dulbecco's PBS control had D values of 41.6 and 26.8 days. The rates of cyst degradation in septic tank effluent and in Dulbecco's PBS were similar. Increasing the proportion of swine manure slurry in the mixed waste favored degradation of the parasite. These results indicate that the mixed waste treatment was the predominant factor affecting the cyst persistence and that it was swine manure slurry that played the role of degrading the parasite. Visualization of viable and nonviable Giardia cysts with low-voltage scanning electron microscopy revealed an excellent correlation between the viability of the cysts determined by fluorescein diacetate-propidium iodide staining and their electron microscopic morphology. PMID:1381171

Deng, M Y; Cliver, D O

1992-08-01

32

Estudio de factores asociados con la reinfección por Giardia lamblia en niños de círculos infantiles  

OpenAIRE

El protozoo Giardia lamblia, también conocido como Giardia duodenalis o Giardia intestinalis, es un parásito del intestino delgado que puede causar alta morbilidad tanto en países desarrollados como en los subdesarrollados. La infección por G. lamblia es más prevalente en niños de 1 a 5 años de edad, en especial aquellos que asisten a círculos infantiles. Teniendo en cuenta la alta frecuencia que puede alcanzar la infección por este protozoo en estas instituciones educacionales, y co...

Nu?n?ez Ferna?ndez, Fidel Angel

2005-01-01

33

Infectivity of Giardia lamblia cysts obtained from wastewater treated with ultraviolet light.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several waterborne outbreaks of giardiasis have been linked to discharge of wastewater effluents into surface water. Little is known about the infectivity of Giardia lamblia cysts present in UV treated wastewater effluents. In this study, the infectivity of G. lamblia cysts, recovered from primary effluent and secondary effluent, both upstream and downstream of operating full-scale UV reactors at four wastewater treatment plants, was assessed using the Mongolian gerbil model. Infectivity of cysts obtained from the primary effluents was scored as either strong or moderate for induction of infection in gerbils at three out of four wastewater treatment plants. G. lamblia recovered from secondary effluent both upstream and downstream of the UV reactors caused weak infections in the gerbils. The probability of weak infections caused by inoculums of 50-1400 cysts per gerbil was, on the average, reduced by approximately 10% at the four wastewater UV installations with coliform reduction equivalent doses ranging from 6 to 18 mJ/cm2. The UV systems provided considerably less inactivation of the parasite than expected based on the UV dose response of Giardia reported in the literature. PMID:19467689

Li, Dong; Craik, Stephen A; Smith, Daniel W; Belosevic, Miodrag

2009-07-01

34

[A case of imported paratyphoid fever associated with Giardia lamblia and Isospora belli infection].  

Science.gov (United States)

We report a case of imported paratyphoid fever associated with Giardia lamblia and Isospora belli infection. The patient was a 23-year-old Japanese female with complaints of high grade fever and diarrhea after 10 days traveling to Nepal. Salmonella Paratyphi A was isolated from the blood and fecal cultures on admission and Ciprofloxacin of 200 mg tid was administered for 14 days. Fecal examination revealed cysts of G. lamblia at the same time and metronidazole of 250 mg tid for 7 days was effective for their eradication. During the follow-up studies oocysts of I. belli were found and cotrimoxazole of 960 mg bid for 10 days was effective for their eradication. Fecal examinations on parasites which is rare in Japan such as I. belli are recommended to the cases returning from tropical areas. PMID:9916420

Sakamoto, M; Adachi, T; Sagara, H; Kawata, K; Itoh, A; Izeki, M

1998-12-01

35

Utilidad terapéutica del albendazol en el tratamiento de niños infectados con Giardia lamblia / Therapeutic usefulness of albendazole in the treatment of infected children with Giardia lamblia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio con 22 escolares parasitados con Giardia lamblia para verificar la utilidad terapéutica del albendazol (400 mg en dosis única por 5 días). Después de tratar a los niños se realizaron controles posttratamiento a los 7, 15 y 21 días mediante examen clínico y métodos coproparasitó [...] logicos (examen directo, Kato y sedimentación espontánea). El porcentaje global de cura parasitológica fue de 44,4% (8/18) constituidos por 8 niños en quienes se erradicó el parásito posterior al tratamiento. De este análisis se excluyeron 4 niños de los 22 tratados debido a que no acudieron a uno o más controles post-tratamiento. De esos 18 niños, 72,2% tenían manifestaciones clínicas sugestivas de infección por G. lamblia antes de recibir el fármaco; después de concluido el tratamiento solo dos escolares (11,1%) presentaron manifestaciones clínicas. Sin embargo, la diferencia no fue estadísticamente significativa (X2 = 0,5098 g. l. = 1). Dos niños (11,1%) que recibieron tratamiento con albendazol tuvieron efectos adversos (sabor amargo y dolor abdominal). En conclusión, en el grupo estudiado y debido a su bajo porcentaje de cura parasitológica, el albendazol no parece ser una droga de elección y su uso debería reservarse en casos comprobados de resistencia al metronidazol o cuando exista intolerancia a esta droga. Abstract in english A study was conducted with 22 parasitized school children with Giardia lamblia to verify the therapeutic usefulness of albendazole (400 mg single dose for 5 days). After treating the children post-treatment controls were made at 7, 15 and 21 days by clinical examination and parasitological methods ( [...] direct examination, Kato and spontaneous sedimentation). The overall rate of parasitological cure was 44.4% (8/18) consisting of 8 children in whom the parasite was eradicated after treatment. This analysis excluded 4 of the treated children because they had missed one or more post-treatment controls. Of these 18 children, 72.2% (13 children) had clinical manifestations suggestive of infection with G. lamblia before receiving the drug; after completion of treatment only two school children (11.1%) had clinical manifestations. However, the difference was not statistically significant (X2 = 0.5098 d.f. = 1). Two (11.1%) of the children who received albendazole had adverse effects (bitter taste and abdominal pain). In conclusion, the study group and due to its low parasitological cure rate, albendazole does not seem to be a drug of choice and use should be reserved in proven cases of resistance to metronidazole or when there is intolerance to this drug.

Mayra, Risco; Iván, Amaya; Ixora, Requena; Ytalia, Blanco; Rodolfo, Devera.

2013-03-01

36

Current infection rate of Giardia lamblia in two provinces of Thailand.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to survey for the current rate of Giardia lamblia infection in three different districts in two provinces of Thailand, Surin and Samut Sakhon, in March 2002, October 2003, and March 2004. Two districts are rural areas and another is sub-urban. Volunteers of any age from Surin Province and children aged between 5 to 7 years old from three secondary schools in Samut Sakhon were enrolled for the stool examination. The method used was stool examination by both simple smear and normal saline concentration technique on fresh collected feces. All samples were tested in duplicate. Out of 3,358 healthy individuals from rural Surin Province, 75 cases (2.2%) were found positive for G. lamblia, 30 of which were below 10 years of age. By comparison, 656 individuals from sub-urban Samut Sakhon Province volunteered and 43 (6.5%) were positive for G. lamblia. Other intestinal parasites, both helminth and protozoa, were also identified from these two groups: hookworm, Enterobius vermicularis, Strongyloides stercoralis, Trichuris trichiura, Taenia species, Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba coli, Endolimax nana, and Blastocystis hominis. From this study, the data showed that parasitic infection acquired via fecal-oral route is still a significant problem for these two provinces of Thailand. PMID:16438174

Wongjindanon, Nuttapong; Suksrichavalit, Thummaruk; Subsutti, Wanitcha; Sarachart, Titima; Worapisuttiwong, Utsanee; Norramatha, Pakawat

2005-01-01

37

[Marked hematic hypereosinophilia caused by Giardia Lamblia infestation in a subject with Churg-Strauss syndrome].  

Science.gov (United States)

We report a Churg-Strauss syndrome case complicated by Giardia Lamblia infection which increased markedly the number of blood eosinophils with appearance of eosinophils able to form rosettes with unsensitized sheep red blood cells. Metronidazolo therapy reduces markedly the blood hypereosinophilia. The strong relationship between blood hypereosinophilia and Giardia Lamblia in this patient, suggests that there is an interaction between different eosinophilopoietic stimuli. PMID:1745382

Ferrante, E; Valente, S; Corbo, G M; Rumi, C; De Simone, C; Ciappi, G

1991-10-01

38

Inhibition of uridine phosphorylase from Giardia lamblia by pyrimidine analogs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fifty-six pyrimidine analogs were tested as possible inhibitors of uridine phosphorylase from Giardia lamblia. Values of Ki were determined for eight of these which demonstrated an inhibition greater than 60% under the standard conditions of uridine at 1 mM (approximately 1.5 times the Km) and inhibitor at 1 mM. All were competitive with respect to uridine. The most effective inhibitors were uracil analogs substituted at the C-5 position with electron withdrawing groups (nitro groups or halogens). The inhibitory effect at the 5-position appeared to be further enhanced by substitution at the C-6 position with electron releasing groups. The order of effectiveness as inhibitors was 6-methyl-5-nitrouracil greater than 6-amino-5-nitrouracil greater than 5-benzylacyclouridine greater than 5-nitrouracil greater than 5-fluorouracil greater than 5-bromouracil greater than 6-benzyl-2-thiouracil greater than 1,3-dimethyluracil with Ki values of 10, 12, 44, 56, 119, 230, 190 and greater than 1000 microM, respectively. The compounds were also effective inhibitors of the thymidine phosphorylase activity of the enzyme. The effect of the more potent compounds on G. lamblia in in vitro culture are currently under investigation. PMID:2597172

Jiménez, B M; Kranz, P; Lee, C S; Gero, A M; O'Sullivan, W J

1989-11-01

39

Serum antibodies to Giardia lamblia by age in populations in Colorado and Thailand.  

OpenAIRE

We measured levels of antibodies to Giardia lamblia by age in serum specimens from persons in Denver, Colorado, and Soongnern, Thailand. Serum levels of immunoglobulin (Ig) G, IgM, and IgA G lamblia-specific antibodies measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay increased substantially during childhood in both geographic areas, although children in Soongnern showed significantly higher mean levels of each antibody class (P less than .05). After adolescence, levels of G lamblia-specific IgM ...

Janoff, E. N.; Taylor, D. N.; Echeverria, P.; Glode, M. P.; Blaser, M. J.

1990-01-01

40

Ozonoterapia en el síndrome de malabsorción intestinal secundario a parasitismo por Giardia lamblia: estudio preliminar  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se estudió el efecto de la ozonoterapia combinada (OLEOZON® oral y ozonoterapia rectal en el síndrome de malabsorción intestinal, secundario a parasitismo intestinal por Giardia lamblia. Se tomaron 186 pacientes y se formaron 3 grupos de 62 pacientes cada uno. El primer grupo se trató con metronidazol y vitaminoterapia, el segundo con OLEOZON® oral y vitaminoterapia y el tercero con ozonoterapia combinada y vitaminoterapia. Los pacientes fueron evaluados clínicamente por drenaje biliar y biopsia de yeyuno al inicio y final del tratamiento. Se alcanzó una mejoría importante en el tercer grupo (66,1 %, de los cuales, los diagnosticados tempranamente, 40,3 % obtuvo su curación. Se concluyó que la ozonoterapia combinada puede ser eficaz en esta patología.The effect of combined ozone therapy (oral OLEOZON® and rectal ozone therapy on the syndrome of intestinal malabsorption secondary to intestinal parasitism caused by Giardia lamblia was studied. 186 patients were selected and dividided into 3 groups of 62 patients each. The first group was treated with metronidazole and vitamin therapy, the second with oral OLEOZON® and vitamin therapy, and the third with combined ozone therapy and vitamin therapy. The patients were clinically evaluated by biliary drainage and jejunum biopsy at the beginning and at the end of the treatment. A significant improvement was observed in the third group (66.1 %. Of them, those that had been early diagnosed were cured (40.3 %. It was concluded that combined ozone therapy may be efficient in this pathology.

Nazarina Ivonne Méndez Pérez

2003-09-01

41

Effects of essential oils on the growth of Giardia lamblia trophozoites.  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardia lamblia is one of the most important worldwide causes of intestinal infections produced by protozoa. Current therapy for giardiasis is unsatisfactory due to high incidence of undesirable side effects and significant failure in clearing parasites from the gastrointestinal tract. In the search for new therapeutic agents, we report on the effect of several essential oils on G. lamblia growth. Among eighteen tested essential oils, those with phenolic compositions were the most active, particularly if containing high contents of carvacrol, such as Thymbra capitata and Origanum virens (IC50 values of 71 and 85 microg x mL(-1), respectively). The oils from Syzygium aromaticum and Thymus zygis subsp. sylvestris (IC50 values from 100 to 200 microg x mL(-1)), as well as, those from Mentha x piperita and Lippia graveolens (IC50 values over 200 microg x mL(-1)) were less active. Results support the concept that several essential oils or some of their constituents may be useful in the clinical management of Giardia infections. PMID:20184039

Machado, Marisa; Sousa, Maria do Céu; Salgueiro, Lígia; Cavaleiro, Carlos

2010-01-01

42

Oxidative stress-induced cell cycle blockage and a protease-independent programmed cell death in  microaerophilic Giardia lamblia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Esha Ghosh1, Arjun Ghosh1, Amar Nath Ghosh2, Tomoyoshi Nozaki3, Sandipan Ganguly11Division of Parasitology; 2Division of Electron Microscopy, National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases, Beliaghata, Kolkata, West Bengal, India; 3Division of Parasitology, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: Giardia lamblia is a microaerophilic human gastrointestinal parasite and considered as an early-diverged eukaryote. In vitro oxidative stress generation plays a significant role in cell cycle progression and cell death of this parasite. In the present study hydrogen peroxide, metronidazole, and a modified growth medium without cysteine and ascorbic acid have been chosen as oxidative stress-inducing agents. Cell cycle progression has been found to be regulated by different types of oxidative stresses. Apoptosis is not an established pathway in Giardia, which is devoid of ideal mitochondria, but in the present investigation, apoptosis-like programmed cell death has been found by the experiments like AnnexinV-FITC assay, DNA fragmentation pattern, etc. On the contrary, Caspase-9 assay, which confirms the caspase-mediated apoptotic pathway, has been found to be negative in all the stress conditions. Protease inhibitor assay confirmed that, even in absence of any proteases, programmed cell death does occur in this primitive eukaryote. All these results signify a novel pathway of programmed suicidal death in Giardia lamblia under oxidative stress. This is the first demonstration of protease-independent programmed cell death regulation in Giardia exclusive for its own specialties.Keywords: Giardia lamblia, oxidative stress, reactive oxygen species, programmed cell death, apoptosis, early branching eukaryotes

Esha Ghosh

2009-03-01

43

Identification of an immunogenic protein of Giardia lamblia using monoclonal antibodies generated from infected mice  

OpenAIRE

The humoral immune response plays an important role in the clearance of Giardia lamblia. However, our knowledge about the specific antigens of G. lamblia that induce a protective immune response is limited. The purpose of this study was to identify and characterise the immunogenic proteins of G. lamblia in a mouse model. We generated monoclonal antibodies (moAbs) specific to G. lamblia (1B10, 2C9.D11, 3C10.E5, 3D10, 5G8.B5, 5F4, 4C7, 3C5 and 3C6) by fusing splenocytes der...

Quintero, Jael; Figueroa, Diana Carolina; Barcelo, Rafael; Breci, Linda; Astiazaran-garcia, Humberto; Rascon, Lucila; Robles-zepeda, Ramon; Garibay-escobar, Adriana; Velazquez-contreras, Enrique; Avila, Gloria Leon; Hernandez-hernandez, Jose Manuel; Velazquez, Carlos

2013-01-01

44

An ancient spliceosomal intron in the ribosomal protein L7a gene (Rpl7a of Giardia lamblia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Only one spliceosomal-type intron has previously been identified in the unicellular eukaryotic parasite, Giardia lamblia (a diplomonad. This intron is only 35 nucleotides in length and is unusual in possessing a non-canonical 5' intron boundary sequence, CT, instead of GT. Results We have identified a second spliceosomal-type intron in G. lamblia, in the ribosomal protein L7a gene (Rpl7a, that possesses a canonical GT 5' intron boundary sequence. A comparison of the two known Giardia intron sequences revealed extensive nucleotide identity at both the 5' and 3' intron boundaries, similar to the conserved sequence motifs recently identified at the boundaries of spliceosomal-type introns in Trichomonas vaginalis (a parabasalid. Based on these observations, we searched the partial G. lamblia genome sequence for these conserved features and identified a third spliceosomal intron, in an unassigned open reading frame. Our comprehensive analysis of the Rpl7a intron in other eukaryotic taxa demonstrates that it is evolutionarily conserved and is an ancient eukaryotic intron. Conclusion An analysis of the phylogenetic distribution and properties of the Rpl7a intron suggests its utility as a phylogenetic marker to evaluate particular eukaryotic groupings. Additionally, analysis of the G. lamblia introns has provided further insight into some of the conserved and unique features possessed by the recently identified spliceosomal introns in related organisms such as T. vaginalis and Carpediemonas membranifera.

Gray Michael W

2005-08-01

45

Outbreak of Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia infections in travellers returning from the tropics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Of 160 travellers from various regions in Italy who had taken part in a five-day organized trip to Phuket, Thailand, and been accommodated in the same luxury hotel, 17 showed either amebic abscess or colitis. A pretested questionnaire that focused on the consumption of foods and beverages well known to be a source of intestinal infection in endemic areas was available from these 17 patients as well as from 41 out of 74 asymptomatic travellers. Stool samples for parasitological examination were also available. In patients affected with amebic abscess, antibodies to Entamoeba histolytica were also determined. Overall, parasitological examinations were negative in eight (13.8%) patients, and 50 out of 58 (86.2%) were found to be positive. The prevalence of Giardia lamblia and E. histolytica infections was 67.2% and 72.4%, respectively, and 28 subjects (48.3%) were stool-positive for both of these protozoa. No other intestinal parasites were found. No particular food or beverage was consumed by all of the parasitized subjects and by none of the stool-negative individuals. However, the consumption of drinks with ice, ice cream and raw fruit in ice was significantly associated with E. histolytica and/or G. lamblia infections (Fisher's exact test, p ranging from 0.03 to 0.003). PMID:1582688

de Lalla, F; Rinaldi, E; Santoro, D; Nicolin, R; Tramarin, A

1992-01-01

46

In-vitro susceptibility of Giardia lamblia to albendazole, mebendazole and other chemotherapeutic agents.  

Science.gov (United States)

The susceptibility of a strain of Giardia lamblia to benzimidazole carbamates, 5-nitroimidazoles, nitrofurans and other drugs was studied in vitro. Albendazole was the most active compound, with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 0.01 mg/L and a minimal lethal concentration (MLC) of less than 0.04 mg/L; the IC50 of mebendazole was 0.06 mg/L and the MLC less than 0.5 mg/L. Among the 5-nitroimidazoles tested, ornidazole was the most effective (IC50 0.12 mg/L); tinidazole, metronidazole, secnidazole and hemezole were less active. Nifuroxazide, etofamide and nalidixic acid exhibited modest anti-giardial activity; quinfamide did not inhibit the growth of the parasite at a concentration of 200 mg/L. Albendazole and mebendazole are promising candidates for clinical use and should be further evaluated. PMID:1518040

Cedillo-Rivera, R; Muñoz, O

1992-09-01

47

Giardia lamblia e alergia respiratória: estudo em uma amostra de crianças de área urbana com frequência elevada da protozoose / Giardia lamblia and respiratory allergies: a study of children from an urban area with a high incidence of protozoan infections  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Uma elevada incidência de enteroparasitoses é encontrada em regiões urbanas do nordeste brasileiro. As infecções por Giardia lamblia têm sido relacionadas com aumento da prevalência de alergias cutâneas e gastrointestinais. Contudo, ainda existe pouca informação sobre a associação entre a [...] giardíase e doenças alérgicas das vias aéreas. Diante disso, o presente estudo se propôs a verificar a relação entre a infecção por G. lamblia em crianças de área urbana e reatividade alérgica respiratória. MÉTODOS: O estudo incluiu 110 pacientes, de ambos os sexos e idades, entre 5 e 15 anos. Os pacientes foram submetidos a questionários de avaliação dos sintomas clínicos, testes cutâneos de leitura imediata e exames coproparasitológicos e sorológicos. RESULTADOS: Foi verificada uma frequência elevada de crianças infectadas por G. lamblia (45%, 50/110). A infecção pelo protozoário não foi associada com maior risco de alergias respiratórias (p = 0,075), elevação de IgE total (p = 0,701), IgE específica (p = 0,250) ou teste cutâneo positivo para diferentes alérgenos ambientais (p = 0,239). CONCLUSÃO: O estudo demonstrou que a presença dos sintomas de asma, atopia cutânea e marcadores sorológicos não foram associados com a presença de infecção pela G. lamblia nessa amostra de crianças. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: There is a high incidence of intestinal parasite infection in urban areas in the Northeast of Brazil. Giardia lamblia infections have been associated with increased prevalence of cutaneous allergies and gastrointestinal disorders. However, little is known about the relationship between g [...] iardiasis and allergic diseases of the airways. The present study aimed to investigate the possible association between respiratory allergic diseases and infections by G. lamblia in children from urban areas. METHODS: This study recruited 110 patients of both sexes aged 5-15 years. Patients were administered a questionnaire evaluating clinical symptoms and were given skin tests, parasite tests and serum tests. RESULTS: A high incidence of G. lamblia was observed (45%, 50/110). Infections by this protozoan were not associated with increased risk of respiratory allergy (p = 0.075), high total IgE levels (p = 0.701), positive specific IgE tests (p = 0.250), or positive skin tests for a range of environmental allergens (p = 0.239). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that symptoms of asthma, skin allergy and serum markers were not associated with G. lamblia infections in this sample of children from urban areas.

Valdênia M. O., Souza; Iana R. F., Sales; Décio M., Peixoto; Vláudia M. Assis, Costa; José A., Rizzo; Almerinda R., Silva; Roberta Faria, Camilo; Felipe Faria, Pierotti; Dirceu, Solé; Emanuel S. C., Sarinho.

2012-06-01

48

Giardia lamblia e alergia respiratória: estudo em uma amostra de crianças de área urbana com frequência elevada da protozoose Giardia lamblia and respiratory allergies: a study of children from an urban area with a high incidence of protozoan infections  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Uma elevada incidência de enteroparasitoses é encontrada em regiões urbanas do nordeste brasileiro. As infecções por Giardia lamblia têm sido relacionadas com aumento da prevalência de alergias cutâneas e gastrointestinais. Contudo, ainda existe pouca informação sobre a associação entre a giardíase e doenças alérgicas das vias aéreas. Diante disso, o presente estudo se propôs a verificar a relação entre a infecção por G. lamblia em crianças de área urbana e reatividade alérgica respiratória. MÉTODOS: O estudo incluiu 110 pacientes, de ambos os sexos e idades, entre 5 e 15 anos. Os pacientes foram submetidos a questionários de avaliação dos sintomas clínicos, testes cutâneos de leitura imediata e exames coproparasitológicos e sorológicos. RESULTADOS: Foi verificada uma frequência elevada de crianças infectadas por G. lamblia (45%, 50/110. A infecção pelo protozoário não foi associada com maior risco de alergias respiratórias (p = 0,075, elevação de IgE total (p = 0,701, IgE específica (p = 0,250 ou teste cutâneo positivo para diferentes alérgenos ambientais (p = 0,239. CONCLUSÃO: O estudo demonstrou que a presença dos sintomas de asma, atopia cutânea e marcadores sorológicos não foram associados com a presença de infecção pela G. lamblia nessa amostra de crianças.OBJECTIVES: There is a high incidence of intestinal parasite infection in urban areas in the Northeast of Brazil. Giardia lamblia infections have been associated with increased prevalence of cutaneous allergies and gastrointestinal disorders. However, little is known about the relationship between giardiasis and allergic diseases of the airways. The present study aimed to investigate the possible association between respiratory allergic diseases and infections by G. lamblia in children from urban areas. METHODS: This study recruited 110 patients of both sexes aged 5-15 years. Patients were administered a questionnaire evaluating clinical symptoms and were given skin tests, parasite tests and serum tests. RESULTS: A high incidence of G. lamblia was observed (45%, 50/110. Infections by this protozoan were not associated with increased risk of respiratory allergy (p = 0.075, high total IgE levels (p = 0.701, positive specific IgE tests (p = 0.250, or positive skin tests for a range of environmental allergens (p = 0.239. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that symptoms of asthma, skin allergy and serum markers were not associated with G. lamblia infections in this sample of children from urban areas.

Valdênia M. O. Souza

2012-06-01

49

?1-giardin based live heterologous vaccine protects against Giardia lamblia infection in a murine model  

OpenAIRE

Giardia lamblia is a leading protozoan cause of diarrheal disease worldwide, yet preventive medical strategies are not available. A crude veterinary vaccine has been licensed for cats and dogs, but no defined human vaccine is available. We tested the vaccine potential of three conserved antigens previously identified in human and murine giardiasis, ?1-giardin, ?-enolase, and ornithine carbamoyl transferase, in a murine model of G. lamblia infection. Live recombinant attenuated Salmonella en...

Jenikova, Gabriela; Hruz, Petr; Andersson, Karl M.; Tejman-yarden, Noa; Ferreira, Patricia C. D.; Andersen, Yolanda S.; Davids, Barbara J.; Gillin, Frances D.; Sva?rd, Staffan G.; Curtiss, Roy; Eckmann, Lars

2011-01-01

50

Chromosome-size variation in Giardia lamblia: the role of rDNA repeats.  

OpenAIRE

Giardia lamblia trophozoites contain at least five sets of chromosomes that have been categorized by chromosome-specific probes. Pulsed field separations of G. lamblia chromosomes also demonstrated minor bands in some isolates which stained less intensely with ethidium than the major chromosomal bands. Two of the minor bands of the E11 clone of the ISR isolate, MBa and MBb, were similar to each other and to chromosomal band I by hybridization to total chromosomal DNA and by hybridization of s...

Adam, R. D.

1992-01-01

51

Efecto de un extracto de Petiveria Alliacea Lin sobre el crecimiento de Giardia lamblia in vitro  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto de un extracto fluido elaborado con un menstruo de Petiveria alliacea (anamú) sobre el crecimiento in vitro de Giardia lamblia. Para este ensayo se empleó una cepa aislada en el Instituto de Medicina Tropical "Pedro Kourí", procedente de un paciente infestado. Los cultivos fueron [...] incubados a 37 °C durante 48 h y posteriormente ajustada su concentración a 2 ´105 parásitos por 0,5 mL. Los resultados obtenidos muestran un marcado efecto antigiardiásico, por los altos porcentajes inhibitorios del crecimiento con las 5 concentraciones probadas (17,2; 4,3; 1,075; 0,54 y 0,135 mg/mL), que alcanzó el 96,81 % con la mayor concentración y el 5,03 % con la de 0,135 mg/mL. La concentración media inhibitoria resultó de 2,05 mg/mL. Abstract in english The effect of a fluid extract made with a menstruum of Petiveria alliacea (anamú) on the growth of Giardia lamblia in vitro was evaluated. A strain isolated from an infected patient at “Pedro Kouri” Institute of Tropical Medicine was used in this trial. The cultures were incubated at 37 ºC during 48 [...] hours and later their concentrations of 2 x 105 parasites per 0.5 mL were adjusted. The results obtained showed a marked antigiardiasis effect due to the high inhibitory percentages of growth with the 5 tested concentrations (17.2; 4.3; 1.075; 0.54 and 0.135 mg//mL). An effect of 96.81 % was attained with the highest concentration and of 5.03 % with the concentration of 0.135 mg/mL. The mean inhibitory concentration was 2.05 mg/mL.

Aimée, Echevarría; Dinorah, Torres Idavoy.

2001-09-01

52

Efecto de un extracto de Petiveria Alliacea Lin sobre el crecimiento de Giardia lamblia in vitro  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto de un extracto fluido elaborado con un menstruo de Petiveria alliacea (anamú sobre el crecimiento in vitro de Giardia lamblia. Para este ensayo se empleó una cepa aislada en el Instituto de Medicina Tropical "Pedro Kourí", procedente de un paciente infestado. Los cultivos fueron incubados a 37 °C durante 48 h y posteriormente ajustada su concentración a 2 ´105 parásitos por 0,5 mL. Los resultados obtenidos muestran un marcado efecto antigiardiásico, por los altos porcentajes inhibitorios del crecimiento con las 5 concentraciones probadas (17,2; 4,3; 1,075; 0,54 y 0,135 mg/mL, que alcanzó el 96,81 % con la mayor concentración y el 5,03 % con la de 0,135 mg/mL. La concentración media inhibitoria resultó de 2,05 mg/mL.The effect of a fluid extract made with a menstruum of Petiveria alliacea (anamú on the growth of Giardia lamblia in vitro was evaluated. A strain isolated from an infected patient at “Pedro Kouri” Institute of Tropical Medicine was used in this trial. The cultures were incubated at 37 ºC during 48 hours and later their concentrations of 2 x 105 parasites per 0.5 mL were adjusted. The results obtained showed a marked antigiardiasis effect due to the high inhibitory percentages of growth with the 5 tested concentrations (17.2; 4.3; 1.075; 0.54 and 0.135 mg//mL. An effect of 96.81 % was attained with the highest concentration and of 5.03 % with the concentration of 0.135 mg/mL. The mean inhibitory concentration was 2.05 mg/mL.

Aimée Echevarría

2001-09-01

53

Inducible nitric oxide synthase in duodenum of children with Giardia lamblia infection.  

OpenAIRE

The investigation were performed on children with Giardia lamblia infection, diagnosed on the basis of positive stool tests for Giardia antigen (Elisa) or by microscopical detection of trophozoites in duodenal fluid. In duodenal biopsies morphological studies and immunohistochemical reaction for inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were performed. The control group was made up of duodenal tissue of children with excluded giardiasis and inflammation of the upper part of gastrointestinal trac...

Agnieszka Kolasa; Ma?gorzata Mokrzycka; Anita Kosierkiewicz; Barbara Wiszniewska

2010-01-01

54

Identification of an immunogenic protein of Giardia lamblia using monoclonal antibodies generated from infected mice  

Science.gov (United States)

The humoral immune response plays an important role in the clearance of Giardia lamblia. However, our knowledge about the specific antigens of G. lamblia that induce a protective immune response is limited. The purpose of this study was to identify and characterise the immunogenic proteins of G. lamblia in a mouse model. We generated monoclonal antibodies (moAbs) specific to G. lamblia (1B10, 2C9.D11, 3C10.E5, 3D10, 5G8.B5, 5F4, 4C7, 3C5 and 3C6) by fusing splenocytes derived from infected mice. Most of these moAbs recognised a band of ± 71 kDa (5G8 protein) and this protein was also recognised by serum from the infected mice. We found that the moAbs recognised conformational epitopes of the 5G8 protein and that this antigen is expressed on the cell surface and inside trophozoites. Additionally, antibodies specific to the 5G8 protein induced strong agglutination (> 70-90%) of trophozoites. We have thus identified a highly immunogenic antigen of G. lamblia that is recognised by the immune system of infected mice. In summary, this study describes the identification and partial characterisation of an immunogenic protein of G. lamblia. Additionally, we generated a panel of moAbs specific for this protein that will be useful for the biochemical and immunological characterisation of this immunologically interesting Giardia molecule. PMID:23903978

Quintero, Jael; Figueroa, Diana Carolina; Barcelo, Rafael; Breci, Linda; Astiazaran-Garcia, Humberto; Rascon, Lucila; Robles-Zepeda, Ramon; Garibay-Escobar, Adriana; Velazquez-Contreras, Enrique; Avila, Gloria Leon; Hernandez-Hernandez, Jose Manuel; Velazquez, Carlos

2013-01-01

55

Detection of anti-Giardia lamblia serum antibody among children of day care centers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVES: To detect anti-Giardia lamblia serum antibodies in healthy children attending public day care centers and to assess serological tests as tools for estimating the prevalence of G. lamblia in endemic areas. METHODS: Three separate stool specimens and filter paper blood samples were collected from 147 children ranging from 0 to 6 years old. Each stool sample was processed using spontaneous sedimentation and zinc sulfate flotation methods. Blood samples were tested by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for Giardia IgG. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Of 147 individuals tested, 93 (63.3% showed Giardia cysts in their feces. Using IIF and ELISA, serum antibodies were detected in 93 (63.3% and 100 (68% samples , respectively. Sensitivity of IIF and ELISA was 82% and 72%, respectively. However, ELISA revealed to be less specific (39% than IIF (70%. IIF also showed a higher concordance with microscopic examination than ELISA.

Guimarães Semíramis

2002-01-01

56

Characterization of SNAREs Determines the Absence of a Typical Golgi Apparatus in the Ancient Eukaryote Giardia lamblia*S?  

OpenAIRE

Giardia is a eukaryotic protozoal parasite with unusual characteristics, such as the absence of a morphologically evident Golgi apparatus. Although both constitutive and regulated pathways for protein secretion are evident in Giardia, little is known about the mechanisms involved in vesicular docking and fusion. In higher eukaryotes, soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) of the vesicle-associated membrane protein and syntaxin ...

Elias, Eliana V.; Quiroga, Rodrigo; Gottig, Natalia; Nakanishi, Hideki; Nash, Theodore E.; Neiman, Aaron; Lujan, Hugo D.

2008-01-01

57

Identification of an immunogenic protein of Giardia lamblia using monoclonal antibodies generated from infected mice  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available The humoral immune response plays an important role in the clearance of Giardia lamblia. However, our knowledge about the specific antigens of G. lamblia that induce a protective immune response is limited. The purpose of this study was to identify and characterise the immunogenic proteins of G. lam [...] blia in a mouse model. We generated monoclonal antibodies (moAbs) specific to G. lamblia (1B10, 2C9.D11, 3C10.E5, 3D10, 5G8.B5, 5F4, 4C7, 3C5 and 3C6) by fusing splenocytes derived from infected mice. Most of these moAbs recognised a band of ± 71 kDa (5G8 protein) and this protein was also recognised by serum from the infected mice. We found that the moAbs recognised conformational epitopes of the 5G8 protein and that this antigen is expressed on the cell surface and inside trophozoites. Additionally, antibodies specific to the 5G8 protein induced strong agglutination (> 70-90%) of trophozoites. We have thus identified a highly immunogenic antigen of G. lamblia that is recognised by the immune system of infected mice. In summary, this study describes the identification and partial characterisation of an immunogenic protein of G. lamblia. Additionally, we generated a panel of moAbs specific for this protein that will be useful for the biochemical and immunological characterisation of this immunologically interesting Giardia molecule.

Jael, Quintero; Diana Carolina, Figueroa; Rafael, Barcelo; Linda, Breci; Humberto, Astiazaran-Garcia; Lucila, Rascon; Ramon, Robles-Zepeda; Adriana, Garibay-Escobar; Enrique, Velazquez-Contreras; Gloria Leon, Avila; Jose Manuel, Hernandez-Hernandez; Carlos, Velazquez.

2013-08-01

58

Inducible nitric oxide synthase in duodenum of children with Giardia lamblia infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

The investigation were performed on children with Giardia lamblia infection, diagnosed on the basis of positive stool tests for Giardia antigen (Elisa) or by microscopical detection of trophozoites in duodenal fluid. In duodenal biopsies morphological studies and immunohistochemical reaction for inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were performed. The control group was made up of duodenal tissue of children with excluded giardiasis and inflammation of the upper part of gastrointestinal tract. The duodenal biopsies from children without Giardia lamblia infection were found to have a high immunoreactivity for iNOS in enterocytes, the cells of intestinal crypts, endothelial cells of vessels and connective tissue cells of lamina propria. In children with giardiasis: in some biopsies the expression of iNOS was as high as in control group, in others was weaker detectable and the shortening of intestinal villi was seen. There were also duodenal biopsies with the lack of immunoreactivity for iNOS, with shorter villi and a large amount of mucus in the intestinal epithelium. Beside of goblet cells, also enterocytes were loaded with mucus. The pathological changes may cause malabsorption and also may have a negative influence on the defense of the intestinal wall against Giardia lamblia infection. The different morphological and immunohistochemical results in the duodenum of children with giardiasis can elucidate a variety of clinical symptoms from asymptomatic to severe infection. PMID:20675273

Mokrzycka, Ma?gorzata; Kolasa, Agnieszka; Kosierkiewicz, Anita; Wiszniewska, Barbara

2010-01-01

59

Inducible nitric oxide synthase in duodenum of children with Giardia lamblia infection.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The investigation were performed on children with Giardia lamblia infection, diagnosed on the basis of positive stool tests for Giardia antigen (Elisa or by microscopical detection of trophozoites in duodenal fluid. In duodenal biopsies morphological studies and immunohistochemical reaction for inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS were performed. The control group was made up of duodenal tissue of children with excluded giardiasis and inflammation of the upper part of gastrointestinal tract. The duodenal biopsies from children without Giardia lamblia infection were found to have a high immunoreactivity for iNOS in enterocytes, the cells of intestinal crypts, endothelial cells of vessels and connective tissue cells of lamina propria. In children with giardiasis: in some biopsies the expression of iNOS was as high as in control group, in others was weaker detectable and the shortening of intestinal villi was seen. There were also duodenal biopsies with the lack of immunoreactivity for iNOS, with shorter villi and a large amount of mucus in the intestinal epithelium. Beside of goblet cells, also enterocytes were loaded with mucus. The pathological changes may cause malabsorption and also may have a negative influence on the defense of the intestinal wall against Giardia lamblia infection. The different morphological and immunohistochemical results in the duodenum of children with giardiasis can elucidate a variety of clinical symptoms from asymptomatic to severe infection.

Agnieszka Kolasa

2010-08-01

60

Crystal structure of a macrophage migration inhibitory factor from Giardia lamblia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a eukaryotic cytokine that affects a broad spectrum of immune responses and its activation/inactivation is associated with numerous diseases. During protozoan infections MIF is not only expressed by the host, but, has also been observed to be expressed by some parasites and released into the host. To better understand the biological role of parasitic MIF proteins, the crystal structure of the MIF protein from Giardia lamblia (Gl-MIF), the etiological agent responsible for giardiasis, has been determined at 2.30 Å resolution. The 114-residue protein adopts an ?/? fold consisting of a four-stranded ?-sheet with two anti-parallel ?-helices packed against a face of the ?-sheet. An additional short ?-strand aligns anti-parallel to ?4 of the ?-sheet in the adjacent protein unit to help stabilize a trimer, the biologically relevant unit observed in all solved MIF crystal structures to date, and form a discontinuous ?-barrel. The structure of Gl-MIF is compared to the MIF structures from humans (Hs-MIF) and three Plasmodium species (falciparum, berghei, and yoelii). The structure of all five MIF proteins are generally similar with the exception of a channel that runs through the center of each trimer complex. Relative to Hs-MIF, there are differences in solvent accessibility and electrostatic potential distribution in the channel of Gl-MIF and the Plasmodium-MIFs due primarily to two “gate-keeper” residues in the parasitic MIFs. For the Plasmodium MIFs the gate-keeper residues are at positions 44 (Y==>R) and 100 (V==>D) and for Gl-MIF it is at position 100 (V==>R). If these gate-keeper residues have a biological function and contribute to the progression of parasitemia they may also form the basis for structure-based drug design targeting parasitic MIF proteins.

Buchko, Garry W.; Abendroth, Jan; Robinson, Howard; Zhang, Yanfeng; Hewitt, Stephen N.; Edwards, Tom E.; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Myler, Peter J.

2013-06-15

61

Identification and analysis of the RNA degrading complexes and machinery of Giardia lamblia using an in silico approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background RNA degradation is critical to the survival of all cells. With increasing evidence for pervasive transcription in cells, RNA degradation has gained recognition as a means of regulating gene expression. Yet, RNA degradation machinery has been studied extensively in only a few eukaryotic organisms, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae and humans. Giardia lamblia is a parasitic protist with unusual genomic traits: it is binucleated and tetraploid, has a very compact genome, displays a theme of genomic minimalism with cellular machinery commonly comprised of a reduced number of protein components, and has a remarkably large population of long, stable, noncoding, antisense RNAs. Results Here we use in silico approaches to investigate the major RNA degradation machinery in Giardia lamblia and compare it to a broad array of other parasitic protists. We have found key constituents of the deadenylation and decapping machinery and of the 5'-3' RNA degradation pathway. We have similarly found that all of the major 3'-5' RNA degradation pathways are present in Giardia, including both exosome-dependent and exosome-independent machinery. However, we observe significant loss of RNA degradation machinery genes that will result in important differences in the protein composition, and potentially functionality, of the various RNA degradation pathways. This is most apparent in the exosome, the central mediator of 3'-5' degradation, which apparently contains an altered core configuration in both Giardia and Plasmodium, with only four, instead of the canonical six, distinct subunits. Additionally the exosome in Giardia is missing both the Rrp6, Nab3, and Nrd1 proteins, known to be key regulators of noncoding transcript stability in other cells. Conclusions These findings suggest that although the full complement of the major RNA degradation mechanisms were present - and likely functional - early in eukaryotic evolution, the composition and function of the complexes is more variable than previously appreciated. We suggest that the missing components of the exosome complex provide an explanation for the stable abundance of sterile RNA species in Giardia.

Williams Christopher W

2011-11-01

62

A novel galacto-glycerolipid from Oxalis corniculata kills Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oxalis corniculata is a naturally occurring weed that has been used in traditional medicine for the cure of dysentery and diarrhea in India. One of the common causes of dysentery is due to infection by the protist pathogen Entamoeba histolytica. Bioactivity profiling of extracts from O. corniculata identified several compounds that showed antiamoebic activity in axenic cultures of E. histolytica. These were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared, and mass spectrometry as (i) Oc-1, a mixture of saturated fatty acids C?? to C??; (ii) Oc-2, a mixture of long-chain alcohols C?? to C??; and (iii) Oc-3, a single compound that was a galacto-glycerolipid (GGL). Of the different compounds that were obtained, the strongest antiamoebic activity was found in GGL. The addition of GGL to E. histolytica xenic cultures containing other microbial flora from the large intestine did not affect its antiamoebic activity. Amoebicidal concentrations of GGL had no effect on intestinal microbial flora or on the mammalian cell line HEK-293. GGL was also found to be equally effective in killing another protist pathogen, Giardia lamblia, that causes diarrhea in humans. The importance of this study is based on the identification of novel natural products and the possibility of developing these compounds as active agents to treat at least two pathogenic parasitic intestinal infections endemic to tropical regions. PMID:20713666

Manna, Dipak; Dutta, Pradeep K; Achari, Basudeb; Lohia, Anuradha

2010-11-01

63

Unraveling the mechanisms of tryptophan fluorescence quenching in the triosephosphate isomerase from Giardia lamblia.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the native state several proteins exhibit a quenching of fluorescence of their tryptophans. We studied triosephosphate isomerase from Giardia lamblia (GlTIM) to dissect the mechanisms that account for the quenching of fluorescence of its Trp. GlTIM contains four Trp per monomer (Trp75, Trp162, Trp173, and Trp196) distributed throughout the 3D structure. The fluorescence of the denatured enzyme is 3-fold higher than that of native GlTIM. To ascertain the origin of this phenomenon, single and triple mutants of Trp per Phe were made. The intrinsic fluorescence was determined, and the data were interpreted on the basis of the crystal structure of the enzyme. Our data show that the fluorescence of all Trp residues is quenched through two different mechanisms. In one, fluorescence is quenched by aromatic-aromatic interactions due to the proximity and orientation of the indole groups of Trp196 and Trp162. The magnitude of the quenching of fluorescence in Trp162 is higher than in the other three Trp. Fluorescence quenching is also due to energy transfer to the charged residues that surround Trp 75, 173 and 196. Further analysis of the fluorescence of GlTIM showed that, among TIMs from other parasites, Trp at position 12 exhibits rather unique properties. PMID:18620084

Hernández-Alcántara, Gloria; Rodríguez-Romero, Adela; Reyes-Vivas, Horacio; Peon, Jorge; Cabrera, Nallely; Ortiz, Carmen; Enríquez-Flores, Sergio; De la Mora-De la Mora, Ignacio; López-Velázquez, Gabriel

2008-11-01

64

IDENTIFICATION OF GROWTH INHIBITING COMPOUNDS IN A GIARDIA LAMBLIA HIGH-THROUGHPUT SCREEN  

OpenAIRE

Giardia lamblia is one of the most common eukaryotic pathogens and is classified by the CDC as a category B agent of bioterrorism. In a departure from more traditional research focused on specific pathways or molecules, we have developed a high-throughput assay for screening libraries of small compounds for inhibitors and enhancers of trophozoite multiplication. Following a 24-h period of culture in 384-well plates in the presence of compounds, trophozoites were fixed, stained and enumerated....

Santiago, Ruben Bonilla; Wu, Zijin; Zhang, Linghui; Widmer, Giovanni

2008-01-01

65

From Leningrad to the day-care center. The ubiquitous Giardia lamblia.  

OpenAIRE

Giardiasis is recognized as a worldwide public health problem. Seroprevalence data from both the developing and developed world show high rates of carriage in populations at risk for fecal-oral transmission, such as children in day-care centers. Outbreak investigation has expanded our understanding of reservoirs for Giardia lamblia and of the routes of transmission. Various host factors have been associated with infection. The pathogenesis of giardial infections is being elucidated, in partic...

Shandera, W. X.

1990-01-01

66

Giardia lamblia infestation reveals underlying Whipple's disease in a patient with longstanding constipation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Whipple's disease is an uncommon disorder, generally associated with gastrointestinal symptoms; of these, diarrhea is a common feature. We report a case of Whipple's disease associated with chronic constipation which was not diagnosed until after Giardia lamblia infestation had caused diarrhea. To the best of our knowledge this association has not previously been reported. The clinical, laboratory, endoscopic, and manometric aspects are described and discussed. PMID:1705390

Bassotti, G; Pelli, M A; Ribacchi, R; Miglietti, M; Cavalletti, M L; Rossodivita, M E; Giovenali, P; Morelli, A

1991-03-01

67

[Fever and weight loss as leading symptoms of infection with giardia lamblia].  

Science.gov (United States)

Infections, malignancies and autoimmune diseases are the most important causes of fever of unknown origin.A case report of a 80-year old patient is described, who was admitted to our hospital because of fever lasting more than 2 weeks, weight loss and lack of appetite. Physical examination did not provide any relevant information, laboratory tests revealed an elevation of inflammation markers and anemia. Serological tests for infectious and autoimmune diseases and cultures of stool, blood and urine were all negative. Imaging did not show any pathological findings, colonoscopy and gastroscopy were macroscopically normal. Surprisingly, histology showed massive giardiasis of the duodenum. After initiation of therapy with metronidazol, fever and inflammation markers declined and the patient could be discharged from hospital without complaints on the 15(th) day after admission. Giardia lamblia is one of the most common intestinal pathogens worldwide. Infection can cause acute diarrhea, but may also be responsible for chronic abdominal complaints or may stay asymptomatic. To our knowledge, giardiasis has not been described as differential diagnosis of fever of unknown origin so far. In synopsis of clinical presentation and outcome after antibiotic therapy, we postulate that Giardia lamblia was the relevant cause of fever and weight loss in this case. In patients presenting with these symptoms, Giardia lamblia should be considered as differential diagnosis. PMID:11857101

Akkad, T; Kirchgatterer, A; Kranewitter, W; Aschl, G; Höbling, W; Knoflach, P

2002-02-01

68

COMPARISON OF CONVENTIONAL AND MOLECULAR METHODS FOR DETECTION OF Giardia lamblia IN HUMAN FEACES / COMPARACIÓN DE MÉTODOS CONVENCIONALES Y MOLECULARES PARA LA DETECCIÓN DE Giardia lamblia EN HECES HUMANAS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The protozoa of the genus Giardia represent one of the most common human parasites in the world and are among the main causes of gastrointestinal infections and diarrheal diseases in humans. Parasite detection is generally based on concentration and conventional microscopy methods, but these techniques have limitations due to their low sensitivity and specificity in diagnosis. In an attempt to improve the diagnostic methods, molecular techniques are emerging as a promising alternative. In this study 88 stool samples from patients of a company that provides health services (ASSBASALUD in the city of Manizales (Caldas were analyzed. In order to detect Giardia lamblia in stool, three different methods were compared using the positivity percent: conventional methods for concentration of the sample and microscopic observation, analysis by immunoassay (indirect ELISA and finally the amplification of two nuclear gene sequences by PCR. Three positive samples were obtained by concentration and conventional microscopy, two by immunoassay and 26 by molecular techniques. The study suggests that routine diagnostic tests based on conventional microscopy and immunoassay have lower detection rate of this parasite and that this deficiency can be compensated by means of the implementation of molecular diagnostic methods based on PCR, as a complementary strategy to support the diagnosis of this protozoan. RESUMEN: Los protozoarios del género Giardia representan algunos de los parásitos humanos más comunes en el mundo y están entre los principales causantes de infecciones gastrointestinales y enfermedades diarreicas en humanos. La detección del parásito se fundamenta generalmente en los métodos por concentración y microscopía convencional, pero estas técnicas presentan limitaciones por su baja sensibilidad e inespecificidad en el diagnóstico. En procura de mejorar los métodos de diagnóstico, las técnicas moleculares se perfilan como una alternativa promisoria. En este estudio se analizaron 88 muestras de heces provenientes de pacientes de una empresa prestadora de servicios de salud (ASSBASALUD de la ciudad de Manizales (Caldas. Para la detección de Giardia lamblia en heces se compararon tres métodos diferentes por medio del porcentaje de positividad: los métodos convencionales de concentración de la muestra y observación microscópica, análisis por inmunoensayo (ELISA indirecto y finalmente la amplificación de dos secuencias génicas nucleares por PCR. Se obtuvieron tres muestras positivas por concentración y microscopía convencional, dos por inmunoensayo y 26 por técnicas moleculares. El estudio sugiere que las pruebas diagnósticas rutinarias basadas en microscopía convencional e inmunoensayo, tienen más bajo porcentaje de detección de este parásito y que esta deficiencia puede ser compensada por medio de la implementación de métodos de diagnóstico molecular basados en PCR, como una estrategia complementaria de apoyo en el diagnóstico de este protozoo.

Edwin Cardona

2014-03-01

69

Effects of Dietary Zinc Manipulation on Growth Performance, Zinc Status and Immune Response during Giardia lamblia Infection: A Study in CD-1 Mice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Associations between Giardia lamblia infection and low serum concentrations of zinc have been reported in young children. Interestingly, relatively few studies have examined the effects of different dietary zinc levels on the parasite-infected host. The aims of this study were to compare the growth performance and zinc status in response to varying levels of dietary zinc and to measure the antibody-mediated response of mice during G. lamblia infection. Male CD-1 mice were fed using 1 of 4 experimental diets: adequate-zinc (ZnA, low-zinc (ZnL, high-zinc (ZnH and supplemented-zinc (ZnS diet containing 30, 10, 223 and 1383 mg Zn/kg respectively. After a 10 days feeding period, mice were inoculated orally with 5 × 106 G. lamblia trophozoites and were maintained on the assigned diet during the course of infection (30 days. Giardia-free mice fed ZnL diets were able to attain normal growth and antibody-mediated response. Giardia-infected mice fed ZnL and ZnA diets presented a significant growth retardation compared to non-infected controls. Zinc supplementation avoided this weight loss during G. lamblia infection and up-regulated the host’s humoral immune response by improving the production of specific antibodies. Clinical outcomes of zinc supplementation during giardiasis included significant weight gain, higher anti-G. lamblia IgG antibodies and improved serum zinc levels despite the ongoing infection. A maximum growth rate and antibody-mediated response were attained in mice fed ZnH diet. No further increases in body weight, zinc status and humoral immune capacity were noted by feeding higher zinc levels (ZnS than the ZnH diet. These findings probably reflect biological effect of zinc that could be of public health importance in endemic areas of infection.

Humberto Astiazarán-García

2013-09-01

70

[Long-term damage to duodenal mucosa in malabsorption syndrome as a sequela of Giardia lamblia infection].  

Science.gov (United States)

A 35-year-old German woman presented after a three month journey to Sudan with intermittent, persistent watery diarrhea. Stool examination identified Giardia lamblia. The patient was unsuccessfully orally treated with metronidazol 250 mg three times a day for seven days and tinidazol 2 g as single dose. During a two week hospitalization we observed a total villous atrophy in a duodenal biopsy specimen in absence of celiac sprue or a immunodeficiency syndrome. We treated with metronidazol 500 mg three times a day intravenously and discharged the patient in good condition. This case report shows the variability of clinical presentation of infection with Giardia lamblia. Moreover, we demonstrate rarely found histological changes as reason for clinical presentation, unsuccessful oral treatment and malabsorption. The intravenous therapy lead to a permanent eradication of Giardia lamblia. PMID:7754649

Orth, T; Protzer, U; Mayet, W J; Meyer zum Büschenfelde, K H

1995-03-01

71

Avaliação de diferentes métodos no diagnóstico laboratorial de Giardia lamblia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Giardia lamblia é um enteroparasita de prevalência significativa no mundo inteiro. Estudou-se a reprodutibilidade diagnóstica laboratorial por meio dos métodos Coprotest®, Direto modificado, Faust e Hematoxilina Férrica, para o protozoário G. lamblia, segundo a associação com algumas características da população de estudo tais como grupo etário, gênero e distribuição dos casos segundo a variação sazonal nos meses em que se desenvolveu a pesquisa. Fezes de 200 crianças da região de Araraquara-SP, foram examinadas pelos quatro métodos, e os resultados comparados. Verificou-se que 8% delas, encontravam-se parasitadas por G. lamblia. Não houve associação com o gênero; quanto à idade ocorreram mais casos no grupo de três a cinco anos e a maior freqüência de casos foi no mês de janeiro. Em relação ao diagnóstico laboratorial concluiu-se que os resultados mais confiáveis podem ser obtidos quando se utiliza duas metodologias associadas de ótima reprodutibilidade que neste estudo foram Coprotest - Faust; Direto-Faust e Coprotest-Direto (k > 0,81. Palavras-chave: G. lamblia; métodos diagnósticos; Coprotest®; Direto modificado; Faust; Hematoxilina Férrica.

J. G.D. GARCIA

2009-01-01

72

[General malaise and diarrhea as the main manifestations of Giardia lamblia infection].  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardia lamblia is a ubiquitous intestinal protozoan. Transmission, which is fecal-oral, occurs after cyst ingestion, excystation and enterocyte adhesion. Symptoms include diarrhea, abdominal pain and other less frequent manifestations such as nausea, anorexia and weight loss. Enzyme immunoassay and direct fluorescent-antibody assay for antigen detection in stool samples, and small intestine biopsy provide the best diagnostic sensitivity. When an infection is suspected, duodenal biopsy should be carried out, even though endoscopic appearance may be normal. The most effective drugs in the treatment of this infection are metronidazole and tinidazole. We report a case of G. lamblia infection. The patient reported a clinical history of 4 months' duration with general malaise and diarrhea for the previous month. This form of presentation is rarely found in adults with this parasitosis. The diagnosis was based on the results of duodenal biopsy. The patient showed satisfactory response to treatment with metronidazole. PMID:16277964

Nantes, O; Zozaya, J M; Prieto, C; Beloqui, R; Arín, A

2005-11-01

73

Giardia lamblia Nek1 and Nek2 kinases affect mitosis and excystation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The NIMA-related serine/threonine kinases (Neks) function in the cell cycle and regulate ciliary and flagellar length. The Giardia lamblia genome encodes 198 Neks, of which 56 are predicted to be active. Here we believe that we report the first functional analysis of two G. lamblia Neks. The GlNek1 and GlNek2 kinase domains share 57% and 43% identity to the kinase domains of human Nek1 and Nek2, respectively. Both GlNeks are active in vitro, have dynamic relocalisation during the cell cycle, and are expressed throughout the life cycle, with GlNek1 being upregulated in cysts. Over-expression of inactive GlNek1 delays disassembly of the parental attachment disc and cytokinesis, whilst over-expression of either wild type GlNek1 or inactive mutant GlNek2 inhibits excystation. PMID:22429767

Smith, Alias J; Lauwaet, Tineke; Davids, Barbara J; Gillin, Frances D

2012-04-01

74

Physical and chemical characterization of a Giardia lamblia-specific antigen useful in the coprodiagnosis of giardiasis.  

OpenAIRE

We recently reported the isolation and identification of a Giardia lamblia-specific antigen (GSA 65) that is shed in the stool of giardiasis patients. In the present study, this antigen was affinity purified from sonic extracts of axenically cultured G. lamblia trophozoites and characterized to better understand its biological function and its potential usefulness in the design of coprodiagnostic assays for giardiasis. GSA 65 was resistant to proteolytic digestion with trypsin, chymotrypsin, ...

Rosoff, J. D.; Stibbs, H. H.

1986-01-01

75

Development of a combined in vitro cell culture--quantitative PCR assay for evaluating the disinfection performance of pulsed light for treating the waterborne enteroparasite Giardia lamblia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardia lamblia is a flagellated protozoan parasite that is recognised as a frequent cause of water-borne disease in humans and animals. We report for the first time on the use of a combined in vitro HCT-8 cell culture-quantitative PCR assay for evaluating the efficacy of using pulsed UV light for treating G. lamblia parasites. Findings showed that current methods that are limited to using vital stains before and after cyst excystation are not appropriate for monitoring or evaluating cyst destruction post PUV-treatments. Use of the human ileocecal HCT-8 cell line was superior to that of the human colon Caco-2 cell line for in vitro culture and determining PUV sensitivity of treated cysts. G. lamblia cysts were also shown to be more resistant to PUV irradiation compared to treating similar numbers of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts. These observations also show that the use of this HCT-8 cell culture assay may replace use of animal models for determining disinfection performances of PUV for treating both C. parvum and G. lamblia. PMID:24929148

Garvey, Mary; Stocca, Alessia; Rowan, Neil

2014-09-01

76

[Reactive arthritis caused by Giardia lamblia in a patient with secretory IgA deficiency].  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors report a case of seronegative polyarthritis resistant to the anti-inflammatory therapy in a 16-year-old male with intermittent diarrhea. A stool examination showed the presence of cysts of Giardia lamblia and an immunological study detected a partial serum IgA deficiency, including its secretory fraction. Based on clinical, analytical and radiological findings and the clinical improvement after treatment with metronidazole, a diagnosis of reactive arthritis associated to chronic giardiasis was made. Authors make a brief review of the literature the regarding this case. PMID:8165930

Susano, R C; de Quirós, J F; Caminal, L; Ferro, J; Busono, C; Gómez, C

1993-12-01

77

In vitro susceptibilities of 25 Giardia lamblia isolates of human origin to six commonly used antiprotozoal agents.  

OpenAIRE

The role drug resistance plays in the occurrence of chronic and recurrent giardiasis has not been established. Extensive data on the susceptibility to antimicrobial agents of living Giardia spp. trophozoites from human origin are lacking. We have determined with a macrodilution method in semisolid medium the in vitro susceptibility of 25 Giardia lamblia isolates, all obtained by routine cultivation of the duodenal fluid of children to six commonly used antiprotozoal drugs. The results showed ...

Gordts, B.; Hemelhof, W.; Asselman, C.; Butzler, J. P.

1985-01-01

78

Association between Whipple's disease and Giardia lamblia infection Asociación de enfermedad de Whipple e infección por Giardia lamblia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Whipple'disease is mainly characterized by affecting the digestive system, although it can be a multisystemic process with different clinical symptoms. The bacillus causing the disease has been isolated and cultivated in 2000 and the genome sequence has been recently analyzed in 2003, which means new perspectives for its diagnosis and treatment. Giardiasis is an infestation caused by a protozoo and may cause a malabsorption syndrome or run in a subclinic way. The case of a middle-aged male is described, who after a three-year period of migratory arthralgias, showed weight loss, diarrheas and abdominal pain, being diagnosed of Giardiasis, and after the persistent symptoms and a number of studies, was diagnosed with Whipple disease. Nineteen cases of Giardia-Whipple coinfection have been described in the literature, but the reason of this association has not been found yet. The discussion on whether there is an alteration in the inmunitary system which facilitates infections or, the development of an infection lead to the other one, goes on.La enfermedad de Whipple se caracteriza por afectar principalmente al aparato digestivo, aunque puede ser un proceso multisistémico con variadas manifestaciones clínicas. En el año 2000 se ha conseguido aislar y cultivar el bacilo causante y recientemente, en el 2003, se ha analizado la secuencia completa del genoma, lo que supone nuevas perspectivas para el diagnóstico y el tratamiento. La giardiasis es una infección originada por un protozoo que puede evolucionar de forma subclínica o dar lugar a un síndrome de malabsorción. Describimos el caso de un paciente varón de mediana edad, que tras un periodo de tres años de artralgias migratorias en articulaciones periféricas, presentó un cuadro de pérdida de peso, con aumento del número de deposiciones y molestias abdominales siendo diagnosticado de Giardiasis y ante la persistencia de los síntomas y la posterior realización de diferentes estudios, de enfermedad de Whipple. Están descritos en la literatura 19 casos de coinfección Giardia-Whipple, sin que en el momento actual esté aclarado el por qué de esta asociación. Se mantiene la discusión sobre si existe una alteración en el sistema inmunitario que facilite las infecciones o si, por otro lado, el desarrollo de una infección favorece el origen de la otra.

J. A. Gil Ruiz

2005-07-01

79

Voltage?dependent potassium currents expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes after injection of mRNA isolated from trophozoites of Giardia lamblia (strain Portland?1)  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Despite its importance as a health problem issue, almost nothing is known about the membrane physiology of Giardia lamblia and practically there exist no information so far regarding the variety and properties of ion channels that this protozoan parasite possesses. To address this subject we resorted to an indirect method, consisting in the injection of mRNA and further characterization of ion currents in Xenopus oocytes. In this work, we show that oocytes injected with mRNA isolated from cultured trophozoites of G. lamblia, strain Portland?1 express novel potassium currents that appear over the second day after injection and show time? and voltage?dependent activation followed by a slow inactivation. They start activating at ?90 mV, with V1/2 of ?30 mV; its time constant of activation (at +60 mV) is 0.11 sec, whereas that of inactivation is 1.92 sec, V1/2 = ?44.6 mV. Such K currents were effectively blocked by K channel blockers TEA and 4AP, as well as Ba2+, quinine, quinidine, charybdotoxin, dendrotoxin?1, capsaicin, margatoxin, and diltiazem. These results suggest that such currents are the result of expression of Giardia?s voltage?gated K channels heterologously expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. PMID:24744864

Ponce, Arturo; Jimenez?Cardoso, Enedina; Eligio?Garcia, Leticia

2013-01-01

80

Rapid imaging, detection and quantification of Giardia lamblia cysts using mobile-phone based fluorescent microscopy and machine learning.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rapid and sensitive detection of waterborne pathogens in drinkable and recreational water sources is crucial for treating and preventing the spread of water related diseases, especially in resource-limited settings. Here we present a field-portable and cost-effective platform for detection and quantification of Giardia lamblia cysts, one of the most common waterborne parasites, which has a thick cell wall that makes it resistant to most water disinfection techniques including chlorination. The platform consists of a smartphone coupled with an opto-mechanical attachment weighing ~205 g, which utilizes a hand-held fluorescence microscope design aligned with the camera unit of the smartphone to image custom-designed disposable water sample cassettes. Each sample cassette is composed of absorbent pads and mechanical filter membranes; a membrane with 8 ?m pore size is used as a porous spacing layer to prevent the backflow of particles to the upper membrane, while the top membrane with 5 ?m pore size is used to capture the individual Giardia cysts that are fluorescently labeled. A fluorescence image of the filter surface (field-of-view: ~0.8 cm(2)) is captured and wirelessly transmitted via the mobile-phone to our servers for rapid processing using a machine learning algorithm that is trained on statistical features of Giardia cysts to automatically detect and count the cysts captured on the membrane. The results are then transmitted back to the mobile-phone in less than 2 minutes and are displayed through a smart application running on the phone. This mobile platform, along with our custom-developed sample preparation protocol, enables analysis of large volumes of water (e.g., 10-20 mL) for automated detection and enumeration of Giardia cysts in ~1 hour, including all the steps of sample preparation and analysis. We evaluated the performance of this approach using flow-cytometer-enumerated Giardia-contaminated water samples, demonstrating an average cyst capture efficiency of ~79% on our filter membrane along with a machine learning based cyst counting sensitivity of ~84%, yielding a limit-of-detection of ~12 cysts per 10 mL. Providing rapid detection and quantification of microorganisms, this field-portable imaging and sensing platform running on a mobile-phone could be useful for water quality monitoring in field and resource-limited settings. PMID:25537426

Koydemir, Hatice Ceylan; Gorocs, Zoltan; Tseng, Derek; Cortazar, Bingen; Feng, Steve; Chan, Raymond Yan Lok; Burbano, Jordi; McLeod, Euan; Ozcan, Aydogan

2015-03-01

81

Giardia lamblia RNA cap guanine-N2 methyltransferase (Tgs2).  

Science.gov (United States)

Tgs1 is the enzyme responsible for converting 7-methylguanosine RNA caps to the 2,2,7-trimethylguanosine cap structures of small nuclear and small nucleolar RNAs. Whereas budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe encode a single Tgs1 protein, the primitive eukaryote Giardia lamblia encodes two paralogs, Tgs1 and Tgs2. Here we show that purified Tgs2 is a monomeric enzyme that catalyzes methyl transfer from AdoMet (K(m) of 6 microm) to m(7)GDP (K(m) of 65 microm; k(cat) of 14 min(-1)) to form m(2,7)GDP. Tgs2 also methylates m(7)GTP (K(m) of 30 microm; k(cat) of 13 min(-1)) and m(7)GpppA (K(m) of 7 microm; k(cat)) of 14 min(-1) but is unreactive with GDP, GTP, GpppA, ATP, CTP, or UTP. We find that the conserved residues Asp-68, Glu-91, and Trp-143 are essential for Tgs2 methyltransferase activity in vitro. The m(2,7)GDP product formed by Tgs2 can be converted to m(2,2,7)GDP by S. pombe Tgs1 in the presence of excess AdoMet. However, Giardia Tgs2 itself is apparently unable to add a second methyl group at guanine-N2. This result implies that 2,2,7-trimethylguanosine caps in Giardia are either synthesized by Tgs1 alone or by the sequential action of Tgs2 and Tgs1. The specificity of Tgs2 raises the prospect that some Giardia mRNAs might contain dimethylguanosine caps. PMID:16046409

Hausmann, Stéphane; Shuman, Stewart

2005-09-16

82

First genotyping of Giardia lamblia from human and animal feces in Argentina, South America  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the genotypes of Giardia lamblia from human and animal feces and their epidemiological and clinical characteristics in Argentina, South America. Seventy isolates, 60 from humans (adults and children), eight from dogs and two from cows were processed by po [...] lymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Data corresponding to demographic, socio-cultural and environmental variables and presence/absence of signs/symptoms were collected. The triosephosphate isomerase gene was amplified from 43 (71.66%) of the 60 human fecal samples. Among these, 3/43 (6.98%) were genotype AII and 40/43 (93.02%) were genotype B. Assemblage AII was detected in three children who lived together in a shantytown and they were oligosymptomatic and none had diarrhea. This genotype was not found in animals. Genotype B showed a high prevalence in both adults and children. It was also found in polysymptomatic people, many of whom presented diarrhea. It was also found only in one dog. The present study represents the first contribution to the knowledge of G. lamblia genotypes in Argentina.

Marta C, Minvielle; Nora B, Molina; Daniela, Polverino; Juan A, Basualdo.

2008-02-01

83

Evidence for Lateral Transfer of Genes Encoding Ferredoxins, Nitroreductases, NADH Oxidase, and Alcohol Dehydrogenase 3 from Anaerobic Prokaryotes to Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica  

OpenAIRE

Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica are amitochondriate, microaerophilic protists which use fermentation enzymes like those of bacteria to survive anaerobic conditions within the intestinal lumen. Genes encoding fermentation enzymes and related electron transport peptides (e.g., ferredoxins) in giardia organisms and amebae are hypothesized to be derived from either an ancient anaerobic eukaryote (amitochondriate fossil hypothesis), a mitochondrial endosymbiont (hydrogen hypothesis), or ...

Nixon, Julie E. J.; Wang, Amy; Field, Jessica; Morrison, Hilary G.; Mcarthur, Andrew G.; Sogin, Mitchell L.; Loftus, Brendan J.; Samuelson, John

2002-01-01

84

DNA Topoisomerase II Is Involved in Regulation of Cyst Wall Protein Genes and Differentiation in Giardia lamblia  

OpenAIRE

The protozoan Giardia lamblia differentiates into infectious cysts within the human intestinal tract for disease transmission. Expression of the cyst wall protein (cwp) genes increases with similar kinetics during encystation. However, little is known how their gene regulation shares common mechanisms. DNA topoisomerases maintain normal topology of genomic DNA. They are necessary for cell proliferation and tissue development as they are involved in transcription, DNA replication, and chromoso...

Lin, Bo-chi; Su, Li-hsin; Weng, Shih-che; Pan, Yu-jiao; Chan, Nei-li; Li, Tsai-kun; Wang, Hsin-chih; Sun, Chin-hung

2013-01-01

85

Hydrologic and Vegetative Removal of Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia, and Toxoplasma gondii Surrogate Microspheres in Coastal Wetlands  

OpenAIRE

Constructed wetland systems are used to reduce pollutants and pathogens in wastewater effluent, but comparatively little is known about pathogen transport through natural wetland habitats. Fecal protozoans, including Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia, and Toxoplasma gondii, are waterborne pathogens of humans and animals, which are carried by surface waters from land-based sources into coastal waters. This study evaluated key factors of coastal wetlands for the reduction of protozoal par...

Hogan, Jennifer N.; Daniels, Miles E.; Watson, Fred G.; Oates, Stori C.; Miller, Melissa A.; Conrad, Patricia A.; Shapiro, Karen; Hardin, Dane; Dominik, Clare; Melli, Ann; Jessup, David A.; Miller, Woutrina A.

2013-01-01

86

Giardia Disease  

Science.gov (United States)

... 683. Hill DR. Giardia lamblia . In: Gillespie SH, Pearson RD, eds. Principles and practice of clinical parasitology . ... Giardia General Information Giardiasis FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Giardia and Pets ...

87

Disulfide bridges in the mesophilic triosephosphate isomerase from Giardia lamblia are related to oligomerization and activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Triosephosphate isomerase from the mesophile Giardia lamblia (GlTIM) is the only known TIM with natural disulfide bridges. We previously found that oxidized and reduced thiol states of GlTIM are involved in the interconversion between native dimers and higher oligomeric species, and in the regulation of enzymatic activity. Here, we found that trophozoites and cysts have different oligomeric species of GlTIM and complexes of GlTIM with other proteins. Our data indicate that the internal milieu of G. lamblia is favorable for the formation of disulfide bonds. Enzyme mutants of the three most solvent exposed Cys of GlTIM (C202A, C222A, and C228A) were prepared to ascertain their contribution to oligomerization and activity. The data show that the establishment of a disulfide bridge between two C202 of two dimeric GlTIMs accounts for multimerization. In addition, we found that the establishment of an intramonomeric disulfide bond between C222 and C228 abolishes catalysis. Multimerization and inactivation are both reversed by reducing conditions. The 3D structure of the C202A GlTIM was solved at 2.1 A resolution, showing that the environment of the C202 is prone to hydrophobic interactions. Molecular dynamics of an in silico model of GlTIM when the intramonomeric disulfide bond is formed, showed that S216 is displaced 4.6 A from its original position, causing loss of hydrogen bonds with residues of the active-site loop. This suggests that this change perturb the conformational state that aligns the catalytic center with the substrate, inducing enzyme inactivation. PMID:17095008

Reyes-Vivas, Horacio; Diaz, Adelaida; Peon, Jorge; Mendoza-Hernandez, Guillermo; Hernandez-Alcantara, Gloria; De la Mora-De la Mora, Ignacio; Enriquez-Flores, Sergio; Dominguez-Ramirez, Lenin; Lopez-Velazquez, Gabriel

2007-01-19

88

Freqüencia da infecção por Giardia lamblia (Kunstler, 1882) em cães (Canis familiaris) avaliada pelo Método de Faust e cols. (1939) e pela Coloração da Auramina, no município de Canoas, RS, Brasil / Frequence of infection by Giardia lamblia (Kunstler, 1882) in dogs (Canis familiaris) available trough the Faust and Collaborators Method (1939) and Auramine Staining in Canoas, RS, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Giardia lamblia é um protozoário que acomete mais comumente animais jovens e que convivem em grupos. Apesar da alta prevalência, nem todos os animais apresentam a forma clínica da doença. Mesmo assim, a giardíase tem importância epidemiológica por possuir um elevado potencial zoonótico. O presente e [...] studo teve como objetivo determinar a freqüência de Giardia lamblia em cães no município de Canoas, RS, Brasil, através do Método de Faust e cols. (1939) e da Técnica de Coloração da Auramina. Os grupos experimentais foram divididos de acordo com a procedência e o sexo. Das 332 amostras analisadas pelo Método de Faust e cols, a freqüência obtida foi de 34,04%, podendo variar de 28,95 a 39,13%, dentro de um intervalo de confiança de 95%. Destas amostras positivas, 40,96% foram de canil e 27,11% de cães de rua. O Teste Exato de Fisher aplicado a esses dados revelou existir uma diferença significativa (p=0,0107) entre as variáveis resultado e procedência. A variável sexo, neste método, não apresentou diferença significativa em relação ao resultado (P=0,8162) totalizando 33,11% de machos e 34,08% de fêmeas infectadas com o parasita. Das 147 amostras realizadas pela Técnica de Coloração da Auramina, 23 foram positivas, totalizando 15,65%. A análise estatística pelo Teste McNemar revelou existir diferença significativa entre as duas técnicas (P=0,0004). O valor Kappa foi igual a 0,07, considerado como um grau de concordância fraco. Os resultados encontrados neste estudo nos permitem afirmar que o Método de Faust e cols. foi o mais adequado para o diagnóstico da infecção por Giardia lamblia, sendo este parasita altamente prevalente na região estudada. Abstract in english Giardia lamblia is a protozoan that commonly infects young animals which live in groups. Despite its high prevalence many animals don’t exhibit clinical signs. Giardiasis is epidemiologically important concerning the zoonotic potential of the disease. The objective of this study was to determine the [...] frequence of Giardia lamblia in the canine population of Canoas, RS, Brazil, applying the Faust and Collaborators Method (1939) and the Auramine Staining Technique. The dogs were classified according to the origin and gender. Feces samples of 332 dogs were analyzed by the Faust and Collaborators Method. The frequency of the infection obtained was 34.04%, ranging from 28.95% to 39.13% (confident interval at a 95% level). For kennel bred animals 40,96% of the samples were positive and for stray dogs 27.11%. Applying Fisher’s Exact Test to these figures there was a significant difference (P=0.0107) when comparing the origin of the animals and the results of the tests. However when comparing genders there was no significant difference (P=0.8162), the former with 33.11% of positive males and 34.08% positive females. When submitted to the Auramine Staining Technique(147 samples), 15.67% (23) of the samples resulted positive. The statistical analysis using the McNemar Test exposed a significant difference between both techniques (P=0.0004). The Kappa value of 0.07 obtained was considered of low rate. The results allow one to affirm that the Faust and Collaborators Method was the most suitable diagnostic test for Giardia lamblia infection, considering the high prevalence of this parasite in the studied region.

Cristiane, Beck; Flávio Antônio Pacheco de, Araújo; Adriana Tarnowski, Olicheski; Adriana Schneider, Breyer.

2005-02-01

89

Photocatalytic water disinfection of Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia using a fibrous ceramic TiO(2) photocatalyst.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia are two of the most chlorine resistant microorganisms with notable adverse effects on humans. Our study shows that waters containing these two protozoa at low concentrations can be efficiently disinfected in continuous flow by using a commercial fibrous ceramic TiO(2) photocatalyst. The efficiency of the photocatalytic disinfection is largely enhanced by adding a small concentration of chlorine. In this way, the residence time on the photoreactor can be considerably shortened. In contrast, under the same conditions and radiance power, UV light without any photocatalyst is significantly less efficient, particularly for G. lamblia. These results exemplify the advantages of the photocatalytic process for safe and complete water disinfection. PMID:19237757

Navalon, Sergio; Alvaro, Mercedes; Garcia, Hermenegildo; Escrig, Daniel; Costa, Víctor

2009-01-01

90

Size heterogeneity among antigenically related Giardia lamblia variant-specific surface proteins is due to differences in tandem repeat copy number.  

OpenAIRE

Giardia lamblia undergoes antigenic variation by modulating the expression of the different genes that comprise the trophozoite's variant-specific surface protein (VSP) repertoire. We studied an epitope that is conserved among VSPs expressed by cloned trophozoite lines derived from the independent G. lamblia isolates WB, G3M, Be-2, and CAT. The epitope recognized by monoclonal antibody 6E7 lies entirely within the region of tandemly repeated 65-amino-acid units that is characteristic of these...

Mowatt, M. R.; Nguyen, B. Y.; Conrad, J. T.; Adam, R. D.; Nash, T. E.

1994-01-01

91

Identification of Obscure yet Conserved Actin-Associated Proteins in Giardia lamblia  

OpenAIRE

Consistent with its proposed status as an early branching eukaryote, Giardia has the most divergent actin of any eukaryote and lacks core actin regulators. Although conserved actin-binding proteins are missing from Giardia, its actin is utilized similarly to that of other eukaryotes and functions in core cellular processes such as cellular organization, endocytosis, and cytokinesis. We set out to identify actin-binding proteins in Giardia using affinity purification coupled with mass spectros...

Paredez, Alexander R.; Nayeri, Arash; Xu, Jennifer W.; Krtkova?, Jana; Cande, W. Zacheus

2014-01-01

92

MALDI-MIS INVESTIGATIONS OF DRINKING WATER PATHOGENS--GIARDIA AND CRYPTOSPORIDIUM  

Science.gov (United States)

The protozoan parasites, Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia, have been responsible for numerous waterborne outbreaks of gastrointestinal illness in the United States. The 1993 cryptosporidiosis outbreak in Milwaukee affected approximately 400,000 people and resulted in o...

93

Prevalence and associated risk factors for Giardia lamblia infection among children hospitalized for diarrhea in Goiânia, Goiás State, Brazil / Prevalência e fatores de risco associados à infecção por Giardia lamblia em crianças hospitalizadas com diarréia em Goiânia, Goiás, Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo desse estudo foi estimar a prevalência e identificar fatores de risco associados à infecção por Giardia lamblia em crianças hospitalizadas com diarréia no município de Goiânia, Estado de Goiás, Brasil. Foi realizado um estudo transversal e um questionário estruturado foi administrado ao r [...] esponsável pela criança. Análise multivariada foi realizada por meio de regressão logística para se determinar a associação entre infecção por G. lamblia e as variáveis sociodemográficas, ambientais e zoonóticas relacionadas ao hospedeiro. Das 445 amostras de fezes coletadas e processadas pelo método de imunofluorescência direta (DFA), 44 (9,9%) apresentaram cisto de G. lamblia. Uma variedade de fatores de risco foi encontrada associada à giardíase: idade da criança (OR, 1,18; 90% CI, 1,0 - 1,36; p = 0,052), número de crianças na família (OR, 1,45; 90% CI, 1,13 - 1,86; p = 0,015), número de gatos pertecentes à família (OR, 1,26; 90% CI, 1,03 - 1,53; p = 0,059), higiene alimentar (OR, 2,9; 90% CI, 1,34 - 6,43; p = 0,024), usuários de creches (OR, 2,3; 90% CI, 1,20 - 4,36; p = 0,034), ter residido em área rural seis meses precedendo à hospitalização (OR, 5,4; 90% CI, 1,5 - 20,1; p = 0,03) e número de adultos na família (OR, 0,59; 90% CI, 0,42 - 0,83; p = 0,012). Tais fatores, devidamente controlados podem contribuir para redução anual da incidência desta parasitose na população estudada. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and to identify risk factors associated with Giardia lamblia infection in diarrheic children hospitalized for diarrhea in Goiânia, State of Goiás, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted and a comprehensive questionnaire was administe [...] red to the child's primary custodian. Fixed effects logistic regression was used to determine the association between infection status for G. lamblia and host, sociodemographic, environmental and zoonotic risk factors. A total of 445 fecal samples were collected and processed by the DFA methodology, and G. lamblia cysts were present in the feces of 44 diarrheic children (9.9%). A variety of factors were found to be associated with giardiasis in these population: age of children (OR, 1.18; 90% CI, 1.0 - 1.36; p = 0.052), number of children in the household (OR 1.45; 90% CI, 1.13 - 1.86; p = 0.015), number of cats in the household (OR, 1.26; 90% CI, 1.03 -1.53; p = 0.059), food hygiene (OR, 2.9; 90% CI, 1.34 - 6.43; p = 0.024), day-care centers attendance (OR, 2.3; 90% CI, 1.20 - 4.36; p = 0.034), living on a rural farm within the past six months prior hospitalization (OR, 5.4; CI 90%, 1.5 - 20.1; p = 0.03) and the number of household adults (OR, 0.59; 90% CI, 0.42 - 0.83; p = 0.012). Such factors appropriately managed may help to reduce the annual incidence of this protozoal infection in the studied population.

Maria das Graças Cabral, Pereira; Edward Robert, Atwill; Alverne Passos, Barbosa.

2007-06-01

94

Prevalence and associated risk factors for Giardia lamblia infection among children hospitalized for diarrhea in Goiânia, Goiás State, Brazil Prevalência e fatores de risco associados à infecção por Giardia lamblia em crianças hospitalizadas com diarréia em Goiânia, Goiás, Brasil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and to identify risk factors associated with Giardia lamblia infection in diarrheic children hospitalized for diarrhea in Goiânia, State of Goiás, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted and a comprehensive questionnaire was administered to the child's primary custodian. Fixed effects logistic regression was used to determine the association between infection status for G. lamblia and host, sociodemographic, environmental and zoonotic risk factors. A total of 445 fecal samples were collected and processed by the DFA methodology, and G. lamblia cysts were present in the feces of 44 diarrheic children (9.9%. A variety of factors were found to be associated with giardiasis in these population: age of children (OR, 1.18; 90% CI, 1.0 - 1.36; p = 0.052, number of children in the household (OR 1.45; 90% CI, 1.13 - 1.86; p = 0.015, number of cats in the household (OR, 1.26; 90% CI, 1.03 -1.53; p = 0.059, food hygiene (OR, 2.9; 90% CI, 1.34 - 6.43; p = 0.024, day-care centers attendance (OR, 2.3; 90% CI, 1.20 - 4.36; p = 0.034, living on a rural farm within the past six months prior hospitalization (OR, 5.4; CI 90%, 1.5 - 20.1; p = 0.03 and the number of household adults (OR, 0.59; 90% CI, 0.42 - 0.83; p = 0.012. Such factors appropriately managed may help to reduce the annual incidence of this protozoal infection in the studied population.O objetivo desse estudo foi estimar a prevalência e identificar fatores de risco associados à infecção por Giardia lamblia em crianças hospitalizadas com diarréia no município de Goiânia, Estado de Goiás, Brasil. Foi realizado um estudo transversal e um questionário estruturado foi administrado ao responsável pela criança. Análise multivariada foi realizada por meio de regressão logística para se determinar a associação entre infecção por G. lamblia e as variáveis sociodemográficas, ambientais e zoonóticas relacionadas ao hospedeiro. Das 445 amostras de fezes coletadas e processadas pelo método de imunofluorescência direta (DFA, 44 (9,9% apresentaram cisto de G. lamblia. Uma variedade de fatores de risco foi encontrada associada à giardíase: idade da criança (OR, 1,18; 90% CI, 1,0 - 1,36; p = 0,052, número de crianças na família (OR, 1,45; 90% CI, 1,13 - 1,86; p = 0,015, número de gatos pertecentes à família (OR, 1,26; 90% CI, 1,03 - 1,53; p = 0,059, higiene alimentar (OR, 2,9; 90% CI, 1,34 - 6,43; p = 0,024, usuários de creches (OR, 2,3; 90% CI, 1,20 - 4,36; p = 0,034, ter residido em área rural seis meses precedendo à hospitalização (OR, 5,4; 90% CI, 1,5 - 20,1; p = 0,03 e número de adultos na família (OR, 0,59; 90% CI, 0,42 - 0,83; p = 0,012. Tais fatores, devidamente controlados podem contribuir para redução anual da incidência desta parasitose na população estudada.

Maria das Graças Cabral Pereira

2007-06-01

95

The Comparison of the Efficacy of Various Fixatives on Diverse Staining Methods of Giardia lamblia Cyst  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The definite and exact diagnosis of protozoa is possible using high magnification objective lenses, provided that suitable stained smears are prepared. Therefore, the appropriateness of both fixative and staining methods to the species of parasite, which is the main objective of this study, is important. In this study, five various fixatives including (Merthiolate iodine formalin MIF, (Sodium acetate-acetic acid formalin SAF, (Polyvinyl alcohol PVA, formalin and schaudinn and four types of stains including Hematoxylin I, Hematoxylin II, Trichrome and Carbol-fuchsin were prepared using standard procedures. After the smears of stool samples containing Giadria lamblia cyst were prepared and kept for 24 h in various fixatives, the study was carried out using the four above-mentioned stains by changing the ingredients and time as well as by repeating the experiments. After fixing and staining all the smears in identical conditions along with the implementing interferences in the staining process, the following results were eventually obtained considering the morphologic indexes and negative and positive scores (from 1 to 20: formalin with 17 scores in hematoxylin I staining, formalin and SAF with 15 and 14 scores, respectively in Hematoxylin II staining, MIF with 13 scores in Trichrome staining and SAF, PVA, MIF with 11.5, 11.5 and 11 scores, respectively in carbol-fuchsin staining were found to be the best fixatives. Hematoxylin I staining using formalin fixative with 17 scores showed the best result while the maximum score for Carbol-fuchsin staining was 11.5 showing a necessity for more expenditure, time and expert cooperation to reach ideal results.

E. Badparva

2009-01-01

96

Parasitismo por Giardia sp. e Cryptosporidium sp. em Coendou villosus Parasitism by Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. in Coendou villosus  

OpenAIRE

O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o possível parasitismo por Giardia sp. e Cryptosporidium sp. em amostras de fezes de ouriço-cacheiro (Coendou villosus). As amostras foram analisadas pelo método de centrífugo-flutuação com sulfato de zinco e apresentaram elevada infecção por cistos de Giardia sp. e por oocistos de Cryptosporidium sp., embora os animais não apresentassem sinal clínico decorrente disso.This research was aimed at verifing the possible parasitism by Giardia sp. a...

João Fabio Soares; Aleksandro Schafer da Silva; Camila Belmonte Oliveira; Marcos Kipper da Silva; Gleide Mariscano; Edson Luis Salomão; Silvia Gonzalez Monteiro

2008-01-01

97

Evaluation of nine immunoassay kits (enzyme immunoassay and direct fluorescence) for detection of Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum in human fecal specimens.  

OpenAIRE

It is well known that Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum can cause severe symptoms in humans, particularly those who are immunologically compromised. Immunoassay procedures offer both increased sensitivity and specificity compared to conventional staining methods. These reagents are also helpful when screening large numbers of patients, particularly in an outbreak situation or when screening patients with minimal symptoms. The data obtained by using 9 diagnostic kits were compared: di...

Garcia, L. S.; Shimizu, R. Y.

1997-01-01

98

Comparison between immunomagnetic separation, coupled with immunofluorescence, and the techniques of Faust et al. and of Lutz for the diagnosis of Giardia lamblia cysts in human feces  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present study, the performance of Immunomagnetic Separation technique, coupled with Immunofluorescence (IMS-IFA, was compared with the FAUST et al. and Lutz parasitological techniques for the detection of Giardia lamblia cysts in human feces. One hundred and twenty-seven samples were evaluated by the three techniques at the same time showing a rate of cyst detection of 27.5% by IMS-IFA and 15.7% by both Faust et al. and Lutz techniques. Data analysis showed a higher sensitivity of IMS-IFA for the detection of G. lamblia cysts in comparison with the techniques of FAUST et al. and Lutz. The use of this methodology as a routine procedure enables the processing of many samples simultaneously, in order to increase recovery rate of G. lamblia cysts and reduce the time of sample storage.

Souza Doris Sobral Marques

2003-01-01

99

Incomplete nonsense-mediated mRNA decay in Giardia lamblia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Messenger RNAs containing premature translation stop codons are degraded by a nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) system. The NMD pathway is present in yeast, plants and mammals and is thought to protect cells from production of nonfunctional proteins by rapidly degrading mutant mRNAs. There is little understanding of the biology of the origins of eukaryotes, particularly of the NMD pathway. Searches using the BLAST program revealed that the protozoan Giardialamblia has only some of the components of the NMD pathway. We developed a luciferase reporter system with a nonsense mutation to monitor NMD in Giardia. The nonsense mutation triggered a decrease in luciferase mRNA levels and stability, suggesting that the NMD phenomenon could be present in Giardia. We also found a significant reduction of the mRNA levels of another system containing Giardia its own cyst wall protein 3 gene with a nonsense mutation. However, the reduction levels observed in these two systems are lower than that in late-branching eukaryotes, suggesting that the NMD system in Giardia may be less functional. Interestingly, the effect of G418 in promoting read-through of the nonsense mutation and inhibiting NMD in Giardia is similar to that in late-branching eukaryotes. We also characterised the giardial homologue of a conserved NMD factor, UPF1. Immunofluorescence assays revealed that giardial UPF1, like yeast UPF1, is expressed in the cytoplasm, but not in the nucleus. In addition, overexpression of UPF1 resulted in a reduction of the levels of nonsense-containing transcripts and enhanced translation termination at a nonsense codon. These results suggest that Giardia may have an incomplete NMD pathway and giardial UPF1 may be functionally conserved, involved in NMD and in preventing nonsense suppression. PMID:18430426

Chen, Yi-Hsiu; Su, Li-Hsin; Sun, Chin-Hung

2008-09-01

100

Factores de riesgo de la infección por Giardia lamblia en niños de guarderías infantiles de Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba / Risk factors for Giardia lamblia in children in daycare centers in Havana, Cuba  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available En un estudio longitudinal sobre giardiasis desarrollado durante 18 meses en tres guarderías infantiles de Ciudad de La Habana, describimos un grupo de niños con tendencia o "predisposición" a la infección por Giardia lamblia; a los que se les encontró con síntomas clínicos más asociados a las diarr [...] eas. Este estudio de casos y controles se desarrolló para conocer si algunos factores socioeconómicos y hábitos higiénicos estaban asociados con este fenómeno. No se encontraron diferencias entre ambos grupos en las tasas de hacinamiento, el índice de personas por cama, en la carencia de determinados equipos eléctricos, en el nivel escolar de las madres, y en el promedio del ingreso familiar; sin embargo, predominó una frecuencia mayor de padres con nivel escolar menor de 12 grado en los casos que en los controles. No se encontraron diferencias entre ambos grupos en cuanto a la ausencia de lavado de manos antes de comer y después de defecar, pero se encontró un mayor porcentaje de lavado incorrecto de vegetales, y una menor frecuencia del hábito de hervir el agua de consumo en las familias de los casos. Estos resultados demuestran el papel del agua como vehículo de transmisión en la giardiasis y la importancia de algunos factores epidemiológicos. Abstract in english We conducted a longitudinal study on giardiasis in three daycare centers in Havana City for a period of 18 months and described a group of children with a "predisposition" or tendency towards re-infection with Giardia lamblia. This group was found to be more frequently associated with clinical sympt [...] oms such as diarrhea. A case-control study was designed to determine whether socioeconomic factors and hygiene were associated with this phenomenon. We found no differences between the groups with regard to overcrowding rates, number of persons per bed, absence of certain electric appliances, mother's schooling, or mean family income. However, there were proportionally more fathers with less than complete secondary education among cases as compared to controls. In addition, we found no differences in lack of hand-washing before eating and after defecation; however, we found a higher percentage of families who washed vegetables insufficiently among predisposed children. Finally, a lower percentage of families with predisposed children boiled their water. Our results demonstrate the important role of water as a vehicle for transmission of giardiasis and the importance of various epidemiologic factors.

Fidel Ángel, Núñez; Jorge Luis, López; Ana Margarita, de la Cruz; Carlos M., Finlay.

2003-04-01

101

Identification of obscure yet conserved actin-associated proteins in Giardia lamblia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Consistent with its proposed status as an early branching eukaryote, Giardia has the most divergent actin of any eukaryote and lacks core actin regulators. Although conserved actin-binding proteins are missing from Giardia, its actin is utilized similarly to that of other eukaryotes and functions in core cellular processes such as cellular organization, endocytosis, and cytokinesis. We set out to identify actin-binding proteins in Giardia using affinity purification coupled with mass spectroscopy (multidimensional protein identification technology [MudPIT]) and have identified >80 putative actin-binding proteins. Several of these have homology to conserved proteins known to complex with actin for functions in the nucleus and flagella. We validated localization and interaction for seven of these proteins, including 14-3-3, a known cytoskeletal regulator with a controversial relationship to actin. Our results indicate that although Giardia lacks canonical actin-binding proteins, there is a conserved set of actin-interacting proteins that are evolutionarily indispensable and perhaps represent some of the earliest functions of the actin cytoskeleton. PMID:24728194

Paredez, Alexander R; Nayeri, Arash; Xu, Jennifer W; Krtková, Jana; Cande, W Zacheus

2014-06-01

102

Immunodominant proteins ?-1 giardin and ?-giardin are expressed in both assemblages A and B of Giardia lamblia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background To date, eight assemblages of Giardia lamblia have been described, but only assemblages A and B are known to infect humans. Despite the fact that the genomic, biological, and clinical differences found between these two assemblages has raised the possibility that they may be considered different species, there is relatively limited information on their phenotypic differences. In the present study, we developed monoclonal antibodies against alpha-1 and beta giardin, two immunodominant proteins produced during G. lamblia infection, and studied their expression and localization in WB (assemblage A and GS trophozoites (assemblage B. Results The polyclonal antibodies generated against WB trophozoites, particularly those recognizing intracellular proteins as well as the proteins present at the plasma membrane (variable-specific surface proteins, showed cross-reactivity with intracellular proteins in GS trophozoites. The use of monoclonal antibodies against beta giardin indicated ventral disc localization, particularly at the periphery in WB trophozoites. Interestingly, although beta giardin was also restricted to the ventral disc in GS trophozoites, the pattern of localization clearly differed in this assemblage. On the other hand, monoclonal antibodies against alpha-1 giardin showed plasma membrane localization in both assemblages with the bare area of GS trophozoites also being distinguished. Moreover, the same localization at the plasma membrane was observed in Portland-1 (Assemblage A and in P15 (Assemblage E trophozoites. Conclusions We found differences in localization of the beta giardin protein between assemblages A and B, but the same pattern of localization of alpha-1 giardin in strains from Assemblages A, B and E. These findings reinforce the need for more studies based on phenotypic characteristics in order to disclose how far one assemblage is from the other.

Rópolo Andrea S

2011-10-01

103

Giardia lamblia binding immunoglobulin protein triggers maturation of dendritic cells via activation of TLR4-MyD88-p38 and ERK1/2 MAPKs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Much remains unknown about the mammalian immune response to Giardia lamblia, a protozoan pathogen that causes diarrhoeal outbreaks. We fractionated protein extracts of G. lamblia trophozoites by Viva-spin centrifugation, DEAE ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. Resultant fractions were screened for antigenic molecules by western blots analysis using anti-G. lamblia antibodies (Abs), resulting in identification of G. lamblia binding immunoglobulin protein (GlBiP). Maturation of mouse dendritic cells (DCs) in response to recombinant GlBiP (rGlBiP) was detected by increased expression of surface molecules such as CD80, CD86 and MHC class II; these mature DCs, produced pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-?, IL-12 and IL-6). Especially, the truncated rGlBiP containing the heat-shock protein 70 domain-induced cytokine production from mouse DCs. rGlBiP-induced DC activation was initiated by TLR4 in a MyD88-dependent way and occurred through activation of p38 and ERK1/2 MAPKs as well as increased activity of NF-?B and AP-1. Moreover, CD4(+) T cells stimulated with rGlBiP-treated DCs produced high levels of IL-2 and IFN-?. Together, our results suggest that GlBiP contributes to maturation of DCs via activation of TLR4-MyD88-p38, ERK1/2 MAPK, NF-?B and AP-1. PMID:24871487

Lee, H-Y; Kim, J; Noh, H J; Kim, H-P; Park, S-J

2014-12-01

104

Giardia y giardiasis Giardia and giardiasis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Giardia lamblia es un protozoario parásito que habita el intestino delgado de los seres humanos y de muchos otros vertebrados y es una de las más comunes causas de diarrea en todo el mundo. Durante su ciclo de vida Giardia sufre significativos cambios bioquímicos y morfológicos que le permiten sobrevivir en ambientes y condiciones que de otro modo lo destruirían. Para sobrevivir fuera del intestino del hospedador, los trofozoítos de Giardia se diferencian a quistes, los que se caracterizan por poseer una rígida pared glicoproteica externa que les permiten sobrevivir inclusive frente a la acción de los desinfectantes más comunes. Otro de los mecanismos de adaptación de este parásito es la variación de los antígenos de superficie que le permite a los trofozoítos evadir la respuesta inmune del huésped y generar infecciones tanto agudas como crónicas o recurrentes en individuos infectados. Durante los últimos años se han producido importantes avances en el conocimiento de las bases moleculares de los procesos de enquistamiento y variación antigénica en Giardia que pronostican el pronto hallazgo de nuevos agentes quimioterapéuticos y/o inmunoprofilácticos contra este importante parásito intestinal.Giardia lamblia is a protozoan parasite that inhabits the upper small intestine of humans and several other vertebrates and one of the most frequent cause of intestinal disease worldwide. During its life cycle, G. lamblia undergoes significant biochemical and morphological changes that allow the parasite to survive under hostile environmental conditions. To survive outside the host’s intestine, Giardia differentiates into resistant cysts, which are characterized by a rigid extracellular cyst wall that protect the parasite even to the action of the most common chemical disinfectants. Another adaptive mechanism of Giardia is the switching of its surface antigens, a mechanism that allows the trophozoites to evade the host’s immune responses and produce acute, chronic and/or recurrent infections. During the last years, important advances in the knowledge of the molecular basis underlying the mechanisms of encystation and antigenic variation in Giardia suggest that novel chemotherapeutic and/or immunoprophylactic reagents against this important human pathogen could soon be available.

Hugo D. Luján

2006-02-01

105

Comparison between immunomagnetic separation, coupled with immunofluorescence, and the techniques of Faust et al. and of Lutz for the diagnosis of Giardia lamblia cysts in human feces / Comparação entre a imuno-separação magnética, acoplada à imunofluorescência, e as técnicas de Faust et al. e de Lutz para o diagnóstico de cistos de Giardia lamblia em fezes humanas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese No presente trabalho, o desempenho da técnica de Imunoseparação Magnética, acoplada à Imunofluorescência (IMS-IFA), foi comparado com aqueles das técnicas parasitológicas de FAUST et al. e de Lutz na detecção de cistos de Giardia lamblia em fezes humanas. Foram processadas 127 amostras de fezes pela [...] s três técnicas paralelamente e a detecção de cistos foi de 27,5% para IMS-IFA e de 15,7% para as técnicas de FAUST et al. e de Lutz concomitantemente. A análise dos resultados mostrou maior sensibilidade da IMS-IFA na detecção de cistos de G. lamblia quando comparada aos métodos de FAUST et al. e Lutz. A utilização desta metodologia como procedimento de rotina proporciona o processamento de várias amostras simultaneamente, além de aumentar a recuperação de cistos de G. lamblia e reduzir o tempo de estocagem das amostras. Abstract in english In the present study, the performance of Immunomagnetic Separation technique, coupled with Immunofluorescence (IMS-IFA), was compared with the FAUST et al. and Lutz parasitological techniques for the detection of Giardia lamblia cysts in human feces. One hundred and twenty-seven samples were evaluat [...] ed by the three techniques at the same time showing a rate of cyst detection of 27.5% by IMS-IFA and 15.7% by both Faust et al. and Lutz techniques. Data analysis showed a higher sensitivity of IMS-IFA for the detection of G. lamblia cysts in comparison with the techniques of FAUST et al. and Lutz. The use of this methodology as a routine procedure enables the processing of many samples simultaneously, in order to increase recovery rate of G. lamblia cysts and reduce the time of sample storage.

Doris Sobral Marques, Souza; Juliana Teixeira, Barreiros; Karina Maria, Papp; Mário, Steindel; Cláudia Maria Oliveira, Simões; Célia Regina Monte, Barardi.

2003-12-01

106

Giardia y giardiasis / Giardia and giardiasis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Giardia lamblia es un protozoario parásito que habita el intestino delgado de los seres humanos y de muchos otros vertebrados y es una de las más comunes causas de diarrea en todo el mundo. Durante su ciclo de vida Giardia sufre significativos cambios bioquímicos y morfológicos que le permiten sobre [...] vivir en ambientes y condiciones que de otro modo lo destruirían. Para sobrevivir fuera del intestino del hospedador, los trofozoítos de Giardia se diferencian a quistes, los que se caracterizan por poseer una rígida pared glicoproteica externa que les permiten sobrevivir inclusive frente a la acción de los desinfectantes más comunes. Otro de los mecanismos de adaptación de este parásito es la variación de los antígenos de superficie que le permite a los trofozoítos evadir la respuesta inmune del huésped y generar infecciones tanto agudas como crónicas o recurrentes en individuos infectados. Durante los últimos años se han producido importantes avances en el conocimiento de las bases moleculares de los procesos de enquistamiento y variación antigénica en Giardia que pronostican el pronto hallazgo de nuevos agentes quimioterapéuticos y/o inmunoprofilácticos contra este importante parásito intestinal. Abstract in english Giardia lamblia is a protozoan parasite that inhabits the upper small intestine of humans and several other vertebrates and one of the most frequent cause of intestinal disease worldwide. During its life cycle, G. lamblia undergoes significant biochemical and morphological changes that allow the par [...] asite to survive under hostile environmental conditions. To survive outside the host’s intestine, Giardia differentiates into resistant cysts, which are characterized by a rigid extracellular cyst wall that protect the parasite even to the action of the most common chemical disinfectants. Another adaptive mechanism of Giardia is the switching of its surface antigens, a mechanism that allows the trophozoites to evade the host’s immune responses and produce acute, chronic and/or recurrent infections. During the last years, important advances in the knowledge of the molecular basis underlying the mechanisms of encystation and antigenic variation in Giardia suggest that novel chemotherapeutic and/or immunoprophylactic reagents against this important human pathogen could soon be available.

Hugo D., Luján.

2006-02-01

107

A Novel Giardia lamblia Nitroreductase, GlNR1, Interacts with Nitazoxanide and Other Thiazolides?  

OpenAIRE

The nitrothiazole analogue nitazoxanide [NTZ; 2-acetolyloxy-N-(5-nitro-2-thiazolyl)benzamide] represents the parent compound of a class of drugs referred to as thiazolides and exhibits a broad spectrum of activities against a wide variety of helminths, protozoa, and enteric bacteria infecting animals and humans. NTZ and other thiazolides are active against a wide range of other intracellular and extracellular protozoan parasites in vitro and in vivo, but their mode of action and respective su...

Mu?ller, Joachim; Wastling, Jonathan; Sanderson, Sanya; Mu?ller, Norbert; Hemphill, Andrew

2007-01-01

108

Serum cytokine changes in Turkish children infected with Giardia lamblia with and without allergy: Effect of metronidazole treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present report is a case control study aimed to determine the levels of cytokines and other parameters in the sera of allergy-complicated and uncomplicated giardiasic children before and after metronidazole treatment. The study included a total of 126 subjects; 52 giardiasic children, 34 allergy-complicated giardiasis (36.9%) and 34 healthy controls, as well as six cases of giardiasis simultaneously infected with other parasites or bacterial pathogens. Serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin (IL)-1beta, soluble IL-2 receptor (sIL-2R), IL-6, IL-8, nitric oxide (NO), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were determined. TNF-alpha and sIL-2R levels significantly increased in giardiasic cases. IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, CRP, and NO levels increased only in the cases associated with allergy. All increased variables significantly decreased following metronidazole treatment and returned to normal levels. Metronidazole-treated patients became 100% parasite free. In conclusion, increased TNF-alpha and sIL-2R may be involved in pathogenesis of non-allergic giardiasis and probably Th1 type immune response seems to be predominant and this response may be protective rather than causative of the disease. Activation of the immune system takes place in giardiasis. It is broader and more intense in allergy-complicated giardiasis than that of uncomplicated cases, most probably due to non-invasive character of G. lamblia. Enhanced IgE production pointed to Th2-type immune response and confirms its association with allergy. PMID:15979046

Bayraktar, Mehmet Refik; Mehmet, Nihayet; Durmaz, Riza

2005-08-01

109

NL MIND-BEST: a web server for ligands and proteins discovery--theoretic-experimental study of proteins of Giardia lamblia and new compounds active against Plasmodium falciparum.  

Science.gov (United States)

There are many protein ligands and/or drugs described with very different affinity to a large number of target proteins or receptors. In this work, we selected Ligands or Drug-target pairs (DTPs/nDTPs) of drugs with high affinity/non-affinity for different targets. Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSAR) models become a very useful tool in this context to substantially reduce time and resources consuming experiments. Unfortunately most QSAR models predict activity against only one protein target and/or have not been implemented in the form of public web server freely accessible online to the scientific community. To solve this problem, we developed here a multi-target QSAR (mt-QSAR) classifier using the MARCH-INSIDE technique to calculate structural parameters of drug and target plus one Artificial Neuronal Network (ANN) to seek the model. The best ANN model found is a Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) with profile MLP 20:20-15-1:1. This MLP classifies correctly 611 out of 678 DTPs (sensitivity=90.12%) and 3083 out of 3408 nDTPs (specificity=90.46%), corresponding to training accuracy=90.41%. The validation of the model was carried out by means of external predicting series. The model classifies correctly 310 out of 338 DTPs (sensitivity=91.72%) and 1527 out of 1674 nDTP (specificity=91.22%) in validation series, corresponding to total accuracy=91.30% for validation series (predictability). This model favorably compares with other ANN models developed in this work and Machine Learning classifiers published before to address the same problem in different aspects. We implemented the present model at web portal Bio-AIMS in the form of an online server called: Non-Linear MARCH-INSIDE Nested Drug-Bank Exploration & Screening Tool (NL MIND-BEST), which is located at URL: http://miaja.tic.udc.es/Bio-AIMS/NL-MIND-BEST.php. This online tool is based on PHP/HTML/Python and MARCH-INSIDE routines. Finally we illustrated two practical uses of this server with two different experiments. In experiment 1, we report by first time Quantum QSAR study, synthesis, characterization, and experimental assay of antiplasmodial and cytotoxic activities of oxoisoaporphine alkaloids derivatives as well as NL MIND-BEST prediction of potential target proteins. In experiment 2, we report sampling, parasite culture, sample preparation, 2-DE, MALDI-TOF, and -TOF/TOF MS, MASCOT search, MM/MD 3D structure modeling, and NL MIND-BEST prediction for different peptides a new protein of the found in the proteome of the human parasite Giardia lamblia, which is promising for anti-parasite drug-targets discovery. PMID:21277861

González-Díaz, Humberto; Prado-Prado, Francisco; Sobarzo-Sánchez, Eduardo; Haddad, Mohamed; Maurel Chevalley, Séverine; Valentin, Alexis; Quetin-Leclercq, Joëlle; Dea-Ayuela, María A; Teresa Gomez-Muños, María; Munteanu, Cristian R; José Torres-Labandeira, Juan; García-Mera, Xerardo; Tapia, Ricardo A; Ubeira, Florencio M

2011-05-01

110

Prevalence of intestinal parasites and genotyping of Giardia intestinalis in pet shop puppies in east Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

The current study examined the prevalence of intestinal parasites and genotypes of Giardia intestinalis in puppies from nine pet shops in east Japan. Fresh fecal samples from 1794 puppies (?3 months old) were collected on one occasion. Giardia spp. was examined for specific coproantigen using ELISA kit (SNAP®Giardia, IDEXX Laboratories, Inc., USA). Other intestinal parasites were detected microscopically using the formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation technique. Genotyping was determined for the random 29 stool samples identified as Giardia spp. positive using PCR and direct sequencing of the glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) gene. Overall prevalence of protozoan Giardia spp. and Cystoisospora spp. revealed 23.4% and 11.3%, respectively. Prevalence of ascarids, Strongyloides spp. and hookworms were recorded 1.8%, 1.1% and 0.1%, respectively. Protozoan Giardia spp. and Cystoisospora spp., thus, represent important pathogens among pet shop puppies. All genotyped G. intestinalis isolates were belonged to assemblage C or D, identified as dog-specific genotypes. Zoonotic assemblage A and B were not demonstrated. The result suggests that the risk of zoonotic transmission of G. intestinalis from pet shops puppies to humans may be quite low in Japan. PMID:21093154

Itoh, N; Itagaki, T; Kawabata, T; Konaka, T; Muraoka, N; Saeki, H; Kanai, K; Chikazawa, S; Hori, Y; Hoshi, F; Higuchi, S

2011-02-28

111

[Intestinal parasites in nursery schools of Lages, southern Brazil].  

Science.gov (United States)

Two hundred children from nursery schools in Lages, southern Brazil, were associated as to parasitic infections. The overall prevalence of helminths and protozoa was 70.5%, affecting 61.4% of male and 74.5% of female children. The most prevalent parasites were Ascaris lumbricoides (35%), Giardia lamblia (14%) e Trichuris trichiura (13%). PMID:15361963

Quadros, Rosiléia Marinho de; Marques, Sandra; Arruda, Andréia Aparecida Ribeiro; Delfes, Patrícia Simone Wolff Rosa; Medeiros, Iris Aparecida Azevedo

2004-01-01

112

Freqüencia da infecção por Giardia lamblia (Kunstler, 1882 em cães (Canis familiaris avaliada pelo Método de Faust e cols. (1939 e pela Coloração da Auramina, no município de Canoas, RS, Brasil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Giardia lamblia é um protozoário que acomete mais comumente animais jovens e que convivem em grupos. Apesar da alta prevalência, nem todos os animais apresentam a forma clínica da doença. Mesmo assim, a giardíase tem importância epidemiológica por possuir um elevado potencial zoonótico. O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar a freqüência de Giardia lamblia em cães no município de Canoas, RS, Brasil, através do Método de Faust e cols. (1939 e da Técnica de Coloração da Auramina. Os grupos experimentais foram divididos de acordo com a procedência e o sexo. Das 332 amostras analisadas pelo Método de Faust e cols, a freqüência obtida foi de 34,04%, podendo variar de 28,95 a 39,13%, dentro de um intervalo de confiança de 95%. Destas amostras positivas, 40,96% foram de canil e 27,11% de cães de rua. O Teste Exato de Fisher aplicado a esses dados revelou existir uma diferença significativa (p=0,0107 entre as variáveis resultado e procedência. A variável sexo, neste método, não apresentou diferença significativa em relação ao resultado (P=0,8162 totalizando 33,11% de machos e 34,08% de fêmeas infectadas com o parasita. Das 147 amostras realizadas pela Técnica de Coloração da Auramina, 23 foram positivas, totalizando 15,65%. A análise estatística pelo Teste McNemar revelou existir diferença significativa entre as duas técnicas (P=0,0004. O valor Kappa foi igual a 0,07, considerado como um grau de concordância fraco. Os resultados encontrados neste estudo nos permitem afirmar que o Método de Faust e cols. foi o mais adequado para o diagnóstico da infecção por Giardia lamblia, sendo este parasita altamente prevalente na região estudada.

Beck Cristiane

2005-01-01

113

The Comparison of the Efficacy of Various Fixatives on Diverse Staining Methods of Giardia lamblia Cyst  

OpenAIRE

The definite and exact diagnosis of protozoa is possible using high magnification objective lenses, provided that suitable stained smears are prepared. Therefore, the appropriateness of both fixative and staining methods to the species of parasite, which is the main objective of this study, is important. In this study, five various fixatives including (Merthiolate iodine formalin) MIF, (Sodium acetate-acetic acid formalin) SAF, (Polyvinyl alcohol) PVA, formalin and schaudinn and four types of...

Badparva, E.; Sh. Fallahi; Sepahvand, A.; Pournia, Y.; Sh. Mollaei Rashnoo

2009-01-01

114

Review of Zoonotic Parasites in Medical and Veterinary Fields in the Republic of Korea  

OpenAIRE

Zoonotic parasites are animal parasites that can infect humans. The major zoonotic protozoa in the Republic of Korea are Babesia bovis, Chilomastix mesnili, Cryptosporidium parvum, Endolimax nana, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba hitolytica, Giardia lamblia, Iodamoeba bütschlii, Pneumocystis carinii, Sarcocystis cruzi, and Toxoplasma gondii. The major zoonotic helminths in Korea include trematodes, cestodes, and nematodes. Trematodes are Clonorchis sinensis, Echinostoma hortense, Echinostoma spp., ...

Youn, Heejeong

2009-01-01

115

Comparative Analysis of the 15.5kD Box C/D snoRNP Core Protein in the Primitive Eukaryote Giardia lamblia Reveals Unique Structural and Functional Features  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Box C/D ribonucleoproteins (RNP) guide the 2'-O-methylation of targeted nucleotides in archaeal and eukaryotic rRNAs. The archaeal L7Ae and eukaryotic 15.5kD box C/D RNP core protein homologues initiate RNP assembly by recognizing kink-turn (K-turn) motifs. The crystal structure of the 15.5kD core protein from the primitive eukaryote Giardia lamblia is described here to a resolution of 1.8 {angstrom}. The Giardia 15.5kD protein exhibits the typical {alpha}-{beta}-{alpha} sandwich fold exhibited by both archaeal L7Ae and eukaryotic 15.5kD proteins. Characteristic of eukaryotic homologues, the Giardia 15.5kD protein binds the K-turn motif but not the variant K-loop motif. The highly conserved residues of loop 9, critical for RNA binding, also exhibit conformations similar to those of the human 15.5kD protein when bound to the K-turn motif. However, comparative sequence analysis indicated a distinct evolutionary position between Archaea and Eukarya. Indeed, assessment of the Giardia 15.5kD protein in denaturing experiments demonstrated an intermediate stability in protein structure when compared with that of the eukaryotic mouse 15.5kD and archaeal Methanocaldococcus jannaschii L7Ae proteins. Most notable was the ability of the Giardia 15.5kD protein to assemble in vitro a catalytically active chimeric box C/D RNP utilizing the archaeal M. jannaschii Nop56/58 and fibrillarin core proteins. In contrast, a catalytically competent chimeric RNP could not be assembled using the mouse 15.5kD protein. Collectively, these analyses suggest that the G. lamblia 15.5kD protein occupies a unique position in the evolution of this box C/D RNP core protein retaining structural and functional features characteristic of both archaeal L7Ae and higher eukaryotic 15.5kD homologues.

Biswas, Shyamasri; Buhrman, Greg; Gagnon, Keith; Mattos, Carla; Brown, II, Bernard A.; Maxwell, E. Stuart (NCSU); (UTSMC)

2012-07-11

116

[Advances in research of dihydroartemisinin against parasitic diseases].  

Science.gov (United States)

Dihydroartemisinin, the main metabolite of artemisinin and two artemisinin derivatives, artemether and artesunate, is a broad-spectrum anti-parasitic drug. The present paper systematically reviews the advances in research of dihydroartemisinin against Plasmodium, Schistosoma, Pneumocystis, Toxoplasma, Trichomonas vaginalis, Leishmania, Giardia lamblia. PMID:22164870

Li, Hong-Jun; Wang, Wei; Liang, You-Sheng

2011-08-01

117

Detección de parásitos intestinales en agua y alimentos de Trujillo, Perú / Detection of water-Borne and food-borne intestinal parasites of Trujillo, Perú  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Detectamos distintas especies de parásitos intestinales, tanto protozoos como helmintos, presentes en muestras de agua provenientes de acequias y pozos (Giardia lamblia, Blastocystis hominis, Entamoeba coli, Cyclospora cayetanensis, Cryptosporidium spp. y Balantidium coli), así como en alimentos cru [...] dos y cocidos (Giardia lamblia, Cyclospora cayetanensis., Endolimax nana, Iodamoeba butschlii y Blastocystis hominis Fasciola hepatica y Ascaris lumbricoides) recolectadas en varios distritos de la provincia de Trujillo, Perú. Abstract in english We report the detection of different intestinal parasites, protozoan and helminthes, in samples of water from ditches and wells (Giardia lamblia, Blastocystis hominis, Entamoeba coli, Cyclospora cayetanensis, Cryptosporidium spp. y Balantidium coli), as well as in raw and cooked foods (Giardia lambl [...] ia, Cyclospora cayetanensis., Endolimax nana, Iodamoeba butschlii y Blastocystis hominis Fasciola hepatica y Ascaris lumbricoides) collected in several districts of the province of Trujillo, Peru.

Gregorio, Pérez-Cordón; María J., Rosales; Renzo A., Valdez; Franklin, Vargas-Vásquez; Ofelia, Cordova.

2008-01-01

118

Anti-Giardia activity of phenolic-rich essential oils: effects of Thymbra capitata, Origanum virens, Thymus zygis subsp. sylvestris, and Lippia graveolens on trophozoites growth, viability, adherence, and ultrastructure.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present work evaluates the anti-Giardia activity of phenolic-rich essential oils obtained from Thymbra capitata, Origanum virens, Thymus zygis subsp. sylvestris chemotype thymol, and Lippia graveolens aromatic plants. The effects were evaluated on parasite growth, cell viability adherence, and morphology. The tested essential oils inhibited the growth of Giardia lamblia. T. capitata essential oil is the most active followed by O. virens, T. zygis subsp. sylvestris, and L. graveolens oils. The tested essential oils at IC50 (71-257) microg/ml inhibited parasite adherence (p zygis subsp. sylvestris chemotype thymol, and L. graveolens essential oils have antigiardial activity in vitro and seem to have potential for the treatment of the parasitic disease caused by the protozoan G. lamblia. PMID:20217133

Machado, Marisa; Dinis, Augusto M; Salgueiro, Ligia; Cavaleiro, Carlos; Custódio, José B A; Sousa, Maria do Céu

2010-04-01

119

Giardia and Vilem Dusan Lambl.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Ro?. 8, ?. 5 (2014), e2686. ISSN 1935-2735 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12049 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : History of Science * Giardia lamblia * Infectious disease Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.489, year: 2013

Lipoldová, Marie

2014-01-01

120

Diarrea crónica refractaria y malabsorción secundaria a hipogammaglobulinemia común variable, infestación crónica por giardia lamblia y gastrectomía total por adenocarcinoma gástrico: un manejo nutricional complejo / Chonic diarrhea and malabsorption due to common variable immunodeficiency, gastrectomy and giardiasis infection: a difficult nutritional management  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El adenocarcinoma gástrico es una de las causas más frecuentes de mortalidad en el mundo, siendo la cirugía el único tratamiento potencialmente curativo, aunque los efectos adversos digestivos y nutricionales son frecuentes y abundantes. La hipogammaglobulinemia variable común es causa de frecuentes [...] manifestaciones digestivas, derivándose las más importantes en diarrea crónica causada por giardiasis, hiperplasia nodular linfoide o atrofia vellosa, siendo frecuente la malabsorción y la desnutrición. Los déficits nutricionales secundarios a la malabsorción (postgastrectomía y asociada a la atrofia vellosa y la giardiasis por hipogammaglobulinemia variable común) son asimismo frecuentes. Presentamos el caso de un paciente gastrectomizado por adenocarcinoma gástrico y con hipogammaglobulinemia variable común e infestación crónica por giardiasis que presenta una importante diarrea crónica refractaria a tratamiento y malabsorción. Abstract in english Gastric cancer is a frequent cause of cancer-related mortality in the world. Surgery is the only potentially curative therapy, although the adverse effects of surgery are common and considerable. Common variable immunodeficiency is in many cases cause of gastrointestinal system problems such as chro [...] nic diarrhea caused by infestation with giardia lamblia, nodular lymphoid hiperplasia ad loss of villi leading frequently to malapsortion and malnutrition. Nutritional deficiencies due to malapsorption (postgastrectomy and secondary to loss of villi, giardiasis and common variable inmunodeficiency) are common. We present the case of a patient with gastric cancer who underwent a gastrectomy with common variable hipogammaglobulinemia and chronic infestation by giardia lamblia, with serious diarrhea resistant to treatment and malabsorption.

M. E., Domínguez-López; I., González-Molero; C. P., Ramírez-Plaza; F., Soriguer; G., Olveira.

2011-08-01

121

Intestinal parasitic infections in hosted Saharawi children.  

Science.gov (United States)

Literatures on intestinal parasitic infections in Saharawi children were scarce and distributed in non parasitological journals. This was the first article that specifically highlighted on the prevalence of these infections in 270 Saharawi children aged from 6 to 12 years hosted in Spain. Six different intestinal parasites were identified in this study and 78, 46, 40, 24, 13 and 5 were positive for Giardia lamblia (29%), Entamoeba coli (17%), Blastocystis hominis (15%), Endolimax nana (9%), Hymenolepis nana (5%) and Enterobius vermicularis (2%), respectively. Mixed intestinal parasitic infections were seen in 12 (4.4%) studied children. Six (2.2%) double infections for G. lamblia and B. hominis were seen in these children while in four (1.5%) had G. lamblia and H. nana. Triple intestinal parasitic infections of G. lamblia, B. hominis and H. nana were observed in two (0.7%) of the children studied. In the other hand, about 14.8% of the studied children had a mild anaemia and 15.5 and 16.6% had iron deficiency and eosinophilia, respectively. PMID:22433884

Soriano, J M; Domènech, G; Martínez, M C; Mañes, J; Soriano, F

2011-12-01

122

Prevalence of Giardia intestinalis and other zoonotic intestinal parasites in private household dogs of the Hachinohe area in Aomori prefecture, Japan in 1997, 2002 and 2007.  

Science.gov (United States)

An epidemiological study on canine intestinal parasites was undertaken to evaluate changes in the prevalence among private household dogs from the Hachinohe region of Aomori prefecture, Japan, in 1997, 2002 and 2007, using the formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation technique. The risk of zoonotic transmission from household dogs to humans was also discussed. All intestinal parasites detected in the present study (Giardia intestinalis, Isospora spp., Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum, Trichuris vulpis and Strongyloides stercoralis) showed no changes in prevalence over the past 10 years based on analysis considering canine epidemiological profiles. In particular, prevalence of Giardia intestinalis in dogs under 1 year old, derived from pet shops/breeding kennels and kept indoors was unchanged, remaining at a high level of >15.0% at each time point. Toxocara canis also showed no changes in the group of dogs under 1 year old, bred by private owners and kept outdoors, and the prevalence was >10.0% every year. The present results indicate that the prevalence of Giardia intestinalis and other intestinal parasites in private household dogs has not always decreased, and the potential for direct parasitic zoonotic transmission from dogs to humans may be relatively high level, than from the environment (indoors and outdoors). We recommend careful surveillance of intestinal parasites and aggressive use of anthelminthic in private household dogs under considering the epidemiological factors. PMID:19934595

Itoh, Naoyuki; Kanai, Kazutaka; Hori, Yasutomo; Hoshi, Fumio; Higuchi, Seiichi

2009-12-01

123

Transcriptomic Analysis of the Host Response to Giardia duodenalis Infection Reveals Redundant Mechanisms for Parasite Control  

OpenAIRE

The immune system has numerous mechanisms that it can use to combat pathogens and eliminate infections. Nevertheless, studies of immune responses often focus on single pathways required for protective responses. We applied microarray analysis of RNA in order to investigate the types of immune responses produced against infection with the intestinal pathogen Giardia duodenalis. Infection with G. duodenalis is one of the most common causes of diarrheal disease in the world. While several poten...

Tako, Ernest A.; Hassimi, Maryam F.; Li, Erqiu; Singer, Steven M.

2013-01-01

124

O(2)-dependent efficacy of novel piperidine- and piperazine-based chalcones against the human parasite Giardia intestinalis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardia intestinalis is the most frequent protozoan agent of intestinal diseases worldwide. Though commonly regarded as an anaerobic pathogen, it preferentially colonizes the fairly oxygen-rich mucosa of the proximal small intestine. Therefore, when testing new potential antigiardial drugs, O2 should be taken into account, since it also reduces the efficacy of metronidazole, the gold standard drug against giardiasis. In this study, 46 novel chalcones were synthesized by microwave-assisted Claisen-Schmidt condensation, purified, characterized by high-resolution mass spectrometry, (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance, and infrared spectroscopy, and tested for their toxicity against G. intestinalis under standard anaerobic conditions. As a novel approach, compounds showing antigiardial activity under anaerobiosis were also assayed under microaerobic conditions, and their selectivity against parasitic cells was assessed in a counterscreen on human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. Among the tested compounds, three [30(a), 31(e), and 33] were more effective in the presence of O2 than under anaerobic conditions and killed the parasite 2 to 4 times more efficiently than metronidazole under anaerobiosis. Two of them [30(a) and 31(e)] proved to be selective against parasitic cells, thus representing potential candidates for the design of novel antigiardial drugs. This study highlights the importance of testing new potential antigiardial agents not only under anaerobic conditions but also at low, more physiological O2 concentrations. PMID:24217695

Bahadur, Vijay; Mastronicola, Daniela; Tiwari, Hemandra Kumar; Kumar, Yogesh; Falabella, Micol; Pucillo, Leopoldo Paolo; Sarti, Paolo; Giuffrè, Alessandro; Singh, Brajendra Kumar

2014-01-01

125

O2-Dependent Efficacy of Novel Piperidine- and Piperazine-Based Chalcones against the Human Parasite Giardia intestinalis  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardia intestinalis is the most frequent protozoan agent of intestinal diseases worldwide. Though commonly regarded as an anaerobic pathogen, it preferentially colonizes the fairly oxygen-rich mucosa of the proximal small intestine. Therefore, when testing new potential antigiardial drugs, O2 should be taken into account, since it also reduces the efficacy of metronidazole, the gold standard drug against giardiasis. In this study, 46 novel chalcones were synthesized by microwave-assisted Claisen-Schmidt condensation, purified, characterized by high-resolution mass spectrometry, 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance, and infrared spectroscopy, and tested for their toxicity against G. intestinalis under standard anaerobic conditions. As a novel approach, compounds showing antigiardial activity under anaerobiosis were also assayed under microaerobic conditions, and their selectivity against parasitic cells was assessed in a counterscreen on human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. Among the tested compounds, three [30(a), 31(e), and 33] were more effective in the presence of O2 than under anaerobic conditions and killed the parasite 2 to 4 times more efficiently than metronidazole under anaerobiosis. Two of them [30(a) and 31(e)] proved to be selective against parasitic cells, thus representing potential candidates for the design of novel antigiardial drugs. This study highlights the importance of testing new potential antigiardial agents not only under anaerobic conditions but also at low, more physiological O2 concentrations. PMID:24217695

Bahadur, Vijay; Mastronicola, Daniela; Tiwari, Hemandra Kumar; Kumar, Yogesh; Falabella, Micol; Pucillo, Leopoldo Paolo; Sarti, Paolo

2014-01-01

126

Parasitas intestinais em centros de educação infantil municipal de Lages, SC, Brasil Intestinal parasites in nursey schools of Lages, southern Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Infecção por enteroparasitas foi avaliada em 200 crianças em idade escolar, residentes em Lages. A prevalência geral entre helmintos e protozoários foi de 70,5% com 61,4% no sexo masculino e 74,5% no feminino. Os parasitos mais prevalentes foram Ascaris lumbricoides (35%, Giardia lamblia (14% e Trichuris trichiura (13%.Two hundred chinldren from nursery schools in Lages, southern Brazil, were associated as to parasitic ibfections. The overall prevalence of helminths and protozoa was 70.5%, affecting 61.4% of male and 74.5% of female children. The most prevalent parasites were Ascaris lumbricoides (35%, Giardia lambia (14% e Trichuris trichiura (13%.

Rosiléia Marinho de Quadros

2004-10-01

127

Genotyping and Phylogenetic Analysis of Giardia duodenalis Isolates from Turkish Children  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Giardiasis is caused by the intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia duodenalis (synonyms: G. lamblia, G. intestinalis), which is one of the most frequent parasites that infect Turkish children. However, molecular characterization of G. duodenalis in Turkey is relatively scarce. The present work aimed at genotyping G. duodenalis isolates from Turkey using molecular techniques. Material/Methods In the present study, 145 fecal samples from children were collected to search for the presence of Giardia by microscopy and PCR screening. PCR generated a 384 bp fragment for ?-giardin. The PCR products were sequenced and the sequences were subjected to phylogenetic analysis by using PHYLIP. Results Based on the phylogenetic analysis of the sequences, assemblage A, B, and mixed subtypes were determined. Of 22 isolates, 11 were identified as assemblage A (50%), 7 were assemblage B (31.8%), and 4 were assemblage AB (18.2%). Association between G. duodenalis assemblages and the epidemiological data was analyzed. No correlation was found between symptoms and infection with specific assemblages (P>0.05), but we found statistically significant association between age and the assemblage AB (P=0.001). Conclusions The association between G. duodenalis and the epidemiologic data were analyzed. Since assemblage A is the more prevalent subgroup compared with assemblage B, this subgroup might be responsible for common Giardia infections in Turkey. This is the first study that included a detailed phylogenetic analysis of Giardia strains from Turkey. PMID:25689970

Tamer, Gulden Sonmez; Kasap, Murat; Er, Doganhan Kadir

2015-01-01

128

Parasitic colitides.  

Science.gov (United States)

Parasitic infections are a major worldwide health problem, and they account for millions of infections and deaths each year. Most of the infections as well as the morbidity and mortality from these diseases occur in the developing world in rural regions. However, these diseases have become more common in Western countries and in big cities over the past 25 years. These changing disease patterns can be attributed to emigration from the third world to developed countries and migration of rural populations to the big cities in developing nations. These parasitic infections have protean manifestations and consequences. The medical problems range from chronic asymptomatic carrier to fulminant infections and even death. Several factors such as the host immune status, the infecting organism, and the availability of treatment all play key roles in the outcomes of parasitic colitides. The two major classes of parasites causing these infections are the helminthes (ascariasis, strongyloidiasis, enterobiasis, trichuriasis, and schistosomiasis) and the protozoa (Isospora, Cryptosporidium, Cyclospora, Trypanosoma cruzi, Giardia lamblia, and Balantidium coli). This article summarizes the salient features of each parasite with respect to epidemiology, transmission, pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment. The vast majority of these infections have a self-limited clinical course or are easily treated with medical management, and surgery is rarely needed. PMID:20011360

Goldberg, Joel E

2007-02-01

129

Molecular characterization of Giardia duodenalis in dogs from Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

The intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia duodenalis (syn. Giardia intestinalis and Giardia lamblia) is a widespread enteric pathogen in human and domestic animals. This organism is one of the most common parasites in domestic dogs in Brazil. In this study, we determined the occurrence and genetic characterization of G. duodenalis isolated from dogs from south-central São Paulo state, Brazil. A total of 300 fecal samples were collected. Fecal specimens were screened for the presence of G. duodenalis using microscopy (zinc sulfate solution flotation technique) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the small subunit ribosomal (SSU-rDNA) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) genes. Genetic characterization was performed using restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) and sequencing analysis of the GDH gene. In addition, selected samples were further characterized by RFLP and sequencing of the ?-giardin gene. The overall occurrence of G. duodenalis was 17.3% (52/300). The occurrence was higher in stray dogs (28%) than in household dogs (6.25%). Of the 36 PCR-positive samples that were selected for genotyping, only dog-specific genotype C (20 isolates), D (11 isolates) and mixed C?+?D (five isolates) isolates were detected in the study. This study provides current information on the infection rates of G. duodenalis genotypes in canine populations and describes for the first time the presence of mixed infections within host-specific C and D genotypes in dogs in Brazil. These genotypes were widespread and commonly found in domestic dogs living in urban and suburban environments of the studied area and confirmed the endemic status of Giardia in this region. PMID:21695567

Paz e Silva, Flávio M; E Silva, Paz; Monobe, Marina M; Lopes, Raimundo S; Araujo, João P

2012-01-01

130

Intestinal parasites in metropolitan Toronto day-care centres.  

OpenAIRE

In 1981, 900 children (aged 3 months to 10 years) and 146 staff attending 22 day-care centres in metropolitan Toronto chosen at random provided a stool specimen in a survey for intestinal parasites. Of the children, 4% to 36% were infected in 20 of 22 centres. Overall, 19% of the children and 14% of the staff had intestinal parasites: 8.6% and 4.0% respectively had Dientamoeba fragilis, and 7.8% and 2.0% respectively had Giardia lamblia. The highest prevalence of dientamebiasis was in the 7- ...

Keystone, J. S.; Yang, J.; Grisdale, D.; Harrington, M.; Pillon, L.; Andreychuk, R.

1984-01-01

131

Investigation of intestinal parasites in pig feces that are also human pathogens.  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of 238 pig fecal specimens were collected from pig farms in Corlu (Tekirda?), Ayazma, and Arnavutköy (Istanbul) during the summer. Out of the 238 pig specimens, 105 were from pigs younger than 6 months and 133 from pigs older than 6 months. These were investigated for intestine parasites in particular the ones that are human pathogens. Cryptosporidium spp. was detected In 21 fecal specimens (8.8%), Giardia spp. in 9 (3.7%), Balantidium coli cysts in 4 (1.6%) and Ascaris suum eggs in 9 (4.1%). Giardia lamblia were found in 8 (7.6%) of 105 pigs younger than 6 months, Cryptosporidium spp. in 12 (11.4%), Balantidium coli cysts in 2 (1.5%). In the pigs older than 6 months Giardia lamblia were found in 1 (0.7%), Cryptosporidium spp. in 9 (6.7%), Balantidium coli cysts in 2 (1.5%). and Ascaris suum eggs in 9 (6.7%). The difference in the rate of G. lamblia (p=0.01) in pigs less than 6 months and of A. suum in those over 6 months was found to be statistically significant (p=0.005). Our results revealed that pigs are important sources of these parasites. PMID:19851968

Uysal, Hayriye Kirkoyun; Boral, Ozden; Metiner, Kemal; Ilgaz, Atilla

2009-01-01

132

Prevalencia de giardiasis y parásitos intestinales en preescolares de hogares atendidos en un programa estatal en Armenia, Colombia / Prevalence of giardiasis and intestinal parasites in pre-school children from homes being attended as part of a state programme in Armenia, Colombia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: El propósito de este estudio es el de obtener datos sobre la giardiasis y el parasitismo intestinal en una muestra significativa de los niños en edades pre-escolares de los hogares de madres comunitarias del Instituto Colombiano de Bienestar Familiar (ICBF). MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Se recole [...] ctó un seriado de tres muestras de heces en 328 niños, con previo consentimiento del tutor legal. Se le realizó el análisis de laboratorio por examen directo microscópico y macroscópico utilizando Lugol al 1 %, solución salina al 0,83 %, solución salina-eosina, Kato Katz y formol-éter o metodo de concentración de Ritchie (prueba comprobatoria). Las muestras positivas se conservaron en formol salino. RESULTADOS: Los parásitos con potencial patógeno tuvieron las siguientes prevalencias: Ascaris lumbricoides 2,4 %, Hymenolepsis nana 0,6 %, Trichuris trichura 2,1 %, Blastocystis hominis 6,1 % y Giardia lamblia 13 %. CONCLUSIONES: Este estudio muestra la baja frecuencia de los helmintos con respecto a los protozoos, por lo tanto estrategias de desparasitación masiva con dosis únicas de Albendazol no tienen utilidad. Se recomienda la vigilancia periódica de parásitos por exámenes en estos niños. Se confirma que el parásito patógeno mas prevalente es Giardia lamblia en los niños de las guarderias infantiles del ICBF. La prevalencia de Giardia no se relacionó de manera estadisticamente significativa con el estado nutricional de los niños de las guarderias del ICBF. La mayoria de niños infectados por Giardia son asintomáticos. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: Determining the prevalence of giardiasis and intestinal parasitism in pre-school children from the Instituto Colombiano de Bienestar Familiar (ICBF). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Three serial faecal samples were collected from 328 children following informed consent from their legal guardians. M [...] icroscopic and macroscopic tests were made using 1% Lugol, 0,83 % saline solution, saline-eosin solution and Kato Katz and Ritchie's test as a confirming test. Positive samples were preserved in saline formol solution. RESULTS: Pathogen parasites had the following prevalence frequencies: 2,4 % for Ascaris lumbricoides, 0,6 % for Hymenolepsis nana, 2,1 % for Trichuris trichura, 6,1 % for Blastocystis hominis and 13 % for Giardia lamblia. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this work showed low helminth frequency compared to that for protozoa; control strategies using single doses of Albendazol are therefore not useful. The most prevalent pathogen parasite was Giardia lamblia in children from the ICBF in Armenia. Periodic surveillance of parasites in children is thereby recommended. The prevalence of Giardia lamblia was not statistically related to the children's nutritional state. Most Giardia-infected children were asymptomatic.

Jorge M., Giraldo-Gómez; Fabiana, Lora; Luz H., Henao; Shirley, Mejía; Jorge E., Gómez-Marín.

2005-11-01

133

Prevalencia de Giardiasis y Parásitos Intestinales en Preescolares de Hogares atendidos en un programa estatal en Armenia, Colombia / Prevalence of giardiasis and intestinal parasites in pre-school children from homes being attended as part of a state programme in Armenia, Colombia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Objetivo El propósito de este estudio es el de obtener datos sobre la giardiasis y el parasitismo intestinal en una muestra significativa de los niños en edades pre-escolares de los hogares de madres comunitarias del Instituto Colombiano de Bienestar Familiar (ICBF). Materiales y Métodos Se recolect [...] ó un seriado de tres muestras de heces en 328 niños, con previo consentimiento del tutor legal. Se le realizó el análisis de laboratorio por examen directo microscópico y macroscópico utilizando Lugol al 1 %, solución salina al 0,83 %, solución salina-eosina, Kato Katz y formol-éter o metodo de concentración de Ritchie (prueba comprobatoria). Las muestras positivas se conservaron en formol salino. Resultados Los parásitos con potencial patógeno tuvieron las siguientes prevalencias: Ascaris lumbricoides 2,4 %, Hymenolepsis nana 0,6 %, Trichuris trichura 2,1 %, Blastocystis hominis 6,1 % y Giardia lamblia 13 %. Conclusiones Este estudio muestra la baja frecuencia de los helmintos con respecto a los protozoos, por lo tanto estrategias de desparasitación masiva con dosis únicas de Albendazol no tienen utilidad. Se recomienda la vigilancia periódica de parásitos por exámenes en estos niños. Se confirma que el parásito patógeno mas prevalente es Giardia lamblia en los niños de las guarderias infantiles del ICBF. La prevalencia de Giardia no se relacionó de manera estadisticamente significativa con el estado nutricional de los niños de las guarderias del ICBF. La mayoria de niños infectados por Giardia son asintomáticos. Abstract in english Objective Determining the prevalence of giardiasis and intestinal parasitism in pre-school children from the Instituto Colombiano de Bienestar Familiar (ICBF). Material and Methods Three serial faecal samples were collected from 328 children following informed consent from their legal guardians. Mic [...] roscopic and macroscopic tests were made using 1% Lugol, 0,83 % saline solution, saline-eosin solution and Kato Katz and Ritchie’s test as a confirming test. Positive samples were preserved in saline formol solution. Results Pathogen parasites had the following prevalence frequencies: 2,4 % for Ascaris lumbricoides, 0,6 % for Hymenolepsis nana, 2,1 % for Trichuris trichura, 6,1 % for Blastocystis hominis and 13 % for Giardia lamblia. Conclusions The results of this work showed low helminth frequency compared to that for protozoa; control strategies using single doses of Albendazol are therefore not useful. The most prevalent pathogen parasite was Giardia lamblia in children from the ICBF in Armenia. Periodic surveillance of parasites in children is thereby recommended. The prevalence of Giardia lamblia was not statistically related to the children’s nutritional state. Most Giardia-infected children were asymptomatic.

Jorge M, Giraldo-Gómez; Fabiana, Lora; Luz H, Henao; Shirley, Mejía; Jorge E, Gómez-Marín.

2005-11-17

134

Prevalencia de Giardiasis y Parásitos Intestinales en Preescolares de Hogares atendidos en un programa estatal en Armenia, Colombia Prevalence of giardiasis and intestinal parasites in pre-school children from homes being attended as part of a state programme in Armenia, Colombia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivo El propósito de este estudio es el de obtener datos sobre la giardiasis y el parasitismo intestinal en una muestra significativa de los niños en edades pre-escolares de los hogares de madres comunitarias del Instituto Colombiano de Bienestar Familiar (ICBF. Materiales y Métodos Se recolectó un seriado de tres muestras de heces en 328 niños, con previo consentimiento del tutor legal. Se le realizó el análisis de laboratorio por examen directo microscópico y macroscópico utilizando Lugol al 1 %, solución salina al 0,83 %, solución salina-eosina, Kato Katz y formol-éter o metodo de concentración de Ritchie (prueba comprobatoria. Las muestras positivas se conservaron en formol salino. Resultados Los parásitos con potencial patógeno tuvieron las siguientes prevalencias: Ascaris lumbricoides 2,4 %, Hymenolepsis nana 0,6 %, Trichuris trichura 2,1 %, Blastocystis hominis 6,1 % y Giardia lamblia 13 %. Conclusiones Este estudio muestra la baja frecuencia de los helmintos con respecto a los protozoos, por lo tanto estrategias de desparasitación masiva con dosis únicas de Albendazol no tienen utilidad. Se recomienda la vigilancia periódica de parásitos por exámenes en estos niños. Se confirma que el parásito patógeno mas prevalente es Giardia lamblia en los niños de las guarderias infantiles del ICBF. La prevalencia de Giardia no se relacionó de manera estadisticamente significativa con el estado nutricional de los niños de las guarderias del ICBF. La mayoria de niños infectados por Giardia son asintomáticos.Objective Determining the prevalence of giardiasis and intestinal parasitism in pre-school children from the Instituto Colombiano de Bienestar Familiar (ICBF. Material and Methods Three serial faecal samples were collected from 328 children following informed consent from their legal guardians. Microscopic and macroscopic tests were made using 1% Lugol, 0,83 % saline solution, saline-eosin solution and Kato Katz and Ritchie’s test as a confirming test. Positive samples were preserved in saline formol solution. Results Pathogen parasites had the following prevalence frequencies: 2,4 % for Ascaris lumbricoides, 0,6 % for Hymenolepsis nana, 2,1 % for Trichuris trichura, 6,1 % for Blastocystis hominis and 13 % for Giardia lamblia. Conclusions The results of this work showed low helminth frequency compared to that for protozoa; control strategies using single doses of Albendazol are therefore not useful. The most prevalent pathogen parasite was Giardia lamblia in children from the ICBF in Armenia. Periodic surveillance of parasites in children is thereby recommended. The prevalence of Giardia lamblia was not statistically related to the children’s nutritional state. Most Giardia-infected children were asymptomatic.

Jorge M Giraldo-Gómez

135

Reductive Evolution of the Mitochondrial Processing Peptidases of the Unicellular Parasites Trichomonas vaginalis and Giardia intestinalis.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Ro?. 4, ?. 12 (2008), s. 1-8. ISSN 1553-7366 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC07032; GA AV ?R IAA501110631 Grant ostatní: CZ(CZ) B-Bio166/2006 (O.S.). S.H., R.P.H. Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : peptidases * mitochondria * human parasites Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 9.125, year: 2008

Šmíd, O.; Matušková, Anna; Harris, S. R.; Ku?era, Tomáš; Novotný, M.; Horváthová, L.; Hrdý, I.; Kutejová, E.; Hirt, R. P.; Embley, T. M.; Janata, Ji?í; Tachezy, J.

2008-01-01

136

Intestinal parasitic infections among school children in Thailand.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in children from eight schools located in Phuttamonthon District, Nakhon Prathom Province during November 2004 to December 2004. Stool samples were collected from 1920 students; age range from 7 to 12 years old, and examined for intestinal parasites by using formalin-ethyl acetate concentration technique. Of these subjects, 242 (12.6%) were infected with one or more of 10 intestinal parasitic species. In these infected subjects, 214 (11.1%) were single infections whereas 28 (1.5%) were mix infections. The most frequent parasite was Blastocystis hominis (6.2%). Other parasites were Giardia lamblia (1.7%), Entamoeba coli (1.5%), Endolimax nana (1.0%), Entamoeba histolytica (0.3%), Hookworm (0.3%), Trichuris trichiura ( 0.05). The results suggest that prevention and control programme for intestinal parasites should be discussed in the design of long term use in this area. PMID:18209713

Warunee, N; Choomanee, L; Sataporn, P; Rapeeporn, Y; Nuttapong, W; Sompong, S; Thongdee, S; Bang-On, S; Rachada, K

2007-12-01

137

INTESTINAL PARASITES IN SEMBALUN LAWANG, LOMBOK  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Survey tinja telah dilakukan diantara penduduk di Kampung Sembalun Lawang, Distrik Aikinal, Lombok Timur, pada bulan Agustus 1973 untuk mengetahui angka parasit usus dan demam keong di daerah tersebut. Dari 146 penduduk yang diperiksa tinjanya ditemukan 99 persen mengandung sekurang-kurangnya satu jenis parasit usus, 85 persen dengan dua jenis atau lebih dan 40 persen dengan tiga jenis atau lebih. Tidak ditemukan bibit penyakit demam keong diantara penduduk didaerah ini. Angka infeksi dari parasit usus tersebut masing-masing adalah Ascaris lumbricoides 96 persen, Trichuris trichiura 84 persen, cacing tambang 25 persen, Entamocba coli 18 persen, Enterobius vermicularis 10 persen, lodamoeba butsehlii 3 persen, Entamoeba histolytica 1 persen dan Giardia lamblia 1 persen. Pada umumnya tidak banyak perbedaan angka infeksi dari parasit usus ini diantara golongan umur dan kelamin kecuali untuk cacing tambang dimana infeksi pada golongan laki-laki lebih banyak dari pada golongan perempuan.

Arbain Joesoef

2012-09-01

138

Changing Patterns of Gastrointestinal Parasite Infections in Cambodian Children: 2006–2011  

OpenAIRE

We studied gastrointestinal parasites in symptomatic Cambodian children attending a provincial hospital in Siem Reap, Cambodia between 2006 and 2011. A total of 16?372 faecal samples were examined by direct microscopy. Parasites were detected in 3121 (19.1%) samples and most common were Giardia lamblia (8.0% of samples; 47.6% disease episodes), hookworm (5.1%; 30.3%) and Strongyloides stercoralis (2.6%; 15.6%). The proportion of infected children increased, and the number of disease episode...

Moore, Ce; Hor, Pc; Soeng, S.; Sun, S.; Lee, Sj; Parry, Cm; Day, Np; Stoesser, N

2012-01-01

139

Changing Patterns of Gastrointestinal Parasite Infections in Cambodian Children: 2006–2011  

Science.gov (United States)

We studied gastrointestinal parasites in symptomatic Cambodian children attending a provincial hospital in Siem Reap, Cambodia between 2006 and 2011. A total of 16?372 faecal samples were examined by direct microscopy. Parasites were detected in 3121 (19.1%) samples and most common were Giardia lamblia (8.0% of samples; 47.6% disease episodes), hookworm (5.1%; 30.3%) and Strongyloides stercoralis (2.6%; 15.6%). The proportion of infected children increased, and the number of disease episodes effectively treated with a single dose of mebendazole decreased, over the 5-year period. PMID:22723077

Hor, Put Chhat; Soeng, Sona; Sun, Sopheary; Lee, Sue J.; Parry, Christopher M.; Day, Nicholas P. J.; Stoesser, Nicole

2012-01-01

140

Changing patterns of gastrointestinal parasite infections in Cambodian children: 2006-2011.  

Science.gov (United States)

We studied gastrointestinal parasites in symptomatic Cambodian children attending a provincial hospital in Siem Reap, Cambodia between 2006 and 2011. A total of 16?372 faecal samples were examined by direct microscopy. Parasites were detected in 3121 (19.1%) samples and most common were Giardia lamblia (8.0% of samples; 47.6% disease episodes), hookworm (5.1%; 30.3%) and Strongyloides stercoralis (2.6%; 15.6%). The proportion of infected children increased, and the number of disease episodes effectively treated with a single dose of mebendazole decreased, over the 5-year period. PMID:22723077

Moore, Catrin E; Hor, Put Chhat; Soeng, Sona; Sun, Sopheary; Lee, Sue J; Parry, Christopher M; Day, Nicholas P J; Stoesser, Nicole

2012-12-01

141

Study on Variation of the Sera Folic Acid, Vitamin B12 and Iron Level in the 6-12 Years Old Patients Infected with Giardia Lamblia in South Tehran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: Protozoa Giardia lambelia is caused to diarrhea in human and other mammals in worldwide. Giardia colonizes in duodenum and earliest jejunum. It can cover the intestinal surface and causes the stateorrhea, malabsorbtion syndrome and absorb disorder of vitamins A, E and D. Investigation the effect of Giardia on the vitamin B12, folic acid and iron of patients were the purpose of this study.Material & Methods: A total of 30 children with giardiasis, aged between 6-12 years- old, selected from 3000 patients, who were admitted to the Emam Khomeiny hospital and diagnosed by stool examinations (direct and formalin-ether methods. Blood of patients and control were collected. Amount of vitamin B12 and folic acid were evaluated with radioimmunoassay and iron was evaluated with Ferene method.Findings: According to the data, folic acid in the patient had no significant difference against control but vitamin B12 and iron in the patient with giardiosis was less than control and the differences were significant (P=0.01, P=0.04 respectively.Conclusion: According to the results diagnosis of giardiosis in the early stage may prohibit intestinal damage and clinical symptoms due to vitamins and mineral elements shortage in the children.

Mohammad Taghi Haghi-Ashtiani

142

Unique phylogenetic position of Diplomonadida based on the complete small subunit ribosomal RNA sequence of Giardia ardeae, G. muris, G. duodenalis and Hexamita sp.  

Science.gov (United States)

Complete small-subunit rRNA (SSU-rRNA) coding region sequences were determined for two species of the intestinal parasite Giardia: G. ardeae and G. muris, both belonging to the order Diplomonadida, and a free-living member of this order, Hexamita sp. These sequences were compared to published SSU-rDNA sequences from a third member of the genus Giardia, G. duodenalis (often called G. intestinalis or G. lamblia) and various representative organisms from other taxa. Of the three Giardia sequences analyzed, the SSU-rRNA from G. muris is the smallest (1432 bases as compared to 1435 and 1453 for G. ardeae and G. duodenalis, respectively) and has the lowest G+C content (58.9%). The Hexamita SSU-rRNA is the largest in this group, containing 1550 bases. Because the sizes of the SSU-rRNA are prokaryotic rather than typically eukaryotic, the secondary structures of the SSU-rRNAs were constructed. These structures show a number of typically eukaryotic signature sequences. Sequence alignments based on constraints imposed by secondary structure were used for construction of a phylogenetic tree for these four taxa. The results show that of the four diplomonads represented, the Giardia species form a distinct group. The other diplomonad Hexamita and the microsporidium Vairimorpha necatrix appear to be distinct from Giardia. PMID:8422968

van Keulen, H; Gutell, R R; Gates, M A; Campbell, S R; Erlandsen, S L; Jarroll, E L; Kulda, J; Meyer, E A

1993-01-01

143

Drinking water treatment processes for removal of Cryptosporidium and Giardia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Major waterborne cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis outbreaks associated with contaminated drinking water have been linked to evidence of suboptimal treatment. Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts are particularly more resistant than Giardia lamblia cysts to removal and inactivation by conventional water treatment (coagulation, sedimentation, filtration and chlorine disinfection); therefore, extensive research has been focused on the optimization of treatment processes and application of new technologies to reduce concentrations of viable/infectious oocysts to a level that prevents disease. The majority of the data on the performance of treatment processes to remove cysts and oocysts from drinking water have been obtained from pilot-tests, with a few studies performed in full-scale conventional water treatment plants. These studies have demonstrated that protozoan cyst removal throughout all stages of the conventional treatment is largely influenced by the effectiveness of coagulation pretreatment, which along with clarification constitutes the first treatment barrier against protozoan breakthrough. Physical removal of waterborne Crytosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts is ultimately achieved by properly functioning conventional filters, providing that effective pretreatment of the water is applied. Disinfection by chemical or physical methods is finally required to inactivate/remove the infectious life stages of these organisms. The effectiveness of conventional (chlorination) and alternative (chlorine dioxide, ozonation and ultra violet [UV] irradiation) disinfection procedures for inactivation of Cryptosporidium has been the focus of much research due to the recalcitrant nature of waterborne oocysts to disinfectants. This paper provides technical information on conventional and alternative drinking water treatment technologies for removal and inactivation of the protozoan parasites Cryptosporidium and Giardia. PMID:15567586

Betancourt, Walter Q; Rose, Joan B

2004-12-01

144

Intestinal parasites and genotyping of Giardia duodenalis in children: first report of genotype B in isolates from human clinical samples in Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Giardia duodenalis is one of the most prevalent enteroparasites in children. This parasite produces several clinical manifestations. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of genotypes of G. duodenalis causing infection in a region of southeastern Mexico. G. duodenalis cysts were iso [...] lated (33/429) from stool samples of children and molecular genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis, targeting the triosephosphate isomerase ( tpi ) and glutamate dehydrogenase ( gdh ) genes. The tpi gene was amplified in all of the cyst samples, either for assemblage A (27 samples) or assemblage B (6 samples). RFLP analysis classified the 27 tpi -A amplicons in assemblage A, subgenotype I. Samples classified as assemblage B were further analysed using PCR-RFLP of the gdh gene and identified as assemblage B, subgenotype III. To our knowledge, this is the first report of assemblage B of G. duodenalis in human clinical samples from Mexico.

Julio César, Torres-Romero; Antonio de Jesus, Euan-Canto; Namibya, Benito-González; Nayely, Padilla-Montaño; Claribel, Huchin-Chan; Julio, Lara-Riegos; Roberto, Cedillo-Rivera.

2014-06-01

145

Longitudinal studies of Giardia contamination in two community drinking water supplies: cyst levels, parasite viability, and health impact.  

OpenAIRE

Giardia cyst concentrations were determined in an inventory of 153 raw and 91 chlorinated drinking water samples collected at 86 sites from throughout the western Canadian province of British Columbia. Sixty-four percent of raw water samples were cyst positive (69% of sites). Cyst concentrations were lower in chlorinated than in raw water. The viability of cysts in drinking water samples assessed by infectivity in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) was decreased in chlorinated water. T...

Isaac-renton, J.; Moorehead, W.; Ross, A.

1996-01-01

146

DIATOMACEOUS EARTH FILTRATION OF 'GIARDIA' CYSTS AND OTHER SUBSTANCES  

Science.gov (United States)

Pilot-plant tests resulted in virtually 100% removals of Giardia lamblia cysts for both coarse and fine grades of diatomaceous earth over a wide range of conditions. Removals of turbidity and total coliform bacteria were functionally dependent on the grade of diatomaceous earth. ...

147

Zoonotic potential of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. and prevalence of intestinal parasites in young dogs from different populations on Prince Edward Island, Canada.  

Science.gov (United States)

The prevalence of Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp. and other intestinal parasites was determined in dogs Intestinal parasites isolated included G. duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., Toxocara canis, Isospora spp. and Uncinaria stenocephala. To estimate the zoonotic risk associated with these infections, genotypes of G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. were determined using 16S rRNA and Hsp70 gene sequencing, respectively. Dogs from the pet store had the highest prevalence of intestinal parasites (78%, 95% CI: 68-88%), followed by the private veterinary clinics (49%, 95% CI: 37-60%), and the local animal shelter (34%, 95% CI: 22-46%). The majority G. duodenalis belonged to host-adapted assemblages D (47%, 95% CI: 31-64%) and C (26%, 95% CI: 13-43%), respectively. Zoonotic assemblages A and B were isolated alone or in mixed infections from 16% (95% CI: 6-31%) of G. duodenalis-positive dogs. All Cryptosporidium spp. were the host-adapted C. canis. While host-adapted, non-zoonotic G. duodenalis genotypes were more common, the presence of G. duodenalis assemblages A and B, T. canis, and U. stenocephala suggests that these dogs may present a zoonotic risk. The zoonotic risk from Cryptosporidium-infected dogs was minimal. PMID:23601666

Uehlinger, Fabienne D; Greenwood, Spencer J; McClure, J Trenton; Conboy, Gary; O'Handley, Ryan; Barkema, Herman W

2013-09-23

148

Comparison of Routine Method with Antibody and Antigen Ones for Diagnosing Giardia-Entamoeba Histolytica in Stool and Blood  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica are the most prevalent human intestinal pathogenic protozoa, worldwide. The clinical features of Giardia infection are acute diarrhea, a chronic condition with continuous diarrhea and malabsorption. Entamoeba histolytica invade intestinal tract without any typical clinical indications, and it can involve liver and other organs too. Therefore, we aimed to study these protozoa by serological and parasitological methods. Material and Methods: In this comparative study, the stool and blood specimens were collected from 1025 patients selected via simple random sampling in three different laboratories located in Tehran and Karaj, Iran (2012. Formalin Detergent test was performed on all samples. Both serum and stool positive samples of this method were analyzed for antigen and antibodies related to Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica, respectively. Results: of 1025 stool specimens, 76 (4.7% were positive for Giardia lamblia and 19 (1.8% for Entamoeba histolytica using Formalin-detergent method. In ELISA, 81 (7.9% coproantibodies to Giardia lamblia and 24 (2.3% coproantibodies to Entamoeba histolytica, 78 (7.6% corproantigen for Giardia lamblia, and 5 (0.4% for Entamoeba histolytica were observed. circulatory antibodies to Entamoeba histlytica were detected in 22 cases (2.1% Conclusion: Sensitivity of microscopic method compared to serological methods is higher than 90%; therefore, Formalin-detergent method can be the best method for stool examination.

Gharavi, MJ. (PhD

2015-01-01

149

In vitro activity of 'Mexican Arnica' Heterotheca inuloides Cass natural products and some derivatives against Giardia intestinalis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardiasis is a gastrointestinal disease that affects humans and other animals caused by parasitic protists of the genus Giardia. Giardia intestinalis (Syn. Giardia lamblia; Giardia duodenalis) infections can cause acute or chronic diarrhoea, dehydration, abdominal discomfort and weight loss. Metronidazole is the most widely used drug for treating giardiasis. Although effective, metronidazol has undesirable secondary effects. Plants used in traditional medicine as antidiarrhoeals or antiparasitics may represent alternative sources for new compounds to treat giardiasis. Heterotheca inuloides Cass. (Asteraceae/Compositae) plant is widely used in Mexican traditional medicine. The following secondary metabolites were isolated from H. inuloides flowers: 7-hydroxy-3,4-dihydrocadalene (1), 7-hydroxycadalene (2), 3,7-dihydroxy-3(4H)-isocadalen-4-one (3), 1R,4R-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrocadalen-15-oic acid (4), quercetin (5), quercetin-3,7,3'-trimethyl ether (6), quercetin-3,7,3',4'-tetramethyl ether (7) and eriodictyol-7,4'-dimethyl ether (8). The activity of these compounds against Giardia intestinalis trophozoites was assessed in vitro as was the activity of the semisynthetic compounds 7-acetoxy-3,4-dihydrocadalene (9), 7-benzoxy-3,4-dihydrocadalene (10), 7-acetoxycadalene (11), 7-benzoxycadalene (12), quercetin pentaacetate (13) and 7-hydroxycalamenene (14). Among these, 7-hydroxy-3,4-dihydrocadalene (1) and 7-hydroxycalamenene (14) were the most active, whereas the remaining compounds showed moderate or no activity. The G. intestinalis trophozoites exposed to compound 1 showed marked changes in cellular architecture along with ultrastructural disorganization. The aim of this study was to evaluate the giardicidal activity of selected H. inuloides metabolites and some semisynthetic derivatives using an in vitro experimental model of giardiasis. PMID:25363565

Rodríguez-Chávez, José Luis; Rufino-González, Yadira; Ponce-Macotela, Martha; Delgado, Guillermo

2015-04-01

150

Novel lineages of Giardia intestinalis identified by genetic analysis of organisms isolated from dogs in Australia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Infection of suckling mice with Giardia trophozoites recovered from the intestines of 11 dogs autopsied in Central and Southern Australia in each case produced an established isolate. In contrast, only 1 isolate was obtained by inoculation of faecal cysts. The organisms grew poorly in comparison with isolates from humans or non-canine animal hosts. Light microscopy revealed that the trophozoites had median bodies with the 'claw hammer' appearance typical of G. intestinalis (syn. G. duodenalis, G. lamblia) but that they differed in shape and nuclear morphology from axenic isolates of human or canine origin. Allozymic analysis of electrophoretic data representing 26 loci and phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences obtained from DNA amplified from the glutamate dehydrogenase locus showed that the 11 isolates examined from Australian dogs were genetically distinct from all isolates of G. intestinalis that have been established previously from humans and animals, and also from G. muris. Both analytical methods placed 10 of the Australian canine isolates into a unique genetic lineage (designated Assemblage C) and the eleventh into a deep-rooted second branch (designated Assemblage D), each well separated from the 2 lineages (Assemblages A and B) of G. intestinalis that encompass all the genotypes known to infect humans. In contrast, 4 axenic isolates derived from dogs in Canada and Europe (the only other isolates to have been established from dogs) have genotypes characteristic of genetic Assemblages A or B. The findings indicate that the novel Giardia identified in these rural Australian dogs have a restricted host range, possibly confined to canine species. The poor success rate in establishing Giardia from dogs in vitro suggests, further, that similar genotypes may predominate as canine parasites world-wide. The absence of such organisms among isolates of Giardia that have been established from humans by propagation in suckling mice indicates that they are unlikely to infect humans. However, infection of humans by those dog-derived genotypes that grow in vitro cannot be excluded. PMID:9481769

Monis, P T; Andrews, R H; Mayrhofer, G; Mackrill, J; Kulda, J; Isaac-Renton, J L; Ey, P L

1998-01-01

151

Parasitic Infections among Restaurant Workers in Mukalla (Hadhramout/Yemen  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "nBackground: To identify intestinal parasites among restaurant workers in Mukalla, Yemen in 2007."nMethods: Stool specimens were collected and examined from a total of 500 restaurant workers at Hadhramout University Health Center .Three types of techniques were used: direct examination, saline sedimentation and formol-ether concentration."nResults:  The positivity in majority of them was single infection whereas 6 cases were double infection that constituted 1.3% of the prevalence. The prevalence was 14.8 % for Entamoeba histolytica/dispor, and 5.2 % for Giardia lamblia, while it was 4.4% for Hymenolepis nana. Other intestinal parasites including Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostoma duodinale were also detected. Additionally, the blood parasite Schistosoma mansoni was also detected in 4 cases. The double infection was only with E. histolytica/dispor and Giardia. The infection with these parasites was also accompanied by abdominal troubles "diarrhea, constipation", nausea and vomiting."nConclusion:  These results lead to understand that sanitary measurements are not effective, and this hazardous situation facilitate parasitic agents' distribution among clients. The effectiveness of current pre-employment screening policy must be annual and systematic surveillance is needed in addition to health education.

AM AL-Haddad

2008-09-01

152

Parasitas intestinais em centros de educação infantil municipal de Lages, SC, Brasil / Intestinal parasites in nursey schools of Lages, southern Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Infecção por enteroparasitas foi avaliada em 200 crianças em idade escolar, residentes em Lages. A prevalência geral entre helmintos e protozoários foi de 70,5% com 61,4% no sexo masculino e 74,5% no feminino. Os parasitos mais prevalentes foram Ascaris lumbricoides (35%), Giardia lamblia (14%) e Tr [...] ichuris trichiura (13%). Abstract in english Two hundred chinldren from nursery schools in Lages, southern Brazil, were associated as to parasitic ibfections. The overall prevalence of helminths and protozoa was 70.5%, affecting 61.4% of male and 74.5% of female children. The most prevalent parasites were Ascaris lumbricoides (35%), Giardia la [...] mbia (14%) e Trichuris trichiura (13%).

Rosiléia Marinho de, Quadros; Sandra, Marques; Andréia Aparecida Ribeiro, Arruda; Patrícia Simone Wolff Rosa, Delfes; Íris Aparecida Azevedo, Medeiros.

2004-10-01

153

Intestinal parasitic infections in renal transplant recipients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The impact of intestinal parasitic infection in renal transplant recipients requires careful consideration in the developing world. However, there have been very few studies addressing this issue in Iran. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in renal transplant recipients in Iran. Stool specimens from renal transplant recipients and control groups were obtained between June 2006 and January 2007. The samples screened for intestinal parasitic infections using direct smear, formalin-ether sedimentation, Sheather's flotation and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining methods. Out of 150 renal transplant recipients, 33.3% (50, and out of 225 control group, 20% (45 were infected with one or more type of intestinal parasites. The parasites detected among patients included Entamoeba coli (10.6%, Endolimax nana (8.7%, Giardia lamblia (7.4%, Blastocystis spp. (4.7%, Iodamoeba butschlii (0.7%, Chilomastix mesnili (0.7% and Ascaris lumbricoides (0.7%. Multiple infections were more common among renal transplant recipients group (p < 0.05. This study highlights the importance of testing for intestinal parasites among Iranian renal transplant recipients. Routine examinations of stool samples for parasites would significantly benefit the renal transplant recipients by contributing to reduce severe infections.

Mehdi Azami

2010-02-01

154

Intestinal parasitic infections in renal transplant recipients.  

Science.gov (United States)

The impact of intestinal parasitic infection in renal transplant recipients requires careful consideration in the developing world. However, there have been very few studies addressing this issue in Iran. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in renal transplant recipients in Iran. Stool specimens from renal transplant recipients and control groups were obtained between June 2006 and January 2007. The samples screened for intestinal parasitic infections using direct smear, formalin-ether sedimentation, Sheather's flotation and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining methods. Out of 150 renal transplant recipients, 33.3% (50), and out of 225 control group, 20% (45) were infected with one or more type of intestinal parasites. The parasites detected among patients included Entamoeba coli (10.6%), Endolimax nana (8.7%), Giardia lamblia (7.4%), Blastocystis spp. (4.7%), Iodamoeba butschlii (0.7%), Chilomastix mesnili (0.7%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (0.7%). Multiple infections were more common among renal transplant recipients group (p < 0.05). This study highlights the importance of testing for intestinal parasites among Iranian renal transplant recipients. Routine examinations of stool samples for parasites would significantly benefit the renal transplant recipients by contributing to reduce severe infections. PMID:20428648

Azami, Mehdi; Sharifi, Mehran; Hejazi, Sayed Hossein; Tazhibi, Mehdi

2010-01-01

155

[Intestinal parasitic diseases in HIV-infected patients in Uzbekistan].  

Science.gov (United States)

Intestinal parasitic diseases were diagnosed in 100 HIV-infected patients at different stages of disease (its asymptomatic form, persistent generalized lymphoadenopathy, pre-AIDS, and AIDS) (Group 1), 100 Tashkent residents (Group 2), and 349 patients with gastrointestinal diseases, allergic dermatoses, and skin depigmentation foci (Group 3). The HIV-infected patients were found to have virtually all parasites, such as Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium parvum, Chilomastix mesnili, Entamoeba coli, Iodamoeba butschlii, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Endolimax nana, Blastocystis hominis, Enlerobius vermicularis, Ascaris lumbricoides, Hymenolepis nana, detectable in the population of Tashkent. The highest infestation with intestinal protozoa, including nonpathogenic amoebas and helmninths, was found in Groups 1 and 3. However, in all the forms of HIV infection, the infestation with E. histolytical/dispar was 10 times greater than that in Groups 2 and 3 (1% and 0.8%, respectively). G. lamblia was detected in 16, 21, and 45.2% in Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. In all the HIV-infected patients, the content of CD8 lymphocytes was increased, but that of CD20 lymphocytes was normal. Parasites were detectable with different levels of CD4 lymphocytes, but C. parvum was found only if its count was > 200/ml. In the HIV-infected patients, the hyperproduction of IgE was caused mainly by helminths rather than protozoa. In these patients, the increased level of IgE was also noted in the absence of parasites. PMID:16212098

Nurtaev, Kh S; Badalova, N S; Zalialieva, M V; Osipova, S O

2005-01-01

156

Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, Enterocytozoon bieneusi and other intestinal parasites in young children in Lobata province, Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Principe.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rare systemic studies concerning prevalence of intestinal parasites in children have been conducted in the second smallest country in Africa, the Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe. Fecal specimens from 348 children (214 in-hospital attending the Aires de Menezes Hospital and 134 from Agostinho Neto village) in São Tome Island were studied by parasitological and molecular methods. Of the 134 children from Agostinho Neto, 52.2% presented intestinal parasites. 32.1% and 20.2% of these children had monoparasitism and polyparasitism, respectively. Ascaris lumbricoides (27.6%), G. duodenalis (7.5%), T. trichiura (4.5%) and Entamoeba coli (10.5%) were the more frequent species identified in the children of this village. Giardia duodenalis (7.5%) and E. bieneusi (5.2%) were identified by PCR. Nested-PCR targeting G. duodenalis TPI identified Assemblage A (60%) and Assemblage B (40%). The E. bieneusi ITS-based sequence identified genotypes K (57.1%), KIN1 (28.6%) and KIN3 (14.3%). Among the 214 in-hospital children, 29.4% presented intestinal parasites. In 22.4% and 7.0% of the parasitized children, respectively, one or more species were concurrently detected. By microscopy, A. lumbricoides (10.3%) and Trichiuris trichiura (6.5%) were the most prevalent species among these children, and Cryptosporidium was detected by PCR in 8.9% of children. GP60 locus analysis identified 6.5% of C. hominis (subtypes IaA27R3 [35.7%], IaA23R3 [14.3%], IeA11G3T3 [28.6%] and IeA11G3T3R1 [21.4%]) and 2.3% of C. parvum (subtypes IIaA16G2R1 [20.0%], IIaA15G2R1 [20.0%], IIdA26G1 [40.0%] and IIdA21G1a [20.0%]). G. duodenalis and E. bieneusi were identified in 0.5% and 8.9% of the in-hospital children, respectively. G. duodenalis Assemblage B was characterized. The E. bieneusi genotypes K (52.6%), D (26.4%), A (10.5%) and KIN1 (10.5%) were identified. Although further studies are required to clarify the epidemiology of these infectious diseases in this endemic region the significance of the present results highlights that it is crucial to strength surveillance on intestinal pathogens. PMID:24846205

Lobo, Maria Luísa; Augusto, João; Antunes, Francisco; Ceita, José; Xiao, Lihua; Codices, Vera; Matos, Olga

2014-01-01

157

Recent Advances in Molecular Biology of Parasitic Viruses.  

Science.gov (United States)

The numerous protozoa that can inhabit the human gastro-intestinal tract are known, yet little is understood of the viruses which infect these protozoa. The discovery, morphologic details, purification methods of virus-like particles, genome and proteome of the parasitic viruses, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, Trichomonas vaginalis, and the Eimeria sp. are described in this review. The protozoan viruses share many common features: most of them are RNA or double-stranded RNA viruses, ranging between 5 and 8 kilobases, and are spherical or icosahedral in shape with an average diameter of 30-40 nm. These viruses may influence the function and pathogenicity of the protozoa which they infect, and may be important to investigate from a clinical perspective. The viruses may be used as specific genetic transfection vectors for the parasites and may represent a research tool. This review provides an overview on recent advances in the field of protozoan viruses. PMID:25019235

Banik, Gouri Rani; Stark, Damien; Rashid, Harunor; Ellis, John T

2014-07-13

158

HUMAN PARASITIC INFECTIONS IN BALI : A REVIEW  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Parasitic infections in humans in Bali are well documented, especially in the population who lived in rural areas. The most common infections are those of the soil-transmitted helminthiasis which are caused by Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm showing prevalence rates of 40 - 95%, 25 - 90% and 20 - 70% respectively. Enterobius vermicularis prevalence rate has been reported to be 18 - 53%. Taenniasis prevalence rate has been documented to be 0.8 - 23% in some villages, where Taenia saginata was found to be more prevalent than Taenia solium, and this might be due to the eating habit of the Balinese people who consumed both pork and beef lawar. Malaria is still found in Bali especially in regions along the coasts of some regencies, although generally the infection rate is low. The prevalence rates of intestinal protozoa such as Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica, Balantidium coli have been occasionally reported in low percentages.

Putu Sutisna

2012-09-01

159

Parasitismo intestinal en una población infantil venezolana / Intestinal parasitism in a Venezuelan pediatric population  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y transversal de 146 niños con parasitismo intestinal, como muestra representativa de los 227 pacientes de 0-14 años, pertenecientes al Sector 8, Parroquia de Cartanal, Estado Miranda, de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela, en el período 2007- 2008, a fin de cara [...] cterizarles según variables de interés. En la serie predominaron el grupo etario de 0 a 4 años, el sexo masculino, la Giardia lamblia como parásito más frecuente, además de la anemia, la diarrea persistente y el síndrome diarreico agudo como complicaciones más comunes. A fin de minimizar este problema, se recomendó incrementar las actividades de educación sanitaria a la población, para así promover hábitos y estilos de vida saludables. Abstract in english A descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted in 146 children with intestinal parasitism as a representative sample of 227 patients at age 0-14 years, belonging to the Sector 8, Cartanal parish, Miranda State, of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, from 2007 to 2008, in order to characteri [...] ze them according to variates of interest. In the series the age group of 0 to 4 years, male sex and Giardia lamblia as the most frequent parasite predominated, as well as anemia, persistent diarrhea and acute diarrheal syndrome as the most common complications. To resolve this problem, it was recommended to increase health education activities in the population, thus promoting healthy habits and lifestyles

Heriberto, Arencibia Sosa; José Luis, Lobaina Lafita; Carlos, Terán Guardia; Rafael, Legrá Rodríguez; Aylin, Arencibia Aquino.

2013-05-01

160

Frequency of Intestinal Parasites in Tehran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "nBackground: For a long time, intestinal parasite infections are among the major problems of public health in Iran. Our aim was epidemiological studies on the frequency of intestinal parasites in patients re­ferred to three hospitals in Tehran during 2007-2008."nMethods: During 2007-2008, by simple random selection, 1000 stool samples were collected from Mi­lad, Hazrat-e-Rasoul and Shahid Fahmideh hospitals in Tehran, Iran. We examined the samples using di­rect smear, formol-ethyl acetate concentration, Agar-plate culture and Ziehl-Neelsen staining tech­nique."nResults: The frequency of intestinal parasites were: Blastocystis hominis 12.8%, Giardia lamblia 2.5%, En­tamoeba coli 4.8%, Iodamoeba butschlli 0.9%, unknown 4 nuclei cysts 0.4%, Endolimax nana 3.2%, Chilomastix mesnili 0.4%, Strongyloides stercoralis 0.1%, Hymenolepis nana 0.2% and Taenia sagi­nata 0.2%. Coccidian parasites were not found. Results show that infection with intestinal parasites does not statistically significant according to sex and age."nConclusion: The intestinal parasites, especially helminthic infections have been decreased during re­cent years.

H Oormazdi

2009-05-01

161

Intestinal Parasites Prevalence in Children from Day Care Centers in Sinop City-MT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the intestinal parasitosis prevalence of children from municipal day care centers in Sinop MT. Respecting ethical principles established by Resolution 196/96 of Health National Council/Ministry of Health of quantitative research, the anonymity of participants, as well accept and signature of parents of the Term of Free and Enlightened Consent were performed. Between Junes to October 2012 were applied coproparasitological methods for investigation. Fecal samples were analyzed by Hoffmans methods. From 103 students examined observed the prevalence rate of 19.42% of intestinal parasites. The intestinal parasites with highest prevalence rate were: Giardia lamblia (9.70% and Endolimax nana (5.82%. The results of this study demonstrate the need for sensitization of the population front of diagnosis importance, treatment and monitoring of positive cases and the necessity of more health professionals attention, especially with children.Key-words: Intestinal parasites, day care centers, children.

B. Muchiutti

2013-03-01

162

Review of zoonotic parasites in medical and veterinary fields in the Republic of Korea.  

Science.gov (United States)

Zoonotic parasites are animal parasites that can infect humans. The major zoonotic protozoa in the Republic of Korea are Babesia bovis, Chilomastix mesnili, Cryptosporidium parvum, Endolimax nana, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba hitolytica, Giardia lamblia, Iodamoeba bütschlii, Pneumocystis carinii, Sarcocystis cruzi, and Toxoplasma gondii. The major zoonotic helminths in Korea include trematodes, cestodes, and nematodes. Trematodes are Clonorchis sinensis, Echinostoma hortense, Echinostoma spp., Fasciola hepatica, Heterophyes nocens, Metagonimus yokogawai, and Paragonimus westermani. Cestodes are Diphyllobothrium latum, Dipylidium caninum, Echinococcus granulosus, Hymenolepis nana, Raillietina tetragona, sparganum (Spirometra spp.), Taenia saginata, T. solium, and T. asiatica. Nematodes are Ancylostoma caninum, Brugia malayi, Capillaria hepatica, Dirofilaria immitis, Gnathostoma dololesi, Gnathostoma spinigerum, Loa loa, Onchocerca gibsoni, Strongyloides stercoralis, Thelazia callipaeda, Trichinella spiralis, Trichostrongylus orientalis, Trichuris trichiura, and Trichuris vulpis. The one arthropod is Sarcoptes scabiei. Many of these parasites have disappeared or were in decline after the 1990's. Since the late 1990's, the important zoonotic protozoa have been C. parvum, E. nana, E. coli, E. hitolytica, G. lamblia, I. buetschlii, P. carinii and T. gondii. The important zoonotic helminths have been C. sinensis, H. nocens, M. yokogawai, P. westermani, D. latum, T. asiatica, sparganum, B. malayi, T. orientalis, T. callipaeda and T. spiralis. However, outbreaks of these parasites are only in a few endemic areas. The outbreaks of Enterobius vermicularis and head lice, human parasites, have recently increased in the kindergartens and primary schools in the Republic of Korea. PMID:19885329

Youn, Heejeong

2009-10-01

163

ANALYSIS OF INACTIVATION OF GIARDIA LAMBLIA BY CHLORINE  

Science.gov (United States)

Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act (PL-93-523) highlight the continuing problem of waterborne disease by mandating the EPA to promulgate: (1) Criteria by which filtration will be required for surface water supplies; and (2) disinfection requirements for all water supplies ...

164

DETERMINATION OF THE USE OF SOLID PARTICLE SAMPLERS FOR 'GIARDIA' CYSTS IN NATURAL WATERS  

Science.gov (United States)

The primary objective of this study was to improve the current methodology for concentrating, recovering, and detecting cysts of Giardia lamblia in water supplies. Two sampling processes for the concentration of cysts were examined. One process was diatomaceous earth filtration w...

165

Intestinal parasitic infections in renal transplant recipients  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The impact of intestinal parasitic infection in renal transplant recipients requires careful consideration in the developing world. However, there have been very few studies addressing this issue in Iran. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in rena [...] l transplant recipients in Iran. Stool specimens from renal transplant recipients and control groups were obtained between June 2006 and January 2007. The samples screened for intestinal parasitic infections using direct smear, formalin-ether sedimentation, Sheather's flotation and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining methods. Out of 150 renal transplant recipients, 33.3% (50), and out of 225 control group, 20% (45) were infected with one or more type of intestinal parasites. The parasites detected among patients included Entamoeba coli (10.6%), Endolimax nana (8.7%), Giardia lamblia (7.4%), Blastocystis spp. (4.7%), Iodamoeba butschlii (0.7%), Chilomastix mesnili (0.7%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (0.7%). Multiple infections were more common among renal transplant recipients group (p

Mehdi, Azami; Mehran, Sharifi; Sayed Hossein, Hejazi; Mehdi, Tazhibi.

2010-02-01

166

Evaluation of the EasyScreen™ enteric parasite detection kit for the detection of Blastocystis spp., Cryptosporidium spp., Dientamoeba fragilis, Entamoeba complex, and Giardia intestinalis from clinical stool samples.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the EasyScreen™ Enteric Parasite Detection Kit (Genetic Signatures, Sydney, Australia) for the detection and identification of 5 common enteric parasites: Blastocystis spp., Cryptosporidium spp., Dientamoeba fragilis, Entamoeba complex, and Giardia intestinalis in human clinical samples. A total of 358 faecal samples were included in the study. When compared to real-time PCR and microscopy, the EasyScreen™ Enteric Parasite Detection Kit exhibited 92-100% sensitivity and 100% specificity and detected all commonly found genotypes and subtypes of clinically important human parasites. No cross reactivity was detected in stool samples containing various other bacterial, viral, and/or protozoan species. The EasyScreen™ PCR assay was able to provide rapid, sensitive, and specific simultaneous detection and identification of the 5 most important diarrhoea-causing enteric parasites that infect humans. It should be noted, however, that the EasyScreen™ Kit does not substitute for microscopy or for additional PCRs as it does not detect the pathogenic Coccidia spp. Cystoisospora belli or Cyclospora cayetanensis and it does not differentiate between pathogenic and nonpathogenic Entamoeba spp. This study also highlights the lack of sensitivity demonstrated by microscopy; as such, molecular methods should be considered the diagnostic method of choice for enteric parasites. PMID:24286625

Stark, D; Roberts, T; Ellis, J T; Marriott, D; Harkness, J

2014-02-01

167

Prevalência de parasitismo intestinal nas aldeias indígenas da tribo Tembé, Amazônia Oriental Brasileira Prevalence of intestinal parasitism in Tembé tribe indian settlements, Brazilian Eastern Amazon  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Para determinar a prevalência de enteroparasitismo nas aldeias Tembé, foi realizado um inquérito coproparasitológico em toda a população (93 índios, em dezembro de 1996. Os parasitos mais freqüentes foram ancilostomídeos (29,0%, Ascaris lumbricoides (34,4%, Entamoeba histolytica (12,9% e Giardia lamblia (4,3%. As maiores prevalências de ancilostomídeos e A. lumbricoides foram observadas na aldeia Turé-Mariquita, enquanto que as de E. histolytica e G. lamblia na Acará-Mirim. Não foi observada diferença significativa sob ponto de vista prático entre a média de idade dos índios parasitados e a dos não parasitados. Sexo esteve relacionado apenas a freqüência de ancilostomídeos, bem maior no sexo masculino. Desse modo, a prevalência de enteroparasitas ainda se encontra elevada para alguns agentes, sugerindo que as medidas de atenção devem ser imediatamente incrementadas a fim de se obterem resultados mais positivos no combate ao enteroparasitismo.To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitism in the Tembé settlements, parasitological examination was performed in December 1996 in the entire population (93 Indians. Hookworms were found in 29.0%, A. lumbricoides in 34.4%, E. histolytica in 12.9%, and G. lamblia in 4.3% of the individuals. The Turé-Mariquita settlement had the highest prevalence of hookworms and A. lumbricoides, while Acará-Mirim had the highest prevalence of E. histolytica and G. lamblia. No differences in mean age were found between Indians with parasites and Indians without parasites. The association between intestinal parasites and sex was nonsignificant, except for the prevalence of hookworms, which was very high in males (38.6% compared to females (20.4%. The study showed a high prevalence of some intestinal parasites in the Tembé settlements, indicating that primary and secondary health measures should taken immediately for the prevention of intestinal parasitoses

Rogério dos Anjos Miranda

1999-08-01

168

Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in the Greek population: local people and refugees  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available SUMMARY A total of 455 faecal samples from the Greek population and refugees was examined and 18.02% were found to be infected with one or more species of parasites. The prevalence of infection with intestinal parasites of the Greek (264 population was 11.36% and that of foreigners (191 originating from Europe, Africa and Asia was 27.23%. Found were a protozoan parasites: Blastocystis hominis, Cryptosporidium parvum, Entamoeba coli and Giardia lamblia (found in both groups examined and b metazoan parasites: Enterobius vermicularis, Taenia spp. and Strongyloides stercoralis (in both groups and Ancylostoma duodenale, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and Schistosoma mansoni (only in foreigners. Among the parasites found in foreigners only the helminth species A. duodenale and S. mansoni are considered as imported parasites from tropical and subtropical regions to European countries. The use of the multiple logistic regression showed that the odds ratio comparing Greeks to refugees, adjusted for age and gender, was 3.8 for Africans, 3.0 for Europeans and 2.6 for Asians. No correlation was found between age, gender or symptoms (diarrhea or abdominal pain with the presence of parasites. The overall prevalence of infection with parasites was high in both the Greek population and refugees and therefore a screening for parasite infection is recommended for the prevention of further spread of the infections. Key words: parasites, immigrants, Greece

M.G. Papazahariadou, E.G. Papadopoulos S.E. Frydas, Ch. Mavrovouniotis,T.C. Constantinidis, K. Antoniadou-Sotiriadou,

2007-03-01

169

The biology of Giardia spp.  

OpenAIRE

Gardia spp. are flagellated protozoans that parasitize the small intestines of mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians. The infectious cysts begin excysting in the acidic environment of the stomach and become trophozoites (the vegetative form). The trophozoites attach to the intestinal mucosa through the suction generated by a ventral disk and cause diarrhea and malabsorption by mechanisms that are not well understood. Giardia spp. have a number of unique features, including a predominantly ...

Adam, R. D.

1991-01-01

170

Zoonotic Parasites of Bobcats around Human Landscapes  

OpenAIRE

We analyzed Lynx rufus fecal parasites from California and Colorado, hypothesizing that bobcats shed zoonotic parasites around human landscapes. Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium, Ancylostoma, Uncinaria, and Toxocara cati were shed. Toxoplasma gondii serology demonstrated exposure. Giardia and Cryptosporidium shedding increased near large human populations. Genotyped Giardia may indicate indirect transmission with humans.

Carver, Scott; Scorza, Andrea V.; Bevins, Sarah N.; Riley, Seth P. D.; Crooks, Kevin R.; Vandewoude, Sue; Lappin, Michael R.

2012-01-01

171

SUMOylation and deimination of proteins: two epigenetic modifications involved in Giardia encystation.  

Science.gov (United States)

SUMOylation, a posttranslational modification of proteins, has been recently described as vital in eukaryotic cells. In a previous work, we analyzed the role of SUMO protein and the genes encoding the putative enzymes of the SUMOylation pathway in the parasite Giardia lamblia. Although we observed several SUMOylated proteins, only the enzyme Arginine Deiminase (ADI) was confirmed as a SUMOylated substrate. ADI is involved in the survival of the parasite and, besides its role in ATP production, it also catalyzes the modification of arginine residues to citrulline in the cytoplasmic tail of surface proteins. During encystation, however, ADI translocates to the nuclei and downregulates the expression of the Cyst Wall Protein 2 (CWP2). In this work, we made site-specific mutation of the ADI SUMOylation site (Lys101) and observed that transgenic trophozoites did not translocate to the nuclei at the first steps of encystation but shuttled in the nuclei late during this process through classic nuclear localization signals. Inside the nuclei, ADI acts as a peptidyl arginine deiminase, being probably involved in the downregulation of CWPs expression and cyst wall formation. Our results strongly indicate that ADI plays a regulatory role during encystation in which posttranslational modifications of proteins are key players. PMID:24751693

Vranych, Cecilia V; Rivero, María R; Merino, María C; Mayol, Gonzalo F; Zamponi, Nahuel; Maletto, Belkys A; Pistoresi-Palencia, María C; Touz, María C; Rópolo, Andrea S

2014-09-01

172

HUMAN PARASITE SURVEY ON NASI AND BERAS ISLANDS ACEH PROVINCE, SUMATRA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Survey parasit usus dan darah manusia terhadap penduduk pulau-pulau Nasi/Beras Propinsi Aceh, Sumatra, telah diadakan dihulan Januari, 1975. Sebanyak 83 pulasan darah dari 67 pria dan 16 wanita, serta 87 contoh tinja diperoleh dari 52 pria dan 35 wanita. Brugia malayi microfilaria ditemukan dalam 3 atau 3 persen dari darah yang diperiksa dan juga parasitemia yang disebabkan oleh Plasmodium malariae 1 atau 1 persen dan P. falciparum 2 atau 2 persen. Trichuris trichiura (86 persen , merupakan parasit usus yang paling banyak ditemukan, diikuti oleh cacing tambang (77 persen, Ascaris lumbricoides (60 persen, Entamoeba histolyrica (11 per sen, H. coli (10 persen . Endolimax nana hanya 5 atau 6 persen dan Iodamoeba butschlii dan Giardia lamblia, masing-masing 3 persen. Tidak ada ditemukan Schistosoma japonicum atau pun ova cestoda diantara penduduk yang diperiksa.

E. E. Stafford

2012-09-01

173

PARASITES OF MAN IN SERANG, WEST JAVA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Survey penyakit menular didesa Cikurai dan Barengkok, Jawa Barat pada bulan Juni 1974 ini adalah merupakan salah satu dari serangkaian survey yang dilakukan oleh Direktorat Jenderal P3.M. Dep. Kes. dan US Namru-2 guna menentukan distribusi dan prevalensi penyakit terutama malaria, filariasis dan penyakit parasit perut. Khususnya didaerah Cikurai dimana dilaporkan adanya Schistosoma in­cognitum secara hyperenzootik maka perlulah dilihat apakah parasit ini ditemukan pula diantara pend-duk setempat. Dari hasil survey didesa Cikurai dan Barengkok, Jawa Barat ini dilihat bahwa Plasmodium falciparum ditemukan pada 8 atau 3 persen dari sediaan darah 261 penduduk yang diperiksa dan tidak terlihat adanya microfilariae. Parasit perut yang menonjol terlihat pada sediaan tinja dari 335 penduduk yang diperiksa adalah Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura dan cacing tambang masing-masing sebesar 89 persen, 87 persen dan 65 persen ; parasit lainnya adalah Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba hart manni, Entamoeba coli, Endolinuu nana, lodamoeba butschlii, Giardia lamblia, Chilomastvc mesnili, Enterobius vermicularis, dan Echinostoma sp. Tidak terlihat adanya Schistosoma incognitum pada sediaan tinja dari 335 penduduk yang diperiksa dikedua desa ini.

W. P. Carney

2012-09-01

174

Intestinal parasitic infection among children and neonatus admitted to Ibn-Sina Hospital, Sirt, Libya.  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of 350 stool samples from 196 males and 154 female children and neonatus admitted in Ibn-Sina hospital, Sirt, were examined from June 2001 to May 2002, to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites. Intestinal parasitic infections were identified in 196 (56%) of children and neonates. No intestinal helminthic parasites were detected but 13 intestinal protozoan parasites were detected. The most prevalent protozoan was Entamoeba histolytica /E. dispar (36.57%); Blastocystis hominis (12.57%), Giardia lamblia (10.29%), Isospora belli (3.14%) and Balantidium coli (0.86%), the latter was detected in non-Libyan children. The non-pathogenic ones were Entamoeba coli (15.14%), Endolimax nana (13.71%), Entamoeba hartmanni (4.29%), Chilomastix mesnilli (4.29%), Retortamonas intestinalis (3.43%), Dientamoeba fragilis (2%), Iodamoeba butschlii (0.86%) and Trichomonas hominis (0.86%). The result showed a significant difference exists between the prevalence of pathogenic and non-pathogenic protozoan parasites (P < 0.05). High prevalence of E. histolytica/ E. dispar followed by E. coli, E. nana, B. hominis and G. lamblia in both sexes of children, while the prevalence of other intestinal parasites were low in both sexes, significantly different existed in the prevalence of intestinal parasites between males and females children (t = 24.68; P < 0.05). Age groups had no effect on the prevalence of intestinal parasites (F = 0.66; P < 0.05). Significant differences existed in the prevalence between single and multiple infections with pathogenic protozoa. The socio-economic status of children parents revealed that high prevalence in children from medium socio-economic status. The family size had no significant effect on the prevalence of the intestinal parasites. PMID:17985574

Kasssem, Hamed H; Zaed, Hana Abdalsalam; Sadaga, Gazala A

2007-08-01

175

Ocorrência de Giardia spp. em bezerros leiteiros no Brasil Occurrence of Giardia spp. in dairy calves in Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fecal samples were collected from 50 female Holstein calves (1-90 days old from a commercial dairy cattle farm located in Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil and examined for presence of Giardia cysts using the zinc sulfate flotation method. A total of 120 samples were collected from March 1999 to April 2000, and fecal consistency (normal or diarrheic was noted prior to the examination for Giardia cysts. Giardia spp. cysts were found in 11 (9% of the 120 faecal samples of calves co-infected with Eimeria spp., in calves from 19 to 58 days of age (38±19. In 82% (9/11 calves assessed for mixed infections with Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia, oocysts of Cryptosporidium were found in three out of four diarrheic calves (75% positive for Giardia. Giardia cysts (n= 30 sized 13-16 x 10-12µm (mean of 15 x 11µm. They appeared to belong to the morphological group of G. intestinallis according to the size and morphological characteristic of the cysts. This is the first detection of Giardia spp. in calves in Brazil. Considering that Giardia has the potential to cause clinical disease in calves and that organisms infecting humans and domestic ruminants are morphologically and antigenically similar, and calves can shed Giardia cysts potentially infective for humans, the parasite in calves may be of major epidemiological significance, and suggests that naturally infected calves may be reservoirs of Giardia infections for man.

A.M. Guimarães

2001-12-01

176

Population-based laboratory surveillance for Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. infections in a large Canadian health region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Giardia lamblia (intestinalis and Cryptosporidium parvum are the two most important intestinal parasites infecting North Americans but there is a paucity of active population-based surveillance data from Canada. This study determined the incidence of and demographic risk factors for developing Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. infections in a general Canadian population. Methods Population-based laboratory surveillance was conducted among all residents of the Calgary Health Region (CHR; population ? 1 million during May 1, 1999 and April 30, 2002. Results Giardia sp. infection occurred at a rate of 19.6 per 100,000 populations per year. Although the yearly incidence was stable, a significant seasonal variation was observed with a peak in late summer to early fall. Males were at higher risk for development of this infection as compared to females (21.2 vs. 17.9 per 100,000/yr; relative risk (RR 1.19; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.00–1.40, p = 0.047, and there was a significant decrease in risk associated with an increasing age. Cryptosporidium sp. infection occurred at an overall rate of 6.0 per 100,000 populations per year although a large outbreak of Cryptosporidium sp. infections occurred in the second half of the summer of 2001. During August and September of 2001, the incidence of cryptosporidiosis was 55.1 per 100,000 per year as compared to 3.1 per 100,000 per year for the remainder of the surveillance period (p Conclusion This study provides important information on the occurrence and demographic risk groups for acquisition of giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis in a non-selected Canadian population.

Laupland Kevin B

2005-09-01

177

[Intestinal parasitic infections in Serbia].  

Science.gov (United States)

To determine the public health significance of intestinal parasitism in Serbia today, systematic parasitologic examination of 16 regions (Kragujevac, Luchani, Zhagubica, Bor, Sjenica, Novi Pazar, Valjevo, Aleksandrovac, Pirot, Bosilegrad, Ivanjica, Golubac, Uzhice, Kladovo, Negotin, Beograd) in central Serbia were carried out over the period 1984-1993. The study involved a total of 5981 schoolchildren (2887 F, 3094 M), 7-11 years old representing 10% of the total age-matched population (N = 58,228) of the examined regions, residing in 91 settlements. Field parasitological examinations included the examination of perianal swabs for E. vermicularis and Taenia sp., and examination of a single feces sample by direct saline smear and Lugol stained smear for intestinal protozoa, and the Kato and Lörincz methods for intestinal helminths. Nine species of intestinal parasites were detected, of which five protozoan: Entamoeba histolytica (0.02%), Entamoeba hartmanni (0.02%), Entamoeba coli (1.3%), Iodamoeba bütschlii (0.02%), Giardia lamblia (6.8%), and four helminthic: Hymenolepis nana (0.06%), Enterobius vermicularis (14.7%), Ascaris lumbricoides (3.3%), Trichuris trichiura (1.8%). The overall prevalence of intestinal parasite infections amounted to 24.6% (1207/4913), with a highly significant difference (p < 0.001) between particular sites (range 14.4%-43.8%) (Figure 1). Helminthic infections (810) were significantly more frequent (p < 0.001) as compared to both protozoan (296) and combined helminthic-protozoan infections (101). Of these, two species (G. lamblia, E. vermicularis) were found in all examined regions, three (E. coli, A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura) were detected in two or more, while four species (E. histolytica, E. hartmanni, I. bütschlii, H. nana) were each found in a single region (Figure 2). The predominant species (E. coli, G. lamblia, E. vermicularis, A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura) were distributed at considerably different prevalence rates, with a significant difference between the minimal and maximal values (p < 0.01). Of 91 settlements examined, intestinal parasites were found in all but one. However, the prevalence rates in 90 settlements varied significantly (p = 0.0004), from a low of 5.9% to a high of 66.7%. Thus, according to the World Health Organization criteria [19], infections with the four clinically relevant species (G. lamblia, E. vermicularis, A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura) ranged from sporadic to endemic and hyperendemic (Figure 3). The results obtained provide the basic epidemiological data about intestinal parasite infections in Serbia, and indicate their significance in terms of both the number of species and their respective prevalence rates. Given the significant differences obtained in the frequency and distribution of particular parasite infections in different regions, a programme for the control of these infections in Serbia should obviously include a wide variety of measures. PMID:9525075

Nikoli?, A; Djurkovi?-Djakovi?, O; Bobi?, B

1998-01-01

178

Intestinal parasites in school aged children and the first case report on amoebiasis in urinary bladder in Tripoli, Libya.  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of 50 fresh fecal samples were collected from children of either sex and examined by direct wet films and Telemann's concentration technique. The results were based on a single stool per person study of the total children ranging from 5-18 years of age, 8 different types of intestinal parasites were recorded. The incidence of infection with one or the other parasites was found to be 42%. Double or mixed infection was not uncommon. The infection rates of helminthes were Hymenolepis nana 6%, Taenia saginata 2%, Ascaris lumbricoids 20%, Trichuris trichura 14% and Enterobius vermicularis 4%. The rates of protozoa were Entamoeba histolytica 4%, Entamoeba coli 4% and Giardia lamblia 2%. The problem was created by parasitosis in endangering children's health are more increasing in Tripoli District. PMID:18383779

Ben Musa, Najla A

2007-12-01

179

Detection of Cryptosporidium spp and other intestinal parasites in children with acute diarrhea and severe dehydration in Rio de Janeiro.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of the present study was to estimate the frequency of infection by Cryptosporidium spp and other intestinal parasites in dehydrated children with gastroenteritis who were admitted to a pediatric hospital. Stool examinations from 218 children were performed. Cryptosporidium spp was identified in eighteen out of 193 stool samples (9.3%) subjected to safranin-methylene blue staining. Giardia lamblia was detected in ten out of 213 (4.7%) samples examined via the direct or Ritchie methods. Other parasites identified were Ascaris lumbricoides (4.2%), Blastocystis hominis (1.4%), Entamoeba coli (0.9%), Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar (0.5%), Endolimax nana (0.5%), Trichuris trichiura (0.5%) and Enterobius vermicularis (0.5%). PMID:17653475

Carvalho-Costa, Filipe Anibal; Gonçalves, Alessandra Queiroga; Lassance, Sandra Laranjeira; de Albuquerque, Carla Pontes; Leite, José Paulo Gagliardi; Bóia, Márcio Neves

2007-01-01

180

Detection of Cryptosporidium spp and other intestinal parasites in children with acute diarrhea and severe dehydration in Rio de Janeiro Detecção de Cryptosporidium spp e outros parasitas intestinais em crianças com diarréia aguda e desidratação grave no Rio de Janeiro  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to estimate the frequency of infection by Cryptosporidium spp and other intestinal parasites in dehydrated children with gastroenteritis who were admitted to a pediatric hospital. Stool examinations from 218 children were performed. Cryptosporidium spp was identified in eighteen out of 193 stool samples (9.3% subjected to safranin-methylene blue staining. Giardia lamblia was detected in ten out of 213 (4.7% samples examined via the direct or Ritchie methods. Other parasites identified were Ascaris lumbricoides (4.2%, Blastocystis hominis (1.4%, Entamoeba coli (0.9%, Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar (0.5%, Endolimax nana (0.5%, Trichuris trichiura (0.5% and Enterobius vermicularis (0.5%.O objetivo do presente estudo foi estimar a freqüência das infecções por Cryptosporidium spp e outros parasitas intestinais em crianças desidratadas com gastroenterite, internadas em um hospital pediátrico. Exames de fezes de 218 crianças foram realizados. Cryptosporidium spp foi detectado em 18 de 193 (9,3% amostras fecais submetidas à coloração pela safranina/azul-de-metileno. Giardia lamblia foi detectada em dez de 213 (4,7% amostras submetidas ao exame direto ou ao método de Ritchie. Também foram identificados Ascaris lumbricoides (4,2%, Blastocystis hominis (1,4%, Entamoeba coli (0,9%, Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar (0,5%, Endolimax nana (0,5%, Trichuris trichiura (0,5% and Enterobius vermicularis (0,5%.

Filipe Anibal Carvalho-Costa

2007-06-01

181

INTESTINAL PARASITIC PREVALENCE IN HUMAN IMMUNO-DEFICIENT VIRUS (HIV INFECTED PATIENTS WITH AND WITHOUT DIARRHOEA AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH CD4 T CELLS COUNTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background & objectives: Intestinal parasitic infections are major cause of diarrhoea in HIV infected individuals. The present study was undertaken to detect intestinal parasites in HIV infected patients with and without diarrhoea and to determine association between enteric parasites and CD4 T cell count. Methods: The study was carried out at Department of Microbiology, Rural Medical College, Loni, India, between September 2010 and August 2012 among consecutively enrolled 127 HIV infected patients presenting with and without diarrhoea. Stool samples were collected and examined for enteric parasites by microscopy and special staining methods. CD4 cell counts records of patients were taken from Antiretroviral Treatment Centre (ARTC of the hospital. Results: Out of total 127 cases intestinal parasites were detected in 27 cases. The incidence of intestinal parasitic infection was 21.25%. Of 27 cases where parasites detected in total, Entamoeba histolytica 13 (48.14 % was found to be most prevalent parasite followed by Cryptosporidium parvum 9 (33.33% followed by Giardia lamblia 3 (11.11 % followed by Taenia spp. 2 (7.40%. In HIV infected patients with CD4 count < 200 cells/?l, C. parvum was the most commonly observed (88.88% parasite. Whereas the proportion of intestinal parasites in patients with CD4 count 200 – 499 cells/?l was significantly higher as compared with other two groups of patients with CD4 count < 200 and ? 500 cells/?l

Namita A. Raytekar

2012-12-01

182

Geographical location and age affects the incidence of parasitic infestations in school children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Environmental factors affect the dissemination and distribution of intestinal parasites in human communities. To comprehend the prevalence of parasitic infestation and to examine whether geographical location and age also influence the prevalence of infection, fecal samples from 195 school children (rural = 95; male = 39; female = 56 (urban = 100; male = 60; female = 40 of five age groups ranging from 5 to 11 years in two different socio-economic zones (rural and urban were screened for specific intestinal parasites using standard histological techniques. Percentage incidences of parasitic species found in fecal wet mounts and concentrates in rural children were Entamoeba coli (25.3%, Giardia lamblia (17.9%, Blastocystis hominis (14.7%, Entamoeba histolytica (4.2%, Iodamoeba butschlii (1.1%, Hymenolepis nana (1.1% and Ascaris lumbricoides (1.1%. Whereas the percentage incidences among urban children were E. coli (26%, A. lumbricoides (21%, B. hominis (18%, G. lamblia (14%, T. trichiura (8%, I. butschlii (4% and A. duodenale (1%. Such findings may be related to dietary differences, living conditions and the greater use of natural anti-helminthic medicinal plants in rural communities. These results are important for both epidemiological data collection and for correlating dietary differences to intestinal parasitic diseases. Aims: We chose to investigate whether geographical location and age affect the prevalence and distribution of intestinal parasites among school children from two separate regions (rural and urban in areas surrounding, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. Settings and Design: A study of the prevalence of parasitic infestations was undertaken among primary school children, in rural and urban communities around Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. Materials and Methods: Faecal sample collection, direct microscopic techniques, macroscopic examination and concentration techniques for identifying the parasites. Statistical analysis used: Percentage incidences of parasitic species found in faecal wet mounts and concentrates were done instead of statistical analyses. Results: Both macroscopic and microscopic examinations of faecal samples revealed that the overall percentage prevalence of parasite species encountered in rural children were Entamoeba coli (25.3%, G. lamblia (17.9%, B. hominis (14.7%, Entamoeba histolytica (4.2%, I. butschlii (1.1%, H. nana (1.1%, Ascaris lumbricoides (1.1%. The prevalence among urban children were E. coli (26%, A. lumbricoides (21%, B. hominis (18%, G. lamblia (14%, T. trichiura (8%, I. butschlii (4% and A. duodenale (1%. Overall, comparative significant differences were noted between rural and urban children for E. histolytica (4.2 vs. 14%, G. lamblia (17.9 vs. 14%, A. lumbricoides (1.1 vs. 21% and T. trichiura (0 vs. 8%, with the major difference being the much higher occurrence of A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura infections in urban children. Conclusions: One of the greatest challenges for healthcare professionals is the prevention and treatment of protozoal and helminthic parasitic infections. From our study we conclude that the prevalence of different pathogenic species of amoeba such as Entamoeba histolytica (4.2 vs. 0% and G. lamblia (17.9 vs. 14%, (P value was equal to 1 was significantly higher among rural children compared to children from urban areas. In contrast, the prevalence of nematodes such as A. lumbricoides (21% vs. 1.1%, T. trichiura (8% vs. 0% and A. duodenale (1% was also significantly higher among rural children.

Rayan Paran

2010-07-01

183

Sexually transmitted parasitic diseases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sexual activity is the primary method of transmission for several important parasitic diseases and has resulted in a significant prevalence of enteric parasitic infection among male homosexuals. The majority of parasitic sexually transmitted diseases involve protozoan pathogens; however, nematode and arthropod illnesses are also included in this group. Trichomoniasis, caused by Trichomonas vaginalis, is the most common parasitic STD. Infection with this organism typically results in the signs and symptoms of vaginitis. Trichomoniasis can be diagnosed in the office setting by performing a microscopic evaluation of infected vaginal secretions and can be successfully treated with metronidazole. Both pediculosis pubis, caused by the crab louse Pthirus pubis, and scabies, caused by the itch mite Sarcoptes scabiei, present with severe pruritus. A papular or vesicular rash and linear burrows seen in the finger webs and genital area are characteristic of scabies. Pediculosis pubis is diagnosed by observing adult lice or their nits in areas that bear coarse hair. The diagnosis of scabies is confirmed by scraping suspicious burrows and viewing the mite or its byproducts under the microscope. Lindane, 1% used in treating scabies, is also very effective for treating pediculosis pubis. Synthetic pyrethrins, also applied as a cream or lotion, are less toxic alternatives for the treatment of either condition. Oral-anal and oral-genital sexual practices predispose male homosexuals to infection with many enteric pathogens, including parasitic protozoans and helminths. The most common of these parasitic infections are amebiasis, caused by Entamoeba histolytica, and giardiasis caused by Giardia lamblia. Both entities may cause acute or chronic diarrhea, as well as other abdominal symptoms. Most gay men with amebiasis are asymptomatic, and invasive disease in this group is extremely rare. Both amebiasis and giardiasis can be diagnosed on the basis of microscopic examination of stool specimens, although duodenal aspiration is occasionally necessary to confirm a diagnosis of giardiasis. Multiple treatment regimens exist for amebiasis. Iodoquinol is a good choice for asymptomatic cyst carriers, whereas the combination of metronidazole plus iodoquinol is used for symptomatic patients. Quinacrine and metronidazole are both efficacious in the treatment of giardiasis. PMID:2011632

Levine, G I

1991-03-01

184

Prevalencia de parásitos intestinales en niños de diferentes niveles de educación del distrito de San Marcos, Ancash, Perú. / Prevalence of intestinal parasites in children of different levels of education in the San Marcos district of Ancash, Peru  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Objetivo: Investigar la prevalencia de parasitosis intestinal en estudiantes del Distrito de San Marcos, en el departamento de Ancash, Perú. Material y métodos: Se analizaron en total 1303 muestras de heces de niños de nivel inicial, primario y secundario, mediante examen directo. Resultados: Se enc [...] ontró uno o más parásitos intestinales en 65,0% de los estudiantes. De las 845 muestras positivas para parásitos, se encontró un parasito en 82,0% dos en18,0% predominando los protozoarios sobre los helmintos. Los enteroparásitos patógenos encontrados según su frecuencia fueron: Giardia lamblia 23,7%, Ascaris lumbricoides 16,9% e Hymenolepis nana 9,6%. La frecuencia del enteroparásito no patógeno Entamoeba coli fue 31,8%. Conclusiones: Existe un alto índice de parasitismo en la población rural de la sierra de Ancash, lo que estaría en relación con las deficientes condiciones de saneamiento ambiental en esta zona, por lo que es necesario que en los colegios de la zona, se dé educación sobre higiene personal y además, mejorar las condiciones de saneamiento. Abstract in english Objective: To investigate the prevalence of intestinal parasites among students of the San Marcos district of Ancash, Peru. Methods: A total of 1303 stool samples of children from the kinder, primary and secondary school levels were investigated using direct examinations. Results: At least one paras [...] ite was found in 65% of students. Out of 845 positive stool samples, one parasite was found in 82% and two parasites were found in 18%; protozoan parasites predominated over nematodes. The most frequent parasites identified were Giardia lamblia 23.7%, Ascaris lumbricoides 16.9% and Hymenolepis nana 9.6%. Non-pathogenic Entamoeba coli was found in 31.8%. Conclusions: The prevalence of intestinal parasites in the rural highland population of Ancash is high, which may be related to deficient sanitary conditions of the region. Improving sanitary conditions and enhancing education on hygiene are needed in the region.

Eleuterio, Jacinto; Edwin, Aponte; Víctor, Arrunátegui-Correa.

2012-10-01

185

Reduction of Cryptosporidium and Giardia by sewage treatment processes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cryptosporidium and Giardia are two important pathogenic parasites that have caused many waterborne outbreaks which affected hundreds of thousands of people. Contamination from effluent discharged by sewage treatment plants have been implicated in previous waterborne outbreaks of Cryptosporidium and Giardia. This study evaluated the reduction of Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts in two sewage treatment plants (STPA and STPB) in Malaysia which employed different treatment processes for a period of a year. Raw sewage influents and treated sewage effluents were concentrated by repeated centrifugation, subjected to sucrose density flotation and concentrated to a minimal volume depending upon the levels of contaminating debris. Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts were enumerated using epifluorescence microscopy. The parasite concentrations in raw sewage were 18-8480 of Giardia cysts/litre and 1-80 of Cryptosporidium oocysts/litre. In treated sewage, the concentration of parasites ranged from 1-1462 cysts/litre and 20-80 oocysts/ litre for Giardia and Cryptosporidium respectively. Statistical analysis showed that sewage treatment process which employed extended aeration could reduce the concentration of Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts significantly but treatment process which encompasses aerated lagoon could only reduce the concentration of Giardia cysts but not Cryptosporidium oocysts significantly. This phenomenon is of great concern in areas whereby effluent of sewage treatment plants is discharged into the upstream of rivers that are eventually used for abstraction of drinking water. Therefore, it is important that wastewater treatment authorities rethink the relevance of Cryptosporidium and Giardia contamination levels in wastewater and watersheds and to develop countermeasures in wastewater treatment plants. Further epidemiological studies on the occurrence and removal of pathogenic organisms from excreta and sewage are also recommended, in order that the public health risks can be defined and the most cost effective sewage treatment options developed. PMID:17568382

Lim, Y A L; Wan Hafiz, W I; Nissapatorn, V

2007-06-01

186

Intestinal and blood parasites in the Torro Valley, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Approximately 300 blood and fecal specimens were examined in a parasitologic survey of indigenous inhabitants of the small isolated Torro Valley in the mountains of Central Sulawesi. Schistosoma japonicum was not found although the parasite is endemic in the neighboring Lindu and Napu valleys. Hookworm infection (71%) was the most common helminthiasis. The prevalences of ascariasis (3%) and trichuriasis (2%) are low for Indonesia in general but similar to those found in nearby mountainous areas of Sulawesi. Intestinal protozoa endemic to the area are: Entamoeba histolytica (8%). E. coli (23%). Endolimax nana (9%), Iodamoeba butschii (9%) and Giardia lamblia (14%). Plasmodium vivax infections were found in 4% and P. falciparum in 2% of persons examined. Brugia malayi microfilaremia was found with a prevalence of 25%. The high rate of splenic (54%) and hepatic (22%) enlargement found on examination of 206 persons of all ages is considered to be a result of combined effects of endemic malaria and hereditary ovalocytosis. PMID:7221687

Stafford, E E; Dennis, D T; Masri, S; Sudomo, M

1980-12-01

187

Giardia and Cryptosporidium spp. in filtered drinking water supplies.  

OpenAIRE

Giardia and Cryptosporidium levels were determined by using a combined immunofluorescence test for filtered drinking water samples collected from 66 surface water treatment plants in 14 states and 1 Canadian province. Giardia cysts were detected in 17% of the 83 filtered water effluents. Cryptosporidium oocysts, were observed in 27% of the drinking water samples. Overall, cysts or oocysts were found in 39% of the treated effluent samples. Despite the frequent detection of parasites in drinkin...

Lechevallier, M. W.; Norton, W. D.; Lee, R. G.

1991-01-01

188

Parasitic contamination of commonly consumed fresh leafy vegetables in benha, egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study evaluated the degree of parasitic contamination of vegetables which are commercialized and consumed fresh in Benha, Egypt. It included 530 vegetables: lettuce, watercress, parsley, green onion, and leek. Vegetables were collected randomly from markets within Benha. Samples were washed in saline, and the resulting washing solution was filtered and centrifuged to concentrate the parasitic stages. Sediments and supernatants were examined by iodine and modified Ziehl-Neelsen stained smears. Intestinal parasites were detected in 157/530 (29.6%) samples. Giardia lamblia cysts were the most prevalent parasite (8.8%) followed by Entamoeba spp. cysts (6.8%), Enterobius vermicularis eggs (4.9%), various helminth larvae (3.6%), Hymenolepis nana eggs (2.8%), Hymenolepis diminuta eggs (2.1%), and Ascaris lumbricoides eggs (0.6%). The highest contaminated vegetable was lettuce (45.5%) followed by watercress (41.3%), parsley (34.3%), green onion (16.5%), and leek (10.7%). These results indicate a significant seasonal variation (P < 0.05), with highest prevalence in summer (49%) and the lowest in winter (10.8%). These findings provide evidence for the high risk of acquiring parasitic infection from the consumption of raw vegetables in Benha, Egypt. Effective measures are necessary to reduce parasitic contamination of vegetables. PMID:25024845

Eraky, Maysa Ahmad; Rashed, Samia Mostafa; Nasr, Mona El-Sayed; El-Hamshary, Azza Mohammed Salah; Salah El-Ghannam, Amera

2014-01-01

189

Chronic fatigue syndrome after Giardia enteritis: clinical characteristics, disability and long-term sickness absence  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background A waterborne outbreak of Giardia lamblia gastroenteritis led to a high prevalance of long-lasting fatigue and abdominal symptoms. The aim was to describe the clinical characteristics, disability and employmentloss in a case series of patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) after the infection. Methods Patients who reported persistent fatigue, lowered functional capacity and sickness leave or delayed education after a large community outbreak of giardiasis enteritis in...

Naess Halvor; Nyland Morten; Hausken Trygve; Follestad Inghild; Nyland Harald I

2012-01-01

190

Intestinal parasitic infection and associated risk factors, among children presenting at outpatient clinics in Manaus, Amazonas state, Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a cross-sectional study, the prevalences of intestinal parasitic infection and the associated risk factors were explored among children aged 0-10 years attending outpatient clinics in Manaus, the capital city of the north Brazilian state of Amazonas. Data indicating socio-economic level and demographic factors were collected in interviews with the accompanying parent or guardian of each child. Parasitic infections were detected by the microscopical examination of faecal samples, while nutritional status was categorized by reference to the growth curves published by the U.S. National Center for Health Statistics. The data collected were analysed in a mixed, logistic-regression model. Of the 451 children tested, 58.7% were found to have intestinal parasitic infection, the most prevalent parasites being Giardia lamblia (21.5%), Endolimax nana (17.9%), Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar (13.7%), Ascaris lumbricoides (13.5%) and Trichuris trichiura (4.9%). The prevalences of stunting, underweight and wasting among the children were 17.5%, 14.7% and 9.8%, respectively. There was no association between intestinal parasite infection and any of these indicators of malnutrition. Children whose accompanying parent/guardian was poorly educated and the elder children investigated were found to be at relatively high risk of intestinal parasitic infection (P<0.05 for each). Intestinal parasitic infections still clearly represent an important public-health problem in the northern region of Brazil. PMID:19825280

Maia, M M M; Fausto, M A; Vieira, E L M; Benetton, M L F N; Carneiro, M

2009-10-01

191

Giardia assemblage A: human genotype in muskoxen in the Canadian Arctic  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract As part of an ongoing program assessing the biodiversity and impacts of parasites in Arctic ungulates we examined 72 fecal samples from muskoxen on Banks Island, Northwest Territories, Canada for Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Cryptosporidium spp. were not detected, but 21% of the samples were positive for Giardia. Sequencing of four isolates of Giardia demonstrated G. duodenalis, Assemblage A, a zoonotic genotype.

Nagy John

2008-09-01

192

Detection of Giardia cysts with a cDNA probe and applications to water samples.  

OpenAIRE

Giardiasis is the most common human parasite infection in the United States, causing a lengthy course of diarrhea. Transmission of Giardia species is by the fecal-oral route, and numerous waterborne outbreaks have been documented. The Environmental Protection Agency has regulated Giardia species in drinking water through the Surface Water Treatment Rule. Current methods for detection of Giardia species in water rely primarily on microscopic observation of water concentrates with immunofluores...

Abbaszadegan, M.; Gerba, C. P.; Rose, J. B.

1991-01-01

193

Giardia and Pets  

Science.gov (United States)

... veterinarian. Back To Top How long does Giardia survive in the environment? In the soil [ 8 , 9 ] ... cold temperatures (around 4ºC/39.2ºF), Giardia can survive for approximately 7 weeks (49 days). At room ...

194

Epidemiological and clinical picture of parasitic infections in the group of children and adolescents from north-east region of Poland.  

Science.gov (United States)

The epidemiological and clinical purview of parasite diseases is constantly evolving, mainly due to the changes in human behavior and our environment. The aim of this study was frequency analysis of certain parasite infections, risk factors and clinical symptoms in children and adolescents of north-eastern Poland. 120 children were tested due to the symptoms resembling parasite infection from December 2008 to May 2009. 90 patients (the tested group) aged from 5 months to 18 years were found to be infected with one or more than one of the following parasites: Ascaris lumbricoides, Giardia lamblia, Toxocara spp., Strongyloides stercoralis or Enterobius vermicularis. 30 children with no infections found were the control group. Parasites were found by means of microscope decantation stool tests, RIDA Quick Giardia stool test and ELISA blood test (Toxocara IgG). The patients' parents filled out the survey concerning the probability factors of infection and the ailments that were the cause of parasitical diagnosis. High percentage of either isolated or co-invasive parasite infections was ascertained in the tested group--75%. The prevalence of ascariasis was 55.83%, toxocariasis--16.67%, giardiasis--12.5%, strongyloidiasis--5.83% and of enterobiasis--3.33%. The statistical significance of higher dirty hands-mouth contact frequency and more frequent presence of domestic animals in the tested group than in the control group was ascertained. A highly important correlation between the infection and the occurrence of symptoms from at least 3 various systems was ascertained. The presence of habits involving dirty hands-mouth contact and having domestic animals are significant risk factors of parasite infections. The presence of symptoms from at least 3 systems should compel to parasite infection diagnosis with proper differential diagnosis. PMID:22165741

Zukiewicz, Ma?gorzata; Kaczmarski, Maciej; Topczewska, Magdalena; Sidor, Katarzyna; Tomaszewska, Barbara Miros?awa

2011-01-01

195

Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Other Intestinal Parasites in Young Children in Lobata Province, Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Principe  

OpenAIRE

Rare systemic studies concerning prevalence of intestinal parasites in children have been conducted in the second smallest country in Africa, the Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe. Fecal specimens from 348 children (214 in-hospital attending the Aires de Menezes Hospital and 134 from Agostinho Neto village) in São Tome Island were studied by parasitological and molecular methods. Of the 134 children from Agostinho Neto, 52.2% presented intestinal parasites. 32.1% and 20.2% of t...

Lobo, Maria Lui?sa; Augusto, Joa?o; Antunes, Francisco; Ceita, Jose?; Xiao, Lihua; Codices, Vera; Matos, Olga

2014-01-01

196

Ocorrência de Giardia spp. em bezerros leiteiros no Brasil / Occurrence of Giardia spp. in dairy calves in Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english Fecal samples were collected from 50 female Holstein calves (1-90 days old) from a commercial dairy cattle farm located in Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil and examined for presence of Giardia cysts using the zinc sulfate flotation method. A total of 120 samples were collected from March 1999 to April 2 [...] 000, and fecal consistency (normal or diarrheic) was noted prior to the examination for Giardia cysts. Giardia spp. cysts were found in 11 (9%) of the 120 faecal samples of calves co-infected with Eimeria spp., in calves from 19 to 58 days of age (38±19). In 82% (9/11) calves assessed for mixed infections with Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia, oocysts of Cryptosporidium were found in three out of four diarrheic calves (75%) positive for Giardia. Giardia cysts (n= 30) sized 13-16 x 10-12µm (mean of 15 x 11µm). They appeared to belong to the morphological group of G. intestinallis according to the size and morphological characteristic of the cysts. This is the first detection of Giardia spp. in calves in Brazil. Considering that Giardia has the potential to cause clinical disease in calves and that organisms infecting humans and domestic ruminants are morphologically and antigenically similar, and calves can shed Giardia cysts potentially infective for humans, the parasite in calves may be of major epidemiological significance, and suggests that naturally infected calves may be reservoirs of Giardia infections for man.

A.M., Guimarães; E., Guedes; R.A., Carvalho.

2001-12-01

197

Intestinal parasitic infections in HIV/AIDS patients: experience at a teaching hospital in central Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to verify the occurrence of intestinal parasitic infections in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients, 100 HIV/AIDS patients (Group 1) and 85 clinically healthy individuals (Group 2) were submitted to coproparasitological examination. Intestinal parasites were detected in 27% of patients from Group 1 and in 17.6% from Group 2. In Group 1 the most frequent parasites were Strongyloides stercoralis (12%), with 2 cases of hyperinfection; Isospora belli, 7%; Cryptosporidium sp., 4%; with 1 asymptomatic case and hookworm, 4%. Of the infected patients from Group 1 who reported to be chronic alcoholics, 64.3% had strongyloidiasis. Only 6 of the 27 infected patients from Group 1 were on highly antiretroviral therapy (HAART). In Group 2 the most frequent parasites were S. stercoralis, 7.1%; hookworm, 7.1% and Giardia lamblia, 3.5%. In conclusion, diagnosing intestinal parasites in HIV/AIDS patients is necessary especially in those who report to be chronic alcoholics or are not on antiretroviral treatment. PMID:15849055

Silva, Claudio V da; Ferreira, Marcelo S; Borges, Aércio S; Costa-Cruz, Julia M

2005-01-01

198

Study of Intestinal Protozoan Parasites in Rural Inhabitants of Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Intestinal parasites of humans are important health problems of most communities, especially those situated in tropical and subtropical areas. This study was carried out in rural population of Mazandaran Province, northern Iran, during 2004-2005, with the purpose of achieving a better understanding of the distribution of intestinal protozoan parasites in this province.Methods: A total of 855 stool specimens were collected randomly from rural inhabitants (384 males and 471 females and examined by the formalin-ethyl-acetate concentration technique. In addition, a modified version of the Ziehl-Neelsen tech­nique was used for the staining of Cryptosporidium and other intestinal coccidian parasites.Results: The general prevalence of intestinal protozoans was found as 25%. The prevalence of every intestinal protozoan parasite was as follows: Giardia lamblia (10.2%, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (1.2%, Dientamoeba fragilis (1.1%, Blastocystis hominis (9.8%, Entamoeba coli (5%, Endolimax nana (0.7%, Iodamoeba butschlii (1.3%, and Entamoeba hartmani (0.4%.Conclusion: The present study revealed that the prevalence of intestinal protozoan parasites among rural inhabitants of Ma­zandaran Province are  still so high that implies performing special control measures.

M Rezaeian

2008-04-01

199

Factors associated with parasitic infection amongst street children in orphanages across Lima, Peru.  

Science.gov (United States)

Infection caused by intestinal parasites has significant public health consequences amongst children in the developing world. Street children are an under-studied group of society subjected to increased health risks when compared to their peers. To estimate the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection and ascertain risk factors for parasitosis amongst this population, stool samples were collected from 258 children across four orphanages in three districts of Lima, Peru. Surveys were used to determine associations between risk factors and infection status. The prevalence of parasitic infection within the study sample was 66·3%, with 30·6% testing positive for pathogenic species. Entamoeba coli was the most commonly detected parasite (41·9%) and Giardia lamblia was the most commonly detected pathogenic parasite (17·1%). Of the group 15·1% had helminth infection. When testing for association, age and BMI were risk factors for infection. A notable difference in prevalence (P single dose of albendazole alone may not be effective in combating long-term infection rates. PMID:23683330

Bailey, Chris; Lopez, Sonia; Camero, Anahí; Taiquiri, Carmen; Arhuay, Yanina; Moore, David A J

2013-03-01

200

A novel, multi-parallel, real-time polymerase chain reaction approach for eight gastrointestinal parasites provides improved diagnostic capabilities to resource-limited at-risk populations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diagnosis of gastrointestinal parasites has traditionally relied on stool microscopy, which has low diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. We have developed a novel, rapid, high-throughput quantitative multi-parallel real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) platform. Species-specific primers/probes were used for eight common gastrointestinal parasite pathogens: Ascaris lumbricoides, Necator americanus, Ancylostoma duodenale, Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium spp., Entamoeba histolytica, Trichuris trichiura, and Strongyloides stercoralis. Stool samples from 400 13-month-old children in rural Ecuador were analyzed and the qPCR was compared with a standard direct wet mount slide for stool microscopy, as were 125 8-14-year-old children before and after anthelmintic treatment. The qPCR showed higher detection rates for all parasites compared with direct microscopy, Ascaris (7.0% versus 5.5%) and for Giardia (31.5% versus 5.8%). Using an enhanced DNA extraction method, we were able to detect T. trichiura DNA. These assays will be useful to refine treatment options for affected populations, ultimately leading to better health outcomes. PMID:23509117

Mejia, Rojelio; Vicuña, Yosselin; Broncano, Nely; Sandoval, Carlos; Vaca, Maritza; Chico, Martha; Cooper, Philip J; Nutman, Thomas B

2013-06-01

201

Parasites  

Science.gov (United States)

... Q R S T U V W X Y Z Parasites Topics Malaria An ancient disease that affects millions of people worldwide... Neglected Tropical Diseases Affecting one sixth of the world’s population... Parasites and Water Parasites in drinking water ...

202

CROSS TRANSMISSION OF 'GIARDIA'  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardia cysts isolated from fecal samples obtained from humans (Homo sapiens), beaver (Castor canadensis), dogs (Canis familiaris), cats (Felis domesticus), bighorn X mouflon sheep (Ovis canadensis X O. musimon), guinea pig (Cavis porcellus), muskrat (Ondatra ziethica) and mule d...

203

Perfil das enteroparasitoses diagnosticadas em pacientes com infecção pelo vírus HIV na era da terapia antiretroviral potente em um centro de referência em São Paulo, Brasil / PROFILE OF INTESTINAL PARASITES DIAGNOSED IN HIV INFECTED PATIENTS IN THE HAART ERA AT A REFERENCE CENTER IN SÃO PAULO, BRAZIL  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english Intestinal parasites in HIV infected patients are a compelling issue in epidemiological settings with high prevalence of these parasites. The present study reviewed frequencies of diagnosis for common intestinal parasites in HIV infected patients in association with sex, age, HIV risk behavior and C [...] D4 lymphocyte count. Patients with confirmed HIV diagnosis and positive routine stool examination between January and December 2000 were selected. Diagnostic methods for Cyclospora cayetanensis and microsporidia were not included in the routine stool examination. A total of 146 patients had one or more positive samples (median 1.5) with age ranging between 2-75 years (mean: 34). Most of them were male (70.5%) and 53.6% had a CD4 count > 200 cells/mm³ (median: 158.5 cells/mm³). Endolimax nana (27.4%), Entamoeba coli (22.6%), Strongyloides stercoralis (21.9%), Giardia lamblia (13.0%), Isospora belli (12.3%), Ascaris lumbricoides (8.2%), Cryptosporidium parvum (6.8%) were the most frequent parasites diagnosed in this group. G. lamblia was more common in children with vertically transmitted HIV and men who have sex with men. No significant associations were found in relation to sex and age. Patients with CD4 count

SÉRGIO, CIMERMAN; CARLOS G., CASTAÑEDA; WILMA ASSUNÇÃO, IULIANO; RICARDO, PALACIOS.

2002-07-01

204

Intestinal Parasitic Infection in Feraydoon Kenar, Mazandaran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was clearing the pattern of parasitic infections in Feraydoon-Kenar, a 30,000 population town on the Caspian sea area.A total of 2568 persons, refered to Feraydoon Kenar Laboratory for rutine stool examination by Direct Smear, scotsch tests for children and formalin ether, and Floatation tests.A total of 321 infected persons were in divided 2 groups living in urban and rural area. Also 386 Scotch tape tests were used in school children in different age and sex groups. Prevalences of parasites were : Giardia lamblia 16.93% , Enterebius vermicularis (pinworm 4.71% , E. histolytica 4.28% , Strengyloides 0.74%, H. nana 0.42%, Hook worms 0.19% and Taenia 0.19%. Non pathogen protozoa prevalences were : E.coli 3.5% , Blastocystis hominis 3.15%, Iodamoeba butschlii 0.66%, Endolimax nana 0.15% , and Dientamoebafragilis 0.11%.The highest prevalence were (41.2% belong to 5 to 9 years old children, and 4.1% of them had both Giardia and E.vermicularis at the same time.Giardia prevalence during spring and summer (18.9% had significant difference comparing with autumn and winter (14.81% P<0.005, but prevalences of E. vermicularis showd no seasonal variation.In rural area Prevalences (28.39% and in urban area (23.8% showed significant difference. P<0.005.In rural area prevalences of Ehistolytica (4.32%, Strengyloides stercolaris (1.85%, and Hook worms (0.62% had significant difference with urban area (2.51 %, 0.6%, 0%. H.nana (1.26%, E.vermicularis (8.17% prevalence in town had significant difference with urban area (0%, 6.17%,P<0.005.In 386 scotch tape tests the prevalence of E.vermicularis in young male was 23.46% but"nin yuung female was 32.63% , demonstrated significant difference (P<0.005.

J Massoud

2003-05-01

205

Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Infestation in Surat City of South Gujarat. A Hospital Based Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Pathological intestinal infection by parasites causes malnutrition, decreased immunity, protein loss, mucosal loss in infants and lymphatic leakage and local hemorrhage. In developing countries parasitic infections are more prevalent than bacterial infection and causes significant morbidities. This study was undertaken to comprehend the prevalence of parasitic infections. Material and Methods: Both outdoor as well as indoor patients taking treatment in New Civil Hospital, Surat were included in present study. Naked eye physical examination, microscopic examination was carried out. Pa-rasites were identified in the received stool samples. All data were entered into excel spreadsheet 2007. The percentages of the parasites presents were calculated to find out prevalence of parasite infestations and data were analyzed for interpretation. Results: Total 1170 samples were included in present study, out of which 65 (5.56% were positive either for protozoal or helminthic infections. Helminth Infestation found in 45 (65.21% cases while Protozoal infestation found in 24 (34.79% cases while 4 (6.15% cases showed mixed infection of helminth and protozoa. Children under 18 years of age (6.23% were more commonly affected than adults (4.92%. The most common parasite encountered in present study was Giardia Lamblia (28.99% followed by Hymenolepys Nana (20.29%. Conclusion: The present study showed low prevalence of intestinal parasites might be due to improved sanitary practices, personal hygiene, safe drinking water and health awareness. Children showed higher pre-valence for intestinal parasites in comparison with adults. Prevalence of helminthes was higher than protozoa in present study.

Mandakini M Patel, Prashant R Patel, Bhavna Gamit, Jigna Modi, Suresh Padsala

2014-01-01

206

'GIARDIA' DETECTION IN WATER SYSTEMS  

Science.gov (United States)

A method has been developed combining immunofluorescence and phase-contrast to microscopically locate and identify Giardia cysts among particulates filtered from water samples. Selective staining of cysts with anti-Giardia antiserum and a fluorochrom enhances the contrast between...

207

Intestinal parasitic infections in HIV/AIDS patients: epidemiological, nutritional and immunological aspects  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This study applied a socioeconomic questionnaire designed to evaluate the frequency of intestinal parasites and characterize epidemiological, nutritional, and immunological variables in 105 HIV/AIDS patients - with and without parasitic infections, attending the Day Hospital in Botucatu, UNESP, from [...] 2007 to 2008. Body mass index was calculated and the following tests performed: parasitological stool examinations; eosinophil, IgE, CD4+ T and CD8+ T lymphocyte cell counts; albumin test; viral load measure; and TNF-?, IFN-?, IL-2, IL-5 and IL-10 cytokine levels. Results were positive for parasitic intestinal infections in 12.4% of individuals. Most patients had good socioeconomic conditions with basic sanitation, urban dwellings, treated water supply and sewage, good nutritional and immunological status and were undergoing HAART. Parasites were found at the following frequencies: Entamoeba - five patients (38.5%), Giardia lamblia - four (30.7%), Blastocystis hominis - three (23.0%), Endolimax nana - two (15.4%), and Ascaris lumbricoides - one (7.7%). There were no significant differences between the two groups for eosinophils, albumin, IgE, CD4+ T and CD8+ T lymphocytes, INF-?, IL-2, or IL-10. Most patients also showed undetectable viral load levels. Significant differences were found for TNF-? and IL-5. These results show the importance of new studies on immunodeficient individuals to increase understanding of such variables.

FAM, Amâncio; VM, Pascotto; LR, Souza; SA, Calvi; PCM, Pereira.

208

Intestinal parasitic infections in HIV/AIDS patients: epidemiological, nutritional and immunological aspects  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study applied a socioeconomic questionnaire designed to evaluate the frequency of intestinal parasites and characterize epidemiological, nutritional, and immunological variables in 105 HIV/AIDS patients - with and without parasitic infections, attending the Day Hospital in Botucatu, UNESP, from 2007 to 2008. Body mass index was calculated and the following tests performed: parasitological stool examinations; eosinophil, IgE, CD4+ T and CD8+ T lymphocyte cell counts; albumin test; viral load measure; and TNF-?, IFN-?, IL-2, IL-5 and IL-10 cytokine levels. Results were positive for parasitic intestinal infections in 12.4% of individuals. Most patients had good socioeconomic conditions with basic sanitation, urban dwellings, treated water supply and sewage, good nutritional and immunological status and were undergoing HAART. Parasites were found at the following frequencies: Entamoeba - five patients (38.5%, Giardia lamblia - four (30.7%, Blastocystis hominis - three (23.0%, Endolimax nana - two (15.4%, and Ascaris lumbricoides - one (7.7%. There were no significant differences between the two groups for eosinophils, albumin, IgE, CD4+ T and CD8+ T lymphocytes, INF-?, IL-2, or IL-10. Most patients also showed undetectable viral load levels. Significant differences were found for TNF-? and IL-5. These results show the importance of new studies on immunodeficient individuals to increase understanding of such variables.

FAM Amâncio

2012-01-01

209

42 CFR 493.917 - Parasitology.  

Science.gov (United States)

...certified in the subspecialty of parasitology for identification; (2) Those that identify parasites using...over time are— Enterobius vermicularis Entamoeba histolytica Entamoeba coli Giardia lamblia Endolimax nana...

2010-10-01

210

Prevalence of Giardiasis in Children Attending Semi-urban Daycare Centres in Guatemala and Comparison of 3 Giardia Detection Tests  

OpenAIRE

Giardia intestinalis is an intestinal parasite widely prevalent in children attending daycare centres worldwide and has been associated with undernutrition. Stool samples from 48 Guatemalan children (aged 1.5-7 years) attending participating daycare centres were analyzed over five weeks for presence of Giardia intestinalis using light microscopy, ELISA, and rapid dipstick test. Giardia prevalence rates were 43.7% at Week 0 and 44.7% at Week 4, based on ELISA. Intensity, but not prevalence, of...

Duffy, Terri-lynn; Montenegro-bethancourt, Gabriela; Solomons, Noel W.; Belosevic, Miodrag; Clandinin, M. Thomas

2013-01-01

211

Parasites  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

In this podcast, a listener wants to know what to do if he thinks he has a parasite or parasitic disease.  Created: 5/6/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/6/2010.

2010-05-06

212

Survey for intestinal parasites in Belize, Central America.  

Science.gov (United States)

A stool survey was carried out in 5 villages in the Toledo district of the Central American country of Belize. Eighty-two percent of a total population of 672 participated. The stools were examined by the formalin-ethyl-acetate concentration technique. Sixty-six percent of the population was found to have one or more intestinal parasites. The most common infection was hookworm (55%) followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (30%), Entamoeba coli (21%), Trichuris trichiura (19%), Giardia lamblia (12%), Iodamoeba beutschlii (9%), and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (6%). Other parasites found were Entamoeba hartmani, Strongyloides stercoralis, Endolimax nana, Isospora belli, and Chilomastix mesnili. Children were more often infected than adults and more females had hookworm infections. Sixty percent of 111 households surveyed had dirt floors, 43% were without toilets, 35% of the houses were overcrowded, and 10% obtained drinking water from streams. Cross-tabulation and logistic regression analyses were used to identify risk and protective factors associated with parasitoses. The risk factors were: being in the Mayan Ketchi population group, and abtaining housework and drinking water from streams. Protective factors were: drinking treated water and the wearing of shoes. PMID:15689057

Aimpun, Pote; Hshieh, Paul

2004-09-01

213

Risk factors for Giardia infection among hospitalized children in Cuba.  

Science.gov (United States)

The risk factors associated with Giardia infection, in children hospitalized in Havana, Cuba, were recently explored. Children aged ?5?years were more likely to be positive for Giardia infection than the younger children, with an odds ratio (OR) of 3·41 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1·36-9·69]. The risk factors found to be associated with Giardia infection in univariate analyses were rural residence (OR = 3·01; CI = 1·23-7·35), belonging to a household that did not receive water from an aqueduct (OR = 3·27; CI = 1·21-8·91), drinking unboiled water (OR = 3·64; CI = 2·14-6·26), nail biting (OR = 3·47; CI = 1·97-6·08), eating unwashed vegetables raw (OR = 4·84; CI = 2·33-10·14), and a personal (OR = 3·23; CI = 1·58-6·59) or family history (OR = 3·96; CI = 1·53-10·47) of previous parasitic infection. In multivariate analyses, however, only two (modifiable) risk factors were found to be independently and significantly associated with Giardia infection: nail biting and eating unwashed vegetables raw. It therefore seems that, at least at the individual level, giardiasis-prevention activities in Havana should be focussed on health education to improve personal hygiene and food-related practices. If appropriately managed, the surveillance of drinking water and foodstuffs, for Giardia and other parasites, might also help to reduce the hospitalization of Cuban children. PMID:21294949

Bello, J; Núñez, F A; González, O M; Fernández, R; Almirall, P; Escobedo, A A

2011-01-01

214

Epidemiological survey of the prevalence of intestinal parasites among schoolchildren in Sari, northern Iran.  

Science.gov (United States)

Parasitic infection is highly prevalent throughout the developing countries of the world. Research on the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in various geographic regions is a prerequisite for the development of appropriate control strategies. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among schoolchildren in public primary and secondary schools in the urban areas of Sari, Mazandaran province, northern Iran. The study was conducted from November 2009 to June 2010. A total of 1100 stool samples from 607 males and 493 females aged 7-14 years were examined by direct wet mounting, formalin-ether concentration, and Ziehl-Neelsen and trichrome permanent staining methods. A parental questionnaire for common risk factors was completed for each participant. Mono- or poly-parasitism was detected in 367 (33.3%) of the children (32.6% of males and 34.2% of females). Various species of protozoan or helminth infections were detected: Blastocystis hominis seemed to be the most prevalent parasite (13.5%) followed by Giardia lamblia (10.6%), Entamoeba coli (7.2%), Endolimax nana (1.5%), Enterobius vermicularis (2.2%), Trichostrongylus sp. (2.1%) and Strongyloides stercoralis (1.6%). The prevalence of intestinal parasite infections in females was slightly higher than in males, though without a statistically significant difference (p=0.56). No age association was detected, and a slightly lower positive association with increasing age was observed (p=0.33). A significant association was observed with parents' educational level, household income and practice of hand washing before meals (p<0.01). Although paediatric pathogenic intestinal parasite infections are not more prevalent in this geographical area than in other regions, improvements in personal hygienic conditions and behavioural characteristics is important to completely control parasitic infections in schoolchildren in northern Iran. PMID:22703897

Daryani, A; Sharif, M; Nasrolahei, M; Khalilian, A; Mohammadi, A; Barzegar, Gh

2012-08-01

215

Cryptosporidium and Giardia: new challenges to the water industry  

OpenAIRE

The protozoan parasites Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia intestinalis have emerged as significant waterborne pathogens over the past decades. Many outbreaks of waterborne cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis have been recorded, primarily in the United States and the United Kingdom.Chapter 1 gives an overview on the currently available knowledge on the parasites, the disease, the transmission through drinking water and the measures to prevent waterborne transmission. The disease caus...

Medema, Gerriet Jan

1999-01-01

216

Conocimientos sobre parasitismo intestinal en personal médico / Knowledge about intestinal parasites among the medical personnel  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: evaluar los conocimientos básicos sobre parasitismo intestinal de médicos que prestan servicios en la atención primaria de salud. Métodos: se realizó una encuesta que incluyó cuatro preguntas que evaluaban conocimientos generales acerca del parasitismo intestinal y una pregunta sobre Giard [...] ia lamblia, protozoo patógeno de elevada incidencia y prevalencia en nuestro medio. Se aplicó entre los meses de enero y marzo de 2011, con carácter anónimo, a un grupo de médicos de la atención primaria de salud. Resultados: todos los médicos que fueron encuestados tuvieron errores al responder el cuestionario. A pesar de que en los temas evaluados las respuestas correctas superaron el 50 %, el promedio de respuestas correctas de los 26 incisos que conformaban las cinco preguntas del cuestionario fue 20,73 %. Conclusiones: los médicos que prestan servicio en diferentes unidades de la atención primaria de salud, mostraron insuficiente conocimiento sobre el parasitismo intestinal, por lo que se impone el desarrollo de un programa educativo en aras de atenuar estas dificultades. Abstract in english Objective: evaluate the level of basic knowledge about intestinal parasites among primary health care doctors. Methods: an anonymous survey was conducted made up of four questions evaluating general knowledge about intestinal parasites and one question about Giardia lamblia, a pathogenic protozoan o [...] f high incidence and prevalence in our country. The survey was applied to a group of primary health care doctors between January and March 2011. Results: all the doctors surveyed had errors in their answers to the questionnaire. Despite the fact that correct answers about the topics evaluated exceeded 50 %, the average of correct answers for the 26 items included in the five questions was 20.73 %. Conclusions: primary health care doctors showed insufficient knowledge about intestinal parasites. Hence the need to develop an education program to attenuate those difficulties.

Maylin, Rodríguez Pérez; María Elena, González López; Dailé, Espinosa Triana; Rita, Méndez Cayoll; Roberto, Cañete Villafranca.

2014-03-01

217

Parasites  

OpenAIRE

Unproductive enterprises that feed on productive businesses, are rampant in developing countries. These parasitic enterprises take divergent forms, some headed by violent bandits and brutal mafia bosses, others by organized middlemen or smart political insiders. All of them seem to have the profit motive in common. A consequence of parasitic enterprises is that societies may be locked into a self enforcing configuration of beliefs and practices that result in persistent poverty. In some insta...

Mehlum, Halvor; Moene, Karl Ove; Torvik, Ragnat

2003-01-01

218

[Cryptosporidium sp infections and other intestinal parasites in food handlers from Zulia state, Venezuela].  

Science.gov (United States)

Cryptosporidiosis in food handlers from Venezuela is unknown, being this an important public health problem in immunosuppressed patients. To determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium sp and other intestinal parasites in food handlers from Zulia State, one hundred nineteen fecal samples were evaluated by wet mount, concentrated according to Ritchie and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining. Fourteen (11.8%) were positive for Cryptosporidium sp and associated with other protozoosis (P Endolimax nana (42.9%). The general prevalence of the intestinal parasitism was 48.7%, emphasizing E. nana (41.2%), followed by Blastocystis hominis (38.7%) and Entamoeba coli (17.6%). The most frequent pathogenic protozoa was Giardia lamblia (13.4%), followed by the complex Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar (9.2%). 4.1% were positive for intestinal helminthes. The infection by Cryptosporidium sp is frequent in food handlers from Zulia State. Given to the results of this investigation and the nonexistence of studies in this population, is necessary to deepen in the impact of this parasitism in food handlers and the consumers of their products. PMID:19418723

Freites, Azael; Colmenares, Deisy; Pérez, Marly; García, María; Díaz de Suárez, Odelis

2009-03-01

219

Mass treatment of intestinal parasites among Ethiopian immigrants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intestinal parasites are common among the Ethiopian immigrants to Israel and mass treatment is necessary to prevent local transmission. For this purpose, stool samples obtained from the immigrants in absorption centers were examined. Of 5,412 samples obtained, 4,399 (81.3%) were positive: 2,644 (54.2%) for Necator americanus, 2,273 (46.6%) for Schistosoma mansoni, 990 (20.3%) for Ascaris lumbricoides, 1,040 (21.3%) for Hymenolepsis nana, 940 (19.2%) for Trichuris trichiura, 219 (4.5%) for Strongyloides stercoralis, 17 (0.4%) for Fasciola hepatica, 551 (11.3%) for Giardia lamblia, and 499 (9.2%) for Entamoeba histolytica. The cure rate for necatoriasis by treatment with 400 mg of albendazole was 84.4% (better than with other drugs), either alone or in combination (pyrantel with bephenium or pyrantel with praziquantel, or praziquantel with albendazole). Albendazole, 400 mg for 3 days, cured 92% of the cases of S. stercoralis infection. Praziquantel, 40 mg/kg body weight, in a single dose was effective in 89.7% of cases of S. mansoni, and 60% of cases of H. nana, although a 100% cure rate for H. nana was achieved with praziquantel at a dose of 20 mg/kg per day for 2 days. Two persons infected with F. hepatica were cured by 40 mg/kg praziquantel for 7 days. Tinidazole, 2 g in a single dose, cured 100% of persons infected with G. lamblia, while 60% of persons infected with E. histolytica were cured when treated with 2 g tinidazole for 3 days. Mass treatment of all the immigrants with 400 mg albendazole and 40 mg/kg praziquantel concomitantly resulted in a cure rate of 84.4% of all intestinal worms. PMID:2050509

Nahmias, J; Greenberg, Z; Djerrasi, L; Giladi, L

1991-05-01

220

Prevalence of Microsporidia, Cryptosporidium spp., and Giardia spp. in beavers (Castor canadensis) in Massachusetts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Feces from 62 beavers (Castor canadensis) in Massachusetts were examined by fluorescence microscopy (IFA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Microsporidia species, Cryptosporidium spp., and Giardia spp. between January 2002 and December 2004. PCR-positive specimens were further examined by gene sequencing. Protist parasites were detected in 6.4% of the beavers. All were subadults and kits. Microsporidia species were not detected. Giardia spp. was detected by IFA from four beavers; Cryptosporidium spp. was also detected by IFA from two of these beavers. However, gene sequence data for the ssrRNA gene from these two Cryptosporidium spp.-positive beavers were inconclusive in identifying the species. Nucleotide sequences of the TPI, ssrRNA, and beta-giardin genes for Giardia spp. (deposited in GenBank) indicated that the four beavers were excreting Giardia duodenalis Assemblage B, the zoonotic genotype representing a potential source of waterborne Giardia spp. cysts. PMID:17315434

Fayer, Ronald; Santín, Mónica; Trout, James M; DeStefano, Stephen; Koenen, Kiana; Kaur, Taranjit

2006-12-01

221

Prevalence of Microsporidia, Cryptosporidium spp., and Giardia spp. in beavers (Castor canadensis) in Massachusetts  

Science.gov (United States)

Feces from 62 beavers (Castor canadensis) in Massachusetts were examined by fluorescence microscopy (IFA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Microsporidia species, Cryptosporidium spp., and Giardia spp. between January 2002 and December 2004. PCR-positive specimens were further examined by gene sequencing. Protist parasites were detected in 6.4% of the beavers. All were subadults and kits. Microsporidia species were not detected. Giardia spp. was detected by IFA from four beavers; Cryptosporidium spp. was also detected by IFA from two of these beavers. However, gene sequence data for the ssrRNA gene from these two Cryptosporidium spp.-positive beavers were inconclusive in identifying the species. Nucleotide sequences of the TPI, ssrRNA, and ??-giardin genes for Giardia spp. (deposited in GenBank) indicated that the four beavers were excreting Giardia duodenalis Assemblage B, the zoonotic genotype representing a potential source of waterborne Giardia spp. cysts. Copyright 2006 by American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.

Fayer, R.; Santin, M.; Trout, J.M.; DeStefano, S.; Koenen, K.; Kaur, T.

2006-01-01

222

Occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in water supplies of San Pedro Sula, Honduras  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During June 1996, water supplies of the city of San Pedro Sula, Honduras, were sampled to obtain an assessment of Cryptosporidium oocyst and Giardia cyst concentrations. Each sample was concentrated and stained with an indirect immunofluorescent antibody, and parasites were counted through microscopic analysis. In three surface water supplies, Cryptosporidium oocyst concentrations ranged from 58 to 260 oocysts per 100 L, and Giardia cysts were present in concentrations ranging from 380 to 2100 cysts per 100 L. Unlike the surface water samples, groundwater had a higher concentration of Cryptosporidium oocysts (26/100 L than Giardia cysts (6/100 L, suggesting that the groundwater aquifer protects the water supply more effectively from larger Giardia cysts. Cryptosporidium oocyst concentrations are within the typical range for surface water supplies in North America whereas Giardia cyst concentrations are elevated. Efforts should be made to protect raw water from sources of contamination.

Solo-Gabriele Helena María

1998-01-01

223

Evaluation of Luminex xTAG gastrointestinal pathogen analyte-specific reagents for high-throughput, simultaneous detection of bacteria, viruses, and parasites of clinical and public health importance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Acute diarrheal disease (ADD) can be caused by a range of pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, and parasites. Conventional diagnostic methods, such as culture, microscopy, biochemical assays, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), are laborious and time-consuming and lack sensitivity. Combined, the array of tests performed on a single specimen can increase the turnaround time (TAT) significantly. We validated a 19plex laboratory-developed gastrointestinal pathogen panel (GPP) using Luminex xTAG analyte-specific reagents (ASRs) to simultaneously screen directly in fecal specimens for diarrhea-causing pathogens, including bacteria (Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli [ETEC], Shiga toxin-producing E. coli [STEC], E. coli O157:H7, Vibrio cholerae, Yersinia enterocolitica, and toxigenic Clostridium difficile), parasites (Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium spp., and Entamoeba histolytica), and viruses (norovirus GI and GII, adenovirus 40/41, and rotavirus A). Performance characteristics of GPP ASRs were determined using 48 reference isolates and 254 clinical specimens. Stool specimens from individuals with diarrhea were tested for pathogens using conventional and molecular methods. Using the predictive methods as standards, the sensitivities of the GPP ASRs were 100% for adenovirus 40/41, norovirus, rotavirus A, Vibrio cholerae, Yersinia enterocolitica, Entamoeba histolytica, Cryptosporidium spp., and E. coli O157:H7; 95% for Giardia lamblia; 94% for ETEC and STEC; 93% for Shigella spp.; 92% for Salmonella spp.; 91% for C. difficile A/B toxins; and 90% for Campylobacter jejuni. The overall comparative performance of the GPP ASRs with conventional methods in clinical samples was 94.5% (range, 90% to 97%), with 99% (99.0% to 99.9%) specificity. Implementation of the GPP ASRs enables our public health laboratory to offer highly sensitive and specific screening and identification of the major ADD-causing pathogens. PMID:23850948

Navidad, Jose F; Griswold, David J; Gradus, M Stephen; Bhattacharyya, Sanjib

2013-09-01

224

Intestinal parasites in school food handlers in the city of Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil Parasitas intestinais em manipuladores de merenda escolar na cidade de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brasil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to verify the presence of intestinal parasites in food handlers, stool samples were collected from 104 cooks and their helpers that were working in food preparation in 20 public elementary schools, in various areas of the city of Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The samples were collected during the months of November and December, 1988, in plastic flasks containing a 10% formaldehyde solution and processed by the Hoffmann, Pons & Janer method. The sediment was examined using triplicate slides. All individuals were females aged between 24 to 69 years. Intestinal parasites were found in 85.0% of the studied schools and 47.1% of the studied food handlers (cooks and helpers were found to be positive. Among the 49 infected food handlers, 32 (65.3% carried a single parasite and 17 (34.7% carried two parasites. The following intestinal parasites were found: Giardia lamblia (21.1%, Entamoeba coli (21.1%, hookworms (9.6%, Ascaris lumbricoides (5.8%, Entamoeba histolytica (2.9%, Hymenolepis nana (1.9%, Strongyloides stercoralis (1.0%. These data emphasize the need for a rigid semi-annual control in all school food handlers, including diagnosis, specific treatment and orientation about the mechanisms of transmission of the intestinal parasites.Para verificar a presença de parasitas intestinais em manipuladores de merenda escolar foram coletadas amostras fecais de 104 cantineiras e serventes que auxiliavam no preparo da alimentação de 20 Estabelecimentos da rede pública de ensino de 1º grau, localizados em diferentes bairros, da cidade de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais. As amostras foram coletadas nos meses de novembro e dezembro de 1988 em frascos plásticos contendo formol a 10% e processadas pelo método de Hoffmann, Pons & Janer sendo o sedimento examinado em triplicata. Todos os indivíduos pertenciam ao sexo feminino com idade entre 24 e 69 anos. Foram detectados manipuladores de merenda escolar parasitados em 85% das Escolas estudadas. Das 104 amostras de fezes, 49 (47,1% estavam positivas, sendo que 32 (65,3% pertenciam a indivíduos monoparasitados e 17 (34,7% a indivíduos biparasitados. Os parasitas em ordem decrescente de ocorrência foram: Giardia lamblia (21,1%, Entamoeba coli (21,1%, ancilostomídeos (9,6%, Ascaris lumbricoides (5,8%, Entamoeba histolytica (2,9%, Hymenolepis nana (1,9% e Strongyloides stercoralis (1,0%. Conclui-se pela necessidade de rigoroso controle semestral, tratamento específico e orientação sobre os mecanismos de transmissão das enteroparasitoses a todos os manipuladores de merenda escolar dos Estabelecimentos de ensino.

Julia Maria Costa-Cruz

1995-06-01

225

Intestinal parasites in school food handlers in the city of Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil / Parasitas intestinais em manipuladores de merenda escolar na cidade de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Para verificar a presença de parasitas intestinais em manipuladores de merenda escolar foram coletadas amostras fecais de 104 cantineiras e serventes que auxiliavam no preparo da alimentação de 20 Estabelecimentos da rede pública de ensino de 1º grau, localizados em diferentes bairros, da cidade de [...] Uberlândia, Minas Gerais. As amostras foram coletadas nos meses de novembro e dezembro de 1988 em frascos plásticos contendo formol a 10% e processadas pelo método de Hoffmann, Pons & Janer sendo o sedimento examinado em triplicata. Todos os indivíduos pertenciam ao sexo feminino com idade entre 24 e 69 anos. Foram detectados manipuladores de merenda escolar parasitados em 85% das Escolas estudadas. Das 104 amostras de fezes, 49 (47,1%) estavam positivas, sendo que 32 (65,3%) pertenciam a indivíduos monoparasitados e 17 (34,7%) a indivíduos biparasitados. Os parasitas em ordem decrescente de ocorrência foram: Giardia lamblia (21,1%), Entamoeba coli (21,1%), ancilostomídeos (9,6%), Ascaris lumbricoides (5,8%), Entamoeba histolytica (2,9%), Hymenolepis nana (1,9%) e Strongyloides stercoralis (1,0%). Conclui-se pela necessidade de rigoroso controle semestral, tratamento específico e orientação sobre os mecanismos de transmissão das enteroparasitoses a todos os manipuladores de merenda escolar dos Estabelecimentos de ensino. Abstract in english In order to verify the presence of intestinal parasites in food handlers, stool samples were collected from 104 cooks and their helpers that were working in food preparation in 20 public elementary schools, in various areas of the city of Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The samples were collected [...] during the months of November and December, 1988, in plastic flasks containing a 10% formaldehyde solution and processed by the Hoffmann, Pons & Janer method. The sediment was examined using triplicate slides. All individuals were females aged between 24 to 69 years. Intestinal parasites were found in 85.0% of the studied schools and 47.1% of the studied food handlers (cooks and helpers) were found to be positive. Among the 49 infected food handlers, 32 (65.3%) carried a single parasite and 17 (34.7%) carried two parasites. The following intestinal parasites were found: Giardia lamblia (21.1%), Entamoeba coli (21.1%), hookworms (9.6%), Ascaris lumbricoides (5.8%), Entamoeba histolytica (2.9%), Hymenolepis nana (1.9%), Strongyloides stercoralis (1.0%). These data emphasize the need for a rigid semi-annual control in all school food handlers, including diagnosis, specific treatment and orientation about the mechanisms of transmission of the intestinal parasites.

Julia Maria, Costa-Cruz; Margareth Leitão Gennari, Cardoso; Daldy Endo, Marques.

1995-06-01

226

A genomic survey of the fish parasite Spironucleus salmonicida indicates genomic plasticity among diplomonads and significant lateral gene transfer in eukaryote genome evolution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative genomic studies of the mitochondrion-lacking protist group Diplomonadida (diplomonads has been lacking, although Giardia lamblia has been intensively studied. We have performed a sequence survey project resulting in 2341 expressed sequence tags (EST corresponding to 853 unique clones, 5275 genome survey sequences (GSS, and eleven finished contigs from the diplomonad fish parasite Spironucleus salmonicida (previously described as S. barkhanus. Results The analyses revealed a compact genome with few, if any, introns and very short 3' untranslated regions. Strikingly different patterns of codon usage were observed in genes corresponding to frequently sampled ESTs versus genes poorly sampled, indicating that translational selection is influencing the codon usage of highly expressed genes. Rigorous phylogenomic analyses identified 84 genes – mostly encoding metabolic proteins – that have been acquired by diplomonads or their relatively close ancestors via lateral gene transfer (LGT. Although most acquisitions were from prokaryotes, more than a dozen represent likely transfers of genes between eukaryotic lineages. Many genes that provide novel insights into the genetic basis of the biology and pathogenicity of this parasitic protist were identified including 149 that putatively encode variant-surface cysteine-rich proteins which are candidate virulence factors. A number of genomic properties that distinguish S. salmonicida from its human parasitic relative G. lamblia were identified such as nineteen putative lineage-specific gene acquisitions, distinct mutational biases and codon usage and distinct polyadenylation signals. Conclusion Our results highlight the power of comparative genomic studies to yield insights into the biology of parasitic protists and the evolution of their genomes, and suggest that genetic exchange between distantly-related protist lineages may be occurring at an appreciable rate in eukaryote genome evolution.

Logsdon John M

2007-02-01

227

The Superoxide Reductase from the Early Diverging Eukaryote Giardia Intestinalis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Unlike superoxide dismutases (SODs), superoxidereductases (SORs) eliminate superoxide anion (O2#sm_bullet#-) not through its dismutation, but via reduction to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the presence of an electron donor. The microaerobic protist Giardia intestinalis, responsible for a common intestinal disease in humans, though lacking SOD and other canonical reactive oxygen species-detoxifying systems, is among the very few eukaryotes encoding a SOR yet identified. In this study, the recombinant SOR from Giardia (SORGi) was purified and characterized by pulse radiolysis and stopped-flow spectrophotometry. The protein, isolated in the reduced state, after oxidation by superoxide or hexachloroiridate(IV), yields a resting species (Tfinal) with Fe3+ ligated to glutamate or hydroxide depending on pH (apparent pKa = 8.7). Although showing negligible SOD activity, reduced SORGi reacts with O2#sm_bullet#- with a pH-independent second-order rate constant k1 = 1.0 x 109 M-1 s-1 and yields the ferric-(hydro)peroxo intermediate T1; this in turn rapidly decays to the Tfinal state with pH-dependent rates, without populating other detectable intermediates. Immunoblotting assays show that SORGi is expressed in the disease-causing trophozoite of Giardia. We propose that the superoxide-scGiardia. We propose that the superoxide-scavenging activity of SOR in Giardia may promote the survival of this air-sensitive parasite in the fairly aerobic proximal human small intestine during infection.

228

Parasites.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ill health related to food-borne infection transcends all geographical, political and cultural boundaries. The incidence of food-borne diseases continues to adversely affect the health and productivity of populations in most countries, especially non-industrialised ones. However, since the 1950s, the emphasis in the industrialised world had shifted away from addressing public health problems, to problems of chemical contaminants etc., but recently food-borne infections have again become of increasing concern to governments and the food industry. Improvements in international transportation means food can be distributed throughout the world, but so can the parasitic pathogens which contaminate foods. Alternatively, tourists are being affected abroad and possibly transmitting the pathogen to others at home. Thus, an increasing number of food-related illnesses are international in scope. In this review parasitic contamination of foods of animal origin, particularly meat and fish, will be discussed together with potential problems associated with water and unwashed fruits and vegetables. PMID:10885116

Northrop-Clewes, C A; Shaw, C

2000-01-01

229

Parasitismo intestinal em uma aldeia indígena Parakanã, sudeste do Estado do Pará, Brasil Intestinal parasitism in a Parakanã indigenous community in southwestern Pará State, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O trabalho visa estudar a ocorrência e os aspectos epidemiológicos do parasitismo intestinal na aldeia Paranatinga da tribo indígena Parakanã, Amazônia Oriental Brasileira. Foram realizados dois inquéritos coproparasitológicos, em abril de 1992 e em fevereiro de 1995. Os métodos utilizados na identificação dos agentes parasitários foram os de Hoffman e exame direto, dois métodos simples, facilmente exeqüíveis em aldeias indígenas. Da amostra de 126 índios em abril de 1992 (população de 215 índios, 101 (80,2% encontravam-se parasitados por pelo menos um enteroparasita. Ancilostomídeos foram encontrados em 33,3%, A. lumbricoides, em 42,8%, T. trichiura, em 0,8%, e S. stercoralis, em 5,6%. Em relação aos protozoários, E. histolytica foi encontrada em 65,0% e G. lamblia, em 46,8%. No inquérito de fevereiro de 1995, apesar do aumento da prevalência total em comparação com o de abril de 1992 (p = 0,04, houve diminuição das prevalências de ancilostomídeos, E. histolytica, G. lamblia, e ausência de S. stercoralis (pTo determine the occurrence and epidemiological aspects of intestinal parasites among the Parakanã indigenous people in the Paranatinga settlement (in the eastern Amazon Region, parasitological tests were performed in April 1992 and February 1995. One fresh stool specimen was obtained and immediately processed using the Hoffman and direct methods. Some 126 samples were obtained in April 1992 (from a total population of 215 individuals. Some 80.2% (101 of those tested were infected with at least one species of intestinal parasite. Hookworms were found in 33.3%, Ascaris lumbricoides 42.8%, Trichuris trichiura 0.8%, and Strongyloides stercoralis 5.6%. Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia protozoans were found in 65.0% and 46.8% of those tested, respectively. A second parasitological survey was performed on 174 individuals (from a population of 253 in February 1995. 88.5% were infected. Note that prevalence in February 1995 was higher than in April 1992 (p = 0.04. It was lower for hookworms, E. histolytica, and G. lamblia, with no S. stercoralis (p<0.05. Despite provision of health care in the Paranatinga community, prevalence of intestinal parasites is still extremely high, suggesting that primary and secondary health care should be increased immediately.

Rogério dos Anjos Miranda

1998-07-01

230

Antigenic detection of Giardia duodenalis in companion dogs of Ahvaz area, south-west of Iran  

OpenAIRE

Introduction and objective: Giardia duodenalis is a ubiquitous protozoan parasite in several animal species and humans. The objective of the present survey was to investigate the prevalence of G. duodenalis in the fecal samples of companion dogs in Ahvaz area, south-western Iran. Materials and methods: A total of 150 companion dogs of different ages were examined for antigenic detection of G. duodenalis in fecal samples by a commercial Giardia Antigen Test Kit. Fecal centrifugation-flotation ...

Ali Reza Alborzi; Mohammad Hossein Razi Jalali; Reza Avizeh; Bahman Mosallanejad

2010-01-01

231

Antigen expression from the ribosomal DNA repeat unit of Giardia intestinalis.  

OpenAIRE

The amitochondrial human intestinal parasite Giardia intestinalis is regarded to be the most ancient living example of single-celled eukaryotes and should display primitive features of pre-metazoan gene regulation. Characterization of E. coli clones which express Giardia antigens from plasmid vectors has revealed that an antigen is encoded by the rDNA repeat unit from the strand complementary to that encoding the rRNAs. The open reading frame (ORF) originates in the spacer region between the ...

Upcroft, J. A.; Healey, A.; Mitchell, R.; Boreham, P. F.; Upcroft, P.

1990-01-01

232

Prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia intestinalis in Swimming Pools, Atlanta, Georgia  

OpenAIRE

Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia intestinalis have been found in swimming pool filter backwash during outbreaks. To determine baseline prevalence, we sampled pools not associated with outbreaks and found that of 160 sampled pools, 13 (8.1%) were positive for 1 or both parasites; 10 (6.2%) for Giardia sp., 2 (1.2%) for Cryptosporidium spp., and 1 (0.6%) for both.

Shields, Joan M.; Gleim, Elizabeth R.; Beach, Michael J.

2008-01-01

233

Intestinal parasitic infestations among children in an orphanage in Pathum Thani province.  

Science.gov (United States)

Infection caused by intestinal parasites is still a common health problem especially in children from developing countries. Orphans are a group of underprivileged population in society. To evaluate the intestinal parasitic infections in children in an orphanage in Pathum Thani province, Thailand, stool samples were collected during a cross-sectional study in April 2001. Examination for intestinal parasites were performed by using simple smear, formalin-ether concentration, Boeck and Drbohlav's Locke-Egg-Serum (LES) medium culture and special staining (modified acid-fast and modified trichrome) techniques. A total of 106 pre-school orphans (60 males and 46 females), aged 10.0-82.0 months, were recruited for the study. There were 86 individuals (81.1%), 45 males and 41 females, infected with at least one parasite. Interestingly, most of the parasites identified were protozoa. Blastocystis hominis was found at the highest prevalence (45.2%). The infections caused by Giardia lamblia was 37.7 per cent and Entamoeba histolytica was 3.7 per cent. Other non-pathogenic protozoa found were Trichomonas hominis (39.6%), Entamoeba coli (18.8%), and Endolimax nana (3.7%). The only one case of helminth parasite detected was Strongyloides stercoralis (0.9%). The sensitivity for detection of B. hominis and T. hominis was increased by the LES culture technique. No history of diarrhea symptoms were recorded among these orphans. However, during the investigation, stools of all infected cases were noted for six characteristics including formed, soft, loose, mucous, loose-watery and watery. The present study emphasized the problems of protozoan infections among these orphans. Health educations as well as routine surveillance is necessary in order to control the infections. PMID:12929999

Saksirisampant, Wilai; Nuchprayoon, Surang; Wiwanitkit, Viroj; Yenthakam, Sutin; Ampavasiri, Anchalee

2003-06-01

234

Giardia and Cryptosporidium in cetaceans on the European Atlantic coast.  

Science.gov (United States)

The occurrence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium was investigated in cetacean specimens stranded on the northwestern coast of Spain (European Atlantic coast) by analysis of 65 samples of large intestine from eight species. The parasites were identified by direct immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) and by PCR amplification of the ?-giardin gene, the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region and the SSU-rDNA gene of Giardia and the SSU-rDNA gene of Cryptosporidium. Giardia and Cryptosporidium were detected in 7 (10.8 %) and 9 samples (13.8 %), respectively. In two samples, co-infection with both parasites was observed. Giardia duodenalis assemblages A, C, D and F, and Cryptosporidium parvum were identified. This is the first report of G. duodenalis in Balaenoptera acutorostrata, Kogia breviceps and Stenella coeruleoalba and also the first report of Cryptosporidium sp. in B. acutorostrata and of C. parvum in S. coeruleoalba and Tursiops truncatus. These results extend the known host range of these waterborne enteroparasites. PMID:25418072

Reboredo-Fernández, Aurora; Ares-Mazás, Elvira; Martínez-Cedeira, José A; Romero-Suances, Rafael; Cacciò, Simone M; Gómez-Couso, Hipólito

2015-02-01

235

Chapter 42. Waterborne and Foodborne Parasites  

Science.gov (United States)

This chapter identifies the most prominent parasites in North America that are acquired through contaminated food and water including protozoa (Acanthamoeba, Naegleria, Entamoeba, Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Cystoisospora, Cyclospora, Toxoplasma, and Balantidium), nematodes (Trichinella, Angiostrongyl...

236

Epidemiologia del parasitismo intestinal infantil en el Valle del Guadalquivir / Epidemiology of the children's intestinal parasitism in the Guadalquivir Valley (Spain)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish FUNDAMENTO: Las parasitosis intestinales en los niños constituyen un problema de salud pública que debe ser valorado periódicamente en cada región. En este trabajo se aborda, por primera vez en la región natural del Valle del Guadalquivir, un estudio amplio sobre la prevalencia del parasitismo intes [...] tinal en la población infantil de la zona. MÉTODOS: Durante el período 1994-1996, mediante análisis coprológico y método de Graham, se ha estudiado a 1.917 niños y niñas asintomáticos, con edades comprendidas entre seis y diez años, residentes en veinte localidades del Valle del Guadalquivir. RESULTADOS: El índice global de parasitación ha sido del 27,12 %. Las especies parásitas detectadas, así como sus prevalencias fueron: Enterobius vermicularis (20,44%), Giardia lamblia (5,05%), Entamoeba coli (2,45%), Endolimax nana (1,61%), Entamoeba histolytica (0,31%), Entamoeba hartmanni (0,05%), Iodamoeba bütschlii (0,05%). CONCLUSIONES: La prevalencia global encontrada es similar a la de otras regiones españolas, aunque quizás pueda considerarse algo más favorable. No se detectan geohelmintos, debido posiblemente a la mejora de la infraestructura higiénico-sanitaria y a los efectos de la prolongada sequía en la zona. La giardiasis, a diferencia de las restantes protozoosis, mantiene una prevalencia relativamente alta. Abstract in english BACKGROUND : Intestinal parasitisms represents a public health problem that should be periodically assessed in each region. In the present paper, a study about prevalence of intestinal parasites, has been carried out in children from the natural region of the Guadalquivir Valley. METHODS: During the [...] period 1994-1996, 1.917 children without symptoms, aging between 6 and 10, were studied by means of coprologycal analysis and Graham method, all of them living in 20 villages in the Guadalquivir valley. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitisms have been of 27,12%. The reported parasites and their prevalence are as follows: Enterobius vermicularis (20,44%), Giardia lamblia (5,05%), Entamoeba coli (2,45%), Endolimax nana (1,61%), Entamoeba histolytica (0,31%), Entamoeba hartmanni (0,05%), Iodamoeba bütschlii (0,05%). CONCLUSIONS: The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites is similar to that found in other spanish region, if only a little bit more favourable probably due to the long lasting drought and the improvements in health resourses, no geohelmints have been detected unlike other protozoosis, giardiasis mantains a relatively high prevalence.

Cristina, Pérez Armengol; Concepción, Ariza Astolfi; José M., Úbeda Ontiveros; Diego C., Guevara Benítez; Manuel de, Rojas Alvarez; Carmen, Lozano Serrano.

1997-11-01

237

Epidemiologia del parasitismo intestinal infantil en el Valle del Guadalquivir / Epidemiology of the children's intestinal parasitism in the Guadalquivir Valley (Spain)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish FUNDAMENTO: Las parasitosis intestinales en los niños constituyen un problema de salud pública que debe ser valorado periódicamente en cada región. En este trabajo se aborda, por primera vez en la región natural del Valle del Guadalquivir, un estudio amplio sobre la prevalencia del parasitismo intes [...] tinal en la población infantil de la zona. MÉTODOS: Durante el período 1994-1996, mediante análisis coprológico y método de Graham, se ha estudiado a 1.917 niños y niñas asintomáticos, con edades comprendidas entre seis y diez años, residentes en veinte localidades del Valle del Guadalquivir. RESULTADOS: El índice global de parasitación ha sido del 27,12 %. Las especies parásitas detectadas, así como sus prevalencias fueron: Enterobius vermicularis (20,44%), Giardia lamblia (5,05%), Entamoeba coli (2,45%), Endolimax nana (1,61%), Entamoeba histolytica (0,31%), Entamoeba hartmanni (0,05%), Iodamoeba bütschlii (0,05%). CONCLUSIONES: La prevalencia global encontrada es similar a la de otras regiones españolas, aunque quizás pueda considerarse algo más favorable. No se detectan geohelmintos, debido posiblemente a la mejora de la infraestructura higiénico-sanitaria y a los efectos de la prolongada sequía en la zona. La giardiasis, a diferencia de las restantes protozoosis, mantiene una prevalencia relativamente alta. Abstract in english BACKGROUND : Intestinal parasitisms represents a public health problem that should be periodically assessed in each region. In the present paper, a study about prevalence of intestinal parasites, has been carried out in children from the natural region of the Guadalquivir Valley. METHODS: During the [...] period 1994-1996, 1.917 children without symptoms, aging between 6 and 10, were studied by means of coprologycal analysis and Graham method, all of them living in 20 villages in the Guadalquivir valley. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitisms have been of 27,12%. The reported parasites and their prevalence are as follows: Enterobius vermicularis (20,44%), Giardia lamblia (5,05%), Entamoeba coli (2,45%), Endolimax nana (1,61%), Entamoeba histolytica (0,31%), Entamoeba hartmanni (0,05%), Iodamoeba bütschlii (0,05%). CONCLUSIONS: The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites is similar to that found in other spanish region, if only a little bit more favourable probably due to the long lasting drought and the improvements in health resourses, no geohelmints have been detected unlike other protozoosis, giardiasis mantains a relatively high prevalence.

Cristina, Pérez Armengol; Concepción, Ariza Astolfi; José M., Úbeda Ontiveros; Diego C., Guevara Benítez; Manuel de, Rojas Alvarez; Carmen, Lozano Serrano.

1997-11-01

238

Prevalence of intestinal parasites in a population in south of Tehran, Iran / Prevalência de parasitas intestinais em população no sul do Teerã, Irã  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O própósito deste estudo foi descrever as características epidemiológicas dos parasitas intestinais em população do sul de Teerã, Irã. Um estudo retrospectivo seccional cruzado de pacientes com suspeita de infecções parasitárias intestinais enviados ao Laboratório Zakaria Razi em Shahre-Ray, sul do [...] Teerã, Irã foi conduzido de 21 de abril de 2004 a 20 de outubro de 2005. Todas as amostras de fezes foram examinadas e as informações sócio-demográficas recuperadas. De 4371 pacientes enviados, 466 (239 homens e 227 mulheres) foram diagnosticados laboratorialmente como portadores de parasitas intestinais com prevalência no período de 10,7%. Blastocystis hominis (B. hominis) e Giardia lamblia (G. lamblia) foram os parasitas intestinais mais frequentes. Mais da metade dos pacientes ³ 18 anos tinham baixo nível educacional (por exemplo: analfabetos, escola primária, 2º grau completo) (170/331, 54,1%). Mais ainda, a maioria dos pacientes eram empregados domésticos (42,3%, 140/331) ou trabalhadores (28,1%, 93/331) empregados em diversos tipos de serviços, tais como a indústria de alimentos e construção. Achados deste estudo mostraram que as infecções parasitárias intestinais são ainda um desafio importante em saúde pública no Irã que necessita ser resolvido. Acreditamos que a educação pública, a melhoria das condições sanitárias em áreas pouco desenvolvidas/comunidades, envolvimento da comunidade, e programas práticos baseados nas evidências, são as principais chaves do sucesso na prevenção da disseminação das infecções parasitárias no Irã. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to describe epidemiologic characteristics of intestinal parasites in a population in south of Tehran, Iran. A retrospective cross-sectional study of patients with suspicious intestinal parasitic infections referred to the Zakaria Razi Laboratory in Shahre-Ray, southern Tehr [...] an, Iran, was conducted from April 21, 2004 to October 20, 2005. All stool samples were examined and socio-demographic informations were retrieved. Of 4,371 referred patients, 466 (239 males and 227 females) were laboratory diagnosed with intestinal parasites, with a period prevalence of 10.7%. Blastocystis hominis (B. hominis) and Giardia lamblia (G. lamblia) were the most frequent intestinal parasites. More than half of patients aged ³ 18 years had a low level of educational attainment (e.g. illiterate, primary school, high school) (170/331, 54.1%). Further, majority of patients were homemakers (42.3%, 140/331) or workers (28.1%, 93/331) employed in various business settings such as food industry and construction. Findings of this study showed that intestinal parasitic infections are still a major public health challenge in Iran that needs to be addressed. We believe that public education, improving sanitation conditions of underdeveloped areas/communities, community involvement, and supporting evidence-based practice/programs are the major keys to success in preventing the spread of intestinal parasitic infections in Iran.

Abolfath Shojaei, Arani; Reza, Alaghehbandan; Lame, Akhlaghi; Maryam, Shahi; Abdolaziz Rastegar, Lari.

2008-06-01

239

Intestinal parasites in ecotourism region of the state of Paraná, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To determine the indices of prevalence of intestinal parasites and commensals in the residents of ecotourism region of Paraná State, a retrospective study was conducte, from January/2003 to December/2004 on 3,764 fecal parasitological examinations performed by a private laboratory of Ubiratã using the Baermann-Moraes, water-sedimentation and Willis methods. Among the individuals aged eight months to 89 years, 522 (13.9% cases were positive. Giardia lamblia (175/522; 24.2% was the most prevalent parasite (pA prevalência de enteroparasitas e comensais, de janeiro/2003 a dezembro/2004, foi determinada em residentes de região de ecoturismo do Paraná por meio de estudo retrospectivo. Foram examinados os resultados de 3.764 exames coproparasitológicos efetuados em laboratório privado de Ubiratã Entre indivíduos de 8 meses a 89 anos, 522 (13,9% exames foram positivos. Giardia intestinalis (175/522; 24,2% foi o parasita prevalente (p<0,000. Entamoeba coli mostrou-se o commensal mais comum, com 238/552 (32,9% casos (p<0,000, encontrando-se frequentemente associado com outras espécies, parasitas ou comensais. Crianças em idade pré-escolar (2-6 anos e escolar (7-14 anos apresentaram-se mais parasitados (66,0% de positividade; p<0,0000. A maioria dos indivíduos encontrava-se parasitado por uma única espécie (233; 44.6% do que por várias espécies (169; 32.4%. Estes resultados indicam um grau significativo de contaminação ambiental em cidades do Paraná, principalmente aquelas de médio e pequeno porte, representando fonte de preocupação em vista do crescimento do ecoturismo na região.

Dina Lúcia Morais Falavigna

2008-08-01

240

Blastocystis hominis and other intestinal parasites in a community of Pitanga City, Paraná State, Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective was to estimate the prevalence of Blastocystis hominis, to evaluate the effectiveness of different techniques for its diagnosis as well as to estimate the prevalence of other intestinal parasites in the community of Campo Verde, a district of Pitanga. The work was carried out from August to October 2004. Samples of feces from children and adults were collected and submitted to the techniques of direct wet mount, flotation in zinc sulphate solution, tube sedimentation, sedimentation in formalin-ether and staining by Kinyoun and iron hematoxylin methods. From 181 studied individuals, 128 (70.7%) showed protozoa and/or helminths in stool samples. The most prevalent species were Endolimax nana (33.7%); B. hominis (26.5%); Giardia lamblia (18.2%); Entamoeba coli (17.1%); Ascaris lumbricoides (16.6%); Iodamoeba bütschlii (9.4%); and ancylostomatidae (7.7%). B. hominis was only identified by the techniques of direct wet mount, sedimentation in formalin-ether and staining by iron hematoxylin, though the latter was less sensitive than the other methods. The high frequency of B. hominis demonstrated by this study indicates the need to include laboratory techniques that enable identification of the parasite on a routine basis. PMID:16138204

Nascimento, Solange Aparecida; Moitinho, Maria da Luz Ribeiro

2005-01-01

241

INTESTINAL PARASITIC INFECTION IN FOODHANDLERS: IN THE HOSPITALS AFFILIATED TO ISFAHAN UNIVERSITY OF MEDICAL SCIENCES – 1997  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Foodhandlers can be carriers of organisms such as salmonella, staphylococci and intestinal parasitic infections. Considering that some patients in hospitals may have impaired resistance to infection and the possible role of foodhandlers in this regard, it seems to be necessary to examine the role of foodhandlers in transmission of intestinal parasitic infection. Methods: 152 foodhandlers were evaluated for their intestinal protozoan and helminthic infections in the hospitals of the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. From each subject, three stool - specimens were taken in three consecutive days. Five methods (Scotch tape, Direct examination, Formalin - Ether, Telleman, Flotation were used to detect ova and cyst. Results: The overall infection rate was (55.3 percent. The most commonly protozoa was Entamoeba Coli (in 33.6 percent of specimens. Others were Endolimax nana (17.8 percent, Blastocystis hominis (9.2 percent, Giardia lamblia (7.9 percent, Iodamoeba butschlii (2 percent and Chilomastix mesnili (0.7 percent respectively. The helminths observed were Enterobius vermicularis (9.1 percent, Hymenolepis nana (1.3 percent, Ascaris lumbricoides (0.7 percent, Trichuris trichiura (0.7 percent and Trichostrongylus spp(0.7 percent. Discussion: Deficiencies in hygienic practices and poor basic environmental sanitation are the contributing factors in the maintenance of the high prevalence of the intestinal protozoan infections found.

P KETABI

2001-06-01

242

Prevalence, Risk Factors and Impacts of Schistosomal and Intestinal Parasitic Infections Among Rural School Children in Sohag Governorate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Parasitic diseases represent a major cause of morbidity and mortality in childhood in most parts of the world. Hygiene and play habits make children especially vulnerable to schistosomal and parasitic infections. The aim of this study is to define the prevalence of different types of parasitic infections, to define their risk factors and to determine their impacts on health and scholastic absenteeism and achievement of rural school students in Sohag Governorate, Egypt. A cross-section, analytical study design was chosen to perform this research on 960 rural school students. All the students were interviewed and examined clinically and laboratory. The study showed that 38.5% of the students were infected by parasites. Entaemoeba histolytica, Enterobius vermicularis and Giardia lamblia had the highest percentages, 20.4%, 16.6% and 15.2%, respectively. Male sex, last birth order, poor personal hygiene, low socioeconomic level, 3 infected siblings, previous parasitic infections and no early consultation for therapy were important risk factors (ORs=1.41, 2.32, 2.63, 2.86, 4.17, 9.80 and 10.83, respectively. Also, 29.2% and 31.6% of infected students were below the 5th percentiles as regard weight-for-age and height-for-age, respectively. Anemia was present among 52.4% of infected students. Further, 3.2% of them had hepatomegaly. Also, 37.8% and 41.1% of infected students had 0-3 and 4-6 days/month absent, respectively, while, 34.3% of infected students had a scholastic achievement <50.0%. Improving personal and environmental hygiene and regular screening, treatment and health education for students as regard parasitic infections in Egypt is recommended.

H. M. El-Masry; Y. A. Ahmed; A. A. Hassan; S. Zaky*; E. S. Abd-Allah

2007-12-01

243

The abundance of Cryptosporidium and Giardia spp. in treated effluents produced by four wastewater treatment plants in the Gauteng Province of South Africa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english This study aimed at assessing the effectiveness of 4 wastewater treatment plants of the Gauteng Province, namely Zeekoegat, Baviaanspoort, Rayton and Refilwe Water Care Works (WCW), in the removal of Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts. Wastewater influent and treated effluent samples were taken w [...] eekly between January and April 2008. Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts were detected by immunofluorescence and immunomagnetic separation, according to a modified US EPA 1623 method. Effluent samples were subjected to a molecular study for the identification of Cryptosporidium parvum Genotype I and Giardia lamblia Assemblage A. The 18S rRNA gene for restriction digests was therefore used to characterise these (oo)cysts. Cryptosporidium oocysts were repeatedly detected in effluent samples collected from all wastewater treatments at lower concentration (range

M, Dungeni; MNB, Momba.

2010-07-01

244

Intraepithelial giardia intestinalis: a case report and literature review.  

Science.gov (United States)

The giardiasis is a neglected parasitic disease. The WHO has estimated more than 280 million of human infections each year; however, intraepithelial giardiasis is a rare entity, there are only 5 reports showing invasive giardiasis. A pediatric female patient with chronic abdominal pain, diarrhea, or pasty stools, without fever, was seen in the Gastroenterology and Nutrition Service. The stool studies were negative for pathogens and lactose hydrogen breath test was positive. The presumptive clinical diagnosis was giardiasis and the patient was empirically treated with nitazoxanide. But, the patient persisted with abdominal pain and pasty stools. Endoscopy was indicated to search for Helicobacter and Giardia. Guardian and patient gave written informed consent. Hematological profile was normal. The endoscopy was performed under general anesthesia and the biopsies and duodenal aspirate were obtained. The microscopic analyses of duodenal fluid showed Giardia trophozoites. Electron microscopic analysis was negative for Helicobacter pylori, but Giardia trophozoites with a typical crescent shape within the tissue were found. The patient was treated with tinidazole, subsequent tests showed that lactose absorption was normal, stool examinations were negative for Giardia and abdominal pain had stopped. This case suggest that intraepithelial giardiasis could be a common entity but unseen because the giardiasis diagnosis is usually made on fecal samples. Future studies are necessary to determine the role of intraepithelial trophozoites in giardiasis pathogenic mechanisms. PMID:25546671

Martínez-Gordillo, Mario Noé; González-Maciel, Angélica; Reynoso-Robles, Rafael; Montijo-Barrios, Ericka; Ponce-Macotela, Martha

2014-12-01

245

Monitoring of Cryptosporidium and Giardia river contamination in Paris area.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study evaluates the protozoan contamination of river waters, which are used for drinking water in Paris and its surrounding area (about 615,000 m(3) per day in total, including 300,000 m(3) for Paris area). Twenty litre samples of Seine and Marne Rivers were collected over 30 months and analyzed for Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts detection according to standard national or international methods. Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts were found, respectively, in 45.7% and 93.8% of a total of 162 river samples, with occasional high concentration peaks. A significant seasonal pattern was observed, with positive samples for Cryptosporidium more frequent in autumn than spring, summer and winter, and positive samples for Giardia less frequent in summer. Counts of enterococci and rainfalls were significantly associated with Giardia concentration but not Cryptosporidium. Other faecal bacteria were not correlated with monitored protozoan. Marne seems to contribute mainly to the parasitic contamination observed in Seine. Based on seasonal pattern and rainfall correlation, we hypothesize that the origin of contamination is agricultural practices and possible dysfunction of sewage treatment plants during periods of heavy rainfalls. High concentrations of protozoa found at the entry of drinking water plants justify the use of efficient water treatment methods. Treatment performances must be regularly monitored to ensure efficient disinfection according to the French regulations. PMID:18996551

Mons, Céline; Dumètre, Aurélien; Gosselin, Sylvie; Galliot, Christelle; Moulin, Laurent

2009-01-01

246

Epidemiology and control of Schistosomiasis and other intestinal parasitic infections among school children in three rural villages of south Saint Lucia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the epidemiology of parasitic infections andthe efficacy of treatment among school children in rural villages of south Saint Lucia.Method: A total of 554 school children participated in this study. Parasitic infections were confirmedby using Kato-Katz method.Results & conclusion: Overall, 61.6% of the school children were infected by any parasitic infection.The helminths identified were Ascaris lumbricoides (15.7%, Hookworm (11.9%, Strongyloides(9.7%, Trichuris trichiura (4.7%, Schistosoma mansoni (0.6%, Taenia solium (0.8% andEnterobius vermicularis (2.1%, Entamoeba coli (9.7%, Iodameba butschlii (5%, Entamoebahistolytica (1.1%, Giardia lamblia (1.8% and Endolimax nana (2.1%. The control interventionincluded treatment with albendazole 400 mg and praziquantel 40 mg/kg as well as awarenesscampaigns. Post-interventional assessment showed the total prevalence of intestinal parasiticinfection reduced from 61.6 to 3.6% with a cure rate of 94.2%, following the control methods.

Rajini Kurup , Gurdip S. Hunja

2010-12-01

247

Parasitic infections and immune function: effect of helminth infections in a malaria endemic area.  

Science.gov (United States)

According to the hygiene hypothesis, reduced exposure to infections could explain the rise of atopic diseases in high-income countries. Helminths are hypothesised to alter the host's immune response in order to avoid elimination and, as a consequence, also reduce the host responsiveness to potential allergens. To elucidate the effect of current helminth infections on immune responsiveness in humans, we measured cytokine production in a rural Ghanaian population in an area with multiple endemic parasites including malaria, intestinal helminths and protozoa. Multiplex real-time PCR in stool samples was used for the detection of four gastrointestinal helminths, of which only Necator americanus was commonly present. A similar assay was used to test for Giardia lamblia in stool samples and malaria infection in venous blood samples. Levels of the cytokines interleukin (IL)-10, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-?, IL-17, IL-6, IL-13, and interferon (IFN)-? were determined in whole-blood samples ex vivo-stimulated either with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and zymosan (for innate cytokine production) or the T-cell mitogen phytohaemagglutinin (PHA). There were no significant differences in either innate or PHA-stimulated cytokine production dependent on current N. americanus infection. Plasmodium falciparum malarial infection was associated with a pro-inflammatory response indicated by increased innate production of TNF-?, IL-17 and IL-6. There was no clear pattern in cytokine responses dependent on G. lamblia-infection. In conclusion, in this rural Ghanaian population current N. americanus infections are not associated with altered immune function, while infection with P. falciparum is associated with pro-inflammatory innate immune responses. PMID:22999162

Boef, Anna G C; May, Linda; van Bodegom, David; van Lieshout, Lisette; Verweij, Jaco J; Maier, Andrea B; Westendorp, Rudi G J; Eriksson, Ulrika K

2013-05-01

248

New system for higher recovery rate of water borne Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background: The two most common water borne pathogenic protozoa, Cryptosporidium and Giardia, cause diarrhea worldwide. Detecting these parasites in water samples depends on effective parasite recovery from the water matrix. The reported low recovery rates of the currently used filter methods motivate the development of systems with higher recovery rates. Materials and methods: Five replicates of IMS purified Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts (N=2x103) were injected into a specially coated filter unit with a carefully chosen pore size. Following filtration, sonication was performed at predetermined time intervals to loosen all parasites and other particles from the filter and break up clusters. The concentrated parasite suspension was backwashed and counted after immuno-fluorescence staining. Results and discussion: Without sonication the recovery rates of both Cryptosporidium and Giardia were 85% were recorded when the filter was sonicated. Sonication usually affects parasite viability but could be tuned into a useful tool for enhanced backwash collection of parasites using a specially constructed filter unit and a sonication protocol. The filtration chamber further facilitated the concentration of parasites by ensuring a backwash volume of less than 1ml. The presented design of the filter system can be used as a cheap and time effective method of isolating water borne parasites in the laboratory.

Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Gad, Jens

2012-01-01

249

Imunolocalization of delta-giardin within the ventral disc of Giardia duodenalis using laser scanning confocal microscopy  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardia duodenalis is a ubiquitous protozoan parasite that colonizes the upper small intestine of humans and animals causing diarrheal disease. To maintain infection within the small intestine, trophozoites (the replicative stage of the parasite) attach to the epithelial layer of the gut and resist ...

250

Transcription of meiotic-like-pathway genes in Giardia intestinalis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The reproductive mechanism of Giardia intestinalis, considered one of the earliest divergent eukaryotes, has not been fully defined yet. Some evidence supports the hypothesis that Giardia is an exclusively asexual organism with a clonal population structure. However, the high genetic variability, th [...] e variation in ploidy during its life cycle, the low heterozygosity and the existence of genes involved in the meiotic-like recombination pathway in the parasite's genome cast doubt on exclusively asexual nature of Giardia. In this work, semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis was used to assess the transcription pattern of three meiosis-like-specific genes involved in homologues recombination: dmc1, hop1 and spo11. The mRNAs were amplified during the parasite's differentiation processes, encystation and excystation, and expression was found at each stage of its life cycle. A semiquantitative assessment also suggests that expression of some of the genes is regulated during encystation process.

Sandra P, Melo; Vanessa, Gómez; Isabel C, Castellanos; Magda E, Alvarado; Paula C, Hernández; Amanda, Gallego; Moisés, Wasserman.

2008-06-01

251

THE CURRENT SITUATION OF PARASITIC INFECTIONS IN INDONESIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Parasitic infections are highly prevalent in Indonesia, especially in rural areas, suburbs and slums of big cities. Twenty two species of protozoa and 32 species of helminths have been reported infecting man in Indonesia. Among the 16 species of intestinal protozoa, nine are constantly found in stool surveys, but only Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia are real pathogens. Among the blood and tissue protozoa, the most important are the malaria parasites. The most frequently encountered and widely distributed species are Plasmodium falciparum, and P. vivax. P. malariae is at present more difficult to find, while P. ovale has been reported only from Flores, Timor and Irian Jaya. The non human parasites so far has not been diagnosed in human. Among the 80 species of Anopheline mosquitoes in Indonesia, 16 have been reconfirmed as vectors. Among the other tissue protozoa, Trichomonas vaginalis is frequenUy found in the Gynaecological clinic, while Toxolasma gondii is found only in special studies. Among the 13 species of intestinal nematodes, five are highly prevalent namely : Ascaris lumbricoides, Necator americanus, Ancylostoma duodenale, Trichuris trichiura and Oxyuris vermicularis, while Strongyloides stercoralis is getting more difficult to find. Filariasis is widely distributed and is still highly endemic in certain areas. Both urban and rural Wuchereria bancrofti are prevalent, but B. malayi is causing more public health problems in rural areas. Both the human and the zoonotic type are prevalent. B. timori so far has been described only from the south eastern part of Indonesia. The filarial worms have different vectors and are therefore different in epidemiology and distribution. Non human filarial worms have not been reported infecting man in Indonesia. Among the 12 species of Trematodes, only Schistosoma japonicum is endemic in Central Sulawesi, and recently an endemic area oiFasciolopsis buski was discovered in a restricted area in South Kalimantan. Echinostoma lindoense which was highly endemic in lake Lindu area has disappeared completely. Among the 8 species of Cestodes, Taenia saginata and T. solium with its cysticercus are found more often. While endemic in a few areas only, cases been reported from many places. Infections with other Cestodes have been reported occasionally. On the whole, parasitic infections in Indonesia have been decreasing. Some parasites which were prevalent in the older days, have dissappeared, and human infections with animal parasites have been reported occasionally because of the difficult diagnosis.

Sri Oemijati

2012-09-01

252

Intestinal parasites in patients from the educational community, “Veragacha” School, Lara state, Venezuela (Enteroparasitosis en pacientes de la comunidad educativa, Escuela “Veragacha”, estado Lara, Venezuela  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The parasites are a health problem.Objective: To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites instudents and school representatives.Methods: We assessed a descriptive and cross sectional study,which examined 204 individuals (114 children and 90 parents orguardians, analyzing their stool with techniques of saline solution,Lugol and Kato.Results: The frequency of intestinal parasitosis was 42.65%(73,6% for monoparasites and 26,4% multiparasitic predominantlybetween 11 and 14 years. 59% were female and 47,7%; were male.The parasites found: Blastocystis hominis (71,3%, Endolimaxnana (26,4%, Giardia lamblia (13,8%, Entamoeba coli (11,5%,Entamoeba histolytica (3.5%, Iodamoeba butschlii (1.2%, Chilomastixmesnili (1,2%, Trichuris trichiura (1,2% and Enterobiusvermicularis (1,2%.Conclusion: The relationship where the common presence of parasiteswas found. Only 18.1% of households had one or more parasitesin common, which seems to suggest that the infection in notnecessarily produced in the home. -RESUMEN: Introducción: Las parasitosis constituyen un problema de salud.Objetivo: Determinar la frecuencia de enteroparásitos en estudiantesy representantes de la escuela “Veragacha”.Material y Métodos: Se realizó un estudio de tipo descriptivo ytransversal, donde se estudiaron 204 individuos (114 niños y 90padres/representantes, analizando sus heces con las técnicas de soluciónsalina, lugol y Kato.Resultados: Se encontró una frecuencia de parasitosis intestinalde 42,65% (73,6% monoparasitados y 26,4% poliparasitados predominandoentre los 11 y 14 años (59% y en el sexo masculino(47,7%; los parásitos diagnosticados fueron: Blastocystis hominis(71,3%, Endolimax nana (26,4%, Giardia lamblia (13,8%, Entamoebacoli (11,5%, Entamoeba histolytica (3,5%, Iodamoebabutschlii (1,2%, Chilomastix mesnili (1,2%, Trichuris trichiura(1,2% y Enterobius vermicularis (1,2%.Conclusión: En la relación alumno-representante donde se indagóla presencia común de parásitos en cada familia, solo el 18,1% delos hogares, presentó uno o más parásitos en común, lo que hacepresumir que la infección no necesariamente se produjo en el hogar.

Pérez Daisy

2012-11-01

253

Prevalence of intestinal parasites in preschool children in the region of Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil / Prevalência de parasitoses intestinais em crianças institucionalizadas na região de Uberlândia, Estado de Minas Gerais  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: As crianças são importantes grupos de risco para infecções por helmintos e protozoários. Os centros de educação infantil são ambientes onde as crianças estão mais expostas à infecção por parasitas intestinais. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a prevalência de parasitas intestinais e [...] m crianças de duas creches mantidas pelo governo municipal de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Os exames coproparasitológicos foram realizados em 133 crianças (73 crianças da Escola Municipal de Educação Infantil - EMEI A e 60 da EMEI B), depois da identificação da criança de acordo com a idade e sexo, e concordância dos responsáveis através do Termo de Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido. As amostras foram examinadas pelo método de Lutz. RESULTADOS: Os exames coproparasitológicos demonstraram que 29,3% delas estavam parasitadas por enteroparasitos ou comensais e 6,7% das crianças apresentaram poliparasitismo. Entre os protozoários, Giardia lamblia foi o mais prevalente, enquanto Hymenolepis nana foi mais frequente dentre os helmintos. CONCLUSÕES: Assim, podemos observar que as parasitoses intestinais ainda representam um problema de saúde pública, especialmente entre as crianças e em áreas onde as condições socioeconômicas e educacionais são menos favoráveis. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Children are an important high-risk group for helminth and protozoa infections. Daycare centers are environments where children have proven to be more susceptible to acquiring intestinal parasites. Thus, the purpose of this study was to verify the prevalence of intestinal parasites in [...] children who attended the two daycare centers maintained by the local government of Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. METHODS: Fecal samples were collected from 133 children (73 children at the Public Preschool for Early Childhood Education, PPECE A, and 60 at the PPECE B) following identification according to sex and age and agreement to participate by parents or guardians who signed the free, informed consent form. The samples were examined by the Lutz method. RESULTS: Coproparasitological tests performed on 133 children showed that 29.3% of them were parasitized for enteroparasites or commensals, 6.7% of the children presented polyparasitism. Among the protozoa, Giardia lamblia were the most prevalent and Hymenolepis nana were the most frequent among the helminths. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, analysis of the results showed that intestinal parasites still represent a public health problem, especially among children and in areas where the socioeconomic and educational conditions are less favorable.

Ana Lúcia Ribeiro, Gonçalves; Talita Lucas, Belizário; Janderson de Brito, Pimentel; Mário Paulo Amante, Penatti; Reginaldo dos Santos, Pedroso.

2011-04-01

254

Relación "Saneamiento Básico y Prevalencia de Entero parásitos" en estudiantes del Colegio German Busch, La Paz - 2013 / "Basic sanitation an prevalence of Intestinal-parasites diseases" in students from German Busch from La Paz - 2013  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Las infecciones parasitarias intestinales son enfermedades que afectan a una gran parte de la población infantil en los países más subdesarrollados y en vías de desarrollo y en muchos casos se convierte en una causa de muerte. El objetivo de este estudio fue establecer un paralelo entre las condicio [...] nes sanitarias aportadas por la Comunidad Minera Bolsa Negra - La Paz - Bolivia y la presencia de enteroparasitos en niños entre 07 y 12 años de la referida comunidad. Se aplicó en este proyecto un método de estudio observacional descriptivo, a través del estudio de casos y controles. En cuanto a los resultados, mediante el análisis de materia fecal de los niños parte del universo de la investigación, donde encontró diferentes formas evolutivas de parásitos intestinales, con 100% de prevalencia para los géneros Blastocystis hominis, Giardia lamblia y Entamoeba coli. También se analizó el grado de conocimiento por parte de las madres de los niños que participaron en la investigación que indica un mal conocimiento general en lo que respecta a servicios de saneamiento básico y la higiene personal. También se presentaron las formas y medidas para la prevención de enfermedades relacionadas con los parásitos intestinales encontrados. Abstract in english Intestinal parasitic infections are diseases that affect a large proportion of the child population in the underdeveloped and developing countries and in many cases become a cause of death.The aim of this study was to establish a parallel between the health conditions contributed by Mining Community [...] Bolsa Negra - La Paz - Bolivia and the presence of intestinal parasites in children between 07 and 12 years of that community. It was applied in this project descriptive method and observational study, meaning through case study and control. As a result, by analyzing stool of children of the world of research, where it was found different forms of intestinal parasites with 100 % prevalence for gender Blastocystis hominis, Entamoeba coli and Giardia lamblia. The level of knowledge was also analyzed by the mothers of the children who participated in the research indicating poor general knowledge with regard to basic sanitation and personal hygiene. It was found the methods and measures for the prevention of related diseases associated with intestinal parasites.

Leandro, Ribeiro França; Julio Cesar, Luna Leyza.

255

Clearance of Giardia muris infection in mice deficient in natural killer cells.  

OpenAIRE

Immunocompetent C57BL/6J mice and beige mice (which are deficient in natural killer cells) were infected with Giardia muris. Both types of mice cleared G. muris infection at similar rates. This observation suggests that clearance of G. muris parasites from the mouse intestine is not mediated by natural killer cells.

Heyworth, M. F.; Kung, J. E.; Eriksson, E. C.

1986-01-01

256

PREVALENCE OF MICROSPORIDIA, CRYPTOSPORIDIUM, AND GIARDIA IN BEAVERS (CASTOR CANADENSIS) IN MASSACHUSETTS  

Science.gov (United States)

Feces from 62 beavers (Castor canadensis) in Massachusetts were examined by fluorescence microscopy (IFA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Microsporidia, Cryptosporidium, and Giardia. PCR-positive specimens were further examined by gene sequencing. Parasites were detected in 6.4% of the bea...

257

Diagnosis of Giardia infections by PCR-based methods in children of an endemic area  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was designed to estimate the prevalence of Giardia infection in preschool- and school-aged children living in an endemic area. Fecal samples from 573 children were processed by zinc sulfate centrifugal flotation, centrifugal sedimentation (using a commercial device for fecal concentration - TF-Test kit® and polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based methods. Of the stool samples assessed, 277 (48.3% were positive for intestinal parasites and/or commensal protozoa. Centrifugal flotation presented the highest diagnostic sensitivity for Giardia infections. The kappa index revealed that both coproparasitological techniques closely agreed on the Giardia diagnosis (86% versus satisfactory (72% and poor (35% concordances for commensal protozoan and helminth infections, respectively. Concerning Giardia molecular diagnosis, from the 71 microscopy-positive samples, specific amplification of gdh and tpi fragments was noted in 68 (95.7% and 64 (90% samples, respectively. Amplification of gdh and tpi genes was observed, respectively, in 95.7% and 90% of microscopy-positive Giardia samples. For 144 microscopy-negative samples, gdh and tpi gene amplification products were obtained from 8.3% and 35.9% samples, respectively. The agreement between these genes was about 40%. The centrifuge-flotation based method was the most suitable means of Giardia diagnosis assessed in the present study by combining accuracy and low cost.

EB David

2011-01-01

258

Diagnosis of Giardia infections by PCR-based methods in children of an endemic area  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available The present study was designed to estimate the prevalence of Giardia infection in preschool- and school-aged children living in an endemic area. Fecal samples from 573 children were processed by zinc sulfate centrifugal flotation, centrifugal sedimentation (using a commercial device for fecal concen [...] tration - TF-Test kit®) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods. Of the stool samples assessed, 277 (48.3%) were positive for intestinal parasites and/or commensal protozoa. Centrifugal flotation presented the highest diagnostic sensitivity for Giardia infections. The kappa index revealed that both coproparasitological techniques closely agreed on the Giardia diagnosis (86%) versus satisfactory (72%) and poor (35%) concordances for commensal protozoan and helminth infections, respectively. Concerning Giardia molecular diagnosis, from the 71 microscopy-positive samples, specific amplification of gdh and tpi fragments was noted in 68 (95.7%) and 64 (90%) samples, respectively. Amplification of gdh and tpi genes was observed, respectively, in 95.7% and 90% of microscopy-positive Giardia samples. For 144 microscopy-negative samples, gdh and tpi gene amplification products were obtained from 8.3% and 35.9% samples, respectively. The agreement between these genes was about 40%. The centrifuge-flotation based method was the most suitable means of Giardia diagnosis assessed in the present study by combining accuracy and low cost.

EB, David; ST, Coradi; TCG, Oliveira-Sequeira; PEM, Ribolla; S, Katagiri; S, Guimarães.

259

Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites in the Inhabitants of Islam - Shahr District  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To determine the prevalence of various intestinal parasitic infections, we examined 966 randomly collected stool specimens from urban areas and 569 such samples from the ruralregions. These were examined using formalin-ether sedimentation and direct smearmethods. From the total of 1535 specimens, 143 that belonged to 1-6 years old children were examined by scatch tape method.The results indicated that 53.2% of the subjects were infected with intestinal protozoa and helminths with the following prevalence rates:Entamoeba histolytica 9.6%, E. coli 16%, E.hartmanni 7%, Endolimax nana 2.6%,Iodomoeba b itschlii 1.8%, Dientamoeba fragilis 1.5%, Chi/omastix mesnili 0.4%, Giardia lamblia 18.8%, Blastocysts hominis 16.5%, Dicrocoelium dendriticum 0.1%, Taenia saginata 0.2%, Hymenolopis nana 1.4%, Ascaris lambricodies 0.3%, Enterobiusvermincularis (using scatch tape method 0.7%, E.vermicularis (using formalin - ether method 28.7%, Trichostrongylus spp. 0.1%, Strongyhides siercorials 0.3% and Trichuris trichiura 0.1%.Rural people were significantly more likely to bear helminthic infections than urban residents (4.9% versus 2.1%.E.histofytica was more prevalent among men (11% versus 7.1% and, interestingly,age-specific infection rates for giardiasis and amebiasis showed contrasting patterns in this study.

M Rezaian

2003-07-01

260

Parasitic infections based on 320 clinical samples submitted to Hanyang University, Korea (2004-2011).  

Science.gov (United States)

We analyzed 320 clinical samples of parasitic infections submitted to the Department of Environmental Biology and Medical Parasitology, Hanyang University from January 2004 to June 2011. They consisted of 211 nematode infections, 64 trematode or cestode infections, 32 protozoan infections, and 13 infections with arthropods. The nematode infections included 67 cases of trichuriasis, 62 of anisakiasis (Anisakis sp. and Pseudoterranova decipiens), 40 of enterobiasis, and 24 of ascariasis, as well as other infections including strongyloidiasis, thelaziasis, loiasis, and hookworm infecions. Among the cestode or trematode infections, we observed 27 cases of diphyllobothriasis, 14 of sparganosis, 9 of clonorchiasis, and 5 of paragonimiasis together with a few cases of taeniasis saginata, cysticercosis cellulosae, hymenolepiasis, and echinostomiasis. The protozoan infections included 14 cases of malaria, 4 of cryptosporidiosis, and 3 of trichomoniasis, in addition to infections with Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, Entamoeba coli, Endolimax nana, Giardia lamblia, and Toxoplasma gondii. Among the arthropods, we detected 6 cases of Ixodes sp., 5 of Phthirus pubis, 1 of Sarcoptes scabiei, and 1 of fly larva. The results revealed that trichuriasis, anisakiasis, enterobiasis, and diphyllobothriasis were the most frequently found parasitosis among the clinical samples. PMID:24850969

Choi, Sung-Chul; Lee, Soo-Young; Song, Hyun-Ouk; Ryu, Jae-Sook; Ahn, Myoung-Hee

2014-04-01

261

Impact of Environmental Conditions on the Survival of Cryptosporidium and Giardia on Environmental Surfaces  

OpenAIRE

The objective of this study was to find out the impact of environmental conditions on the survival of intestinal parasites on environmental surfaces commonly implicated in the transmission of these parasites. The study was performed by incubating Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts on environmentally relevant surfaces such as brushed stainless steel, formica, ceramic, fabric, and skin. Parallel experiments were conducted using clean and soiled coupons incubated under three temperatures. The...

Absar Alum; Absar, Isra M.; Hamas Asaad; Rubino, Joseph R.; Khalid Ijaz, M.

2014-01-01

262

Investigation of Possible Correlation between Giardia Duodenalis Genotypes and Clinical Symptoms in Southwest of Iran  

OpenAIRE

Background: Giardia duodenalis is one of the most important human enteric para­sites throughout the world. Clinical symptoms of this parasite vary from asympto­matic infection to chronic diarrhea. Still it is not clear, whether different types of pathogenesis are due to different strains of organism or to variable host factors. The purpose of this study was to investigate possible correlation of clinical symp­toms with assemblages among symptomatic and asymptomatic cases collected from sou...

Abdollah Rafiei; Elham Sadat Roointan; Ali Reza Samarbafzadeh; Akbar Shayesteh; Ahmad Shamsizadeh; Mahdi Pourmahdi Borujeni

2013-01-01

263

Core histone genes of Giardia intestinalis: genomic organization, promoter structure, and expression  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Giardia intestinalis is a protist found in freshwaters worldwide, and is the most common cause of parasitic diarrhea in humans. The phylogenetic position of this parasite is still much debated. Histones are small, highly conserved proteins that associate tightly with DNA to form chromatin within the nucleus. There are two classes of core histone genes in higher eukaryotes: DNA replication-independent histones and DNA replication-dependent ones. Results We identified two co...

Adam Rodney D; Page Melissa; Delport Dewald; Ritter Heather; Lau Wei-Ling; Tang Anita; Yee Janet; Müller Miklós; Wu Gang

2007-01-01

264

Giardia duodenalis-induced alterations of commensal bacteria kill Caenorhabditis elegans: a new model to study microbial-microbial interactions in the gut.  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardia duodenalis is the most common cause of parasitic diarrhea worldwide and a well-established risk factor for postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome. We hypothesized that Giardia-induced disruptions in host-microbiota interactions may play a role in the pathogenesis of giardiasis and in postgiardiasis disease. Functional changes induced by Giardia in commensal bacteria and the resulting effects on Caenorhabditis elegans were determined. Although Giardia or bacteria alone did not affect worm viability, combining commensal Escherichia coli bacteria with Giardia became lethal to C. elegans. Giardia also induced killing of C. elegans with attenuated Citrobacter rodentium espF and map mutant strains, human microbiota from a healthy donor, and microbiota from inflamed colonic sites of ulcerative colitis patient. In contrast, combinations of Giardia with microbiota from noninflamed sites of the same patient allowed for worm survival. The synergistic lethal effects of Giardia and E. coli required the presence of live bacteria and were associated with the facilitation of bacterial colonization in the C. elegans intestine. Exposure to C. elegans and/or Giardia altered the expression of 172 genes in E. coli. The genes affected by Giardia included hydrogen sulfide biosynthesis (HSB) genes, and deletion of a positive regulator of HSB genes, cysB, was sufficient to kill C. elegans even in the absence of Giardia. Our findings indicate that Giardia induces functional changes in commensal bacteria, possibly making them opportunistic pathogens, and alters host-microbe homeostatic interactions. This report describes the use of a novel in vivo model to assess the toxicity of human microbiota. PMID:25573177

Gerbaba, Teklu K; Gupta, Pratyush; Rioux, Kevin; Hansen, Dave; Buret, Andre G

2015-03-15

265

Prevalencia de parasitosis intestinal en mujeres embarazadas del Centro de Salud Jaihuayco Julio-Septiembre 2012 / Prevalence of intestinal parasites in pregnant women from Jaihuayco's Health Center july-september 2012  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Las parasitosis intestinales afectan de manera especial a poblaciones con bajos recursos económicos, con una alta prevalencia en países en vías de desarrollo, probablemente debido a la falta educación (higiene o de manipulación de alimentos), poca accesibilidad a recursos básicos (agua potable, alca [...] ntarillado, etc.) y la pobreza. Los extremos de vida como niños y ancianos, al igual que las mujeres embarazadas son grupos poblacionales vulnerables a las parasitosis, siendo importante la repercusión en la salud de cada uno de estos grupos poblacionales pero, en este caso nos centraremos en los efectos negativos que traen consigo estas enfermedades en las mujeres embarazadas (anemia, desnutrición, niños con bajo peso al nacer, etc.). Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, de corte transversal, el universo fue de 111 mujeres embarazadas que acudieron a consulta del Centro de Salud Jaihuayco ubicado en la zona sud de la ciudad de Cochabamba - Bolivia; se encontró que 25 mujeres de las 111 mujeres embarazadas tenían parasitosis intestinal determinando una prevalencia de 22,5%. Los parásitos más frecuentes hallados fueron: Entamoeba histolitica/coli con 15,3% y Giardia lamblia con 3,6%; de las 25 mujeres con parasitosis; 10 presentaron anemia, a pesar de que en su visita de control se les proporciono las tabletas de hierro para evitar la anemia producida por su estado fisiológico. Abstract in english Intestinal parasites affect especially low-income populations with a high prevalence in developing countries, probably due to the lack of education (hygiene or food handling), poor accessibility to basic resources (water supply, sewerage, etc.) and poverty. The extreme ages like children and old peo [...] ple as the pregnant women are a sensitive population group to this kind of affection but, in this case the purpose of this work is to show the negative effects of this condition in pregnant women (anemia, malnutrition, children with low birth weight, etc.). It was realized a quantitative, descriptive and cross-sectional study, the universe was 111 pregnant women who attended to the consultation service in Jaihuayco's health center located in the south of Cochabamba's city, where it was achieved the following main results: 25 from the 111 pregnant women have intestinal parasites determining a prevalence of 22,5%. The most prevalent parasites were Entamoeba histolytica/coli with 15,3% and Giardia lamblia with 3,6%; in the 25 women with parasitosis; 10 of them presented anemia despite they were provided with iron tablets to prevent anemia caused by physiological state.

Elias Lessin, Garcia Alba; Naida, Bernal Hinojosa; Sergio, Torrico Condarco; Veronica, Quicaña Andaluz; Ana Gilca, Santander Lopez.

266

The Superoxide Reductase from the Early Diverging Eukaryote Giardia Intestinalis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Unlike superoxide dismutases (SODs), superoxidereductases (SORs) eliminate superoxide anion (O{sub 2}{sup {sm_bullet}-}) not through its dismutation, but via reduction to hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) in the presence of an electron donor. The microaerobic protist Giardia intestinalis, responsible for a common intestinal disease in humans, though lacking SOD and other canonical reactive oxygen species-detoxifying systems, is among the very few eukaryotes encoding a SOR yet identified. In this study, the recombinant SOR from Giardia (SOR{sub Gi}) was purified and characterized by pulse radiolysis and stopped-flow spectrophotometry. The protein, isolated in the reduced state, after oxidation by superoxide or hexachloroiridate(IV), yields a resting species (T{sub final}) with Fe{sup 3+} ligated to glutamate or hydroxide depending on pH (apparent pK{sub a} = 8.7). Although showing negligible SOD activity, reduced SOR{sub Gi} reacts with O{sub 2}{sup {sm_bullet}-} with a pH-independent second-order rate constant k{sub 1} = 1.0 x 10{sup 9} M{sup -1} s{sup -1} and yields the ferric-(hydro)peroxo intermediate T{sub 1}; this in turn rapidly decays to the T{sub final} state with pH-dependent rates, without populating other detectable intermediates. Immunoblotting assays show that SOR{sub Gi} is expressed in the disease-causing trophozoite of Giardia. We propose that the superoxide-scavenging activity of SOR in Giardia may promote the survival of this air-sensitive parasite in the fairly aerobic proximal human small intestine during infection.

Cabelli, D.E.; Testa, F.; Mastronicola, D.; Bordi, E.; Pucillo, L.P.; Sarti, P.; Saraiva, L.M.; Giuffre, A.; Teixeira, M.

2011-10-15

267

Evaluation of Giardia duodenalis viability after metronidazole treatment by flow cytometry  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardia duodenalis (syn. lamblia; syn. intestinalis) susceptibility testing is not routinely performed because the classical culture methods are very time-consuming and laborious. We developed a novel flow cytometry (FC) assay to evaluate the susceptibility of G. duodenalis trophozoites to metronidazole (MTZ). Different concentrations of MTZ were added to cultures of trophozoites (10 5 /mL) and the cultures were incubated for different periods. The 50% inhibitory concentration was calculated and propidium iodide (PI) was used to quantify the number of dead cells. After treatment, PI-positive trophozoites increased with increasing drug concentration and exposure time. An excellent correlation was found between FC and the classical method. A novel, accurate and reliable method is now available to evaluate G. duodenalis viability. PMID:25424449

Barbosa, Joana; Rodrigues, Acácio Gonçalves; Pérez, Maria José; Pina-Vaz, Cidália

2014-01-01

268

Evaluation of Giardia duodenalis viability after metronidazole treatment by flow cytometry  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Giardia duodenalis (syn. lamblia; syn. intestinalis) susceptibility testing is not routinely performed because the classical culture methods are very time-consuming and laborious. We developed a novel flow cytometry (FC) assay to evaluate the susceptibility of G. duodenalis t [...] rophozoites to metronidazole (MTZ). Different concentrations of MTZ were added to cultures of trophozoites (10 5 /mL) and the cultures were incubated for different periods. The 50% inhibitory concentration was calculated and propidium iodide (PI) was used to quantify the number of dead cells. After treatment, PI-positive trophozoites increased with increasing drug concentration and exposure time. An excellent correlation was found between FC and the classical method. A novel, accurate and reliable method is now available to evaluate G. duodenalis viability.

Joana, Barbosa; Acácio Gonçalves, Rodrigues; Maria José, Pérez; Cidália, Pina-Vaz.

1078-10-01

269

DIFFERENTIATION OF GIARDIA DUODENALIS FROM OTHER GIARDIA SPP. BASED ON THE POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION AND GENE PROBES  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardia is a waterborne organism that is the most commonly identified pathogenic intestinal protozoan in the United States. urrent detection techniques for Giardia water include microscopy and immunofluorescence techniques. peciation of the genus Giardia has been based on taxonom...

270

Control of Giardia infections with ronidazole and intensive hygiene management in a dog kennel.  

Science.gov (United States)

Infections with the intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia in dogs and cats are common. Clinical signs vary from asymptomatic to small bowel diarrhea and associated discomfort. The control of infections in dogs is frequently a frustrating issue for animal owners and veterinarians. Drugs with antiprotozoal activity such as fenbendazole and metronidazole are recommended, however, they do not show 100% efficacy and superinfections occur regularly. Ronidazole is currently the drug of choice for the treatment of Tritrichomonas foetus in cats and there is now limited information available about its efficacy against Giardia spp. In the kennel investigated, dogs regularly showed loose feces and the presence of Giardia (assemblage C, renamed as G. canis) cysts. An elimination strategy of this parasite involving strict hygiene management and disinfection of the enclosures with 4-chlorine-M-cresol, oral treatment with ronidazole (30-50mg/kg BW bid for 7 days) and two shampooings (containing chlorhexidine) at the beginning and the end of the treatments was implemented for a group of 6 dogs. As a control another group of 7 dogs was transferred to the disinfected enclosures and shampooed, but left untreated. Dog feces were tested for the presence of Giardia cysts (SAF concentration technique) or Giardia antigen with a commercial ELISA (NOVITEC(®)) and a quick immunochromatography-based test (SensPERT(®)) before and between 5 and 40 days after the last treatment. All ronidazole-treated dogs were negative for Giardia cysts and antigen up to 26 days after the last treatment, while between 1 and 5 of the control animals tested positive in each of the test series. At this point, also dogs of the control group were again moved into clean enclosures, shampooed twice and treated with ronidazole. Five, 12 and 19 days after the last treatment, the dogs in the control group tested negative for Giardia cysts and antigen. However, all animals had again positive results at later time points in at least one of the three applied diagnostic techniques within 33-61 days after treatment. Furthermore, all dogs had episodes of diarrhea (for 1-4 days) within 14-31 days after treatment and unformed feces during the whole experiment. The positive effect of ronidazole against Giardia infections in dogs could be confirmed in this study. In particular, the combination of ronidazole treatment combined with the disinfection of the environment and shampooing of the dogs was highly effective in reducing Giardia cyst excretion and may therefore constitute an alternative control strategy for canine giardiosis. PMID:22240238

Fiechter, Ruth; Deplazes, Peter; Schnyder, Manuela

2012-06-01

271

Assessment of Zoonotic Transmission of Giardia and Cryptosporidium between Cattle and Humans in Rural Villages in Bangladesh.  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardia and Cryptosporidium are important causes of diarrhoea in Bangladesh. The high prevalence of both parasites in humans and cattle in rural Bangladesh and the common use of water ponds by village inhabitants and their animals suggest a potential for zoonotic transmission. Direct transmission of Giardia and Cryptosporidium between cattle and their handlers and indirect transmission through water ponds was investigated. Faecal/stool samples were collected from 623 calves and 125 calf handlers in a cross-sectional survey. In two villages, water samples were collected monthly from water ponds and faecal/stool samples were collected monthly from inhabitants and their cattle. Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in water samples and in faecal/stool samples and positive samples were genotyped, to determine their human or animal origin. The prevalence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in calves was 22% and 5% respectively. In calf handlers, the prevalence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium was 11.2% and 3.2% respectively. Both in the cross-sectional survey and in the longitudinal study in the villages, G. duodenalis assemblage E was most prevalent in calves, while in humans assemblage AII, BIII and BIV were found. In cattle, Cryptosporidium parvum, C. bovis and C. andersoni were identified, but no Cryptosporidium sequences were obtained from humans. Giardia and Cryptosporidium were detected in 14/24 and 12/24 water samples respectively. G. duodenalis assemblage E and BIV (-like), as well as C. andersoni and C. hominis were identified. Although the presence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in both water ponds suggests that water-borne transmission of Giardia and Cryptosporidium is possible, the genotyping results indicate that there is no significant direct or indirect (water-borne) transmission of Giardia between cattle and people in this area of rural Bangladesh. No conclusions could be drawn for Cryptosporidium, because of the low number of sequences that were obtained from human and water samples. PMID:25695662

Ehsan, Amimul M; Geurden, Thomas; Casaert, Stijn; Parvin, Sonia M; Islam, Taohidul M; Ahmed, Uddin M; Levecke, Bruno; Vercruysse, Jozef; Claerebout, Edwin

2015-01-01

272

PCR amplification and DNA sequence analysis of parasitic intestinal protozoa in specimens stained with Chlorazol Black E.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chlorazol Black E (CBE) stain has been used for the detection and identification of intestinal parasitic protozoa. In recent years, genotyping of protozoa has been performed to examine pathogenicity and for epidemiologic analysis. In this study, protozoan DNA was amplified from preserved human fecal specimens stained with CBE that were positive for Giardia intestinalis (syn. G. lamblia and G. duodenalis), Chilomastix mesnili, Pentatrichomonas hominis, and Entamoeba histolytica. DNA was amplified from 11 of the 12 (91.6%) samples examined. DNA from CBE-stained smears of G. intestinalis, E. histolytica, and P. hominis was amplified, whereas any amplification product could not be obtained from one of three smears of C. mesnili. Storage term and protozoan number had no association with results of PCR amplification. In genotyping of G. intestinalis, four out of six (66.7%) samples were of genotype AI, while the remaining two (33.3%) samples were of genotype B. The amplified DNA sequences showed high similarity (>99%) with that of G. intestinalis in the GenBank database. These results suggest that DNA remains stable in CBE-stained smears for long term. The present study demonstrates that nuclear extracts from specimens stained with CBE can be amplified by PCR and suggests that specimens stored for extended periods could be applied to genetic and prospective epidemiologic analyses. PMID:23666647

Morimoto, Norihito; Korenaga, Masataka; Nishida, Yoshie; Takeuchi, Hiroaki; Kumon, Yoshitaka; Sugiura, Tetsuro

2013-06-01

273

Occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in water supplies of San Pedro Sula, Honduras  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish Para estimar las concentraciones de oocistos de Cryptosporidium y quistes de Giardia en los abastecimientos de agua de la ciudad de San Pedro Sula, se examinaron muestras del agua en junio de 1996. Cada muestra se concentró y se marcó con un anticuerpo inmunofluorescente indirecto y los parásitos se [...] contaron mediante análisis microscópico. En tres abatecimientos de agua, las concentraciones de oocistos de Cryptosporidium alcanzaron un recorrido de 58 a 260 oocistos por 100 L, mientras que los quistes de Giardia se encontraron en concentraciones de 380 a 2100 quistes por 100 L. Al contrario de las muestras de agua superficial, el agua subterránea tuvo mayor concentración de oocistos de Cryptosporidium (26/100 L) que de quistes de Giardia (6/100 L), lo que sugiere que el acuífero subterráneo protege mejor al abastecimiento de agua contra los quistes de Giardia, que son más grandes. Las concentraciones de oocistos de Cryptosporidium estuvieron dentro del recorrido típico de los abastecimientos de agua en Norteamérica, pero los de Giardia fueron más elevados. Deben tomarse medidas para proteger el agua sin depurar de las fuentes de contaminación. Abstract in english During June 1996, water supplies of the city of San Pedro Sula, Honduras, were sampled to obtain an assessment of Cryptosporidium oocyst and Giardia cyst concentrations. Each sample was concentrated and stained with an indirect immunofluorescent antibody, and parasites were counted through microscop [...] ic analysis. In three surface water supplies, Cryptosporidium oocyst concentrations ranged from 58 to 260 oocysts per 100 L, and Giardia cysts were present in concentrations ranging from 380 to 2100 cysts per 100 L. Unlike the surface water samples, groundwater had a higher concentration of Cryptosporidium oocysts (26/100 L) than Giardia cysts (6/100 L), suggesting that the groundwater aquifer protects the water supply more effectively from larger Giardia cysts. Cryptosporidium oocyst concentrations are within the typical range for surface water supplies in North America whereas Giardia cyst concentrations are elevated. Efforts should be made to protect raw water from sources of contamination.

Helena María, Solo-Gabriele; Arba LeRoy, Ager, Jr.; John Fitzgerald, Lindo; José María, Dubón; Shondra Michelle, Neumeister; Marianna Karas, Baum; Carol Jean, Palmer.

1998-12-01

274

Core histone genes of Giardia intestinalis: genomic organization, promoter structure, and expression  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Giardia intestinalis is a protist found in freshwaters worldwide, and is the most common cause of parasitic diarrhea in humans. The phylogenetic position of this parasite is still much debated. Histones are small, highly conserved proteins that associate tightly with DNA to form chromatin within the nucleus. There are two classes of core histone genes in higher eukaryotes: DNA replication-independent histones and DNA replication-dependent ones. Results We identified two copies each of the core histone H2a, H2b and H3 genes, and three copies of the H4 gene, at separate locations on chromosomes 3, 4 and 5 within the genome of Giardia intestinalis, but no gene encoding a H1 linker histone could be recognized. The copies of each gene share extensive DNA sequence identities throughout their coding and 5' noncoding regions, which suggests these copies have arisen from relatively recent gene duplications or gene conversions. The transcription start sites are at triplet A sequences 1–27 nucleotides upstream of the translation start codon for each gene. We determined that a 50 bp region upstream from the start of the histone H4 coding region is the minimal promoter, and a highly conserved 15 bp sequence called the histone motif (him is essential for its activity. The Giardia core histone genes are constitutively expressed at approximately equivalent levels and their mRNAs are polyadenylated. Competition gel-shift experiments suggest that a factor within the protein complex that binds him may also be a part of the protein complexes that bind other promoter elements described previously in Giardia. Conclusion In contrast to other eukaryotes, the Giardia genome has only a single class of core histone genes that encode replication-independent histones. Our inability to locate a gene encoding the linker histone H1 leads us to speculate that the H1 protein may not be required for the compaction of Giardia's small and gene-rich genome.

Adam Rodney D

2007-04-01

275

PREVALENCE OF INTESTINAL PARASITES AMONG FOOD HANDLERS IN WESTERN IRAN / La prevalencia de parásitos intestinales entre los manipuladores de alimentos en el oeste de Irán  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Infección parasitaria es uno de los problemas de salud humana, especialmente en los países en desarrollo. En este estudio, todas las tiendas de comida rápida, restaurantes, y tiendas de carne asada en Khorramabad (oeste de Irán) y todo el personal que trabaja en ellos, incluyendo 210 personas fueron [...] seleccionadas a través de los censos y las heces fueron examinadas para detectar la presencia de parásitos. La prueba parasitológica directa de mojado de montaje, la tinción de Lugol's yodo, sedimentación formaldehído-éter y tricrómicas técnicas de tinción se realizaron sobre las muestras. Los datos fueron analizados con la prueba de chi-cuadrado y regresión logística seleccionado como el modelo analítico. Los resultados mostraron 19 (9%) muestras de heces fueron positivos para diferentes parásitos intestinales. Los parásitos intestinales incluyen Giardia lamblia 2.9%, Entamoeba coli 4.3%, Blastocystis sp. 1.4%, Hymenolepis nana 0.5%. Hubo diferencia significativa entre la presencia de la tarjeta sanitaria válida, el conocimiento de la transmisión de los parásitos intestinales, la participación en cursos de formación en materia de salud ambiental con parásitos intestinales (p 0.05). Para controlar la infección parasitaria en los manipuladores de alimentos se recomiendan varias estrategias, tales como examen de heces cada tres meses, la educación pública, se aplican las normas sanitarias, el control de validez de la tarjeta sanitaria y la transmisión formación infección parasitaria. En este sentido, los resultados del presente estudio se pueden utilizar como una base para desarrollar programas de prevención dirigidos a los manipuladores de alimentos debido a la propagación de enfermedades a través de ellos es un problema común en todo el mundo. Abstract in english Parasitic infection is one of the problems that affect human health, especially in developing countries. In this study, all of the fast food shops, restaurants, and roast meat outlets of Khorramabad (Western Iran) and all the staff employed by them, some 210 people, were selected through a census an [...] d their stools were examined for the presence of parasites. The parasitological tests of direct wet-mount, Lugol's iodine staining, formaldehyde-ether sedimentation and Trichrome staining techniques were performed on the samples. The data was analyzed with a chi-square test and logistic regression was selected as the analytical model. The results showed 19 (9%) stool specimens were positive for different intestinal parasites. These intestinal parasites included Giardia lamblia 2.9%, Entamoeba coli 4.3%, Blastocystis sp. 1.4%, and Hymenolepis nana 0.5%. There was a significant difference between the presence of a valid health card, awareness of transmission of intestinal parasites, participation in training courses in environmental health with intestinal parasites (p 0.05). To control parasitic infection in food handlers, several strategies are recommended such as stool examinations every three months, public education, application of health regulations, controlling the validity of health cards and training on parasitic infection transmission. In this regard, the findings of the present study can be used as a basis to develop preventive programs targeting food handlers because the spread of disease via them is a common problem worldwide.

Farnaz, Kheirandish; Mohammad Javad, Tarahi; Behrouz, Ezatpour.

2014-04-01

276

Prevalence of parasitism among students of the Karen hill-tribe in Mae Chame district, Chiang Mai province, Thailand.  

Science.gov (United States)

Infection caused by intestinal parasites is still a common health problem in a poor-hygiene population especially for children in developing countries. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 781 Karen students (age: 3 to 19, males: 325, females: 456) to determine the current status of intestinal parasitic infections in a mountainous area in the North of Thailand. The study was drawn from three schools in the Doi Inthanon region, in Mae Chame district of Chiang Mai province, from December 2002 to June 2003. The techniques used for the diagnosis were: stool concentration by using the 'formalin-ether' technique and perianal region examination by using the 'Scotch-tape' technique. The average rate of intestinal parasites for the group tested using the stool concentration technique was 42.06% (male: 46.87%, females: 38.82%); and 22.66% (males: 28.92%, females: 18.20%) when using the Scotch-tape technique.Among helminth-infected individuals, enterobiasis was found at the highest prevalence (15.49%). Other common infections were ascariasis (9.78%), trichuriasis (5.90%) and hookworm infection (2.20%). Strongyloildiasis was found only in 0.92%. For protozoa infection, the major cause is the non-pathogenic species "Entamoeba coli" (27.68%). The other non-pathogenic protozoa (Endolimax nana, Chilomastix meslini and Iodamoeba butschlii) had a low prevalence from ranged 0.18%-4.79%. The prevalence of pathogenic Giardia lamblia infection was 2.21%. Entamoeba histolytica infection was found in only one case. Based on the two techniques used, the results from the Scotch-tape provided a higher sensitivity for the detection of Taenia spp. and Enterobius vermicularis eggs. Drug treatment was given to all the infected students. School-based health education should be implemented in order to prevent and control the infections. PMID:16083202

Saksirisampant, Wilai; Prownebon, Jarruratt; Kanmarnee, Penjit; Thaisom, Sunida; Yenthakam, Sutin; Nuchprayoon, Surang

2004-09-01

277

High Malnutrition Rate in Venezuelan Yanomami Compared to Warao Amerindians and Creoles: Significant Associations WITH Intestinal Parasites and Anemia  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Children in rural areas experience the interrelated problems of poor growth, anemia and parasitic infections. We investigated the prevalence of and associations between intestinal helminth and protozoan infections, malnutrition and anemia in school-age Venezuelan children. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in 390 children aged 4-16 years from three rural areas of Venezuela: the Amazon Region, Orinoco Delta and Carabobo State. Stool samples were collected for direct parasitic examinations. Anthropometric indicators of chronic (height-for-age Z score) and acute (weight-for-height and Body Mass Index (BMI)-for-age Z score in respectively children under 5 years of age and children aged 5 years and above) malnutrition were calculated. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models were built to determine factors associated with nutritional status and polyparasitism. Results Hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis prevalences were highest in children from the Amazon rainforest (respectively 72% and 18%) while children from the Orinoco Delta and Carabobo State showed higher rates of Ascaris lumbricoides (respectively 28% and 37%) and Trichuris trichiura (40% in both regions). The prevalence of Giardia lamblia infection was not significantly different between regions (average: 18%). Anemia prevalence was highest in the Amazon Region (24%). Hemoglobin levels were significantly decreased in children with a hookworm infection. Malnutrition was present in respectively 84%, 30% and 13% of children from the Amazon Region, Orinoco Delta and Carabobo State. In multivariate analysis including all regions, G. lamblia and helminth infections were significantly and negatively associated with respectively height-for-age and weight-for-height/BMI-for-age Z scores. Furthermore, hemoglobin levels were positively associated with the height-for-age Z score (0.11, 95% CI 0.02 - 0.20). Conclusions In rural populations in Venezuela helminthiasis and giardiasis were associated with acute and chronic nutritional status respectively. These data highlight the need for an integrated approach to control transmission of parasites and improve the health status of rural Venezuelan children. PMID:24143243

Verhagen, Lilly M.; Incani, Renzo N.; Franco, Carolina R.; Ugarte, Alejandra; Cadenas, Yeneska; Sierra Ruiz, Carmen I.; Hermans, Peter W. M.; Hoek, Denise; Campos Ponce, Maiza; de Waard, Jacobus H.; Pinelli, Elena

2013-01-01

278

Protozoarios parásitos de importancia en salud pública transportados por Musca domestica Linnaeusen Lima, Perú / Parasite protozoa of importance in public health picked up by Musca domestica Linnaeus in Lima, Peru  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El presente trabajo investiga los protozoarios parásitos de importancia para la salud pública transportados por Musca domestica. El estudio se llevó a cabo entre los meses de junio y diciembre de 1998, en los distritos de Comas y San Juan de Lurigancho de la provincia de Lima. Se estudiaron 3014 mos [...] cas colectadas en la basura acumulada en la vía pública de los pueblos jóvenes de los distritos mencionados. Las capturas se agruparon en lotes constituidos por un promedio de 30 moscas. Se estudiaron un total de 100 lotes. Las moscas fueron disecadas y procesadas con agua destilada estéril para obtener un macerado intestinal. Para la observación de los parásitos se utilizó el método directo simple y la coloración tricrómica de Gomori ácido resistente modificado. Se encontraron los siguientes protozoarios que parasitan al hombre: Blastocystis hominis (9,0%), Giardia lamblia (3,0%), Cryptosporidium sp. (2,0%), Cyclospora cayetanensis (1,0%), Iodamoeba bütschlii (17,0%), Endolimax nana (5,0%) y Chilomastix mesnili (3,0%). Se reporta por primera vez para el Perú a B. hominis y Cyclospora cayetanensis en M. domestica. Abstract in english At the present work we had investigated protozoa parasite picked up by Musca domestica. Surveys were carry out between June and December 1998 in districts of Lima (Comas and San Juan de Lurigancho). A total of 3014 flies were collected around garbage accumulated in the streets. Each survey were cons [...] idered a lot with a mean of 30 flies. A total of 100 lots were studied. The flies were dissected and processed with sterilised distilled water for obtain the intestinal macerated. Observations were made by the simple direct method and with Gomori trichromic stain modified acid-fast. The following protozoa parasites of human were found: Blastocystis hominis (9,0%), Giardia lamblia (3,0%), Cryptosporidium sp. (2,0%), Cyclospora cayetanensis (1,0%), Iodamoeba bütschlii (17,0%), Endolimax nana (5,0%) and Chilomastix mesnili (3,0%). B. hominis y Cyclospora cayetanensis were reported for the first time in M. domestica from Peru.

Martín, Cárdenas; Rosa, Martínez.

2004-12-01

279

Blastocystis hominis and other intestinal parasites in a community of Pitanga City, Paraná State, Brazil / Blatocystis hominis e outros parasitas intestinais em comunidade da cidade de Pitanga, Paraná, Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho foi realizado no período de agosto a outubro de 2004 com o objetivo de se estimar a prevalência de Blastocystis hominis, avaliar a eficácia de diferentes técnicas para o seu diagnóstico assim como estimar a prevalência de outros parasitas intestinais na comunidade de Campo Verde, [...] município de Pitanga. Amostras de fezes de crianças e adultos foram coletadas e submetidas às técnicas de exame direto, de flutuação em solução de sulfato de zinco, de sedimentação em tubo, de sedimentação em formol-éter e de coloração pelos métodos de Kinyoun e de hematoxilina férrica. Protozoários e/ou helmintos intestinais foram detectados em 128 (70,7%) das 181 amostras de fezes analisadas. As espécies mais prevalentes foram Endolimax nana (33,7%); B. hominis (26,5%); Giardia lamblia (18,2%); Entamoeba coli (17,1%); Ascaris lumbricoides (16,6%); Iodamoeba bütschlii (9,4%) e ancilostomídeos (7,7%). B. hominis foi identificado apenas pelas técnicas de exame direto, de sedimentação em formol-éter e de coloração pela hematoxilina férrica, sendo que esta última se mostrou menos sensível que às demais. A alta freqüência de B. hominis evidenciada por este estudo indica a necessidade de se incluir na rotina do laboratório técnicas que permitam a identificação deste parasita. Abstract in english The objective was to estimate the prevalence of Blastocystis hominis, to evaluate the effectiveness of different techniques for its diagnosis as well as to estimate the prevalence of other intestinal parasites in the community of Campo Verde, a district of Pitanga. The work was carried out from Augu [...] st to October 2004. Samples of feces from children and adults were collected and submitted to the techniques of direct wet mount, flotation in zinc sulphate solution, tube sedimentation, sedimentation in formalin-ether and staining by Kinyoun and iron hematoxylin methods. From 181 studied individuals, 128 (70.7%) showed protozoa and/or helminths in stool samples. The most prevalent species were Endolimax nana (33.7%); B. hominis (26.5%); Giardia lamblia (18.2%); Entamoeba coli (17.1%); Ascaris lumbricoides (16.6%); Iodamoeba bütschlii (9.4%); and ancylostomatidae (7.7%). B. hominis was only identified by the techniques of direct wet mount, sedimentation in formalin-ether and staining by iron hematoxylin, though the latter was less sensitive than the other methods. The high frequency of B. hominis demonstrated by this study indicates the need to include laboratory techniques that enable identification of the parasite on a routine basis.

Solange Aparecida, Nascimento; Maria da Luz Ribeiro, Moitinho.

2005-08-01

280

Blastocystis hominis and other intestinal parasites in a community of Pitanga City, Paraná State, Brazil Blatocystis hominis e outros parasitas intestinais em comunidade da cidade de Pitanga, Paraná, Brasil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective was to estimate the prevalence of Blastocystis hominis, to evaluate the effectiveness of different techniques for its diagnosis as well as to estimate the prevalence of other intestinal parasites in the community of Campo Verde, a district of Pitanga. The work was carried out from August to October 2004. Samples of feces from children and adults were collected and submitted to the techniques of direct wet mount, flotation in zinc sulphate solution, tube sedimentation, sedimentation in formalin-ether and staining by Kinyoun and iron hematoxylin methods. From 181 studied individuals, 128 (70.7% showed protozoa and/or helminths in stool samples. The most prevalent species were Endolimax nana (33.7%; B. hominis (26.5%; Giardia lamblia (18.2%; Entamoeba coli (17.1%; Ascaris lumbricoides (16.6%; Iodamoeba bütschlii (9.4%; and ancylostomatidae (7.7%. B. hominis was only identified by the techniques of direct wet mount, sedimentation in formalin-ether and staining by iron hematoxylin, though the latter was less sensitive than the other methods. The high frequency of B. hominis demonstrated by this study indicates the need to include laboratory techniques that enable identification of the parasite on a routine basis.O presente trabalho foi realizado no período de agosto a outubro de 2004 com o objetivo de se estimar a prevalência de Blastocystis hominis, avaliar a eficácia de diferentes técnicas para o seu diagnóstico assim como estimar a prevalência de outros parasitas intestinais na comunidade de Campo Verde, município de Pitanga. Amostras de fezes de crianças e adultos foram coletadas e submetidas às técnicas de exame direto, de flutuação em solução de sulfato de zinco, de sedimentação em tubo, de sedimentação em formol-éter e de coloração pelos métodos de Kinyoun e de hematoxilina férrica. Protozoários e/ou helmintos intestinais foram detectados em 128 (70,7% das 181 amostras de fezes analisadas. As espécies mais prevalentes foram Endolimax nana (33,7%; B. hominis (26,5%; Giardia lamblia (18,2%; Entamoeba coli (17,1%; Ascaris lumbricoides (16,6%; Iodamoeba bütschlii (9,4% e ancilostomídeos (7,7%. B. hominis foi identificado apenas pelas técnicas de exame direto, de sedimentação em formol-éter e de coloração pela hematoxilina férrica, sendo que esta última se mostrou menos sensível que às demais. A alta freqüência de B. hominis evidenciada por este estudo indica a necessidade de se incluir na rotina do laboratório técnicas que permitam a identificação deste parasita.

Solange Aparecida Nascimento

2005-08-01

281

Enteric parasites in HIV-1/AIDS-infected patients from a Northwestern São Paulo reference unit in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era / Enteroparasitas em pacientes infectados pelo HIV-1/AIDS em uma unidade de referência do noroeste paulista na era da terapia antirretroviral de alto impacto  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Descrevemos a epidemiologia de enteroparasitoses em pacientes de um serviço de referência de AIDS, no noroeste paulista, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Durante o período de janeiro de 1998 a dezembro de 2008, foi realizado este estudo retrospectivo por meio da análise dos prontuários dos pacientes dia [...] gnosticados com HIV-1/AIDS atendidos no Ambulatório de Doenças Infecto-Parasitárias do Hospital de Base, São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo. As análises estatísticas foram realizadas usando a versão 2.4.1 do software estatístico R. O nível de significância adotado foi de 5%. RESULTADOS: O protozoário mais frequente foi o Isospora belli (4,2%), seguido da Giardia lamblia (3,5%), Entamoeba coli (2,8%) e Criptosporidium parvum (0,3%). O Ancylostoma duodenalis (1,4%) foi o helminto mais detectado, enquanto a Taenia saginata e o Strongiloides stercoralis foram observados em 0,7% das amostras. Os resultados mostraram que a diarreia foi significativamente associada com giardíase e isosporíase. Entretanto, nenhuma associação foi observada entre as contagens de células T CD4+, carga viral e da característica de qualquer parasita em particular. CONCLUSÕES: Nossos dados podem ser úteis para futuras comparações com outras regiões do Brasil e outros países em desenvolvimento. Os dados também podem fornecer pistas importantes para a melhoria da compreensão, prevenção e controle de parasitas entéricos em todo o mundo. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: We describe the epidemiology of intestinal parasites in patients from an AIDS reference service in Northeastern São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Retrospective evaluation was done for all HIV-1/AIDS-positive patients whose Hospital de Base/São José do Rio Preto laboratorial analysis was posi [...] tive for enteroparasites after diagnosis of HIV-1 infection, from January 1998 to December 2008. Statistical analysis was performed using the R statistical software version 2.4.1. The level of significance adopted was 5%. RESULTS: The most frequent protozoan was Isospora belli (4.2%), followed by Giardia lamblia (3.5%), Entamoeba coli (2.8%), and Cryptosporidium parvum (0.3%). Ancylostoma duodenale (1.4%) was the most frequently detected helminth, while Taenia saginata and Strongiloides stercoralis were found in 0.7% of the samples. The results showed that diarrhea was significantly associated with giardiasis and isosporiasis. However, no association was observed between CD4+ cell counts, viral load, and the characteristics of any particular parasite. CONCLUSIONS: Our data may be useful for further comparisons with other Brazilian regions and other developing countries. The data may also provide important clues toward improving the understanding, prevention, and control of enteric parasites around the world.

Luciana Ventura, Cardoso; Katia Jaira, Galisteu; Arlindo, Schiesari Júnior; Luana Aparecida Oliveira Abou, Chahla; Rafaela Moreira da Silva, Canille; Marcus Vinicius Tereza, Belloto; Célia, Franco; Irineu Luiz, Maia; Andréa Regina Baptista, Rossit; Ricardo Luiz Dantas, Machado.

2011-12-01

282

Segunda encuesta nacional de infecciones parasitarias intestinales en Cuba, 2009 Second national survey of intestinal parasitic infections in Cuba, 2009  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introducción: en Cuba las parasitosis intestinales continúan siendo endémicas, con una mayor frecuencia en zonas rurales y montañosas. Después de haber transcurrido casi 25 años desde la última encuesta nacional, se hizo necesario hacer una nueva encuesta para conocer los índices de prevalencia de las parasitosis intestinales y comparar los resultados obtenidos entre ambos estudios. Tal conocimiento resultaría de gran valor para elaborar estrategias de salud y el diseño de programas de control de las infecciones parasitarias intestinales. Objetivo: determinar los índices actuales de prevalencia de las parasitosis intestinales, y comparar los resultados con los de la encuesta anterior luego de haber transcurrido 25 años. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte trasversal durante los meses de mayo a agosto de 2009 en una muestra de la población cubana. A cada uno se le recogió una muestra de heces que fue analizada por el método de examen directo, la técnica de concentración de Willis y el examen de Kato-Katz; también se le llenó un cuestionario. Resultados: al comparar los resultados de las encuestas nacionales de infecciones parasitarias intestinales realizadas en 1984 y 2009, se encontró que en general disminuyeron las infecciones por parásitos, tanto los helmintos como los protozoos patógenos, aunque los infectados con comensales aumentaron su frecuencia en la de 2009. También se produjo una disminución de las frecuencias de infecciones por todas las especies de geohelmintos, Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, ancylostomídeos, y Strongyloides stercoralis, así como por los protozoos patógenos Giardia lamblia y Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar, y los comensales: Endolimax nana y Entamoeba coli en 2009. La única especie de parásito intestinal que aumentó su frecuencia con respecto a la encuesta de 1984 fue Enterobius vermicularis. En ambos estudios la frecuencia de infección con parásitos o comensales fue mayor en el grupo de 5 a 14 años (edad escolar. Conclusiones: al comparar los resultados de las encuestas nacionales de infecciones parasitarias intestinales realizadas en 1984 y 2009, se encontró que en general disminuyeron las frecuencias de infecciones con parásitos intestinales. El hallazgo en ambos estudios de una frecuencia mayor de infección con parásitos o comensales en el grupo de 5 a 14 años (edad escolar, respalda la recomendación de poner énfasis en los programas de control para las parasitosis intestinales en este grupo de edad.Introduction: the intestinal parasitic infections are still endemic in Cuba, with a higher frequency in rural and mountain regions. Twenty five years after the last national survey, it deemed necessary to carry out a new national survey in order to know the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and to compare the obtained results between both studies. That knowledge would be valuable to work out strategies of health and to design a control program for intestinal parasitic infections in Cuba. Objective: to determine the current prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in Cuba and to compare these results with those obtained from the previous survey after a 25 year-period. Methods: a cross sectional study was conducted from May to August of 2009 in a sample of Cuban population. A stool sample was collected from each individual, which was analyzed by direct examination, Willis' brine flotation method and the Kato-Katz thick smear technique. Additionally, a questionnaire was administered. Results: the comparison between 1984 and 2009 surveys showed a general decrease of frequencies of intestinal parasitic infections caused by both helminths and pathogenic protozoa; however, the percentage of infections with commensal protozoa increased in 2009. In this last survey, there was observed decline of frequencies of infections with soil transmitted species, Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, and Strongyloides stercoralis and the pathogenic protozoa: Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolyti

Lázara Rojas

2012-04-01

283

Prevalencia y Factores de Riesgo Asociados a Parasitismo Intestinal en Preescolares de Zona Urbana en Calarcá, Colombia / Prevalence and risk factors associated with intestinal parasitism in preschool children from the urban area of Calarcá, Colombia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo Determinar prevalencia de parasitismo intestinal y su relación con factores de riesgo sociodemográficos, de saneamiento y prácticas de higiene. Materiales y métodos Se realizó un estudio "cross sectional" en 220 niños entre 6 y 60 meses (N:1 993) asistentes a hogares infantiles de estrato u [...] no y dos del área urbana de Calarcá (Colombia). Se estudió una muestra coprológica por método de concentración de Ritchie Resultados La prevalencia general de parasitismo entre los niños estudiados fue de un 54,7 %. Se encontró una prevalencia de Blastocystis de 36,4 % y de Giardia en 13,2 %. Se encontraron como factores de riesgo asociados estadísticamente con el parasitismo: edad mayor a dos años, no desparasitar las mascotas, tener hermanos, y recibir alimentos en el tetero diferentes a la leche. Conclusiones Este estudio muestra una alta frecuencia de Blastocystis en niños preescolares de un centro urbano con buen acceso a servicios públicos. Es necesario hacer enfasís en los programas de control de zoonosis y la desparasitación de mascotas. Se recomienda la vigilancia periódica de parásitos por exámenes en estos niños. Abstract in english Objectives Determining intestinal parasite prevalence and their relationship with social and demographic risk factors, hygiene procedures and sanitation in pre-school children. Material and Methods This was a cross-sectional study of a representative sample (n=220) of children aged 6 to 60 months, r [...] esiding in social strata one, two and three type homes (N:1,993) from the urban area of the city of Calarcá. Both microscopic and macroscopic studies were carried out using Ritchie's test to confirm the diagnosis. Results 54.7% parasitism prevalence was found. Pathogenic parasites had the following prevalence frequencies: 36.4% Blastocystis hominis and 13% Giardia lamblia . Bivariate analysis found intestinal parasite association with lack of parasite control of domestic animals, having brothers and sisters and having received food different to milk from a baby's bottle. Anemia was studied in 209 children and 3.3% prevalence found. Low weight prevalence was 9.6% and 7.5% for obesity. Conclusions A high Blastocystis prevalence was found in this group of preschool children residing in an urban setting and having good access to sanitary services. Controlling parasites on pets should be emphasized. This group of children should be submitted to periodical coprological analysis (once a year).

Ángela L, Londoño; Shirley, Mejía; Jorge E, Gómez-Marín.

2009-02-01

284

Prevalencia y Factores de Riesgo Asociados a Parasitismo Intestinal en Preescolares de Zona Urbana en Calarcá, Colombia / Prevalence and risk factors associated with intestinal parasitism in preschool children from the urban area of Calarcá, Colombia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo Determinar prevalencia de parasitismo intestinal y su relación con factores de riesgo sociodemográficos, de saneamiento y prácticas de higiene. Materiales y métodos Se realizó un estudio "cross sectional" en 220 niños entre 6 y 60 meses (N:1 993) asistentes a hogares infantiles de estrato u [...] no y dos del área urbana de Calarcá (Colombia). Se estudió una muestra coprológica por método de concentración de Ritchie Resultados La prevalencia general de parasitismo entre los niños estudiados fue de un 54,7 %. Se encontró una prevalencia de Blastocystis de 36,4 % y de Giardia en 13,2 %. Se encontraron como factores de riesgo asociados estadísticamente con el parasitismo: edad mayor a dos años, no desparasitar las mascotas, tener hermanos, y recibir alimentos en el tetero diferentes a la leche. Conclusiones Este estudio muestra una alta frecuencia de Blastocystis en niños preescolares de un centro urbano con buen acceso a servicios públicos. Es necesario hacer enfasís en los programas de control de zoonosis y la desparasitación de mascotas. Se recomienda la vigilancia periódica de parásitos por exámenes en estos niños. Abstract in english Objectives Determining intestinal parasite prevalence and their relationship with social and demographic risk factors, hygiene procedures and sanitation in pre-school children. Material and Methods This was a cross-sectional study of a representative sample (n=220) of children aged 6 to 60 months, r [...] esiding in social strata one, two and three type homes (N:1,993) from the urban area of the city of Calarcá. Both microscopic and macroscopic studies were carried out using Ritchie's test to confirm the diagnosis. Results 54.7% parasitism prevalence was found. Pathogenic parasites had the following prevalence frequencies: 36.4% Blastocystis hominis and 13% Giardia lamblia . Bivariate analysis found intestinal parasite association with lack of parasite control of domestic animals, having brothers and sisters and having received food different to milk from a baby's bottle. Anemia was studied in 209 children and 3.3% prevalence found. Low weight prevalence was 9.6% and 7.5% for obesity. Conclusions A high Blastocystis prevalence was found in this group of preschool children residing in an urban setting and having good access to sanitary services. Controlling parasites on pets should be emphasized. This group of children should be submitted to periodical coprological analysis (once a year).

Ángela L, Londoño; Shirley, Mejía; Jorge E, Gómez-Marín.

2009-02-01

285

Prevalencia y Factores de Riesgo Asociados a Parasitismo Intestinal en Preescolares de Zona Urbana en Calarcá, Colombia Prevalence and risk factors associated with intestinal parasitism in preschool children from the urban area of Calarcá, Colombia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivo Determinar prevalencia de parasitismo intestinal y su relación con factores de riesgo sociodemográficos, de saneamiento y prácticas de higiene. Materiales y métodos Se realizó un estudio "cross sectional" en 220 niños entre 6 y 60 meses (N:1 993 asistentes a hogares infantiles de estrato uno y dos del área urbana de Calarcá (Colombia. Se estudió una muestra coprológica por método de concentración de Ritchie Resultados La prevalencia general de parasitismo entre los niños estudiados fue de un 54,7 %. Se encontró una prevalencia de Blastocystis de 36,4 % y de Giardia en 13,2 %. Se encontraron como factores de riesgo asociados estadísticamente con el parasitismo: edad mayor a dos años, no desparasitar las mascotas, tener hermanos, y recibir alimentos en el tetero diferentes a la leche. Conclusiones Este estudio muestra una alta frecuencia de Blastocystis en niños preescolares de un centro urbano con buen acceso a servicios públicos. Es necesario hacer enfasís en los programas de control de zoonosis y la desparasitación de mascotas. Se recomienda la vigilancia periódica de parásitos por exámenes en estos niños.Objectives Determining intestinal parasite prevalence and their relationship with social and demographic risk factors, hygiene procedures and sanitation in pre-school children. Material and Methods This was a cross-sectional study of a representative sample (n=220 of children aged 6 to 60 months, residing in social strata one, two and three type homes (N:1,993 from the urban area of the city of Calarcá. Both microscopic and macroscopic studies were carried out using Ritchie's test to confirm the diagnosis. Results 54.7% parasitism prevalence was found. Pathogenic parasites had the following prevalence frequencies: 36.4% Blastocystis hominis and 13% Giardia lamblia . Bivariate analysis found intestinal parasite association with lack of parasite control of domestic animals, having brothers and sisters and having received food different to milk from a baby's bottle. Anemia was studied in 209 children and 3.3% prevalence found. Low weight prevalence was 9.6% and 7.5% for obesity. Conclusions A high Blastocystis prevalence was found in this group of preschool children residing in an urban setting and having good access to sanitary services. Controlling parasites on pets should be emphasized. This group of children should be submitted to periodical coprological analysis (once a year.

Ángela L Londoño

2009-02-01

286

Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection in five farms in Holambra, São Paulo, Brazil Prevalência de enteroparasitoses em cinco fazendas de Holambra-SP, Brasil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A parasitological survey was carried out on 222 inhabitants of five farms in Holambra, located 30 km north of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, on October 1992. Approximately 70% of the inhabitants were found to be infected with at least one species of intestinal parasite. The positive rates of 6 helminths and 7 protozoan species detected are as follows: 5.4% Ascaris lumbricoides; 8.6% Trichuris trichiura; 19.8% Necator americanus; 10.4% Strongyloides stercoralis; 14% Enterobius vermicularis; 0.9% Hymenolepis nana; 3.2% Entamoeba histolytica; 2.7% E. hartmanni; 9.9% E. coli; 14.0% Endolimax nana; 2.3% Iodamoeba butschlii; 10.4% Giardia lamblia; 37.8% Blastocystis hominis. The positive rates of helminth infection were generaly higher in the younger-group under 16 years-old than those in the elder group aged 16 or more, whereas the infection rates of protozoan species were higher in the elder group. The infection rate of Strongyloides was found to be 10.4% by a newly developed sensitive method (an agarplate culture methods.Uma pesquisa coproparasitológica foi realizada em 222 habitantes de cinco fazendas de Holambra, localizada a 30 km ao norte de Campinas, SP, Brasil, em outubro de 1992. Aproximadamente 70% dos habitantes apresentaram pelo menos um tipo de parasitose intestinal. O índice de positividade das 6 espécies de helmintos e de 7 protozoários na população foi o seguinte: Ascaris lumbricoides (5,4%; Trichuris trichiura (8,6%; Necator americanus (19,8%; Strongyloides stercoralis (10,4%; Enterobius vermiculares (1,4%; Hymenolepis nana (0,9%; Entamoeba histolytica (3,2%; E. hartmanni (2,7%; E. coli (9,9%; Endolimax nana (14,0%; Iodamoeba butschlii (2,3%; Giardia lamblia (10,4%; Blastocystis hominis (37,4%. O índice de positividade para infecção por helmitos foi aparentemente maior na população mais jovem (menores de 16 anos do que no grupo de população com idades acima de 16 anos, ao contrário do índice de infecção pelos protozoários que foi mais elevado na população adulta. Utilizando um novo e sensível método através de cultura em ágar, encontrou-se um índice de infecção de 10.4% para Strongyloides sp.

Jun Kobayashi

1995-02-01

287

Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection in five farms in Holambra, São Paulo, Brazil / Prevalência de enteroparasitoses em cinco fazendas de Holambra-SP, Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Uma pesquisa coproparasitológica foi realizada em 222 habitantes de cinco fazendas de Holambra, localizada a 30 km ao norte de Campinas, SP, Brasil, em outubro de 1992. Aproximadamente 70% dos habitantes apresentaram pelo menos um tipo de parasitose intestinal. O índice de positividade das 6 espécie [...] s de helmintos e de 7 protozoários na população foi o seguinte: Ascaris lumbricoides (5,4%); Trichuris trichiura (8,6%); Necator americanus (19,8%); Strongyloides stercoralis (10,4%); Enterobius vermiculares (1,4%); Hymenolepis nana (0,9%); Entamoeba histolytica (3,2%); E. hartmanni (2,7%); E. coli (9,9%); Endolimax nana (14,0%); Iodamoeba butschlii (2,3%); Giardia lamblia (10,4%); Blastocystis hominis (37,4%). O índice de positividade para infecção por helmitos foi aparentemente maior na população mais jovem (menores de 16 anos) do que no grupo de população com idades acima de 16 anos, ao contrário do índice de infecção pelos protozoários que foi mais elevado na população adulta. Utilizando um novo e sensível método através de cultura em ágar, encontrou-se um índice de infecção de 10.4% para Strongyloides sp. Abstract in english A parasitological survey was carried out on 222 inhabitants of five farms in Holambra, located 30 km north of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, on October 1992. Approximately 70% of the inhabitants were found to be infected with at least one species of intestinal parasite. The positive rates of 6 helmint [...] hs and 7 protozoan species detected are as follows: 5.4% Ascaris lumbricoides; 8.6% Trichuris trichiura; 19.8% Necator americanus; 10.4% Strongyloides stercoralis; 14% Enterobius vermicularis; 0.9% Hymenolepis nana; 3.2% Entamoeba histolytica; 2.7% E. hartmanni; 9.9% E. coli; 14.0% Endolimax nana; 2.3% Iodamoeba butschlii; 10.4% Giardia lamblia; 37.8% Blastocystis hominis. The positive rates of helminth infection were generaly higher in the younger-group under 16 years-old than those in the elder group aged 16 or more, whereas the infection rates of protozoan species were higher in the elder group. The infection rate of Strongyloides was found to be 10.4% by a newly developed sensitive method (an agarplate culture methods).

Jun, Kobayashi; Hideo, Hasegawa; Archimedes A., Forli; Nancy F., Nishimura; Ademar, Yamanaka; Tetsu, Shimabukuro; Yoshiya, Sato.

1995-02-01

288

Biological Hazards in Sewage and Wastewater Treatment Plants  

Science.gov (United States)

... coli, shigellosis, typhoid fever, salmonella, and cholera. Funguses • Aspergillus and other funguses often grow in compost. These ... may be more likely to get sick from aspergillus. Parasites • Cryptosporidium and giardia lamblia may cause diarrhea ...

289

Beaver fever--a rare cause of reactive arthritis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardia lamblia infection is rarely associated with adult reactive arthritis. We report the first North American case and review the pediatric and adult literature to date. Antimicrobial treatment is essential to eradicate the parasite and control the arthritis. PMID:10606388

Tupchong, M; Simor, A; Dewar, C

1999-12-01

290

Control of Giardia infections with ronidazole and intensive hygienemanagement in a dog kennel  

OpenAIRE

Infections with the intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia in dogs and cats are common. Clinical signs vary from asymptomatic to small bowel diarrhea and associated discomfort. The control of infections in dogs is frequently a frustrating issue for animal owners and veterinarians. Drugs with antiprotozoal activity such as fenbendazole and metronidazole are recommended, however, they do not show 100% efficacy and superinfections occur regularly. Ronidazole is currently the drug of choice for th...

Fiechter, Ruth M-e; Deplazes, P.; Schnyder, M.

2012-01-01

291

Activities of several benzimidazoles and tubulin inhibitors against Giardia spp. in vitro.  

OpenAIRE

Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that albendazole is effective against Giardia spp. in vitro and in vivo, prompting an investigation of the effects of several related benzimidazoles (BZs) on the viability of this protozoan parasite. A range of BZs was tested, and their effects were compared with those of a number of microtubule inhibitors. The effects produced by the two types of drugs were markedly similar, namely, trophozoite detachment and distortion of morphology and general ...

Morgan, U. M.; Reynoldson, J. A.; Thompson, R. C.

1993-01-01

292

Microarray Analysis of the Intestinal Host Response in Giardia duodenalis Assemblage E Infected Calves  

OpenAIRE

Despite Giardia duodenalis being one of the most commonly found intestinal pathogens in humans and animals, little is known about the host-parasite interactions in its natural hosts. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the intestinal response in calves following a G. duodenalis infection, using a bovine high-density oligo microarray to analyze global gene expression in the small intestine. The resulting microarray data suggested a decrease in inflammation, immune respons...

Dreesen, Leentje; Rinaldi, Manuela; Chiers, Koen; Li, Robert; Geurden, Thomas; Den Broeck, Wim; Goddeeris, Bruno; Vercruysse, Jozef; Claerebout, Edwin; Geldhof, Peter

2012-01-01

293

Molecular Epidemiology of Cross-Species Giardia duodenalis Transmission in Western Uganda  

OpenAIRE

Giardia duodenalis is a common protozoan parasite that infects multiple mammalian species, including humans. We analyzed G. duodenalis from people, livestock, and wild non-human primates in forest fragments near Kibale National Park, western Uganda, where habitat disturbance and human-animal interaction are high. Molecular analyses indicated that endangered red colobus monkeys were infected with G. duodenalis assemblages BIV and E, which characteristically infect humans and livestock, respect...

Johnston, Amanda R.; Gillespie, Thomas R.; Rwego, Innocent B.; Tranby Mclachlan, Traci L.; Kent, Angela D.; Goldberg, Tony L.

2010-01-01

294

Frecuencia de parasitosis intestinales y características epidemiológicas de la población infantil de 1 a 12 años que consultan al Ambulatorio Urbano Tipo II de Cerro Gordo.: Barquisimeto, estado Lara. Enero-junio 2007 / Frequency of Intestinal Parasitism and Epidemiological Characteristics of the 1 to 12 Year-Old Child Population Treated at the Cerro Gordo Type II Urban Outpatient Clinic: Barquisimeto, State of Lara. January-June 2007  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar la frecuencia de parasitosis intestinales en el área de influencia del Ambulatorio Urbano Tipo II de Cerro Gordo, Barquisimeto, Estado Lara, realizando un estudio descriptivo transversal. Se evaluaron 106 niños entre 1 y 12 años de edad, realizando a [...] cada uno examen de heces directo y concentrado con la técnica de Ritchie, demostrándose parasitosis intestinal en 42,5%, predominando en escolares (48,9%), sin diferencias según el género. El agente más frecuente fue B. hominis (42,2%), seguido de G. lamblia (37,8%), Complejo Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar (13,3%), H. nana (11,1%) y A. lumbricoides (4,4%). Se encontró parasitado 41,7% de niños con estado nutricional normal y 35,7% de malnutridos. La presencia de parasitos intestinales mostró relación con la disposición inadecuada de basura (p=0.048). El lavado inadecuado de las manos se relacionó con prurito anal (p=0.008). La calidad inadecuada del agua se relacionó con Blastocistosis (p= 0,025) y comensales (p= 0,035). No hubo relación entre parasitosis intestinales y síntomas gastrointestinales, estrato social, disposición de excretas, presencia de vectores en el hogar, lavado y conservación de alimentos, frecuencia de recolección de basura, lavado de manos, antecedente de tratamiento antiparasitario y familiar parasitado. Abstract in english A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine intestinal parasitism in children treated at the “Cerro Gordo” Type II Urban Outpatient Clinic in Barquisimeto, Lara. Feces samples were collected from 106 children (1-12 years old) and analyzed using both direct and Ritchie´s technique analyses, de [...] monstrating intestinal parasitism in 42.5% of the children, predominantly of school age (48.9%), but independent of gender. The most frequent agent was Blastocystis hominis (42.2%), followed by Giardia lamblia (37.8%), Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar Complex (13.3%), Hymenolepis nana (11.1%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (4.4%). For children with a normal nutritional condition, 41.7% had parasites, while this value was 35.7% for nutritionally undernourished children. The presence of intestinal parasites showed relations to the community’s trash collection management program status (p=0.048). Poor hand washing habits were significantly associated with anal pruritus (p=0.008). Inadequate water quality was related to blastocystosis (p= 0.025) and comensals (p= 0.035). The presence of parasites was not associated with specific gastrointestinal symptoms, socioeconomic status, disposition of excreta, presence of vectors in the home, food washing and storage, frequency of garbage collection, washing of hands, family parasitism history and anti-parasite treatment antecedents.

Melisa, Fuentes; Liset, Galíndez; Dayana, García; Nora, González; Juan, Goyanes; Eddy, Herrera; Julia, Sánchez.

2011-06-01

295

Parasitismo intestinal infantil: factores epidemiológicos en Orange Walk, Belice Intestinal parasitism in children: epidemiological factors in Orange Walk, Belize  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El parasitismo intestinal (PI continúa siendo un problema de salud en Centroamérica y el Caribe. Se realizó una investigación aplicada, epidemiológica, descriptiva, transversal, en el Distrito urbano de Orange Walk, (Belice, año 2009, con el objetivo de identificar los factores causales de riesgo epidemiológico. El universo lo constituyeron los 566 niños de 0 - 4 años, la muestra fue 400 niños; mediante un muestreo no probabilístico intencional se realizó el examen directo de heces fecales, constituyéndose dos estratos muestrales. Fueron utilizados los métodos empíricos de investigación: cuestionario, guía de observación y teóricos; utilizando para el procesamiento de datos la estadística descriptiva, frecuencias absolutas, relativas, proporción, índice y riesgo relativo, comparación de dos y k- proporciones, prueba no paramétrica ji cuadrado. Resultaron más heces fecales positivas que negativas, no estuvo relacionado el sexo con aparición de parásitos, edad predominante de 3 - 4 años, índice de atenciones médicas de 41.34/100 habitantes, parásito más frecuente: Giardia lamblia. Las manifestaciones clínicas predominantes: dolor abdominal, diarrea y la pérdida de peso. Principales factores causales epidemiológicos: no hervir el agua, disposición inadecuada de residuales y juegos con tierra, hubo una recurrencia de 2 episodios/niño y un riesgo relativo de contraer PI de 1.3 veces, más elevado para niños en condiciones higiénicas desfavorables, población con una educación sanitaria no adecuada y baja escolaridad de padres. Se concluyó que el PI constituye un problema de salud.Intestinal parasitism (IP is still a health problem in Central America and Caribbean Countries. An applied, epidemiological, descriptive, cross-sectional research was conducted at the urban district of «Orange Walk», Belize in 2009 with the purpose of identifying the causal factors of epidemiological risk. The target group was comprised of 566 children (0-4 years old, the sample (400 children was taken by means of intentional non-probabilistic sampling and a direct feces examination; representing two sampling strata. Empiric methods of investigation were used: questionnaires, observation guidebook and theoretical. To process the data, descriptive statistics, absolute and relative frequencies were used; ratios, rate with relative risk, comparison of two and k-proportions, plus non-parametric chi square test as well. More positive feces prevailed over negative ones, observing no relation to the sex and the onset of parasites, children of 3-4 years old prevailed. The rate of medical care was 41.34/100 inhabitants, Giardia lamblia was the most frequent parasite found. The clinical signs of: abdominal pain, diarrhea, weight loss. The main causal epidemiological factors were: no water boiling, inadequate sewage disposal and plays on the ground. Recurrence had 2 events per child and a relative risk of suffering from the infection of 1.3 times, greater for children living in unfavourable hygienic situation: inhabitants with poor sanitary education and parents with low-schooling level. Intestinal Parasitism constitutes a health problem.

Liset Corrales Fuentes

2011-12-01

296

Parasitismo intestinal infantil: factores epidemiológicos en Orange Walk, Belice / Intestinal parasitism in children: epidemiological factors in Orange Walk, Belize  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available El parasitismo intestinal (PI) continúa siendo un problema de salud en Centroamérica y el Caribe. Se realizó una investigación aplicada, epidemiológica, descriptiva, transversal, en el Distrito urbano de Orange Walk, (Belice), año 2009, con el objetivo de identificar los factores causales de riesgo [...] epidemiológico. El universo lo constituyeron los 566 niños de 0 - 4 años, la muestra fue 400 niños; mediante un muestreo no probabilístico intencional se realizó el examen directo de heces fecales, constituyéndose dos estratos muestrales. Fueron utilizados los métodos empíricos de investigación: cuestionario, guía de observación y teóricos; utilizando para el procesamiento de datos la estadística descriptiva, frecuencias absolutas, relativas, proporción, índice y riesgo relativo, comparación de dos y k- proporciones, prueba no paramétrica ji cuadrado. Resultaron más heces fecales positivas que negativas, no estuvo relacionado el sexo con aparición de parásitos, edad predominante de 3 - 4 años, índice de atenciones médicas de 41.34/100 habitantes, parásito más frecuente: Giardia lamblia. Las manifestaciones clínicas predominantes: dolor abdominal, diarrea y la pérdida de peso. Principales factores causales epidemiológicos: no hervir el agua, disposición inadecuada de residuales y juegos con tierra, hubo una recurrencia de 2 episodios/niño y un riesgo relativo de contraer PI de 1.3 veces, más elevado para niños en condiciones higiénicas desfavorables, población con una educación sanitaria no adecuada y baja escolaridad de padres. Se concluyó que el PI constituye un problema de salud. Abstract in english Intestinal parasitism (IP) is still a health problem in Central America and Caribbean Countries. An applied, epidemiological, descriptive, cross-sectional research was conducted at the urban district of «Orange Walk», Belize in 2009 with the purpose of identifying the causal factors of epidemiologic [...] al risk. The target group was comprised of 566 children (0-4 years old), the sample (400 children) was taken by means of intentional non-probabilistic sampling and a direct feces examination; representing two sampling strata. Empiric methods of investigation were used: questionnaires, observation guidebook and theoretical. To process the data, descriptive statistics, absolute and relative frequencies were used; ratios, rate with relative risk, comparison of two and k-proportions, plus non-parametric chi square test as well. More positive feces prevailed over negative ones, observing no relation to the sex and the onset of parasites, children of 3-4 years old prevailed. The rate of medical care was 41.34/100 inhabitants, Giardia lamblia was the most frequent parasite found. The clinical signs of: abdominal pain, diarrhea, weight loss. The main causal epidemiological factors were: no water boiling, inadequate sewage disposal and plays on the ground. Recurrence had 2 events per child and a relative risk of suffering from the infection of 1.3 times, greater for children living in unfavourable hygienic situation: inhabitants with poor sanitary education and parents with low-schooling level. Intestinal Parasitism constitutes a health problem.

Liset, Corrales Fuentes; Sandra, Hernández García; Miguel Angel, Rodríguez Arencibia; Aydely, Hernández Pérez.

2011-12-01

297

Prevalence of intestinal parasites and its impact on nutritional status among preschool children living in Damanhur City, El-Behera Governorate, Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

This cross sectional study was done in Damanhur City, the Capital of El-Behera Governorate to detect the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection among preschool aged children and to find out its effect on their nutritional status. Five-hundreds children aged between 2-6 years were enrolled; a detailed questionnaire, complete clinical and anthropometric assessment as well as complete stool analysis and blood picture were done. The study revealed that 51.8% preschool children were infected; Cysts of Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia were found in 16.8%, and 14.8% respectively. In 1.8% of cases, both cysts were found together. Ova of Ascaris lumbricoides, Enterobius vermicularis, Ancylostoma duodenale and Hymenolepis nana were detected in 14%, 3.4%, 5% & 0.2% of cases, respectively. In 0.4% of cases, ova of A. lumbricoides and E. vermicularis were found together. Mixed infections were found in 3.6% of children. Significantly lower weight for age z-score (WAZ) and weight for height z-score (WHZ) were found among infested children compared to non-infested ones (P < 0.05). Moreover, stunting was found in 44.1%, underweight in 39.1% and wasting in 11.5% of infested children. Prevalence of anemia among all studied population was 39%; 48.6% in infested group compared to 28.8% in non-infested children (x = 20, P < 0.001). Improper hand washing, and playing in the street bare footed, together with playing with animals and family history of parasitic infestation were considered the independent predictors of parasitic infestation by using binary logistic regression. PMID:25597166

Hegazy, Adham Mohammad; Younis, Neveen Tawakol; Aminou, Heba Abdelkader; Badr, Ayman Mohamed

2014-08-01

298

Freqüência de Giardia spp. por duas técnicas de diagnóstico em fezes de cães / Frequency of Giardia spp. for two diagnosis methods in feces of dogs  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english One hundred fecal samples from male and female dogs of several ages and breeds were collected in kennels of Uberlândia in Minas Gerais, Brazil. These samples were analyzed to determine the frequency of Giardia spp. using two different diagnostic methods: zinc sulfate flotation technique and merthiol [...] ate-iodine-formaldehyde concentration (MIFC). The frequency of giardiasis was 41%. Dogs, which were less than 12 months of age, were the most parasitized (68.4%). No difference between male and female frequency of giardiasis (31.4% and 46.1%, respectively) was observed. MIFC detected 38% of positive samples and zinc sulfate flotation technique 29%. Giardia spp. is present in dogs of Uberlândia's kennels in a high frequency.

M.J.S., Mundim; S.Z., Souza; S.M., Hortêncio; M.C., Cury.

2003-12-01

299

Enterocytozoon bieneusi, giardia, and Cryptosporidium infecting white-tailed deer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite a white-tailed deer (WTD) population in the United States of approximately 32 million animals extremely little is known of the prevalence and species of the protists that infect these animals. This study was undertaken to determine the presence of potential human protist pathogens in culled WTD in central Maryland. Feces from fawns to adults were examined by molecular methods. The prevalence of Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Cryptosporidium, and Giardia was determined by PCR. All PCR-positive specimens were sequenced to determine the species and genotype(s). Of specimens from 80 WTD, 26 (32.5%) contained 17 genotypes of E. bieneusi. Four genotypes were previously reported (I, J, WL4, LW1) and 13 novel genotypes were identified and named DeerEb1-DeerEb13. Genotypes I, J, and LW1 are known to infect humans. Ten (12.5%) specimens contained the Cryptosporidium deer genotype, and one (1.25%) contained Giardia duodenalis Assemblage A. The identification zoonotic G. duodenalis Assemblage A as well as four E. bieneusi genotypes previously identified in humans suggest that WTD could play a role in the transmission of those parasites to humans. PMID:25066778

Santin, Monica; Fayer, Ronald

2015-01-01

300

Population-based analyses of Giardia duodenalis is consistent with the clonal assemblage structure  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Giardia duodenalis is a common protozoan parasite of humans and animals. Genetic characterization of single loci indicates the existence of eight groups called assemblages, which differ in their host distribution. Molecular analyses challenged the idea that G. duodenalis is a strictly clonal diplomonad by providing evidence of recombination within and between assemblages. Particularly, inter-assemblage recombination events would complicate the interpretation of multi-locus genotyping data from field isolates: where is a host infected with multiple Giardia genotypes or with a single, recombined Giardia genotype. Methods Population genetic analyses on the single and multiple-locus level on an extensive dataset of G. duodenalis isolates from humans and animals were performed. Results Our analyses indicate that recombination between isolates from different assemblages are apparently very rare or absent in the natural population of Giardia duodenalis. At the multi-locus level, our statistical analyses are more congruent with clonal reproduction and can equally well be explained with the presence of multiple G. duodenalis genotypes within one field isolate. Conclusions We conclude that recombination between G. duodenalis assemblages is either very rare or absent. Recombination between genotypes from the same assemblage and genetic exchange between the nuclei of a single cyst needs further investigation.

Takumi Katsuhisa

2012-08-01

301

Giardia and Drinking Water from Private Wells  

Science.gov (United States)

... drinking water? Giardia and Drinking Water from Private Wells What is giardiasis? Giardiasis (GEE-are-DYE-uh- ... properly, polluted storm water runoff, and agricultural runoff. Wells may be more vulnerable to such contamination after ...

302

Administration of kefir-fermented milk protects mice against Giardia intestinalis infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardiasis, caused by the protozoan Giardia intestinalis, is one of the most common intestinal diseases worldwide and constitutes an important problem for the public health systems of various countries. Kefir is a probiotic drink obtained by fermenting milk with 'kefir grains', which consist mainly of bacteria and yeasts that coexist in a complex symbiotic association. In this work, we studied the ability of kefir to protect mice from G. intestinalis infection, and characterized the host immune response to this probiotic in the context of the intestinal infection. Six- to 8-week-old C75BL/6 mice were separated into four groups: controls, kefir mice (receiving 1?:?100 dilution of kefir in drinking water for 14 days), Giardia mice (infected orally with 4×10(7) trophozoites of G. intestinalis at day 7) and Giardia-kefir mice (kefir-treated G. intestinalis-infected mice), and killed at 2 or 7 days post-infection. Kefir administration was able to significantly reduce the intensity of Giardia infection at 7 days post-infection. An increase in the percentage of CD4(+) T cells at 2 days post-infection was observed in the Peyer's patches (PP) of mice belonging to the Giardia group compared with the control and kefir groups, while the percentage of CD4(+) T cells in PP in the Giardia-kefir group was similar to that of controls. At 2 days post-infection, a reduction in the percentage of B220-positive major histocompatibility complex class II medium cells in PP was observed in infected mice compared with the other groups. At 7 days post-infection, Giardia-infected mice showed a reduction in RcFc?-positive cells compared with the control group, suggesting a downregulation of the inflammatory response. However, the percentages of RcFc?-positive cells did not differ from controls in the kefir and Giardia-kefir groups. An increase in IgA-positive cells was observed in the lamina propria of the kefir group compared with controls at 2 days post-infection. Interestingly, the diminished number of IgA-positive cells registered in the Giardia group at 7 days post-infection was restored by kefir feeding, although the increase in IgA-positive cells was no longer observed in the kefir group at that time. No significant differences in CXCL10 expression were registered between groups, in concordance with the absence of inflammation in small-intestinal tissue. Interestingly, a slight reduction in CCL20 expression was observed in the Giardia group, suggesting that G. intestinalis might downregulate its expression as a way of evading the inflammatory immune response. On the other hand, a trend towards an increase in TNF-? expression was observed in the kefir group, while the Giardia-kefir group showed a significant increase in TNF-? expression. Moreover, kefir-receiving mice (kefir and Giardia-kefir groups) showed an increase in the expression of IFN-?, the most relevant Th1 cytokine, at 2 days post-infection. Our results demonstrate that feeding mice with kefir reduces G. intestinalis infection and promotes the activation of different mechanisms of humoral and cellular immunity that are downregulated by parasitic infection, thus contributing to protection. PMID:24072759

Franco, Mariana Correa; Golowczyc, Marina A; De Antoni, Graciela L; Pérez, Pablo F; Humen, Martín; Serradell, María de los Angeles

2013-12-01

303

Prevalencia de parásitos intestinales en niños de la ciudad de Mendoza, Argentina / PREVALENCE OF INTESTINAL PARASITES IN CHILDREN LIVING IN MENDOZA CITY, ARGENTINA  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En el presente estudio epidemiológico descriptivo, se investigó la presencia de parásitos intestinales en 221 niños de una escuela de la ciudad de Mendoza, Argentina, residentes en zona urbana con agua potable y red sanitaria completa. La comunidad educativa fue motivada a participar mediante la rea [...] lización de talleres explicativos dirigidos a los docentes y padres en forma separada y en grupos no mayores a 30 personas, lográndose una participación de 89,5% del cuerpo docente y 70,0% de los padres. Las muestras de materia fecal se colectaron durante siete días en solución de acetato sódico - ácido acético - formalina (S AF) y el mucus anal, mediante la prueba Graham modificado en igual período de tiempo. Las heces fueron procesadas por el método de Telemann modificado y se realizaron coloraciones de Kinyoun para la investigación de coccidios intestinales. Para el prueba de Graham modificado, las gasas se colocaron en 30 mi. de solución formolada al 5%. Los resultados mostraron una prevalencia global de parásitos intestinales del 80,5%, con valores que oscilaron entre el 88% (grupo etario de 5 a 10 años) y el 63,8% (grupo etario de 11 a 14 años). No se encontraron diferencias significativas en la distribución por sexo. El 37,6% de los positivos presentó una especie única, mientras que en el resto se hallaron asociaciones parasitarias de hasta 4 géneros diferentes. Se identificaron: Blastocystis hominis, Giardia lamblia, Endolimax nana, Entamoeba coli, Dientamoeba fragilis, Chilomastix mesnilii, Enterobius vermicularis e Hymenolepis nana, siendo detectada esta última a partir de los 6 años Abstract in english This descriptive epidemiological research studies the prevalence of intestinal parasites in 221 children attending school in Mendoza, Argentina, and living in an urban area with potable water and complete sanitary system. Samples of faeces were collected and kept in a sodium acetate-acetic acid-form [...] alin (SAF) solution during 7 days and anal mucus was collected by means of the modified Graham test during the same period of time. Samples were processed by means of the modified Telemann method and Kinyoun staining. Gauzes were put in 30 ml of 5%-formol solution. Results reveal an 80.5% prevalence of intestinal parasites, with values varying between 88% (age group from 5 to 10) and 63.8% (age group from 11 to 14). No significant differences were observed in the distribution by sex. A 37.6% of the positive group showed a unique species whereas the rest of the studied population showed parasite associations of up to 4 different genera. Blastocystis hominis, Giardia lamblia, Endolimax nana, Entamoeba coli, Dientamoeba fragilis, Chilomastix mesnilii, Enterobius vermicularis and Hymenolepis nana were identified, the latter being detected as from the age of 6 years. The study reveals a high prevalence of intestinal parasites in 1-to 14-year-old children. Although both appropriate potable water and sewer system are available, we conclude that the high prevalence of intestinal parasites is due to inappropriate hygienic habits of the population and that education for the prevention of health is therefore as important as appropriate sanitary conditions

MARIA C, SALOMON; ROSA L, TONELLI; CARLOS G, BORREMANS; DANIEL, BERTELLO; LAURA I, DE JONG; CLAUDIO A, JOFRÉ; VERÓNICA, ENRIQUEZ; LILIANA C, CARRIZO; SIXTO RAÚL, COSTAMAGNA.

2007-06-01

304

Prevalencia de parásitos intestinales en niños de la ciudad de Mendoza, Argentina PREVALENCE OF INTESTINAL PARASITES IN CHILDREN LIVING IN MENDOZA CITY, ARGENTINA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En el presente estudio epidemiológico descriptivo, se investigó la presencia de parásitos intestinales en 221 niños de una escuela de la ciudad de Mendoza, Argentina, residentes en zona urbana con agua potable y red sanitaria completa. La comunidad educativa fue motivada a participar mediante la realización de talleres explicativos dirigidos a los docentes y padres en forma separada y en grupos no mayores a 30 personas, lográndose una participación de 89,5% del cuerpo docente y 70,0% de los padres. Las muestras de materia fecal se colectaron durante siete días en solución de acetato sódico - ácido acético - formalina (S AF y el mucus anal, mediante la prueba Graham modificado en igual período de tiempo. Las heces fueron procesadas por el método de Telemann modificado y se realizaron coloraciones de Kinyoun para la investigación de coccidios intestinales. Para el prueba de Graham modificado, las gasas se colocaron en 30 mi. de solución formolada al 5%. Los resultados mostraron una prevalencia global de parásitos intestinales del 80,5%, con valores que oscilaron entre el 88% (grupo etario de 5 a 10 años y el 63,8% (grupo etario de 11 a 14 años. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en la distribución por sexo. El 37,6% de los positivos presentó una especie única, mientras que en el resto se hallaron asociaciones parasitarias de hasta 4 géneros diferentes. Se identificaron: Blastocystis hominis, Giardia lamblia, Endolimax nana, Entamoeba coli, Dientamoeba fragilis, Chilomastix mesnilii, Enterobius vermicularis e Hymenolepis nana, siendo detectada esta última a partir de los 6 añosThis descriptive epidemiological research studies the prevalence of intestinal parasites in 221 children attending school in Mendoza, Argentina, and living in an urban area with potable water and complete sanitary system. Samples of faeces were collected and kept in a sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin (SAF solution during 7 days and anal mucus was collected by means of the modified Graham test during the same period of time. Samples were processed by means of the modified Telemann method and Kinyoun staining. Gauzes were put in 30 ml of 5%-formol solution. Results reveal an 80.5% prevalence of intestinal parasites, with values varying between 88% (age group from 5 to 10 and 63.8% (age group from 11 to 14. No significant differences were observed in the distribution by sex. A 37.6% of the positive group showed a unique species whereas the rest of the studied population showed parasite associations of up to 4 different genera. Blastocystis hominis, Giardia lamblia, Endolimax nana, Entamoeba coli, Dientamoeba fragilis, Chilomastix mesnilii, Enterobius vermicularis and Hymenolepis nana were identified, the latter being detected as from the age of 6 years. The study reveals a high prevalence of intestinal parasites in 1-to 14-year-old children. Although both appropriate potable water and sewer system are available, we conclude that the high prevalence of intestinal parasites is due to inappropriate hygienic habits of the population and that education for the prevention of health is therefore as important as appropriate sanitary conditions

MARIA C SALOMON

2007-06-01

305

A new system for higher recovery rate of water borne Cryptosporidium and Giardia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The two most common water borne pathogenic protozoa, Cryptosporidium and Giardia, are a common cause of outbreaks of diarrhea. Detecting these parasites in water samples depends on effective parasite recovery from the water matrix. The recovery rates of the currently used filter methods are low and the procedures are expensive and time consuming. These facts have motivated us to develop a new robust system for higher recovery of protozoan cysts from any fluid matrix. The new system consists of a sample collection chamber in which the fluid passes through a specially coated metallic filter with a carefully chosen pore size. On the reverse side of the filter a transducer delivers ultrasound waves in order to release trapped cysts and particles from the filter and break up parasite clusters. Purified Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts were injected into the concentration unit and exposed to varying levels of ultrasonication. The concentrated parasite suspension was backwashed using air and the change in viability of the parasites was assessed by flowcytometry. Without sonication, the recovery rate of Cryptosporidium was around 2%. After short term sonication for 5, 10 or 20 seconds, the recovery rates were stable and ranging from 75-83%. While sonication is usually used for cell lyses, it can be tuned into a useful tool for enhanced separation of retinates of parasites using a specially constructed filter unit and a sonication protocol. The filtration chamber further facilitated the concentration of parasites by ensuring a backwash volume of less than 1ml. The collected parasites may be used for molecular typing and other diagnostic and research purposes. The presented design of the filter system can be used as a robust, cheap, and time effective method of isolating water borne parasites in the laboratory.

Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Gad, J.

2012-01-01

306

Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium occurrence in Australian sea lions (Neophoca cinerea exposed to varied levels of human interaction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Giardia and Cryptosporidium are amongst the most common protozoan parasites identified as causing enteric disease in pinnipeds. A number of Giardia assemblages and Cryptosporidium species and genotypes are common in humans and terrestrial mammals and have also been identified in marine mammals. To investigate the occurrence of these parasites in an endangered marine mammal, the Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea, genomic DNA was extracted from faecal samples collected from wild populations (n?=?271 in Southern and Western Australia and three Australian captive populations (n?=?19. These were screened using PCR targeting the 18S rRNA of Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Giardia duodenalis was detected in 28 wild sea lions and in seven captive individuals. Successful sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene assigned 27 Giardia isolates to assemblage B and one to assemblage A, both assemblages commonly found in humans. Subsequent screening at the gdh and ?-giardin loci resulted in amplification of only one of the 35 18S rRNA positive samples at the ?-giardin locus. Sequencing at the ?-giardin locus assigned the assemblage B 18S rRNA confirmed isolate to assemblage AI. The geographic distribution of sea lion populations sampled in relation to human settlements indicated that Giardia presence in sea lions was highest in populations less than 25?km from humans. Cryptosporidium was not detected by PCR screening in either wild colonies or captive sea lion populations. These data suggest that the presence of G. duodenalis in the endangered Australian sea lion is likely the result of dispersal from human sources. Multilocus molecular analyses are essential for the determination of G. duodenalis assemblages and subsequent inferences on transmission routes to endangered marine mammal populations.

Tiffany C. Delport

2014-12-01

307

ENTEROPATHOGENS DETECTED IN A DAYCARE CENTER, SOUTHEASTERN BRAZIL: BACTERIA, VIRUS, AND PARASITE RESEARCH  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and etiological profile of enteropathogens in children from a daycare center. Methods: From October 2010 to February 2011 stool samples from 100 children enrolled in a government daycare center in the municipality of São José do Rio Preto, in the state of São Paulo, were collected and analyzed. Results: A total of 246 bacteria were isolated in 99% of the fecal samples; 129 were in the diarrheal group and 117 in the non-diarrheal group. Seventy-three strains of Escherichia coli were isolated, 19 of Enterobacter, one of Alcaligenes and one of Proteus. There were 14 cases of mixed colonization with Enterobacter and E. coli. Norovirus and Astrovirus were detected in children with clinical signs suggestive of diarrhea. These viruses were detected exclusively among children residing in urban areas. All fecal samples were negative for the presence of the rotavirus species A and C. The presence of Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba coli, Endolimax nana and hookworm was observed. A significant association was found between food consumption outside home and daycare center and the presence of intestinal parasites. Conclusions: For children of this daycare center, intestinal infection due to pathogens does not seem to have contributed to the occurrence of diarrhea or other intestinal symptoms. The observed differences may be due to the wide diversity of geographical, social and economic characteristics and the climate of Brazil, all of which have been reported as critical factors in the modulation of the frequency of different enteropathogens. PMID:25651323

Castro, Edna Donizetti Rossi; Germini, Marcela Cristina Braga Yassaka; Mascarenhas, Joana D'Arc Pereira; Gabbay, Yvone Benchimol; de Lima, Ian Carlos Gomes; Lobo, Patrícia dos Santos; Fraga, Valéria Daltibari; Conceição, Luciana Moran; Machado, Ricardo Luiz Dantas; Rossit, Andréa Regina Baptista

2015-01-01

308

A dual-specificity aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase in the deep-rooted eukaryote Giardia lamblia  

OpenAIRE

Cysteinyl-tRNA (Cys-tRNA) is essential for protein synthesis. In most organisms the enzyme responsible for the formation of Cys-tRNA is cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase (CysRS). The only known exceptions are the euryarchaea Methanococcus jannaschii and Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum, which do not encode a CysRS. Deviating from the accepted concept of one aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase per amino acid, these organisms employ prolyl-tRNA synthetase as the enzyme that carrie...

Bunjun, Shipra; Stathopoulos, Constantinos; Graham, David; Min, Bokkee; Kitabatake, Makoto; Wang, Alice L.; Wang, Ching C.; Vivare?s, Christian P.; Weiss, Louis M.; So?ll, Dieter

2000-01-01

309

Freqüência de Giardia spp. por duas técnicas de diagnóstico em fezes de cães  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One hundred fecal samples from male and female dogs of several ages and breeds were collected in kennels of Uberlândia in Minas Gerais, Brazil. These samples were analyzed to determine the frequency of Giardia spp. using two different diagnostic methods: zinc sulfate flotation technique and merthiolate-iodine-formaldehyde concentration (MIFC. The frequency of giardiasis was 41%. Dogs, which were less than 12 months of age, were the most parasitized (68.4%. No difference between male and female frequency of giardiasis (31.4% and 46.1%, respectively was observed. MIFC detected 38% of positive samples and zinc sulfate flotation technique 29%. Giardia spp. is present in dogs of Uberlândia's kennels in a high frequency.

Mundim M.J.S.

2003-01-01

310

[Protozoan pathogens of genus Cryptosporidiumand Giardia. Part I. Occurrence in water environment and health risk].  

Science.gov (United States)

Contamination of water, first of all drinking water, by protozoan pathogens from genus Cryptosporidium and/or Giardia can pose significant threat for public health. These pathogens live in the intestine of humans or animals (infected or carriers). There are found in soil, food, water or on surfaces that have been contaminated with infected human or animal feces. Numerous waterborne Cryptosporidium and Giardia outbreaks have been reported worldwide in the last few years. These outbreaks resulted from consumption of water contaminated by protozoan pathogens. Their potential prevalence in faecal polluted water supplies, resistance to conventional water treatment and low effective disinfection, as well as imperfection techniques of detection of oocysts and cysts presence necessitates the need for consistent and effective removal of these parasites from drinking water supply. PMID:18246663

Matuszewska, Renata

2007-01-01

311

Effects of Ultrasound on the Survival and Characteristics of Cryptosporidium Oocysts and Giardia Cysts  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background: Sonication of fluids has been widely used for cell lyses and decontamination of water and food due to its three major physical and chemical effects: cavitation, implosion of water bubbles with subsequent increase in substrate temperature and liberation of free radicals such as O-. Additionally ultrasound has been used for cleaning filters used for water sampling and purification. Other studies have shown that backwash sampling of filtrates, and thereby collection of microorganisms, can be facilitated by sonication. Methods: We studied the effects of ultrasound with different sonication power and time durations on two of the most common waterborne protozoa Cryptosporidium and Giardia, and examined its effects on parasite characteristics and survival rate using immunofluorescence dyes; DAPI (4’,6-diamidino-2-phenylindol) staining/PI (propidium iodide), and analyzed by flow cytometry. Results: The results showed that exposure of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts to ultrasound could reduce their survival rate even if the exposure time was limited to a few seconds. When sonication time was extended, changes in parasite characteristics became clearly visible. Several other factors determine the effects of ultrasound on the parasite, including the sonication power of ultrasound as well as substrate temperature. Conclusions: Ultrasound is harmful for waterborne protozoa even when momentarily applied. However, a mode of operation may exist in which ultrasound can be used for collection of parasites for further study. The specific operational conditions may be tailored to control survival rates and collection efficiency.

Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Gad, J.

2011-01-01

312

Comparison of the performance of two spontaneous sedimentation techniques for the diagnosis of human intestinal parasites in the absence of a gold standard.  

Science.gov (United States)

Performance evaluation of diagnostic tests is critical in the search for accurate diagnoses. A gold standard test is usually absent in parasitology, thus rendering satisfactory assessment of diagnostic accuracy difficult. Moreover, reliability (assessed by the study of repeatability) is a rarely studied characteristic of diagnostic tests. This study compared and evaluated the performance (repeatability, concordance and accuracy) of the spontaneous sedimentation technique (SST) and the Paratest for the diagnosis of Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica complex, Blastocystis spp., Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, Trichuris trichiura and Calodium hepaticum. Fecal samples of 143 individuals were separated into three replicates for each test. Concordance and homogeneity of the results between replicates of each test and between tests were evaluated. Proportions of positives, sensitivity and specificity were estimated using a Bayesian Latent Class Model. High repeatability of both tests was found for the detection of intestinal parasites, except for Blastocystis spp. and hookworm. Concordance between tests was generally high (concordance correlation coefficient, 0.72-0.88), except for Blastocystis spp., hookworm and T. trichiura. The Paratest detected more cases of Blastocystis spp. and fewer of hookworm than the SST. The tests were quite discordant in the detection of T. trichiura. A low sensitivity (39.4-49.2% for SST, 35.8-53.8% for Paratest) and a high specificity (93.2-97.2%) were found for both tests. The Paratest presented a slightly higher sensitivity for the diagnosis of Blastocystis spp. (53.8%), and SST did so for hookworm (49.2%). This is the first study on repeatability and accuracy (using a Bayesian approach) of two spontaneous sedimentation techniques. These results suggest underdiagnosis of little dense parasitic forms due to technical limitations in both tests. We conclude that the combined study of repeatability, concordance and accuracy is a key strategy for better evaluation of the performance of tests and is also useful for the identification of technical limitations. PMID:24321383

Gonçalves, Alessandra Queiroga; Abellana, Rosa; Pereira-da-Silva, Hélio Doyle; Santos, Ivanildes; Serra, Paula Taquita; Julião, Genimar Rebouças; Orlandi, Patricia Puccinelli; Ascaso, Carlos

2014-03-01

313

Patients with gastrointestinal complains due to enteric parasites, with reference to Entamoeba histolytica/dispar as dected by ELISA E. histolytica adhesion in stool.  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of 210 patients with gastrointestinal troubles, of both sex and a mean age of 32 +/- 6.1 years, selected from the outpatient's clinics of Al-Azhar University Hospitals. 115 (54.76%) had dysentery, 95 (45.23%) did not have dysentery, 15 (14%) suffered flatulence, 20 (9.52%) had epi-gastric pain, 19 (9.05%) had vague abdominal pain, 5 vomiting (5.2%) and 10 (4.9%) had fever. Two symptoms were in 29 (13.81%) patients and three symptoms in 12 (5.71%). Of the 210 patients, 20 (9.9%) had helminthes infection, 121 (57.6%) had intestinal protozoa and 69 (32.9%) had no parasitic infection. Of these parasite-free patients, 16 had Shigella sp. and nine had Campylobacter sp. Of the patients with intestinal protozoa, 34 (16.2%) had E. histolytica/dispar by stool examination of stained smears. By using ELISA for detection of E. histolytica adhesion in stool samples of 115 with diarrhea only 18 had true E. histolytica infection and of 3 without diarrhea only one had E. histolytica infection. Mean-while, ELISA did not cross-reacted E. coli, Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium parvum, Endolimax nana or Blastocystis hominis. So, ELISA for detection of E. histolytica adhesion in stool samples was more specific than microscopy and safe direction to the E. histolytica treatment. Apart from intestinal protozoan and bacteria, helminthes were seen in stool analysis. These were Schistosoma mansoni (0.95%), Capillaria sp. (0.95%), Enterobius vermicularis (1.90%) macroscopically, Hymenolepis nana (4.3%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (1.43%). PMID:16605100

El-Kadi, Mohammad A; Dorrah, Ahmad O; Shoukry, Nahla M

2006-04-01

314

Efficacy of drugs against Giardia muris in mice Mus musculus naturally infected/ Eficácia de drogas contra Giardia muris em camundongos Mus musculus naturalmente infectados  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of metronidazole, fenbendazole and secnidazole against Giardia muris in mice naturally infected. Forty mice of the species Mus musculus were divided in four groups of ten each, being group A non treated, the control group and groups B, C and D treated with 4mg/ml of metronidazole, fenbendazole and secnidazole, respectively. Two feces collection, on day 0 and on day 10 after treatment, were done in order to evaluate the efficacy of the drugs. Samples were analyzed by the centrifugal-flotation method with zinc sulfate. Efficacy of 97,05% for metronidazole, 98,30% for fenbendazole and 100% for secnidazole were observed in the study. According to the results it was concluded that the tested drugs were effective for the treatment of mice parasitized by Giardia muris.Este estudo visou avaliar a eficácia do metronidazol, fenbendazole e secnidazol contra Giardia muris em camundongos naturalmente infectados. Foram utilizados 40 camundongos da espécie Mus musculus divididos em quatro grupos de 10 animais cada, sendo grupo A, grupo controle, não tratados, e grupos B, C e D tratados com 4mg/ml de metronidazol, fenbendazole e secnidazol, respectivamente. Para avaliar a eficácia dos medicamentos foram realizadas duas coletas de fezes uma no dia zero e outra 10 dias após tratamento. As amostras foram processadas e analisadas a partir do método de centrífugo-flutuação com sulfato de zinco. No estudo observou-se eficácia de 97,05% para metronidazol, 98,30% para fenbendazole e 100% para secnidazol no tratamento de giardiase murina. Com base nos resultados concluí-se que as drogas testadas apresentaram eficácia no tratamento de camundongos parasitados por Giardia muris.

Silvia Gonzalez Monteiro

2008-08-01

315

Study of Parasitic and Bacterial Infections in the Food-Handling Personnel, Ramadan, Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Background: Food-handling personnel play an important role in ensuring food safety throughout the chain of production, processing, storage and preparation. Mishandling and disregard of hygienic measures on their part may enable pathogens to come into contact with food and to cause illness in the consumers. Occasionally, food-handling personnel may transfer to food pathogens that they are carrying in or on their bodies.

Methods: In order to evaluate the role of persons who was working in food handling and processing centers, the study carried out in above-mentioned centers in Ramadan the west of Iran. A total of 938 stool samples collected of persons who were working in the restaurants, confectionaries, milk products stores, Chelo-Kabab houses, sandwich shops etc. All samples examined by culture for entero-pathogens bacteria and by formalin-ether concentration technique for ova and parasites.

Results: A total of 21 samples were suspected to bacteria that, finally 7 samples confirmed by sere-typing identified. These were Shigella boydii (5 samples and Shigella flexeneri (2 samples. Over 74% of stool samples contained one species parasite. Entamoeba coli (45% was the most common parasite followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (39%, E.histolytica (14.5%, and Giardia lamblia (9%. Prevalence rate for helminthes, pathogenic and non-pathogenic protozoa were 43%, 26%, and 52.7% respectively. The prevalence of intestinal parasites, as well as intestinal helminthes in persons who had three-monthly check-up and health care were significantly less than others (p < 0.02 .

Conclusion: This study showed food handling personnel are an important source of E. histolytica, G. lamblia pinworm and Shigella distribution in this city.

Zahra Heidar Barghi

2011-09-01

316

Prevalence of intestinal parasites in pet shop kittens in Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study examined the prevalence of intestinal parasites in kittens from five pet shops in East Japan. Fresh faecal samples were collected from 555 kittens (aged 1-3 months) on a single occasion. The samples were tested for the presence of Giardia species coproantigen using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Other intestinal parasites were identified microscopically using the formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation technique. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 27.2%; two genera of protozoa (Giardia species and Cystoisospora species) and one nematode (Toxocara cati) were detected. Faecal condition was not related to intestinal parasite infections. Significant differences among the pet shops were observed in the overall prevalence of intestinal parasites and the presence of Cystoisospora species infections. PMID:23635413

Itoh, Naoyuki; Ito, Yoichi; Kato, Akihisa; Kanai, Kazutaka; Chikazawa, Seishiro; Hori, Yasutomo; Hoshi, Fumio; Higuchi, Seiichi

2013-10-01

317

Spatial and temporal distribution of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in a drinking water resource: Implications for monitoring and risk assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Because of their significant public health impact, waterborne Cryptosporidium and Giardia have been monitored in surface water in order to assess microbial quality of water bodies used for drinking water production and/or for recreational purposes. In this context, sampling strategy is of key importance and should be representative enough to appropriately assess the related microbial risk. This, however, requires sound knowledge on the behaviour of both pathogens in water. In the present study, the spatial and temporal distribution of Cryptosporidium and Giardia was explored in the rural Upper-Sûre watershed used for drinking water production in Luxembourg. By subdividing it into three compartments including (i) sub-catchments, (ii) the Sûre River fed by the sub-catchments and (iii) the Upper-Sûre reservoir fed by the Sûre River, parasite distribution was assessed using sampling designs adapted to the hydro-dynamic characteristics of the respective compartments. Results highlighted the high spatial and temporal variability in parasite distribution at watershed scale, as well as the prevalence of Giardia over Cryptosporidium. Besides land use features and catchment characteristics, hydro-climatology appeared to be a major driver of parasite behaviour in the watershed. It introduced a seasonal trend in their occurrence, highest densities being detected during the wet season. Peaks of contamination triggered out by rainfall-induced runoff were further observed in the three compartments. In the Sûre River, Cryptosporidium and Giardia fluxes peaked at 109 and 1010 (oo)cysts.d?1, respectively, and were discharged into the drinking water reservoir, where they underwent a 2 to 3 log10 removal rate. Despite this, parasite fluxes entering the drinking water treatment plant were still high (106 to 107 (oo)cysts.d?1) and stressed on the need for improved watershed management upstream the water treatment barrier. The catchment-wide analysis described here constitutes a valuable tool for assessment of catchment microbial dynamics, especially within the framework of Water Safety Plans. - Highlights: • We investigated Cryptosporidium and Giardia distribution trends in a rural watershed. • Their distribution in water was heterogeneous over various spatial temporal scales. • Parasite fluxes (from 103 to 1011 (oo)cysts.day?1) varied with location and time. • Key drivers of parasite fluxes were rainfall, land use and catchment morphology. • Our study provides a methodology for catchment-wide study of parasites distribution

318

Spatial and temporal distribution of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in a drinking water resource: Implications for monitoring and risk assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Because of their significant public health impact, waterborne Cryptosporidium and Giardia have been monitored in surface water in order to assess microbial quality of water bodies used for drinking water production and/or for recreational purposes. In this context, sampling strategy is of key importance and should be representative enough to appropriately assess the related microbial risk. This, however, requires sound knowledge on the behaviour of both pathogens in water. In the present study, the spatial and temporal distribution of Cryptosporidium and Giardia was explored in the rural Upper-Sûre watershed used for drinking water production in Luxembourg. By subdividing it into three compartments including (i) sub-catchments, (ii) the Sûre River fed by the sub-catchments and (iii) the Upper-Sûre reservoir fed by the Sûre River, parasite distribution was assessed using sampling designs adapted to the hydro-dynamic characteristics of the respective compartments. Results highlighted the high spatial and temporal variability in parasite distribution at watershed scale, as well as the prevalence of Giardia over Cryptosporidium. Besides land use features and catchment characteristics, hydro-climatology appeared to be a major driver of parasite behaviour in the watershed. It introduced a seasonal trend in their occurrence, highest densities being detected during the wet season. Peaks of contamination triggered out by rainfall-induced runoff were further observed in the three compartments. In the Sûre River, Cryptosporidium and Giardia fluxes peaked at 10{sup 9} and 10{sup 10} (oo)cysts.d{sup ?1}, respectively, and were discharged into the drinking water reservoir, where they underwent a 2 to 3 log{sub 10} removal rate. Despite this, parasite fluxes entering the drinking water treatment plant were still high (10{sup 6} to 10{sup 7} (oo)cysts.d{sup ?1}) and stressed on the need for improved watershed management upstream the water treatment barrier. The catchment-wide analysis described here constitutes a valuable tool for assessment of catchment microbial dynamics, especially within the framework of Water Safety Plans. - Highlights: • We investigated Cryptosporidium and Giardia distribution trends in a rural watershed. • Their distribution in water was heterogeneous over various spatial temporal scales. • Parasite fluxes (from 10{sup 3} to 10{sup 11} (oo)cysts.day{sup ?1}) varied with location and time. • Key drivers of parasite fluxes were rainfall, land use and catchment morphology. • Our study provides a methodology for catchment-wide study of parasites distribution.

Burnet, Jean-Baptiste, E-mail: jeanbaptiste.burnet@gmail.com [Centre de Recherche Public - Gabriel Lippmann, Department of Environment and Agro-biotechnologies (EVA), 41, rue du Brill, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg); Université de Liège (ULg), Department of Environmental Sciences and Management, 165 avenue de Longwy, B-6700 Arlon (Belgium); Penny, Christian, E-mail: penny@lippmann.lu [Centre de Recherche Public - Gabriel Lippmann, Department of Environment and Agro-biotechnologies (EVA), 41, rue du Brill, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg); Ogorzaly, Leslie, E-mail: ogorzaly@lippmann.lu [Centre de Recherche Public - Gabriel Lippmann, Department of Environment and Agro-biotechnologies (EVA), 41, rue du Brill, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg); Cauchie, Henry-Michel, E-mail: cauchie@lippmann.lu [Centre de Recherche Public - Gabriel Lippmann, Department of Environment and Agro-biotechnologies (EVA), 41, rue du Brill, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg)

2014-02-01

319

Giardia spp en caninos y niños de comunidades campesinas de tres distritos de Puno, Perú / Giardia spp in dogs and children in rural communities of three districts of Puno, Peru  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo del estudio fue determinar la prevalencia de Giardia spp en caninos y niños de comunidades campesinas de tres distritos de Puno, Perú. Se recolectaron 130 muestras fecales, tanto de niños como de canes aparentemente sanos, de ambos sexos y de diferentes edades. Se utilizaron las técnicas [...] de Sedimentación Espontánea y de Sheather para el diagnóstico de Giardia. Se consideró una muestra como positiva si se halló al menos un resultado positivo en una de las dos técnicas. Se halló una prevalencia global de 14.6 ± 6.1 y 28.5 ± 7.8% en caninos y niños, respectivamente. El sexo, edad y distrito de procedencia de los canes y niños no mostraron asociación estadística con la presencia del parásito. Los resultados positivos de Giardia spp hallados en canes y niños sugerirían un posible riesgo zoonótico. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Giardia spp in dogs and children in three rural communities in Puno, Peru. Fecal samples were collected (n = 130) from both children and apparently healthy dogs of both sexes and different ages. The Sheather and spontaneous sedimentation techn [...] ique were used for the diagnosis of Giardia. A sample was considered positive if at least one positive result in any of the two techniques was found. The overall prevalence was 14.6 ± 6.1 and 28.5 ± 7.8% in dogs and children respectively. Sex, age, and location in both children and dogs were not statistically associated with the presence of the parasite. The results of prevalence of Giardia in dogs and children suggest a possible zoonotic risk.

Olguita, Pablo J; Amanda, Chávez V; Francisco, Suárez A; Rosa, Pinedo V; Néstor, Falcón P.

2012-12-01

320

Intervention to prevent intestinal parasitic reinfections among Tarahumara indigenous schoolchildren in northern Mexico Intervención para prevenir las reinfecciones parasitarias intestinales en niños indígenas tarahumara en edad escolar en el norte de México  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of a 20-week, broad intervention to prevent reinfection by Ascaris lumbricoides (AL) and Giardia lamblia (GL) among indigenous schoolchildren in northern Mexico. METHODS: A prospective, comparative, ecological study. Two isolated boarding schools, each hosting 100-120 children, 4-15 years of age, were selected based on physical infrastructure: intervention school (IS), modern; control school (CS), deprived. After initial diagnosis, children with positive...

Joel Monárrez-Espino; Cristina Rocío Pérez-Espejo; Guillermo Vázquez-Mendoza; Andrés Balleza-Carreón; Ramiro Caballero-Hoyos

2011-01-01

321

Giardia infection in pigs: detection and in vitro isolation of trophozoites of the Giardia intestinalis group.  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardia infections were detected in 14 out of 32 weaned, 1 to 2-month-old pigs, used in experiments with coccidia. Giardia trophozoites were present in the small intestine from the duodenum to the ileum with maximum numbers in the cranial part of the upper jejunum. They were localized mainly on the surface of intestinal crypts. No histological changes accompanied the infection and the infected animals were asymptomatic. Giardia trophozoites obtained from the intestines of necropsied pigs were isolated in axenic culture in a bile-supplemented TYI-S-33 medium. Morphological features of the trophozoites revealed by both light and scanning electron microscopy proved that the organism belongs to the Giardia intestinalis group. PMID:1852483

Koudela, B; Nohýnková, E; Vítovec, J; Pakandl, M; Kulda, J

1991-04-01

322

Giardia duodenalis: analysis of secreted proteases upon trophozoite-epithelial cell interaction in vitro  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Protease secretion by Giardia duodenalis trophozoites upon interaction with epithelial cells and its association with the parasite adhesion was studied in co-cultures of parasites with IEC6 epithelial cell monolayers in the presence or absence of protease inhibitors. Proteolytic activity in supernat [...] ants from trophozoites was enhanced when they were co-cultured with IEC6 cells. This activity was strongly inhibited by pre-incubation of live trophozoites with E-64 and TPCK and a concomitant inhibition of parasite adhesion to IEC6 cells was observed. These data suggest that trophozoites secrete cysteine-type proteases that play a role in the adhesion of G. duodenalis to epithelial cells.

Guadalupe Beatriz, Rodríguez-Fuentes; Roberto, Cedillo-Rivera; Rocío, Fonseca-Liñán; Raúl, Argüello-García; Onofre, Muñoz; Guadalupe, Ortega-Pierres; Lilián, Yépez-Mulia.

2006-09-01

323

Giardia duodenalis: analysis of secreted proteases upon trophozoite-epithelial cell interaction in vitro  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Protease secretion by Giardia duodenalis trophozoites upon interaction with epithelial cells and its association with the parasite adhesion was studied in co-cultures of parasites with IEC6 epithelial cell monolayers in the presence or absence of protease inhibitors. Proteolytic activity in supernatants from trophozoites was enhanced when they were co-cultured with IEC6 cells. This activity was strongly inhibited by pre-incubation of live trophozoites with E-64 and TPCK and a concomitant inhibition of parasite adhesion to IEC6 cells was observed. These data suggest that trophozoites secrete cysteine-type proteases that play a role in the adhesion of G. duodenalis to epithelial cells.

Guadalupe Beatriz Rodríguez-Fuentes

2006-09-01

324

GASTROINTESTINAL PARASITES IN AGOUTI (Dasyprocta leporine PARASITAS GASTRINTESTINAIS DE CUTIAS (Dasyprocta leporina  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this work is reporting the parasitism in agouti (Dasyprocta leporine in Rio Grande do Sul, for that 24 samples of feces of animals originating from of a commercial creation were collected. The samples analyzed by the centrifugal-floating method presented different nematodes eggs and protozoaires of the genus Giardia and Eimeria. Keywords: Dasyprocta, parasitism, Giardia, Eimeria, helmints O objetivo deste trabalho é relatar o parasitismo em cutias (Dasyprocta leporina no Rio Grande do Sul, para isso foram coletadas 24 amostras de fezes de animais oriundos de uma criação comercial. As amostras analisadas pelo método de centrífugo-flutuação apresentaram diferentes ovos de nematóides e protozoários do gênero Giardia e Eimeria. Palavras - chave: Dasyprocta, parasitismo, Giardia, Eimeria, helmintos.

Camila Belmonte Oliveira

2008-04-01

325

How nuclei of Giardia pass through cell differentiation: semi-open mitosis followed by nuclear interconnection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Differentiation into infectious cysts (encystation) and multiplication of pathogenic trophozoites after hatching from the cyst (excystation) are fundamental processes in the life cycle of the human intestinal parasite Giardia intestinalis. During encystation, a bi-nucleated trophozoite transforms to a dormant tetra-nucleated cyst enveloped by a protective cyst wall. Nuclear division during encystation is not followed by cytokinesis. In contrast to the well-studied mechanism of cyst wall formation, information on nuclei behavior is incomplete and basic cytological data are lacking. Here we present evidence that (1) the nuclei divide by semi-open mitosis during early encystment; (2) the daughter nuclei coming from different parent nuclei are always arranged in pairs; (3) in both pairs, the nuclei are interconnected via bridges formed by fusion of their nuclear envelopes; (4) each interconnected nuclear pair is associated with one basal body tetrad of the undivided diplomonad mastigont; and (5) the interconnection between nuclei persists through the cyst stage being a characteristic feature of encysted Giardia. Based on the presented results, a model of nuclei behavior during Giardia differentiation is proposed. PMID:22209008

Jiráková, Klára; Kulda, Jaroslav; Nohýnková, Eva

2012-05-01

326

Molecular and phylogenetic characterization of Cryptosporidium and Giardia from pigs and cattle in Denmark  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The genetic diversity of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis from dairy cattle and pigs in Denmark was determined in the present study. Faecal samples from 1237 pigs and 1150 cattle originating from 50 sow herds and 50 dairy herds, respectively, were analysed for the presence of the two parasites by immunofluorescence microscopy. A large proportion of the (oo)cyst containing samples were selected for molecular characterization. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the 18S rDNA locus and/or the HSP70 gene of 183 pig and 154 cattle isolates of Cryptosporidium revealed the presence of C. suis, pig genotype II, C. parvum (cattle genotype), C. bovis, Cryptosporidium deer-like genotype and a novel C. suis-like genotype. For both cattle and pigs, a host age-related change in distribution of species/genotypes was observed. The zoonotic C. parvum (cattle genotype) was most prevalent in young calves. For Giardia, 82 and 145 isolates from pigs and cattle, respectively, were analysed at the 18S rDNA locus and/or the gdh gene. Giardia isolates belonging to the zoonotic Assemblage A was found in both young and older calves, as well as in weaners and piglets, whereas cows seemed to be infected purely by isolates of the livestock group, Assemblage E.

Langkjær, Rikke Breinhold; Vigre, Håkan

2007-01-01

327

Characterization of RNase MRP RNA and novel snoRNAs from Giardia intestinalis and Trichomonas vaginalis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Eukaryotic cells possess a complex network of RNA machineries which function in RNA-processing and cellular regulation which includes transcription, translation, silencing, editing and epigenetic control. Studies of model organisms have shown that many ncRNAs of the RNA-infrastructure are highly conserved, but little is known from non-model protists. In this study we have conducted a genome-scale survey of medium-length ncRNAs from the protozoan parasites Giardia intestinalis and Trichomonas vaginalis. Results We have identified the previously 'missing' Giardia RNase MRP RNA, which is a key ribozyme involved in pre-rRNA processing. We have also uncovered 18 new H/ACA box snoRNAs, expanding our knowledge of the H/ACA family of snoRNAs. Conclusions Results indicate that Giardia intestinalis and Trichomonas vaginalis, like their distant multicellular relatives, contain a rich infrastructure of RNA-based processing. From here we can investigate the evolution of RNA processing networks in eukaryotes.

Chen Xiaowei S

2011-11-01

328

Giardia duodenalis: Dendritic cell defects in IL-6 deficient mice contribute to susceptibility to intestinal infection  

OpenAIRE

Interleukin (IL)-6 is important in numerous infections. IL-6 can promote T cell survival and differentiation toward Th17 cells, as well as B cell proliferation and differentiation to plasma cells. Giardia duodenalis is a protozoan parasite that replicates in the lumen of the small intestine in humans and many other mammals resulting in diarrhea, cramps and developmental delays in children. IL-6 is required for control of this infection, but it is unclear what its role is or which cells are re...

Kamda, Joel D.; Nash, Theodore E.; Singer, Steven M.

2012-01-01

329

Giardia duodenalis infection and wastewater irrigation in Pakistan.  

Science.gov (United States)

The risk of Giardia duodenalis (Giardia) infection in farmers using untreated wastewater in agriculture was investigated in the city of Faisalabad, Pakistan, through a cross-sectional study. The study found a significantly increased risk of (asymptomatic) Giardia infection in wastewater farming households when compared with farming households using regular (non-wastewater) irrigation water (OR 3.3, 95% CI 2.5-4.4). Textile labourers who were employed in the city of Faisalabad but who lived in the same village as the wastewater farmers showed a risk of Giardia infection in between that of wastewater and non-wastewater farming households (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.9-3.1). This study suggests that exposure to wastewater with high Giardia concentrations carries an increased risk for (asymptomatic) Giardia infection. PMID:16336984

Ensink, Jeroen H J; van der Hoek, Wim; Amerasinghe, Felix P

2006-06-01

330

Molecular epidemiology of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in mussels (Mytilus californianus) and California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) from Central California.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cryptosporidium and Giardia are of public health importance, with recognized transmission through recreational waters. Therefore, both can contaminate marine waters and shellfish, with potential to infect marine mammals in nearshore ecosystems. A 2-year study was conducted to evaluate the presence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in mussels located at two distinct coastal areas in California, namely, (i) land runoff plume sites and (ii) locations near sea lion haul-out sites, as well as in feces of California sea lions (CSL) (Zalophus californianus) by the use of direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) detection methods and PCR with sequence analysis. In this study, 961 individual mussel hemolymph samples, 54 aliquots of pooled mussel tissue, and 303 CSL fecal samples were screened. Giardia duodenalis assemblages B and D were detected in hemolymph from mussels collected near two land runoff plume sites (Santa Rosa Creek and Carmel River), and assemblages C and D were detected in hemolymph from mussels collected near a sea lion haul-out site (White Rock). These results suggest that mussels are being contaminated by protozoa carried in terrestrial runoff and/or shed in the feces of CSL. Furthermore, low numbers of oocysts and cysts morphologically similar to Cryptosporidium and Giardia, respectively, were detected in CSL fecal samples, suggesting that CSL could be a source and a host of protozoan parasites in coastal environments. The results of this study showed that Cryptosporidium and Giardia spp. from the feces of terrestrial animals and CSL can contaminate mussels and coastal environments. PMID:25281384

Adell, A D; Smith, W A; Shapiro, K; Melli, A; Conrad, P A

2014-12-01

331

A Preliminary Assessment of the Occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in the School Swimming Pool Water in Dubai, United Arab Emirates  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the presence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in the water of school swimming pools located in Dubai, UAE. The swimming pool water samples from five schools were tested for Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts using direct immunofluorescence assay. Samples were also examined for the total coliform, fecal coliform and heterotrophic bacteria using the membrane filtration technique. The majority of the tested swimming pool water samples were found contaminated with either Cryptosporidium oocysts or Giardia cysts or both. Cryptosporidium oocysts were found to be in the higher range (1-15 oocysts per liter than that of Giardia cysts (1-4 cysts per liter. All of the swimming pool water samples were found negative for the presence of traditional bacterial indicators. However, direct DAPI staining detected several types of viable but nonculturable (VBNC bacteria on the membrane filter. In conclusion, based on the preliminary data obtained, Cryptosporidium and Giardia were found to be present in the tested schools’ swimming pool water. Future work on a long term monitoring of both parasites is highly recommended to enhance the swimming pool water quality and ensure the public health safety which will help in maintaining a hygienic and healthy recreational water environment.

Alia Ali Ahmad Aljanahi

2014-06-01

332

HSP90 is a target protein for ubiquitination in Giardia intestinalis / HSP90 é uma proteína alvo de ubiquitinação em Giardia intestinalis / HSP90 es una proteina blanco de ubiquitinación en Giardia intestinalis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Estudos anteriores demonstraram a existência e expressão de genes essenciais para o processo de ubiquitinação de proteínas em Giardia intestinalis, indicando que o sistema ubiquitina-proteassoma podem estar envolvidos na degradação de proteínas do parasita durante seu ciclo de vida. Neste trabalho, [...] foi realizada a purificação da proteína ubiquitina de extratos de trofozoítos de G. intestinalis, foi produzido um antiicorpo anti-ubiquitina específico que permitiu a padronização de um ensaio para a detecção e avaliação de padrões de ubiquitinação e foi identificado a HSP90 como uma proteína ubiquitinada no protozoário. Esta modificação pós-transducional pode ter efeitos regulamentares associados com a funcionalidade das proteínas ou com o a substituição para regular eventos moleculares importantes durante o ciclo de vida do parasita. Abstract in spanish Estudios previos han demostrado la existencia y expresión de genes esenciales para el proceso de ubiquitinación de proteínas en Giardia intestinalis, indicando que el sistema ubiquitina-proteosoma puede estar involucrado en el proceso de degradación de proteínas de este parásito durante su ciclo de [...] vida. En el presente trabajo se realizó la purificación de ubiquitina a partir de extractos proteicos de trofozoítos de G. intestinalis, se produjo un anticuerpo anti-ubiquitina específico que permitió la estandarización de un ensayo para la detección y evaluación de los patrones de ubiquitinación, y se identificó la HSP90 como una proteína ubiquitinada en este protozoario. Esta modificación post-transduccional puede tener efectos regulatorios asociados con la funcionalidad de la proteína o con el recambio para regular eventos moleculares claves durante el ciclo de vida del parásito. Abstract in english Previous studies have demonstrated the existence and expression of genes essential to the process of protein ubiquitination in Giardia intestinalis, indicating that the ubiquitin-proteasome system may be involved in the degradation of proteins during its life cycle of the parasite. In this study, pu [...] rification of ubiquitin was conducted from protein extracts of G. intestinalis trophozoites. Then, an anti-ubiquitin specific antibody was obtained to standardize an assay for the detection and evaluation of ubiquitination patterns. Finally, HSP90 was identified as an ubiquitinated protein in this protozoan. This post-translational modification could have regulatory effects associated with the functionality of the protein or its turnover to regulate key molecular events during the parasite’s life cycle.

Jenny J, Chaparro-Gutiérrez; Moisés, Wasserman.

2011-06-01

333

Reservoirs of Giardia spp. in southwestern Alberta.  

Science.gov (United States)

A survey of potential hosts of Giardia spp. was carried out during 1982 and 1983 in the Kananaskis Valley and Banff National Park, Alberta, Canada. Diagnosis was based mainly on fecal analysis but a few animals were examined at necropsy and scrapings from the small intestine analyzed. A total of 304 specimens was examined from humans (Homo sapiens L.) and a variety of animal species. Cysts and/or trophozoites of Giardia were found in 10.5% of the specimens examined. Positive samples were found from 20 of 21 red-backed voles (Clethrionomys gapperi Vigors), two of six meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus Ord), one of three long-tailed voles (Microtus longicaudus Allen), five of 50 deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus Mearns), and two of 58 beavers (Castor canadensis Kuhl). Cysts obtained from a beaver were successfully introduced to gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus Milne-Edwards) and the trophozoites obtained were cultured in vitro. PMID:6397598

Wallis, P M; Buchanan-Mappin, J M; Faubert, G M; Belosevic, M

1984-10-01

334

Identification of Zoonotic Genotypes of Giardia duodenalis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Giardia duodenalis, originally regarded as a commensal organism, is the etiologic agent of giardiasis, a gastrointestinal disease of humans and animals. Giardiasis causes major public and veterinary health concerns worldwide. Transmission is either direct, through the faecal-oral route, or indirect, through ingestion of contaminated water or food. Genetic characterization of G. duodenalis isolates has revealed the existence of seven groups (assemblages A to G) which differ in their host distribution. Assemblages A and B are found in humans and in many other mammals, but the role of animals in the epidemiology of human infection is still unclear, despite the fact that the zoonotic potential of Giardia was recognised by the WHO some 30 years ago. Here, we performed an extensive genetic characterization of 978 human and 1440 animal isolates, which together comprise 3886 sequences from 4 genetic loci. The data were assembled into a molecular epidemiological database developed by a European network of public and veterinary health Institutions. Genotyping was performed at different levels of resolution (single and multiple loci on the same dataset). The zoonotic potential of both assemblages A and B is evident when studied at the level of assemblages, sub-assemblages, and even at each single locus. However, when genotypes are defined using a multi-locus sequence typing scheme, only 2 multi-locus genotypes (MLG) of assemblage A and none of assemblage B appear to have a zoonotic potential. Surprisingly, mixtures of genotypes in individual isolates were repeatedly observed. Possible explanations are the uptake of genetically different Giardia cysts by a host, or subsequent infection of an already infected host, likely without overt symptoms, with a different Giardia species, which may cause disease. Other explanations for mixed genotypes, particularly for assemblage B, are substantial allelic sequence heterogeneity and/or genetic recombination. Although the zoonotic potential of G. duodenalis is evident, evidence on the contribution and frequency is (still) lacking. This newly developed molecular database has the potential to tackle intricate epidemiological questions concerning protozoan diseases.

Sprong, H.; Cacciò, S.M.

2009-01-01

335

Cell division of Giardia intestinalis: assembly and disassembly of the adhesive disc, and the cytokinesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Trophozoites of Giardia are equipped with a special organelle of attachment, essential for parasite survival and pathogenicity, the ventral disc. Although its basic structure is well established, its reorganization and assembly during cell replication is poorly understood. We addressed some of these problems with aid of conventional, confocal and electron microscopy. We found that dividing Giardia alternates attached and free swimming phases in accordance with functional competence of the parent or newly assembled discs. The division started in attached cells by detachment of the disc microtubules from basal bodies. Shortening and eventual loss of the giardin microribbons, and unfolding of the microtubular layer resulting in collapse of the disc chamber and parasite detachment underlined gradual disassembly of the parent disc skeleton. Two daughter discs assembled on the dorsal side of the attached cell, with their ventral sides exposed on the parent cell surface and their microtubular skeletons growing in counter-clockwise direction. A depression between the assembling discs marked the cleavage plane. The splitting continued during the free-swimming phase with ventral-ventral axial symmetry in a plane of the daughter discs. Finally, the daughter cells with fully developed discs but still connected tail to tail by a cytoplasmic bridge, attached to a substrate and terminated the division by a process resembling adhesion-dependent cytokinesis. The mode of assembly of the daughter discs and plane of the division is compatible with maintenance of the left-right asymmetry of the Giardia cytoskeleton in progeny, which cannot be satisfactorily explained by alternative models proposed so far. PMID:17205565

T?mová, Pavla; Kulda, Jaroslav; Nohýnková, Eva

2007-04-01

336

Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium and Giardia occurring in natural water bodies in Poland.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cryptosporidium and Giardia protozoa are zoonotic parasites that cause human gastroenteritis and can be transmitted to human through the fecal-oral route and water or food. Several species belong to these genera and their resistant forms occur in water, but only some of them are infectious to human. Health risk depends on the occurrence of infectious Cryptosporidium and Giardia species and genotypes in water, and only molecular techniques allow detecting them, as well as enable to identify the contamination source. In this work, genotyping and phylogenetic analysis have been performed on the basis of 18S rDNA and ß-giardin genes sequences of Cryptosporidium and Giardia, respectively, in order to provide the molecular characterization of these parasites detected earlier in five natural water bodies in Poland and to track possible sources of their (oo)cysts in water. Genotyping revealed a high similarity (over 99 up to 100 %) of analyzed sequences to cattle genotype of C. parvum isolated from cattle and human and to G. intestinalis assemblage B isolated from human. The sequences obtained by others originated from patients with clinical symptoms of cryptosporidiosis or giardiasis and/or with the infection confirmed by different methods. The contamination of three examined lakes is probably human-originated, while the sources of contamination of two remaining lakes are wild and domestic animals. Obtained phylogenetic trees support suggestions of other authors that the bovine genotype of C. parvum should be a separate species, as well as A and B assemblages of G. intestinalis. PMID:25471902

Adamska, Ma?gorzata

2015-02-01

337

Occurrence and diversity of Giardia duodenalis assemblages in livestock in the UK.  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardia duodenalis is a common intestinal parasite in humans and a wide range of livestock species. It is a genetically heterogeneous parasite that has been characterized in seven distinct genetic assemblages or cryptic species, and molecular markers can be used to differentiate both animal-specific and potentially zoonotic genotypes. Little is known about G. duodenalis and the range of assemblages occurring in domestic livestock species in the UK. Here, we present data on the occurrence and molecular diversity of G. duodenalis detected in the faeces or large intestinal contents of cattle, sheep, pigs, goats and camelids from farms in the north-west of England. Both healthy and clinically diseased animals were included in the survey. The presence of Giardia spp. and assemblages was determined by sequencing of the small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene. The potential association of infection with various clinical and epidemiological parameters was studied in cattle using both univariate and multivariate analyses. Giardia spp. were detected in 127 (34.3%) of the 370 animals tested. G. duodenalis assemblage E was found to be predominant in cattle and sheep, followed by assemblage A. Mixed infections with assemblages A and E were also detected. Interestingly, some cattle, sheep and pigs were found to be infected with more unexpected assemblages (C, D, F). Pre-weaned calves were more likely to test positive than adult animals, but no association between the occurrence of overt intestinal disease and G. duodenalis infection was detected. The common occurrence of assemblage A and the finding of unusual assemblages in atypical hosts suggest that in future, a multilocus analysis should be used to confirm the actual diversity of G. duodenalis in livestock and the presence of potentially zoonotic genotypes. These data also suggest that there is a need to re-evaluate the clinical significance of G. duodenalis infection in livestock. PMID:23472706

Minetti, C; Taweenan, W; Hogg, R; Featherstone, C; Randle, N; Latham, S M; Wastling, J M

2014-12-01

338

Molecular typing of Giardia duodenalis isolates from nonhuman primates housed IN a Brazilian zoo.  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardia infections in captive nonhuman primates (NHP) housed at a Brazilian zoo were investigated in order to address their zoonotic potential. Fresh fecal samples were collected from the floors of 22 enclosures where 47 primates of 18 different species were housed. The diagnosis of intestinal parasites after concentration by sedimentation and flotation methods revealed the following parasites and their frequencies: Giardia (18%); Entamoeba spp. (18%); Endolimax nana (4.5%); Iodamoeba spp. (4.5%); Oxyurid (4.5%) and Strongylid (4.5%). Genomic DNA extracted from all samples was processed by PCR methods in order to amplify fragments of gdh and tpi genes of Giardia. Amplicons were obtained from samples of Ateles belzebuth, Alouatta caraya, Alouatta fusca and Alouatta seniculus. Clear sequences were only obtained for the isolates from Ateles belzebuth (BA1), Alouatta fusca (BA2) and Alouatta caraya (BA3). According to the phenetic analyses of these sequences, all were classified as assemblage A. For the tpi gene, all three isolates were grouped into sub-assemblage AII (BA1, BA2 and BA3) whereas for the gdh gene, only BA3 was sub-assemblage AII, and the BA1 and BA2 were sub-assemblage AI. Considering the zoonotic potential of the assemblage A, and that the animals of the present study show no clinical signs of infection, the data obtained here stresses that regular coproparasitological surveys are necessary to implement preventive measures and safeguard the health of the captive animals, of their caretakers and of people visiting the zoological gardens. PMID:24553608

David, Érica Boarato; Patti, Mariella; Coradi, Silvana Torossian; Oliveira-Sequeira, Teresa Cristina Goulart; Ribolla, Paulo Eduardo Martins; Guimarães, Semíramis

2014-01-01

339

Cryptosporidium and Giardia in tropical recreational marine waters contaminated with domestic sewage: estimation of bathing-associated disease risks.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sewage is a major contributor to pollution problems involving human pathogens in tropical coastal areas. This study investigated the occurrence of intestinal protozoan parasites (Giardia and Cryptosporidium) in tropical recreational marine waters contaminated with sewage. The potential risks of Cryptosporidium and Giardia infection from recreational water exposure were estimated from the levels of viable (oo) cysts (DIC+, DAPI+, PI-) found in near-shore swimming areas using an exponential dose response model. A Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis was performed in order to determine the probability distribution of risks. Microbial indicators of recreational water quality (enterococci, Clostridium perfringens) and genetic markers of sewage pollution (human-specific Bacteroidales marker [HF183] and Clostridium coccoides) were simultaneously evaluated in order to estimate the extent of water quality deterioration associated with human wastes. The study revealed the potential risk of parasite infections via primary contact with tropical marine waters contaminated with sewage; higher risk estimates for Giardia than for Cryptosporidium were found. Mean risks estimated by Monte Carlo were below the U.S. EPA upper bound on recreational risk of 0.036 for cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis for both children and adults. However, 95th percentile estimates for giardiasis for children exceeded the 0.036 level. Environmental surveillance of microbial pathogens is crucial in order to control and eradicate the effects that increasing anthropogenic impacts have on marine ecosystems and human health. PMID:24975093

Betancourt, Walter Q; Duarte, Diana C; Vásquez, Rosa C; Gurian, Patrick L

2014-08-15

340

Sentinel surveillance for zoonotic parasites in companion animals in indigenous communities of Saskatchewan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Indigenous communities may have increased risk of exposure to zoonotic parasites, including Echinococcus granulosus, Toxocara canis, Toxoplasma gondii, Diphyllobothrium spp., and Giardia duodenalis, for which dogs may serve as sentinels for or sources of human infection. Canid fecal samples were collected from dogs and the environment in five indigenous communities across Saskatchewan and Alberta (N = 58, 62, 43, 66, and 25). Parasites in individual fecal samples were quantified using fecal flotation and a commercial immunofluorescent antibody test for Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Overall, the prevalence of canine intestinal parasitic infection was 20-71%, which is 5-16 times higher in indigenous communities than a nearby urban center in Saskatchewan. The overall prevalences of T. canis, Diphyllobothrium, and taeniid eggs in dog feces were, respectively, 11.8%, 4.9%, and 1.2% in our study compared with 0-0.2% in urban dogs. Giardia cysts present in 21% of samples were identified as zoonotic genotype Assemblage A. PMID:22826486

Schurer, Janna M; Hill, Janet E; Fernando, Champika; Jenkins, Emily J

2012-09-01

341

Waterborne Protozoan Pathogens  

OpenAIRE

Protozoan parasites were the most frequently identified etiologic agents in waterborne disease outbreak from 1991 to 1994. The waterborne parasites Giardia lamblia, Naegleria fowleri, Acanthamoeba spp., Entamoeba histolytica, Cryptosporidium parvum, Cyclospora cayetanesis, Isospora belli, and the microsporidia are reviewed. For each parasite, the review includes history, life cycle, incidence, symptoms, and therapy. Clinical detection methods are compared, and emerging technologies are discus...

Marshall, Marilyn M.; Naumovitz, Donna; Ortega, Ynes; Sterling, Charles R.

1998-01-01

342

The prevalence of Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar in Van Regional Training and Research Hospital: A four-year monitoring  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this retrospective study was to determinethe frequency rates of Giardia and E.histolytica/E.dispar and their distribution by years as well as agegroups and gender distribution during a four-year period.Materials and methods: A total of 9911 stool samplessent to our laboratory between January 2008 and December2011 were tested for parasites. Native-Lugol and formolethyl acetate sedimentation methods were utilized formicroscopic identification of Entamoeba sp. and Giardiatrophozoites and cysts in fresh stool samples. Additionally,trichrome staining was performed in stool sampleswhere the distinctive diagnosis could not be confirmed.Results: From a total of 9911 stool samples analyzedduring the study, 4.7% were positive for Giardia and 6.2%were positive for Entemoeba histolytica/ Entemoeba dispar.Of Giardia-positive patients 57% were male and 43%female. Similarly, 56% of Entemoeba histolytica/ Entemoebadispar positive patients were male and 44% werefemale. Both parasites’ higher frequency rates seen inmale groups were found statistically significant (p<0.01.Conclusion: It is seen that intestinal protozoon infectionsare still present as an important public health problemin our region. In order to prevent this problem, personalhygiene and sanitation rules education for community aswell as infrastructure improvements are necessary.Key words: Giardia, Entemoeba histolytica/ Entemoeba dispar, prevalence

Yasemin Bayram

2013-03-01

343

Comparative biochemistry of Giardia, Hexamita and Spironucleus: Enigmatic diplomonads.  

Science.gov (United States)

The diplomonad genera are here represented by three highly diverse species, both free-living (Hexamita inflata), and parasitic (Spironucleus vortens and Giardia intestinalis). All three are moderately aerotolerant flagellates, inhabiting environments where O2 tensions are low and fluctuating. Many diplomonads are opportunistic pathogens of avian, terrestrial and aquatic animals. Hexamitids inhabit deep waters and sediments of lakes and marine basins, S. vortens commonly infects the intestinal tract of ornamental fish, particularly of cichlids and cyprinids, and G. intestinalis, the upper intestinal tracts of humans as well as domestic and farm animals. Despite these very different habitats, their known physiological and biochemical characteristics are similar, but they do differ in significant respects as their lifestyles and life cycles demand. They have efficient O2 scavenging systems, and are highly effective at countering rapid O2 fluctuations, or clustering away from its source (except for G. intestinalis when attached to the jejunal villi). Their core metabolic pathways (glycolysis using pyrophosphate), incomplete tricarboxylic acid cycle (lacking ?-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase), and amino acid metabolism (with an alternative energy-generating arginine dihydrolase pathway as a possibility in some cases), largely conform to those of other protists inhabiting low-O2 environments. Mitochondrial evolutionary reduction to give hydrogenosomes as seen in Spironucleus spp. has proceeded further to its minimal state in the mitosomes of G. intestinalis. Understanding of essential redox reactions and the maintentence of redox state, especially in the infective encysted stage of G. intestinalis provide increasing possibilities for parasite control. To this aim a plethora of new synthetic chemicals and natural products (especially those from garlic, Allium sativum) show promise as replacements for the highly effective (but potentially toxic to higher organisms) 5-nitroimidazoles (e.g., metronidazole) in the treatment and/or prevention of dimplomonad infection in humans and animals. PMID:25448769

Lloyd, David; Williams, Catrin F

2014-10-01

344

DETECTION OF PROTOZOAN PARASITES IN SOURCE AND FINISHED WATER - 3RD EDITION ASM'S METHODS IN ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY  

Science.gov (United States)

Protozoans are eukaryotic organisms which can live either a free-living or parasitic existence. Some free-living forms, under the right conditions, can become opportunistic parasites. Enteric pathogenic protozoans, like Giardia and Cryptosporidium, which are now known to be tra...

345

GIARDIA AND CRYPTOSPORIDIUM SPECIES AND GENOTYPES IN COYOTES (CANIS LATRANS)  

Science.gov (United States)

Feces and duodenal scrapings were collected from 22 coyotes (Canis latrans) killed in managed hunts in northeastern Pennsylvania. PCR methods were used to detect Giardia and Cryptosporidium. PCR amplified fragments of the Giardia and Cryptosporidium SSU-rRNA genes were subjected to DNA sequence ana...

346

CONTROL OF 'GIARDIA' CYSTS BY FILTRATION: THE LABORATORY'S ROLE  

Science.gov (United States)

USEPA has sponsored research on the ability of slow sand, diatomaceous earth, and dual or multi-media filters to remove turbidity causing particles, coliforms, and Giardia cysts. The high volume Giardia sampler used during disease outbreaks was not appropriate for this research. ...

347

Emerging food-borne parasites.  

Science.gov (United States)

Parasitic food-borne diseases are generally underrecognised, however they are becoming more common. Globalization of the food supply, increased international travel, increase of the population of highly susceptible persons, change in culinary habits, but also improved diagnostic tools and communication are some factors associated with the increased diagnosis of food-borne parasitic diseases worldwide. This paper reviews the most important emerging food-borne parasites, with emphasis on transmission routes. In a first part, waterborne parasites transmitted by contaminated food such as Cyclospora cayetanensis, Cryptosporidium and Giardia are discussed. Also human fasciolosis, of which the importance has only been recognised in the last decades, with total numbers of reported cases increasing from less than 3000 to 17 million, is looked at. Furthermore, fasciolopsiosis, an intestinal trematode of humans and pigs belongs to the waterborne parasites as well. A few parasites that may be transmitted through faecal contamination of foods and that have received renewed attention, such as Toxoplasma gondii, or that are (re-)emerging, such as Trypanosoma cruzi and Echinococcus spp., are briefly reviewed. In a second part, meat-borne parasite infections are reviewed. Humans get infected by eating raw or undercooked meat infected with cyst stages of these parasites. Meat inspection is the principal method applied in the control of Taenia spp. and Trichinella spp. However, it is often not very sensitive, frequently not practised, and not done for T. gondii and Sarcocystis spp. Meat of reptiles, amphibians and fish can be infected with a variety of parasites, including trematodes (Opisthorchis spp., Clonorchis sinensis, minute intestinal flukes), cestodes (Diphyllobothrium spp., Spirometra), nematodes (Gnathostoma, spp., anisakine parasites), and pentastomids that can cause zoonotic infections in humans when consumed raw or not properly cooked. Another important zoonotic food-borne trematode is the lungfluke (Paragonimus spp.). Traditionally, these parasitic zoonoses are most common in Asia because of the particular food practices and the importance of aquaculture. However, some of these parasites may emerge in other continents through aquaculture and improved transportation and distribution systems. Because of inadequate systems for routine diagnosis and monitoring or reporting for many of the zoonotic parasites, the incidence of human disease and parasite occurrence in food is underestimated. Of particular concern in industrialised countries are the highly resistant waterborne protozoal infections as well as the increased travel and immigration, which increase the exposure to exotic diseases. The increased demand for animal proteins in developing countries will lead to an intensification of the production systems in which the risk of zoonotic infections needs to be assessed. Overall, there is an urgent need for better monitoring and control of food-borne parasites using new technologies. PMID:19559535

Dorny, P; Praet, N; Deckers, N; Gabriel, S

2009-08-01

348

Prevalencia de microsporidios intestinales y otros enteroparásitos en pacientes con VIH positivo de Maracaibo, Venezuela / Prevalence of intestinal microsporidia and other intestinal parasites in hiv positive patients from Maracaibo, Venezuela.  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción. Desde 1985, los microsporidios se consideran parásitos causantes de infecciones emergentes y oportunistas en individuos inmunocomprometidos en todo el mundo. Objetivo. Detectar la presencia de microsporidios y otros enteroparásitos en pacientes con VIH/sida del Servicio Autónomo Hospit [...] al Universitario de Maracaibo (SAHUM), donde no existían estudios previos en este campo. Materiales y métodos. Las muestras fecales se analizaron mediante examen directo, método de concentración con formol-éter, coloración de Kinyoun y coloración Gram-cromotropo rápida. Se realizaron PCR separadas para diferenciar Entamoeba histolytica o Entamoeba dispar , cuando se observó el complejo E. histolytica/dispar al microscopio. Mediante historia clínica se obtuvo información del paciente. Resultados. De los 56 individuos participantes, 38 (67,86 %) presentaron alguna especie parasitaria comensal o patógena en su muestra fecal. Predominaron los individuos portadores de especies parásitas patógenas (26/38). Fueron diagnosticados protozoos como Isospora belli (17,65 %), Blastocystis spp .(17,65 %), Cryptosporidium spp. (7,84 %), complejo Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (5,88 %) , Entamoeba coli (3,92 %) , Giardia lamblia (3,92 %) , Endolimax nana (3,92 %) , Cyclospora cayetanensis (3,92 %) y Chilomastix mesnili (1,96 %). Entre los helmintos, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura y Strongyloides stercoralis, presentaron un porcentaje de 27,27 % cada uno, e Hymenolepis nana , de 18,18 %. Solo se detectó E. histolytica en uno de los tres casos que presentaron el complejo al examen microscópico. Mediante Gram-cromotropo, 17 muestras evidenciaron esporas del filo Microsporidia, lo que equivale a un 33,33 % de prevalencia. Conclusión. Los microsporidios pueden ocupar el primer lugar de prevalencia en pacientes con VIH positivo, cuando se utilizan técnicas diagnósticas específicas. Abstract in english Objective: To detect the presence of microsporidia and other enteric parasites in patients with HIVAIDS of the Autonomous Services University Hospital of Maracaibo (SAHUM), where there are no previous studies in this field. Materials and methods: Fecal samples were analyzed by means of direct exam, [...] concetration method with formal-ether, Kinyoun coloration and fast Gram-Chromotrope coloration. Separate PCR were perfomed to differentiate Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar , when the E. histolytica/E. dispar complex was observed in the microscope. Information on the patient was obtained trough clinical history. Results: Of 56 individuals that participated, 38 (67.86%) presented some commensal parasite and/ or pathogenic species in their fecal sample. Carriers of pathogenic species were predominat (26/38). Protozoa such as Isospora belli protozoa (17.65%), Blastocystis spp. (17.65%), Cryptosporidium spp. (7.84%), E. histolytica/E. dispar (5.88%), Entamoeba coli (3.92%), Giardia lamblia (3.92%), Endolimax nana (3.92%), Cyclospora cayetanensis (3.92%), and Chilomastix mesnilli (1.96%) were diagnosed. Among the helminths, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and Strongyloides stercoralis , had a percentage of 27.27% each, and Hymenolepis nana , 18.18%. Entamoeba histolytica was only detected in one of three cases presenting complex microscopic examination. By Gram-chromotrope, 17 samples showed spores of the Microsporidia phylum, equivalent to 33.33% prevalence. Conclusion: Microsporidia may be first prevalente in HIV positive patients when specific diagnostic techniques are used.

Zulbey, Rivero-Rodríguez; Amparo, Hernández; Ángela, Bracho; Solneumar, Salazar; Rafael, Villalobos.

2013-12-01

349

Application of a basic monitoring strategy for Cryptosporidium and Giardia in drinking water  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Despite the health risks associated with exposure to Cryptosporidium and Giardia, there is no uniform approach to monitoring these protozoan parasites across the world. In the present study, a strategy for monitoring Cryptosporidium and Giardia in drinking water was developed in an effort to ensure [...] that the risk of exposure to these organisms and the risks of non-compliance to guidelines are reduced. The methodology developed will be applicable to all water supply systems irrespective of size and complexity of the purification works. It is based on monitoring procedures proposed by the US Environmental Protection Agency, the Drinking Water Inspectorate, Australia and New Zealand, as well as the risk-based procedure followed by Northern Ireland. The monitoring strategy developed represents a preventative approach for proactively monitoring Cryptosporidium and Giardia species in drinking water. The strategy consists of 10 steps: (i) assessment of the monitoring requirements, (ii) description and characterisation of the source water types, (iii) abstraction of source water, (iv) assessment of the water purification plant, (v) water quality monitoring, (vi) cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis outbreak, (vii) risk assessment, (viii) sample collection and laboratory processing, (ix) data evaluation, interpretation and storage, (x) process evaluation and review. Proper implementation of this protocol can contribute to the protection of drinking water consumers by identifying high-risk source water, identifying areas of improvement within the water treatment system, and also preventing further faecal pollution in the catchments. The protocol can also be integrated into the Water Safety Plans to optimise compliance. Furthermore, this methodology has a potential to contribute to Blue Drop certification as it should form part of the incident management protocols which are a requirement of Water Safety Plan implementation.

MV, Sigudu; HH, du Preez; F, Retief.

2014-04-03

350

Giardia duodenalis in feedlot cattle from the central and western United States  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Giardia duodenalis is a ubiquitous protozoan parasite that has emerged as a significant opportunistic human pathogen. G. duodenalis may have a deleterious effect on animal growth and performance, therefore its potential as a production limiting organism should not be discounted. We therefore undertook this study to determine management and environmental factors in feedlots that influence the prevalence and environmental load of G. duodenalis cysts in fecal material deposited by feedlot cattle in the central and western United States. Results Twenty two feedlots from 7 states were included in the study, and up to 240 fecal samples were collected from pen floors of up to 6 pens per feedlot. Giardia duodenalis cysts were identified and counted using direct immunofluorescent microscopy. The estimated overall point prevalence of G. duodenalis was 19.1%, representing feedlots from a wide range of climates and management systems. Pen-level prevalence varied from 0 to 63.3%, with pen-level shedding estimates ranging from 0 to 261,000 cysts/g feces. Higher environmental temperatures, increased animal density, and increased time in the feedlot were associated with a lower prevalence of G. duodenalis. Removing manure before placing a new group of cattle in a pen was associated with a decreased prevalence of G. duodenalis in fecal pats. Using coccidiostats as a feed additive was associated with a higher prevalence of Giardia. Conclusion Management practices could be employed that would limit the probability that feedlot cattle shed G. duodenalis in their feces and therefore potentially limit contamination of their environment.

Pereira Maria

2009-10-01

351

Benthic macroinvertebrate communities as aquatic bioindicators of contamination by Giardia and Cryptosporidium.  

Science.gov (United States)

Benthic macroinvertebrates (community composed mostly by aquatic forms of insects, such as stonefly nymphs, dragonfly nymphs, water bugs or beetle larvae) are often used in biological monitoring programmes to evaluate the ecological status of rivers and thus to indicate the repercussions of anthropogenic activities. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of this indicator community to detect human enteroprotozoan parasites that are transmitted via water. In total, 32 samples of macroinvertebrates were collected, with the aid of surber nets of mesh size 500 ?m, from nine rivers in Galicia (NW Spain), on different occasions between 2005 and 2009. The samples were homogenised (0.04 M phosphate buffered saline, pH 7.2), sieved (150 and 45 ?m mesh), and concentrated (by a diphasic method). Aliquots of the sediments were then analysed by a direct immunofluorescence technique with monoclonal antibodies against Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Giardia cysts were detected in one (3.1%) of the samples and Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in four (12.5%) of the samples. This work is the first study carried out to investigate the presence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in this benthic community. The results demonstrate that benthic invertebrates could be used as bioindicators of contamination by these waterborne protozoans. Moreover, as this aquatic organisms act as intermittent accumulators and its monitoring enables chronological analysis of perturbations, in both the short- and mid-term, this may represent a suitable alternative or complementary method to the usual techniques of detecting human and animal enteropathogens in water samples. PMID:24553978

Reboredo-Fernández, Aurora; Prado-Merini, Óscar; García-Bernadal, Teresa; Gómez-Couso, Hipólito; Ares-Mazás, Elvira

2014-05-01

352

Risk factors for Giardia infection among hospitalized children in Cuba  

OpenAIRE

The risk factors associated with Giardia infection, in children hospitalized in Havana, Cuba, were recently explored. Children aged ?5?years were more likely to be positive for Giardia infection than the younger children, with an odds ratio (OR) of 3.41 [95% confidence interval (CI)?=?1.36–9.69]. The risk factors found to be associated with Giardia infection in univariate analyses were rural residence (OR?=?3.01; CI?=?1.23–7.35), belonging to a household that did not recei...

Bello, J.; Nu?n?ez, F. A.; Gonza?lez, O. M.; Ferna?ndez, R.; Almirall, P.; Escobedo, A. A.

2011-01-01

353

The frequency of intestinal parasites in puppies from Mexican kennels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this investigation was to determine the intestinal parasite prevalence in puppies from six different kennels; four kennels were in Guadalajara and Zapopan cities (Jalisco State and two kennels were in Mexico City. From October 2006 to November 2007, we collected 441 fecal samples from 147 puppies, both male and female, ranging from 1 to 36 months of age. Three samples from every puppy were analyzed by using the Faust technique. The prevalence found were as follows: Giardia intestinalis (genotype A and B 6.8%; Cystoisospora 21.08%; Uncinaria 7.48%; Toxocara canis 12.29% and multiparasitism (Giardia, Toxocara and Uncinaria 4.76%. The highest prevalence for both Giardia and Cystoisospora were found in 2-3- month-old puppies; the highest prevalence for Toxocara canis was found in 3-4-month-old puppies. In the kennels of Mexico City we found mainly Giardia intestinalis, Cystoisospora to be most prevalent in Zapopan and Toxocara canis in Guadalajara. The high prevalence of intestinal parasites found in this study demonstrates an increased risk for infection in humans, as these animals are usually a common pet in many homes. This zoonotic phenomenon represents an important health problem for any community.

Adrián Cortés-Campos

2010-11-01

354

Quantitative microbial risk assessment of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in well water from a native community of Mexico.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cryptosporidium and Giardia are gastrointestinal disease-causing organisms transmitted by the fecal-oral route, zoonotic and prevalent in all socioeconomic segments with greater emphasis in rural communities. The goal of this study was to assess the risk of cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis of Potam dwellers consuming drinking water from communal well water. To achieve the goal, quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) was carried out as follows: (a) identification of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in well water samples by information collection rule method, (b) assessment of exposure to healthy Potam residents, (c) dose-response modelling, and (d) risk characterization using an exponential model. All well water samples tested were positive for Cryptosporidium and Giardia. The QMRA results indicate a mean of annual risks of 99:100 (0.99) for cryptosporidiosis and 1:1 (1.0) for giardiasis. The outcome of the present study may drive decision-makers to establish an educational and treatment program to reduce the incidence of parasite-borne intestinal infection in the Potam community, and to conduct risk analysis programs in other similar rural communities in Mexico. PMID:25494486

Balderrama-Carmona, Ana Paola; Gortáres-Moroyoqui, Pablo; Alvarez-Valencia, Luis Humberto; Castro-Espinoza, Luciano; Balderas-Cortés, José de Jesús; Mondaca-Fernández, Iram; Chaidez-Quiroz, Cristóbal; Meza-Montenegro, María Mercedes

2014-12-10

355

WATERBORNE 'GIARDIA' IT'S ENOUGH TO MAKE YOU SICK  

Science.gov (United States)

The roundtable consisted of a moderator and six panelists discussing various aspects of Giardia and giardiasis. The topics covered included: The organism (description, life cycle, distribution); the disease; epidemiology; waterborne outbreaks; monitoring methods; water industry a...

356

Zoonotic genotype of Giardia intestinalis detected in a ferret.  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardia intestinalis has been found in a variety of mammals, including humans, and consists of host-specific and zoonotic genotypes. There has been only 1 study of G. intestinalis infection in weasels, but the genotype of its isolate remains unclear. In this study, we report the isolation of Giardia in a ferret exhibited at a pet shop. The isolate was analyzed genetically to validate the possibility of zoonotic transmission. Giardia diagnostic fragments of the small subunit ribosomal RNA, beta-giardin, and glutamate dehydrogenase genes were amplified from the ferret isolate and sequenced to reveal the phylogenetic relationships between it and other Giardia species or genotypes of G. intestinalis reported previously. The results showed that the ferret isolate represented the genetic group A-I in assemblage A, which could be a causative agent of human giardiasis. PMID:15856896

Abe, Niichiro; Read, Carolyn; Thompson, R C Andrew; Iseki, Motohiro

2005-02-01

357

Waterborne Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in the Yukon, Canada.  

OpenAIRE

Several outbreaks of waterborne giardiasis have occurred in southern Canada, but nothing has been reported from the Canadian North. The objective of this study was to collect information relevant to waterborne giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis in the Yukon including epidemiological data and analyses of water, sewage, and animal fecal samples. Remote, pristine water samples were found to be contaminated with Giardia cysts (7 of 22 or 32%) but not with Cryptosporidium oocysts. Giardia cysts were...

Roach, P. D.; Olson, M. E.; Whitley, G.; Wallis, P. M.

1993-01-01

358

Ubiquitination dynamics in the early-branching eukaryote Giardia intestinalis  

OpenAIRE

Ubiquitination is a highly dynamic and versatile posttranslational modification that regulates protein function, stability, and interactions. To investigate the roles of ubiquitination in a primitive eukaryotic lineage, we utilized the early-branching eukaryote Giardia intestinalis. Using a combination of biochemical, immunofluorescence-based, and proteomics approaches, we assessed the ubiquitination status during the process of differentiation in Giardia. We observed that different types of ...

Polo, Simona Laura Anna

2013-01-01

359

CONCERNS RELATED TO PROTOZOAN AND HELMINTH PARASITES IN BIOSOLIDS AND ANIMAL WASTES  

Science.gov (United States)

This in-depth review of parasites found in municipal wastewater effluents, biosolids, or animal wastes and considered to be a concern to public health includes the protozoa Cryptosporidium, Cyclospora, Toxoplasma, Microsporidia, Balantidium, Giardia, and Entamoeba as well as the helminths Trichuris,...

360

The frequency of intestinal parasites in puppies from Mexican kennels  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this investigation was to determine the intestinal parasite prevalence in puppies from six different kennels; four kennels were in Guadalajara and Zapopan cities (Jalisco State) and two kennels were in Mexico City. From October 2006 to November 2007, we collected 441 fecal samples from 147 puppies, both male and female, ranging from 1 to 36 months of age. Three samples from every puppy were analyzed by using the Faust technique. The prevalence found were as follows: Giardia int...

Adrián Cortés-Campos; Leticia Eligio-García; Enedina Jiménez-Cardoso; Cynthia Noguera-Estrada; Apolinar Cano Estrada; Margarita Pinto-Sagahón

2010-01-01

361

Sentinel Surveillance for Zoonotic Parasites in Companion Animals in Indigenous Communities of Saskatchewan  

OpenAIRE

Indigenous communities may have increased risk of exposure to zoonotic parasites, including Echinococcus granulosus, Toxocara canis, Toxoplasma gondii, Diphyllobothrium spp., and Giardia duodenalis, for which dogs may serve as sentinels for or sources of human infection. Canid fecal samples were collected from dogs and the environment in five indigenous communities across Saskatchewan and Alberta (N = 58, 62, 43, 66, and 25). Parasites in individual fecal samples were quantified using fecal f...

Schurer, Janna M.; Hill, Janet E.; Fernando, Champika; Jenkins, Emily J.

2012-01-01

362

Correlation of Giardia duodenalis assemblages with clinical and epidemiological data in Cuban children.  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardia duodenalis is one of the most frequent intestinal parasitic infections in children worldwide. To date, eight main assemblages of G. duodenalis have been described, but only A and B genetic groups are known to infect humans. In Cuba, this parasite has most clinical impact on children. The aim of this investigation was genetic characterization of G. duodenalis isolated from children with giardiasis diagnosed at the Paediatric Hospital "William Soler" between 2010 and 2011, and to compare the genetic results with clinical and epidemiological data. A total of 103 stool samples from 452 children were positive for G. duodenalis and co-infections with other parasites were noted in 5 cases. Assemblage identification was carried out by the amplification of a fragment of the triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) gene. Sub-assemblages of assemblage A (AI and AII) were identified by a nested PCR using the intergenic spacer (IGS) region of ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid gene as a target. DNA from 90 of 103 (87.4%) samples was successfully amplified by PCR-tpi. The prevalence of assemblages A and B was 40% and 42%, respectively. Infections with both assemblages were reported in 16 cases. No associations between epidemiological information and assemblage was detected, but assemblage B was significantly (P<0.01) more frequently found in children with diarrhea, flatulence or abdominal pain than assemblage A. Sub-assemblage AII accounted for the majority of cases (86.5%). PMID:24462623

Puebla, Luis Jerez; Núñez, Fidel A; Fernández, Yenisey Alfonso; Fraga, Jorge; Rivero, Lázara Rojas; Millán, Iraís Atencio; Valdés, Lucía Ayllón; Silva, Isabel Martínez

2014-04-01

363

Molecular characterization of Giardia intestinalis haplotypes in marine animals: variation and zoonotic potential.  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardia intestinalis is a microbial eukaryotic parasite that causes diarrheal disease in humans and other vertebrates worldwide. The negative effect on quality of life and economics caused by G. intestinalis may be increased by its potential status as a zoonosis, or a disease that can be transmitted from animals to humans. The zoonotic potential of G. intestinalis has been implied for over 2 decades, with human-infecting genotypes (belonging to the 2 major subgroups, Assemblages A and B) occurring in wildlife and domesticated animals. There are recent reports of G. intestinalis in shellfish, seals, sea lions and whales, suggesting that marine animals are also potential reservoirs of human disease. However, the prevalence, genetic diversity and effect of G. intestinalis in marine environments and the role that marine animals play in transmission of this parasite to humans are relatively unexplored. Here, we provide the first thorough molecular characterization of G. intestinalis in marine vertebrates. Using a multi-locus sequencing approach, we identify human-infecting G. intestinalis haplotypes of both Assemblages A and B in the fecal material of dolphins, porpoises, seals, herring gulls Larus argentatus, common eiders Somateria mollissima and a thresher shark Alopias vulpinus. Our results indicate that G. intestinalis is prevalent in marine ecosystems, and a wide range of marine hosts capable of harboring zoonotic forms of this parasite exist. The presence of G. intestinalis in marine ecosystems raises concerns about how this disease might be transmitted among different host species. PMID:18828561

Lasek-Nesselquist, Erica; Bogomolni, Andrea L; Gast, Rebecca J; Welch, David Mark; Ellis, Julie C; Sogin, Mitchell L; Moore, Michael J

2008-08-19

364

Gastrointestinal parasites of urban dogs in Perth, Western Australia.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study was conducted to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in a sample of urban dogs in Perth and the knowledge of their owners about the control and zoonotic transmission of these parasites. Faecal samples (421), collected from dogs originating from five sources, were examined by microscopy and questionnaires administered to dog owners and managers/owners of pet shops. The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasitism was higher in pet shop puppies (51%), than in dogs from refuges (37%), breeding kennels (32.7%), veterinary clinics (15.6%) and exercise areas (5.3%). Protozoa, in particular Giardia, were detected more frequently (22.1%) than helminth parasites. After adjusting for other factors with multiple logistic regression, puppies less than 6 months of age, dogs living in households with more than one dog, and dogs from refuges were significantly more likely to be parasitized. The prevalence of Giardia was found to be directly associated with the number of doses of anthelmintics given in a year, increasing 1.2 times for each dose administered. The majority of owners were aware of the potential risk to human health from canine helminths, however only one third were aware of the means of transmission to humans. It is concluded that veterinarians can play an important role in increasing the level of awareness of canine zoonotic parasites. PMID:10328840

Bugg, R J; Robertson, I D; Elliot, A D; Thompson, R C

1999-05-01

365

[The investigation of intestinal parasites in foreign high school students].  

Science.gov (United States)

Intestinal parasites are important health problem especially in undeveloped or underdeveloped countries with low socio-economic status,. In this study, stool and cellophane tape samples were analyzed for intestinal parasites in 192 foreign students who were came from 28 different countries and attending a high school with the age of 15 to 21 (age mean: 17.92 ± 1.30) in Kayseri. At least one or more intestinal parasite species were found in 73 (38 %) of them. The distribution of parasites which were detected in stool samples as follow; Blastocystis hominis; 63 (32.8%); Giardia intestinalis, 13 (6.7 %); Endolimax nana, 8 (4.1%); Entamoeba coli, 7 (3.6%); Iodamoeba butschlii, 1 (0.52%). There was no any parasite in cellophane tape samples. PMID:20954119

Yaman, Ozan; Hamamci, Berna; Cet?nkaya, Ulfet; Kaya, Muhittin; Ate?, Serpil; Gözkenç, Ni?met; Ozcan, Hanife; Yazar, Lale; Yazar, Süleyman

2010-01-01

366

Co-infection of Giardia intestinalis and Cyclospora cayetanensis in an immunocompetent patient with prolonged diarrhea: case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cyclospora cayetanensis is an agent of emerging infectious disease, and a recognized cause of diarrhea in some patients. Also, the flagellated protozoan, Giardia intestinalis, induces a diarrheal illness of the small intestine. Cases of cyclosporiasis are frequently missed, primarily due to the fact that the parasite can be quite difficult to detect in human fecal samples, despite an increasing amount of data regarding this parasite. On the other hand, G. intestinalis can be readily recognized via the microscopic visualization of its trophozoite or cyst forms in stained preparations or unstained wet mounts. In this report, we describe an uncommon case of co-infection with G. intestinalis and C. cayetanensis in an immunocompetent patient with prolonged diarrhea, living in a non-tropical region of Turkey. PMID:16820767

Koru, Ozgur; Araz, Engin; Inci, Askin; Tanyuksel, Mehmet

2006-06-01

367

Prevalence and genotype of Giardia duodenalis from faecal samples of stray dogs in Hualien city of eastern Taiwan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardia duodenalis is a zoonotic protozoan parasite that causes diarrhea through waterborne transmission or fecal-oral infection. The cysts are chlorine-resistant and, therefore, can pollute drinking water and induce a pandemic disease. In this study, we aimed to detect G. duodenalis infection in stray dogs in Hualien, Taiwan. We collected faecal samples from 118 dogs and amplified DNA sequences of the ?-giardin gene by nested polymerase chain reactions (nested PCR). Eleven of the 118 faecal samples tested positive for the parasite. The genotype analysis of the 11 samples indicated that 7 samples belonged to assemblage C and four samples belonged to assemblage D. Our study provided a better understanding of the infection rate and genotypes of G. duodenalis in dogs from Hualien City, and human infection could not be induced by this zoonotic infection pathway in Hualien City. PMID:25134899

Tseng, Y C; Ho, G D; Chen T, T W; Huang, B F; Cheng, P C; Chen, J L; Peng, S Y

2014-06-01

368

Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites of stray dogs impounded by the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA), Durban and Coast, South Africa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Coprological examination was used to determine the prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal parasites of stray dogs impounded by the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA), Durban and Coast, South Africa. Helminth and protozoan parasites were found in faeces of 240 dogs with an [...] overall prevalence of 82.5 % (helminth parasites 93.1 % and protozoan parasites 6.9 %). The following parasites and their prevalences were detected; Ancylostoma sp. (53.8 %), Trichuris vulpis (7.9 %), Spirocerca lupi (5.4 %), Toxocara canis (7.9 %), Toxascaris leonina (0.4 %) Giardia intestinalis (5.6 %) and Isospora sp. (1.3 %). Dogs harbouring a single parasite species were more common (41.7 %) than those harbouring 2 (15 %) or multiple (2.1 %) species. Ancylostoma sp., Toxocara canis and Giardia intestinalis have zoonotic potential and were detected in 66.7 % of the samples.

S, Mukaratirwa; V P, Singh.

369

Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites of stray dogs impounded by the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA, Durban and Coast, South Africa : short communication  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Coprological examination was used to determine the prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal parasites of stray dogs impounded by the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA, Durban and Coast, South Africa. Helminth and protozoan parasites were found in faeces of 240 dogs with an overall prevalence of 82.5% (helminth parasites 93.1% and protozoan parasites 6.9 %. The following parasites and their prevalences were detected; Ancylostoma sp. (53.8 %, Trichuris vulpis (7.9 %, Spirocerca lupi (5.4 %, Toxocara canis (7.9 %, Toxascaris leonina (0.4 % Giardia intestinalis (5.6 % and Isospora sp. (1.3 %. Dogs harbouring a single parasite species were more common (41.7 % than those harbouring 2 (15 % or multiple (2.1 % species. Ancylostoma sp., Toxocara canis and Giardia intestinalis have zoonotic potential and were detected in 66.7 % of the samples.

V.P. Singh

2012-05-01