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Nitroimidazole drugs vary in their mode of action in the human parasite Giardia lamblia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardia lamblia (syn. duodenalis, intestinalis) is a globally occurring micro-aerophilic human parasite that causes gastrointestinal disease. Standard treatment of G. lamblia infections is based on the 5-nitroimidazole drugs metronidazole and tinidazole. In two other micro-aerophilic parasites, Entamoeba histolytica and Trichomonas vaginalis, 5-nitroimidazole drugs bind to proteins involved in the thioredoxin-mediated redox network and disrupt the redox equilibrium by inhibiting thioredoxin reductase and depleting intracellular thiol pools. The major aim of this study was to assess whether nitroimidazoles exert a similar toxic effect on G. lamblia physiology. The 5-nitroimidazoles metronidazole and tinidazole were found to bind to the same subset of proteins including thioredoxin reductase. However, in contrast to E. histolytica and T. vaginalis, none of the other proteins bound are candidates for being involved in the thioredoxin-mediated redox network. Translation elongation factor EF-1?, an essential factor in protein synthesis, was widely degraded upon treatment with 5-nitroimidazoles. 2-Nitroimidazole (azomycin) and the 5-nitroimidazole ronidazole did not bind to any G. lamblia proteins, which is in contrast to previous findings in E. histolytica and T. vaginalis. All nitroimidazoles tested reduced intracellular thiol pools in G. lamblia, but metronidazole, also in contrast to the situation in the other two parasites, had the slightest effect. Taken together, our results suggest that nitroimidazole drugs affect G. lamblia in a fundamentally different way than E. histolytica and T. vaginalis. PMID:24533278

Leitsch, David; Schlosser, Sarah; Burgess, Anita; Duchêne, Michael

2012-12-01

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Pyrimidine salvage in Giardia lamblia  

OpenAIRE

We have found that the anaerobic protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia is incapable of de novo pyrimidine metabolism, as shown by its inability to incorporate orotate, bicarbonate, and aspartate into the pyrimidine nucleotide pool. Results from high performance liquid chromatography of pyrimidine and pyrimidine nucleoside pulse-labeled nucleotide pools and enzyme assays suggest that the parasite satisfies its pyrimidine nucleotide needs predominantly through salvage of uracil by a cytoplasmic ur...

1985-01-01

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The minimal kinome of Giardia lamblia illuminates early kinase evolution and unique parasite biology  

OpenAIRE

Background: The major human intestinal pathogen Giardia lamblia is a very early branching eukaryote with a minimal genome of broad evolutionary and biological interest. Results: To explore early kinase evolution and regulation of Giardia biology, we cataloged the kinomes of three sequenced strains. Comparison with published kinomes and those of the excavates Trichomonas vaginalis and Leishmania major shows that Giardia's 80 core kinases constitute the smallest known core kinome of any eukaryo...

Manning, Gerard; Reiner, David S.; Lauwaet, Tineke; Dacre, Michael; Smith, Alias; Zhai, Yufeng; Svärd, Staffan; Gillin, Frances D.

2011-01-01

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A Rare Cause of Reactive Arthritis: Giardia Lamblia  

OpenAIRE

Although many of parasitic infestations are known to cause arthritis development, articular findings related to parasitosis is rarely discussed in literature. The protozoa, Giardia lamblia is often known as gastroenteritis agent, on the other hand rarely causes reactive arthritis. The clinical presentation related to articulation are arthritis and arthralgia. In our report, a case with reactive arthritis due to Giardia lamblia is presented with emphasis on the differences in diagnosis and tre...

Dilek Karaku?; Nilüfer Kutay Ordu Gökkaya; Fügen Oktay; Halil Uçan

2009-01-01

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Identification of scaffold/Matrix Attachment (S/MAR like DNA element from the gastrointestinal protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromatin in the nucleus of all eukaryotes is organized into a system of loops and domains. These loops remain fastened at their bases to the fundamental framework of the nucleus, the matrix or the scaffold. The DNA sequences which anchor the bases of the chromatin loops to the matrix are known as Scaffold/Matrix Attachment Regions or S/MARs. Though S/MARs have been studied in yeast and higher eukaryotes and they have been found to be associated with gene organization and regulation of gene expression, they have not been reported in protists like Giardia. Several tools have been discovered and formulated to predict S/MARs from a genome of a higher eukaryote which take into account a number of features. However, the lack of a definitive consensus sequence in S/MARs and the randomness of the protozoan genome in general, make it a challenge to predict and identify such sequences from protists. Results Here, we have analysed the Giardia genome for the probable S/MARs predicted by the available computational tools; and then shown these sequences to be physically associated with the nuclear matrix. Our study also reflects that while no single computational tool is competent to predict such complex elements from protist genomes, a combination of tools followed by experimental verification is the only way to confirm the presence of these elements from these organisms. Conclusion This is the first report of S/MAR elements from the protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia. This initial work is expected to lay a framework for future studies relating to genome organization as well as gene regulatory elements in this parasite.

Gautam Pennathur

2010-06-01

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Transient transfection and expression of firefly luciferase in Giardia lamblia.  

OpenAIRE

We have developed a gene transfer system for the protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia. This organism is responsible for many cases of diarrhea worldwide and is considered to be one of the most primitive eukaryotes. Expression of a heterologous gene was detected in this parasite after electroporation with appropriate DNA constructs. We constructed a series of transfection plasmids using flanking sequences of the Giardia glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) gene to drive expression of the firefly lucife...

Yee, J.; Nash, T. E.

1995-01-01

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Efficacies of Zinc-Finger-Active Drugs against Giardia lamblia  

OpenAIRE

Twenty-nine of 34 (85%) Zn-finger-active compounds at 300 ?M or less inhibited the growth of Giardia lamblia. The most active compound, disulfiram (Antabuse), was cidal at 1.23 ± 0.32 ?M. In the adult mouse model, significant in vivo activity was demonstrated by increased cure rates and decreased parasite burdens.

Nash, Theodore; Rice, William G.

1998-01-01

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Purine salvage networks in Giardia lamblia  

OpenAIRE

Purine metabolism in Giardia lamblia was investigated by monitoring incorporation of radiolabeled precursors into purine nucleotides in the log-phase trophozoites cultivated in vitro in axenic media and incubated in buffered saline glucose. The lack of incorporation of formate, glycine, hypoxanthine, inosine, and xanthine into the nucleotide pool suggests the absence of de novo purine nucleotide synthesis and the inability to form IMP as the precursor of AMP and GMP in G. lamblia. Only adenin...

1983-01-01

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Azasterols impair Giardia lamblia proliferation and induces encystation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of sterol biosynthesis inhibitors on growth and fine structure of Giardia lamblia P1 strain cultures were analyzed. Azasterols demonstrated high efficacy in killing cells. The IC50 values for 22,26-azasterol and 24(R,S),25-epiminolanosterol were 7 ?M and 170 nM, respectively. Morphological analysis showed that azasterols induced changes in G. lamblia ultrastructure. The most significant alterations were: (a) considerable increase of the size of the peripheral vesicles, which are part of the parasite endosomal-lysosomal system; (b) appearance of autophagosomal structures; and (c) induction of differentiation, followed by an abnormal enlargement of encystation secretory vesicles. We propose that azasterols are effective chemotherapeutic drugs against Giardia lamblia in vitro and may have another target in cells besides sterol biosynthesis

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Comparison of the Triage Micro Parasite Panel and Microscopy for the Detection of Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium parvum in Stool Samples Collected in Kenya  

OpenAIRE

Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium parvum are three of the most important parasitic causes of acute diarrhea worldwide. Laboratory diagnosis of these parasites is usually done by ova and parasite examination (O&P examination) via microscopy. The sensitivity and specificity of O&P examination varies among laboratories and can be labor intensive and time consuming. The Triage Micro Parasite Panel (BioSite, San Diego, California) is an enzyme immunoassay kit that can de...

Brett Swierczewski; Elizabeth Odundo; Janet Ndonye; Ronald Kirera; Cliff Odhiambo; Edwin Oaks

2012-01-01

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Putative SF2 helicases of the early-branching eukaryote Giardia lamblia are involved in antigenic variation and parasite differentiation into cysts  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Regulation of surface antigenic variation in Giardia lamblia is controlled post-transcriptionally by an RNA-interference (RNAi pathway that includes a Dicer-like bidentate RNase III (gDicer. This enzyme, however, lacks the RNA helicase domain present in Dicer enzymes from higher eukaryotes. The participation of several RNA helicases in practically all organisms in which RNAi was studied suggests that RNA helicases are potentially involved in antigenic variation, as well as during Giardia differentiation into cysts. Results An extensive in silico analysis of the Giardia genome identified 32 putative Super Family 2 RNA helicases that contain almost all the conserved RNA helicase motifs. Phylogenetic studies and sequence analysis separated them into 22 DEAD-box, 6 DEAH-box and 4 Ski2p-box RNA helicases, some of which are homologs of well-characterized helicases from higher organisms. No Giardia putative helicase was found to have significant homology to the RNA helicase domain of Dicer enzymes. Additionally a series of up- and down-regulated putative RNA helicases were found during encystation and antigenic variation by qPCR experiments. Finally, we were able to recognize 14 additional putative helicases from three different families (RecQ family, Swi2/Snf2 and Rad3 family that could be considered DNA helicases. Conclusions This is the first comprehensive analysis of the Super Family 2 helicases from the human intestinal parasite G. lamblia. The relative and variable expression of particular RNA helicases during both antigenic variation and encystation agrees with the proposed participation of these enzymes during both adaptive processes. The putatives RNA and DNA helicases identified in this early-branching eukaryote provide initial information regarding the biological role of these enzymes in cell adaptation and differentiation.

Gargantini Pablo R

2012-11-01

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Giardia lamblia and other intestinal parasitic infections and their relationships with nutritional status in children in Brazilian Amazon Giardia lamblia e outros parasitas intestinais e sua relação com o status nutricional de crianças de uma área urbana na Amazônia Brasileira  

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Full Text Available The objective of this survey was to assess the relationships between intestinal parasitism, nutritional status and hemoglobin level in children with Indian ascendancy living in an urban area in Brazilian Amazon. We carried out a cross-sectional survey obtaining anthropometric, parasitological and socioeconomic data, and hemoglobin measurements of children aged six to 84 months. Anthropometric data were expressed as z-scores for weight for age (WAZ, height for age (HAZ, weight for height (WHZ and mid upper circumference for age (MUACZ parameters. Parasitological examinations were performed through Ritchie (n = 307, Kato-Katz (n = 278, Baermann-Moraes (n = 238 and Safranin-methylene blue methods (n = 307. Hemoglobin measurements were obtained with a Hemocue® photometer (n = 282. Socioeconomic data were used in order to classify children in three family income strata (n = 242. Multiple linear regression analysis showed independent interactions between Giardia lamblia and WAZ (beta = -0.195, SE = 0.138, p = 0.003, WHZ (beta = -0.161, SE = 0.133, p = 0.018 and MUACZ (beta = -0.197, SE = 0.143, p = 0.011, controlling for age, sex, family income, Ascaris lumbricoides, and hookworm infection. Also, the multivariate model showed that the only variable associated with hemoglobin levels was age. Intestinal parasitism control should increase children's possibilities of full development in the studied area.O presente estudo objetivou avaliar a relação entre as parasitoses intestinais, o status nutricional e os níveis de hemoglobina em crianças vivendo em uma área urbana na Amazônia Brasileira. Foi realizado um estudo seccional, obtendo-se dados antropométricos, parasitológicos e socioeconômicos, além de dosagens de hemoglobina através do fotômetro Hemocue®, de crianças com idade entre seis e 84 meses. Os dados da antropometria foram expressos como escores de desvio-padrão (escores z para os parâmetros peso-idade (PI, altura-idade (AI, peso-altura (PA e perímetro braquial-idade (PBI. Os exames parasitológicos foram realizados através dos métodos de Ritchie (n = 307, Kato-Katz (n = 278, Baermann-Moraes (n = 238 e Safranina-Azul-de-Metileno (n = 307. A regressão linear múltipla demonstrou interações independentes entre Giardia lamblia e PI (beta = -0.195, p = 0.003, PA (beta = -0.161, p = 0.018 e PBI (beta = -0.197, p = 0.011, após controle para idade, sexo, renda familiar e infecções por Ascaris lumbricoides e ancilostomídeos. O modelo multivariado demonstrou ainda que a única variável associada aos níveis de hemoglobina foi a idade. O estudo concluiu que a giardíase está associada, nos sujeitos pesquisados, a menores médias para os parâmetros antropométricos estudados e que um controle efetivo das parasitoses intestinais poderia contribuir para o pleno desenvolvimento das crianças na área estudada.

Filipe Anibal Carvalho-Costa

2007-06-01

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Giardia lamblia and other intestinal parasitic infections and their relationships with nutritional status in children in Brazilian Amazon / Giardia lamblia e outros parasitas intestinais e sua relação com o status nutricional de crianças de uma área urbana na Amazônia Brasileira  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O presente estudo objetivou avaliar a relação entre as parasitoses intestinais, o status nutricional e os níveis de hemoglobina em crianças vivendo em uma área urbana na Amazônia Brasileira. Foi realizado um estudo seccional, obtendo-se dados antropométricos, parasitológicos e socioeconômicos, além [...] de dosagens de hemoglobina através do fotômetro Hemocue®, de crianças com idade entre seis e 84 meses. Os dados da antropometria foram expressos como escores de desvio-padrão (escores z) para os parâmetros peso-idade (PI), altura-idade (AI), peso-altura (PA) e perímetro braquial-idade (PBI). Os exames parasitológicos foram realizados através dos métodos de Ritchie (n = 307), Kato-Katz (n = 278), Baermann-Moraes (n = 238) e Safranina-Azul-de-Metileno (n = 307). A regressão linear múltipla demonstrou interações independentes entre Giardia lamblia e PI (beta = -0.195, p = 0.003), PA (beta = -0.161, p = 0.018) e PBI (beta = -0.197, p = 0.011), após controle para idade, sexo, renda familiar e infecções por Ascaris lumbricoides e ancilostomídeos. O modelo multivariado demonstrou ainda que a única variável associada aos níveis de hemoglobina foi a idade. O estudo concluiu que a giardíase está associada, nos sujeitos pesquisados, a menores médias para os parâmetros antropométricos estudados e que um controle efetivo das parasitoses intestinais poderia contribuir para o pleno desenvolvimento das crianças na área estudada. Abstract in english The objective of this survey was to assess the relationships between intestinal parasitism, nutritional status and hemoglobin level in children with Indian ascendancy living in an urban area in Brazilian Amazon. We carried out a cross-sectional survey obtaining anthropometric, parasitological and so [...] cioeconomic data, and hemoglobin measurements of children aged six to 84 months. Anthropometric data were expressed as z-scores for weight for age (WAZ), height for age (HAZ), weight for height (WHZ) and mid upper circumference for age (MUACZ) parameters. Parasitological examinations were performed through Ritchie (n = 307), Kato-Katz (n = 278), Baermann-Moraes (n = 238) and Safranin-methylene blue methods (n = 307). Hemoglobin measurements were obtained with a Hemocue® photometer (n = 282). Socioeconomic data were used in order to classify children in three family income strata (n = 242). Multiple linear regression analysis showed independent interactions between Giardia lamblia and WAZ (beta = -0.195, SE = 0.138, p = 0.003), WHZ (beta = -0.161, SE = 0.133, p = 0.018) and MUACZ (beta = -0.197, SE = 0.143, p = 0.011), controlling for age, sex, family income, Ascaris lumbricoides, and hookworm infection. Also, the multivariate model showed that the only variable associated with hemoglobin levels was age. Intestinal parasitism control should increase children's possibilities of full development in the studied area.

Filipe Anibal, Carvalho-Costa; Alessandra Queiroga, Gonçalves; Sandra Laranjeira, Lassance; Luanda Macedo da, Silva Neto; Carla Alexandra Almeida, Salmazo; Marcio Neves, Bóia.

2007-06-01

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Giardia lamblia and Helicobater pylori Coinfection  

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Full Text Available "nBackground: Giardia lamblia and Helicobacter pylori are two flagellate microorganisms that grow in duodenum and stom­ach. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of them in patients with dyspepsia and other GI disorders. "nMethods: In this cross-sectional study, co-infection of above-mentioned agents was investigated in a group of 130 patients [me­dian age of 40 yr (range=11-79 including 76 males (58.8%] with dyspepsia using three methods of duodenal aspiration sam­ple, duodenal biopsy samples and evaluation of stool samples."nResults: : From 105 patients (59 males, 46 females, median age 40 years, range 11-79 entering this study from 3 hospitals, 4 patients (3.8% had G. lamblia and 61 patients (58% had H. pylori. All 4 patients infected by Giardia had also H. pylori infec­tion. Tenesmus (3 out of 4 patients was the most common symptom in patients with H. pylori infection (48 out of 61 pa­tients was reflux. Other symptoms in patients infected with both organisms (4 patients included diarrhea (2 cases, weight loss (2 cases, and loss of appetite (1 case but no report of vomiting."nConclusion: In patients co-infected with Giardia, H.pylori differentiation by physical examination is not possible. So in those patients with positive Rapid Urease Test (RUT, stool examination for Giardia detection is recommended. In addition, met­ronidazole (broad spectrum, anti-protozoal drug can be useful in H. pylori infection.

R Shafie

2009-03-01

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Some hematimetric findings in human Giardia lambia infection Valores hematimétricos na infecção humana causada por Giardia lamblia  

OpenAIRE

Up to now few reports about haematological alterations induced by Giardia lamblia infection have been described. Because there are questions on this matter still not answered, we carried out a study to evaluate some erythrometric and leucometric parameters in a sample that consisted of 55 patients exclusively infected with G. lamblia and of 55 sex and age matched parasite-free individuals. The haematological parameters evaluated were: mean corpuscular volume (MCV), hemoglobin concentration, a...

Jairo Ivo dos Santos; Cidônia de Lourdes Vituri

1996-01-01

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Therapeutic enhancement of newly derived bacteriocins against Giardia lamblia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Trials for identifying efficient anti-giardial agents are still ongoing. Nowadays, bacteriocins have attracted the attention as potential antimicrobial compounds. For the first time, the current study evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of bacteriocins derived from newly isolated Egyptian strains of probiotics Lactobacilli; L.?acidophilus (P106) and L.?plantarum (P164) against Giardia lamblia. Bacteriocins' efficacy was evaluated both in vitro; by growth inhibition and adherence assays, and in vivo; through estimation of parasite density, intestinal histopathological examination and ultrastructural analysis of Giardia trophozoites. In vivo bacteriocins' clinical safety was assessed. In vitro results proved that 50 µg of L. acidophilus bacteriocin induced reduction of the mean Giardia lamblia trophozoites by 58.3 ± 4.04%, while at lower concentrations of 10 and 20 µg of both L. acidophilus and L. plantarum, non significant reduction of the mean parasite density was achieved. In vitro trophozoites adherence was susceptible to the tested bacteriocins at all studied concentrations with variable degrees, while the highest adherence reduction was demonstrated using 50 µg of L acidophilus bacteriocin. In vivo, oral inoculation of 50 µg/mouse L.?acidophilus bacteriocin for 5 successive days resulted in a noteworthy decline of the intestinal parasite density, along with amelioration of intestinal pathology of infected mice. Ultrastructural examination proved thatfive doses of L.?acidophilus bacteriocin showed marked changes in cellular architecture of the trophozoites with evident disorganization of the cell membrane, adhesive disc and cytoplasmic components. This is the first reported study of the safe anti-giardial efficacy of L.?acidophilus (P106) derived bacteriocin, hence highlighting its great promise as a potential therapeutic safe alternative to existing commercial drugs. PMID:25300763

Amer, Eglal I; Mossallam, Shereen F; Mahrous, Hoda

2014-11-01

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BILIARY LIPIDS SUPPORT SERUM-FREE GROWTH OF 'GIARDIA LAMBLIA'  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardia lamblia has only been grown in vitro in media containing serum or serum fractions. How this pathogen can grow in the human small intestinal lumen without serum is not known. The authors found that samples of human hepatic or gall bladder bile maintained G. lamblia surviva...

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A comparison of the Giardia lamblia trophozoite and cyst transcriptome using microarrays  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Compared with many protists, Giardia lamblia has a simple life cycle alternating between cyst and trophozoite. Most research on the molecular biology of Giardia parasites has focused on trophozoites and the processes of excystation and encystation, whereas cysts have attracted less interest. The striking morphological differences between the dormant cyst and the rapidly dividing and motile trophozoite implies profound changes in the metab...

Widmer Giovanni; Faghiri Zahra

2011-01-01

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PREVALENCE OF GIARDIA LAMBLIA AND OTHER INTESTINAL PARASITES IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN AND ITS RELATION TO RESIDENCE PLACE, SEX AND BLOOD GROUP IN ILAM COUNTY OF IRAN  

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Full Text Available 1711' object of this study was to determine the prevalence oj asymptomatic infestation with Giardia lamblia lind other intestinal parasites in children of urban anti rural communities oj /lam county and its relation with dwelling place, sex and blood grollp!.. 77w study designed as (l five-month pUTasitoulgica! .m,..£!' oj fecal ami blood specimens from humans anti performed in 10 urban hcalih-trcatmcru clinics of llam city, two urban health treatment clinics of Eyvun city, two rural health-treatment clinics oj Chavar and Sartaf villages, llam province west of fran, 17,e examined population was preschool {, to 7 year-old children without any 'gastrointestinal compliarus. Prevalence oj infestation in subject grOllp W(l."' 32.54% (n=3100. Among intestinal parasites' G. lambliu with 85.43o/c (27.8% oj all, n=JO(JI prevalence rate was the most common. Infestation with 11. nnrm with 1'/.93% and E. coli with 3.07';, were in the second and third ranks, respectively, Infestation shows a distinct relationship with gender (P<0.05 and dwelling place, but it lacks a significant relation with blood groups. This study ."lIOWS that the prevalence of intestinal infestation in 6 to 7 year old child oj llam county hi equivalent to the top oj tile line oj the statistical percentage all over the world. 17,e relation between the severity oj infestation and residence place may arouse the suspicion oj sever contamination oj imbibing water.

Pourbabak

1996-06-01

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Comparação de quatro métodos laboratoriais para diagnóstico da Giardia lamblia em fezes de crianças residentes em Belém, Pará Evaluation of four techniques for diagnosis of Giardia lamblia in children's stool from Belém city, Para State, Brazil  

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Full Text Available Relatamos a comparação de quatro metodologias para o diagnóstico da Giardia lamblia em material fecal de crianças, Belém/PA. A Hematoxilina Férrica e o método direto apresentaram menor positividade, enquanto que o Método de Faust continua uma boa escolha para o diagnóstico e o Ensaio imunoenzimático melhora a qualidade da detecção deste parasito.We report the evaluation of four techniques for Giardia lamblia diagnosis in children's stool. The Iron haematoxilin staining and direct examination with lugol showed lower positivity, while the method of Faust et al. Continues to be a good option for G. lamblia diagnosis and Immunoenzymatic assay increases the detection of this parasite.

Ricardo Luiz Dantas Machado

2001-02-01

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Immunofluorescence and morphology of Giardia lamblia cysts exposed to chlorine.  

OpenAIRE

Giardia cyst-like objects detected by immunofluorescence in chlorinated water samples often cannot be positively identified by their morphological appearance. To determine the effect of chlorine on cyst immunofluorescence and morphology, Giardia lamblia cysts were exposed to chlorine for 48 h. The majority of cysts exposed to chlorine concentrations of 1 to 11 mg/liter at 5 and 15 degrees C lost their internal morphological characteristics necessary for identification, but most of them were s...

Sauch, J. F.; Berman, D.

1991-01-01

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/ Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia lamblia y Encephalitozoon intestinalis emergent opportunists / Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia lamblia y Encephalitozoon intestinalis, oportunistas emergentes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Es un hecho conocido que las infecciones oportunistas por protozoos y hongos han aumentado en los últimos años, debido especialmente al aumento de las infecciones por VIH. Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia lamblia y Encephalitozoon intestinalis son protozoos y hongo, respectivamente, mundialmente recono [...] cidos como agentes oportunistas emergentes, responsables de brotes epidémicos provocados por la ingestión de agua potable contaminada, incluso después de una correcta desinfección. La ingestión de estos protozoos puede provocar diferentes grados de enfermedad, entre aguda o leve (población sana) hasta situaciones más graves y agresivas, hasta a veces mortales (pacientes inmunocomprometidos y/o inmunodeprimidos). A pesar de ser responsables de muchos brotes epidémicos, su diagnóstico de laboratorio permanece arduo y trabajoso, incluso utilizando las nuevas técnicas desarrolladas en los últimos años. En esta revisión se resumen las consideraciones generales de estos oportunistas emergentes, así como los métodos de diagnóstico más usuales, incluso los más recientes y específicos. Abstract in english Epidemiological data, regarding parasitic and fungi opportunist infections, have changed in the last years, especially due to HIV infection. Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia lamblia and Encephalitozoon intestinalis are protozoan and fungi, respectively, worldwide known as opportunistic emergent agents, [...] being responsible by epidemic outbreaks after ingestion of contaminated water, even following a correct disinfection treatment. Its ingestion can cause different effects on individuals’ health, from light or acute among the healthy population, to serious, aggressive or even deadly among the immunodepressed or immunocompromised patients. Contaminated water ingestion can result in outbreaks but protozoa laboratory diagnosis still remains very laborious, even after the development of more sensitive and specific techniques in the last years. In this paper, a revision of these emergent opportunists, their main characteristics and diagnostic tools are described, including the most recent and specific techniques.

Joana, Barbosa; Maria José, Espinar; Acácio, Gonçalves Rodrigues; Cidália, Pina-Vaz.

2013-12-01

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Pacientes con Giardia lamblia diagnosticada por frotis duodenal / Patients with Giardia lamblia diagnosed through duodenal smear  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se efectuó un estudio descriptivo y transversal de 105 pacientes mayores de 15 años con infección por Giardia lamblia, diagnosticada por frotis duodenal mediante endoscopia en el Servicio de Gastroenterología del Policlínico de Especialidades del Hospital Provincial Docente Clinicoquirúrgico "Saturn [...] ino Lora Torres" de Santiago de Cuba, desde enero hasta diciembre del 2012, con vistas a caracterizarles. Entre las variables analizadas figuraron: edad, sexo, síntomas digestivos referidos, positividad del frotis e imagen endoscópica. Se utilizó el porcentaje como medida de resumen. Predominaron el sexo femenino (58,0 %), el grupo etario de 29-39 años (38,0 %), la epigastralgia como síntoma principal (66,6 %) y las imágenes endoscópicas grados I y II como las más frecuentes (68,4 y 41,3 %, respectivamente). El índice de positividad a la giardiasis fue relevante Abstract in english A descriptive and cross sectional study of 105 patients older than 15 years with infection by Giardia lamblia, diagnosed through duodenal smear by means of endoscopy was carried out in the Gastroenterology Service of the Specialties Polyclinic from "Saturnino Lora Torres" Teaching Provincial Clinica [...] l Surgical Hospital in Santiago de Cuba, from January to December, 2012, with the objective of characterizing them. Among the analyzed variables there were: age, sex, referred digestive symptoms, positivity of the smear and endoscopic image. The percentage was used as summary measure. Female sex (58.0%), the age group 29-39 years (38.0%), the epigastralgia as main symptom (66.6%) and the endoscopic images grades I and II prevailed as the most frequent (68.4 and 41.3%, respectively). The positivity index for giardiasis was relevant

Hidelisa, Herrero Aguirre; Jesús, Fernández Duharte; Suleidy, Vega Sam; José Antonio, Candel Herrero.

1636-16-01

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Chitin synthetase in encysting Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba invadens  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Giardia lamblia (Gl) and Entamoeba invadens (Ei) are protozoan parasites with two morphologic stages in their life cycles. Motile trophozoites colonize the intestine of humans and reptiles respectively. Water resistant cysts, which can survive outside the host, transmit infection. In vitro cyst formation of Ei from trophozoites has been reported, and the authors have recently induced in vitro encystation of Gl. Although the cyst walls of both parasites contain chitin, it synthesis by encysting trophozoites has not been reported. The authors now show that encystation conditions greatly increase chitin synthetase (CS) specific activity (incorporation of /sup 3/H GlcNAc from UDP-GlcNAc into TCA-or alcohol-precipitable material). Extracts of encysting Gl incorporated 3.6 nmol/mg protein in 5 hr compared to < 0.005 in controls. Extracts of encysting Fi incorporated 4.8 n mol/mg protein, compared to 1.7 in the control. CS activity of both parasites requires preformed chitin. The Gl enzyme requires a reducing agent, is inhibited by digitonin and the CS inhibitors, polyoxin D and Nikkomycin, but not by tunicamycin. The product is digested by chitinase. Ei enzyme does not require a reducing agent and is stimulated by 1 mg/ml digitonin, but inhibited by higher concentrations. These studies demonstrate CS enzymes which may play important roles in encystation of Gl and Ei.

Das, S.; Gillin, F.D.

1987-05-01

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Chitin synthetase in encysting Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba invadens  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Giardia lamblia (Gl) and Entamoeba invadens (Ei) are protozoan parasites with two morphologic stages in their life cycles. Motile trophozoites colonize the intestine of humans and reptiles respectively. Water resistant cysts, which can survive outside the host, transmit infection. In vitro cyst formation of Ei from trophozoites has been reported, and the authors have recently induced in vitro encystation of Gl. Although the cyst walls of both parasites contain chitin, it synthesis by encysting trophozoites has not been reported. The authors now show that encystation conditions greatly increase chitin synthetase (CS) specific activity (incorporation of 3H GlcNAc from UDP-GlcNAc into TCA-or alcohol-precipitable material). Extracts of encysting Gl incorporated 3.6 nmol/mg protein in 5 hr compared to < 0.005 in controls. Extracts of encysting Fi incorporated 4.8 n mol/mg protein, compared to 1.7 in the control. CS activity of both parasites requires preformed chitin. The Gl enzyme requires a reducing agent, is inhibited by digitonin and the CS inhibitors, polyoxin D and Nikkomycin, but not by tunicamycin. The product is digested by chitinase. Ei enzyme does not require a reducing agent and is stimulated by 1 mg/ml digitonin, but inhibited by higher concentrations. These studies demonstrate CS enzymes which may play important roles in encystation of Gl and Ei

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The Study of the Multilayer Filtration Process Efficiency on Giardia lamblia Elimination in Isfahan Water Treatment Plant  

OpenAIRE

Introduction: Giardia lamblia is a waterborne highly infectious protozoan parasite capable of causing gastrointestinal illness. The multilayer filtration is used in many applications such as turbidity removes from surface waters and Bacteria, Viruses and protozoan removes. This study was investigated in full-scale the efficiency of filtration process during water treatment that remove Giardia cyst in water at Isfahan province. Materials and methods: We used Information Collection Rule meth...

Zahra Mosaviyan; Ali-Asghar Rastegari; Saeed Abedi

2014-01-01

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Effect of Chlorine on Giardia lamblia Cyst Viability  

OpenAIRE

The effect of chlorine concentration on Giardia lamblia cyst viability was tested under a variety of conditions. The ability of Giardia cysts to undergo excystation was used as the criterion of viability. The experimental variables employed included temperature (25, 15, and 5°C), pH (6, 7, and 8), chlorine-cyst contact time (10, 30, and 60 min), and chlorine concentration (1 to 8 mg/liter). In the pH range studied, cyst survival generally was observed to increase as buffer pH increased. Wate...

Jarroll, Edward L.; Bingham, Alan K.; Meyer, Ernest A.

1981-01-01

28

Comparison of Metronidazole and Furazolidone Against Giardia lamblia in Children  

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Full Text Available This study was conducted on children infected by Giardia lamblia to evaluate the effectiveness and side effects of Metronidazole and Furazolidone drugs in Kashan. One hundred twenty two individuals infected with Giardia lamblia were assigned in 2 groups. They were 5-12 years old. Patients were surveyed four weeks following the therapy with Metronidazole and Furazolidone. Results were compared using chi-square method. Of 122 infected patients, 68.8% were urban residents, 43.4% were females and 56.6% were males. Abdominal pain was the most common clinical symptoms (84.2%. Four weeks after the therapy, the efficacy of metronidazole and furazolidone were 87 and 81.6%, respectively. Malaise (12.9% and dark urine (25% was the most frequents side effects of metronidazole and furazolidone, respectively. With respect to the efficacy of antiparasite drugs in the treatment of giardiasis, further studies in different parts of the country are highly recommended.

S.A. Talari

2006-01-01

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Imunodeficiência comum variável : manifestações gastrintestinais a Giardia lamblia  

OpenAIRE

A imunodeficiência comum variável (IDCV) é segunda imunodeficiência primária mais frequente a seguir à deficiência selectiva de IgA. As manifestações gastrintestinais na IDCV apresentam uma prevalência de 20% a 60% e a infecção por Giardia lamblia é a causa infecciosa mais frequentemente identificada de diarreia e mal-absorção, em cerca de 30% dos doentes. Escassos estudos documentam a maior predisposição para esta infecção em indivíduos hipogamaglobulinémi...

Carvalho, Maria Dinah Jacob Da Silva

2011-01-01

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Development of functional gastrointestinal disorders after Giardia lamblia infection  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID may occur following acute gastroenteritis. This long-term complication has previously not been described after infection with the non-invasive protozoan Giardia lamblia. This study aims to characterize persistent abdominal symptoms elicited by Giardia infection according to Rome II criteria and symptoms scores. Methods Structured interview and questionnaires 12–30 months after the onset of Giardia infection, and at least 6 months after Giardia eradication, among 82 patients with persisting abdominal symptoms elicited by the Giardia infection. All had been evaluated to exclude other causes. Results We found that 66 (80.5% of the 82 patients had symptoms consistent with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS and 17 (24.3% patients had functional dyspepsia (FD according to Rome II criteria. IBS was sub classified into D-IBS (47.0%, A-IBS (45.5% and C-IBS (7.6%. Bloating, diarrhoea and abdominal pain were reported to be most severe. Symptoms exacerbation related to specific foods were reported by 45 (57.7% patients and to physical or mental stress by 34 (44.7% patients. Conclusion In the presence of an IBS-subtype pattern consistent with post-infectious IBS (PI-IBS, and in the absence of any other plausible causes, we conclude that acute Giardia infection may elicit functional gastrointestinal diseases with food and stress related symptoms similar to FGID patients in general.

Hanevik Kurt

2009-04-01

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Role of nitric oxide and superoxide in Giardia lamblia killing  

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Full Text Available Giardia lamblia trophozoites were incubated for 2 h with activated murine macrophages, nitric oxide (NO donors or a superoxide anion generator (20 mU/ml xanthine oxidase plus 1 mM xanthine. Activated macrophages were cytotoxic to Giardia trophozoites (~60% dead trophozoites. This effect was inhibited (>90% by an NO synthase inhibitor (200 µM and unaffected by superoxide dismutase (SOD, 300 U/ml. Giardia trophozoites were killed by the NO donors, S-nitroso-acetyl-penicillamine (SNAP and sodium nitroprusside (SNP in a dose-dependent manner (LD50 300 and 50 µM, respectively. A dual NO-superoxide anion donor, 3-morpholino-sydnonimine hydrochloride (SIN-1, did not have a killing effect in concentrations up to 1 mM. However, when SOD (300 U/ml was added simultaneously with SIN-1 to Giardia, a significant trophozoite-killing effect was observed (~35% dead trophozoites at 1 mM. The mixture of SNAP or SNP with superoxide anion, which yields peroxynitrite, abolished the trophozoite killing induced by NO donors. Authentic peroxynitrite only killed trophozoites at very high concentrations (3 mM. These results indicate that NO accounts for Giardia trophozoite killing and this effect is not mediated by peroxynitrite

P.D. Fernandes

1997-01-01

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Avaliação de diferentes métodos no diagnóstico laboratorial de Giardia lamblia  

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Giardia lamblia é um enteroparasita de prevalência significativa no mundo inteiro. Estudou-se a reprodutibilidade diagnóstica laboratorial por meio dos métodos Coprotest®, Direto modificado, Faust e Hematoxilina Férrica, para o protozoário G. lamblia, segundo a associação com algumas características da população de estudo tais como grupo etário, gênero e distribuição dos casos segundo a variação sazonal nos meses em que se desenvolveu a pesquisa. Fezes de 200 crianças da região de Araraquara-SP, foram examinadas pelos quatro métodos, e os resultados comparados. Verificou-se que 8% delas, encontravam-se parasitadas por G. lamblia. Não houve associação com o gênero; quanto à idade ocorreram mais casos no grupo de três a cinco anos e a maior freqüência de casos foi no mês de janeiro. Em relação ao diagnóstico laboratorial concluiu-se que os resultados mais confiáveis podem ser obtidos quando se utiliza duas metodologias associadas de ótima reprodutibilidade que neste estudo foram Coprotest - Faust; Direto-Faust e Coprotest-Direto (k > 0,81. Palavras-chave: G. lamblia; métodos diagnósticos; Coprotest®; Direto modificado; Faust; Hematoxilina Férrica.

M. J.S. Simões

2009-01-01

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Comparação de quatro métodos laboratoriais para diagnóstico da Giardia lamblia em fezes de crianças residentes em Belém, Pará / Evaluation of four techniques for diagnosis of Giardia lamblia in children's stool from Belém city, Para State, Brazil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Relatamos a comparação de quatro metodologias para o diagnóstico da Giardia lamblia em material fecal de crianças, Belém/PA. A Hematoxilina Férrica e o método direto apresentaram menor positividade, enquanto que o Método de Faust continua uma boa escolha para o diagnóstico e o Ensaio imunoenzimático [...] melhora a qualidade da detecção deste parasito. Abstract in english We report the evaluation of four techniques for Giardia lamblia diagnosis in children's stool. The Iron haematoxilin staining and direct examination with lugol showed lower positivity, while the method of Faust et al. Continues to be a good option for G. lamblia diagnosis and Immunoenzymatic assay i [...] ncreases the detection of this parasite.

Ricardo Luiz Dantas, Machado; Maria Cristina, Figueredo; Amanda Farage, Frade; Mônica Eriko, Kudó; Manoel Gomes, Silva Filho; Marinete Marins, Póvoa.

2001-02-01

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Mechanism of killing of Giardia lamblia trophozoites by complement.  

OpenAIRE

Only antibodies of the IgM class support the lytic effect of complement on Giardia lamblia (GL). We sensitized GL trophozoites (SGL) at 4 degrees C with serum containing anti-GL antibodies or IgM purified from this serum, and either normal human serum (NHS), complement 2-deficient human serum (C2d-HS), or C4-deficient guinea pig serum was used as source of complement. SGL were killed by NHS (86%) and by the deficient sera (50 and 40%, respectively), suggesting activation of the alternative pa...

Deguchi, M.; Gillin, F. D.; Gigli, I.

1987-01-01

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Lysosomal protein trafficking in Giardia lamblia: common and distinct features  

OpenAIRE

Giardia is a flagellated protozoan parasite that has to face different microenvironments during its life cycle in order to survive. All cells exchange materials with the extracellular medium through the reciprocal processes of endocytosis and secretion. Unlike more evolved cells, Giardia lacks a defined endosomal/lysosomal system, but instead possesses peripheral vacuoles that play roles in endocytosis, degradation, recycling, and secretion of proteins during growth and differentiation of the...

Touz, Maria C.; Rivero, Maria R.; Miras, Silvana L.; Bonifacino, Juan S.

2012-01-01

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Some hematimetric findings in human Giardia lambia infection Valores hematimétricos na infecção humana causada por Giardia lamblia  

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Full Text Available Up to now few reports about haematological alterations induced by Giardia lamblia infection have been described. Because there are questions on this matter still not answered, we carried out a study to evaluate some erythrometric and leucometric parameters in a sample that consisted of 55 patients exclusively infected with G. lamblia and of 55 sex and age matched parasite-free individuals. The haematological parameters evaluated were: mean corpuscular volume (MCV, hemoglobin concentration, and relative and absolute number of eosinophils and lymphocytes. No significant differences in the mean values of MCV, hemoglobin levels and absolute relative lymphocyte numbers between the two groups could be detected. When the giardiasis and control groups were separated by pediatric (0-18 years old and adult (older than 18 years classes, a very significant difference in both relative and absolute number of eosinophils in the adult class was observed. With respect of the pediatric class, no differences, either in relative and absolute number of eosinophils, could be observed. Our findings suggest that, during G. lamblia infection, some kind of parasite allergen(s could be secreted and be responsible for the increasing of eosinophil counts in peripheral blood of adults.Até este momento poucos relatos de alterações hematológicas causadas pela Giardia lamblia têm sido descritos. Procuramos então avaliar alguns parâmetros hematológicos em pacientes infectados exclusivamente com G. lamblia (n=55, provenientes do Hospital Universitário, comparando-os com pacientes, pareados por sexo e idade, sem nenhum parasitismo (n=55. Foram avaliados: volume corpuscular médio (VCM, níveis de hemoglobina e contagem absoluta e relativa de eosinófilos e linfócitos. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas entre os valores médios de VCM, níveis de hemoglobina e contagem absoluta e relativa de linfócitos para os dois grupos estudados. No caso dos eosinófilos, tanto as contagens relativas quanto as absolutas diferiram significativamente nas faixas etárias acima de 18 anos (percentagem média de eosinófilos de 8,1 para pacientes com giardíase, e de 3,1 para pacientes não-parasitados, com P=0,0042; e contagens absolutas com média de 609 para pacientes com giardíase, comparado com média de 257, para pacientes-controle, com P=0,0120. No caso de faixas etárias abaixo de 18 anos não foram encontradas diferenças significantes entre os dois grupos. Diante disto, nossos achados sugerem que a G. lamblia poderia secretar um ou mais alérgenos, que seriam responsáveis pelo aumento do número de eosinófilos no sangue periférico de pessoas adultas, e que tal fenômeno deva ser melhor avaliado em crianças

Jairo Ivo dos Santos

1996-04-01

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Effect of resin disinfectants-I3 and -I5 on Giardia muris and Giardia lamblia.  

OpenAIRE

The resin-I5 column developed in our laboratories rendered aqueous suspensions containing up to 5 X 10(4) cysts of Giardia muris or Giardia lamblia per ml incapable of excystation. The inhibition of excystation was effective at both 4 and 25 degrees C. The addition of Na2S2O3 to column eluates containing cysts appeared to partially reverse the disinfectant action, and the reversal was more pronounced at 4 degrees C than at 25 degrees C. In contrast, the rapid removal of cysts from the column ...

Marchin, G. L.; Fina, L. R.; Lambert, J. L.; Fina, G. T.

1983-01-01

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Detection of Giardia lamblia Antigens in Human Fecal Specimens by a Solid-Phase Qualitative Immunochromatographic Assay?  

OpenAIRE

The SIMPLE-READ Giardia rapid assay (Medical Chemical Corporation) is a solid-phase qualitative immunochromatographic assay that detects Giardia lamblia in aqueous extracts of human fecal specimens. Testing 106 Giardia-positive and 104 Giardia-negative stool specimens yielded a sensitivity of 97.2% and a specificity of 100% for the SIMPLE-READ Giardia rapid assay.

Garcia, Lynne S.; Garcia, John Paul

2006-01-01

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In vivo determination of the gap2 gene promoter activity in Giardia lamblia  

OpenAIRE

A shuttle vector for Escherichia coli and Giardia lamblia was modified to produce a reporter plasmid, which monitors the expression of prescribed gene in G. lamblia by measuring its luciferase activity. Promoter regions of the gap2 gene, one of the genes induced during encystation, were cloned into this plasmid, and the resultant constructs were then transfected into trophozoites of G. lamblia. Transgenic trophozoites containing one of the 3 gap2-luc reporters were induced to encystation, and...

Yang, Hye-won; Kim, Juri; Yong, Tai-soon; Park, Soon-jung

2006-01-01

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Ozonoterapia en el síndrome de malabsorción intestinal secundario a parasitismo por Giardia lamblia: estudio preliminar  

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Full Text Available Se estudió el efecto de la ozonoterapia combinada (OLEOZON® oral y ozonoterapia rectal en el síndrome de malabsorción intestinal, secundario a parasitismo intestinal por Giardia lamblia. Se tomaron 186 pacientes y se formaron 3 grupos de 62 pacientes cada uno. El primer grupo se trató con metronidazol y vitaminoterapia, el segundo con OLEOZON® oral y vitaminoterapia y el tercero con ozonoterapia combinada y vitaminoterapia. Los pacientes fueron evaluados clínicamente por drenaje biliar y biopsia de yeyuno al inicio y final del tratamiento. Se alcanzó una mejoría importante en el tercer grupo (66,1 %, de los cuales, los diagnosticados tempranamente, 40,3 % obtuvo su curación. Se concluyó que la ozonoterapia combinada puede ser eficaz en esta patología.The effect of combined ozone therapy (oral OLEOZON® and rectal ozone therapy on the syndrome of intestinal malabsorption secondary to intestinal parasitism caused by Giardia lamblia was studied. 186 patients were selected and dividided into 3 groups of 62 patients each. The first group was treated with metronidazole and vitamin therapy, the second with oral OLEOZON® and vitamin therapy, and the third with combined ozone therapy and vitamin therapy. The patients were clinically evaluated by biliary drainage and jejunum biopsy at the beginning and at the end of the treatment. A significant improvement was observed in the third group (66.1 %. Of them, those that had been early diagnosed were cured (40.3 %. It was concluded that combined ozone therapy may be efficient in this pathology.

Nazarina Ivonne Méndez Pérez

2003-09-01

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Oxidative stress-induced cell cycle blockage and a protease-independent programmed cell death in  microaerophilic Giardia lamblia  

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Full Text Available Esha Ghosh1, Arjun Ghosh1, Amar Nath Ghosh2, Tomoyoshi Nozaki3, Sandipan Ganguly11Division of Parasitology; 2Division of Electron Microscopy, National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases, Beliaghata, Kolkata, West Bengal, India; 3Division of Parasitology, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: Giardia lamblia is a microaerophilic human gastrointestinal parasite and considered as an early-diverged eukaryote. In vitro oxidative stress generation plays a significant role in cell cycle progression and cell death of this parasite. In the present study hydrogen peroxide, metronidazole, and a modified growth medium without cysteine and ascorbic acid have been chosen as oxidative stress-inducing agents. Cell cycle progression has been found to be regulated by different types of oxidative stresses. Apoptosis is not an established pathway in Giardia, which is devoid of ideal mitochondria, but in the present investigation, apoptosis-like programmed cell death has been found by the experiments like AnnexinV-FITC assay, DNA fragmentation pattern, etc. On the contrary, Caspase-9 assay, which confirms the caspase-mediated apoptotic pathway, has been found to be negative in all the stress conditions. Protease inhibitor assay confirmed that, even in absence of any proteases, programmed cell death does occur in this primitive eukaryote. All these results signify a novel pathway of programmed suicidal death in Giardia lamblia under oxidative stress. This is the first demonstration of protease-independent programmed cell death regulation in Giardia exclusive for its own specialties.Keywords: Giardia lamblia, oxidative stress, reactive oxygen species, programmed cell death, apoptosis, early branching eukaryotes

Esha Ghosh

2009-03-01

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ELISA y técnica de sedimentación espontánea para el diagnóstico de infección por Giardia lamblia en muestras fecales de niños de Perú ELISA and spontaneous sedimentation technique for the diagnosis of Giardia lamblia infection in stool samples of Peruvian children  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar un kit ELISA comercial para coproantígenos y la técnica de sedimentación espontánea en tubo (TSET para el diagnóstico de Giardia lamblia en muestras fecales de niños de una zona endémica peruana. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Fueron analizadas 174 muestras mediante la TSET y el kit Giardia 2nd Generation ELISA. RESULTADOS: Fueron positivas 51 muestras por ELISA y 49 por TSET. CONCLUSIONES: El ELISA resultó ser altamente sensible y específico, sencillo y rápido; sin embargo, la muy buena concordancia, alta precisión, bajo costo y capacidad para detectar otros enteroparásitos hace que la TSET sea recomendable para el diagnóstico en zonas endémicas del Perú.OBJETIVE: To compare a commercial coproantigen ELISA kit and the technique of spontaneous sedimentation in tube (TSET for the diagnosis of Giardia lamblia in fecal specimens from children in a Peruvian endemic area. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 174 fecal samples were analyzed by TSET and 2nd Generation Giardia ELISA kit. RESULTS: 51 samples were positive by ELISA and 49 by TSET. CONCLUSIONS: The ELISA was highly sensitive and specific, simple and fast. However, the very good agreement, high precision, low cost and ability to detect other intestinal parasites makes use of TSET recommended for laboratory diagnosis in endemic areas of Peru.

Claudia Rodríguez-Ulloa

2011-12-01

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Detection of Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum Antigens in Human Fecal Specimens Using the ColorPAC Combination Rapid Solid-Phase Qualitative Immunochromatographic Assay  

OpenAIRE

The ColorPAC Giardia/Cryptosporidium (Becton Dickinson) is a solid-phase qualitative immunochromatographic assay that detects and distinguishes between Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum in human stool. Agreement between the Alexon-Trend ProSpecT Giardia Rapid EIA and the ColorPAC assay was 166 of 172 (96.5%). Agreement between the Alexon-Trend ProSpecT Cryptosporidium Rapid EIA and the ColorPAC assay was 169 of 171 (98.8%). No cross-reactions were seen with other parasites or human c...

Garcia, Lynne S.; Shimizu, Robyn Y.

2000-01-01

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Evaluation of a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for Giardia lamblia antigen in stool.  

OpenAIRE

The lack of a quick, simple, and inexpensive diagnostic test has limited the ability of public health officials to rapidly assess and control outbreaks of Giardia lamblia in child day-care centers. We evaluated the performance of a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of a G. lamblia-associated antigen in stool. Stool specimens were collected from the diapers of 426 children attending 20 day-care centers, fixed in 10% Formalin and polyvinyl alcoho...

Addiss, D. G.; Mathews, H. M.; Stewart, J. M.; Wahlquist, S. P.; Williams, R. M.; Finton, R. J.; Spencer, H. C.; Juranek, D. D.

1991-01-01

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Chromosome-size variation in Giardia lamblia: the role of rDNA repeats.  

OpenAIRE

Giardia lamblia trophozoites contain at least five sets of chromosomes that have been categorized by chromosome-specific probes. Pulsed field separations of G. lamblia chromosomes also demonstrated minor bands in some isolates which stained less intensely with ethidium than the major chromosomal bands. Two of the minor bands of the E11 clone of the ISR isolate, MBa and MBb, were similar to each other and to chromosomal band I by hybridization to total chromosomal DNA and by hybridization of s...

Adam, R. D.

1992-01-01

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Efecto de un extracto de Petiveria Alliacea Lin sobre el crecimiento de Giardia lamblia in vitro  

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Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se evaluó el efecto de un extracto fluido elaborado con un menstruo de Petiveria alliacea (anamú) sobre el crecimiento in vitro de Giardia lamblia. Para este ensayo se empleó una cepa aislada en el Instituto de Medicina Tropical "Pedro Kourí", procedente de un paciente infestado. Los cultivos fueron [...] incubados a 37 °C durante 48 h y posteriormente ajustada su concentración a 2 ´105 parásitos por 0,5 mL. Los resultados obtenidos muestran un marcado efecto antigiardiásico, por los altos porcentajes inhibitorios del crecimiento con las 5 concentraciones probadas (17,2; 4,3; 1,075; 0,54 y 0,135 mg/mL), que alcanzó el 96,81 % con la mayor concentración y el 5,03 % con la de 0,135 mg/mL. La concentración media inhibitoria resultó de 2,05 mg/mL. Abstract in english The effect of a fluid extract made with a menstruum of Petiveria alliacea (anamú) on the growth of Giardia lamblia in vitro was evaluated. A strain isolated from an infected patient at “Pedro Kouri” Institute of Tropical Medicine was used in this trial. The cultures were incubated at 37 ºC during 48 [...] hours and later their concentrations of 2 x 105 parasites per 0.5 mL were adjusted. The results obtained showed a marked antigiardiasis effect due to the high inhibitory percentages of growth with the 5 tested concentrations (17.2; 4.3; 1.075; 0.54 and 0.135 mg//mL). An effect of 96.81 % was attained with the highest concentration and of 5.03 % with the concentration of 0.135 mg/mL. The mean inhibitory concentration was 2.05 mg/mL.

Aimée, Echevarría; Dinorah, Torres Idavoy.

2001-09-01

47

Ozonoterapia en el síndrome de malabsorción intestinal secundario a parasitismo por Giardia lamblia: estudio preliminar  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se estudió el efecto de la ozonoterapia combinada (OLEOZON® oral y ozonoterapia rectal) en el síndrome de malabsorción intestinal, secundario a parasitismo intestinal por Giardia lamblia. Se tomaron 186 pacientes y se formaron 3 grupos de 62 pacientes cada uno. El primer grupo se trató con metronida [...] zol y vitaminoterapia, el segundo con OLEOZON® oral y vitaminoterapia y el tercero con ozonoterapia combinada y vitaminoterapia. Los pacientes fueron evaluados clínicamente por drenaje biliar y biopsia de yeyuno al inicio y final del tratamiento. Se alcanzó una mejoría importante en el tercer grupo (66,1 %), de los cuales, los diagnosticados tempranamente, 40,3 % obtuvo su curación. Se concluyó que la ozonoterapia combinada puede ser eficaz en esta patología. Abstract in english The effect of combined ozone therapy (oral OLEOZON® and rectal ozone therapy) on the syndrome of intestinal malabsorption secondary to intestinal parasitism caused by Giardia lamblia was studied. 186 patients were selected and dividided into 3 groups of 62 patients each. The first group was treated [...] with metronidazole and vitamin therapy, the second with oral OLEOZON® and vitamin therapy, and the third with combined ozone therapy and vitamin therapy. The patients were clinically evaluated by biliary drainage and jejunum biopsy at the beginning and at the end of the treatment. A significant improvement was observed in the third group (66.1 %). Of them, those that had been early diagnosed were cured (40.3 %). It was concluded that combined ozone therapy may be efficient in this pathology.

Nazarina Ivonne, Méndez Pérez; José L., Calunga Fernández; Silvia, Menéndez Cepero.

2003-09-01

48

Conocimientos, percepciones y prácticas de los dermatólogos en relación con la infección por Giardia lamblia / Knowledge, perceptions and practice of dermatologists with respect to Giardia lamblia infection  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: conocer sobre los conocimientos, percepciones y prácticas de los dermatólogos de Ciudad de La Habana en relación con la infección por Giardia lamblia. MÉTODOS: previo consentimiento informado de los dermatólogos de Ciudad de La Habana, a un número próximo al universo de estos (50 de 58), s [...] e le aplicó una encuesta sobre conocimientos, percepciones y prácticas en relación con esta parasitosis. La preparación de la encuesta pasó por 4 fases: entrevistas a médicos relacionados con el diagnóstico, tratamiento y control de la giardiasis; preparación de un cuestionario preliminar sobre la base de los resultados de esas entrevistas; sometimiento del instrumento a criterio de expertos; y validación de este mediante su aplicación a un pequeño grupo de galenos. RESULTADOS: se evidenció que en relación con la giardiasis y, de manera particular, con las manifestaciones cutáneas asociadas a esta, los dermatólogos de Ciudad de La Habana mostraban conocimientos insuficientes (de 19 interrogantes que evaluaban aspectos cognoscitivos, la media de respuestas correctas entre todos los participantes fue 10,18), percepciones inadecuadas y prácticas incorrectas. CONCLUSIONES: en la dirección de atenuar estas dificultades se hace necesario una intervención de tipo académica, que haga énfasis en los aspectos formativos relacionados con las enfermedades parasitarias, en general, y la giardiasis, en particular. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: to ascertain the level of knowledge, the perceptions and practice of dermatologists in the City of Havana with respect to Giardia lamblia infection. METHODS: with prior informed consent given by the dermatologists from the City of Havana, 50 dermatologists- a number very close to the univ [...] erse of these experts in the province- were administered a survey of their knowledge, perceptions and practice about this parasitosis. The survey was prepared in 4 phases; that is, interviews to physicians on diagnosis, treatment and control of giardiasis; drafting of a preliminary questionnaire based on the interview results; submission of this instruments to the experts, and finally its validation through its application to a small group of physicians. RESULTS: it was evinced that the dermatologists in the City of Havana had poor knowledge about giardiasis, particularly its cutaneous manifestations (out of 19 questions on cognitive aspects, the correct answer mean was 10,18), inadequate perceptions on this disease and practice was not good. CONCLUSIONS: with the aim of mitigating these difficulties, some academic intervention is needed to make emphasis on the formative aspects related to parasitic diseases in general and giardiasis in particular.

Tania, Iglesias Hernández; Saleh, Ali Almannoni; María Elena, Rodríguez; Lizet, Sánchez Valdés; Deisy, Martín Pupo; Julián, Manzur Katrib; Luis, Fonte Galindo.

2010-04-01

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ELISA y técnica de sedimentación espontánea para el diagnóstico de infección por Giardia lamblia en muestras fecales de niños de Perú / ELISA and spontaneous sedimentation technique for the diagnosis of Giardia lamblia infection in stool samples of Peruvian children  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Comparar un kit ELISA comercial para coproantígenos y la técnica de sedimentación espontánea en tubo (TSET) para el diagnóstico de Giardia lamblia en muestras fecales de niños de una zona endémica peruana. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Fueron analizadas 174 muestras mediante la TSET y el kit Giardia [...] 2nd Generation ELISA. RESULTADOS: Fueron positivas 51 muestras por ELISA y 49 por TSET. CONCLUSIONES: El ELISA resultó ser altamente sensible y específico, sencillo y rápido; sin embargo, la muy buena concordancia, alta precisión, bajo costo y capacidad para detectar otros enteroparásitos hace que la TSET sea recomendable para el diagnóstico en zonas endémicas del Perú. Abstract in english OBJETIVE: To compare a commercial coproantigen ELISA kit and the technique of spontaneous sedimentation in tube (TSET) for the diagnosis of Giardia lamblia in fecal specimens from children in a Peruvian endemic area. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 174 fecal samples were analyzed by TSET and 2nd Generation Gi [...] ardia ELISA kit. RESULTS: 51 samples were positive by ELISA and 49 by TSET. CONCLUSIONS: The ELISA was highly sensitive and specific, simple and fast. However, the very good agreement, high precision, low cost and ability to detect other intestinal parasites makes use of TSET recommended for laboratory diagnosis in endemic areas of Peru.

Claudia, Rodríguez-Ulloa; Marco, Rivera-Jacinto.

2011-12-01

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ELISA y técnica de sedimentación espontánea para el diagnóstico de infección por Giardia lamblia en muestras fecales de niños de Perú / ELISA and spontaneous sedimentation technique for the diagnosis of Giardia lamblia infection in stool samples of Peruvian children  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Comparar un kit ELISA comercial para coproantígenos y la técnica de sedimentación espontánea en tubo (TSET) para el diagnóstico de Giardia lamblia en muestras fecales de niños de una zona endémica peruana. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Fueron analizadas 174 muestras mediante la TSET y el kit Giardia [...] 2nd Generation ELISA. RESULTADOS: Fueron positivas 51 muestras por ELISA y 49 por TSET. CONCLUSIONES: El ELISA resultó ser altamente sensible y específico, sencillo y rápido; sin embargo, la muy buena concordancia, alta precisión, bajo costo y capacidad para detectar otros enteroparásitos hace que la TSET sea recomendable para el diagnóstico en zonas endémicas del Perú. Abstract in english OBJETIVE: To compare a commercial coproantigen ELISA kit and the technique of spontaneous sedimentation in tube (TSET) for the diagnosis of Giardia lamblia in fecal specimens from children in a Peruvian endemic area. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 174 fecal samples were analyzed by TSET and 2nd Generation Gi [...] ardia ELISA kit. RESULTS: 51 samples were positive by ELISA and 49 by TSET. CONCLUSIONS: The ELISA was highly sensitive and specific, simple and fast. However, the very good agreement, high precision, low cost and ability to detect other intestinal parasites makes use of TSET recommended for laboratory diagnosis in endemic areas of Peru.

Claudia, Rodríguez-Ulloa; Marco, Rivera-Jacinto.

2011-12-01

51

Comparación de métodos de lisis y extracción de ADN de trofozoítos de Giardia lamblia COMPARISON OF LYSIS METHODS AND DNA EXTRACTION OF GIARDIA LAMBLIA TROPHOZOITES  

OpenAIRE

Se evaluó la eficiencia de procedimientos de lisis y tratamientos de extracción de ADN de trofozoítos de Giardia lamblia respecto a la eficiencia de ruptura, cantidad y pureza de ADN, además de los tiempos de procesamiento y costos. Se testearon cinco métodos de lisis (agua destilada y calor; agua destilada, calor y proteinasa K; buffer de lisis D; buffer de lisis E y un kit comercial) y tres métodos de purificación de ADN (fenol:cloroformo: isoamílico; Chelex 100 y un kit comercial)....

Molina, Nora B.; DANIELA POLVERINO; Minvielle, Marta C.; MARÍA APEZTEGUÍA; MARIO AGUILAR; Basualdo, Juan A.

2006-01-01

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EXPERIMENTAL INFECTION OF MONGREL DOGS WITH 'GIARDIA LAMBLIA' CYSTS AND CULTURED TROPHOZOITES  

Science.gov (United States)

In light of recent epidemiologic data implicating wild and domestic animals in the transmission of giardiasis, a study was undertaken to determine whether mongrel dogs could be infected with Giardia lamblia. After careful screening by stool examination (a minimum of six stools ex...

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Detection of anti-Giardia lamblia serum antibody among children of day care centers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVES: To detect anti-Giardia lamblia serum antibodies in healthy children attending public day care centers and to assess serological tests as tools for estimating the prevalence of G. lamblia in endemic areas. METHODS: Three separate stool specimens and filter paper blood samples were collected from 147 children ranging from 0 to 6 years old. Each stool sample was processed using spontaneous sedimentation and zinc sulfate flotation methods. Blood samples were tested by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for Giardia IgG. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Of 147 individuals tested, 93 (63.3% showed Giardia cysts in their feces. Using IIF and ELISA, serum antibodies were detected in 93 (63.3% and 100 (68% samples , respectively. Sensitivity of IIF and ELISA was 82% and 72%, respectively. However, ELISA revealed to be less specific (39% than IIF (70%. IIF also showed a higher concordance with microscopic examination than ELISA.

Guimarães Semíramis

2002-01-01

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Crystal structure of a macrophage migration inhibitory factor from Giardia lamblia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a eukaryotic cytokine that affects a broad spectrum of immune responses and its activation/inactivation is associated with numerous diseases. During protozoan infections MIF is not only expressed by the host, but, has also been observed to be expressed by some parasites and released into the host. To better understand the biological role of parasitic MIF proteins, the crystal structure of the MIF protein from Giardia lamblia (Gl-MIF), the etiological agent responsible for giardiasis, has been determined at 2.30 Å resolution. The 114-residue protein adopts an ?/? fold consisting of a four-stranded ?-sheet with two anti-parallel ?-helices packed against a face of the ?-sheet. An additional short ?-strand aligns anti-parallel to ?4 of the ?-sheet in the adjacent protein unit to help stabilize a trimer, the biologically relevant unit observed in all solved MIF crystal structures to date, and form a discontinuous ?-barrel. The structure of Gl-MIF is compared to the MIF structures from humans (Hs-MIF) and three Plasmodium species (falciparum, berghei, and yoelii). The structure of all five MIF proteins are generally similar with the exception of a channel that runs through the center of each trimer complex. Relative to Hs-MIF, there are differences in solvent accessibility and electrostatic potential distribution in the channel of Gl-MIF and the Plasmodium-MIFs due primarily to two “gate-keeper” residues in the parasitic MIFs. For the Plasmodium MIFs the gate-keeper residues are at positions 44 (Y==>R) and 100 (V==>D) and for Gl-MIF it is at position 100 (V==>R). If these gate-keeper residues have a biological function and contribute to the progression of parasitemia they may also form the basis for structure-based drug design targeting parasitic MIF proteins.

Buchko, Garry W.; Abendroth, Jan; Robinson, Howard; Zhang, Yanfeng; Hewitt, Stephen N.; Edwards, Tom E.; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Myler, Peter J.

2013-06-15

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Identification and analysis of the RNA degrading complexes and machinery of Giardia lamblia using an in silico approach  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background RNA degradation is critical to the survival of all cells. With increasing evidence for pervasive transcription in cells, RNA degradation has gained recognition as a means of regulating gene expression. Yet, RNA degradation machinery has been studied extensively in only a few eukaryotic organisms, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae and humans. Giardia lamblia is a parasitic protist with unusual genomic traits: it is binucleated and tetraploid, has a very compact genome, displays a theme of genomic minimalism with cellular machinery commonly comprised of a reduced number of protein components, and has a remarkably large population of long, stable, noncoding, antisense RNAs. Results Here we use in silico approaches to investigate the major RNA degradation machinery in Giardia lamblia and compare it to a broad array of other parasitic protists. We have found key constituents of the deadenylation and decapping machinery and of the 5'-3' RNA degradation pathway. We have similarly found that all of the major 3'-5' RNA degradation pathways are present in Giardia, including both exosome-dependent and exosome-independent machinery. However, we observe significant loss of RNA degradation machinery genes that will result in important differences in the protein composition, and potentially functionality, of the various RNA degradation pathways. This is most apparent in the exosome, the central mediator of 3'-5' degradation, which apparently contains an altered core configuration in both Giardia and Plasmodium, with only four, instead of the canonical six, distinct subunits. Additionally the exosome in Giardia is missing both the Rrp6, Nab3, and Nrd1 proteins, known to be key regulators of noncoding transcript stability in other cells. Conclusions These findings suggest that although the full complement of the major RNA degradation mechanisms were present - and likely functional - early in eukaryotic evolution, the composition and function of the complexes is more variable than previously appreciated. We suggest that the missing components of the exosome complex provide an explanation for the stable abundance of sterile RNA species in Giardia.

Williams Christopher W

2011-11-01

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Efecto de un extracto de Petiveria Alliacea Lin sobre el crecimiento de Giardia lamblia in vitro  

OpenAIRE

Se evaluó el efecto de un extracto fluido elaborado con un menstruo de Petiveria alliacea (anamú) sobre el crecimiento in vitro de Giardia lamblia. Para este ensayo se empleó una cepa aislada en el Instituto de Medicina Tropical "Pedro Kourí", procedente de un paciente infestado. Los cultivos fueron incubados a 37 °C durante 48 h y posteriormente ajustada su concentración a 2 ´105 parásitos por 0,5 mL. Los resultados obtenidos muestran un marcado efecto antigiardiásico, por los altos...

Aimée Echevarría; Dinorah Torres Idavoy

2001-01-01

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Ozonoterapia en el síndrome de malabsorción intestinal secundario a parasitismo por Giardia lamblia: estudio preliminar  

OpenAIRE

Se estudió el efecto de la ozonoterapia combinada (OLEOZON® oral y ozonoterapia rectal) en el síndrome de malabsorción intestinal, secundario a parasitismo intestinal por Giardia lamblia. Se tomaron 186 pacientes y se formaron 3 grupos de 62 pacientes cada uno. El primer grupo se trató con metronidazol y vitaminoterapia, el segundo con OLEOZON® oral y vitaminoterapia y el tercero con ozonoterapia combinada y vitaminoterapia. Los pacientes fueron evaluados clínicamente por drenaje bilia...

Nazarina Ivonne Méndez Pérez; Calunga Ferna?ndez, Jose? L.; Silvia Menéndez Cepero

2003-01-01

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Comparación de métodos de lisis y extracción de ADN de trofozoítos de Giardia lamblia COMPARISON OF LYSIS METHODS AND DNA EXTRACTION OF GIARDIA LAMBLIA TROPHOZOITES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se evaluó la eficiencia de procedimientos de lisis y tratamientos de extracción de ADN de trofozoítos de Giardia lamblia respecto a la eficiencia de ruptura, cantidad y pureza de ADN, además de los tiempos de procesamiento y costos. Se testearon cinco métodos de lisis (agua destilada y calor; agua destilada, calor y proteinasa K; buffer de lisis D; buffer de lisis E y un kit comercial y tres métodos de purificación de ADN (fenol:cloroformo: isoamílico; Chelex 100 y un kit comercial. Los datos obtenidos se analizaron estadísticamente. La combinación de buffer de lisis E y Chelex fue un método simple y económico, que produjo alto rendimiento de ADN con baja pureza. Ella técnica comercial fue un método simple, más costoso que produjo bajas cantidades de ADN con un nivel de pureza apropiado para estudios molecularesThe efficiency of lysis procedures and DNA purification treatments of Giardia lamblia trophozoites were evaluated regarding the breaking-up efficiency, quantity and pureness of DNA, processing time and costs. Five lysis methods (distilled water and heating; distilled water, heating and proteinase K; buffer D Lysis; buffer E lysis, and commercial kit, and three DNA purification methods (phenol:chloroform:isoamilic, Chelex 100 and commercial kit were tested. The obtained data were statistically analyzed. The buffer E lysis and Chelex combination was simple and economic method which produced high DNA performance with low pureness. Commercial kit was simple and expensive method which generated low yields of DNA with appropriate purity level for molecular analysis

NORA B MOLINA

2006-12-01

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COMPARISON OF CONVENTIONAL AND MOLECULAR METHODS FOR DETECTION OF Giardia lamblia IN HUMAN FEACES / COMPARACIÓN DE MÉTODOS CONVENCIONALES Y MOLECULARES PARA LA DETECCIÓN DE Giardia lamblia EN HECES HUMANAS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The protozoa of the genus Giardia represent one of the most common human parasites in the world and are among the main causes of gastrointestinal infections and diarrheal diseases in humans. Parasite detection is generally based on concentration and conventional microscopy methods, but these techniques have limitations due to their low sensitivity and specificity in diagnosis. In an attempt to improve the diagnostic methods, molecular techniques are emerging as a promising alternative. In this study 88 stool samples from patients of a company that provides health services (ASSBASALUD in the city of Manizales (Caldas were analyzed. In order to detect Giardia lamblia in stool, three different methods were compared using the positivity percent: conventional methods for concentration of the sample and microscopic observation, analysis by immunoassay (indirect ELISA and finally the amplification of two nuclear gene sequences by PCR. Three positive samples were obtained by concentration and conventional microscopy, two by immunoassay and 26 by molecular techniques. The study suggests that routine diagnostic tests based on conventional microscopy and immunoassay have lower detection rate of this parasite and that this deficiency can be compensated by means of the implementation of molecular diagnostic methods based on PCR, as a complementary strategy to support the diagnosis of this protozoan. RESUMEN: Los protozoarios del género Giardia representan algunos de los parásitos humanos más comunes en el mundo y están entre los principales causantes de infecciones gastrointestinales y enfermedades diarreicas en humanos. La detección del parásito se fundamenta generalmente en los métodos por concentración y microscopía convencional, pero estas técnicas presentan limitaciones por su baja sensibilidad e inespecificidad en el diagnóstico. En procura de mejorar los métodos de diagnóstico, las técnicas moleculares se perfilan como una alternativa promisoria. En este estudio se analizaron 88 muestras de heces provenientes de pacientes de una empresa prestadora de servicios de salud (ASSBASALUD de la ciudad de Manizales (Caldas. Para la detección de Giardia lamblia en heces se compararon tres métodos diferentes por medio del porcentaje de positividad: los métodos convencionales de concentración de la muestra y observación microscópica, análisis por inmunoensayo (ELISA indirecto y finalmente la amplificación de dos secuencias génicas nucleares por PCR. Se obtuvieron tres muestras positivas por concentración y microscopía convencional, dos por inmunoensayo y 26 por técnicas moleculares. El estudio sugiere que las pruebas diagnósticas rutinarias basadas en microscopía convencional e inmunoensayo, tienen más bajo porcentaje de detección de este parásito y que esta deficiencia puede ser compensada por medio de la implementación de métodos de diagnóstico molecular basados en PCR, como una estrategia complementaria de apoyo en el diagnóstico de este protozoo.

Edwin Cardona

2014-03-01

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Identification of an immunogenic protein of Giardia lamblia using monoclonal antibodies generated from infected mice  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The humoral immune response plays an important role in the clearance of Giardia lamblia. However, our knowledge about the specific antigens of G. lamblia that induce a protective immune response is limited. The purpose of this study was to identify and characterise the immunogenic proteins of G. lam [...] blia in a mouse model. We generated monoclonal antibodies (moAbs) specific to G. lamblia (1B10, 2C9.D11, 3C10.E5, 3D10, 5G8.B5, 5F4, 4C7, 3C5 and 3C6) by fusing splenocytes derived from infected mice. Most of these moAbs recognised a band of ± 71 kDa (5G8 protein) and this protein was also recognised by serum from the infected mice. We found that the moAbs recognised conformational epitopes of the 5G8 protein and that this antigen is expressed on the cell surface and inside trophozoites. Additionally, antibodies specific to the 5G8 protein induced strong agglutination (> 70-90%) of trophozoites. We have thus identified a highly immunogenic antigen of G. lamblia that is recognised by the immune system of infected mice. In summary, this study describes the identification and partial characterisation of an immunogenic protein of G. lamblia. Additionally, we generated a panel of moAbs specific for this protein that will be useful for the biochemical and immunological characterisation of this immunologically interesting Giardia molecule.

Jael, Quintero; Diana Carolina, Figueroa; Rafael, Barcelo; Linda, Breci; Humberto, Astiazaran-Garcia; Lucila, Rascon; Ramon, Robles-Zepeda; Adriana, Garibay-Escobar; Enrique, Velazquez-Contreras; Gloria Leon, Avila; Jose Manuel, Hernandez-Hernandez; Carlos, Velazquez.

2013-08-01

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Rapid reinfection by Giardia lamblia after treatment in a hyperendemic area: the case against treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

We selected 40S children aged 1-10 years with Giardia lamblia infection but without abdominal orgastrointestinal complaints for the previous month. For 5 days, 204 received metronidazole 15 mg/kg/day and 201 received B-complex syrup. Stool samples were examined 2-3 weeks and 3 months after treatment and results were tested with chi-squared. Weight and height 6 months after treatment were compared with primary weight and height by Z-score and Student t-test. Metronidazole efficacy at 2-3 weeks was 85.3%. Three months after treatment, 60 were reinfected (34.5%) and 71 had spontaneously cleared (35.3%). Because of high reinfection, spontaneous clearing and treatment failure rates, and the lack of effect on nutritional status or growth, we do not recommend treatment for children with asymptomatic giardia infection. PMID:16532674

Saffar, M J; Qaffari, J; Khalilian, A R; Kosarian, M

2005-01-01

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A unique mechanism of nuclear division in Giardia lamblia involves components of the ventral disk and the nuclear envelope  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in english The fine structure of the binucleate, parasitic protist Giardia lamblia during interphase and divisional stages was studied by serial thin sectioning and three-dimensional reconstructions. The earlier sign of nuclear division is the development of a few peripheral areas of densely packed chromatin d [...] irectly attached to the inner nuclear envelope. An intracytoplasmic sheet of ventral disk components grows from the cell periphery towards one of the nuclei, apparently constricting this nucleus, which becomes located at a ventral bulge. After the basal bodies become duplicated, a full nuclear division occurs in trophozoites, giving two pairs of parent-daughter nuclei. This full division occurs in a dorsal-ventral direction, with the resulting nuclear pairs located at the sides of the two sets of basal bodies. A new ventral disk is formed from the disk-derived sheets in the cell harboring the four nuclei. Cytokinesis is polymorphic, but at early stages is dorsal-to-dorsal. Encysting trophozoites show the development of Golgi cisternae stacks and dense, specific secretory granules. 3-D reconstructions show that cysts contain a single pair of incompletely strangled nuclei. The dividing Giardia lacks a typical, microtubular spindle either inside or outside the nuclei. The nuclear envelope seems to be the only structure involved in the final division of the parent-daughter nuclei.

Alberto J., Solari; Monica I., Rahn; Alicia, Saura; Hugo D., Lujan.

2003-12-01

63

A unique mechanism of nuclear division in Giardia lamblia involves components of the ventral disk and the nuclear envelope  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The fine structure of the binucleate, parasitic protist Giardia lamblia during interphase and divisional stages was studied by serial thin sectioning and three-dimensional reconstructions. The earlier sign of nuclear division is the development of a few peripheral areas of densely packed chromatin directly attached to the inner nuclear envelope. An intracytoplasmic sheet of ventral disk components grows from the cell periphery towards one of the nuclei, apparently constricting this nucleus, which becomes located at a ventral bulge. After the basal bodies become duplicated, a full nuclear division occurs in trophozoites, giving two pairs of parent-daughter nuclei. This full division occurs in a dorsal-ventral direction, with the resulting nuclear pairs located at the sides of the two sets of basal bodies. A new ventral disk is formed from the disk-derived sheets in the cell harboring the four nuclei. Cytokinesis is polymorphic, but at early stages is dorsal-to-dorsal. Encysting trophozoites show the development of Golgi cisternae stacks and dense, specific secretory granules. 3-D reconstructions show that cysts contain a single pair of incompletely strangled nuclei. The dividing Giardia lacks a typical, microtubular spindle either inside or outside the nuclei. The nuclear envelope seems to be the only structure involved in the final division of the parent-daughter nuclei.

Alberto J. Solari

2003-12-01

64

Association between Whipple's disease and Giardia lamblia infection / Asociación de enfermedad de Whipple e infección por Giardia lamblia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in spanish La enfermedad de Whipple se caracteriza por afectar principalmente al aparato digestivo, aunque puede ser un proceso multisistémico con variadas manifestaciones clínicas. En el año 2000 se ha conseguido aislar y cultivar el bacilo causante y recientemente, en el 2003, se ha analizado la secuencia co [...] mpleta del genoma, lo que supone nuevas perspectivas para el diagnóstico y el tratamiento. La giardiasis es una infección originada por un protozoo que puede evolucionar de forma subclínica o dar lugar a un síndrome de malabsorción. Describimos el caso de un paciente varón de mediana edad, que tras un periodo de tres años de artralgias migratorias en articulaciones periféricas, presentó un cuadro de pérdida de peso, con aumento del número de deposiciones y molestias abdominales siendo diagnosticado de Giardiasis y ante la persistencia de los síntomas y la posterior realización de diferentes estudios, de enfermedad de Whipple. Están descritos en la literatura 19 casos de coinfección Giardia-Whipple, sin que en el momento actual esté aclarado el por qué de esta asociación. Se mantiene la discusión sobre si existe una alteración en el sistema inmunitario que facilite las infecciones o si, por otro lado, el desarrollo de una infección favorece el origen de la otra. Abstract in english Whipple'disease is mainly characterized by affecting the digestive system, although it can be a multisystemic process with different clinical symptoms. The bacillus causing the disease has been isolated and cultivated in 2000 and the genome sequence has been recently analyzed in 2003, which means ne [...] w perspectives for its diagnosis and treatment. Giardiasis is an infestation caused by a protozoo and may cause a malabsorption syndrome or run in a subclinic way. The case of a middle-aged male is described, who after a three-year period of migratory arthralgias, showed weight loss, diarrheas and abdominal pain, being diagnosed of Giardiasis, and after the persistent symptoms and a number of studies, was diagnosed with Whipple disease. Nineteen cases of Giardia-Whipple coinfection have been described in the literature, but the reason of this association has not been found yet. The discussion on whether there is an alteration in the inmunitary system which facilitates infections or, the development of an infection lead to the other one, goes on.

J. A., Gil Ruiz; P., Gil Simón; R., Aparicio Duque; J. L., Mayor Jerez.

2005-07-01

65

Association between Whipple's disease and Giardia lamblia infection Asociación de enfermedad de Whipple e infección por Giardia lamblia  

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Full Text Available Whipple'disease is mainly characterized by affecting the digestive system, although it can be a multisystemic process with different clinical symptoms. The bacillus causing the disease has been isolated and cultivated in 2000 and the genome sequence has been recently analyzed in 2003, which means new perspectives for its diagnosis and treatment. Giardiasis is an infestation caused by a protozoo and may cause a malabsorption syndrome or run in a subclinic way. The case of a middle-aged male is described, who after a three-year period of migratory arthralgias, showed weight loss, diarrheas and abdominal pain, being diagnosed of Giardiasis, and after the persistent symptoms and a number of studies, was diagnosed with Whipple disease. Nineteen cases of Giardia-Whipple coinfection have been described in the literature, but the reason of this association has not been found yet. The discussion on whether there is an alteration in the inmunitary system which facilitates infections or, the development of an infection lead to the other one, goes on.La enfermedad de Whipple se caracteriza por afectar principalmente al aparato digestivo, aunque puede ser un proceso multisistémico con variadas manifestaciones clínicas. En el año 2000 se ha conseguido aislar y cultivar el bacilo causante y recientemente, en el 2003, se ha analizado la secuencia completa del genoma, lo que supone nuevas perspectivas para el diagnóstico y el tratamiento. La giardiasis es una infección originada por un protozoo que puede evolucionar de forma subclínica o dar lugar a un síndrome de malabsorción. Describimos el caso de un paciente varón de mediana edad, que tras un periodo de tres años de artralgias migratorias en articulaciones periféricas, presentó un cuadro de pérdida de peso, con aumento del número de deposiciones y molestias abdominales siendo diagnosticado de Giardiasis y ante la persistencia de los síntomas y la posterior realización de diferentes estudios, de enfermedad de Whipple. Están descritos en la literatura 19 casos de coinfección Giardia-Whipple, sin que en el momento actual esté aclarado el por qué de esta asociación. Se mantiene la discusión sobre si existe una alteración en el sistema inmunitario que facilite las infecciones o si, por otro lado, el desarrollo de una infección favorece el origen de la otra.

J. A. Gil Ruiz

2005-07-01

66

Rapid imaging, detection and quantification of Giardia lamblia cysts using mobile-phone based fluorescent microscopy and machine learning.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rapid and sensitive detection of waterborne pathogens in drinkable and recreational water sources is crucial for treating and preventing the spread of water related diseases, especially in resource-limited settings. Here we present a field-portable and cost-effective platform for detection and quantification of Giardia lamblia cysts, one of the most common waterborne parasites, which has a thick cell wall that makes it resistant to most water disinfection techniques including chlorination. The platform consists of a smartphone coupled with an opto-mechanical attachment weighing ~205 g, which utilizes a hand-held fluorescence microscope design aligned with the camera unit of the smartphone to image custom-designed disposable water sample cassettes. Each sample cassette is composed of absorbent pads and mechanical filter membranes; a membrane with 8 ?m pore size is used as a porous spacing layer to prevent the backflow of particles to the upper membrane, while the top membrane with 5 ?m pore size is used to capture the individual Giardia cysts that are fluorescently labeled. A fluorescence image of the filter surface (field-of-view: ~0.8 cm(2)) is captured and wirelessly transmitted via the mobile-phone to our servers for rapid processing using a machine learning algorithm that is trained on statistical features of Giardia cysts to automatically detect and count the cysts captured on the membrane. The results are then transmitted back to the mobile-phone in less than 2 minutes and are displayed through a smart application running on the phone. This mobile platform, along with our custom-developed sample preparation protocol, enables analysis of large volumes of water (e.g., 10-20 mL) for automated detection and enumeration of Giardia cysts in ~1 hour, including all the steps of sample preparation and analysis. We evaluated the performance of this approach using flow-cytometer-enumerated Giardia-contaminated water samples, demonstrating an average cyst capture efficiency of ~79% on our filter membrane along with a machine learning based cyst counting sensitivity of ~84%, yielding a limit-of-detection of ~12 cysts per 10 mL. Providing rapid detection and quantification of microorganisms, this field-portable imaging and sensing platform running on a mobile-phone could be useful for water quality monitoring in field and resource-limited settings. PMID:25537426

Koydemir, Hatice Ceylan; Gorocs, Zoltan; Tseng, Derek; Cortazar, Bingen; Feng, Steve; Chan, Raymond Yan Lok; Burbano, Jordi; McLeod, Euan; Ozcan, Aydogan

2015-02-16

67

Characteristics and risk factors for symptomatic Giardia lamblia infections in Germany  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In developed countries, giardiasis is considered a travel related disease. However, routine surveillance data from Germany indicate that >50% of infections were acquired indigenously. We studied the epidemiological characteristics of symptomatic Giardia infections acquired in Germany and abroad, and verified the proportion of cases acquired in Germany in order to investigate risk factors for sporadic autochthonous Giardia infections. Methods We identified Giardia cases notified by 41 local health authorities between February 2007 and January 2008 and interviewed them on their clinical symptoms, underlying morbidities, travel abroad and potential risk factors for the disease. We conducted a case-control-study including laboratory-confirmed (microscopy or antigen-test autochthonous Giardia cases with clinical manifestations (diarrhoea, cramps, bloating and randomly selected controls from the local population registry matched by county of residence and age-group (0-5, 6-19, ?20 years. Secondary cases, controls with diarrhoea and persons who had travelled outside Germany in the three weeks prior to disease onset (exposure period were excluded. We calculated adjusted odds ratios (aOR with 95% confidence intervals (CI using conditional logistic regression. Results Of 273 interviewed cases, 131 (48% had not travelled abroad during the defined exposure period. Of these 131, 85 (65% were male, 68 (54% were living in communities with >100,000 inhabitants and 107 (83% were aged 20 years or older. We included 120 cases and 240 controls in the case-control study. Cases were more likely to be male (aOR 2.5 CI 1.4-4.4, immunocompromised (aOR 15.3 CI 1.8-127 and daily consumers of green salad (aOR 2.9 CI 1.2-7.2. Contact with animals (pets/farm animals and exposure to surface water (swimming/water sports were not associated with symptomatic disease. Conclusions A substantial proportion of Giardia lamblia cases in Germany are indigenously acquired. Symptomatic cases are significantly more likely to be immunocompromised than control persons from the general population. Physicians should consider Giardia infections among patients with no recent history of travel abroad, particularly if they have immune deficiencies. Green salads may be an important vehicle of infection. Information campaigns highlighting this food-borne risk should emphasise the risk to persons with immune deficiencies.

Stark Klaus

2010-01-01

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Heterogeneity of quaternary structure of glucosamine-6-phosphate deaminase from Giardia lamblia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The oligoHis-tagged versions of glucosamine-6-phosphate deaminase from Giardia lamblia (GlmNagB-HisN, GlmNagB-HisC) were constructed and purified to hear homogeneity, and their kinetic and structural properties were compared to those of the wild-type enzyme (GlmNagB). Introduction of the oligoHis tag at the GlmNagB C-terminus resulted in almost complete loss of the catalytic activity, while the catalytic properties of GlmNagB-HisN and GlmNagB were very similar. The recombinant and wild-type enzyme exhibits heterogeneity of the quaternary structure and in solution exists in three interconvertible forms, namely, monomeric, homodimeric, and homotetrameric. Although the monomeric form is prevalent, the monomer/dimer/tetramer ratios depended on protein concentration and fell within the range from 72:27:1 to 39:23:38. The enzyme is fully active in each of the oligomeric structures, efficiently catalyzes synthesis of D-glucosamine-6-phosphate from D-fructose-6-phosphate and ammonia, and its activity is not modified by GlcNAc6P, UDP-GlcNAc, or UDP-GalNAc. GlcN6P deaminase of G. lamblia represents a novel structural and functional type of enzyme of the NagB subfamily. PMID:25326378

Kwiatkowska-Semrau, Karolina; Czarnecka, Justyna; Wojciechowski, Marek; Milewski, S?awomir

2015-01-01

69

Structure-activity relationships of pentamidine analogs against Giardia lamblia and correlation of antigiardial activity with DNA-binding affinity.  

OpenAIRE

1,5-Di(4-amidinophenoxy)pentane (pentamidine) and 38 analogs of pentamidine were screened for in vitro activity against the enteric protozoan Giardia lamblia WB (ATCC 30957). All compounds were active against G. lamblia as measured by a [methyl-3H]thymidine incorporation assay. Antigiardial activity varied widely, with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) ranging from 0.51 +/- 0.13 microM (mean +/- standard deviation) for the most active compound to over 100.0 microM for the least active com...

Bell, C. A.; Cory, M.; Fairley, T. A.; Hall, J. E.; Tidwell, R. R.

1991-01-01

70

Freqüência de Giardia lamblia em cães atendidos em clínicas veterinárias de Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil / Frequency of Giardia lamblia in dogs attended by veterinary clinics in Porto Alegre city, RS, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A pesquisa de cistos de Giardia lamblia em fezes de cães oriundos de clínicas veterinárias de Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, foi realizada pelo método de FAUST et al. (1939). Das 526 amostras analisadas, 38% (198) foram positivas para cistos de G. lamblia, sendo 22% (116) constituídos por animais menores [...] de 11 meses de idade e 16% (82) constituídos por animais com 12 meses ou mais de idade. Houve diferença significativa (p Abstract in english The method of Faust et al. (1939) was utilized for detection of Giardia lamblia cysts in feces from dogs in Porto Alegre city, Rio Grande Sul State, Brazil. From the 526 analyzed samples 38% (198) showed positive results for the presence of G. lamblia cyst, so 22% (116) belonged to group one, formed [...] by animals that were less than eleven months old; and 16% (82) belonged to group two, formed by animals that were twelve months or older. There was a significant difference (p

Adriane, Bartmann; Flávio Antônio Pacheco de, Araújo.

1093-10-01

71

Freqüência de Giardia lamblia em cães atendidos em clínicas veterinárias de Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil Frequency of Giardia lamblia in dogs attended by veterinary clinics in Porto Alegre city, RS, Brazil  

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Full Text Available A pesquisa de cistos de Giardia lamblia em fezes de cães oriundos de clínicas veterinárias de Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, foi realizada pelo método de FAUST et al. (1939. Das 526 amostras analisadas, 38% (198 foram positivas para cistos de G. lamblia, sendo 22% (116 constituídos por animais menores de 11 meses de idade e 16% (82 constituídos por animais com 12 meses ou mais de idade. Houve diferença significativa (pThe method of Faust et al. (1939 was utilized for detection of Giardia lamblia cysts in feces from dogs in Porto Alegre city, Rio Grande Sul State, Brazil. From the 526 analyzed samples 38% (198 showed positive results for the presence of G. lamblia cyst, so 22% (116 belonged to group one, formed by animals that were less than eleven months old; and 16% (82 belonged to group two, formed by animals that were twelve months or older. There was a significant difference (p<0,05 among the two groups checked by the c² test. From the animals researched, 54% (285 were male dogs and from these 20% (104 presented cysts in their feces. From the other 46% (241, which were female dogs, 18% (95 presented positive results for the cysts of G. lamblia in their sample. The c² test applied to these data showed that there was not any significant difference between the results found in female or male dogs of all ages. Based on these results, we can come to the conclusion that 38% of the analyzed dogs showed positive results for the infection of G. lamblia and that the younger animals those aged less than eleven months presented a rate of risk to get infected which is two times bigger than the ones for the animals with 12 months or older, as well as, the fact that the sex of the animals did not present any association to the positive results of infection.

Adriane Bartmann

2004-08-01

72

Membrane trafficking and organelle biogenesis in Giardia lamblia: use it or lose it.  

Science.gov (United States)

The secretory transport capacity of Giardia trophozoites is perfectly adapted to the changing environment in the small intestine of the host and is able to deploy essential protective surface coats as well as molecules which act on epithelia. These lumen-dwelling parasites take up nutrients by bulk endocytosis through peripheral vesicles or by receptor-mediated transport. The environmentally-resistant cyst form is quiescent but poised for activation following stomach passage. Its versatility and fidelity notwithstanding, the giardial trafficking systems appear to be the product of a general secondary reduction process geared towards minimization of all components and machineries identified to date. Since membrane transport is directly linked to organelle biogenesis and maintenance, less complexity also means loss of organelle structures and functions. A case in point is the Golgi apparatus which is missing as a steady-state organelle system. Only a few basic Golgi functions have been experimentally demonstrated in trophozoites undergoing encystation. Similarly, mitochondrial remnants have reached a terminally minimized state and appear to be functionally restricted to essential iron-sulfur protein maturation processes. Giardia's minimized organization combined with its genetic tractability provides unique opportunities to study basic principles of secretory transport in an uncluttered cellular environment. Not surprisingly, Giardia is gaining increasing attention as a model for the investigation of gene regulation, organelle biogenesis, and export of simple but highly protective cell wall biopolymers, a hallmark of all perorally transmitted protozoan and metazoan parasites. PMID:21296082

Faso, Carmen; Hehl, Adrian B

2011-04-01

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Freqüencia da infecção por Giardia lamblia (Kunstler, 1882 em cães (Canis familiaris avaliada pelo Método de Faust e cols. (1939 e pela Coloração da Auramina, no município de Canoas, RS, Brasil Frequence of infection by Giardia lamblia (Kunstler, 1882 in dogs (Canis familiaris available trough the Faust and Collaborators Method (1939 and Auramine Staining in Canoas, RS, Brazil  

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Full Text Available Giardia lamblia é um protozoário que acomete mais comumente animais jovens e que convivem em grupos. Apesar da alta prevalência, nem todos os animais apresentam a forma clínica da doença. Mesmo assim, a giardíase tem importância epidemiológica por possuir um elevado potencial zoonótico. O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar a freqüência de Giardia lamblia em cães no município de Canoas, RS, Brasil, através do Método de Faust e cols. (1939 e da Técnica de Coloração da Auramina. Os grupos experimentais foram divididos de acordo com a procedência e o sexo. Das 332 amostras analisadas pelo Método de Faust e cols, a freqüência obtida foi de 34,04%, podendo variar de 28,95 a 39,13%, dentro de um intervalo de confiança de 95%. Destas amostras positivas, 40,96% foram de canil e 27,11% de cães de rua. O Teste Exato de Fisher aplicado a esses dados revelou existir uma diferença significativa (p=0,0107 entre as variáveis resultado e procedência. A variável sexo, neste método, não apresentou diferença significativa em relação ao resultado (P=0,8162 totalizando 33,11% de machos e 34,08% de fêmeas infectadas com o parasita. Das 147 amostras realizadas pela Técnica de Coloração da Auramina, 23 foram positivas, totalizando 15,65%. A análise estatística pelo Teste McNemar revelou existir diferença significativa entre as duas técnicas (P=0,0004. O valor Kappa foi igual a 0,07, considerado como um grau de concordância fraco. Os resultados encontrados neste estudo nos permitem afirmar que o Método de Faust e cols. foi o mais adequado para o diagnóstico da infecção por Giardia lamblia, sendo este parasita altamente prevalente na região estudada.Giardia lamblia is a protozoan that commonly infects young animals which live in groups. Despite its high prevalence many animals don’t exhibit clinical signs. Giardiasis is epidemiologically important concerning the zoonotic potential of the disease. The objective of this study was to determine the frequence of Giardia lamblia in the canine population of Canoas, RS, Brazil, applying the Faust and Collaborators Method (1939 and the Auramine Staining Technique. The dogs were classified according to the origin and gender. Feces samples of 332 dogs were analyzed by the Faust and Collaborators Method. The frequency of the infection obtained was 34.04%, ranging from 28.95% to 39.13% (confident interval at a 95% level. For kennel bred animals 40,96% of the samples were positive and for stray dogs 27.11%. Applying Fisher’s Exact Test to these figures there was a significant difference (P=0.0107 when comparing the origin of the animals and the results of the tests. However when comparing genders there was no significant difference (P=0.8162, the former with 33.11% of positive males and 34.08% positive females. When submitted to the Auramine Staining Technique(147 samples, 15.67% (23 of the samples resulted positive. The statistical analysis using the McNemar Test exposed a significant difference between both techniques (P=0.0004. The Kappa value of 0.07 obtained was considered of low rate. The results allow one to affirm that the Faust and Collaborators Method was the most suitable diagnostic test for Giardia lamblia infection, considering the high prevalence of this parasite in the studied region.

Cristiane Beck

2005-02-01

74

Freqüencia da infecção por Giardia lamblia (Kunstler, 1882) em cães (Canis familiaris) avaliada pelo Método de Faust e cols. (1939) e pela Coloração da Auramina, no município de Canoas, RS, Brasil Frequence of infection by Giardia lamblia (Kunstler, 1882) in dogs (Canis familiaris) available trough the Faust and Collaborators Method (1939) and Auramine Staining in Canoas, RS, Brazil  

OpenAIRE

Giardia lamblia é um protozoário que acomete mais comumente animais jovens e que convivem em grupos. Apesar da alta prevalência, nem todos os animais apresentam a forma clínica da doença. Mesmo assim, a giardíase tem importância epidemiológica por possuir um elevado potencial zoonótico. O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar a freqüência de Giardia lamblia em cães no município de Canoas, RS, Brasil, através do Método de Faust e cols. (1939) e da Técnica de Coloração...

Cristiane Beck; Flávio Antônio Pacheco de Araújo; Adriana Tarnowski Olicheski; Adriana Schneider Breyer

2005-01-01

75

In Vitro Effects of Metronidazole and Albendazole on Giardia lamblia Isolated from Iranian Patients  

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Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of metronidazole and albendazole against clinical isolates of Giardia lamblia in vitro. Methods: From all human samples of containing cysts, 10 isolates were successfully excysted in vitro. Trophozites viability was assessed by eosine 0.1% and cultured axenically in TYI-S-33 modified medium supplemented with heat inactivated bovine serum 10%. All cultures were incubated in 37°C for 24-48 h. After this time trophozoites were exposed to different concentration (0.05, 0.1, 2, 10, 50 µg/ml of drugs at 37º for 4 h.  The IC50 estimated between 0.1 and 10µg/ml for metronidazole and 0.062 and 0.1 µg/ml for albendazole. Results: Eight isolates were found susceptible to the metronidazole while all isolates were found susceptible to the albendazole. Statistical results indicated that there was significant difference (P<0.05 in the sensitivity to metronidazole and albendazole in all isolates.

A Dalimi

2008-04-01

76

The cysteine-rich protein gene family of Giardia lamblia: loss of the CRP170 gene in an antigenic variant.  

OpenAIRE

Giardia lamblia trophozoites demonstrate variable expression of a repertoire of cysteine-rich surface antigens in vitro and in vivo. The size of the repertoire has been estimated at 20 to 184, and specific variants can be detected after approximately 12 generations of in vitro growth for the WB isolate. In earlier studies, we cloned a portion of the gene for a 170-kDa surface antigen (CRP170) and demonstrated by DNA sequencing that it was cysteine rich (12%) and contained 2.6 copies of a tand...

Adam, R. D.; Yang, Y. M.; Nash, T. E.

1992-01-01

77

The Comparison of the Efficacy of Various Fixatives on Diverse Staining Methods of Giardia lamblia Cyst  

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Full Text Available The definite and exact diagnosis of protozoa is possible using high magnification objective lenses, provided that suitable stained smears are prepared. Therefore, the appropriateness of both fixative and staining methods to the species of parasite, which is the main objective of this study, is important. In this study, five various fixatives including (Merthiolate iodine formalin MIF, (Sodium acetate-acetic acid formalin SAF, (Polyvinyl alcohol PVA, formalin and schaudinn and four types of stains including Hematoxylin I, Hematoxylin II, Trichrome and Carbol-fuchsin were prepared using standard procedures. After the smears of stool samples containing Giadria lamblia cyst were prepared and kept for 24 h in various fixatives, the study was carried out using the four above-mentioned stains by changing the ingredients and time as well as by repeating the experiments. After fixing and staining all the smears in identical conditions along with the implementing interferences in the staining process, the following results were eventually obtained considering the morphologic indexes and negative and positive scores (from 1 to 20: formalin with 17 scores in hematoxylin I staining, formalin and SAF with 15 and 14 scores, respectively in Hematoxylin II staining, MIF with 13 scores in Trichrome staining and SAF, PVA, MIF with 11.5, 11.5 and 11 scores, respectively in carbol-fuchsin staining were found to be the best fixatives. Hematoxylin I staining using formalin fixative with 17 scores showed the best result while the maximum score for Carbol-fuchsin staining was 11.5 showing a necessity for more expenditure, time and expert cooperation to reach ideal results.

E. Badparva

2009-01-01

78

MALDI-MIS INVESTIGATIONS OF DRINKING WATER PATHOGENS--GIARDIA AND CRYPTOSPORIDIUM  

Science.gov (United States)

The protozoan parasites, Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia, have been responsible for numerous waterborne outbreaks of gastrointestinal illness in the United States. The 1993 cryptosporidiosis outbreak in Milwaukee affected approximately 400,000 people and resulted in o...

79

Retention of Escherichia coli, Giardia lamblia cysts and Ascaris lumbricoides eggs in agricultural soils irrigated by untreated wastewater.  

Science.gov (United States)

In central Mexico, agricultural irrigation reusing Mexico City's municipal wastewater has been occurring for the last century, resulting in the recharge of the local aquifer. However, groundwater of this zone is of good quality, indicating that the microorganisms contained in wastewater are retained by soil after infiltration. This study aims to assess the capacity of three agricultural soils to retain three microorganisms frequently found in wastewater, namely Escherichia coli (E. coli), Giardia lamblia (G. lamblia) cysts and Ascaris lumbricoides (A. lumbricoides) eggs, through batch sorption-desorption assays. The tested soils were: an organic-clayey soil (C-OM), a clayey soil (C-om) and a sandy soil (c-om). For the three soils, sorption equilibrium of E. coli was reached before 1 h, while for G. lamblia cysts and A. lumbricoides eggs, sorption equilibrium took 2.5 h. Sorption of E. coli was better described by the Freundlich model than by the Langmuir one. Higher retention of bacteria was observed in the C-om soil (KF = 4340) than in the C-OM and c-om ones (KF = 1821 and 0.01, respectively). Regarding G. lamblia cysts and A. lumbricoides eggs, data could not be fitted to the tested sorption models. For both organisms, retention was lower in the C-OM soil than in the C-om and c-om ones. In the desorption tests, a sudden liberation of E. coli from soils was observed, probably due to bacterial re-growth. Desorption of G. lamblia was higher in the sandy soil than in the clayey ones; desorption was not increased when a surfactant was applied to the soil, suggesting that hydrophobic interactions are not necessarily responsible for retention of the cysts onto the tested soils. For A. lumbricoides eggs, desorption using NaOCl solution suggested that retention was caused by interactions between the mineral fraction of the soil and the external walls of eggs. This study showed that the three target microorganisms are retained by the tested soils and that mineral domain of soil has an important role in such retention. PMID:23722173

Landa-Cansigno, O; Durán-Álvarez, J C; Jiménez-Cisneros, B

2013-10-15

80

Evaluation of nine immunoassay kits (enzyme immunoassay and direct fluorescence) for detection of Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum in human fecal specimens.  

OpenAIRE

It is well known that Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum can cause severe symptoms in humans, particularly those who are immunologically compromised. Immunoassay procedures offer both increased sensitivity and specificity compared to conventional staining methods. These reagents are also helpful when screening large numbers of patients, particularly in an outbreak situation or when screening patients with minimal symptoms. The data obtained by using 9 diagnostic kits were compared: di...

Garcia, L. S.; Shimizu, R. Y.

1997-01-01

81

Atrofia Villositaria Duodenal, un Hallazgo Inesperadamente Frecuente en Infestación por Giardia Lamblia / Duodenal villous atrophy, an unexpectedly common finding in giardia lamblia infestation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Estudiar la presencia y frecuencia de los cambios histopatológicos tales como atrofia villositaria, linfocitosis intraepitelial, hiperplasia linfoide nodular y presencia de eosinófilos en biopsis duodenales informadas como Giardiasis. METODOLOGÍA: Se recolectó todos los casos diagnosticado [...] s como giardiasis duodenal durante el período 2005 a 2009 en 5 diferentes servicios de anatomía patológica y fueron revisados por un grupo de patólogos. RESULTADOS: Se incluyeron 30 casos. Se observó atrofia de las vellosidades en el 61,2%, incremento de linfocitos intraepiteliales en 63,3%, presencia de folículos linfoides en el 43,3% el promedio de eosinófilos en lámina propia por campo de alto poder fue aprox. 7. DISCUSIÓN: Nuestro porcentaje de atrofia villositaria es mucho mayor que lo reportado por otros autores, los casos con atrofia presentaron mayor frecuencia de linfocitosis 83,3% que los casos sin atrofia. (30%). Este hallazgo coincide con la relación directa entre linfocitos intraepiteliales /atrofia de vellosidades descrita por varios autores. Ninguno de los casos con hiperplasia linfoide, presentó ausencia de células plasmáticas que nos hiciera sospechar histológicamente de algún tipo de inmunodepresión humoral. El número de eosinófilos encontrado fue levemente elevado. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To study the histological changes observed in Giardia positive biopsies obtained from the duodenum.: The number of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL), grade of villous atrophy, presence of lymph follicles and number of eosinophils in the lamina propria per HPF were assessed. METHODS: All g [...] iardia positive biopsies diagnosed during period 2005-2009 in 5 pathology units were reevaluated by a group of pathologists. RESULTS: Thirty cases were included. Atrophic villous architecture was seen in 61,2%, increase in number of intraepithelial lymphocytes in 63,3% The occurrence of lymphoid follicles in 43,3%. DISCUSSION: Villous atrophy was higher than reported by others authors, cases with atrophy showed greater frequency of increase in the number of intraepithelial lymphocytes than cases without atrophy. No cases with lymph follicle showed lack of plasmatic cells, the number of eosinophils was subtly increased.

Fernando, Arévalo; Violeta, Aragón; Domingo, Morales L.; Domingo, Morales Caramutti; Jannitza, Arandia; Gabriel, Alcocer.

2010-09-01

82

The cysteine-rich protein gene family of Giardia lamblia: loss of the CRP170 gene in an antigenic variant.  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardia lamblia trophozoites demonstrate variable expression of a repertoire of cysteine-rich surface antigens in vitro and in vivo. The size of the repertoire has been estimated at 20 to 184, and specific variants can be detected after approximately 12 generations of in vitro growth for the WB isolate. In earlier studies, we cloned a portion of the gene for a 170-kDa surface antigen (CRP170) and demonstrated by DNA sequencing that it was cysteine rich (12%) and contained 2.6 copies of a tandemly repeated 195-bp pair sequence. The clone hybridized to multiple bands on a Southern blot of G. lamblia DNA in a pattern that was variable among the cloned lines but did not correlate with expression of CRP170. We have now cloned a nearly full length cDNA as well as genomic clones for CRP170 from the WBA6 cloned isolate. In addition, we have isolated a cDNA clone from the WB1269 line (expressing CRP72), an antigenic variant which was derived from WBA6. Sequence analysis of the CRP170 and CRP72 genes revealed marked C-terminal amino acid homology, suggesting a conserved functional role such as membrane anchoring. The CRP170 repeat oligonucleotide hybridized to a stairstep of bands approximately 6 kb in size on HindIII-digested WBA6 DNA representing the expressed copy(ies) of CRP170. In contrast, there was no hybridization to a fragment of similar size in WB1269, suggesting that WB1269 trophozoites have lost the expressed copy of the CRP170 gene. Images PMID:1545800

Adam, R D; Yang, Y M; Nash, T E

1992-01-01

83

Comparison between immunomagnetic separation, coupled with immunofluorescence, and the techniques of Faust et al. and of Lutz for the diagnosis of Giardia lamblia cysts in human feces / Comparação entre a imuno-separação magnética, acoplada à imunofluorescência, e as técnicas de Faust et al. e de Lutz para o diagnóstico de cistos de Giardia lamblia em fezes humanas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese No presente trabalho, o desempenho da técnica de Imunoseparação Magnética, acoplada à Imunofluorescência (IMS-IFA), foi comparado com aqueles das técnicas parasitológicas de FAUST et al. e de Lutz na detecção de cistos de Giardia lamblia em fezes humanas. Foram processadas 127 amostras de fezes pela [...] s três técnicas paralelamente e a detecção de cistos foi de 27,5% para IMS-IFA e de 15,7% para as técnicas de FAUST et al. e de Lutz concomitantemente. A análise dos resultados mostrou maior sensibilidade da IMS-IFA na detecção de cistos de G. lamblia quando comparada aos métodos de FAUST et al. e Lutz. A utilização desta metodologia como procedimento de rotina proporciona o processamento de várias amostras simultaneamente, além de aumentar a recuperação de cistos de G. lamblia e reduzir o tempo de estocagem das amostras. Abstract in english In the present study, the performance of Immunomagnetic Separation technique, coupled with Immunofluorescence (IMS-IFA), was compared with the FAUST et al. and Lutz parasitological techniques for the detection of Giardia lamblia cysts in human feces. One hundred and twenty-seven samples were evaluat [...] ed by the three techniques at the same time showing a rate of cyst detection of 27.5% by IMS-IFA and 15.7% by both Faust et al. and Lutz techniques. Data analysis showed a higher sensitivity of IMS-IFA for the detection of G. lamblia cysts in comparison with the techniques of FAUST et al. and Lutz. The use of this methodology as a routine procedure enables the processing of many samples simultaneously, in order to increase recovery rate of G. lamblia cysts and reduce the time of sample storage.

Doris Sobral Marques, Souza; Juliana Teixeira, Barreiros; Karina Maria, Papp; Mário, Steindel; Cláudia Maria Oliveira, Simões; Célia Regina Monte, Barardi.

2003-12-01

84

Rational Design Synthesis and Evaluation of First Generation Inhibitors of the Giardia Lamblia Fructose-1 6-biphosphate Aldolase  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Inhibitors of the Giardia lamblia fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (GlFBPA), which transforms fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) to dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, were designed based on 3-hydroxy-2-pyridone and 1,2-dihydroxypyridine scaffolds that position two negatively charged tetrahedral groups for interaction with substrate phosphate binding residues, a hydrogen bond donor to the catalytic Asp83, and a Zn{sup 2+} binding group. The inhibition activities for the GlFBPA catalyzed reaction of FBP of the prepared alkyl phosphonate/phosphate substituted 3-hydroxy-2-pyridinones and a dihydroxypyridine were determined. The 3-hydroxy-2-pyridone inhibitor 8 was found to bind to GlFBPA with an affinity (K{sub i} = 14 {micro}M) that is comparable to that of FBP (K{sub m} = 2 {micro}M) or its inert analog TBP (K{sub i} = 1 {micro}M). The X-ray structure of the GlFBPA-inhibitor 8 complex (2.3 {angstrom}) shows that 8 binds to the active site in the manner predicted by in silico docking with the exception of coordination with Zn{sup 2+}. The observed distances and orientation of the pyridone ring O=C-C-OH relative to Zn{sup 2+} are not consistent with a strong interaction. To determine if Zn{sup 2+} coordination occurs in the GlFBPA-inhibitor 8 complex in solution, EXAFS spectra were measured. A four coordinate geometry comprised of the three enzyme histidine ligands and an oxygen atom from the pyridone ring O=C-C-OH was indicated. Analysis of the Zn{sup 2+} coordination geometries in recently reported structures of class II FBPAs suggests that strong Zn{sup 2+} coordination is reserved for the enediolate-like transition state, accounting for minimal contribution of Zn{sup 2+} coordination to binding of 8 to GlFBPA.

Z Li; Z Liu; D Cho; J Zou; M Gong; R Breece; A Galkin; L Li; H Zhao; et al.

2011-12-31

85

Parasitismo por Giardia sp. e Cryptosporidium sp. em Coendou villosus / Parasitism by Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. in Coendou villosus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o possível parasitismo por Giardia sp. e Cryptosporidium sp. em amostras de fezes de ouriço-cacheiro (Coendou villosus). As amostras foram analisadas pelo método de centrífugo-flutuação com sulfato de zinco e apresentaram elevada infecção por cistos de Giardia [...] sp. e por oocistos de Cryptosporidium sp., embora os animais não apresentassem sinal clínico decorrente disso. Abstract in english This research was aimed at verifing the possible parasitism by Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. in porcupine (Coendou villosus) faeces samples. Samples were analyzed by the centrifugal-flotation method with zinc sulphate and showed high infection by cysts of Giardia sp. and by oocysts of Cryptosp [...] oridium sp., although the animals did not show any associated clinical sign.

João Fabio, Soares; Aleksandro Schafer da, Silva; Camila Belmonte, Oliveira; Marcos Kipper da, Silva; Gleide, Mariscano; Edson Luis, Salomão; Silvia Gonzalez, Monteiro.

2008-04-01

86

Parasitismo por Giardia sp. e Cryptosporidium sp. em Coendou villosus Parasitism by Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. in Coendou villosus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o possível parasitismo por Giardia sp. e Cryptosporidium sp. em amostras de fezes de ouriço-cacheiro (Coendou villosus. As amostras foram analisadas pelo método de centrífugo-flutuação com sulfato de zinco e apresentaram elevada infecção por cistos de Giardia sp. e por oocistos de Cryptosporidium sp., embora os animais não apresentassem sinal clínico decorrente disso.This research was aimed at verifing the possible parasitism by Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. in porcupine (Coendou villosus faeces samples. Samples were analyzed by the centrifugal-flotation method with zinc sulphate and showed high infection by cysts of Giardia sp. and by oocysts of Cryptosporidium sp., although the animals did not show any associated clinical sign.

João Fabio Soares

2008-04-01

87

DETECTION OF GIARDIA MURIS AND GIARDIA LAMBLIA CYSTS BY IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE IN ANIMAL TISSUES AND FECAL SAMPLES SUBJECTED TO CYCLES OF FREEZING AND THAWING  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of freezing and thawing on the detection of selected Giardia spp. cysts were investigated using immunofluorescence, bright field microscopy, and low voltage scanning electron microscopy (SEM). iardia muris cysts were obtained from either animal carcasses, fecal pellet...

88

Impacto de la dieta sobre la inducción de infección con quistes de Giardia lamblia en ratas Sprague-Dawley The effect of malnourishment on the development of giardiosis in Sprague-Dawley rats  

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Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar el efecto de la desnutrición en la inducción de la giardiosis con diferentes concentraciones de quistes de Giardia lamblia utilizando como modelo animal ratas Sprague-Dawley. Material y métodos. Es un estudio experimental efectuado entre 1995 y 1999, en el Centro de Investigación en Alimentación y Desarrollo, de la ciudad de Hermosillo, estado de Sonora, México, y cuya muestra estuvo integrada por dos grupos de 6 a 8 unidades experimentales, las cuales recibieron dos tipos de dieta y cinco tratamientos con diferente concentración de inóculo de quistes de Giardia lamblia. Durante la fase experimental se monitoreó la excreción de quistes, ganancia de peso, consumo de alimento, análisis del contenido intestinal y daños macro y microscópicos en mucosa intestinal. El tratamiento estadístico de los datos consistió en análisis de varianza, y de residuales cuando fue necesario. Resultados. En los animales alimentados con una dieta que cubre sus requerimientos nutricionales (DN se observó que es posible provocar la infección con 60 quistes, mientras que en los animales desnutridos (dieta DLN la concentración que se requiere es de únicamente seis quistes para establecer daños a nivel de mucosa intestinal. Conclusiones. La ganancia de peso monitoreada durante los 10 días de ensayo no resultó ser un buen indicador de la infección por Giardia lamblia. El porcentaje de infección depende de la concentración de quistes inoculados y del estado de nutrición de los animales evaluados.Objective. To assess the effect of malnutrition on the development of giardiosis in Sprague-Dawley rats, using different inoculum sizes of Giardia lamblia cysts. Material and Methods. An experimental study was conducted between 1995 and 1999 at Centro de Investigación, Alimentación y Desarrollo (Center for Research, Food, and Development, in Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico. The study population consisted of two groups of six to eight experimental units that were fed two different diets and inoculated five different concentrations of Giardia lamblia cysts. Data were collected on excretion of cysts, weight gain, food intake, bowel contents, and macro and microscopic lesions in the intestinal mucosa. Statistical analysis consisted of analysis of variance and residuals. Results. Animals fed with a diet meeting nutritional requirements required an infecting inoculum of 60 cysts, while malnourished rats required only six cysts to develop mucosal lesions. Conclusions. Weight gain monitored during ten days was not a good indicator of Giardia lamblia infection. Infection depended on cyst inoculum size as well as on the nutritional status of the tested animals.

Martha Elvia Díaz-Cinco

2002-07-01

89

Evaluation of a tangential-flow multiple-filter technique for detection of Giardia lamblia cysts in water.  

OpenAIRE

A system of tangential-flow filtration was evaluated for use in the detection of Giardia cysts in drinking water. This method was more sensitive in recovering cysts than a frequently used wound-orlon system of through-filtration.

Isaac-renton, J. L.; Fung, C. P.; Lochan, A.

1986-01-01

90

Giardia y giardiasis Giardia and giardiasis  

OpenAIRE

Giardia lamblia es un protozoario parásito que habita el intestino delgado de los seres humanos y de muchos otros vertebrados y es una de las más comunes causas de diarrea en todo el mundo. Durante su ciclo de vida Giardia sufre significativos cambios bioquímicos y morfológicos que le permiten sobrevivir en ambientes y condiciones que de otro modo lo destruirían. Para sobrevivir fuera del intestino del hospedador, los trofozoítos de Giardia se diferencian a quistes, los que se caracteri...

Luja?n, Hugo D.

2006-01-01

91

Zoonotic potential of Giardia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardia duodenalis (syn. Giardia lamblia and Giardia intestinalis) is a common intestinal parasite of humans and mammals worldwide. Assessing the zoonotic transmission of the infection requires molecular characterization as there is considerable genetic variation within G. duodenalis. To date eight major genetic groups (assemblages) have been identified, two of which (A and B) are found in both humans and animals, whereas the remaining six (C to H) are host-specific and do not infect humans. Sequence-based surveys of single loci have identified a number of genetic variants (genotypes) within assemblages A and B in animal species, some of which may have zoonotic potential. Multi-locus typing data, however, has shown that in most cases, animals do not share identical multi-locus types with humans. Furthermore, interpretation of genotyping data is complicated by the presence of multiple alleles that generate "double peaks" in sequencing files from PCR products, and by the potential exchange of genetic material among isolates, which may account for the non-concordance in the assignment of isolates to specific assemblages. Therefore, a better understanding of the genetics of this parasite is required to allow the design of more sensitive and variable subtyping tools, that in turn may help unravel the complex epidemiology of this infection. PMID:23856595

Ryan, Una; Cacciò, Simone M

2013-11-01

92

A single-step immunochromatographic lateral-flow assay for detection of Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum antigens in human fecal samples.  

Science.gov (United States)

RIDA Quick immunochromatographic lateral-flow assay was evaluated for diagnosis of giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis as compared to the "gold standard" stool examination. Of the 300 specimens were examined by microscopy of direct wet films, concentrated sediments, modified trichrome and modified Ziehl-Neelsen stained slides, 35 samples of Giardia, ten Cryptosporidium, 35 of other parasites, and 20 negative controls were selected for RIDA Quick test examination. All the samples that gave discrepancy results were retested by the centrifugation prior to preparation for the permanent stained smear. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of RIDA quick test for Giardia were 91.6%, 98.4%, 97% & 95.4% respectively, while that of the microscopic stool examination were 94.5%, 100%, 100% & 96.9%. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of RIDA quick test for Cryptosporidium was 91.6%, 100%, 100% & 98.8% respectively, while that of the microscopic stool examination were 83.3%, 100%, 100% & 97.7%. PMID:19209762

Abdel Hameed, Dina M; Elwakil, Hala S; Ahmed, Mona A

2008-12-01

93

Arginine Consumption by the Intestinal Parasite Giardia intestinalis Reduces Proliferation of Intestinal Epithelial Cells  

OpenAIRE

In the field of infectious diseases the multifaceted amino acid arginine has reached special attention as substrate for the hosts production of the antimicrobial agent nitric oxide (NO). A variety of infectious organisms interfere with this part of the host immune response by reducing the availability of arginine. This prompted us to further investigate additional roles of arginine during pathogen infections. As a model we used the intestinal parasite Giardia intestinalis that actively consum...

Stadelmann, Britta; Merino, Maria C.; Persson, Lo; Svard, Staffan G.

2012-01-01

94

Review of Zoonotic Parasites in Medical and Veterinary Fields in the Republic of Korea  

OpenAIRE

Zoonotic parasites are animal parasites that can infect humans. The major zoonotic protozoa in the Republic of Korea are Babesia bovis, Chilomastix mesnili, Cryptosporidium parvum, Endolimax nana, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba hitolytica, Giardia lamblia, Iodamoeba bütschlii, Pneumocystis carinii, Sarcocystis cruzi, and Toxoplasma gondii. The major zoonotic helminths in Korea include trematodes, cestodes, and nematodes. Trematodes are Clonorchis sinensis, Echinostoma hortense, Echinostoma spp., ...

Youn, Heejeong

2009-01-01

95

OBSERVATION ON THE INTESTINAL PARASITIC INFECTIONS  

OpenAIRE

During 1980-82, a total number of 4143 stool samples, from 2332 males and 1811 females, referred to the Central Laboratory of the School of Public Health, were examined for intestinal parasites. All the specimens were examined for intestinal parasites. All the specimens were examined by formol-ether concentration and wet-mount (ringer solution) techniques. The main prevalent pathogenic parasites were Entamoeba histolytica (8.7%), Giardia lamblia (16.1%), and Hymenolepis nana (3.2%). The overa...

Rezaeian, M.

1986-01-01

96

Everyday and exotic foodborne parasites  

OpenAIRE

Everyday foodborne parasites, which are endemic in Canada, include the protozoans Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum. However, these parasites are most frequently acquired through unfiltered drinking water, homosexual activity or close personal contact such as in daycare centres and occasionally via a food vehicle. It is likely that many foodborne outbreaks from these protozoa go undetected. Transmission of helminth infections, such as tapeworms, is rare in Cana...

Lee, Marilyn B.

2000-01-01

97

Detección de parásitos intestinales en agua y alimentos de Trujillo, Perú / Detection of water-Borne and food-borne intestinal parasites of Trujillo, Perú  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Detectamos distintas especies de parásitos intestinales, tanto protozoos como helmintos, presentes en muestras de agua provenientes de acequias y pozos (Giardia lamblia, Blastocystis hominis, Entamoeba coli, Cyclospora cayetanensis, Cryptosporidium spp. y Balantidium coli), así como en alimentos cru [...] dos y cocidos (Giardia lamblia, Cyclospora cayetanensis., Endolimax nana, Iodamoeba butschlii y Blastocystis hominis Fasciola hepatica y Ascaris lumbricoides) recolectadas en varios distritos de la provincia de Trujillo, Perú. Abstract in english We report the detection of different intestinal parasites, protozoan and helminthes, in samples of water from ditches and wells (Giardia lamblia, Blastocystis hominis, Entamoeba coli, Cyclospora cayetanensis, Cryptosporidium spp. y Balantidium coli), as well as in raw and cooked foods (Giardia lambl [...] ia, Cyclospora cayetanensis., Endolimax nana, Iodamoeba butschlii y Blastocystis hominis Fasciola hepatica y Ascaris lumbricoides) collected in several districts of the province of Trujillo, Peru.

Gregorio, Pérez-Cordón; María J., Rosales; Renzo A., Valdez; Franklin, Vargas-Vásquez; Ofelia, Cordova.

2008-01-01

98

Hospital-based surveillance of enteric parasites in Kolkata  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Diarrhoea is the second leading cause of illness and death in developing countries and the second commonest cause of death due to infectious diseases among children under five in such countries. Parasites, as well as bacterial and viral pathogens, are important causes of diarrhoea. However, parasitic infections are sometimes overlooked, leading after a period of time to an uncertain aetiology. In this paper we report the prevalence of Giardia lamblia

Ghosh Mrinmoy; Rajendran Krishnan; Bhattacharya Mihir; Chowdhury Punam; Mukherjee Avik; Ganguly Sandipan

2009-01-01

99

INACTIVATION OF 'GIARDIA' CYSTS BY CHLORINE  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was undertaken to determine the viability of Giardia lamblia cysts shed from an asymptomatic carrier and to correlate the chlorine resistance of these cysts with those from a symptomatic carrier and another Giardia species, G. muris, which is infective for mice....

100

Evaluation of a new monoclonal antibody combination reagent for direct fluorescence detection of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in human fecal specimens.  

OpenAIRE

Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum can cause severe symptoms in humans, particularly in the immunologically compromised. Monoclonal antibody reagents offer increased sensitivity and an excellent alternative to conventional staining methods. These reagents are helpful when screening large numbers of patients or those with minimal symptoms. Problems of false-positive and false-negative results with routine staining methods for stool parasites can be eliminated with monoclonal antibody r...

Garcia, L. S.; Shum, A. C.; Bruckner, D. A.

1992-01-01

101

OBSERVATION ON THE INTESTINAL PARASITIC INFECTIONS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During 1980-82, a total number of 4143 stool samples, from 2332 males and 1811 females, referred to the Central Laboratory of the School of Public Health, were examined for intestinal parasites. All the specimens were examined for intestinal parasites. All the specimens were examined by formol-ether concentration and wet-mount (ringer solution techniques. The main prevalent pathogenic parasites were Entamoeba histolytica (8.7%, Giardia lamblia (16.1%, and Hymenolepis nana (3.2%. The overall infection rate with protozoa, metazoan and both were 45%, 18.3% and 53.8% respectively.

M.Rezaeian

1986-08-01

102

Diarrea crónica refractaria y malabsorción secundaria a hipogammaglobulinemia común variable, infestación crónica por giardia lamblia y gastrectomía total por adenocarcinoma gástrico: un manejo nutricional complejo / Chonic diarrhea and malabsorption due to common variable immunodeficiency, gastrectomy and giardiasis infection: a difficult nutritional management  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El adenocarcinoma gástrico es una de las causas más frecuentes de mortalidad en el mundo, siendo la cirugía el único tratamiento potencialmente curativo, aunque los efectos adversos digestivos y nutricionales son frecuentes y abundantes. La hipogammaglobulinemia variable común es causa de frecuentes [...] manifestaciones digestivas, derivándose las más importantes en diarrea crónica causada por giardiasis, hiperplasia nodular linfoide o atrofia vellosa, siendo frecuente la malabsorción y la desnutrición. Los déficits nutricionales secundarios a la malabsorción (postgastrectomía y asociada a la atrofia vellosa y la giardiasis por hipogammaglobulinemia variable común) son asimismo frecuentes. Presentamos el caso de un paciente gastrectomizado por adenocarcinoma gástrico y con hipogammaglobulinemia variable común e infestación crónica por giardiasis que presenta una importante diarrea crónica refractaria a tratamiento y malabsorción. Abstract in english Gastric cancer is a frequent cause of cancer-related mortality in the world. Surgery is the only potentially curative therapy, although the adverse effects of surgery are common and considerable. Common variable immunodeficiency is in many cases cause of gastrointestinal system problems such as chro [...] nic diarrhea caused by infestation with giardia lamblia, nodular lymphoid hiperplasia ad loss of villi leading frequently to malapsortion and malnutrition. Nutritional deficiencies due to malapsorption (postgastrectomy and secondary to loss of villi, giardiasis and common variable inmunodeficiency) are common. We present the case of a patient with gastric cancer who underwent a gastrectomy with common variable hipogammaglobulinemia and chronic infestation by giardia lamblia, with serious diarrhea resistant to treatment and malabsorption.

M. E., Domínguez-López; I., González-Molero; C. P., Ramírez-Plaza; F., Soriguer; G., Olveira.

2011-08-01

103

A Novel, Multi-Parallel, Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Approach for Eight Gastrointestinal Parasites Provides Improved Diagnostic Capabilities to Resource-Limited At-Risk Populations  

OpenAIRE

Diagnosis of gastrointestinal parasites has traditionally relied on stool microscopy, which has low diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. We have developed a novel, rapid, high-throughput quantitative multi-parallel real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) platform. Species-specific primers/probes were used for eight common gastrointestinal parasite pathogens: Ascaris lumbricoides, Necator americanus, Ancylostoma duodenale, Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium spp., Entamoeba histolytica, Tri...

Mejia, Rojelio; Vicun?a, Yosselin; Broncano, Nely; Sandoval, Carlos; Vaca, Maritza; Chico, Martha; Cooper, Philip J.; Nutman, Thomas B.

2013-01-01

104

Intestinal parasitic infections in hosted Saharawi children.  

Science.gov (United States)

Literatures on intestinal parasitic infections in Saharawi children were scarce and distributed in non parasitological journals. This was the first article that specifically highlighted on the prevalence of these infections in 270 Saharawi children aged from 6 to 12 years hosted in Spain. Six different intestinal parasites were identified in this study and 78, 46, 40, 24, 13 and 5 were positive for Giardia lamblia (29%), Entamoeba coli (17%), Blastocystis hominis (15%), Endolimax nana (9%), Hymenolepis nana (5%) and Enterobius vermicularis (2%), respectively. Mixed intestinal parasitic infections were seen in 12 (4.4%) studied children. Six (2.2%) double infections for G. lamblia and B. hominis were seen in these children while in four (1.5%) had G. lamblia and H. nana. Triple intestinal parasitic infections of G. lamblia, B. hominis and H. nana were observed in two (0.7%) of the children studied. In the other hand, about 14.8% of the studied children had a mild anaemia and 15.5 and 16.6% had iron deficiency and eosinophilia, respectively. PMID:22433884

Soriano, J M; Domènech, G; Martínez, M C; Mañes, J; Soriano, F

2011-12-01

105

Intestinal parasitic infections in homosexual men: prevalence, symptoms and factors in transmission.  

OpenAIRE

In a controlled study 67.5% of 200 homosexual men but only 16% of 100 heterosexual men were found to be infected with intestinal parasites. Entamoeba histolytica was isolated from 27% of the homosexual and 1% of the heterosexual men, and Giardia lamblia was isolated from 13% of the homosexual and 3% of the heterosexual men. The presence of symptoms could not be correlated with infection except when the infection was caused by more than one organism, including G. lamblia. Symptoms were much mo...

Keystone, J. S.; Keystone, D. L.; Proctor, E. M.

1980-01-01

106

Parasitas intestinais em centros de educação infantil municipal de Lages, SC, Brasil Intestinal parasites in nursey schools of Lages, southern Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Infecção por enteroparasitas foi avaliada em 200 crianças em idade escolar, residentes em Lages. A prevalência geral entre helmintos e protozoários foi de 70,5% com 61,4% no sexo masculino e 74,5% no feminino. Os parasitos mais prevalentes foram Ascaris lumbricoides (35%, Giardia lamblia (14% e Trichuris trichiura (13%.Two hundred chinldren from nursery schools in Lages, southern Brazil, were associated as to parasitic ibfections. The overall prevalence of helminths and protozoa was 70.5%, affecting 61.4% of male and 74.5% of female children. The most prevalent parasites were Ascaris lumbricoides (35%, Giardia lambia (14% e Trichuris trichiura (13%.

Rosiléia Marinho de Quadros

2004-10-01

107

Giardiasis and other intestinal parasitic infections in a Manitoba residential school for the mentally retarded.  

OpenAIRE

A case of severely symptomatic giardiasis in a school for the mentally retarded prompted an epidemiologic survey of the institution. The rate of parasitic infection in the children were just under 50%. Multiple infections were common and one child harboured five different protozoa. The yield included known pathogens (Giardia lamblia, Metorchis conjunctus and Diphyllobothrium sp.), protozoa of potential pathogenicity (Dientamoeba fragilis) and other protozoa, the significance of which has yet ...

Naiman, H. L.; Sekla, L.; Albritton, W. L.

1980-01-01

108

Genotyping and Phylogenetic Analysis of Giardia duodenalis Isolates from Turkish Children.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Giardiasis is caused by the intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia duodenalis (synonyms: G. lamblia, G. intestinalis), which is one of the most frequent parasites that infect Turkish children. However, molecular characterization of G. duodenalis in Turkey is relatively scarce. The present work aimed at genotyping G. duodenalis isolates from Turkey using molecular techniques. Material and Methods In the present study, 145 fecal samples from children were collected to search for the presence of Giardia by microscopy and PCR screening. PCR generated a 384 bp fragment for ?-giardin. The PCR products were sequenced and the sequences were subjected to phylogenetic analysis by using PHYLIP. Results Based on the phylogenetic analysis of the sequences, assemblage A, B, and mixed subtypes were determined. Of 22 isolates, 11 were identified as assemblage A (50%), 7 were assemblage B (31.8%), and 4 were assemblage AB (18.2%). Association between G. duodenalis assemblages and the epidemiological data was analyzed. No correlation was found between symptoms and infection with specific assemblages (P>0.05), but we found statistically significant association between age and the assemblage AB (P=0.001). Conclusions The association between G. duodenalis and the epidemiologic data were analyzed. Since assemblage A is the more prevalent subgroup compared with assemblage B, this subgroup might be responsible for common Giardia infections in Turkey. This is the first study that included a detailed phylogenetic analysis of Giardia strains from Turkey. PMID:25689970

Tamer, Gulden Sonmez; Kasap, Murat; Er, Doganhan Kadir

2015-01-01

109

Intestinal parasites in metropolitan Toronto day-care centres.  

OpenAIRE

In 1981, 900 children (aged 3 months to 10 years) and 146 staff attending 22 day-care centres in metropolitan Toronto chosen at random provided a stool specimen in a survey for intestinal parasites. Of the children, 4% to 36% were infected in 20 of 22 centres. Overall, 19% of the children and 14% of the staff had intestinal parasites: 8.6% and 4.0% respectively had Dientamoeba fragilis, and 7.8% and 2.0% respectively had Giardia lamblia. The highest prevalence of dientamebiasis was in the 7- ...

Keystone, J. S.; Yang, J.; Grisdale, D.; Harrington, M.; Pillon, L.; Andreychuk, R.

1984-01-01

110

The Antimicrobial Effect of Methanol Extracts of Eucalyptus, Satureia Hortensis and Heracleum Glabrescens on Giardia Cysts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and objectives: Giardiasis is a parasitic infection of smallintestine, with a worldwide distribution and the prevalence of Giardia indifferent parts of the world varies between 1 to 25%. Plants have the vastrange of antimicrobial and antifungal activity that can be identified asalternative treatments for bacterial and parasitic pathogens, the same asGiardia. In this study, the methanol extracts of eucalyptus plants, Satureiahortensis and Heracleum glabrescens, on Giardia cysts were studied in vitro.Material and Methods: The cysts were isolated from the feces using amodified Bingham. After counting by Hemusytumetr, they were placed nearby 200 mg / ml, 100 mg / ml and 10 mg / ml of the extracts prepared byDMSO for 30 and 60 minutes. Then, the number of dead and live cysts wascounted under a microscope.Results: the fatality effect of the extracts in 60 minutes is higher than thoseof 30 minutes. The methanol extracts of Satureia hortensis, Eucalyptus andHeracleum glabrescens with the dilution of 200 mg/ml in 60 mins have thefatality effect of 84/3%, 63/3% and 44%, respectively. The highestfatality(84.3% on Giardia cysts is related to Satureia hortensis with thedilution of 200 mg/ml in 60 mins and the Lowest(27% is related toHeracleum glabrescens with the dilution of 10 mg/ml in 30-minute period.The significant relationship between the plant type and the fatality ofmethanol extracts is observed.Conclusion: the methanol extracts of Eucalyptus, Heracleum glabrescensand especially Satureia hortensis have anti-parasitic effects in the laboratoryconditions. Thus, they can be used in the future, instead of the chemicalantiparasitic drugs.Key words: Antibacterial Giardia lamblia cysts, Eucalyptus, Satureiahortensis, Heracleum glabrescens, Tonekabon

Safarnejad Tameshkel, F.

2012-01-01

111

Parasitas intestinais em centros de educação infantil municipal de Lages, SC, Brasil Intestinal parasites in nursey schools of Lages, southern Brazil  

OpenAIRE

Infecção por enteroparasitas foi avaliada em 200 crianças em idade escolar, residentes em Lages. A prevalência geral entre helmintos e protozoários foi de 70,5% com 61,4% no sexo masculino e 74,5% no feminino. Os parasitos mais prevalentes foram Ascaris lumbricoides (35%), Giardia lamblia (14%) e Trichuris trichiura (13%).Two hundred chinldren from nursery schools in Lages, southern Brazil, were associated as to parasitic ibfections. The overall prevalence of helminths and protozoa w...

Rosiléia Marinho Quadros; Sandra Marques; Andréia Aparecida Ribeiro Arruda; Patrícia Simone Wolff Rosa Delfes; Íris Aparecida Azevedo Medeiros

2004-01-01

112

Prevalencia de Giardiasis y Parásitos Intestinales en Preescolares de Hogares atendidos en un programa estatal en Armenia, Colombia Prevalence of giardiasis and intestinal parasites in pre-school children from homes being attended as part of a state programme in Armenia, Colombia  

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Full Text Available Objetivo El propósito de este estudio es el de obtener datos sobre la giardiasis y el parasitismo intestinal en una muestra significativa de los niños en edades pre-escolares de los hogares de madres comunitarias del Instituto Colombiano de Bienestar Familiar (ICBF. Materiales y Métodos Se recolectó un seriado de tres muestras de heces en 328 niños, con previo consentimiento del tutor legal. Se le realizó el análisis de laboratorio por examen directo microscópico y macroscópico utilizando Lugol al 1 %, solución salina al 0,83 %, solución salina-eosina, Kato Katz y formol-éter o metodo de concentración de Ritchie (prueba comprobatoria. Las muestras positivas se conservaron en formol salino. Resultados Los parásitos con potencial patógeno tuvieron las siguientes prevalencias: Ascaris lumbricoides 2,4 %, Hymenolepsis nana 0,6 %, Trichuris trichura 2,1 %, Blastocystis hominis 6,1 % y Giardia lamblia 13 %. Conclusiones Este estudio muestra la baja frecuencia de los helmintos con respecto a los protozoos, por lo tanto estrategias de desparasitación masiva con dosis únicas de Albendazol no tienen utilidad. Se recomienda la vigilancia periódica de parásitos por exámenes en estos niños. Se confirma que el parásito patógeno mas prevalente es Giardia lamblia en los niños de las guarderias infantiles del ICBF. La prevalencia de Giardia no se relacionó de manera estadisticamente significativa con el estado nutricional de los niños de las guarderias del ICBF. La mayoria de niños infectados por Giardia son asintomáticos.Objective Determining the prevalence of giardiasis and intestinal parasitism in pre-school children from the Instituto Colombiano de Bienestar Familiar (ICBF. Material and Methods Three serial faecal samples were collected from 328 children following informed consent from their legal guardians. Microscopic and macroscopic tests were made using 1% Lugol, 0,83 % saline solution, saline-eosin solution and Kato Katz and Ritchie’s test as a confirming test. Positive samples were preserved in saline formol solution. Results Pathogen parasites had the following prevalence frequencies: 2,4 % for Ascaris lumbricoides, 0,6 % for Hymenolepsis nana, 2,1 % for Trichuris trichura, 6,1 % for Blastocystis hominis and 13 % for Giardia lamblia. Conclusions The results of this work showed low helminth frequency compared to that for protozoa; control strategies using single doses of Albendazol are therefore not useful. The most prevalent pathogen parasite was Giardia lamblia in children from the ICBF in Armenia. Periodic surveillance of parasites in children is thereby recommended. The prevalence of Giardia lamblia was not statistically related to the children’s nutritional state. Most Giardia-infected children were asymptomatic.

Jorge M Giraldo-Gómez

113

[Detection of parasites and symptoms of parasitic diseases. 2: Parasites of the gastrointestinal tract, tissue and organ parasites, ecto- and skin parasites].  

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Intestinal parasites are Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium parvum, Entamoeba histolytica, hookworms, ascaris, tape worms and others. As to organ parasites, their life-threatening courses are pointed out: amebiasis in the intestine, liver, lung and brain, toxoplasmosis in the brain, lung and heart muscle, including the danger for the child of a pregnant woman with an acute infection, West African sleeping sickness with encephalitis, the East African form with polyserositis, South American Chagas' disease with intestinal and myocardial involvement, visceral leishmaniasis Kala Azar, the filariasis Onchocerca volvulus with threatening blindness, the dog tapeworm with cysts and Echinococcus multilocularis with carcinoma-like infiltration of the liver and other organs, cysticercosis of the brain, eye and muscle tissue; partly generalizing parasitoses in immuno-suppressed including AIDS patients, finally skin parasites as causes of disease (e.g. scabies), and as potential carriers of pathogens. PMID:12914402

Eichenlaub, D; Eichenlaub, S

2003-04-01

114

Study on Variation of the Sera Folic Acid, Vitamin B12 and Iron Level in the 6-12 Years Old Patients Infected with Giardia Lamblia in South Tehran  

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Full Text Available Objective: Protozoa Giardia lambelia is caused to diarrhea in human and other mammals in worldwide. Giardia colonizes in duodenum and earliest jejunum. It can cover the intestinal surface and causes the stateorrhea, malabsorbtion syndrome and absorb disorder of vitamins A, E and D. Investigation the effect of Giardia on the vitamin B12, folic acid and iron of patients were the purpose of this study.Material & Methods: A total of 30 children with giardiasis, aged between 6-12 years- old, selected from 3000 patients, who were admitted to the Emam Khomeiny hospital and diagnosed by stool examinations (direct and formalin-ether methods. Blood of patients and control were collected. Amount of vitamin B12 and folic acid were evaluated with radioimmunoassay and iron was evaluated with Ferene method.Findings: According to the data, folic acid in the patient had no significant difference against control but vitamin B12 and iron in the patient with giardiosis was less than control and the differences were significant (P=0.01, P=0.04 respectively.Conclusion: According to the results diagnosis of giardiosis in the early stage may prohibit intestinal damage and clinical symptoms due to vitamins and mineral elements shortage in the children.

Mohammad Taghi Haghi-Ashtiani

115

Intestinal Parasites in Children with Lymphohematopoietic Malignancy in Iran, Mashhad  

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Full Text Available Background: Intestinal parasitic disease can cause serious complications for Immunosuppressed patients.Objectives: This study determines the prevalence of intestinal parasites in children, with lymphohematopoietic malignancy in Mashhad, Iran.Patients and Methods: In this cross-sectional study stool samples were collected from 89 children (53 boys, 36 girls with lymphohematopoitic malignancies under chemotherapy, between the age of 1 and 18 years (mean age 7.5 years. Three fresh stool samples taken for three consecutive days were examined by direct smear, formalin-ether method, trichrome staining and ELISA test for Giardia lamblia coproantigens.Results: In this study 35.9% of our patients had parasitic infections and the following parasites were identified; G. lamblia (the most prevalent parasite in children 16 (18%, Entamoeba coli 6 (6.7% Blastocystis hominis 5 (5.6% Iodamoeba butschlii 2 (2.2%. Chilomastics mesnili 1 (1.1%, Hymenolepis nana 1 (1.1% and Enterobius vermicularis 1 (1.1%.Conclusions: With regards to the high incidence of gasterointestinal parasitic diseases and also because of asymptomatic cases of giardiasis, we recommend evaluation of pediatric patients with malignant lymphohematopoitic disease by at least two different diagnostic methods and three rounds of stool examination in order to prevent possible life threatening outcomes. Coproparasitoscopic study for oncologic patients should be performed and anti-parasitic treatment provided before starting chemotherapy to prevent disseminated parasitic infections. The coproantigen-ELISA is especially advantageous in situations where only a single stool sample can be examined.

Nona Zabolinejad

2013-08-01

116

"Parasitic Contamination of Vegetables from Farms and Markets in Tehran"  

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Full Text Available Because of endemic parasitological infectious diseases in Iran and contaminated vegetables, as one of the most important ways of contamination, carried out a parasitical study on 263 vegetable samples from 44 farms in the suburbs of Tehran city, and also 166 vegetables samples from 20 green grocery markets in the same city. From 263 samples of farms 147 cases (65% of contamination were recorded, of which 43 cases (16/5% of human pathogenic parasites were isolated. In this study various techniques were used such as: Baermann funnel, centrifuging of plants and soil, temporal precipitation procedure and so on. Ova and parasites such as Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Trichostrongylus sp. Toxocara sp. Larvae of Nematodes, protozoa cysts like Amoeba sp. Giardia lamblia and some flagellatae were seen. The highest percent of contamination was detected in leek and parsley and the lowest one was detected in tarragon. The results show that vegetables could be a potential source of parasitic infection.

MJ Gharavi

2002-09-01

117

Parasitismo intestinal en niños de círculos infantiles en un municipio / Intestinal parasitism in children from daycare centers of a municipality  

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Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: el parasitismo intestinal representa un importante problema de salud mundial por su alta prevalencia y distribución universal. Constituye una importante causa de morbilidad y mortalidad en lactantes y niños de todo el orbe. Objetivo: identificar la prevalencia de las principales especi [...] es parasitarias intestinales en círculos infantiles del municipio La Palma. Método: se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo transversal, durante los meses de octubre y noviembre 2012, en el que se estudiaron 495 niños asistentes a los seis círculos infantiles del municipio La Palma. Fueron recolectadas por cada niño, 3 muestras fecales frescas, en días alternos, las que se procesaron con los métodos coproparasitológicos de examen directo y técnica de concentración de Ritchie- Willis. Resultados: el 48,3% de la muestra estaba parasitada, con una mayor prevalencia en el quinto año de vida (58,8%), predominó el sexo masculino (54,8%). Las especies más frecuentes fueron Giardia lamblia (38,1%), Entamoeba histolytica (30,1%) y Enterobius vermicularis (19,2%). El poliparasitismo se apreció (12,2%) de los niños, la asociación de parásitos muestra a Giardia lamblia en tres combinaciones. Junto al Enterobius vermicularis (37,2 %), con Entamoeba histolytica/E dispar (33,3 %) y los tres a la vez (29,4%). Conclusiones: aproximadamente la mitad de los niños estudiados se encontraban parasitados, estos resultados fueron más frecuentes a partir del cuarto año de vida, con una mayor prevalencia en el sexo masculino en todas las especies parasitarias, predominado las infecciones por protozoarios, con mayor frecuencia Giardia lamblia y asociaciones de parásitos en varios casos. Abstract in english Introduction: intestinal parasitism is a major global health problem because of its high prevalence and universal distribution. It is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in infants and children around the world. Objective: to identify the prevalence of major intestinal parasitic species in [...] daycare centers of La Palma. Method: an observational descriptive study was conducted during the months of October and November of 2012, in which 495 children were studied, attending the six daycare centers of La Palma Municipality. Three fresh fecal samples were collected from each child, on alternate days, and processed with direct parasitological methods and technical examination of Ritchie-Willis concentration. Results: 48.3% of the samples were parasitized, with a higher prevalence in the fifth year of life (58.8%), the male sex was the predominant one (54.8%). The most frequent species were Giardia lamblia (38.1%), Entamoeba (30.1%) and Enterobius vermicularis (19.2%). Polyparasitism was observed in 12.2% of the children, being the association of parasites Giardia lamblia shown in three combinations. Together with Enterobius vermicularis (37.2%), with histolytica Entamoeba (33.3%), and with the three of them at the same time (29.4%). Conclusions: about half of the children studied were parasitized; these results were more frequent after the fourth year of life, with a higher prevalence in male children and all parasitic species, with a predominance of protozoal infections, most often Giardia lamblia parasite associations in several cases.

María del Carmen, Hernández Alfaro; Catalina, Palacios Mesa.

2014-04-01

118

GIARDIASIS EXTRAINTESTINAL: ENTRE REALIDADES Y MITOS / Extra intestinal manifestations of Giardia Infection: Among myth and reality  

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Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Revisar lo publicado sobre las asociaciones entre giardiasis y manifestaciones extraintestinales y, en los casos de las mejor estudiadas, sobre los mecanismos por los que G. lamblia podría ser capaz de producir daños en órganos y tejidos distantes de la superficie intestinal a la que se adhiere. Se [...] revisaron, previa búsqueda en Medline , todos los artículos publicados sobre manifestaciones extraintestinales de la giardiasis, o relacionados con este tema, durante el período 1985-2006. Puntualmente, algunas monografías y reportes de casos fechados con anterioridad al intervalo mencionado también fueron consultados. Muy variadas son las lesiones asociaciadas a giardiasis descritas en la literatura revisada. De todas ellas, la urticaria y el angiedema, la lesión en “sal y pimienta” del epitelio pigmentado de la retina, la glositis y la artritis reactiva son las más rigurosamente demostradas. En relación con las restantes, estudios adicionales, con el empleo de diseños e instrumentación adecuados, deben demostrar hasta qué punto no son un mito. En perspectivas, además de la continuación de las investigaciones que confirmen y expliquen la existencia de las asociaciones citadas, se hace necesario incursionar en la exploración de los conocimientos, percepciones y prácticas de los médicos relacionados con el diagnóstico, tratamiento y control de la giardiasis. Ello es así, sobre todo, si tenemos en cuenta que en nuestra red de salud se ha hecho habitual el diagnóstico de giardiasis a pacientes con lesiones dermatológicas de naturaleza muy variada y causa no conocida, muchas veces sin el hallazgo del protozoo en sus heces o en el fluido duodenal correspondiente. Abstract in english The purpose of this paper is to go through the literature to review what is published in connection with the association among giardia lamblia infection and extra intestinal manifestations of the disease and the mechanisms which intervene in producing such distant lesions taking in consideration the [...] location of the parasite. Of all the lesions associated to the parasite, rash, angioedema, salt and pepper lesions in the pigments epithelium of the retina, glositis and reactive arthritis are the most rigorously long-established. Regarding others, experimental studies must be carried out to ascertain to which point they are a myth or not. In perspective, besides all the tests that are needed to confirmed the quoted associations, it is necessary to explore the knowledge, perception and practice of doctors related to the diagnosis, prevention and control of the giardia infection. In our Health Care System is very common to find a giardia infection diagnosis in the case of a dermatological infection of unknown origin, most of the times without the findings of the parasite in neither faeces nor bile.

Saleh, Ali Almannoni; Deisy, Martín Pupo; Alexis, Monzote López; Luis, Fonte Galindo.

2008-06-01

119

Intestinal Parasites Infection among Immunocompromised Patients in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites among immunocompromised patients in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Fecal samples were collected from 136 immunocompromised patients (52 females and 84 males, aged 2 to 69 years. Specimens were fixed with 10% formalin for 30 min (2-3 g fecal-1 and then concentrated by a formalin-ether sedimentation technique. Samples were examined as wet saline mounts and in iodine preparation for detection of protozoan oocysts, cysts, helminthic eggs and larvae. Permanent stained smears were performed for intestinal coccidian parasites by the modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique and the modified trichrome stain. Intestinal parasites were detected in 54 (39.7% most of them (25.7% were with diarrhea. More specifically the following parasites were detected Cryptosporidium parvum 11(8.1%, Giardia lamblia 9 (6.6%, Cyclospora cayetanensis 8 (5.9%, Blastocystis hominis 7 (5.2%, Entamoeba histolytica 7 (5.2%, Entamoeba coli 5 (3.7%, Strongyloides stercoralis 3 (2.2%, Ascaris lumbricoides 1 (0.7%, Hymenolepis nana 1 (0.7%, Dicrocoelium dendriticum 1 (0.7% and Hook worm 1 (0.7%. The most common parasite associated with diarrhea in patients, was C. parvum (p<0.001, followed by G. lamblia, C. cayetanensis and E. histolytica. However, differences between different age groups were statistically non-significant. Similarly, no significant difference in the infection rate were found between male and female patients.

Wafa A.I. Al-Megrin

2010-01-01

120

Isolation of Giardia from a llama and from sheep.  

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Giardia cysts were detected in feces of a domestic llama (Lama glama) and in feces of lambs (Ovis aries) from Wisconsin, U.S.A. All of the animals examined were immature, and they had recent histories of poor condition and passing unformed or semiformed, pale stools. Giardia cysts from both host species were excysted in vitro, and the trophozoites were cultivated axenically. Furthermore, Giardia cysts from both sources were shown to produce infection in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unquiculatus). The finding of Giardia in the llama represents a new host recorded for this parasite. Also, this is the first report of Giardia-infected sheep from the Western Hemisphere. PMID:3607656

Kiorpes, A L; Kirkpatrick, C E; Bowman, D D

1987-04-01

121

Parasitas intestinais em centros de educação infantil municipal de Lages, SC, Brasil / Intestinal parasites in nursey schools of Lages, southern Brazil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Infecção por enteroparasitas foi avaliada em 200 crianças em idade escolar, residentes em Lages. A prevalência geral entre helmintos e protozoários foi de 70,5% com 61,4% no sexo masculino e 74,5% no feminino. Os parasitos mais prevalentes foram Ascaris lumbricoides (35%), Giardia lamblia (14%) e Tr [...] ichuris trichiura (13%). Abstract in english Two hundred chinldren from nursery schools in Lages, southern Brazil, were associated as to parasitic ibfections. The overall prevalence of helminths and protozoa was 70.5%, affecting 61.4% of male and 74.5% of female children. The most prevalent parasites were Ascaris lumbricoides (35%), Giardia la [...] mbia (14%) e Trichuris trichiura (13%).

Rosiléia Marinho de, Quadros; Sandra, Marques; Andréia Aparecida Ribeiro, Arruda; Patrícia Simone Wolff Rosa, Delfes; Íris Aparecida Azevedo, Medeiros.

2004-10-01

122

Prevalence and clinical features of Dientamoeba fragilis infections in patients suspected to have intestinal parasitic infection.  

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The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence and clinical features of dientamoebiasis in patients presumed to be infected with intestinal parasites. A total of 168 patients were examined for D. fragilis using microscopy (after Wheatley's trichrome staining) and culture (using modified Boeck and Drbohlav's medium). D. fragilis trophozoites were detected in 15 samples (8.9%) examined using trichrome staining and in 50 samples (29.8%) by culture method. Other enteric parasites were common in the study population as 48.8% of patients (82/168) were found harboring intestinal parasites. Blastocystis hominis was the most common, identified in 33.3% (56/168) of the samples. Giardia lamblia was detected in 17.9% (30/168) and E. histolytica/E. dispar in 11.9% (20/168). The symptoms most frequently encountered were diarrhea, abdominal pain and weight loss and fatigue. Diarrhea and abdominal pain were significantly more frequent in patients with dientamoebiasis compared to non pathogenic cases (P fragilis compared to 50% of patients infected with G. lamblia, while abdominal pain was encountered with D. fragilis in 41% compared to 33.3% with G. lamblia. These differences were insignificant (P > 0.05). PMID:17985591

Rayan, Hanan Z E; Ismail, Ola A; El Gayar, Eman K

2007-08-01

123

Intestinal parasites and genotyping of Giardia duodenalis in children: first report of genotype B in isolates from human clinical samples in Mexico  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Giardia duodenalis is one of the most prevalent enteroparasites in children. This parasite produces several clinical manifestations. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of genotypes of G. duodenalis causing infection in a region of southeastern Mexico. G. duodenalis cysts were iso [...] lated (33/429) from stool samples of children and molecular genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis, targeting the triosephosphate isomerase ( tpi ) and glutamate dehydrogenase ( gdh ) genes. The tpi gene was amplified in all of the cyst samples, either for assemblage A (27 samples) or assemblage B (6 samples). RFLP analysis classified the 27 tpi -A amplicons in assemblage A, subgenotype I. Samples classified as assemblage B were further analysed using PCR-RFLP of the gdh gene and identified as assemblage B, subgenotype III. To our knowledge, this is the first report of assemblage B of G. duodenalis in human clinical samples from Mexico.

Julio César, Torres-Romero; Antonio de Jesus, Euan-Canto; Namibya, Benito-González; Nayely, Padilla-Montaño; Claribel, Huchin-Chan; Julio, Lara-Riegos; Roberto, Cedillo-Rivera.

2014-06-01

124

Parasitic Infections among Restaurant Workers in Mukalla (Hadhramout/Yemen  

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Full Text Available "nBackground: To identify intestinal parasites among restaurant workers in Mukalla, Yemen in 2007."nMethods: Stool specimens were collected and examined from a total of 500 restaurant workers at Hadhramout University Health Center .Three types of techniques were used: direct examination, saline sedimentation and formol-ether concentration."nResults:  The positivity in majority of them was single infection whereas 6 cases were double infection that constituted 1.3% of the prevalence. The prevalence was 14.8 % for Entamoeba histolytica/dispor, and 5.2 % for Giardia lamblia, while it was 4.4% for Hymenolepis nana. Other intestinal parasites including Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostoma duodinale were also detected. Additionally, the blood parasite Schistosoma mansoni was also detected in 4 cases. The double infection was only with E. histolytica/dispor and Giardia. The infection with these parasites was also accompanied by abdominal troubles "diarrhea, constipation", nausea and vomiting."nConclusion:  These results lead to understand that sanitary measurements are not effective, and this hazardous situation facilitate parasitic agents' distribution among clients. The effectiveness of current pre-employment screening policy must be annual and systematic surveillance is needed in addition to health education.

AM AL-Haddad

2008-09-01

125

In vitro activity of the F-6 fraction of oregano against Giardia intestinalis.  

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Giardiosis is a neglected parasitic disease that produces diarrhoea and different degrees of malabsorption in humans and animals. Its treatment is based on derivatives of 5-nitroimidazoles, benzimidazoles, nitrofuranes, acridine and nitrotiazoles. These drugs produce undesirable secondary effects, ranging from a metallic taste in the mouth to genetic damage and the selection of resistant strains; therefore, it is necessary to develop new therapeutic alternatives. We demonstrated that a 2-h treatment with 2·87 ?g ml(-1) of fraction 6 of Lippia graveolens (F-6) was sufficient to kill half of an experimental Giardia intestinalis (Syn. G. duodenalis, G. lamblia) population, based on the reduction of MTT-tetrazolium salt levels. F-6 breaks the nuclear envelope and injures the ventral suckling disc. The major compounds of F-6 were characterized as naringenin, thymol, pinocembrin and traces of compounds not yet identified. The results suggest that Lippia is a potential source to obtain compounds with anti-Giardia activity. This knowledge is an important starting point to develop new anti-giardial drugs. Future studies will be required to establish the efficacy of F-6 in vivo using an animal model. PMID:22309702

Rufino-González, Yadira; Ponce-Macotela, Martha; González-Maciel, Angélica; Reynoso-Robles, Rafael; Jiménez-Estrada, Manuel; Sánchez-Contreras, Ángeles; Martínez-Gordillo, Mario N

2012-04-01

126

Intestinal parasitic infections in renal transplant recipients  

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Full Text Available The impact of intestinal parasitic infection in renal transplant recipients requires careful consideration in the developing world. However, there have been very few studies addressing this issue in Iran. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in renal transplant recipients in Iran. Stool specimens from renal transplant recipients and control groups were obtained between June 2006 and January 2007. The samples screened for intestinal parasitic infections using direct smear, formalin-ether sedimentation, Sheather's flotation and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining methods. Out of 150 renal transplant recipients, 33.3% (50, and out of 225 control group, 20% (45 were infected with one or more type of intestinal parasites. The parasites detected among patients included Entamoeba coli (10.6%, Endolimax nana (8.7%, Giardia lamblia (7.4%, Blastocystis spp. (4.7%, Iodamoeba butschlii (0.7%, Chilomastix mesnili (0.7% and Ascaris lumbricoides (0.7%. Multiple infections were more common among renal transplant recipients group (p < 0.05. This study highlights the importance of testing for intestinal parasites among Iranian renal transplant recipients. Routine examinations of stool samples for parasites would significantly benefit the renal transplant recipients by contributing to reduce severe infections.

Mehdi Azami

2010-02-01

127

Giardia, Entamoeba, and Trichomonas Enzymes Activate Metronidazole (Nitroreductases) and Inactivate Metronidazole (Nitroimidazole Reductases) ? †  

OpenAIRE

Infections with Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica, and Trichomonas vaginalis, which cause diarrhea, dysentery, and vaginitis, respectively, are each treated with metronidazole. Here we show that Giardia, Entamoeba, and Trichomonas have oxygen-insensitive nitroreductase (ntr) genes which are homologous to those genes that have nonsense mutations in metronidazole-resistant Helicobacter pylori isolates. Entamoeba and Trichomonas also have nim genes which are homologous to those genes expres...

Pal, Dibyarupa; Banerjee, Sulagna; Cui, Jike; Schwartz, Aaron; Ghosh, Sudip K.; Samuelson, John

2009-01-01

128

[Intestinal parasitic diseases in HIV-infected patients in Uzbekistan].  

Science.gov (United States)

Intestinal parasitic diseases were diagnosed in 100 HIV-infected patients at different stages of disease (its asymptomatic form, persistent generalized lymphoadenopathy, pre-AIDS, and AIDS) (Group 1), 100 Tashkent residents (Group 2), and 349 patients with gastrointestinal diseases, allergic dermatoses, and skin depigmentation foci (Group 3). The HIV-infected patients were found to have virtually all parasites, such as Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium parvum, Chilomastix mesnili, Entamoeba coli, Iodamoeba butschlii, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Endolimax nana, Blastocystis hominis, Enlerobius vermicularis, Ascaris lumbricoides, Hymenolepis nana, detectable in the population of Tashkent. The highest infestation with intestinal protozoa, including nonpathogenic amoebas and helmninths, was found in Groups 1 and 3. However, in all the forms of HIV infection, the infestation with E. histolytical/dispar was 10 times greater than that in Groups 2 and 3 (1% and 0.8%, respectively). G. lamblia was detected in 16, 21, and 45.2% in Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. In all the HIV-infected patients, the content of CD8 lymphocytes was increased, but that of CD20 lymphocytes was normal. Parasites were detectable with different levels of CD4 lymphocytes, but C. parvum was found only if its count was > 200/ml. In the HIV-infected patients, the hyperproduction of IgE was caused mainly by helminths rather than protozoa. In these patients, the increased level of IgE was also noted in the absence of parasites. PMID:16212098

Nurtaev, Kh S; Badalova, N S; Zalialieva, M V; Osipova, S O

2005-01-01

129

Cross-species transmission of Giardia spp.: inoculation of beavers and muskrats with cysts of human, beaver, mouse, and muskrat origin.  

OpenAIRE

Giardia cysts isolated from humans, beavers, mice, and muskrats were tested in cross-species transmission experiments for their ability to infect either beavers or muskrats. Giardia cysts, derived from multiple symptomatic human donors and used for inoculation of beavers or muskrats, were shown to be viable by incorporation of fluorogenic dyes, excystation, and their ability to produce infections in the Mongolian gerbil model. Inoculation of beavers with 5 x 10(5) Giardia lamblia cysts result...

Erlandsen, S. L.; Sherlock, L. A.; Januschka, M.; Schupp, D. G.; Schaefer, F. W.; Jakubowski, W.; Bemrick, W. J.

1988-01-01

130

A Comparative Analysis of Intestinal Parasitic Infections between HIV+/AIDS Patients and Non-HIV Infected Individuals  

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Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to verify the occurrence of intestinal parasitic infections in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS patients in Iran in comparison with non-HIV individuals. Methods: A total of HIV+/AIDS patients (Group I and 1220 clinically healthy individuals (Group II were submitted to coproparasitological examination from 2003 to 2005. Results: The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites in group I and group II was 11.4% and 11.6%, respectively, without significant difference between two groups. The prevalence of infection for each helminth and pathogenic protozoan, in every group, was as follows: Group I: Blastocystis hominis (6.1%; Giardia lamblia (4.2%; Cryptosporidium spp. (0.9%; Isospora belli (0.26%; Strongyloides stercoralis (0.26%; Hymenolepis nana (0.13%; and Rhabditis axei (0.13%. Group II: Blastocystis hominis (6.5%; Giardia lamblia (4.1%; Strongyloides stercoralis (0.33%; Hymenolepis nana (0.16%; and Trichostrongylus sp. (0.16%. Although the prevalence of infection for extracellular parasites was not statistically different between two groups, however, the infection rates for enteric coccidians including Cryptosporidium spp. and I. belli were significantly higher in patients at AIDS stage than Group II. Conclusion: The results emphasize the needs for especial consideration of enteropathogenic intracellular coccidians in immunocompromised patients.

EB Kia

2007-04-01

131

Recent Advances in Molecular Biology of Parasitic Viruses.  

Science.gov (United States)

The numerous protozoa that can inhabit the human gastro-intestinal tract are known, yet little is understood of the viruses which infect these protozoa. The discovery, morphologic details, purification methods of virus-like particles, genome and proteome of the parasitic viruses, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, Trichomonas vaginalis, and the Eimeria sp. are described in this review. The protozoan viruses share many common features: most of them are RNA or double-stranded RNA viruses, ranging between 5 and 8 kilobases, and are spherical or icosahedral in shape with an average diameter of 30-40 nm. These viruses may influence the function and pathogenicity of the protozoa which they infect, and may be important to investigate from a clinical perspective. The viruses may be used as specific genetic transfection vectors for the parasites and may represent a research tool. This review provides an overview on recent advances in the field of protozoan viruses. PMID:25019235

Banik, Gouri Rani; Stark, Damien; Rashid, Harunor; Ellis, John T

2014-07-13

132

HUMAN PARASITIC INFECTIONS IN BALI : A REVIEW  

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Full Text Available Parasitic infections in humans in Bali are well documented, especially in the population who lived in rural areas. The most common infections are those of the soil-transmitted helminthiasis which are caused by Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm showing prevalence rates of 40 - 95%, 25 - 90% and 20 - 70% respectively. Enterobius vermicularis prevalence rate has been reported to be 18 - 53%. Taenniasis prevalence rate has been documented to be 0.8 - 23% in some villages, where Taenia saginata was found to be more prevalent than Taenia solium, and this might be due to the eating habit of the Balinese people who consumed both pork and beef lawar. Malaria is still found in Bali especially in regions along the coasts of some regencies, although generally the infection rate is low. The prevalence rates of intestinal protozoa such as Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica, Balantidium coli have been occasionally reported in low percentages.

Putu Sutisna

2012-09-01

133

Sensitive Detection of Giardia Cysts by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)  

OpenAIRE

Giardia is one of the most common human parasites and causes a lengthly course of nonbacterial diarrhea. Disease outbreaks due to Giardia infection are often attributed to contaminated water supplies. A major problem associated with detection for this organism is the lack of sensitive and reliable methods. PCR has the potential to address many of the limitations.We have performed a PCR-based method for sensitive detection of Giardia cysts. Because the sensitivity of PCR is a function of the e...

Nikaeen, M.; Ar, Mesdaghinia; Jeddi Tehrani, M.; Rezaian, M.; Vaezi, F.

2003-01-01

134

Intestinal Parasitic Infections in Renal Transplant Recipients  

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Full Text Available Background: Organ transplant recipients can experience serious diseases from infections due to emerging and reemerging parasitic infections. This study was carried out to evaluate the prevalence of intestinal parasites among renal transplant re-cipients of Iran. "nMethods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from June 2003 to August 2004 on renal transplant recipients in Iran. A total of 706 fecal samples obtained from randomly selected population originated from all over Iran. Patient's information was recorded in a questionnaire before sampling. A sample of stool was taken from each person. Direct wet smear exami-nation, formalin-ether concentration, Ziehl-neelsen staining, and agar plate culture were done for each sample. "nResults: Totally 32 patients (4.5% were positive for parasitic infections. In searching for emerging parasitic infections, the most prevalent parasites were found to be Blastocystis hominis, Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba coli, respectively. The merely ova which were seen were related to Hymenolepis nana. With investigation of healthy control, no significant differ-ence was found between transplanted and normal population. "nConclusion: The population showed controlled rate of intestinal infections probably due to regular awareness concerning risks of opportunistic infections; albeit regular surveillance through routine examination of stool samples for parasites seems considerably advantages the transplant recipient patients.

EB Kia

2007-07-01

135

Frequency of Intestinal Parasites in Tehran  

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Full Text Available "nBackground: For a long time, intestinal parasite infections are among the major problems of public health in Iran. Our aim was epidemiological studies on the frequency of intestinal parasites in patients re­ferred to three hospitals in Tehran during 2007-2008."nMethods: During 2007-2008, by simple random selection, 1000 stool samples were collected from Mi­lad, Hazrat-e-Rasoul and Shahid Fahmideh hospitals in Tehran, Iran. We examined the samples using di­rect smear, formol-ethyl acetate concentration, Agar-plate culture and Ziehl-Neelsen staining tech­nique."nResults: The frequency of intestinal parasites were: Blastocystis hominis 12.8%, Giardia lamblia 2.5%, En­tamoeba coli 4.8%, Iodamoeba butschlli 0.9%, unknown 4 nuclei cysts 0.4%, Endolimax nana 3.2%, Chilomastix mesnili 0.4%, Strongyloides stercoralis 0.1%, Hymenolepis nana 0.2% and Taenia sagi­nata 0.2%. Coccidian parasites were not found. Results show that infection with intestinal parasites does not statistically significant according to sex and age."nConclusion: The intestinal parasites, especially helminthic infections have been decreased during re­cent years.

H Oormazdi

2009-05-01

136

Intestinal Parasites Prevalence in Children from Day Care Centers in Sinop City-MT  

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Full Text Available Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the intestinal parasitosis prevalence of children from municipal day care centers in Sinop MT. Respecting ethical principles established by Resolution 196/96 of Health National Council/Ministry of Health of quantitative research, the anonymity of participants, as well accept and signature of parents of the Term of Free and Enlightened Consent were performed. Between Junes to October 2012 were applied coproparasitological methods for investigation. Fecal samples were analyzed by Hoffmans methods. From 103 students examined observed the prevalence rate of 19.42% of intestinal parasites. The intestinal parasites with highest prevalence rate were: Giardia lamblia (9.70% and Endolimax nana (5.82%. The results of this study demonstrate the need for sensitization of the population front of diagnosis importance, treatment and monitoring of positive cases and the necessity of more health professionals attention, especially with children.Key-words: Intestinal parasites, day care centers, children.

B. Muchiutti

2013-03-01

137

ANALYSIS OF INACTIVATION OF GIARDIA LAMBLIA BY CHLORINE  

Science.gov (United States)

Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act (PL-93-523) highlight the continuing problem of waterborne disease by mandating the EPA to promulgate: (1) Criteria by which filtration will be required for surface water supplies; and (2) disinfection requirements for all water supplies ...

138

Giardia assemblage A: human genotype in muskoxen in the Canadian Arctic.  

Science.gov (United States)

As part of an ongoing program assessing the biodiversity and impacts of parasites in Arctic ungulates we examined 72 fecal samples from muskoxen on Banks Island, Northwest Territories, Canada for Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Cryptosporidium spp. were not detected, but 21% of the samples were positive for Giardia. Sequencing of four isolates of Giardia demonstrated G. duodenalis, Assemblage A, a zoonotic genotype. PMID:18808665

Kutz, Susan J; Thompson, Rc Andrew; Polley, Lydden; Kandola, Kami; Nagy, John; Wielinga, Caroline M; Elkin, Brett T

2008-01-01

139

Giardia assemblage A: human genotype in muskoxen in the Canadian Arctic  

OpenAIRE

As part of an ongoing program assessing the biodiversity and impacts of parasites in Arctic ungulates we examined 72 fecal samples from muskoxen on Banks Island, Northwest Territories, Canada for Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Cryptosporidium spp. were not detected, but 21% of the samples were positive for Giardia. Sequencing of four isolates of Giardia demonstrated G. duodenalis, Assemblage A, a zoonotic genotype.

Kutz, Susan J.; Thompson, Rc Andrew; Polley, Lydden; Kandola, Kami; Nagy, John; Wielinga, Caroline M.; Elkin, Brett T.

2008-01-01

140

FILTRATION OF 'GIARDIA' CYSTS AND OTHER SUBSTANCES. VOLUME 3. RAPID RATE FILTRATION  

Science.gov (United States)

The efficiency of rapid rate filtration for removal of Giardia lamblia cysts, standard plate count bacteria, total coliform bacteria, and turbidity was determined experimentally under a wide range of operating conditions. Percent removal was evaluated by means of a lab-scale pilo...

141

Prevalence of intestinal parasites among food handlers in Western Iran.  

Science.gov (United States)

Parasitic infection is one of the problems that affect human health, especially in developing countries. In this study, all of the fast food shops, restaurants, and roast meat outlets of Khorramabad (Western Iran) and all the staff employed by them, some 210 people, were selected through a census and their stools were examined for the presence of parasites. The parasitological tests of direct wet-mount, Lugol's iodine staining, formaldehyde-ether sedimentation and Trichrome staining techniques were performed on the samples. The data was analyzed with a chi-square test and logistic regression was selected as the analytical model. The results showed 19 (9%) stool specimens were positive for different intestinal parasites. These intestinal parasites included Giardia lamblia 2.9%, Entamoeba coli 4.3%, Blastocystis sp. 1.4%, and Hymenolepis nana 0.5%. There was a significant difference between the presence of a valid health card, awareness of transmission of intestinal parasites, participation in training courses in environmental health with intestinal parasites (p 0.05). To control parasitic infection in food handlers, several strategies are recommended such as stool examinations every three months, public education, application of health regulations, controlling the validity of health cards and training on parasitic infection transmission. In this regard, the findings of the present study can be used as a basis to develop preventive programs targeting food handlers because the spread of disease via them is a common problem worldwide. PMID:24626411

Kheirandish, Farnaz; Tarahi, Mohammad Javad; Ezatpour, Behrouz

2014-01-01

142

Evaluation of the EasyScreen™ enteric parasite detection kit for the detection of Blastocystis spp., Cryptosporidium spp., Dientamoeba fragilis, Entamoeba complex, and Giardia intestinalis from clinical stool samples.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the EasyScreen™ Enteric Parasite Detection Kit (Genetic Signatures, Sydney, Australia) for the detection and identification of 5 common enteric parasites: Blastocystis spp., Cryptosporidium spp., Dientamoeba fragilis, Entamoeba complex, and Giardia intestinalis in human clinical samples. A total of 358 faecal samples were included in the study. When compared to real-time PCR and microscopy, the EasyScreen™ Enteric Parasite Detection Kit exhibited 92-100% sensitivity and 100% specificity and detected all commonly found genotypes and subtypes of clinically important human parasites. No cross reactivity was detected in stool samples containing various other bacterial, viral, and/or protozoan species. The EasyScreen™ PCR assay was able to provide rapid, sensitive, and specific simultaneous detection and identification of the 5 most important diarrhoea-causing enteric parasites that infect humans. It should be noted, however, that the EasyScreen™ Kit does not substitute for microscopy or for additional PCRs as it does not detect the pathogenic Coccidia spp. Cystoisospora belli or Cyclospora cayetanensis and it does not differentiate between pathogenic and nonpathogenic Entamoeba spp. This study also highlights the lack of sensitivity demonstrated by microscopy; as such, molecular methods should be considered the diagnostic method of choice for enteric parasites. PMID:24286625

Stark, D; Roberts, T; Ellis, J T; Marriott, D; Harkness, J

2014-02-01

143

Intestinal parasitic infections in renal transplant recipients  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The impact of intestinal parasitic infection in renal transplant recipients requires careful consideration in the developing world. However, there have been very few studies addressing this issue in Iran. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in rena [...] l transplant recipients in Iran. Stool specimens from renal transplant recipients and control groups were obtained between June 2006 and January 2007. The samples screened for intestinal parasitic infections using direct smear, formalin-ether sedimentation, Sheather's flotation and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining methods. Out of 150 renal transplant recipients, 33.3% (50), and out of 225 control group, 20% (45) were infected with one or more type of intestinal parasites. The parasites detected among patients included Entamoeba coli (10.6%), Endolimax nana (8.7%), Giardia lamblia (7.4%), Blastocystis spp. (4.7%), Iodamoeba butschlii (0.7%), Chilomastix mesnili (0.7%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (0.7%). Multiple infections were more common among renal transplant recipients group (p

Mehdi, Azami; Mehran, Sharifi; Sayed Hossein, Hejazi; Mehdi, Tazhibi.

2010-02-01

144

Prevalência de parasitismo intestinal nas aldeias indígenas da tribo Tembé, Amazônia Oriental Brasileira / Prevalence of intestinal parasitism in Tembé tribe indian settlements, Brazilian Eastern Amazon  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Para determinar a prevalência de enteroparasitismo nas aldeias Tembé, foi realizado um inquérito coproparasitológico em toda a população (93 índios), em dezembro de 1996. Os parasitos mais freqüentes foram ancilostomídeos (29,0%), Ascaris lumbricoides (34,4%), Entamoeba histolytica (12,9%) e Giardia [...] lamblia (4,3%). As maiores prevalências de ancilostomídeos e A. lumbricoides foram observadas na aldeia Turé-Mariquita, enquanto que as de E. histolytica e G. lamblia na Acará-Mirim. Não foi observada diferença significativa sob ponto de vista prático entre a média de idade dos índios parasitados e a dos não parasitados. Sexo esteve relacionado apenas a freqüência de ancilostomídeos, bem maior no sexo masculino. Desse modo, a prevalência de enteroparasitas ainda se encontra elevada para alguns agentes, sugerindo que as medidas de atenção devem ser imediatamente incrementadas a fim de se obterem resultados mais positivos no combate ao enteroparasitismo. Abstract in english To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitism in the Tembé settlements, parasitological examination was performed in December 1996 in the entire population (93 Indians). Hookworms were found in 29.0%, A. lumbricoides in 34.4%, E. histolytica in 12.9%, and G. lamblia in 4.3% of the individuals [...] . The Turé-Mariquita settlement had the highest prevalence of hookworms and A. lumbricoides, while Acará-Mirim had the highest prevalence of E. histolytica and G. lamblia. No differences in mean age were found between Indians with parasites and Indians without parasites. The association between intestinal parasites and sex was nonsignificant, except for the prevalence of hookworms, which was very high in males (38.6%) compared to females (20.4%). The study showed a high prevalence of some intestinal parasites in the Tembé settlements, indicating that primary and secondary health measures should taken immediately for the prevention of intestinal parasitoses

Rogério dos Anjos, Miranda; Fábio Branches, Xavier; José Roberto Lima, Nascimento; Raimundo Camurça de, Menezes.

1999-08-01

145

Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in the Greek population: local people and refugees  

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Full Text Available SUMMARY A total of 455 faecal samples from the Greek population and refugees was examined and 18.02% were found to be infected with one or more species of parasites. The prevalence of infection with intestinal parasites of the Greek (264 population was 11.36% and that of foreigners (191 originating from Europe, Africa and Asia was 27.23%. Found were a protozoan parasites: Blastocystis hominis, Cryptosporidium parvum, Entamoeba coli and Giardia lamblia (found in both groups examined and b metazoan parasites: Enterobius vermicularis, Taenia spp. and Strongyloides stercoralis (in both groups and Ancylostoma duodenale, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and Schistosoma mansoni (only in foreigners. Among the parasites found in foreigners only the helminth species A. duodenale and S. mansoni are considered as imported parasites from tropical and subtropical regions to European countries. The use of the multiple logistic regression showed that the odds ratio comparing Greeks to refugees, adjusted for age and gender, was 3.8 for Africans, 3.0 for Europeans and 2.6 for Asians. No correlation was found between age, gender or symptoms (diarrhea or abdominal pain with the presence of parasites. The overall prevalence of infection with parasites was high in both the Greek population and refugees and therefore a screening for parasite infection is recommended for the prevention of further spread of the infections. Key words: parasites, immigrants, Greece

M.G. Papazahariadou, E.G. Papadopoulos S.E. Frydas, Ch. Mavrovouniotis,T.C. Constantinidis, K. Antoniadou-Sotiriadou,

2007-03-01

146

Intestinal parasitic diarrhea among children in Baghdad--Iraq.  

Science.gov (United States)

Parasitic diarrhea among children is a significant health problem worldwide. This cross sectional study described the burden of parasitic diarrhea among children. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the impact of risk factors on the parasitic diarrhea, and to determine the parasitic profile among children in Baghdad-Iraq, during the period extending from September 2003 to June 2004. A total number of 2033 cases were included in the study. The estimated prevalence rate of parasitic diarrhea was 22%. We identified the following major diarrhea determinants were large households size, residential location, water source, low socioeconomic status, and low parent education. Giardia lamblia was found to be the most prevalent parasite with an infection rate of 45.54% followed by Entamoeba histolytica 23.44%, Enterobius vermicularis 12.7%, Hymenolepis nana 9.82%, Trichuris trichiura 5.4%, and Ascaris lumbricoides 2.2%. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that poor sanitation, inadequate environmental conditions, and low socioeconomic status are the main determining factors that predispose children to parasitic diarrhea. Mass deworming programs are recommended for school children, as this population is easily accessible. PMID:25382477

AL-Kubaisy, Waqar; AL-Talib, Hassanain; Al-khateeb, Alyaa; Shanshal, Mohammad Mazin

2014-09-01

147

The significance of Cryptosporidium and Giardia for drinking water production  

OpenAIRE

Cryptosporidium and Giardia are parasitic protozoa that can be transmitted to man by drinking and recreational water. Depending on the immune state of the infected host, they can cause a selflimiting to severe gastro-enteritis. This report gives a review on the potential for transmission of Cryptosporidium and Giardia by drinking and recreational water, attending data on the occurrence of these parasites in humans and other reservoirs, their persence in sewage and surf...

Gj, Medema

2012-01-01

148

HUMAN PARASITE SURVEY ON NASI AND BERAS ISLANDS ACEH PROVINCE, SUMATRA  

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Full Text Available Survey parasit usus dan darah manusia terhadap penduduk pulau-pulau Nasi/Beras Propinsi Aceh, Sumatra, telah diadakan dihulan Januari, 1975. Sebanyak 83 pulasan darah dari 67 pria dan 16 wanita, serta 87 contoh tinja diperoleh dari 52 pria dan 35 wanita. Brugia malayi microfilaria ditemukan dalam 3 atau 3 persen dari darah yang diperiksa dan juga parasitemia yang disebabkan oleh Plasmodium malariae 1 atau 1 persen dan P. falciparum 2 atau 2 persen. Trichuris trichiura (86 persen , merupakan parasit usus yang paling banyak ditemukan, diikuti oleh cacing tambang (77 persen, Ascaris lumbricoides (60 persen, Entamoeba histolyrica (11 per sen, H. coli (10 persen . Endolimax nana hanya 5 atau 6 persen dan Iodamoeba butschlii dan Giardia lamblia, masing-masing 3 persen. Tidak ada ditemukan Schistosoma japonicum atau pun ova cestoda diantara penduduk yang diperiksa.

E. E. Stafford

2012-09-01

149

Intestinal parasitic infections and eosinophilia in an human immunedeficiency virus positive population in Honduras  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The occurrence of intestinal parasites, their regional distribution and their relations to eosinophilia were studied in 133 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive individuals from Honduras. After signing an informed consent, participants answered a socio-demographic and risk factor questionnair [...] e, a complete physical examination, medical history, and a series of laboratory tests. All participants were HIV positive but not acquired immunodeficiency syndrome positive. Of them, 67% were co-infected with pathogen and non pathogen parasites. Overall occurrence of nematodes was: 44.3% for Trichuris trichiura, 24% for Ascaris lumbricoides, 12% for Hookworm and 7.5% for Strongyloides stercoralis. No cases of Giardia lamblia, acute amebiasis or cryptosporidiasis were diagnosed. Mean eosinophil percents for participants were consistently and significantly higher in infected than in non infected individuals: 22% for Hookworm vs 7.2% (p

Rina G, Kaminsky; Ramón J, Soto; Adriana, Campa; Marianna K, Baum.

2004-11-01

150

The Antimicrobial Effect of Methanol Extracts of Eucalyptus, Satureia Hortensis and Heracleum Glabrescens on Giardia Cysts  

OpenAIRE

Background and objectives: Giardiasis is a parasitic infection of smallintestine, with a worldwide distribution and the prevalence of Giardia indifferent parts of the world varies between 1 to 25%. Plants have the vastrange of antimicrobial and antifungal activity that can be identified asalternative treatments for bacterial and parasitic pathogens, the same asGiardia. In this study, the methanol extracts of eucalyptus plants, Satureiahortensis and Heracleum glabrescens, on Giardia cysts were...

Safarnejad Tameshkel, F.; Khatami Nejad, MR.; Nasrollahi, A.; Rahdari, P.; Gholam Hossein Poor, F.; Kazemi Afarmejani, S.; Rahnavard A

2012-01-01

151

Cryptosporidium sp. y otros parásitos intestinales en niños menores de 5 años con diarrea y su relación con las pruebas coprocualitativas / Cryptosporidium sp. and Other Intestinal Parasites in Children under 5 Years Old with Diarrhea and their Relationship to Coproqualitative Tests  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Para determinar la presencia de Cryptosporidium sp. y otros parásitos intestinales; así como su relación con las pruebas coprocualitativas, se analizaron 100 muestras fecales de niños de 3 meses a 5 años de edad, que asistieron al Laboratorio de Parasitología del Servicio Autónomo del Hospital Unive [...] rsitario de Maracaibo (SAHUM) con diagnóstico clínico de diarrea. Estas muestras fueron sometidas a un examen macroscópico y microscópico con SSF (0,85%) y lugol, coloración de Kinyoun para la detección de coccidios intestinales y las pruebas coprocualitativas: sangre oculta, azucares reductores y pH. Del total de muestras estudiadas, el 12% evidenció parásitos. Las especies encontradas fueron Cryptosporidium sp., Giardia lamblia y Blastocystis hominis con 4% cada uno, Trichuris trichiura (2%), Ascaris lumbricoides (1%), Pentatrichomonas hominis (1%). No se encontró correlación entre las pruebas coprocualitativas y las especies parasitarias identificadas, así como tampoco entre parasitosis y sexo. Cryptosporidium sp. y Giardia lamblia fueron los parásitos patógenos más frecuentes en niños ? 2 años de edad. Abstract in english To determine the presence of Cryptosporidium sp. and other intestinal parasites, as well as their relation to coproqualitative tests, fecal samples were analyzed from 100 children ranging from 3 months to 5 years old, who attended the Autonomous Service Parasitology Laboratory at the University Hosp [...] ital of Maracaibo (SAHUM) with a clinical diagnosis of diarrhea. These samples were subjected to macroscopic and microscopic examination with SSF (0.85%) and iodine, Kinyoun stain for the detection of intestinal coccidia, coproqualitative tests (occult blood, reducing sugars and pH). Of all the samples studied, 12% evidenced parasites. The species found were Cryptosporidium sp. (4%), Ascaris lumbricoides (1%), Trichuris trichiura (2%) Pentatrichomonas hominis (1%), Giardia lamblia and Blastocystis hominis at (4%). There was no correlation between the coproqualitative tests and the parasitic species identified, nor was there any relationship between parasitosis and gender. Cryptosporidium sp. and Giardia lamblia were the most frequent pathogenic parasites in children ? 2 years old.

Ángela, Bracho M; Zulbey, Rivero-Rodríguez; Solneumar, Salazar F; Patricia, Jaimes R; Mariana, Semprún T; Francisca, Monsalve-Castillo; Rafael, Villalobos P.

2010-12-01

152

PARASITES OF MAN IN SERANG, WEST JAVA  

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Full Text Available Survey penyakit menular didesa Cikurai dan Barengkok, Jawa Barat pada bulan Juni 1974 ini adalah merupakan salah satu dari serangkaian survey yang dilakukan oleh Direktorat Jenderal P3.M. Dep. Kes. dan US Namru-2 guna menentukan distribusi dan prevalensi penyakit terutama malaria, filariasis dan penyakit parasit perut. Khususnya didaerah Cikurai dimana dilaporkan adanya Schistosoma in­cognitum secara hyperenzootik maka perlulah dilihat apakah parasit ini ditemukan pula diantara pend-duk setempat. Dari hasil survey didesa Cikurai dan Barengkok, Jawa Barat ini dilihat bahwa Plasmodium falciparum ditemukan pada 8 atau 3 persen dari sediaan darah 261 penduduk yang diperiksa dan tidak terlihat adanya microfilariae. Parasit perut yang menonjol terlihat pada sediaan tinja dari 335 penduduk yang diperiksa adalah Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura dan cacing tambang masing-masing sebesar 89 persen, 87 persen dan 65 persen ; parasit lainnya adalah Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba hart manni, Entamoeba coli, Endolinuu nana, lodamoeba butschlii, Giardia lamblia, Chilomastvc mesnili, Enterobius vermicularis, dan Echinostoma sp. Tidak terlihat adanya Schistosoma incognitum pada sediaan tinja dari 335 penduduk yang diperiksa dikedua desa ini.

W. P. Carney

2012-09-01

153

Intestinal parasitic infection among children and neonatus admitted to Ibn-Sina Hospital, Sirt, Libya.  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of 350 stool samples from 196 males and 154 female children and neonatus admitted in Ibn-Sina hospital, Sirt, were examined from June 2001 to May 2002, to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites. Intestinal parasitic infections were identified in 196 (56%) of children and neonates. No intestinal helminthic parasites were detected but 13 intestinal protozoan parasites were detected. The most prevalent protozoan was Entamoeba histolytica /E. dispar (36.57%); Blastocystis hominis (12.57%), Giardia lamblia (10.29%), Isospora belli (3.14%) and Balantidium coli (0.86%), the latter was detected in non-Libyan children. The non-pathogenic ones were Entamoeba coli (15.14%), Endolimax nana (13.71%), Entamoeba hartmanni (4.29%), Chilomastix mesnilli (4.29%), Retortamonas intestinalis (3.43%), Dientamoeba fragilis (2%), Iodamoeba butschlii (0.86%) and Trichomonas hominis (0.86%). The result showed a significant difference exists between the prevalence of pathogenic and non-pathogenic protozoan parasites (P < 0.05). High prevalence of E. histolytica/ E. dispar followed by E. coli, E. nana, B. hominis and G. lamblia in both sexes of children, while the prevalence of other intestinal parasites were low in both sexes, significantly different existed in the prevalence of intestinal parasites between males and females children (t = 24.68; P < 0.05). Age groups had no effect on the prevalence of intestinal parasites (F = 0.66; P < 0.05). Significant differences existed in the prevalence between single and multiple infections with pathogenic protozoa. The socio-economic status of children parents revealed that high prevalence in children from medium socio-economic status. The family size had no significant effect on the prevalence of the intestinal parasites. PMID:17985574

Kasssem, Hamed H; Zaed, Hana Abdalsalam; Sadaga, Gazala A

2007-08-01

154

Giardia duodenalis cathepsin B proteases degrade intestinal epithelial interleukin-8 and attenuate interleukin-8-induced neutrophil chemotaxis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardia duodenalis (syn. G. intestinalis, G. lamblia) infections are a leading cause of waterborne diarrheal disease that can also result in the development of postinfectious functional gastrointestinal disorders via mechanisms that remain unclear. Parasite numbers exceed 10(6) trophozoites per centimeter of gut at the height of an infection. Yet the intestinal mucosa of G. duodenalis-infected individuals is devoid of signs of overt inflammation. G. duodenalis infections can also occur concurrently with infections with other proinflammatory gastrointestinal pathogens. Little is known of whether and how this parasite can attenuate host inflammatory responses induced by other proinflammatory stimuli, such as a gastrointestinal pathogen. Identifying hitherto-unrecognized parasitic immunomodulatory pathways, the present studies demonstrated that G. duodenalis trophozoites attenuate secretion of the potent neutrophil chemoattractant interleukin-8 (CXCL8); these effects were observed in human small intestinal mucosal tissues and from intestinal epithelial monolayers, activated through administration of proinflammatory interleukin-1? or Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. This attenuation is caused by the secretion of G. duodenalis cathepsin B cysteine proteases that degrade CXCL8 posttranscriptionally. Furthermore, the degradation of CXCL8 via G. duodenalis cathepsin B cysteine proteases attenuates CXCL8-induced chemotaxis of human neutrophils. Taken together, these data demonstrate for the first time that G. duodenalis trophozoite cathepsins are capable of attenuating a component of their host's proinflammatory response induced by a separate proinflammatory stimulus. PMID:24733096

Cotton, James A; Bhargava, Amol; Ferraz, Jose G; Yates, Robin M; Beck, Paul L; Buret, Andre G

2014-07-01

155

Prevalence of intestinal parasites and profile of CD4+ counts in HIV+/AIDS people in north of Iran, 2007-2008.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study 142 stool samples (64 HIV+/AIDS patients and 78 non-HIV infected individuals) collected from Mazandaran province and screened for intestinal parasites, using direct wet mont, formalin-ether sedimentation concentration, modified Ziehl Neelsen and modified trichrome techniques. Each person in this study was examined for CD4+ counts. Intestinal parasites were found in 11/64 (17.2%) of patients in HIV+/AIDS group and in 14/78 (17.9%) of controls. Prevalence of parasites detected in HIV+/AIDS individuals was as follow: Cryptosporidium sp. 9.4%, Giardia lamblia 3.1%, Entamoeba coli 1.6%, E. histolytica 1.6% and Chilomastix mesnili 1.6%. Prevalence of parasites in controls was as follow: Trichostrongylus sp. 6.4%, G. lamblia 3.8%, Cryptosporidium sp. 2.5%, E. coli 2.5%, E. histolytica 1.2%, Hookworms 1.2%. The mean of CD4+ counts in HIV-positive group (430 cells microL(-1)) was remarkedly less than controls (871 cells microL(-1)) (p = 0.001). As patients usually belong to poor socio-economic backgrounds and they can hardly afford treatment, therefore, it is suggested screening and free treatment of intestinal parasites in these individuals should be taken by health centers to prevent the occurrence of these diseases in HIV+/AIDS patients, as often the disease may take a fulminant form. PMID:20384282

Daryani, A; Sharif, M; Meigouni, M; Mahmoudi, F Baba; Rafiei, A; Gholami, Sh; Khalilian, A; Gohardehi, Sh; Mirabi, A M

2009-09-15

156

Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites and Profile of CD4+ Counts in HIV+/AIDS People in North of Iran, 2007-2008  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study 142 stool samples (64 HIV+/AIDS patients and 78 non-HIV infected individuals collected from Mazandaran province and screened for intestinal parasites, using direct wet mont, formalin-ether sedimentation concentration, modified Ziehl Neelsen and modified trichrome techniques. Each person in this study was examined for CD4+ counts. Intestinal parasites were found in 11/64 (17.2% of patients in HIV+/AIDS group and in 14/78 (17.9% of controls. Prevalence of parasites detected in HIV+/AIDS individuals was as follow: Cryptosporidium sp. 9.4%, Giardia lamblia 3.1%, Entamoeba coli 1.6%, E. histolytica 1.6% and Chilomastix mesnili 1.6%. Prevalence of parasites in controls was as follow: Trichostrongylus sp. 6.4%, G. lamblia 3.8%, Cryptosporidium sp. 2.5% , E. coli 2.5% , E. histolytica 1.2% , Hookworms 1.2%. The mean of CD4+ counts in HIV-positive group (430 cells ?L-1 was remarkedly less than controls (871 cells ?L-1 (p = 0.00l. As patients usually belong to poor socio-economic backgrounds and they can hardly afford treatment, therefore, it is suggested screening and free treatment of intestinal parasites in these individuals should be taken by health centers to prevent the occurrence of these diseases in HIV+/AIDS patients, as often the disease may take a fulminant form.

A. Daryani

2009-01-01

157

[Intestinal parasitic infections in Serbia].  

Science.gov (United States)

To determine the public health significance of intestinal parasitism in Serbia today, systematic parasitologic examination of 16 regions (Kragujevac, Luchani, Zhagubica, Bor, Sjenica, Novi Pazar, Valjevo, Aleksandrovac, Pirot, Bosilegrad, Ivanjica, Golubac, Uzhice, Kladovo, Negotin, Beograd) in central Serbia were carried out over the period 1984-1993. The study involved a total of 5981 schoolchildren (2887 F, 3094 M), 7-11 years old representing 10% of the total age-matched population (N = 58,228) of the examined regions, residing in 91 settlements. Field parasitological examinations included the examination of perianal swabs for E. vermicularis and Taenia sp., and examination of a single feces sample by direct saline smear and Lugol stained smear for intestinal protozoa, and the Kato and Lörincz methods for intestinal helminths. Nine species of intestinal parasites were detected, of which five protozoan: Entamoeba histolytica (0.02%), Entamoeba hartmanni (0.02%), Entamoeba coli (1.3%), Iodamoeba bütschlii (0.02%), Giardia lamblia (6.8%), and four helminthic: Hymenolepis nana (0.06%), Enterobius vermicularis (14.7%), Ascaris lumbricoides (3.3%), Trichuris trichiura (1.8%). The overall prevalence of intestinal parasite infections amounted to 24.6% (1207/4913), with a highly significant difference (p < 0.001) between particular sites (range 14.4%-43.8%) (Figure 1). Helminthic infections (810) were significantly more frequent (p < 0.001) as compared to both protozoan (296) and combined helminthic-protozoan infections (101). Of these, two species (G. lamblia, E. vermicularis) were found in all examined regions, three (E. coli, A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura) were detected in two or more, while four species (E. histolytica, E. hartmanni, I. bütschlii, H. nana) were each found in a single region (Figure 2). The predominant species (E. coli, G. lamblia, E. vermicularis, A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura) were distributed at considerably different prevalence rates, with a significant difference between the minimal and maximal values (p < 0.01). Of 91 settlements examined, intestinal parasites were found in all but one. However, the prevalence rates in 90 settlements varied significantly (p = 0.0004), from a low of 5.9% to a high of 66.7%. Thus, according to the World Health Organization criteria [19], infections with the four clinically relevant species (G. lamblia, E. vermicularis, A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura) ranged from sporadic to endemic and hyperendemic (Figure 3). The results obtained provide the basic epidemiological data about intestinal parasite infections in Serbia, and indicate their significance in terms of both the number of species and their respective prevalence rates. Given the significant differences obtained in the frequency and distribution of particular parasite infections in different regions, a programme for the control of these infections in Serbia should obviously include a wide variety of measures. PMID:9525075

Nikoli?, A; Djurkovi?-Djakovi?, O; Bobi?, B

1998-01-01

158

Detection of Cryptosporidium spp and other intestinal parasites in children with acute diarrhea and severe dehydration in Rio de Janeiro Detecção de Cryptosporidium spp e outros parasitas intestinais em crianças com diarréia aguda e desidratação grave no Rio de Janeiro  

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Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to estimate the frequency of infection by Cryptosporidium spp and other intestinal parasites in dehydrated children with gastroenteritis who were admitted to a pediatric hospital. Stool examinations from 218 children were performed. Cryptosporidium spp was identified in eighteen out of 193 stool samples (9.3% subjected to safranin-methylene blue staining. Giardia lamblia was detected in ten out of 213 (4.7% samples examined via the direct or Ritchie methods. Other parasites identified were Ascaris lumbricoides (4.2%, Blastocystis hominis (1.4%, Entamoeba coli (0.9%, Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar (0.5%, Endolimax nana (0.5%, Trichuris trichiura (0.5% and Enterobius vermicularis (0.5%.O objetivo do presente estudo foi estimar a freqüência das infecções por Cryptosporidium spp e outros parasitas intestinais em crianças desidratadas com gastroenterite, internadas em um hospital pediátrico. Exames de fezes de 218 crianças foram realizados. Cryptosporidium spp foi detectado em 18 de 193 (9,3% amostras fecais submetidas à coloração pela safranina/azul-de-metileno. Giardia lamblia foi detectada em dez de 213 (4,7% amostras submetidas ao exame direto ou ao método de Ritchie. Também foram identificados Ascaris lumbricoides (4,2%, Blastocystis hominis (1,4%, Entamoeba coli (0,9%, Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar (0,5%, Endolimax nana (0,5%, Trichuris trichiura (0,5% and Enterobius vermicularis (0,5%.

Filipe Anibal Carvalho-Costa

2007-06-01

159

Prevalence of parasites in patients with gastroenteritis at East of Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran.  

Science.gov (United States)

Parasitic gastrointestinal infections are one of the most important health problems in the developing countries, which lead to the onset of intestinal disease particularly diarrhoea. Due to the particular geographic situation in the Mazandaran province, individuals are infected with various intestinal parasites. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence rate of enteropathogenic parasites in the patients with gastroenteritis living at the east of Mazandaran province (Sari, Nekah and Joybar cities), northern Iran. This descriptive study was carried out from September 2009 to March 2010. Faecal samples were collected by randomized cluster method from 962 patients with gastroenteritis who were refered to the Health Service Centers of Sari, Neka and Joybar cities. All data about the patients were recorded in questionnaire. Stool specimens were examined by direct wet mounting, formolether concentration, and Ziehl-Neelsen acid fast stain and Auramin Phenol fluorescence (APF) method for the investigation of Cryptosporidium and Isospora. Prevalence of intestinal parasites and their relationship with gender, age, and season were investigated, and the obtained data were analyzed with ?² test using the SPSS software (16.0). Out of 962 patients with gastroenteritis, overall infection was 9.1%; Giardia lamblia (4.1%) with the highest and Enterobius vermicularis (0.2%) with the lowest prevalence rate. Prevalence rate of other parasites were as follow: Cryptosporidium, 0.1%; Entamoeba histolytica, 0.1%; Chilomastix mesnili, 0.1%; Entamoeba coli, 1.2%; Blastocytis hominis, 1.8%; Trichostrongylus spp., 0.4% and Hymenolepis nana, 0.9%. Findings showed that Giardia is the most common cause of intestinal infection at the east of Mazandaran province, and could be defined as the most important parasitic agent of gastroenteritis. On the other hand, infection with enteropathogenic parasites as compared with the previous reports showed significant decline, which reveals the coverage of health education, increase of public knowledge on the parasitic diseases and sanitation of living environment. PMID:23202601

Vahedi, Mohammad; Gohardehi, Shaban; Sharif, Mehdi; Daryani, Ahmad

2012-12-01

160

Parasitosis intestinales en una población pediátrica de la ciudad de Rosario, Santa Fe, Argentina / Enteric parasites in children in Rosario, Santa Fe, Argentina / Parasitoses Intestinais numa população pediátrica da cidade de Rosario, Santa Fe, Argentina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese As parasitoses intestinais afetam principalmente as crianças. O objetivo do trabalho é conhecer a situação atual numa população pediátrica de diferentes zonas da cidade de Rosario, Santa Fe (Argentina) e comparar a prevalência parasitária com estudos similares realizados nos períodos, 1983-1984 / 19 [...] 90-1991 / 1992-1993 / 2007-2008. Foram coletadas amostras de matéria fecal por evacuação espontânea de 112 pacientes, 51 meninas e 61 meninos, com idades compreendidas entre 4 meses e 16 anos, provenientes de 10 centros de atenção primária da saúde, (Secretaria de Saúde Pública-Prefeitura de Rosario). As amostras foram submetidas a exame macroscópico e microscópico direto e a métodos de concentração. No período 2007-2008 os parasitas mais encontrados foram Blastocystis hominis, Giardia lamblia e Ascaris lumbricoides. A prevalência parasitária diminuiu de 50 a 41%. Blastocystis hominis aumentou através do tempo; Giardia lamblia manteve valores constantes nas 4 etapas; Entamoeba coli diminuiu nos últimos 14 anos e Ascaris lumbricoides aumentou significativamente com relação ao período 1983-1984. Diminuíram os indivíduos poliparasitados e aumentaram os monoparasitados com relação a anos anteriores. A diminuição das enteroparasitoses poderia dar-se devido a políticas de saneamento ambiental, campanhas de prevenção e desparasitação realizadas desde os diversos centros de saúde municipal. Abstract in spanish Las parasitosis intestinales afectan principalmente a los niños. El objetivo de este trabajo es conocer la situación actual en una población pediátrica de diferentes zonas de la ciudad de Rosario, Santa Fe (Argentina) y comparar la prevalencia parasitaria con estudios similares realizados en los per [...] íodos 1983/1984, 1990/1991, 1992/1993 y 2007/2008. Se recolectaron muestras de materia fecal por deposición espontánea de 112 pacientes, 51 niñas y 61 niños, con edades comprendidas entre 4 meses y 16 años, provenientes de 10 Centros de Atención Primaria de la Salud (Secretaría de Salud Pública - Municipalidad de Rosario). Las muestras fueron sometidas a examen macroscópico y microscópico directo y a métodos de concentración. En el período 2007/2008 los parásitos más hallados fueron Blastocystis hominis, Giardia lamblia y Ascaris lumbricoides. La prevalencia parasitaria disminuyó del 50% al 41%. Blastocystis hominis aumentó a través del tiempo; Giardia lamblia mantuvo valores constantes en las cuatro etapas; Entamoeba coli disminuyó en los últimos 14 años y Ascaris lumbricoides aumentó significativamente en relación con el período 1983/1984. Disminuyeron los individuos poliparasitados y aumentaron los monoparasitados con respecto a años anteriores. La disminución de las enteroparasitosis podría deberse a políticas de saneamiento ambiental, campañas de prevención y desparasitación realizadas desde los distintos efectores de salud municipales. Abstract in english Faeces from 112 children patients (51 girls and 61 boys) ranging from 4 months old to 16 years old were studied. These patients were assisted in ten Public Health Care Centres in Rosario. The aim of this work was: to determine the incidence of enteric parasites in children, and to evaluate and compa [...] re parasite prevalence in the following periods: 1983/1984, 1990/1991, 1992/1993 and 2007/2008. Forty-one per cent of the samples showed protozoa and helmints. A decrease in the percentage of polyparasitized patients and an increase in the monoparasitized ones was observed when compared to previous years. Blastocystis hominis was found to increase in 2007/2008 while Giardia lamblia remained unaltered in the four periods studied. The occurrence of Entamoeba coli was found to decrease in the 1992/1993 period while Ascaris lumbricoides increased with time. These were the most common parasites found in the population studied. Enteric parasites decreased in children. The occurrence of parasites could be due to

Paula, Indelman; Claudia, Echenique; Griselda, Bertorini; Liliana, Racca; Carlos, Gomez; Alicia, Luque; Hortensia María, Magaró.

2011-06-01

161

First record of Giardia in cattle in Denmark  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Faecal samples from asymptomatic dairy cows and calves from a farm on the Island Falster, Denmark, were examined by a sucrose gradient flotation technique. Giardia cysts were found in 7.6% of the 92 samples, and estimated cyst excretion rates ranged from 50-200 cysts per gram faeces. Given that Giardia has the potential to cause clinical disease in cattle and to be transmitted to other animal species and humans, finding the parasite in cattle may be of major epidemiological significance. Future work should focus on elucidating the pathogenicity, transmission patterns and the genetic structure of Giardia populations in cattle in Denmark.

Iburg, T.; Gasser, R.B.

1996-01-01

162

Giardia and Cryptosporidium spp. in filtered drinking water supplies.  

OpenAIRE

Giardia and Cryptosporidium levels were determined by using a combined immunofluorescence test for filtered drinking water samples collected from 66 surface water treatment plants in 14 states and 1 Canadian province. Giardia cysts were detected in 17% of the 83 filtered water effluents. Cryptosporidium oocysts, were observed in 27% of the drinking water samples. Overall, cysts or oocysts were found in 39% of the treated effluent samples. Despite the frequent detection of parasites in drinkin...

Lechevallier, M. W.; Norton, W. D.; Lee, R. G.

1991-01-01

163

Sexually transmitted parasitic diseases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sexual activity is the primary method of transmission for several important parasitic diseases and has resulted in a significant prevalence of enteric parasitic infection among male homosexuals. The majority of parasitic sexually transmitted diseases involve protozoan pathogens; however, nematode and arthropod illnesses are also included in this group. Trichomoniasis, caused by Trichomonas vaginalis, is the most common parasitic STD. Infection with this organism typically results in the signs and symptoms of vaginitis. Trichomoniasis can be diagnosed in the office setting by performing a microscopic evaluation of infected vaginal secretions and can be successfully treated with metronidazole. Both pediculosis pubis, caused by the crab louse Pthirus pubis, and scabies, caused by the itch mite Sarcoptes scabiei, present with severe pruritus. A papular or vesicular rash and linear burrows seen in the finger webs and genital area are characteristic of scabies. Pediculosis pubis is diagnosed by observing adult lice or their nits in areas that bear coarse hair. The diagnosis of scabies is confirmed by scraping suspicious burrows and viewing the mite or its byproducts under the microscope. Lindane, 1% used in treating scabies, is also very effective for treating pediculosis pubis. Synthetic pyrethrins, also applied as a cream or lotion, are less toxic alternatives for the treatment of either condition. Oral-anal and oral-genital sexual practices predispose male homosexuals to infection with many enteric pathogens, including parasitic protozoans and helminths. The most common of these parasitic infections are amebiasis, caused by Entamoeba histolytica, and giardiasis caused by Giardia lamblia. Both entities may cause acute or chronic diarrhea, as well as other abdominal symptoms. Most gay men with amebiasis are asymptomatic, and invasive disease in this group is extremely rare. Both amebiasis and giardiasis can be diagnosed on the basis of microscopic examination of stool specimens, although duodenal aspiration is occasionally necessary to confirm a diagnosis of giardiasis. Multiple treatment regimens exist for amebiasis. Iodoquinol is a good choice for asymptomatic cyst carriers, whereas the combination of metronidazole plus iodoquinol is used for symptomatic patients. Quinacrine and metronidazole are both efficacious in the treatment of giardiasis. PMID:2011632

Levine, G I

1991-03-01

164

Giardia assemblage A: human genotype in muskoxen in the Canadian Arctic  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract As part of an ongoing program assessing the biodiversity and impacts of parasites in Arctic ungulates we examined 72 fecal samples from muskoxen on Banks Island, Northwest Territories, Canada for Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Cryptosporidium spp. were not detected, but 21% of the samples were positive for Giardia. Sequencing of four isolates of Giardia demonstrated G. duodenalis, Assemblage A, a zoonotic genotype.

Nagy John

2008-09-01

165

Development of Sensitive Detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia from Surface Water in Iran  

OpenAIRE

Background: The protozoan parasites Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia are known to occur widely in both raw and drinking waters. They are two of the causative agents of waterborne out-breaks of gastroenteritis throughout the world. In the present study, a PCR assay and FA were developed for detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cyst in environmental samples. Methods: We have detected Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts and Giardia cysts in seeded and un-seeded environmental water samples b...

Taghipour Lailabadi, N.; Kazemi, B.; Ashrafi, K.; Abedinzadeh, H.; Tahvildar-bideruni, F.; Haghighi, A.; Bandehpour, M.; MR Mahmoudi

2011-01-01

166

Evaluation of Five Membrane Filtration Methods for Recovery of Cryptosporidium and Giardia Isolates from Water Samples  

OpenAIRE

We evaluated the efficiency of five membrane filters for recovery of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and Giardia lamblia cysts. These filters included the Pall Life Sciences Envirochek (EC) standard filtration and Envirochek high-volume (EC-HV) membrane filters, the Millipore flatbed membrane filter, the Sartorius flatbed membrane filter (SMF), and the Filta-Max (FM) depth filter. Distilled and surface water samples were spiked with 10 oocysts and 10 cysts/liter. We also evaluated the recovery...

Wohlsen, T.; Bates, J.; Gray, B.; Katouli, M.

2004-01-01

167

Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection among children in two villages in Lao PDR.  

Science.gov (United States)

The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection among 128 children under 15 years old in two villages in Khammouane Province, southeastern Lao PDR, was investigated. Overall prevalence of helminth infection was 77.3%; the prevalence was 64.8% in children under 6 years, 88.5% in those aged 6-10 years and 81.8% in the age group above 11 years. The prevalent helminths found in the subjects were Ascaris lumbricoides (48.4%), Trichuris trichiura (43.8%), hookworm (37.5%) and Opisthorchis viverrini (37.5%). Intestinal protozoan infection was demonstrated in 14.1%; Giardia lamblia was the most prevalent (8.6%) protozoan species. PMID:9185270

Kobayashi, J; Vannachone, B; Xeutvongsa, A; Manivang, K; Ogawa, S; Sato, Y; Pholsena, K

1996-09-01

168

Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites and Clinical Manifestations in Children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Diagnosis and treatment of parasitic infections are very important because of pathologic changes and clinical symptoms produced in the host, and for taking measures against them. These diseases have more adverse effects and more importance in children. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence of intestinal parasites and their clinical manifestations in children 0-14 years old referred to Yazd Central Laboratory. Methods: The present cross- sectional descriptive study was performed during the April 2005 to September 2006, with data obtained from the stool samples of 1500 children, using both wet mount smear (physiologic saline and Lugol?s solutions and formalin-ethyl acetate concentration method for detection of the intestinal parasites and also with the tape test for eggs of Enterobius vermicularis and Taenia. Results: From 1500 examined stool samples, 128(8.5% cases were positive for one of the intestinal parasites, including 67(52.3% females and 61(47.7% males. Ninety five percent of positive cases were infected with protozoa and 5% with helminths. The most frequent protozoans were Blastocystis hominis 41.3%, Giardia lamblia 33.6%, and Entamoeba coli 14.7%. Enterobius vermicularis (4.3% and Hymenolepis nana (0.7% were the helminth species. The most abundant infection rate was shown in the 5-9 years old group, with a significant difference compared with other age groups (P< 0.05. About 87% of children infested with Blastocystis hominis showed more than 5 Blastocystis per 400x microscope fields, and 100% of children infested with Giardia lamblia and Chilomastix mesnili had clinical symptoms. Conclusion: In this study, lower contamination rates in comparison with the similar studies conducted in other regions of the country was seen, which may be as a result of the hot and dry climate and improved personal hygiene and public health services. There is a need for further studies about the prevalence and clinical symptoms of some parasites such as Blastocystis hominis and Chilomastix mesnili.

M Ebadi

2007-06-01

169

Parasitic contamination of commonly consumed fresh leafy vegetables in benha, egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study evaluated the degree of parasitic contamination of vegetables which are commercialized and consumed fresh in Benha, Egypt. It included 530 vegetables: lettuce, watercress, parsley, green onion, and leek. Vegetables were collected randomly from markets within Benha. Samples were washed in saline, and the resulting washing solution was filtered and centrifuged to concentrate the parasitic stages. Sediments and supernatants were examined by iodine and modified Ziehl-Neelsen stained smears. Intestinal parasites were detected in 157/530 (29.6%) samples. Giardia lamblia cysts were the most prevalent parasite (8.8%) followed by Entamoeba spp. cysts (6.8%), Enterobius vermicularis eggs (4.9%), various helminth larvae (3.6%), Hymenolepis nana eggs (2.8%), Hymenolepis diminuta eggs (2.1%), and Ascaris lumbricoides eggs (0.6%). The highest contaminated vegetable was lettuce (45.5%) followed by watercress (41.3%), parsley (34.3%), green onion (16.5%), and leek (10.7%). These results indicate a significant seasonal variation (P < 0.05), with highest prevalence in summer (49%) and the lowest in winter (10.8%). These findings provide evidence for the high risk of acquiring parasitic infection from the consumption of raw vegetables in Benha, Egypt. Effective measures are necessary to reduce parasitic contamination of vegetables. PMID:25024845

Eraky, Maysa Ahmad; Rashed, Samia Mostafa; Nasr, Mona El-Sayed; El-Hamshary, Azza Mohammed Salah; Salah El-Ghannam, Amera

2014-01-01

170

Intestinal parasitic infections in HIV/AIDS and HIV seronegative individuals in a teaching hospital, Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The magnitude of intestinal parasitic infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) /AIDS patients requires careful consideration in the developing world. However, there have been very few studies addressing this issue in Ethiopia. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection in HIV/AIDS patients at Jimma Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia, between January and February 2002. Stool specimens from HIV/AIDS patients and control groups were screened for intestinal parasitic infections using direct and formalin-ether sedimentation concentration methods. Out of 78 HIV/AIDS patients, 52.6% (41/78), and out of 26 HIV-negative individuals, 42.3% (11/26), were infected with one or more types of intestinal protozoa and/or helminthes. The parasites detected among HIV/AIDS patients included Ascaris lumbricoides (30.8%), Blastocystis spp. (14.1%), Entamoeba histolytica (10.3%), Trichuris trichiura (6.4%), Strongyloides stercoralis (5.1%), Giardia lamblia (3.8%), Schistosoma mansoni (2.5%), hookworm species (2.5%), and Taenia spp. (1.3%). Multiple infections were more common among HIV/AIDS patients. Blastocystis spp. were found to be significantly higher in HIV/AIDS patients than in controls (P < 0.05). The magnitude of intestinal parasitic infection was high both in HIV/AIDS patients and in controls. Routine examinations of stool samples for parasites would significantly benefit the HIV-infected and uninfected individuals by contributing to reduce morbidity. PMID:15118206

Hailemariam, Getachew; Kassu, Afework; Abebe, Gemeda; Abate, Ebba; Damte, Demekech; Mekonnen, Endris; Ota, Fusao

2004-04-01

171

Association between Giardia duodenalis and coinfection with other diarrhea-causing pathogens in India.  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardia duodenalis, is often seen as an opportunistic pathogen and one of the major food and waterborne parasites. Some insights of Giardia infestation in a diarrhoea-prone population were investigated in the present study. Our primary goal was to understand the interaction of this parasite with other pathogens during infection and to determine some important factors regulating the diarrhoeal disease spectrum of a population. Giardia showed a steady rate of occurrence throughout the entire study period with a nonsignificant association with rainfall (P > 0.05). Interestingly coinfecting pathogens like Vibrio cholerae and rotavirus played a significant (P ? 0.001) role in the occurrence of this parasite. Moreover, the age distribution of the diarrhoeal cases was very much dependent on the coinfection rate of Giardia infection. As per our findings, Giardia infection rate seems to play a vital role in regulation of the whole diarrhoeal disease spectrum in this endemic region. PMID:25009820

Mukherjee, Avik K; Chowdhury, Punam; Rajendran, Krishnan; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi; Ganguly, Sandipan

2014-01-01

172

Ocorrência de Giardia spp. em bezerros leiteiros no Brasil / Occurrence of Giardia spp. in dairy calves in Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english Fecal samples were collected from 50 female Holstein calves (1-90 days old) from a commercial dairy cattle farm located in Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil and examined for presence of Giardia cysts using the zinc sulfate flotation method. A total of 120 samples were collected from March 1999 to April 2 [...] 000, and fecal consistency (normal or diarrheic) was noted prior to the examination for Giardia cysts. Giardia spp. cysts were found in 11 (9%) of the 120 faecal samples of calves co-infected with Eimeria spp., in calves from 19 to 58 days of age (38±19). In 82% (9/11) calves assessed for mixed infections with Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia, oocysts of Cryptosporidium were found in three out of four diarrheic calves (75%) positive for Giardia. Giardia cysts (n= 30) sized 13-16 x 10-12µm (mean of 15 x 11µm). They appeared to belong to the morphological group of G. intestinallis according to the size and morphological characteristic of the cysts. This is the first detection of Giardia spp. in calves in Brazil. Considering that Giardia has the potential to cause clinical disease in calves and that organisms infecting humans and domestic ruminants are morphologically and antigenically similar, and calves can shed Giardia cysts potentially infective for humans, the parasite in calves may be of major epidemiological significance, and suggests that naturally infected calves may be reservoirs of Giardia infections for man.

A.M., Guimarães; E., Guedes; R.A., Carvalho.

2001-12-01

173

CROSS TRANSMISSION OF 'GIARDIA'  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardia cysts isolated from fecal samples obtained from humans (Homo sapiens), beaver (Castor canadensis), dogs (Canis familiaris), cats (Felis domesticus), bighorn X mouflon sheep (Ovis canadensis X O. musimon), guinea pig (Cavis porcellus), muskrat (Ondatra ziethica) and mule d...

174

Comparative study between immunohistochemical grading and giardia genotyping among symptomatic and asymptomatic humans.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the last years, multiple studies indicated the potential effectiveness of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of Giardia in pathological specimens. By using the difference at the triose phosphate isomerase (tpi) gene locus, we investigated the genotype groups of Giardia lamblia isolated directly from fecal specimens collected from humans living in Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt. Immunohistochemical staining for detection of Giardia local antigenic and cellular immune-determinants focusing on CD4 and CD8 T-lymphocytes was also applied. The sensitivity of the ABC (avidine-biotin-peroxidase complex) immunoperoxidase technique for detection of the antigen was 97.3% and the specificity was 100%. Our study clearly demonstrated a highly significant difference between patients and controls as regards the grade of CD4 and CD8 lymphocyte infiltration (p < 0.001 for each correlation) but no significant difference was found between Giardia symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. Using the PCR technique, 89.3% sensitivity, 100% specificity and diagnostic accuracy of 92% were reached. Nevertheless, there was statistically insignificant difference between symptomatic and asymptomatic groups regarding the prevalence of different Giardia genotypes and the prevalence of CD4 and CD8 lymphocyte infiltration grading in different Giardia genotypes. PMID:20306658

Handousa, Aya E; Azab, Manar S; El-Beshbishi, Samar N; El-Nahas, Hala A; Abd El-Hamid, Mahmoud A

2007-01-01

175

Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites in Bakery Workers in Khorramabad, Lorestan Iran  

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Full Text Available Background: Food contamination may occur through production, processing, distribution and prepara­tion. In Iran especially in Khorramabad, 33° 29' 16" North, 48° 21' 21" East, due to kind of nutrition, cul­ture and economic status of people, bread is a part of the main meal and the consumption of bread is high. In this study, the bakery workers were studied for determining of intestinal parasites prevalence.Methods: The study was carried out during September to November 2010 in Khorramabad. All the 278 baker­ies and the bakery workers including 816 people were studied in a census method and their feces were examined for the presence of parasites by direct wet-mount, Lugol's iodine solution, and formalde­hyde-ether sedimentation, trichrome staining, and single round PCR (For discrimination of Entamoeba spp.Results: Ninety-six (11.9% stool specimens were positive for different intestinal parasites. Intestinal para­sites included Giardia lamblia 3.7%, Entamoeba coli 5.5%, Blastocystis sp. 2.1%, Entamoeba dispar 0.4%, Hymenolepis nana 0.1%, and Blastocystis sp. 0.1%.Conclusion: In order to reduce the contamination in these persons, some cases such as stool exam every three months with concentration methods, supervision and application of accurate health rules by health ex­perts, training in transmission of parasites are recommended.

M Kheirandish

2011-09-01

176

The Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infections in Food Handlers in Gorgan, Iran  

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Full Text Available Background and objectives: Food handlers could be the main sources ofintestinal parasite transmission in case of not observing the hygienic rules.Contamination can be decreased by screening food handlers through physicalexam and laboratory tests. The aim of this study was determining theprevalence of intestinal parasites in 2010.Material and Methods: This cross-sectional research was carried out on 500randomly selected individuals engaged in different food related careers. Afterfilling out the questionnaire sheets, two specimens of feces were collectedfrom each person and tested by brine 30% (floatation and direct methods.Result: The results show that the prevalence of intestinal parasites is 6%.The highest prevalence is relateted to Giardia lamblia ( 17 ; 4.3% and thelowest to Hymenolepis nana ( 3 ; 0.6%. in the age group of 60-51 years(11.8% and individuals who just able to read and write (7.4% The highestpercentage is observed. The Most contamination is reported in butchery staff(25% and the lowest in people worked in butler's pantry, without parasiticinfections.Conclusion: The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections are highrelatively, especially pathogenic protozoan; therefore, it is important be carefulabout health status of these individuals and their role in the spread ofpollution.Key words: Intestinal Parasites, Food Handlers, Prevalence, Gorgan

Koohsar F

2012-01-01

177

Study of Intestinal Protozoan Parasites in Rural Inhabitants of Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran  

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Full Text Available Background: Intestinal parasites of humans are important health problems of most communities, especially those situated in tropical and subtropical areas. This study was carried out in rural population of Mazandaran Province, northern Iran, during 2004-2005, with the purpose of achieving a better understanding of the distribution of intestinal protozoan parasites in this province.Methods: A total of 855 stool specimens were collected randomly from rural inhabitants (384 males and 471 females and examined by the formalin-ethyl-acetate concentration technique. In addition, a modified version of the Ziehl-Neelsen tech­nique was used for the staining of Cryptosporidium and other intestinal coccidian parasites.Results: The general prevalence of intestinal protozoans was found as 25%. The prevalence of every intestinal protozoan parasite was as follows: Giardia lamblia (10.2%, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (1.2%, Dientamoeba fragilis (1.1%, Blastocystis hominis (9.8%, Entamoeba coli (5%, Endolimax nana (0.7%, Iodamoeba butschlii (1.3%, and Entamoeba hartmani (0.4%.Conclusion: The present study revealed that the prevalence of intestinal protozoan parasites among rural inhabitants of Ma­zandaran Province are  still so high that implies performing special control measures.

M Rezaeian

2008-04-01

178

[Survey of intestinal parasites among an aboriginal community in Salta].  

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The prevalence of intestinal parasitoses by protozoans and helminths was determined in an aboriginal community located 6 km from Tartagal, province of Salta, Argentina. The age of the inhabitants studied ranged from 1 to 49 years old. A total of 112 stool samples were collected in sodium acetate-acetic acid- formalin solution (SAF). Each sample was obtained in three different days, alternatively. Ritchie biphasic concentration method and Faust flotation technique were applied. For survey of Enterobius vermicularis, 68 samples were collected during six consecutive days using anal swabs. For the diagnosis of Dientamoeba fragilis, the modified trichrome Gomori-Wheatley staining technique was used. One hundred and six (94.6%) subjects resulted positive for enteric parasites. Forty-four (41.5%) individuals were positive for four or more parasites. The parasites more frequently found were, among the protozoans Blastocystis hominis (58.9%), Entamoeba coli (51.8%), Giardia lamblia (27.7%) and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar (24.1%). Among the helminths, the most frequent were hookworms (58.0%), Hymenolepis nana (31.2%) and Strongyloides stercoralis (24.1%). This is the first time that Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar (24.1%) and Dientamoeba fragilis (2.7%) have been registered in the suburbs of Tartagal. This study reveals how intestinal parasitoses constitute a critical problem of public health in aboriginal communities like the one examined, where the lack of adequate sanitation conditions and unsuitable supply of water coexist. PMID:18422062

Menghi, Claudia I; Iuvaro, Franco R; Dellacasa, María A; Gatta, Claudia L

2007-01-01

179

Prevalencia de parasitismo intestinal en escolares de 6-11 año / Prevalence of intestinal parasites in schoolchildren aged 6 -11 years  

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Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y transversal de 1 253 niños, como muestra representativa de la población infantil de 6-11 años de la provincia de Santiago de Cuba, desde septiembre del 2010 hasta junio del 2011, para determinar la prevalencia del parasitismo intestinal en ellos. Se procesaron las [...] pruebas de heces fecales mediante 2 métodos coproparasitológicos (directo y concentrado) y se obtuvo que 37,8 % de los integrantes de la serie estaban parasitados. Predominaron los protozoarios (22,7 %), con mayor frecuencia de Giardia lamblia, el parasitismo en el grupo etario de 6-8 años (66,7 %) y los escolares infectados que presentaban inadecuados hábitos higiénico-sanitarios, depósitos de residuales, agua de consumo y piso de la vivienda. A fin de minimizar este problema, se recomendó que debieran incrementarse las actividades de educación sanitaria a la población y discutirse estos resultados con los decisores de salud de la provincia, para así promover hábitos y estilos de vida saludables. Abstract in english A descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted in 1 253 children as a representative sample of children aged 6-11 years in the province of Santiago de Cuba, from September 2010 to June 2011, to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in them. Tests were processed by 2 stool parasitol [...] ogical methods (direct and concentrate) and it was found that 37.8% of the members of the series were parasitized. Protozoa (22.7%) with higher frequency of Giardia lamblia, parasitism in age group of 6-8 years(66.7%) and infected schoolchildren, who had poor health and hygiene habits, waste deposits, water consumption and floor of the house predominated. To minimize this problem it was recommended to increase health education to the population and discuss these results with health decision makers in the province, in order to promote healthy habits and lifestyles.

Glenda, Pérez Sánchez; Guillermo, Redondo de la Fé; Hiram Guillermo, Fong Rodríguez; Marly, Sacerio Cruz; Oslandy, González Beltrán.

2012-04-01

180

Molecular Diagnosis and Characterization of Two Intestinal Protozoa : Entamoeba histolytica & Giardia intestinalis  

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Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia intestinalis are two of the most important and most widespread diarrhea-related parasitic protozoa in the world. Approximately 1200 1500 cases of Giardia and 200 400 cases of Entamoeba are reported each year in Sweden, whereas the corresponding numbers are much higher in developing countries like Nicaragua. Traditionally, diagnosis of these parasites depends on microscopic detection of cysts or trophozoites, even though such methodology is ...

Lebbad, Marianne

2010-01-01

181

Acetate formation in the energy metabolism of parasitic helminths and protists.  

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Formation and excretion of acetate as a metabolic end product of energy metabolism occurs in many protist and helminth parasites, such as the parasitic helminths Fasciola hepatica, Haemonchus contortus and Ascaris suum, and the protist parasites, Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica, Trichomonas vaginalis as well as Trypanosoma and Leishmania spp. In all of these parasites acetate is a main end product of their energy metabolism, whereas acetate formation does not occur in their mammalian hosts. Acetate production might therefore harbour novel targets for the development of new anti-parasitic drugs. In parasites, acetate is produced from acetyl-CoA by two different reactions, both involving substrate level phosphorylation, that are catalysed by either a cytosolic acetyl-CoA synthetase (ACS) or an organellar acetate:succinate CoA-transferase (ASCT). The ACS reaction is directly coupled to ATP synthesis, whereas the ASCT reaction yields succinyl-CoA for ATP formation via succinyl-CoA synthetase (SCS). Based on recent work on the ASCTs of F. hepatica, T. vaginalis and Trypanosoma brucei we suggest the existence of three subfamilies of enzymes within the CoA-transferase family I. Enzymes of these three subfamilies catalyse the ASCT reaction in eukaryotes via the same mechanism, but the subfamilies share little sequence homology. The CoA-transferases of the three subfamilies are all present inside ATP-producing organelles of parasites, those of subfamily IA in the mitochondria of trypanosomatids, subfamily IB in the mitochondria of parasitic worms and subfamily IC in hydrogenosome-bearing parasites. Together with the recent characterisation among non-parasitic protists of yet a third route of acetate formation involving acetate kinase (ACK) and phosphotransacetylase (PTA) that was previously unknown among eukaryotes, these recent developments provide a good opportunity to have a closer look at eukaryotic acetate formation. PMID:20085767

Tielens, Aloysius G M; van Grinsven, Koen W A; Henze, Katrin; van Hellemond, Jaap J; Martin, William

2010-03-15

182

Perfil das enteroparasitoses diagnosticadas em pacientes com infecção pelo vírus HIV na era da terapia antiretroviral potente em um centro de referência em São Paulo, Brasil / PROFILE OF INTESTINAL PARASITES DIAGNOSED IN HIV INFECTED PATIENTS IN THE HAART ERA AT A REFERENCE CENTER IN SÃO PAULO, BRAZIL  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english Intestinal parasites in HIV infected patients are a compelling issue in epidemiological settings with high prevalence of these parasites. The present study reviewed frequencies of diagnosis for common intestinal parasites in HIV infected patients in association with sex, age, HIV risk behavior and C [...] D4 lymphocyte count. Patients with confirmed HIV diagnosis and positive routine stool examination between January and December 2000 were selected. Diagnostic methods for Cyclospora cayetanensis and microsporidia were not included in the routine stool examination. A total of 146 patients had one or more positive samples (median 1.5) with age ranging between 2-75 years (mean: 34). Most of them were male (70.5%) and 53.6% had a CD4 count > 200 cells/mm³ (median: 158.5 cells/mm³). Endolimax nana (27.4%), Entamoeba coli (22.6%), Strongyloides stercoralis (21.9%), Giardia lamblia (13.0%), Isospora belli (12.3%), Ascaris lumbricoides (8.2%), Cryptosporidium parvum (6.8%) were the most frequent parasites diagnosed in this group. G. lamblia was more common in children with vertically transmitted HIV and men who have sex with men. No significant associations were found in relation to sex and age. Patients with CD4 count

SÉRGIO, CIMERMAN; CARLOS G., CASTAÑEDA; WILMA ASSUNÇÃO, IULIANO; RICARDO, PALACIOS.

2002-07-01

183

Parasites  

Science.gov (United States)

... diseases are bloodborne... Explore Parasites A-Z Index Parasites Glossary Education and Training Healthy Water Travelers Health Laboratory Diagnostic Assistance [DPDx] Information For: Children Travelers Women Health Professionals Public Health Departments Laboratory ...

184

'GIARDIA MURIS': SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY OF IN VITRO EXCYSTATION  

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A recently developed in vitro excystation procedure results in almost total excystation of Giardia muris, an intestinal parasite of mice. The present experiment examines the G. muris cyst morphology by scanning electron microscopy and evaluates the efficacy of the excystation pro...

185

42 CFR 493.917 - Parasitology.  

Science.gov (United States)

...of parasites that might be included in an approved program over time are— Enterobius vermicularis Entamoeba histolytica Entamoeba coli Giardia lamblia Endolimax nana Dientamoeba fragilis Iodamoeba butschli Chilomastix...

2010-10-01

186

Status of intestinal parasite infections among children in Bat Dambang, Cambodia  

Science.gov (United States)

A survey was conducted to determine the extent of intestinal parasite infection in Bat Dambang, Cambodia in March 2004. A total of 623 fecal specimens was collected from kindergarten and schoolchildren and examined using the formalin-ether sedimentation technique. The overall infection rate of intestinal parasites was 25.7% (boys, 26.2%; girls, 25.1%), and the infection rates of intestinal helminthes by species were as follows: Echinostoma sp. 4.8%, hookworm 3.4%, Hymenolepis nana 1.3%, and Rhabditis sp. 1.3%. The infection rates of intestinal protozoa were; Entamoeba coli 4.8%, Giardia lamblia 2.9%, Iodamoeba butschlii 1.4%, Entamoeba polecki 1.1%, and Entamoeba histolytica 0.8%. There were no egg positive cases of Ascaris lumbricoides or Trichuris trichiura. All children infected were treated with albendazole, praziquantel, or metronidazole according to parasite species. The results showed that intestinal parasites are highly endemic in Bat Dambang, Cambodia. PMID:15591838

Park, Seung Kyu; Kim, Dong-Heui; Deung, Young-Kun; Kim, Hun-Joo; Yang, Eun-Ju; Lim, Soo-Jung; Ryang, Yong-Suk; Jin, Dan

2004-01-01

187

Intestinal parasitic infections among expatriate workers in Al-Madina Al-Munawarah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Al Madinah Al Munawarah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has one of the largest number of expatriate workers. Most of them are from Sri-Lanka, Indonesia, Philippines, India and Bangladesh. These countries are considered as endemic areas for intestinal parasites. A total of 2732 stool samples were screened for intestinal parasites. Positive cases were recorded among 407 stool samples (14.9%). The common parasitic infections were encountered among 20-29 age groups (18.5%) while, the lowest infection rate was among individual ? 50 years (11.8%). According to the nationality, the highest infections were recorded among Pakistanis (23.2%), followed by Philippines (22.2%), Sudanese workers (18.7%), and the lowest infection rates were recorded among Bangladeshi individuals. The infected persons were farmers, food handlers and shepherds. The detected intestinal parasites were Giardia lamblia (21.9%), Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba coli (17.8%), Trichuris trichiura (16.2%), Ascaris lumbricoides (15.8%), hookworm (13%), Hymenolepis nana (8.9%), Strongyloides sterocoralis (3.5%), Schistosoma mansoni (2.2%), and Enterobius vermicularis (0.43%). In conclusion, the high prevalence of parasites among expatriates may produce health problem among the Saudi society due to the nature of the expatriates' work. PMID:23665711

Taha, Hoda A; Soliman, Mohammed I; Banjar, Sanaa A N

2013-03-01

188

Parasitic Contamination of Raw Vegetables in Iran: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

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Full Text Available Green leafy vegetables make up a large portion of the vitamins and minerals for human body. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of contamination of vegetables to different parasite stages in Iran by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis. Multiple keywords such as vegetables, parasitic contamination, intestinal parasites and Iran used to search in SID, Magiran, Pubmed, Iranmedex, Irandoc and ISI databases. A total of 43 articles found, of which, eight articles did not have enough information and full text of 14 articles was not available. Finally, 21 studies entered in meta-analysis process. Variance of each study obtained using binomial distribution. Heterogeneity between studies checked using Cochran’s Q Test. Random Effects Model was used to pool the prevalence of parasitic contamination and intestinal parasites in the studies. Among 4359 samples the overall prevalence was estimated results of 37% for parasitic contamination of vegetables in Iran. Vegetables: Scallion, Leek, Basil, Radish, Tarragon, Parsley, Lettuce, Coriander, Spearmint and Garden crest have been studied and parasites: Eggs of Toxocara sp. (75%, Dicrocoelium dendriticum (39%, Hymenolepis nana (39%, Hymenolepis diminuta (15%, Fasciola sp. (44%, Taenia spp. (26%, Trichocephal (50%, Trichostrongylus (25%, Ascaris (28% and cyst of Entamoeba coli (47%, Entamoeba histolytica (25%, chilomastix mesnili (22% and Giardia lamblia (43% isolated from vegetables. Highest intensity of contamination (46% was related to scallion. It may be concluded, despite the relative improvement of sanitary, economic, social and agricultural conditions, the parasites are common in vegetables that are frequently eaten. It is necessary to improve the public health and training methods for washing vegetables.

Jahangir Abdi

2014-01-01

189

Epidemiological survey of the prevalence of intestinal parasites among schoolchildren in Sari, northern Iran.  

Science.gov (United States)

Parasitic infection is highly prevalent throughout the developing countries of the world. Research on the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in various geographic regions is a prerequisite for the development of appropriate control strategies. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among schoolchildren in public primary and secondary schools in the urban areas of Sari, Mazandaran province, northern Iran. The study was conducted from November 2009 to June 2010. A total of 1100 stool samples from 607 males and 493 females aged 7-14 years were examined by direct wet mounting, formalin-ether concentration, and Ziehl-Neelsen and trichrome permanent staining methods. A parental questionnaire for common risk factors was completed for each participant. Mono- or poly-parasitism was detected in 367 (33.3%) of the children (32.6% of males and 34.2% of females). Various species of protozoan or helminth infections were detected: Blastocystis hominis seemed to be the most prevalent parasite (13.5%) followed by Giardia lamblia (10.6%), Entamoeba coli (7.2%), Endolimax nana (1.5%), Enterobius vermicularis (2.2%), Trichostrongylus sp. (2.1%) and Strongyloides stercoralis (1.6%). The prevalence of intestinal parasite infections in females was slightly higher than in males, though without a statistically significant difference (p=0.56). No age association was detected, and a slightly lower positive association with increasing age was observed (p=0.33). A significant association was observed with parents' educational level, household income and practice of hand washing before meals (p<0.01). Although paediatric pathogenic intestinal parasite infections are not more prevalent in this geographical area than in other regions, improvements in personal hygienic conditions and behavioural characteristics is important to completely control parasitic infections in schoolchildren in northern Iran. PMID:22703897

Daryani, A; Sharif, M; Nasrolahei, M; Khalilian, A; Mohammadi, A; Barzegar, Gh

2012-08-01

190

Human intestinal parasites in non-biting synanthropic flies in Ogun State, Nigeria.  

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Filth-feeding and breeding, non-biting synanthropic flies have been incriminated in the dissemination of human enteropathogens in the environment. This study determined the species of non-biting synanthropic flies associated with four filthy sites in Ilishan, Ogun State, southwest Nigeria, and assessed their potentials for mechanical transmission of human intestinal parasites. 7190 flies identified as Musca domestica (33.94%), Chrysomya megacephala (26.01%), Musca sorbens (23.23%), Lucilia cuprina (8.76%), Calliphora vicina (4.59%), Sarcophaga sp. (2.78%) and Fannia scalaris (0.70%) were examined for human intestinal parasites by the formol-ether concentration and modified Ziehl-Neelsen techniques. Eggs of the following parasites: Ascaris lumbricoides (34.08%), Trichuris trichiura (25.87%), hookworms (20.45%), Taenia sp. (2.36%), Hymenolepis nana (1.11%), Enterobius vermicularis (0.56%), Strongyloides stercoralis (larvae; 3.89%) and cysts of Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (27.26%), Entamoeba coli (22.67%), Giardia lamblia (3.34%) and Cryptosporidium sp. (1.81%) were isolated from the body surfaces and or gut contents of 75.24% of 719 pooled fly batches. The helminths A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura and the protozoans, E. histolytica/dispar and E. coli were the dominant parasites detected, both on body surfaces and in the gut contents of flies. C. megacephala was the highest carrier of parasites (diversity and number). More parasites were isolated from the gut than from body surfaces (P < 0.05). Flies from soiled ground often carried more parasites than those from abattoir, garbage or open-air market. Synanthropic fly species identified in this study can be of potential epidemiological importance as mechanical transmitters of human intestinal parasites acquired naturally from filth and carried on their body surfaces and or in the gut, because of their vagility and feeding mechanisms. PMID:23290716

Adenusi, Adedotun Adesegun; Adewoga, Thomas O Sunday

2013-01-01

191

A prospective study on parasites among expatriate workers in Al-Baha from 2009-2011, Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Al-Baha is an area with large influx of expatriate workers in Saudi Arabia. This study was carried out from October 2009 to January 2011 on expatriate workers (2000) to determine the prevalence of parasitosis. Urine and stool samples were collected and specifically examined. The results showed that 1079 (53.95%) were infected with one or up to ten parasitic species. Trichuris trichiura had the highest prevalence 190 (17.6%). Other helminthes were Ascaris lumbricoides 179 (16.58%), Ancylostoma duodenal 163 (15.10%), Hymenolepis nana 120 (11.12%), Taenia saginata 119 (11.02%), Strongyloides stercoralis 28 (2.59), Enterobius vermicularis 16 (1.48%), and Schistosoma mansoni 4 (0.37%). Protozoan parasites were Giardia lamblia 152 (14.09%) and Enta-moeba histolytica 108 (10.0%). Besides, Fasciola species was detected in an Egyptian worker and Dicrocelium dendriticum in one Syrian worker. Parasitic infections were higher among Indonesian people 447 (41.42%) followed by Indian 247 (22.89%), Bangladeshis 118 (10.93%), Philippines 96 (8.89%), Pakistani 94 (9.71%), Seri-Lankan 55 (5.09 %) and lastly Egyptian & Syrian 22 (2.03%) workers. The occupational imperatives, beliefs and general life style were contributing factors to the prevalence of parasites among the workers in Al-Baha. PMID:21980781

Mohammad, Khairy Abdel Hamid; Koshak, Emad Abdel Kader

2011-08-01

192

XMLA Comparison of Direct Technique and Formalin-Ether Method in Determining Parasitic Infection among Health-Card Applicants in Shahroud City  

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Full Text Available Background and Objective: Parasitic infection is one of the major health problems in the world. This study aimed at comparing the accuracy of two methods of direct examination and Formalin-Ether to detect the presence of parasitic infection among health-card applicants in Shahroud city, 2011. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 801 patients seeking health-card. From each patient, three consecutive stool samples were taken and investigated, using direct examination and formalin-ether method. Results: The use of formalin-ether method in recognizing the parasitic infection specially giardia lamblia and entamobea coli is more than the direct method. Conclusion: The formalin-ether method is a more sensitive method than the direct method. But in circumstances that is urgency to respond or aims to see the shape of trophozoite, the use of direct method is recommended. Keywords: Parasitic Infections; Health Card; Direct Method; Formalin-EtherKeywords: Parasitic Infections; Health Card; Direct Method; Formalin-Ether,

Amiri, A. (PhD

2013-01-01

193

Frequency of enteric protozoan parasites among patients with gastrointestinal complaints in medical centers of Zahedan, Iran.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the prevalence of intestinal protozoan parasites in patients with gastrointestinal complaints in medical centers in Zahedan, Iran. A total of 1562 stool samples was examined from July 2004 to January 2006 using microscopy (direct smear, formalin-ether concentration), xenic culture and PCR techniques. Four hundred and twenty-seven (27.3%) of the patients were infected with one or more intestinal parasites. Giardia lamblia (10.1%), Entamoeba coli (10%), E. hartmanni (1.7%), Blastocystis hominis (2.2%), Chilomastix mesnili (1.7%), Trichomonas hominis (0.7%), E. histolytica/E. dispar (0.51%) and Iodamoeba butschlii (0.45%) were the most prevalent protozoa detected with microscopy. Of the eight microscopy-positive E. histolytica/E. dispar samples, six were identified as E. dispar by PCR/gel electrophoresis, whereas E. histolytica was not detected at all. Although Zahedan is an area with poor hygiene located in a tropical area near the border of Pakistan and Afghanistan, the prevalence of E. histolytica and E. dispar here compared with other parasites and infectious diseases is unexpectedly low. PMID:19084249

Haghighi, Ali; Khorashad, Alireza Salimi; Nazemalhosseini Mojarad, Ehsan; Kazemi, Bahram; Rostami Nejad, Mohammad; Rasti, Sima

2009-05-01

194

"Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites among Children in Day-care Centers in Damghan - Iran"  

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Full Text Available In order to identify the prevalence of parasitic intestinal infections and to determine the impact of some factors, such as age, health houses, education, environmental health etc, on infection, this survey was carried out on 461 stool specimens and scotch tapes obtained from children resident in day-care centers in Damghan city, Semnan province, Iran. The samples were tested using formalin-ether concentration and Graham methods. The analysis of the results showed that at least 68.1 percent of the individuals tested, were infected with one species of pathogen or non-pathogen parasites. The rate of infection for Enterobius vermicularis, Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica, Ascaris lumbricoides, Hymenolepis nana, Entamoeba coli, Blastocystis hominis, Iodamoeba butschlii and Chilomastix mesnili was 33.8%, 26.2%, 2.4%, 3%, 4.8%, 5.8%, 4.8%, 2.7% and 4% respectively. A significant difference was seen between the rate of infection and parents’ education (P<0.005 but was negative regarding age, sex, and health houses. It is concluded that sanitary measurements should be conducted in such centers to decrease the rate of parasitic infection.

A Heidari

2003-07-01

195

Sensitive Detection of Giardia Cysts by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR  

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Full Text Available Giardia is one of the most common human parasites and causes a lengthly course of nonbacterial diarrhea. Disease outbreaks due to Giardia infection are often attributed to contaminated water supplies. A major problem associated with detection for this organism is the lack of sensitive and reliable methods. PCR has the potential to address many of the limitations.We have performed a PCR-based method for sensitive detection of Giardia cysts. Because the sensitivity of PCR is a function of the efficiency of DNA extraction from cysts, we have also compared some different methods for DNA extraction from the cysts. Giardia cysts were collected from infected human, partially purified and serially diluted samples were prepared. DNA was extracted by 3 different methods and we found that simple repeated freezing and thawing was the best method for extraction of DNA from the cysts. A 163 bp conserved fragment related to the giardial heat shock protein (HSP70 gene was used as the target for PCR amplification. We were able to detect as few as 5 cysts in the samples. The results suggest the potential utilities of PCR for sensitive detection of Giardia in water sources.

M Nikaeen

2003-07-01

196

Parasitas intestinais e comensais em indivíduos de três Vilas Rurais do Estado do Paraná, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v26i2.1584 Intestinal parasites and commensals of settled populations in three land settlements (Vilas Rurais of Paraná state, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v26i2.1584  

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Full Text Available As Vilas Rurais implantadas no Paraná, constituíram-se em experiência pioneira de assentamento rural no Brasil para proporcionarem moradia e trabalho com assistência técnica. Este trabalho, realizado entre fevereiro/2001 e fevereiro/2003, teve como objetivo verificar a ocorrência de enteroparasitismo e promover atividades de educação sanitária para a população de três vilas. Foram realizados exames coproparasitológicos pelos métodos de Hoffman e Faust, tratamento e controle de cura dos indivíduos parasitados, atividades de educação sanitária e treinamento de uma equipe de agentes multiplicadores. Enterobius vermicularis, ancilostomídeos e Giardia lamblia foram os parasitas mais prevalentes juntamente com o comensal Entamoeba coli. A avaliação do conhecimento sobre saúde, realizada antes e após a aplicação de educação sanitária, mostrou uma apropriação do conhecimento de até 74,5%. Neste trabalho constatou-se que, apesar dessas comunidades estarem oficialmente estabelecidas, há escassez de programas voltados à área de saúde para os moradores das Vilas Rurais, comprometendo seu crescimento e sustentabilidade.The Vilas Rurais program established in the State of Paraná, a pioneer experience of land settlement in Brazil, aims to provide people with dwellings and jobs with technical assistance. This work, carried out from February/2001 to February/2003, aimed to verify the occurrence of intestinal parasites and to promote sanitary educational measures for the population of three settlements. Parasitical tests were performed by Hoffman and Faust methods. Enterobius vermicularis, hookworms, Entamoeba coli and Giardia lamblia, were the most common parasites diagnosed. Treatment and cure control of the infected population, sanitary educational activities and training of multiplier team were performed. The evaluation of educational sanitary activities showed a learning efficiency up to 74.5%. This work has also observed that, although these communities are officially settled, there is a lack of health programs for Vilas Rurais residents, compromising their growth and sustainability.

Jonas Eraldo de Lima Júnior

2004-04-01

197

Detection of Cryptosporidium spp and other intestinal parasites in children with acute diarrhea and severe dehydration in Rio de Janeiro / Detecção de Cryptosporidium spp e outros parasitas intestinais em crianças com diarréia aguda e desidratação grave no Rio de Janeiro  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo do presente estudo foi estimar a freqüência das infecções por Cryptosporidium spp e outros parasitas intestinais em crianças desidratadas com gastroenterite, internadas em um hospital pediátrico. Exames de fezes de 218 crianças foram realizados. Cryptosporidium spp foi detectado em 18 de [...] 193 (9,3%) amostras fecais submetidas à coloração pela safranina/azul-de-metileno. Giardia lamblia foi detectada em dez de 213 (4,7%) amostras submetidas ao exame direto ou ao método de Ritchie. Também foram identificados Ascaris lumbricoides (4,2%), Blastocystis hominis (1,4%), Entamoeba coli (0,9%), Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar (0,5%), Endolimax nana (0,5%), Trichuris trichiura (0,5%) and Enterobius vermicularis (0,5%). Abstract in english The objective of the present study was to estimate the frequency of infection by Cryptosporidium spp and other intestinal parasites in dehydrated children with gastroenteritis who were admitted to a pediatric hospital. Stool examinations from 218 children were performed. Cryptosporidium spp was iden [...] tified in eighteen out of 193 stool samples (9.3%) subjected to safranin-methylene blue staining. Giardia lamblia was detected in ten out of 213 (4.7%) samples examined via the direct or Ritchie methods. Other parasites identified were Ascaris lumbricoides (4.2%), Blastocystis hominis (1.4%), Entamoeba coli (0.9%), Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar (0.5%), Endolimax nana (0.5%), Trichuris trichiura (0.5%) and Enterobius vermicularis (0.5%).

Filipe Anibal, Carvalho-Costa; Alessandra Queiroga, Gonçalves; Sandra Laranjeira, Lassance; Carla Pontes de, Albuquerque; José Paulo Gagliardi, Leite; Márcio Neves, Bóia.

2007-06-01

198

Efficacy of New 5-Nitroimidazoles against Metronidazole-Susceptible and -Resistant Giardia, Trichomonas, and Entamoeba spp.  

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The efficacies of 12 5-nitroimidazole compounds and 1 previously described lactam-substituted nitroimidazole with antiparasitic activity, synthesized via SRN1 and subsequent reactions, were assayed against the protozoan parasites Giardia duodenalis, Trichomonas vaginalis, and Entamoeba histolytica. Two metronidazole-sensitive lines and two metronidazole-resistant lines of Giardia and one line each of metronidazole-sensitive and -resistant Trichomonas were tested. All except one of the compoun...

Upcroft, Jacqueline A.; Campbell, Raymond W.; Benakli, Kamel; Upcroft, Peter; Vanelle, Patrice

1999-01-01

199

Intestinal parasites in school food handlers in the city of Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil / Parasitas intestinais em manipuladores de merenda escolar na cidade de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brasil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Para verificar a presença de parasitas intestinais em manipuladores de merenda escolar foram coletadas amostras fecais de 104 cantineiras e serventes que auxiliavam no preparo da alimentação de 20 Estabelecimentos da rede pública de ensino de 1º grau, localizados em diferentes bairros, da cidade de [...] Uberlândia, Minas Gerais. As amostras foram coletadas nos meses de novembro e dezembro de 1988 em frascos plásticos contendo formol a 10% e processadas pelo método de Hoffmann, Pons & Janer sendo o sedimento examinado em triplicata. Todos os indivíduos pertenciam ao sexo feminino com idade entre 24 e 69 anos. Foram detectados manipuladores de merenda escolar parasitados em 85% das Escolas estudadas. Das 104 amostras de fezes, 49 (47,1%) estavam positivas, sendo que 32 (65,3%) pertenciam a indivíduos monoparasitados e 17 (34,7%) a indivíduos biparasitados. Os parasitas em ordem decrescente de ocorrência foram: Giardia lamblia (21,1%), Entamoeba coli (21,1%), ancilostomídeos (9,6%), Ascaris lumbricoides (5,8%), Entamoeba histolytica (2,9%), Hymenolepis nana (1,9%) e Strongyloides stercoralis (1,0%). Conclui-se pela necessidade de rigoroso controle semestral, tratamento específico e orientação sobre os mecanismos de transmissão das enteroparasitoses a todos os manipuladores de merenda escolar dos Estabelecimentos de ensino. Abstract in english In order to verify the presence of intestinal parasites in food handlers, stool samples were collected from 104 cooks and their helpers that were working in food preparation in 20 public elementary schools, in various areas of the city of Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The samples were collected [...] during the months of November and December, 1988, in plastic flasks containing a 10% formaldehyde solution and processed by the Hoffmann, Pons & Janer method. The sediment was examined using triplicate slides. All individuals were females aged between 24 to 69 years. Intestinal parasites were found in 85.0% of the studied schools and 47.1% of the studied food handlers (cooks and helpers) were found to be positive. Among the 49 infected food handlers, 32 (65.3%) carried a single parasite and 17 (34.7%) carried two parasites. The following intestinal parasites were found: Giardia lamblia (21.1%), Entamoeba coli (21.1%), hookworms (9.6%), Ascaris lumbricoides (5.8%), Entamoeba histolytica (2.9%), Hymenolepis nana (1.9%), Strongyloides stercoralis (1.0%). These data emphasize the need for a rigid semi-annual control in all school food handlers, including diagnosis, specific treatment and orientation about the mechanisms of transmission of the intestinal parasites.

Julia Maria, Costa-Cruz; Margareth Leitão Gennari, Cardoso; Daldy Endo, Marques.

1995-06-01

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Intestinal parasites in southeast Asian refugees two years after immigration.  

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We collected stool specimens from 2,520 Southeast Asian refugees who had resided in the United States for an average of 2.1 years. More than half reported receiving prior treatment of parasites. At least one parasite was discovered in 32%, and multiple parasites were found in 8% of patients. Hookworm, Giardia, Strongyloides, and Hymenolepis nana were most commonly found. In comparison to studies done at the time of immigration, all parasites had decreased in frequency, but Giardia, hookworm, ...

Molina, C. D.; Molina, M. M.; Molina, J. M.

1988-01-01

201

Giardia and Cryptosporidium in cetaceans on the European Atlantic coast.  

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The occurrence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium was investigated in cetacean specimens stranded on the northwestern coast of Spain (European Atlantic coast) by analysis of 65 samples of large intestine from eight species. The parasites were identified by direct immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) and by PCR amplification of the ?-giardin gene, the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region and the SSU-rDNA gene of Giardia and the SSU-rDNA gene of Cryptosporidium. Giardia and Cryptosporidium were detected in 7 (10.8 %) and 9 samples (13.8 %), respectively. In two samples, co-infection with both parasites was observed. Giardia duodenalis assemblages A, C, D and F, and Cryptosporidium parvum were identified. This is the first report of G. duodenalis in Balaenoptera acutorostrata, Kogia breviceps and Stenella coeruleoalba and also the first report of Cryptosporidium sp. in B. acutorostrata and of C. parvum in S. coeruleoalba and Tursiops truncatus. These results extend the known host range of these waterborne enteroparasites. PMID:25418072

Reboredo-Fernández, Aurora; Ares-Mazás, Elvira; Martínez-Cedeira, José A; Romero-Suances, Rafael; Cacciò, Simone M; Gómez-Couso, Hipólito

2015-02-01

202

Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites in Isfahan Municipal Workers  

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Full Text Available Background and Aim: Intestinal parasites cause significant morbidity and mortality and are considered by the World Health Organization as a public health problem of global importance. These agents are estimated to infect more than three billion people worldwide. In Iran, thanks to long-time efforts by the national health system (including environmental sanitation and public education campaigns, the frequency of the most intestinal parasitic infections has significantly declined in the recent decades. Our study aimed to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in a high-risk occupational group, namely the municipal workers in the city of Esfahan.Materials and Methods: A survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among municipal workers in several districts of Esfahan. Specimens were placed into fecal pots, labeled and kept cool before being transported to the Health Research Center Laboratory, affiliated to the School of Public Health & Institute for Public Health Research in Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The technique used for identifying infections was stool concentration by formalin & ether. All the slides were carefully studied using light microscopy with ×10, × 40, and ×100 magnification.Results: The study results revealed that 24.6% of the workers harbored at least one parasitic species. The highest prevalence (36% belonged to Giardia lamblia. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most common helminthic parasite (12.4%, followed by Hymenolepis nana (1.2%. The most common non-pathogenic protozoal species was Entamoeba coli (21.7%.Conclusion: Infection with soil parasites is dependent on environmental conditions that allow parasites to complete their life cycle. Socioeconomic and cultural factors are important for the appearance and spread of intestinal parasites in communities where sanitary conditions and infrastructure are inadequate. However, soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH used to be prevalent throughout the country, especially in urban and rural population of the Esfahan Province. We investigated the prevalence of intestinal parasites by fecal examination of workers in Esfahan municipality, a group with a low-sanitation working environment close contact with soil contaminants. The lack of information on prevalence in the general population makes it difficult to arrive at any definite conclusions, but on the basis of unpublished data we can conclude that prevalence is somewhat higher in this occupational group compared to the population at large.

Gh Hassanpour

2007-08-01

203

Prevalence of intestinal parasites among children referred to Children's Medical Center during 18 years (1991-2008), Tehran, Iran.  

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Epidemiological studies show that parasitic inections are among the most common infections and one of the biggest health problems of the society worldwide. Children at school age have the highest morbidity compared with other ages. Therefore, by treating these children, the disease burden in the total population is reduced. In this study, prevalence of parasitic infection in children referred to Children's Medical Center was compared in different years. In this retrospective cross-sectional study, the subjects were children under 13 years who were referred to Children's Medical Center Laboratory during 18 years (1991-2008) and underwent stool exam by any reason. The specimens were evaluated by different common methods of stool parasitology. In suspected cases, parasites was cultured in specific medium and stained as needed. Required data were obtained from the laboratory files and analysed according to study's purpose. Subjects were 124 366 children. Among them, 0.78% of cases had parasitic infections and 60.54% cases were male. Parasitic infections were related to protozoa in 95.33% cases and intestinal worms in 4.87%. Of them, 50.352% were pathogenic protozoa. The most parasitic infection was Giardia lamblia. Among intestinal worms, the highest prevalence was related to Hymenolepis nana (40.7%). A comparison between the first 10 years and the next 8 years of the study showed that the prevalence of intestinal parasites were 8% and 1% (P < 0.001) and the rate for protozoal infection were 14.9% and 4.3%, respectively (P < 0.001). The prevalence of intestinal parasites was reduced during recent years; however, more attempts should be performed to make it lower. PMID:22185945

Ashtiani, M T H; Monajemzadeh, M; Saghi, B; Shams, S; Mortazavi, S H; Khaki, S; Mohseni, N; Kashi, L; Nikmanesh, B

2011-10-01

204

Parasitismo intestinal em uma aldeia indígena Parakanã, sudeste do Estado do Pará, Brasil Intestinal parasitism in a Parakanã indigenous community in southwestern Pará State, Brazil  

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Full Text Available O trabalho visa estudar a ocorrência e os aspectos epidemiológicos do parasitismo intestinal na aldeia Paranatinga da tribo indígena Parakanã, Amazônia Oriental Brasileira. Foram realizados dois inquéritos coproparasitológicos, em abril de 1992 e em fevereiro de 1995. Os métodos utilizados na identificação dos agentes parasitários foram os de Hoffman e exame direto, dois métodos simples, facilmente exeqüíveis em aldeias indígenas. Da amostra de 126 índios em abril de 1992 (população de 215 índios, 101 (80,2% encontravam-se parasitados por pelo menos um enteroparasita. Ancilostomídeos foram encontrados em 33,3%, A. lumbricoides, em 42,8%, T. trichiura, em 0,8%, e S. stercoralis, em 5,6%. Em relação aos protozoários, E. histolytica foi encontrada em 65,0% e G. lamblia, em 46,8%. No inquérito de fevereiro de 1995, apesar do aumento da prevalência total em comparação com o de abril de 1992 (p = 0,04, houve diminuição das prevalências de ancilostomídeos, E. histolytica, G. lamblia, e ausência de S. stercoralis (pTo determine the occurrence and epidemiological aspects of intestinal parasites among the Parakanã indigenous people in the Paranatinga settlement (in the eastern Amazon Region, parasitological tests were performed in April 1992 and February 1995. One fresh stool specimen was obtained and immediately processed using the Hoffman and direct methods. Some 126 samples were obtained in April 1992 (from a total population of 215 individuals. Some 80.2% (101 of those tested were infected with at least one species of intestinal parasite. Hookworms were found in 33.3%, Ascaris lumbricoides 42.8%, Trichuris trichiura 0.8%, and Strongyloides stercoralis 5.6%. Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia protozoans were found in 65.0% and 46.8% of those tested, respectively. A second parasitological survey was performed on 174 individuals (from a population of 253 in February 1995. 88.5% were infected. Note that prevalence in February 1995 was higher than in April 1992 (p = 0.04. It was lower for hookworms, E. histolytica, and G. lamblia, with no S. stercoralis (p<0.05. Despite provision of health care in the Paranatinga community, prevalence of intestinal parasites is still extremely high, suggesting that primary and secondary health care should be increased immediately.

Rogério dos Anjos Miranda

1998-07-01

205

Intestinal Parasitic Infections in Chronic Psychiatric Patients in Sina Hospital Shahre-Kord, Iran  

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Full Text Available Background: Although the number of infectious diseases has sharply decreased in last few decades, parasitic diseases persist in developing countries. On the other hand, chronic psychiatric patients tend to have low self-control, poor personal hygiene, long term institutionalization and extremely low self-care should be monitored for parasitic diseases since psychosocial conditions can contribute to an affinity for infectious diseases..Objectives: The aim of study was to investigate intestinal parasites in chronic psychiatric patients..Patients and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, all chronic psychiatric patients from Sina Hospital of Shahre-Kord University of Medical Sciences were recruited from April to November 2010. From each patient, 3 stool samples were collected every other day. Samples were transferred to Department of Parasitology of Faculty of Medicine and were examined by wet direct smear, Ziehl-Neelsen and Rayan blue trichrome stains. Direct smear was examined microscopically by performing a standard direct smear using normal saline (0.85% and Iodine solution (Lugol. Stools were stained by Ziehl-Neelsen and Rayan blue trichrome in order to investigate Cryptosporidium and Microsporidia respectively..Results: Forty-seven patients (72% were male and 18 (28% were female.The minimum time of institution was 2 months and the longest period of incarceration was 152 months. The mean of hospitalization duration was 94.7 months. Forty-four cases (68% of participants were infected with intestinal parasites.The most frequent parasites were Blastocystis hominis in 15 cases (23% followed by Microsporidia in 12 cases (18.5%, Giardia lamblia in 7 cases (11%, Isospora in 5 cases (8% and Cryptosporidium in 4 cases (6.2%, respectively.Conclusions: Opportunistic protozoan parasites such as Microsporidia, Isospora and Cryptosporidium should be considered as a potential pathogen in this setting and more health care should be given to this specific group.

Bahman Khalili

2013-05-01

206

Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites in Leafy Vegetables in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate some of the leafy vegetable plants sold in local markets for human consumption to check whether they harbor different parasites stages. A total of 470 leafy vegetable samples were collected from 12 different plant species randomly from local markets in the Riyadh city during the period April and March 2008. The samples were analysed in the laboratory for parasitic stages contained in these samples after washing them in physiological saline and then examining the sediment. Results of the present study has shown that 76 out of 470 samples (16.2% contained parasite stages. Depending on the type of leafy plant, examined the prevalence of parasitic stages in these plants, was found to be 27.8% (17/61 in lettuce, 22.8% (13/57 in watercress, 20.6% (7/34 in leek, 19.1% (9/47 in green onion, 17.4% (15/87 in parsley, 15.4% (4/26 in spinach, 13.6% (3/22 in basil, 11.5% (3/26 in coriander, 9.4% (3/32 in radish, 5.3% (1/19 in dill and 4.7% (2/42 in mint. No parasites were detected in 17 samples collected from cabbage. Stages of intestinal parasites detected were Entamoeba coli (35.5%, Giardia lamblia (31.6%, Dicrocoelium sp. (28.9%, Ascaris sp. (26.3%, Taenia sp. (19.7%, Blastocystis hominis (17.1%, Fasciola sp. (14.5%, Hymenolepis sp. (14.5%, Ancylostoma sp. (11.8%, Toxoplasma gondii (6.6% and Trichostrongylus sp. (2.6%. The results indicated a significant seasonal variation (p<0.05, with highest prevalence in spring (23.1%, followed in descending order by Summer (17.9%, Autumn (10.6% and Winter (9.9%.

Wafa A.I. Al-Megrin

2010-01-01

207

Parasitic infection among HIV/AIDS patients at Bela-Bela clinic, Limpopo province, South Africa with special reference to Cryptosporidium.  

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Intestinal parasitic organisms are common pathogens among HIV patients worldwide and have been known to cause severe and life-threatening diarrhea in such subjects. In the present study, the prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp and other intestinal parasites in stool samples from 151 HIV/AIDS patients attending a HIV treatment center in South Africa was determined using' standard parasitological methods, as well as molecular methods including PCR and quantitative PCR for confirmation of Cryptosporidium spp. In addition, the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method was evaluated for detection of Cryptosporidium spp in 24 stool samples. Standard parasitological methods indicated that Cryptospo- ridium spp (26.5%), Entamoeba spp (26.5%) and Giardia lamblia (13%) were the most common protozoan parasites, while Ascaris lumbricoides (8%), Schistosoma mansoni (6%) and Trichuris trichiura (4.6%) were the most commonly found helminths. PCR, quantitative PCR and LAMP methods identified Cryptosporidium spp in 28% (30/106), 35% (53/151) and 58% (14/24) of the stool samples, respectively. Multiple infections (34%) were commonly found in the study population. Females above 45 years had the highest Cryptosporidium prevalence (58%). Prevention measures must be implemented in order to curb the negative impact of Cryptosporidium-causing diarrhea among HIV/AIDS patients in this region as well as other parasitic infections identified in this study. PMID:25507595

Samie, Amidou; Makuwa, Stanley; Mtshali, Sibusiso; Potgieter, Natasha; Thekisoe, Oriel; Mbati, Peter; Bessong, Pascal O

2014-07-01

208

Prevalencia de enteroparásitos en niños de la etnia Yukpa de Toromo, Estado Zulia, Venezuela Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites in Children of Yukpa Ethnia in Toromo, Zulia State, Venezuela  

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Full Text Available Background: Yupkpa community in Perijá Sierra does not have drinking water or sewage elimination systems. Thus it becomes a propitious place for infection with intestinal parasites. Aim: To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in children, ages 0 to 14 years, in the Yukpa ethnic population of Toromo in the Perijá Mountains, Zulia State, Venezuela. Material and Methods: Ninety one fecal samples were analyzed by the following coproparasitologic methods: saline solution and lugol fresh mount, formalin-ether concentration (Ritchie, and Kinyoun stain for intestinal coccidians. Results: Overall parasite infection prevalence was 83.5%. The most frequently observed parasites were: Ascaris lumbricoides (57.1%, Trichuris trichiura (20.8%, Hymenolepis nana (14.2%, Blastocystis hominis (51.6%, Giardia lamblia (30.7%, and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar complex (21.9%. Coccidians were nont observed in any of the stool samples. Conclusions: The large number of infected people is directly related to the hygienic and sanitary conditions of the population studied

Iris Díaz A

2006-01-01

209

Prevalencia de enteroparásitos en niños de la etnia Yukpa de Toromo, Estado Zulia, Venezuela / Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites in Children of Yukpa Ethnia in Toromo, Zulia State, Venezuela  

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Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english Background: Yupkpa community in Perijá Sierra does not have drinking water or sewage elimination systems. Thus it becomes a propitious place for infection with intestinal parasites. Aim: To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in children, ages 0 to 14 years, in the Yukpa ethnic populati [...] on of Toromo in the Perijá Mountains, Zulia State, Venezuela. Material and Methods: Ninety one fecal samples were analyzed by the following coproparasitologic methods: saline solution and lugol fresh mount, formalin-ether concentration (Ritchie), and Kinyoun stain for intestinal coccidians. Results: Overall parasite infection prevalence was 83.5%. The most frequently observed parasites were: Ascaris lumbricoides (57.1%), Trichuris trichiura (20.8%), Hymenolepis nana (14.2%), Blastocystis hominis (51.6%), Giardia lamblia (30.7%), and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar complex (21.9%). Coccidians were nont observed in any of the stool samples. Conclusions: The large number of infected people is directly related to the hygienic and sanitary conditions of the population studied

Iris, Díaz A; Zulbey, Rivero R; Ángela, Bracho M; María, Castellanos S; Ellen, Acurero; Marinella, Calchi L; Ricardo, Atencio T.

2006-01-01

210

DEVELOPMENT OF APTAMERS TO WATERBORNE PARASITES  

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The Safe Drinking Water Act Amendment of 1996 mandates that the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) evaluate public health risks associated with drinking water contaminants to include waterborne parasites, such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia. Additionally, the Agency est...

211

Effect of hygiene promotion on the risk of reinfection rate of intestinal parasites in children in rural Uzbekistan.  

Science.gov (United States)

A controlled prospective cohort study was designed to assess the effectiveness of hygiene promotion on the risk of reinfection by intestinal parasites in children in 276 rural Uzbek households over a 1-year period. The study included three groups: seasonality (no medicine, no hygiene promotion activity), treatment (medicine provided, no hygiene promotion activity) and hygiene promotion (medicine provided and hygiene promotion activity). The Participatory Hygiene and Sanitation Transformation methodology was utilized as the key tool in hygiene promotion activities. Three hygiene behaviors were targeted: hand washing with soap, safe feces disposal and boiling drinking water. On average, more than 80% of all children tested were infected with Enterobius vermicularis, Hymenolepis nana, Ascaris lumbricoides, Giardia lamblia or Entamoeba coli. There were statistically significant differences between the three groups for the risk of reinfection rate: the risk of reinfection by parasites was 30% lower in the hygiene promotion group than in the treatment group and 37% lower than in the seasonality group. If properly designed and carried out, hygiene promotion is an effective tool in reducing the risk of intestinal parasite reinfection in children, thus improving children's health in rural communities. PMID:17418321

Gungoren, Billur; Latipov, Renat; Regallet, Gabriel; Musabaev, Erkin

2007-06-01

212

Differences in prevalence of parasites in stool samples between three distinct ethnic pediatric populations in southern Israel, 2007-2011.  

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Intestinal parasites cause significant morbidity worldwide, particularly in developing populations. At least three pediatric populations reside in southern Israel: the Bedouin population, the general Jewish population and Jewish children of Ethiopian origin. Our aim was to compare intestinal parasite prevalence between the three pediatric populations in southern Israel. This is a retrospective, laboratory, population-based surveillance. Most ova and parasite (O&P) tests in southern Israel (hospital and community obtained) are performed by the hospital parasitology laboratory. All pediatric stool O&P tests examined by the hospital laboratory between 2007 and 2011 were included. Overall, 45,978 samples were examined; 27,354, 16,969 and 1655 from Bedouin, non-Ethiopian Jewish and Ethiopian children, respectively. 16,317 parasites were identified in 12,325 (26.8%) positive samples. Total prevalences were 36%, 11% and 46% for Bedouin, non-Ethiopian Jewish and Ethiopian children, respectively. Blastocystis hominis, Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba species were the most common parasites identified, constituting ?80% of positive samples in all groups. Hymenolepis nana was rarely identified in non-Ethiopian Jewish children (0.04% of isolates compared with 2.6% and 0.5% in Bedouin and Ethiopian children, respectively). Other helminths, excluding H. nana and Enterobius vermicularis, were identified almost exclusively in Ethiopian children ?5years of age. In conclusion, the Bedouin and Ethiopian children were characterized by higher parasite prevalence in stool, compared with the non-Ethiopian Jewish children, probably reflecting higher intestinal parasitic disease rates. Certain helminthic infections were identified almost exclusively in the Ethiopian children. These differences may be associated with lifestyle differences between the three populations. PMID:24201297

Ben-Shimol, Shalom; Sagi, Orli; Greenberg, David

2014-04-01

213

Genome analysis and comparative genomics of a Giardia intestinalis assemblage E isolate  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Giardia intestinalis is a protozoan parasite that causes diarrhea in a wide range of mammalian species. To further understand the genetic diversity between the Giardia intestinalis species, we have performed genome sequencing and analysis of a wild-type Giardia intestinalis sample from the assemblage E group, isolated from a pig. Results We identified 5012 protein coding genes, the majority of which are conserved compared to the previously sequenced genomes of the WB and GS strains in terms of microsynteny and sequence identity. Despite this, there is an unexpectedly large number of chromosomal rearrangements and several smaller structural changes that are present in all chromosomes. Novel members of the VSP, NEK Kinase and HCMP gene families were identified, which may reveal possible mechanisms for host specificity and new avenues for antigenic variation. We used comparative genomics of the three diverse Giardia intestinalis isolates P15, GS and WB to define a core proteome for this species complex and to identify lineage-specific genes. Extensive analyses of polymorphisms in the core proteome of Giardia revealed differential rates of divergence among cellular processes. Conclusions Our results indicate that despite a well conserved core of genes there is significant genome variation between Giardia isolates, both in terms of gene content, gene polymorphisms, structural chromosomal variations and surface molecule repertoires. This study improves the annotation of the Giardia genomes and enables the identification of functionally important variation.

Andersson Jan O

2010-10-01

214

INTESTINAL PARASITIC INFECTION IN FOODHANDLERS: IN THE HOSPITALS AFFILIATED TO ISFAHAN UNIVERSITY OF MEDICAL SCIENCES – 1997  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Foodhandlers can be carriers of organisms such as salmonella, staphylococci and intestinal parasitic infections. Considering that some patients in hospitals may have impaired resistance to infection and the possible role of foodhandlers in this regard, it seems to be necessary to examine the role of foodhandlers in transmission of intestinal parasitic infection. Methods: 152 foodhandlers were evaluated for their intestinal protozoan and helminthic infections in the hospitals of the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. From each subject, three stool - specimens were taken in three consecutive days. Five methods (Scotch tape, Direct examination, Formalin - Ether, Telleman, Flotation were used to detect ova and cyst. Results: The overall infection rate was (55.3 percent. The most commonly protozoa was Entamoeba Coli (in 33.6 percent of specimens. Others were Endolimax nana (17.8 percent, Blastocystis hominis (9.2 percent, Giardia lamblia (7.9 percent, Iodamoeba butschlii (2 percent and Chilomastix mesnili (0.7 percent respectively. The helminths observed were Enterobius vermicularis (9.1 percent, Hymenolepis nana (1.3 percent, Ascaris lumbricoides (0.7 percent, Trichuris trichiura (0.7 percent and Trichostrongylus spp(0.7 percent. Discussion: Deficiencies in hygienic practices and poor basic environmental sanitation are the contributing factors in the maintenance of the high prevalence of the intestinal protozoan infections found.

P KETABI

2001-06-01

215

Development of Sensitive Detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia from Surface Water in Iran  

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Full Text Available Background: The protozoan parasites Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia are known to occur widely in both raw and drinking waters. They are two of the causative agents of waterborne out-breaks of gastroenteritis throughout the world. In the present study, a PCR assay and FA were developed for detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cyst in environmental samples. Methods: We have detected Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts and Giardia cysts in seeded and un-seeded environmental water samples by PCR method. Water samples were spiked with oocysts (50, 100,300,500 and filtrated with a 1.2-µm pore size cellulose nitrate and follow by DNA extrac¬tion and purification by QIAamp DNA mini kit. Nested-PCR assay amplified an 850 bp fragment of 18s rRNA gene specific for Cryptosporidium and 435 bp fragment of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH target gene for Giardia. Also many river water from north of Iran, be checked by these methods. Results: Cryptosporidium and Giardia DNAs were detected in seeded water sample and Giardia was detected in all 5 water samples from river in north of Iran by nested- PCR and FA. Also in one river water sample, Cryptosporidium was detected.Conclusion: This protocol is effective for detection of these waterborne parasites in treated and untreated water samples. This study can also serve as a platform for further investigations and research water source in Iran.

N Taghipour Lailabadi

2011-09-01

216

Prevalencia de parásitos intestinales en niños de diferentes niveles de educación del distrito de San Marcos, Ancash, Perú. / Prevalence of intestinal parasites in children of different levels of education in the San Marcos district of Ancash, Peru  

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Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Investigar la prevalencia de parasitosis intestinal en estudiantes del Distrito de San Marcos, en el departamento de Ancash, Perú. Material y métodos: Se analizaron en total 1303 muestras de heces de niños de nivel inicial, primario y secundario, mediante examen directo. Resultados: Se enc [...] ontró uno o más parásitos intestinales en 65,0% de los estudiantes. De las 845 muestras positivas para parásitos, se encontró un parasito en 82,0% dos en18,0% predominando los protozoarios sobre los helmintos. Los enteroparásitos patógenos encontrados según su frecuencia fueron: Giardia lamblia 23,7%, Ascaris lumbricoides 16,9% e Hymenolepis nana 9,6%. La frecuencia del enteroparásito no patógeno Entamoeba coli fue 31,8%. Conclusiones: Existe un alto índice de parasitismo en la población rural de la sierra de Ancash, lo que estaría en relación con las deficientes condiciones de saneamiento ambiental en esta zona, por lo que es necesario que en los colegios de la zona, se dé educación sobre higiene personal y además, mejorar las condiciones de saneamiento. Abstract in english Objective: To investigate the prevalence of intestinal parasites among students of the San Marcos district of Ancash, Peru. Methods: A total of 1303 stool samples of children from the kinder, primary and secondary school levels were investigated using direct examinations. Results: At least one paras [...] ite was found in 65% of students. Out of 845 positive stool samples, one parasite was found in 82% and two parasites were found in 18%; protozoan parasites predominated over nematodes. The most frequent parasites identified were Giardia lamblia 23.7%, Ascaris lumbricoides 16.9% and Hymenolepis nana 9.6%. Non-pathogenic Entamoeba coli was found in 31.8%. Conclusions: The prevalence of intestinal parasites in the rural highland population of Ancash is high, which may be related to deficient sanitary conditions of the region. Improving sanitary conditions and enhancing education on hygiene are needed in the region.

Eleuterio, Jacinto; Edwin, Aponte; Víctor, Arrunátegui-Correa.

2012-10-01

217

Occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in domestic animals in peri-urban communities of Kafue district, Zambia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis are important parasites infecting a wide range of domestic animals worldwide. The aim of the present study was to determine the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia parasites in different domestic animals living in close contact with humans within rural/semiurban communities in Kafue district in Zambia. A single faecal sample per animal was collected from pigs, goats, dogs, ducks, chickens and pigeons and analysed by Merifluor Cryptosporidium/Giardia immunofluorescence antibody assay for the simultaneous detection of these parasites. The faecal consistency was noted and scored as non-diarrhoeic or diarrhoeic. A total of 236 samples were collected. Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected in pigs (11.5%, 17/148), goats (5.9%; 1/17), ducks (10.0%; 3/30) and chickens (14.3%; 2/14) while Giardia cysts were detected in pigs (8.1%; 12/148), goats (5.9%; 1/17), dogs (25.0%; 5/20) and ducks (6.7%; 2/30). Diarrhoea was not associated with either infection. Age was also not associated with either infection except in dogs where Giardia infection was only detected in animals aged less than six months (p=0.009). It is concluded from this study that Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia parasites are prevalent among domestic animals reared within communities in Kafue district thereby constituting a potential source for zoonotic infections.

Siwila, J.; Phiri, I. G. K.

2013-01-01

218

The abundance of Cryptosporidium and Giardia spp. in treated effluents produced by four wastewater treatment plants in the Gauteng Province of South Africa  

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Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english This study aimed at assessing the effectiveness of 4 wastewater treatment plants of the Gauteng Province, namely Zeekoegat, Baviaanspoort, Rayton and Refilwe Water Care Works (WCW), in the removal of Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts. Wastewater influent and treated effluent samples were taken w [...] eekly between January and April 2008. Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts were detected by immunofluorescence and immunomagnetic separation, according to a modified US EPA 1623 method. Effluent samples were subjected to a molecular study for the identification of Cryptosporidium parvum Genotype I and Giardia lamblia Assemblage A. The 18S rRNA gene for restriction digests was therefore used to characterise these (oo)cysts. Cryptosporidium oocysts were repeatedly detected in effluent samples collected from all wastewater treatments at lower concentration (range

M, Dungeni; MNB, Momba.

2010-07-01

219

Prevalence, Risk Factors and Impacts of Schistosomal and Intestinal Parasitic Infections Among Rural School Children in Sohag Governorate  

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Full Text Available Parasitic diseases represent a major cause of morbidity and mortality in childhood in most parts of the world. Hygiene and play habits make children especially vulnerable to schistosomal and parasitic infections. The aim of this study is to define the prevalence of different types of parasitic infections, to define their risk factors and to determine their impacts on health and scholastic absenteeism and achievement of rural school students in Sohag Governorate, Egypt. A cross-section, analytical study design was chosen to perform this research on 960 rural school students. All the students were interviewed and examined clinically and laboratory. The study showed that 38.5% of the students were infected by parasites. Entaemoeba histolytica, Enterobius vermicularis and Giardia lamblia had the highest percentages, 20.4%, 16.6% and 15.2%, respectively. Male sex, last birth order, poor personal hygiene, low socioeconomic level, 3 infected siblings, previous parasitic infections and no early consultation for therapy were important risk factors (ORs=1.41, 2.32, 2.63, 2.86, 4.17, 9.80 and 10.83, respectively. Also, 29.2% and 31.6% of infected students were below the 5th percentiles as regard weight-for-age and height-for-age, respectively. Anemia was present among 52.4% of infected students. Further, 3.2% of them had hepatomegaly. Also, 37.8% and 41.1% of infected students had 0-3 and 4-6 days/month absent, respectively, while, 34.3% of infected students had a scholastic achievement <50.0%. Improving personal and environmental hygiene and regular screening, treatment and health education for students as regard parasitic infections in Egypt is recommended.

H. M. El-Masry; Y. A. Ahmed; A. A. Hassan; S. Zaky*; E. S. Abd-Allah

2007-12-01

220

New system for higher recovery rate of water borne Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background: The two most common water borne pathogenic protozoa, Cryptosporidium and Giardia, cause diarrhea worldwide. Detecting these parasites in water samples depends on effective parasite recovery from the water matrix. The reported low recovery rates of the currently used filter methods motivate the development of systems with higher recovery rates. Materials and methods: Five replicates of IMS purified Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts (N=2x103) were injected into a specially coated filter unit with a carefully chosen pore size. Following filtration, sonication was performed at predetermined time intervals to loosen all parasites and other particles from the filter and break up clusters. The concentrated parasite suspension was backwashed and counted after immuno-fluorescence staining. Results and discussion: Without sonication the recovery rates of both Cryptosporidium and Giardia were 85% were recorded when the filter was sonicated. Sonication usually affects parasite viability but could be tuned into a useful tool for enhanced backwash collection of parasites using a specially constructed filter unit and a sonication protocol. The filtration chamber further facilitated the concentration of parasites by ensuring a backwash volume of less than 1ml. The presented design of the filter system can be used as a cheap and time effective method of isolating water borne parasites in the laboratory.

Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Gad, Jens

2012-01-01

221

Intestinal parasites of Alouatta caraya (Primates, Ceboidea): preliminary study in semi-captivity and in the wild in Argentina / Parásitos intestinales de Alouatta caraya (Primates, Ceboidea): estudio preliminar en semi cautiverio y en vida silvestre en la Argentina  

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Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in spanish Las infecciones endo-parasíticas son frecuentes en los primates no humanos y factores importantes que regulan sus poblaciones naturales. Los primates son particularmente vulnerables a las infecciones por parásitos de transmisión directa debido a que usualmente éstos viven en grupos sociales que faci [...] litan su transmisión. El principal objetivo del presente estudio fue proveer información de los parásitos gastrointestinales que albergan tropas de monos aulladores Alouatta caraya en semi-cautiverio y en vida silvestre en Argentina. Colectamos 110 muestras de materia fecal de 38 monos aulladores pertenecientes a cuatro tropas, dos de ellas mantenidas en semicautiverio en el CRMAN, Córdoba y dos tropas silvestres en campo Las Lomas, Corrientes. Identificamos seis especies de parásitos: cuatro protozoos: Giardia lamblia, Blastocystis hominis, Eimeria sp. y Entamoeba coli; un cestode, Bertiella mucronata y un nematode, Strongyloides sp. El 86.8% de los individuos muestreados presentaron al menos un tipo de parásito gastrointestinal. Se encontraron protozoos en el 78.9% de los animales y helmintos en el 21.1%. Hallamos diferencias significativas en la prevalencia de tres especies de protozoos entre los sitios de estudio, donde los aulladores de Las Lomas mostraron la mayor prevalencia. Las diferencias encontradas pueden estar relacionadas con las condiciones ambientales, donde regiones más cálidas y húmedas (Las Lomas), favorecen la supervivencia de estadios infecciosos de algunas especies de parásitos. Abstract in english Endoparasitic infections are common in nonhuman primates and important factors in regulating their natural populations. Primates are particularly vulnerable to the infections of directly transmitted parasites because they often live in close social groups that facilitate their transmission. The main [...] objective of this study was to provide baseline data on gastrointestinal parasites of semi captive and wild howler monkeys Alouatta caraya troops from Argentina. We collected 110 fecal samples from 38 howler monkeys from four troops, two of them kept in semi-captivity at the CRMAN, Córdoba, and two wild troops from Las Lomas, Corrientes. We identified six species of parasites: four Protozoa, Giardia lamblia, Blastocystis hominis, Eimeria sp. and Entamoeba coli; one Cestoda, Bertiella mucronata and one Nematoda, Strongyloides sp. Of the individuals sampled, 86.8% harbored at least one type of gastrointestinal parasite. Protozoa were found in 78.9% of hosts and helminths in 21.1%. We found significant differences in the prevalence of three protozoan species between study sites; and howlers from Las Lomas showed the highest prevalence. The differences found may be related to environmental conditions, where warmer and wetter regions (Las Lomas) favor the survival of infectious stages of some parasitic species.

Carola, Milozzi; Gabriela, Bruno; Elisa, Cundom; Marta D, Mudry; Graciela T, Navone.

2012-12-01

222

Prevalence of intestinal parasites and its impact on nutritional status among preschool children living in Damanhur City, El-Behera Governorate, Egypt.  

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This cross sectional study was done in Damanhur City, the Capital of El-Behera Governorate to detect the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection among preschool aged children and to find out its effect on their nutritional status. Five-hundreds children aged between 2-6 years were enrolled; a detailed questionnaire, complete clinical and anthropometric assessment as well as complete stool analysis and blood picture were done. The study revealed that 51.8% preschool children were infected; Cysts of Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia were found in 16.8%, and 14.8% respectively. In 1.8% of cases, both cysts were found together. Ova of Ascaris lumbricoides, Enterobius vermicularis, Ancylostoma duodenale and Hymenolepis nana were detected in 14%, 3.4%, 5% & 0.2% of cases, respectively. In 0.4% of cases, ova of A. lumbricoides and E. vermicularis were found together. Mixed infections were found in 3.6% of children. Significantly lower weight for age z-score (WAZ) and weight for height z-score (WHZ) were found among infested children compared to non-infested ones (P hand washing, and playing in the street bare footed, together with playing with animals and family history of parasitic infestation were considered the independent predictors of parasitic infestation by using binary logistic regression. PMID:25597166

Hegazy, Adham Mohammad; Younis, Neveen Tawakol; Aminou, Heba Abdelkader; Badr, Ayman Mohamed

2014-08-01

223

Giardia intestinalis: DNA extraction approaches to improve PCR results.  

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Difficulty in disrupting cysts of Giardia intestinalis, a cosmopolitan protozoan parasite, decreases the yield of DNA extracted and reduces the effectiveness of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). To improve the detection of the Giardia Glutamate Dehydrogenase (gdh) gene, we re-evaluated the effects of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extraction methods. Purified and concentrated cysts from 33 fecal samples were disrupted using conventional methods, and DNA extraction was conducted using two protocols: the QIAamp Stool Mini Kit and phenol/chloroform/isoamyl alcohol (PCI). PCR amplification was successful for 12 extracted DNA samples (36%) using PCI following a glass bead and freeze/thaw pretreatment and for all 33 samples (100%) using the QIAamp Stool Mini Kit following the aforementioned pretreatment. Consequently, the pretreatment of cysts with glass beads and freeze/thaw cycles followed by extraction of DNA with the QIAamp Stool Mini kit was the more effective protocol. PMID:21315715

Babaei, Zahra; Oormazdi, Hormozd; Rezaie, Sasan; Rezaeian, Mostafa; Razmjou, Elham

2011-06-01

224

Post-travel screening of asymptomatic long-term travelers to the tropics for intestinal parasites using molecular diagnostics.  

Science.gov (United States)

The incidence of asymptomatic travel-related parasitic infection is uncertain. Previous studies did not distinguish new incident infections, from past infections. Regardless of symptoms, we performed multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction on pre- and post-travel stool samples of Dutch long-term travelers to the (sub)tropics. Serological screening for Schistosoma spp. was only performed in travelers to sub-Saharan Africa. In total, 679 travelers were included in the study. The follow-up rate was 82% (556 of 679). Participants' median travel duration was 12 weeks. There was one incident infection with Strongyloides stercoralis; there were none with Entamoeba histolytica, 4 with Cryptosporidium spp. (1%), and 22 with Giardia lamblia (4%). Nine of 146 travelers (6%) seroconverted for Schistosoma spp. Routine screening of stool samples for parasitic infection is not indicated for asymptomatic people, who travel to the (sub)tropics for up to 3 months. Screening for Schistosoma spp. should be offered to travelers with fresh-water contact in endemic regions. PMID:24615130

Soonawala, Darius; van Lieshout, Lisette; den Boer, Marion A M; Claas, Eric C J; Verweij, Jaco J; Godkewitsch, André; Ratering, Marchel; Visser, Leo G

2014-05-01

225

Diagnosis of Giardia infections by PCR-based methods in children of an endemic area  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The present study was designed to estimate the prevalence of Giardia infection in preschool- and school-aged children living in an endemic area. Fecal samples from 573 children were processed by zinc sulfate centrifugal flotation, centrifugal sedimentation (using a commercial device for fecal concen [...] tration - TF-Test kit®) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods. Of the stool samples assessed, 277 (48.3%) were positive for intestinal parasites and/or commensal protozoa. Centrifugal flotation presented the highest diagnostic sensitivity for Giardia infections. The kappa index revealed that both coproparasitological techniques closely agreed on the Giardia diagnosis (86%) versus satisfactory (72%) and poor (35%) concordances for commensal protozoan and helminth infections, respectively. Concerning Giardia molecular diagnosis, from the 71 microscopy-positive samples, specific amplification of gdh and tpi fragments was noted in 68 (95.7%) and 64 (90%) samples, respectively. Amplification of gdh and tpi genes was observed, respectively, in 95.7% and 90% of microscopy-positive Giardia samples. For 144 microscopy-negative samples, gdh and tpi gene amplification products were obtained from 8.3% and 35.9% samples, respectively. The agreement between these genes was about 40%. The centrifuge-flotation based method was the most suitable means of Giardia diagnosis assessed in the present study by combining accuracy and low cost.

EB, David; ST, Coradi; TCG, Oliveira-Sequeira; PEM, Ribolla; S, Katagiri; S, Guimarães.

226

Diagnosis of Giardia infections by PCR-based methods in children of an endemic area  

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Full Text Available The present study was designed to estimate the prevalence of Giardia infection in preschool- and school-aged children living in an endemic area. Fecal samples from 573 children were processed by zinc sulfate centrifugal flotation, centrifugal sedimentation (using a commercial device for fecal concentration - TF-Test kit® and polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based methods. Of the stool samples assessed, 277 (48.3% were positive for intestinal parasites and/or commensal protozoa. Centrifugal flotation presented the highest diagnostic sensitivity for Giardia infections. The kappa index revealed that both coproparasitological techniques closely agreed on the Giardia diagnosis (86% versus satisfactory (72% and poor (35% concordances for commensal protozoan and helminth infections, respectively. Concerning Giardia molecular diagnosis, from the 71 microscopy-positive samples, specific amplification of gdh and tpi fragments was noted in 68 (95.7% and 64 (90% samples, respectively. Amplification of gdh and tpi genes was observed, respectively, in 95.7% and 90% of microscopy-positive Giardia samples. For 144 microscopy-negative samples, gdh and tpi gene amplification products were obtained from 8.3% and 35.9% samples, respectively. The agreement between these genes was about 40%. The centrifuge-flotation based method was the most suitable means of Giardia diagnosis assessed in the present study by combining accuracy and low cost.

EB David

2011-01-01

227

Presence of Giardia spp. and absence of Salmonella spp. in New Jersey muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus).  

OpenAIRE

Of 220 muskrat fecal specimens collected from 12 sites in southwestern New Jersey, 154 (70%) were found to contain cysts of the protozoan parasite Giardia spp. Cysts from selected muskrat fecal specimens infected Mongolian gerbils, but attempts to cultivate trophozoites removed from these gerbils were unsuccessful. Salmonella spp. were not detected in any of the muskrat fecal specimens.

Kirkpatrick, C. E.; Benson, C. E.

1987-01-01

228

Enteroparásitos asociados a diarrea aguda en niños menores de 12 años de edad / Intestinal Parasites Associated with Acute Diarrhea in Children Under 12 Years of Age  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La enfermedad diarreica representa un problema importante de salud pública, siendo las parasitosis intestinales una de sus causas. El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar especies de enteroparásitos asociados a diarrea aguda en niños menores de 12 años de edad. Se estudiaron 58 niños de ambos se [...] xos estratificados en tres grupos de edad: menores de 1 año, de 1 a 4 años y de 5 a 12 años. A cada niño se le tomó una muestra fecal a la cual se le practicó los métodos coproparasitológicos con solución salina fisiológica, coloraciones temporales con lugol y azul de metileno amortiguado y coloraciones permanentes de Ziehl Neelsen modificado y Ácido Ràpido Tricrómica. El 36,20 % de los individuos presentaban enteroparásitos. Las especies parasitarias identificadas fueron las siguientes: Blastocystis hominis 17,24%, Complejo Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar 10,34%, Cryptosporidium parvum 6,90%, Giardia lamblia 6,90%, Entamoeba coli 3,45%, Chilomastix mesnili, Endolimax nana y Pentatrichomonas hominis 1,72% cada uno. El Chi cuadrado reveló diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre las variables parasitosis y sexo masculino, edad (5-12 años) y monoparasitismo (p Abstract in english Diarrhea is a serious public health problem and intestinal parasites are one of causes of the same. In order to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasite species involved in acute diarrhea in children under 12 years of age, this study was carried out. The sample was 58 children of both sexes s [...] tratified in three age groups: less than 1 year old, of 1 to 4 years old and older than 5, from whom fecal samples were obtained to which analysis with the coproparasitological exam was applied with physiologic saline solution, lugol, blue from cushioned methylene, the coloration techniques, permanent modified Ziehl Neelsen and Acid Fast Tricromic testing. The obtained results indicated that 36,20% of the individuals presented intestinal parasites. The prevalence of identified enteroparasites was the following: Blastocystis hominis 17.24%, Complex Entamoeba histolytica /Entamoeba dispar 10,34%, Cryptosporidium parvum y Giardia lamblia both with 6,90%, Entamoeba coli 3.45%, Chilomastix mesnili, Endolimax nana and Pentatrichomonas hominis 1.72% each one. Statistical squared Chi analysis revealed significance between the variables parasitosis and male sex, age (5-12 years old) and monoparasitism (p

Wintila, Rincón; Ellen, Acurero; Elvia, Serrano; Marisol, Quintero; Sharline, Beauchamp.

2006-01-01

229

Intestinal parasites in patients from the educational community, “Veragacha” School, Lara state, Venezuela (Enteroparasitosis en pacientes de la comunidad educativa, Escuela “Veragacha”, estado Lara, Venezuela  

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Full Text Available Background: The parasites are a health problem.Objective: To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites instudents and school representatives.Methods: We assessed a descriptive and cross sectional study,which examined 204 individuals (114 children and 90 parents orguardians, analyzing their stool with techniques of saline solution,Lugol and Kato.Results: The frequency of intestinal parasitosis was 42.65%(73,6% for monoparasites and 26,4% multiparasitic predominantlybetween 11 and 14 years. 59% were female and 47,7%; were male.The parasites found: Blastocystis hominis (71,3%, Endolimaxnana (26,4%, Giardia lamblia (13,8%, Entamoeba coli (11,5%,Entamoeba histolytica (3.5%, Iodamoeba butschlii (1.2%, Chilomastixmesnili (1,2%, Trichuris trichiura (1,2% and Enterobiusvermicularis (1,2%.Conclusion: The relationship where the common presence of parasiteswas found. Only 18.1% of households had one or more parasitesin common, which seems to suggest that the infection in notnecessarily produced in the home. -RESUMEN: Introducción: Las parasitosis constituyen un problema de salud.Objetivo: Determinar la frecuencia de enteroparásitos en estudiantesy representantes de la escuela “Veragacha”.Material y Métodos: Se realizó un estudio de tipo descriptivo ytransversal, donde se estudiaron 204 individuos (114 niños y 90padres/representantes, analizando sus heces con las técnicas de soluciónsalina, lugol y Kato.Resultados: Se encontró una frecuencia de parasitosis intestinalde 42,65% (73,6% monoparasitados y 26,4% poliparasitados predominandoentre los 11 y 14 años (59% y en el sexo masculino(47,7%; los parásitos diagnosticados fueron: Blastocystis hominis(71,3%, Endolimax nana (26,4%, Giardia lamblia (13,8%, Entamoebacoli (11,5%, Entamoeba histolytica (3,5%, Iodamoebabutschlii (1,2%, Chilomastix mesnili (1,2%, Trichuris trichiura(1,2% y Enterobius vermicularis (1,2%.Conclusión: En la relación alumno-representante donde se indagóla presencia común de parásitos en cada familia, solo el 18,1% delos hogares, presentó uno o más parásitos en común, lo que hacepresumir que la infección no necesariamente se produjo en el hogar.

Pérez Daisy

2012-11-01

230

Prevalence of intestinal parasites in preschool children in the region of Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil / Prevalência de parasitoses intestinais em crianças institucionalizadas na região de Uberlândia, Estado de Minas Gerais  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: As crianças são importantes grupos de risco para infecções por helmintos e protozoários. Os centros de educação infantil são ambientes onde as crianças estão mais expostas à infecção por parasitas intestinais. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a prevalência de parasitas intestinais e [...] m crianças de duas creches mantidas pelo governo municipal de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Os exames coproparasitológicos foram realizados em 133 crianças (73 crianças da Escola Municipal de Educação Infantil - EMEI A e 60 da EMEI B), depois da identificação da criança de acordo com a idade e sexo, e concordância dos responsáveis através do Termo de Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido. As amostras foram examinadas pelo método de Lutz. RESULTADOS: Os exames coproparasitológicos demonstraram que 29,3% delas estavam parasitadas por enteroparasitos ou comensais e 6,7% das crianças apresentaram poliparasitismo. Entre os protozoários, Giardia lamblia foi o mais prevalente, enquanto Hymenolepis nana foi mais frequente dentre os helmintos. CONCLUSÕES: Assim, podemos observar que as parasitoses intestinais ainda representam um problema de saúde pública, especialmente entre as crianças e em áreas onde as condições socioeconômicas e educacionais são menos favoráveis. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Children are an important high-risk group for helminth and protozoa infections. Daycare centers are environments where children have proven to be more susceptible to acquiring intestinal parasites. Thus, the purpose of this study was to verify the prevalence of intestinal parasites in [...] children who attended the two daycare centers maintained by the local government of Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. METHODS: Fecal samples were collected from 133 children (73 children at the Public Preschool for Early Childhood Education, PPECE A, and 60 at the PPECE B) following identification according to sex and age and agreement to participate by parents or guardians who signed the free, informed consent form. The samples were examined by the Lutz method. RESULTS: Coproparasitological tests performed on 133 children showed that 29.3% of them were parasitized for enteroparasites or commensals, 6.7% of the children presented polyparasitism. Among the protozoa, Giardia lamblia were the most prevalent and Hymenolepis nana were the most frequent among the helminths. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, analysis of the results showed that intestinal parasites still represent a public health problem, especially among children and in areas where the socioeconomic and educational conditions are less favorable.

Ana Lúcia Ribeiro, Gonçalves; Talita Lucas, Belizário; Janderson de Brito, Pimentel; Mário Paulo Amante, Penatti; Reginaldo dos Santos, Pedroso.

2011-04-01

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Prevalence of intestinal parasites in preschool children in the region of Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil Prevalência de parasitoses intestinais em crianças institucionalizadas na região de Uberlândia, Estado de Minas Gerais  

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Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Children are an important high-risk group for helminth and protozoa infections. Daycare centers are environments where children have proven to be more susceptible to acquiring intestinal parasites. Thus, the purpose of this study was to verify the prevalence of intestinal parasites in children who attended the two daycare centers maintained by the local government of Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. METHODS: Fecal samples were collected from 133 children (73 children at the Public Preschool for Early Childhood Education, PPECE A, and 60 at the PPECE B following identification according to sex and age and agreement to participate by parents or guardians who signed the free, informed consent form. The samples were examined by the Lutz method. RESULTS: Coproparasitological tests performed on 133 children showed that 29.3% of them were parasitized for enteroparasites or commensals, 6.7% of the children presented polyparasitism. Among the protozoa, Giardia lamblia were the most prevalent and Hymenolepis nana were the most frequent among the helminths. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, analysis of the results showed that intestinal parasites still represent a public health problem, especially among children and in areas where the socioeconomic and educational conditions are less favorable.INTRODUÇÃO: As crianças são importantes grupos de risco para infecções por helmintos e protozoários. Os centros de educação infantil são ambientes onde as crianças estão mais expostas à infecção por parasitas intestinais. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a prevalência de parasitas intestinais em crianças de duas creches mantidas pelo governo municipal de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Os exames coproparasitológicos foram realizados em 133 crianças (73 crianças da Escola Municipal de Educação Infantil - EMEI A e 60 da EMEI B, depois da identificação da criança de acordo com a idade e sexo, e concordância dos responsáveis através do Termo de Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido. As amostras foram examinadas pelo método de Lutz. RESULTADOS: Os exames coproparasitológicos demonstraram que 29,3% delas estavam parasitadas por enteroparasitos ou comensais e 6,7% das crianças apresentaram poliparasitismo. Entre os protozoários, Giardia lamblia foi o mais prevalente, enquanto Hymenolepis nana foi mais frequente dentre os helmintos. CONCLUSÕES: Assim, podemos observar que as parasitoses intestinais ainda representam um problema de saúde pública, especialmente entre as crianças e em áreas onde as condições socioeconômicas e educacionais são menos favoráveis.

Ana Lúcia Ribeiro Gonçalves

2011-04-01

232

DISTRIBUSI PARASIT USUS PROTOZOA DI KABUPATEN HULU SUNGAI UTARA KALIMANTAN SELATAN  

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Full Text Available The intestinal infection disease caused by protozoa: amoeba is one of the public health problem with high incidence in the community. From the research activity conducted in Hulu Sungai Utara Regency in the year 2002, to obtain of prevalence of protozoa infection from stool examination from resident in 6 villages at 3 subdistrict in Hulu Sungai Utara Regency. The research has conducted to be carry out survey parasite to the community. Sample size will be examination are 230 persons per village, so that to 6 villages will be examed as 1.600 persons. The examination directly by using lugol 2% and checked on the microscope with magnification 10x10 and 10x40. For resident which its sample stool is positive the protozoa to be given a treatment by metronidazol. From stool examination result obtained prevalence resident which are positive the amoeba intestine protozoa is Entamoeba coli 19,8%, Endolimax nana 15,8%, and Entamoeba histolityca 15,4%. While prevalence resident which are positive the intestine flagellata/B. hominis is Blastocystis hominis 25,5% and Giardia lamblia 11,6%. From 5 micro-organism on the intestine. Entamoeba histolityca, Blastocystis hominis and Giardia lamblia are cause diarrhoea because having the pathogenic. From survey ot socio-cultural, known also the resident percentage which drinking no safe water 43,3%, source of drinking water obtained from river or swamp is 67,7%, human waste disposal in river and swamp is 79,5%, and take a bath and brush the teeth with water of river and swamp is 78,6%; showing bad condition of environmental sanitation, personal hygiene, and life behavior. Good personal hygiene and environmental sanitation practices are the major factors of this disease prevention. The main principle to prevent the spreading of protozoa infection is to cut off the link of infection sources to human beings. Personal hygiene is focused on the management of individual behaviour, meanwhile environmental sanitation prevention focus lies on the better environment management to cut off the link of disease cycle as like water supply and human waste disposal wich good condition. For this matter is Governmental role, in this case the health office and with local elite figure, important and absolute so that to a period to coming of prevalence intestine infection caused a protozoa can be depressed as low as possible.   Keywords: protozoa

Anorital Anorital

2012-07-01

233

First report of Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. in fecal samples in blue macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus in southern Brazil  

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Full Text Available This study reports the gastrointestinal parasitism by Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. in blue macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus in the southern region of Brazil. Fecal samples of two species kept in captivity in the state of Rio Grande do Sul were analyzed by the direct smear method, centrifugal flotation technique with zinc sulfate and Kinyoun staining technique for research of parasites. Mixed infection by eggs of Capillaria, cysts of Giardia sp. and oocysts of Cryptosporidium sp. was observed. This is the first report this protozoa in blue macaw.

Matheus Hillard Farret

2010-09-01

234

Estudio comparativo de recuperación de formas parasitarias por tres diferentes métodos de enriquecimiento coproparasitológico COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PARASITIC FORMS RECUPERATION USING THREE DIFFERENT COPROPARASITOSCOPIC METHODS  

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Full Text Available Se analizaron 165 muestras fecales seriadas, utilizando dos métodos de sedimentación: Ritchie (R y Carles Barthelemy (CB y uno de flotación: Willis (W, con el fin de optimizar el diagnóstico de los parásitos intestinales y determinar la eficacia de las técnicas. Se hallaron parásitos en 119 (72,1% de los analizados. Hubo diferencias significativas en la recuperación de protozoos (p A total of 165 fecal samples were analyzed, using two sedimentation methods: Ritchie (R, Carles Barthelemy (CB, and one of flotation: Willis (W, in order to optimize intestinal parasites diagnosis and to determine the techniques effectiveness. Parasites were found in 119 (72,12% of those analyzed. Significant differences were in protozoa recovery (p < 0,001, being observed 81.4% (R, 77.4% (CB, and 57.8% (W. Blastocystis hominis, Giardia lamblia, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura were recovered more frequency by means of sedimentation, being Ritchie´s method the most effective one (p < 0.05

GRACIELA T NAVONE

2005-12-01

235

Intestinal Parasitic Infestation in Combatants and Their Families: A Hospital-Based Study in Mid-Western Regional Police Hospital, Nepal  

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Full Text Available Objective: To find out the scenario of intestinal parasitic infestation in combatants and their families in the setting of Mid-Western Regional Police Hospital (MWRPH, Nepal. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: All 2005 patients presented with the complaint of abdominal pain, diarrhoea, frequent defecation, blood in stool, or black stool from August 2007 to February 2011 were offered a stool examination. About 10g of fresh stool was collected in a clean, dry bottle. Two slides from each specimen were examined applying light microscope in 10 and 40 uvf at Banke, Nepalgunj hospital laboratory. Result: Among 2005 patients, 928 (46.28% were infested with either helminths and/or protozoa. 96% were single infestation. The most common infestation was Ascaris lumbricoides (48.06% and the second was hook worm (18.97%. Most common protozoal infestations were Entamoeba histolytica (12.92% and Giardia lamblia (9.49%. Helminthic infestations peaked in cool months and protozoal infestations were rather steady throughout the year. Conclusion: Very high parasitic infestation in least developed mid- western Nepal may need urgent public health intervention.

Damodar Paudel

2014-01-01

236

[Spatial distribution of intestinal parasites in the City of La Plata, Argentina].  

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Parasitosis analysis at regional levels is simplified by the use of the Geographic Information System (GIS), which enables the identification of areas with different degrees of vulnerability. We analyzed the spatial distribution of intestinal parasites in La Plata district and their relationship with socio-environmental conditions in order to identify areas with different degrees of epidemiological risk. An epidemiological survey was completed; stool samples were collected and analyzed by Ritchie's method. Levels of precariousness and vulnerability (Iv rate) were calculated and compared to the parasitological results. Parasitological and environmental analysis were carried out on a total of 653 individuals, of whom 585 (89.6%) were children and 68 (10.4%) adults. The analysis indicated that the most vulnerable (Iv = 3-4) were those located in areas with less access to urban infrastructure services. The Iv was strongly associated with the overall prevalence of intestinal parasitosis and the 4 pathogenic species related to the fecal contamination of the environment: Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, Hymenolepis nana and Giardia lamblia (p < 0.01). On the other hand, Enterobius vermicularis, a parasite not related to the sanitary condition of its host, was not associated with the Iv. Statistical association between poverty and parasitosis was noted; the greater the Iv, higher the incidence of parasites (p < 0.01). GIS allowed zoning socio-environmental variables in an increasing gradient of unfavorable conditions and their relationship to the presence of pathogenic species. The continuity of these studies in different regions of Argentina contributes to the determination of health risk areas. PMID:25347897

Gamboa, María I; Giambelluca, Luis A; Navone, Graciela T

2014-01-01

237

DIFFERENTIATION OF GIARDIA DUODENALIS FROM OTHER GIARDIA SPP. BASED ON THE POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION AND GENE PROBES  

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Giardia is a waterborne organism that is the most commonly identified pathogenic intestinal protozoan in the United States. urrent detection techniques for Giardia water include microscopy and immunofluorescence techniques. peciation of the genus Giardia has been based on taxonom...

238

Evaluation of Giardia duodenalis viability after metronidazole treatment by flow cytometry.  

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Giardia duodenalis (syn. lamblia; syn. intestinalis) susceptibility testing is not routinely performed because the classical culture methods are very time-consuming and laborious. We developed a novel flow cytometry (FC) assay to evaluate the susceptibility of G. duodenalis trophozoites to metronidazole (MTZ). Different concentrations of MTZ were added to cultures of trophozoites (10 5 /mL) and the cultures were incubated for different periods. The 50% inhibitory concentration was calculated and propidium iodide (PI) was used to quantify the number of dead cells. After treatment, PI-positive trophozoites increased with increasing drug concentration and exposure time. An excellent correlation was found between FC and the classical method. A novel, accurate and reliable method is now available to evaluate G. duodenalis viability. PMID:25424449

Barbosa, Joana; Rodrigues, Acácio Gonçalves; Pérez, Maria José; Pina-Vaz, Cidália

2014-12-01

239

Evaluation of Giardia duodenalis viability after metronidazole treatment by flow cytometry  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Giardia duodenalis (syn. lamblia; syn. intestinalis) susceptibility testing is not routinely performed because the classical culture methods are very time-consuming and laborious. We developed a novel flow cytometry (FC) assay to evaluate the susceptibility of G. duodenalis t [...] rophozoites to metronidazole (MTZ). Different concentrations of MTZ were added to cultures of trophozoites (10 5 /mL) and the cultures were incubated for different periods. The 50% inhibitory concentration was calculated and propidium iodide (PI) was used to quantify the number of dead cells. After treatment, PI-positive trophozoites increased with increasing drug concentration and exposure time. An excellent correlation was found between FC and the classical method. A novel, accurate and reliable method is now available to evaluate G. duodenalis viability.

Joana, Barbosa; Acácio Gonçalves, Rodrigues; Maria José, Pérez; Cidália, Pina-Vaz.

1078-10-01

240

Core histone genes of Giardia intestinalis: genomic organization, promoter structure, and expression  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Giardia intestinalis is a protist found in freshwaters worldwide, and is the most common cause of parasitic diarrhea in humans. The phylogenetic position of this parasite is still much debated. Histones are small, highly conserved proteins that associate tightly with DNA to form chromatin within the nucleus. There are two classes of core histone genes in higher eukaryotes: DNA replication-independent histones and DNA replication-dependent ones. Results We identified two copies each of the core histone H2a, H2b and H3 genes, and three copies of the H4 gene, at separate locations on chromosomes 3, 4 and 5 within the genome of Giardia intestinalis, but no gene encoding a H1 linker histone could be recognized. The copies of each gene share extensive DNA sequence identities throughout their coding and 5' noncoding regions, which suggests these copies have arisen from relatively recent gene duplications or gene conversions. The transcription start sites are at triplet A sequences 1–27 nucleotides upstream of the translation start codon for each gene. We determined that a 50 bp region upstream from the start of the histone H4 coding region is the minimal promoter, and a highly conserved 15 bp sequence called the histone motif (him is essential for its activity. The Giardia core histone genes are constitutively expressed at approximately equivalent levels and their mRNAs are polyadenylated. Competition gel-shift experiments suggest that a factor within the protein complex that binds him may also be a part of the protein complexes that bind other promoter elements described previously in Giardia. Conclusion In contrast to other eukaryotes, the Giardia genome has only a single class of core histone genes that encode replication-independent histones. Our inability to locate a gene encoding the linker histone H1 leads us to speculate that the H1 protein may not be required for the compaction of Giardia's small and gene-rich genome.

Adam Rodney D

2007-04-01

241

Prevalence of Giardia duodenalis among dogs seized by the Center for Control of Zoonoses (CCZ) of the city of Lages, Santa Catarina, Brazil  

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The knowledge of the epidemiology of parasitic infections in stray and domestic animals, especially of its incidence and prevalence, is fundamental to adopting effective prophylactic measures. Stray dogs play an important role in environmental contamination favoring the transmission cycle of zoonotic agents. Among the parasitic infections that affect humans, Giardia

Rosiléia Marinho Quadros; Paulo Henrique Exterckotter Weiss; Geison Willian Ezequiel; Renato Batista Tamanho; Geanice Lepo; Marcio Rodrigues da Silva; Carlos Roberto João da Silva Junior; Flávio Antonio Pacheco de Araujo; Luiz Claudio Miletti

2013-01-01

242

INTESTINAL PARASITES AND MALARIA IN MUSI BANYU ASIN AND OGAN KOMERING ULU REGENCIES, SOUTH SUMATRA  

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Full Text Available Pada bulan Mei 1973 diadakan survey tinja dan darah di lima desa di Sumatra Selatan untuk mengetahui aspek-aspek penyakit parasit pada penduduk asli dan para transmigran yang datang antara tahun 1935 dan 1955. Desa-desa Tanjung Kerang, Simpang Langkap dan Biuku di Kabupaten Musi Banyu Asin yang terletak di sebelah barat laut kota Palembang merupakan daerah hutan-ladang-huma dan perkebunan karet rakyat dikelilingi oleh rawa-rawa, yang di diami oleh penduduk asli. Desa-desa Sidomulyo dan Tanjung Raya di Kabupaten Ogan Komering Ulu, terletak di sebelah tenggara' kota Palembang, adalah tempat transmigrasi yang merupakan daerah persawahan." Dari 358 orang yang diperiksa tinjanya yang terdiri dari 193 laki-laki dan 165 wanita, di keiemukan 97 per cent terinfeksi oleh sedikitnya satu macam parasit, 87 per cent oleh 2 macam parasit atau lebih dan 55 per cent oleh 3 macam parasit atau lebih. Telur-telur cacing yang di temukan antara lain ialah: Trichuris trichiura. (83 per cent, Ascaris lumbricoides (78 per cent dan cacing tambang (59 per cent. Enterobius vermicularis (1 per cent dan Strongyloides stercoralis (0,3 per cent jarang di jumpai. Entamoeba coli (29 per cent merupakan parasit protozoa yang biasa di temukan. Jumlah rata-rata protozoa yang ada dalam usus ialah: Entamoeba histofytica (4 per cent, Entamoeba hartmanni (1 per cent, Endolimax nona (5 per cent, Iodamoeba butschlii (5 per cent, Giardia lamblia (3 per cent dan Chilomastbc mesnili (4 per cent. Distribusi dari parasit usus hampir sama di antara golongan laki-laki dan wanita; meskipun tanah memegang peranan yang sama dalam pemindahan cacing-cacing, tetapi A. lumbricoides dan T. trichiura lebih banyak di jumpai pada wanita, sedangkan cacing tambang lebih banyak pada laki-laki. Prevalensi parasit usus menurut golongan umur adalah sebagai berikut: A. lumbricoides lebih banyak pada golongan muda, T. trichiura merata pada semua golongan umur, tetapi yang terbanyak pada golongan umur antara 30-39 tahun. Infeksi cacing tambang terdapat tinggi, antara 50 sampai 60 per cent, sampai umur 50 tahun. Pada orang-orang yang berumur lebih dari 50 tahun, infeksi cacing tambang ini sangat menyolok meningkatnya sampai 92 per cent. Adanya perbedaan infeksi dari protozoa usus menurut golongan umur tidak dapat di buktikan. Pemeriksaan 472 sediaan darah yang berasal dari 5 desa tersebut diatas menemukan Plasmodium vivax dan Plasmodium falciparum pada 8 orang. Lima di antaranya adalah anak-anak yang berumur di bawah 10 tahun. Infeksi pada golongan laki-laki dan wanita tampak sama rata

W. Patrick Carney

2012-09-01

243

Perfil das enteroparasitoses diagnosticadas em pacientes com infecção pelo vírus HIV na era da terapia antiretroviral potente em um centro de referência em São Paulo, Brasil PROFILE OF INTESTINAL PARASITES DIAGNOSED IN HIV INFECTED PATIENTS IN THE HAART ERA AT A REFERENCE CENTER IN SÃO PAULO, BRAZIL  

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Full Text Available Intestinal parasites in HIV infected patients are a compelling issue in epidemiological settings with high prevalence of these parasites. The present study reviewed frequencies of diagnosis for common intestinal parasites in HIV infected patients in association with sex, age, HIV risk behavior and CD4 lymphocyte count. Patients with confirmed HIV diagnosis and positive routine stool examination between January and December 2000 were selected. Diagnostic methods for Cyclospora cayetanensis and microsporidia were not included in the routine stool examination. A total of 146 patients had one or more positive samples (median 1.5 with age ranging between 2-75 years (mean: 34. Most of them were male (70.5% and 53.6% had a CD4 count > 200 cells/mm³ (median: 158.5 cells/mm³. Endolimax nana (27.4%, Entamoeba coli (22.6%, Strongyloides stercoralis (21.9%, Giardia lamblia (13.0%, Isospora belli (12.3%, Ascaris lumbricoides (8.2%, Cryptosporidium parvum (6.8% were the most frequent parasites diagnosed in this group. G. lamblia was more common in children with vertically transmitted HIV and men who have sex with men. No significant associations were found in relation to sex and age. Patients with CD4 count < 200 cells/mm³ presented lower prevalence of non-pathogenic parasites (e.g. E. nana OR 0.46 and E. coli OR 0.33 but had more pathogenic parasites diagnosed such as S. stercoralis (OR 3,9 and I. belli (OR 3,5 in relation to those HIV-infected individuals with CD4 count e•200 cells/mm³. These results underscore the importance of S. stercoralis in AIDS patients; the decrease in C. parvum prevalence in relation to previous reports from our institution before the routine use of HAART; local differences in parasite profiles in comparison to other epidemiological settings as well as changes in the proportion of diagnosis for pathogenic and non-pathogenic parasites according to the immune compromise due to HIV infection

SÉRGIO CIMERMAN

2002-07-01

244

PREVALENCE OF INTESTINAL PARASITES AMONG FOOD HANDLERS IN WESTERN IRAN / La prevalencia de parásitos intestinales entre los manipuladores de alimentos en el oeste de Irán  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Infección parasitaria es uno de los problemas de salud humana, especialmente en los países en desarrollo. En este estudio, todas las tiendas de comida rápida, restaurantes, y tiendas de carne asada en Khorramabad (oeste de Irán) y todo el personal que trabaja en ellos, incluyendo 210 personas fueron [...] seleccionadas a través de los censos y las heces fueron examinadas para detectar la presencia de parásitos. La prueba parasitológica directa de mojado de montaje, la tinción de Lugol's yodo, sedimentación formaldehído-éter y tricrómicas técnicas de tinción se realizaron sobre las muestras. Los datos fueron analizados con la prueba de chi-cuadrado y regresión logística seleccionado como el modelo analítico. Los resultados mostraron 19 (9%) muestras de heces fueron positivos para diferentes parásitos intestinales. Los parásitos intestinales incluyen Giardia lamblia 2.9%, Entamoeba coli 4.3%, Blastocystis sp. 1.4%, Hymenolepis nana 0.5%. Hubo diferencia significativa entre la presencia de la tarjeta sanitaria válida, el conocimiento de la transmisión de los parásitos intestinales, la participación en cursos de formación en materia de salud ambiental con parásitos intestinales (p 0.05). Para controlar la infección parasitaria en los manipuladores de alimentos se recomiendan varias estrategias, tales como examen de heces cada tres meses, la educación pública, se aplican las normas sanitarias, el control de validez de la tarjeta sanitaria y la transmisión formación infección parasitaria. En este sentido, los resultados del presente estudio se pueden utilizar como una base para desarrollar programas de prevención dirigidos a los manipuladores de alimentos debido a la propagación de enfermedades a través de ellos es un problema común en todo el mundo. Abstract in english Parasitic infection is one of the problems that affect human health, especially in developing countries. In this study, all of the fast food shops, restaurants, and roast meat outlets of Khorramabad (Western Iran) and all the staff employed by them, some 210 people, were selected through a census an [...] d their stools were examined for the presence of parasites. The parasitological tests of direct wet-mount, Lugol's iodine staining, formaldehyde-ether sedimentation and Trichrome staining techniques were performed on the samples. The data was analyzed with a chi-square test and logistic regression was selected as the analytical model. The results showed 19 (9%) stool specimens were positive for different intestinal parasites. These intestinal parasites included Giardia lamblia 2.9%, Entamoeba coli 4.3%, Blastocystis sp. 1.4%, and Hymenolepis nana 0.5%. There was a significant difference between the presence of a valid health card, awareness of transmission of intestinal parasites, participation in training courses in environmental health with intestinal parasites (p 0.05). To control parasitic infection in food handlers, several strategies are recommended such as stool examinations every three months, public education, application of health regulations, controlling the validity of health cards and training on parasitic infection transmission. In this regard, the findings of the present study can be used as a basis to develop preventive programs targeting food handlers because the spread of disease via them is a common problem worldwide.

Farnaz, Kheirandish; Mohammad Javad, Tarahi; Behrouz, Ezatpour.

2014-04-01

245

Survey of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus and intestinal parasites among food handlers working at Gondar University, Northwest Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Food borne disease are major health problems in developing countries like Ethiopia. Food handlers with poor personal hygiene working in food establishments could be potential sources of disease due to pathogenic organisms. However; information on disease prevalence among food handlers working in University of Gondar cafeterias are very scarce. The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus, their drug resistance pattern and prevalence of intestinal parasites among food handlers working in University of Gondar student’s cafeterias. Method A cross sectional study was conducted among food handlers working in University of Gondar student’s cafeterias. A pretested structured questionnaire was used for collecting data. Nasal swab and stool were investigated for S. aureus and intestinal parasites; respectively as per the standard of the laboratory methods. Results Among 200 food handlers, females comprised 171(85.5%. The majority (67.5% of the food-handlers were young adults aged 18–39?years. One hundred ninety four (97% of the food handlers were not certified as a food handler. Forty one (20.5% food handlers were positive for nasal carriage of S. aureus, of these 4(9.8% was resistant for methicilin. Giardia lamblia was the most prevalent parasites 22 (11%, followed by Ascaris lumbricoides 13(6.5%, Entamoeba histolytica 12 (6%, Strongyloides stercolaris (0.5, Taenia species 1(0.5% and Schistosoma mansoni 1(0.5%. Conclusion The finding stressed that food handlers with different pathogenic micro organisms may pose significant risk on the consumers. Higher officials should implement food handler’s training on food safety, periodic medical checkup and continuous monitoring of personal hygiene of food handlers.

Dagnew Mulat

2012-10-01

246

Estudo das parasitoses intestinais e da infecção chagásica no Município de Novo Airão, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil Cross-sectional study of intestinal parasites and Chagas' disease in the Municipality of Novo Airão, State of Amazonas, Brazil  

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Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo seccional descritivo em uma amostra sistemática por conglomerado de uma em cada dez famílias residentes na sede do Município de Novo Airão, na meso-região norte do Estado do Amazonas, a 250 quilômetros de Manaus por via fluvial. De cada um dos residentes nos 89 domicílios da amostra foram solicitadas fezes para exame pelos métodos de sedimentação de Lutz e pelo Baermann-Moraes-Coutinho e colhido sangue por punção venosa para testes de ELISA e imunofluorescência para pesquisa de anticorpos anti-Trypanosoma cruzi. O exame de 316 amostras de fezes mostrou 87,6% com um ou mais parasitos: 35,1% com Ascaris lumbricoides, 29,1% com Entamoeba histolytica, 17,4% com Giardia lamblia e outros parasitos com menor prevalência. Estes resultados foram correlacionados com a falta de saneamento e de suprimento de água tratada. De 346 soros examinados 16 (4,6% foram reativos para anticorpos anti-Trypanosoma cruzi, mas somente em três deles houve correlação entre este resultado e o contacto das pessoas com triatomíneos silvestres, conhecidos localmente como "piolho da piaçava".A cross-sectional study was performed on the residents of one in every ten households in the town of Novo Airão, in the northern meso-region of the State of Amazonas, 250 kilometers from Manaus by riverboat. A family cluster sample of 89 dwellings was studied. A stool sample was requested from each of the inhabitants for examination using the Lutz sedimentation and Baermann-Moraes-Coutinho techniques, and blood was taken by venous puncture for Trypanosoma cruzi ELISA antibody testing and immunofluorescence. From a total of 316 stool samples, 87.6% had one or more parasites: Ascaris lumbricoides (35.1%, Entamoeba histolytica (29.1%, Giardia lamblia (17.4%, and other parasites with lower prevalence rates. These results were directly correlated with lack of sanitation and clean water supply. Of the 346 sera examined, 16 (4.6% were reactive to T. cruzi antibodies, but only three showed a correlation between this result and human contact with wild triatomines, known locally as "piassava lice".

Marcio N. Boia

1999-09-01

247

Enteric parasites in HIV-1/AIDS-infected patients from a Northwestern São Paulo reference unit in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era / Enteroparasitas em pacientes infectados pelo HIV-1/AIDS em uma unidade de referência do noroeste paulista na era da terapia antirretroviral de alto impacto  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: Descrevemos a epidemiologia de enteroparasitoses em pacientes de um serviço de referência de AIDS, no noroeste paulista, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Durante o período de janeiro de 1998 a dezembro de 2008, foi realizado este estudo retrospectivo por meio da análise dos prontuários dos pacientes dia [...] gnosticados com HIV-1/AIDS atendidos no Ambulatório de Doenças Infecto-Parasitárias do Hospital de Base, São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo. As análises estatísticas foram realizadas usando a versão 2.4.1 do software estatístico R. O nível de significância adotado foi de 5%. RESULTADOS: O protozoário mais frequente foi o Isospora belli (4,2%), seguido da Giardia lamblia (3,5%), Entamoeba coli (2,8%) e Criptosporidium parvum (0,3%). O Ancylostoma duodenalis (1,4%) foi o helminto mais detectado, enquanto a Taenia saginata e o Strongiloides stercoralis foram observados em 0,7% das amostras. Os resultados mostraram que a diarreia foi significativamente associada com giardíase e isosporíase. Entretanto, nenhuma associação foi observada entre as contagens de células T CD4+, carga viral e da característica de qualquer parasita em particular. CONCLUSÕES: Nossos dados podem ser úteis para futuras comparações com outras regiões do Brasil e outros países em desenvolvimento. Os dados também podem fornecer pistas importantes para a melhoria da compreensão, prevenção e controle de parasitas entéricos em todo o mundo. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: We describe the epidemiology of intestinal parasites in patients from an AIDS reference service in Northeastern São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Retrospective evaluation was done for all HIV-1/AIDS-positive patients whose Hospital de Base/São José do Rio Preto laboratorial analysis was posi [...] tive for enteroparasites after diagnosis of HIV-1 infection, from January 1998 to December 2008. Statistical analysis was performed using the R statistical software version 2.4.1. The level of significance adopted was 5%. RESULTS: The most frequent protozoan was Isospora belli (4.2%), followed by Giardia lamblia (3.5%), Entamoeba coli (2.8%), and Cryptosporidium parvum (0.3%). Ancylostoma duodenale (1.4%) was the most frequently detected helminth, while Taenia saginata and Strongiloides stercoralis were found in 0.7% of the samples. The results showed that diarrhea was significantly associated with giardiasis and isosporiasis. However, no association was observed between CD4+ cell counts, viral load, and the characteristics of any particular parasite. CONCLUSIONS: Our data may be useful for further comparisons with other Brazilian regions and other developing countries. The data may also provide important clues toward improving the understanding, prevention, and control of enteric parasites around the world.

Luciana Ventura, Cardoso; Katia Jaira, Galisteu; Arlindo, Schiesari Júnior; Luana Aparecida Oliveira Abou, Chahla; Rafaela Moreira da Silva, Canille; Marcus Vinicius Tereza, Belloto; Célia, Franco; Irineu Luiz, Maia; Andréa Regina Baptista, Rossit; Ricardo Luiz Dantas, Machado.

2011-12-01

248

Detection of giardine gene in local isolates of Giardia duodenalis by polymerase chain reaction (PCR).  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardia duodenalis is an intestinal parasite that causes diarrhoea and malabsorption in children. The parasite also infects AIDS patients with a weak immune system. A study was carried out on six local isolates of Giardia duodenalis (110, 7304, 6304, M007, 2002 and 6307) from faeces of Orang Asli patients admitted to the Gombak Hospital. WB, a reference pathogenic strain from human and G. muris from a wild mouse, were commercially obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). All the isolates were cultured axenically in TYI-S-33 medium. Two sets of primers were used for the techniques: primers LP1 and RP1 and primers LP2 and RP2. The sets of primers amplified giardine gene of 171 bp and 218 bp in sizes respectively. The study showed that the two sets of primers could detect G. duodenalis to the genus and species level specifically. PMID:17191390

Latifah, I; Teoh, K Y; Wan, K L; Rahmah, M; Normaznah, Y; Rohani, A

2005-12-01

249

Segunda encuesta nacional de infecciones parasitarias intestinales en Cuba, 2009 Second national survey of intestinal parasitic infections in Cuba, 2009  

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Full Text Available Introducción: en Cuba las parasitosis intestinales continúan siendo endémicas, con una mayor frecuencia en zonas rurales y montañosas. Después de haber transcurrido casi 25 años desde la última encuesta nacional, se hizo necesario hacer una nueva encuesta para conocer los índices de prevalencia de las parasitosis intestinales y comparar los resultados obtenidos entre ambos estudios. Tal conocimiento resultaría de gran valor para elaborar estrategias de salud y el diseño de programas de control de las infecciones parasitarias intestinales. Objetivo: determinar los índices actuales de prevalencia de las parasitosis intestinales, y comparar los resultados con los de la encuesta anterior luego de haber transcurrido 25 años. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte trasversal durante los meses de mayo a agosto de 2009 en una muestra de la población cubana. A cada uno se le recogió una muestra de heces que fue analizada por el método de examen directo, la técnica de concentración de Willis y el examen de Kato-Katz; también se le llenó un cuestionario. Resultados: al comparar los resultados de las encuestas nacionales de infecciones parasitarias intestinales realizadas en 1984 y 2009, se encontró que en general disminuyeron las infecciones por parásitos, tanto los helmintos como los protozoos patógenos, aunque los infectados con comensales aumentaron su frecuencia en la de 2009. También se produjo una disminución de las frecuencias de infecciones por todas las especies de geohelmintos, Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, ancylostomídeos, y Strongyloides stercoralis, así como por los protozoos patógenos Giardia lamblia y Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar, y los comensales: Endolimax nana y Entamoeba coli en 2009. La única especie de parásito intestinal que aumentó su frecuencia con respecto a la encuesta de 1984 fue Enterobius vermicularis. En ambos estudios la frecuencia de infección con parásitos o comensales fue mayor en el grupo de 5 a 14 años (edad escolar. Conclusiones: al comparar los resultados de las encuestas nacionales de infecciones parasitarias intestinales realizadas en 1984 y 2009, se encontró que en general disminuyeron las frecuencias de infecciones con parásitos intestinales. El hallazgo en ambos estudios de una frecuencia mayor de infección con parásitos o comensales en el grupo de 5 a 14 años (edad escolar, respalda la recomendación de poner énfasis en los programas de control para las parasitosis intestinales en este grupo de edad.Introduction: the intestinal parasitic infections are still endemic in Cuba, with a higher frequency in rural and mountain regions. Twenty five years after the last national survey, it deemed necessary to carry out a new national survey in order to know the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and to compare the obtained results between both studies. That knowledge would be valuable to work out strategies of health and to design a control program for intestinal parasitic infections in Cuba. Objective: to determine the current prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in Cuba and to compare these results with those obtained from the previous survey after a 25 year-period. Methods: a cross sectional study was conducted from May to August of 2009 in a sample of Cuban population. A stool sample was collected from each individual, which was analyzed by direct examination, Willis' brine flotation method and the Kato-Katz thick smear technique. Additionally, a questionnaire was administered. Results: the comparison between 1984 and 2009 surveys showed a general decrease of frequencies of intestinal parasitic infections caused by both helminths and pathogenic protozoa; however, the percentage of infections with commensal protozoa increased in 2009. In this last survey, there was observed decline of frequencies of infections with soil transmitted species, Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, and Strongyloides stercoralis and the pathogenic protozoa: Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolyti

Lázara Rojas

2012-04-01

250

Prevalencia y Factores de Riesgo Asociados a Parasitismo Intestinal en Preescolares de Zona Urbana en Calarcá, Colombia Prevalence and risk factors associated with intestinal parasitism in preschool children from the urban area of Calarcá, Colombia  

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Full Text Available Objetivo Determinar prevalencia de parasitismo intestinal y su relación con factores de riesgo sociodemográficos, de saneamiento y prácticas de higiene. Materiales y métodos Se realizó un estudio "cross sectional" en 220 niños entre 6 y 60 meses (N:1 993 asistentes a hogares infantiles de estrato uno y dos del área urbana de Calarcá (Colombia. Se estudió una muestra coprológica por método de concentración de Ritchie Resultados La prevalencia general de parasitismo entre los niños estudiados fue de un 54,7 %. Se encontró una prevalencia de Blastocystis de 36,4 % y de Giardia en 13,2 %. Se encontraron como factores de riesgo asociados estadísticamente con el parasitismo: edad mayor a dos años, no desparasitar las mascotas, tener hermanos, y recibir alimentos en el tetero diferentes a la leche. Conclusiones Este estudio muestra una alta frecuencia de Blastocystis en niños preescolares de un centro urbano con buen acceso a servicios públicos. Es necesario hacer enfasís en los programas de control de zoonosis y la desparasitación de mascotas. Se recomienda la vigilancia periódica de parásitos por exámenes en estos niños.Objectives Determining intestinal parasite prevalence and their relationship with social and demographic risk factors, hygiene procedures and sanitation in pre-school children. Material and Methods This was a cross-sectional study of a representative sample (n=220 of children aged 6 to 60 months, residing in social strata one, two and three type homes (N:1,993 from the urban area of the city of Calarcá. Both microscopic and macroscopic studies were carried out using Ritchie's test to confirm the diagnosis. Results 54.7% parasitism prevalence was found. Pathogenic parasites had the following prevalence frequencies: 36.4% Blastocystis hominis and 13% Giardia lamblia . Bivariate analysis found intestinal parasite association with lack of parasite control of domestic animals, having brothers and sisters and having received food different to milk from a baby's bottle. Anemia was studied in 209 children and 3.3% prevalence found. Low weight prevalence was 9.6% and 7.5% for obesity. Conclusions A high Blastocystis prevalence was found in this group of preschool children residing in an urban setting and having good access to sanitary services. Controlling parasites on pets should be emphasized. This group of children should be submitted to periodical coprological analysis (once a year.

Ángela L Londoño

2009-02-01

251

[New methods for the diagnosis of Cryptosporidium and Giardia].  

Science.gov (United States)

The accurate identification of a parasite at the species and/or genotype level has major implications for various aspects of human and veterinary parasitology, including the diagnosis, the taxonomy, the treatment and the control. The advent of molecular techniques, in particular those based on the in vitro amplification of nucleic acids, has dramatically improved our ability to detect infections caused by parasites. To illustrate the progress in molecular diagnostics, Cryptosporidium and Giardia are used here as examples of parasites for which both the diagnosis and the taxonomy have traditionally been problematic. These protozoan parasites, while very different for many aspects of their biology, shares a complex series of transmission routes, including anthroponotic and zoonotic transmission, as well as waterborne and foodborne transmission. The resistant stages produced by Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oocysts and cysts, respectively) are remarkably stable, and can survive for weeks to months in the environment. Further, the infective dose is low, and infectious dose studies and models suggest that even a single oocyst or cyst carries some probability of causing an infection. Finally, most faeces that contain (oo)cysts end up in the environment and can be spread to foods by irrigation or by direct contact, and can persist in the water, as routine treatments eliminate only a fraction of these stages. This situation explains the growing interest towards the development of methods that allows such stages to be detected with the highest sensitivity and specificity. A variety of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assays have been described for both Cryptosporidium and Giardia. The choice of a particular assay mainly depends on the amount of information carried by the genetic locus under analysis. Indeed, some assays can be used to identify the different species within a genus, while others allowed to distinguish between isolates of the same species (genotypes), and some can even be used for both purposes. Post-PCR analyses are usually based on the direct sequencing of the amplification products, or on the digestion with endonucleases followed by gel electrophoresis of the restriction fragments. In the last few years, the molecular characterization of a large number of isolates, collected from infected hosts and from the environment, has considerably changed our view of the epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis. Indeed, several species/genotypes have been established as human pathogens, and the nature of the parasites present in the water and in food have been investigated, allowing a better understanding of the complex circulation of the parasites in the environment, that may eventually led to implemented control measures. Finally, phylogenetic analysis of several nuclear genes is having a major impact in the revision of the taxonomy of Cryptosporidium and Giardia. The main limitation of PCR is that it doesn't provide information on the viability and infectivity of the pathogen. To obtain additional information on these important aspects, indirect methods, such as inclusion/exclusion assays using vital dyes or the Reverse-Transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR), can be used. Since RT-PCR relies on the integrity of mRNA, which usually has very short half-life (seconds), its use is thought to provide a more closely correlated indication of viability status compared to DNA-based methods. RT-PCR assays usually target the heat shock protein (hsp) 70 gene. The rationale behind this choice is that hsps are known to be synthesized with a high level of efficiency in stressed organisms; therefore, when (oo)cysts are exposed to a thermal shock, the induction of heat shock response provides both a level of amplification to increase detection sensitivity and an index of viability. Moreover, with the recent introduction of real-time PCR, that allows the continuous monitoring of amplicon formation throughout the reaction, quantitative aspect of the infection could be studied with exquisite sensitivity. This will, for example, allow (1) to detec

Cacciò, S M

2004-06-01

252

Triosephosphate Isomerase Gene Characterization and Potential Zoonotic Transmission of Giardia duodenalis  

OpenAIRE

To address the source of infection in humans and public health importance of Giardia duodenalis parasites from animals, nucleotide sequences of the triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) gene were generated for 37 human isolates, 15 dog isolates, 8 muskrat isolates, 7 isolates each from cattle and beavers, and 1 isolate each from a rat and a rabbit. Distinct genotypes were found in humans, cattle, beavers, dogs, muskrats, and rats. TPI and small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene sequences of G. ...

Sulaiman, Irshad M.; Fayer, Ronald; Bern, Caryn; Gilman, Robert H.; Trout, James M.; Schantz, Peter M.; Das, Pradeep; Lal, Altaf A.; Xiao, Lihua

2003-01-01

253

The role of arginine and arginine-metabolizing enzymes during Giardia – host cell interactions in vitro  

OpenAIRE

Background: Arginine is a conditionally essential amino acid important in growing individuals and under nonhomeostatic conditions/disease. Many pathogens interfere with arginine-utilization in host cells, especially nitric oxide (NO) production, by changing the expression of host enzymes involved in arginine metabolism. Here we used human intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) and three different isolates of the protozoan parasite Giardia intestinalis to investigate the role of arginine and ...

Stadelmann, Britta; Hanevik, Kurt; Andersson, Mattias; Bruserud, Øystein; Sva?rd, Staffan G.

2013-01-01

254

Activities of several benzimidazoles and tubulin inhibitors against Giardia spp. in vitro.  

OpenAIRE

Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that albendazole is effective against Giardia spp. in vitro and in vivo, prompting an investigation of the effects of several related benzimidazoles (BZs) on the viability of this protozoan parasite. A range of BZs was tested, and their effects were compared with those of a number of microtubule inhibitors. The effects produced by the two types of drugs were markedly similar, namely, trophozoite detachment and distortion of morphology and general ...

Morgan, U. M.; Reynoldson, J. A.; Thompson, R. C.

1993-01-01

255

Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection in five farms in Holambra, São Paulo, Brazil Prevalência de enteroparasitoses em cinco fazendas de Holambra-SP, Brasil  

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Full Text Available A parasitological survey was carried out on 222 inhabitants of five farms in Holambra, located 30 km north of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, on October 1992. Approximately 70% of the inhabitants were found to be infected with at least one species of intestinal parasite. The positive rates of 6 helminths and 7 protozoan species detected are as follows: 5.4% Ascaris lumbricoides; 8.6% Trichuris trichiura; 19.8% Necator americanus; 10.4% Strongyloides stercoralis; 14% Enterobius vermicularis; 0.9% Hymenolepis nana; 3.2% Entamoeba histolytica; 2.7% E. hartmanni; 9.9% E. coli; 14.0% Endolimax nana; 2.3% Iodamoeba butschlii; 10.4% Giardia lamblia; 37.8% Blastocystis hominis. The positive rates of helminth infection were generaly higher in the younger-group under 16 years-old than those in the elder group aged 16 or more, whereas the infection rates of protozoan species were higher in the elder group. The infection rate of Strongyloides was found to be 10.4% by a newly developed sensitive method (an agarplate culture methods.Uma pesquisa coproparasitológica foi realizada em 222 habitantes de cinco fazendas de Holambra, localizada a 30 km ao norte de Campinas, SP, Brasil, em outubro de 1992. Aproximadamente 70% dos habitantes apresentaram pelo menos um tipo de parasitose intestinal. O índice de positividade das 6 espécies de helmintos e de 7 protozoários na população foi o seguinte: Ascaris lumbricoides (5,4%; Trichuris trichiura (8,6%; Necator americanus (19,8%; Strongyloides stercoralis (10,4%; Enterobius vermiculares (1,4%; Hymenolepis nana (0,9%; Entamoeba histolytica (3,2%; E. hartmanni (2,7%; E. coli (9,9%; Endolimax nana (14,0%; Iodamoeba butschlii (2,3%; Giardia lamblia (10,4%; Blastocystis hominis (37,4%. O índice de positividade para infecção por helmitos foi aparentemente maior na população mais jovem (menores de 16 anos do que no grupo de população com idades acima de 16 anos, ao contrário do índice de infecção pelos protozoários que foi mais elevado na população adulta. Utilizando um novo e sensível método através de cultura em ágar, encontrou-se um índice de infecção de 10.4% para Strongyloides sp.

Jun Kobayashi

1995-02-01

256

Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection in five farms in Holambra, São Paulo, Brazil / Prevalência de enteroparasitoses em cinco fazendas de Holambra-SP, Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Uma pesquisa coproparasitológica foi realizada em 222 habitantes de cinco fazendas de Holambra, localizada a 30 km ao norte de Campinas, SP, Brasil, em outubro de 1992. Aproximadamente 70% dos habitantes apresentaram pelo menos um tipo de parasitose intestinal. O índice de positividade das 6 espécie [...] s de helmintos e de 7 protozoários na população foi o seguinte: Ascaris lumbricoides (5,4%); Trichuris trichiura (8,6%); Necator americanus (19,8%); Strongyloides stercoralis (10,4%); Enterobius vermiculares (1,4%); Hymenolepis nana (0,9%); Entamoeba histolytica (3,2%); E. hartmanni (2,7%); E. coli (9,9%); Endolimax nana (14,0%); Iodamoeba butschlii (2,3%); Giardia lamblia (10,4%); Blastocystis hominis (37,4%). O índice de positividade para infecção por helmitos foi aparentemente maior na população mais jovem (menores de 16 anos) do que no grupo de população com idades acima de 16 anos, ao contrário do índice de infecção pelos protozoários que foi mais elevado na população adulta. Utilizando um novo e sensível método através de cultura em ágar, encontrou-se um índice de infecção de 10.4% para Strongyloides sp. Abstract in english A parasitological survey was carried out on 222 inhabitants of five farms in Holambra, located 30 km north of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, on October 1992. Approximately 70% of the inhabitants were found to be infected with at least one species of intestinal parasite. The positive rates of 6 helmint [...] hs and 7 protozoan species detected are as follows: 5.4% Ascaris lumbricoides; 8.6% Trichuris trichiura; 19.8% Necator americanus; 10.4% Strongyloides stercoralis; 14% Enterobius vermicularis; 0.9% Hymenolepis nana; 3.2% Entamoeba histolytica; 2.7% E. hartmanni; 9.9% E. coli; 14.0% Endolimax nana; 2.3% Iodamoeba butschlii; 10.4% Giardia lamblia; 37.8% Blastocystis hominis. The positive rates of helminth infection were generaly higher in the younger-group under 16 years-old than those in the elder group aged 16 or more, whereas the infection rates of protozoan species were higher in the elder group. The infection rate of Strongyloides was found to be 10.4% by a newly developed sensitive method (an agarplate culture methods).

Jun, Kobayashi; Hideo, Hasegawa; Archimedes A., Forli; Nancy F., Nishimura; Ademar, Yamanaka; Tetsu, Shimabukuro; Yoshiya, Sato.

1995-02-01

257

Molecular typing of Giardia duodenalis isolates from German travellers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardia duodenalis isolates from German travellers returning from tropical areas were characterised by PCR amplification and sequencing of fragments of the beta-giardin (bg), glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) and triose phosphate isomerase (tpi) genes. Assignment of isolates to specific G. duodenalis assemblages was found to differ according to the marker used. Indeed, at the bg locus, assemblages A and B were identified, with a higher prevalence of the former over the latter, whereas at the tpi and gdh loci, most samples were classified as assemblage B. In agreement with previous studies, sequence analysis showed that assemblage B isolates have a higher genetic polymorphism than assemblage A isolates, and novel variants were described. The degree of polymorphism was shown in a graphical representation of the polymorphic sites generating a novel sequence, the heterogeneous positions common to assemblages A and B (double peaks), that may represent mixed assemblage infection and the heterogeneous positions detected at random sites. Notably, assemblage D, which is considered to be adapted to dogs, was found at the gdh locus in two samples originating from southern Asia, as novel genotypes. By comparing the geographical origin of the infected cases and the number of German travellers visiting the areas considered, India and west Africa appeared to be the areas associated to the highest risk of acquiring Giardia infection. The analysis of the geographical distribution of the genotypes did not suggest any particular geographical clustering pattern, but it may be useful to evaluate these results with a higher number of isolates. Most of the samples typed at the three markers could not be assigned unequivocally to either assemblage A or B, and this was confirmed also by a real-time PCR assay, using a set of assemblage-specific primers. The results of this study reinforce the notion that genetic exchanges and allelic sequence heterogeneity represent major obstacles towards understanding the epidemiology of giardiasis and that exposure to Giardia parasites in endemic areas often results in mixed infections in returning travellers. PMID:23892479

Broglia, A; Weitzel, T; Harms, G; Cacció, S M; Nöckler, K

2013-10-01

258

Ocorrência de Giardia sp. e Cryptosporidium sp. em Leopardus weidii de vida livre Occurrence of Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. in Leopardus weidii of wild life  

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Full Text Available Leopardus weiidi (gato-maracajá é um mamífero neotropical de ampla distribuição no Brasil. No município de Cachoeira do Sul, RS, um exemplar foi capturado para tratamento, quando se coletou uma amostra de fezes, que foi analisada pelo método de centrífugo-flutuação com sulfato de zinco para pesquisa de parasitos. Foi observada elevada infecção por cistos de Giardia sp. e oocistos de Cryptosporidium sp.. Com base nos resultados, conclui-se que L. weeidi é hospedeiro desses protozoários.Leopardus weiidi (gato-maracajá is a neo-tropical mammal with has a wide distribution in Brazil. In the municipality of Cachoeira do Sul, RS, a fecal sample from a specimen captured for treatment was collected and analyzed by the centrifugal-flotation method with zinc sulfate for research of parasites. A large number of cysts of Giardia sp. and oocysts of Cryptosporidium sp. was observed. The results indicate that L. weeidi is a host of these protozoa.

Camila Belmonte Oliveira

2008-04-01

259

Freqüência de Giardia spp. por duas técnicas de diagnóstico em fezes de cães Frequency of Giardia spp. for two diagnosis methods in feces of dogs  

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Full Text Available One hundred fecal samples from male and female dogs of several ages and breeds were collected in kennels of Uberlândia in Minas Gerais, Brazil. These samples were analyzed to determine the frequency of Giardia spp. using two different diagnostic methods: zinc sulfate flotation technique and merthiolate-iodine-formaldehyde concentration (MIFC. The frequency of giardiasis was 41%. Dogs, which were less than 12 months of age, were the most parasitized (68.4%. No difference between male and female frequency of giardiasis (31.4% and 46.1%, respectively was observed. MIFC detected 38% of positive samples and zinc sulfate flotation technique 29%. Giardia spp. is present in dogs of Uberlândia's kennels in a high frequency.

M.J.S. Mundim

2003-12-01

260

Freqüência de Giardia spp. por duas técnicas de diagnóstico em fezes de cães / Frequency of Giardia spp. for two diagnosis methods in feces of dogs  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english One hundred fecal samples from male and female dogs of several ages and breeds were collected in kennels of Uberlândia in Minas Gerais, Brazil. These samples were analyzed to determine the frequency of Giardia spp. using two different diagnostic methods: zinc sulfate flotation technique and merthiol [...] ate-iodine-formaldehyde concentration (MIFC). The frequency of giardiasis was 41%. Dogs, which were less than 12 months of age, were the most parasitized (68.4%). No difference between male and female frequency of giardiasis (31.4% and 46.1%, respectively) was observed. MIFC detected 38% of positive samples and zinc sulfate flotation technique 29%. Giardia spp. is present in dogs of Uberlândia's kennels in a high frequency.

M.J.S., Mundim; S.Z., Souza; S.M., Hortêncio; M.C., Cury.

2003-12-01

261

GASTROINTESTINAL PARASITES IN AGOUTI (Dasyprocta leporine) PARASITAS GASTRINTESTINAIS DE CUTIAS (Dasyprocta leporina)  

OpenAIRE

The objective of this work is reporting the parasitism in agouti (Dasyprocta leporine) in Rio Grande do Sul, for that 24 samples of feces of animals originating from of a commercial creation were collected. The samples analyzed by the centrifugal-floating method presented different nematodes eggs and protozoaires of the genus Giardia and Eimeria. Keywords: Dasyprocta, parasitism, Giardia, Eimeria, helmints O objetivo deste trabalho é relatar o parasitismo em cutias (Dasyprocta leporina) no R...

Camila Belmonte Oliveira; Aleksandro Schafer da Silva; Marcos Kipper da Silva; Silvia Gonzalez Monteiro

2008-01-01

262

Giardia and Drinking Water from Private Wells  

Science.gov (United States)

... sewage systems that are not working properly, polluted storm water runoff, and agricultural runoff. Wells may be more ... a point-of-use filter. Not all home water filters remove Giardia . Filters that are designed to remove ...

263

Administration of kefir-fermented milk protects mice against Giardia intestinalis infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardiasis, caused by the protozoan Giardia intestinalis, is one of the most common intestinal diseases worldwide and constitutes an important problem for the public health systems of various countries. Kefir is a probiotic drink obtained by fermenting milk with 'kefir grains', which consist mainly of bacteria and yeasts that coexist in a complex symbiotic association. In this work, we studied the ability of kefir to protect mice from G. intestinalis infection, and characterized the host immune response to this probiotic in the context of the intestinal infection. Six- to 8-week-old C75BL/6 mice were separated into four groups: controls, kefir mice (receiving 1?:?100 dilution of kefir in drinking water for 14 days), Giardia mice (infected orally with 4×10(7) trophozoites of G. intestinalis at day 7) and Giardia-kefir mice (kefir-treated G. intestinalis-infected mice), and killed at 2 or 7 days post-infection. Kefir administration was able to significantly reduce the intensity of Giardia infection at 7 days post-infection. An increase in the percentage of CD4(+) T cells at 2 days post-infection was observed in the Peyer's patches (PP) of mice belonging to the Giardia group compared with the control and kefir groups, while the percentage of CD4(+) T cells in PP in the Giardia-kefir group was similar to that of controls. At 2 days post-infection, a reduction in the percentage of B220-positive major histocompatibility complex class II medium cells in PP was observed in infected mice compared with the other groups. At 7 days post-infection, Giardia-infected mice showed a reduction in RcFc?-positive cells compared with the control group, suggesting a downregulation of the inflammatory response. However, the percentages of RcFc?-positive cells did not differ from controls in the kefir and Giardia-kefir groups. An increase in IgA-positive cells was observed in the lamina propria of the kefir group compared with controls at 2 days post-infection. Interestingly, the diminished number of IgA-positive cells registered in the Giardia group at 7 days post-infection was restored by kefir feeding, although the increase in IgA-positive cells was no longer observed in the kefir group at that time. No significant differences in CXCL10 expression were registered between groups, in concordance with the absence of inflammation in small-intestinal tissue. Interestingly, a slight reduction in CCL20 expression was observed in the Giardia group, suggesting that G. intestinalis might downregulate its expression as a way of evading the inflammatory immune response. On the other hand, a trend towards an increase in TNF-? expression was observed in the kefir group, while the Giardia-kefir group showed a significant increase in TNF-? expression. Moreover, kefir-receiving mice (kefir and Giardia-kefir groups) showed an increase in the expression of IFN-?, the most relevant Th1 cytokine, at 2 days post-infection. Our results demonstrate that feeding mice with kefir reduces G. intestinalis infection and promotes the activation of different mechanisms of humoral and cellular immunity that are downregulated by parasitic infection, thus contributing to protection. PMID:24072759

Franco, Mariana Correa; Golowczyc, Marina A; De Antoni, Graciela L; Pérez, Pablo F; Humen, Martín; Serradell, María de los Angeles

2013-12-01

264

Parasitismo intestinal infantil: factores epidemiológicos en Orange Walk, Belice / Intestinal parasitism in children: epidemiological factors in Orange Walk, Belize  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El parasitismo intestinal (PI) continúa siendo un problema de salud en Centroamérica y el Caribe. Se realizó una investigación aplicada, epidemiológica, descriptiva, transversal, en el Distrito urbano de Orange Walk, (Belice), año 2009, con el objetivo de identificar los factores causales de riesgo [...] epidemiológico. El universo lo constituyeron los 566 niños de 0 - 4 años, la muestra fue 400 niños; mediante un muestreo no probabilístico intencional se realizó el examen directo de heces fecales, constituyéndose dos estratos muestrales. Fueron utilizados los métodos empíricos de investigación: cuestionario, guía de observación y teóricos; utilizando para el procesamiento de datos la estadística descriptiva, frecuencias absolutas, relativas, proporción, índice y riesgo relativo, comparación de dos y k- proporciones, prueba no paramétrica ji cuadrado. Resultaron más heces fecales positivas que negativas, no estuvo relacionado el sexo con aparición de parásitos, edad predominante de 3 - 4 años, índice de atenciones médicas de 41.34/100 habitantes, parásito más frecuente: Giardia lamblia. Las manifestaciones clínicas predominantes: dolor abdominal, diarrea y la pérdida de peso. Principales factores causales epidemiológicos: no hervir el agua, disposición inadecuada de residuales y juegos con tierra, hubo una recurrencia de 2 episodios/niño y un riesgo relativo de contraer PI de 1.3 veces, más elevado para niños en condiciones higiénicas desfavorables, población con una educación sanitaria no adecuada y baja escolaridad de padres. Se concluyó que el PI constituye un problema de salud. Abstract in english Intestinal parasitism (IP) is still a health problem in Central America and Caribbean Countries. An applied, epidemiological, descriptive, cross-sectional research was conducted at the urban district of «Orange Walk», Belize in 2009 with the purpose of identifying the causal factors of epidemiologic [...] al risk. The target group was comprised of 566 children (0-4 years old), the sample (400 children) was taken by means of intentional non-probabilistic sampling and a direct feces examination; representing two sampling strata. Empiric methods of investigation were used: questionnaires, observation guidebook and theoretical. To process the data, descriptive statistics, absolute and relative frequencies were used; ratios, rate with relative risk, comparison of two and k-proportions, plus non-parametric chi square test as well. More positive feces prevailed over negative ones, observing no relation to the sex and the onset of parasites, children of 3-4 years old prevailed. The rate of medical care was 41.34/100 inhabitants, Giardia lamblia was the most frequent parasite found. The clinical signs of: abdominal pain, diarrhea, weight loss. The main causal epidemiological factors were: no water boiling, inadequate sewage disposal and plays on the ground. Recurrence had 2 events per child and a relative risk of suffering from the infection of 1.3 times, greater for children living in unfavourable hygienic situation: inhabitants with poor sanitary education and parents with low-schooling level. Intestinal Parasitism constitutes a health problem.

Liset, Corrales Fuentes; Sandra, Hernández García; Miguel Angel, Rodríguez Arencibia; Aydely, Hernández Pérez.

2011-12-01

265

Parasitismo intestinal infantil: factores epidemiológicos en Orange Walk, Belice Intestinal parasitism in children: epidemiological factors in Orange Walk, Belize  

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Full Text Available El parasitismo intestinal (PI continúa siendo un problema de salud en Centroamérica y el Caribe. Se realizó una investigación aplicada, epidemiológica, descriptiva, transversal, en el Distrito urbano de Orange Walk, (Belice, año 2009, con el objetivo de identificar los factores causales de riesgo epidemiológico. El universo lo constituyeron los 566 niños de 0 - 4 años, la muestra fue 400 niños; mediante un muestreo no probabilístico intencional se realizó el examen directo de heces fecales, constituyéndose dos estratos muestrales. Fueron utilizados los métodos empíricos de investigación: cuestionario, guía de observación y teóricos; utilizando para el procesamiento de datos la estadística descriptiva, frecuencias absolutas, relativas, proporción, índice y riesgo relativo, comparación de dos y k- proporciones, prueba no paramétrica ji cuadrado. Resultaron más heces fecales positivas que negativas, no estuvo relacionado el sexo con aparición de parásitos, edad predominante de 3 - 4 años, índice de atenciones médicas de 41.34/100 habitantes, parásito más frecuente: Giardia lamblia. Las manifestaciones clínicas predominantes: dolor abdominal, diarrea y la pérdida de peso. Principales factores causales epidemiológicos: no hervir el agua, disposición inadecuada de residuales y juegos con tierra, hubo una recurrencia de 2 episodios/niño y un riesgo relativo de contraer PI de 1.3 veces, más elevado para niños en condiciones higiénicas desfavorables, población con una educación sanitaria no adecuada y baja escolaridad de padres. Se concluyó que el PI constituye un problema de salud.Intestinal parasitism (IP is still a health problem in Central America and Caribbean Countries. An applied, epidemiological, descriptive, cross-sectional research was conducted at the urban district of «Orange Walk», Belize in 2009 with the purpose of identifying the causal factors of epidemiological risk. The target group was comprised of 566 children (0-4 years old, the sample (400 children was taken by means of intentional non-probabilistic sampling and a direct feces examination; representing two sampling strata. Empiric methods of investigation were used: questionnaires, observation guidebook and theoretical. To process the data, descriptive statistics, absolute and relative frequencies were used; ratios, rate with relative risk, comparison of two and k-proportions, plus non-parametric chi square test as well. More positive feces prevailed over negative ones, observing no relation to the sex and the onset of parasites, children of 3-4 years old prevailed. The rate of medical care was 41.34/100 inhabitants, Giardia lamblia was the most frequent parasite found. The clinical signs of: abdominal pain, diarrhea, weight loss. The main causal epidemiological factors were: no water boiling, inadequate sewage disposal and plays on the ground. Recurrence had 2 events per child and a relative risk of suffering from the infection of 1.3 times, greater for children living in unfavourable hygienic situation: inhabitants with poor sanitary education and parents with low-schooling level. Intestinal Parasitism constitutes a health problem.

Liset Corrales Fuentes

2011-12-01

266

A longitudinal study on the occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in dogs during their first year of life  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The primary aim of this study was to obtain more knowledge about the occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in young dogs in Norway. The occurrence of these parasites was investigated in a longitudinal study by repeated faecal sampling of dogs between 1 and 12 months of age (litter samples and individual samples. The dogs were privately owned and from four large breeds. Individual faecal samples were collected from 290 dogs from 57 litters when the dogs were approximately 3, 4, 6, and 12 months old. In addition, pooled samples were collected from 43 of the litters, and from 42 of the mother bitches, when the puppies were approximately 1 and/or 2 months old. Methods The samples were purified by sucrose gradient flotation concentration and examined by immunofluorescent staining. Results 128 (44.1% of the young dogs had one or more Cryptosporidium positive samples, whilst 60 (20.7% dogs had one or more Giardia positive samples. The prevalence of the parasites varied with age. For Cryptosporidium, the individual prevalence was between 5.1% and 22.5%, with the highest level in dogs Giardia, the individual prevalence was between 6.0% and 11.4%, with the highest level in dogs > 6 months old, but the differences between age groups were not statistically significant. Significant differences in prevalences were found in relation to geographic location of the dogs. Both parasites occurred at low prevalences in Northern Norway. Conclusion Both Cryptosporidium and Giardia are common in Norwegian dogs, with Cryptosporidium more prevalent than Giardia. Prevalences of the parasites were found to be influenced by age, geographical location, and infection status before weaning.

Gjerde Bjørn K

2007-09-01

267

Epidemiology of food-borne trematodes and other parasite infections in a fishing community on the Nam Ngum reservoir, Lao PDR.  

Science.gov (United States)

Food-borne trematodes (FBT) are important causes of parasitic infections in many Asian countries. Parasitological surveys in Xai Udom, a small fishing community on the Nam Ngum reservoir, Lao People's Democratic Republic, revealed an overall parasitic infection rate in May 1999 of 68.8% (n = 173) and in December 1999 of 65.9% (n = 261). The liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini accounted for most of the infections (prevalences of 53.8% and 42.1%, during the first and second surveys, respectively). The prevalence and intensity showed increasing trends with age. Minute intestinal flukes were also present but with relatively low infection rates (3.8-10.9%). The second common group of parasites comprised soil-transmitted nematodes, Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis, with prevalences of 22.4 and 17.6%, 20.8 and 8.0%, 16.8 and 13.4%, and 4.0 and 15.3% (first and second surveys, respectively). Most people had no or only light infections, with a few people having heavy infections. Coexisting intestinal protozoa were Giardia lamblia (5.2 and 4.9%) and Entamoeba coli (6.9 and 6.5%). Concurrent tapeworm infections were Taenia (1.7 and 1.1%) and Hymenolepis nana (0.7 and 0.6%) (first and second surveys, respectively). Despite the availability of effective anthelmintic drugs, the results of our study reaf-firm that FBT are still a major health threat in this fishing area of Lao PDR, similar to a decade ago. PMID:17333758

Sithithaworn, Paiboon; Sukavat, Keturat; Vannachone, Bouakham; Sophonphong, Krissana; Ben-Embarek, Peter; Petney, Trevor; Andrews, Ross

2006-11-01

268

A new system for higher recovery rate of water borne Cryptosporidium and Giardia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The two most common water borne pathogenic protozoa, Cryptosporidium and Giardia, are a common cause of outbreaks of diarrhea. Detecting these parasites in water samples depends on effective parasite recovery from the water matrix. The recovery rates of the currently used filter methods are low and the procedures are expensive and time consuming. These facts have motivated us to develop a new robust system for higher recovery of protozoan cysts from any fluid matrix. The new system consists of a sample collection chamber in which the fluid passes through a specially coated metallic filter with a carefully chosen pore size. On the reverse side of the filter a transducer delivers ultrasound waves in order to release trapped cysts and particles from the filter and break up parasite clusters. Purified Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts were injected into the concentration unit and exposed to varying levels of ultrasonication. The concentrated parasite suspension was backwashed using air and the change in viability of the parasites was assessed by flowcytometry. Without sonication, the recovery rate of Cryptosporidium was around 2%. After short term sonication for 5, 10 or 20 seconds, the recovery rates were stable and ranging from 75-83%. While sonication is usually used for cell lyses, it can be tuned into a useful tool for enhanced separation of retinates of parasites using a specially constructed filter unit and a sonication protocol. The filtration chamber further facilitated the concentration of parasites by ensuring a backwash volume of less than 1ml. The collected parasites may be used for molecular typing and other diagnostic and research purposes. The presented design of the filter system can be used as a robust, cheap, and time effective method of isolating water borne parasites in the laboratory.

Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Gad, J.

2012-01-01

269

Prevalencia de parásitos intestinales en niños de la ciudad de Mendoza, Argentina / PREVALENCE OF INTESTINAL PARASITES IN CHILDREN LIVING IN MENDOZA CITY, ARGENTINA  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En el presente estudio epidemiológico descriptivo, se investigó la presencia de parásitos intestinales en 221 niños de una escuela de la ciudad de Mendoza, Argentina, residentes en zona urbana con agua potable y red sanitaria completa. La comunidad educativa fue motivada a participar mediante la rea [...] lización de talleres explicativos dirigidos a los docentes y padres en forma separada y en grupos no mayores a 30 personas, lográndose una participación de 89,5% del cuerpo docente y 70,0% de los padres. Las muestras de materia fecal se colectaron durante siete días en solución de acetato sódico - ácido acético - formalina (S AF) y el mucus anal, mediante la prueba Graham modificado en igual período de tiempo. Las heces fueron procesadas por el método de Telemann modificado y se realizaron coloraciones de Kinyoun para la investigación de coccidios intestinales. Para el prueba de Graham modificado, las gasas se colocaron en 30 mi. de solución formolada al 5%. Los resultados mostraron una prevalencia global de parásitos intestinales del 80,5%, con valores que oscilaron entre el 88% (grupo etario de 5 a 10 años) y el 63,8% (grupo etario de 11 a 14 años). No se encontraron diferencias significativas en la distribución por sexo. El 37,6% de los positivos presentó una especie única, mientras que en el resto se hallaron asociaciones parasitarias de hasta 4 géneros diferentes. Se identificaron: Blastocystis hominis, Giardia lamblia, Endolimax nana, Entamoeba coli, Dientamoeba fragilis, Chilomastix mesnilii, Enterobius vermicularis e Hymenolepis nana, siendo detectada esta última a partir de los 6 años Abstract in english This descriptive epidemiological research studies the prevalence of intestinal parasites in 221 children attending school in Mendoza, Argentina, and living in an urban area with potable water and complete sanitary system. Samples of faeces were collected and kept in a sodium acetate-acetic acid-form [...] alin (SAF) solution during 7 days and anal mucus was collected by means of the modified Graham test during the same period of time. Samples were processed by means of the modified Telemann method and Kinyoun staining. Gauzes were put in 30 ml of 5%-formol solution. Results reveal an 80.5% prevalence of intestinal parasites, with values varying between 88% (age group from 5 to 10) and 63.8% (age group from 11 to 14). No significant differences were observed in the distribution by sex. A 37.6% of the positive group showed a unique species whereas the rest of the studied population showed parasite associations of up to 4 different genera. Blastocystis hominis, Giardia lamblia, Endolimax nana, Entamoeba coli, Dientamoeba fragilis, Chilomastix mesnilii, Enterobius vermicularis and Hymenolepis nana were identified, the latter being detected as from the age of 6 years. The study reveals a high prevalence of intestinal parasites in 1-to 14-year-old children. Although both appropriate potable water and sewer system are available, we conclude that the high prevalence of intestinal parasites is due to inappropriate hygienic habits of the population and that education for the prevention of health is therefore as important as appropriate sanitary conditions

MARIA C, SALOMON; ROSA L, TONELLI; CARLOS G, BORREMANS; DANIEL, BERTELLO; LAURA I, DE JONG; CLAUDIO A, JOFRÉ; VERÓNICA, ENRIQUEZ; LILIANA C, CARRIZO; SIXTO RAÚL, COSTAMAGNA.

2007-06-01

270

Prevalencia de parásitos intestinales en niños de la ciudad de Mendoza, Argentina PREVALENCE OF INTESTINAL PARASITES IN CHILDREN LIVING IN MENDOZA CITY, ARGENTINA  

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Full Text Available En el presente estudio epidemiológico descriptivo, se investigó la presencia de parásitos intestinales en 221 niños de una escuela de la ciudad de Mendoza, Argentina, residentes en zona urbana con agua potable y red sanitaria completa. La comunidad educativa fue motivada a participar mediante la realización de talleres explicativos dirigidos a los docentes y padres en forma separada y en grupos no mayores a 30 personas, lográndose una participación de 89,5% del cuerpo docente y 70,0% de los padres. Las muestras de materia fecal se colectaron durante siete días en solución de acetato sódico - ácido acético - formalina (S AF y el mucus anal, mediante la prueba Graham modificado en igual período de tiempo. Las heces fueron procesadas por el método de Telemann modificado y se realizaron coloraciones de Kinyoun para la investigación de coccidios intestinales. Para el prueba de Graham modificado, las gasas se colocaron en 30 mi. de solución formolada al 5%. Los resultados mostraron una prevalencia global de parásitos intestinales del 80,5%, con valores que oscilaron entre el 88% (grupo etario de 5 a 10 años y el 63,8% (grupo etario de 11 a 14 años. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en la distribución por sexo. El 37,6% de los positivos presentó una especie única, mientras que en el resto se hallaron asociaciones parasitarias de hasta 4 géneros diferentes. Se identificaron: Blastocystis hominis, Giardia lamblia, Endolimax nana, Entamoeba coli, Dientamoeba fragilis, Chilomastix mesnilii, Enterobius vermicularis e Hymenolepis nana, siendo detectada esta última a partir de los 6 añosThis descriptive epidemiological research studies the prevalence of intestinal parasites in 221 children attending school in Mendoza, Argentina, and living in an urban area with potable water and complete sanitary system. Samples of faeces were collected and kept in a sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin (SAF solution during 7 days and anal mucus was collected by means of the modified Graham test during the same period of time. Samples were processed by means of the modified Telemann method and Kinyoun staining. Gauzes were put in 30 ml of 5%-formol solution. Results reveal an 80.5% prevalence of intestinal parasites, with values varying between 88% (age group from 5 to 10 and 63.8% (age group from 11 to 14. No significant differences were observed in the distribution by sex. A 37.6% of the positive group showed a unique species whereas the rest of the studied population showed parasite associations of up to 4 different genera. Blastocystis hominis, Giardia lamblia, Endolimax nana, Entamoeba coli, Dientamoeba fragilis, Chilomastix mesnilii, Enterobius vermicularis and Hymenolepis nana were identified, the latter being detected as from the age of 6 years. The study reveals a high prevalence of intestinal parasites in 1-to 14-year-old children. Although both appropriate potable water and sewer system are available, we conclude that the high prevalence of intestinal parasites is due to inappropriate hygienic habits of the population and that education for the prevention of health is therefore as important as appropriate sanitary conditions

MARIA C SALOMON

2007-06-01

271

Parasitological and serological studies on Amoebiasis and other intestinal parasitic infections in Recife and its suburban area, northeast Brazil Estudos sorológicos e parasitologies na Amebíase e em outras infecções parasitárias intestinais em Recife e áreas circunvizinhas, nordeste do Brasil  

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Full Text Available Parasitological examinations were carried out during April to August, 1987, with 187 out-patients of the IMIP hospital, located in the center of Recife City, and 464 inhabitants of several villages around Cabo City, 50 Km southeast of Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. Approximately 71% of the IMIP patients and 92% of the Cabo inhabitants were infected with at least one species of intestinal parasite. There was minimum difference in the prevalence rate of Trichuris trichiura between two areas, whereas the prevalence rates of Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworms, Strongyloides stercoralis, Schistosoma mansoni and Entamoeba histolytica were higher in the inhabitants of the Cabo City area. Only Giardia lamblia was more prevalent in the out-patients of IMIP hospital. Test tube cultivation revealed that the prevalence rate of Necator americanus in both areas was much higher than that of Ancylostoma duodenale , and also that the prevalence rate of S. stercoralis of the IMIP patients and Cabo inhabitants were 4.5% and 9.6%, respectively. Six hundred and fifteen sera were serologically examined for amoebiasis by the gel diffusion precipitation test (GDP and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA using the antigen prepared from axenically cultured trophozoite of E. histolytica (strain HM-ITMSS. No positive reaction was observed in all of the sera as examined by GDP, while 32 out of 615 sera were positive on ELISA.Exames parasitológies foram realizados em 187 pacientes do Hospital do IMIP e 464 habitantes de vários vilarejos no município do Cabo, 50 Km à sudeste de Recife, durante os meses de abril a agosto. Aproximadamente 71% dos pacientes examinados do IMIP e 92% dos examinados do Cabo apresentavam-se infectados com, no mínimo, uma espécie de parasita intestinal. Houve uma diferença mínima na taxa de prevalência de Trichuris trichiura entre as duas áreas, entretanto a prevalência de Ascaris lumbricoides, família Ancylostomidae, Strongyloides stercoralis, Schistosoma mansoni e Entamoeba histolytica foi maior entre os habitantes do Cabo. Somente a Giardia lamblia apresentou uma taxa de prevalência maior nos pacientes do IMIP. O cultivo em tubo de ensaio revelou que a prevalência do Necator americanus em relação a do Ancylostoma duodenale era muito maior em ambas as áreas e que a do S. stercoralis entre os pacientes do IMIP e dos habitantes do Cabo era, respectivamente, 4.5% e 9.6%. A amebíase foi verificada através de exames sorológicos, imunodifusão em gel (GDP e enzima imunoensaio (ELISA, usando como antígeno extrato bruto preparado a partir dos trofozoitos de E. histolytica (cepa HM-1: IMSS, realizados em 615 soros, onde nenhuma reação positiva aparente foi observada através da imunodifusão, contudo foram observados resultados positivos em 32 dos 615 casos através da enzima imunoensaio.

Mitsu Okazaki

1988-08-01

272

Effects of Ultrasound on the Survival and Characteristics of Cryptosporidium Oocysts and Giardia Cysts  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background: Sonication of fluids has been widely used for cell lyses and decontamination of water and food due to its three major physical and chemical effects: cavitation, implosion of water bubbles with subsequent increase in substrate temperature and liberation of free radicals such as O-. Additionally ultrasound has been used for cleaning filters used for water sampling and purification. Other studies have shown that backwash sampling of filtrates, and thereby collection of microorganisms, can be facilitated by sonication. Methods: We studied the effects of ultrasound with different sonication power and time durations on two of the most common waterborne protozoa Cryptosporidium and Giardia, and examined its effects on parasite characteristics and survival rate using immunofluorescence dyes; DAPI (4’,6-diamidino-2-phenylindol) staining/PI (propidium iodide), and analyzed by flow cytometry. Results: The results showed that exposure of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts to ultrasound could reduce their survival rate even if the exposure time was limited to a few seconds. When sonication time was extended, changes in parasite characteristics became clearly visible. Several other factors determine the effects of ultrasound on the parasite, including the sonication power of ultrasound as well as substrate temperature. Conclusions: Ultrasound is harmful for waterborne protozoa even when momentarily applied. However, a mode of operation may exist in which ultrasound can be used for collection of parasites for further study. The specific operational conditions may be tailored to control survival rates and collection efficiency.

Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Gad, J.

2011-01-01

273

Efficacy of drugs against Giardia muris in mice Mus musculus naturally infected/ Eficácia de drogas contra Giardia muris em camundongos Mus musculus naturalmente infectados  

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Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of metronidazole, fenbendazole and secnidazole against Giardia muris in mice naturally infected. Forty mice of the species Mus musculus were divided in four groups of ten each, being group A non treated, the control group and groups B, C and D treated with 4mg/ml of metronidazole, fenbendazole and secnidazole, respectively. Two feces collection, on day 0 and on day 10 after treatment, were done in order to evaluate the efficacy of the drugs. Samples were analyzed by the centrifugal-flotation method with zinc sulfate. Efficacy of 97,05% for metronidazole, 98,30% for fenbendazole and 100% for secnidazole were observed in the study. According to the results it was concluded that the tested drugs were effective for the treatment of mice parasitized by Giardia muris.Este estudo visou avaliar a eficácia do metronidazol, fenbendazole e secnidazol contra Giardia muris em camundongos naturalmente infectados. Foram utilizados 40 camundongos da espécie Mus musculus divididos em quatro grupos de 10 animais cada, sendo grupo A, grupo controle, não tratados, e grupos B, C e D tratados com 4mg/ml de metronidazol, fenbendazole e secnidazol, respectivamente. Para avaliar a eficácia dos medicamentos foram realizadas duas coletas de fezes uma no dia zero e outra 10 dias após tratamento. As amostras foram processadas e analisadas a partir do método de centrífugo-flutuação com sulfato de zinco. No estudo observou-se eficácia de 97,05% para metronidazol, 98,30% para fenbendazole e 100% para secnidazol no tratamento de giardiase murina. Com base nos resultados concluí-se que as drogas testadas apresentaram eficácia no tratamento de camundongos parasitados por Giardia muris.

Silvia Gonzalez Monteiro

2008-08-01

274

Foodborne and waterborne parasites.  

Science.gov (United States)

More than 72 species of protozoan and helminth parasites can reach humans by food and water, and most of these infections are zoonoses. Some parasites show a cosmopolitan distribution, others a more restricted distribution due to their complex life cycles, which need the presence of one or more intermediate hosts. Of this large number of pathogens, only Toxoplasma gondii can be transmitted to humans by two different ways, i.e., by cysts present in infected meat and by oocysts contaminating food and water. Eleven helminthic species (Taenia saginata, Taenia solium, Taenia asiatica, Trichinella spiralis, Tr. nativa, Tr. britovi, Tr. pseudospiralis, Tr. murrelli, Tr nelsoni, Tr. papuae and Tr. zimbabwensis) can grow in meat of different animal species and can be transmitted to humans by the consumption of raw meat or meat products. Twenty trematode species, four cestode species and seven nematode species can infect humans through the consumption of raw sea- and/or fresh-water food (fishes, molluscs, frogs, tadpoles, camarons, crayfishes). Six species of Cryptosporidium, Isospora belli, Cyclospora cayetanensis, Giardia duodenalis and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar can contaminate food and water. Among the helminths, seven trematode species, seven cestode species and five species of nematodes can reach humans by contaminated food and water. Diagnostic and detection methods that can be carried out routinely on food and water samples are available only for few parasites (Cryptosporidium sp., Giardia sp., Anisakidae, Trichinella sp., Taenia sp.), i.e., for parasites which represent a risk to human populations living in industrialised countries. The majority of food and waterborne infections of parasitic origin are related to poverty, low sanitation, and old food habits. PMID:15058817

Pozio, Edoardo

2003-01-01

275

Giardia spp en caninos y niños de comunidades campesinas de tres distritos de Puno, Perú / Giardia spp in dogs and children in rural communities of three districts of Puno, Peru  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo del estudio fue determinar la prevalencia de Giardia spp en caninos y niños de comunidades campesinas de tres distritos de Puno, Perú. Se recolectaron 130 muestras fecales, tanto de niños como de canes aparentemente sanos, de ambos sexos y de diferentes edades. Se utilizaron las técnicas [...] de Sedimentación Espontánea y de Sheather para el diagnóstico de Giardia. Se consideró una muestra como positiva si se halló al menos un resultado positivo en una de las dos técnicas. Se halló una prevalencia global de 14.6 ± 6.1 y 28.5 ± 7.8% en caninos y niños, respectivamente. El sexo, edad y distrito de procedencia de los canes y niños no mostraron asociación estadística con la presencia del parásito. Los resultados positivos de Giardia spp hallados en canes y niños sugerirían un posible riesgo zoonótico. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Giardia spp in dogs and children in three rural communities in Puno, Peru. Fecal samples were collected (n = 130) from both children and apparently healthy dogs of both sexes and different ages. The Sheather and spontaneous sedimentation techn [...] ique were used for the diagnosis of Giardia. A sample was considered positive if at least one positive result in any of the two techniques was found. The overall prevalence was 14.6 ± 6.1 and 28.5 ± 7.8% in dogs and children respectively. Sex, age, and location in both children and dogs were not statistically associated with the presence of the parasite. The results of prevalence of Giardia in dogs and children suggest a possible zoonotic risk.

Olguita, Pablo J; Amanda, Chávez V; Francisco, Suárez A; Rosa, Pinedo V; Néstor, Falcón P.

2012-12-01

276

Occurrence of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in activated sludge samples in Campinas, SP, Brazil Ocorrência de cistos de Giardia e oocistos de Cryptosporidium em amostras de lodo ativado em Campinas, SP, Brasil  

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Giardia and Cryptosporidium have caused several outbreaks of gastroenteritis in humans associated with drinking water. Contaminated sewage effluents are recognized as a potential source of waterborne protozoa. Due to the lack of studies about the occurrence of these parasites in sewage samples in Brazil, we compared the efficiency of two procedures for concentrating cysts and oocysts in activated sludge samples of one sewage treatment plant. For this, the samples were submitted to i) concentr...

Luciana Urbano Santos; Taís Rondello Bonatti; Romeu Cantusio Neto; Regina Maura Bueno Franco

2004-01-01

277

The identification of a new Giardia duodenalis assemblage in marine vertebrates and a preliminary analysis of G. duodenalis population biology in marine systems?  

OpenAIRE

Giardia duodenalis is an intestinal parasite of many vertebrates. The presence of G. duodenalis in the marine environment due to anthropogenic and wildlife activity is well documented, including the contributions from untreated sewage and storm water, agricultural run-off, and droppings from terrestrial animals. Recently, studies have detected this protistan parasite in the feces of marine vertebrates such as whales, dolphins, seals and shore birds. To explore the population biology of G. duo...

Lasek-nesselquist, Erica; Welch, David Mark; Sogin, Mitchell L.

2010-01-01

278

Comparison of the performance of two spontaneous sedimentation techniques for the diagnosis of human intestinal parasites in the absence of a gold standard.  

Science.gov (United States)

Performance evaluation of diagnostic tests is critical in the search for accurate diagnoses. A gold standard test is usually absent in parasitology, thus rendering satisfactory assessment of diagnostic accuracy difficult. Moreover, reliability (assessed by the study of repeatability) is a rarely studied characteristic of diagnostic tests. This study compared and evaluated the performance (repeatability, concordance and accuracy) of the spontaneous sedimentation technique (SST) and the Paratest for the diagnosis of Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica complex, Blastocystis spp., Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, Trichuris trichiura and Calodium hepaticum. Fecal samples of 143 individuals were separated into three replicates for each test. Concordance and homogeneity of the results between replicates of each test and between tests were evaluated. Proportions of positives, sensitivity and specificity were estimated using a Bayesian Latent Class Model. High repeatability of both tests was found for the detection of intestinal parasites, except for Blastocystis spp. and hookworm. Concordance between tests was generally high (concordance correlation coefficient, 0.72-0.88), except for Blastocystis spp., hookworm and T. trichiura. The Paratest detected more cases of Blastocystis spp. and fewer of hookworm than the SST. The tests were quite discordant in the detection of T. trichiura. A low sensitivity (39.4-49.2% for SST, 35.8-53.8% for Paratest) and a high specificity (93.2-97.2%) were found for both tests. The Paratest presented a slightly higher sensitivity for the diagnosis of Blastocystis spp. (53.8%), and SST did so for hookworm (49.2%). This is the first study on repeatability and accuracy (using a Bayesian approach) of two spontaneous sedimentation techniques. These results suggest underdiagnosis of little dense parasitic forms due to technical limitations in both tests. We conclude that the combined study of repeatability, concordance and accuracy is a key strategy for better evaluation of the performance of tests and is also useful for the identification of technical limitations. PMID:24321383

Gonçalves, Alessandra Queiroga; Abellana, Rosa; Pereira-da-Silva, Hélio Doyle; Santos, Ivanildes; Serra, Paula Taquita; Julião, Genimar Rebouças; Orlandi, Patricia Puccinelli; Ascaso, Carlos

2014-03-01

279

Giardia cysts in wastewater treatment plants in Italy.  

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Reductions in annual rainfall in some regions and increased human consumption have caused a shortage of water resources at the global level. The recycling of treated wastewaters has been suggested for certain domestic, industrial, and agricultural activities. The importance of microbiological and parasitological criteria for recycled water has been repeatedly emphasized. Among water-borne pathogens, protozoa of the genera Giardia and Cryptosporidium are known to be highly resistant to water treatment procedures and to cause outbreaks through contaminated raw or treated water. We conducted an investigation in four wastewater treatment plants in Italy by sampling wastewater at each stage of the treatment process over the course of 1 year. The presence of the parasites was assessed by immunofluorescence with monoclonal antibodies. While Cryptosporidium oocysts were rarely observed, Giardia cysts were detected in all samples throughout the year, with peaks observed in autumn and winter. The overall removal efficiency of cysts in the treatment plants ranged from 87.0 to 98.4%. The removal efficiency in the number of cysts was significantly higher when the secondary treatment consisted of active oxidation with O(2) and sedimentation instead of activated sludge and sedimentation (94.5% versus 72.1 to 88.0%; P = 0.05, analysis of variance). To characterize the cysts at the molecular level, the beta-giardin gene was PCR amplified, and the products were sequenced or analyzed by restriction. Cysts were typed as assemblage A or B, both of which are human pathogens, stressing the potential risk associated with the reuse of wastewater. PMID:12788741

Cacciò, Simone M; De Giacomo, Marzia; Aulicino, Francesca A; Pozio, Edoardo

2003-06-01

280

Epidemiology and Clinical Manifestations of Giardiasis in Patients Referred to Parasitology Laboratory of Hamadan, 2004-2005  

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Background & Objectives: Giardia lamblia is one of the most common protozoa in human being throughout the world. The different isolates of this parasite have various potential pathogenicity. Clinical demonstrations of Giardiasis are acute diarrhea, chronic diarrhea syndrome and malabsorbtion.The aim of this study has been the observation of the different kinds of clinical features in patients with Giardia lamblia referred to the Hamadan faculty of medicine, 2004- 2005 Materials & Methods: The...

Taherkhani, H.; Kh. Sardarian

2007-01-01

281

Study of Parasitic and Bacterial Infections in the Food-Handling Personnel, Ramadan, Iran  

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Full Text Available

Background: Food-handling personnel play an important role in ensuring food safety throughout the chain of production, processing, storage and preparation. Mishandling and disregard of hygienic measures on their part may enable pathogens to come into contact with food and to cause illness in the consumers. Occasionally, food-handling personnel may transfer to food pathogens that they are carrying in or on their bodies.

Methods: In order to evaluate the role of persons who was working in food handling and processing centers, the study carried out in above-mentioned centers in Ramadan the west of Iran. A total of 938 stool samples collected of persons who were working in the restaurants, confectionaries, milk products stores, Chelo-Kabab houses, sandwich shops etc. All samples examined by culture for entero-pathogens bacteria and by formalin-ether concentration technique for ova and parasites.

Results: A total of 21 samples were suspected to bacteria that, finally 7 samples confirmed by sere-typing identified. These were Shigella boydii (5 samples and Shigella flexeneri (2 samples. Over 74% of stool samples contained one species parasite. Entamoeba coli (45% was the most common parasite followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (39%, E.histolytica (14.5%, and Giardia lamblia (9%. Prevalence rate for helminthes, pathogenic and non-pathogenic protozoa were 43%, 26%, and 52.7% respectively. The prevalence of intestinal parasites, as well as intestinal helminthes in persons who had three-monthly check-up and health care were significantly less than others (p < 0.02 .

Conclusion: This study showed food handling personnel are an important source of E. histolytica, G. lamblia pinworm and Shigella distribution in this city.

Zahra Heidar Barghi

2011-09-01

282

Genetic characterization of Giardia duodenalis by sequence analysis in humans and animals in Pemba Island, Tanzania.  

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Giardia duodenalis represents one of the most widespread human enteric parasites: about 200million people in Asia, Africa and Latin America are infected. Giardia exerts a deep impact on public health because of high prevalence and possible effects on growth and cognitive functions in infected children. The major aim of this study was to detect and genetically characterize G. duodenalis in both human and animal fecal samples collected in Pemba Island, in the archipelago of Zanzibar (Tanzania), in order to deepen the knowledge of genotypes of Giardia in this area. Between October 2009 and October 2010, we collected 45 human fecal samples from children from 2 primary schools and 60 animal fecal samples: 19 from zebus (Bos primigenius indicus) and 41 from goats (Capra hircus). Detection and genetic identification were performed by multilocus analysis of ssu-rDNA and gdh genes. In humans we found a higher prevalence of assemblage B (sub-assemblage BIV), in goats of assemblage E and in zebus of assemblage A. Our study represents an important contribution to the epidemiological knowledge of G. duodenalis in this area of Tanzania. PMID:24269210

Di Cristanziano, V; Santoro, M; Parisi, F; Albonico, M; Shaali, M A; Di Cave, D; Berrilli, F

2014-04-01

283

GASTROINTESTINAL PARASITES IN AGOUTI (Dasyprocta leporine PARASITAS GASTRINTESTINAIS DE CUTIAS (Dasyprocta leporina  

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Full Text Available The objective of this work is reporting the parasitism in agouti (Dasyprocta leporine in Rio Grande do Sul, for that 24 samples of feces of animals originating from of a commercial creation were collected. The samples analyzed by the centrifugal-floating method presented different nematodes eggs and protozoaires of the genus Giardia and Eimeria. Keywords: Dasyprocta, parasitism, Giardia, Eimeria, helmints O objetivo deste trabalho é relatar o parasitismo em cutias (Dasyprocta leporina no Rio Grande do Sul, para isso foram coletadas 24 amostras de fezes de animais oriundos de uma criação comercial. As amostras analisadas pelo método de centrífugo-flutuação apresentaram diferentes ovos de nematóides e protozoários do gênero Giardia e Eimeria. Palavras - chave: Dasyprocta, parasitismo, Giardia, Eimeria, helmintos.

Camila Belmonte Oliveira

2008-04-01

284

Investigación de parásitos intestinales en una comunidad aborigen de la provincia de Salta / Survey of intestinal parasites among an aboriginal community in Salta  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se investigó la presencia de protozoarios y helmintos intestinales en una comunidad aborigen ubicada a 6 km de Tartagal, provincia de Salta, Argentina. La edad de los individuos estudiados estaba comprendida entre 1 y 49 años. Ciento doce muestras de materia fecal se recogieron en solución acética f [...] ormolada (SAF). Cada muestra se recolectó en tres días, en forma alternada. Todas las muestras se procesaron por el método de concentración bifásico de Ritchie y la técnica de flotación de Faust. Para la investigación de Enterobius vermicularis, se recolectaron 68 muestras seriadas de 6 días en formol al 5% por escobillado anal. Para la búsqueda de Dientamoeba fragilis se utilizó la coloración tricrómica modificada de Gomori-Wheatley. Ciento seis individuos (94.6%) fueron positivos para parásitos entéricos. Cuarenta y cuatro sujetos (41.5%) estaban poliparasitados, con más de cuatro especies. Los parásitos más frecuentes entre los protozoarios fueron Blastocystis hominis (58.9%), Entamoeba coli (51.8%), Giardia lamblia (27.7%) y Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar (24.1%). Entre los helmintos, los hallados con mayor frecuencia fueron uncinarias (58.0%), Hymenolepis nana (31.2%) y Strongyloides stercoralis (24.1%). Por primera vez se informa Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar (24.1%) y Dientamoeba fragilis (2.7%) en una comunidad aborigen de los alrededores de Tartagal. Este estudio revela el problema de salud pública que constituyen las parasitosis intestinales en la comunidad indígena estudiada, en la que coexisten la falta de saneamiento y de abastecimiento de agua potable. Abstract in english The prevalence of intestinal parasitoses by protozoans and helminths was determined in an aboriginal community located 6 km from Tartagal, province of Salta, Argentina. The age of the inhabitants studied ranged from 1 to 49 years old. A total of 112 stool samples were collected in sodium acetate-ace [...] tic acid- formalin solution (SAF). Each sample was obtained in three different days, alternatively. Ritchie biphasic concentration method and Faust flotation technique were applied. For survey of Enterobius vermicularis, 68 samples were collected during six consecutive days using anal swabs. For the diagnosis of Dientamoeba fragilis, the modified trichrome Gomori-Wheatley staining technique was used. One hundred and six (94.6%) subjects resulted positive for enteric parasites. Forty-four (41.5%) individuals were positive for four or more parasites. The parasites more frequently found were, among the protozoans Blastocystis hominis (58.9%), Entamoeba coli (51.8%), Giardia lamblia (27.7%) and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar (24.1%). Among the helminths, the most frequent were hookworms (58.0%), Hymenolepis nana (31.2%) and Strongyloides stercoralis (24.1%). This is the first time that Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar (24.1%) and Dientamoeba fragilis (2.7%) have been registered in the suburbs of Tartagal. This study reveals how intestinal parasitoses constitute a critical problem of public health in aboriginal communities like the one examined, where the lack of adequate sanitation conditions and unsuitable supply of water coexist.

Claudia I, Menghi; Franco R, Iuvaro; María A, Dellacasa; Claudia L, Gatta.

2007-12-01

285

Biological and Genetic Characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis Isolates from Five Hydrographical Basins in Northern Portugal  

Science.gov (United States)

To understand the situation of water contamination with Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in the northern region of Portugal, we have established a long-term program aimed at pinpointing the sources of surface water and environmental contamination, working with the water-supply industry. Here, we describe the results obtained with raw water samples collected in rivers of the 5 hydrographical basins. A total of 283 samples were analyzed using the Method 1623 EPA, USA. Genetic characterization was performed by PCR and sequencing of genes 18S rRNA of Cryptosporidium spp. and ?-giardin of Giardia spp. Infectious stages of the protozoa were detected in 72.8% (206 of 283) of the water samples, with 15.2% (43 of 283) positive for Giardia duodenalis cysts, 9.5% (27 of 283) positive for Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts, and 48.1% (136 of 283) samples positive for both parasites. The most common zoonotic species found were G. duodenalis assemblages A-I, A-II, B, and E genotypes, and Cryptosporidium parvum, Cryptosporidium andersoni, Cryptosporidium hominis, and Cryptosporidium muris. These results suggest that cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis are important public health issues in northern Portugal. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report evaluating the concentration of environmental stages of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in raw water samples in the northern region of Portugal. PMID:20585525

Moreira, Maria João; Soares, Sónia; de Lurdes Delgado, Maria; Figueiredo, João; Magalhães, Elisabete Silva; Castro, António; Viana Da Costa, Alexandra; Correia da Costa, José Manuel

2010-01-01

286

Parasitic contamination in wastewater and sludge samples in Tunisia using three different detection techniques.  

Science.gov (United States)

The limited availability of water results in the reuse of wastewater or sludge. The Tunisian wastewater regulatory guidelines have specific limits for ova of helminths (treatment plants. Samples were tested by microscopy using the modified Bailenger method (MBM), immunomagnetic separation (IMS) followed by immunofluorescent assay microscopy, and PCR and sequence analysis for the protozoa Cryptosporidium and Giardia. The seven samples of raw wastewater had a high diversity of helminth and protozoa contamination. Giardia spp., Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Entamoeba coli, Ascaris spp., Enterobius vermicularis, and Taenia saginata were detected by MBM, and protozoan loads were greater than helminth loads. Cryptosporidium and Giardia were also detected by IMS microscopy and PCR. Six of the eight samples of treated wastewater had parasites: helminths (n = 1), Cryptosporidium (n = 1), Giardia (n = 4), and Entamoeba (n = 4). Four of five samples of sludge had microscopically detectable parasites, and all had both Cryptosporidium and Giardia. The genotypes and subtypes of Cryptosporidium and Giardia were of both human and animal origin. These findings suggest that it may be important to monitor the presence of protozoan parasites in treated wastewater and sludge in Tunisia. PMID:20352447

Khouja, Layla Ben Ayed; Cama, Vitaliano; Xiao, Lihua

2010-06-01

287

A Preliminary Assessment of the Occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in the School Swimming Pool Water in Dubai, United Arab Emirates  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the presence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in the water of school swimming pools located in Dubai, UAE. The swimming pool water samples from five schools were tested for Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts using direct immunofluorescence assay. Samples were also examined for the total coliform, fecal coliform and heterotrophic bacteria using the membrane filtration technique. The majority of the tested swimming pool water samples were found contaminated with either Cryptosporidium oocysts or Giardia cysts or both. Cryptosporidium oocysts were found to be in the higher range (1-15 oocysts per liter than that of Giardia cysts (1-4 cysts per liter. All of the swimming pool water samples were found negative for the presence of traditional bacterial indicators. However, direct DAPI staining detected several types of viable but nonculturable (VBNC bacteria on the membrane filter. In conclusion, based on the preliminary data obtained, Cryptosporidium and Giardia were found to be present in the tested schools’ swimming pool water. Future work on a long term monitoring of both parasites is highly recommended to enhance the swimming pool water quality and ensure the public health safety which will help in maintaining a hygienic and healthy recreational water environment.

Alia Ali Ahmad Aljanahi

2014-06-01

288

Occurrence and diversity of Giardia duodenalis assemblages in livestock in the UK.  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardia duodenalis is a common intestinal parasite in humans and a wide range of livestock species. It is a genetically heterogeneous parasite that has been characterized in seven distinct genetic assemblages or cryptic species, and molecular markers can be used to differentiate both animal-specific and potentially zoonotic genotypes. Little is known about G. duodenalis and the range of assemblages occurring in domestic livestock species in the UK. Here, we present data on the occurrence and molecular diversity of G. duodenalis detected in the faeces or large intestinal contents of cattle, sheep, pigs, goats and camelids from farms in the north-west of England. Both healthy and clinically diseased animals were included in the survey. The presence of Giardia spp. and assemblages was determined by sequencing of the small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene. The potential association of infection with various clinical and epidemiological parameters was studied in cattle using both univariate and multivariate analyses. Giardia spp. were detected in 127 (34.3%) of the 370 animals tested. G. duodenalis assemblage E was found to be predominant in cattle and sheep, followed by assemblage A. Mixed infections with assemblages A and E were also detected. Interestingly, some cattle, sheep and pigs were found to be infected with more unexpected assemblages (C, D, F). Pre-weaned calves were more likely to test positive than adult animals, but no association between the occurrence of overt intestinal disease and G. duodenalis infection was detected. The common occurrence of assemblage A and the finding of unusual assemblages in atypical hosts suggest that in future, a multilocus analysis should be used to confirm the actual diversity of G. duodenalis in livestock and the presence of potentially zoonotic genotypes. These data also suggest that there is a need to re-evaluate the clinical significance of G. duodenalis infection in livestock. PMID:23472706

Minetti, C; Taweenan, W; Hogg, R; Featherstone, C; Randle, N; Latham, S M; Wastling, J M

2014-12-01

289

MOLECULAR TYPING OF Giardia duodenalis ISOLATES FROM NONHUMAN PRIMATES HOUSED IN A BRAZILIAN ZOO  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardia infections in captive nonhuman primates (NHP) housed at a Brazilian zoo were investigated in order to address their zoonotic potential. Fresh fecal samples were collected from the floors of 22 enclosures where 47 primates of 18 different species were housed. The diagnosis of intestinal parasites after concentration by sedimentation and flotation methods revealed the following parasites and their frequencies: Giardia (18%); Entamoeba spp. (18%); Endolimax nana (4.5%); Iodamoeba spp. (4.5%); Oxyurid (4.5%) and Strongylid (4.5%). Genomic DNA extracted from all samples was processed by PCR methods in order to amplify fragments of gdh and tpi genes of Giardia. Amplicons were obtained from samples of Ateles belzebuth, Alouatta caraya, Alouatta fusca and Alouatta seniculus. Clear sequences were only obtained for the isolates from Ateles belzebuth (BA1), Alouatta fusca (BA2) and Alouatta caraya (BA3). According to the phenetic analyses of these sequences, all were classified as assemblage A. For the tpi gene, all three isolates were grouped into sub-assemblage AII (BA1, BA2 and BA3) whereas for the gdh gene, only BA3 was sub-assemblage AII, and the BA1 and BA2 were sub-assemblage AI. Considering the zoonotic potential of the assemblage A, and that the animals of the present study show no clinical signs of infection, the data obtained here stresses that regular coproparasitological surveys are necessary to implement preventive measures and safeguard the health of the captive animals, of their caretakers and of people visiting the zoological gardens. PMID:24553608

David, Érica Boarato; Patti, Mariella; Coradi, Silvana Torossian; Oliveira-Sequeira, Teresa Cristina Goulart; Ribolla, Paulo Eduardo Martins; Guimarães, Semíramis

2014-01-01

290

Parasites - Lice  

Science.gov (United States)

... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Parasites - Lice Parasites Home Share Compartir Lice are parasitic insects that ... Professionals Publications Information For Parents Schools Related Links Parasites A-Z Index Parasites Glossary Neglected Tropical Diseases ...

291

The prevalence of Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar in Van Regional Training and Research Hospital: A four-year monitoring  

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Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this retrospective study was to determinethe frequency rates of Giardia and E.histolytica/E.dispar and their distribution by years as well as agegroups and gender distribution during a four-year period.Materials and methods: A total of 9911 stool samplessent to our laboratory between January 2008 and December2011 were tested for parasites. Native-Lugol and formolethyl acetate sedimentation methods were utilized formicroscopic identification of Entamoeba sp. and Giardiatrophozoites and cysts in fresh stool samples. Additionally,trichrome staining was performed in stool sampleswhere the distinctive diagnosis could not be confirmed.Results: From a total of 9911 stool samples analyzedduring the study, 4.7% were positive for Giardia and 6.2%were positive for Entemoeba histolytica/ Entemoeba dispar.Of Giardia-positive patients 57% were male and 43%female. Similarly, 56% of Entemoeba histolytica/ Entemoebadispar positive patients were male and 44% werefemale. Both parasites’ higher frequency rates seen inmale groups were found statistically significant (p<0.01.Conclusion: It is seen that intestinal protozoon infectionsare still present as an important public health problemin our region. In order to prevent this problem, personalhygiene and sanitation rules education for community aswell as infrastructure improvements are necessary.Key words: Giardia, Entemoeba histolytica/ Entemoeba dispar, prevalence

Yasemin Bayram

2013-03-01

292

Comparative biochemistry of Giardia, Hexamita and Spironucleus: Enigmatic diplomonads.  

Science.gov (United States)

The diplomonad genera are here represented by three highly diverse species, both free-living (Hexamita inflata), and parasitic (Spironucleus vortens and Giardia intestinalis). All three are moderately aerotolerant flagellates, inhabiting environments where O2 tensions are low and fluctuating. Many diplomonads are opportunistic pathogens of avian, terrestrial and aquatic animals. Hexamitids inhabit deep waters and sediments of lakes and marine basins, S. vortens commonly infects the intestinal tract of ornamental fish, particularly of cichlids and cyprinids, and G. intestinalis, the upper intestinal tracts of humans as well as domestic and farm animals. Despite these very different habitats, their known physiological and biochemical characteristics are similar, but they do differ in significant respects as their lifestyles and life cycles demand. They have efficient O2 scavenging systems, and are highly effective at countering rapid O2 fluctuations, or clustering away from its source (except for G. intestinalis when attached to the jejunal villi). Their core metabolic pathways (glycolysis using pyrophosphate), incomplete tricarboxylic acid cycle (lacking ?-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase), and amino acid metabolism (with an alternative energy-generating arginine dihydrolase pathway as a possibility in some cases), largely conform to those of other protists inhabiting low-O2 environments. Mitochondrial evolutionary reduction to give hydrogenosomes as seen in Spironucleus spp. has proceeded further to its minimal state in the mitosomes of G. intestinalis. Understanding of essential redox reactions and the maintentence of redox state, especially in the infective encysted stage of G. intestinalis provide increasing possibilities for parasite control. To this aim a plethora of new synthetic chemicals and natural products (especially those from garlic, Allium sativum) show promise as replacements for the highly effective (but potentially toxic to higher organisms) 5-nitroimidazoles (e.g., metronidazole) in the treatment and/or prevention of dimplomonad infection in humans and animals. PMID:25448769

Lloyd, David; Williams, Catrin F

2014-10-01

293

Gastrointestinal parasite fauna of Emperor Penguins (Aptenodytes forsteri) at the Atka Bay, Antarctica.  

Science.gov (United States)

In general, the knowledge on parasites infecting Antarctic birds is scarce. The present study intends to extend the knowledge on gastrointestinal parasites of Emperor Penguins (Aptenodytes forsteri) at the Atka Bay, Antarctica. Fecal samples of 50 individual Emperor Penguins were collected at the Atka Bay and analyzed using the sodium-acetate-formaldehyde (SAF) method for the identification of intestinal helminth eggs and/or protozoan parasite stages. In addition, coproantigen ELISAs were performed to detect Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections. Overall, 13 out of 50 penguins proved parasitized (26%). The following stages of gastrointestinal parasites were identified: One Capillaria sp. egg, Tetrabothrius spp. eggs, Diphyllobothrium spp. eggs, and proglottids of the cestode Parorchites zederi. The recorded Capillaria infection represents a new host record for Emperor Penguins. All coproantigen ELISAs for the detection of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. were negative. This paper provides current data on parasites of the Emperor Penguin, a protected endemic species of the Antarctica. PMID:25164274

Kleinertz, S; Christmann, S; Silva, L M R; Hirzmann, J; Hermosilla, C; Taubert, A

2014-11-01

294

First genotyping of Giardia duodenalis and prevalence of enteroparasites in children from Tetouan (Morocco).  

Science.gov (United States)

Intestinal parasites are common in the Moroccan population. Enteroparasites in children from four schools in urban and rural areas of Tetouan (Morocco) were studied to treat these children and to design prevention and control programs. A total of 673 children were examined. The prevalence of parasitized children was 51%. The average number of enteroparasites was half in urban areas than in rural areas. Multiple parasitism appeared in 30% of the samples presenting two, three, or four parasites. The most prevalent parasite was Blastocystis hominis (64%). Giardia duodenalis was the most frequent pathogen, with an overall prevalence of 20% (24% in rural areas and 16% in urban areas). Other pathogenic enteroparasites were Cyclospora cayetanensis (5% in rural and urban areas), Iodamoeba butschlii, Hymenolepis spp., Trichuris trichiura and Enterobius vermicularis, with prevalence lower than 2%. In this work, G. duodenalis genotypes were molecularly characterized by a study of the glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) and 18S rRNA genes. This is the first study of molecular characterization of G. duodenalis in Moroccan children, and the sequence analysis revealed both Assemblage A (AII) and Assemblage B (BIII, BIV), with the predominance of Assemblage BIV (73%). PMID:25259605

El Fatni, Chadia; Olmo, Francisco; El Fatni, Hoummad; Romero, Desiré; Rosales, Maria José

2014-01-01

295

DETECTION OF PROTOZOAN PARASITES IN SOURCE AND FINISHED WATER - 3RD EDITION ASM'S METHODS IN ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY  

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Protozoans are eukaryotic organisms which can live either a free-living or parasitic existence. Some free-living forms, under the right conditions, can become opportunistic parasites. Enteric pathogenic protozoans, like Giardia and Cryptosporidium, which are now known to be tra...

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Detección de parásitos protozoarios y hermintos en el molusco bivalvo Geukensia demissa (Dillwyn, 1817) presente en el sector de Nararét del Municipio Mara, Estado Zulia, Venezuela / Detection of protozoan and helminthes parasites in Geukensia demissa (Dillwyn, 1817) bivalve mollusk present in Mara Municipality, Zulia State, Venezuela  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Con el objeto de detectar parásitos protozoarios y metazoarios en Geukensia demissa, un mitílido que ha invadido el principal estuario de Venezuela, el Lago de Maracaibo y que se perfila con gran potencial acuícola, se procedió a realizar una colecta de 400 ejemplares vivos en el sector Nazarét del [...] municipio Mara del estado Zulia, Venezuela. Se realizaron muestreos en dos estaciones del año, seca (enero a mayo) y lluviosa (junio a octubre). Los organismos fueron sometidos a una disección para la extracción del tubo intestinal, tejidos gonadales, sifonales y branquiales. El estudio parasitológico contempló observaciones microscópicas del contenido intestinal utilizando coloración temporal de lugol y permanentes de hematoxilina férrica y kinyoun. Los tejidos fueron evaluados histológicamente, con la coloración de hematoxilina-eosina. Del total de los mejillones colectados, 42% resultaron parasitados en su contenido intestinal, con especies de interés clínico para el hombre, como los siguientes protozoarios: complejo Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba hartmanni, Giardia lamblia, Iodamoeba spp., Blastocystis spp. y Cryptosporidium spp., siendo la forma evolutiva quística la de mayor prevalencia. De los helmintos se recuperó Strongyloides stercoralis. En relación a la época del año, se observó una mayor presencia de parásitos en mejillones colectados durante la época seca (50%) en comparación con la estación lluviosa (34%). Las especies Entamoeba histolytica/dispar y Entamoeba coli, las que mostraron mayor prevalencia, 45 y 30% (época seca) y 26 y 19% (época lluviosa), respectivamente. La presencia de parásitos causantes de enfermedades gastrointestinales en un producto pesquero de gran comercialización alerta a los entes gubernamentales acerca de su potencial patogénico y preocupación para su control sanitario. Abstract in english In order to detect protozoa and metazoa parasites in Geukensia demissa, a mitilido that has invaded the main estuarine of Venezuela (Maracaibo Lake) and which has a high aquaculture potential, there were collected four hundred live microorganisms in the Nazareth Community of the Mara Municipality, Z [...] ulia State, Venezuela. The collection was done during two seasons of the year, dry (January to May) and rainy (June to October). The microorganisms were subjected to a dissection for the extraction of the intestine tube, as well as the gonads, siphons and gills tissues. The parasitological study was done by microscopy examinations of the intestinal content using a temporary dye of lugol and fixed dyes of ferric hematoxiline and kinyoun. The tissues were evaluated histological with the dye of hematoxiline-eosine. From the total amount of mussels collected 42% were parasitized in the intestinal content, with species of clinical concern for the human being like the following protozoa: Complex Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba hartmanni, Giardia lamblia, Iodamoeba spp., Blastocystis spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. The cystic stage was dominant in those species. Strongyloides stercoralis was recovered among the helminths. In regard to the season of the year, it was observed a higher presence of parasites in mussels collected during the dry season (50%) while in the rainy season was 34%. The species Entamoeba histolytica/dispar and Entamoeba coli were the most abundant, 45 and 30% (dry season) and 26% and 19% (rainy season), respectively. The presence of these parasites responsible for some gastrointestinal illness in a fish product with a high demand represents a warning for the governmental entities about its pathogenic potential and a worry for its sanitary control.

Lilibeth, Cabrera; Suhai, Díaz; Katynna, Parra; Graciela, Ojeda de Rodríguez.

2010-02-01

297

Evaluation of Multiplex Tandem Real-Time PCR for Detection of Cryptosporidium spp., Dientamoeba fragilis, Entamoeba histolytica, and Giardia intestinalis in Clinical Stool Samples ?  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this study was to describe the first development and evaluation of a multiplex tandem PCR (MT-PCR) assay for the detection and identification of 4 common pathogenic protozoan parasites, Cryptosporidium spp., Dientamoeba fragilis, Entamoeba histolytica, and Giardia intestinalis, from human clinical samples. A total of 472 fecal samples submitted to the Department of Microbiology at St. Vincent's Hospital were included in the study. The MT-PCR assay was compared to four real-time PCR...

Stark, D.; Al-qassab, S. E.; Barratt, J. L. N.; Stanley, K.; Roberts, T.; Marriott, D.; Harkness, J.; Ellis, J. T.

2010-01-01

298

Application of a basic monitoring strategy for Cryptosporidium and Giardia in drinking water  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Despite the health risks associated with exposure to Cryptosporidium and Giardia, there is no uniform approach to monitoring these protozoan parasites across the world. In the present study, a strategy for monitoring Cryptosporidium and Giardia in drinking water was developed in an effort to ensure [...] that the risk of exposure to these organisms and the risks of non-compliance to guidelines are reduced. The methodology developed will be applicable to all water supply systems irrespective of size and complexity of the purification works. It is based on monitoring procedures proposed by the US Environmental Protection Agency, the Drinking Water Inspectorate, Australia and New Zealand, as well as the risk-based procedure followed by Northern Ireland. The monitoring strategy developed represents a preventative approach for proactively monitoring Cryptosporidium and Giardia species in drinking water. The strategy consists of 10 steps: (i) assessment of the monitoring requirements, (ii) description and characterisation of the source water types, (iii) abstraction of source water, (iv) assessment of the water purification plant, (v) water quality monitoring, (vi) cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis outbreak, (vii) risk assessment, (viii) sample collection and laboratory processing, (ix) data evaluation, interpretation and storage, (x) process evaluation and review. Proper implementation of this protocol can contribute to the protection of drinking water consumers by identifying high-risk source water, identifying areas of improvement within the water treatment system, and also preventing further faecal pollution in the catchments. The protocol can also be integrated into the Water Safety Plans to optimise compliance. Furthermore, this methodology has a potential to contribute to Blue Drop certification as it should form part of the incident management protocols which are a requirement of Water Safety Plan implementation.

MV, Sigudu; HH, du Preez; F, Retief.

2014-04-03

299

Risk factors for Giardia infection among hospitalized children in Cuba  

OpenAIRE

The risk factors associated with Giardia infection, in children hospitalized in Havana, Cuba, were recently explored. Children aged ?5?years were more likely to be positive for Giardia infection than the younger children, with an odds ratio (OR) of 3.41 [95% confidence interval (CI)?=?1.36–9.69]. The risk factors found to be associated with Giardia infection in univariate analyses were rural residence (OR?=?3.01; CI?=?1.23–7.35), belonging to a household that did not recei...

Bello, J.; Nu?n?ez, F. A.; Gonza?lez, O. M.; Ferna?ndez, R.; Almirall, P.; Escobedo, A. A.

2011-01-01

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Estado nutricional, parasitario y hematológico en niños de dos programas de atención del Instituto Colombiano de Bienestar Familiar (ICBF) / Nutritional status related to a hematological condition and parasitic infections in children supported by Instituto Colombiano de Bienestar Familiar (ICBF)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: la desnutrición afecta principalmente a los niños menores de cinco años. El Instituto Colombiano de Bienestar Familiar (ICBF) desarrolla, entre otros, algunos programas que buscan impactar positivamente en el estado nutricional de los menores de cinco años. Objetivo: describir el estad [...] o nutricional (según indicadores antropométricos), hematológico y parasitario de dos grupos de niños de los programas de Hogares Comunitarios (HC) y Desayunos Infantiles (DI) pertenecientes al ICBF en el centro zonal 4 de Medellín. Materiales y métodos: estudio descriptivo de corte en 164 menores de cinco años. Los datos se recolectaron mediante encuestas, peso corporal de los niños, estatura/longitud y toma de sangre y análisis coprológico. Resultados: 47,1% de la muestra eran niños, con edad promedio de tres años; 56,6% de los menores pertenecían al estrato 1, mayormente entre los niños de HC. El promedio del peso corporal fue 14,4 kg, sin diferencias estadísticas entre los grupos; 45% de los niños presentaron riesgo de desnutrición crónica, global el 32% de los menores y aguda el 14%, sin diferencias entre los dos grupos. De acuerdo a lo esperado para la edad el 21% de los menores tenía disminución de la hemoglobina y 11% del hematocrito. En la comparación de los grupos no hubo diferencias significativas de los parámetros hematológicos. En el 66,7% de los niños se encontraron parásitos intestinales, principalmente Giardia lamblia. Conclusión: se encontró un importante porcentaje de niños con desnutrición y anemia, que refleja la necesidad de fortalecer tanto los programas, como la educación de los menores y las familias, así como las condiciones sociales y económicas, los cuales influyen en la salud de la población evaluada y en su estado nutricional. Abstract in english Malnutrition is a condition affecting mostly children younger than five years. ICBF supports many nutritional programs, which is trying to improve the nutritional status for children younger than 5 five years. Objective: describe nutritional status related to a hematological condition and parasitic [...] infections in two groups of children participating in programs such as the ''Hogares comunitarios'' (HC) and ''Desayunos Infantiles'' (DI) supported by the ICBF in zone 1 Medellin-Colombia. Methods: it is a cross-sectional study, 164 children were recruted, data was collected, applying questionnaires, anthropometric measurements, and evaluating blood and stool samples. Results: 47,1% of the subjects were boys, mean age was 3 years, 56,6% of the children were in the lowest social economic level, mainly children participating in HC program. The average for weight was 14,4kg, no statistical significant differences between groups were found, but 45% of the children classified for chronic malnutrition risk, 32% for global malnutrition and 14% for acute malnutrition. According to the age 21% of the population studied had low hemoglobin level and 11% has low hematocrit level. No significant statistics between groups for hematological markers were found. Parasitic infection was present in 67%, they were mainly infected by Giardia lamblia. Conclusion: malnutrition and anemia was prevalent in this population. It is necessary to encourage and support programs that should benefit children and their families, improving education and social economic conditions could help to improve their nutritional status.

Juan Carlos, Gil; Andrea, Mejía R; Helena María, Gaviria; Carolina, Parra; Francisco, Ochoa; Zuleima, Deossa.

2008-12-01

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Determinantes sociales, prácticas de alimentación y consecuencias nutricionales del parasitismo intestinal en niños de 7 a 18 meses de edad en Guapi, Cauca / Social determinants, feeding practices and nutritional consequences of intestinal parasitism in young children  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción. Los estudios de parasitismo intestinal en menores de 2 años raramente se realizan. Sus consecuencias nutricionales y la factibilidad de la prevención justifican su estudio. Objetivos. Identificar la prevalencia de parásitos intestinales patógenos, sus asociaciones con los determinantes [...] sociales y las prácticas de alimentación y sus efectos sobre el estado nutricional. Materiales y métodos. Se censó a los niños menores de 18 meses de una comunidad urbana de la región Pacífica colombiana. Se obtuvieron 136 muestras, que representaban 62% de la población de menores de 18 meses en el área de estudio. Se identificó la presencia de parásitos intestinales patógenos a partir del examen directo y el concentrado de Ritchie-Frick modificado. Se utilizaron regresiones logísticas múltiples para predecir la presencia de parásitos intestinales patógenos. Se calcularon los puntajes Z de longitud para edad (£2 DE, desnutrición crónica) y peso para longitud (£2 DE, desnutrición aguda). Se realizaron análisis de covarianza para determinar la relación entre los parásitos intestinales patógenos y el estado nutricional con ajustes por edad. Resultados. El 30,6% de los niños estaban infectados: 26,2% presentaba helmintiasis ( Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Strongyloides stercolaris); 14,9% tenía protozoos ( Giardia lamblia), y 11,8% poliparasitismo intestinal. La prevalencia de desnutrición aguda y crónica fue de 2,9% y 12,5%, respectivamente. La ausencia de sanitario y una baja escolaridad de la madre se asociaron a una mayor presencia de poliparasitismo y helmintiasis ( p Abstract in english Introduction. Studies on intestinal intestinal parasitism in children under 2 years of age have rarely been performed. The nutritional consequences and feasibility of parasite prevention justify the current study. Objectives. The study was undertaken with 3 goals: (1) to identify the prevalence of p [...] athogenic intestinal parasites (PIP), (2) to determine the social factors, sanitary conditions and nutritional practices that predict PIP, and (3) to evaluate PIP effects on infant nutritional status. Materials and methods. All mothers with children under 18 months of age and living in an urban community of coastal Colombia were invited to participate in the PIP study. A fecal sample was obtained from each of 136 children; they represented 62% of the total 7-18 month-old population in the community. Presence of intestinal parasites was identified by direct microscopy and confirmed by a concentration test (Ritchie-Frick procedure). Logistic regressions were used to predict presence of PIP. The Z scores of length-for-age (

Beatriz Eugenia, Alvarado; Luis Reinel, Vásquez.

2006-03-01

302

Waterborne Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in the Yukon, Canada.  

OpenAIRE

Several outbreaks of waterborne giardiasis have occurred in southern Canada, but nothing has been reported from the Canadian North. The objective of this study was to collect information relevant to waterborne giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis in the Yukon including epidemiological data and analyses of water, sewage, and animal fecal samples. Remote, pristine water samples were found to be contaminated with Giardia cysts (7 of 22 or 32%) but not with Cryptosporidium oocysts. Giardia cysts were...

Roach, P. D.; Olson, M. E.; Whitley, G.; Wallis, P. M.

1993-01-01

303

Parasitosis intestinales en niños de edad preescolar y escolar: situación actual en poblaciones urbanas, periurbanas y rurales en Brandsen, Buenos Aires, Argentina / INTESTINAL PARASITES IN PRESCHOOL AND SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN: CURRENT SITUATION IN URBAN, PERIURBAN AND RURAL POPULATIONS IN BRANDSEN, BUENOS AIRES ARGENTINA  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El presente estudio describe las parasitosis más frecuentes en los niños de edad preescolar y escolar y establece las diferencias entre las zonas urbana (U), periurbana (PU) y rural (R) del Partido de Brandsen, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Se procesaron 119 muestras de materia fecal y escobillado anal d [...] e niños entre 1 y 14 años. Se utilizaron las técnicas de sedimentación (Ritchie) y flotación (Willis). El 63.9% resultó parasitado; el mayor porcentaje de infectados se encontró en PU (80,8%); seguido por R (63,4%) y por U (55,8%). Las comparaciones entre prevalencias indicaron diferencias significativas sólo entre PU y U (p = 0,05; OR = 0,30; IC95%: 0,08-1,00). No se hallaron diferencias significativas entre sexos ni entre individuos parasitados y no parasitados en cada una de las áreas (p > 0,05). Se identificaron E. vermicularis (U: 28,8%; PU: 30,8%; R: 39%), B. hominis (U: 26,9%; PU: 46,2%;R: 31,7%), E.coli(XJ: 11,5%;PU: 15,4%; R: 9,8%); G. lamblia (U: 9,6%; PU: 34,6%; R: 7,3%); A. lumbricoides (U: 9,6%; PU: 19,2%; R: 0%), T. trichiura (U: 9,6%; PU: 19,2%; R: 0%); E. hominis (U: 1,9%; PU: 0%; R: 2,4%); E. nana (U: 0%; PU: 7,7%; R: 4,9%) e /. butschlii (U: 0%; PU: 3,8%; R: 0%). Sólo hubo diferencias significativas entre las prevalencias de G. lamblia en U y PU (p Abstract in english The present study describes the parasitoses in preschool and schoolchildren and the differences among urban (U), periurban (PU) and rural (R) areas of the Partido of Brandsen, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Faecal samples and anal brushed were collected in 119 children between 1 and 14 years old. The sedi [...] mentation (Ritchie) and flotation (Willis) techniques were used. Sixty three percent of the samples were parasited. The highest percentage of infection was seen in PU (80,8%), followed by R (63,4%) and U (55,8%). The comparisons among prevalences only indicated significant differences between PU and U (p=0,05; OR = 0,30; IC95%: 0,08-1,00). We identified Enterobius vermicularis (U: 28,8%; PU: 30,8%; R: 39%), Blastocystis hominis (U: 26,9%; PU: 46,2%; R: 31,7%), Entamoeba coli (U: 11,5%; PU: 15,4%; R: 9,8%); Giardia lamblia (U: 9,6%; PU: 34,6%; R: 7,3%); Ascaris lumbricoides (U: 9,6%; PU: 19,2%; R: 0%), T. trichiura (U: 9,6%; PU: 19,2%; R: 0%); Enteromonas hominis (U: 1,9%; PU: 0%; R: 2,4%); E. nana (U: 0%; PU: 7,7%; R: 4,9%); lodamoeba butschlii (U: 0%; PU: 3,8%; R: 0%). Only G. lamblia was significantly higher in PU compared to U (p

MARÍA LORENA, ZONTA; GRACIELA TERESA, NAVONE; EVELIA EDITH, OYHENART.

2007-06-01

304

Antigenic detection of Giardia duodenalis in companion dogs of Ahvaz area, south-west of Iran  

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Full Text Available Introduction and objective: Giardia duodenalis is a ubiquitous protozoan parasite in several animal species and humans. The objective of the present survey was to investigate the prevalence of G. duodenalis in the fecal samples of companion dogs in Ahvaz area, south-western Iran. Materials and methods: A total of 150 companion dogs of different ages were examined for antigenic detection of G. duodenalis in fecal samples by a commercial Giardia Antigen Test Kit. Fecal centrifugation-flotation technique was also used for identification of cyst by microscopic examination. The studied dogs were selected from those referring to Veterinary Hospital of Chamran University Ahvaz from June 2007 to January 2010. They were divided into two groups clinically (diarrheic and non-diarrheic and based on age into three groups (3 years. Results: Six out of 150 fecal samples (4% were positive for antigen of G. duodenalis by immunochromatography assay. Prevalence was significantly higher in young dogs less than 6 months (11.6% compared with adult dogs 6 months-3 years (1.6% (P=0.041. The infection was more common in diarrheic dogs (18.5% compared with non-diarrheic dogs (0.8% and the difference was significant (P=0.001. Microscopic examination on fecal samples showed that 2.7% (4 out of 150 of the studied dogs were positive.Conclusion: The infection rate of giardiasis in companion dogs' particularly in diarrheic dogs is considered to be critical from the viewpoint of public health. Our results indicate that this parasite is a zoonotic infection in Ahvaz district.

Ali Reza Alborzi

2010-10-01

305

Parasites: Water  

Science.gov (United States)

... of Parasitic Diseases Statistics More Information Information For Children Travelers Women Health Professionals Public Health Departments Laboratory Science Related Links Parasites A-Z Index Parasites Glossary Neglected Tropical Diseases ...

306

Parasitic Diseases  

Science.gov (United States)

... a bug bite, or sexual contact. Some parasitic diseases are easily treated and some are not. Parasites ... be seen with the naked eye. Some parasitic diseases occur in the United States. Contaminated water supplies ...

307

Occurrence of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in activated sludge samples in Campinas, SP, Brazil Ocorrência de cistos de Giardia e oocistos de Cryptosporidium em amostras de lodo ativado em Campinas, SP, Brasil  

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Full Text Available Giardia and Cryptosporidium have caused several outbreaks of gastroenteritis in humans associated with drinking water. Contaminated sewage effluents are recognized as a potential source of waterborne protozoa. Due to the lack of studies about the occurrence of these parasites in sewage samples in Brazil, we compared the efficiency of two procedures for concentrating cysts and oocysts in activated sludge samples of one sewage treatment plant. For this, the samples were submitted to i concentration by the ether clarification procedure (ECP and to ii purification by sucrose flotation method (SFM and aliquots of the pellets were examined by immunofluorescence. Giardia cysts were present in all samples (100.0%; n = 8 when using ECP and kit 1 reagents, while kit 2 resulted in six positive samples (85.7%; n = 7. As for SFM, cysts were detected in 75.0% and 100.0% of these samples (for kit 1 and 2, respectively. Regarding Cryptosporidium, two samples (25.0%; kit 1 and 28.5% for kit 2 were detected positive by using ECP, while for SFM, only one sample (examined by kit 1 was positive (12.5%. The results of the control trial revealed Giardia and Cryptosporidium recovery efficiency rates for ECP of 54.5% and 9.6%, while SFM was 10.5% and 3.2%, respectively. Considering the high concentration detected, a previous evaluation of the activated sludge before its application in agriculture is recommended and with some improvement, ECP would be an appropriate simple technique for protozoa detection in sewage samples.Giardia e Cryptosporidium causaram vários surtos epidêmicos de gastroenterite, associados à água potável. Efluentes de esgoto contaminados foram incriminados como uma fonte potencial de cistos e oocistos. Uma investigação foi conduzida para verificar a presença de cistos de Giardia e oocistos de Cryptosporidium em amostras de lodo ativado de uma Estação de Tratamento de Esgoto. Para isto as amostras foram submetidas: i a concentração pelo processo de clarificação com éter (ECP e ii método de purificação por flutuação em sacarose (SFM e, as alíquotas dos sedimentos foram examinadas por imunofluorescência. Cistos de Giardia estiveram presentes em todas as amostras avaliadas (100,0%; n = 8 quando utilizado ECP e kit 1, enquanto o kit 2 resultou em 6 amostras positivas (85,7%; n = 7. Para SFM, cistos de Giardia foram detectados em 75,0% e 100,0% destas amostras (para kit 1 e 2 respectivamente. Considerando os oocistos de Cryptosporidium, duas amostras (25,0%; kit 1 e 28,5% kit 2 foram positivas usando-se ECP enquanto para SFM, apenas uma amostra (examinada pelo kit 1 foi positiva (12,5%. Os resultados do experimento-controle revelaram que as taxas de recuperação para Giardia e Cryptosporidium, quando utilizado ECP foi de 54,5% e 9,6% e para SFM, foi de 10,5% e 3,2%, respectivamente. Considerando a detecção de alta concentração desses protozoários, é recomendada a avaliação prévia do lodo ativado antes de sua aplicação na agricultura e, com alguma melhora, ECP pode ser uma técnica apropriada e simples para a detecção de protozoários em amostras de esgoto.

Luciana Urbano Santos

2004-04-01

308

Frecuencia de parasitosis intestinales y características epidemiológicas de la población infantil de 1 a 12 años que consultan al Ambulatorio Urbano Tipo II de Cerro Gordo.: Barquisimeto, estado Lara. Enero-junio 2007 / Frequency of Intestinal Parasitism and Epidemiological Characteristics of the 1 to 12 Year-Old Child Population Treated at the Cerro Gordo Type II Urban Outpatient Clinic: Barquisimeto, State of Lara. January-June 2007  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar la frecuencia de parasitosis intestinales en el área de influencia del Ambulatorio Urbano Tipo II de Cerro Gordo, Barquisimeto, Estado Lara, realizando un estudio descriptivo transversal. Se evaluaron 106 niños entre 1 y 12 años de edad, realizando a [...] cada uno examen de heces directo y concentrado con la técnica de Ritchie, demostrándose parasitosis intestinal en 42,5%, predominando en escolares (48,9%), sin diferencias según el género. El agente más frecuente fue B. hominis (42,2%), seguido de G. lamblia (37,8%), Complejo Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar (13,3%), H. nana (11,1%) y A. lumbricoides (4,4%). Se encontró parasitado 41,7% de niños con estado nutricional normal y 35,7% de malnutridos. La presencia de parasitos intestinales mostró relación con la disposición inadecuada de basura (p=0.048). El lavado inadecuado de las manos se relacionó con prurito anal (p=0.008). La calidad inadecuada del agua se relacionó con Blastocistosis (p= 0,025) y comensales (p= 0,035). No hubo relación entre parasitosis intestinales y síntomas gastrointestinales, estrato social, disposición de excretas, presencia de vectores en el hogar, lavado y conservación de alimentos, frecuencia de recolección de basura, lavado de manos, antecedente de tratamiento antiparasitario y familiar parasitado. Abstract in english A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine intestinal parasitism in children treated at the “Cerro Gordo” Type II Urban Outpatient Clinic in Barquisimeto, Lara. Feces samples were collected from 106 children (1-12 years old) and analyzed using both direct and Ritchie´s technique analyses, de [...] monstrating intestinal parasitism in 42.5% of the children, predominantly of school age (48.9%), but independent of gender. The most frequent agent was Blastocystis hominis (42.2%), followed by Giardia lamblia (37.8%), Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar Complex (13.3%), Hymenolepis nana (11.1%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (4.4%). For children with a normal nutritional condition, 41.7% had parasites, while this value was 35.7% for nutritionally undernourished children. The presence of intestinal parasites showed relations to the community’s trash collection management program status (p=0.048). Poor hand washing habits were significantly associated with anal pruritus (p=0.008). Inadequate water quality was related to blastocystosis (p= 0.025) and comensals (p= 0.035). The presence of parasites was not associated with specific gastrointestinal symptoms, socioeconomic status, disposition of excreta, presence of vectors in the home, food washing and storage, frequency of garbage collection, washing of hands, family parasitism history and anti-parasite treatment antecedents.

Melisa, Fuentes; Liset, Galíndez; Dayana, García; Nora, González; Juan, Goyanes; Eddy, Herrera; Julia, Sánchez.

2011-06-01

309

Comparison of ELISA and direct microscopic examination for detecting Giardia intestinalis in children’s stool samples  

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Full Text Available Objective: Giardia intestinalis is the causes of giardiasis,which infects human fecally-orally. This leads to growthretardation in children, leading to malabsorption, which iswidespread in Turkey, especially in the regions having lowsocio-economic status. In this study we aimed to compareresults of Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISAand direct microscopic stool examination for detectinggiardiasis.Methods: The feces samples of 761 children aged between0 and 16 years who applied to Ondokuz May?sUniversity Hospital with diarrhea were evaluated by usingELISA test and direct microscopic examination.Results: The study comprised 356 (46.7% boys and 405(53, 3% girls. Both direct microscopy and ELISA gavepositive results for giardiasis in 17 (2.2% children. In 13(17% of the children ELISA was found positive but directmicroscopy did not show Giardia intestinalis at stool samples.Both ELISA and direct microscopy of the remaining731 (96.1% of the patients gave negative results forgiardiasis.Conclusion: Direct microscopic examination methodsare often preferred because they are more cost-effective,and some other parasites can be found by examinationof feces. Yet, in cases in which children have giardiasissymptoms but parasites cannot be determined by microscopicexamination to search for G. intestinalis antigen bymeans of ELISA can be used as an alternative method. JClin Exp Invest 2013; 4 (3: 343-346Key words: G. intestinalis, ELISA, direct microscopic examination,comparison, diagnosis

Keramettin Yan?k

2013-09-01

310

Preliminary data on the efficacy of a Giardia vaccine in puppies.  

OpenAIRE

Twenty puppies were vaccinated with a trophozoite-derived Giardia vaccine on day 0 and boosted on day 21 (Group 1); 10 control puppies received only saline (Group 2). Both groups were experimentally infected on day 35 with 1 x 10(6) Giardia duodenalis trophozoites by intraduodenal injection. Immunization provided protection to experimental Giardia infection.

Olson, M. E.; Morck, D. W.; Ceri, H.

1997-01-01

311

The frequency of intestinal parasites in puppies from Mexican kennels  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this investigation was to determine the intestinal parasite prevalence in puppies from six different kennels; four kennels were in Guadalajara and Zapopan cities (Jalisco State) and two kennels were in Mexico City. From October 2006 to November 2007, we collected 441 fecal samples from 147 puppies, both male and female, ranging from 1 to 36 months of age. Three samples from every puppy were analyzed by using the Faust technique. The prevalence found were as follows: Giardia int...

Adrián Cortés-Campos; Leticia Eligio-García; Enedina Jiménez-Cardoso; Cynthia Noguera-Estrada; Apolinar Cano Estrada; Margarita Pinto-Sagahón

2010-01-01

312

Methods for Cultivation of Luminal Parasitic Protists of Clinical Importance  

OpenAIRE

Cultivation of luminal protistan parasites has a long history. In this review we discuss the methods and media that are most widely used for the establishment and maintenance of the following organisms in culture: Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia intestinalis, Trichomonas vaginalis, Dientamoeba fragilis, Blastocystis hominis, and Balantidium coli. While cultivation is of limited importance in the diagnostic laboratory, it is essential to most research laboratories, and it is toward the latter t...

Clark, C. Graham; Diamond, Louis S.

2002-01-01

313

Prevalência de Cryptosporidium spp e Giardia sp em eqüinos estabulados no Jockey Club de Santa Maria - RS, Brasil / Prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia sp. infection in horses stabled in the Jockey Club of Santa Maria - RS, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O Cryptosporidium spp. e a Giardia sp. são atualmente reconhecidos como os principais patógenos entéricos com potencial zoonótico. O presente estudo visou estabelecer a prevalência desses protozoários em eqüinos hospedados no Jockey Club de Santa Maria, RS, Brasil, no período de 19 de maio a 30 de j [...] unho de 2007. Foram coletadas amostras de fezes, diretamente da ampola retal, de 64 animais. As amostras de fezes foram processadas por meio do método de centrifugação-flutuação de Faust modificado. Posteriormente essas amostras foram visualizadas ao microscópio óptico para a pesquisa de cistos e oocistos. Os resultados encontrados revelaram a presença de Cryptosporidium spp. em 75% (48/64) das amostras. Cistos de Giardia sp. não foram encontrados nas amostras de fezes analisadas. A freqüência de Cryptosporidium spp. nas diferentes faixas etárias foi de 83,3% (15/18) nos potros até dois anos de idade, 71% (22/31) nos jovens entre dois e cinco anos e 80% (12/15) nos adultos. Os resultados demonstram que o Cryptosporidium spp. está amplamente disseminado na população de eqüinos do Jockey Club de Santa Maria e pode representar uma fonte de infecção significativa para a população da região. Abstract in english Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia sp. are currently recognised as the main enteric pathogens with potential zoonotic transmission risk. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of these parasites in horses stabled in the Santa Maria Jockey Club between May 19 and June 30, 2007. Fecal sam [...] ples from 64 horses were collected directly from the animals’ rectal ampoule. The 64 fecal samples were processed using modified Faust’s method through the centrifugation-floatation technique, and were then later visualized under optical microscope for detection of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts and Giardia sp. cysts. The results showed the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in 75% (48/64) of the samples. Giardia sp. cysts were not found in the fecal samples analysed. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in foals below two years of age was 83.3% (15/18); 71% (22/31) in young foals aged between three and five years of age, and 80% (12/15) in adult horses. These results show that Cryptosporidium spp. is widely disseminated in this population, and it can represent an important source of infection for the population in the region.

Aline Diefenbach, Gomes; Clarissa, Barretta; Dhalile Plein, Ziegler; Lourenço, Sausen; Nathalia, Stoever; Luís Antônio, Sangioni; Fernanda Silveira Flores, Vogel; Silvia González, Monteiro; Andreia, Zanella.

2662-26-01

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ENTEROPATHOGENS DETECTED IN A DAYCARE CENTER, SOUTHEASTERN BRAZIL: BACTERIA, VIRUS, AND PARASITE RESEARCH / Enteropatógenos detectados em crianças de creche no Sudeste do Brasil: pesquisa de bactérias, vírus e parasitos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Introdução: O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a prevalência e o perfil etiológico de enteropatógenos em crianças de uma creche. Métodos: No período de outubro de 2010 a fevereiro de 2011 foram coletadas e analisadas amo [...] stras de fezes de 100 crianças matriculadas em creche do governo no município de São José do Rio Preto, Estado de São Paulo. Resultados: Um total de 246 bactérias foram isoladas em 99% das amostras de fezes; 129 eram diarreicas e 117 não-diarreicas. Foram isoladas setenta e três cepas de Escherichia coli, 19 de Enterobacter, uma de Alcaligenes e uma de Proteus. Foram detectados 14 casos de colonização mista com Enterobacter e de E. coli. Norovírus e Astrovirus foram detectados em crianças com sinais clínicos sugestivos de diarréia. Estes vírus foram detectados exclusivamente entre as crianças residentes em áreas urbanas. Todas as amostras fecais foram negativas para a presença das espécies de rotavírus A e C. Foi observada a presença de Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba coli, Endolimax nana e ancilostomídeos. Foi encontrada associação significativa entre o consumo de alimentos fora do centro da casa e creche e a presença de parasitos intestinais. Conclusões: Para as crianças desta creche, a infecção intestinal por patógenos não parece ter contribuido para a ocorrência de diarreia ou outros sintomas intestinais. As diferenças observadas podem ser atribuídas à grande diversidade de características geográficas, sociais e econômicas e o clima do Brasil, as quais tem sido relatadas como fatores críticos para a modulação da frequência de diferentes enteropatógenos Abstract in english Introduction: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and etiological profile of enteropathogens in children from a daycare center. Methods: From October 2010 to February 2011 stool samples from 100 child [...] ren enrolled in a government daycare center in the municipality of São José do Rio Preto, in the state of São Paulo, were collected and analyzed. Results: A total of 246 bacteria were isolated in 99% of the fecal samples; 129 were in the diarrheal group and 117 in the non-diarrheal group. Seventy-three strains of Escherichia coli were isolated, 19 of Enterobacter, one of Alcaligenes and one of Proteus. There were 14 cases of mixed colonization with Enterobacter and E. coli. Norovirus and Astrovirus were detected in children with clinical signs suggestive of diarrhea. These viruses were detected exclusively among children residing in urban areas. All fecal samples were negative for the presence of the rotavirus species A and C. The presence of Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba coli, Endolimax nana and hookworm was observed. A significant association was found between food consumption outside home and daycare center and the presence of intestinal parasites. Conclusions: For children of this daycare center, intestinal infection due to pathogens does not seem to have contributed to the occurrence of diarrhea or other intestinal symptoms. The observed differences may be due to the wide diversity of geographical, social and economic characteristics and the climate of Brazil, all of which have been reported as critical factors in the modulation of the frequency of different enteropathogens.

Edna Donizetti Rossi, Castro*; Marcela Cristina Braga Yassaka, Germini*; Joana D' Arc Pereira, Mascarenhas; Yvone Benchimol, Gabbay; Ian Carlos Gomes de, Lima; Patrícia dos Santos, Lobo; Valéria Daltibari, Fraga; Luciana Moran, Conceição; Ricardo Luiz Dantas, Machado; Andréa Regina Baptista, Rossit.

2015-02-01

315

Segunda encuesta nacional de infecciones parasitarias intestinales en Cuba, 2009 / Second national survey of intestinal parasitic infections in Cuba, 2009  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: en Cuba las parasitosis intestinales continúan siendo endémicas, con una mayor frecuencia en zonas rurales y montañosas. Después de haber transcurrido casi 25 años desde la última encuesta nacional, se hizo necesario hacer una nueva encuesta para conocer los índices de prevalencia de l [...] as parasitosis intestinales y comparar los resultados obtenidos entre ambos estudios. Tal conocimiento resultaría de gran valor para elaborar estrategias de salud y el diseño de programas de control de las infecciones parasitarias intestinales. Objetivo: determinar los índices actuales de prevalencia de las parasitosis intestinales, y comparar los resultados con los de la encuesta anterior luego de haber transcurrido 25 años. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte trasversal durante los meses de mayo a agosto de 2009 en una muestra de la población cubana. A cada uno se le recogió una muestra de heces que fue analizada por el método de examen directo, la técnica de concentración de Willis y el examen de Kato-Katz; también se le llenó un cuestionario. Resultados: al comparar los resultados de las encuestas nacionales de infecciones parasitarias intestinales realizadas en 1984 y 2009, se encontró que en general disminuyeron las infecciones por parásitos, tanto los helmintos como los protozoos patógenos, aunque los infectados con comensales aumentaron su frecuencia en la de 2009. También se produjo una disminución de las frecuencias de infecciones por todas las especies de geohelmintos, Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, ancylostomídeos, y Strongyloides stercoralis, así como por los protozoos patógenos Giardia lamblia y Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar, y los comensales: Endolimax nana y Entamoeba coli en 2009. La única especie de parásito intestinal que aumentó su frecuencia con respecto a la encuesta de 1984 fue Enterobius vermicularis. En ambos estudios la frecuencia de infección con parásitos o comensales fue mayor en el grupo de 5 a 14 años (edad escolar). Conclusiones: al comparar los resultados de las encuestas nacionales de infecciones parasitarias intestinales realizadas en 1984 y 2009, se encontró que en general disminuyeron las frecuencias de infecciones con parásitos intestinales. El hallazgo en ambos estudios de una frecuencia mayor de infección con parásitos o comensales en el grupo de 5 a 14 años (edad escolar), respalda la recomendación de poner énfasis en los programas de control para las parasitosis intestinales en este grupo de edad. Abstract in english Introduction: the intestinal parasitic infections are still endemic in Cuba, with a higher frequency in rural and mountain regions. Twenty five years after the last national survey, it deemed necessary to carry out a new national survey in order to know the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infecti [...] ons and to compare the obtained results between both studies. That knowledge would be valuable to work out strategies of health and to design a control program for intestinal parasitic infections in Cuba. Objective: to determine the current prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in Cuba and to compare these results with those obtained from the previous survey after a 25 year-period. Methods: a cross sectional study was conducted from May to August of 2009 in a sample of Cuban population. A stool sample was collected from each individual, which was analyzed by direct examination, Willis' brine flotation method and the Kato-Katz thick smear technique. Additionally, a questionnaire was administered. Results: the comparison between 1984 and 2009 surveys showed a general decrease of frequencies of intestinal parasitic infections caused by both helminths and pathogenic protozoa; however, the percentage of infections with commensal protozoa increased in 2009. In this last survey, there was observed decline of frequencies of infections with soil transmitted species, Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, and St

Lázara, Rojas; Fidel Ángel, Núñez; Pablo Héctor, Aguiar; Luis Carlos, Silva Ayçaguer; Delmis, Álvarez; Raydel, Martínez; Mateo, Cabrera; Raúl, Cordoví; Gustavo, Kourí.

2012-04-01

316

Antiprotozoal activities of benzimidazoles and correlations with beta-tubulin sequence.  

OpenAIRE

Benzimidazoles have been widely used since the 1960s as anthelmintic agents in veterinary and human medicine and as antifungal agents in agriculture. More recently, selected benzimidazole derivatives were shown to be active in vitro against two protozoan parasites, Trichomonas vaginalis and Giardia lamblia, and clinical studies with AIDS patients have suggested that microsporidia are susceptible as well. Here, we first present in vitro susceptibility data for T. vaginalis and G. lamblia using...

Katiyar, S. K.; Gordon, V. R.; Mclaughlin, G. L.; Edlind, T. D.

1994-01-01

317

Structural insights into the substrate binding and stereoselectivity of giardia fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase.  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardia lamblia fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (FBPA) is a member of the class II zinc-dependent aldolase family that catalyzes the cleavage of d-fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) into dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) and d-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P). In addition to the active site zinc, the catalytic apparatus of FBPA employs an aspartic acid, Asp83 in the G. lamblia enzyme, which when replaced with an alanine residue renders the enzyme inactive. A comparison of the crystal structures of D83A FBPA in complex with FBP and of wild-type FBPA in the unbound state revealed a substrate-induced conformational transition of loops in the vicinity of the active site and a shift in the location of Zn(2+). When FBP binds, the Zn(2+) shifts up to 4.6 A toward the catalytic Asp83, which brings the metal within coordination distance of the Asp83 carboxylate group. In addition, the structure of wild-type FBPA was determined in complex with the competitive inhibitor d-tagatose 1,6-bisphosphate (TBP), a FBP stereoisomer. In this structure, the zinc binds in a site close to that previously seen in the structure of FBPA in complex with phosphoglycolohydroxamate, an analogue of the postulated DHAP ene-diolate intermediate. Together, the ensemble of structures suggests that the zinc mobility is necessary to orient the Asp83 side chain and to polarize the substrate for proton transfer from the FBP C(4) hydroxyl group to the Asp83 carboxyl group. In the absence of FBP, the alternative zinc position is too remote for coordinating the Asp83. We propose a modification of the catalytic mechanism that incorporates the novel features observed in the FBPA-FBP structure. The mechanism invokes coordination and coplanarity of the Zn(2+) with the FBP's O-C(3)-C(4)-O group concomitant with coordination of the Asp83 carboxylic group. Catalysis is accompanied by movement of Zn(2+) to a site coplanar with the O-C(2)-C(3)-O group of the DHAP. glFBPA exhibits strict substrate specificity toward FBP and does not cleave TBP. The active sites of FBPAs contain an aspartate residue equivalent to Asp255 of glFBPA, whereas tagatose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase contains an alanine in this position. We and others hypothesized that this aspartic acid is a likely determinant of FBP versus TBP specificity. Replacement of Asp255 with an alanine resulted in an enzyme that possesses double specificity, now cleaving TBP (albeit with low efficacy; k(cat)/K(m) = 80 M(-1) s(-1)) while maintaining activity toward FBP at a 50-fold lower catalytic efficacy compared with that of wild-type FBPA. The collection of structures and sequence analyses highlighted additional residues that may be involved in substrate discrimination. PMID:19236002

Galkin, Andrey; Li, Zhimin; Li, Ling; Kulakova, Liudmila; Pal, Lipika R; Dunaway-Mariano, Debra; Herzberg, Osnat

2009-04-14

318

Enteric parasites and HIV infection: occurrence in AIDS patients in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil / Parasitas entéricos e infecção pelo HIV: ocorrência em pacientes com SIDA/AIDS no Rio de Janeiro, Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A ocorrência de parasitas intestinais, sua relação com o mecanismo de transmissão do HIV e a apresentação clínica da AIDS foram analisadas em 99 pacientes do grupo IV (CDC, 1986), atendidos no Hospital Universitário Pedro Ernesto (HUPE) entre 1986 e 1988. O grupo era constituído de 79 (79,9%) pacien [...] tes cujo mecanismos de transmssão do HIV se deu por via sexual e de 16 (20,2%) que se infectaram por via sanguínea. Amostras de fezes de cada paciente foram examinadas por quatro métodos distintos (Faust et al., Kato-Katz, Baermann-Moraes e Baxby et al.). Os parasitos mais frqüentemente encontrados foram: Cryptosporidium sp., Entamoeba coli e Endolimax nana (18,2%) seguidos de Strongyloides stercoralis e Giardia lamblia (15,2%), E. histolytica e/ou E. hartmanni (13,1%), Ascaris lumbricoides (11,1%) e Isospora belii (10,1%), sendo que 74,4% dos pacientes com AIDS albergavam pelo menos uma espécie. Observamos que 78,5% dos pacientes que adquiriram o HIV por via sexual e 56,3% dos que foram infectados por via sanguínea albergavam parasitos intestinais, mas a diferença não foi estatisticamente significativa (p>0,05). O mecanisto de infecção por via sexual não parece contribuir de forma importante para o aumento da ocorrência de infecções parasitárias no grupo estudado e sim os mecanismos clássicos de transmissão de parasitos em nosso meio. Abstract in english The occurrence of intestinal parasites, its relation with the transmission mechanism of HIV, and the clinical state of the AIDS patients, were analyzed in 99 Group IV patients (CDC, 1986), treated at "Hospital Universitário Pedro Ernesto" (HUPE), between 1986 and 1988. The group consisted of 79 (79. [...] 8%) patients whose HIV transmission mechanism took place through sexual contact and of 16 (20.2%) who were infected through blood. Feces samples from each patient were examined by four distincts methods (Faust et al, Kato-Katz, Baermann-Moraes and Baxby et al.). The moste occuring parasites were: Cryptosporidium sp., Entamoeba coli and Endolimax nana (18.2%), Strongyloides stercoralis and Giardia lambia (15.2%). E. histolytica and/or E. hartmanni (13.1%), Ascaris lumbricoides (11.1%) and Isospora belli (10.1%). Furthermore, 74.7% of the patients carried at least one species. Intestinal parasites were found in 78.5% of the patients who acquired the HIV through sexual intercourse and in 56,3% of those infected by blood contamination. The difference, was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). In the group under study, the increase of the occurrence of parasitc infections does not seem to depend on the acquisiton of HIV through sexual contact. It appears that in developing countries, the dependancy is more related to the classic mechanisms of parasites transmission and its endemicity.

H., Moura; O., Fernandes; J. P. B., Viola; S. P., Silva; R. H., Passos; D. B., Lima.

1989-12-01

319

Increased expression of CD25, CD83, and CD86, and secretion of IL-12, IL-23, and IL-10 by human dendritic cells incubated in the presence of Toll-like receptor 2 ligands and Giardia duodenalis  

OpenAIRE

Background: Effects of Giardia duodenalis on dendritic cell (DC) functions may contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic giardiasis. G. duodenalis lysate has been shown to inhibit the activation of murine DCs through the ligands of various Toll-like receptors (TLRs), including TLR2 and TLR4. Our study aimed at translating these findings to human DCs. Findings: As described previously for murine DCs, also human DCs were only weakly activated by the parasite itself. LPS...

Obendorf, Janine; Viveros, Pablo Renner; Fehlings, Michael; Klotz, Christian; Aebischer, Toni; Ignatius, Ralf

2013-01-01

320

Interacting parasites  

Science.gov (United States)

Parasitism is the most popular life-style on Earth, and many vertebrates host more than one kind of parasite at a time. A common assumption is that parasite species rarely interact, because they often exploit different tissues in a host, and this use of discrete resources limits competition (1). On page 243 of this issue, however, Telfer et al. (2) provide a convincing case of a highly interactive parasite community in voles, and show how infection with one parasite can affect susceptibility to others. If some human parasites are equally interactive, our current, disease-by-disease approach to modeling and treating infectious diseases is inadequate (3).

Lafferty, Kevin D.

2010-01-01

321

Prevalence of zoonotic and other gastrointestinal parasites in police and house dogs in Alexandria, Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim: This work estimates the gastrointestinal parasites of police and house dogs in Egypt with reference to its zoonotic risk. Materials and Methods: Fecal samples of 180 from police and house dogs were collected and then examined by different flotation and sedimentation techniques. Results: Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in police dogs was 7.5% and, in house dogs was 40%. Fecal examination of 120 police dogs revealed Toxocara canis eggs in 0.8%, Ancylsotoma caninum 1.7%, Trichuris vulpis 0.8 %, Cystoisospora canis 4.2% and Giardia species1.7%. Examination of 60 house dogs revealed Toxocaracanis eggs in 5% and Toxoascaris leonina 1.7 %, Cystoisospora canis 3.3%, Giardia species 31.7%, Entamoeba histolytica 18.3% and Cryptosporidium spp. 1.7%. Furthermore, age, sex, uncooked feed and communal housing revealed significant enteric parasite (P <0.05. Moreover, the zoonotic risks of police and house dogs were T. canis, A. caninum, T. vulpis, Giardia species, E. Histolytica and Cryptosporidium species. The puppies are representing the most zoonotic risk. Conclusion: In spite of, hygienic measures, regular deworming and high quality feeding of police and house dogs, a range of different parasites were recorded in this work. Parasitic zoonosis from police and house dogs has to be considered, especially for dog trainers and owners.

W. M. Ahmed

2014-05-01

322

Static tank depuration and chronic short-term experimental contamination of Eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) with Giardia duodenalis cysts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cysts of the protozoan parasite Giardia have been detected in many bivalve shellfish species worldwide. The detection of zoonotic Giardia duodenalis assemblages A and B is of public health concern, yet there is limited data available demonstrating the bioaccumulation and elimination of Giardia cysts in bivalve shellfish. This study quantified G. duodenalis cysts that were filtered and retained by oysters (Crassostrea virginica) over a one week chronic exposure period, or 24hour exposure followed by a 6day depuration period, using static tank systems containing 10L of 29ppt water inoculated with 1000 or 10,000 cysts. Under chronic exposure, each oyster retained a mean of 13.4 and 87.4 cysts during the first 24h of exposure at low and high doses, respectively, and the cysts bioaccumulated at a rate of 1.2 and 6.8cysts/oyster/day, respectively, for the remaining duration of the trials. In acute exposure trials, oysters retained 13.8 cysts or 78.9 cysts at low and high doses, respectively, during the initial 24hour exposure and naturally depurated cysts at a rate of -0.92cysts/oyster/day and -2.2cysts/oyster/day, respectively, after transfer. Although most G. duodenalis cysts were eliminated within the first 24h via pseudofeces and feces, detection of some cysts in the fecal material on day 7 of acute exposure trials was indicative of cysts which passed through the digestive tract and released in feces. Only 48-53% of the initial tank inocula were recovered and may indicate that some cysts were selectively filtered by oysters but degraded through digestion. PMID:25305439

Willis, Jessica E; McClure, J T; McClure, Carol; Spears, Jonathan; Davidson, Jeff; Greenwood, Spencer J

2015-01-01

323

Progress report on the project: Studies with doubly labelled water of adaptation in human energy needs in Mexico  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study was conducted to determine the prevalence and nutritional impact of Giardia lamblia on vitamin A status and growth. 125 children aged 3-6 years were studied. This paper reports about the experiments and the results. The results show an epidemilogical level that Giardia could be a factor contributing to impaired physical growth and that heavy loads of the parasites might have a negative effect on vitamin A levels. 8 refs

324

MOLECULAR TYPING OF Giardia duodenalis ISOLATES FROM NONHUMAN PRIMATES HOUSED IN A BRAZILIAN ZOO / Genotipagem de isolados de Giardia duodenalis de primatas não humanos mantidos em zoológico do Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A pesquisa de infecções por Giardia e a caracterização genotípica deste protozoário foi realizada em primatas não humanos (PNH) mantidos em Zoológico a fim de avaliar o seu potencial zoonótico. As amostras dos animais consistiram de fezes colhidas do piso de 22 baias onde eram mantidos 47 primatas d [...] e 18 diferentes espécies. Exames coproparasitológicos foram realizados pelos métodos de concentração por sedimentação e centrífugo-flutuação e revelaram a presença dos seguintes parasitas e suas respectivas frequências: Giardia (18%); Entamoeba spp. (18%); Endolimax nana (4.5%); Iodamoeba spp. (4.5%); oxiurídeos (4.5%) e estrongilídeos (4.5%). O DNA extraído de todas as amostras fecais foi submetido à técnica de PCR para a amplificação dos genes gdh e tpi de Giardia, porém, só foram obtidos amplicons das quatro amostras positivas provenientes de Ateles belzebuth, Alouatta caraya, Alouatta fusca and Alouatta seniculus. O seqüenciamento dos fragmentos amplificados foi possível apenas para as amostras oriundas de Ateles belzebuth (BA1), Alouatta fusca (BA2) e Alouatta caraya (BA3), cuja análise fenética de ambos os genes revelou pertencerem ao genótipo A. As análises das sequências de tpi revelaram que todas as amostras pertencem ao subgenótipo AII. No que se refere ao gene gdh as análises revelaram uma amostra pertencente ao subgenótipo AII (BA3) e duas ao subgenótipo A1 (BA1 e BA2). Considerando o potencial zoonótico do genótipo A e o fato de que os animais não apresentavam sintomas de infecção, os dados do presente trabalho salientam a importância de se realizar, periodicamente, exames coproparasitológicos dos animais de zoológico, para implementação de medidas preventivas para resguardar a saúde dos animais em cativeiro, a de seus tratadores e dos visitantes de parques zoológicos. Abstract in english Giardia infections in captive nonhuman primates (NHP) housed at a Brazilian zoo were investigated in order to address their zoonotic potential. Fresh fecal samples were collected from the floors of 22 enclosures where 47 primates of 18 different species were housed. The diagnosis of intestinal paras [...] ites after concentration by sedimentation and flotation methods revealed the following parasites and their frequencies: Giardia (18%); Entamoeba spp. (18%); Endolimax nana (4.5%); Iodamoeba spp. (4.5%); Oxyurid (4.5%) and Strongylid (4.5%). Genomic DNA extracted from all samples was processed by PCR methods in order to amplify fragments of gdh and tpi genes of Giardia. Amplicons were obtained from samples of Ateles belzebuth, Alouatta caraya, Alouatta fusca and Alouatta seniculus. Clear sequences were only obtained for the isolates from Ateles belzebuth (BA1), Alouatta fusca (BA2) and Alouatta caraya (BA3). According to the phenetic analyses of these sequences, all were classified as assemblage A. For the tpi gene, all three isolates were grouped into sub-assemblage AII (BA1, BA2 and BA3) whereas for the gdh gene, only BA3 was sub-assemblage AII, and the BA1 and BA2 were sub-assemblage AI. Considering the zoonotic potential of the assemblage A, and that the animals of the present study show no clinical signs of infection, the data obtained here stresses that regular coproparasitological surveys are necessary to implement preventive measures and safeguard the health of the captive animals, of their caretakers and of people visiting the zoological gardens.

Erica Boarato, David; Mariella, Patti; Silvana Torossian, Coradi; Teresa Cristina Goulart, Oliveira-Sequeira; Paulo Eduardo Martins, Ribolla; Semiramis, Guimaraes.

2014-01-01

325

THE EFFICIENCY OF YARN WOUND FILTERS IN GIARDIA CYSTS REMOVAL USING THE IMPROVED SUCROSE GRADIENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction. The protozoan parasite Giardia is one of the important biological cotaminants in water. lts presence in water has caused the outbreak of a number of epidemics in various part of the world including the United States. The major impediment in detecting this particular parasite is unavailability of suitable filters capable of removing it from water. Regarding the fact yarn wound filters (cartridge used in removing Giardia under laboratory condition are currently difficult to obtain in Iran, attempts were made to design and manufacture the filters according to standards recommended in the literature. Methods. To determine the efficiency of filters manufactured in this way, a pilot system was established and parameters of concern were investigated. A given number of cysts were introduced in each case to the water in the pilot tank after being counted on the hemocytometer lamella After the entire tank water (at least 4001had been pumped through the filters, the filter were removed from the pilot system to have their yarns separated and washed. The cysts recovered were then counted and compared with the original input cysts to determine the efficiency of the filters. Formation of sediments on filters due to suspended solids in water was a great impediment in counting the cysts hidden in the sediments. To overcome this difficulty, the method of floatation in sucrose was used to remove the hidden cysts from the sediments. Regarding the morphological characteristics of the cysts, the method was also studied in terms of the sucrose film concentration and the effects of centrifugal speed and duration on the removal of cysts from sediments. Results. The results indicated an efficiency of 80.69±5.85, which was ideal for a first experience in Iran. a level of 2.5 molar of Sucrose with a duration of 10 minutes for the centrifugation time at 2,000 rpm were considered to be optimum levels to yield a certainty of 95 percent and an efficiency of 89.95±4.25 . Discussion. The comparison of the efficiency obtained with those obtained across the world from the application of other techniques associated with this method indicated that this filter was advantages to similar filters, keeping in mind also that this filter can be used in field situations. It is essential to modify in each region the method of cyst removal from sediments using Sucrose gradient according to the particular morphological characteristics and density of cystes. The optimization of Sucrose gradient and the centrifugation duration and speed seems equally important.

M.R SHAH MANSOURI

2001-09-01

326

Cryptosporidiosis and other intestinal parasites in 3 Yemeni orphanages: prevalence, risk, and morbidity.  

Science.gov (United States)

The epidemiological pattern of cryptosporidiosis and other intestinal parasites were studied among 3 orphanages in Sana'a City. A total of 292 orphans (225 males & 67 females), aged 4-20 years old were recruited. A questionnaire of demographic information, health status and other relevant information was filled out for each one. Fresh stool specimens were processed by wet mount preparation, formalin-ether concentration and MZL stain. Among 292 orphans, the overall parasitic rate was 62.7%. C. parvum showed highest prevalence (24%) followed by G. lamblia (16.8%), E. histolytica /E.dispar (13%), and then E. coli (18.5%). Hymenolepis nana was in 7.2% of children but only 3 cases of Ascaris lumbricoides. The risk of C. parvum was significantly higher in children < or = 10 years of age compared to older ones (OR = 3.86). The risk of other parasites did not differ significantly with orphans' age. Males showed 2.634 risk of C. parvum and 1.657 risk of G. lamblia compared to females with statistically significant difference. Bad personal hygiene was associated with higher risk of cryptosporidiosis (OR = 2.634, CI = 1.483-4.677) but the risk of other parasites was not significant. Diarrhea and abdominal pain were recorded in the three orphans, but without significance associated with parasites, either overall or for individual species but, A. lumbricoides was detected in 3 diarrheic children. PMID:19530632

Al-Shibani, Latifa A; Azazy, Ahmed A; El-Taweel, Hend A

2009-04-01

327

Research concerning intestinal parasitosis in infant population discovered in two clinic laboratories from Oradea (Romania  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Considering the research made and the data offered by the specialists in parasitology from Oradea’s no.1 Polyclinic and Children’s Hospital, we have established that children from 1 to 18 years old have been found infected with 7 species of human parasites. Giardia lamblia, Blastocystis hominis, Ascaris lumbricoides, Oxyurus vermicularis, Trichurus trichiura, Hymenolepis nana, Hymenolepis diminuta.

Daniel-Dumitru PORTELECHI

2006-05-01

328

Research concerning intestinal parasitosis in infant population discovered in two clinic laboratories from Oradea (Romania)  

OpenAIRE

Considering the research made and the data offered by the specialists in parasitology from Oradea’s no.1 Polyclinic and Children’s Hospital, we have established that children from 1 to 18 years old have been found infected with 7 species of human parasites. Giardia lamblia, Blastocystis hominis, Ascaris lumbricoides, Oxyurus vermicularis, Trichurus trichiura, Hymenolepis nana, Hymenolepis diminuta.

Portelechi, Daniel-dumitru; Tomescu, Nicolae

2006-01-01

329

Detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia doudenalis in equines in Nineveh, Iraq  

OpenAIRE

A total of 107 fecal samples of equines from different regions in Nineveh, were colleted from January 2007 till December 2007 and examined for Cryptosporidium sp., and Giardia doudenalis by using different methods (wet mount, flotation, lugol's iodine, modified Ziehl Nelsecn (hot) and Giemsa stain Just for Giardia doudenalis. The animal age examined ranged from 4 to 10 years. The total prevalence of cryptosporidium sp. was 27.10% (29 out of 107), while the prevalence of Giardia doudenalis was...

Butty, E. T.

2011-01-01

330

Giardia Cysts in Wastewater Treatment Plants in Italy  

OpenAIRE

Reductions in annual rainfall in some regions and increased human consumption have caused a shortage of water resources at the global level. The recycling of treated wastewaters has been suggested for certain domestic, industrial, and agricultural activities. The importance of microbiological and parasitological criteria for recycled water has been repeatedly emphasized. Among water-borne pathogens, protozoa of the genera Giardia and Cryptosporidium are known to be highly resistant to water t...

Caccio?, Simone M.; Giacomo, Marzia; Aulicino, Francesca A.; Pozio, Edoardo

2003-01-01

331

Parasitic diseases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Foundations of roentgenological semiotics of parasitic diseases of lungs, w hich are of the greatest practical value, are presented. Roentgenological pictu res of the following parasitic diseases: hydatid and alveolar echinococcosis, pa ragonimiasis, toxoplasmosis, ascariasis, amebiasis, bilharziasis (Schistosomias is) of lungs, are considered

332

USE OF IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE AND PHASE-CONTRAST MICROSCOPY FOR DETECTION AND IDENTIFICATION OF 'GIARDIA' CYSTS IN WATER SAMPLES  

Science.gov (United States)

A method was developed in which indirect immunofluorescence and phase-contrast microscopy are used for rapid detection and identification of Giardia cysts in raw and finished water supplies. When anti-Giardia cyst antiserum and fluorescein conjugate were applied to known Giardia ...

333

Occurrence of Campylobacter jejuni and Giardia species in muskrat (Ondatra zibethica).  

OpenAIRE

A total of 189 muskrat fecal samples were surveyed for Campylobacter and Giardia species. Campylobacter jejuni was recovered from 47.5% of these samples, and Giardia species were detected in 82.5%. These findings indicate that muskrat may be of importance to the health both of humans and of domestic animals.

Pacha, R. E.; Clark, G. W.; Williams, E. A.

1985-01-01

334

OCCURRENCE OF 'CAMPYLOBACTER JEJUNI' AND 'GIARDIA SPECIES' IN MUSKRAT (ONDATRA ZIBETHICA)  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of 189 muskrat fecal samples were surveyed for Campylobacter and Giardia species. Campylobacter jejuni was recovered from 47.5% of these samples, and Giardia species were detected in 82.5%. These findings indicate that muskrat may be of importance to the health both of hu...

335

DETECTION AND IDENTIFICATION OF 'GIARDIA' CYSTS USING IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE AND PHASE CONTRAST MICROSCOPY  

Science.gov (United States)

Detection and identification of Giardia cysts in water samples has been improved by the development of an immunofluorescent method that specifically stains Giardia cysts bright green and allows their easy detection against a black background. The report discusses aspects of the m...

336

Classy Parasites  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity (on pages 2-8), learners experience how scientists use classification in their study of animals. They sort pictures of parasites according to characteristics such as shape, size, wings, legs, body sections, cells, site on host organism, and food source. The "What We Know" section introduces divisions in the animal kingdom, including two broad groups of parasites—endoparasites that live inside a host organism, and ectoparasites that live on the exterior of or outside a host organism. Excerpts from the video and biography of parasitologist Judy Sakanari are available online, and the full version of the video can be purchased in the commercial Wonderwise Parasite Sleuth Kit.

University of Nebraska State Museum

2001-01-01

337

Dientamoeba Fragilis in Gaza Strip: a Neglected Protozoan Parasite  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to detect Dientamoeba fragilis by iron haematoxylin stain, as well as its prevalence, and association between D. fragilis infection and diarrhoea among pa­tients attending Al-Nuseirate Refugee Camp Clinic, Gaza Strip.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 319 children and adults with age ranges from (1 to 75 years old, attending Al-Nussirat Clinic, and who were complaining from clinical symp­toms, like diarrhoea and abdominal pain.Results: 28 individuals were infected with D. fragilis with a prevalence of 8.8%. The detection of 28 cases infected with D. fragilis was proved using iron haematoxylin stain, but no case was detected by direct smear or formal-ether sedimentation technique. The most frequent symptoms were abdominal pain (96.4% and diarrhoea (71.4% in patients with diantamoebiasis and this was statistically signifi­cant (P= 0.03. Co-infection between D. fragilis and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar was 50% and between D. fragilis and Giardia lamblia was 7.1%.Conclusion: D. fragilis was present in the patients stool samples and was detected and proved using iron haematoxylin stain.

Adnan I Al-Hindi

2013-06-01

338

Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Swimming Pools, Atlanta, Georgia  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

In this podcast, Dan Rutz speaks with Dr. Joan Shields, a guest researcher with the Healthy Swimming Program at CDC, about an article in June 2008 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases reporting on the results of a test of swimming pools in the greater Atlanta, Georgia area. Dr. Shields tested 160 pools in metro Atlanta last year for Cryptosporidium and Giardia. These germs cause most recreational water associated outbreaks.  Created: 5/29/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 5/29/2008.

2008-05-29

339

Cryptosporidium and Giardia in different age groups of Danish cattle and pigs - Occurrence and management associated risk factors  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

To obtain information both about the prevalence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in Danish cattle and pigs as well as the possible influence of different management systems on the occurrence and intensity of infection, we conducted an epidemiological survey comprising 50 randomly selected dairy and sow herds, respectively. Each herd was visited once for the collection of faecal samples and registration of basic management parameters. Faecal samples were collected from three different age groups of animals, i.e. 5 sows/cows. 10 nursing piglets/calves less than 1 month, and 10 weaner pigs 8-45 kg/calves 1-12 months. The faecal samples were purified and the number of (oo)cysts quantified. The study revealed an age-specific herd prevalence of Cryptosporidium of 16, 31 and 100% for sows, piglets and weaners, respectively, and of 14, 96 and 84% for cows, young calves and older calves, respectively. For Giardia the age-specific herd prevalence was 18, 22 and 84% for the sows, piglets and weaners, while for cattle herds the prevalence was 60, 82 and 100% for cows, young calves and older calves, correspondingly. The (oo)cyst excretion levels varied considerably both within and between herds for all age groups. Risk factors were evaluated by using proportional odds models with (oo)cyst excretion levels divided into four categories as response. Among the numerous risk factors examined, only a few were demonstrated to have a statistically significant influence, e.g. the use of an empty period in the calf pen between introduction of calves for both parasites had a protective effect in young calves. For weaners, use of straw in the pen and high pressure cleaning between batches of weaners had a preventive effect against higher Cryptosporidium oocyst excretion levels.

Maddox-Hyttel, Charlotte; Langkjær, Rikke Breinhold

2006-01-01

340

A wide diversity of zoonotic intestinal parasites infects urban and rural dogs in Neuquén, Patagonia, Argentina  

OpenAIRE

The presence of parasites was investigated by the examination of 1944 dog faecal samples collected from urban (n=646) and rural (n=1298) areas of the province of Neuquén, Patagonia, Argentina. Parasitic agents (PA) were found in 37.86% of samples. A total of 15 different PA were detected, including Toxocara canis (16.35%), Taenia spp./Echinococcus spp. (12.65%), Trichurisvulpis (6.06%), Giardia spp. (1.29%), Toxascaris leonina (0.56%), Ancylostomacaninum (0.41%), Dipylidium caninum (0.31%), ...

Soriano, Silvia Viviana; Piera?ngeli, Nora Beatriz; Roccia, Irene; Lazzarini, Lorena Evelina; Celescinco, Alejandra; Saiz, Mo?nica Susana; Kossman, Alejandra; Contreras, Pablo Adria?n; Arias, Cecilia; Basualdo Farjat, Juan A?ngel

2010-01-01

341

Prevalencia de Giardia sp. en Canis familiaris de los distritos de la Provincia Constitucional del Callao  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la prevalencia de Giardia sp. en la población canina doméstica de los 6 distritos que conforman la Provincia Constitucional del Callao. Se colectaron 385 muestras fecales de perros, aparentemente normales, de ambos sexos, de diferentes edades y de acuerdo a [...] la zona en donde habitaban sus propietarios. Las muestras fueron procesadas mediante la técnica de sedimentación espontánea encontrándose una prevalencia de 9.4 ± 2% de Giardia sp. Se cuantificó la asociación entre la presencia del parásito y las características físicas de las heces, estrato distrital de procedencia, sexo y edad del canino mediante la prueba de regresión logística, determinándose una relación estadísticamente significativa entre el hallazgo de quistes de Giardia sp. y las características físicas de las muestras. Los resultados denotan una parasitosis moderada de Giardia sp. en los caninos, evidenciando un riesgo zoonótico, por lo que se hace necesario el establecimiento de programas educativos para prevenir la posibilidad de contagio, especialmente en la población infantil. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to determine the Giardia sp. prevalence in household dog populations on the six districts of the Provincia Constitucional del Callao. Fecal samples were collected from 385 apparently healthy dogs of various ages and processed by the spontaneous sedimentation technique. The [...] results indicated the 9.4 ± 2% (36/385) of the canine population were positive to Giardia sp. cysts. Relationships between cysts detection and fecal samples characteristics, and origin, sex and age of dogs were analyzed by logistic regression. A significant statistical relationship was found between Giardia sp. detection and physical characteristics of fecal samples. Results show a moderate Giardia sp. infection in dogs which evidences a zoonotic risk that highlight the necessity of setting up educational programmes in order to prevent Giardia sp. Transmission, especially to infant population.

William, Araujo T.; Amanda, Chávez V.; Eva, Casas A.; Néstor, Falcón P..

2004-07-01

342

The prevalence and diversity of intestinal parasitic infections in humans and domestic animals in a rural Cambodian village  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In Cambodia, intestinal parasitic infections are prevalent in humans and particularly in children. Yet, information on potentially zoonotic parasites in animal reservoir hosts is lacking. In May 2012, faecal samples from 218 humans, 94 dogs and 76 pigs were collected from 67 households in Dong village, Preah Vihear province, Cambodia. Faecal samples were examined microscopically using sodium nitrate and zinc sulphate flotation methods, the Baermann method, Koga Agar plate culture, formalin-ether concentration technique and Kato Katz technique. PCR was used to confirm hookworm, Ascaris spp., Giardia spp. and Blastocystis spp. Major gastrointestinal parasitic infections found in humans included hookworms (63.3%), Entamoeba spp. (27.1%) and Strongyloides stercoralis (24.3%). In dogs, hookworm (80.8%), Spirometra spp. (21.3%) and Strongyloides spp. (14.9%) were most commonly detected and in pigs Isospora suis (75.0%), Oesophagostomum spp. (73.7%) and Entamoeba spp. (31.6%) were found. Eleven parasite species weredetected in dogs (eight helminths and three protozoa), seven of which have zoonotic potential, including hookworm, Strongyloides spp., Trichuris spp., Toxocara canis, Echinostoma spp., Giardia duodenalis and Entamoeba spp. Five of the parasite species detected in pigs also have zoonotic potential, including Ascaris spp., Trichuris spp., Capillaria spp., Balantidium coli and Entamoeba spp. Further molecular epidemiological studies will aid characterisation of parasite species and genotypes and allow further insight into the potential for zoonotic cross transmission of parasites in this community.

Schär, Fabian; Inpankaew, Tawin

2014-01-01

343

Opportunistic parasites in children with pneumococcal infection in greater Cairo, Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vaccination remains the primary preventive strategy in the elderly against Streptococcus pneumoniae and influenza infections. However, the effectiveness of vaccines decreases with increasing age and among patients. This study evaluated the opportunistic parasites infecting vaccinated and non-vaccinated pneumococcal children. The result showed that Invasive children (4%) had bacternrmid, septicemid and pneumococcal but no meningitis while the non-invasive ones (86%) had community acquired freunonia and otitis media. The non-vaccinated children were at risk of Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostoma duodenale, Trichuris trichura, Schistosoma mansoni, S. haematobium, bancroftian microfilaria, Enterobius vermicularis, Hymenolepis nana, Giadia lamblia, Entaemeba histolytica and Trichomonas vaginalis. PMID:23469649

Geneidy, Morsy R; El-Dahshan, Tarek A; Metwally, Karima M

2012-12-01

344

Detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia doudenalis in equines in Nineveh, Iraq  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A total of 107 fecal samples of equines from different regions in Nineveh, were colleted from January 2007 till December 2007 and examined for Cryptosporidium sp., and Giardia doudenalis by using different methods (wet mount, flotation, lugol's iodine, modified Ziehl Nelsecn (hot and Giemsa stain Just for Giardia doudenalis. The animal age examined ranged from 4 to 10 years. The total prevalence of cryptosporidium sp. was 27.10% (29 out of 107, while the prevalence of Giardia doudenalis was 19.63% (21 out of 107. This study represents the first trial to explore cryptosporidiosis, giardiasis in equines as in Nineveh there is no survey of these intestinal protozoa.

E. T. Butty

2011-01-01

345

Application of ATP measurement to evaluation of the growth of parasitic protozoa in vitro with a special reference to Pneumocystis carinii.  

Science.gov (United States)

1. There was a significant correlation between the increase in the number of Entamoeba histolytica, Trichomonas vaginalis, Giardia lamblia and Leishmania donovani in culture, and their ATP contents determined by luciferase reaction. 2. The similar correlation was also demonstrated between the decreased number of E. histolytica in the presence of an anti-amebic quassinoid and the nucleotide content in vitro. 3. In the case of Pneumocystis carinii, the numbers of the organism remained relatively constant in culture for at least 7 days without growth; however, the ATP content dropped rapidly in 1 to 3 days except in RPMI 1640. 4. The possibility that ATP determination of P. carinii is complicated by the host cell nucleotide seemed to be excluded, since the concentration of this nucleotide in normal lung was almost negligible. These observations suggest that the present procedure is useful for evaluating the growth and viability of these organisms in vitro. PMID:1685366

Miyahira, Y; Takeuchi, T

1991-01-01

346

Detection of variable DNA repeats in diverse eukaryotic microorganisms by a single set of polymerase chain reaction primers.  

OpenAIRE

We cloned and sequenced a variable DNA repeat from Trichomonas vaginalis, a flagellated protozoan parasite. Targeting of this repeat in the polymerase chain reaction resulted in complex and intense product patterns for a wide variety of eukaryotic microorganisms, including the pathogenic protozoan parasites T. vaginalis, Giardia lamblia, Leishmania donovani, three species of Trypanosoma, and four species of Acanthamoeba; the nonpathogenic protozoans, Paramecium tetraurelia and Tetrahymena the...

Riley, D. E.; Samadpour, M.; Krieger, J. N.

1991-01-01

347

Environmental epidemiology and public health in rural Ecuador  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of the present research was to determine the frequency and risk factors for common causes of morbidity in Santa Ana, Ecuador. Initial studies on intestinal parasitism identified several host-environment-related risk factors for Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Ascaris lumbricoides , and Giardia lamblia among children. A survey of 200 households revealed 65.6% of children were infected with these parasites. In the final multivariate logistic model, risk factors (p < 0.05) for parasiti...

Rinne, Seppo T.

2005-01-01

348

FILTRATION OF 'GIARDIA' CYSTS AND OTHER SUBSTANCES. VOLUME 1. DIATOMACEOUS EARTH FILTRATION  

Science.gov (United States)

The effectiveness of diatomaceous earth filtration of drinking water was studied under various operating conditions for removal of Giardia cysts, total coliform bacteria, standard plate count bacteria, turbidity, and particles. Seven grades of diatomaceous earth were used. Temper...

349

Evaluation of an Inhouse Rapid ELISA Test for Detection of Giardia in Domestic Sheep (Ovis aries)  

OpenAIRE

Sheep (Ovis aries) are increasingly used at our institution as models of human disease. Within the research environment, routine husbandry and handling of sheep has potential for transmission of zoonotic agents, including Giardia. The prevalence of Giardia in sheep may approach 68%. Classic diagnostic testing involves microscopic examination for fecal cysts or trophozoites; however, limitations of microscopy include time, labor, and potential false-negative results due to intermittent sheddin...

Wilson, Jolaine M.; Hankenson, F. Claire

2010-01-01

350

First investigations into the prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia spp. in Hungarian drinking water.  

Science.gov (United States)

Safe drinking water is a top priority in preventing disease outbreaks and is of general concern to everyone. This study examines the occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Hungarian drinking water supplies for the first time. A total of 76 raw and drinking water samples were examined using the U.S. EPA Method 1623. From these 15 of 34 (48.4%) raw water samples tested positive for Giardia and 7 (26.6%) for Cryptosporidium. Twelve of 45 (26.7%) drinking water samples were positive for Giardia and 6 (13.3%) for Cryptosporidium. Overall, Giardia cysts and/or Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in 48% of the raw water samples and 35% of the drinking water samples. The highest levels in drinking water were found to be 3 oocysts/100 litres of Cryptosporidium and 63.6 cysts/100 litres for Giardia, enough to cause giardiasis. The highest levels in raw water were 1,030 cysts/100 litres for Giardia and 50 oocysts/100 litres for Cryptosporidium and higher oocyst densities were associated with source water receiving effluents from sewage treatment plants or originating from a forest environment. In addition to this monitoring, riverbank filtrated water and raw water from the River Danube in Budapest were monitored in order to ascertain protozoan removal efficiency of riverbank filtration (RBF). A total of 157 samples, including 87 samples from the River Danube and 70 samples post RBF, were examined. Cryptosporidium and Giardia were detected regularly in the river water but never in riverbank filtered water suggesting the effectiveness of RBF as a purification method. The occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in the investigated water supplies may require the water utilities and water authorities in Hungary to apply additional monitoring and treatment and/or watershed controls. PMID:17878568

Plutzer, J; Takó, M H; Márialigeti, K; Törökné, A; Karanis, P

2007-12-01

351

Occurrence and potential health risk of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in different water catchments in Belgium.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human wastewater and livestock can contribute to contamination of surface water with Cryptosporidium and Giardia. In countries where a substantial proportion of drinking water is produced from surface water, e.g., Belgium, this poses a constant threat on drinking water safety. Our objective was to monitor the presence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in different water catchment sites in Belgium and to discriminate between (oo)cysts from human or animal origin using genotyping. Monthly samples were collected from raw water and purified drinking water at four catchment sites. Cryptosporidium and Giardia were detected using USEPA method 1623 and positive samples were genotyped. No contamination was found in purified water at any site. In three catchments, only low numbers of (oo)cysts were recovered from raw water samples (Genotyping of Giardia in 38 water samples identified the presence of Giardia duodenalis assemblage AI, AII, BIV, BIV-like, and E. Cryptosporidium andersoni, Cryptosporidium suis, Cryptosporidium horse genotype, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Cryptosporidium hominis were detected. The genotyping results suggest that agriculture may be a more important source of surface water contamination than human waste in this catchment. In catchment sites with contaminated surface water, such as the Blankaart, continuous monitoring of treated water for the presence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia would be justified and (point) sources of surface water contamination should be identified. PMID:25616782

Ehsan, Amimul; Geurden, Thomas; Casaert, Stijn; Paulussen, Jef; De Coster, Lut; Schoemaker, Toon; Chalmers, Rachel; Grit, Grietje; Vercruysse, Jozef; Claerebout, Edwin

2015-02-01

352

First studies on Giardia duodenalis in the water buffalo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A cross-sectional survey of Giardia duodenalis infection in the water buffalo was carried out in Central Italy. The survey was conducted on a sample of 90 farms, selected using a grid approach within a Geographical Information System, followed by proportional allocation. On each farm, faecal samples were collected from three to five asymptomatic buffalo calves, aged from 1 to 9 weeks (total number = 347. Each faecal sample was tested for the presence of copro-antigens of G. duodenalis using a commercially available ELISA. Out of the 90 farms, 27 (30.0% resulted positive. With respect to animals, out of the 347 faecal samples, 63 (18.1% were found to have antigens of G. duodenalis. The results of the logistic regression model showed a positive association between the positivity to G. duodenalis and the presence of sheep on farm.

G. Cringoli

2010-02-01

353

Giardia Patients in Bergen with Continued Complaints:Current Status on Gastrointestinal Complaints, anxiety, depression and neuroticism  

OpenAIRE

The aim was to investigate 111 former Giardia patients in Bergen, in context of the subjective health complaints field. Gastrointestinal complaints and its relation to anxiety, depression and neuroticism were assessed with GSRS, ROME II, HADS, and EPQ-R(N). Gender differences on these variables were investigated. We found that gender differences are related to complaints prior to Giardia infection. Anxiety and depression levels are high and only related to complaints prior to Giardia infectio...

Nordeide, Julia Jin Ese; Honningsva?g, Cecilie Jeanette

2008-01-01

354

Evaluation of the zoonotic potential of Giardia duodenalis in fecal samples from dogs and cats in Ontario  

OpenAIRE

This study determined the distribution and zoonotic potential of Giardia duodenalis assemblage types among canine and feline fecal samples from Ontario. The effectiveness of Giardia assemblage typing methods by sequencing the genes of small subunit ribosomal RNA (ssu-rRNA), ?-giardin (bg), glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), and triose phosphate isomerase (tpi) was evaluated simultaneously. From 2008 to 2010, 118 canine and 15 feline Giardia positive fecal samples were tested. The ssu-rRNA sequen...

Mcdowall, Rebeccah M.; Peregrine, Andrew S.; Leonard, Erin K.; Lacombe, Christopher; Lake, Mary; Rebelo, Ana R.; Cai, Hugh Y.

2011-01-01

355

Parasitic Contamination of Fresh Vegetables Consumed in Tabriz, Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fresh vegetables are an important part of a healthy diet. In recent years there has been an increase in the number of reported cases of food-borne illness linked to fresh vegetables. The consumption of raw vegetables is a major way in the transmission of parasitic contaminations. The goal of this study was to determine the parasitological contamination of vegetables sold at markets and obtained from gardens. A total of 100 samples from different vegetables were randomly selected from the markets and gardens (markets: 50; gardens: 50 and then were examined by a concentration method. Each sample was washed with water, allowing sedimentation at room temperature for 24 h. About 5 mL of sediment were centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 5 min. Sediment was examined in lugol stained slides through light microscopy. About 40% (20/50 of markets vegetables and 76% (38/50 of gardens vegetables were contaminated with different parasites. Prevalences of pathogenic parasites in vegetables of markets and gardens were 20 and 25%, respectively. Parasites detected were Giardia cysts (7%, Dicrocoelium eggs (4%, Fasciola eggs (3% and Ascaris eggs (1%. In regard to results of this study, the importance of vegetables in the transmission of intestinal parasites in stressed and it is necessary to improve the sanitary conditions of these kinds of food.

S. Pooryagoobi

2011-01-01

356

In vitro ANTIGIARDIAL ACTIVITY OF THE CYSTEINE PROTEASE INHIBITOR E-64 / Atividade in vitro do inibidor de cisteína-proteases E-64 sobre trofozoítos de Giardia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese As cisteína-proteases estão entre os alvos mais promissores para o desenvolvimento de novos agentes terapêuticos, visto que participam de eventos fundamentais do ciclo de vida de muitos microorganismos, inclusive Giardia. Como a atividade das proteases pode ser controlada por inibidores específicos, [...] essas substâncias têm sido avaliadas quanto ao potencial antiparasitário. Diante disso, o presente estudo teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito in vitro do inibidor de cisteína-proteases E-64 sobre o crescimento, a aderência e a viabilidade de trofozoítos de cepa de Giardia isolada em Botucatu. Nos ensaios de crescimento e aderência, o número de trofozoítos foi estimado microscopicamente em hemocitômetro, enquanto que a viabilidade celular foi avaliada pelo método do MTT. No presente estudo, embora o metronidazol tenha se apresentado bastante efetivo, o E-64 mostrou ser capaz de inibir o crescimento, a aderência e a viabilidade em taxas superiores a 50%, especialmente nos cultivos expostos à concentração de 100 µM. A despeito de preliminares, esses resultados demonstram que o inibidor E-64 pode interferir em processos primordiais para a sobrevivência do parasita, além do que, abrem novas perspectivas para investigações futuras a fim de se avaliar o real potencial giardicida dos inibidores de proteases. Abstract in english The quest for new antiparasitic alternatives has led researchers to base their studies on insights into biology, host-parasite interactions and pathogenesis. In this context, proteases and their inhibitors are focused, respectively, as druggable targets and new therapy alternatives. Herein, we propo [...] sed to evaluate the in vitro effect of the cysteine protease inhibitor E-64 on Giardia trophozoites growth, adherence and viability. Trophozoites (105) were exposed to E-64 at different final concentrations, for 24, 48 and 72 h at 37 °C. In the growth and adherence assays, the number of trophozoites was estimated microscopically in a haemocytometer, whereas cell viability was evaluated by a dye-reduction assay using MTT. The E-64 inhibitor showed effect on growth, adherence and viability of trophozoites, however, its better performance was detected in the 100 µM-treated cultures. Although metronidazole was more effective, the E-64 was shown to be able to inhibit growth, adherence and viability rates by ? 50%. These results reveal that E-64 can interfere in some crucial processes to the parasite survival and they open perspectives for future investigations in order to confirm the real antigiardial potential of the protease inhibitors.

Thais Batista de, Carvalho; Teresa Cristina Goulart, Oliveira-Sequeira; Semiramis, Guimaraes.

2014-01-01

357

Intestinal parasitism in the Xavánte Indians, Central Brazil Parasitas intestinais entre índios Xavánte, Brasil Central  

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Full Text Available This paper reports the findings of a survey for intestinal parasites among the Xavánte Indians from Central Brazil. A. lumbricoides (25.0% and hookworms (33.6% were the two most common helminths; E. histolytica complex (7.8% and G. lamblia (8.6% the most common protozoans. The majority (58.5% of positive individuals hosted only one species of helminth. Egg counts for helminths, and for A. lumbricoides in particular, were found to be not dispersed at random, with a few individuals, all of whom young children, showing very high counts. The prevalence rates of intestinal parasites for the Xavánte are below those reported for other Amerindian populations from Brazil.Este trabalho reporta os resultados de um inquérito transversal qualitativo e quantitativo sobre parasitas intestinais entre os Xavánte do Brasil Central. A. lumbricoides (25% e ancilostomídeos (33,6% foram os helmintos mais freqüentes; complexo E. histolytica (7,8% e G. lamblia (8,6% os protozoários mais comuns. A maioria dos indivíduos positivos albergava somente uma espécie de helminto (58,5%. Os resultados dos exames quantitativos indicaram que alguns poucos indivíduos, todos eles crianças, apresentavam concentrações particularmente elevadas de ovos de helmintos, particularmente no caso de A. lumbricoides. As prevalências de positividade dos Xavánte são inferiores àquelas reportadas para outros grupos indígenas do Brasil.

Ricardo V. Santos

1995-04-01

358

Diagnosis of Parasitic Diseases  

Science.gov (United States)

... of Parasitic Diseases Statistics More Information Information For Children Travelers Women Health Professionals Public Health Departments Laboratory Science Related Links Parasites A-Z Index Parasites Glossary Neglected Tropical Diseases ...

359

Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis as pathogenic contaminants of water in Galicia, Spain: the need for safe drinking water.  

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The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to detect the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis in drinking water treatments plants (DWTPs) in Galicia (NW Spain) and to identify which species and genotype of these pathogenic protozoans are present in the water. Samples of untreated water (surface or ground water sources) and of treated drinking water (in total, 254 samples) were collected from 127 DWTPs and analysed by an immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) and by PCR. Considering the untreated water samples, Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in 69 samples (54.3%) by IFAT, and DNA of this parasite was detected in 57 samples (44.8%) by PCR, whereas G. duodenalis was detected in 76 samples (59.8%) by IFAT and in 56 samples (44.0%) by PCR. Considering the treated drinking water samples, Cryptosporidium spp. was detected in 52 samples (40.9%) by IFAT, and the parasite DNA was detected in 51 samples (40.1%) by PCR, whereas G. duodenalis was detected in 58 samples (45.6%) by IFAT and in 43 samples (33.8%) by PCR. The percentage viability of the (oo)cysts ranged between 90.0% and 95.0% in all samples analysed. Cryptosporidium andersoni, C. hominis, C. parvum and assemblages A-I, A-II, E of G. duodenalis were identified. The results indicate that Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis are widespread in the environment and that DWTPs are largely ineffective in reducing/inactivating these pathogens in drinking water destined for human and animal consumption in Galicia. In conclusion, the findings suggest the need for better monitoring of water quality and identification of sources of contamination. PMID:25270421

Castro-Hermida, José Antonio; González-Warleta, Marta; Mezo, Mercedes

2015-01-01

360

Molecular characterization of Giardia duodenalis in children from the Cufada Lagoon Natural Park, Guinea-Bissau.  

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Molecular characterization of Giardia duodenalis in African countries is relatively scarce. The global understanding of Giardia epidemiology is reinforced when more data are available from highly endemic countries. In the present study, 50 fecal samples collected from children from Guinea-Bissau were screened for Giardia infection. Amplification of the Giardia ssu-rRNA fragment was achieved for 28 samples (28/50, 56.0 %) of which 23 (23/50, 46.0 %) positive samples for Giardia were detected through microscopy. Eighteen samples previous amplified for the ssu-rRNA locus were amplified for the bg gene fragment. Sequence analysis was performed in 26 and 17 samples for the ssu-rRNA and bg gene fragment, respectively. Our results revealed a predominance of assemblage B (22/26, 84.6 %), sequences with high genetic polymorphism among isolates belonging to this assemblage, making impossible the subassemblage determination. Assemblage A was identified in three isolates (3/26, 11.5 %), and our results strongly suggest that two isolates belong to subassemblage A2. This study provides information about G. duodenalis genotypes in a rural area of Guinea-Bissau and may contribute for a better understanding of giardiasis epidemiology in this country. PMID:22915269

Ferreira, Filipa Santana; Centeno-Lima, S; Gomes, J; Rosa, F; Rosado, V; Parreira, R; Cravo, L; Atouguia, J; Távora Tavira, L

2012-11-01

361

Parasitic diseases of lungs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Roentgenologic semiotics of the main parasitic diseases of lungs is described: echinococcosis, paragonimiasis, cysticercosis, toxoplasmosis, ascariasis, amebiosis and some rarely met parasitic diseases

362

Molecular Identification of Giardia duodenalis Isolates from Human and Animal Reservoirs by PCR-RFLP  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the genotypes of Giardia duodenalis from human and animal feces and their epidemiological in Iran. Molecular characterization of cysts of human and animal origin represents an objective means to approve or reject this hypothesis. In this study, cysts of Giardia duodenalis were collected from feces of naturally infected cats (n = 2, human (n = 34, dog (n = 2 and cattle (n = 3. PCR-RFLP analysis of the 34 specimens recovered from humans revealed 6 G. duodenalis assemblage AII, 8 G. duodenalis assemblage BIII and 4 G. duodenalis assemblage BIV. Among samples from cats, 1 was classified into assemblage AI. Genetic subgenotypes identified from human reveals that genetic diversity of this protozoan in East Azerbaijan, Iran, is similar to that of Giardia from other parts of the world. The present study represents the first contribution to the knowledge of G. duodenalis genotypes in Iran.

Esmaeel Fallah

2008-01-01

363

[The distribution of intestinal parasites detected in The Dokuz Eylul University Medical Faculty Hospital between 2005 and 2008.].  

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A retrospective evaluation of the data from 14,246 patients with gastrointestinal complaints who presented at the parasitology laboratory of the Dokuz Eylul University Medical Faculty Hospital between January 2005 and December 2008 was carried out. Fecal samples of all patients were examined using native-Lugol and the trichrome and Kinyoun acid-fast staining method after sedimentation in fecal concentration tubes. One or more parasites were detected in 1320 (9.3%) of the patients. The distribution of the intestinal parasites was as follows: Blastocystis hominis, 689 (4.83%); nonpathogenic amoebas, 108 (21.82%); Giardia intestinalis, 320 (2.24%); Enterobius vermicularis, 23 (0.16%); Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar, 34 (0.24%); and other rare parasites, 78 (0.54%). The results of this study emphasize the fact that intestinal parasitic infections are still an important public health problem. PMID:20340084

Usluca, Selma; Inceboz, Tonay; Over, Leyla; Tuncay, Sema; Yalçin, Gülter; Arcak, Serap Sah?n; Ozkoç, Soykan; Aksoy, Umit; Akisü, Ciler

2010-01-01

364

ISOLATION AND DETECTION OF GIARDIA CYSTS FROM WATER USING DIRECT IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.  

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A water-sampling apparatus used for the isolation and detection of Giardia cysts in water has been designed and tested. The sampling apparatus uses one of a variety of pumps or waterline pressure to move water through a filter. Two of the optional pumps are lightweight enough to make the apparatus portable and thus suitable for sampling in remote areas. This technique of sample processing produces good cyst recovery in much less time than is required with previously established methods. Giardia cysts are identified using direct immunofluorescence.

Sorenson, Stephen K.; Riggs, John L.; Dileanis, Peter D.; Suk, Thomas J.

1986-01-01

365

Dual probe DNA capture for sensitive real-time PCR detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia  

OpenAIRE

Nucleic acid amplification for the enteropathogens Cryptosporidium and Giardia is complicated by low target template concentrations and PCR inhibitors. In this work we designed dual capture oligonucleotides for both Cryptosporidium and Giardia 18S rRNA targets which when utilized during DNA extraction from stool improved the limit of detection of our multiplex PCR assay by 1-2 logs, to as little as 10 cysts. When applied to clinical specimens, the method improved the real-time PCR CT by an av...

Stroup, Suzanne; Tongjai, Siripong; Swai, Ndealilia; Maro, Athanasia; Kibiki, Gibson; Houpt, Eric R.

2012-01-01

366

Giardia duodenalis: effects of an ozonized sunflower oil product (Oleozon) on in vitro trophozoites.  

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The ozonized sunflower oil product (Oleozon) was investigated to explore its cytotoxic activity on Giardia duodenalis in vitro cultivated trophozites. Oleozon produced inactivation of Giardia trophozoites in a dose- and cell density-dependent manner. Thirty microliter of Oleozon with peroxide index value of 500 equivalent-mmol of activated oxygen per kilogram were used to achieve a 100% inhibition (Oleozon is one of the causes of the parasitocidal effect of this product. We suggest that the dose and cell density-dependent effect must be taken into account when prescription of this product for giardiasis treatment in humans. PMID:19010325

Hernández, Frank; Hernández, Damian; Zamora, Zullyt; Díaz, Maritza; Ancheta, Odelsa; Rodriguez, Sandra; Torres, Dinorah

2009-03-01

367

Intestinal parasites in Dakahlia governorate, with different techniques in diagnosing protozoa.  

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A total of 3180 patients attending Mansoura University Hospitals' Clinics, were subjected to stool examination by direct wet smear, formol-ether concentration, original formol-tween concentration, modified formol-tween concentration, modified Sheather's sugar floatation, Potassium hydroxide concentration and Gomori's Trichrome stain, and modified Kinyoun's acid-fast stain, and Ryan's Trichrome blue stain for Microsporidia. The intestinal helminthes in a descending order of abundance were: S. mansoni (5.3%), Fasciola sp. (4.8%), H. heterophyes (4.2%), Hymenolepis nana (3.9%), Trichostrongylus sp. (2.6%), A. lumbricoides (1.8%), Strongyloides stercoralis (1.5%), H. diminuta (1.4%), Taenia saginata (1.1%), E. vermicularis (by smear; 1.1 %), T. trichura (0.7%) and lastly A. duodenale (0.1%). The intestinal protozoa in a descending order of abundance were Blastocystis hominis (22.4%), Giardia lamblia (19.6%), Entamoeba histolytica/E.dispar (19%), Iodamoeba butschlii (16%), Cryptosporidium parvum (14.3%), E. coli (9.7%), Isospora hominis (7.7%), Endolimax nana (6.9%), E. hartmani (5.9%), Dientamoeba fragilis (5.1%), Chilomastix mesnili (5.1%), Trichomonas hominis (4.2%), Cyclospora cayetanensis (4.2%), Microsporidia spores (3.2%), Enteromonas hominis (1.9%) and Embadomonas intestinalis (1.3%). The results were discussed. PMID:17153711

El Shazly, Atef M; Awad, Soha E; Sultan, Doaa M; Sadek, Gehan S; Khalil, Hazem H M; Morsy, Tosson A

2006-12-01

368

[A retrospective evaluation of the prevalence of intestinal parasites in Istanbul, Turkey].  

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The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of intestinal parasites, in comparison to previous studies in Istanbul and different geographic regions of Turkey. Between January 1999-December 2009, a total of 27664 stool samples from patients with suspicious intestinal parasitic infections who were admitted to ?stanbul University Cerrahpasa Medical School Hospital were examined for intestinal parasites by using native lugol and formalin-ethyl acetate concentration technique, in adition to the scotch cellophane tape that was adapted to 1423 children to investigate the Enterobius vermicularis infection. Intestinal parasites were found in 1114 (4%) out of 27664 stool samples examined. The prevalence of intestinal parasites</