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Lectin Activation in Giardia lamblia by Host Protease: A Novel Host-Parasite Interaction  

Science.gov (United States)

A lectin in Giardia lamblia was activated by secretions from the human duodenum, the environment where the parasite lives. Incubation of the secretions with trypsin inhibitors prevented the appearance of lectin activity, implicating proteases as the activating agent. Accordingly, lectin activation was also produced by crystalline trypsin and Pronase; other proteases tested were ineffective. When activated, the lectin agglutinated intestinal cells to which the parasite adheres in vivo. The lectin was most specific to mannose-6-phosphate and apparently was bound to the plasma membrane. Activation of a parasite lectin by a host protease represents a novel mechanism of hostparasite interaction and may contribute to the affinity of Giardia lamblia to the infection site.

Lev, Boaz; Ward, Honorine; Keusch, Gerald T.; Pereira, Miercio E. A.

1986-04-01

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Trends of amino acid usage in the proteins from the unicellular parasite Giardia lamblia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Correspondence analysis of amino acid frequencies was applied to 75 complete coding sequences from the unicellular parasite Giardia lamblia, and it was found that three major factors influence the variability of amino acidic composition of proteins. The first trend strongly correlated with (a) the cysteine content and (b) the mean weight of the amino acids used in each protein. The second trend correlated with the global levels of hydropathy and aromaticity of each protein. Both axes might be related with the defense of the parasite to oxygen free radicals. Finally, the third trend correlated with the expressivity of each gene, indicating that in G. lamblia highly expressed sequences display a tendency to preferentially use a subset of the total amino acids. PMID:11162464

Garat, B; Musto, H

2000-12-29

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Trends of amino acid usage in the proteins from the unicellular parasite Giardia lamblia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Correspondence analysis of amino acid frequencies was applied to 75 complete coding sequences from the unicellular parasite Giardia lamblia, and it was found that three major factors influence the variability of amino acidic composition of proteins. The first trend strongly correlated with (a) the cysteine content and (b) the mean weight of the amino acids used in each protein. The second trend correlated with the global levels of hydropathy and aromaticity of each protein. Both axes might be related with the defense of the parasite to oxygen free radicals. Finally, the third trend correlated with the expressivity of each gene, indicating that in G. lamblia highly expressed sequences display a tendency to preferentially use a subset of the total amino acids.

Garat B; Musto H

2000-12-01

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Giardia lamblia: a major parasitic cause of childhood diarrhoea in patients attending a district hospital in Ghana.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Acute childhood diarrhoea remains one of the leading causes of childhood morbidity and mortality in developing countries. The WHO has accordingly underlined the need for epidemiological surveys of infantile diarrhoea in all geographical areas. This study was conducted to determine the incidence of intestinal parasites among stool samples from children examined at a secondary health care facility in a rural area of Ghana. METHOD: A retrospective study was conducted to investigate the incidence of intestinal parasites among children who had their stools examined at the Agogo Hospital laboratory. Stool microscopy results from January 2006 through May 2009 were obtained from archived records of the laboratory. Results for children less than 18 years were transcribed unto a standardized datasheet, entered into an electronic database designed using Microsoft® access 2007 and analyzed using Stata/SE11.1 statistical software. The incidences of the parasites were determined and presented with their Poisson exact 95% confidence intervals for the various ages. RESULTS: The median age of the 1080 children included in the study was 5 years (IQR: 2-12 years) with 51.9% being females. The overall incidence of all parasites was 114 per 1000 with Giardia lamblia being the most common (89.5%). Children aged less than a year had the lowest parasite incidence of 13 per 1000 with all being Giardia lamblia, while those aged 15-17 years had the highest of 169 per 1000. The incidence for Giardia lamblia only was lowest at 13 per 1000 for those under a year old, highest at 152 per 1000 for the 15-17 year group and 97 per 1000 for all ages combined. There was a significant rise in incidence of Giardia lamblia with age (Trend x2 = 18.6, p < 0.001). Five (4.3%) of the 118 positive stool samples had mixed parasites infection. Enterobius vermicularis, Taenia spp and Trichuris trichiura were not seen in any of the stool samples. CONCLUSION: Giardia lamblia is the most prevalent intestinal parasite in examined stool samples of children within the Ashanti Akim North Municipality and its prevalence significantly increases with age. Measures must be put in place to educate the community on proper personal hygiene to reduce giardiasis.

Nkrumah B; Nguah SB

2011-01-01

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Unusually Low Levels of Genetic Variation among Giardia lamblia Isolates? ‡  

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Giardia lamblia, an intestinal pathogen of mammals, including humans, is a significant cause of diarrheal disease around the world. Additionally, the parasite is found on a lineage which separated early from the main branch in eukaryotic evolution. The extent of genetic diversity among G. lamblia is...

Teodorovic, Smilja; Braverman, John M.; Elmendorf, Heidi G.

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A Rare Cause of Reactive Arthritis: Giardia Lamblia  

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Full Text Available Although many of parasitic infestations are known to cause arthritis development, articular findings related to parasitosis is rarely discussed in literature. The protozoa, Giardia lamblia is often known as gastroenteritis agent, on the other hand rarely causes reactive arthritis. The clinical presentation related to articulation are arthritis and arthralgia. In our report, a case with reactive arthritis due to Giardia lamblia is presented with emphasis on the differences in diagnosis and treatment.

Dilek Karaku?; Nilüfer Kutay Ordu Gökkaya; Fügen Oktay; Halil Uçan

2009-01-01

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Axenic growth of Giardia lamblia in Diamond's TPS-1 medium.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A strain of Giardia lamblia was gradually adapted to grow in Diamond's TPS-1 medium. The parasites grew luxuriantly and formed a monolayer on the surface of the culture vessels. When G. lamblia was inoculated into fresh medium, the population of the parasites grew from 22,000 cells/ml to peak numbers of 2.1 X 10(6)/ml in six days with a generation time of 12.2 hours at 37 degrees C. After a few days of incubation a sediment could be seen at the bottom of the tubes which contained a multitude of free-swimming Giardia as well as clumps of them. The sediment sometimes also contained many rings of Giardia. The rings were usually associated with dead Giardia cells containing a large bubble. Two, three and sometimes as many as six Giardia were seen surrounding the bubble. The bubble probably provides additional surface area to which the Giardia may attach.

Visvesvara GS

1980-01-01

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Giardia lamblia: a new target for miltefosine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Giardia lamblia, the causative agent of giardiasis, is an intestinal infection with worldwide distribution and high rates of prevalence. Increased resistance of the parasite and the side effects of the reference drugs employed in the treatment of giardiasis make it necessary to seek new therapeutic agents. Therefore,the aim of this study was to examine the activity of hexadecylphosphocholine (miltefosine), a membrane active alkylphospholipid, that is licensed as an antileishmanial agent against giardiasis. The efficacy of miltefosine was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo in Swiss albino mice. Results of the in vitro testing revealed susceptibility of G. lamblia trophozoites to miltefosine with the following effective concentrations:EC50s of between 20 and 40 lM, and EC90s of between 20 and 80 lM. Immediate total lysis of the organisms was achieved by 100 lM. In vivo testing showed that oral administration of miltefosine,in a daily dose regimen course of 20 mg/kg for three successive days, to infected mice resulted in total elimination of the parasite from the intestine and amelioration of intestinal pathology. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy studies revealed that miltefosine induced severe morphological alterations to G. lamblia trophozoites, mainly at the level of cell membrane and adhesive disc. In conclusion,we believe that this is the first study highlighting G. lamblia as a possible new target for miltefosine.

Eissa MM; Amer EI

2012-05-01

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INDUCTION OF ALBENDAZOLE RESISTANCE IN GIARDIA LAMBLIA  

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Previous studies have shown that Giardia lamblia resistance to metronidazole can be induced in the laboratory, and treatment failures with this drug have also been documented. As replacement theraples, anthelmintic benzimidazoles have antigiardial activity with few clinical side ...

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Comparison of the Triage Micro Parasite Panel and Microscopy for the Detection of Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium parvum in Stool Samples Collected in Kenya  

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Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium parvum are three of the most important parasitic causes of acute diarrhea worldwide. Laboratory diagnosis of these parasites is usually done by ova and parasite examination (O&P examination) via microscopy. The sensitivity and specificity...

Swierczewski, Brett; Odundo, Elizabeth; Ndonye, Janet; Kirera, Ronald; Odhiambo, Cliff; Oaks, Edwin

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Detection and Genotyping of Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium parvum by Oligonucleotide Microarray  

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Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium parvum are the most frequently identified protozoan parasites causing waterborne disease outbreaks. The morbidity and mortality associated with these intestinal parasitic infections warrant the development of rapid and accurate detection an...

Wang, Zheng; Vora, Gary J.; Stenger, David A.

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PURE CULTURE METHOD: GIARDIA LAMBLIA FROM DIFFERENT STOOL SAMPLES  

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Full Text Available Introduction. Giardiasis is one of the health problems in the world including Iran. To determine the biochemical and biological problems and also identification of various strains, it is essential to obtain pure culture and then mass production of Giardia lamblia. The goal of this study was to isolate this protozoa purely.Methods. Giardia lamblia cysts were isolated from 50 stool samples by use of floating of a four - layer of sucrose method. The cysts were transfered to an inducing solution. Subsequently, they were cultured in a modified culture medium (TYIS-33). Following excystation of trophozoite and its multiplication, the parasite was caltured and purified.Findings. Excitation of trophozoite was observed in 40 samples (80 percent) from which 22 samples (55 percent) yielded pure culture. The doubling time was approximately 13hr and the peak of parasite was observed between third and fourth days.Conclusion. The proliferation and growth rate of Giardia lamblia have enabled us to use this method widely. Cystein and ascorbic acid which are present in the induction solution, have a key role in excystation of trophozoite. Purification and passage of samples has facilitated the culture of this parasite in vitro. Therefore this method has yielded better results in comparison with other studies. This is probably due to a decrease in the amount of bovine bile or using different strains of Giardia lamblia in the present study.

H.A YOUSEFI

2000-01-01

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Azasterols impair Giardia lamblia proliferation and induces encystation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of sterol biosynthesis inhibitors on growth and fine structure of Giardia lamblia P1 strain cultures were analyzed. Azasterols demonstrated high efficacy in killing cells. The IC50 values for 22,26-azasterol and 24(R,S),25-epiminolanosterol were 7 ?M and 170 nM, respectively. Morphological analysis showed that azasterols induced changes in G. lamblia ultrastructure. The most significant alterations were: (a) considerable increase of the size of the peripheral vesicles, which are part of the parasite endosomal-lysosomal system; (b) appearance of autophagosomal structures; and (c) induction of differentiation, followed by an abnormal enlargement of encystation secretory vesicles. We propose that azasterols are effective chemotherapeutic drugs against Giardia lamblia in vitro and may have another target in cells besides sterol biosynthesis.

2007-11-16

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Putative SF2 helicases of the early-branching eukaryote Giardia lamblia are involved in antigenic variation and parasite differentiation into cysts  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Regulation of surface antigenic variation in Giardia lamblia is controlled post-transcriptionally by an RNA-interference (RNAi) pathway that includes a Dicer-like bidentate RNase III (gDicer). This enzyme, however, lacks the RNA helicase domain present in Dicer enzymes from higher eukaryotes. The participation of several RNA helicases in practically all organisms in which RNAi was studied suggests that RNA helicases are potentially involved in antigenic variation, as well as during Giardia differentiation into cysts. Results An extensive in silico analysis of the Giardia genome identified 32 putative Super Family 2 RNA helicases that contain almost all the conserved RNA helicase motifs. Phylogenetic studies and sequence analysis separated them into 22 DEAD-box, 6 DEAH-box and 4 Ski2p-box RNA helicases, some of which are homologs of well-characterized helicases from higher organisms. No Giardia putative helicase was found to have significant homology to the RNA helicase domain of Dicer enzymes. Additionally a series of up- and down-regulated putative RNA helicases were found during encystation and antigenic variation by qPCR experiments. Finally, we were able to recognize 14 additional putative helicases from three different families (RecQ family, Swi2/Snf2 and Rad3 family) that could be considered DNA helicases. Conclusions This is the first comprehensive analysis of the Super Family 2 helicases from the human intestinal parasite G. lamblia. The relative and variable expression of particular RNA helicases during both antigenic variation and encystation agrees with the proposed participation of these enzymes during both adaptive processes. The putatives RNA and DNA helicases identified in this early-branching eukaryote provide initial information regarding the biological role of these enzymes in cell adaptation and differentiation.

Gargantini Pablo R; Serradell Marianela C; Torri Alessandro; Lujan Hugo D

2012-01-01

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Determining the molecular mechanism of inactivation by chemical modification of triosephosphate isomerase from the human parasite Giardia lamblia: a study for antiparasitic drug design.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Giardiasis, the most prevalent intestinal parasitosis in humans, is caused by Giardia lamblia. Current drug therapies have adverse effects on the host, and resistant strains against these drugs have been reported, demonstrating an urgent need to design more specific antigiardiasic drugs. ATP production in G. lamblia depends mainly on glycolysis; therefore, all enzymes of this pathway have been proposed as potential drug targets. We previously demonstrated that the glycolytic enzyme triosephosphate isomerase from G. lamblia (GlTIM), could be completely inactivated by low micromolar concentrations of thiol-reactive compounds, whereas, in the same conditions, the activity of human TIM (HuTIM) was almost unaltered. We found that the chemical modification (derivatization) of at least one Cys, of the five Cys residues per monomer in GlTIM, causes this inactivation. In this study, structural and functional studies were performed to describe the molecular mechanism of GlTIM inactivation by thiol-reactive compounds. We found that the Cys222 derivatization is responsible for GlTIM inactivation; this information is relevant because HuTIM has a Cys residue in an equivalent position (Cys217). GlTIM inactivation is associated with a decrease in ligand affinity, which affects the entropic component of ligand binding. In summary, this work describes a mechanism of inactivation that has not been previously reported for TIMs from other parasites and furthermore, we show that the difference in reactivity between the Cys222 in GlTIM and the Cys217 in HuTIM, indicates that the surrounding environment of each Cys residue has unique structural differences that can be exploited to design specific antigiardiasic drugs.

Enríquez-Flores S; Rodríguez-Romero A; Hernández-Alcántara G; Oria-Hernández J; Gutiérrez-Castrellón P; Pérez-Hernández G; de la Mora-de la Mora I; Castillo-Villanueva A; García-Torres I; Méndez ST; Gómez-Manzo S; Torres-Arroyo A; López-Velázquez G; Reyes-Vivas H

2011-09-01

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Comparison of the Triage Micro Parasite Panel and Microscopy for the Detection of Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium parvum in Stool Samples Collected in Kenya.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium parvum are three of the most important parasitic causes of acute diarrhea worldwide. Laboratory diagnosis of these parasites is usually done by ova and parasite examination (O&P examination) via microscopy. The sensitivity and specificity of O&P examination varies among laboratories and can be labor intensive and time consuming. The Triage Micro Parasite Panel (BioSite, San Diego, California) is an enzyme immunoassay kit that can detect E. histolytica/E. dispar, G. lamblia, and C. parvum simultaneously using fresh or frozen stool. The present study evaluated the Triage Micro Parasite Panel in detecting E. histolytica/E. dispar, G. lamblia, and C. parvum compared to O&P examination in 266 stool samples collected at medical facilities in Kenya. The sensitivity and specificity results for the Triage Micro Parasite Panel were: for E. histolytica/E. dispar: 100%, 100%, G. lamblia: 100%, 100% and C. parvum: 73%, 100%. There was no evidence of cross reactivity using the kit with other parasites identified in the stool specimens. These results indicate that the Triage Micro Parasite Panel is a highly sensitive kit that can be used for screening purposes in large scale studies or outbreak investigations or as a possible alternative to O&P examination.

Swierczewski B; Odundo E; Ndonye J; Kirera R; Odhiambo C; Oaks E

2012-01-01

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Giardia lamblia and Helicobater pylori Coinfection  

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Full Text Available "nBackground: Giardia lamblia and Helicobacter pylori are two flagellate microorganisms that grow in duodenum and stom­ach. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of them in patients with dyspepsia and other GI disorders. "nMethods: In this cross-sectional study, co-infection of above-mentioned agents was investigated in a group of 130 patients [me­dian age of 40 yr (range=11-79) including 76 males (58.8%)] with dyspepsia using three methods of duodenal aspiration sam­ple, duodenal biopsy samples and evaluation of stool samples."nResults: : From 105 patients (59 males, 46 females, median age 40 years, range 11-79) entering this study from 3 hospitals, 4 patients (3.8%) had G. lamblia and 61 patients (58%) had H. pylori. All 4 patients infected by Giardia had also H. pylori infec­tion. Tenesmus (3 out of 4 patients) was the most common symptom in patients with H. pylori infection (48 out of 61 pa­tients) was reflux. Other symptoms in patients infected with both organisms (4 patients) included diarrhea (2 cases), weight loss (2 cases), and loss of appetite (1 case) but no report of vomiting."nConclusion: In patients co-infected with Giardia, H.pylori differentiation by physical examination is not possible. So in those patients with positive Rapid Urease Test (RUT), stool examination for Giardia detection is recommended. In addition, met­ronidazole (broad spectrum, anti-protozoal drug) can be useful in H. pylori infection.

R Shafie; MR Jahani; M Rezaeian; M Amini; AR Metvayi; N Ebrahimi Daryani; MR Keramati

2009-01-01

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Tetracyclines as antiparasitic agents: lipophilic derivatives are highly active against Giardia lamblia in vitro.  

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Comparisons of the inhibitory activities of different tetracyclines have been reported for Plasmodium falciparum but no other parasites. The in vitro response of the intestinal parasite Giardia lamblia to six tetracyclines in current use was determined. In addition, the experimental drug thiacycline...

Edlind, T D

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BILIARY LIPIDS SUPPORT SERUM-FREE GROWTH OF 'GIARDIA LAMBLIA'  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardia lamblia has only been grown in vitro in media containing serum or serum fractions. How this pathogen can grow in the human small intestinal lumen without serum is not known. The authors found that samples of human hepatic or gall bladder bile maintained G. lamblia surviva...

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In Vitro Effect of Folic Acid and Cobalamin (Vitamin B12) on Adhesion and Growth of Giardia lamblia  

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Giardia lamblia is one of the most common intestinal protozoan parasites infecting human in the world. The goal of this study was searching for in-vitro effect of folic acid and cobalamin on adhesion and growth of G. lamblia as two important mechanisms in the pathogenesis in TYI-S-33 medium. G. lamb...

R Khademi; F Ghaffarifar; H Dalimi Asl

 
 
 
 
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Simultaneous Detection of Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium parvum in Fecal Samples by Using Multiplex Real-Time PCR  

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Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium are three of the most important diarrhea-causing parasitic protozoa. For many years, microscopic examination of stool samples has been considered to be the “gold standard” for diagnosis of E. histolytica, G. lamblia, and C. parvum infection...

Verweij, Jaco J.; Blangé, Roy A.; Templeton, Kate; Schinkel, Janke; Brienen, Eric A. T.; van Rooyen, Marianne A. A.

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[Comparison of 4 techniques for the diagnosis of Giardia lamblia in stool of children from Belem city, Para State, Brazil  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We report the evaluation of four techniques for Giardia lamblia diagnosis in children's stool. The Iron haematoxilin staining and direct examination with lugol showed lower positivity, while the method of Faust et al. Continues to be a good option for G. lamblia diagnosis and Immunoenzymatic assay increases the detection of this parasite.

Machado RL; Figueredo MC; Frade AF; Kudó ME; Silva Filho MG; Póvoa MM

2001-01-01

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Proteomic analysis of the ventral disc of Giardia lamblia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Giardia lamblia is a multiflagellated protozoan that inhabits the small intestine of vertebrates, causing giardiasis. To colonize the small intestine, the trophozoites form of the parasite remains attached to intestinal epithelial cells by means of cytoskeletal elements that form a structure known as the ventral disc. Previous studies have shown that the ventral disc is made of tubulin and giardins. Results To obtain further information on the composition of the ventral disc, we developed a new protocol and evaluated the purity of the isolation by transmission electron microscopy. Using 1D- and 2D-PAGE and mass spectrometry, we identified proteins with functions associated with the disc. In addition to finding tubulin and giardin, proteins known to be associated with the ventral disc, we also identified proteins annotated in the Giardia genome, but whose function was previously unknown. Conclusions The isolation of the ventral disc shown in this work, compared to previously published protocols, proved to be more efficient. Proteomic analysis showed the presence of several proteins whose further characterization may help in the elucidation of the mechanisms involved in the attachment of the protozoan to epithelial cells.

Lourenço Daniela; Andrade Iamara; Terra Letícia; Guimarães Patricia; Zingali Russolina; de Souza Wanderley

2012-01-01

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Prevalence of Giardia lamblia in Different Water Sources of District Nowshehra, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan.  

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Giardia lamblia is a cosmopolitan parasite that occurs worldwide and generally effects gastrointestinal tract. Water played a media for transmission of Giardia to different hosts. A total of 300 water samples were examined from different water sources, i.e. tap, open well, bore well and drain waters and DNA was extracted by trizol method through prescribed protocol. DNA was amplified through PCR. The overall prevalence of G. lamblia was 27.66% (83/300). Among these 2.5% (1/40) in bore well water, 29% (29/100) open well, 18.83% (11/60) tap water and 42% (42/100) drain water. It is concluded from the study that Giardia is frequently found in all water sources and is the main cause of ill health.

khan, Shaukat Ali; Ayaz, Sultan; Khan, Sanaullah; Anees, Muhammad; Khan, Amir Muhammad; Khan, Imran

2012-12-01

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IDENTIFICATION OF A FLAVOBACTERIUM STRAIN VIRULENT AGAINT GIARDIA LAMBLIA CYSTS  

Science.gov (United States)

We have isolated a bacterial strain capable of killing the cyst form of Giardia lamblia, from a Kentucky stream. This bacterium, designated Sun4, is a Gram negative, aerobic rod which produces a yellow pigment, but not of the flexirubin-type. Although true gliding motility has no...

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Treatment of Intestinal 'Entamoeba histolytica' and 'Giardia lamblia' with Metronidazole, Tinidazole and Ornidazole: A Comparative Study,  

Science.gov (United States)

Metronidazole, tinidazole and ornidazole were compared in patients treated for Entamoeba histolytica or Giardia lamblia intestinal infections. Only patients with three positive stool specimens for trophozoites and/or cysts of El histolytica or G. lamblia ...

S. Bassily Z. Farid N. A. El-Masry E. M. Mikhail

1987-01-01

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Development of functional gastrointestinal disorders after Giardia lamblia infection  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) may occur following acute gastroenteritis. This long-term complication has previously not been described after infection with the non-invasive protozoan Giardia lamblia. This study aims to characterize persistent abdominal symptoms elicited by Giardia infection according to Rome II criteria and symptoms scores. Methods Structured interview and questionnaires 12–30 months after the onset of Giardia infection, and at least 6 months after Giardia eradication, among 82 patients with persisting abdominal symptoms elicited by the Giardia infection. All had been evaluated to exclude other causes. Results We found that 66 (80.5%) of the 82 patients had symptoms consistent with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and 17 (24.3%) patients had functional dyspepsia (FD) according to Rome II criteria. IBS was sub classified into D-IBS (47.0%), A-IBS (45.5%) and C-IBS (7.6%). Bloating, diarrhoea and abdominal pain were reported to be most severe. Symptoms exacerbation related to specific foods were reported by 45 (57.7%) patients and to physical or mental stress by 34 (44.7%) patients. Conclusion In the presence of an IBS-subtype pattern consistent with post-infectious IBS (PI-IBS), and in the absence of any other plausible causes, we conclude that acute Giardia infection may elicit functional gastrointestinal diseases with food and stress related symptoms similar to FGID patients in general.

Hanevik Kurt; Dizdar Vernesa; Langeland Nina; Hausken Trygve

2009-01-01

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Role of nitric oxide and superoxide in Giardia lamblia killing  

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Full Text Available Giardia lamblia trophozoites were incubated for 2 h with activated murine macrophages, nitric oxide (NO) donors or a superoxide anion generator (20 mU/ml xanthine oxidase plus 1 mM xanthine). Activated macrophages were cytotoxic to Giardia trophozoites (~60% dead trophozoites). This effect was inhibited (>90%) by an NO synthase inhibitor (200 µM) and unaffected by superoxide dismutase (SOD, 300 U/ml). Giardia trophozoites were killed by the NO donors, S-nitroso-acetyl-penicillamine (SNAP) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in a dose-dependent manner (LD50 300 and 50 µM, respectively). A dual NO-superoxide anion donor, 3-morpholino-sydnonimine hydrochloride (SIN-1), did not have a killing effect in concentrations up to 1 mM. However, when SOD (300 U/ml) was added simultaneously with SIN-1 to Giardia, a significant trophozoite-killing effect was observed (~35% dead trophozoites at 1 mM). The mixture of SNAP or SNP with superoxide anion, which yields peroxynitrite, abolished the trophozoite killing induced by NO donors. Authentic peroxynitrite only killed trophozoites at very high concentrations (3 mM). These results indicate that NO accounts for Giardia trophozoite killing and this effect is not mediated by peroxynitrite

P.D. Fernandes; J. Assreuy

1997-01-01

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Giardia lamblia and respiratory allergies: a study of children from an urban area with a high incidence of protozoan infections.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: There is a high incidence of intestinal parasite infection in urban areas in the Northeast of Brazil. Giardia lamblia infections have been associated with increased prevalence of cutaneous allergies and gastrointestinal disorders. However, little is known about the relationship between giardiasis and allergic diseases of the airways. The present study aimed to investigate the possible association between respiratory allergic diseases and infections by Giardia lamblia in children from urban areas. METHODS: This study recruited 110 patients of both sexes aged 5-15 years. Patients were administered a questionnaire evaluating clinical symptoms and were given skin tests, parasite tests and serum tests. RESULTS: A high incidence of Giardia lamblia was observed (45%, 50/110). Infections by this protozoan were not associated with increased risk of respiratory allergy (p = 0.075), high total IgE levels (p = 0.701), positive specific IgE tests (p = 0.250), or positive skin tests for a range of environmental allergens (p = 0.239). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that symptoms of asthma, skin allergy and serum markers were not associated with Giardia lamblia infections in this sample of children from urban areas.

Souza VM; Sales IR; Peixoto DM; Costa VM; Rizzo JA; Silva AR; Camilo RF; Pierotti FF; Solé D; Sarinho ES

2012-05-01

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Some hematimetric findings in human Giardia lambia infection Valores hematimétricos na infecção humana causada por Giardia lamblia  

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Full Text Available Up to now few reports about haematological alterations induced by Giardia lamblia infection have been described. Because there are questions on this matter still not answered, we carried out a study to evaluate some erythrometric and leucometric parameters in a sample that consisted of 55 patients exclusively infected with G. lamblia and of 55 sex and age matched parasite-free individuals. The haematological parameters evaluated were: mean corpuscular volume (MCV), hemoglobin concentration, and relative and absolute number of eosinophils and lymphocytes. No significant differences in the mean values of MCV, hemoglobin levels and absolute relative lymphocyte numbers between the two groups could be detected. When the giardiasis and control groups were separated by pediatric (0-18 years old) and adult (older than 18 years) classes, a very significant difference in both relative and absolute number of eosinophils in the adult class was observed. With respect of the pediatric class, no differences, either in relative and absolute number of eosinophils, could be observed. Our findings suggest that, during G. lamblia infection, some kind of parasite allergen(s) could be secreted and be responsible for the increasing of eosinophil counts in peripheral blood of adults.Até este momento poucos relatos de alterações hematológicas causadas pela Giardia lamblia têm sido descritos. Procuramos então avaliar alguns parâmetros hematológicos em pacientes infectados exclusivamente com G. lamblia (n=55), provenientes do Hospital Universitário, comparando-os com pacientes, pareados por sexo e idade, sem nenhum parasitismo (n=55). Foram avaliados: volume corpuscular médio (VCM), níveis de hemoglobina e contagem absoluta e relativa de eosinófilos e linfócitos. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas entre os valores médios de VCM, níveis de hemoglobina e contagem absoluta e relativa de linfócitos para os dois grupos estudados. No caso dos eosinófilos, tanto as contagens relativas quanto as absolutas diferiram significativamente nas faixas etárias acima de 18 anos (percentagem média de eosinófilos de 8,1 para pacientes com giardíase, e de 3,1 para pacientes não-parasitados, com P=0,0042; e contagens absolutas com média de 609 para pacientes com giardíase, comparado com média de 257, para pacientes-controle, com P=0,0120). No caso de faixas etárias abaixo de 18 anos não foram encontradas diferenças significantes entre os dois grupos. Diante disto, nossos achados sugerem que a G. lamblia poderia secretar um ou mais alérgenos, que seriam responsáveis pelo aumento do número de eosinófilos no sangue periférico de pessoas adultas, e que tal fenômeno deva ser melhor avaliado em crianças

Jairo Ivo dos Santos; Cidônia de Lourdes Vituri

1996-01-01

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Video-microscopy observations of fast dynamic processes in the protozoon Giardia lamblia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Video-microscopy in combination with digital image processing was used to analyze dynamic processes associated to the life cycle of Giardia lamblia trophozoites. These parasites swim and attach to the epithelial cells, producing the disease known as Giardiasis. Giardia is a multiflagellar cell, presenting 4 pairs of flagella. With the use of analogue and digital tools, we observed that in cells attached to glass slides only 2 of the 4 pairs present active beating (wave propagation). The frequency observed was 17-18 Hz to the anterior and 8-11 Hz to the ventral flagella. These data resulted from several hours of recording using both analogue video and high-speed digital camera. The caudal pair did not show active beating patterns and the same holds true for the posterior one. In this latter pair, oscillations were observed, but they were always associated to the transit of the wave produced by the ventral pair. The analysis performed with free moving cells showed that during its forward dislocation, Giardia lamblia presented either a lateral rocking or a complete rotational (tumbling) movement around its longitudinal axis. A dislocation of the caudal region of the cell both in the lateral and dorso-ventral direction was observed. This movement was completely independent from the flagellar beating and it is likely to be produced by a microtubular complex located in the caudal portion of the cell. The adhesion process of Giardia lamblia was also followed by video-microscopy and the data showed that the ventral disk had an active participation in this process.

Campanati L; Holloschi A; Troster H; Spring H; de Souza W; Monteiro-Leal LH

2002-04-01

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Actividad lactásica en niños con enfermedad diarreica por Giardia lamblia  

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Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se realizó un estudio prospectivo, de corte transversal y analítico, con el propósito de establecer posibles diferencias en el comportamiento de la actividad lactásica en niños menores de 2 años con enfermedad diarreica por Giardia lamblia tratados en el Servicio de Diarreas del Hospital Pediátrico Docente "Dr. Ángel A. Aballí", en el período de diciembre de 1994 a noviembre de 1995. Se determinaron los niveles de la actividad enzimática según diferentes categ (more) orías de variables de caracterización del niño y su enfermedad. Los resultados permitieron afirmar su reducción en estos niños, y que tal actividad tiene un comportamiento diferencial asociado con la edad, estado nutricional y grado de atrofia de la mucosa. Abstract in english A prospective analytical cross-sectional study was made with the objective of setting likely differences in Beta-galactosidase performance in under 2 years-old children admitted with diarrheal disease due to Giardia lamblia to «Ángel A. Aballí» Teaching Pediatric Hospital?s Diarrhea Service Unit from December 1994 to November 1995. Levels of the enzime activity were determined according to the several characterization variable categories of the child and hi (more) s disease. The outcome showed the decline in diarrheal disease in thesechildren and the different performance patterns of this enzime depending on age, nutrition and mucosa atrophic level.

Izquierdo Estévez, Arnaldo; Hernández Fernández, Carlos M.; León García, Ramiro E.; Padrón Concepción, Tomás L.

1998-03-01

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Actividad lactásica en niños con enfermedad diarreica por Giardia lamblia  

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Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio prospectivo, de corte transversal y analítico, con el propósito de establecer posibles diferencias en el comportamiento de la actividad lactásica en niños menores de 2 años con enfermedad diarreica por Giardia lamblia tratados en el Servicio de Diarreas del Hospital Pediátrico Docente "Dr. Ángel A. Aballí", en el período de diciembre de 1994 a noviembre de 1995. Se determinaron los niveles de la actividad enzimática según diferentes categorías de variables de caracterización del niño y su enfermedad. Los resultados permitieron afirmar su reducción en estos niños, y que tal actividad tiene un comportamiento diferencial asociado con la edad, estado nutricional y grado de atrofia de la mucosa.A prospective analytical cross-sectional study was made with the objective of setting likely differences in Beta-galactosidase performance in under 2 years-old children admitted with diarrheal disease due to Giardia lamblia to «Ángel A. Aballí» Teaching Pediatric Hospital’s Diarrhea Service Unit from December 1994 to November 1995. Levels of the enzime activity were determined according to the several characterization variable categories of the child and his disease. The outcome showed the decline in diarrheal disease in thesechildren and the different performance patterns of this enzime depending on age, nutrition and mucosa atrophic level.

Arnaldo Izquierdo Estévez; Carlos M. Hernández Fernández; Ramiro E. León García; Tomás L. Padrón Concepción

1998-01-01

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Citocinas séricas en niños infectados con Giardia Lamblia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Introdución: La giardiasis intestinal es un problema de salud pública en los países en desarrollo. Aunque los mecanismos de inmunidad innata y adquirida son necesarios para el control de la infección, son escasos los estudios sobre la participación de las citocinas Th1 y Th2 en el control de la infección en humanos. Objetivo: Determinar en niños infectados con Giardia lamblia (G. lamblia) las concentraciones séricas de las citocinas Th1 (IL-2 e IFNgamma) y Th2 (IL (more) -4 e IL-10). Métodos: Se seleccionaron 101 niños (3-6 años; F=52, M=49) nutricionalmente eutróficos; 62 niños no parasitados y 39 niños con trofozoitos y/o quistes de G. lamblia según estudio coproparasitológico. Las concentraciones séricas de IFN-gamma, IL-4 e IL-10 (pg/mL) fueron determinadas por el método ELISA y la IL-2 (U/mL) por el método EAISA. Para comparar las medias de los grupos se utilizó la prueba t de Student. Se consideró el 95% de confiabilidad estadística (p Abstract in english Introduction: Intestinal giardiasis is a public health problem in developing countries. Although the innate and adaptative immunity mechanisms are necessary for proper control of the infection, few studies have been published in humans on the role of cytokine Th1-Th2 in infection control. The aim of the present study was to analyze the serum concentration of Th1 cytokine (IL-2 and IFN-gamma) and Th2 (IL-4 and IL-10) in euthrophic children infected or not with Giardia lamb (more) lia (G. lamblia). Methods:Were analyzed 101 children (3-6y; F=52, M=49) nutritionally eutrophic. Sixty two children free of G. lamblia and 39 infected. The serum concentration of IFN-gamma, IL-4 and IL-10 (pg/mL) were determined by ELISA method and IL-2 (U/mL) by EAISA method. The Student?s t test was applied to compare the groups. We considered 95% statistical significance (p

Leal M, Jorymar; Ortega, Pablo; Romero A, Tania

2008-03-01

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In vitro effects of berberine sulphate on the growth and structure of Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and Trichomonas vaginalis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The plant alkaloid, berberine sulphate, inhibited the growth of Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and Trichomonas vaginalis in BI-S-33 medium, and induced morphological changes in the parasites. Exposure of E. histolytica to berberine caused a clumping of chromatin in the nucleus, and the formation of autophagic vacuoles and aggregates of small vacuoles in the cytoplasm. In berberine-treated G. lamblia, an irregularly-shaped vacuole appeared in the cytoplasm and gradually enlarged during culture. The trophozoites became swollen and deposits of glycogen were seen in the cytoplasm. Trichomonas vaginalis was also affected by the berberine; autophagic vacuoles increased in number soon after exposure, and one large vacuole, which was characteristic of treated cells, appeared. These observations demonstrate that, in vitro, this drug was effective against E. histolytica, G. lamblia and T. vaginalis. Another alkaloid, coptisine, was inactive against the three parasites.

Kaneda Y; Torii M; Tanaka T; Aikawa M

1991-08-01

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Detection and genotyping of Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium parvum by oligonucleotide microarray.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium parvum are the most frequently identified protozoan parasites causing waterborne disease outbreaks. The morbidity and mortality associated with these intestinal parasitic infections warrant the development of rapid and accurate detection and genotyping methods to aid public health efforts aimed at preventing and controlling outbreaks. In this study, we describe the development of an oligonucleotide microarray capable of detecting and discriminating between E. histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, G. lamblia assemblages A and B, and C. parvum types 1 and 2 in a single assay. Unique hybridization patterns for each selected protozoan were generated by amplifying six to eight diagnostic sequences/organism by multiplex PCR; fluorescent labeling of the amplicons via primer extension; and subsequent hybridization to a set of genus-, species-, and subtype-specific covalently immobilized oligonucleotide probes. The profile-based specificity of this methodology not only permitted for the unequivocal identification of the six targeted species and subtypes, but also demonstrated its potential in identifying related species such as Cryptosporidium meleagridis and Cryptosporidium muris. In addition, sensitivity assays demonstrated lower detection limits of five trophozoites of G. lamblia. Taken together, the specificity and sensitivity of the microarray-based approach suggest that this methodology may provide a promising tool to detect and genotype protozoa from clinical and environmental samples.

Wang Z; Vora GJ; Stenger DA

2004-07-01

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Still around and still dangerous: Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica.  

Science.gov (United States)

The discovery of new infectious agents often overshadows the continuing impact and importance of well-established organisms. In the case of diarrheal disease, Entamoeba histolytica and its complications remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Although it is also present in developing countries, Giardia lamblia is a primary cause of waterborne outbreaks of diarrhea in developed countries. Persons at risk of developing giardiasis in these countries include backpackers and campers who drink untreated stream water or persons who drink improperly treated municipal water containing infective cysts. Investigators have recently identified the mechanisms used by these organisms to colonize the intestinal tract and to cause disease. New methods of identification using immunologic principles have been added to the traditional microscopic methods of identification. PMID:10177206

Smith, L A

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Still around and still dangerous: Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The discovery of new infectious agents often overshadows the continuing impact and importance of well-established organisms. In the case of diarrheal disease, Entamoeba histolytica and its complications remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Although it is also present in developing countries, Giardia lamblia is a primary cause of waterborne outbreaks of diarrhea in developed countries. Persons at risk of developing giardiasis in these countries include backpackers and campers who drink untreated stream water or persons who drink improperly treated municipal water containing infective cysts. Investigators have recently identified the mechanisms used by these organisms to colonize the intestinal tract and to cause disease. New methods of identification using immunologic principles have been added to the traditional microscopic methods of identification.

Smith LA

1997-09-01

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Effects of albendazole on Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia trophozoites.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Albendazole, a benzimidazole carbamate commonly used for the treatment and control of intestinal helminthic infections, is also useful for the treatment of giardiasis. Therefore, it is of interest to determine whether the drug has activity against other intestinal protozoa, such as E. histolytica. The present results demonstrate that albendazole inhibits the growth of E. histolytica trophozoites in axenic cultures and induces fine structural changes such as polyribosome aggregation and loss of cytoplasmic vacuoles at concentrations up to 10 micrograms/ml. The viability of E. histolytica trophozoites was not affected by the drug. In contrast, lower concentrations of albendazole showed dramatic effects on G. lamblia trophozoites. These included loss of adhesiveness, striking modifications of the overall morphology of giardias, disassembly of the ventral disk, and loss of viability after prolonged treatment. The results provide further evidence on the potent antigiardial activity of albendazole and indicate that, at the concentrations used, the drug has no antiamebic activity.

Chávez B; Espinosa-Cantellano M; Cedillo Rivera R; Ramírez A; Martínez-Palomo A

1992-01-01

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Structure of a cyclin-dependent kinase from Giardia lamblia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Giardia lamblia is the etiologic agent of giardiasis, a water-borne infection that is prevalent throughout the world. The need for new therapeutics for the treatment of giardiasis is of paramount importance. Owing to the ubiquitous nature of kinases and their vital importance in organisms, they are potential drug targets. In this paper, the first structure of a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) from G. lamblia (GlCDK; UniProt A8BZ95) is presented. CDKs are cell-cycle-associated kinases that are actively being pursued as targets for anticancer drugs as well as for antiparasitic chemotherapy. Generally, a CDK forms a complex with its associated cyclin. This CDK-cyclin complex is active and acts as a serine/threonine protein kinase. Typically, CDKs are responsible for the transition to the next phase of the cell cycle. Although the structure of GlCDK with its associated cyclin was not solved, the 1.85 Å resolution structure of apo GlCDK and a 2.0 Å resolution structure of GlCDK in complex with adenosine monophosphate are presented and the structural differences from the orthologous human CDK2 and CDK3 are discussed.

Leibly DJ; Newling PA; Abendroth J; Guo W; Kelley A; Stewart LJ; Van Voorhis W

2011-09-01

 
 
 
 
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[Antigens from Giardia lamblia trophozoites and cysts. Detection and immunoallergic evaluation  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A suitable technique for the preparation of antigen extracts from Giardia lamblia trophozoites and cysts is described. The immunoallergic characteristics of the antibodies obtained with these extracts were studied using in vivo and in vitro tests in experimental animals and 50 healthy individuals. It was proved that the human is able to produce antibodies to Giardia lamblia trophozoites and cysts and also that these antibodies are directed to several antigenic determinants.

Alvarez Gómez L

1977-05-01

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In vivo determination of the gap2 gene promoter activity in Giardia lamblia  

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A shuttle vector for Escherichia coli and Giardia lamblia was modified to produce a reporter plasmid, which monitors the expression of prescribed gene in G. lamblia by measuring its luciferase activity. Promoter regions of the gap2 gene, one of the genes induced during encystation, were cloned into ...

Yang, Hye-Won; Kim, Juri; Yong, Tai-Soon; Park, Soon-Jung

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Ozonoterapia en el síndrome de malabsorción intestinal secundario a parasitismo por Giardia lamblia: estudio preliminar  

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Full Text Available Se estudió el efecto de la ozonoterapia combinada (OLEOZON® oral y ozonoterapia rectal) en el síndrome de malabsorción intestinal, secundario a parasitismo intestinal por Giardia lamblia. Se tomaron 186 pacientes y se formaron 3 grupos de 62 pacientes cada uno. El primer grupo se trató con metronidazol y vitaminoterapia, el segundo con OLEOZON® oral y vitaminoterapia y el tercero con ozonoterapia combinada y vitaminoterapia. Los pacientes fueron evaluados clínicamente por drenaje biliar y biopsia de yeyuno al inicio y final del tratamiento. Se alcanzó una mejoría importante en el tercer grupo (66,1 %), de los cuales, los diagnosticados tempranamente, 40,3 % obtuvo su curación. Se concluyó que la ozonoterapia combinada puede ser eficaz en esta patología.The effect of combined ozone therapy (oral OLEOZON® and rectal ozone therapy) on the syndrome of intestinal malabsorption secondary to intestinal parasitism caused by Giardia lamblia was studied. 186 patients were selected and dividided into 3 groups of 62 patients each. The first group was treated with metronidazole and vitamin therapy, the second with oral OLEOZON® and vitamin therapy, and the third with combined ozone therapy and vitamin therapy. The patients were clinically evaluated by biliary drainage and jejunum biopsy at the beginning and at the end of the treatment. A significant improvement was observed in the third group (66.1 %). Of them, those that had been early diagnosed were cured (40.3 %). It was concluded that combined ozone therapy may be efficient in this pathology.

Nazarina Ivonne Méndez Pérez; José L. Calunga Fernández; Silvia Menéndez Cepero

2003-01-01

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Axenic cultivation and characterization of Giardia lamblia isolated from humans in Korea  

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Inoculating of human fecal cysts to suckling Mongolian gerbils, two Giardia lamblia isolates, K1 and K2, were established as axenic cultures. Using this in vitro culture, both isolates were characterized as a "medium-rate grower" upon its growth pattern. These two Giardia isolates were grouped by us...

Park, Soon-Jung; Yong, Tai-Soon; Yang, Hye-Won; Lee, Du-Ho; Lee, Kyungwon

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Sensitive and rapid detection of Giardia lamblia infection in pet dogs using loop-mediated isothermal amplification.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Giardia lamblia is recognized as one of the most prevalent parasites in dogs. The present study aimed to establish a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid and specific detection of G. lamblia from dogs. The fecal samples were collected and prepared for microscopic analysis, and then the genomic DNA was extracted directly from purified cysts. The concentration of DNA samples of G. lamblia were diluted by 10-fold serially ranging from 10(-1) to 10(-5) ng/µl for LAMP and PCR assays. The LAMP assay allows the amplification to be finished within 60 min under isothermal conditions of 63? by employing 6 oligonucleotide primers designed based on G. lamblia elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1?) gene sequence. Our tests showed that the specific amplification products were obtained only with G. lamblia, while no amplification products were detected with DNA of other related protozoans. Sensitivity evaluation indicated that the LAMP assay was sensitive 10 times more than PCR. It is concluded that LAMP is a rapid, highly sensitive and specific DNA amplification technique for detection of G. lamblia, which has implications for effective control and prevention of giardiasis.

Li J; Wang P; Zhang A; Zhang P; Alsarakibi M; Li G

2013-04-01

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Oxidative stress-induced cell cycle blockage and a protease-independent programmed cell death in  microaerophilic Giardia lamblia  

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Full Text Available Esha Ghosh1, Arjun Ghosh1, Amar Nath Ghosh2, Tomoyoshi Nozaki3, Sandipan Ganguly11Division of Parasitology; 2Division of Electron Microscopy, National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases, Beliaghata, Kolkata, West Bengal, India; 3Division of Parasitology, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: Giardia lamblia is a microaerophilic human gastrointestinal parasite and considered as an early-diverged eukaryote. In vitro oxidative stress generation plays a significant role in cell cycle progression and cell death of this parasite. In the present study hydrogen peroxide, metronidazole, and a modified growth medium without cysteine and ascorbic acid have been chosen as oxidative stress-inducing agents. Cell cycle progression has been found to be regulated by different types of oxidative stresses. Apoptosis is not an established pathway in Giardia, which is devoid of ideal mitochondria, but in the present investigation, apoptosis-like programmed cell death has been found by the experiments like AnnexinV-FITC assay, DNA fragmentation pattern, etc. On the contrary, Caspase-9 assay, which confirms the caspase-mediated apoptotic pathway, has been found to be negative in all the stress conditions. Protease inhibitor assay confirmed that, even in absence of any proteases, programmed cell death does occur in this primitive eukaryote. All these results signify a novel pathway of programmed suicidal death in Giardia lamblia under oxidative stress. This is the first demonstration of protease-independent programmed cell death regulation in Giardia exclusive for its own specialties.Keywords: Giardia lamblia, oxidative stress, reactive oxygen species, programmed cell death, apoptosis, early branching eukaryotes

Esha Ghosh; Arjun Ghosh; Amar Nath Ghosh; Tomoyoshi Nozaki; Sandipan Ganguly

2009-01-01

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An ancient spliceosomal intron in the ribosomal protein L7a gene (Rpl7a) of Giardia lamblia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Only one spliceosomal-type intron has previously been identified in the unicellular eukaryotic parasite, Giardia lamblia (a diplomonad). This intron is only 35 nucleotides in length and is unusual in possessing a non-canonical 5' intron boundary sequence, CT, instead of GT. Results We have identified a second spliceosomal-type intron in G. lamblia, in the ribosomal protein L7a gene (Rpl7a), that possesses a canonical GT 5' intron boundary sequence. A comparison of the two known Giardia intron sequences revealed extensive nucleotide identity at both the 5' and 3' intron boundaries, similar to the conserved sequence motifs recently identified at the boundaries of spliceosomal-type introns in Trichomonas vaginalis (a parabasalid). Based on these observations, we searched the partial G. lamblia genome sequence for these conserved features and identified a third spliceosomal intron, in an unassigned open reading frame. Our comprehensive analysis of the Rpl7a intron in other eukaryotic taxa demonstrates that it is evolutionarily conserved and is an ancient eukaryotic intron. Conclusion An analysis of the phylogenetic distribution and properties of the Rpl7a intron suggests its utility as a phylogenetic marker to evaluate particular eukaryotic groupings. Additionally, analysis of the G. lamblia introns has provided further insight into some of the conserved and unique features possessed by the recently identified spliceosomal introns in related organisms such as T. vaginalis and Carpediemonas membranifera.

Russell Anthony G; Shutt Timothy E; Watkins Russell F; Gray Michael W

2005-01-01

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In-vitro susceptibility of Giardia lamblia to albendazole, mebendazole and other chemotherapeutic agents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The susceptibility of a strain of Giardia lamblia to benzimidazole carbamates, 5-nitroimidazoles, nitrofurans and other drugs was studied in vitro. Albendazole was the most active compound, with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 0.01 mg/L and a minimal lethal concentration (MLC) of less than 0.04 mg/L; the IC50 of mebendazole was 0.06 mg/L and the MLC less than 0.5 mg/L. Among the 5-nitroimidazoles tested, ornidazole was the most effective (IC50 0.12 mg/L); tinidazole, metronidazole, secnidazole and hemezole were less active. Nifuroxazide, etofamide and nalidixic acid exhibited modest anti-giardial activity; quinfamide did not inhibit the growth of the parasite at a concentration of 200 mg/L. Albendazole and mebendazole are promising candidates for clinical use and should be further evaluated.

Cedillo-Rivera R; Muñoz O

1992-09-01

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In-vitro susceptibility of Giardia lamblia to albendazole, mebendazole and other chemotherapeutic agents.  

Science.gov (United States)

The susceptibility of a strain of Giardia lamblia to benzimidazole carbamates, 5-nitroimidazoles, nitrofurans and other drugs was studied in vitro. Albendazole was the most active compound, with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 0.01 mg/L and a minimal lethal concentration (MLC) of less than 0.04 mg/L; the IC50 of mebendazole was 0.06 mg/L and the MLC less than 0.5 mg/L. Among the 5-nitroimidazoles tested, ornidazole was the most effective (IC50 0.12 mg/L); tinidazole, metronidazole, secnidazole and hemezole were less active. Nifuroxazide, etofamide and nalidixic acid exhibited modest anti-giardial activity; quinfamide did not inhibit the growth of the parasite at a concentration of 200 mg/L. Albendazole and mebendazole are promising candidates for clinical use and should be further evaluated. PMID:1518040

Cedillo-Rivera, R; Muñoz, O

1992-09-01

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ELISA y técnica de sedimentación espontánea para el diagnóstico de infección por Giardia lamblia en muestras fecales de niños de Perú/ ELISA and spontaneous sedimentation technique for the diagnosis of Giardia lamblia infection in stool samples of Peruvian children  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Comparar un kit ELISA comercial para coproantígenos y la técnica de sedimentación espontánea en tubo (TSET) para el diagnóstico de Giardia lamblia en muestras fecales de niños de una zona endémica peruana. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Fueron analizadas 174 muestras mediante la TSET y el kit Giardia 2nd Generation ELISA. RESULTADOS: Fueron positivas 51 muestras por ELISA y 49 por TSET. CONCLUSIONES: El ELISA resultó ser altamente sensible y específico, sencillo (more) y rápido; sin embargo, la muy buena concordancia, alta precisión, bajo costo y capacidad para detectar otros enteroparásitos hace que la TSET sea recomendable para el diagnóstico en zonas endémicas del Perú. Abstract in english OBJETIVE: To compare a commercial coproantigen ELISA kit and the technique of spontaneous sedimentation in tube (TSET) for the diagnosis of Giardia lamblia in fecal specimens from children in a Peruvian endemic area. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 174 fecal samples were analyzed by TSET and 2nd Generation Giardia ELISA kit. RESULTS: 51 samples were positive by ELISA and 49 by TSET. CONCLUSIONS: The ELISA was highly sensitive and specific, simple and fast. However, the very good ag (more) reement, high precision, low cost and ability to detect other intestinal parasites makes use of TSET recommended for laboratory diagnosis in endemic areas of Peru.

Rodríguez-Ulloa, Claudia; Rivera-Jacinto, Marco

2011-12-01

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ELISA y técnica de sedimentación espontánea para el diagnóstico de infección por Giardia lamblia en muestras fecales de niños de Perú ELISA and spontaneous sedimentation technique for the diagnosis of Giardia lamblia infection in stool samples of Peruvian children  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar un kit ELISA comercial para coproantígenos y la técnica de sedimentación espontánea en tubo (TSET) para el diagnóstico de Giardia lamblia en muestras fecales de niños de una zona endémica peruana. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Fueron analizadas 174 muestras mediante la TSET y el kit Giardia 2nd Generation ELISA. RESULTADOS: Fueron positivas 51 muestras por ELISA y 49 por TSET. CONCLUSIONES: El ELISA resultó ser altamente sensible y específico, sencillo y rápido; sin embargo, la muy buena concordancia, alta precisión, bajo costo y capacidad para detectar otros enteroparásitos hace que la TSET sea recomendable para el diagnóstico en zonas endémicas del Perú.OBJETIVE: To compare a commercial coproantigen ELISA kit and the technique of spontaneous sedimentation in tube (TSET) for the diagnosis of Giardia lamblia in fecal specimens from children in a Peruvian endemic area. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 174 fecal samples were analyzed by TSET and 2nd Generation Giardia ELISA kit. RESULTS: 51 samples were positive by ELISA and 49 by TSET. CONCLUSIONS: The ELISA was highly sensitive and specific, simple and fast. However, the very good agreement, high precision, low cost and ability to detect other intestinal parasites makes use of TSET recommended for laboratory diagnosis in endemic areas of Peru.

Claudia Rodríguez-Ulloa; Marco Rivera-Jacinto

2011-01-01

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Giardia lamblia e alergia respiratória: estudo em uma amostra de crianças de área urbana com frequência elevada da protozoose Giardia lamblia and respiratory allergies: a study of children from an urban area with a high incidence of protozoan infections  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Uma elevada incidência de enteroparasitoses é encontrada em regiões urbanas do nordeste brasileiro. As infecções por Giardia lamblia têm sido relacionadas com aumento da prevalência de alergias cutâneas e gastrointestinais. Contudo, ainda existe pouca informação sobre a associação entre a giardíase e doenças alérgicas das vias aéreas. Diante disso, o presente estudo se propôs a verificar a relação entre a infecção por G. lamblia em crianças de área urbana e reatividade alérgica respiratória. MÉTODOS: O estudo incluiu 110 pacientes, de ambos os sexos e idades, entre 5 e 15 anos. Os pacientes foram submetidos a questionários de avaliação dos sintomas clínicos, testes cutâneos de leitura imediata e exames coproparasitológicos e sorológicos. RESULTADOS: Foi verificada uma frequência elevada de crianças infectadas por G. lamblia (45%, 50/110). A infecção pelo protozoário não foi associada com maior risco de alergias respiratórias (p = 0,075), elevação de IgE total (p = 0,701), IgE específica (p = 0,250) ou teste cutâneo positivo para diferentes alérgenos ambientais (p = 0,239). CONCLUSÃO: O estudo demonstrou que a presença dos sintomas de asma, atopia cutânea e marcadores sorológicos não foram associados com a presença de infecção pela G. lamblia nessa amostra de crianças.OBJECTIVES: There is a high incidence of intestinal parasite infection in urban areas in the Northeast of Brazil. Giardia lamblia infections have been associated with increased prevalence of cutaneous allergies and gastrointestinal disorders. However, little is known about the relationship between giardiasis and allergic diseases of the airways. The present study aimed to investigate the possible association between respiratory allergic diseases and infections by G. lamblia in children from urban areas. METHODS: This study recruited 110 patients of both sexes aged 5-15 years. Patients were administered a questionnaire evaluating clinical symptoms and were given skin tests, parasite tests and serum tests. RESULTS: A high incidence of G. lamblia was observed (45%, 50/110). Infections by this protozoan were not associated with increased risk of respiratory allergy (p = 0.075), high total IgE levels (p = 0.701), positive specific IgE tests (p = 0.250), or positive skin tests for a range of environmental allergens (p = 0.239). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that symptoms of asthma, skin allergy and serum markers were not associated with G. lamblia infections in this sample of children from urban areas.

Valdênia M. O. Souza; Iana R. F. Sales; Décio M. Peixoto; Vláudia M. Assis Costa; José A. Rizzo; Almerinda R. Silva; Roberta Faria Camilo; Felipe Faria Pierotti; Dirceu Solé; Emanuel S. C. Sarinho

2012-01-01

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High-throughput screening in suboptimal growth conditions identifies agonists of Giardia lamblia proliferation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Giardia lamblia is one of the most prevalent parasites of mankind and is estimated to cause over 200 million infections per year. To screen chemical libraries for compounds that perturb trophozoite proliferation we adapted a conventional culture method to 384-well plates and identified numerous inhibitors. Here we used a modified assay to screen for compounds that promote trophozoite multiplication. Trophozoite growth was reduced by dilution of the culture medium and the growth period was extended to screen 2 compound libraries comprising 1500 compounds. A total of 4 agonists of trophozoite multiplication were identified. In the presence of one of these compounds, strychnine, enhanced growth was accompanied by unusual trophozoite morphology characterized by dividing trophozoites displaying more than the 2 nuclei per cell which are normally observed. The other agonists, although belonging to 2 distinct chemical groups, are known to affect isoprenylation, indicating a link between protein or lipid isoprenylation and growth in culture. Although inhibitors of isoprenylation are known to antagonize proliferation of mammalian cells, an agonistic effect of isoprenylation modulators has to our knowledge not been described previously. These observations illustrate the power of chemical genetics for identifying pathways controlling specific traits in G. lamblia.

Faghiri Z; Santiago RB; Wu Z; Widmer G

2011-02-01

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Conocimientos, percepciones y prácticas de los dermatólogos en relación con la infección por Giardia lamblia/ Knowledge, perceptions and practice of dermatologists with respect to Giardia lamblia infection  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: conocer sobre los conocimientos, percepciones y prácticas de los dermatólogos de Ciudad de La Habana en relación con la infección por Giardia lamblia. MÉTODOS: previo consentimiento informado de los dermatólogos de Ciudad de La Habana, a un número próximo al universo de estos (50 de 58), se le aplicó una encuesta sobre conocimientos, percepciones y prácticas en relación con esta parasitosis. La preparación de la encuesta pasó por 4 fases: entrevista (more) s a médicos relacionados con el diagnóstico, tratamiento y control de la giardiasis; preparación de un cuestionario preliminar sobre la base de los resultados de esas entrevistas; sometimiento del instrumento a criterio de expertos; y validación de este mediante su aplicación a un pequeño grupo de galenos. RESULTADOS: se evidenció que en relación con la giardiasis y, de manera particular, con las manifestaciones cutáneas asociadas a esta, los dermatólogos de Ciudad de La Habana mostraban conocimientos insuficientes (de 19 interrogantes que evaluaban aspectos cognoscitivos, la media de respuestas correctas entre todos los participantes fue 10,18), percepciones inadecuadas y prácticas incorrectas. CONCLUSIONES: en la dirección de atenuar estas dificultades se hace necesario una intervención de tipo académica, que haga énfasis en los aspectos formativos relacionados con las enfermedades parasitarias, en general, y la giardiasis, en particular. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: to ascertain the level of knowledge, the perceptions and practice of dermatologists in the City of Havana with respect to Giardia lamblia infection. METHODS: with prior informed consent given by the dermatologists from the City of Havana, 50 dermatologists- a number very close to the universe of these experts in the province- were administered a survey of their knowledge, perceptions and practice about this parasitosis. The survey was prepared in 4 phases; that (more) is, interviews to physicians on diagnosis, treatment and control of giardiasis; drafting of a preliminary questionnaire based on the interview results; submission of this instruments to the experts, and finally its validation through its application to a small group of physicians. RESULTS: it was evinced that the dermatologists in the City of Havana had poor knowledge about giardiasis, particularly its cutaneous manifestations (out of 19 questions on cognitive aspects, the correct answer mean was 10,18), inadequate perceptions on this disease and practice was not good. CONCLUSIONS: with the aim of mitigating these difficulties, some academic intervention is needed to make emphasis on the formative aspects related to parasitic diseases in general and giardiasis in particular.

Iglesias Hernández, Tania; Ali Almannoni, Saleh; Rodríguez, María Elena; Sánchez Valdés, Lizet; Martín Pupo, Deisy; Manzur Katrib, Julián; Fonte Galindo, Luis

2010-04-01

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Ozonoterapia en el síndrome de malabsorción intestinal secundario a parasitismo por Giardia lamblia: estudio preliminar  

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Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se estudió el efecto de la ozonoterapia combinada (OLEOZON® oral y ozonoterapia rectal) en el síndrome de malabsorción intestinal, secundario a parasitismo intestinal por Giardia lamblia. Se tomaron 186 pacientes y se formaron 3 grupos de 62 pacientes cada uno. El primer grupo se trató con metronidazol y vitaminoterapia, el segundo con OLEOZON® oral y vitaminoterapia y el tercero con ozonoterapia combinada y vitaminoterapia. Los pacientes fueron evaluados clínicame (more) nte por drenaje biliar y biopsia de yeyuno al inicio y final del tratamiento. Se alcanzó una mejoría importante en el tercer grupo (66,1 %), de los cuales, los diagnosticados tempranamente, 40,3 % obtuvo su curación. Se concluyó que la ozonoterapia combinada puede ser eficaz en esta patología. Abstract in english The effect of combined ozone therapy (oral OLEOZON® and rectal ozone therapy) on the syndrome of intestinal malabsorption secondary to intestinal parasitism caused by Giardia lamblia was studied. 186 patients were selected and dividided into 3 groups of 62 patients each. The first group was treated with metronidazole and vitamin therapy, the second with oral OLEOZON® and vitamin therapy, and the third with combined ozone therapy and vitamin therapy. The patients were cl (more) inically evaluated by biliary drainage and jejunum biopsy at the beginning and at the end of the treatment. A significant improvement was observed in the third group (66.1 %). Of them, those that had been early diagnosed were cured (40.3 %). It was concluded that combined ozone therapy may be efficient in this pathology.

Méndez Pérez, Nazarina Ivonne; Calunga Fernández, José L.; Menéndez Cepero, Silvia

2003-09-01

56

Detection of anti-Giardia lamblia serum antibody among children of day care centers/ Detecção de anticorpos séricos anti-Giardia lamblia em crianças de creches  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVOS: Detectar anticorpos séricos anti-Giardia lamblia entre crianças atendidas em creches e estimar a freqüência de infecção por Giardia lamblia em área endêmica. MÉTODOS: Foram coletadas três amostras de fezes de cada uma das 147 crianças de três creches da rede municipal de Botucatu, SP, com idade variando de 0 a 6 anos, e as amostras foram processadas pelos métodos de sedimentação espontânea e flutuação pelo sulfato de zinco. Amostras de sangue (more) foram obtidas da polpa digital, coletadas em papel de filtro e testadas pelos métodos de imunofluorescência indireta (IFI) e de reação imunoenzimática (Elisa) para pesquisa de IgG anti-Giardia. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: De um total de 147 crianças, 93 (63,3%) apresentaram cistos de Giardia nas fezes. Dos 147 eluatos testados, 93 (63,3%) e 100 (68%) foram positivos para Giardia em IFI e em Elisa, respectivamente. A sensibilidade de IFI foi de 82% e de Elisa, 72%. Contudo, Elisa foi menos específica (39%) do que IFI (70%). A imunofluorescência indireta apresentou maior concordância com o exame de fezes do que Elisa. Abstract in english OBJETIVES: To detect anti-Giardia lamblia serum antibodies in healthy children attending public day care centers and to assess serological tests as tools for estimating the prevalence of G. lamblia in endemic areas. METHODS: Three separate stool specimens and filter paper blood samples were collected from 147 children ranging from 0 to 6 years old. Each stool sample was processed using spontaneous sedimentation and zinc sulfate flotation methods. Blood samples were tested (more) by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for Giardia IgG. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Of 147 individuals tested, 93 (63.3%) showed Giardia cysts in their feces. Using IIF and ELISA, serum antibodies were detected in 93 (63.3%) and 100 (68%) samples , respectively. Sensitivity of IIF and ELISA was 82% and 72%, respectively. However, ELISA revealed to be less specific (39%) than IIF (70%). IIF also showed a higher concordance with microscopic examination than ELISA.

Guimarães, Semíramis; Sogayar, Maria Inês L

2002-02-01

57

Detection of anti-Giardia lamblia serum antibody among children of day care centers Detecção de anticorpos séricos anti-Giardia lamblia em crianças de creches  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVES: To detect anti-Giardia lamblia serum antibodies in healthy children attending public day care centers and to assess serological tests as tools for estimating the prevalence of G. lamblia in endemic areas. METHODS: Three separate stool specimens and filter paper blood samples were collected from 147 children ranging from 0 to 6 years old. Each stool sample was processed using spontaneous sedimentation and zinc sulfate flotation methods. Blood samples were tested by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for Giardia IgG. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Of 147 individuals tested, 93 (63.3%) showed Giardia cysts in their feces. Using IIF and ELISA, serum antibodies were detected in 93 (63.3%) and 100 (68%) samples , respectively. Sensitivity of IIF and ELISA was 82% and 72%, respectively. However, ELISA revealed to be less specific (39%) than IIF (70%). IIF also showed a higher concordance with microscopic examination than ELISA.OBJETIVOS: Detectar anticorpos séricos anti-Giardia lamblia entre crianças atendidas em creches e estimar a freqüência de infecção por Giardia lamblia em área endêmica. MÉTODOS: Foram coletadas três amostras de fezes de cada uma das 147 crianças de três creches da rede municipal de Botucatu, SP, com idade variando de 0 a 6 anos, e as amostras foram processadas pelos métodos de sedimentação espontânea e flutuação pelo sulfato de zinco. Amostras de sangue foram obtidas da polpa digital, coletadas em papel de filtro e testadas pelos métodos de imunofluorescência indireta (IFI) e de reação imunoenzimática (Elisa) para pesquisa de IgG anti-Giardia. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: De um total de 147 crianças, 93 (63,3%) apresentaram cistos de Giardia nas fezes. Dos 147 eluatos testados, 93 (63,3%) e 100 (68%) foram positivos para Giardia em IFI e em Elisa, respectivamente. A sensibilidade de IFI foi de 82% e de Elisa, 72%. Contudo, Elisa foi menos específica (39%) do que IFI (70%). A imunofluorescência indireta apresentou maior concordância com o exame de fezes do que Elisa.

Semíramis Guimarães; Maria Inês L Sogayar

2002-01-01

58

Simultaneous detection of Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium parvum in fecal samples by using multiplex real-time PCR.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium are three of the most important diarrhea-causing parasitic protozoa. For many years, microscopic examination of stool samples has been considered to be the "gold standard" for diagnosis of E. histolytica, G. lamblia, and C. parvum infections. Recently, more specific and sensitive alternative methods (PCR, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and direct fluorescent-antibody assay) have been introduced for all three of these parasitic infections. However, the incorporation in a routine diagnostic laboratory of these parasite-specific methods for diagnosis of each of the respective infections is time-consuming and increases the costs of a stool examination. Therefore, a multiplex real-time PCR assay was developed for the simultaneous detection of E. histolytica, G. lamblia, and C. parvum in stool samples. The multiplex PCR also included an internal control to determine efficiency of the PCR and detect inhibition in the sample. The assay was performed on species-specific DNA controls and a range of well-defined stool samples, and it achieved 100 percent specificity and sensitivity. The use of this assay in a diagnostic laboratory would provide sensitive and specific diagnosis of the main parasitic diarrheal infections and could improve patient management and infection control.

Verweij JJ; Blangé RA; Templeton K; Schinkel J; Brienen EA; van Rooyen MA; van Lieshout L; Polderman AM

2004-03-01

59

Giardia lamblia e alergia respiratória: estudo em uma amostra de crianças de área urbana com frequência elevada da protozoose/ Giardia lamblia and respiratory allergies: a study of children from an urban area with a high incidence of protozoan infections  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Uma elevada incidência de enteroparasitoses é encontrada em regiões urbanas do nordeste brasileiro. As infecções por Giardia lamblia têm sido relacionadas com aumento da prevalência de alergias cutâneas e gastrointestinais. Contudo, ainda existe pouca informação sobre a associação entre a giardíase e doenças alérgicas das vias aéreas. Diante disso, o presente estudo se propôs a verificar a relação entre a infecção por G. lamblia em crianças (more) de área urbana e reatividade alérgica respiratória. MÉTODOS: O estudo incluiu 110 pacientes, de ambos os sexos e idades, entre 5 e 15 anos. Os pacientes foram submetidos a questionários de avaliação dos sintomas clínicos, testes cutâneos de leitura imediata e exames coproparasitológicos e sorológicos. RESULTADOS: Foi verificada uma frequência elevada de crianças infectadas por G. lamblia (45%, 50/110). A infecção pelo protozoário não foi associada com maior risco de alergias respiratórias (p = 0,075), elevação de IgE total (p = 0,701), IgE específica (p = 0,250) ou teste cutâneo positivo para diferentes alérgenos ambientais (p = 0,239). CONCLUSÃO: O estudo demonstrou que a presença dos sintomas de asma, atopia cutânea e marcadores sorológicos não foram associados com a presença de infecção pela G. lamblia nessa amostra de crianças. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: There is a high incidence of intestinal parasite infection in urban areas in the Northeast of Brazil. Giardia lamblia infections have been associated with increased prevalence of cutaneous allergies and gastrointestinal disorders. However, little is known about the relationship between giardiasis and allergic diseases of the airways. The present study aimed to investigate the possible association between respiratory allergic diseases and infections by G. lambl (more) ia in children from urban areas. METHODS: This study recruited 110 patients of both sexes aged 5-15 years. Patients were administered a questionnaire evaluating clinical symptoms and were given skin tests, parasite tests and serum tests. RESULTS: A high incidence of G. lamblia was observed (45%, 50/110). Infections by this protozoan were not associated with increased risk of respiratory allergy (p = 0.075), high total IgE levels (p = 0.701), positive specific IgE tests (p = 0.250), or positive skin tests for a range of environmental allergens (p = 0.239). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that symptoms of asthma, skin allergy and serum markers were not associated with G. lamblia infections in this sample of children from urban areas.

Souza, Valdênia M. O.; Sales, Iana R. F.; Peixoto, Décio M.; Costa, Vláudia M. Assis; Rizzo, José A.; Silva, Almerinda R.; Camilo, Roberta Faria; Pierotti, Felipe Faria; Solé, Dirceu; Sarinho, Emanuel S. C.

2012-06-01

60

Evaluation Of Cytokines Changes In Patients Infected With Giardia lamblia In Comparison With Healthy Subjects  

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Full Text Available Background and Aim: Human Giardisis infection is caused by the flagellate protozoa. Giardia lamblia, which lives in the small intestine, causing damage and may also cause gastrointestinal symptoms. This parasitic disease has a worldwide distribution and prevalence varies from 5% to 30%. The role of both humeral and cellular immune response in the host defense against parasites has proven. Since an immune response is directly affected by cytokine, study of cytokines changes in patients with giardiosis is of particular importance. Materials and Methods: In this study the serum levels of IL-2 - 4 - 6 to 17 and 23 in patients and healthy subjects were measured and compared. Fasting blood samples were taken from the volunteers, ELISA was performed to measure cytokines. Results: In this study, the amount of IL-2 and IL-6 in infected patients was significantly more than the controls, but IL-4 levels were significantly lower in infected individuals (P=0.0001). Also for the first time in people with giardiasis IL-17 and IL-23 was measured and there was a significant aifference in these cytokines between the infected patients healthy controls(respectively P=0.044 and P=0.03) Conclusion: Host defense response against parasitic infections, is directly and affected by cytokines. Increased interleukin 2, 6, 17 and 23 in patients with Giardiosis was probably caused by immune response and local intestinal inflammation.

Mitra Zarebavani; Nasrin Dashti; Nahid Einollahi; Arezoo Jamali

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Determination of Giardia lamblia cyst infective dose for the Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus).  

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The purpose of this study was to determine the 50% infective dose for Giardia lamblia (CDC:0284:1) cysts in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus). The log10 50% infective dose results calculated by probit analysis and the Spearman-Karber method were 2.45 and 2.50, respectively.

Schaefer, F W; Johnson, C H; Hsu, C H; Rice, E W

62

Determination of 'Giardia lamblia' Cyst Infective Dose for the Mongolian Gerbil ('Meriones unguiculatus').  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the study was to determine the I.D.(50) for Giardia lamblia (CDC:0284:1) cysts in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) and compare it to human infectivity data. Cysts were purified from Mongolian gerbil feces and diluted to produce ino...

F. W. Schaefer C. H. Johnson C. H. Hsu E. W. Rice

1991-01-01

63

Identification of Giardia lamblia-specific antigens in infected human and gerbil feces by western immunoblotting.  

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Western immunoblot analysis of aqueous extracts of feces obtained from five giardiasis patients and from experimentally infected gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) with rabbit antiserum to Giardia lamblia cysts has revealed antigens of three molecular weight groups. A stepladderlike, evenly-spaced set ...

Stibbs, H H; Samadpour, M; Ongerth, J E

64

Variable infectivity of human-derived Giardia lamblia cysts for Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus).  

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To determine whether gerbils can be used as a suitable animal model for giardiasis, we attempted to infect Mongolian gerbils with cysts of Giardia lamblia isolated from the stools of 10 humans with symptomatic and asymptomatic giardiasis. We obtained 100% infection with one isolate (CDC:0284:1), as ...

Visvesvara, G S; Dickerson, J W; Healy, G R

65

In Vitro Effects of Metronidazole and Albendazole on Giardia lamblia Isolated from Iranian Patients  

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Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of metronidazole and albendazole against clinical isolates of Giardia lamblia in vitro. Methods: From all human samples of containing cysts, 10 isolates were successfully excysted in vitro. Trophozites viability was assessed by eos...

F Mohamadnezhad; F Ghaffarifar; A Dalimi

66

CLONING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CDNA ENCODING GIARDIA LAMBLIA d-GIARDIN  

Science.gov (United States)

A cDNA coding for d-giardin was cloned from Giardia lamblia trophozoites in order to localize the protein and study its function in mediating surface attachment. Recombinant d-giardin antigen was produced in Escherichia coli as a poly-histidine fusion protein and was purified by affinity chromatogr...

67

Antibodies to cysts of Giardia lamblia in primary giardiasis and in the absence of giardiasis.  

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The significance of serum antibodies binding to cysts of Giardia lamblia was evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence. Titers of 10 or higher were found in 85.6% of adults, who had probably never had giardiasis. Titers in 118 adults (geometric mean, 29.9) were higher than in 35 children (16.4), and ...

Jokipii, L; Miettinen, A; Jokipii, A M

68

Rapid and sensitive detection of Giardia lamblia using a piezoelectric cantilever biosensor in finished and source waters.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The current method for detecting the waterborne parasite Giardia lamblia is tedious and requires a preconcentration step. We show for the first time a piezoelectric-excited millimeter-sized cantilever (PEMC) biosensor immobilized with a monoclonal antibody against G. lamblia that exhibits selective and sensitive detection of G. lamblia cysts in several water matrixes (buffer, tap, and river water) at a detection limit of 1-10 cysts/mL without a preconcentration step. The PEMC sensor is a resonance-based device that functions at a high-order mode near 1 MHz. The antibody-immobilized sensor was exposed to 1-10,000 G. lamblia cysts/mL samples in a flow arrangement. When the cysts bind to the antibody on the sensor, the resonant frequency of the cantilever sensor decreases and is recorded continuously. Positive confirmation of sensor detection responses was obtained by environmental scanning electron microscope of sensor surface after detection experiments. Higher sample flow rates (0.5-5.0 mL/min) gave higher sensor detection response. Detecting as few as 10 cysts per mL was achieved in all three water matrixes tested, and significant sensor response was obtained in 15 min. We also show the feasibility of analyzing at a low concentration of 1 cyst/mL in a one liter sample at a high flow rate of 5 mL/min.

Xu S; Mutharasan R

2010-03-01

69

Identification of an immunogenic protein of Giardia lamblia using monoclonal antibodies generated from infected mice  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The humoral immune response plays an important role in the clearance of Giardia lamblia. However, our knowledge about the specific antigens of G. lamblia that induce a protective immune response is limited. The purpose of this study was to identify and characterise the immunogenic proteins of G. lamblia in a mouse model. We generated monoclonal antibodies (moAbs) specific to G. lamblia (1B10, 2C (more) 9.D11, 3C10.E5, 3D10, 5G8.B5, 5F4, 4C7, 3C5 and 3C6) by fusing splenocytes derived from infected mice. Most of these moAbs recognised a band of ± 71 kDa (5G8 protein) and this protein was also recognised by serum from the infected mice. We found that the moAbs recognised conformational epitopes of the 5G8 protein and that this antigen is expressed on the cell surface and inside trophozoites. Additionally, antibodies specific to the 5G8 protein induced strong agglutination (> 70-90%) of trophozoites. We have thus identified a highly immunogenic antigen of G. lamblia that is recognised by the immune system of infected mice. In summary, this study describes the identification and partial characterisation of an immunogenic protein of G. lamblia. Additionally, we generated a panel of moAbs specific for this protein that will be useful for the biochemical and immunological characterisation of this immunologically interesting Giardia molecule.

Quintero, Jael; Figueroa, Diana Carolina; Barcelo, Rafael; Breci, Linda; Astiazaran-Garcia, Humberto; Rascon, Lucila; Robles-Zepeda, Ramon; Garibay-Escobar, Adriana; Velazquez-Contreras, Enrique; Avila, Gloria Leon; Hernandez-Hernandez, Jose Manuel; Velazquez, Carlos

2013-08-01

70

Identification of an immunogenic protein of Giardia lamblia using monoclonal antibodies generated from infected mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

The humoral immune response plays an important role in the clearance of Giardia lamblia. However, our knowledge about the specific antigens of G. lamblia that induce a protective immune response is limited. The purpose of this study was to identify and characterise the immunogenic proteins of G. lamblia in a mouse model. We generated monoclonal antibodies (moAbs) specific to G. lamblia (1B10, 2C9.D11, 3C10.E5, 3D10, 5G8.B5, 5F4, 4C7, 3C5 and 3C6) by fusing splenocytes derived from infected mice. Most of these moAbs recognised a band of ± 71 kDa (5G8 protein) and this protein was also recognised by serum from the infected mice. We found that the moAbs recognised conformational epitopes of the 5G8 protein and that this antigen is expressed on the cell surface and inside trophozoites. Additionally, antibodies specific to the 5G8 protein induced strong agglutination (> 70-90%) of trophozoites. We have thus identified a highly immunogenic antigen of G. lamblia that is recognised by the immune system of infected mice. In summary, this study describes the identification and partial characterisation of an immunogenic protein of G. lamblia. Additionally, we generated a panel of moAbs specific for this protein that will be useful for the biochemical and immunological characterisation of this immunologically interesting Giardia molecule. PMID:23903978

Quintero, Jael; Figueroa, Diana Carolina; Barcelo, Rafael; Breci, Linda; Astiazaran-Garcia, Humberto; Rascon, Lucila; Robles-Zepeda, Ramon; Garibay-Escobar, Adriana; Velazquez-Contreras, Enrique; Avila, Gloria Leon; Hernandez-Hernandez, Jose Manuel; Velazquez, Carlos

2013-08-01

71

Identification of an immunogenic protein of Giardia lamblia using monoclonal antibodies generated from infected mice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The humoral immune response plays an important role in the clearance of Giardia lamblia. However, our knowledge about the specific antigens of G. lamblia that induce a protective immune response is limited. The purpose of this study was to identify and characterise the immunogenic proteins of G. lamblia in a mouse model. We generated monoclonal antibodies (moAbs) specific to G. lamblia (1B10, 2C9.D11, 3C10.E5, 3D10, 5G8.B5, 5F4, 4C7, 3C5 and 3C6) by fusing splenocytes derived from infected mice. Most of these moAbs recognised a band of ± 71 kDa (5G8 protein) and this protein was also recognised by serum from the infected mice. We found that the moAbs recognised conformational epitopes of the 5G8 protein and that this antigen is expressed on the cell surface and inside trophozoites. Additionally, antibodies specific to the 5G8 protein induced strong agglutination (> 70-90%) of trophozoites. We have thus identified a highly immunogenic antigen of G. lamblia that is recognised by the immune system of infected mice. In summary, this study describes the identification and partial characterisation of an immunogenic protein of G. lamblia. Additionally, we generated a panel of moAbs specific for this protein that will be useful for the biochemical and immunological characterisation of this immunologically interesting Giardia molecule.

Quintero J; Figueroa DC; Barcelo R; Breci L; Astiazaran-Garcia H; Rascon L; Robles-Zepeda R; Garibay-Escobar A; Velazquez-Contreras E; Avila GL; Hernandez-Hernandez JM; Velazquez C

2013-08-01

72

Detection of anti-Giardia lamblia serum antibody among children of day care centers  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVES: To detect anti-Giardia lamblia serum antibodies in healthy children attending public day care centers and to assess serological tests as tools for estimating the prevalence of G. lamblia in endemic areas. METHODS: Three separate stool specimens and filter paper blood samples were collected from 147 children ranging from 0 to 6 years old. Each stool sample was processed using spontaneous sedimentation and zinc sulfate flotation methods. Blood samples were tested by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for Giardia IgG. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Of 147 individuals tested, 93 (63.3%) showed Giardia cysts in their feces. Using IIF and ELISA, serum antibodies were detected in 93 (63.3%) and 100 (68%) samples , respectively. Sensitivity of IIF and ELISA was 82% and 72%, respectively. However, ELISA revealed to be less specific (39%) than IIF (70%). IIF also showed a higher concordance with microscopic examination than ELISA.

Guimarães Semíramis; Sogayar Maria Inês L

2002-01-01

73

Crystal structure of a macrophage migration inhibitory factor from Giardia lamblia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a eukaryotic cytokine that affects a broad spectrum of immune responses and its activation/inactivation is associated with numerous diseases. During protozoan infections MIF is not only expressed by the host, but, has also been observed to be expressed by some parasites and released into the host. To better understand the biological role of parasitic MIF proteins, the crystal structure of the MIF protein from Giardia lamblia (Gl-MIF), the etiological agent responsible for giardiasis, has been determined at 2.30 Å resolution. The 114-residue protein adopts an ?/? fold consisting of a four-stranded ?-sheet with two anti-parallel ?-helices packed against a face of the ?-sheet. An additional short ?-strand aligns anti-parallel to ?4 of the ?-sheet in the adjacent protein unit to help stabilize a trimer, the biologically relevant unit observed in all solved MIF crystal structures to date, and form a discontinuous ?-barrel. The structure of Gl-MIF is compared to the MIF structures from humans (Hs-MIF) and three Plasmodium species (falciparum, berghei, and yoelii). The structure of all five MIF proteins are generally similar with the exception of a channel that runs through the center of each trimer complex. Relative to Hs-MIF, there are differences in solvent accessibility and electrostatic potential distribution in the channel of Gl-MIF and the Plasmodium-MIFs due primarily to two "gate-keeper" residues in the parasitic MIFs. For the Plasmodium MIFs the gate-keeper residues are at positions 44 (Y --> R) and 100 (V --> D) and for Gl-MIF it is at position 100 (V --> R). If these gate-keeper residues have a biological function and contribute to the progression of parasitemia they may also form the basis for structure-based drug design targeting parasitic MIF proteins. PMID:23709284

Buchko, Garry W; Abendroth, Jan; Robinson, Howard; Zhang, Yanfeng; Hewitt, Stephen N; Edwards, Thomas E; Van Voorhis, Wesley C; Myler, Peter J

2013-05-25

74

Crystal structure of a macrophage migration inhibitory factor from Giardia lamblia  

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Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a eukaryotic cytokine that affects a broad spectrum of immune responses and its activation/inactivation is associated with numerous diseases. During protozoan infections MIF is not only expressed by the host, but, has also been observed to be expressed by some parasites and released into the host. To better understand the biological role of parasitic MIF proteins, the crystal structure of the MIF protein from Giardia lamblia (Gl-MIF), the etiological agent responsible for giardiasis, has been determined at 2.30 Å resolution. The 114-residue protein adopts an ?/? fold consisting of a four-stranded ?-sheet with two anti-parallel ?-helices packed against a face of the ?-sheet. An additional short ?-strand aligns anti-parallel to ?4 of the ?-sheet in the adjacent protein unit to help stabilize a trimer, the biologically relevant unit observed in all solved MIF crystal structures to date, and form a discontinuous ?-barrel. The structure of Gl-MIF is compared to the MIF structures from humans (Hs-MIF) and three Plasmodium species (falciparum, berghei, and yoelii). The structure of all five MIF proteins are generally similar with the exception of a channel that runs through the center of each trimer complex. Relative to Hs-MIF, there are differences in solvent accessibility and electrostatic potential distribution in the channel of Gl-MIF and the Plasmodium-MIFs due primarily to two “gate-keeper” residues in the parasitic MIFs. For the Plasmodium MIFs the gate-keeper residues are at positions 44 (Y==>R) and 100 (V==>D) and for Gl-MIF it is at position 100 (V==>R). If these gate-keeper residues have a biological function and contribute to the progression of parasitemia they may also form the basis for structure-based drug design targeting parasitic MIF proteins.

Buchko, Garry W.; Abendroth, Jan; Robinson, Howard; Zhang, Yanfeng; Hewitt, Stephen N.; Edwards, Tom E.; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Myler, Peter J.

2013-06-15

75

Hydrologic and vegetative removal of Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia, and Toxoplasma gondii Surrogate microspheres in coastal wetlands.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Constructed wetland systems are used to reduce pollutants and pathogens in wastewater effluent, but comparatively little is known about pathogen transport through natural wetland habitats. Fecal protozoans, including Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia, and Toxoplasma gondii, are waterborne pathogens of humans and animals, which are carried by surface waters from land-based sources into coastal waters. This study evaluated key factors of coastal wetlands for the reduction of protozoal parasites in surface waters using settling column and recirculating mesocosm tank experiments. Settling column experiments evaluated the effects of salinity, temperature, and water type ("pure" versus "environmental") on the vertical settling velocities of C. parvum, G. lamblia, and T. gondii surrogates, with salinity and water type found to significantly affect settling of the parasites. The mesocosm tank experiments evaluated the effects of salinity, flow rate, and vegetation parameters on parasite and surrogate counts, with increased salinity and the presence of vegetation found to be significant factors for removal of parasites in a unidirectional transport wetland system. Overall, this study highlights the importance of water type, salinity, and vegetation parameters for pathogen transport within wetland systems, with implications for wetland management, restoration efforts, and coastal water quality.

Hogan JN; Daniels ME; Watson FG; Oates SC; Miller MA; Conrad PA; Shapiro K; Hardin D; Dominik C; Melli A; Jessup DA; Miller WA

2013-03-01

76

Structure-activity relationships of pentamidine analogs against Giardia lamblia and correlation of antigiardial activity with DNA-binding affinity.  

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1,5-Di(4-amidinophenoxy)pentane (pentamidine) and 38 analogs of pentamidine were screened for in vitro activity against the enteric protozoan Giardia lamblia WB (ATCC 30957). All compounds were active against G. lamblia as measured by a [methyl-3H]thymidine incorporation assay. Antigiardial activity...

Bell, C A; Cory, M; Fairley, T A; Hall, J E; Tidwell, R R

77

Comparación de métodos de lisis y extracción de ADN de trofozoítos de Giardia lamblia COMPARISON OF LYSIS METHODS AND DNA EXTRACTION OF GIARDIA LAMBLIA TROPHOZOITES  

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Full Text Available Se evaluó la eficiencia de procedimientos de lisis y tratamientos de extracción de ADN de trofozoítos de Giardia lamblia respecto a la eficiencia de ruptura, cantidad y pureza de ADN, además de los tiempos de procesamiento y costos. Se testearon cinco métodos de lisis (agua destilada y calor; agua destilada, calor y proteinasa K; buffer de lisis D; buffer de lisis E y un kit comercial) y tres métodos de purificación de ADN (fenol:cloroformo: isoamílico; Chelex 100 y un kit comercial). Los datos obtenidos se analizaron estadísticamente. La combinación de buffer de lisis E y Chelex fue un método simple y económico, que produjo alto rendimiento de ADN con baja pureza. Ella técnica comercial fue un método simple, más costoso que produjo bajas cantidades de ADN con un nivel de pureza apropiado para estudios molecularesThe efficiency of lysis procedures and DNA purification treatments of Giardia lamblia trophozoites were evaluated regarding the breaking-up efficiency, quantity and pureness of DNA, processing time and costs. Five lysis methods (distilled water and heating; distilled water, heating and proteinase K; buffer D Lysis; buffer E lysis, and commercial kit), and three DNA purification methods (phenol:chloroform:isoamilic, Chelex 100 and commercial kit) were tested. The obtained data were statistically analyzed. The buffer E lysis and Chelex combination was simple and economic method which produced high DNA performance with low pureness. Commercial kit was simple and expensive method which generated low yields of DNA with appropriate purity level for molecular analysis

NORA B MOLINA; DANIELA POLVERINO; MARTA C MINVIELLE; MARÍA APEZTEGUÍA; MARIO AGUILAR; JUAN A BASUALDO

2006-01-01

78

SUMOylation in Giardia lamblia: A Conserved Post-Translational Modification in One of the Earliest Divergent Eukaryotes  

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Full Text Available Post-translational modifications are able to regulate protein function and cellular processes in a rapid and reversible way. SUMOylation, the post-translational modification of proteins by the addition of SUMO, is a highly conserved process that seems to be present in modern cells. However, the mechanism of protein SUMOylation in earlier divergent eukaryotes, such as Giardia lamblia, is only starting to become apparent. In this work, we report the presence of a single SUMO gene encoding to SUMO protein in Giardia. Monoclonal antibodies against recombinant Giardia SUMO protein revealed the cytoplasmic localization of native SUMO in wild-type trophozoites. Moreover, the over-expression of SUMO protein showed a mainly cytoplasmic localization, though also neighboring the plasma membrane, flagella, and around and even inside the nuclei. Western blot assays revealed a number of SUMOylated proteins in a range between 20 and 120 kDa. The genes corresponding to putative enzymes involved in the SUMOylation pathway were also explored. Our results as a whole suggest that SUMOylation is a process conserved in the eukaryotic lineage, and that its study is significant for understanding the biology of this interesting parasite and the role of post-translational modification in its evolution.

Cecilia V. Vranych; María C. Merino; Nahuel Zamponi; María C. Touz; Andrea S. Rópolo

2012-01-01

79

Metabolism of nitro drugs metronidazole and nitazoxanide in Giardia lamblia: characterization of a novel nitroreductase (GlNR2).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: The protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia causes giardiasis, a persistent diarrhoea. Nitro drugs such as the nitroimidazole metronidazole and the nitrothiazolide nitazoxanide are used for the treatment of giardiasis. Nitroreductases may play a role in activating these drugs. G. lamblia contains two nitroreductases, GlNR1 and GlNR2. The aim of this work was to elucidate the role of GlNR2. METHODS: Expression of GlNR2 was analysed by reverse transcription PCR. Recombinant GlNR2 was overexpressed in G. lamblia and drug susceptibility was analysed. Recombinant GlNR2 was subjected to functional assays. Escherichia coli expressing full-length or truncated GlNR1 and GlNR2 were grown in the presence of nitro compounds. Using E. coli reporter strains for nitric oxide and DNA damage responses, we analysed whether GlNR1 and GlNR2 elicited the respective responses in the presence, or absence, of the drugs. RESULTS: G. lamblia trophozoites overexpressing GlNR2 were less susceptible to both nitro drugs as compared with control trophozoites. GlNR2 was a functional nitroreductase when expressed in E. coli. E. coli expressing GlNR1 was more susceptible to metronidazole under aerobic and semi-aerobic and to nitazoxanide under semi-aerobic growth conditions. E. coli expressing GlNR2 was not susceptible to either drug. In reporter strains, GlNR1, but not GlNR2, elicited nitric oxide and DNA repair responses, even in the absence of nitro drugs. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that GlNR2 is an active nitroreductase with a mode of action different from that of GlNR1. Thus, susceptibility to nitro drugs may depend not only on activation, but also on inactivation of the drugs by specific nitroreductases.

Müller J; Schildknecht P; Müller N

2013-08-01

80

Effects of Dietary Zinc Manipulation on Growth Performance, Zinc Status and Immune Response during Giardia lamblia Infection: A Study in CD-1 Mice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Associations between Giardia lamblia infection and low serum concentrations of zinc have been reported in young children. Interestingly, relatively few studies have examined the effects of different dietary zinc levels on the parasite-infected host. The aims of this study were to compare the growth performance and zinc status in response to varying levels of dietary zinc and to measure the antibody-mediated response of mice during G. lamblia infection. Male CD-1 mice were fed using 1 of 4 experimental diets: adequate-zinc (ZnA), low-zinc (ZnL), high-zinc (ZnH) and supplemented-zinc (ZnS) diet containing 30, 10, 223 and 1383 mg Zn/kg respectively. After a 10 days feeding period, mice were inoculated orally with 5 × 106 G. lamblia trophozoites and were maintained on the assigned diet during the course of infection (30 days). Giardia-free mice fed ZnL diets were able to attain normal growth and antibody-mediated response. Giardia-infected mice fed ZnL and ZnA diets presented a significant growth retardation compared to non-infected controls. Zinc supplementation avoided this weight loss during G. lamblia infection and up-regulated the host's humoral immune response by improving the production of specific antibodies. Clinical outcomes of zinc supplementation during giardiasis included significant weight gain, higher anti-G. lamblia IgG antibodies and improved serum zinc levels despite the ongoing infection. A maximum growth rate and antibody-mediated response were attained in mice fed ZnH diet. No further increases in body weight, zinc status and humoral immune capacity were noted by feeding higher zinc levels (ZnS) than the ZnH diet. These findings probably reflect biological effect of zinc that could be of public health importance in endemic areas of infection.

Iñigo-Figueroa G; Méndez-Estrada RO; Quihui-Cota L; Velásquez-Contreras CA; Garibay-Escobar A; Canett-Romero R; Astiazarán-García H

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

A reprofiled drug, auranofin, is effective against metronidazole-resistant Giardia lamblia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Giardiasis is one of the most common causes of diarrheal disease worldwide. Treatment is primarily with 5-nitro antimicrobials, particularly metronidazole. Resistance to metronidazole has been described, and treatment failures can occur in up to 20% of cases, making development of alternative antigiardials an important goal. To this end, we have screened a chemical library of 746 approved human drugs and 164 additional bioactive compounds for activity against Giardia lamblia. We identified 56 compounds that caused significant inhibition of G. lamblia growth and attachment. Of these, 15 were previously reported to have antigiardial activity, 20 were bioactive but not approved for human use, and 21 were drugs approved for human use for other indications. One notable compound of the last group was the antirheumatic drug auranofin. Further testing revealed that auranofin was active in the low (4 to 6)-micromolar range against a range of divergent G. lamblia isolates representing both human-pathogenic assemblages A and B. Most importantly, auranofin was active against multiple metronidazole-resistant strains. Mechanistically, auranofin blocked the activity of giardial thioredoxin oxidoreductase, a critical enzyme involved in maintaining normal protein function and combating oxidative damage, suggesting that this inhibition contributes to the antigiardial activity. Furthermore, auranofin was efficacious in vivo, as it eradicated infection with different G. lamblia isolates in different rodent models. These results indicate that the approved human drug auranofin could be developed as a novel agent in the armamentarium of antigiardial drugs, particularly against metronidazole-resistant strains.

Tejman-Yarden N; Miyamoto Y; Leitsch D; Santini J; Debnath A; Gut J; McKerrow JH; Reed SL; Eckmann L

2013-05-01

82

A reprofiled drug, auranofin, is effective against metronidazole-resistant Giardia lamblia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardiasis is one of the most common causes of diarrheal disease worldwide. Treatment is primarily with 5-nitro antimicrobials, particularly metronidazole. Resistance to metronidazole has been described, and treatment failures can occur in up to 20% of cases, making development of alternative antigiardials an important goal. To this end, we have screened a chemical library of 746 approved human drugs and 164 additional bioactive compounds for activity against Giardia lamblia. We identified 56 compounds that caused significant inhibition of G. lamblia growth and attachment. Of these, 15 were previously reported to have antigiardial activity, 20 were bioactive but not approved for human use, and 21 were drugs approved for human use for other indications. One notable compound of the last group was the antirheumatic drug auranofin. Further testing revealed that auranofin was active in the low (4 to 6)-micromolar range against a range of divergent G. lamblia isolates representing both human-pathogenic assemblages A and B. Most importantly, auranofin was active against multiple metronidazole-resistant strains. Mechanistically, auranofin blocked the activity of giardial thioredoxin oxidoreductase, a critical enzyme involved in maintaining normal protein function and combating oxidative damage, suggesting that this inhibition contributes to the antigiardial activity. Furthermore, auranofin was efficacious in vivo, as it eradicated infection with different G. lamblia isolates in different rodent models. These results indicate that the approved human drug auranofin could be developed as a novel agent in the armamentarium of antigiardial drugs, particularly against metronidazole-resistant strains. PMID:23403423

Tejman-Yarden, Noa; Miyamoto, Yukiko; Leitsch, David; Santini, Jennifer; Debnath, Anjan; Gut, Jiri; McKerrow, James H; Reed, Sharon L; Eckmann, Lars

2013-02-12

83

Characterization of an immunodominant Giardia lamblia protein antigen related to alpha giardin.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The trophozoites of Giardia lamblia possess several protein antigens, predominant among them a protein of approximately 32,000 Da. In the present study, we used monospecific antibodies that recognize this protein to demonstrate its presence on a variety of G. lamblia isolates from human and animal sources. Immune electron microscopy was used to localize 32-kDa antigen on the trophozoite membrane and disk. Immunofluorescent assays employing monospecific antibodies confirmed the presence of 32-kDa antigen on the membrane and disk and its absence on flagella or nuclei. The N-terminal 17 amino acids of the 32-kDa antigen are identical to alpha-1-giardin, a protein component of microribbons on the ventral disk. These results suggest that the 32-kDa immunodominant trophozoite antigen is alpha-1-giardin.

Wenman WM; Meuser RU; Nyugen Q; Kilani RT; el-Shewy K; Sherburne R

1993-01-01

84

Allelic sequence heterozygosity in single Giardia parasites.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Genetic heterogeneity has become a major inconvenience in the genotyping and molecular epidemiology of the intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia intestinalis, in particular for the major human infecting genotype, assemblage B. Sequence-based genotyping of assemblage B Giardia from patient fecal samples, where one or several of the commonly used genotyping loci (beta-giardin, triosephosphate isomerase and glutamate dehydrogenase) are implemented, is often hampered due to the presence of sequence heterogeneity in the sequencing chromatograms. This can be due to allelic sequence heterozygosity (ASH) and /or co-infections with parasites of different assemblage B sub-genotypes. Thus, two important questions have arisen; i) does ASH occur at the single cell level, and/or ii) do multiple sub-genotype infections commonly occur in patients infected with assemblage B, G. intestinalis isolates? RESULTS: We used micromanipulation in order to isolate single Giardia intestinalis, assemblage B trophozoites (GS isolate) and cysts from human patients. Molecular analysis at the tpi loci of trophozoites from the GS lineage indicated that ASH is present at the single cell level. Analyses of assemblage B Giardia cysts from clinical samples at the bg and tpi loci also indicated ASH at the single cell level. Additionally, alignment of sequence data from several different cysts that originated from the same patient yielded different sequence patterns, thus suggesting the presence of multiple sub-assemblage infections in congruence with ASH within the same patient. CONCLUSIONS: Our results conclusively show that ASH does occur at the single cell level in assemblage B Giardia. Furthermore, sequence heterogeneity generated during sequence-based genotyping of assemblage B isolates may possess the complexity of single cell ASH in concurrence with co-infections of different assemblage B sub-genotypes. These findings explain the high abundance of sequence heterogeneity commonly found when performing sequence based genotyping of assemblage B Giardia, and illuminates the necessity of developing new G. intestinalis genotyping tools.

Ankarklev J; Svärd SG; Lebbad M

2012-01-01

85

Allelic sequence heterozygosity in single Giardia parasites  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic heterogeneity has become a major inconvenience in the genotyping and molecular epidemiology of the intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia intestinalis, in particular for the major human infecting genotype, assemblage B. Sequence-based genotyping of assemblage B Giardia from patient fecal samples, where one or several of the commonly used genotyping loci (beta-giardin, triosephosphate isomerase and glutamate dehydrogenase) are implemented, is often hampered due to the presence of sequence heterogeneity in the sequencing chromatograms. This can be due to allelic sequence heterozygosity (ASH) and /or co-infections with parasites of different assemblage B sub-genotypes. Thus, two important questions have arisen; i) does ASH occur at the single cell level, and/or ii) do multiple sub-genotype infections commonly occur in patients infected with assemblage B, G. intestinalis isolates? Results We used micromanipulation in order to isolate single Giardia intestinalis, assemblage B trophozoites (GS isolate) and cysts from human patients. Molecular analysis at the tpi loci of trophozoites from the GS lineage indicated that ASH is present at the single cell level. Analyses of assemblage B Giardia cysts from clinical samples at the bg and tpi loci also indicated ASH at the single cell level. Additionally, alignment of sequence data from several different cysts that originated from the same patient yielded different sequence patterns, thus suggesting the presence of multiple sub-assemblage infections in congruence with ASH within the same patient. Conclusions Our results conclusively show that ASH does occur at the single cell level in assemblage B Giardia. Furthermore, sequence heterogeneity generated during sequence-based genotyping of assemblage B isolates may possess the complexity of single cell ASH in concurrence with co-infections of different assemblage B sub-genotypes. These findings explain the high abundance of sequence heterogeneity commonly found when performing sequence based genotyping of assemblage B Giardia, and illuminates the necessity of developing new G. intestinalis genotyping tools.

Ankarklev Johan; Svärd Staffan G; Lebbad Marianne

2012-01-01

86

A unique mechanism of nuclear division in Giardia lamblia involves components of the ventral disk and the nuclear envelope  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The fine structure of the binucleate, parasitic protist Giardia lamblia during interphase and divisional stages was studied by serial thin sectioning and three-dimensional reconstructions. The earlier sign of nuclear division is the development of a few peripheral areas of densely packed chromatin directly attached to the inner nuclear envelope. An intracytoplasmic sheet of ventral disk components grows from the cell periphery towards one of the nuclei, apparently constri (more) cting this nucleus, which becomes located at a ventral bulge. After the basal bodies become duplicated, a full nuclear division occurs in trophozoites, giving two pairs of parent-daughter nuclei. This full division occurs in a dorsal-ventral direction, with the resulting nuclear pairs located at the sides of the two sets of basal bodies. A new ventral disk is formed from the disk-derived sheets in the cell harboring the four nuclei. Cytokinesis is polymorphic, but at early stages is dorsal-to-dorsal. Encysting trophozoites show the development of Golgi cisternae stacks and dense, specific secretory granules. 3-D reconstructions show that cysts contain a single pair of incompletely strangled nuclei. The dividing Giardia lacks a typical, microtubular spindle either inside or outside the nuclei. The nuclear envelope seems to be the only structure involved in the final division of the parent-daughter nuclei.

Solari, Alberto J.; Rahn, Monica I.; Saura, Alicia; Lujan, Hugo D.

2003-12-01

87

A unique mechanism of nuclear division in Giardia lamblia involves components of the ventral disk and the nuclear envelope  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The fine structure of the binucleate, parasitic protist Giardia lamblia during interphase and divisional stages was studied by serial thin sectioning and three-dimensional reconstructions. The earlier sign of nuclear division is the development of a few peripheral areas of densely packed chromatin directly attached to the inner nuclear envelope. An intracytoplasmic sheet of ventral disk components grows from the cell periphery towards one of the nuclei, apparently constricting this nucleus, which becomes located at a ventral bulge. After the basal bodies become duplicated, a full nuclear division occurs in trophozoites, giving two pairs of parent-daughter nuclei. This full division occurs in a dorsal-ventral direction, with the resulting nuclear pairs located at the sides of the two sets of basal bodies. A new ventral disk is formed from the disk-derived sheets in the cell harboring the four nuclei. Cytokinesis is polymorphic, but at early stages is dorsal-to-dorsal. Encysting trophozoites show the development of Golgi cisternae stacks and dense, specific secretory granules. 3-D reconstructions show that cysts contain a single pair of incompletely strangled nuclei. The dividing Giardia lacks a typical, microtubular spindle either inside or outside the nuclei. The nuclear envelope seems to be the only structure involved in the final division of the parent-daughter nuclei.

Alberto J. Solari; Monica I. Rahn; Alicia Saura; Hugo D. Lujan

2003-01-01

88

A contiguous compartment functions as endoplasmic reticulum and endosome/lysosome in Giardia lamblia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The dynamic evolution of organelle compartmentalization in eukaryotes and how strictly compartmentalization is maintained are matters of ongoing debate. While the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is classically envisioned as the site of protein cotranslational translocation, it has recently been proposed to have pluripotent functions. Using transfected reporter constructs, organelle-specific markers, and functional enzyme assays, we now show that in an early-diverging protozoan, Giardia lamblia, endocytosis and subsequent degradation of exogenous proteins occur in the ER or in an adjacent and communicating compartment. The Giardia endomembrane system is simple compared to those of typical eukaryotes. It lacks peroxisomes, a classical Golgi apparatus, and canonical lysosomes. Giardia orthologues of mammalian lysosomal proteases function within an ER-like tubulovesicular compartment, which itself can dynamically communicate with clathrin-containing vacuoles at the periphery of the cell to receive endocytosed proteins. These primitive characteristics support Giardia's proposed early branching and could serve as a model to study the compartmentalization of endocytic and lysosomal functions into organelles distinct from the ER. This system also may have functional similarity to the retrograde transport of toxins and major histocompatibility complex class I function in the ER of mammals.

Abodeely M; DuBois KN; Hehl A; Stefanic S; Sajid M; DeSouza W; Attias M; Engel JC; Hsieh I; Fetter RD; McKerrow JH

2009-11-01

89

A Contiguous Compartment Functions as Endoplasmic Reticulum and Endosome/Lysosome in Giardia lamblia? †  

Science.gov (United States)

The dynamic evolution of organelle compartmentalization in eukaryotes and how strictly compartmentalization is maintained are matters of ongoing debate. While the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is classically envisioned as the site of protein cotranslational translocation, it has recently been proposed to have pluripotent functions. Using transfected reporter constructs, organelle-specific markers, and functional enzyme assays, we now show that in an early-diverging protozoan, Giardia lamblia, endocytosis and subsequent degradation of exogenous proteins occur in the ER or in an adjacent and communicating compartment. The Giardia endomembrane system is simple compared to those of typical eukaryotes. It lacks peroxisomes, a classical Golgi apparatus, and canonical lysosomes. Giardia orthologues of mammalian lysosomal proteases function within an ER-like tubulovesicular compartment, which itself can dynamically communicate with clathrin-containing vacuoles at the periphery of the cell to receive endocytosed proteins. These primitive characteristics support Giardia's proposed early branching and could serve as a model to study the compartmentalization of endocytic and lysosomal functions into organelles distinct from the ER. This system also may have functional similarity to the retrograde transport of toxins and major histocompatibility complex class I function in the ER of mammals.

Abodeely, Marla; DuBois, Kelly N.; Hehl, Adrian; Stefanic, Sasa; Sajid, Mohammed; deSouza, Wanderley; Attias, Marcia; Engel, Juan C.; Hsieh, Ivy; Fetter, Richard D.; McKerrow, James H.

2009-01-01

90

A contiguous compartment functions as endoplasmic reticulum and endosome/lysosome in Giardia lamblia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The dynamic evolution of organelle compartmentalization in eukaryotes and how strictly compartmentalization is maintained are matters of ongoing debate. While the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is classically envisioned as the site of protein cotranslational translocation, it has recently been proposed to have pluripotent functions. Using transfected reporter constructs, organelle-specific markers, and functional enzyme assays, we now show that in an early-diverging protozoan, Giardia lamblia, endocytosis and subsequent degradation of exogenous proteins occur in the ER or in an adjacent and communicating compartment. The Giardia endomembrane system is simple compared to those of typical eukaryotes. It lacks peroxisomes, a classical Golgi apparatus, and canonical lysosomes. Giardia orthologues of mammalian lysosomal proteases function within an ER-like tubulovesicular compartment, which itself can dynamically communicate with clathrin-containing vacuoles at the periphery of the cell to receive endocytosed proteins. These primitive characteristics support Giardia's proposed early branching and could serve as a model to study the compartmentalization of endocytic and lysosomal functions into organelles distinct from the ER. This system also may have functional similarity to the retrograde transport of toxins and major histocompatibility complex class I function in the ER of mammals. PMID:19749174

Abodeely, Marla; DuBois, Kelly N; Hehl, Adrian; Stefanic, Sasa; Sajid, Mohammed; DeSouza, Wanderley; Attias, Marcia; Engel, Juan C; Hsieh, Ivy; Fetter, Richard D; McKerrow, James H

2009-09-11

91

Adaptor protein complex 1 mediates the transport of lysosomal proteins from a Golgi-like organelle to peripheral vacuoles in the primitive eukaryote Giardia lamblia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Giardia lamblia is an early branching protist that possesses peripheral vacuoles (PVs) with characteristics of lysosome-like organelles, located underneath the plasma membrane. In more evolved cells, lysosomal protein trafficking is achieved by cargo recognition involving adaptor protein (AP) complexes that recognize specific amino acid sequences (tyrosine and/or dileucine motifs) within the cytoplasmic tail of membrane proteins. Previously, we reported that Giardia has a tyrosine-based sorting system, which mediates the targeting of a membrane-associated cysteine protease (encystation-specific cysteine protease, ESCP) to the PVs. Here, we show that Giardia AP1 mediates the transport of ESCP and the soluble acid phosphatase (AcPh) to the PVs. By using the yeast two-hybrid assay we found that the ESCP tyrosine-based motif interacts specifically with the medium subunit of AP1 (Gimicroa). Hemagglutinin-tagged Gimicroa colocalizes with ESCP and AcPh and coimmunoprecipitates with clathrin, suggesting that protein trafficking toward the PVs is clathrin-adaptin dependent. Targeted disruption of Gimicroa results in mislocalization of ESCP and AcPh but not of variant-specific surface proteins. Our results suggest that, unlike mammalian cells, only AP1 is involved in anterograde protein trafficking to the PVs in Giardia. Moreover, even though Giardia trophozoites lack a morphologically discernible Golgi apparatus, the presence of a clathrin-adaptor system suggests that this parasite possess a primitive secretory organelle capable of sorting proteins similar to that of more evolved cells.

Touz MC; Kulakova L; Nash TE

2004-07-01

92

Adaptor protein complex 1 mediates the transport of lysosomal proteins from a Golgi-like organelle to peripheral vacuoles in the primitive eukaryote Giardia lamblia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardia lamblia is an early branching protist that possesses peripheral vacuoles (PVs) with characteristics of lysosome-like organelles, located underneath the plasma membrane. In more evolved cells, lysosomal protein trafficking is achieved by cargo recognition involving adaptor protein (AP) complexes that recognize specific amino acid sequences (tyrosine and/or dileucine motifs) within the cytoplasmic tail of membrane proteins. Previously, we reported that Giardia has a tyrosine-based sorting system, which mediates the targeting of a membrane-associated cysteine protease (encystation-specific cysteine protease, ESCP) to the PVs. Here, we show that Giardia AP1 mediates the transport of ESCP and the soluble acid phosphatase (AcPh) to the PVs. By using the yeast two-hybrid assay we found that the ESCP tyrosine-based motif interacts specifically with the medium subunit of AP1 (Gimicroa). Hemagglutinin-tagged Gimicroa colocalizes with ESCP and AcPh and coimmunoprecipitates with clathrin, suggesting that protein trafficking toward the PVs is clathrin-adaptin dependent. Targeted disruption of Gimicroa results in mislocalization of ESCP and AcPh but not of variant-specific surface proteins. Our results suggest that, unlike mammalian cells, only AP1 is involved in anterograde protein trafficking to the PVs in Giardia. Moreover, even though Giardia trophozoites lack a morphologically discernible Golgi apparatus, the presence of a clathrin-adaptor system suggests that this parasite possess a primitive secretory organelle capable of sorting proteins similar to that of more evolved cells. PMID:15107467

Touz, María C; Kulakova, Liudmila; Nash, Theodore E

2004-04-23

93

Sorting of encystation-specific cysteine protease to lysosome-like peripheral vacuoles in Giardia lamblia requires a conserved tyrosine-based motif.  

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Encystation-specific cysteine protease (ESCP) was the first membrane-associated protein described to be part of the lysosome-like peripheral vacuoles in the intestinal parasite Giardia lamblia. ESCP is homologous to cathepsin C enzymes of higher eukaryotes, but is distinguished from other lysosomal cysteine proteases because it possesses a transmembrane domain and a short cytoplasmic tail. Tyrosine-based motifs within tails of membrane proteins are known to participate in endosomal/lysosomal protein sorting in higher eukaryotes. In this study, we show that a YRPI motif within the ESCP cytoplasmic tail is necessary and sufficient to mediate ESCP sorting to peripheral vacuoles in Giardia. Deletion and point mutation analysis demonstrated that the tyrosine residue is critical for ESCP sorting, whereas amino acids located at the Y+1 (Arg), Y+2 (Pro), and Y+3 (Ile) positions show minimal effect. Loss of the motif resulted in surface localization, whereas addition of the motif to a variant-specific surface protein resulted in lysosomal localization. Although Giardia trophozoites lack a morphologically discernible Golgi apparatus, our findings indicate that this parasite directs proteins to the lysosomes using a conserved sorting signal similar to that used by yeast and mammalian cells. Because Giardia is one of the earliest branching protist, these results demonstrate that sorting motifs for specific protein traffic developed very early during eukaryotic evolution. PMID:12466276

Touz, Maria C; Lujan, Hugo D; Hayes, Stanley F; Nash, Theodore E

2002-12-03

94

Sorting of encystation-specific cysteine protease to lysosome-like peripheral vacuoles in Giardia lamblia requires a conserved tyrosine-based motif.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Encystation-specific cysteine protease (ESCP) was the first membrane-associated protein described to be part of the lysosome-like peripheral vacuoles in the intestinal parasite Giardia lamblia. ESCP is homologous to cathepsin C enzymes of higher eukaryotes, but is distinguished from other lysosomal cysteine proteases because it possesses a transmembrane domain and a short cytoplasmic tail. Tyrosine-based motifs within tails of membrane proteins are known to participate in endosomal/lysosomal protein sorting in higher eukaryotes. In this study, we show that a YRPI motif within the ESCP cytoplasmic tail is necessary and sufficient to mediate ESCP sorting to peripheral vacuoles in Giardia. Deletion and point mutation analysis demonstrated that the tyrosine residue is critical for ESCP sorting, whereas amino acids located at the Y+1 (Arg), Y+2 (Pro), and Y+3 (Ile) positions show minimal effect. Loss of the motif resulted in surface localization, whereas addition of the motif to a variant-specific surface protein resulted in lysosomal localization. Although Giardia trophozoites lack a morphologically discernible Golgi apparatus, our findings indicate that this parasite directs proteins to the lysosomes using a conserved sorting signal similar to that used by yeast and mammalian cells. Because Giardia is one of the earliest branching protist, these results demonstrate that sorting motifs for specific protein traffic developed very early during eukaryotic evolution.

Touz MC; Lujan HD; Hayes SF; Nash TE

2003-02-01

95

Immunodominant proteins ?-1 giardin and ?-giardin are expressed in both assemblages A and B of Giardia lamblia  

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BACKGROUND: To date, eight assemblages of Giardia lamblia have been described, but only assemblages A and B are known to infect humans. Despite the fact that the genomic, biological, and clinical differences found between these two assemblages has raised the possibility that they may be considered d...

Feliziani, Constanza; Merino, María C; Rivero, María R; Hellman, Ulf; Pistoresi-Palencia, María C; Rópolo, Andrea S

96

Does breast-feeding protect the child from Giardia lamblia infection?  

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Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Background: Giardia lamblia is one of the most prevalent protozoa infections of the human small intestine. Although anyone can be infected by Giardia, women and children are more susceptible. Giardia infection can cause malnutrition, diarrhea and indigestion of fat. In this study, the effect of breast-feeding on the prevalence of Giardia among children is investigated. "nMethods: A total of 482 children, aged 6 to 24 months, from the urban areas of Semnan, Damghan and Garmsar in Iran, were enrolled in this survey. Each mother underwent an interview and filled out a questionnaire that included mother's age, family size, birth order of the child, age and sex of the child and type of milk consumed, among other variables. Then, each mother was given a sample container with 30cc of phenol alcohol formaldehyde (PAF) and an applicator for sampling her child's stool. Each mother was trained to consecutively sample her child's stool for three days, to put the stool into the provided container using the applicator and to shake it until the sample and liquid appeared homogenous. The sample was examined using the direct method, using formalin-ether and thionine. Data was analyzed using the c2 test and logistic regression using SPSS version 11.5."n"nResults: The mean age of the children was 13.6(±5.6) months. Of these children, 45.6% were girls. The prevalence of G. lamblia infection was 8.5%. There was a significant relationship between Giardia and the age of the child, education level of the mother and type of milk the child consumed (p<0.05), such that children who had not consumed their mothers' milk were more likely to be infected compared to those who had been breast fed (OR=2.38, 95% CI: 1.13-5.03, P=0.023)."n"nConclusions: Results show that breast-feeding is a safer method of feeding with regard to Giardia infection. Therefore, mothers should be educated to breast-feed their children and not use other types of milk or milk substitutes. This important issue must be considered by policy makers for education and subsidy programs. "n"n Keywords: Giardia lamblia, breast-feeding, formula milk, cow's milk.

Ghorbani R; Sadat-Hashemi SM; Pazooki R

2008-01-01

97

Experimental Verification of the Identity of Variant-Specific Surface Proteins in Giardia lamblia Trophozoites  

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ABSTRACT The cell membrane of a Giardia lamblia trophozoite is covered with a single species of variant-specific surface protein (VSP) that is replaced by another VSP every 6 to 13 generations of cell growth, possibly for an evasion of host immunity. Experimentally, only six VSP species have been verified to localize to the cell membrane thus far. By assuming that VSP contains multiple CXXC motifs, 219 vsp genes were annotated in GiardiaDB of the WB isolate. By further assuming that VSP possesses both CXXC motifs and a CRGKA tail at the C terminus, Adam et al. (BMC Genomics 11:424, 2010) identified a total of 303 potential vsp genes in Giardia WB. The discrepancies between these two assumed VSP identities have caused some confusion. Here, we used experimental approaches to further verify what is required of the structures of a VSP to localize to the surface of cell membrane. The data led to the following conclusions. (i) The C-terminal CRGKA sequence is not essential for localizing VSPs to the cell membrane. (ii) A “motif 1” of 45 residues, consisting of two CXXCs separated by 12 to 15 amino acid residues, located close to the C terminus and a hydrophobic “motif 2” of 38 residues at the C terminus are both essential and sufficient for localizing the protein to the cell membrane. (ii) An N-terminal sequence upstream from motif 1 is not required for targeting VSPs to the cell membrane. By these criteria, we are able to identify 73 open reading frames as the putative vsp genes in Giardia.

Li, Wei; Saraiya, Ashesh A.; Wang, Ching C.

2013-01-01

98

Characteristics and risk factors for symptomatic Giardia lamblia infections in Germany  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In developed countries, giardiasis is considered a travel related disease. However, routine surveillance data from Germany indicate that >50% of infections were acquired indigenously. We studied the epidemiological characteristics of symptomatic Giardia infections acquired in Germany and abroad, and verified the proportion of cases acquired in Germany in order to investigate risk factors for sporadic autochthonous Giardia infections. Methods We identified Giardia cases notified by 41 local health authorities between February 2007 and January 2008 and interviewed them on their clinical symptoms, underlying morbidities, travel abroad and potential risk factors for the disease. We conducted a case-control-study including laboratory-confirmed (microscopy or antigen-test) autochthonous Giardia cases with clinical manifestations (diarrhoea, cramps, bloating) and randomly selected controls from the local population registry matched by county of residence and age-group (0-5, 6-19, ?20 years). Secondary cases, controls with diarrhoea and persons who had travelled outside Germany in the three weeks prior to disease onset (exposure period) were excluded. We calculated adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) using conditional logistic regression. Results Of 273 interviewed cases, 131 (48%) had not travelled abroad during the defined exposure period. Of these 131, 85 (65%) were male, 68 (54%) were living in communities with >100,000 inhabitants and 107 (83%) were aged 20 years or older. We included 120 cases and 240 controls in the case-control study. Cases were more likely to be male (aOR 2.5 CI 1.4-4.4), immunocompromised (aOR 15.3 CI 1.8-127) and daily consumers of green salad (aOR 2.9 CI 1.2-7.2). Contact with animals (pets/farm animals) and exposure to surface water (swimming/water sports) were not associated with symptomatic disease. Conclusions A substantial proportion of Giardia lamblia cases in Germany are indigenously acquired. Symptomatic cases are significantly more likely to be immunocompromised than control persons from the general population. Physicians should consider Giardia infections among patients with no recent history of travel abroad, particularly if they have immune deficiencies. Green salads may be an important vehicle of infection. Information campaigns highlighting this food-borne risk should emphasise the risk to persons with immune deficiencies.

Espelage Werner; an der Heiden Matthias; Stark Klaus; Alpers Katharina

2010-01-01

99

First genotyping of Giardia lamblia from human and animal feces in Argentina, South America  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the genotypes of Giardia lamblia from human and animal feces and their epidemiological and clinical characteristics in Argentina, South America. Seventy isolates, 60 from humans (adults and children), eight from dogs and two from cows were processed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Data corresponding to demographic, socio-cultural and environmental variables and presence/absence of signs/symptoms were collected. The triosephosphate isomerase gene was amplified from 43 (71.66%) of the 60 human fecal samples. Among these, 3/43 (6.98%) were genotype AII and 40/43 (93.02%) were genotype B. Assemblage AII was detected in three children who lived together in a shantytown and they were oligosymptomatic and none had diarrhea. This genotype was not found in animals. Genotype B showed a high prevalence in both adults and children. It was also found in polysymptomatic people, many of whom presented diarrhea. It was also found only in one dog. The present study represents the first contribution to the knowledge of G. lamblia genotypes in Argentina.

Marta C Minvielle; Nora B Molina; Daniela Polverino; Juan A Basualdo

2008-01-01

100

Modeling and analysis of propulsion in the multiflagellated micoorganism Giardia lamblia.  

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The goal of this work was to analyze the propulsion of multiflagellated microorganisms, and to draw insight to the underlying physics and biology of the movement. Giardia lamblia was chosen as the model organism due to its unique ability to mechanically attach to various surfaces, its rapid movement, and its fine control over steering and navigation. In this work, a mechanics model was utilized to study the mechanics and propulsive contribution of the ventral and anterior flagella in Giardia. It was discovered that energy is supplied mainly at the proximal portion of these flagella, supporting the hypothesis that a decreasing adenosine triphosphate (ATP) gradient along the length of the flagella would not affect the motion observed. Similarly, the elasticity of the flagella allows the energy input at the proximal portion to be transferred to the distal portion, where the majority of thrust is generated. Specifically, we found that the ventral flagella are the driving force for planar propulsion and turning, while the anterior flagella are used for steering and control.

Lenaghan SC; Chen J; Zhang M

2013-07-01

 
 
 
 
101

Simultaneous detection of Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum (oo)cysts in soil using immunomagnetic separation and direct fluorescent antibody staining.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An improved approach for simultaneous detection of Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia (oo)cysts in soil is described. Recoveries>70% were obtained for concentrations>55 and 21 (oo)cysts g(-1) for C. parvum and G. lamblia, respectively. The limits of detection were determined to be<5 (oo)cysts g(-1) soil.

Orlofsky E; Gillor O; Melli A; Miller W; Wuertz S; Bernstein N; Shapiro K

2013-09-01

102

Simultaneous detection of Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum (oo)cysts in soil using immunomagnetic separation and direct fluorescent antibody staining.  

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An improved approach for simultaneous detection of Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia (oo)cysts in soil is described. Recoveries>70% were obtained for concentrations>55 and 21 (oo)cysts g(-1) for C. parvum and G. lamblia, respectively. The limits of detection were determined to be<5 (oo)cysts g(-1) soil. PMID:23911570

Orlofsky, Ezra; Gillor, Osnat; Melli, Ann; Miller, Woutrina; Wuertz, Stefan; Bernstein, Nirit; Shapiro, Karen

2013-07-31

103

Evaluation of the antiprotozoal activity of neo-clerodane type diterpenes from Salvia polystachya against Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia.  

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Chia (Salvia polystachya Ort., Lamiaceae) is frequently used in Mexican traditional medicine to treat dysentery. In this study the main neo-clerodane diterpenes (polystachynes A, B and D, as well as linearolactone) were isolated from the aerial parts of chia, and their antiprotozoal activities toward Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia trophozoites were evaluated in vitro. Linearolactone was the most potent antiamoebic and antigiardial compound with IC(50) values of 22.9 microM for E. histolytica and 28.2 microM for G. lamblia. Polystachynes A, B and D, showed moderate antiprotozoal activity against both protozoans with IC(50) values ranging from 117.0 to 160.6 microM for E. histolytica and from 107.5 to 134.7 microM for G. lamblia. These data suggest that linearolactone may play an important role in the antidiarrhoeal activity of S. polystachya.

Calzada F; Yepez-Mulia L; Tapia-Contreras A; Bautista E; Maldonado E; Ortega A

2010-05-01

104

[Impact of diet on the induction of infection with Giardia lamblia cysts in Sprague-Dawley rats].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of malnutrition on the development of giardiasis in Sprague-Dawley rats, using different inoculum sizes of Giardia lamblia cysts. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An experimental study was conducted between 1995 and 1999 at Centro de Investigación, Alimentación y Desarrollo (Center for Research, Food, and Development), in Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico. The study population consisted of two groups of six to eight experimental units that were fed two different diets and inoculated five different concentrations of Giardia lamblia cysts. Data were collected on excretion of cysts, weight gain, food intake, bowel contents, and macro and microscopic lesions in the intestinal mucosa. Statistical analysis consisted of analysis of variance and residuals. RESULTS: Animals fed with a diet meeting nutritional requirements required an infecting inoculum of 60 cysts, while malnourished rats required only six cysts to develop mucosal lesions. CONCLUSIONS: Weight gain monitored during ten days was not a good indicator of Giardia lamblia infection. Infection depended on cyst inoculum size as well as on the nutritional status of the tested animals. The English version of this paper is available at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html.

Díaz-Cinco ME; Ballesteros-Vázquez MN; Pérez-Morales R; Mata-Haro V

2002-07-01

105

Impacto de la dieta sobre la inducción de infección con quistes de Giardia lamblia en ratas Sprague-Dawley  

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Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar el efecto de la desnutrición en la inducción de la giardiosis con diferentes concentraciones de quistes de Giardia lamblia utilizando como modelo animal ratas Sprague-Dawley. Material y métodos. Es un estudio experimental efectuado entre 1995 y 1999, en el Centro de Investigación en Alimentación y Desarrollo, de la ciudad de Hermosillo, estado de Sonora, México, y cuya muestra estuvo integrada por dos grupos de 6 a 8 unidades experimentales, las cuales recibieron dos tipos de dieta y cinco tratamientos con diferente concentración de inóculo de quistes de Giardia lamblia. Durante la fase experimental se monitoreó la excreción de quistes, ganancia de peso, consumo de alimento, análisis del contenido intestinal y daños macro y microscópicos en mucosa intestinal. El tratamiento estadístico de los datos consistió en análisis de varianza, y de residuales cuando fue necesario. Resultados. En los animales alimentados con una dieta que cubre sus requerimientos nutricionales (DN) se observó que es posible provocar la infección con 60 quistes, mientras que en los animales desnutridos (dieta DLN) la concentración que se requiere es de únicamente seis quistes para establecer daños a nivel de mucosa intestinal. Conclusiones. La ganancia de peso monitoreada durante los 10 días de ensayo no resultó ser un buen indicador de la infección por Giardia lamblia. El porcentaje de infección depende de la concentración de quistes inoculados y del estado de nutrición de los animales evaluados.

Díaz-Cinco Martha Elvia; Ballesteros-Vázquez Martha Nydia; Pérez-Morales Rosalba; Mata-Haro Verónica

2002-01-01

106

Structural and Functional Perturbation of Giardia lamblia Triosephosphate Isomerase by Modification of a Non-Catalytic, Non-Conserved Region.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: We have previously proposed triosephosphate isomerase of Giardia lamblia (GlTIM) as a target for rational drug design against giardiasis, one of the most common parasitic infections in humans. Since the enzyme exists in the parasite and the host, selective inhibition is a major challenge because essential regions that could be considered molecular targets are highly conserved. Previous biochemical evidence showed that chemical modification of the non-conserved non-catalytic cysteine 222 (C222) inactivates specifically GlTIM. The inactivation correlates with the physicochemical properties of the modifying agent: addition of a non-polar, small chemical group at C222 reduces the enzyme activity by one half, whereas negatively charged, large chemical groups cause full inactivation. RESULTS: In this work we used mutagenesis to extend our understanding of the functional and structural effects triggered by modification of C222. To this end, six GlTIM C222 mutants with side chains having diverse physicochemical characteristics were characterized. We found that the polarity, charge and volume of the side chain in the mutant amino acid differentially alter the activity, the affinity, the stability and the structure of the enzyme. The data show that mutagenesis of C222 mimics the effects of chemical modification. The crystallographic structure of C222D GlTIM shows the disruptive effects of introducing a negative charge at position 222: the mutation perturbs loop 7, a region of the enzyme whose interactions with the catalytic loop 6 are essential for TIM stability, ligand binding and catalysis. The amino acid sequence of TIM in phylogenetic diverse groups indicates that C222 and its surrounding residues are poorly conserved, supporting the proposal that this region is a good target for specific drug design. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate that it is possible to inhibit species-specifically a ubiquitous, structurally highly conserved enzyme by modification of a non-conserved, non-catalytic residue through long-range perturbation of essential regions.

Hernández-Alcántara G; Torres-Larios A; Enríquez-Flores S; García-Torres I; Castillo-Villanueva A; Méndez ST; de la Mora-de la Mora I; Gómez-Manzo S; Torres-Arroyo A; López-Velázquez G; Reyes-Vivas H; Oria-Hernández J

2013-01-01

107

Structural and Functional Perturbation of Giardia lamblia Triosephosphate Isomerase by Modification of a Non-Catalytic, Non-Conserved Region  

Science.gov (United States)

Background We have previously proposed triosephosphate isomerase of Giardia lamblia (GlTIM) as a target for rational drug design against giardiasis, one of the most common parasitic infections in humans. Since the enzyme exists in the parasite and the host, selective inhibition is a major challenge because essential regions that could be considered molecular targets are highly conserved. Previous biochemical evidence showed that chemical modification of the non-conserved non-catalytic cysteine 222 (C222) inactivates specifically GlTIM. The inactivation correlates with the physicochemical properties of the modifying agent: addition of a non-polar, small chemical group at C222 reduces the enzyme activity by one half, whereas negatively charged, large chemical groups cause full inactivation. Results In this work we used mutagenesis to extend our understanding of the functional and structural effects triggered by modification of C222. To this end, six GlTIM C222 mutants with side chains having diverse physicochemical characteristics were characterized. We found that the polarity, charge and volume of the side chain in the mutant amino acid differentially alter the activity, the affinity, the stability and the structure of the enzyme. The data show that mutagenesis of C222 mimics the effects of chemical modification. The crystallographic structure of C222D GlTIM shows the disruptive effects of introducing a negative charge at position 222: the mutation perturbs loop 7, a region of the enzyme whose interactions with the catalytic loop 6 are essential for TIM stability, ligand binding and catalysis. The amino acid sequence of TIM in phylogenetic diverse groups indicates that C222 and its surrounding residues are poorly conserved, supporting the proposal that this region is a good target for specific drug design. Conclusions The results demonstrate that it is possible to inhibit species-specifically a ubiquitous, structurally highly conserved enzyme by modification of a non-conserved, non-catalytic residue through long-range perturbation of essential regions.

Hernandez-Alcantara, Gloria; Torres-Larios, Alfredo; Enriquez-Flores, Sergio; Garcia-Torres, Itzhel; Castillo-Villanueva, Adriana; Mendez, Sara T.; de la Mora-de la Mora, Ignacio; Gomez-Manzo, Saul; Torres-Arroyo, Angelica; Lopez-Velazquez, Gabriel; Reyes-Vivas, Horacio; Oria-Hernandez, Jesus

2013-01-01

108

Freqüencia da infecção por Giardia lamblia (Kunstler, 1882) em cães (Canis familiaris) avaliada pelo Método de Faust e cols. (1939) e pela Coloração da Auramina, no município de Canoas, RS, Brasil Frequence of infection by Giardia lamblia (Kunstler, 1882) in dogs (Canis familiaris) available trough the Faust and Collaborators Method (1939) and Auramine Staining in Canoas, RS, Brazil  

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Full Text Available Giardia lamblia é um protozoário que acomete mais comumente animais jovens e que convivem em grupos. Apesar da alta prevalência, nem todos os animais apresentam a forma clínica da doença. Mesmo assim, a giardíase tem importância epidemiológica por possuir um elevado potencial zoonótico. O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar a freqüência de Giardia lamblia em cães no município de Canoas, RS, Brasil, através do Método de Faust e cols. (1939) e da Técnica de Coloração da Auramina. Os grupos experimentais foram divididos de acordo com a procedência e o sexo. Das 332 amostras analisadas pelo Método de Faust e cols, a freqüência obtida foi de 34,04%, podendo variar de 28,95 a 39,13%, dentro de um intervalo de confiança de 95%. Destas amostras positivas, 40,96% foram de canil e 27,11% de cães de rua. O Teste Exato de Fisher aplicado a esses dados revelou existir uma diferença significativa (p=0,0107) entre as variáveis resultado e procedência. A variável sexo, neste método, não apresentou diferença significativa em relação ao resultado (P=0,8162) totalizando 33,11% de machos e 34,08% de fêmeas infectadas com o parasita. Das 147 amostras realizadas pela Técnica de Coloração da Auramina, 23 foram positivas, totalizando 15,65%. A análise estatística pelo Teste McNemar revelou existir diferença significativa entre as duas técnicas (P=0,0004). O valor Kappa foi igual a 0,07, considerado como um grau de concordância fraco. Os resultados encontrados neste estudo nos permitem afirmar que o Método de Faust e cols. foi o mais adequado para o diagnóstico da infecção por Giardia lamblia, sendo este parasita altamente prevalente na região estudada.Giardia lamblia is a protozoan that commonly infects young animals which live in groups. Despite its high prevalence many animals don’t exhibit clinical signs. Giardiasis is epidemiologically important concerning the zoonotic potential of the disease. The objective of this study was to determine the frequence of Giardia lamblia in the canine population of Canoas, RS, Brazil, applying the Faust and Collaborators Method (1939) and the Auramine Staining Technique. The dogs were classified according to the origin and gender. Feces samples of 332 dogs were analyzed by the Faust and Collaborators Method. The frequency of the infection obtained was 34.04%, ranging from 28.95% to 39.13% (confident interval at a 95% level). For kennel bred animals 40,96% of the samples were positive and for stray dogs 27.11%. Applying Fisher’s Exact Test to these figures there was a significant difference (P=0.0107) when comparing the origin of the animals and the results of the tests. However when comparing genders there was no significant difference (P=0.8162), the former with 33.11% of positive males and 34.08% positive females. When submitted to the Auramine Staining Technique(147 samples), 15.67% (23) of the samples resulted positive. The statistical analysis using the McNemar Test exposed a significant difference between both techniques (P=0.0004). The Kappa value of 0.07 obtained was considered of low rate. The results allow one to affirm that the Faust and Collaborators Method was the most suitable diagnostic test for Giardia lamblia infection, considering the high prevalence of this parasite in the studied region.

Cristiane Beck; Flávio Antônio Pacheco de Araújo; Adriana Tarnowski Olicheski; Adriana Schneider Breyer

2005-01-01

109

Freqüencia da infecção por Giardia lamblia (Kunstler, 1882) em cães (Canis familiaris) avaliada pelo Método de Faust e cols. (1939) e pela Coloração da Auramina, no município de Canoas, RS, Brasil/ Frequence of infection by Giardia lamblia (Kunstler, 1882) in dogs (Canis familiaris) available trough the Faust and Collaborators Method (1939) and Auramine Staining in Canoas, RS, Brazil  

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Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Giardia lamblia é um protozoário que acomete mais comumente animais jovens e que convivem em grupos. Apesar da alta prevalência, nem todos os animais apresentam a forma clínica da doença. Mesmo assim, a giardíase tem importância epidemiológica por possuir um elevado potencial zoonótico. O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar a freqüência de Giardia lamblia em cães no município de Canoas, RS, Brasil, através do Método de Faust e cols. (1939) e da T? (more) ?cnica de Coloração da Auramina. Os grupos experimentais foram divididos de acordo com a procedência e o sexo. Das 332 amostras analisadas pelo Método de Faust e cols, a freqüência obtida foi de 34,04%, podendo variar de 28,95 a 39,13%, dentro de um intervalo de confiança de 95%. Destas amostras positivas, 40,96% foram de canil e 27,11% de cães de rua. O Teste Exato de Fisher aplicado a esses dados revelou existir uma diferença significativa (p=0,0107) entre as variáveis resultado e procedência. A variável sexo, neste método, não apresentou diferença significativa em relação ao resultado (P=0,8162) totalizando 33,11% de machos e 34,08% de fêmeas infectadas com o parasita. Das 147 amostras realizadas pela Técnica de Coloração da Auramina, 23 foram positivas, totalizando 15,65%. A análise estatística pelo Teste McNemar revelou existir diferença significativa entre as duas técnicas (P=0,0004). O valor Kappa foi igual a 0,07, considerado como um grau de concordância fraco. Os resultados encontrados neste estudo nos permitem afirmar que o Método de Faust e cols. foi o mais adequado para o diagnóstico da infecção por Giardia lamblia, sendo este parasita altamente prevalente na região estudada. Abstract in english Giardia lamblia is a protozoan that commonly infects young animals which live in groups. Despite its high prevalence many animals don?t exhibit clinical signs. Giardiasis is epidemiologically important concerning the zoonotic potential of the disease. The objective of this study was to determine the frequence of Giardia lamblia in the canine population of Canoas, RS, Brazil, applying the Faust and Collaborators Method (1939) and the Auramine Staining Technique. The dogs (more) were classified according to the origin and gender. Feces samples of 332 dogs were analyzed by the Faust and Collaborators Method. The frequency of the infection obtained was 34.04%, ranging from 28.95% to 39.13% (confident interval at a 95% level). For kennel bred animals 40,96% of the samples were positive and for stray dogs 27.11%. Applying Fisher?s Exact Test to these figures there was a significant difference (P=0.0107) when comparing the origin of the animals and the results of the tests. However when comparing genders there was no significant difference (P=0.8162), the former with 33.11% of positive males and 34.08% positive females. When submitted to the Auramine Staining Technique(147 samples), 15.67% (23) of the samples resulted positive. The statistical analysis using the McNemar Test exposed a significant difference between both techniques (P=0.0004). The Kappa value of 0.07 obtained was considered of low rate. The results allow one to affirm that the Faust and Collaborators Method was the most suitable diagnostic test for Giardia lamblia infection, considering the high prevalence of this parasite in the studied region.

Beck, Cristiane; Araújo, Flávio Antônio Pacheco de; Olicheski, Adriana Tarnowski; Breyer, Adriana Schneider

2005-02-01

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In Vitro Effects of Metronidazole and Albendazole on Giardia lamblia Isolated from Iranian Patients  

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Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of metronidazole and albendazole against clinical isolates of Giardia lamblia in vitro. Methods: From all human samples of containing cysts, 10 isolates were successfully excysted in vitro. Trophozites viability was assessed by eosine 0.1% and cultured axenically in TYI-S-33 modified medium supplemented with heat inactivated bovine serum 10%. All cultures were incubated in 37°C for 24-48 h. After this time trophozoites were exposed to different concentration (0.05, 0.1, 2, 10, 50 µg/ml) of drugs at 37º for 4 h.  The IC50 estimated between 0.1 and 10µg/ml for metronidazole and 0.062 and 0.1 µg/ml for albendazole. Results: Eight isolates were found susceptible to the metronidazole while all isolates were found susceptible to the albendazole. Statistical results indicated that there was significant difference (P<0.05) in the sensitivity to metronidazole and albendazole in all isolates.

F Mohamadnezhad; F Ghaffarifar; A Dalimi

2008-01-01

111

[Drinking water and parasites  

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Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium parvum, Isospora belli, Balantidium coli, and Microsporidia spp. are cosmopolitan parasites. They often cause diarrheal diseases. The waterborn transmission of all these parasites is possible (41). Surface water supplies used for drinking water are potential sources of contamination. Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. have received great attention in industrialized countries during the last years because they are the etiological agents of waterborne diseases. The life cycles of Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium are described with a special reference to drinking water technologies aimed at removing these parasites.

Karanis P; Schoenen D; Maier WA; Seitz HM

1993-10-01

112

Everyday and exotic foodborne parasites  

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Everyday foodborne parasites, which are endemic in Canada, include the protozoans Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum. However, these parasites are most frequently acquired through unfiltered drinking water, homosexual activity or close personal contact such as in dayca...

Lee, Marilyn B

113

Impact of Zooplankton Grazing on the Excystation, Viability, and Infectivity of the Protozoan Pathogens Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia?  

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Very little is known about the ability of the zooplankton grazer Daphnia pulicaria to reduce populations of Giardia lamblia cysts and Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in surface waters. The potential for D. pulicaria to act as a biological filter of C. parvum and G. lamblia was tested under three grazing pressures (one, two, or four D. pulicaria grazers per 66 ml). (Oo)cysts (1 × 104 per 66 ml) were added to each grazing bottle along with the algal food Selenastrum capricornutum (6.6 × 104 cells per 66 ml) to stimulate normal grazing. Bottles were rotated (2 rpm) to prevent settling of (oo)cysts and algae for 24 h (a light:dark cycle of 16 h:8 h) at 20°C. The impact of D. pulicaria grazing on (oo)cysts was assessed by (i) (oo)cyst clearance rates, (ii) (oo)cyst viability, (iii) (oo)cyst excystation, and (iv) oocyst infectivity in cell culture. Two D. pulicaria grazers significantly decreased the total number of C. parvum oocysts by 52% and G. lamblia cysts by 44%. Furthermore, two D. pulicaria grazers significantly decreased C. parvum excystation and infectivity by 5% and 87%, respectively. Two D. pulicaria grazers significantly decreased the viability of G. lamblia cysts by 52%, but analysis of G. lamblia excystation was confounded by observed mechanical disruption of the cysts after grazing. No mechanical disruption of the C. parvum oocysts was observed, presumably due to their smaller size. The data provide strong evidence that zooplankton grazers have the potential to substantially decrease the population of infectious C. parvum and G. lamblia in freshwater ecosystems.

Connelly, S. J.; Wolyniak, E. A.; Dieter, K. L.; Williamson, C. E.; Jellison, K. L.

2007-01-01

114

Impact of zooplankton grazing on the excystation, viability, and infectivity of the protozoan pathogens Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia.  

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Very little is known about the ability of the zooplankton grazer Daphnia pulicaria to reduce populations of Giardia lamblia cysts and Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in surface waters. The potential for D. pulicaria to act as a biological filter of C. parvum and G. lamblia was tested under three grazing pressures (one, two, or four D. pulicaria grazers per 66 ml). (Oo)cysts (1 x 10(4) per 66 ml) were added to each grazing bottle along with the algal food Selenastrum capricornutum (6.6 x 10(4) cells per 66 ml) to stimulate normal grazing. Bottles were rotated (2 rpm) to prevent settling of (oo)cysts and algae for 24 h (a light:dark cycle of 16 h:8 h) at 20 degrees C. The impact of D. pulicaria grazing on (oo)cysts was assessed by (i) (oo)cyst clearance rates, (ii) (oo)cyst viability, (iii) (oo)cyst excystation, and (iv) oocyst infectivity in cell culture. Two D. pulicaria grazers significantly decreased the total number of C. parvum oocysts by 52% and G. lamblia cysts by 44%. Furthermore, two D. pulicaria grazers significantly decreased C. parvum excystation and infectivity by 5% and 87%, respectively. Two D. pulicaria grazers significantly decreased the viability of G. lamblia cysts by 52%, but analysis of G. lamblia excystation was confounded by observed mechanical disruption of the cysts after grazing. No mechanical disruption of the C. parvum oocysts was observed, presumably due to their smaller size. The data provide strong evidence that zooplankton grazers have the potential to substantially decrease the population of infectious C. parvum and G. lamblia in freshwater ecosystems. PMID:17873076

Connelly, S J; Wolyniak, E A; Dieter, K L; Williamson, C E; Jellison, K L

2007-09-14

115

DNA topoisomerase II is involved in regulation of cyst wall protein genes and differentiation in Giardia lamblia.  

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The protozoan Giardia lamblia differentiates into infectious cysts within the human intestinal tract for disease transmission. Expression of the cyst wall protein (cwp) genes increases with similar kinetics during encystation. However, little is known how their gene regulation shares common mechanisms. DNA topoisomerases maintain normal topology of genomic DNA. They are necessary for cell proliferation and tissue development as they are involved in transcription, DNA replication, and chromosome condensation. A putative topoisomerase II (topo II) gene has been identified in the G. lamblia genome. We asked whether Topo II could regulate Giardia encystation. We found that Topo II was present in cell nuclei and its gene was up-regulated during encystation. Topo II has typical ATPase and DNA cleavage activity of type II topoisomerases. Mutation analysis revealed that the catalytic important Tyr residue and cleavage domain are important for Topo II function. We used etoposide-mediated topoisomerase immunoprecipitation assays to confirm the binding of Topo II to the cwp promoters in vivo. Interestingly, Topo II overexpression increased the levels of cwp gene expression and cyst formation. Microarray analysis identified up-regulation of cwp and specific vsp genes by Topo II. We also found that the type II topoisomerase inhibitor etoposide has growth inhibition effect on Giardia. Addition of etoposide significantly decreased the levels of cwp gene expression and cyst formation. Our results suggest that Topo II has been functionally conserved during evolution and that Topo II plays important roles in induction of the cwp genes, which is key to Giardia differentiation into cysts. PMID:23696909

Lin, Bo-Chi; Su, Li-Hsin; Weng, Shih-Che; Pan, Yu-Jiao; Chan, Nei-Li; Li, Tsai-Kun; Wang, Hsin-Chih; Sun, Chin-Hung

2013-05-16

116

The principal conductance in Giardia lamblia trophozoites possesses functional properties similar to the mammalian ClC-2 current.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The human intestinal pathogen Giardia lamblia is a flagellated unicellular protozoan with pronounced medical and biological relevance. However, the basic physiology of Giardia trophozoites has been sparsely studied, especially the electrical and ionic properties of their cellular membrane which are virtually unknown. In this study, we were able to record and characterize the macroscopic ionic currents of Giardia trophozoite membrane by electrophysiological methods of the patch clamp technique. Giardia trophozoites showed a high current density (?600 pA/pF at -140 mV) that was activated upon hyperpolarization. This current was carried by a chloride-selective channel (I Cl-G) and it was the most important determinant of the membrane potential in Giardia trophozoites. Moreover, this conductance was able to carry other halide anions and the sequence of permeability was Br(-)?>?Cl(-)???I(-)???F(-). Besides the voltage-dependent inward-rectifying nature of I Cl-G, its activation and deactivation kinetics were comparable to those observed in ClC-2 channels. Extracellular pH modified the voltage-dependent properties of I Cl-G, shifting the activation curve from a V 1/2?=?-79?±?1 mV (pH 7.4) to -93?±?2 mV (pH 8.4) and -112?±?2 mV (pH 5.4). Furthermore, the maximal amplitude of I Cl-G measured at -100 mV showed dependence to external pH in a bell-shaped fashion reported only for ClC-2 channels. Therefore, our results suggest that I Cl-G possesses several functional properties similar to the mammalian ClC-2 channels.

Moreno-Galindo EG; Rodríguez-Elías JC; Ramírez-Herrera MA; Sánchez-Chapula JA; Navarro-Polanco RA

2013-09-01

117

Changes in the N-Glycome, Glycoproteins with Asn-Linked Glycans, of Giardia lamblia with Differentiation from Trophozoites to Cysts ? †  

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Giardia lamblia is present in the intestinal lumen as a binucleate, flagellated trophozoite or a quadranucleate, immotile cyst. Here we used the plant lectin wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), which binds to the disaccharide di-N-acetyl-chitobiose (GlcNAc2), which is the truncated Asn-linked glycan (N-gly...

Ratner, Daniel M.; Cui, Jike; Steffen, Martin; Moore, Landon L.; Robbins, Phillips W.; Samuelson, John

118

The Comparison of the Efficacy of Various Fixatives on Diverse Staining Methods of Giardia lamblia Cyst  

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Full Text Available The definite and exact diagnosis of protozoa is possible using high magnification objective lenses, provided that suitable stained smears are prepared. Therefore, the appropriateness of both fixative and staining methods to the species of parasite, which is the main objective of this study, is important. In this study, five various fixatives including (Merthiolate iodine formalin) MIF, (Sodium acetate-acetic acid formalin) SAF, (Polyvinyl alcohol) PVA, formalin and schaudinn and four types of stains including Hematoxylin I, Hematoxylin II, Trichrome and Carbol-fuchsin were prepared using standard procedures. After the smears of stool samples containing Giadria lamblia cyst were prepared and kept for 24 h in various fixatives, the study was carried out using the four above-mentioned stains by changing the ingredients and time as well as by repeating the experiments. After fixing and staining all the smears in identical conditions along with the implementing interferences in the staining process, the following results were eventually obtained considering the morphologic indexes and negative and positive scores (from 1 to 20): formalin with 17 scores in hematoxylin I staining, formalin and SAF with 15 and 14 scores, respectively in Hematoxylin II staining, MIF with 13 scores in Trichrome staining and SAF, PVA, MIF with 11.5, 11.5 and 11 scores, respectively in carbol-fuchsin staining were found to be the best fixatives. Hematoxylin I staining using formalin fixative with 17 scores showed the best result while the maximum score for Carbol-fuchsin staining was 11.5 showing a necessity for more expenditure, time and expert cooperation to reach ideal results.

E. Badparva; Sh. Fallahi; A. Sepahvand; Y. Pournia; Sh. Mollaei Rashnoo

2009-01-01

119

Prevalence and associated risk factors for Giardia lamblia infection among children hospitalized for diarrhea in Goiânia, Goiás State, Brazil Prevalência e fatores de risco associados à infecção por Giardia lamblia em crianças hospitalizadas com diarréia em Goiânia, Goiás, Brasil  

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Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and to identify risk factors associated with Giardia lamblia infection in diarrheic children hospitalized for diarrhea in Goiânia, State of Goiás, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted and a comprehensive questionnaire was administered to the child's primary custodian. Fixed effects logistic regression was used to determine the association between infection status for G. lamblia and host, sociodemographic, environmental and zoonotic risk factors. A total of 445 fecal samples were collected and processed by the DFA methodology, and G. lamblia cysts were present in the feces of 44 diarrheic children (9.9%). A variety of factors were found to be associated with giardiasis in these population: age of children (OR, 1.18; 90% CI, 1.0 - 1.36; p = 0.052), number of children in the household (OR 1.45; 90% CI, 1.13 - 1.86; p = 0.015), number of cats in the household (OR, 1.26; 90% CI, 1.03 -1.53; p = 0.059), food hygiene (OR, 2.9; 90% CI, 1.34 - 6.43; p = 0.024), day-care centers attendance (OR, 2.3; 90% CI, 1.20 - 4.36; p = 0.034), living on a rural farm within the past six months prior hospitalization (OR, 5.4; CI 90%, 1.5 - 20.1; p = 0.03) and the number of household adults (OR, 0.59; 90% CI, 0.42 - 0.83; p = 0.012). Such factors appropriately managed may help to reduce the annual incidence of this protozoal infection in the studied population.O objetivo desse estudo foi estimar a prevalência e identificar fatores de risco associados à infecção por Giardia lamblia em crianças hospitalizadas com diarréia no município de Goiânia, Estado de Goiás, Brasil. Foi realizado um estudo transversal e um questionário estruturado foi administrado ao responsável pela criança. Análise multivariada foi realizada por meio de regressão logística para se determinar a associação entre infecção por G. lamblia e as variáveis sociodemográficas, ambientais e zoonóticas relacionadas ao hospedeiro. Das 445 amostras de fezes coletadas e processadas pelo método de imunofluorescência direta (DFA), 44 (9,9%) apresentaram cisto de G. lamblia. Uma variedade de fatores de risco foi encontrada associada à giardíase: idade da criança (OR, 1,18; 90% CI, 1,0 - 1,36; p = 0,052), número de crianças na família (OR, 1,45; 90% CI, 1,13 - 1,86; p = 0,015), número de gatos pertecentes à família (OR, 1,26; 90% CI, 1,03 - 1,53; p = 0,059), higiene alimentar (OR, 2,9; 90% CI, 1,34 - 6,43; p = 0,024), usuários de creches (OR, 2,3; 90% CI, 1,20 - 4,36; p = 0,034), ter residido em área rural seis meses precedendo à hospitalização (OR, 5,4; 90% CI, 1,5 - 20,1; p = 0,03) e número de adultos na família (OR, 0,59; 90% CI, 0,42 - 0,83; p = 0,012). Tais fatores, devidamente controlados podem contribuir para redução anual da incidência desta parasitose na população estudada.

Maria das Graças Cabral Pereira; Edward Robert Atwill; Alverne Passos Barbosa

2007-01-01

120

Prevalence and associated risk factors for Giardia lamblia infection among children hospitalized for diarrhea in Goiânia, Goiás State, Brazil/ Prevalência e fatores de risco associados à infecção por Giardia lamblia em crianças hospitalizadas com diarréia em Goiânia, Goiás, Brasil  

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Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O objetivo desse estudo foi estimar a prevalência e identificar fatores de risco associados à infecção por Giardia lamblia em crianças hospitalizadas com diarréia no município de Goiânia, Estado de Goiás, Brasil. Foi realizado um estudo transversal e um questionário estruturado foi administrado ao responsável pela criança. Análise multivariada foi realizada por meio de regressão logística para se determinar a associação entre infecção por G. lamblia e a (more) s variáveis sociodemográficas, ambientais e zoonóticas relacionadas ao hospedeiro. Das 445 amostras de fezes coletadas e processadas pelo método de imunofluorescência direta (DFA), 44 (9,9%) apresentaram cisto de G. lamblia. Uma variedade de fatores de risco foi encontrada associada à giardíase: idade da criança (OR, 1,18; 90% CI, 1,0 - 1,36; p = 0,052), número de crianças na família (OR, 1,45; 90% CI, 1,13 - 1,86; p = 0,015), número de gatos pertecentes à família (OR, 1,26; 90% CI, 1,03 - 1,53; p = 0,059), higiene alimentar (OR, 2,9; 90% CI, 1,34 - 6,43; p = 0,024), usuários de creches (OR, 2,3; 90% CI, 1,20 - 4,36; p = 0,034), ter residido em área rural seis meses precedendo à hospitalização (OR, 5,4; 90% CI, 1,5 - 20,1; p = 0,03) e número de adultos na família (OR, 0,59; 90% CI, 0,42 - 0,83; p = 0,012). Tais fatores, devidamente controlados podem contribuir para redução anual da incidência desta parasitose na população estudada. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and to identify risk factors associated with Giardia lamblia infection in diarrheic children hospitalized for diarrhea in Goiânia, State of Goiás, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted and a comprehensive questionnaire was administered to the child's primary custodian. Fixed effects logistic regression was used to determine the association between infection status for G. lamblia and host, sociodemograph (more) ic, environmental and zoonotic risk factors. A total of 445 fecal samples were collected and processed by the DFA methodology, and G. lamblia cysts were present in the feces of 44 diarrheic children (9.9%). A variety of factors were found to be associated with giardiasis in these population: age of children (OR, 1.18; 90% CI, 1.0 - 1.36; p = 0.052), number of children in the household (OR 1.45; 90% CI, 1.13 - 1.86; p = 0.015), number of cats in the household (OR, 1.26; 90% CI, 1.03 -1.53; p = 0.059), food hygiene (OR, 2.9; 90% CI, 1.34 - 6.43; p = 0.024), day-care centers attendance (OR, 2.3; 90% CI, 1.20 - 4.36; p = 0.034), living on a rural farm within the past six months prior hospitalization (OR, 5.4; CI 90%, 1.5 - 20.1; p = 0.03) and the number of household adults (OR, 0.59; 90% CI, 0.42 - 0.83; p = 0.012). Such factors appropriately managed may help to reduce the annual incidence of this protozoal infection in the studied population.

Pereira, Maria das Graças Cabral; Atwill, Edward Robert; Barbosa, Alverne Passos

2007-06-01

 
 
 
 
121

Retention of Escherichia coli, Giardia lamblia cysts and Ascaris lumbricoides eggs in agricultural soils irrigated by untreated wastewater.  

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In central Mexico, agricultural irrigation reusing Mexico City's municipal wastewater has been occurring for the last century, resulting in the recharge of the local aquifer. However, groundwater of this zone is of good quality, indicating that the microorganisms contained in wastewater are retained by soil after infiltration. This study aims to assess the capacity of three agricultural soils to retain three microorganisms frequently found in wastewater, namely Escherichia coli (E. coli), Giardia lamblia (G. lamblia) cysts and Ascaris lumbricoides (A. lumbricoides) eggs, through batch sorption-desorption assays. The tested soils were: an organic-clayey soil (C-OM), a clayey soil (C-om) and a sandy soil (c-om). For the three soils, sorption equilibrium of E. coli was reached before 1 h, while for G. lamblia cysts and A. lumbricoides eggs, sorption equilibrium took 2.5 h. Sorption of E. coli was better described by the Freundlich model than by the Langmuir one. Higher retention of bacteria was observed in the C-om soil (KF = 4340) than in the C-OM and c-om ones (KF = 1821 and 0.01, respectively). Regarding G. lamblia cysts and A. lumbricoides eggs, data could not be fitted to the tested sorption models. For both organisms, retention was lower in the C-OM soil than in the C-om and c-om ones. In the desorption tests, a sudden liberation of E. coli from soils was observed, probably due to bacterial re-growth. Desorption of G. lamblia was higher in the sandy soil than in the clayey ones; desorption was not increased when a surfactant was applied to the soil, suggesting that hydrophobic interactions are not necessarily responsible for retention of the cysts onto the tested soils. For A. lumbricoides eggs, desorption using NaOCl solution suggested that retention was caused by interactions between the mineral fraction of the soil and the external walls of eggs. This study showed that the three target microorganisms are retained by the tested soils and that mineral domain of soil has an important role in such retention. PMID:23722173

Landa-Cansigno, O; Durán-Álvarez, J C; Jiménez-Cisneros, B

2013-05-27

122

Retention of Escherichia coli, Giardia lamblia cysts and Ascaris lumbricoides eggs in agricultural soils irrigated by untreated wastewater.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In central Mexico, agricultural irrigation reusing Mexico City's municipal wastewater has been occurring for the last century, resulting in the recharge of the local aquifer. However, groundwater of this zone is of good quality, indicating that the microorganisms contained in wastewater are retained by soil after infiltration. This study aims to assess the capacity of three agricultural soils to retain three microorganisms frequently found in wastewater, namely Escherichia coli (E. coli), Giardia lamblia (G. lamblia) cysts and Ascaris lumbricoides (A. lumbricoides) eggs, through batch sorption-desorption assays. The tested soils were: an organic-clayey soil (C-OM), a clayey soil (C-om) and a sandy soil (c-om). For the three soils, sorption equilibrium of E. coli was reached before 1 h, while for G. lamblia cysts and A. lumbricoides eggs, sorption equilibrium took 2.5 h. Sorption of E. coli was better described by the Freundlich model than by the Langmuir one. Higher retention of bacteria was observed in the C-om soil (KF = 4340) than in the C-OM and c-om ones (KF = 1821 and 0.01, respectively). Regarding G. lamblia cysts and A. lumbricoides eggs, data could not be fitted to the tested sorption models. For both organisms, retention was lower in the C-OM soil than in the C-om and c-om ones. In the desorption tests, a sudden liberation of E. coli from soils was observed, probably due to bacterial re-growth. Desorption of G. lamblia was higher in the sandy soil than in the clayey ones; desorption was not increased when a surfactant was applied to the soil, suggesting that hydrophobic interactions are not necessarily responsible for retention of the cysts onto the tested soils. For A. lumbricoides eggs, desorption using NaOCl solution suggested that retention was caused by interactions between the mineral fraction of the soil and the external walls of eggs. This study showed that the three target microorganisms are retained by the tested soils and that mineral domain of soil has an important role in such retention.

Landa-Cansigno O; Durán-Álvarez JC; Jiménez-Cisneros B

2013-05-01

123

Factores de riesgo de la infección por Giardia lamblia en niños de guarderías infantiles de Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba Risk factors for Giardia lamblia in children in daycare centers in Havana, Cuba  

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Full Text Available En un estudio longitudinal sobre giardiasis desarrollado durante 18 meses en tres guarderías infantiles de Ciudad de La Habana, describimos un grupo de niños con tendencia o "predisposición" a la infección por Giardia lamblia; a los que se les encontró con síntomas clínicos más asociados a las diarreas. Este estudio de casos y controles se desarrolló para conocer si algunos factores socioeconómicos y hábitos higiénicos estaban asociados con este fenómeno. No se encontraron diferencias entre ambos grupos en las tasas de hacinamiento, el índice de personas por cama, en la carencia de determinados equipos eléctricos, en el nivel escolar de las madres, y en el promedio del ingreso familiar; sin embargo, predominó una frecuencia mayor de padres con nivel escolar menor de 12 grado en los casos que en los controles. No se encontraron diferencias entre ambos grupos en cuanto a la ausencia de lavado de manos antes de comer y después de defecar, pero se encontró un mayor porcentaje de lavado incorrecto de vegetales, y una menor frecuencia del hábito de hervir el agua de consumo en las familias de los casos. Estos resultados demuestran el papel del agua como vehículo de transmisión en la giardiasis y la importancia de algunos factores epidemiológicos.We conducted a longitudinal study on giardiasis in three daycare centers in Havana City for a period of 18 months and described a group of children with a "predisposition" or tendency towards re-infection with Giardia lamblia. This group was found to be more frequently associated with clinical symptoms such as diarrhea. A case-control study was designed to determine whether socioeconomic factors and hygiene were associated with this phenomenon. We found no differences between the groups with regard to overcrowding rates, number of persons per bed, absence of certain electric appliances, mother's schooling, or mean family income. However, there were proportionally more fathers with less than complete secondary education among cases as compared to controls. In addition, we found no differences in lack of hand-washing before eating and after defecation; however, we found a higher percentage of families who washed vegetables insufficiently among predisposed children. Finally, a lower percentage of families with predisposed children boiled their water. Our results demonstrate the important role of water as a vehicle for transmission of giardiasis and the importance of various epidemiologic factors.

Fidel Ángel Núñez; Jorge Luis López; Ana Margarita de la Cruz; Carlos M. Finlay

2003-01-01

124

Factores de riesgo de la infección por Giardia lamblia en niños de guarderías infantiles de Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba/ Risk factors for Giardia lamblia in children in daycare centers in Havana, Cuba  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish En un estudio longitudinal sobre giardiasis desarrollado durante 18 meses en tres guarderías infantiles de Ciudad de La Habana, describimos un grupo de niños con tendencia o "predisposición" a la infección por Giardia lamblia; a los que se les encontró con síntomas clínicos más asociados a las diarreas. Este estudio de casos y controles se desarrolló para conocer si algunos factores socioeconómicos y hábitos higiénicos estaban asociados con este fenómeno. No (more) se encontraron diferencias entre ambos grupos en las tasas de hacinamiento, el índice de personas por cama, en la carencia de determinados equipos eléctricos, en el nivel escolar de las madres, y en el promedio del ingreso familiar; sin embargo, predominó una frecuencia mayor de padres con nivel escolar menor de 12 grado en los casos que en los controles. No se encontraron diferencias entre ambos grupos en cuanto a la ausencia de lavado de manos antes de comer y después de defecar, pero se encontró un mayor porcentaje de lavado incorrecto de vegetales, y una menor frecuencia del hábito de hervir el agua de consumo en las familias de los casos. Estos resultados demuestran el papel del agua como vehículo de transmisión en la giardiasis y la importancia de algunos factores epidemiológicos. Abstract in english We conducted a longitudinal study on giardiasis in three daycare centers in Havana City for a period of 18 months and described a group of children with a "predisposition" or tendency towards re-infection with Giardia lamblia. This group was found to be more frequently associated with clinical symptoms such as diarrhea. A case-control study was designed to determine whether socioeconomic factors and hygiene were associated with this phenomenon. We found no differences bet (more) ween the groups with regard to overcrowding rates, number of persons per bed, absence of certain electric appliances, mother's schooling, or mean family income. However, there were proportionally more fathers with less than complete secondary education among cases as compared to controls. In addition, we found no differences in lack of hand-washing before eating and after defecation; however, we found a higher percentage of families who washed vegetables insufficiently among predisposed children. Finally, a lower percentage of families with predisposed children boiled their water. Our results demonstrate the important role of water as a vehicle for transmission of giardiasis and the importance of various epidemiologic factors.

Núñez, Fidel Ángel; López, Jorge Luis; de la Cruz, Ana Margarita; Finlay, Carlos M.

2003-04-01

125

Factores de riesgo de la infección por Giardia lamblia en niños de guarderías infantiles de Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba  

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Full Text Available En un estudio longitudinal sobre giardiasis desarrollado durante 18 meses en tres guarderías infantiles de Ciudad de La Habana, describimos un grupo de niños con tendencia o "predisposición" a la infección por Giardia lamblia; a los que se les encontró con síntomas clínicos más asociados a las diarreas. Este estudio de casos y controles se desarrolló para conocer si algunos factores socioeconómicos y hábitos higiénicos estaban asociados con este fenómeno. No se encontraron diferencias entre ambos grupos en las tasas de hacinamiento, el índice de personas por cama, en la carencia de determinados equipos eléctricos, en el nivel escolar de las madres, y en el promedio del ingreso familiar; sin embargo, predominó una frecuencia mayor de padres con nivel escolar menor de 12 grado en los casos que en los controles. No se encontraron diferencias entre ambos grupos en cuanto a la ausencia de lavado de manos antes de comer y después de defecar, pero se encontró un mayor porcentaje de lavado incorrecto de vegetales, y una menor frecuencia del hábito de hervir el agua de consumo en las familias de los casos. Estos resultados demuestran el papel del agua como vehículo de transmisión en la giardiasis y la importancia de algunos factores epidemiológicos.

Núñez Fidel Ángel; López Jorge Luis; de la Cruz Ana Margarita; Finlay Carlos M.

2003-01-01

126

The activity of a developmentally regulated cysteine proteinase is required for cyst wall formation in the primitive eukaryote Giardia lamblia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardia is an intestinal parasite that belongs to the earliest diverging branch of the eukaryotic lineage of descent. Giardia undergoes adaptation for survival outside the host's intestine by differentiating into infective cysts. Encystation involves the synthesis and transport of cyst wall constituents to the plasma membrane for release and extracellular organization. Nevertheless, little is known about the molecular events related to cyst wall biogenesis in Giardia. Among the components of the cyst wall there are two proteins that we have previously identified and characterized: CWP1 (26 kDa) and CWP2 (39 kDa). Expression of these proteins is coordinately induced, and both concentrated within encystation-specific secretory vesicles before their extracellular polymerization. Although highly similar to each other at the amino terminus, CWP2 includes a COOH-terminal 121-amino acid extension. Here, we show that this extension, rich in basic residues, is cleaved from CWP2 before cyst wall formation by an intracellular cysteine proteinase activity, which is induced during encystation like CWPs. Specific inhibitors prevent release of cyst wall materials, abolishing cyst wall formation. We also report the purification, cloning, and characterization of the encystation-specific cysteine proteinase responsible for the proteolytic processing of CWP2, which is homologue to lysosomal cathepsin C. Encystation-specific cysteine proteinase ESCP possesses unique characteristics compared with cathepsins from higher eukaryotes, such as a transmembrane domain and a short cytoplasmic tail. These features make this enzyme the most divergent cathepsin C identified to date and provide new insights regarding cyst wall formation in Giardia. PMID:11773053

Touz, María C; Nores, María J; Slavin, Ileana; Carmona, Carlos; Conrad, John T; Mowatt, Michael R; Nash, Theodore E; Coronel, Carlos E; Luján, Hugo D

2001-12-28

127

The activity of a developmentally regulated cysteine proteinase is required for cyst wall formation in the primitive eukaryote Giardia lamblia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Giardia is an intestinal parasite that belongs to the earliest diverging branch of the eukaryotic lineage of descent. Giardia undergoes adaptation for survival outside the host's intestine by differentiating into infective cysts. Encystation involves the synthesis and transport of cyst wall constituents to the plasma membrane for release and extracellular organization. Nevertheless, little is known about the molecular events related to cyst wall biogenesis in Giardia. Among the components of the cyst wall there are two proteins that we have previously identified and characterized: CWP1 (26 kDa) and CWP2 (39 kDa). Expression of these proteins is coordinately induced, and both concentrated within encystation-specific secretory vesicles before their extracellular polymerization. Although highly similar to each other at the amino terminus, CWP2 includes a COOH-terminal 121-amino acid extension. Here, we show that this extension, rich in basic residues, is cleaved from CWP2 before cyst wall formation by an intracellular cysteine proteinase activity, which is induced during encystation like CWPs. Specific inhibitors prevent release of cyst wall materials, abolishing cyst wall formation. We also report the purification, cloning, and characterization of the encystation-specific cysteine proteinase responsible for the proteolytic processing of CWP2, which is homologue to lysosomal cathepsin C. Encystation-specific cysteine proteinase ESCP possesses unique characteristics compared with cathepsins from higher eukaryotes, such as a transmembrane domain and a short cytoplasmic tail. These features make this enzyme the most divergent cathepsin C identified to date and provide new insights regarding cyst wall formation in Giardia.

Touz MC; Nores MJ; Slavin I; Carmona C; Conrad JT; Mowatt MR; Nash TE; Coronel CE; Luján HD

2002-03-01

128

Giardia y giardiasis/ Giardia and giardiasis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Giardia lamblia es un protozoario parásito que habita el intestino delgado de los seres humanos y de muchos otros vertebrados y es una de las más comunes causas de diarrea en todo el mundo. Durante su ciclo de vida Giardia sufre significativos cambios bioquímicos y morfológicos que le permiten sobrevivir en ambientes y condiciones que de otro modo lo destruirían. Para sobrevivir fuera del intestino del hospedador, los trofozoítos de Giardia se diferencian a quistes, (more) los que se caracterizan por poseer una rígida pared glicoproteica externa que les permiten sobrevivir inclusive frente a la acción de los desinfectantes más comunes. Otro de los mecanismos de adaptación de este parásito es la variación de los antígenos de superficie que le permite a los trofozoítos evadir la respuesta inmune del huésped y generar infecciones tanto agudas como crónicas o recurrentes en individuos infectados. Durante los últimos años se han producido importantes avances en el conocimiento de las bases moleculares de los procesos de enquistamiento y variación antigénica en Giardia que pronostican el pronto hallazgo de nuevos agentes quimioterapéuticos y/o inmunoprofilácticos contra este importante parásito intestinal. Abstract in english Giardia lamblia is a protozoan parasite that inhabits the upper small intestine of humans and several other vertebrates and one of the most frequent cause of intestinal disease worldwide. During its life cycle, G. lamblia undergoes significant biochemical and morphological changes that allow the parasite to survive under hostile environmental conditions. To survive outside the host?s intestine, Giardia differentiates into resistant cysts, which are characterized by a rig (more) id extracellular cyst wall that protect the parasite even to the action of the most common chemical disinfectants. Another adaptive mechanism of Giardia is the switching of its surface antigens, a mechanism that allows the trophozoites to evade the host?s immune responses and produce acute, chronic and/or recurrent infections. During the last years, important advances in the knowledge of the molecular basis underlying the mechanisms of encystation and antigenic variation in Giardia suggest that novel chemotherapeutic and/or immunoprophylactic reagents against this important human pathogen could soon be available.

Luján, Hugo D.

2006-02-01

129

Parasitismo por Giardia sp. e Cryptosporidium sp. em Coendou villosus Parasitism by Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. in Coendou villosus  

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Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o possível parasitismo por Giardia sp. e Cryptosporidium sp. em amostras de fezes de ouriço-cacheiro (Coendou villosus). As amostras foram analisadas pelo método de centrífugo-flutuação com sulfato de zinco e apresentaram elevada infecção por cistos de Giardia sp. e por oocistos de Cryptosporidium sp., embora os animais não apresentassem sinal clínico decorrente disso.This research was aimed at verifing the possible parasitism by Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. in porcupine (Coendou villosus) faeces samples. Samples were analyzed by the centrifugal-flotation method with zinc sulphate and showed high infection by cysts of Giardia sp. and by oocysts of Cryptosporidium sp., although the animals did not show any associated clinical sign.

João Fabio Soares; Aleksandro Schafer da Silva; Camila Belmonte Oliveira; Marcos Kipper da Silva; Gleide Mariscano; Edson Luis Salomão; Silvia Gonzalez Monteiro

2008-01-01

130

Disaccharidase activity in the small intestine of gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) during primary and challenge infections with Giardia lamblia.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The sequence of changes in the activity of six disaccharidases in the small intestine of gerbils during primary and secondary G lamblia infections was examined. The primary G lamblia infection induced a transient reduction in disaccharidase activity which was related to the highest trophozoite burde...

Belosevic, M; Faubert, G M; MacLean, J D

131

Identification of the Major Cysteine Protease of Giardia and Its Role in Encystation*S?  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardia lamblia is a protozoan parasite and the earliest branching clade of eukaryota. The Giardia life cycle alternates between an asexually replicating vegetative form and an infectious cyst form. Encystation and excystation are crucial processes for the survival and transmission of Giardia. Cysteine proteases in Giardia have been implicated in proteolytic processing events that enable the continuance of the life cycle throughout encystation and excystation. Using quantitative real-time PCR, the expression of twenty-seven clan CA cysteine protease genes in the Giardia genome was measured during both vegetative growth and encystation. Giardia cysteine protease 2 was the most highly expressed cysteine protease during both life cycle stages measured, with a dramatic expression increase during encystation. The mRNA transcript for Giardia cysteine protease 2 was 7-fold up-regulated during encystation and was greater than 3-fold higher than any other Giardia protease gene product. Recombinant Giardia cysteine protease 2 was expressed, purified, and biochemically characterized. The activity of the recombinant cysteine protease 2 protein was confirmed to be identical to the dominant cysteine protease activity found in G. lamblia lysates. Giardia cysteine protease 2 was co-localized with cyst wall protein in encystation-specific vesicles during encystation and processed cyst wall protein 2 to the size found in Giardia cyst walls. These data suggest that Giardia cysteine protease 2 is not only the major cysteine endoprotease expressed in Giardia, but is also central to the encystation process.

DuBois, Kelly N.; Abodeely, Marla; Sakanari, Judy; Craik, Charles S.; Lee, Malinda; McKerrow, James H.; Sajid, Mohammed

2008-01-01

132

Presencia de Giardia lamblia y Cryptosporidium spp. en aguas residuales depuradas reutilizadas para riego agrícola en la isla de Tenerife, España. Efectos del transporte a larga distancia sobre la calidad del agua reutilizada Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. Presence in treated wastewater reutilised for irrigation in Tenerife island, Spain. Long-distance transport effects in the reutilised water quality  

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Full Text Available El empleo de aguas residuales depuradas para riego agrícola es la alternativa de reutilización con más relevancia hoy día, siempre y cuando se desarrolle con garantías sanitarias y medioambientales.Giardia lamblia y Cryptosporidium spp. son dos protozoos patógenos entéricos de amplia distribución ambiental, frecuentes en hábitats acuáticos. La investigación y detección de estos parásitos en aguas ha adquirido importancia en los últimos años debido a que poseen formas de dispersión resistentes a los tratamientos habituales, aplicados tanto en procesos de potabilización como de depuración, y a que han sido clasificados como patógenos emergentes causantes de importantes brotes de transmisión hídrica.En este trabajo se estudia la presencia de quistes de Giardia lamblia y ooquistes de Cryptosporidium spp. en el agua residual depurada de la ciudad de Santa Cruz de Tenerife que es transportada hasta el sur de la isla de Tenerife para su reutilización en agricultura. Asimismo se investiga el efecto del transporte, el almacenamiento y el tratamiento avanzado sobre la concentración de quistes y ooquistes a través del sistema, y la existencia de relaciones con otros parámetros bacteriológicos y físico-químicos.Los resultados obtenidos ponen de manifiesto comportamientos variables de los contenidos en quistes y ooquistes frente a los tratamientos aplicados, y el efecto depurador que el transporte a larga distancia, parece tener sobre el agua residual depurada.No se han encontrado relaciones entre las concentraciones de quistes y ooquistes en el agua residual depurada y el contenido de los indicadores tradicionales de contaminación fecal.Treated wastewater use for irrigation is, nowadays, the more relevant reutilization alternative of wastewater, if it is developed with sanitary and environmental warranties.Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. two wide distributed enteric pathogen protozoan, which are frequent in aquatic habitats. These protozoan investigation and detection have acquired importance in the last years due to their dispersion forms, which show resistance to the habitual treatments of potabilization and purification, and their classification as emerging pathogens which are the causative agents of important hydrical transmission outbreaks.In our work, Giardia lamblia cyst and Cryptosporidium spp. oocyst presence in Santa Cruz de Tenerife treated wastewater which is transported to the South of the island to be reutilised in agriculture. Furthermore, transport, storage and advanced treatment effects against cyst and oocyst concentration throughout the system and relation existence with other bacteriological and physical-chemical parameters, are also investigated.The obtained results demonstrate variable behaviours in cyst and oocyst concentration against applied treatments, and the depurative effect of the long-distance transport which seems to have in treated wastewater.There was not found any relation between cyst and oocyst concentration in treated wastewater and the traditional indicators of faecal contamination.

N. Abreu Acosta; Macrina Martín Delgado; Antonio Ortega Rivas; Antonio del Castillo Remiro; Escolástico Aguiar González; Basilio Valladares Hernández

2002-01-01

133

Impacto de la dieta sobre la inducción de infección con quistes de Giardia lamblia en ratas Sprague-Dawley The effect of malnourishment on the development of giardiosis in Sprague-Dawley rats  

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Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar el efecto de la desnutrición en la inducción de la giardiosis con diferentes concentraciones de quistes de Giardia lamblia utilizando como modelo animal ratas Sprague-Dawley. Material y métodos. Es un estudio experimental efectuado entre 1995 y 1999, en el Centro de Investigación en Alimentación y Desarrollo, de la ciudad de Hermosillo, estado de Sonora, México, y cuya muestra estuvo integrada por dos grupos de 6 a 8 unidades experimentales, las cuales recibieron dos tipos de dieta y cinco tratamientos con diferente concentración de inóculo de quistes de Giardia lamblia. Durante la fase experimental se monitoreó la excreción de quistes, ganancia de peso, consumo de alimento, análisis del contenido intestinal y daños macro y microscópicos en mucosa intestinal. El tratamiento estadístico de los datos consistió en análisis de varianza, y de residuales cuando fue necesario. Resultados. En los animales alimentados con una dieta que cubre sus requerimientos nutricionales (DN) se observó que es posible provocar la infección con 60 quistes, mientras que en los animales desnutridos (dieta DLN) la concentración que se requiere es de únicamente seis quistes para establecer daños a nivel de mucosa intestinal. Conclusiones. La ganancia de peso monitoreada durante los 10 días de ensayo no resultó ser un buen indicador de la infección por Giardia lamblia. El porcentaje de infección depende de la concentración de quistes inoculados y del estado de nutrición de los animales evaluados.Objective. To assess the effect of malnutrition on the development of giardiosis in Sprague-Dawley rats, using different inoculum sizes of Giardia lamblia cysts. Material and Methods. An experimental study was conducted between 1995 and 1999 at Centro de Investigación, Alimentación y Desarrollo (Center for Research, Food, and Development), in Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico. The study population consisted of two groups of six to eight experimental units that were fed two different diets and inoculated five different concentrations of Giardia lamblia cysts. Data were collected on excretion of cysts, weight gain, food intake, bowel contents, and macro and microscopic lesions in the intestinal mucosa. Statistical analysis consisted of analysis of variance and residuals. Results. Animals fed with a diet meeting nutritional requirements required an infecting inoculum of 60 cysts, while malnourished rats required only six cysts to develop mucosal lesions. Conclusions. Weight gain monitored during ten days was not a good indicator of Giardia lamblia infection. Infection depended on cyst inoculum size as well as on the nutritional status of the tested animals.

Martha Elvia Díaz-Cinco; Martha Nydia Ballesteros-Vázquez; Rosalba Pérez-Morales; Verónica Mata-Haro

2002-01-01

134

DNA fingerprinting of the intestinal parasite Giardia duodenalis with the M13 phage genome.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A DNA fingerprint procedure has been established for the intestinal parasite, Giardia duodenalis. This permits the identification of individual strains from both human and animal sources. Analysis of strain movement, resurgence and variation is now possible. The fingerprint probe is based on the tandem repetitive sequence found in bacteriophage M13 which hybridizes to a set of hypervariable polymorphic minisatellite sequences found in higher eukaryotes. This probe recognizes a weakly homologous set of hypervariable regions in the Giardia genome to provide a DNA fingerprint comparable to those seen in higher eukaryotes.

Upcroft P; Mitchell R; Boreham PF

1990-05-01

135

Evaluation of rapid commercial enzyme immunoassay for detection of Giardia lamblia in formalin-preserved stool specimens.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two hundred twenty-three formalin-preserved stool specimens were evaluated by using ProSpecT Giardia Rapid Assay (membrane bound) (Alexon, Inc., Sunnyvale, Calif.). Enzyme immunoassay (EIA) results were compared with those by conventional microscopic examination. Two hundred four specimens were negative by both methods, and 13 (6.3%) were positive. Five specimens were negative by initial microscopic exam and positive by EIA; three of these specimens were found to be positive upon extensive microscopic reexamination. The remaining two specimens were from patients who previously tested positive and who had recurrent symptoms of or responded to therapy for giardia. Therefore, we consider both cases to be true positives. One specimen exhibited a single cyst by microscopic exam and was negative by EIA Resolved results yielded a relative sensitivity of 95%, a relative specificity of 100%, a positive predictive value of 99.6%, and a negative predictive value of 100%, compared with a sensitivity of 74% for conventional microscopy.

Scheffler EH; Van Etta LL

1994-07-01

136

Zoonotic potential of Giardia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Giardia duodenalis (syn. Giardia lamblia and Giardia intestinalis) is a common intestinal parasite of humans and mammals worldwide. Assessing the zoonotic transmission of the infection requires molecular characterization as there is considerable genetic variation within G. duodenalis. To date eight major genetic groups (assemblages) have been identified, two of which (A and B) are found in both humans and animals, whereas the remaining six (C to H) are host-specific and do not infect humans. Sequence-based surveys of single loci have identified a number of genetic variants (genotypes) within assemblages A and B in animal species, some of which may have zoonotic potential. Multi-locus typing data, however, has shown that in most cases, animals do not share identical multi-locus types with humans. Furthermore, interpretation of genotyping data is complicated by the presence of multiple alleles that generate "double peaks" in sequencing files from PCR products, and by the potential exchange of genetic material among isolates, which may account for the non-concordance in the assignment of isolates to specific assemblages. Therefore, a better understanding of the genetics of this parasite is required to allow the design of more sensitive and variable subtyping tools, that in turn may help unravel the complex epidemiology of this infection.

Ryan U; Cacciò SM

2013-07-01

137

Tools and methods for detecting and characterizing giardia, cryptosporidium, and toxoplasma parasites in marine mollusks.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Foodborne infections are of public health importance and deeply impact the global economy. Consumption of bivalve mollusks generates risk for humans because these filtering aquatic invertebrates often concentrate microbial pathogens from their environment. Among them, Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Toxoplasma are major parasites of humans and animals that may retain their infectivity in raw or undercooked mollusks. This review aims to detail current and future tools and methods for ascertaining the load and potential infectivity of these parasites in marine bivalve mollusks, including sampling strategies, parasite extraction procedures, and their characterization by using microscopy and/or molecular techniques. Method standardization should lead to better risk assessment of mollusks as a source of these major environmental parasitic pathogens and to the development of safety regulations, similar to those existing for bacterial and viral pathogens encountered in the same mollusk species.

Hohweyer J; Dumètre A; Aubert D; Azas N; Villena I

2013-09-01

138

Tools and methods for detecting and characterizing giardia, cryptosporidium, and toxoplasma parasites in marine mollusks.  

Science.gov (United States)

Foodborne infections are of public health importance and deeply impact the global economy. Consumption of bivalve mollusks generates risk for humans because these filtering aquatic invertebrates often concentrate microbial pathogens from their environment. Among them, Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Toxoplasma are major parasites of humans and animals that may retain their infectivity in raw or undercooked mollusks. This review aims to detail current and future tools and methods for ascertaining the load and potential infectivity of these parasites in marine bivalve mollusks, including sampling strategies, parasite extraction procedures, and their characterization by using microscopy and/or molecular techniques. Method standardization should lead to better risk assessment of mollusks as a source of these major environmental parasitic pathogens and to the development of safety regulations, similar to those existing for bacterial and viral pathogens encountered in the same mollusk species. PMID:23992514

Hohweyer, Jeanne; Dumètre, Aurélien; Aubert, Dominique; Azas, Nadine; Villena, Isabelle

2013-09-01

139

Giardia and Drinking Water from Private Wells  

Science.gov (United States)

... remove Giardia from my drinking water? Giardia and Drinking Water from Private Wells What is giardiasis? Giardiasis (GEE- ... website. Where and how does Giardia get into drinking water? Millions of Giardia parasites can be released in ...

140

Comparative Analysis of the 15.5kD Box C/D snoRNP Core Protein in the Primitive Eukaryote Giardia lamblia Reveals Unique Structural and Functional Features  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Box C/D ribonucleoproteins (RNP) guide the 2'-O-methylation of targeted nucleotides in archaeal and eukaryotic rRNAs. The archaeal L7Ae and eukaryotic 15.5kD box C/D RNP core protein homologues initiate RNP assembly by recognizing kink-turn (K-turn) motifs. The crystal structure of the 15.5kD core protein from the primitive eukaryote Giardia lamblia is described here to a resolution of 1.8 {angstrom}. The Giardia 15.5kD protein exhibits the typical {alpha}-{beta}-{alpha} sandwich fold exhibited by both archaeal L7Ae and eukaryotic 15.5kD proteins. Characteristic of eukaryotic homologues, the Giardia 15.5kD protein binds the K-turn motif but not the variant K-loop motif. The highly conserved residues of loop 9, critical for RNA binding, also exhibit conformations similar to those of the human 15.5kD protein when bound to the K-turn motif. However, comparative sequence analysis indicated a distinct evolutionary position between Archaea and Eukarya. Indeed, assessment of the Giardia 15.5kD protein in denaturing experiments demonstrated an intermediate stability in protein structure when compared with that of the eukaryotic mouse 15.5kD and archaeal Methanocaldococcus jannaschii L7Ae proteins. Most notable was the ability of the Giardia 15.5kD protein to assemble in vitro a catalytically active chimeric box C/D RNP utilizing the archaeal M. jannaschii Nop56/58 and fibrillarin core proteins. In contrast, a catalytically competent chimeric RNP could not be assembled using the mouse 15.5kD protein. Collectively, these analyses suggest that the G. lamblia 15.5kD protein occupies a unique position in the evolution of this box C/D RNP core protein retaining structural and functional features characteristic of both archaeal L7Ae and higher eukaryotic 15.5kD homologues.

Biswas, Shyamasri; Buhrman, Greg; Gagnon, Keith; Mattos, Carla; Brown, II, Bernard A.; Maxwell, E. Stuart (NCSU); (UTSMC)

2012-07-11

 
 
 
 
141

Intestinal parasites and genotypes of Giardia intestinalis in school children from Berisso, Argentina.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Intestinal parasitic infections have been reported in different regions of Argentina. Giardia intestinalis is recognized as "the national parasite". The aim of this work was to determine the prevalence of both intestinal parasites and G. intestinalis genotypes, as well as to analyze the clinical and epidemiological characteristics in schoolchildren from a suburban community. METHODOLOGY: Serial coproparasitological analysis and perianal swab method were performed in 244 schoolchildren. Demographic, sociocultural and environmental variables were registered. The presence of signs/symptoms and risk behaviours were also recorded. Stools with G. intestinalis were selected for genotyping. RESULTS: Out of 244 schoolchildren, 179/244 (73.4%) were infected with intestinal parasites. The presence of intestinal parasitosis was associated only with house flooding. Multivariate analysis identified that use of a latrine is significantly correlated with G. intestinalis and age six to 11 years with E. vermicularis. Signs and symptoms were recorded in 62% of infected children and in 57.9% of those not infected. Genomic amplification was revealed that 65.7% (46/70) of Giardia positive samples corresponded to genotype B, 31.4% (22/70) to genotype AII, and two samples (2.8%) had mixed infection (AII + B). CONCLUSIONS: This study shows a high percentage of infected children living in a suburban community in poor sanitary conditions, and not visiting the doctor in spite of evident signs and symptoms associated a digestive pathology. This situation supports the need for continuing the development of community programs allowing the improvement of quality of life and control of parasitosis in deprived populations.

Molina N; Pezzani B; Ciarmela M; Orden A; Rosa D; Apezteguía M; Basualdo J; Minvielle M

2011-07-01

142

Protozoan parasites that infect the gastrointestinal tract.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Protozoa that infect the gastrointestinal tract include the deadly parasite Entamoeba histolytica;Giardia lamblia, the most common cause of waterborne disease outbreaks; and the large group of spore-forming parasites that share a green algae symbiont and a predilection for causing chronic diarrhea in immunocompromised persons. Some recent advances in the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of the diseases caused by these protozoa are discussed in this review.

Petri WA Jr

2000-01-01

143

Evaluation of a Screening Test for Detection of Giardia and Cryptosporidium Parasites ?  

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The Giardia/Cryptosporidium Chek test (TechLab, Inc.), a screening test for Giardia and Cryptosporidium, was evaluated with 136 fecal samples. Using the results of the Giardia II test and Cryptosporidium II test as gold standards, it was 98.4% sensitive and 100% specific and had positive and negativ...

Youn, Sojin; Kabir, Mamun; Haque, Rashidul; Petri, William A.

144

Molecular characterization of Giardia parasite isolated from stool samples collected from different hospitals in Taif City (Saudi Arabia).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Giardia parasite is prevalent endemically in Taif city. Infection is more prevalent in children under 5 years old and elderly people. The sickness is more intense in immunecompromised people. The disease is usually diagnosed by stool examination by the microscope, for the identification of the both trophozoite and cyst stages. Usually the disease is overlooked during stool analyses due to the minute size of the parasite and due to the scarcity of infection sometimes. Hence molecular characterization or diagnosis is used as an alternative method for the diagnosis of infection. Molecular characterization is based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This technique is regarded as a highly sensitive and accurate method of diagnosis. The prevalence of Giardia duodenalis was 15% in stool samples collected from different hospital in Taif. By means of RAPD technique, most G. duodenalis isolates were genetically similar, forming two main groups, with about 60% of similarity one another.

Shalaby I; Gherbawy Y; Banaja A

2011-12-01

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Genetic characterisation of Giardia duodenalis in dairy cattle in Brazil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia duodenalis (Lambl, 1859) Kofoid & Christiansen, 1915 [syn. Giardia intestinalis and Giardia lamblia] has emerged as a widespread enteric pathogen in humans and domestic animals. In recent years, G. duodenalis has been found in cattle worldwide and longitudinal studies have reported cumulative prevalence of 100% in some herds. In the present study, we determined the prevalence and genetic characterisation of G. duodenalis in 200 dairy cattle from 10 dairy farms in São Paulo state, Brazil. All faecal specimens were screened for the presence of G. duodenalis using microscopy examination, enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). DNA was extracted from faecal samples and G. duodenalis were identified by amplification of the small subunit ribosomal (SSU-rDNA) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) genes followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) or sequencing analysis. Giardia was identified in eight farm locations (80% prevalence). Overall, 15/200 (7.5%) animals were positive for infection, only one of which was a cow. Giardia duodenalis genotype E was present in 14 of the animals tested. Zoonotic genotype AI was present in one positive sample. Genotype E and genotype A represented 93% and 7% of G. duodenalis infections, respectively. This study demonstrates that G. duodenalis infection was prevalent in dairy calves in São Paulo state and that the non-zoonotic genotype E predominates in cattle in this region. Nevertheless, calves naturally infected in Brazil can shed Giardia cysts that can potentially infect humans, and thus, they may represent a public health risk.

Paz e Silva FM; Lopes RS; Araújo JP Jr

2012-02-01

146

Antagonism between two intestinal parasites in humans: the importance of co-infection for infection risk and recovery dynamics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Co-infection may affect transmission and recovery from infection, but remains an understudied element of disease ecology, particularly with regard to antagonism between parasites sharing a host. Helminth and giardia infections are often endemic in the same populations and both occupy the small intestine; yet few studies have examined interactions between these parasites. We report on helminth-giardia co-infections in a panel study of forager-horticulturalists in the Bolivian lowlands. Parasites were identified in faecal samples from 3275 participants, collected during 5235 medical exams over 6 years. Longitudinal co-infection patterns were examined using logistic mixed and multi-state Markov models. The most prevalent infections were hookworm (56%), Giardia lamblia (30%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (15%). Cross-sectionally, hookworm and A. lumbricoides were negatively associated with G. lamblia (OR = 0.60; OR = 0.65, respectively). Longitudinally, giardia infection was less likely in helminth-infected individuals (HR: 0.46). Infection with helminths was also less likely for individuals infected with giardia (HR: 0.71). Finally, treatment with mebendazole reduced subsequent hookworm infections, but resulted in a marginal increase in the odds of G. lamblia infection. Our results provide evidence for an antagonistic relationship between helminths and giardia, and suggest that co-infection should be considered in disease transmission models and treatment decisions. PMID:23986108

Blackwell, Aaron D; Martin, Melanie; Kaplan, Hillard; Gurven, Michael

2013-08-28

147

Antagonism between two intestinal parasites in humans: the importance of co-infection for infection risk and recovery dynamics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Co-infection may affect transmission and recovery from infection, but remains an understudied element of disease ecology, particularly with regard to antagonism between parasites sharing a host. Helminth and giardia infections are often endemic in the same populations and both occupy the small intestine; yet few studies have examined interactions between these parasites. We report on helminth-giardia co-infections in a panel study of forager-horticulturalists in the Bolivian lowlands. Parasites were identified in faecal samples from 3275 participants, collected during 5235 medical exams over 6 years. Longitudinal co-infection patterns were examined using logistic mixed and multi-state Markov models. The most prevalent infections were hookworm (56%), Giardia lamblia (30%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (15%). Cross-sectionally, hookworm and A. lumbricoides were negatively associated with G. lamblia (OR = 0.60; OR = 0.65, respectively). Longitudinally, giardia infection was less likely in helminth-infected individuals (HR: 0.46). Infection with helminths was also less likely for individuals infected with giardia (HR: 0.71). Finally, treatment with mebendazole reduced subsequent hookworm infections, but resulted in a marginal increase in the odds of G. lamblia infection. Our results provide evidence for an antagonistic relationship between helminths and giardia, and suggest that co-infection should be considered in disease transmission models and treatment decisions.

Blackwell AD; Martin M; Kaplan H; Gurven M

2013-01-01

148

Hospital-based surveillance of enteric parasites in Kolkata  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Diarrhoea is the second leading cause of illness and death in developing countries and the second commonest cause of death due to infectious diseases among children under five in such countries. Parasites, as well as bacterial and viral pathogens, are important causes of diarrhoea. However, parasitic infections are sometimes overlooked, leading after a period of time to an uncertain aetiology. In this paper we report the prevalence of Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica and Cryptosporidium sp. in and around Kolkata. Findings A hospital-based laboratory surveillance study was conducted among the patients admitted between November 2007 and October 2008 to the Infectious Diseases (ID) Hospital (Population = 1103) with diarrhoeal complaints. Of the 1103 samples collected, 147 were positive for Giardia lamblia, 84 for Cryptosporidium sp. and 51 for Entamoeba histolytica. For all these parasites there was a high rate of mixed infection with common enteric viruses and bacteria such as Rotavirus, Vibrio cholerae and Shigella sp. There were also cases of co-infection with all other diarrheogenic pathogens. The age group ? 5 years had the highest prevalence of parasites whereas the age group >5 – 10 years was predominantly infected with Giardia lamblia (p =10 – 20 years could also be considered at risk for G. lamblia (p = 0.009; OR = 2.231; 95% CI = 1.223 – 4.067). Month-wise occurrence data showed an endemic presence of G. lamblia whereas Cryptosporidium sp. and E. histolytica occurred sporadically. The GIS study revealed that parasites were more prevalent in areas such as Tangra, Tiljala and Rajarhat, which are mainly slum areas. Because most of the population surveyed was in the lower income group, consumption of contaminated water and food could be the major underlying cause of parasitic infestations. Conclusion This study provides important information on the occurrence and distribution of three important intestinal parasites and indicates their diarrheogenic capacity in Kolkata and surrounding areas.

Mukherjee Avik; Chowdhury Punam; Bhattacharya Mihir; Ghosh Mrinmoy; Rajendran Krishnan; Ganguly Sandipan

2009-01-01

149

Calcium regulation in protozoan parasites.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The calcium ion (Ca(2+)) is used as a major signaling molecule in a diverse range of eukaryotic cells including several human parasitic protozoa, such as Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma brucei, Leishmania spp, Plasmodium spp, Toxoplasma gondii, Cryptosporidium parvum, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and Trichomonas vaginalis. Ca(2+) is critical for invasion of intracellular parasites, and its cytosolic concentration is regulated by the concerted operation of several transporters present in the plasma membrane, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria and acidocalcisomes. Recent findings have shed light on the function of these transporters, the roles that they play in cellular metabolism and their potential use for targeting them for new therapies.

Moreno SN; Docampo R

2003-08-01

150

OBSERVATION ON THE INTESTINAL PARASITIC INFECTIONS  

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Full Text Available During 1980-82, a total number of 4143 stool samples, from 2332 males and 1811 females, referred to the Central Laboratory of the School of Public Health, were examined for intestinal parasites. All the specimens were examined for intestinal parasites. All the specimens were examined by formol-ether concentration and wet-mount (ringer solution) techniques. The main prevalent pathogenic parasites were Entamoeba histolytica (8.7%), Giardia lamblia (16.1%), and Hymenolepis nana (3.2%). The overall infection rate with protozoa, metazoan and both were 45%, 18.3% and 53.8% respectively.

M.Rezaeian

1986-01-01

151

Intestinal parasitic infections in hosted Saharawi children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Literatures on intestinal parasitic infections in Saharawi children were scarce and distributed in non parasitological journals. This was the first article that specifically highlighted on the prevalence of these infections in 270 Saharawi children aged from 6 to 12 years hosted in Spain. Six different intestinal parasites were identified in this study and 78, 46, 40, 24, 13 and 5 were positive for Giardia lamblia (29%), Entamoeba coli (17%), Blastocystis hominis (15%), Endolimax nana (9%), Hymenolepis nana (5%) and Enterobius vermicularis (2%), respectively. Mixed intestinal parasitic infections were seen in 12 (4.4%) studied children. Six (2.2%) double infections for G. lamblia and B. hominis were seen in these children while in four (1.5%) had G. lamblia and H. nana. Triple intestinal parasitic infections of G. lamblia, B. hominis and H. nana were observed in two (0.7%) of the children studied. In the other hand, about 14.8% of the studied children had a mild anaemia and 15.5 and 16.6% had iron deficiency and eosinophilia, respectively.

Soriano JM; Domènech G; Martínez MC; Mañes J; Soriano F

2011-12-01

152

Intestinal parasitic infections in hosted Saharawi children.  

Science.gov (United States)

Literatures on intestinal parasitic infections in Saharawi children were scarce and distributed in non parasitological journals. This was the first article that specifically highlighted on the prevalence of these infections in 270 Saharawi children aged from 6 to 12 years hosted in Spain. Six different intestinal parasites were identified in this study and 78, 46, 40, 24, 13 and 5 were positive for Giardia lamblia (29%), Entamoeba coli (17%), Blastocystis hominis (15%), Endolimax nana (9%), Hymenolepis nana (5%) and Enterobius vermicularis (2%), respectively. Mixed intestinal parasitic infections were seen in 12 (4.4%) studied children. Six (2.2%) double infections for G. lamblia and B. hominis were seen in these children while in four (1.5%) had G. lamblia and H. nana. Triple intestinal parasitic infections of G. lamblia, B. hominis and H. nana were observed in two (0.7%) of the children studied. In the other hand, about 14.8% of the studied children had a mild anaemia and 15.5 and 16.6% had iron deficiency and eosinophilia, respectively. PMID:22433884

Soriano, J M; Domènech, G; Martínez, M C; Mañes, J; Soriano, F

2011-12-01

153

The prevalence of gastro-intestinal parasites and bacteria in the game scouts at the Kainji Lake National Park of Nigeria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The faeces of twenty scouts working at Borgu games were examined for the presence of parasites and bacteria. Cysts of Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and Trichomonas hominis were found. Helminth ova encountered included those of Ancylostoma duodenale, Ascaris lumbricoides, Stronglyloides stercoralis and Trichuris trichiura. Escherichia coli and Shigella flexneri were isolated from one faecal sample each. In all, parasites were found in the faeces of only 9 scouts. The epidemiological significance of the infections in highlighted.

Ogunji FO; Akinboade OA; Dipeolu OO; Ayeni J; Okaeme A

1984-06-01

154

PREVALENCE OF INTESTINAL PARASITES IN SCHOOL GOING CHILDREN IN A RURAL COMMUNITY  

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Full Text Available Infection caused by intestinal parasites is still a common health problem in a poor-hygiene population of rural area especially for children in developing countries. A cross-sectional study was conducted among school going children to determine the current status of intestinal parasitic infections in a rural community of Western Maharashtra. The study was drawn from schools in and around Loni in Ahmednagar district of Maharashtra. Present study showed the prevalence of 30.4% intestinal parasitic infection in children. The most common parasite was Giardia lamblia (13.5%) followed by Hymenolepis nana (4.5%)

Atul Aher; Sanjeev Kulkarni

2013-01-01

155

PREVALENCE OF INTESTINAL PARASITES IN SCHOOL GOING CHILDREN IN A RURAL COMMUNITY  

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Full Text Available Infection caused by intestinal parasites is still a common health problem in a poor-hygiene population of rural area especially for children in developing countries. A cross-sectional study was conducted among school going children to determine the current status of intestinal parasitic infections in a rural community of Western Maharashtra. The study was drawn from schools in and around Loni in Ahmednagar district of Maharashtra. Present study showed the prevalence of 30.4% intestinal parasitic infection in children. The most common parasite was Giardia lamblia (13.5%) followed by Hymenolepis nana (4.5%)

Atul Aher; Sanjeev Kulkarni

2012-01-01

156

Parasitas intestinais em centros de educação infantil municipal de Lages, SC, Brasil Intestinal parasites in nursey schools of Lages, southern Brazil  

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Full Text Available Infecção por enteroparasitas foi avaliada em 200 crianças em idade escolar, residentes em Lages. A prevalência geral entre helmintos e protozoários foi de 70,5% com 61,4% no sexo masculino e 74,5% no feminino. Os parasitos mais prevalentes foram Ascaris lumbricoides (35%), Giardia lamblia (14%) e Trichuris trichiura (13%).Two hundred chinldren from nursery schools in Lages, southern Brazil, were associated as to parasitic ibfections. The overall prevalence of helminths and protozoa was 70.5%, affecting 61.4% of male and 74.5% of female children. The most prevalent parasites were Ascaris lumbricoides (35%), Giardia lambia (14%) e Trichuris trichiura (13%).

Rosiléia Marinho de Quadros; Sandra Marques; Andréia Aparecida Ribeiro Arruda; Patrícia Simone Wolff Rosa Delfes; Íris Aparecida Azevedo Medeiros

2004-01-01

157

Giardia and Cryptosporidium in source waters of Sao Paulo State, Brazil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum are two protozoan intestinal parasites responsible for many drinking-water-related disease outbreaks in recent years. They are very resistant to conventional water treatment processes, can persist for long times in the environment and are, therefore, of great concern for public health. This work aimed to evaluate the presence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in water sources from São Paulo State, Brazil, as part of the "Evaluation of Inland Waters from São Paulo State" project from CETESB. Over a period of 19 months, 278 water samples from 28 sites located in 10 watersheds were analysed. The immunofluorescence assay was used after concentration of the samples by the calcium carbonate flocculation technique. Thermotolerant (faecal) coliforms, faecal streptococci and Clostridium perfringens were also determined in order to verify the existence of correlation between these bacterial indicators and the protozoa. Giardia and Cryptosporidium were detected in 27% and 2.5% of the samples, respectively, a lower figure compared with the results reported by other authors, especially for Cryptosporidium. A Spearman rank correlation test demonstrated a significant correlation between Giardia and faecal indicator concentrations. According to the American Regulation of Monitoring (ICR), treated water from 16 of these 28 collection sites should also be analysed to evaluate whether the treatment process could remove the parasites. Some technical deficiencies of these methods still limit the utilisation of the monitoring results for public health decisions, but the data here reported will help to improve the quality of drinking water in São Paulo State.

Hachich EM; Sato MI; Galvani AT; Menegon JR; Mucci JL

2004-01-01

158

Giardia and Cryptosporidium in source waters of São Paulo State, Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum are two protozoan intestinal parasites responsible for many drinking-water-related disease outbreaks in recent years. They are very resistant to conventional water treatment processes, can persist for long times in the environment and are, therefore, of great concern for public health. This work aimed to evaluate the presence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in water sources from São Paulo State, Brazil, as part of the "Evaluation of Inland Waters from São Paulo State" project from CETESB. Over a period of 19 months, 278 water samples from 28 sites located in 10 watersheds were analysed. The immunofluorescence assay was used after concentration of the samples by the calcium carbonate flocculation technique. Thermotolerant (faecal) coliforms, faecal streptococci and Clostridium perfringens were also determined in order to verify the existence of correlation between these bacterial indicators and the protozoa. Giardia and Cryptosporidium were detected in 27% and 2.5% of the samples, respectively, a lower figure compared with the results reported by other authors, especially for Cryptosporidium. A Spearman rank correlation test demonstrated a significant correlation between Giardia and faecal indicator concentrations. According to the American Regulation of Monitoring (ICR), treated water from 16 of these 28 collection sites should also be analysed to evaluate whether the treatment process could remove the parasites. Some technical deficiencies of these methods still limit the utilisation of the monitoring results for public health decisions, but the data here reported will help to improve the quality of drinking water in São Paulo State. PMID:15318516

Hachich, E M; Sato, M I Z; Galvani, A T; Menegon, J R N; Mucci, J L N

2004-01-01

159

Prevalence of intestinal parasites among food handlers in Al-Medinah.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fecal specimens from 13.216 food handlers (male) adults, representing 21 different nationalities, were analyzed for the presence of intestinal parasites at King Abdul Azeez Hospital, Al-Medinah. Approximately 14% of these individuals harbored potentially pathogenic parasites, the most common organism being Giardia lamblia (33%), followed by Entamoeba histolytica (23%), Trichuris trichiura (12.3%), Ascaris lumbricoides (11.8%) and others. The highest incidence of parasite load was found in Sri Lankans (40.7%). Although G. lamblia and E. histolytica were found in almost all the nationalities, preponderance of metazoan parasites with complicated life cycles occurred in individuals from tropical countries where optimal conditions of temperature and humidity are favorable for the survival and development of these organisms.

Ali SI; Jamal K; Qadri SM

1992-01-01

160

Prevalence and distribution of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in wastewater and the surface, drinking and ground waters in the Lower Rhine, Germany.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Samples from different water sources (n = 396) were collected during 2009 and 2011. Wastewater (2-5 l) was purified by aluminium sulphate flocculation. Surface, ground and drinking waters (400-6400 l) were collected by filtration. Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts were further concentrated by sucrose centrifugation. (Oo)cysts were identified by IFT (immunofluorescence test), DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) staining and DICM (difference interference contrast microscopy). Out of 206 wastewater samples, 134 (65·0%) were found to be positive for Giardia cysts and 64 (31·1%) for Cryptosporidium oocysts. Parasite numbers ranged from 0 to 2436 cysts/l and 0 to 1745 oocysts/l. Eight (4·2%) surface and drinking water samples (n = 190) were found to be positive for Giardia cysts (0-56000/100 l), and 18 (9·5%) for Cryptosporidium oocysts (2400/100 l). The purpose of this study was to establish the prevalence and concentrations of Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. by detecting (oo)cysts from water samples. This study provides substantial evidence that G. lamblia cysts and Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts are able to enter and circulate in the aquatic environment with negative implications for public health.

Gallas-Lindemann C; Sotiriadou I; Plutzer J; Karanis P

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Validity of silver, chitosan, and curcumin nanoparticles as anti-Giardia agents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study was carried out to evaluate the anti parasitic potential of silver, chitosan, and curcumin nanoparticles as anti-Giardia agents. Non-treated infected control rats were inoculated with Giardia lamblia cysts in a dose of 2?×?10(5) cysts/rat. Experimental group was infected then treated with curcumin, curcumin nanoparticles, chitosan, chitosan nanoparticles, and silver nanoparticles as single or combined therapy. The number of Giardia cysts in stools and trophozoites in intestinal sections were detected. Toxicity of nanoparticles was evaluated by comparing hematological and histopathological parameters of the normal control group and treated non-infected control group. The amount of silver was also measured in the liver, kidney, small intestine, lung, and brain of rats treated with silver nanoparticles. The number of the parasites in stool and small intestinal sections decreased in treated infected rats compared with infected non-treated ones. The effect in the single therapy was better with nanoparticles, and the best effect was detected in nano-silver. The combined therapy gave better results than single. Combination between nanoparticles was better than the combination of nano-forms and native chitosan and curcumin. The best effect was detected in combinations of nano-silver and nano-chitosan but with no full eradication. In conclusion, the highest effect and complete cure was gained by combining the three nano-forms. The parasite was successfully eradicated from stool and intestine. None of the treatments exhibited any toxicity. Accumulated silver in different organs was within the safe limits.

Said DE; Elsamad LM; Gohar YM

2012-08-01

162

The Antimicrobial Effect of Methanol Extracts of Eucalyptus, Satureia Hortensis and Heracleum Glabrescens on Giardia Cysts  

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Full Text Available Background and objectives: Giardiasis is a parasitic infection of smallintestine, with a worldwide distribution and the prevalence of Giardia indifferent parts of the world varies between 1 to 25%. Plants have the vastrange of antimicrobial and antifungal activity that can be identified asalternative treatments for bacterial and parasitic pathogens, the same asGiardia. In this study, the methanol extracts of eucalyptus plants, Satureiahortensis and Heracleum glabrescens, on Giardia cysts were studied in vitro.Material and Methods: The cysts were isolated from the feces using amodified Bingham. After counting by Hemusytumetr, they were placed nearby 200 mg / ml, 100 mg / ml and 10 mg / ml of the extracts prepared byDMSO for 30 and 60 minutes. Then, the number of dead and live cysts wascounted under a microscope.Results: the fatality effect of the extracts in 60 minutes is higher than thoseof 30 minutes. The methanol extracts of Satureia hortensis, Eucalyptus andHeracleum glabrescens with the dilution of 200 mg/ml in 60 mins have thefatality effect of 84/3%, 63/3% and 44%, respectively. The highestfatality(84.3%) on Giardia cysts is related to Satureia hortensis with thedilution of 200 mg/ml in 60 mins and the Lowest(27%) is related toHeracleum glabrescens with the dilution of 10 mg/ml in 30-minute period.The significant relationship between the plant type and the fatality ofmethanol extracts is observed.Conclusion: the methanol extracts of Eucalyptus, Heracleum glabrescensand especially Satureia hortensis have anti-parasitic effects in the laboratoryconditions. Thus, they can be used in the future, instead of the chemicalantiparasitic drugs.Key words: Antibacterial Giardia lamblia cysts, Eucalyptus, Satureiahortensis, Heracleum glabrescens, Tonekabon

Safarnejad Tameshkel, F.; Khatami Nejad, MR.; Nasrollahi, A.; Rahdari, P; Gholam Hossein Poor, F; kazemi Afarmejani, S; Rahnavard A

2012-01-01

163

A simple micropore system for experimental studies on trichomonad parasites.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A simple leak-free micropore chamber containing protozoan parasite species was implanted subcutaneously on the back of hamsters and evaluated for viability and multiplication of protozoan parasites. Trophozoites of defined strains of Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, Trichomonas vaginalis, and Tritrichomonas foetus were used; their survival and multiplication in the chambers formed the basis of evaluation. Entamoeba histolytica and G. lamblia did not survive more than 6 hr and succumbed due to cellular adhesion. Trichomonas vaginalis and T. foetus survived 3 and 6 days and multiplied a maximum of 3.6 and 26 times, respectively. This indicated that exchange of body fluids and cells needed for the survival and multiplication of trichomonads readily occurs. This preliminary observation showed that micropore chambers may be useful for chemotherapeutic and immunological studies on trichomonads in ectopic sites.

Rajasekariah GR; Srivastava SK; Shrivastav VB; Tendulkar JS

1989-12-01

164

Prevalencia de giardiasis y parásitos intestinales en preescolares de hogares atendidos en un programa estatal en Armenia, Colombia/ Prevalence of giardiasis and intestinal parasites in pre-school children from homes being attended as part of a state programme in Armenia, Colombia  

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Full Text Available Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: El propósito de este estudio es el de obtener datos sobre la giardiasis y el parasitismo intestinal en una muestra significativa de los niños en edades pre-escolares de los hogares de madres comunitarias del Instituto Colombiano de Bienestar Familiar (ICBF). MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Se recolectó un seriado de tres muestras de heces en 328 niños, con previo consentimiento del tutor legal. Se le realizó el análisis de laboratorio por examen directo microscópi (more) co y macroscópico utilizando Lugol al 1 %, solución salina al 0,83 %, solución salina-eosina, Kato Katz y formol-éter o metodo de concentración de Ritchie (prueba comprobatoria). Las muestras positivas se conservaron en formol salino. RESULTADOS: Los parásitos con potencial patógeno tuvieron las siguientes prevalencias: Ascaris lumbricoides 2,4 %, Hymenolepsis nana 0,6 %, Trichuris trichura 2,1 %, Blastocystis hominis 6,1 % y Giardia lamblia 13 %. CONCLUSIONES: Este estudio muestra la baja frecuencia de los helmintos con respecto a los protozoos, por lo tanto estrategias de desparasitación masiva con dosis únicas de Albendazol no tienen utilidad. Se recomienda la vigilancia periódica de parásitos por exámenes en estos niños. Se confirma que el parásito patógeno mas prevalente es Giardia lamblia en los niños de las guarderias infantiles del ICBF. La prevalencia de Giardia no se relacionó de manera estadisticamente significativa con el estado nutricional de los niños de las guarderias del ICBF. La mayoria de niños infectados por Giardia son asintomáticos. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: Determining the prevalence of giardiasis and intestinal parasitism in pre-school children from the Instituto Colombiano de Bienestar Familiar (ICBF). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Three serial faecal samples were collected from 328 children following informed consent from their legal guardians. Microscopic and macroscopic tests were made using 1% Lugol, 0,83 % saline solution, saline-eosin solution and Kato Katz and Ritchie's test as a confirming test. Positive samples (more) were preserved in saline formol solution. RESULTS: Pathogen parasites had the following prevalence frequencies: 2,4 % for Ascaris lumbricoides, 0,6 % for Hymenolepsis nana, 2,1 % for Trichuris trichura, 6,1 % for Blastocystis hominis and 13 % for Giardia lamblia. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this work showed low helminth frequency compared to that for protozoa; control strategies using single doses of Albendazol are therefore not useful. The most prevalent pathogen parasite was Giardia lamblia in children from the ICBF in Armenia. Periodic surveillance of parasites in children is thereby recommended. The prevalence of Giardia lamblia was not statistically related to the children's nutritional state. Most Giardia-infected children were asymptomatic.

Giraldo-Gómez, Jorge M.; Lora, Fabiana; Henao, Luz H.; Mejía, Shirley; Gómez-Marín, Jorge E.

2005-11-01

165

Prevalencia de Giardiasis y Parásitos Intestinales en Preescolares de Hogares atendidos en un programa estatal en Armenia, Colombia Prevalence of giardiasis and intestinal parasites in pre-school children from homes being attended as part of a state programme in Armenia, Colombia  

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Full Text Available Objetivo El propósito de este estudio es el de obtener datos sobre la giardiasis y el parasitismo intestinal en una muestra significativa de los niños en edades pre-escolares de los hogares de madres comunitarias del Instituto Colombiano de Bienestar Familiar (ICBF). Materiales y Métodos Se recolectó un seriado de tres muestras de heces en 328 niños, con previo consentimiento del tutor legal. Se le realizó el análisis de laboratorio por examen directo microscópico y macroscópico utilizando Lugol al 1 %, solución salina al 0,83 %, solución salina-eosina, Kato Katz y formol-éter o metodo de concentración de Ritchie (prueba comprobatoria). Las muestras positivas se conservaron en formol salino. Resultados Los parásitos con potencial patógeno tuvieron las siguientes prevalencias: Ascaris lumbricoides 2,4 %, Hymenolepsis nana 0,6 %, Trichuris trichura 2,1 %, Blastocystis hominis 6,1 % y Giardia lamblia 13 %. Conclusiones Este estudio muestra la baja frecuencia de los helmintos con respecto a los protozoos, por lo tanto estrategias de desparasitación masiva con dosis únicas de Albendazol no tienen utilidad. Se recomienda la vigilancia periódica de parásitos por exámenes en estos niños. Se confirma que el parásito patógeno mas prevalente es Giardia lamblia en los niños de las guarderias infantiles del ICBF. La prevalencia de Giardia no se relacionó de manera estadisticamente significativa con el estado nutricional de los niños de las guarderias del ICBF. La mayoria de niños infectados por Giardia son asintomáticos.Objective Determining the prevalence of giardiasis and intestinal parasitism in pre-school children from the Instituto Colombiano de Bienestar Familiar (ICBF). Material and Methods Three serial faecal samples were collected from 328 children following informed consent from their legal guardians. Microscopic and macroscopic tests were made using 1% Lugol, 0,83 % saline solution, saline-eosin solution and Kato Katz and Ritchie’s test as a confirming test. Positive samples were preserved in saline formol solution. Results Pathogen parasites had the following prevalence frequencies: 2,4 % for Ascaris lumbricoides, 0,6 % for Hymenolepsis nana, 2,1 % for Trichuris trichura, 6,1 % for Blastocystis hominis and 13 % for Giardia lamblia. Conclusions The results of this work showed low helminth frequency compared to that for protozoa; control strategies using single doses of Albendazol are therefore not useful. The most prevalent pathogen parasite was Giardia lamblia in children from the ICBF in Armenia. Periodic surveillance of parasites in children is thereby recommended. The prevalence of Giardia lamblia was not statistically related to the children’s nutritional state. Most Giardia-infected children were asymptomatic.

Jorge M Giraldo-Gómez; Fabiana Lora; Luz H Henao; Shirley Mejía; Jorge E Gómez-Marín

2005-01-01

166

Prevalencia de Giardiasis y Parásitos Intestinales en Preescolares de Hogares atendidos en un programa estatal en Armenia, Colombia/ Prevalence of giardiasis and intestinal parasites in pre-school children from homes being attended as part of a state programme in Armenia, Colombia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Objetivo El propósito de este estudio es el de obtener datos sobre la giardiasis y el parasitismo intestinal en una muestra significativa de los niños en edades pre-escolares de los hogares de madres comunitarias del Instituto Colombiano de Bienestar Familiar (ICBF). Materiales y Métodos Se recolectó un seriado de tres muestras de heces en 328 niños, con previo consentimiento del tutor legal. Se le realizó el análisis de laboratorio por examen directo microscópico (more) y macroscópico utilizando Lugol al 1 %, solución salina al 0,83 %, solución salina-eosina, Kato Katz y formol-éter o metodo de concentración de Ritchie (prueba comprobatoria). Las muestras positivas se conservaron en formol salino. Resultados Los parásitos con potencial patógeno tuvieron las siguientes prevalencias: Ascaris lumbricoides 2,4 %, Hymenolepsis nana 0,6 %, Trichuris trichura 2,1 %, Blastocystis hominis 6,1 % y Giardia lamblia 13 %. Conclusiones Este estudio muestra la baja frecuencia de los helmintos con respecto a los protozoos, por lo tanto estrategias de desparasitación masiva con dosis únicas de Albendazol no tienen utilidad. Se recomienda la vigilancia periódica de parásitos por exámenes en estos niños. Se confirma que el parásito patógeno mas prevalente es Giardia lamblia en los niños de las guarderias infantiles del ICBF. La prevalencia de Giardia no se relacionó de manera estadisticamente significativa con el estado nutricional de los niños de las guarderias del ICBF. La mayoria de niños infectados por Giardia son asintomáticos. Abstract in english Objective Determining the prevalence of giardiasis and intestinal parasitism in pre-school children from the Instituto Colombiano de Bienestar Familiar (ICBF). Material and Methods Three serial faecal samples were collected from 328 children following informed consent from their legal guardians. Microscopic and macroscopic tests were made using 1% Lugol, 0,83 % saline solution, saline-eosin solution and Kato Katz and Ritchie’s test as a confirming test. Positive sam (more) ples were preserved in saline formol solution. Results Pathogen parasites had the following prevalence frequencies: 2,4 % for Ascaris lumbricoides, 0,6 % for Hymenolepsis nana, 2,1 % for Trichuris trichura, 6,1 % for Blastocystis hominis and 13 % for Giardia lamblia. Conclusions The results of this work showed low helminth frequency compared to that for protozoa; control strategies using single doses of Albendazol are therefore not useful. The most prevalent pathogen parasite was Giardia lamblia in children from the ICBF in Armenia. Periodic surveillance of parasites in children is thereby recommended. The prevalence of Giardia lamblia was not statistically related to the children’s nutritional state. Most Giardia-infected children were asymptomatic.

Giraldo-Gómez, Jorge M; Lora, Fabiana; Henao, Luz H; Mejía, Shirley; Gómez-Marín, Jorge E

2005-11-01

167

INTESTINAL PARASITES IN SEMBALUN LAWANG, LOMBOK  

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Full Text Available Survey tinja telah dilakukan diantara penduduk di Kampung Sembalun Lawang, Distrik Aikinal, Lombok Timur, pada bulan Agustus 1973 untuk mengetahui angka parasit usus dan demam keong di daerah tersebut. Dari 146 penduduk yang diperiksa tinjanya ditemukan 99 persen mengandung sekurang-kurangnya satu jenis parasit usus, 85 persen dengan dua jenis atau lebih dan 40 persen dengan tiga jenis atau lebih. Tidak ditemukan bibit penyakit demam keong diantara penduduk didaerah ini. Angka infeksi dari parasit usus tersebut masing-masing adalah Ascaris lumbricoides 96 persen, Trichuris trichiura 84 persen, cacing tambang 25 persen, Entamocba coli 18 persen, Enterobius vermicularis 10 persen, lodamoeba butsehlii 3 persen, Entamoeba histolytica 1 persen dan Giardia lamblia 1 persen. Pada umumnya tidak banyak perbedaan angka infeksi dari parasit usus ini diantara golongan umur dan kelamin kecuali untuk cacing tambang dimana infeksi pada golongan laki-laki lebih banyak dari pada golongan perempuan.

Arbain Joesoef; W. Patrick Carney; Agustinus Agustinus; Juslis Katin

2012-01-01

168

Prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis and other intestinal parasitic infections among mentally retarded residents in central institution of southern Iran.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among mentally retarded residents of rehabilitation center of Bandar Abbas, Hormozgan province, southern Iran. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in central rehabilitation institute of Hormozgan province in summer 2010. Fecal samples of all 133 residents (72 males, 61 females) aged 3-52, were collected in triplicate. Specimens were examined by direct smear, formalin-ether concentration techniques and stained by permanent Trichrome, Ziehl-Neelsen stains. Statistical analysis was conducted by SPSS 13.5. RESULTS: Intestinal parasitic infections were seen in 48.5% (64 out of 133 subjects: 53.4% in males and 46.6% in females). Strongyloides stercoralis with 17.3% showed the highest incidence followed by Entamoeba coli (9.8%), Blastocystis hominis (7.5%), Giardia lamblia (2.3%), Endolimax nana (2.3%), Hymenolepis nana (0.8%), Oxyuris vermicularis (0.8%), and Chilomasix mesnili (0.8%). Double infections were found to be as: Strongyloides stercoralis + Giardia lamblia (2.3%), Entamoeba coli + Giardia lamblia (1.5%), Entamoeba coli + Blastocystis hominis (1.5%), Oxyuris vermicularis + Entamoeba coli (0.8%), Strongyloides stercoralis + Entamoeba coli (0.8%), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings reveal that strongyloidiasis is a common disease among mentally retarded population in southern Iran.

Shokri A; Sarasiabi KS; Teshnizi SH; Mahmoodi H

2012-02-01

169

Parasitic Contamination of Raw Vegetables in Shahroud, Semnan  

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Full Text Available Background: Given the importance of healthy vegetables, the present study was conducted to determine parasitic infection of vegetable consumed in Shahroud.Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study has been conducted on 92 samples of various vegetables collected from 16 vegetable growing farms and 1 vegetable process workshop. Results: Sixty two percent of tested vegetables lacked parasites and the highest amount of parasites observed (34.78%) was related to Giardia lamblia. A significant relationship was observed between parasite and having toilets in the farms as well as the extent of farms.Conclusion: safety of fertilizers consumed by farms and healthy fruits can have an effective role in reducing the parasitic infections.

Saeid Nazemi; Mehdi Raei; Mohammad Amiri; Reza Chaman

2012-01-01

170

Study on Variation of the Sera Folic Acid, Vitamin B12 and Iron Level in the 6-12 Years Old Patients Infected with Giardia Lamblia in South Tehran  

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Full Text Available Objective: Protozoa Giardia lambelia is caused to diarrhea in human and other mammals in worldwide. Giardia colonizes in duodenum and earliest jejunum. It can cover the intestinal surface and causes the stateorrhea, malabsorbtion syndrome and absorb disorder of vitamins A, E and D. Investigation the effect of Giardia on the vitamin B12, folic acid and iron of patients were the purpose of this study.Material & Methods: A total of 30 children with giardiasis, aged between 6-12 years- old, selected from 3000 patients, who were admitted to the Emam Khomeiny hospital and diagnosed by stool examinations (direct and formalin-ether methods). Blood of patients and control were collected. Amount of vitamin B12 and folic acid were evaluated with radioimmunoassay and iron was evaluated with Ferene method.Findings: According to the data, folic acid in the patient had no significant difference against control but vitamin B12 and iron in the patient with giardiosis was less than control and the differences were significant (P=0.01, P=0.04 respectively).Conclusion: According to the results diagnosis of giardiosis in the early stage may prohibit intestinal damage and clinical symptoms due to vitamins and mineral elements shortage in the children.

Farhad Askari; Fatemeh Ghaffarifari; Hosein Dalimi Asl; Mohammad Taghi Haghi-Ashtiani; Mehdi Delavari

2007-01-01

171

Long term formalin preserved stool specimens for detection of intestinal parasites from school aged children in Tripoli, Libya.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A total of 949 single stool samples were collected from school aged children (5-14 years old) in the city of Tripoli. The samples were preserved in 10% formalin and examined by routine microscopy using normal saline and Lugol's iodine preparations as well as the formol ethyl concentration method after a storage period of twelve months at room temperature. Of 949 samples examined 4.5% were positive. Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba coli were the only protozoan parasites identified with an infection rate of 3.2% & 1.3% respecttively. No helminthes were detected in any of the samples. About 14% of the children had intestinal yeast infection Candida albicans in their stool of which 0.63% was infected with intestinal parasites. No distortion or alteration of morphology was observed particularly in G. lamblia. Preservation in 10% formalin is a very productive means for the accurate identification of protozoan parasites.

Ben Musa NA; Ibrahim R

2007-12-01

172

Intestinal Parasites in Children with Lymphohematopoietic Malignancy in Iran, Mashhad  

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Full Text Available Background: Intestinal parasitic disease can cause serious complications for Immunosuppressed patients.Objectives: This study determines the prevalence of intestinal parasites in children, with lymphohematopoietic malignancy in Mashhad, Iran.Patients and Methods: In this cross-sectional study stool samples were collected from 89 children (53 boys, 36 girls) with lymphohematopoitic malignancies under chemotherapy, between the age of 1 and 18 years (mean age 7.5 years). Three fresh stool samples taken for three consecutive days were examined by direct smear, formalin-ether method, trichrome staining and ELISA test for Giardia lamblia coproantigens.Results: In this study 35.9% of our patients had parasitic infections and the following parasites were identified; G. lamblia (the most prevalent parasite in children) 16 (18%), Entamoeba coli 6 (6.7%) Blastocystis hominis 5 (5.6%) Iodamoeba butschlii 2 (2.2%). Chilomastics mesnili 1 (1.1%), Hymenolepis nana 1 (1.1%) and Enterobius vermicularis 1 (1.1%).Conclusions: With regards to the high incidence of gasterointestinal parasitic diseases and also because of asymptomatic cases of giardiasis, we recommend evaluation of pediatric patients with malignant lymphohematopoitic disease by at least two different diagnostic methods and three rounds of stool examination in order to prevent possible life threatening outcomes. Coproparasitoscopic study for oncologic patients should be performed and anti-parasitic treatment provided before starting chemotherapy to prevent disseminated parasitic infections. The coproantigen-ELISA is especially advantageous in situations where only a single stool sample can be examined.

Nona Zabolinejad; Fariba Berenji; Elham Bayati Eshkaftaki; Zahra Badeii; Abdollah Banihashem; Monavar Afzalaqaei

2013-01-01

173

[Intestinal protozoan parasitism in children from the bay of Cadiz  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The prevalence of intestinal parasitosis from protozoa in a pediatric population group attending different education centres in the Bay of Cádiz is investigated by means of directly examining the feces using microscopic techniques. The percentage of children affected by parasites is 6.3%, there being no differences with regard to sex or social level. Giardia lamblia is the most frequently found protozoa (2.7%). The level of infection from Cryptosporidium sp. (2.3%) is significant. The symptomatology of those affected was nonspecific and not intense, and therefore did not lead to any suspicion of pathology.

Garcia Martos P; Moreno B; Romero P; Pimentel R; Muñoz C; Fernandez MT; de Lomas M

1989-09-01

174

Persistent G. lamblia impairs growth in a murine malnutrition model.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Giardia lamblia infections are nearly universal among children in low-income countries and are syndemic with the triumvirate of malnutrition, diarrhea, and developmental growth delays. Amidst the morass of early childhood enteropathogen exposures in these populations, G. lamblia–specific associations with persistent diarrhea, cognitive deficits, stunting, and nutrient deficiencies have demonstrated conflicting results, placing endemic pediatric giardiasis in a state of equipoise. Many infections in endemic settings appear to be asymptomatic/ subclinical, further contributing to uncertainty regarding a causal link between G. lamblia infection and developmental delay. We used G. lamblia H3 cyst infection in a weaned mouse model of malnutrition to demonstrate that persistent giardiasis leads to epithelial cell apoptosis and crypt hyperplasia. Infection was associated with a Th2-biased inflammatory response and impaired growth. Malnutrition accentuated the severity of these growth decrements. Faltering malnourished mice exhibited impaired compensatory responses following infection and demonstrated an absence of crypt hyperplasia and subsequently blunted villus architecture. Concomitantly, severe malnutrition prevented increases in B220+ cells in the lamina propria as well as mucosal Il4 and Il5 mRNA in response to infection. These findings add insight into the potential role of G. lamblia as a "stunting" pathogen and suggest that, similarly, malnourished children may be at increased risk of G. lamblia– potentiated growth decrements.

Bartelt LA; Roche J; Kolling G; Bolick D; Noronha F; Naylor C; Hoffman P; Warren C; Singer S; Guerrant R

2013-06-01

175

A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE OF DETECTION METHODS FOR GIARDIA CYSTS AND CRYPTOSPORIDIUM OOCYSTS IN WATER  

Science.gov (United States)

In the mid-20th century Giardia was classified as a non-pathogenic commensal organism and Cryptosporidium was not recognized yet. However as early as 1946 a waterborne outbreak of giardiasis was suspected. From 1965 to 1979 it became clear that Giardia lamblia was indeed a human ...

176

Giardia: both a harmless commensal and a devastating pathogen.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The highly prevalent protozoan Giardia lamblia is an enteropathogen that can be asymptomatic in some individuals, while leading to persistent diarrhea and substantial morbidity in others. In this issue of the JCI, Bartelt et al. describe a mouse model of the disease and investigate the contribution of coincident malnutrition with the development of symptomatic infection. This work in part explains how Giardia infection can lead to growth retardation, and may offer insights that guide future therapeutic strategies.

DuPont HL

2013-06-01

177

Cryptosporidium sp. y otros parásitos intestinales en niños menores de 5 años con diarrea y su relación con las pruebas coprocualitativas/ Cryptosporidium sp. and Other Intestinal Parasites in Children under 5 Years Old with Diarrhea and their Relationship to Coproqualitative Tests  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Para determinar la presencia de Cryptosporidium sp. y otros parásitos intestinales; así como su relación con las pruebas coprocualitativas, se analizaron 100 muestras fecales de niños de 3 meses a 5 años de edad, que asistieron al Laboratorio de Parasitología del Servicio Autónomo del Hospital Universitario de Maracaibo (SAHUM) con diagnóstico clínico de diarrea. Estas muestras fueron sometidas a un examen macroscópico y microscópico con SSF (0,85%) y lugol, co (more) loración de Kinyoun para la detección de coccidios intestinales y las pruebas coprocualitativas: sangre oculta, azucares reductores y pH. Del total de muestras estudiadas, el 12% evidenció parásitos. Las especies encontradas fueron Cryptosporidium sp., Giardia lamblia y Blastocystis hominis con 4% cada uno, Trichuris trichiura (2%), Ascaris lumbricoides (1%), Pentatrichomonas hominis (1%). No se encontró correlación entre las pruebas coprocualitativas y las especies parasitarias identificadas, así como tampoco entre parasitosis y sexo. Cryptosporidium sp. y Giardia lamblia fueron los parásitos patógenos más frecuentes en niños ? 2 años de edad. Abstract in english To determine the presence of Cryptosporidium sp. and other intestinal parasites, as well as their relation to coproqualitative tests, fecal samples were analyzed from 100 children ranging from 3 months to 5 years old, who attended the Autonomous Service Parasitology Laboratory at the University Hospital of Maracaibo (SAHUM) with a clinical diagnosis of diarrhea. These samples were subjected to macroscopic and microscopic examination with SSF (0.85%) and iodine, Kinyoun st (more) ain for the detection of intestinal coccidia, coproqualitative tests (occult blood, reducing sugars and pH). Of all the samples studied, 12% evidenced parasites. The species found were Cryptosporidium sp. (4%), Ascaris lumbricoides (1%), Trichuris trichiura (2%) Pentatrichomonas hominis (1%), Giardia lamblia and Blastocystis hominis at (4%). There was no correlation between the coproqualitative tests and the parasitic species identified, nor was there any relationship between parasitosis and gender. Cryptosporidium sp. and Giardia lamblia were the most frequent pathogenic parasites in children ? 2 years old.

Bracho M, Ángela; Rivero-Rodríguez, Zulbey; Salazar F, Solneumar; Jaimes R, Patricia; Semprún T, Mariana; Monsalve-Castillo, Francisca; Villalobos P, Rafael

2010-12-01

178

Reprofiled drug targets ancient protozoans: drug discovery for parasitic diarrheal diseases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently, we developed a novel automated, high throughput screening (HTS) methodology for the anaerobic intestinal parasite Entamoeba histolytica. We validated this HTS platform by screening a chemical library containing US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs and bioactive compounds. We identified an FDA-approved drug, auranofin, as most active against E. histolytica both in vitro and in vivo. Our cell culture and animal studies indicated that thioredoxin reductase, an enzyme involved in reactive oxygen species detoxification, was the target for auranofin in E. histolytica. Here, we discuss the rationale for drug development for three parasites which are major causes of diarrhea worldwide, E. histolytica, Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum and extend our current finding of antiparasitic activity of auranofin to Entamoeba cysts, G. lamblia and C. parvum. These studies support the use of HTS assays and reprofiling FDA-approved drugs for new therapy for neglected tropical diseases. PMID:23137963

Debnath, Anjan; Ndao, Momar; Reed, Sharon L

2012-11-08

179

Reprofiled drug targets ancient protozoans: drug discovery for parasitic diarrheal diseases.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recently, we developed a novel automated, high throughput screening (HTS) methodology for the anaerobic intestinal parasite Entamoeba histolytica. We validated this HTS platform by screening a chemical library containing US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs and bioactive compounds. We identified an FDA-approved drug, auranofin, as most active against E. histolytica both in vitro and in vivo. Our cell culture and animal studies indicated that thioredoxin reductase, an enzyme involved in reactive oxygen species detoxification, was the target for auranofin in E. histolytica. Here, we discuss the rationale for drug development for three parasites which are major causes of diarrhea worldwide, E. histolytica, Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum and extend our current finding of antiparasitic activity of auranofin to Entamoeba cysts, G. lamblia and C. parvum. These studies support the use of HTS assays and reprofiling FDA-approved drugs for new therapy for neglected tropical diseases.

Debnath A; Ndao M; Reed SL

2013-01-01

180

Zoonotic potential of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. and prevalence of intestinal parasites in young dogs from different populations on Prince Edward Island, Canada.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The prevalence of Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp. and other intestinal parasites was determined in dogs <1 year old from Prince Edward Island, Canada. Fecal samples were collected from the local animal shelter (n=62), private veterinary clinics (n=78) and a pet store (n=69). Intestinal parasites isolated included G. duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., Toxocara canis, Isospora spp. and Uncinaria stenocephala. To estimate the zoonotic risk associated with these infections, genotypes of G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. were determined using 16S rRNA and Hsp70 gene sequencing, respectively. Dogs from the pet store had the highest prevalence of intestinal parasites (78%, 95% CI: 68-88%), followed by the private veterinary clinics (49%, 95% CI: 37-60%), and the local animal shelter (34%, 95% CI: 22-46%). The majority G. duodenalis belonged to host-adapted assemblages D (47%, 95% CI: 31-64%) and C (26%, 95% CI: 13-43%), respectively. Zoonotic assemblages A and B were isolated alone or in mixed infections from 16% (95% CI: 6-31%) of G. duodenalis-positive dogs. All Cryptosporidium spp. were the host-adapted C. canis. While host-adapted, non-zoonotic G. duodenalis genotypes were more common, the presence of G. duodenalis assemblages A and B, T. canis, and U. stenocephala suggests that these dogs may present a zoonotic risk. The zoonotic risk from Cryptosporidium-infected dogs was minimal.

Uehlinger FD; Greenwood SJ; McClure JT; Conboy G; O'Handley R; Barkema HW

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
181

Intestinal parasitic infections and swamp development in Sierra Leone.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and other intestinal and urogenital parasites were assessed in five Inland Valley Swamp (IVS) development faming communities in the Moyamba District, South-central Sierra Leone. Stool and urine samples were submitted by 1106 individuals and examined by the iron-haematoxylin staining and the formalin-ether concentration techniques for faecal sample and centrifugation method for the urine samples. The overall parasitic infection rate was 61.7% while 5.9% of the population had multiple infections. E. histolytica infection rate was 12.3 % and most of the infected individuals were passing cysts. Giardia lamblia and Trichomonas vaginalis infection rates were 10.0% and 0.4% respectively. Among the helminth infections, Ascaris lumbricoides was the most commonly observed (13.7%), followed by hookworms (12.1 %), Trichuris trichiura (9.3%), Strongyloides stercoralis (7.7%) and tapeworms (2.6%). The high parasitic infection rate (61.7%) and the frequency of multiple infections indicate an interrelationship of environmental factors which support transmission rather than a single factor.

Gbakima AA

1994-11-01

182

Prevalence of intestinal parasites among expatriated workers in Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A retrospective study was conducted among expatriate workers in Al-Ain City, United Arab Emirates (UAE), to determine the prevalence of pathogenic parasitic infestation. The study was based largely on expatriates arriving from India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Iran, Philippines, Sri Lanka, and other Arab countries and mainly employed as food handlers, housemaids, baby sitters, and private drivers. This group represents 45.7% of the total number of new arrivals of expatriates during the period between 1 January 1985-31 December 1988. Stool specimens were examined in 60,268 screened individuals, of which 14,010 were found to be positive with pathogenic intestinal parasitic disease. Overall parasitic prevalence was 23.1%. The most common parasites found included: Ancylostoma (2.4%), Ascaris lumbricoides (6.6%), Trichuris trichiura (6.2%), and Giardia lamblia (2.4%). The distribution of intestinal parasites among expatriates was different for all nationalities. The results showed that Giardia lamblia was more prevalent among Iranians (54.7%) and Pakistanis (42.2%). Ancylostome species was found to be more prevalent among Sri Lankans (33.3%) and Indians (39.6%). Ascaris lumbricoides was more prevalent among Bangladeshis (33.1%), and Trichuris trichiura was more prevalent among Filipinos (40.2%).

Ibrahim OM; Bener A; Shalabi A

1993-03-01

183

Current status of human parasitic infections in Taiwan.  

Science.gov (United States)

The eradication of the 2 mosquito-borne parasitic diseases, malaria and lymphatic filariasis, is one of the greatest achievements of the parasite control campaigns in Taiwan. Most of the soil-transmitted nematode infections, with the exception of pinworm infection, are currently well controlled and limited to some aboriginal areas. Food-borne parasitic zoonosis such as infections with Angiostrongylus cantonensis, Clonorchis sinensis, and Taenia saginata asiatica are not rare, but the former is seasonal and the latter 2 are ethnically and geographically associated. Intestinal protozoal infections with Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum are at low levels but may be widely distributed. Opportunistic protozoal infections among patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, which included amebic colitis, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, and cerebral toxoplasmosis, are becoming increasingly important. The rapid increase in international travel and the introduction of large numbers of foreign workers from other countries in Southeast Asia may change the epidemiological patterns of parasitic infections in Taiwan. PMID:11605804

Yeh, T C; Lin, P R; Chen, E R; Shaio, M F

2001-09-01

184

Parasitic prevalence in a suburban school of famailla, tucuman, Argentina.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Prevalence of intestinal parasites was investigated in rural primary school children in Famaillá city, Tucumán province, Argentina. Stool specimens from 149 school children were collected. The prevalence rate of intestinal parasite infections was 86.6%. No significant differences were observed in the distribution by age or by sex. Blastocystis hominis was the most commonly found protozoan parasite (54.4%), followed by Entamoeba coli (35.6%), Giardia lamblia (24.8%), and others (16.7%). Enterobius vermicularis was the most prevalent intestinal helminth (27.5%), followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (20.8%), Trichuris trichiura (12.8%), and others (5.4%). Most of the patients had polyparasitism (62.4%), and protozoan infections prevailed over helminthic infections. These results show high rates of parasitism in the school children of Famaillá, which would be associated with socioeconomic factors and poor environmental sanitation conditions in this area.

Dib J; Oquilla J; Lazarte SG; Gonzalez SN

2012-01-01

185

Intestinal parasitic infections among school children in Tripoli, Libya.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An epidemiological survey was carried out in Tripoli district to collect baseline data on the prevalence of intestinal parasites. A sample of 486 school children aged from 5 to 14 years old provided morning stool samples as part of a pilot study of a larger national project. Questionnaires were distributed and general information on each child was recorded. Posters and leaflets were used extensively to increase the public health information and awareness about parasitosis. The results revealed that 14.6% of children were infected with at least one intestinal parasite. Double infections were in 2% of them. Giardia lamblia was the common parasite, followed by Enterobius vermicularis and then Ascqris lumbricoides. This was a preliminary approach to clarify the status on intestinal parasites since reliable reportable data being still comparatively lacking, which might be a guide for a feasible national control program.

Ben Musa N; Sehari A; Hawas A

2007-12-01

186

Parasitic prevalence in a suburban school of famaillá, tucumán, Argentina.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prevalence of intestinal parasites was investigated in rural primary school children in Famaillá city, Tucumán province, Argentina. Stool specimens from 149 school children were collected. The prevalence rate of intestinal parasite infections was 86.6%. No significant differences were observed in the distribution by age or by sex. Blastocystis hominis was the most commonly found protozoan parasite (54.4%), followed by Entamoeba coli (35.6%), Giardia lamblia (24.8%), and others (16.7%). Enterobius vermicularis was the most prevalent intestinal helminth (27.5%), followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (20.8%), Trichuris trichiura (12.8%), and others (5.4%). Most of the patients had polyparasitism (62.4%), and protozoan infections prevailed over helminthic infections. These results show high rates of parasitism in the school children of Famaillá, which would be associated with socioeconomic factors and poor environmental sanitation conditions in this area. PMID:23724325

Dib, Julián; Oquilla, Juana; Lazarte, Silvia G; Gonzalez, Silvia N

2012-06-26

187

"Parasitic Contamination of Vegetables from Farms and Markets in Tehran"  

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Full Text Available Because of endemic parasitological infectious diseases in Iran and contaminated vegetables, as one of the most important ways of contamination, carried out a parasitical study on 263 vegetable samples from 44 farms in the suburbs of Tehran city, and also 166 vegetables samples from 20 green grocery markets in the same city. From 263 samples of farms 147 cases (65%) of contamination were recorded, of which 43 cases (16/5%) of human pathogenic parasites were isolated. In this study various techniques were used such as: Baermann funnel, centrifuging of plants and soil, temporal precipitation procedure and so on. Ova and parasites such as Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Trichostrongylus sp. Toxocara sp. Larvae of Nematodes, protozoa cysts like Amoeba sp. Giardia lamblia and some flagellatae were seen. The highest percent of contamination was detected in leek and parsley and the lowest one was detected in tarragon. The results show that vegetables could be a potential source of parasitic infection.

MJ Gharavi; MR Jahani; MB Rokni

2002-01-01

188

Giardia infection causes vitamin B12 deficiency.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A patient presented with hematological evidence of vitamin B12 deficiency. The Schilling test performed suggested intestinal malabsorption and further investigation revealed heavy infestation with Giardia lamblia. Specific treatment of the giardiasis with tinidazole resulted in correction of the abnormalities in vitamin B12 absorption. These findings, together with the absence of other causes of vitamin B12 deficiency, suggest that giardiasis should be considered as a cause of vitamin B12 deficiency.

Cordingley FT; Crawford GP

1986-02-01

189

Zoonotic potential of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. and prevalence of intestinal parasites in young dogs from different populations on Prince Edward Island, Canada.  

Science.gov (United States)

The prevalence of Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp. and other intestinal parasites was determined in dogs Cryptosporidium spp., Toxocara canis, Isospora spp. and Uncinaria stenocephala. To estimate the zoonotic risk associated with these infections, genotypes of G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. were determined using 16S rRNA and Hsp70 gene sequencing, respectively. Dogs from the pet store had the highest prevalence of intestinal parasites (78%, 95% CI: 68-88%), followed by the private veterinary clinics (49%, 95% CI: 37-60%), and the local animal shelter (34%, 95% CI: 22-46%). The majority G. duodenalis belonged to host-adapted assemblages D (47%, 95% CI: 31-64%) and C (26%, 95% CI: 13-43%), respectively. Zoonotic assemblages A and B were isolated alone or in mixed infections from 16% (95% CI: 6-31%) of G. duodenalis-positive dogs. All Cryptosporidium spp. were the host-adapted C. canis. While host-adapted, non-zoonotic G. duodenalis genotypes were more common, the presence of G. duodenalis assemblages A and B, T. canis, and U. stenocephala suggests that these dogs may present a zoonotic risk. The zoonotic risk from Cryptosporidium-infected dogs was minimal. PMID:23601666

Uehlinger, Fabienne D; Greenwood, Spencer J; McClure, J Trenton; Conboy, Gary; O'Handley, Ryan; Barkema, Herman W

2013-03-26

190

The Two Nuclei of Giardia Each Have Complete Copies of the Genome and Are Partitioned Equationally at Cytokinesis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Giardia lamblia is medically important as a cause of diarrhea and malabsorption throughout the world and is thought to be one of the earliest-branching eukaryotes on a phylogenetic tree. Nevertheless, the mechanisms of inheritance are largely unknown. The trophozoites of Giardia and other diplomonad...

Yu, Li Zhi; Birky, C. William; Adam, Rodney D.

191

PREVALENCE OF INTESTINAL PARASITES IN SLUM AREAS OF SOUTHERN DELHI  

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Full Text Available A retrospective study was conducted during the period of 1st July 2010 to 30th June 2011 in the department of microbiology of HAH centenary Hospital, Hamdard Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. A total of 2907 Stool samples send to the microbiology department from indoor and outdoor patients with gastrointestinal symptoms with or without anemia were analyzed. The patients were mostly from low socio economic strata of Sangam Vihar. 759 samples were positive for parasitic infections. The most common intestinal parasites were found to be E. histolytica (20.22%), followed by Giardia lamblia (2.68%) and Ascaris lubricoides (1.4%). Ova of Hookworm and larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis was found 6 times each. Other common parasitic isolates were Taenia species (0.1%), H. nana (0.48%), Trichuris trichura (0.1%) and Trichomonas hominis 17 (0.58%). The study emphasizes on better drinking water and sanitation requirement for the target population.

Dudeja M., Nandy S., Das A.K., Alam S. and Tiwari R.

2012-01-01

192

Intestinal Parasites Infection among Immunocompromised Patients in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites among immunocompromised patients in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Fecal samples were collected from 136 immunocompromised patients (52 females and 84 males), aged 2 to 69 years. Specimens were fixed with 10% formalin for 30 min (2-3 g fecal-1) and then concentrated by a formalin-ether sedimentation technique. Samples were examined as wet saline mounts and in iodine preparation for detection of protozoan oocysts, cysts, helminthic eggs and larvae. Permanent stained smears were performed for intestinal coccidian parasites by the modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique and the modified trichrome stain. Intestinal parasites were detected in 54 (39.7%) most of them (25.7%) were with diarrhea. More specifically the following parasites were detected Cryptosporidium parvum 11(8.1%), Giardia lamblia 9 (6.6%), Cyclospora cayetanensis 8 (5.9%), Blastocystis hominis 7 (5.2%), Entamoeba histolytica 7 (5.2%), Entamoeba coli 5 (3.7%), Strongyloides stercoralis 3 (2.2%), Ascaris lumbricoides 1 (0.7%), Hymenolepis nana 1 (0.7%), Dicrocoelium dendriticum 1 (0.7%) and Hook worm 1 (0.7%). The most common parasite associated with diarrhea in patients, was C. parvum (pG. lamblia, C. cayetanensis and E. histolytica. However, differences between different age groups were statistically non-significant. Similarly, no significant difference in the infection rate were found between male and female patients.

Wafa A.I. Al-Megrin

2010-01-01

193

Primary structure and phylogenetic relationships of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase genes of free-living and parasitic diplomonad flagellates.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Complete nucleotide sequences have been established for two genes (gap1 and gap2) coding for glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, EC 1.2.1.12) homologs in the diplomonad Giardia lamblia. In addition, almost complete sequences of the GAPDH open reading frames were obtained from PCR products for two free-living diplomonad species, Trepomonas agillis and Hexamita inflata, and a parasite of Atlantic salmon, an as yet unnamed species with morphological affinities to Spironucleus. Giardia lamblia gap1 and the genes from the three other diplomonad species show high similarity to each other and to other glycolytic GAPDH genes. All amino-acyl residues known to be highly conserved in this enzyme are also conserved in these sequences. Giardia lamblia gap2 gene is more divergent and its putative translation reveals the presence of a cysteine and serine-rich insertion resembling a metal binding finger. This motif has not yet been noted in other GAPDH molecules. All sequences contain an S-loop signature with characteristics close to those of eukaryotes. In phylogenetic reconstructions based on the derived amino acid sequences with neighbor-joining, parsimony and maximum-likelihood methods the four typical GAPDH sequences of diplomonads cluster into a single clade. Within this clade, G. lambia gap1 shares a common ancestor with the rest of the genes. The latter are more closely related to each other, indicating an early separation of the lineage leading to the genus Giardia from the lineage encompassing the morphologically less differentiated genera, Trepomonas, Hexamita and that of the unnamed species. This result is discordant with the orthogonal evolution of diplomonads suggested on the basis of comparative morphology. In neighbor-joining reconstructions G. lamblia gap2 occupies a variable position, due to its great divergence. In parsimony and maximum likelihood analysis however, it shares a most recent common ancestor with the typical G. lamblia gap1 gene, suggesting that it diverged after the separation of the Giardia lineage. The position of the diplomonad clade in broader phylogenetic reconstructions is firmly within the typical cytosolic glycolytic representatives of GAPDH of eukaryotes.

Rozario C; Morin L; Roger AJ; Smith MW; Müller M

1996-07-01

194

Primary structure and phylogenetic relationships of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase genes of free-living and parasitic diplomonad flagellates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Complete nucleotide sequences have been established for two genes (gap1 and gap2) coding for glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, EC 1.2.1.12) homologs in the diplomonad Giardia lamblia. In addition, almost complete sequences of the GAPDH open reading frames were obtained from PCR products for two free-living diplomonad species, Trepomonas agillis and Hexamita inflata, and a parasite of Atlantic salmon, an as yet unnamed species with morphological affinities to Spironucleus. Giardia lamblia gap1 and the genes from the three other diplomonad species show high similarity to each other and to other glycolytic GAPDH genes. All amino-acyl residues known to be highly conserved in this enzyme are also conserved in these sequences. Giardia lamblia gap2 gene is more divergent and its putative translation reveals the presence of a cysteine and serine-rich insertion resembling a metal binding finger. This motif has not yet been noted in other GAPDH molecules. All sequences contain an S-loop signature with characteristics close to those of eukaryotes. In phylogenetic reconstructions based on the derived amino acid sequences with neighbor-joining, parsimony and maximum-likelihood methods the four typical GAPDH sequences of diplomonads cluster into a single clade. Within this clade, G. lambia gap1 shares a common ancestor with the rest of the genes. The latter are more closely related to each other, indicating an early separation of the lineage leading to the genus Giardia from the lineage encompassing the morphologically less differentiated genera, Trepomonas, Hexamita and that of the unnamed species. This result is discordant with the orthogonal evolution of diplomonads suggested on the basis of comparative morphology. In neighbor-joining reconstructions G. lamblia gap2 occupies a variable position, due to its great divergence. In parsimony and maximum likelihood analysis however, it shares a most recent common ancestor with the typical G. lamblia gap1 gene, suggesting that it diverged after the separation of the Giardia lineage. The position of the diplomonad clade in broader phylogenetic reconstructions is firmly within the typical cytosolic glycolytic representatives of GAPDH of eukaryotes. PMID:8768438

Rozario, C; Morin, L; Roger, A J; Smith, M W; Müller, M

195

Parasitic Prevalence in a Suburban School of Famaill?, Tucum?n, Argentina  

Science.gov (United States)

Prevalence of intestinal parasites was investigated in rural primary school children in Famaillá city, Tucumán province, Argentina. Stool specimens from 149 school children were collected. The prevalence rate of intestinal parasite infections was 86.6%. No significant differences were observed in the distribution by age or by sex. Blastocystis hominis was the most commonly found protozoan parasite (54.4%), followed by Entamoeba coli (35.6%), Giardia lamblia (24.8%), and others (16.7%). Enterobius vermicularis was the most prevalent intestinal helminth (27.5%), followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (20.8%), Trichuris trichiura (12.8%), and others (5.4%). Most of the patients had polyparasitism (62.4%), and protozoan infections prevailed over helminthic infections. These results show high rates of parasitism in the school children of Famaillá, which would be associated with socioeconomic factors and poor environmental sanitation conditions in this area.

Dib, Julian; Oquilla, Juana; Lazarte, Silvia G.; Gonzalez, Silvia N.

2012-01-01

196

Prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica and other intestinal parasites in a community from Maracaibo, Venezuela.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The prevalences of Entamoeba histolytica and other intestinal parasites were assessed in a suburban community of Maracaibo, Venezuela, by examination of a stool specimen from each of 342 individuals, using iron-haematoxylin stained faecal smears and formalin-ether concentration. The overall parasitic infection rate was 80.4%, and 65.8% of the population had multiple infections. The overall amoebic infection rate, which was highest in female adults, averaged 39.7%. The E. histolytica infection rate was 8.7% and most of those infected were passing cysts. Entamoeba polecki was observed in two samples. Amongst the protozoa, Entamoeba coli was observed most frequently (24.8%) and Giardia lamblia was the predominant pathogen (13.0%). Trichuris trichiura (71.9%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (54%) were the most common parasites, particularly in school-children. The high rates of parasitic and multiple infections reflect the low socio-economic status of the community studied.

Chacin-Bonilla L; Bonilla E; Parra AM; Estevez J; Morales LM; Suárez H

1992-08-01

197

GIARDIASIS EXTRAINTESTINAL: ENTRE REALIDADES Y MITOS/ Extra intestinal manifestations of Giardia Infection: Among myth and reality  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Revisar lo publicado sobre las asociaciones entre giardiasis y manifestaciones extraintestinales y, en los casos de las mejor estudiadas, sobre los mecanismos por los que G. lamblia podría ser capaz de producir daños en órganos y tejidos distantes de la superficie intestinal a la que se adhiere. Se revisaron, previa búsqueda en Medline , todos los artículos publicados sobre manifestaciones extraintestinales de la giardiasis, o relacionados con este tema, durante el p (more) eríodo 1985-2006. Puntualmente, algunas monografías y reportes de casos fechados con anterioridad al intervalo mencionado también fueron consultados. Muy variadas son las lesiones asociaciadas a giardiasis descritas en la literatura revisada. De todas ellas, la urticaria y el angiedema, la lesión en “sal y pimienta” del epitelio pigmentado de la retina, la glositis y la artritis reactiva son las más rigurosamente demostradas. En relación con las restantes, estudios adicionales, con el empleo de diseños e instrumentación adecuados, deben demostrar hasta qué punto no son un mito. En perspectivas, además de la continuación de las investigaciones que confirmen y expliquen la existencia de las asociaciones citadas, se hace necesario incursionar en la exploración de los conocimientos, percepciones y prácticas de los médicos relacionados con el diagnóstico, tratamiento y control de la giardiasis. Ello es así, sobre todo, si tenemos en cuenta que en nuestra red de salud se ha hecho habitual el diagnóstico de giardiasis a pacientes con lesiones dermatológicas de naturaleza muy variada y causa no conocida, muchas veces sin el hallazgo del protozoo en sus heces o en el fluido duodenal correspondiente. Abstract in english The purpose of this paper is to go through the literature to review what is published in connection with the association among giardia lamblia infection and extra intestinal manifestations of the disease and the mechanisms which intervene in producing such distant lesions taking in consideration the location of the parasite. Of all the lesions associated to the parasite, rash, angioedema, salt and pepper lesions in the pigments epithelium of the retina, glositis and react (more) ive arthritis are the most rigorously long-established. Regarding others, experimental studies must be carried out to ascertain to which point they are a myth or not. In perspective, besides all the tests that are needed to confirmed the quoted associations, it is necessary to explore the knowledge, perception and practice of doctors related to the diagnosis, prevention and control of the giardia infection. In our Health Care System is very common to find a giardia infection diagnosis in the case of a dermatological infection of unknown origin, most of the times without the findings of the parasite in neither faeces nor bile.

Ali Almannoni, Saleh; Martín Pupo, Deisy; Monzote López, Alexis; Fonte Galindo, Luis

2008-06-01

198

Parasitic Infections among Restaurant Workers in Mukalla (Hadhramout/Yemen)  

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Full Text Available "nBackground: To identify intestinal parasites among restaurant workers in Mukalla, Yemen in 2007."nMethods: Stool specimens were collected and examined from a total of 500 restaurant workers at Hadhramout University Health Center .Three types of techniques were used: direct examination, saline sedimentation and formol-ether concentration."nResults:  The positivity in majority of them was single infection whereas 6 cases were double infection that constituted 1.3% of the prevalence. The prevalence was 14.8 % for Entamoeba histolytica/dispor, and 5.2 % for Giardia lamblia, while it was 4.4% for Hymenolepis nana. Other intestinal parasites including Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostoma duodinale were also detected. Additionally, the blood parasite Schistosoma mansoni was also detected in 4 cases. The double infection was only with E. histolytica/dispor and Giardia. The infection with these parasites was also accompanied by abdominal troubles "diarrhea, constipation", nausea and vomiting."nConclusion:  These results lead to understand that sanitary measurements are not effective, and this hazardous situation facilitate parasitic agents' distribution among clients. The effectiveness of current pre-employment screening policy must be annual and systematic surveillance is needed in addition to health education.

S Haj Baswaid; AM AL-Haddad

2008-01-01

199

Intestinal parasitic infections in renal transplant recipients  

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Full Text Available The impact of intestinal parasitic infection in renal transplant recipients requires careful consideration in the developing world. However, there have been very few studies addressing this issue in Iran. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in renal transplant recipients in Iran. Stool specimens from renal transplant recipients and control groups were obtained between June 2006 and January 2007. The samples screened for intestinal parasitic infections using direct smear, formalin-ether sedimentation, Sheather's flotation and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining methods. Out of 150 renal transplant recipients, 33.3% (50), and out of 225 control group, 20% (45) were infected with one or more type of intestinal parasites. The parasites detected among patients included Entamoeba coli (10.6%), Endolimax nana (8.7%), Giardia lamblia (7.4%), Blastocystis spp. (4.7%), Iodamoeba butschlii (0.7%), Chilomastix mesnili (0.7%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (0.7%). Multiple infections were more common among renal transplant recipients group (p < 0.05). This study highlights the importance of testing for intestinal parasites among Iranian renal transplant recipients. Routine examinations of stool samples for parasites would significantly benefit the renal transplant recipients by contributing to reduce severe infections.

Mehdi Azami; Mehran Sharifi; Sayed Hossein Hejazi; Mehdi Tazhibi

2010-01-01

200

Parasitas intestinais em centros de educação infantil municipal de Lages, SC, Brasil/ Intestinal parasites in nursey schools of Lages, southern Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Infecção por enteroparasitas foi avaliada em 200 crianças em idade escolar, residentes em Lages. A prevalência geral entre helmintos e protozoários foi de 70,5% com 61,4% no sexo masculino e 74,5% no feminino. Os parasitos mais prevalentes foram Ascaris lumbricoides (35%), Giardia lamblia (14%) e Trichuris trichiura (13%). Abstract in english Two hundred chinldren from nursery schools in Lages, southern Brazil, were associated as to parasitic ibfections. The overall prevalence of helminths and protozoa was 70.5%, affecting 61.4% of male and 74.5% of female children. The most prevalent parasites were Ascaris lumbricoides (35%), Giardia lambia (14%) e Trichuris trichiura (13%).

Quadros, Rosiléia Marinho de; Marques, Sandra; Arruda, Andréia Aparecida Ribeiro; Delfes, Patrícia Simone Wolff Rosa; Medeiros, Íris Aparecida Azevedo

2004-10-01

 
 
 
 
201

A study on parasites in Mexican rheumatic disease patients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Blastocystis hominis is a common human parasite with infection rates up to 50% in developing countries, and giardiasis is the commonest intestinal one in Mexico. No doubt, various parasites as Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica can cause rheumatic diseases. This study coproparasitoscopic analysis evaluated the cysts by B. hominis, G. lamblia, E. hartmani, E. coli and E. histolytica in Mexican rheumatic disease patients. Also, ELISA was used to detect E. histolytica, Ascaris lumbricoides, Toxocara canis, and Trichinella spiralis in Mexican patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Thirty-six patients (24 with AS and 12 with RA) and 77 healthy control individuals were enrolled in this study. The frequencies of protozoan cysts were comparable in rheumatic disease patients (AS and RA) and healthy control donors (33 and 25 vs. 26%, respectively; p > 0.05). The frequency of antibodies to T. canis was significantly higher in AS patients than in healthy control donors (16 vs. 2.6%, respectively; p = 0.027), whereas no differences were observed for the prevalence of antibodies for the other parasites (E. histolytica, A. lumbricoides and T. spiralis) (p > 0.05). This information indicates the need to intensify educational efforts for the prevention of parasite infections associated with AS disease that cannot be controlled only by drugs.

Jimenez-Balderas FJ; Camargo-Coronel A; Gargia-Jaimes J; Zonana-Nacach A; Alcantara-Anguianoi I; Carrillo-Becerril L; Tapia-Romero R; Gonzalez TS; Villalobos-Gomez F; Martinez-Hernandez S; Ventura-Juarez J; Jimenez-Balderas EA; Méndez-Samperio P; de-la-Rosa-Arana JL

2012-08-01

202

Everyday and exotic foodborne parasites.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Everyday foodborne parasites, which are endemic in Canada, include the protozoans Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum. However, these parasites are most frequently acquired through unfiltered drinking water, homosexual activity or close personal contact such as in daycare centres and occasionally via a food vehicle. It is likely that many foodborne outbreaks from these protozoa go undetected. Transmission of helminth infections, such as tapeworms, is rare in Canada because of effective sewage treatment. However, a common foodborne parasite of significance is Toxoplasma gondii. Although infection can be acquired from accidental ingestion of oocysts from cat feces, infection can also result from consumption of tissue cysts in undercooked meat, such as pork or lamb. Congenital transmission poses an immense financial burden, costing Canada an estimated $240 million annually. Also of concern is toxoplasmosis in AIDS patients, which may lead to toxoplasmosis encephalitis, the second most common AIDS-related opportunistic infection of the central nervous system. Exotic parasites (ie, those acquired from abroad or from imported food) are of growing concern because more Canadians are travelling and the number of Canada's trading partners is increasing. Since 1996, over 3000 cases of Cyclospora infection reported in the United States and Canada were epidemiologically associated with importation of Guatemalan raspberries. Unlike toxoplasmosis, where strategies for control largely rest with individual practices, control of cyclosporiasis rests with government policy, which should prohibit the importation of foods at high risk.

Lee MB

2000-05-01

203

Are intestinal parasites fuelling the rise in dual burden households in Venezuela?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: In developing countries undergoing rapid economic development, the number of dual burden households (i.e. co-existing overweight/obesity and stunting) is increasing. While intestinal parasites are prevalent in these countries, their contribution to dual burden households has so far been neglected. We studied the association between intestinal parasite infection and belonging to a dual burden household in a rural community of Venezuela. METHODS: We examined 225 individuals. A dual burden household was defined as a household with at least one overweight/obese adult (BMI > 25) and at least one stunted child (height -for-age z score <-2). Intestinal parasite (Giardia lamblia and geohelminth) infection was determined by faecal smears. RESULTS: In this community, 47.3% of the individuals were infected with intestinal parasites. Among adults, 65.2% were overweight/obese and 13.8% of the children were stunted. More than one in four households (26.8%) were dual burden households. Being infected with G. lamblia & geohelminths was significantly associated with being in a dual burden household (OR = 4.75, 95% CI: 1.01-22.20, n = 188), indicating a triple burden of disease in this community in Venezuela. CONCLUSION: While the relationship between intestinal parasite infection and stunting has been well established, these results indicate a need to further explore the association of intestinal parasite infection with dual burden households.

Campos Ponce M; Incani RN; Pinelli E; Ten Kulve N; Ramak R; Polman K; Doak CM

2013-02-01

204

Intestinal parasite carriage in workers exposed to sewage.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The presence of protozoan cysts and helminth eggs in sewage and the very low minimal infective doses of parasites suggest an occupational risk for workers exposed to sewage. The objective of this study was to assess this risk in a group of raw sewage-exposed workers. The relationship between sewage exposure and intestinal parasite carriage was estimated by a multiple cross-sectional survey comparing yearly prevalence rates in 126 employees working in sewers in Paris, France, with the prevalence rate in 363 food-handlers employed between 1988 and 1993. The incidence of intestinal parasitic infestation was estimated among sewage-exposed workers. Four parasite species were identified among sewage-exposed workers: whipworm, Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba coli and Endolimax nanus. The prevalence mean of intestinal parasite carriage was 11.8% (57/480), related to the presence of protozoa in 91% of samples. G. lamblia was present in 3.5% (17/480) of samples. The incidence of positive parasitological stool examination was 5.9/100 person-years. The incidence of G. lamblia in stool examinations was 1.7/100 person-years. Age-adjusted odds ratios were significantly higher in exposed workers in 1988 (OR: 6.5; 95% CI: 2.0-14.5), 1990 (OR: 4.4; 95% CI: 1.2-10.1) and 1991 (OR: 3.4; 95% CI: 1.0-8.2), but not during the other three years. The results of this study emphasize an occupational risk of intestinal protozoan infestation in workers exposed to sewage. The decrease of adjusted OR with time reflects the efficacy of compliance with rules of hygiene.

Schlosser O; Grall D; Laurenceau MN

1999-03-01

205

In vitro activity of the F-6 fraction of oregano against Giardia intestinalis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Giardiosis is a neglected parasitic disease that produces diarrhoea and different degrees of malabsorption in humans and animals. Its treatment is based on derivatives of 5-nitroimidazoles, benzimidazoles, nitrofuranes, acridine and nitrotiazoles. These drugs produce undesirable secondary effects, ranging from a metallic taste in the mouth to genetic damage and the selection of resistant strains; therefore, it is necessary to develop new therapeutic alternatives. We demonstrated that a 2-h treatment with 2·87 ?g ml(-1) of fraction 6 of Lippia graveolens (F-6) was sufficient to kill half of an experimental Giardia intestinalis (Syn. G. duodenalis, G. lamblia) population, based on the reduction of MTT-tetrazolium salt levels. F-6 breaks the nuclear envelope and injures the ventral suckling disc. The major compounds of F-6 were characterized as naringenin, thymol, pinocembrin and traces of compounds not yet identified. The results suggest that Lippia is a potential source to obtain compounds with anti-Giardia activity. This knowledge is an important starting point to develop new anti-giardial drugs. Future studies will be required to establish the efficacy of F-6 in vivo using an animal model.

Rufino-González Y; Ponce-Macotela M; González-Maciel A; Reynoso-Robles R; Jiménez-Estrada M; Sánchez-Contreras Á; Martínez-Gordillo MN

2012-04-01

206

In vitro activity of the F-6 fraction of oregano against Giardia intestinalis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardiosis is a neglected parasitic disease that produces diarrhoea and different degrees of malabsorption in humans and animals. Its treatment is based on derivatives of 5-nitroimidazoles, benzimidazoles, nitrofuranes, acridine and nitrotiazoles. These drugs produce undesirable secondary effects, ranging from a metallic taste in the mouth to genetic damage and the selection of resistant strains; therefore, it is necessary to develop new therapeutic alternatives. We demonstrated that a 2-h treatment with 2·87 ?g ml(-1) of fraction 6 of Lippia graveolens (F-6) was sufficient to kill half of an experimental Giardia intestinalis (Syn. G. duodenalis, G. lamblia) population, based on the reduction of MTT-tetrazolium salt levels. F-6 breaks the nuclear envelope and injures the ventral suckling disc. The major compounds of F-6 were characterized as naringenin, thymol, pinocembrin and traces of compounds not yet identified. The results suggest that Lippia is a potential source to obtain compounds with anti-Giardia activity. This knowledge is an important starting point to develop new anti-giardial drugs. Future studies will be required to establish the efficacy of F-6 in vivo using an animal model. PMID:22309702

Rufino-González, Yadira; Ponce-Macotela, Martha; González-Maciel, Angélica; Reynoso-Robles, Rafael; Jiménez-Estrada, Manuel; Sánchez-Contreras, Ángeles; Martínez-Gordillo, Mario N

2012-02-06

207

Frequency of Intestinal Parasites in Tehran  

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Full Text Available "nBackground: For a long time, intestinal parasite infections are among the major problems of public health in Iran. Our aim was epidemiological studies on the frequency of intestinal parasites in patients re­ferred to three hospitals in Tehran during 2007-2008."nMethods: During 2007-2008, by simple random selection, 1000 stool samples were collected from Mi­lad, Hazrat-e-Rasoul and Shahid Fahmideh hospitals in Tehran, Iran. We examined the samples using di­rect smear, formol-ethyl acetate concentration, Agar-plate culture and Ziehl-Neelsen staining tech­nique."nResults: The frequency of intestinal parasites were: Blastocystis hominis 12.8%, Giardia lamblia 2.5%, En­tamoeba coli 4.8%, Iodamoeba butschlli 0.9%, unknown 4 nuclei cysts 0.4%, Endolimax nana 3.2%, Chilomastix mesnili 0.4%, Strongyloides stercoralis 0.1%, Hymenolepis nana 0.2% and Taenia sagi­nata 0.2%. Coccidian parasites were not found. Results show that infection with intestinal parasites does not statistically significant according to sex and age."nConclusion: The intestinal parasites, especially helminthic infections have been decreased during re­cent years.

L Akhlaghi; J Shamseddin; AR Meamar; E Razmjou; H Oormazdi

2009-01-01

208

Intestinal Parasitic Infections in Renal Transplant Recipients  

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Full Text Available Background: Organ transplant recipients can experience serious diseases from infections due to emerging and reemerging parasitic infections. This study was carried out to evaluate the prevalence of intestinal parasites among renal transplant re-cipients of Iran. "nMethods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from June 2003 to August 2004 on renal transplant recipients in Iran. A total of 706 fecal samples obtained from randomly selected population originated from all over Iran. Patient's information was recorded in a questionnaire before sampling. A sample of stool was taken from each person. Direct wet smear exami-nation, formalin-ether concentration, Ziehl-neelsen staining, and agar plate culture were done for each sample. "nResults: Totally 32 patients (4.5%) were positive for parasitic infections. In searching for emerging parasitic infections, the most prevalent parasites were found to be Blastocystis hominis, Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba coli, respectively. The merely ova which were seen were related to Hymenolepis nana. With investigation of healthy control, no significant differ-ence was found between transplanted and normal population. "nConclusion: The population showed controlled rate of intestinal infections probably due to regular awareness concerning risks of opportunistic infections; albeit regular surveillance through routine examination of stool samples for parasites seems considerably advantages the transplant recipient patients.

M Nateghi Rostami; H Keshavarz; E Eskandari; EB Kia; M Rezaeian

2007-01-01

209

A Comparative Analysis of Intestinal Parasitic Infections between HIV+/AIDS Patients and Non-HIV Infected Individuals  

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Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to verify the occurrence of intestinal parasitic infections in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients in Iran in comparison with non-HIV individuals. Methods: A total of HIV+/AIDS patients (Group I) and 1220 clinically healthy individuals (Group II) were submitted to coproparasitological examination from 2003 to 2005. Results: The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites in group I and group II was 11.4% and 11.6%, respectively, without significant difference between two groups. The prevalence of infection for each helminth and pathogenic protozoan, in every group, was as follows: Group I: Blastocystis hominis (6.1%); Giardia lamblia (4.2%); Cryptosporidium spp. (0.9%); Isospora belli (0.26%); Strongyloides stercoralis (0.26%); Hymenolepis nana (0.13%); and Rhabditis axei (0.13%). Group II: Blastocystis hominis (6.5%); Giardia lamblia (4.1%); Strongyloides stercoralis (0.33%); Hymenolepis nana (0.16%); and Trichostrongylus sp. (0.16%). Although the prevalence of infection for extracellular parasites was not statistically different between two groups, however, the infection rates for enteric coccidians including Cryptosporidium spp. and I. belli were significantly higher in patients at AIDS stage than Group II. Conclusion: The results emphasize the needs for especial consideration of enteropathogenic intracellular coccidians in immunocompromised patients.

AR Meamar; M Rezaian; M Mohraz; F Zahabian; R Hadighi; EB Kia

2007-01-01

210

A study of the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection in HIV positive individuals in Mashhad, Northeast Iran  

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Full Text Available Introduction and objective: Intestinal parasitic infection is an important problem in the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-infected patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among HIV+ patients in Mashhad, Iran.Materials and methods: A coproparasitological study was conducted from October 2005 to August 2006 at Emam Reza hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Iran. It was carried out on 31 HIV+ patients admitted at the HIV clinic and 20 HIV-negative individuals as control group using direct and formalin-ether sedimentation concentration methods, trichrome and acid-fast staining.Results: Overall prevalence of intestinal parasites among HIV+ population was 67.7% and in control group was 55% without significant difference between the two groups. More specifically, the following parasites were identified in HIV+ group: Giardia lamblia 22.6%, Blastocystis hominis 22.6%, Chilomastics mesnili 22.6%, Entamoeba coli 9.7%, and Entromonas 3.2%. In the control group Entromonas (45%), B. hominis (15%), E. coli (10%), G. lamblia (5%), and Hymenolepis nana (10%). However, the prevalence of G. lamblia, B. hominis and C. mesnili was greater for HIV+ patients (p<0.05). There were statistically significant differences between trichrome staining (28, 54.9% positive for parasites), acid fast methods (6, 11.8%), direct method (7, 13.7%) and formalin-ether method (13, 25.5%) in detection of parasites in two groups (p< 0.05). Conclusion: Our study shows the importance of testing for intestinal parasites in patients who are HIV-positive, and emphasizes the necessity of increasing awareness among clinicians regarding the occurrence of parasite infections in these patients. Routine examination of stool samples for parasitic infections could significantly benefit the HIV-infected individuals by contributing to reduce morbidity, mortality and improved quality of life.

Fariba Berenji; Mohammad Reza Sarvghad; Abdolmajid Fata; Zahra Hosseininejad; Elena Saremi; Majid Ganjbakhsh; Robabeh Izadi Jahanparvar

2010-01-01

211

Intestinal parasites in children, in highly deprived areas in the border region of Chiapas, Mexico.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among children in highly deprived areas, and its possible association with demographic and socioeconomic indicators. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From March to September 1998 in a convenience sample of 32 communities of the border region of Chiapas, Mexico, selected at random based on the level of poverty and distance from the community to the nearest health care unit (< 1 hour; 1 hour or more), one of every four households with children under 15 years of age was randomly selected to provide three stool samples from their children (n 1478). Bivariate and multivariate (generalized linear models for correlated binary data), analysis were performed. RESULTS: The global prevalence of intestinal parasitosis was 67% (95% confidence interval [CI] 64-70%). Sixty percent had multiple parasites. The prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica/E dispar was 51.2%, that of Giardia lamblia 18.3%, and that of Ascaris lumbricoides 14.5%. Multivariate analysis showed that age and speaking an indigenous language were significantly associated with the presence of E histolytical E dispar and Giardia lamblia. Source of water and lacking a refrigerator and electricity were associated with the presence of Ascaris lumbricoides. CONCLUSIONS: Measures should be taken to improve water quality, sewage disposal, and domestic hygiene. Furthermore, health programs should be established to promote breast-feeding, and education policies aimed at reinforcing the use of indigenous languages by physicians in the health services.

Morales-Espinoza EM; Sánchez-Pérez HJ; García-Gil Mdel M; Vargas-Morales G; Méndez-Sánchez JD; Pérez-Ramírez M

2003-09-01

212

[Longitudinal investigation on intestinal parasite infections among rural people in West Dongting Lake region].  

Science.gov (United States)

The nylon pocket concentration method and modified Kato-Katz technique were used to detect the eggs of intestinal parasites and the iodine smear method was used for the detection of protozoa among the rural population in West Dongting Lake region. The infection rate of parasites in 2006 was 11.84%, and it declined by 86.63%, 81.34%, and 47.28%, respectively, compared to the rates in 1983, 1993, and 2003. Six major parasites were detected including Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Fasciolopsis buski, hookworm, Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia, and their infection rates were 8.60%, 6.41%, 1.75%, 0.14%, 2.50%, and 1.22%, respectively. The rate of multiple infections was 22.98%. The infection rates in the 5-9 years age group and 10-14 years age group were higher than those in other age groups. PMID:22164496

Hou, Guo-Hong; Xiao, Zeng; Yao, Xiao-Ming; Xiao, Jun-Wen; Zhou, Ying-Cai; Xie, Zhao-Mei; Yu, Qiu-Lan; Guo, Feng-Ying; Zhao, Zheng-Yuan

2011-06-01

213

[Longitudinal investigation on intestinal parasite infections among rural people in West Dongting Lake region].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The nylon pocket concentration method and modified Kato-Katz technique were used to detect the eggs of intestinal parasites and the iodine smear method was used for the detection of protozoa among the rural population in West Dongting Lake region. The infection rate of parasites in 2006 was 11.84%, and it declined by 86.63%, 81.34%, and 47.28%, respectively, compared to the rates in 1983, 1993, and 2003. Six major parasites were detected including Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Fasciolopsis buski, hookworm, Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia, and their infection rates were 8.60%, 6.41%, 1.75%, 0.14%, 2.50%, and 1.22%, respectively. The rate of multiple infections was 22.98%. The infection rates in the 5-9 years age group and 10-14 years age group were higher than those in other age groups.

Hou GH; Xiao Z; Yao XM; Xiao JW; Zhou YC; Xie ZM; Yu QL; Guo FY; Zhao ZY

2011-06-01

214

[Intestinal parasitic infections in 4 child day-care centers located in San Miguel del Padron municipality, Havana City, 1998  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A coproparasitologic study was performed on 456 children aged 1-5 years from 4 day-care centers located in San Miguel del Padrón municipality during November 1998, with the aim of finding out the behaviour of the main intestinal parasites and particularly how Giardia lamblia was affecting this child population. Three fecal specimens were collected from each child in every other day, which were processed by coproparasitologic methods such as direct testing and Ritchie's concentration technique. The most frequently identified parasite was G. lamblia with 249 positive cases for a prevalence rate of 54.6%. The second one was Blastocystis hominis (29.6%) followed by Endolimax nana(23.9%). Coccidia like Crystosporidium parvum and Cyclospora cayetanensis exhibited low frequencies, 0.6 and 1.5% respectively, being the majority of the cases located in only one day care center. These results confirmed that G. lamblia is the most prevailing parasite in day care centers, with peak frequency values in 2-4y age group and no differences between sexes.

Mendoza D; Núñez FA; Escobedo A; Pelayo L; Fernández M; Torres D; Cordoví RA

2001-09-01

215

Prevalence and etiology of intestinal parasites in Lebanon.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

As there are no studies done on the prevalence of intestinal parasites in Lebanon since 1967, this study was undertaken to reveal the current patterns of intestinal parasitic infestations in Lebanese patients from two geographic regions: Beirut and Tripoli. Analysis was based on 33,253 stool specimens examined at the American University of Beirut Medical Center (AUH) and 11,611 specimens examined at the Islamic Hospital (IH) in Tripoli over five and three years, respectively. The prevalence of intestinal parasites at AUH and IH were 8.47% and 45.35%, respectively (overall 18%). The prevalence in males vs females was almost the same; being 8.23% vs 8.74%, and 44.67% vs 45.88%, at AUH and IH, respectively. Multiple infections were noted in 8.8% and 3.5% of stool specimens at AUH and IH, respectively. Although 18 different types of parasites were encountered, the most common pathogenic parasites found at AUH vs IH were: Giardia lamblia (20.7% vs 10.5% of parasites found), Entamoeba histolytica (19.41% vs 1.25%), Taenia spp. (6.03% vs 4.08%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (2.09% vs 46.97%). The overall yearly or monthly prevalence of parasites recovered from both hospitals did not show clear seasonal patterns. Compared to developed countries, Lebanon still suffers from a high prevalence and a wide spectrum of intestinal parasites.

Araj GF; Abdul-Baki NY; Hamze MM; Alami SY; Nassif RE; Naboulsi MS

1996-01-01

216

Molecular diagnostics of intestinal parasites in returning travellers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A new diagnostic strategy was assessed for the routine diagnosis of intestinal parasites in returning travellers and immigrants. Over a period of 13 months, unpreserved stool samples, patient characteristics and clinical data were collected from those attending a travel clinic. Stool samples were analysed on a daily basis by microscopic examination and antigen detection (i.e. care as usual), and compared with a weekly performed multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis on Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium and Strongyloides stercoralis. Microscopy and antigen assays of 2,591 stool samples showed E. histolytica, G. lamblia, Cryptosporidium and S. stercoralis in 0.3, 4.7, 0.5 and 0.1% of the cases, respectively. These detection rates were increased using real-time PCR to 0.5, 6.0, 1.3 and 0.8%, respectively. The prevalence of ten additional pathogenic parasite species identified with microscopy was, at most, 0.5%. A pre-selective decision tree based on travel history or gastro-intestinal complaints could not be made. With increased detection rates at a lower workload and the potential to extend with additional parasite targets combined with fully automated DNA isolation, molecular high-throughput screening could eventually replace microscopy to a large extent.

ten Hove RJ; van Esbroeck M; Vervoort T; van den Ende J; van Lieshout L; Verweij JJ

2009-09-01

217

Review of zoonotic parasites in medical and veterinary fields in the Republic of Korea.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Zoonotic parasites are animal parasites that can infect humans. The major zoonotic protozoa in the Republic of Korea are Babesia bovis, Chilomastix mesnili, Cryptosporidium parvum, Endolimax nana, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba hitolytica, Giardia lamblia, Iodamoeba bütschlii, Pneumocystis carinii, Sarcocystis cruzi, and Toxoplasma gondii. The major zoonotic helminths in Korea include trematodes, cestodes, and nematodes. Trematodes are Clonorchis sinensis, Echinostoma hortense, Echinostoma spp., Fasciola hepatica, Heterophyes nocens, Metagonimus yokogawai, and Paragonimus westermani. Cestodes are Diphyllobothrium latum, Dipylidium caninum, Echinococcus granulosus, Hymenolepis nana, Raillietina tetragona, sparganum (Spirometra spp.), Taenia saginata, T. solium, and T. asiatica. Nematodes are Ancylostoma caninum, Brugia malayi, Capillaria hepatica, Dirofilaria immitis, Gnathostoma dololesi, Gnathostoma spinigerum, Loa loa, Onchocerca gibsoni, Strongyloides stercoralis, Thelazia callipaeda, Trichinella spiralis, Trichostrongylus orientalis, Trichuris trichiura, and Trichuris vulpis. The one arthropod is Sarcoptes scabiei. Many of these parasites have disappeared or were in decline after the 1990's. Since the late 1990's, the important zoonotic protozoa have been C. parvum, E. nana, E. coli, E. hitolytica, G. lamblia, I. buetschlii, P. carinii and T. gondii. The important zoonotic helminths have been C. sinensis, H. nocens, M. yokogawai, P. westermani, D. latum, T. asiatica, sparganum, B. malayi, T. orientalis, T. callipaeda and T. spiralis. However, outbreaks of these parasites are only in a few endemic areas. The outbreaks of Enterobius vermicularis and head lice, human parasites, have recently increased in the kindergartens and primary schools in the Republic of Korea.

Youn H

2009-10-01

218

Review of zoonotic parasites in medical and veterinary fields in the Republic of Korea.  

Science.gov (United States)

Zoonotic parasites are animal parasites that can infect humans. The major zoonotic protozoa in the Republic of Korea are Babesia bovis, Chilomastix mesnili, Cryptosporidium parvum, Endolimax nana, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba hitolytica, Giardia lamblia, Iodamoeba bütschlii, Pneumocystis carinii, Sarcocystis cruzi, and Toxoplasma gondii. The major zoonotic helminths in Korea include trematodes, cestodes, and nematodes. Trematodes are Clonorchis sinensis, Echinostoma hortense, Echinostoma spp., Fasciola hepatica, Heterophyes nocens, Metagonimus yokogawai, and Paragonimus westermani. Cestodes are Diphyllobothrium latum, Dipylidium caninum, Echinococcus granulosus, Hymenolepis nana, Raillietina tetragona, sparganum (Spirometra spp.), Taenia saginata, T. solium, and T. asiatica. Nematodes are Ancylostoma caninum, Brugia malayi, Capillaria hepatica, Dirofilaria immitis, Gnathostoma dololesi, Gnathostoma spinigerum, Loa loa, Onchocerca gibsoni, Strongyloides stercoralis, Thelazia callipaeda, Trichinella spiralis, Trichostrongylus orientalis, Trichuris trichiura, and Trichuris vulpis. The one arthropod is Sarcoptes scabiei. Many of these parasites have disappeared or were in decline after the 1990's. Since the late 1990's, the important zoonotic protozoa have been C. parvum, E. nana, E. coli, E. hitolytica, G. lamblia, I. buetschlii, P. carinii and T. gondii. The important zoonotic helminths have been C. sinensis, H. nocens, M. yokogawai, P. westermani, D. latum, T. asiatica, sparganum, B. malayi, T. orientalis, T. callipaeda and T. spiralis. However, outbreaks of these parasites are only in a few endemic areas. The outbreaks of Enterobius vermicularis and head lice, human parasites, have recently increased in the kindergartens and primary schools in the Republic of Korea. PMID:19885329

Youn, Heejeong

2009-10-01

219

Zoonotic parasites of bobcats around human landscapes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We analyzed Lynx rufus fecal parasites from California and Colorado, hypothesizing that bobcats shed zoonotic parasites around human landscapes. Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium, Ancylostoma, Uncinaria, and Toxocara cati were shed. Toxoplasma gondii serology demonstrated exposure. Giardia and Cryptosporidium shedding increased near large human populations. Genotyped Giardia may indicate indirect transmission with humans.

Carver S; Scorza AV; Bevins SN; Riley SP; Crooks KR; Vandewoude S; Lappin MR

2012-09-01

220

Ocular changes associated with Giardia lamblia infection in children  

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BACKGROUND—The protozoan disease giardiasis can cause ocular complications, including "salt and pepper" retinal changes.?METHODS—Ophthalmic examinations were performed in 141 children (mean age 4.7 (SD 2.0) years) with active or past giardiasis diagnosed on the basis of microscopic examination of st...

Corsi, A; Nucci, C; Knafelz, D; Bulgarini, D; Di, I; Polito, A; De Risi, F; Morini, F; Paone, F

 
 
 
 
221

ANALYSIS OF INACTIVATION OF GIARDIA LAMBLIA BY CHLORINE  

Science.gov (United States)

Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act (PL-93-523) highlight the continuing problem of waterborne disease by mandating the EPA to promulgate: (1) Criteria by which filtration will be required for surface water supplies; and (2) disinfection requirements for all water supplies ...

222

Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in the Greek population: local people and refugees  

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Full Text Available SUMMARY A total of 455 faecal samples from the Greek population and refugees was examined and 18.02% were found to be infected with one or more species of parasites. The prevalence of infection with intestinal parasites of the Greek (264) population was 11.36% and that of foreigners (191) originating from Europe, Africa and Asia was 27.23%. Found were a) protozoan parasites: Blastocystis hominis, Cryptosporidium parvum, Entamoeba coli and Giardia lamblia (found in both groups examined) and b) metazoan parasites: Enterobius vermicularis, Taenia spp. and Strongyloides stercoralis (in both groups) and Ancylostoma duodenale, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and Schistosoma mansoni (only in foreigners). Among the parasites found in foreigners only the helminth species A. duodenale and S. mansoni are considered as imported parasites from tropical and subtropical regions to European countries. The use of the multiple logistic regression showed that the odds ratio comparing Greeks to refugees, adjusted for age and gender, was 3.8 for Africans, 3.0 for Europeans and 2.6 for Asians. No correlation was found between age, gender or symptoms (diarrhea or abdominal pain) with the presence of parasites. The overall prevalence of infection with parasites was high in both the Greek population and refugees and therefore a screening for parasite infection is recommended for the prevention of further spread of the infections. Key words: parasites, immigrants, Greece

M.G. Papazahariadou, E.G. Papadopoulos S.E. Frydas, Ch. Mavrovouniotis,T.C. Constantinidis, K. Antoniadou-Sotiriadou,; A.E. Siochu .

2007-01-01

223

Prevalência de parasitismo intestinal nas aldeias indígenas da tribo Tembé, Amazônia Oriental Brasileira Prevalence of intestinal parasitism in Tembé tribe indian settlements, Brazilian Eastern Amazon  

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Full Text Available Para determinar a prevalência de enteroparasitismo nas aldeias Tembé, foi realizado um inquérito coproparasitológico em toda a população (93 índios), em dezembro de 1996. Os parasitos mais freqüentes foram ancilostomídeos (29,0%), Ascaris lumbricoides (34,4%), Entamoeba histolytica (12,9%) e Giardia lamblia (4,3%). As maiores prevalências de ancilostomídeos e A. lumbricoides foram observadas na aldeia Turé-Mariquita, enquanto que as de E. histolytica e G. lamblia na Acará-Mirim. Não foi observada diferença significativa sob ponto de vista prático entre a média de idade dos índios parasitados e a dos não parasitados. Sexo esteve relacionado apenas a freqüência de ancilostomídeos, bem maior no sexo masculino. Desse modo, a prevalência de enteroparasitas ainda se encontra elevada para alguns agentes, sugerindo que as medidas de atenção devem ser imediatamente incrementadas a fim de se obterem resultados mais positivos no combate ao enteroparasitismo.To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitism in the Tembé settlements, parasitological examination was performed in December 1996 in the entire population (93 Indians). Hookworms were found in 29.0%, A. lumbricoides in 34.4%, E. histolytica in 12.9%, and G. lamblia in 4.3% of the individuals. The Turé-Mariquita settlement had the highest prevalence of hookworms and A. lumbricoides, while Acará-Mirim had the highest prevalence of E. histolytica and G. lamblia. No differences in mean age were found between Indians with parasites and Indians without parasites. The association between intestinal parasites and sex was nonsignificant, except for the prevalence of hookworms, which was very high in males (38.6%) compared to females (20.4%). The study showed a high prevalence of some intestinal parasites in the Tembé settlements, indicating that primary and secondary health measures should taken immediately for the prevention of intestinal parasitoses

Rogério dos Anjos Miranda; Fábio Branches Xavier; José Roberto Lima Nascimento; Raimundo Camurça de Menezes

1999-01-01

224

[Intestinal parasitism in a Parakana indigenous community in southwestern Para State, Brazil].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To determine the occurrence and epidemiological aspects of intestinal parasites among the Parakanã indigenous people in the Paranatinga settlement (in the eastern Amazon Region), parasitological tests were performed in April 1992 and February 1995. One fresh stool specimen was obtained and immediately processed using the Hoffman and direct methods. Some 126 samples were obtained in April 1992 (from a total population of 215 individuals). Some 80. 2% (101) of those tested were infected with at least one species of intestinal parasite. Hookworms were found in 33.3%, Ascaris lumbricoides 42.8%, Trichuris trichiura 0.8%, and Strongyloides stercoralis 5.6%. Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia protozoans were found in 65.0% and 46.8% of those tested, respectively. A second parasitological survey was performed on 174 individuals (from a population of 253) in February 1995. 88.5% were infected. Note that prevalence in February 1995 was higher than in April 1992 (p=0.04). It was lower for hookworms, E. histolytica, and G. lamblia, with no S. stercoralis (p<0.05). Despite provision of health care in the Paranatinga community, prevalence of intestinal parasites is still extremely high, suggesting that primary and secondary health care should be increased immediately to increase the efficacy of prevention of intestinal parasites.

Miranda RA; Xavier FB; Menezes RC

1998-07-01

225

PARASITES OF MAN IN SERANG, WEST JAVA  

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Full Text Available Survey penyakit menular didesa Cikurai dan Barengkok, Jawa Barat pada bulan Juni 1974 ini adalah merupakan salah satu dari serangkaian survey yang dilakukan oleh Direktorat Jenderal P3.M. Dep. Kes. dan US Namru-2 guna menentukan distribusi dan prevalensi penyakit terutama malaria, filariasis dan penyakit parasit perut. Khususnya didaerah Cikurai dimana dilaporkan adanya Schistosoma in­cognitum secara hyperenzootik maka perlulah dilihat apakah parasit ini ditemukan pula diantara pend-duk setempat. Dari hasil survey didesa Cikurai dan Barengkok, Jawa Barat ini dilihat bahwa Plasmodium falciparum ditemukan pada 8 atau 3 persen dari sediaan darah 261 penduduk yang diperiksa dan tidak terlihat adanya microfilariae. Parasit perut yang menonjol terlihat pada sediaan tinja dari 335 penduduk yang diperiksa adalah Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura dan cacing tambang masing-masing sebesar 89 persen, 87 persen dan 65 persen ; parasit lainnya adalah Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba hart manni, Entamoeba coli, Endolinuu nana, lodamoeba butschlii, Giardia lamblia, Chilomastvc mesnili, Enterobius vermicularis, dan Echinostoma sp. Tidak terlihat adanya Schistosoma incognitum pada sediaan tinja dari 335 penduduk yang diperiksa dikedua desa ini.

W. P. Carney; Arbain Joesoef; Erich E. Stafford

2012-01-01

226

Ocorrência de Giardia spp. em bezerros leiteiros no Brasil Occurrence of Giardia spp. in dairy calves in Brazil  

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Full Text Available Fecal samples were collected from 50 female Holstein calves (1-90 days old) from a commercial dairy cattle farm located in Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil and examined for presence of Giardia cysts using the zinc sulfate flotation method. A total of 120 samples were collected from March 1999 to April 2000, and fecal consistency (normal or diarrheic) was noted prior to the examination for Giardia cysts. Giardia spp. cysts were found in 11 (9%) of the 120 faecal samples of calves co-infected with Eimeria spp., in calves from 19 to 58 days of age (38±19). In 82% (9/11) calves assessed for mixed infections with Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia, oocysts of Cryptosporidium were found in three out of four diarrheic calves (75%) positive for Giardia. Giardia cysts (n= 30) sized 13-16 x 10-12µm (mean of 15 x 11µm). They appeared to belong to the morphological group of G. intestinallis according to the size and morphological characteristic of the cysts. This is the first detection of Giardia spp. in calves in Brazil. Considering that Giardia has the potential to cause clinical disease in calves and that organisms infecting humans and domestic ruminants are morphologically and antigenically similar, and calves can shed Giardia cysts potentially infective for humans, the parasite in calves may be of major epidemiological significance, and suggests that naturally infected calves may be reservoirs of Giardia infections for man.

A.M. Guimarães; E. Guedes; R.A. Carvalho

2001-01-01

227

Frequency of intestinal parasites among food-handlers in Khartoum, Sudan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Food-handlers (n = 1500) attending the public health laboratory in Khartoum, Sudan, for annual check-ups were screened for intestinal parasites by 3 different techniques (direct faecal examination, formol-ether concentration and floatation) to evaluate the adequacy of annual screening. Results showed that 29.4% of food-handlers were harbouring intestinal protozoa in stool samples: Entamoeba coli in 15.3%, Giardia lamblia in 9.7%, and Enta. histolytica in 4.3%. Moreover, 2.7% of food-handlers harboured intestinal helminths: Hymenolepis nana (1.6%), Schistosoma mansoni (0.7%), Taenia saginata (0.3%) and Strongyloides stercoralis (0.1%). We recommend more frequent screening of food-handlers and that the direct faecal smear technique is efficient for the detection of such parasites.

Babiker MA; Ali MS; Ahmed ES

2009-09-01

228

HUMAN PARASITE SURVEY ON NASI AND BERAS ISLANDS ACEH PROVINCE, SUMATRA  

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Full Text Available Survey parasit usus dan darah manusia terhadap penduduk pulau-pulau Nasi/Beras Propinsi Aceh, Sumatra, telah diadakan dihulan Januari, 1975. Sebanyak 83 pulasan darah dari 67 pria dan 16 wanita, serta 87 contoh tinja diperoleh dari 52 pria dan 35 wanita. Brugia malayi microfilaria ditemukan dalam 3 atau 3 persen dari darah yang diperiksa dan juga parasitemia yang disebabkan oleh Plasmodium malariae 1 atau 1 persen dan P. falciparum 2 atau 2 persen. Trichuris trichiura (86 persen ), merupakan parasit usus yang paling banyak ditemukan, diikuti oleh cacing tambang (77 persen), Ascaris lumbricoides (60 persen), Entamoeba histolyrica (11 per sen), H. coli (10 persen ). Endolimax nana hanya 5 atau 6 persen dan Iodamoeba butschlii dan Giardia lamblia, masing-masing 3 persen. Tidak ada ditemukan Schistosoma japonicum atau pun ova cestoda diantara penduduk yang diperiksa.

E. E. Stafford; M. Iljas; Arbain Joesoef

2012-01-01

229

Modeling Parasite Infection Dynamics when there Is Heterogeneity and Imperfect Detectability.  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding the infection and recovery rate from parasitic infections is valuable for public health planning. Two challenges in modeling these rates are (1) infection status is only observed at discrete times even though infection and recovery take place in continuous time and (2) detectability of infection is imperfect. We address these issues through a Bayesian hierarchical model based on a random effects Weibull distribution. The model incorporates heterogeneity of the infection and recovery rate among individuals and allows for imperfect detectability. We estimate the model by a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm with data augmentation. We present simulation studies and an application to an infection study about the parasite Giardia lamblia among children in Kenya. PMID:23848564

Cui, Na; Chen, Yuguo; Small, Dylan S

2013-07-12

230

Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Catering Staff of Students` Canteens at Shiraz, Southern Iran  

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Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to identify possible positive cases of intestinal parasitic infection among the catering staff of a university canteen, thus preventing possible morbidity and protecting the health of the consumers. All 39 catering personnel were examined in a descriptive, cross-sectional study. Blood, urine and three stool samples on three consecutive days were collected from each person. To diagnose the presence of parasitic infections, Formalin-Ether Concentration Technique (FECT), Direct Fecal Smear (DFS) test and Scotch-tape test were used. The data indicated that intestinal parasites were present in 59.4% of the food handlers examined. Among these 26% were infected with pathogenic parasites and 33.4% infected with non-pathogenic parasites. The most frequently-observed intestinal parasites were Blastocystis hominis, Entamoeba coli, Giardia lamblia, Chilomastix mesnili and Taenia saginata, respectively. The observation of a relatively high prevalence rate of parasitic infections among university catering staff with respect to their sensitive job which is almost, quantitatively, in agreements with the findings of other investigators in other parts of the country calls for a most strict supervision on the side of the responsible health authorities. Furthermore, it emphasizes on the importance of personal and public health education on pathogenic intestinal parasites and methods of their prevention and control. Similarly, it indicates that food handlers should undergo compulsory periodic clinical tests and obtain health certificates.

M. Neghab; S. Moosavi; M.D. Moemenbellah-Fard

2006-01-01

231

Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites and Profile of CD4+ Counts in HIV+/AIDS People in North of Iran, 2007-2008  

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Full Text Available In this study 142 stool samples (64 HIV+/AIDS patients and 78 non-HIV infected individuals) collected from Mazandaran province and screened for intestinal parasites, using direct wet mont, formalin-ether sedimentation concentration, modified Ziehl Neelsen and modified trichrome techniques. Each person in this study was examined for CD4+ counts. Intestinal parasites were found in 11/64 (17.2%) of patients in HIV+/AIDS group and in 14/78 (17.9%) of controls. Prevalence of parasites detected in HIV+/AIDS individuals was as follow: Cryptosporidium sp. 9.4%, Giardia lamblia 3.1%, Entamoeba coli 1.6%, E. histolytica 1.6% and Chilomastix mesnili 1.6%. Prevalence of parasites in controls was as follow: Trichostrongylus sp. 6.4%, G. lamblia 3.8%, Cryptosporidium sp. 2.5% , E. coli 2.5% , E. histolytica 1.2% , Hookworms 1.2%. The mean of CD4+ counts in HIV-positive group (430 cells ?L-1) was remarkedly less than controls (871 cells ?L-1) (p = 0.00l). As patients usually belong to poor socio-economic backgrounds and they can hardly afford treatment, therefore, it is suggested screening and free treatment of intestinal parasites in these individuals should be taken by health centers to prevent the occurrence of these diseases in HIV+/AIDS patients, as often the disease may take a fulminant form.

A. Daryani; M. Sharif; M. Meigouni; F. Baba Mahmoudi; A. Rafiei; Sh. Gholami; A. Khalilian; Sh. Gohardehi; A.M. Mirabi

2009-01-01

232

Intestinal parasites in school aged children and the first case report on amoebiasis in urinary bladder in Tripoli, Libya.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A total of 50 fresh fecal samples were collected from children of either sex and examined by direct wet films and Telemann's concentration technique. The results were based on a single stool per person study of the total children ranging from 5-18 years of age, 8 different types of intestinal parasites were recorded. The incidence of infection with one or the other parasites was found to be 42%. Double or mixed infection was not uncommon. The infection rates of helminthes were Hymenolepis nana 6%, Taenia saginata 2%, Ascaris lumbricoids 20%, Trichuris trichura 14% and Enterobius vermicularis 4%. The rates of protozoa were Entamoeba histolytica 4%, Entamoeba coli 4% and Giardia lamblia 2%. The problem was created by parasitosis in endangering children's health are more increasing in Tripoli District.

Ben Musa NA

2007-12-01

233

Prevalence of parasites in patients with gastroenteritis at East of Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Parasitic gastrointestinal infections are one of the most important health problems in the developing countries, which lead to the onset of intestinal disease particularly diarrhoea. Due to the particular geographic situation in the Mazandaran province, individuals are infected with various intestinal parasites. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence rate of enteropathogenic parasites in the patients with gastroenteritis living at the east of Mazandaran province (Sari, Nekah and Joybar cities), northern Iran. This descriptive study was carried out from September 2009 to March 2010. Faecal samples were collected by randomized cluster method from 962 patients with gastroenteritis who were refered to the Health Service Centers of Sari, Neka and Joybar cities. All data about the patients were recorded in questionnaire. Stool specimens were examined by direct wet mounting, formolether concentration, and Ziehl-Neelsen acid fast stain and Auramin Phenol fluorescence (APF) method for the investigation of Cryptosporidium and Isospora. Prevalence of intestinal parasites and their relationship with gender, age, and season were investigated, and the obtained data were analyzed with ?² test using the SPSS software (16.0). Out of 962 patients with gastroenteritis, overall infection was 9.1%; Giardia lamblia (4.1%) with the highest and Enterobius vermicularis (0.2%) with the lowest prevalence rate. Prevalence rate of other parasites were as follow: Cryptosporidium, 0.1%; Entamoeba histolytica, 0.1%; Chilomastix mesnili, 0.1%; Entamoeba coli, 1.2%; Blastocytis hominis, 1.8%; Trichostrongylus spp., 0.4% and Hymenolepis nana, 0.9%. Findings showed that Giardia is the most common cause of intestinal infection at the east of Mazandaran province, and could be defined as the most important parasitic agent of gastroenteritis. On the other hand, infection with enteropathogenic parasites as compared with the previous reports showed significant decline, which reveals the coverage of health education, increase of public knowledge on the parasitic diseases and sanitation of living environment.

Vahedi M; Gohardehi S; Sharif M; Daryani A

2012-12-01

234

Prevalence of parasites in patients with gastroenteritis at East of Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran.  

Science.gov (United States)

Parasitic gastrointestinal infections are one of the most important health problems in the developing countries, which lead to the onset of intestinal disease particularly diarrhoea. Due to the particular geographic situation in the Mazandaran province, individuals are infected with various intestinal parasites. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence rate of enteropathogenic parasites in the patients with gastroenteritis living at the east of Mazandaran province (Sari, Nekah and Joybar cities), northern Iran. This descriptive study was carried out from September 2009 to March 2010. Faecal samples were collected by randomized cluster method from 962 patients with gastroenteritis who were refered to the Health Service Centers of Sari, Neka and Joybar cities. All data about the patients were recorded in questionnaire. Stool specimens were examined by direct wet mounting, formolether concentration, and Ziehl-Neelsen acid fast stain and Auramin Phenol fluorescence (APF) method for the investigation of Cryptosporidium and Isospora. Prevalence of intestinal parasites and their relationship with gender, age, and season were investigated, and the obtained data were analyzed with ?² test using the SPSS software (16.0). Out of 962 patients with gastroenteritis, overall infection was 9.1%; Giardia lamblia (4.1%) with the highest and Enterobius vermicularis (0.2%) with the lowest prevalence rate. Prevalence rate of other parasites were as follow: Cryptosporidium, 0.1%; Entamoeba histolytica, 0.1%; Chilomastix mesnili, 0.1%; Entamoeba coli, 1.2%; Blastocytis hominis, 1.8%; Trichostrongylus spp., 0.4% and Hymenolepis nana, 0.9%. Findings showed that Giardia is the most common cause of intestinal infection at the east of Mazandaran province, and could be defined as the most important parasitic agent of gastroenteritis. On the other hand, infection with enteropathogenic parasites as compared with the previous reports showed significant decline, which reveals the coverage of health education, increase of public knowledge on the parasitic diseases and sanitation of living environment. PMID:23202601

Vahedi, Mohammad; Gohardehi, Shaban; Sharif, Mehdi; Daryani, Ahmad

2012-12-01

235

Detection of Cryptosporidium spp and other intestinal parasites in children with acute diarrhea and severe dehydration in Rio de Janeiro/ Detecção de Cryptosporidium spp e outros parasitas intestinais em crianças com diarréia aguda e desidratação grave no Rio de Janeiro  

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Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O objetivo do presente estudo foi estimar a freqüência das infecções por Cryptosporidium spp e outros parasitas intestinais em crianças desidratadas com gastroenterite, internadas em um hospital pediátrico. Exames de fezes de 218 crianças foram realizados. Cryptosporidium spp foi detectado em 18 de 193 (9,3%) amostras fecais submetidas à coloração pela safranina/azul-de-metileno. Giardia lamblia foi detectada em dez de 213 (4,7%) amostras submetidas ao exame dir (more) eto ou ao método de Ritchie. Também foram identificados Ascaris lumbricoides (4,2%), Blastocystis hominis (1,4%), Entamoeba coli (0,9%), Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar (0,5%), Endolimax nana (0,5%), Trichuris trichiura (0,5%) and Enterobius vermicularis (0,5%). Abstract in english The objective of the present study was to estimate the frequency of infection by Cryptosporidium spp and other intestinal parasites in dehydrated children with gastroenteritis who were admitted to a pediatric hospital. Stool examinations from 218 children were performed. Cryptosporidium spp was identified in eighteen out of 193 stool samples (9.3%) subjected to safranin-methylene blue staining. Giardia lamblia was detected in ten out of 213 (4.7%) samples examined via the (more) direct or Ritchie methods. Other parasites identified were Ascaris lumbricoides (4.2%), Blastocystis hominis (1.4%), Entamoeba coli (0.9%), Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar (0.5%), Endolimax nana (0.5%), Trichuris trichiura (0.5%) and Enterobius vermicularis (0.5%).

Carvalho-Costa, Filipe Anibal; Gonçalves, Alessandra Queiroga; Lassance, Sandra Laranjeira; Albuquerque, Carla Pontes de; Leite, José Paulo Gagliardi; Bóia, Márcio Neves

2007-06-01

236

Detection of Cryptosporidium spp and other intestinal parasites in children with acute diarrhea and severe dehydration in Rio de Janeiro Detecção de Cryptosporidium spp e outros parasitas intestinais em crianças com diarréia aguda e desidratação grave no Rio de Janeiro  

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Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to estimate the frequency of infection by Cryptosporidium spp and other intestinal parasites in dehydrated children with gastroenteritis who were admitted to a pediatric hospital. Stool examinations from 218 children were performed. Cryptosporidium spp was identified in eighteen out of 193 stool samples (9.3%) subjected to safranin-methylene blue staining. Giardia lamblia was detected in ten out of 213 (4.7%) samples examined via the direct or Ritchie methods. Other parasites identified were Ascaris lumbricoides (4.2%), Blastocystis hominis (1.4%), Entamoeba coli (0.9%), Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar (0.5%), Endolimax nana (0.5%), Trichuris trichiura (0.5%) and Enterobius vermicularis (0.5%).O objetivo do presente estudo foi estimar a freqüência das infecções por Cryptosporidium spp e outros parasitas intestinais em crianças desidratadas com gastroenterite, internadas em um hospital pediátrico. Exames de fezes de 218 crianças foram realizados. Cryptosporidium spp foi detectado em 18 de 193 (9,3%) amostras fecais submetidas à coloração pela safranina/azul-de-metileno. Giardia lamblia foi detectada em dez de 213 (4,7%) amostras submetidas ao exame direto ou ao método de Ritchie. Também foram identificados Ascaris lumbricoides (4,2%), Blastocystis hominis (1,4%), Entamoeba coli (0,9%), Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar (0,5%), Endolimax nana (0,5%), Trichuris trichiura (0,5%) and Enterobius vermicularis (0,5%).

Filipe Anibal Carvalho-Costa; Alessandra Queiroga Gonçalves; Sandra Laranjeira Lassance; Carla Pontes de Albuquerque; José Paulo Gagliardi Leite; Márcio Neves Bóia

2007-01-01

237

Occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in wild ducks along the Rio Grande River valley in southern New Mexico.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fecal samples were taken from wild ducks on the lower Rio Grande River around Las Cruces, N. Mex., from September 2000 to January 2001. Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts were purified from 69 samples by sucrose enrichment followed by cesium chloride (CsCl) gradient centrifugation and were viewed via fluorescent-antibody (FA) staining. For some samples, recovered cysts and oocysts were further screened via PCR to determine the presence of Giardia lamblia and Crytosporidium parvum. The results of this study indicate that 49% of the ducks were carriers of Cryptosporidium, and the Cryptosporidium oocyst concentrations ranged from 0 to 2,182 oocysts per g of feces (mean +/- standard deviation, 47.53 +/- 270.3 oocysts per g); also, 28% of the ducks were positive for Giardia, and the Giardia cyst concentrations ranged from 0 to 29,293 cysts per g of feces (mean +/- standard deviation, 436 +/- 3,525.4 cysts per g). Of the 69 samples, only 14 had (oo)cyst concentrations that were above the PCR detection limit. Samples did test positive for Cryptosporidium sp. However, C. parvum and G. lamblia were not detected in any of the 14 samples tested by PCR. Ducks on their southern migration through southern New Mexico were positive for Cryptosporidium and Giardia as determined by FA staining, but C. parvum and G. lamblia were not detected. PMID:11772622

Kuhn, Ryan C; Rock, Channah M; Oshima, Kevin H

2002-01-01

238

Occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in wild ducks along the Rio Grande River valley in southern New Mexico.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fecal samples were taken from wild ducks on the lower Rio Grande River around Las Cruces, N. Mex., from September 2000 to January 2001. Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts were purified from 69 samples by sucrose enrichment followed by cesium chloride (CsCl) gradient centrifugation and were viewed via fluorescent-antibody (FA) staining. For some samples, recovered cysts and oocysts were further screened via PCR to determine the presence of Giardia lamblia and Crytosporidium parvum. The results of this study indicate that 49% of the ducks were carriers of Cryptosporidium, and the Cryptosporidium oocyst concentrations ranged from 0 to 2,182 oocysts per g of feces (mean +/- standard deviation, 47.53 +/- 270.3 oocysts per g); also, 28% of the ducks were positive for Giardia, and the Giardia cyst concentrations ranged from 0 to 29,293 cysts per g of feces (mean +/- standard deviation, 436 +/- 3,525.4 cysts per g). Of the 69 samples, only 14 had (oo)cyst concentrations that were above the PCR detection limit. Samples did test positive for Cryptosporidium sp. However, C. parvum and G. lamblia were not detected in any of the 14 samples tested by PCR. Ducks on their southern migration through southern New Mexico were positive for Cryptosporidium and Giardia as determined by FA staining, but C. parvum and G. lamblia were not detected.

Kuhn RC; Rock CM; Oshima KH

2002-01-01

239

Parasitosis intestinales en una población pediátrica de la ciudad de Rosario, Santa Fe, Argentina Parasitoses Intestinais numa população pediátrica da cidade de Rosario, Santa Fe, Argentina Enteric parasites in children in Rosario, Santa Fe, Argentina  

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Full Text Available Las parasitosis intestinales afectan principalmente a los niños. El objetivo de este trabajo es conocer la situación actual en una población pediátrica de diferentes zonas de la ciudad de Rosario, Santa Fe (Argentina) y comparar la prevalencia parasitaria con estudios similares realizados en los períodos 1983/1984, 1990/1991, 1992/1993 y 2007/2008. Se recolectaron muestras de materia fecal por deposición espontánea de 112 pacientes, 51 niñas y 61 niños, con edades comprendidas entre 4 meses y 16 años, provenientes de 10 Centros de Atención Primaria de la Salud (Secretaría de Salud Pública - Municipalidad de Rosario). Las muestras fueron sometidas a examen macroscópico y microscópico directo y a métodos de concentración. En el período 2007/2008 los parásitos más hallados fueron Blastocystis hominis, Giardia lamblia y Ascaris lumbricoides. La prevalencia parasitaria disminuyó del 50% al 41%. Blastocystis hominis aumentó a través del tiempo; Giardia lamblia mantuvo valores constantes en las cuatro etapas; Entamoeba coli disminuyó en los últimos 14 años y Ascaris lumbricoides aumentó significativamente en relación con el período 1983/1984. Disminuyeron los individuos poliparasitados y aumentaron los monoparasitados con respecto a años anteriores. La disminución de las enteroparasitosis podría deberse a políticas de saneamiento ambiental, campañas de prevención y desparasitación realizadas desde los distintos efectores de salud municipales.As parasitoses intestinais afetam principalmente as crianças. O objetivo do trabalho é conhecer a situação atual numa população pediátrica de diferentes zonas da cidade de Rosario, Santa Fe (Argentina) e comparar a prevalência parasitária com estudos similares realizados nos períodos, 1983-1984 / 1990-1991 / 1992-1993 / 2007-2008. Foram coletadas amostras de matéria fecal por evacuação espontânea de 112 pacientes, 51 meninas e 61 meninos, com idades compreendidas entre 4 meses e 16 anos, provenientes de 10 centros de atenção primária da saúde, (Secretaria de Saúde Pública-Prefeitura de Rosario). As amostras foram submetidas a exame macroscópico e microscópico direto e a métodos de concentração. No período 2007-2008 os parasitas mais encontrados foram Blastocystis hominis, Giardia lamblia e Ascaris lumbricoides. A prevalência parasitária diminuiu de 50 a 41%. Blastocystis hominis aumentou através do tempo; Giardia lamblia manteve valores constantes nas 4 etapas; Entamoeba coli diminuiu nos últimos 14 anos e Ascaris lumbricoides aumentou significativamente com relação ao período 1983-1984. Diminuíram os indivíduos poliparasitados e aumentaram os monoparasitados com relação a anos anteriores. A diminuição das enteroparasitoses poderia dar-se devido a políticas de saneamento ambiental, campanhas de prevenção e desparasitação realizadas desde os diversos centros de saúde municipal.Faeces from 112 children patients (51 girls and 61 boys) ranging from 4 months old to 16 years old were studied. These patients were assisted in ten Public Health Care Centres in Rosario. The aim of this work was: to determine the incidence of enteric parasites in children, and to evaluate and compare parasite prevalence in the following periods: 1983/1984, 1990/1991, 1992/1993 and 2007/2008. Forty-one per cent of the samples showed protozoa and helmints. A decrease in the percentage of polyparasitized patients and an increase in the monoparasitized ones was observed when compared to previous years. Blastocystis hominis was found to increase in 2007/2008 while Giardia lamblia remained unaltered in the four periods studied. The occurrence of Entamoeba coli was found to decrease in the 1992/1993 period while Ascaris lumbricoides increased with time. These were the most common parasites found in the population studied. Enteric parasites decreased in children. The occurrence of parasites could be due to different socio-environmental factors: malnutrition, climate changes, and an increase both in temperature and humidity. Ho

Paula Indelman; Claudia Echenique; Griselda Bertorini; Liliana Racca; Carlos Gomez; Alicia Luque; Hortensia María Magaró

2011-01-01

240

Parasitosis intestinales en una población pediátrica de la ciudad de Rosario, Santa Fe, Argentina/ Enteric parasites in children in Rosario, Santa Fe, Argentina/ Parasitoses Intestinais numa população pediátrica da cidade de Rosario, Santa Fe, Argentina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese As parasitoses intestinais afetam principalmente as crianças. O objetivo do trabalho é conhecer a situação atual numa população pediátrica de diferentes zonas da cidade de Rosario, Santa Fe (Argentina) e comparar a prevalência parasitária com estudos similares realizados nos períodos, 1983-1984 / 1990-1991 / 1992-1993 / 2007-2008. Foram coletadas amostras de matéria fecal por evacuação espontânea de 112 pacientes, 51 meninas e 61 meninos, com idades compreen (more) didas entre 4 meses e 16 anos, provenientes de 10 centros de atenção primária da saúde, (Secretaria de Saúde Pública-Prefeitura de Rosario). As amostras foram submetidas a exame macroscópico e microscópico direto e a métodos de concentração. No período 2007-2008 os parasitas mais encontrados foram Blastocystis hominis, Giardia lamblia e Ascaris lumbricoides. A prevalência parasitária diminuiu de 50 a 41%. Blastocystis hominis aumentou através do tempo; Giardia lamblia manteve valores constantes nas 4 etapas; Entamoeba coli diminuiu nos últimos 14 anos e Ascaris lumbricoides aumentou significativamente com relação ao período 1983-1984. Diminuíram os indivíduos poliparasitados e aumentaram os monoparasitados com relação a anos anteriores. A diminuição das enteroparasitoses poderia dar-se devido a políticas de saneamento ambiental, campanhas de prevenção e desparasitação realizadas desde os diversos centros de saúde municipal. Abstract in spanish Las parasitosis intestinales afectan principalmente a los niños. El objetivo de este trabajo es conocer la situación actual en una población pediátrica de diferentes zonas de la ciudad de Rosario, Santa Fe (Argentina) y comparar la prevalencia parasitaria con estudios similares realizados en los períodos 1983/1984, 1990/1991, 1992/1993 y 2007/2008. Se recolectaron muestras de materia fecal por deposición espontánea de 112 pacientes, 51 niñas y 61 niños, con edade (more) s comprendidas entre 4 meses y 16 años, provenientes de 10 Centros de Atención Primaria de la Salud (Secretaría de Salud Pública - Municipalidad de Rosario). Las muestras fueron sometidas a examen macroscópico y microscópico directo y a métodos de concentración. En el período 2007/2008 los parásitos más hallados fueron Blastocystis hominis, Giardia lamblia y Ascaris lumbricoides. La prevalencia parasitaria disminuyó del 50% al 41%. Blastocystis hominis aumentó a través del tiempo; Giardia lamblia mantuvo valores constantes en las cuatro etapas; Entamoeba coli disminuyó en los últimos 14 años y Ascaris lumbricoides aumentó significativamente en relación con el período 1983/1984. Disminuyeron los individuos poliparasitados y aumentaron los monoparasitados con respecto a años anteriores. La disminución de las enteroparasitosis podría deberse a políticas de saneamiento ambiental, campañas de prevención y desparasitación realizadas desde los distintos efectores de salud municipales. Abstract in english Faeces from 112 children patients (51 girls and 61 boys) ranging from 4 months old to 16 years old were studied. These patients were assisted in ten Public Health Care Centres in Rosario. The aim of this work was: to determine the incidence of enteric parasites in children, and to evaluate and compare parasite prevalence in the following periods: 1983/1984, 1990/1991, 1992/1993 and 2007/2008. Forty-one per cent of the samples showed protozoa and helmints. A decrease in th (more) e percentage of polyparasitized patients and an increase in the monoparasitized ones was observed when compared to previous years. Blastocystis hominis was found to increase in 2007/2008 while Giardia lamblia remained unaltered in the four periods studied. The occurrence of Entamoeba coli was found to decrease in the 1992/1993 period while Ascaris lumbricoides increased with time. These were the most common parasites found in the population studied. Enteric parasites decreased in children. The occurrence of parasites could be due to different socio-environmental fac

Indelman, Paula; Echenique, Claudia; Bertorini, Griselda; Racca, Liliana; Gomez, Carlos; Luque, Alicia; Magaró, Hortensia María

2011-06-01

 
 
 
 
241

Prevalência de parasitismo intestinal nas aldeias indígenas da tribo Tembé, Amazônia Oriental Brasileira/ Prevalence of intestinal parasitism in Tembé tribe indian settlements, Brazilian Eastern Amazon  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Para determinar a prevalência de enteroparasitismo nas aldeias Tembé, foi realizado um inquérito coproparasitológico em toda a população (93 índios), em dezembro de 1996. Os parasitos mais freqüentes foram ancilostomídeos (29,0%), Ascaris lumbricoides (34,4%), Entamoeba histolytica (12,9%) e Giardia lamblia (4,3%). As maiores prevalências de ancilostomídeos e A. lumbricoides foram observadas na aldeia Turé-Mariquita, enquanto que as de E. histolytica e G. lamb (more) lia na Acará-Mirim. Não foi observada diferença significativa sob ponto de vista prático entre a média de idade dos índios parasitados e a dos não parasitados. Sexo esteve relacionado apenas a freqüência de ancilostomídeos, bem maior no sexo masculino. Desse modo, a prevalência de enteroparasitas ainda se encontra elevada para alguns agentes, sugerindo que as medidas de atenção devem ser imediatamente incrementadas a fim de se obterem resultados mais positivos no combate ao enteroparasitismo. Abstract in english To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitism in the Tembé settlements, parasitological examination was performed in December 1996 in the entire population (93 Indians). Hookworms were found in 29.0%, A. lumbricoides in 34.4%, E. histolytica in 12.9%, and G. lamblia in 4.3% of the individuals. The Turé-Mariquita settlement had the highest prevalence of hookworms and A. lumbricoides, while Acará-Mirim had the highest prevalence of E. histolytica and G. lamblia. N (more) o differences in mean age were found between Indians with parasites and Indians without parasites. The association between intestinal parasites and sex was nonsignificant, except for the prevalence of hookworms, which was very high in males (38.6%) compared to females (20.4%). The study showed a high prevalence of some intestinal parasites in the Tembé settlements, indicating that primary and secondary health measures should taken immediately for the prevention of intestinal parasitoses

Miranda, Rogério dos Anjos; Xavier, Fábio Branches; Nascimento, José Roberto Lima; Menezes, Raimundo Camurça de

1999-08-01

242

Gastrointestinal parasitic infection in healthy Jamaican carriers of HTLV-I.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A subsample (1.6%; n = 13,260) of a healthy Jamaican population of food-handlers, studied by Murphy et al. (1991), who were serologically positive (n = 99) or negative (n = 113) for HTLV-I was investigated for intestinal parasitic infection using coprological methods. Helminth infection included Ascaris lumbricoides (2.8%), Trichuris trichiura (7.1%) and hookworms (6.1%). Entamoeba coli was found in 21.8% of samples, while E. hartmanni, Giardia lamblia, Endolimax nana, Iodamoeba bütschlii and Chilomastix mesnili each occurred in less than 10% of responders. T. trichiura displayed a higher prevalence (10.6 vs 3%) (chi 2 = 4.623; P = 0.03) in the HTLV-I negative group. G. lamblia was detected more frequently among HTLV-I carriers compared to controls (9.1 and 3.5%, respectively), but the association was not statistically significant (chi 2 = 2.825; P = 0.09). Infection with intestinal parasites is likely to occur independent of HTLV-I status: however, possible HTLV-I-induced immunosuppression may lead to higher intensity infections of certain organisms thus facilitating easier detection using parasitological methods. The immunomodulatory potential of HTLV-I infection in the aetiology of non-malignant diseases requires further investigation.

Robinson RD; Murphy EL; Wilks RJ; Neva FA; Terry SI; Hanchard B; Figueroa JP; Blattner WA

1991-12-01

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Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites and Clinical Manifestations in Children  

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Full Text Available Background: Diagnosis and treatment of parasitic infections are very important because of pathologic changes and clinical symptoms produced in the host, and for taking measures against them. These diseases have more adverse effects and more importance in children. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence of intestinal parasites and their clinical manifestations in children 0-14 years old referred to Yazd Central Laboratory. Methods: The present cross- sectional descriptive study was performed during the April 2005 to September 2006, with data obtained from the stool samples of 1500 children, using both wet mount smear (physiologic saline and Lugol?s solutions) and formalin-ethyl acetate concentration method for detection of the intestinal parasites and also with the tape test for eggs of Enterobius vermicularis and Taenia. Results: From 1500 examined stool samples, 128(8.5%) cases were positive for one of the intestinal parasites, including 67(52.3%) females and 61(47.7%) males. Ninety five percent of positive cases were infected with protozoa and 5% with helminths. The most frequent protozoans were Blastocystis hominis 41.3%, Giardia lamblia 33.6%, and Entamoeba coli 14.7%. Enterobius vermicularis (4.3%) and Hymenolepis nana (0.7%) were the helminth species. The most abundant infection rate was shown in the 5-9 years old group, with a significant difference compared with other age groups (P< 0.05). About 87% of children infested with Blastocystis hominis showed more than 5 Blastocystis per 400x microscope fields, and 100% of children infested with Giardia lamblia and Chilomastix mesnili had clinical symptoms. Conclusion: In this study, lower contamination rates in comparison with the similar studies conducted in other regions of the country was seen, which may be as a result of the hot and dry climate and improved personal hygiene and public health services. There is a need for further studies about the prevalence and clinical symptoms of some parasites such as Blastocystis hominis and Chilomastix mesnili.

M Ebadi; F Behravan; SH Hekmati Moghaddam

2007-01-01

244

Factors associated with parasitic infection amongst street children in orphanages across Lima, Peru.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Infection caused by intestinal parasites has significant public health consequences amongst children in the developing world. Street children are an under-studied group of society subjected to increased health risks when compared to their peers. To estimate the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection and ascertain risk factors for parasitosis amongst this population, stool samples were collected from 258 children across four orphanages in three districts of Lima, Peru. Surveys were used to determine associations between risk factors and infection status. The prevalence of parasitic infection within the study sample was 66·3%, with 30·6% testing positive for pathogenic species. Entamoeba coli was the most commonly detected parasite (41·9%) and Giardia lamblia was the most commonly detected pathogenic parasite (17·1%). Of the group 15·1% had helminth infection. When testing for association, age and BMI were risk factors for infection. A notable difference in prevalence (P < 0·00001) based on orphanage was observed, but the duration of residence in an orphanage was not a predictor for infection. A sub-analysis conducted amongst children who were given anti-parasitic treatment 5 months beforehand found no significant difference in parasitosis between those who had been given treatment and those who had not (P = 0·218). It is suggested that a single dose of albendazole alone may not be effective in combating long-term infection rates.

Bailey C; Lopez S; Camero A; Taiquiri C; Arhuay Y; Moore DA

2013-03-01

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Prevalence of intestinal parasites and bacteria among food handlers in a tertiary care hospital.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this work is to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and bacteria among the food handlers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two hundred food-handlers were subjected to a cross-sectional study working in the kitchen of a tertiary care hospital, i.e., Alnoor Specialist Hospital, Makkah, Saudi Arabia from February 2 to 27, 2009. The stool samples were examined for intestinal parasites following direct microscopic examination, formol ether concentration (Ritchie), and staining with modified acid fast staining techniques. For enteropathogenic bacteria samples were inoculated onto MacConkey's agar, deoxycholate citrate agar, xylose lysine deoxycholate agar as per the World Health Organization protocol. Fingernail materials were examined microscopically for enteropathogenic bacteria and parasites. RESULTS: The majority (80%) of the food-handlers were young adults aged from 22 to 42 years. No intestinal parasites were detected from fingernail contents. Forty six (23%) stool specimens were positive for intestinal para¬sites. Giardia lamblia 18 (9%) was most frequent among the 10 different types of detected intestinal parasites followed by Entamoeba histolytica 9 (4.5%). No pathogenic bacteria were detected in all stool samples, whereas finger nails showed isolation of microorganisms as coagulase-negative staphylococci 79 (39.5%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus 35 (17.5%). CONCLUSION: The findings emphasized the importance of food handlers as potential sources of infections and suggested health institutions for appropriate hygienic and sanitary control measures.

Zaglool DA; Khodari YA; Othman RA; Farooq MU

2011-10-01

246

Studies on the intestinal parasites in African patients in Owamboland, South West Africa.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The paper gives the results of a survey of intestinal parasites among 501 in-patients drawn from four mission hospitals in Owambo and Kavango in northern South West Africa. Most of the patients (90%) were examined twice by the formol-ether concentration method, while the remaining 10% had one stool specimen examined. 10 species of helminths and 3 species of potentially-pathogenic protozoa were recorded--Necator americanus, Strongyloides stercoralis, Strongyloides fuelleborni, Hymenolepis nana, Taenia saginata, Trichuris trichura, Enterobius vermicularis, Fasciola gigantica, Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium, and Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and Balantidium coli. The loads of Necator americanus were recorded in a few cases. The results are compared with those of some other Central and Southern African countries. 96 blood smears were examined for filaria and 46 patients were tested for bilharzia using the bilharzial skin test. Both groups gave only negative results.

Kyrönseppä HJ; Goldsmid JM

1978-01-01

247

Prevalence of Salmonella, Shigella and intestinal parasites in food handlers in Irbid, Jordan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

During a one-year period, 283 food handlers in Irbid, Jordan were investigated for the presence of potential enteropathogens in their stools. The prevalence rate of enteropathogens among non-Jordanian food handlers (48.0%) was significantly higher (p less than 0.05) than that of the Jordanian group (12.3%). The isolation rates of Salmonella and Shigella were 6% and 1.4% respectively. Multi-drug resistance was frequent among isolates of Salmonella group B and Shigella spp. Intestinal parasites detected in the stools of food handlers included Ascaris lumbricoides (4.9%), Giardia lamblia (3.9%), Schistosoma mansoni, (2.8%), hookworms 2.5%, Hymenolyepis nana (1.8%), Trichuris trichiura (1.1%), Entamoeba histolytica (0.7%), and Taenia saginata (0.4%). This study emphasises the importance of food handlers, particularly the non-Jordanians, in Jordan, as potential source of food-borne infection.

al-Lahham AB; Abu-Saud M; Shehabi AA

1990-12-01

248

Intestinal protozoan parasitic infection among school children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Intestinal protozoan parasitosis is highly prevalent among general population, majority of them are children. The objective of the study is to find out the prevalence of intestinal protozoan infection in school children of Sindhuli. METHODS: Stool samples were collected from school children of Sindhuli in June 2011 and investigated in National Institute of Tropical Medicine and Public Health Research, Laboratory by using formal-ether concentration method. Statistical significance was analyzed by using Chi-Square test. RESULTS: A total of 342 stool samples were collected and 68 (19.8%) protozoan parasites were identified. The prevalence rate of protozoa in boys and girls were 16.9% and 22.0% respectively. Altogether 5 species of protozoan parasites were detected. Of them Entamoeba coli was most common followed by Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica, Blastocystis hominis and Endolimax nana. Positive rate was highest in Dalit (20.3%), and least in Indo-Aryan (19.6%). CONCLUSIONS: There is a low prevalence of intestinal protozoan parasitosis among children even though this study emphasizes the need for improved environmental hygiene i.e. clean water supplies and enhanced sanitation.

Mukhiya RK; Rai SK; Karki AB; Prajapati A

2012-09-01

249

Phosphocholine epitopes on helminth and protozoal parasites and their presence in the circulation of infected human patients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Antigens containing phosphocholine (PC) circulate in the blood during chronic filarial infection. Because of the wide occurrence of such PC epitopes, we examined their specificity by evaluating 10 common parasites of humans for the presence of PC epitopes, and sera from patients infected with these parasites for circulating antigens containing PC. Immunoblot analysis of extracts from various parasites using an anti-PC monoclonal antibody (CA101) demonstrated the presence of PC epitopes on the protozoa Leishmania major and Trypanosoma cruzi, and on the helminths Schistosoma mansoni and Strongyloides stercoralis, in addition to those previously described on Trichinella spiralis, Onchocerca volvulus and Brugia malayi. They were not detected on the protozoa Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia or Plasmodium falciparum. Sera from 163 individuals with single protozoan or helminth infections were assayed for PC-bearing circulating antigens in a two-site immunoassay; such antigens were found in almost all patients infected with Wuchereria bancrofti; in half of those infected with S. stercoralis; and in 7-15% of those with S. mansoni, T. cruzi or L. donovani; none was detected in those with Trichinella, hookworm, Echinococcus, malaria, Giardia or amoebic infections. Thus, while detection of circulating PC-antigen as an immunodiagnostic assay for filariasis could result in some 'false positives', it appears to be a potentially valuable immunodiagnostic tool that deserves wider field testing to determine its practical usefulness.

Lal RB; Ottesen EA

1989-09-01

250

Prevalence of intestinal parasites among HIV patients in Baringo, Kenya.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: HIV patients have reduced immune response which makes them more susceptible to different infections. This cross-sectional study was carried out to document the prevalence of intestinal parasites among HIV patients in Baringo County, Kenya. METHODS: Structured questionnaires were used to collect clinical information after obtaining consent from the participants. Stool samples were collected from 285 respondents for intestinal parasitic examination using direct and formol-ether concentration to detect ova and cysts. Chi-square (X(2)) statistical analysis was used to test level of significance at P = 0.05 using SPSS. RESULTS: A prevalence of 50.9% of intestinal parasites was recorded. Majority of the parasitic infections were waterborne protozoa with few helminthes. There was an association (P < 0.05) between intestinal parasitic infection and place of residence, agro-ecological location, family size, water source, treatment and reliability and diarrheal status. There was no association (P > 0.05) between age groups and gender with parasitic infection. Parasites identified were Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (58.3%), Giardia lamblia (16.6%), Ascaris lumbricoides (8.6%), Entamoeba coli (5.9%), Taenia saginata (5.3%), Trichuris trichuria (1.9%), Enterobius vermicularis (1.9%) and hookworm (1.3%). CONCLUSION: There was high prevalence of intestinal parasites, therefore, health education to HIV patients and community health workers on the importance of good environmental sanitation and personal hygiene could curb water, food and individual contamination promoting good management and care of HIV patients, hence improving their health status.

Kipyegen CK; Shivairo RS; Odhiambo RO

2012-01-01

251

Intestinal parasites in ecotourism region of the state of Paraná, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A prevalência de enteroparasitas e comensais, de janeiro/2003 a dezembro/2004, foi determinada em residentes de região de ecoturismo do Paraná por meio de estudo retrospectivo. Foram examinados os resultados de 3.764 exames coproparasitológicos efetuados em laboratório privado de Ubiratã Entre indivíduos de 8 meses a 89 anos, 522 (13,9%) exames foram positivos. Giardia intestinalis (175/522; 24,2%) foi o parasita prevalente (p(more) mmensal mais comum, com 238/552 (32,9%) casos (p Abstract in english To determine the indices of prevalence of intestinal parasites and commensals in the residents of ecotourism region of Paraná State, a retrospective study was conducte, from January/2003 to December/2004 on 3,764 fecal parasitological examinations performed by a private laboratory of Ubiratã using the Baermann-Moraes, water-sedimentation and Willis methods. Among the individuals aged eight months to 89 years, 522 (13.9%) cases were positive. Giardia lamblia (175/522; 24 (more) .2%) was the most prevalent parasite (p

Falavigna, Dina Lúcia Morais; Almeida, Amanda Andrea de; Iwazaki, Renata Sayuri; Araújo, Silvana Marques de

2008-08-01

252

Epidemiological and clinical picture of parasitic infections in the group of children and adolescents from north-east region of Poland.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The epidemiological and clinical purview of parasite diseases is constantly evolving, mainly due to the changes in human behavior and our environment. The aim of this study was frequency analysis of certain parasite infections, risk factors and clinical symptoms in children and adolescents of north-eastern Poland. 120 children were tested due to the symptoms resembling parasite infection from December 2008 to May 2009. 90 patients (the tested group) aged from 5 months to 18 years were found to be infected with one or more than one of the following parasites: Ascaris lumbricoides, Giardia lamblia, Toxocara spp., Strongyloides stercoralis or Enterobius vermicularis. 30 children with no infections found were the control group. Parasites were found by means of microscope decantation stool tests, RIDA Quick Giardia stool test and ELISA blood test (Toxocara IgG). The patients' parents filled out the survey concerning the probability factors of infection and the ailments that were the cause of parasitical diagnosis. High percentage of either isolated or co-invasive parasite infections was ascertained in the tested group--75%. The prevalence of ascariasis was 55.83%, toxocariasis--16.67%, giardiasis--12.5%, strongyloidiasis--5.83% and of enterobiasis--3.33%. The statistical significance of higher dirty hands-mouth contact frequency and more frequent presence of domestic animals in the tested group than in the control group was ascertained. A highly important correlation between the infection and the occurrence of symptoms from at least 3 various systems was ascertained. The presence of habits involving dirty hands-mouth contact and having domestic animals are significant risk factors of parasite infections. The presence of symptoms from at least 3 systems should compel to parasite infection diagnosis with proper differential diagnosis.

Zukiewicz M; Kaczmarski M; Topczewska M; Sidor K; Tomaszewska BM

2011-01-01

253

Intestinal parasitic infections in HIV infected and non-infected patients in a low HIV prevalence region, West-Cameroon.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The magnitude of intestinal parasitic infection in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients requires careful consideration in the developing world where poor nutrition is associated with poor hygiene and several tropical diseases. However, there have been very few studies addressing this issue in Cameroon. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in HIV/AIDS patients in Dschang -Cameroon. Stool and blood specimens from HIV/AIDS patients and control group were screened respectively for intestinal parasites and for HIV antibodies. Intestinal parasites were identified using direct microscopy, formalin-ether concentration and Ziehl Neelsen methods. Out of 396 participants recruited among patients consulting at hospital, 42 (10.6%) were HIV positive, thirty of them treatment naïve. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 14.64%. Out of 42 HIV/AIDS patients, 59.5% (25/42) were infected with intestinal parasites, while only 9.32% (33/354) of the HIV negative patients were infected with intestinal parasites. The parasites detected in our study population included Crystosporidium parvum (2.53%), Entamoeba histolytica (7.52%), Entamoeba coli (4.04%), Giardia lamblia (0.25%), Trichuris trichura (0.25%), Strongyloides stercoralis (0.25%) and Taenia spp. (0.25%). In the HIV infected group, Crystosporidium parvum (19.04%), Entamoeba histolytica (19.04%), Entamoeba coli (21.42%), Giardia lamblia (2.38%), Strongyloides stercoralis (0.25%) and Taenia spp. (0.25%) were found. Crystosporidium parvum was found to be significantly higher in HIV/AIDS patients than in controls (P<0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that the HIV status and the quality of water were the major risk factors for intestinal parasitosis. Routine examinations of stool samples for parasites would significantly benefit the HIV patients by contributing in reducing morbidity and improving the efficiency of antiretroviral treatment. Even after the introduction of free anti-retroviral drugs, opportunistic intestinal infections are still a threat. HIV patients should be screened routinely for intestinal parasites and treated for their overall well being.

Nkenfou CN; Nana CT; Payne VK

2013-01-01

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Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites among Patients of Al-Noor Specialist Hospital, Makkah, Saudi Arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites among patients of a tertiary care hospital. METHODS: A total of 12,054 samples received from the outpatient as well as inpatient departments from January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2009 in Al-Noor Specialist Hospital, Makkah, Saudi Arabia. Stool examinations were performed by direct method and concentrated Techniques for all patients. RESULTS: Overall, the prevalence of intestinal parasites was 6.2% (740 cases). Majority of patients were infected by Entamoeba histolytica (4.7%) followed by Giardia lamblia (1.3%), while Ankylostoma duodenal (0.02%) exhibited the minimum prevalence. Parasitic infections were more frequent in non-Saudis than Saudis patients (7.1% vs. 5.8%; p<0.05). There was no significant difference between males and females regarding parasitic infections, with a female:male ratio of 1:1.08. There was a higher prevalence in patients under five years of age (9.1%), followed by patients aged 5-14 years (7.5%). CONCLUSION: The notable finding from this study is the high prevalence of E. histolytica. Overall, parasitic infections were more prevalent in patients under five years of age and in non-Saudi nationals.

Zaglool DA; Khodari YA; Gazzaz ZJ; Dhafar KO; Shaker HA; Farooq MU

2011-05-01

255

Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites among Patients of Al-Noor Specialist Hospital, Makkah, Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites among patients of a tertiary care hospital.Methods: A total of 12,054 samples received from the outpatient as well as inpatient departments from January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2009 in Al-Noor Specialist Hospital, Makkah, Saudi Arabia. Stool examinations were performed by direct method and concentrated Techniques for all patients.Results: Overall, the prevalence of intestinal parasites was 6.2% (740 cases). Majority of patients were infected by Entamoeba histolytica (4.7%) followed by Giardia lamblia (1.3%), while Ankylostoma duodenal (0.02%) exhibited the minimum prevalence. Parasitic infections were more frequent in non-Saudis than Saudis patients (7.1% vs. 5.8%; p<0.05). There was no significant difference between males and females regarding parasitic infections, with a female:male ratio of 1:1.08. There was a higher prevalence in patients under five years of age (9.1%), followed by patients aged 5-14 years (7.5%).Conclusion: The notable finding from this study is the high prevalence of E. histolytica. Overall, parasitic infections were more prevalent in patients under five years of age and in non-Saudi nationals.

Dina AM Zaglool; Yousif AW Khodari; Zohair J. Gazzaz; Khalid O. Dhafar; Hani AS Shaker; Mian U. Farooq

2011-01-01

256

Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites in Bakery Workers in Khorramabad, Lorestan Iran  

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Full Text Available Background: Food contamination may occur through production, processing, distribution and prepara­tion. In Iran especially in Khorramabad, 33° 29' 16" North, 48° 21' 21" East, due to kind of nutrition, cul­ture and economic status of people, bread is a part of the main meal and the consumption of bread is high. In this study, the bakery workers were studied for determining of intestinal parasites prevalence.Methods: The study was carried out during September to November 2010 in Khorramabad. All the 278 baker­ies and the bakery workers including 816 people were studied in a census method and their feces were examined for the presence of parasites by direct wet-mount, Lugol's iodine solution, and formalde­hyde-ether sedimentation, trichrome staining, and single round PCR (For discrimination of Entamoeba spp).Results: Ninety-six (11.9%) stool specimens were positive for different intestinal parasites. Intestinal para­sites included Giardia lamblia 3.7%, Entamoeba coli 5.5%, Blastocystis sp. 2.1%, Entamoeba dispar 0.4%, Hymenolepis nana 0.1%, and Blastocystis sp. 0.1%.Conclusion: In order to reduce the contamination in these persons, some cases such as stool exam every three months with concentration methods, supervision and application of accurate health rules by health ex­perts, training in transmission of parasites are recommended.

F Kheirandish; MJ Tarahi; A Haghighi; E Nazemalhosseini- Mojarad; M Kheirandish

2011-01-01

257

The Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infections in Food Handlers in Gorgan, Iran  

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Full Text Available Background and objectives: Food handlers could be the main sources ofintestinal parasite transmission in case of not observing the hygienic rules.Contamination can be decreased by screening food handlers through physicalexam and laboratory tests. The aim of this study was determining theprevalence of intestinal parasites in 2010.Material and Methods: This cross-sectional research was carried out on 500randomly selected individuals engaged in different food related careers. Afterfilling out the questionnaire sheets, two specimens of feces were collectedfrom each person and tested by brine 30% (floatation) and direct methods.Result: The results show that the prevalence of intestinal parasites is 6%.The highest prevalence is relateted to Giardia lamblia ( 17 ; 4.3%) and thelowest to Hymenolepis nana ( 3 ; 0.6%). in the age group of 60-51 years(11.8%) and individuals who just able to read and write (7.4%) The highestpercentage is observed. The Most contamination is reported in butchery staff(25%) and the lowest in people worked in butler's pantry, without parasiticinfections.Conclusion: The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections are highrelatively, especially pathogenic protozoan; therefore, it is important be carefulabout health status of these individuals and their role in the spread ofpollution.Key words: Intestinal Parasites, Food Handlers, Prevalence, Gorgan

Koohsar F; Amini A; Ayatollahi A A; Noshak GH; HedayatMofidi H S; Namjoo M

2012-01-01

258

Study of Intestinal Protozoan Parasites in Rural Inhabitants of Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran  

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Full Text Available Background: Intestinal parasites of humans are important health problems of most communities, especially those situated in tropical and subtropical areas. This study was carried out in rural population of Mazandaran Province, northern Iran, during 2004-2005, with the purpose of achieving a better understanding of the distribution of intestinal protozoan parasites in this province.Methods: A total of 855 stool specimens were collected randomly from rural inhabitants (384 males and 471 females) and examined by the formalin-ethyl-acetate concentration technique. In addition, a modified version of the Ziehl-Neelsen tech­nique was used for the staining of Cryptosporidium and other intestinal coccidian parasites.Results: The general prevalence of intestinal protozoans was found as 25%. The prevalence of every intestinal protozoan parasite was as follows: Giardia lamblia (10.2%), Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (1.2%), Dientamoeba fragilis (1.1%), Blastocystis hominis (9.8%), Entamoeba coli (5%), Endolimax nana (0.7%), Iodamoeba butschlii (1.3%), and Entamoeba hartmani (0.4%).Conclusion: The present study revealed that the prevalence of intestinal protozoan parasites among rural inhabitants of Ma­zandaran Province are  still so high that implies performing special control measures.

EB Kia; M Hosseini; MR Nilforoushan; AR Meamar; M Rezaeian

2008-01-01

259

CROSS TRANSMISSION OF 'GIARDIA'  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardia cysts isolated from fecal samples obtained from humans (Homo sapiens), beaver (Castor canadensis), dogs (Canis familiaris), cats (Felis domesticus), bighorn X mouflon sheep (Ovis canadensis X O. musimon), guinea pig (Cavis porcellus), muskrat (Ondatra ziethica) and mule d...

260

Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in certified food-handlers working in food establishments in the City of Nairobi, Kenya.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Most intestinal parasites are cosmopolitan with the highest prevalence in the tropics and subtopics. Rural-to-urban migration rapidly increases the number of food eating places in towns and their environs. Some of these eating estabishments have poor sanitation and are overcrowded, facilitating disease transmission, especially through food-handling. Our investigations in Nairobi, therefore, were set to determine the presence of intestinal parasites in food-handlers with valid medical certificates. Direct and concentrated stool processing techniques were used. Chisquare test and ANOVA were used for data analysis. The parasites Ascaris lumbricoides, Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia were observed in certified food-handlers. Significant difference was found in parasite frequency by eating classes and gender (?(2) = 9.49, P = 0.73), (F = 1.495, P = 0.297), but not in parasite occurrence between age brackets (?(2) = 6.99, P = 0.039). The six-month medical certificate validity period may contribute significantly to the presence of intestinal parasites in certified food-handlers.

Kamau P; Aloo-Obudho P; Kabiru E; Ombacho K; Langat B; Mucheru O; Ireri L

2012-03-01

 
 
 
 
261

Determining the prevalence of intestinal parasites in three Orang Asli (Aborigines) communities in Perak, Malaysia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites among children and adult Orang Aslis (Aborigines) from different locations in Perak. Faecal samples were collected and analyzed using the direct smear and formal ether sedimentation technique. Some of the faecal samples were stained using the Modified Acid fast stain for Cryptosporidium. Nail clippings of the respondents and the soil around their habitat were also analyzed. Of the 77 stool samples examined, 39 (50.6%) were positive for at least one intestinal parasite. The most common parasite detected was Trichuris trichiura (39.0%) followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (26.9%), Entamoeba coli (5.2%), Giardia lamblia (5.2%), Blastocystis hominis (3.9%), hookworm (3.9%), Entamoeba histolytica (1.3%), Iodamoeba butschlii (1.3%) and Cryptosporidium sp. (1.3%) respectively. Some respondents had single parasites (24.7%), some with two parasites (18.2%). Some with three parasites (6.5%) and one had four parasites species (1.3%). The parasites were slightly more common in females (54.7%) than males ((41.7%). The parasites were more common in the 13-20 year age group (90.9%) followed by 1-12 years (69.6%), 21-40 year age group (34.8%) and least in the 41-60 year age group (27.8%). Nail examinations of the respondents did not show any evidence of parasites. One had a mite, three had pollen grains and one had yeast cells isolated from the finger nails. Soil samples taken around their houses showed only one sample with a nematode ova and one with oocyst which was of a non human origin.

Sinniah B; Sabaridah I; Soe MM; Sabitha P; Awang IP; Ong GP; Hassan AK

2012-06-01

262

Prevalencia de parasitismo intestinal en escolares de 6-11 año Prevalence of intestinal parasites in schoolchildren aged 6 -11 years  

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Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y transversal de 1 253 niños, como muestra representativa de la población infantil de 6-11 años de la provincia de Santiago de Cuba, desde septiembre del 2010 hasta junio del 2011, para determinar la prevalencia del parasitismo intestinal en ellos. Se procesaron las pruebas de heces fecales mediante 2 métodos coproparasitológicos (directo y concentrado) y se obtuvo que 37,8 % de los integrantes de la serie estaban parasitados. Predominaron los protozoarios (22,7 %), con mayor frecuencia de Giardia lamblia, el parasitismo en el grupo etario de 6-8 años (66,7 %) y los escolares infectados que presentaban inadecuados hábitos higiénico-sanitarios, depósitos de residuales, agua de consumo y piso de la vivienda. A fin de minimizar este problema, se recomendó que debieran incrementarse las actividades de educación sanitaria a la población y discutirse estos resultados con los decisores de salud de la provincia, para así promover hábitos y estilos de vida saludables.A descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted in 1 253 children as a representative sample of children aged 6-11 years in the province of Santiago de Cuba, from September 2010 to June 2011, to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in them. Tests were processed by 2 stool parasitological methods (direct and concentrate) and it was found that 37.8% of the members of the series were parasitized. Protozoa (22.7%) with higher frequency of Giardia lamblia, parasitism in age group of 6-8 years(66.7%) and infected schoolchildren, who had poor health and hygiene habits, waste deposits, water consumption and floor of the house predominated. To minimize this problem it was recommended to increase health education to the population and discuss these results with health decision makers in the province, in order to promote healthy habits and lifestyles.

Glenda Pérez Sánchez; Guillermo Redondo de la Fé; Hiram Guillermo Fong Rodríguez; Marly Sacerio Cruz; Oslandy González Beltrán

2012-01-01

263

A novel, multi-parallel, real-time polymerase chain reaction approach for eight gastrointestinal parasites provides improved diagnostic capabilities to resource-limited at-risk populations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diagnosis of gastrointestinal parasites has traditionally relied on stool microscopy, which has low diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. We have developed a novel, rapid, high-throughput quantitative multi-parallel real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) platform. Species-specific primers/probes were used for eight common gastrointestinal parasite pathogens: Ascaris lumbricoides, Necator americanus, Ancylostoma duodenale, Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium spp., Entamoeba histolytica, Trichuris trichiura, and Strongyloides stercoralis. Stool samples from 400 13-month-old children in rural Ecuador were analyzed and the qPCR was compared with a standard direct wet mount slide for stool microscopy, as were 125 8-14-year-old children before and after anthelmintic treatment. The qPCR showed higher detection rates for all parasites compared with direct microscopy, Ascaris (7.0% versus 5.5%) and for Giardia (31.5% versus 5.8%). Using an enhanced DNA extraction method, we were able to detect T. trichiura DNA. These assays will be useful to refine treatment options for affected populations, ultimately leading to better health outcomes. PMID:23509117

Mejia, Rojelio; Vicuña, Yosselin; Broncano, Nely; Sandoval, Carlos; Vaca, Maritza; Chico, Martha; Cooper, Philip J; Nutman, Thomas B

2013-03-18

264

A novel, multi-parallel, real-time polymerase chain reaction approach for eight gastrointestinal parasites provides improved diagnostic capabilities to resource-limited at-risk populations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Diagnosis of gastrointestinal parasites has traditionally relied on stool microscopy, which has low diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. We have developed a novel, rapid, high-throughput quantitative multi-parallel real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) platform. Species-specific primers/probes were used for eight common gastrointestinal parasite pathogens: Ascaris lumbricoides, Necator americanus, Ancylostoma duodenale, Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium spp., Entamoeba histolytica, Trichuris trichiura, and Strongyloides stercoralis. Stool samples from 400 13-month-old children in rural Ecuador were analyzed and the qPCR was compared with a standard direct wet mount slide for stool microscopy, as were 125 8-14-year-old children before and after anthelmintic treatment. The qPCR showed higher detection rates for all parasites compared with direct microscopy, Ascaris (7.0% versus 5.5%) and for Giardia (31.5% versus 5.8%). Using an enhanced DNA extraction method, we were able to detect T. trichiura DNA. These assays will be useful to refine treatment options for affected populations, ultimately leading to better health outcomes.

Mejia R; Vicuña Y; Broncano N; Sandoval C; Vaca M; Chico M; Cooper PJ; Nutman TB

2013-06-01

265

Intestinal Parasitic Infection in Feraydoon Kenar, Mazandaran  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was clearing the pattern of parasitic infections in Feraydoon-Kenar, a 30,000 population town on the Caspian sea area.A total of 2568 persons, refered to Feraydoon Kenar Laboratory for rutine stool examination by Direct Smear, scotsch tests for children and formalin ether, and Floatation tests.A total of 321 infected persons were in divided 2 groups living in urban and rural area. Also 386 Scotch tape tests were used in school children in different age and sex groups. Prevalences of parasites were : Giardia lamblia 16.93% , Enterebius vermicularis (pinworm) 4.71% , E. histolytica 4.28% , Strengyloides 0.74%, H. nana 0.42%, Hook worms 0.19% and Taenia 0.19%. Non pathogen protozoa prevalences were : E.coli 3.5% , Blastocystis hominis 3.15%, Iodamoeba butschlii 0.66%, Endolimax nana 0.15% , and Dientamoebafragilis 0.11%.The highest prevalence were (41.2%) belong to 5 to 9 years old children, and 4.1% of them had both Giardia and E.vermicularis at the same time.Giardia prevalence during spring and summer (18.9%) had significant difference comparing with autumn and winter (14.81% )P<0.005, but prevalences of E. vermicularis showd no seasonal variation.In rural area Prevalences (28.39% ) and in urban area (23.8%) showed significant difference. P<0.005.In rural area prevalences of Ehistolytica (4.32%), Strengyloides stercolaris (1.85%), and Hook worms (0.62%) had significant difference with urban area (2.51 %, 0.6%, 0%). H.nana (1.26%), E.vermicularis (8.17%) prevalence in town had significant difference with urban area (0%, 6.17%,P<0.005).In 386 scotch tape tests the prevalence of E.vermicularis in young male was 23.46% but"nin yuung female was 32.63% , demonstrated significant difference (P<0.005).

T Razavyoon; J Massoud

2003-01-01

266

'GIARDIA' DETECTION IN WATER SYSTEMS  

Science.gov (United States)

A method has been developed combining immunofluorescence and phase-contrast to microscopically locate and identify Giardia cysts among particulates filtered from water samples. Selective staining of cysts with anti-Giardia antiserum and a fluorochrom enhances the contrast between...

267

Transcription of meiotic-like-pathway genes in Giardia intestinalis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The reproductive mechanism of Giardia intestinalis, considered one of the earliest divergent eukaryotes, has not been fully defined yet. Some evidence supports the hypothesis that Giardia is an exclusively asexual organism with a clonal population structure. However, the high genetic variability, the variation in ploidy during its life cycle, the low heterozygosity and the existence of genes involved in the meiotic-like recombination pathway in the parasite's genome cast (more) doubt on exclusively asexual nature of Giardia. In this work, semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis was used to assess the transcription pattern of three meiosis-like-specific genes involved in homologues recombination: dmc1, hop1 and spo11. The mRNAs were amplified during the parasite's differentiation processes, encystation and excystation, and expression was found at each stage of its life cycle. A semiquantitative assessment also suggests that expression of some of the genes is regulated during encystation process.

Melo, Sandra P; Gómez, Vanessa; Castellanos, Isabel C; Alvarado, Magda E; Hernández, Paula C; Gallego, Amanda; Wasserman, Moisés

2008-06-01

268

Perfil das enteroparasitoses diagnosticadas em pacientes com infecção pelo vírus HIV na era da terapia antiretroviral potente em um centro de referência em São Paulo, Brasil/ PROFILE OF INTESTINAL PARASITES DIAGNOSED IN HIV INFECTED PATIENTS IN THE HAART ERA AT A REFERENCE CENTER IN SÃO PAULO, BRAZIL  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Intestinal parasites in HIV infected patients are a compelling issue in epidemiological settings with high prevalence of these parasites. The present study reviewed frequencies of diagnosis for common intestinal parasites in HIV infected patients in association with sex, age, HIV risk behavior and CD4 lymphocyte count. Patients with confirmed HIV diagnosis and positive routine stool examination between January and December 2000 were selected. Diagnostic methods for Cyclos (more) pora cayetanensis and microsporidia were not included in the routine stool examination. A total of 146 patients had one or more positive samples (median 1.5) with age ranging between 2-75 years (mean: 34). Most of them were male (70.5%) and 53.6% had a CD4 count > 200 cells/mm³ (median: 158.5 cells/mm³). Endolimax nana (27.4%), Entamoeba coli (22.6%), Strongyloides stercoralis (21.9%), Giardia lamblia (13.0%), Isospora belli (12.3%), Ascaris lumbricoides (8.2%), Cryptosporidium parvum (6.8%) were the most frequent parasites diagnosed in this group. G. lamblia was more common in children with vertically transmitted HIV and men who have sex with men. No significant associations were found in relation to sex and age. Patients with CD4 count

CIMERMAN, SÉRGIO; CASTAÑEDA, CARLOS G.; IULIANO, WILMA ASSUNÇÃO; PALACIOS, RICARDO

2002-07-01

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INTESTINAL PARASITIC PREVALENCE IN RURAL AREA CHILDREN MOBARAKEH-ISFAHAN -1997  

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Full Text Available Introduction: intestinal parasitic infection is considered as one of the important health indices and the differences in it"s prevalence in different communities, explain the need for the periodical study of the prevalence inorder to organize, convenient preventative programs. previous studies have shown that prevalence of parasitic infection in rural areas is higher than urban areas. Therefore in this survey for the first time, the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in relation to some of the demographic parameters was studied in rural areas of the city of mobarakeh of Isfahan province in 1997. Methods: Two methods were used to detect the presence of intestinal parasites; direct exam and fecalcontrate system: formalin ethyl acetate method. The scotch tape method was used to examin for Enterobius vermicularis. Results: 51.9 percent of the studied children were infected by one or several intestinal parasites. The most prevalent intestinal parasite was Giardia lamblia (29.8 percent), Entamoeba coli (17.1 percent) and Enterobius vermicularis(16.3 percent) respectively. A significant relation was found between age, level of education of mother and father, weight at birth, number of children in the family, and parasitic infections (P percentS). Discussion: A comparison between the present results and those reported previously indicates that there is not a significant differences between the prevalence of parasitic infection in rural and urban parts of Isfahan province. Intestinal parasitic infections is still an important health problem in the region and the control and prevention demands more consideration of authorities.

M BAGHAEI; P DANESHVAR FARZANEGAN; M MIRLOUHI; M MAHMOUDI

2001-01-01

270

Intestinal parasitic infections and eosinophilia in an human immunedeficiency virus positive population in Honduras  

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Full Text Available The occurrence of intestinal parasites, their regional distribution and their relations to eosinophilia were studied in 133 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive individuals from Honduras. After signing an informed consent, participants answered a socio-demographic and risk factor questionnaire, a complete physical examination, medical history, and a series of laboratory tests. All participants were HIV positive but not acquired immunodeficiency syndrome positive. Of them, 67% were co-infected with pathogen and non pathogen parasites. Overall occurrence of nematodes was: 44.3% for Trichuris trichiura, 24% for Ascaris lumbricoides, 12% for Hookworm and 7.5% for Strongyloides stercoralis. No cases of Giardia lamblia, acute amebiasis or cryptosporidiasis were diagnosed. Mean eosinophil percents for participants were consistently and significantly higher in infected than in non infected individuals: 22% for Hookworm vs 7.2% (p < 0.001), 11% for Trichuris compared to 5.2% (p < 0.001), 13.2% compared to 7.5% for S. stercoralis (p < 0.05), and 12% compared to 6% for Ascaris cases (p < 0.05). Helminths and non pathogenic protozoa, as single or mixed infections, occurred among the participants. There was a strong correlation between eosinophilia and helminthiasis infections; however, none was identified between CD4 levels and eosinophilia. Because parasitic infections aggravate malnutrition and promote a disbalanced Th2 response in a potentially immuno-compromised host, their effect on HIV disease progression needs further study, mainly in countries were HIV and parasitic infections are highly prevalent.

Rina G Kaminsky; Ramón J Soto; Adriana Campa; Marianna K Baum

2004-01-01

271

Intestinal parasitic infections in HIV/AIDS patients: epidemiological, nutritional and immunological aspects  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english This study applied a socioeconomic questionnaire designed to evaluate the frequency of intestinal parasites and characterize epidemiological, nutritional, and immunological variables in 105 HIV/AIDS patients - with and without parasitic infections, attending the Day Hospital in Botucatu, UNESP, from 2007 to 2008. Body mass index was calculated and the following tests performed: parasitological stool examinations; eosinophil, IgE, CD4+ T and CD8+ T lymphocyte cell counts; (more) albumin test; viral load measure; and TNF-?, IFN-?, IL-2, IL-5 and IL-10 cytokine levels. Results were positive for parasitic intestinal infections in 12.4% of individuals. Most patients had good socioeconomic conditions with basic sanitation, urban dwellings, treated water supply and sewage, good nutritional and immunological status and were undergoing HAART. Parasites were found at the following frequencies: Entamoeba - five patients (38.5%), Giardia lamblia - four (30.7%), Blastocystis hominis - three (23.0%), Endolimax nana - two (15.4%), and Ascaris lumbricoides - one (7.7%). There were no significant differences between the two groups for eosinophils, albumin, IgE, CD4+ T and CD8+ T lymphocytes, INF-?, IL-2, or IL-10. Most patients also showed undetectable viral load levels. Significant differences were found for TNF-? and IL-5. These results show the importance of new studies on immunodeficient individuals to increase understanding of such variables.

Amâncio, FAM; Pascotto, VM; Souza, LR; Calvi, SA; Pereira, PCM

2012-01-01

272

Intestinal parasitic infections in HIV/AIDS patients: epidemiological, nutritional and immunological aspects  

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Full Text Available This study applied a socioeconomic questionnaire designed to evaluate the frequency of intestinal parasites and characterize epidemiological, nutritional, and immunological variables in 105 HIV/AIDS patients - with and without parasitic infections, attending the Day Hospital in Botucatu, UNESP, from 2007 to 2008. Body mass index was calculated and the following tests performed: parasitological stool examinations; eosinophil, IgE, CD4+ T and CD8+ T lymphocyte cell counts; albumin test; viral load measure; and TNF-?, IFN-?, IL-2, IL-5 and IL-10 cytokine levels. Results were positive for parasitic intestinal infections in 12.4% of individuals. Most patients had good socioeconomic conditions with basic sanitation, urban dwellings, treated water supply and sewage, good nutritional and immunological status and were undergoing HAART. Parasites were found at the following frequencies: Entamoeba - five patients (38.5%), Giardia lamblia - four (30.7%), Blastocystis hominis - three (23.0%), Endolimax nana - two (15.4%), and Ascaris lumbricoides - one (7.7%). There were no significant differences between the two groups for eosinophils, albumin, IgE, CD4+ T and CD8+ T lymphocytes, INF-?, IL-2, or IL-10. Most patients also showed undetectable viral load levels. Significant differences were found for TNF-? and IL-5. These results show the importance of new studies on immunodeficient individuals to increase understanding of such variables.

FAM Amâncio; VM Pascotto; LR Souza; SA Calvi; PCM Pereira

2012-01-01

273

[Prevalence of intestinal parasites in children of Yukpa Ethnia in Toromo, Zulia State, Venezuela].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Yupkpa community in Perijá Sierra does not have drinking water or sewage elimination systems. Thus it becomes a propitious place for infection with intestinal parasites. AIM: To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in children, ages 0 to 14 years, in the Yukpa ethnic population of Toromo in the Perijá Mountains, Zulia State, Venezuela. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ninety one fecal samples were analyzed by the following coproparasitologic methods: saline solution and lugol fresh mount, formalin-ether concentration (Ritchie), and Kinyoun stain for intestinal coccidians. RESULTS: Overall parasite infection prevalence was 83.5%. The most frequently observed parasites were: Ascaris lumbricoides (57.1%), Trichuris trichiura (20.8%), Hymenolepis nana (14.2%), Blastocystis hominis (51.6%), Giardia lamblia (30.7%), and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar complex (21.9%). Coccidians were nont observed in any of the stool samples. CONCLUSIONS: The large number of infected people is directly related to the hygienic and sanitary conditions of the population studied.

Díaz A I; Rivero R Z; Bracho M A; Castellanos S M; Acurero E; Calchi L M; Atencio T R

2006-01-01

274

Enteric Protozoan Parasites in Rural Areas of Bandar-Abbas, Southern Iran: Comparison of Past and Present Situation  

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Full Text Available "nBackground: The main goal was to address the prevalence of enteric protozoan parasites in rural areas of Bandar- Abbas, southern Iran and to compare the results with the only conducted study in 1978."nMethods: This descriptive study was performed from 2009 through 2010 on the 565 fecal samples. Formalin-ether concentration technique was performed and the analysis was carried out using Chi-square test in SPSS software version 13.5. Finally, the comparison of our results with the only previous study which was accomplished by Sheiban and Rezaeian in 1978 was done."nResults: The overall prevalence of the protozoan parasites was 48.8%. However, the prevalence of pathogen parasites was 23%. Previous research in 1978 showed 80.4% infectivity. The most protozoan parasites were Blas­tocystis hominis (25.53%), Giardia lamblia (17.2%) and Entamoeba coli (15.95%). Previous study in 1978 found Entamoeba coli as the most common protozoa. Our finding revealed that the rate of single infectivity was much higher compared to previous research. The most frequency of infection was in children."nConclusion: The remarkable decrease of protozoan parasites is mainly due to progress in health care in the villages; however more effort should be done with the goal of eradicating infectious agents.

A Bairami Kuzehkanani; S Rezaei; Z Babaei; M Niyyati; SN Hashemi; M Rezaeian

2011-01-01

275

Intestinal parasitic infections among expatriate workers in Al-Madina Al-Munawarah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Al Madinah Al Munawarah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has one of the largest number of expatriate workers. Most of them are from Sri-Lanka, Indonesia, Philippines, India and Bangladesh. These countries are considered as endemic areas for intestinal parasites. A total of 2732 stool samples were screened for intestinal parasites. Positive cases were recorded among 407 stool samples (14.9%). The common parasitic infections were encountered among 20-29 age groups (18.5%) while, the lowest infection rate was among individual ? 50 years (11.8%). According to the nationality, the highest infections were recorded among Pakistanis (23.2%), followed by Philippines (22.2%), Sudanese workers (18.7%), and the lowest infection rates were recorded among Bangladeshi individuals. The infected persons were farmers, food handlers and shepherds. The detected intestinal parasites were Giardia lamblia (21.9%), Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba coli (17.8%), Trichuris trichiura (16.2%), Ascaris lumbricoides (15.8%), hookworm (13%), Hymenolepis nana (8.9%), Strongyloides sterocoralis (3.5%), Schistosoma mansoni (2.2%), and Enterobius vermicularis (0.43%). In conclusion, the high prevalence of parasites among expatriates may produce health problem among the Saudi society due to the nature of the expatriates' work. PMID:23665711

Taha, Hoda A; Soliman, Mohammed I; Banjar, Sanaa A N

2013-03-01

276

Intestinal parasitic infections among expatriate workers in Al-Madina Al-Munawarah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Al Madinah Al Munawarah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has one of the largest number of expatriate workers. Most of them are from Sri-Lanka, Indonesia, Philippines, India and Bangladesh. These countries are considered as endemic areas for intestinal parasites. A total of 2732 stool samples were screened for intestinal parasites. Positive cases were recorded among 407 stool samples (14.9%). The common parasitic infections were encountered among 20-29 age groups (18.5%) while, the lowest infection rate was among individual ? 50 years (11.8%). According to the nationality, the highest infections were recorded among Pakistanis (23.2%), followed by Philippines (22.2%), Sudanese workers (18.7%), and the lowest infection rates were recorded among Bangladeshi individuals. The infected persons were farmers, food handlers and shepherds. The detected intestinal parasites were Giardia lamblia (21.9%), Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba coli (17.8%), Trichuris trichiura (16.2%), Ascaris lumbricoides (15.8%), hookworm (13%), Hymenolepis nana (8.9%), Strongyloides sterocoralis (3.5%), Schistosoma mansoni (2.2%), and Enterobius vermicularis (0.43%). In conclusion, the high prevalence of parasites among expatriates may produce health problem among the Saudi society due to the nature of the expatriates' work.

Taha HA; Soliman MI; Banjar SA

2013-03-01

277

Rotifers ingest Giardia cysts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Seven species of rotifers representing 6 genera, Epiphanes, Plationus, Asplanchna, Philodina species A, Philodina species B. Platyias, and Brachionus, were exposed to Giardia cysts isolated from the feces of experimentally infected holstein calves. Giardia cysts were prestained with a fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated monoclonal antibody and mixed with viable rotifers on 3-well Teflon-coated microscope slides. Organisms were observed with phase-contrast, differential interference contrast, and fluorescence microscopy. Five rotifer species, Epiphanes brachionus, Plationus patulus, Philodina (both A and B), and Platyias quadricornis, ingested varying numbers of cysts, which were retained within the rotifers' bodies throughout the observation period. Rotifer ingestion of Giardia cysts may represent a means of reducing water contamination. PMID:12435156

Trout, J M; Walsh, E J; Fayer, R

2002-10-01

278

Rotifers ingest Giardia cysts.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Seven species of rotifers representing 6 genera, Epiphanes, Plationus, Asplanchna, Philodina species A, Philodina species B. Platyias, and Brachionus, were exposed to Giardia cysts isolated from the feces of experimentally infected holstein calves. Giardia cysts were prestained with a fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated monoclonal antibody and mixed with viable rotifers on 3-well Teflon-coated microscope slides. Organisms were observed with phase-contrast, differential interference contrast, and fluorescence microscopy. Five rotifer species, Epiphanes brachionus, Plationus patulus, Philodina (both A and B), and Platyias quadricornis, ingested varying numbers of cysts, which were retained within the rotifers' bodies throughout the observation period. Rotifer ingestion of Giardia cysts may represent a means of reducing water contamination.

Trout JM; Walsh EJ; Fayer R

2002-10-01

279

Parasites  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Unproductive enterprises that feed on productive businesses, are rampant in developing countries. These parasitic enterprises take divergent forms, some headed by violent bandits and brutal mafia bosses, others by organized middlemen or smart political insiders. All of them seem to have the profit m...

Mehlum, Halvor; Moene, Karl Ove; Torvik, Ragnat

280

Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infection among HIV Positive Persons Who Are Naive and on Antiretroviral Treatment in Hiwot Fana Specialized University Hospital, Eastern Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Background. Intestinal parasitic infection affects the health and quality of life of people living with HIV. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites among HIV positive individuals who are naive and who are on antiretroviral treatment (ART) in Hiwot Fana Specialized University Hospital, Eastern Ethiopia. Methods. A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted on 371 (112 ART-naive group and 259 on ART) HIV positive individuals. Stool specimens were collected and examined by direct wet mount, formol ether concentration technique, and modified ziehl-Neelsen methods. Results. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections was 33.7%; it was significantly higher among the study participants who were ART-naive group (45.5%) (AOR:?2.60(1.56,4.34)) and diarrheic (53.3%) (AOR:?2.30(1.34,3.96)) and with CD4 count <200 cells/ ? L (46%) (AOR:?2.07(1.06,4.04)). The most commonly identified parasites were Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar (13.5%), Giardia lamblia (8.1%), Strongyloides stercoralis (4.0%), and Cryptosporidium species (2.2%). Conclusion. HIV positive individuals with diarrhea and low CD4 count and ART naive groups were more infected with intestinal parasites than their counterparts. Early stool examination and treatment of intestinal parasites for HIV/AIDS patients is essential.

Teklemariam Z; Abate D; Mitiku H; Dessie Y

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Risk factors for Giardia infection among hospitalized children in Cuba.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The risk factors associated with Giardia infection, in children hospitalized in Havana, Cuba, were recently explored. Children aged ?5?years were more likely to be positive for Giardia infection than the younger children, with an odds ratio (OR) of 3·41 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1·36-9·69]. The risk factors found to be associated with Giardia infection in univariate analyses were rural residence (OR = 3·01; CI = 1·23-7·35), belonging to a household that did not receive water from an aqueduct (OR = 3·27; CI = 1·21-8·91), drinking unboiled water (OR = 3·64; CI = 2·14-6·26), nail biting (OR = 3·47; CI = 1·97-6·08), eating unwashed vegetables raw (OR = 4·84; CI = 2·33-10·14), and a personal (OR = 3·23; CI = 1·58-6·59) or family history (OR = 3·96; CI = 1·53-10·47) of previous parasitic infection. In multivariate analyses, however, only two (modifiable) risk factors were found to be independently and significantly associated with Giardia infection: nail biting and eating unwashed vegetables raw. It therefore seems that, at least at the individual level, giardiasis-prevention activities in Havana should be focussed on health education to improve personal hygiene and food-related practices. If appropriately managed, the surveillance of drinking water and foodstuffs, for Giardia and other parasites, might also help to reduce the hospitalization of Cuban children.

Bello J; Núñez FA; González OM; Fernández R; Almirall P; Escobedo AA

2011-01-01

282

High prevalence of diarrhoegenic intestinal parasite infections among non-ART HIV patients in Fitche Hospital, Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: HIV infection has been modifying both the epidemiology and outcome of parasite infections. Hence, this study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium and other intestinal parasite infections among HIV positives with and without Antiretroviral Treatment(ART) and its association with CD4+ T-cell count. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted at Fitche hospital focusing on HIV positives who came to hospital for follow-ups. A total of 378 HIV positive persons with and without ART participated in the study. Data on socio-demographic factors and diarrhoea status were obtained by interviewing all 214 with ART and 164 without ART. Stool samples were collected from all patients and examined for intestinal parasites using direct, formol-ether and modified acid-fast staining techniques. RESULTS: The prevalence of intestinal parasite infections in this study was significantly higher among HIV positive persons not on ART. Specifically, the rate of infection with Cryptosporidium species, Blastocystis spp., Giardia lamblia, and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar were higher, particularly in those with CD4+ T-cell counts less than 200 cells/µL. Fifty seven percent of the study participants were on ART. Out of these 164/378 (43%) of the non-ART study participants were infected with at least one intestinal parasite species. Significant association was observed between lower CD4+ T-cell count (<200 cells/µL) and the prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Blastocystis spp. The two parasites were significantly more prevalent in HIV positive non-ART patients. CONCLUSION: HIV infection increased the risk of having Cryptosporidium and other intestinal parasites and diarrhoea. Therefore, raising HIV positive's immune status and screening for intestinal parasites is important. This study showed that patients who are taking ART had a lower prevalence of diarrhoea causing parasites and Cryptosporidium suggesting that ART through improvement of immune status of the patients may have contributed to controlling diarrhoea-causing parasites in HIV positive patients.

Adamu H; Wegayehu T; Petros B

2013-01-01

283

Epidemiological survey of the prevalence of intestinal parasites among schoolchildren in Sari, northern Iran.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Parasitic infection is highly prevalent throughout the developing countries of the world. Research on the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in various geographic regions is a prerequisite for the development of appropriate control strategies. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among schoolchildren in public primary and secondary schools in the urban areas of Sari, Mazandaran province, northern Iran. The study was conducted from November 2009 to June 2010. A total of 1100 stool samples from 607 males and 493 females aged 7-14 years were examined by direct wet mounting, formalin-ether concentration, and Ziehl-Neelsen and trichrome permanent staining methods. A parental questionnaire for common risk factors was completed for each participant. Mono- or poly-parasitism was detected in 367 (33.3%) of the children (32.6% of males and 34.2% of females). Various species of protozoan or helminth infections were detected: Blastocystis hominis seemed to be the most prevalent parasite (13.5%) followed by Giardia lamblia (10.6%), Entamoeba coli (7.2%), Endolimax nana (1.5%), Enterobius vermicularis (2.2%), Trichostrongylus sp. (2.1%) and Strongyloides stercoralis (1.6%). The prevalence of intestinal parasite infections in females was slightly higher than in males, though without a statistically significant difference (p=0.56). No age association was detected, and a slightly lower positive association with increasing age was observed (p=0.33). A significant association was observed with parents' educational level, household income and practice of hand washing before meals (p<0.01). Although paediatric pathogenic intestinal parasite infections are not more prevalent in this geographical area than in other regions, improvements in personal hygienic conditions and behavioural characteristics is important to completely control parasitic infections in schoolchildren in northern Iran.

Daryani A; Sharif M; Nasrolahei M; Khalilian A; Mohammadi A; Barzegar G

2012-08-01

284

Human intestinal parasites in non-biting synanthropic flies in Ogun State, Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Filth-feeding and breeding, non-biting synanthropic flies have been incriminated in the dissemination of human enteropathogens in the environment. This study determined the species of non-biting synanthropic flies associated with four filthy sites in Ilishan, Ogun State, southwest Nigeria, and assessed their potentials for mechanical transmission of human intestinal parasites. 7190 flies identified as Musca domestica (33.94%), Chrysomya megacephala (26.01%), Musca sorbens (23.23%), Lucilia cuprina (8.76%), Calliphora vicina (4.59%), Sarcophaga sp. (2.78%) and Fannia scalaris (0.70%) were examined for human intestinal parasites by the formol-ether concentration and modified Ziehl-Neelsen techniques. Eggs of the following parasites: Ascaris lumbricoides (34.08%), Trichuris trichiura (25.87%), hookworms (20.45%), Taenia sp. (2.36%), Hymenolepis nana (1.11%), Enterobius vermicularis (0.56%), Strongyloides stercoralis (larvae; 3.89%) and cysts of Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (27.26%), Entamoeba coli (22.67%), Giardia lamblia (3.34%) and Cryptosporidium sp. (1.81%) were isolated from the body surfaces and or gut contents of 75.24% of 719 pooled fly batches. The helminths A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura and the protozoans, E. histolytica/dispar and E. coli were the dominant parasites detected, both on body surfaces and in the gut contents of flies. C. megacephala was the highest carrier of parasites (diversity and number). More parasites were isolated from the gut than from body surfaces (P < 0.05). Flies from soiled ground often carried more parasites than those from abattoir, garbage or open-air market. Synanthropic fly species identified in this study can be of potential epidemiological importance as mechanical transmitters of human intestinal parasites acquired naturally from filth and carried on their body surfaces and or in the gut, because of their vagility and feeding mechanisms. PMID:23290716

Adenusi, Adedotun Adesegun; Adewoga, Thomas O Sunday

2013-01-03

285

Human intestinal parasites in non-biting synanthropic flies in Ogun State, Nigeria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Filth-feeding and breeding, non-biting synanthropic flies have been incriminated in the dissemination of human enteropathogens in the environment. This study determined the species of non-biting synanthropic flies associated with four filthy sites in Ilishan, Ogun State, southwest Nigeria, and assessed their potentials for mechanical transmission of human intestinal parasites. 7190 flies identified as Musca domestica (33.94%), Chrysomya megacephala (26.01%), Musca sorbens (23.23%), Lucilia cuprina (8.76%), Calliphora vicina (4.59%), Sarcophaga sp. (2.78%) and Fannia scalaris (0.70%) were examined for human intestinal parasites by the formol-ether concentration and modified Ziehl-Neelsen techniques. Eggs of the following parasites: Ascaris lumbricoides (34.08%), Trichuris trichiura (25.87%), hookworms (20.45%), Taenia sp. (2.36%), Hymenolepis nana (1.11%), Enterobius vermicularis (0.56%), Strongyloides stercoralis (larvae; 3.89%) and cysts of Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (27.26%), Entamoeba coli (22.67%), Giardia lamblia (3.34%) and Cryptosporidium sp. (1.81%) were isolated from the body surfaces and or gut contents of 75.24% of 719 pooled fly batches. The helminths A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura and the protozoans, E. histolytica/dispar and E. coli were the dominant parasites detected, both on body surfaces and in the gut contents of flies. C. megacephala was the highest carrier of parasites (diversity and number). More parasites were isolated from the gut than from body surfaces (P < 0.05). Flies from soiled ground often carried more parasites than those from abattoir, garbage or open-air market. Synanthropic fly species identified in this study can be of potential epidemiological importance as mechanical transmitters of human intestinal parasites acquired naturally from filth and carried on their body surfaces and or in the gut, because of their vagility and feeding mechanisms.

Adenusi AA; Adewoga TO

2013-05-01

286

Epidemiological survey of the prevalence of intestinal parasites among schoolchildren in Sari, northern Iran.  

Science.gov (United States)

Parasitic infection is highly prevalent throughout the developing countries of the world. Research on the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in various geographic regions is a prerequisite for the development of appropriate control strategies. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among schoolchildren in public primary and secondary schools in the urban areas of Sari, Mazandaran province, northern Iran. The study was conducted from November 2009 to June 2010. A total of 1100 stool samples from 607 males and 493 females aged 7-14 years were examined by direct wet mounting, formalin-ether concentration, and Ziehl-Neelsen and trichrome permanent staining methods. A parental questionnaire for common risk factors was completed for each participant. Mono- or poly-parasitism was detected in 367 (33.3%) of the children (32.6% of males and 34.2% of females). Various species of protozoan or helminth infections were detected: Blastocystis hominis seemed to be the most prevalent parasite (13.5%) followed by Giardia lamblia (10.6%), Entamoeba coli (7.2%), Endolimax nana (1.5%), Enterobius vermicularis (2.2%), Trichostrongylus sp. (2.1%) and Strongyloides stercoralis (1.6%). The prevalence of intestinal parasite infections in females was slightly higher than in males, though without a statistically significant difference (p=0.56). No age association was detected, and a slightly lower positive association with increasing age was observed (p=0.33). A significant association was observed with parents' educational level, household income and practice of hand washing before meals (p<0.01). Although paediatric pathogenic intestinal parasite infections are not more prevalent in this geographical area than in other regions, improvements in personal hygienic conditions and behavioural characteristics is important to completely control parasitic infections in schoolchildren in northern Iran. PMID:22703897

Daryani, A; Sharif, M; Nasrolahei, M; Khalilian, A; Mohammadi, A; Barzegar, Gh

2012-06-15

287

Prevalencia de parasitismo intestinal en escolares de 6-11 año/ Prevalence of intestinal parasites in schoolchildren aged 6 -11 years  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y transversal de 1 253 niños, como muestra representativa de la población infantil de 6-11 años de la provincia de Santiago de Cuba, desde septiembre del 2010 hasta junio del 2011, para determinar la prevalencia del parasitismo intestinal en ellos. Se procesaron las pruebas de heces fecales mediante 2 métodos coproparasitológicos (directo y concentrado) y se obtuvo que 37,8 % de los integrantes de la serie estaban parasitados. Predo (more) minaron los protozoarios (22,7 %), con mayor frecuencia de Giardia lamblia, el parasitismo en el grupo etario de 6-8 años (66,7 %) y los escolares infectados que presentaban inadecuados hábitos higiénico-sanitarios, depósitos de residuales, agua de consumo y piso de la vivienda. A fin de minimizar este problema, se recomendó que debieran incrementarse las actividades de educación sanitaria a la población y discutirse estos resultados con los decisores de salud de la provincia, para así promover hábitos y estilos de vida saludables. Abstract in english A descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted in 1 253 children as a representative sample of children aged 6-11 years in the province of Santiago de Cuba, from September 2010 to June 2011, to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in them. Tests were processed by 2 stool parasitological methods (direct and concentrate) and it was found that 37.8% of the members of the series were parasitized. Protozoa (22.7%) with higher frequency of Giardia lamblia, pa (more) rasitism in age group of 6-8 years(66.7%) and infected schoolchildren, who had poor health and hygiene habits, waste deposits, water consumption and floor of the house predominated. To minimize this problem it was recommended to increase health education to the population and discuss these results with health decision makers in the province, in order to promote healthy habits and lifestyles.

Pérez Sánchez, Glenda; Redondo de la Fé, Guillermo; Fong Rodríguez, Hiram Guillermo; Sacerio Cruz, Marly; González Beltrán, Oslandy

2012-04-01

288

Patterns of infection with intestinal parasites in Qatar among food handlers and housemaids from different geographical regions of origin.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Intestinal parasitic infections were surveyed among recently arrived immigrant workers in Qatar destined for employment in food handling occupations. Two overlapping datasets (female workers surveyed in 2005 and 2006, and both sexes in 2006) were analyzed. Seven species were detected, 3 nematodes (Trichuris trichiura, hookworms and Ascaris lumbricoides) and 4 protozoans (Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, non-pathogenic Entamoebae, Blastocystis hominis and Giardia lamblia). Overall prevalence of infections, all species combined was 33.9% (13.6% for nematodes and 24.8% for protozoa). There was a significant female bias in the prevalence of all species combined, all protozoans combined, T. trichiura and A. lumbricoides. Among females, the prevalence of many species fell between 2005 and 2006, but G. lamblia almost tripled and E. histolytica/dispar increased 10-fold. Africa workers were less likely to carry T. trichiura and hookworms but more likely to have gastrointestinal protozoa. The highest overall prevalence of T. trichiura was 26.3% among females from the Philippines in 2005. None of the Indonesian workers were infected with A. lumbricoides whereas those from the Indian sub-continent and the Philippines were more likely to carry hookworms. Quantitative data reflecting abundance of infection (summary statistics are provided), showed the same trends but could not be analyzed further because of the overall low prevalence of each of the species detected. Multiple species infections were not common, although some individuals (0.1%) had 5 species concurrently.

Abu-Madi MA; Behnke JM; Ismail A

2008-06-01

289

Parásitos intestinales en la población del Instituto Nacional del Menor, Ciudad Bolívar, Venezuela/ Intestinal parasites in population of Instituto Nacional del Menor, Ciudad Bolívar, Venezuela  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Entre los meses de Junio y Agosto del 2005 se realizó un estudio para determinar la prevalencia de parasitosis intestinales en niños, niñas y adolescentes pertenecientes a las siete dependencias del Instituto Nacional del Menor de Ciudad Bolívar. Se determinó una prevalencia de parasitosis intestinales de 45,7% (48/105). No hubo diferencias con relación al sexo de los afectados. A menor edad mayor prevalencia de parasitosis. El Centro de Diagnóstico y Tratamiento d (more) e Varones fue la dependencia más afectada con 75% de parasitosis entre sus usuarios, seguido del Jardín de infancia Negro Primero con 53,8%. Los protozoarios fueron más comunes que los helmintos. Se diagnosticaron 11 especies de enteroparásitos, siendo Blastocystis hominis (26,7%) y Giardia lamblia (13,3%) los más frecuentes. De los parasitados, 66,7% se encontraron monoparasitados y 33,3% poliparasitados. En conclusión, se determinó una elevada prevalencia de parasitosis intestinales en niños, niñas y adolescentes que forman parte de los programas del Instituto Nacional del Menor en Ciudad Bolívar, Estado Bolívar. La prevalencia de parasitosis intestinales fue independiente de la edad y el sexo de los evaluados. El Centro de Diagnóstico y Tratamiento para varones (75,0%) y el jardín de infancia Negro Primero (53,8%) fueron las dependencias donde se diagnosticó el mayor porcentaje de casos. Abstract in english A study to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in children and teenagers pertaining to the seven dependencies of the Instituto National del Menor of Ciudad Bolivar was made, between the months of June and August 2005. A prevalence of intestinal parasitism of 45.7% (48/105) was determined. There were no differences in relation to sex of the affected. The lower the age, the greater the prevalence of parasitism. The Centro de Diagnostico y Tratamiento de Varones (more) was the most affected dependency with 75% of parasitism among its users, followed by the Negro Primero Kindergarten with 53.8% and The Home of Females with 47.1%. Eleven species of enteroparasites were diagnosed, being Blastocystis hominis with 26.7% and Giardia lamblia with 13.3% the most frequent. Of the parasited ones, 66.7% were monoparasited and 33.3% polyparasited. In conclusion, a high prevalence of intestinal parasitism in children and teenagers that form part of the Instituto National del Menor programs in Ciudad Bolivar, Bolivar State, was determined. The prevalence of intestinal parasitism was independent of age and sex of the evaluated ones. The Centro de Diagnostico y Tratamiento de Varones (75%) and Negro Primero kindergarten (53.8%) were the dependencies where the greater number of cases was diagnosed.

Devera, Rodolfo; Ortega, Noenard; Suárez, Marlin

2007-01-01

290

A prospective study on parasites among expatriate workers in Al-Baha from 2009-2011, Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Al-Baha is an area with large influx of expatriate workers in Saudi Arabia. This study was carried out from October 2009 to January 2011 on expatriate workers (2000) to determine the prevalence of parasitosis. Urine and stool samples were collected and specifically examined. The results showed that 1079 (53.95%) were infected with one or up to ten parasitic species. Trichuris trichiura had the highest prevalence 190 (17.6%). Other helminthes were Ascaris lumbricoides 179 (16.58%), Ancylostoma duodenal 163 (15.10%), Hymenolepis nana 120 (11.12%), Taenia saginata 119 (11.02%), Strongyloides stercoralis 28 (2.59), Enterobius vermicularis 16 (1.48%), and Schistosoma mansoni 4 (0.37%). Protozoan parasites were Giardia lamblia 152 (14.09%) and Enta-moeba histolytica 108 (10.0%). Besides, Fasciola species was detected in an Egyptian worker and Dicrocelium dendriticum in one Syrian worker. Parasitic infections were higher among Indonesian people 447 (41.42%) followed by Indian 247 (22.89%), Bangladeshis 118 (10.93%), Philippines 96 (8.89%), Pakistani 94 (9.71%), Seri-Lankan 55 (5.09 %) and lastly Egyptian & Syrian 22 (2.03%) workers. The occupational imperatives, beliefs and general life style were contributing factors to the prevalence of parasites among the workers in Al-Baha. PMID:21980781

Mohammad, Khairy Abdel Hamid; Koshak, Emad Abdel Kader

2011-08-01

291

A prospective study on parasites among expatriate workers in Al-Baha from 2009-2011, Saudi Arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Al-Baha is an area with large influx of expatriate workers in Saudi Arabia. This study was carried out from October 2009 to January 2011 on expatriate workers (2000) to determine the prevalence of parasitosis. Urine and stool samples were collected and specifically examined. The results showed that 1079 (53.95%) were infected with one or up to ten parasitic species. Trichuris trichiura had the highest prevalence 190 (17.6%). Other helminthes were Ascaris lumbricoides 179 (16.58%), Ancylostoma duodenal 163 (15.10%), Hymenolepis nana 120 (11.12%), Taenia saginata 119 (11.02%), Strongyloides stercoralis 28 (2.59), Enterobius vermicularis 16 (1.48%), and Schistosoma mansoni 4 (0.37%). Protozoan parasites were Giardia lamblia 152 (14.09%) and Enta-moeba histolytica 108 (10.0%). Besides, Fasciola species was detected in an Egyptian worker and Dicrocelium dendriticum in one Syrian worker. Parasitic infections were higher among Indonesian people 447 (41.42%) followed by Indian 247 (22.89%), Bangladeshis 118 (10.93%), Philippines 96 (8.89%), Pakistani 94 (9.71%), Seri-Lankan 55 (5.09 %) and lastly Egyptian & Syrian 22 (2.03%) workers. The occupational imperatives, beliefs and general life style were contributing factors to the prevalence of parasites among the workers in Al-Baha.

Mohammad KA; Koshak EA

2011-08-01

292

Prevalence of intestinal parasites in preschool children in the region of Uberlandia, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Children are an important high-risk group for helminth and protozoa infections. Daycare centers are environments where children have proven to be more susceptible to acquiring intestinal parasites. Thus, the purpose of this study was to verify the prevalence of intestinal parasites in children who attended the two daycare centers maintained by the local government of Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. METHODS: Fecal samples were collected from 133 children (73 children at the Public Preschool for Early Childhood Education, PPECE A, and 60 at the PPECE B) following identification according to sex and age and agreement to participate by parents or guardians who signed the free, informed consent form. The samples were examined by the Lutz method. RESULTS: Coproparasitological tests performed on 133 children showed that 29.3% of them were parasitized for enteroparasites or commensals, 6.7% of the children presented polyparasitism. Among the protozoa, Giardia lamblia were the most prevalent and Hymenolepis nana were the most frequent among the helminths. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, analysis of the results showed that intestinal parasites still represent a public health problem, especially among children and in areas where the socioeconomic and educational conditions are less favorable.

Gonçalves AL; Belizário TL; Pimentel Jde B; Penatti MP; Pedroso Rdos S

2011-03-01

293

Occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in water supplies of San Pedro Sula, Honduras  

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Full Text Available During June 1996, water supplies of the city of San Pedro Sula, Honduras, were sampled to obtain an assessment of Cryptosporidium oocyst and Giardia cyst concentrations. Each sample was concentrated and stained with an indirect immunofluorescent antibody, and parasites were counted through microscopic analysis. In three surface water supplies, Cryptosporidium oocyst concentrations ranged from 58 to 260 oocysts per 100 L, and Giardia cysts were present in concentrations ranging from 380 to 2100 cysts per 100 L. Unlike the surface water samples, groundwater had a higher concentration of Cryptosporidium oocysts (26/100 L) than Giardia cysts (6/100 L), suggesting that the groundwater aquifer protects the water supply more effectively from larger Giardia cysts. Cryptosporidium oocyst concentrations are within the typical range for surface water supplies in North America whereas Giardia cyst concentrations are elevated. Efforts should be made to protect raw water from sources of contamination.

Solo-Gabriele Helena María; Ager Jr.,Arba LeRoy; Lindo John Fitzgerald; Dubón José María; Neumeister Shondra Michelle; Baum Marianna Karas; Palmer Carol Jean

1998-01-01

294

"Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites among Children in Day-care Centers in Damghan - Iran"  

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Full Text Available In order to identify the prevalence of parasitic intestinal infections and to determine the impact of some factors, such as age, health houses, education, environmental health etc, on infection, this survey was carried out on 461 stool specimens and scotch tapes obtained from children resident in day-care centers in Damghan city, Semnan province, Iran. The samples were tested using formalin-ether concentration and Graham methods. The analysis of the results showed that at least 68.1 percent of the individuals tested, were infected with one species of pathogen or non-pathogen parasites. The rate of infection for Enterobius vermicularis, Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica, Ascaris lumbricoides, Hymenolepis nana, Entamoeba coli, Blastocystis hominis, Iodamoeba butschlii and Chilomastix mesnili was 33.8%, 26.2%, 2.4%, 3%, 4.8%, 5.8%, 4.8%, 2.7% and 4% respectively. A significant difference was seen between the rate of infection and parents’ education (P<0.005) but was negative regarding age, sex, and health houses. It is concluded that sanitary measurements should be conducted in such centers to decrease the rate of parasitic infection.

A Heidari; MB Rokni

2003-01-01

295

[Cryptosporidium sp infections and other intestinal parasites in food handlers from Zulia state, Venezuela].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cryptosporidiosis in food handlers from Venezuela is unknown, being this an important public health problem in immunosuppressed patients. To determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium sp and other intestinal parasites in food handlers from Zulia State, one hundred nineteen fecal samples were evaluated by wet mount, concentrated according to Ritchie and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining. Fourteen (11.8%) were positive for Cryptosporidium sp and associated with other protozoosis (P < 0.05), being most frequent Endolimax nana (42.9%). The general prevalence of the intestinal parasitism was 48.7%, emphasizing E. nana (41.2%), followed by Blastocystis hominis (38.7%) and Entamoeba coli (17.6%). The most frequent pathogenic protozoa was Giardia lamblia (13.4%), followed by the complex Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar (9.2%). 4.1% were positive for intestinal helminthes. The infection by Cryptosporidium sp is frequent in food handlers from Zulia State. Given to the results of this investigation and the nonexistence of studies in this population, is necessary to deepen in the impact of this parasitism in food handlers and the consumers of their products.

Freites A; Colmenares D; Pérez M; García M; Díaz de Suárez O

2009-03-01

296

Infection status of intestinal parasites in children living in residential institutions in Metro Manila, the Philippines.  

Science.gov (United States)

A small scale survey was performed to know the infection status of intestinal parasite in children of the residential institutions and street communities in Metro Manila, Philippines. A total of 284 stool samples from 11 institutions and 3 street communities was examined by the formalin-ether concentration method. The scotch tape anal swab was adapted to 121 children to investigate the infection status of Enterovius vermicularis. It was found out that 62.0% of the children examined were positive for one or more intestinal parasites. Multiple infections were observed in 34.2% of the children. Among 172 children who gave detail information, the prevalence for Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworm was 36.0%, 44.8%, and 7.0% respectively. Of the children examined, 47.7% were found to be harboring parasitic protozoans such as Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, and Blastocystis hominis. The most prevalent of these protozoans was B. hominis with an infection rate of 40.7%. The prevalence of these infections among children living in institutions was relatively high. More efforts should be made to implement anthelminthic programs including bi-annual follow-up treatments. PMID:15181346

Baldo, Eleonor T; Belizario, Vicente Y; De Leon, Winifreda U; Kong, Hyun Hee; Chung, Dong-Il

2004-06-01

297

Infection status of intestinal parasites in children living in residential institutions in Metro Manila, the Philippines.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A small scale survey was performed to know the infection status of intestinal parasite in children of the residential institutions and street communities in Metro Manila, Philippines. A total of 284 stool samples from 11 institutions and 3 street communities was examined by the formalin-ether concentration method. The scotch tape anal swab was adapted to 121 children to investigate the infection status of Enterovius vermicularis. It was found out that 62.0% of the children examined were positive for one or more intestinal parasites. Multiple infections were observed in 34.2% of the children. Among 172 children who gave detail information, the prevalence for Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworm was 36.0%, 44.8%, and 7.0% respectively. Of the children examined, 47.7% were found to be harboring parasitic protozoans such as Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, and Blastocystis hominis. The most prevalent of these protozoans was B. hominis with an infection rate of 40.7%. The prevalence of these infections among children living in institutions was relatively high. More efforts should be made to implement anthelminthic programs including bi-annual follow-up treatments.

Baldo ET; Belizario VY; De Leon WU; Kong HH; Chung DI

2004-06-01

298

XMLA Comparison of Direct Technique and Formalin-Ether Method in Determining Parasitic Infection among Health-Card Applicants in Shahroud City  

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Full Text Available Background and Objective: Parasitic infection is one of the major health problems in the world. This study aimed at comparing the accuracy of two methods of direct examination and Formalin-Ether to detect the presence of parasitic infection among health-card applicants in Shahroud city, 2011. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 801 patients seeking health-card. From each patient, three consecutive stool samples were taken and investigated, using direct examination and formalin-ether method. Results: The use of formalin-ether method in recognizing the parasitic infection specially giardia lamblia and entamobea coli is more than the direct method. Conclusion: The formalin-ether method is a more sensitive method than the direct method. But in circumstances that is urgency to respond or aims to see the shape of trophozoite, the use of direct method is recommended. Keywords: Parasitic Infections; Health Card; Direct Method; Formalin-EtherKeywords: Parasitic Infections; Health Card; Direct Method; Formalin-Ether,

Amiri, A. (PhD); Nazemi, S. (MSc); Raei, M. (MSc); Chaman, R. (PhD); Norouzi, P. (BSc)

2013-01-01

299

Detection of Giardia duodenalis antigen in human fecal eluates by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using polyclonal antibodies  

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Full Text Available The present study developed and standardized an enzime-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect Giardia antigen in feces using rabbit polyclonal antibodies. Giardia cysts were purified from human fecal samples by sucrose and percoll gradients. Gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) were infected to obtain trophozoites. Rabbits were inoculated with either cyst or trophozoite antigens of 14 Colombian Giardia isolates to develop antibodies against the respective stages. The IgG anti-Giardia were purified by sequential caprylic acid and ammonium sulfate precipitation. A portion of these polyclonal antibodies was linked to alkaline phosphatase (conjugate). One hundred and ninety six samples of human feces, from different patients, were tested by parasitologic diagnosis: 69 were positive for Giardia cysts, 56 had no Giardia parasites, and 71 revealed parasites other than Giardia. The optimal concentration of polyclonal antibodies for antigen capture was 40 µg/ml and the optimal conjugate dilution was 1:100. The absorbance cut-off value was 0.24. The parameters of the ELISA test for Giardia antigen detection were: sensitivity, 100% (95% CI: 93.4-100%); specificity, 95% (95% CI: 88.6-97.6%); positive predictive value, 91% (95% CI: 81.4-95.9%); and negative predictive value, 100% (95% CI: 96.1-100%). This ELISA will improve the diagnosis of Giardia infections in Colombia and will be useful in following patients after treatment.

Sofía Duque-Beltrán; Rubén Santiago Nicholls-Orejuela; Adriana Arévalo-Jamaica; Rafael Guerrero-Lozano; Sonia Montenegro; Mark A James

2002-01-01

300

Detection of Giardia duodenalis antigen in human fecal eluates by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using polyclonal antibodies  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The present study developed and standardized an enzime-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect Giardia antigen in feces using rabbit polyclonal antibodies. Giardia cysts were purified from human fecal samples by sucrose and percoll gradients. Gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) were infected to obtain trophozoites. Rabbits were inoculated with either cyst or trophozoite antigens of 14 Colombian Giardia isolates to develop antibodies against the respective stages. The IgG (more) anti-Giardia were purified by sequential caprylic acid and ammonium sulfate precipitation. A portion of these polyclonal antibodies was linked to alkaline phosphatase (conjugate). One hundred and ninety six samples of human feces, from different patients, were tested by parasitologic diagnosis: 69 were positive for Giardia cysts, 56 had no Giardia parasites, and 71 revealed parasites other than Giardia. The optimal concentration of polyclonal antibodies for antigen capture was 40 µg/ml and the optimal conjugate dilution was 1:100. The absorbance cut-off value was 0.24. The parameters of the ELISA test for Giardia antigen detection were: sensitivity, 100% (95% CI: 93.4-100%); specificity, 95% (95% CI: 88.6-97.6%); positive predictive value, 91% (95% CI: 81.4-95.9%); and negative predictive value, 100% (95% CI: 96.1-100%). This ELISA will improve the diagnosis of Giardia infections in Colombia and will be useful in following patients after treatment.

Duque-Beltrán, Sofía; Nicholls-Orejuela, Rubén Santiago; Arévalo-Jamaica, Adriana; Guerrero-Lozano, Rafael; Montenegro, Sonia; James, Mark A

2002-12-01

 
 
 
 
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Detection of Giardia duodenalis antigen in human fecal eluates by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using polyclonal antibodies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present study developed and standardized an enzime-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect Giardia antigen in feces using rabbit polyclonal antibodies. Giardia cysts were purified from human fecal samples by sucrose and percoll gradients. Gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) were infected to obtain trophozoites. Rabbits were inoculated with either cyst or trophozoite antigens of 14 Colombian Giardia isolates to develop antibodies against the respective stages. The IgG anti-Giardia were purified by sequential caprylic acid and ammonium sulfate precipitation. A portion of these polyclonal antibodies was linked to alkaline phosphatase (conjugate). One hundred and ninety six samples of human feces, from different patients, were tested by parasitologic diagnosis: 69 were positive for Giardia cysts, 56 had no Giardia parasites, and 71 revealed parasites other than Giardia. The optimal concentration of polyclonal antibodies for antigen capture was 40 g/ml and the optimal conjugate dilution was 1:100. The absorbance cut-off value was 0.24. The parameters of the ELISA test for Giardia antigen detection were: sensitivity, 100% (95% CI: 93.4-100%); specificity, 95% (95% CI: 88.6-97.6%); positive predictive value, 91% (95% CI: 81.4-95.9%); and negative predictive value, 100% (95% CI: 96.1-100%). This ELISA will improve the diagnosis of Giardia infections in Colombia and will be useful in following patients after treatment.

Duque-Beltrán S; Nicholls-Orejuela RS; Arévalo-Jamaica A; Guerrero-Lozano R; Montenegro S; James MA

2002-12-01

302

Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites in Isfahan Municipal Workers  

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Full Text Available Background and Aim: Intestinal parasites cause significant morbidity and mortality and are considered by the World Health Organization as a public health problem of global importance. These agents are estimated to infect more than three billion people worldwide. In Iran, thanks to long-time efforts by the national health system (including environmental sanitation and public education campaigns), the frequency of the most intestinal parasitic infections has significantly declined in the recent decades. Our study aimed to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in a high-risk occupational group, namely the municipal workers in the city of Esfahan.Materials and Methods: A survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among municipal workers in several districts of Esfahan. Specimens were placed into fecal pots, labeled and kept cool before being transported to the Health Research Center Laboratory, affiliated to the School of Public Health & Institute for Public Health Research in Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The technique used for identifying infections was stool concentration by formalin & ether. All the slides were carefully studied using light microscopy with ×10, × 40, and ×100 magnification.Results: The study results revealed that 24.6% of the workers harbored at least one parasitic species. The highest prevalence (36%) belonged to Giardia lamblia. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most common helminthic parasite (12.4%), followed by Hymenolepis nana (1.2%). The most common non-pathogenic protozoal species was Entamoeba coli (21.7%).Conclusion: Infection with soil parasites is dependent on environmental conditions that allow parasites to complete their life cycle. Socioeconomic and cultural factors are important for the appearance and spread of intestinal parasites in communities where sanitary conditions and infrastructure are inadequate. However, soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) used to be prevalent throughout the country, especially in urban and rural population of the Esfahan Province. We investigated the prevalence of intestinal parasites by fecal examination of workers in Esfahan municipality, a group with a low-sanitation working environment close contact with soil contaminants. The lack of information on prevalence in the general population makes it difficult to arrive at any definite conclusions, but on the basis of unpublished data we can conclude that prevalence is somewhat higher in this occupational group compared to the population at large.

Gh Molavi; J Masoud; I Moubedi; Gh Hassanpour

2007-01-01

303

[Distribution of entero-parasitic infections in the Peruvian Highland: study carried out in six rural communities of the department of Puno, Peru].  

Science.gov (United States)

A prevalence study was carried out in six rural communities in the Peruvian Highlands with the purpose of achieving a better understanding of the distribution of entero-parasites. The communities were located along the banks of Lake Titicaca, in the provinces of Puno and El Collao, Department of Puno, Peru, at 3,800 m.a.s.l. To that effect, a total of 91 feces samples of adults and children from the following communities were analyzed: Conchaca, Puñutani, Capalla, Culta, Maraesqueña, and Jaillihuaya. Analysis techniques included Direct Examination, Kato Technique, Technique of Spontaneous Sedimentation in a Test Tube and the Lumbreras Rapid Sedimentation Technique. The general prelavence of intestinal parasitosis was found to be 91.2%. The pathogenic entero-parasites found were, in order of frequency, as follows: Hymenolepis nana 6.6%, Entamoeba histolytica 5.5%, Giardia lamblia 3.3%, Taenia sp. 2.2%, Ascaris lumbricoides 2.2%, Trichuris trichiura 1.1%, and Enterobius vermicularis 1.1%. The frequency of the non-pathogenic entero-parasites was as follows: Entamoeba coli 78%, Endolimax nana 39.6%, Iodamoeba butschlii 14.3%, Blastocystis hominis 9.9%, and Chilomastix mesnili 2.2%. Most of the patients had poly parasitism (58.2%), and protozoan infections prevailed over helminthic infection. From the total number of patients infected, 41.8% had one parasite, 33.0% had two parasites, 11.0% had three parasites, 4.4% had four parasites, and 1.1% had five parasites. These results show the high rates of parasitism in the rural population on the banks of Lake Titicaca, which would be associated with socioeconomic factors and the poor environmental sanitation conditions in this area. PMID:12525846

Maco Flores, Vicente; Marcos Raymundo, Luis A; Terashima Iwashita, Angélica; Samalvides Cuba, Frine; Gotuzzo Herencia, Eduardo

304

[Distribution of entero-parasitic infections in the Peruvian Highland: study carried out in six rural communities of the department of Puno, Peru].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A prevalence study was carried out in six rural communities in the Peruvian Highlands with the purpose of achieving a better understanding of the distribution of entero-parasites. The communities were located along the banks of Lake Titicaca, in the provinces of Puno and El Collao, Department of Puno, Peru, at 3,800 m.a.s.l. To that effect, a total of 91 feces samples of adults and children from the following communities were analyzed: Conchaca, Puñutani, Capalla, Culta, Maraesqueña, and Jaillihuaya. Analysis techniques included Direct Examination, Kato Technique, Technique of Spontaneous Sedimentation in a Test Tube and the Lumbreras Rapid Sedimentation Technique. The general prelavence of intestinal parasitosis was found to be 91.2%. The pathogenic entero-parasites found were, in order of frequency, as follows: Hymenolepis nana 6.6%, Entamoeba histolytica 5.5%, Giardia lamblia 3.3%, Taenia sp. 2.2%, Ascaris lumbricoides 2.2%, Trichuris trichiura 1.1%, and Enterobius vermicularis 1.1%. The frequency of the non-pathogenic entero-parasites was as follows: Entamoeba coli 78%, Endolimax nana 39.6%, Iodamoeba butschlii 14.3%, Blastocystis hominis 9.9%, and Chilomastix mesnili 2.2%. Most of the patients had poly parasitism (58.2%), and protozoan infections prevailed over helminthic infection. From the total number of patients infected, 41.8% had one parasite, 33.0% had two parasites, 11.0% had three parasites, 4.4% had four parasites, and 1.1% had five parasites. These results show the high rates of parasitism in the rural population on the banks of Lake Titicaca, which would be associated with socioeconomic factors and the poor environmental sanitation conditions in this area.

Maco Flores V; Marcos Raymundo LA; Terashima Iwashita A; Samalvides Cuba F; Gotuzzo Herencia E

2002-10-01

305

Sensitive Detection of Giardia Cysts by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)  

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Full Text Available Giardia is one of the most common human parasites and causes a lengthly course of nonbacterial diarrhea. Disease outbreaks due to Giardia infection are often attributed to contaminated water supplies. A major problem associated with detection for this organism is the lack of sensitive and reliable methods. PCR has the potential to address many of the limitations.We have performed a PCR-based method for sensitive detection of Giardia cysts. Because the sensitivity of PCR is a function of the efficiency of DNA extraction from cysts, we have also compared some different methods for DNA extraction from the cysts. Giardia cysts were collected from infected human, partially purified and serially diluted samples were prepared. DNA was extracted by 3 different methods and we found that simple repeated freezing and thawing was the best method for extraction of DNA from the cysts. A 163 bp conserved fragment related to the giardial heat shock protein (HSP70) gene was used as the target for PCR amplification. We were able to detect as few as 5 cysts in the samples. The results suggest the potential utilities of PCR for sensitive detection of Giardia in water sources.

M Nikaeen; AR Mesdaghinia; M Jeddi Tehrani; M Rezaian; F Vaezi

2003-01-01

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Intestinal parasites in school food handlers in the city of Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil Parasitas intestinais em manipuladores de merenda escolar na cidade de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brasil  

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Full Text Available In order to verify the presence of intestinal parasites in food handlers, stool samples were collected from 104 cooks and their helpers that were working in food preparation in 20 public elementary schools, in various areas of the city of Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The samples were collected during the months of November and December, 1988, in plastic flasks containing a 10% formaldehyde solution and processed by the Hoffmann, Pons & Janer method. The sediment was examined using triplicate slides. All individuals were females aged between 24 to 69 years. Intestinal parasites were found in 85.0% of the studied schools and 47.1% of the studied food handlers (cooks and helpers) were found to be positive. Among the 49 infected food handlers, 32 (65.3%) carried a single parasite and 17 (34.7%) carried two parasites. The following intestinal parasites were found: Giardia lamblia (21.1%), Entamoeba coli (21.1%), hookworms (9.6%), Ascaris lumbricoides (5.8%), Entamoeba histolytica (2.9%), Hymenolepis nana (1.9%), Strongyloides stercoralis (1.0%). These data emphasize the need for a rigid semi-annual control in all school food handlers, including diagnosis, specific treatment and orientation about the mechanisms of transmission of the intestinal parasites.Para verificar a presença de parasitas intestinais em manipuladores de merenda escolar foram coletadas amostras fecais de 104 cantineiras e serventes que auxiliavam no preparo da alimentação de 20 Estabelecimentos da rede pública de ensino de 1º grau, localizados em diferentes bairros, da cidade de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais. As amostras foram coletadas nos meses de novembro e dezembro de 1988 em frascos plásticos contendo formol a 10% e processadas pelo método de Hoffmann, Pons & Janer sendo o sedimento examinado em triplicata. Todos os indivíduos pertenciam ao sexo feminino com idade entre 24 e 69 anos. Foram detectados manipuladores de merenda escolar parasitados em 85% das Escolas estudadas. Das 104 amostras de fezes, 49 (47,1%) estavam positivas, sendo que 32 (65,3%) pertenciam a indivíduos monoparasitados e 17 (34,7%) a indivíduos biparasitados. Os parasitas em ordem decrescente de ocorrência foram: Giardia lamblia (21,1%), Entamoeba coli (21,1%), ancilostomídeos (9,6%), Ascaris lumbricoides (5,8%), Entamoeba histolytica (2,9%), Hymenolepis nana (1,9%) e Strongyloides stercoralis (1,0%). Conclui-se pela necessidade de rigoroso controle semestral, tratamento específico e orientação sobre os mecanismos de transmissão das enteroparasitoses a todos os manipuladores de merenda escolar dos Estabelecimentos de ensino.

Julia Maria Costa-Cruz; Margareth Leitão Gennari Cardoso; Daldy Endo Marques

1995-01-01

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Evaluation of Luminex xTAG Gastrointestinal Pathogen Analyte-Specific Reagents for High-Throughput, Simultaneous Detection of Bacteria, Viruses, and Parasites of Clinical and Public Health Importance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Acute diarrheal disease (ADD) can be caused by a range of pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, and parasites. Conventional diagnostic methods, such as culture, microscopy, biochemical assays, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), are laborious and time-consuming and lack sensitivity. Combined, the array of tests performed on a single specimen can increase the turnaround time (TAT) significantly. We validated a 19plex laboratory-developed gastrointestinal pathogen panel (GPP) using Luminex xTAG analyte-specific reagents (ASRs) to simultaneously screen directly in fecal specimens for diarrhea-causing pathogens, including bacteria (Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli [ETEC], Shiga toxin-producing E. coli [STEC], E. coli O157:H7, Vibrio cholerae, Yersinia enterocolitica, and toxigenic Clostridium difficile), parasites (Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium spp., and Entamoeba histolytica), and viruses (norovirus GI and GII, adenovirus 40/41, and rotavirus A). Performance characteristics of GPP ASRs were determined using 48 reference isolates and 254 clinical specimens. Stool specimens from individuals with diarrhea were tested for pathogens using conventional and molecular methods. Using the predictive methods as standards, the sensitivities of the GPP ASRs were 100% for adenovirus 40/41, norovirus, rotavirus A, Vibrio cholerae, Yersinia enterocolitica, Entamoeba histolytica, Cryptosporidium spp., and E. coli O157:H7; 95% for Giardia lamblia; 94% for ETEC and STEC; 93% for Shigella spp.; 92% for Salmonella spp.; 91% for C. difficile A/B toxins; and 90% for Campylobacter jejuni. The overall comparative performance of the GPP ASRs with conventional methods in clinical samples was 94.5% (range, 90% to 97%), with 99% (99.0% to 99.9%) specificity. Implementation of the GPP ASRs enables our public health laboratory to offer highly sensitive and specific screening and identification of the major ADD-causing pathogens.

Navidad JF; Griswold DJ; Gradus MS; Bhattacharyya S

2013-09-01

308

Evaluation of Luminex xTAG Gastrointestinal Pathogen Analyte-Specific Reagents for High-Throughput, Simultaneous Detection of Bacteria, Viruses, and Parasites of Clinical and Public Health Importance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Acute diarrheal disease (ADD) can be caused by a range of pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, and parasites. Conventional diagnostic methods, such as culture, microscopy, biochemical assays, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), are laborious and time-consuming and lack sensitivity. Combined, the array of tests performed on a single specimen can increase the turnaround time (TAT) significantly. We validated a 19plex laboratory-developed gastrointestinal pathogen panel (GPP) using Luminex xTAG analyte-specific reagents (ASRs) to simultaneously screen directly in fecal specimens for diarrhea-causing pathogens, including bacteria (Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli [ETEC], Shiga toxin-producing E. coli [STEC], E. coli O157:H7, Vibrio cholerae, Yersinia enterocolitica, and toxigenic Clostridium difficile), parasites (Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium spp., and Entamoeba histolytica), and viruses (norovirus GI and GII, adenovirus 40/41, and rotavirus A). Performance characteristics of GPP ASRs were determined using 48 reference isolates and 254 clinical specimens. Stool specimens from individuals with diarrhea were tested for pathogens using conventional and molecular methods. Using the predictive methods as standards, the sensitivities of the GPP ASRs were 100% for adenovirus 40/41, norovirus, rotavirus A, Vibrio cholerae, Yersinia enterocolitica, Entamoeba histolytica, Cryptosporidium spp., and E. coli O157:H7; 95% for Giardia lamblia; 94% for ETEC and STEC; 93% for Shigella spp.; 92% for Salmonella spp.; 91% for C. difficile A/B toxins; and 90% for Campylobacter jejuni. The overall comparative performance of the GPP ASRs with conventional methods in clinical samples was 94.5% (range, 90% to 97%), with 99% (99.0% to 99.9%) specificity. Implementation of the GPP ASRs enables our public health laboratory to offer highly sensitive and specific screening and identification of the major ADD-causing pathogens. PMID:23850948

Navidad, Jose F; Griswold, David J; Gradus, M Stephen; Bhattacharyya, Sanjib

2013-07-12

309

Intestinal parasitic infections in children presenting with diarrhoea in outpatient and inpatient settings in an informal settlement of Nairobi, Kenya.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The distribution of and factors associated with intestinal parasitic infections are poorly defined in high risk vulnerable populations such as urban slums in tropical sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: In a cross sectional study, children aged 5 years and below who presented with diarrhoea were recruited from selected outpatient clinics in Mukuru informal settlement, and from Mbagathi District hospital, Nairobi, over a period of two years (2010--2011). Stool samples were examined for the presence of parasites using direct, formal-ether concentration method and the Modified Ziehl Neelsen staining technique. RESULTS: Overall, 541/2112 (25.6%) were positive for at least one intestinal parasite, with the common parasites being; Entamoeba histolytica, 225 (36.7%),Cryptosporidium spp. 187, (30.5%), Giardia lamblia, 98 (16%).The prevalence of intestinal parasites infection was higher among children from outpatient clinics 432/1577(27.4%) than among those admitted in hospital 109/535 (20.1%) p < 0.001. Infections with E. histolytica, and G. lamblia were higher among outpatients than inpatients (13.8% vs 1.3% p < 0.001 and 5.8% vs 1.3% p < 0.049) respectively, while infection with Cryptosporidium spp. was higher among inpatients than outpatients (15.3% vs 6.7%) respectively p < 0.001. Other parasites isolated among outpatients included Isospora belli, 19 (1.2%), Ascaris lumbricoides, 26 (1.6%), and Hymenolepis nana 12 (0.8%), with the remainder detected in less than ten samples each. HIV-infected participants were more likely to be infected with any parasite than uninfected participants, Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR), 2.04, 95% CI, 1.55-2.67, p < 0.001), and with Cryptosporidium spp. (AOR, 2.96, 95% CI 2.07-4.21, p < 0.001).The inpatients were less likely to be infected with E. histolytica than outpatients (AOR, 0.11, 95% CI, 0.51- 0.24, p < 0.001), but more likely for inpatients to be infected with Cryptosporidium spp. than outpatients (AOR, 1.91, 95% CI, 1.33-2.73, p < 0.001). Mixed parasitic infections were seen in 65 (12.0%) of the 541 infected stool samples. CONCLUSION: Intestinal parasitic infections are common in urban informal settlements' environment. Routine examinations of stool samples and treatment could benefit both the HIV infected and uninfected children in outpatient and inpatient settings.

Mbae CK; Nokes J; Mulinge E; Nyambura J; Waruru A; Kariuki S

2013-05-01

310

High Malnutrition Rate in Venezuelan Yanomami Compared to Warao Amerindians and Creoles: Significant Associations WITH Intestinal Parasites and Anemia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Children in rural areas experience the interrelated problems of poor growth, anemia and parasitic infections. We investigated the prevalence of and associations between intestinal helminth and protozoan infections, malnutrition and anemia in school-age Venezuelan children. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 390 children aged 4-16 years from three rural areas of Venezuela: the Amazon Region, Orinoco Delta and Carabobo State. Stool samples were collected for direct parasitic examinations. Anthropometric indicators of chronic (height-for-age Z score) and acute (weight-for-height and Body Mass Index (BMI)-for-age Z score in respectively children under 5 years of age and children aged 5 years and above) malnutrition were calculated. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models were built to determine factors associated with nutritional status and polyparasitism. RESULTS: Hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis prevalences were highest in children from the Amazon rainforest (respectively 72% and 18%) while children from the Orinoco Delta and Carabobo State showed higher rates of Ascaris lumbricoides (respectively 28% and 37%) and Trichuris trichiura (40% in both regions). The prevalence of Giardia lamblia infection was not significantly different between regions (average: 18%). Anemia prevalence was highest in the Amazon Region (24%). Hemoglobin levels were significantly decreased in children with a hookworm infection. Malnutrition was present in respectively 84%, 30% and 13% of children from the Amazon Region, Orinoco Delta and Carabobo State. In multivariate analysis including all regions, G. lamblia and helminth infections were significantly and negatively associated with respectively height-for-age and weight-for-height/BMI-for-age Z scores. Furthermore, hemoglobin levels were positively associated with the height-for-age Z score (0.11, 95% CI 0.02 - 0.20). CONCLUSIONS: In rural populations in Venezuela helminthiasis and giardiasis were associated with acute and chronic nutritional status respectively. These data highlight the need for an integrated approach to control transmission of parasites and improve the health status of rural Venezuelan children.

Verhagen LM; Incani RN; Franco CR; Ugarte A; Cadenas Y; Sierra Ruiz CI; Hermans PW; Hoek D; Campos Ponce M; de Waard JH; Pinelli E

2013-01-01

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High Malnutrition Rate in Venezuelan Yanomami Compared to Warao Amerindians and Creoles: Significant Associations WITH Intestinal Parasites and Anemia  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Children in rural areas experience the interrelated problems of poor growth, anemia and parasitic infections. We investigated the prevalence of and associations between intestinal helminth and protozoan infections, malnutrition and anemia in school-age Venezuelan children. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in 390 children aged 4-16 years from three rural areas of Venezuela: the Amazon Region, Orinoco Delta and Carabobo State. Stool samples were collected for direct parasitic examinations. Anthropometric indicators of chronic (height-for-age Z score) and acute (weight-for-height and Body Mass Index (BMI)-for-age Z score in respectively children under 5 years of age and children aged 5 years and above) malnutrition were calculated. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models were built to determine factors associated with nutritional status and polyparasitism. Results Hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis prevalences were highest in children from the Amazon rainforest (respectively 72% and 18%) while children from the Orinoco Delta and Carabobo State showed higher rates of Ascaris lumbricoides (respectively 28% and 37%) and Trichuris trichiura (40% in both regions). The prevalence of Giardia lamblia infection was not significantly different between regions (average: 18%). Anemia prevalence was highest in the Amazon Region (24%). Hemoglobin levels were significantly decreased in children with a hookworm infection. Malnutrition was present in respectively 84%, 30% and 13% of children from the Amazon Region, Orinoco Delta and Carabobo State. In multivariate analysis including all regions, G. lamblia and helminth infections were significantly and negatively associated with respectively height-for-age and weight-for-height/BMI-for-age Z scores. Furthermore, hemoglobin levels were positively associated with the height-for-age Z score (0.11, 95% CI 0.02 - 0.20). Conclusions In rural populations in Venezuela helminthiasis and giardiasis were associated with acute and chronic nutritional status respectively. These data highlight the need for an integrated approach to control transmission of parasites and improve the health status of rural Venezuelan children.

Verhagen, Lilly M.; Incani, Renzo N.; Franco, Carolina R.; Ugarte, Alejandra; Cadenas, Yeneska; Sierra Ruiz, Carmen I.; Hermans, Peter W. M.; Hoek, Denise; Campos Ponce, Maiza; de Waard, Jacobus H.; Pinelli, Elena

2013-01-01

312

DEVELOPMENT OF APTAMERS TO WATERBORNE PARASITES  

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The Safe Drinking Water Act Amendment of 1996 mandates that the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) evaluate public health risks associated with drinking water contaminants to include waterborne parasites, such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia. Additionally, the Agency est...

313

Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites in Leafy Vegetables in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate some of the leafy vegetable plants sold in local markets for human consumption to check whether they harbor different parasites stages. A total of 470 leafy vegetable samples were collected from 12 different plant species randomly from local markets in the Riyadh city during the period April and March 2008. The samples were analysed in the laboratory for parasitic stages contained in these samples after washing them in physiological saline and then examining the sediment. Results of the present study has shown that 76 out of 470 samples (16.2%) contained parasite stages. Depending on the type of leafy plant, examined the prevalence of parasitic stages in these plants, was found to be 27.8% (17/61) in lettuce, 22.8% (13/57) in watercress, 20.6% (7/34) in leek, 19.1% (9/47) in green onion, 17.4% (15/87) in parsley, 15.4% (4/26) in spinach, 13.6% (3/22) in basil, 11.5% (3/26) in coriander, 9.4% (3/32) in radish, 5.3% (1/19) in dill and 4.7% (2/42) in mint. No parasites were detected in 17 samples collected from cabbage. Stages of intestinal parasites detected were Entamoeba coli (35.5%), Giardia lamblia (31.6%), Dicrocoelium sp. (28.9%), Ascaris sp. (26.3%), Taenia sp. (19.7%), Blastocystis hominis (17.1%), Fasciola sp. (14.5%), Hymenolepis sp. (14.5%), Ancylostoma sp. (11.8%), Toxoplasma gondii (6.6%) and Trichostrongylus sp. (2.6%). The results indicated a significant seasonal variation (p<0.05), with highest prevalence in spring (23.1%), followed in descending order by Summer (17.9%), Autumn (10.6%) and Winter (9.9%).

Wafa A.I. Al-Megrin

2010-01-01

314

Parasitismo intestinal em uma aldeia indígena Parakanã, sudeste do Estado do Pará, Brasil Intestinal parasitism in a Parakanã indigenous community in southwestern Pará State, Brazil  

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Full Text Available O trabalho visa estudar a ocorrência e os aspectos epidemiológicos do parasitismo intestinal na aldeia Paranatinga da tribo indígena Parakanã, Amazônia Oriental Brasileira. Foram realizados dois inquéritos coproparasitológicos, em abril de 1992 e em fevereiro de 1995. Os métodos utilizados na identificação dos agentes parasitários foram os de Hoffman e exame direto, dois métodos simples, facilmente exeqüíveis em aldeias indígenas. Da amostra de 126 índios em abril de 1992 (população de 215 índios), 101 (80,2%) encontravam-se parasitados por pelo menos um enteroparasita. Ancilostomídeos foram encontrados em 33,3%, A. lumbricoides, em 42,8%, T. trichiura, em 0,8%, e S. stercoralis, em 5,6%. Em relação aos protozoários, E. histolytica foi encontrada em 65,0% e G. lamblia, em 46,8%. No inquérito de fevereiro de 1995, apesar do aumento da prevalência total em comparação com o de abril de 1992 (p = 0,04), houve diminuição das prevalências de ancilostomídeos, E. histolytica, G. lamblia, e ausência de S. stercoralis (pTo determine the occurrence and epidemiological aspects of intestinal parasites among the Parakanã indigenous people in the Paranatinga settlement (in the eastern Amazon Region), parasitological tests were performed in April 1992 and February 1995. One fresh stool specimen was obtained and immediately processed using the Hoffman and direct methods. Some 126 samples were obtained in April 1992 (from a total population of 215 individuals). Some 80.2% (101) of those tested were infected with at least one species of intestinal parasite. Hookworms were found in 33.3%, Ascaris lumbricoides 42.8%, Trichuris trichiura 0.8%, and Strongyloides stercoralis 5.6%. Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia protozoans were found in 65.0% and 46.8% of those tested, respectively. A second parasitological survey was performed on 174 individuals (from a population of 253) in February 1995. 88.5% were infected. Note that prevalence in February 1995 was higher than in April 1992 (p = 0.04). It was lower for hookworms, E. histolytica, and G. lamblia, with no S. stercoralis (p<0.05). Despite provision of health care in the Paranatinga community, prevalence of intestinal parasites is still extremely high, suggesting that primary and secondary health care should be increased immediately.

Rogério dos Anjos Miranda; Fábio Branches Xavier; Raimundo Camurça de Menezes

1998-01-01

315

Prevalencia de enteroparásitos en niños de la etnia Yukpa de Toromo, Estado Zulia, Venezuela Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites in Children of Yukpa Ethnia in Toromo, Zulia State, Venezuela  

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Full Text Available Background: Yupkpa community in Perijá Sierra does not have drinking water or sewage elimination systems. Thus it becomes a propitious place for infection with intestinal parasites. Aim: To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in children, ages 0 to 14 years, in the Yukpa ethnic population of Toromo in the Perijá Mountains, Zulia State, Venezuela. Material and Methods: Ninety one fecal samples were analyzed by the following coproparasitologic methods: saline solution and lugol fresh mount, formalin-ether concentration (Ritchie), and Kinyoun stain for intestinal coccidians. Results: Overall parasite infection prevalence was 83.5%. The most frequently observed parasites were: Ascaris lumbricoides (57.1%), Trichuris trichiura (20.8%), Hymenolepis nana (14.2%), Blastocystis hominis (51.6%), Giardia lamblia (30.7%), and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar complex (21.9%). Coccidians were nont observed in any of the stool samples. Conclusions: The large number of infected people is directly related to the hygienic and sanitary conditions of the population studied

Iris Díaz A; Zulbey Rivero R; Ángela Bracho M; María Castellanos S; Ellen Acurero; Marinella Calchi L; Ricardo Atencio T

2006-01-01

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Prevalencia de enteroparásitos en niños de la etnia Yukpa de Toromo, Estado Zulia, Venezuela/ Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites in Children of Yukpa Ethnia in Toromo, Zulia State, Venezuela  

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Full Text Available Abstract in english Background: Yupkpa community in Perijá Sierra does not have drinking water or sewage elimination systems. Thus it becomes a propitious place for infection with intestinal parasites. Aim: To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in children, ages 0 to 14 years, in the Yukpa ethnic population of Toromo in the Perijá Mountains, Zulia State, Venezuela. Material and Methods: Ninety one fecal samples were analyzed by the following coproparasitologic methods: saline (more) solution and lugol fresh mount, formalin-ether concentration (Ritchie), and Kinyoun stain for intestinal coccidians. Results: Overall parasite infection prevalence was 83.5%. The most frequently observed parasites were: Ascaris lumbricoides (57.1%), Trichuris trichiura (20.8%), Hymenolepis nana (14.2%), Blastocystis hominis (51.6%), Giardia lamblia (30.7%), and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar complex (21.9%). Coccidians were nont observed in any of the stool samples. Conclusions: The large number of infected people is directly related to the hygienic and sanitary conditions of the population studied

Díaz A, Iris; Rivero R, Zulbey; Bracho M, Ángela; Castellanos S, María; Acurero, Ellen; Calchi L, Marinella; Atencio T, Ricardo

2006-01-01

317

Epidemiologia del parasitismo intestinal infantil en el Valle del Guadalquivir/ Epidemiology of the children's intestinal parasitism in the Guadalquivir Valley (Spain)  

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Full Text Available Abstract in spanish FUNDAMENTO: Las parasitosis intestinales en los niños constituyen un problema de salud pública que debe ser valorado periódicamente en cada región. En este trabajo se aborda, por primera vez en la región natural del Valle del Guadalquivir, un estudio amplio sobre la prevalencia del parasitismo intestinal en la población infantil de la zona. MÉTODOS: Durante el período 1994-1996, mediante análisis coprológico y método de Graham, se ha estudiado a 1.917 niños y (more) niñas asintomáticos, con edades comprendidas entre seis y diez años, residentes en veinte localidades del Valle del Guadalquivir. RESULTADOS: El índice global de parasitación ha sido del 27,12 %. Las especies parásitas detectadas, así como sus prevalencias fueron: Enterobius vermicularis (20,44%), Giardia lamblia (5,05%), Entamoeba coli (2,45%), Endolimax nana (1,61%), Entamoeba histolytica (0,31%), Entamoeba hartmanni (0,05%), Iodamoeba bütschlii (0,05%). CONCLUSIONES: La prevalencia global encontrada es similar a la de otras regiones españolas, aunque quizás pueda considerarse algo más favorable. No se detectan geohelmintos, debido posiblemente a la mejora de la infraestructura higiénico-sanitaria y a los efectos de la prolongada sequía en la zona. La giardiasis, a diferencia de las restantes protozoosis, mantiene una prevalencia relativamente alta. Abstract in english BACKGROUND : Intestinal parasitisms represents a public health problem that should be periodically assessed in each region. In the present paper, a study about prevalence of intestinal parasites, has been carried out in children from the natural region of the Guadalquivir Valley. METHODS: During the period 1994-1996, 1.917 children without symptoms, aging between 6 and 10, were studied by means of coprologycal analysis and Graham method, all of them living in 20 villages (more) in the Guadalquivir valley. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitisms have been of 27,12%. The reported parasites and their prevalence are as follows: Enterobius vermicularis (20,44%), Giardia lamblia (5,05%), Entamoeba coli (2,45%), Endolimax nana (1,61%), Entamoeba histolytica (0,31%), Entamoeba hartmanni (0,05%), Iodamoeba bütschlii (0,05%). CONCLUSIONS: The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites is similar to that found in other spanish region, if only a little bit more favourable probably due to the long lasting drought and the improvements in health resourses, no geohelmints have been detected unlike other protozoosis, giardiasis mantains a relatively high prevalence.

Pérez Armengol, Cristina; Ariza Astolfi, Concepción; Úbeda Ontiveros, José M.; Guevara Benítez, Diego C.; Rojas Alvarez, Manuel de; Lozano Serrano, Carmen

1997-11-01

318

Intestinal parasites in ecotourism region of the state of Paraná, Brazil  

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Full Text Available To determine the indices of prevalence of intestinal parasites and commensals in the residents of ecotourism region of Paraná State, a retrospective study was conducte, from January/2003 to December/2004 on 3,764 fecal parasitological examinations performed by a private laboratory of Ubiratã using the Baermann-Moraes, water-sedimentation and Willis methods. Among the individuals aged eight months to 89 years, 522 (13.9%) cases were positive. Giardia lamblia (175/522; 24.2%) was the most prevalent parasite (pA prevalência de enteroparasitas e comensais, de janeiro/2003 a dezembro/2004, foi determinada em residentes de região de ecoturismo do Paraná por meio de estudo retrospectivo. Foram examinados os resultados de 3.764 exames coproparasitológicos efetuados em laboratório privado de Ubiratã Entre indivíduos de 8 meses a 89 anos, 522 (13,9%) exames foram positivos. Giardia intestinalis (175/522; 24,2%) foi o parasita prevalente (p<0,000). Entamoeba coli mostrou-se o commensal mais comum, com 238/552 (32,9%) casos (p<0,000), encontrando-se frequentemente associado com outras espécies, parasitas ou comensais. Crianças em idade pré-escolar (2-6 anos) e escolar (7-14 anos) apresentaram-se mais parasitados (66,0% de positividade; p<0,0000). A maioria dos indivíduos encontrava-se parasitado por uma única espécie (233; 44.6%) do que por várias espécies (169; 32.4%). Estes resultados indicam um grau significativo de contaminação ambiental em cidades do Paraná, principalmente aquelas de médio e pequeno porte, representando fonte de preocupação em vista do crescimento do ecoturismo na região.

Dina Lúcia Morais Falavigna; Amanda Andrea de Almeida; Renata Sayuri Iwazaki; Silvana Marques de Araújo

2008-01-01

319

GASTROINTESTINAL PARASITES OF SCHOOL CHILDREN IN BENIN CITY, NIGERIA  

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Full Text Available Examination of faecal samples of 6,430 school children aged between 2 and 20 years, for gastrointestinal parasites using sedimentation and Kato smear techniques was carried out in Benin City, Nigeria between January 1997 and December 1998. Four thousand two hundred and thirty six (65.8%) were infected. Three species of protozoa and 8 species of helminths were recorded as follows: Entamoeba histolytica (6%), Entomoeba coli (4.8%), Giardia lamblia (5.2%), Schistosoma mansoni (2.4%), Fasciola gigantica (2.3%), Taenia sp. (1.3%), Ascaris lumbricoides (17.0%), Enterobius vemicularis (1.5%), Trichuris trichiura (6.8%), Necator americanus (13.9%), and Strongyloides stercoralis (3.9%). Prevalence of infection increased with increase in age to a maximum value of 8.15% among the 6-9 years age group (junior primary pupils) and thereafter decreased with increase in age, to the least value of 28.6% among the 17-20 years old (senior secondary). The nursery pupils recorded the highest prevalence for protozoa and the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides infections while the senior primary pupils had the highest infection rates for the fluke Schistosoma mansoni and for all other nematode parasites recorded (apart from Ascaris). The junior secondary pupils recorded the highest prevalence for the liver fluke, Fasicola gigantica while the senior secondary pupils recorded the least prevalence for all the parasitic infections. Infections were significantly high (P<0.05) in the rainy season (April-October) and low in the dry season (November-March). The high infection rate is considered to be due to general poor sanitation in the environment and the poor sanitary habits of children.

CE Okaka; AO Awharitoma; JN Okonji

2000-01-01

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INTESTINAL PARASITIC INFECTION IN FOODHANDLERS: IN THE HOSPITALS AFFILIATED TO ISFAHAN UNIVERSITY OF MEDICAL SCIENCES – 1997  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Foodhandlers can be carriers of organisms such as salmonella, staphylococci and intestinal parasitic infections. Considering that some patients in hospitals may have impaired resistance to infection and the possible role of foodhandlers in this regard, it seems to be necessary to examine the role of foodhandlers in transmission of intestinal parasitic infection. Methods: 152 foodhandlers were evaluated for their intestinal protozoan and helminthic infections in the hospitals of the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. From each subject, three stool - specimens were taken in three consecutive days. Five methods (Scotch tape, Direct examination, Formalin - Ether, Telleman, Flotation) were used to detect ova and cyst. Results: The overall infection rate was (55.3 percent). The most commonly protozoa was Entamoeba Coli (in 33.6 percent of specimens). Others were Endolimax nana (17.8 percent), Blastocystis hominis (9.2 percent), Giardia lamblia (7.9 percent), Iodamoeba butschlii (2 percent) and Chilomastix mesnili (0.7 percent) respectively. The helminths observed were Enterobius vermicularis (9.1 percent), Hymenolepis nana (1.3 percent), Ascaris lumbricoides (0.7 percent), Trichuris trichiura (0.7 percent) and Trichostrongylus spp(0.7 percent). Discussion: Deficiencies in hygienic practices and poor basic environmental sanitation are the contributing factors in the maintenance of the high prevalence of the intestinal protozoan infections found.

P KETABI; SH SHADZI; H SAMARIAN; Z MOHAMMAD ZADEH

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Prevalence of intestinal parasites in a population in south of Tehran, Iran/ Prevalência de parasitas intestinais em população no sul do Teerã, Irã  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O própósito deste estudo foi descrever as características epidemiológicas dos parasitas intestinais em população do sul de Teerã, Irã. Um estudo retrospectivo seccional cruzado de pacientes com suspeita de infecções parasitárias intestinais enviados ao Laboratório Zakaria Razi em Shahre-Ray, sul do Teerã, Irã foi conduzido de 21 de abril de 2004 a 20 de outubro de 2005. Todas as amostras de fezes foram examinadas e as informações sócio-demográficas recup (more) eradas. De 4371 pacientes enviados, 466 (239 homens e 227 mulheres) foram diagnosticados laboratorialmente como portadores de parasitas intestinais com prevalência no período de 10,7%. Blastocystis hominis (B. hominis) e Giardia lamblia (G. lamblia) foram os parasitas intestinais mais frequentes. Mais da metade dos pacientes ³ 18 anos tinham baixo nível educacional (por exemplo: analfabetos, escola primária, 2º grau completo) (170/331, 54,1%). Mais ainda, a maioria dos pacientes eram empregados domésticos (42,3%, 140/331) ou trabalhadores (28,1%, 93/331) empregados em diversos tipos de serviços, tais como a indústria de alimentos e construção. Achados deste estudo mostraram que as infecções parasitárias intestinais são ainda um desafio importante em saúde pública no Irã que necessita ser resolvido. Acreditamos que a educação pública, a melhoria das condições sanitárias em áreas pouco desenvolvidas/comunidades, envolvimento da comunidade, e programas práticos baseados nas evidências, são as principais chaves do sucesso na prevenção da disseminação das infecções parasitárias no Irã. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to describe epidemiologic characteristics of intestinal parasites in a population in south of Tehran, Iran. A retrospective cross-sectional study of patients with suspicious intestinal parasitic infections referred to the Zakaria Razi Laboratory in Shahre-Ray, southern Tehran, Iran, was conducted from April 21, 2004 to October 20, 2005. All stool samples were examined and socio-demographic informations were retrieved. Of 4,371 referred patients, (more) 466 (239 males and 227 females) were laboratory diagnosed with intestinal parasites, with a period prevalence of 10.7%. Blastocystis hominis (B. hominis) and Giardia lamblia (G. lamblia) were the most frequent intestinal parasites. More than half of patients aged ³ 18 years had a low level of educational attainment (e.g. illiterate, primary school, high school) (170/331, 54.1%). Further, majority of patients were homemakers (42.3%, 140/331) or workers (28.1%, 93/331) employed in various business settings such as food industry and construction. Findings of this study showed that intestinal parasitic infections are still a major public health challenge in Iran that needs to be addressed. We believe that public education, improving sanitation conditions of underdeveloped areas/communities, community involvement, and supporting evidence-based practice/programs are the major keys to success in preventing the spread of intestinal parasitic infections in Iran.

Arani, Abolfath Shojaei; Alaghehbandan, Reza; Akhlaghi, Lame; Shahi, Maryam; Lari, Abdolaziz Rastegar

2008-06-01

322

Prevalence of intestinal parasites in a population in south of Tehran, Iran Prevalência de parasitas intestinais em população no sul do Teerã, Irã  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe epidemiologic characteristics of intestinal parasites in a population in south of Tehran, Iran. A retrospective cross-sectional study of patients with suspicious intestinal parasitic infections referred to the Zakaria Razi Laboratory in Shahre-Ray, southern Tehran, Iran, was conducted from April 21, 2004 to October 20, 2005. All stool samples were examined and socio-demographic informations were retrieved. Of 4,371 referred patients, 466 (239 males and 227 females) were laboratory diagnosed with intestinal parasites, with a period prevalence of 10.7%. Blastocystis hominis (B. hominis) and Giardia lamblia (G. lamblia) were the most frequent intestinal parasites. More than half of patients aged ³ 18 years had a low level of educational attainment (e.g. illiterate, primary school, high school) (170/331, 54.1%). Further, majority of patients were homemakers (42.3%, 140/331) or workers (28.1%, 93/331) employed in various business settings such as food industry and construction. Findings of this study showed that intestinal parasitic infections are still a major public health challenge in Iran that needs to be addressed. We believe that public education, improving sanitation conditions of underdeveloped areas/communities, community involvement, and supporting evidence-based practice/programs are the major keys to success in preventing the spread of intestinal parasitic infections in Iran.O própósito deste estudo foi descrever as características epidemiológicas dos parasitas intestinais em população do sul de Teerã, Irã. Um estudo retrospectivo seccional cruzado de pacientes com suspeita de infecções parasitárias intestinais enviados ao Laboratório Zakaria Razi em Shahre-Ray, sul do Teerã, Irã foi conduzido de 21 de abril de 2004 a 20 de outubro de 2005. Todas as amostras de fezes foram examinadas e as informações sócio-demográficas recuperadas. De 4371 pacientes enviados, 466 (239 homens e 227 mulheres) foram diagnosticados laboratorialmente como portadores de parasitas intestinais com prevalência no período de 10,7%. Blastocystis hominis (B. hominis) e Giardia lamblia (G. lamblia) foram os parasitas intestinais mais frequentes. Mais da metade dos pacientes ³ 18 anos tinham baixo nível educacional (por exemplo: analfabetos, escola primária, 2º grau completo) (170/331, 54,1%). Mais ainda, a maioria dos pacientes eram empregados domésticos (42,3%, 140/331) ou trabalhadores (28,1%, 93/331) empregados em diversos tipos de serviços, tais como a indústria de alimentos e construção. Achados deste estudo mostraram que as infecções parasitárias intestinais são ainda um desafio importante em saúde pública no Irã que necessita ser resolvido. Acreditamos que a educação pública, a melhoria das condições sanitárias em áreas pouco desenvolvidas/comunidades, envolvimento da comunidade, e programas práticos baseados nas evidências, são as principais chaves do sucesso na prevenção da disseminação das infecções parasitárias no Irã.

Abolfath Shojaei Arani; Reza Alaghehbandan; Lame Akhlaghi; Maryam Shahi; Abdolaziz Rastegar Lari

2008-01-01

323

Genome analysis and comparative genomics of a Giardia intestinalis assemblage E isolate  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Giardia intestinalis is a protozoan parasite that causes diarrhea in a wide range of mammalian species. To further understand the genetic diversity between the Giardia intestinalis species, we have performed genome sequencing and analysis of a wild-type Giardia intestinalis sample from the assemblage E group, isolated from a pig. Results We identified 5012 protein coding genes, the majority of which are conserved compared to the previously sequenced genomes of the WB and GS strains in terms of microsynteny and sequence identity. Despite this, there is an unexpectedly large number of chromosomal rearrangements and several smaller structural changes that are present in all chromosomes. Novel members of the VSP, NEK Kinase and HCMP gene families were identified, which may reveal possible mechanisms for host specificity and new avenues for antigenic variation. We used comparative genomics of the three diverse Giardia intestinalis isolates P15, GS and WB to define a core proteome for this species complex and to identify lineage-specific genes. Extensive analyses of polymorphisms in the core proteome of Giardia revealed differential rates of divergence among cellular processes. Conclusions Our results indicate that despite a well conserved core of genes there is significant genome variation between Giardia isolates, both in terms of gene content, gene polymorphisms, structural chromosomal variations and surface molecule repertoires. This study improves the annotation of the Giardia genomes and enables the identification of functionally important variation.

Jerlström-Hultqvist Jon; Franzén Oscar; Ankarklev Johan; Xu Feifei; Nohýnková Eva; Andersson Jan O; Svärd Staffan G; Andersson Björn

2010-01-01

324

Development of Sensitive Detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia from Surface Water in Iran  

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Full Text Available Background: The protozoan parasites Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia are known to occur widely in both raw and drinking waters. They are two of the causative agents of waterborne out-breaks of gastroenteritis throughout the world. In the present study, a PCR assay and FA were developed for detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cyst in environmental samples. Methods: We have detected Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts and Giardia cysts in seeded and un-seeded environmental water samples by PCR method. Water samples were spiked with oocysts (50, 100,300,500) and filtrated with a 1.2-µm pore size cellulose nitrate and follow by DNA extrac¬tion and purification by QIAamp DNA mini kit. Nested-PCR assay amplified an 850 bp fragment of 18s rRNA gene specific for Cryptosporidium and 435 bp fragment of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) target gene for Giardia. Also many river water from north of Iran, be checked by these methods. Results: Cryptosporidium and Giardia DNAs were detected in seeded water sample and Giardia was detected in all 5 water samples from river in north of Iran by nested- PCR and FA. Also in one river water sample, Cryptosporidium was detected.Conclusion: This protocol is effective for detection of these waterborne parasites in treated and untreated water samples. This study can also serve as a platform for further investigations and research water source in Iran.

MR Mahmoudi; K Ashrafi; H Abedinzadeh; F Tahvildar-Bideruni; A Haghighi; M Bandehpour; N Taghipour Lailabadi; B Kazemi

2011-01-01

325

The Superoxide Reductase from the Early Diverging Eukaryote Giardia Intestinalis  

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Unlike superoxide dismutases (SODs), superoxidereductases (SORs) eliminate superoxide anion (O2#sm_bullet#-) not through its dismutation, but via reduction to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the presence of an electron donor. The microaerobic protist Giardia intestinalis, responsible for a common intestinal disease in humans, though lacking SOD and other canonical reactive oxygen species-detoxifying systems, is among the very few eukaryotes encoding a SOR yet identified. In this study, the recombinant SOR from Giardia (SORGi) was purified and characterized by pulse radiolysis and stopped-flow spectrophotometry. The protein, isolated in the reduced state, after oxidation by superoxide or hexachloroiridate(IV), yields a resting species (Tfinal) with Fe3+ ligated to glutamate or hydroxide depending on pH (apparent pKa = 8.7). Although showing negligible SOD activity, reduced SORGi reacts with O2#sm_bullet#- with a pH-independent second-order rate constant k1 = 1.0 x 109 M-1 s-1 and yields the ferric-(hydro)peroxo intermediate T1; this in turn rapidly decays to the Tfinal state with pH-dependent rates, without populating other detectable intermediates. Immunoblotting assays show that SORGi is expressed in the disease-causing trophozoite of Giardia. We propose that the superoxide-scavenging activity of SOR in Giardia may promote the survival of this air-sensitive parasite in the fairly aerobic proximal human small intestine during infection.

2011-10-15

326

Prevalence, Risk Factors and Impacts of Schistosomal and Intestinal Parasitic Infections Among Rural School Children in Sohag Governorate  

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Full Text Available Parasitic diseases represent a major cause of morbidity and mortality in childhood in most parts of the world. Hygiene and play habits make children especially vulnerable to schistosomal and parasitic infections. The aim of this study is to define the prevalence of different types of parasitic infections, to define their risk factors and to determine their impacts on health and scholastic absenteeism and achievement of rural school students in Sohag Governorate, Egypt. A cross-section, analytical study design was chosen to perform this research on 960 rural school students. All the students were interviewed and examined clinically and laboratory. The study showed that 38.5% of the students were infected by parasites. Entaemoeba histolytica, Enterobius vermicularis and Giardia lamblia had the highest percentages, 20.4%, 16.6% and 15.2%, respectively. Male sex, last birth order, poor personal hygiene, low socioeconomic level, 3 infected siblings, previous parasitic infections and no early consultation for therapy were important risk factors (ORs=1.41, 2.32, 2.63, 2.86, 4.17, 9.80 and 10.83, respectively). Also, 29.2% and 31.6% of infected students were below the 5th percentiles as regard weight-for-age and height-for-age, respectively. Anemia was present among 52.4% of infected students. Further, 3.2% of them had hepatomegaly. Also, 37.8% and 41.1% of infected students had 0-3 and 4-6 days/month absent, respectively, while, 34.3% of infected students had a scholastic achievement <50.0%. Improving personal and environmental hygiene and regular screening, treatment and health education for students as regard parasitic infections in Egypt is recommended.

H. M. El-Masry; Y. A. Ahmed; A. A. Hassan; S. Zaky*; E. S. Abd-Allah

2007-01-01

327

Parasitismo intestinal em uma aldeia indígena Parakanã, sudeste do Estado do Pará, Brasil/ Intestinal parasitism in a Parakanã indigenous community in southwestern Pará State, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O trabalho visa estudar a ocorrência e os aspectos epidemiológicos do parasitismo intestinal na aldeia Paranatinga da tribo indígena Parakanã, Amazônia Oriental Brasileira. Foram realizados dois inquéritos coproparasitológicos, em abril de 1992 e em fevereiro de 1995. Os métodos utilizados na identificação dos agentes parasitários foram os de Hoffman e exame direto, dois métodos simples, facilmente exeqüíveis em aldeias indígenas. Da amostra de 126 índios (more) em abril de 1992 (população de 215 índios), 101 (80,2%) encontravam-se parasitados por pelo menos um enteroparasita. Ancilostomídeos foram encontrados em 33,3%, A. lumbricoides, em 42,8%, T. trichiura, em 0,8%, e S. stercoralis, em 5,6%. Em relação aos protozoários, E. histolytica foi encontrada em 65,0% e G. lamblia, em 46,8%. No inquérito de fevereiro de 1995, apesar do aumento da prevalência total em comparação com o de abril de 1992 (p = 0,04), houve diminuição das prevalências de ancilostomídeos, E. histolytica, G. lamblia, e ausência de S. stercoralis (p Abstract in english To determine the occurrence and epidemiological aspects of intestinal parasites among the Parakanã indigenous people in the Paranatinga settlement (in the eastern Amazon Region), parasitological tests were performed in April 1992 and February 1995. One fresh stool specimen was obtained and immediately processed using the Hoffman and direct methods. Some 126 samples were obtained in April 1992 (from a total population of 215 individuals). Some 80.2% (101) of those tested (more) were infected with at least one species of intestinal parasite. Hookworms were found in 33.3%, Ascaris lumbricoides 42.8%, Trichuris trichiura 0.8%, and Strongyloides stercoralis 5.6%. Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia protozoans were found in 65.0% and 46.8% of those tested, respectively. A second parasitological survey was performed on 174 individuals (from a population of 253) in February 1995. 88.5% were infected. Note that prevalence in February 1995 was higher than in April 1992 (p = 0.04). It was lower for hookworms, E. histolytica, and G. lamblia, with no S. stercoralis (p

Miranda, Rogério dos Anjos; Xavier, Fábio Branches; Menezes, Raimundo Camurça de

1998-07-01

328

New system for higher recovery rate of water borne Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background: The two most common water borne pathogenic protozoa, Cryptosporidium and Giardia, cause diarrhea worldwide. Detecting these parasites in water samples depends on effective parasite recovery from the water matrix. The reported low recovery rates of the currently used filter methods motivate the development of systems with higher recovery rates. Materials and methods: Five replicates of IMS purified Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts (N=2x103) were injected into a specially coated filter unit with a carefully chosen pore size. Following filtration, sonication was performed at predetermined time intervals to loosen all parasites and other particles from the filter and break up clusters. The concentrated parasite suspension was backwashed and counted after immuno-fluorescence staining. Results and discussion: Without sonication the recovery rates of both Cryptosporidium and Giardia were 85% were recorded when the filter was sonicated. Sonication usually affects parasite viability but could be tuned into a useful tool for enhanced backwash collection of parasites using a specially constructed filter unit and a sonication protocol. The filtration chamber further facilitated the concentration of parasites by ensuring a backwash volume of less than 1ml. The presented design of the filter system can be used as a cheap and time effective method of isolating water borne parasites in the laboratory.

Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Gad, Jens

2012-01-01

329

The abundance of Cryptosporidium and Giardia spp. in treated effluents produced by four wastewater treatment plants in the Gauteng Province of South Africa  

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Full Text Available Abstract in english This study aimed at assessing the effectiveness of 4 wastewater treatment plants of the Gauteng Province, namely Zeekoegat, Baviaanspoort, Rayton and Refilwe Water Care Works (WCW), in the removal of Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts. Wastewater influent and treated effluent samples were taken weekly between January and April 2008. Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts were detected by immunofluorescence and immunomagnetic separation, according to a modified US EPA 16 (more) 23 method. Effluent samples were subjected to a molecular study for the identification of Cryptosporidium parvum Genotype I and Giardia lamblia Assemblage A. The 18S rRNA gene for restriction digests was therefore used to characterise these (oo)cysts. Cryptosporidium oocysts were repeatedly detected in effluent samples collected from all wastewater treatments at lower concentration (range

Dungeni, M; Momba, MNB

2010-07-01

330

A Contiguous Compartment Functions as Endoplasmic Reticulum and Endosome/Lysosome in Giardia lamblia? †  

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The dynamic evolution of organelle compartmentalization in eukaryotes and how strictly compartmentalization is maintained are matters of ongoing debate. While the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is classically envisioned as the site of protein cotranslational translocation, it has recently been proposed ...

Abodeely, Marla; DuBois, Kelly N.; Hehl, Adrian; Stefanic, Sasa; Sajid, Mohammed; deSouza, Wanderley; Attias, Marcia

331

A contiguous compartment functions as endoplasmic reticulum and endosome/lysosome in Giardia lamblia  

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The dynamic evolution of organelle compartmentalization in eukaryotes and how strictly compartmentalization is maintained are matters of ongoing debate. While the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is classically envisioned as the site of protein cotranslational translocation, it has recently been proposed ...

Abodeely, M; DuBois, K N; Hehl, A B; Stefanic, S; Sajid, M; DeSouza, W; Attias, M; Engel, J C; Hsieh, I; Fetter, R D; McKerrow, J H

332

Intestinal parasites of Alouatta caraya (Primates, Ceboidea): preliminary study in semi-captivity and in the wild in Argentina/ Parásitos intestinales de Alouatta caraya (Primates, Ceboidea): estudio preliminar en semi cautiverio y en vida silvestre en la Argentina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Las infecciones endo-parasíticas son frecuentes en los primates no humanos y factores importantes que regulan sus poblaciones naturales. Los primates son particularmente vulnerables a las infecciones por parásitos de transmisión directa debido a que usualmente éstos viven en grupos sociales que facilitan su transmisión. El principal objetivo del presente estudio fue proveer información de los parásitos gastrointestinales que albergan tropas de monos aulladores Alou (more) atta caraya en semi-cautiverio y en vida silvestre en Argentina. Colectamos 110 muestras de materia fecal de 38 monos aulladores pertenecientes a cuatro tropas, dos de ellas mantenidas en semicautiverio en el CRMAN, Córdoba y dos tropas silvestres en campo Las Lomas, Corrientes. Identificamos seis especies de parásitos: cuatro protozoos: Giardia lamblia, Blastocystis hominis, Eimeria sp. y Entamoeba coli; un cestode, Bertiella mucronata y un nematode, Strongyloides sp. El 86.8% de los individuos muestreados presentaron al menos un tipo de parásito gastrointestinal. Se encontraron protozoos en el 78.9% de los animales y helmintos en el 21.1%. Hallamos diferencias significativas en la prevalencia de tres especies de protozoos entre los sitios de estudio, donde los aulladores de Las Lomas mostraron la mayor prevalencia. Las diferencias encontradas pueden estar relacionadas con las condiciones ambientales, donde regiones más cálidas y húmedas (Las Lomas), favorecen la supervivencia de estadios infecciosos de algunas especies de parásitos. Abstract in english Endoparasitic infections are common in nonhuman primates and important factors in regulating their natural populations. Primates are particularly vulnerable to the infections of directly transmitted parasites because they often live in close social groups that facilitate their transmission. The main objective of this study was to provide baseline data on gastrointestinal parasites of semi captive and wild howler monkeys Alouatta caraya troops from Argentina. We collected (more) 110 fecal samples from 38 howler monkeys from four troops, two of them kept in semi-captivity at the CRMAN, Córdoba, and two wild troops from Las Lomas, Corrientes. We identified six species of parasites: four Protozoa, Giardia lamblia, Blastocystis hominis, Eimeria sp. and Entamoeba coli; one Cestoda, Bertiella mucronata and one Nematoda, Strongyloides sp. Of the individuals sampled, 86.8% harbored at least one type of gastrointestinal parasite. Protozoa were found in 78.9% of hosts and helminths in 21.1%. We found significant differences in the prevalence of three protozoan species between study sites; and howlers from Las Lomas showed the highest prevalence. The differences found may be related to environmental conditions, where warmer and wetter regions (Las Lomas) favor the survival of infectious stages of some parasitic species.

Milozzi, Carola; Bruno, Gabriela; Cundom, Elisa; Mudry, Marta D; Navone, Graciela T

2012-12-01

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Intestinal parasitic infections in suburban government schools, Lak Hok subdistrict, Muang Pathum Thani, Thailand.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To provide baseline information of parasitic infections in 3 suburban government schools, Lakhok subdistrict of Muang Pathum Thani, Thailand. METHODS: This study was conducted between May-June 2010 using simple direct smear and modified formalin ether and from a population of 1 253 in 3 suburban government schools. RESULTS: Total samples of 202 registered and participated. The average of prevalence of infection from 3 schools was 13.9%, there were 13.7%, 14.3% and 13.9% in N, S and R school, respectively with no significant difference between schools (P>0.05). The infection rates did not show significant difference between genders (P>0.05). The highest rate of infection was 20.4% in Pathom 2 (8 years) students and the lowest was 4% in Pathom 1 (7 years) with statistically difference between age groups (P<0.05). The highest prevalence of pathogenic protozoa was Giardia lamblia (G. lamblia) which was found in 50% of infected cases, followed by 25% of Entamoeba histolytica (E. histolytica) and Blastocystis hominis (B. hominis). The highest prevalence of non-pathogenic protozoa was Endolimax nana (E. nana) which was found in 88.9%, followed by 11.1% of Entamoeba coli (E. coli). Mixed infections between Blastocystis hominis (B. hominis) and Endolimax nana (E. nana) were reported at 7.1%. The only helminthic infection found in this study area was hookworm, found in 1 student (3.8%). The formalin ether concentration technique showed a higher efficacy of detection (78%-100%) than the simple direct smear method (0%-50%). CONCLUSIONS: Surveillance of Protozoan infections may need to be focused on suburban areas.

Kitvatanachai S; Rhongbutsri P

2013-09-01

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Nitazoxanide in the treatment of cryptosporidial diarrhea and other intestinal parasitic infections associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in tropical Africa.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Eighteen patients hospitalized with intestinal parasitic infections associated with diarrhea and dehydration completed a study of nitazoxanide in the treatment of Cryptosporidium parvum and other intestinal parasitic infections. Seventeen of the 18 patients were positive for human immunodeficiency virus. Twelve patients were diagnosed with clinical Stage 4 acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) according to the 1990 World Health Organization proposed clinical classification system and cryptosporidiosis. Nitazoxanide (500 mg tablets) were administered orally, one tablet twice a day for seven consecutive days. Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts were eradicated or reduced by more than 95% in seven of the 12 Stage 4 AIDS patients who completed the study based upon two post-treatment fecal examinations conducted on days 7 and 14 following the initiation of treatment. The elimination or reduction of C. parvum oocysts was associated with a complete resolution of diarrhea in four of the seven patients. The test drug was also effective against cases of Isospora belli, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, Ascaris lumbricoides, Enterobius vermicularis, Hymenolepis nana, and Dicrocoelium dentriticum. Treatment with nitazoxanide was well tolerated by the patients. There were no abnormalities in blood chemistry or hematology data that were considered to be attributable to nitazoxanide therapy. Transient episodes of vomiting were observed in four patients, all with Stage 4 AIDS and cryptosporidiosis, which resolved spontaneously without discontinuation of treatment and were not considered to be related to administration of nitazoxanide.

Doumbo O; Rossignol JF; Pichard E; Traore HA; Dembele TM; Diakite M; Traore F; Diallo DA

1997-06-01

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[Prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica and other intestinal parasites in a neighborhood of the Mara Municipality, Zulia State, Venezuela  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A parasitologic survey of a low socioeconomic level community from Mara County, Zulia State, Venezuela was done. A single stool specimen per person from 327 individuals was obtained and examined by hematoxylin stained fecal smears and formol-ether concentrates. The overall parasitic infection rate was 92%. Multiple infections were present in 89% of the population. The amebic prevalence rate (APR) was 41.5%. Entamoeba histolytica was found in 9.2% of the individuals, most of them being asymptomatic. Haematophagous trophozoites were observed in two symptomatic cases. Entamoeba coli was the most frequent protozoan (23.5%). The APR was high in all groups. In males it was higher in 7-12 year old children and adolescents, and in females it was higher in adults. Giardia lamblia was the most frequent flagellate (18%) and among the helminths, Trichuris trichiura (82.8%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (74.6%). The high rates of parasitic infection, multiple parasitosis and amebic prevalence reflect the low socioeconomic conditions in the population.

Chacín-Bonilla L; Dikdan Y; Guanipa N; Villalobos R

1990-01-01

336

Pattern of intestinal parasitic infection among food handlers in riyadh, saudi arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Identify the types and prevalence of intestinal parasites among food handlers, and test the effectiveness of the current pre-employment screening policy. METHODS: A cross sectional survey was carried out in the catchment areas of seven primary health care centres (PHCCs) to represent various sections of Riyadh city. A total of 700 food handlers working in restaurants were randomly selected from the study area. All study subjects were asked to complete a data collection form and to bring a fresh stool specimen on the specified day to the designated PHCC. RESULTS: About 66% of the selected subjects complied in bringing fresh stool specimens. Fifty nine (12.8%) of the specimens were positive for parasites. There was a significant association between the food handler's nationality and the likelihood of a positive specimen result, being highest among the Bangladeshis (20.2%) and Indians (18.5%) and the lowest among the Arabs (3.4%) and the Turks (10%). The commonest intestinal parasites isolated were Giardia lamblia (33.8%), followed by Enterobius vermicularis (27.4%). The current screening policy does not seem effective, as there was an absence of significant association between holding a valid PEHC and the test result, with 81% of the positive results from persons holding valid pre-employment health certificates (PEHCs). CONCLUSIONS: Though it is obligatory for food handlers to hold a PEHC in Saudi Arabia, the prevalence of intestinal parasites remains high. Possible solutions include health education on hygiene, more frequent stool tests, and assessment of the current annual screening procedure.

Kalantan KA; Al-Faris EA; Al-Taweel AA

2001-09-01

337

THE CURRENT SITUATION OF PARASITIC INFECTIONS IN INDONESIA  

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Full Text Available Parasitic infections are highly prevalent in Indonesia, especially in rural areas, suburbs and slums of big cities. Twenty two species of protozoa and 32 species of helminths have been reported infecting man in Indonesia. Among the 16 species of intestinal protozoa, nine are constantly found in stool surveys, but only Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia are real pathogens. Among the blood and tissue protozoa, the most important are the malaria parasites. The most frequently encountered and widely distributed species are Plasmodium falciparum, and P. vivax. P. malariae is at present more difficult to find, while P. ovale has been reported only from Flores, Timor and Irian Jaya. The non human parasites so far has not been diagnosed in human. Among the 80 species of Anopheline mosquitoes in Indonesia, 16 have been reconfirmed as vectors. Among the other tissue protozoa, Trichomonas vaginalis is frequenUy found in the Gynaecological clinic, while Toxolasma gondii is found only in special studies. Among the 13 species of intestinal nematodes, five are highly prevalent namely : Ascaris lumbricoides, Necator americanus, Ancylostoma duodenale, Trichuris trichiura and Oxyuris vermicularis, while Strongyloides stercoralis is getting more difficult to find. Filariasis is widely distributed and is still highly endemic in certain areas. Both urban and rural Wuchereria bancrofti are prevalent, but B. malayi is causing more public health problems in rural areas. Both the human and the zoonotic type are prevalent. B. timori so far has been described only from the south eastern part of Indonesia. The filarial worms have different vectors and are therefore different in epidemiology and distribution. Non human filarial worms have not been reported infecting man in Indonesia. Among the 12 species of Trematodes, only Schistosoma japonicum is endemic in Central Sulawesi, and recently an endemic area oiFasciolopsis buski was discovered in a restricted area in South Kalimantan. Echinostoma lindoense which was highly endemic in lake Lindu area has disappeared completely. Among the 8 species of Cestodes, Taenia saginata and T. solium with its cysticercus are found more often. While endemic in a few areas only, cases been reported from many places. Infections with other Cestodes have been reported occasionally. On the whole, parasitic infections in Indonesia have been decreasing. Some parasites which were prevalent in the older days, have dissappeared, and human infections with animal parasites have been reported occasionally because of the difficult diagnosis.

Sri Oemijati

2012-01-01

338

Giardia intestinalis: DNA extraction approaches to improve PCR results.  

Science.gov (United States)

Difficulty in disrupting cysts of Giardia intestinalis, a cosmopolitan protozoan parasite, decreases the yield of DNA extracted and reduces the effectiveness of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). To improve the detection of the Giardia Glutamate Dehydrogenase (gdh) gene, we re-evaluated the effects of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extraction methods. Purified and concentrated cysts from 33 fecal samples were disrupted using conventional methods, and DNA extraction was conducted using two protocols: the QIAamp Stool Mini Kit and phenol/chloroform/isoamyl alcohol (PCI). PCR amplification was successful for 12 extracted DNA samples (36%) using PCI following a glass bead and freeze/thaw pretreatment and for all 33 samples (100%) using the QIAamp Stool Mini Kit following the aforementioned pretreatment. Consequently, the pretreatment of cysts with glass beads and freeze/thaw cycles followed by extraction of DNA with the QIAamp Stool Mini kit was the more effective protocol. PMID:21315715

Babaei, Zahra; Oormazdi, Hormozd; Rezaie, Sasan; Rezaeian, Mostafa; Razmjou, Elham

2011-02-17

339

Enteroparásitos asociados a diarrea aguda en niños menores de 12 años de edad/ Intestinal Parasites Associated with Acute Diarrhea in Children Under 12 Years of Age  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La enfermedad diarreica representa un problema importante de salud pública, siendo las parasitosis intestinales una de sus causas. El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar especies de enteroparásitos asociados a diarrea aguda en niños menores de 12 años de edad. Se estudiaron 58 niños de ambos sexos estratificados en tres grupos de edad: menores de 1 año, de 1 a 4 años y de 5 a 12 años. A cada niño se le tomó una muestra fecal a la cual se le practicó los m? (more) ?todos coproparasitológicos con solución salina fisiológica, coloraciones temporales con lugol y azul de metileno amortiguado y coloraciones permanentes de Ziehl Neelsen modificado y Ácido Ràpido Tricrómica. El 36,20 % de los individuos presentaban enteroparásitos. Las especies parasitarias identificadas fueron las siguientes: Blastocystis hominis 17,24%, Complejo Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar 10,34%, Cryptosporidium parvum 6,90%, Giardia lamblia 6,90%, Entamoeba coli 3,45%, Chilomastix mesnili, Endolimax nana y Pentatrichomonas hominis 1,72% cada uno. El Chi cuadrado reveló diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre las variables parasitosis y sexo masculino, edad (5-12 años) y monoparasitismo (p Abstract in english Diarrhea is a serious public health problem and intestinal parasites are one of causes of the same. In order to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasite species involved in acute diarrhea in children under 12 years of age, this study was carried out. The sample was 58 children of both sexes stratified in three age groups: less than 1 year old, of 1 to 4 years old and older than 5, from whom fecal samples were obtained to which analysis with the coproparasitological (more) exam was applied with physiologic saline solution, lugol, blue from cushioned methylene, the coloration techniques, permanent modified Ziehl Neelsen and Acid Fast Tricromic testing. The obtained results indicated that 36,20% of the individuals presented intestinal parasites. The prevalence of identified enteroparasites was the following: Blastocystis hominis 17.24%, Complex Entamoeba histolytica /Entamoeba dispar 10,34%, Cryptosporidium parvum y Giardia lamblia both with 6,90%, Entamoeba coli 3.45%, Chilomastix mesnili, Endolimax nana and Pentatrichomonas hominis 1.72% each one. Statistical squared Chi analysis revealed significance between the variables parasitosis and male sex, age (5-12 years old) and monoparasitism (p

Rincón, Wintila; Acurero, Ellen; Serrano, Elvia; Quintero, Marisol; Beauchamp, Sharline

2006-01-01

340

Intestinal parasites in patients from the educational community, “Veragacha” School, Lara state, Venezuela (Enteroparasitosis en pacientes de la comunidad educativa, Escuela “Veragacha”, estado Lara, Venezuela)  

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Full Text Available Background: The parasites are a health problem.Objective: To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites instudents and school representatives.Methods: We assessed a descriptive and cross sectional study,which examined 204 individuals (114 children and 90 parents orguardians), analyzing their stool with techniques of saline solution,Lugol and Kato.Results: The frequency of intestinal parasitosis was 42.65%(73,6% for monoparasites and 26,4% multiparasitic) predominantlybetween 11 and 14 years. 59% were female and 47,7%; were male.The parasites found: Blastocystis hominis (71,3%), Endolimaxnana (26,4%), Giardia lamblia (13,8%), Entamoeba coli (11,5%),Entamoeba histolytica (3.5%), Iodamoeba butschlii (1.2%), Chilomastixmesnili (1,2%), Trichuris trichiura (1,2%) and Enterobiusvermicularis (1,2%).Conclusion: The relationship where the common presence of parasiteswas found. Only 18.1% of households had one or more parasitesin common, which seems to suggest that the infection in notnecessarily produced in the home. -RESUMEN: Introducción: Las parasitosis constituyen un problema de salud.Objetivo: Determinar la frecuencia de enteroparásitos en estudiantesy representantes de la escuela “Veragacha”.Material y Métodos: Se realizó un estudio de tipo descriptivo ytransversal, donde se estudiaron 204 individuos (114 niños y 90padres/representantes), analizando sus heces con las técnicas de soluciónsalina, lugol y Kato.Resultados: Se encontró una frecuencia de parasitosis intestinalde 42,65% (73,6% monoparasitados y 26,4% poliparasitados) predominandoentre los 11 y 14 años (59%) y en el sexo masculino(47,7%); los parásitos diagnosticados fueron: Blastocystis hominis(71,3%), Endolimax nana (26,4%), Giardia lamblia (13,8%), Entamoebacoli (11,5%), Entamoeba histolytica (3,5%), Iodamoebabutschlii (1,2%), Chilomastix mesnili (1,2%), Trichuris trichiura(1,2%) y Enterobius vermicularis (1,2%).Conclusión: En la relación alumno-representante donde se indagóla presencia común de parásitos en cada familia, solo el 18,1% delos hogares, presentó uno o más parásitos en común, lo que hacepresumir que la infección no necesariamente se produjo en el hogar.

Traviezo-Valles Luis Eduardo; Yánez Carlexis; Lozada María; García Gabriel; Jaimes César; Curo Astrid; Martínez Mirlenis; Cárdenas Elsys; Pérez Daisy

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Características del parasitismo intestinal en niños de dos comunidades del policlínico "XX Aniversario" Intestinal parasitism features in children from two communities of "XX Aniversario" Polyclinic  

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Full Text Available Dentro de las enfermedades infecciosas, aun en estos modernos tiempos, el parasitismo intestinal constituye un problema para países en vías de desarrollo y para los altamente desarrollados. Para caracterizar el parasitismo intestinal en niños de 1 a 12 años se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal durante los meses de mayo a julio de 2007, en 2 comunidades, una suburbana del reparto "América Latina" y otra urbana del reparto "Virginia", ambas pertenecientes al área de salud del Policlínico "XX Aniversario", del municipio de Santa Clara. Se visitaron las viviendas y se aplicó encuesta a los padres para obtener datos al respecto. Fueron estudiados 243 niños de ambas comunidades, a quienes se les tomó muestras de heces fecales y región anal por el método de Graham. La frecuencia general de parasitismo fue de 65,8 %, mayor en los niños del reparto "América Latina", y las especies más frecuentes fueron Giardia lamblia y Enterobius vermicularis. Una inadecuada desinfección del agua, la presencia de vectores, comerse las uñas, la poca higiene después del contacto con animales, la presencia de estos en el hogar, no lavar las verduras, andar descalzos y el hacinamiento, fueron factores que favorecieron las parasitosis.Included in infectious diseases, yet at present times, intestinal parasitism is a problem for underdeveloped countries, and for those highly developed. To characterize intestinal parasitism in children aged 1 and 12, we carried out a cross-sectional descriptive study during May to July, 2007 in 2 communities, one suburban of "América Latina" parcel and other urban of "Virginia" parcel, both served by "XX Aniversario" Polyclinic of Santa Clara municipality. We visited homes and we applied survey to parents to obtain data in this respect. A total of 243 children ware studied in both communities, taking samples of feces and of anal region by Graham method. General frequency of parasitism was of 6,8 % greater in the children of "América Latina" parcel, and more frequent species were Giardia lamblia and Enterobius vermicularis. An unsuitable water disinfection, presence of vectors, to bite nails, a poor hygiene after animal contacts, presence of these in home, not washed vegetables, barefoot, and overcrowding, were the factors that more favouring parasitosis.

Gladys Antonia Cueto Montoya; María del Carmen Pérez Cueto; Silvia Mildestein Verdés;