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Sample records for paranodal myelin splitting

  1. HDAC1/2-Dependent P0 Expression Maintains Paranodal and Nodal Integrity Independently of Myelin Stability through Interactions with Neurofascins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brügger, Valérie; Engler, Stefanie; Pereira, Jorge A.; Ruff, Sophie; Horn, Michael; Welzl, Hans; Münger, Emmanuelle; Vaquié, Adrien; Sidiropoulos, Páris N. M.; Egger, Boris; Yotovski, Peter; Filgueira, Luis; Somandin, Christian; Lühmann, Tessa C.; D’Antonio, Maurizio; Yamaguchi, Teppei; Matthias, Patrick; Suter, Ueli; Jacob, Claire

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenesis of peripheral neuropathies in adults is linked to maintenance mechanisms that are not well understood. Here, we elucidate a novel critical maintenance mechanism for Schwann cell (SC)–axon interaction. Using mouse genetics, ablation of the transcriptional regulators histone deacetylases 1 and 2 (HDAC1/2) in adult SCs severely affected paranodal and nodal integrity and led to demyelination/remyelination. Expression levels of the HDAC1/2 target gene myelin protein zero (P0) were reduced by half, accompanied by altered localization and stability of neurofascin (NFasc)155, NFasc186, and loss of Caspr and septate-like junctions. We identify P0 as a novel binding partner of NFasc155 and NFasc186, both in vivo and by in vitro adhesion assay. Furthermore, we demonstrate that HDAC1/2-dependent P0 expression is crucial for the maintenance of paranodal/nodal integrity and axonal function through interaction of P0 with neurofascins. In addition, we show that the latter mechanism is impaired by some P0 mutations that lead to late onset Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. PMID:26406915

  2. Neutron scattering from myelin revisited: bilayer asymmetry and water-exchange kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denninger, Andrew R. [Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA 02467 (United States); Demé, Bruno; Cristiglio, Viviana [Institut Laue–Langevin (ILL), CS 20156, F-38042 Grenoble CEDEX 9 (France); LeDuc, Géraldine [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), CS 40220, F-38043 Grenoble CEDEX 9 (France); Feller, W. Bruce [NOVA Scientific Inc., Sturbridge, MA 01566 (United States); Kirschner, Daniel A., E-mail: kirschnd@bc.edu [Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA 02467 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The structure of internodal myelin in the rodent central and peripheral nervous systems has been determined using neutron diffraction. The kinetics of water exchange in these tissues is also described. Rapid nerve conduction in the central and peripheral nervous systems (CNS and PNS, respectively) of higher vertebrates is brought about by the ensheathment of axons with myelin, a lipid-rich, multilamellar assembly of membranes. The ability of myelin to electrically insulate depends on the regular stacking of these plasma membranes and on the presence of a number of specialized membrane-protein assemblies in the sheath, including the radial component, Schmidt–Lanterman incisures and the axo–glial junctions of the paranodal loops. The disruption of this fine-structure is the basis for many demyelinating neuropathies in the CNS and PNS. Understanding the processes that govern myelin biogenesis, maintenance and destabilization requires knowledge of myelin structure; however, the tight packing of internodal myelin and the complexity of its junctional specializations make myelin a challenging target for comprehensive structural analysis. This paper describes an examination of myelin from the CNS and PNS using neutron diffraction. This investigation revealed the dimensions of the bilayers and aqueous spaces of myelin, asymmetry between the cytoplasmic and extracellular leaflets of the membrane, and the distribution of water and exchangeable hydrogen in internodal multilamellar myelin. It also uncovered differences between CNS and PNS myelin in their water-exchange kinetics.

  3. ATP-induced lipid membrane reordering in the myelinated nerve fiber identified using Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrate a successful application of Raman spectroscopy to the problem of lipid ordering with microscopic resolution in different regions of the myelinated nerve fiber. Simultaneous collection of Raman spectra of lipids and carotenoids has enabled us to characterize membrane fluidity and the degree of lipid ordering based on intensity ratios for the 1527/1160 and 2940/2885 cm−1 bands. We show that the intensity profiles of the major Raman bands vary significantly between the three major regions of myelinated nerve fiber: internode, paranode and the node of Ranvier. Mapping Raman peak intensities over these areas suggested that the carotenoid molecules are localized in the myelin membranes of nerve cells. Paranodal membranes were sensitive to extracellular ATP. ATP solutions (7 mM) influenced the 1527/1160 and 2940/2885 cm−1 intensity ratios. Changes in both carotenoid and lipid Raman spectra were in accord and indicated an increase in lipid ordering degree and decrease in membrane fluidity under ATP administration. The collected data provide evidence for the existence of a regulatory purinergic signaling pathway in the peripheral nervous system. (letter)

  4. The myelin sheath aqueous layers improve the membrane properties of simulated chronic demyelinating neuropathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephanova, D I; Krustev, S M; Negrev, N; Daskalova, M

    2011-03-01

    Recently, patients with chronic demyelinating neuropathies have demonstrated significant abnormalities in their multiple nerve excitability properties measured by a non-invasive threshold tracking technique. In order to expand our studies on the possible mechanisms underlying these abnormalities, which are not yet well understood, we investigate the contributions of the aqueous layers within the myelin sheath on multiple membrane properties of simulated fibre demyelinations. Four degrees of systematic paranodal demyelinations (two mild demyelinations termed PSD1 and PSD2, without/with aqueous layers respectively, and two severe demyelinations termed PSD3 and PSD4, with/without aqueous layers, respectively) are simulated using our previous multi-layered model of human motor nerve fibre. We studied the following parameters of myelinated axonal function: potentials (intracellular action, electrotonic-reflecting the propagating and accommodative fibre processes, respectively) and strength-duration time constants, rheobases, recovery cycles (reflecting the adaptive fibre processes). The results show that each excitability parameter is markedly potentiated when the aqueous layers within their paranodally demyelinated sheaths are taken into account. The effect of the aqueous layers is significantly higher on the propagating processes than on the accommodative and adaptive processes in the fibres. The aqueous layers restore the action potential propagation, which is initially blocked when they are not taken into account. The study provides new and important information on the mechanisms of chronic demyelinating neuropathies, such as chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). PMID:21425485

  5. CSF myelin basic protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    CSF myelin basic protein is a test to measure the level of myelin basic protein (MBP) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The CSF ... less than 4 ng/mL of myelin basic protein in the CSF. Note: ng/mL = nanogram per ...

  6. Uncompacted Myelin Lamellae and Nodal Ion Channel Disruption in POEMS Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Rina; Koike, Haruki; Takahashi, Mie; Ohyama, Ken; Kawagashira, Yuichi; Iijima, Masahiro; Sobue, Gen

    2015-12-01

    To elucidate the significance of uncompacted myelin lamellae (UML) and ion channel disruption at the nodes of Ranvier in the polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal gammopathy, and skin changes (POEMS) syndrome, we evaluated sural nerve biopsy specimens from 33 patients with POEMS syndrome and from 7 control patients. Uncompacted myelin lamellae distribution was assessed by electron microscopy and immunofluorescence microscopy. In the POEMS patient biopsies, UML were seen more frequently in small versus large myelinated fibers. Paranodes and Schmidt-Lanterman incisures, where normal physiologic UM is located, were frequently associated with UM. Widening of the nodes of Ranvier (i.e. segmental demyelination) was not associated with UML. There was axonal hollowing with neurofilament condensation at Schmidt-Lanterman incisures with abnormal UML, suggesting axonal damage at those sites in the POEMS patient biopsies. Myelin sheath irregularity was conspicuous in large myelinated fibers and was associated with abnormally widened bizarrely shaped Schmidt-Lanterman incisures. Indirect immunofluorescent studies revealed abnormalities of sodium (pan sodium) and potassium (KCNQ2) channels, even at nonwidened nodes of Ranvier. Thus, UML was not apparently associated with segmental demyelination but seemed to be associated with axonal damage. These observations suggest that nodal ion channel disruption may be associated with functional deficits in POEMS syndrome patient nerves. PMID:26574667

  7. Major myelin protein gene (P0) mutation causes a novel form of axonal degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Bai, Yunhong; Ianakova, Emilia; Grandis, Marina; Uchwat, Fred; Trostinskaia, Anna; Krajewski, Karen M; Garbern, James; Kupsky, William J; Shy, Michael E

    2006-09-10

    Mutations in the major peripheral nervous system (PNS) myelin protein, myelin protein zero (MPZ), cause Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease type 1B (CMT1B), typically thought of as a demyelinating peripheral neuropathy. Certain MPZ mutations, however, cause adult onset neuropathy with minimal demyelination but pronounced axonal degeneration. Mechanism(s) for this phenotype are unknown. We performed an autopsy of a 73-year-old woman with a late-onset neuropathy caused by an H10P MPZ mutation whose nerve conduction studies suggested severe axonal loss but no demyelination. The autopsy demonstrated axonal loss and reorganization of the molecular architecture of the axolemma. Segmental demyelination was negligible. In addition, we identified focal nerve enlargements containing MPZ and ubiquitin either in the inner myelin intralaminar and/or periaxonal space that separates axons from myelinating Schwann cells. Taken together, these data confirmed that a mutation in MPZ can cause axonal neuropathy, in the absence of segmental demyelination, thus uncoupling the two pathological processes. More important, it also provided potential molecular mechanisms as to how the axonal degeneration occurred: either by disruption of glial-axon interaction by protein aggregates or by alterations in the molecular architecture of internodes and paranodes. This report represents the first study in which the molecular basis of axonal degeneration in the late-onset CMT1B has been explored in human tissue. PMID:16856127

  8. Glycosphingolipid synthesis in cerebellar Purkinje neurons: roles in myelin formation and axonal homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shun; Endo, Shogo; Oshima, Eriko; Hoshi, Tomiko; Higashi, Hideyoshi; Yamada, Kazuyuki; Tohyama, Koujiro; Yamashita, Tadashi; Hirabayashi, Yoshio

    2010-08-01

    Glycosphingolipids (GSLs) occur in all mammalian plasma membranes. They are most abundant in neuronal cells and have essential roles in brain development. Glucosylceramide (GlcCer) synthase, which is encoded by the Ugcg gene, is the key enzyme driving the synthesis of most neuronal GSLs. Experiments using conditional Nestin-Cre Ugcg knockout mice have shown that GSL synthesis in vivo is essential, especially for brain maturation. However, the roles of GSL synthesis in mature neurons remain elusive, since Nestin-Cre is expressed in neural precursors as well as in postmitotic neurons. To address this problem, we generated Purkinje cell-specific Ugcg knockout mice using mice that express Cre under the control of the L7 promoter. In these mice, Purkinje cells survived for at least 10-18 weeks after Ugcg deletion. We observed apparent axonal degeneration characterized by the accumulation of axonal transport cargos and aberrant membrane structures. Dendrites, however, were not affected. In addition, loss of GSLs disrupted myelin sheaths, which were characterized by detached paranodal loops. Notably, we observed doubly myelinated axons enveloped by an additional concentric myelin sheath around the original sheath. Our data show that axonal GlcCer-based GSLs are essential for axonal homeostasis and correct myelin sheath formation. PMID:20544855

  9. Myelin, myelin-related disorders, and psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mighdoll, Michelle I; Tao, Ran; Kleinman, Joel E; Hyde, Thomas M

    2015-01-01

    The neuropathological basis of schizophrenia and related psychoses remains elusive despite intensive scientific investigation. Symptoms of psychosis have been reported in a number of conditions where normal myelin development is interrupted. The nature, location, and timing of white matter pathology seem to be key factors in the development of psychosis, especially during the critical adolescent period of association area myelination. Numerous lines of evidence implicate myelin and oligodendrocyte function as critical processes that could affect neuronal connectivity, which has been implicated as a central abnormality in schizophrenia. Phenocopies of schizophrenia with a known pathological basis involving demyelination or dysmyelination may offer insights into the biology of schizophrenia itself. This article reviews the pathological changes in white matter of patients with schizophrenia, as well as demyelinating diseases associated with psychosis. In an attempt to understand the potential role of dysmyelination in schizophrenia, we outline the evidence from a number of both clinically-based and post-mortem studies that provide evidence that OMR genes are genetically associated with increased risk for schizophrenia. To further understand the implication of white matter dysfunction and dysmyelination in schizophrenia, we examine diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), which has shown volumetric and microstructural white matter differences in patients with schizophrenia. While classical clinical-neuropathological correlations have established that disruption in myelination can produce a high fidelity phenocopy of psychosis similar to schizophrenia, the role of dysmyelination in schizophrenia remains controversial. PMID:25449713

  10. Rituximab in treatment-resistant CIDP with antibodies against paranodal proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querol, Luis; Rojas-García, Ricard; Diaz-Manera, Jordi; Barcena, Joseba; Pardo, Julio; Ortega-Moreno, Angel; Sedano, Maria Jose; Seró-Ballesteros, Laia; Carvajal, Alejandra; Ortiz, Nicolau; Gallardo, Eduard

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe the response to rituximab in patients with treatment-resistant chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) with antibodies against paranodal proteins and correlate the response with autoantibody titers. Methods: Patients with CIDP and IgG4 anti–contactin-1 (CNTN1) or anti–neurofascin-155 (NF155) antibodies who were resistant to IV immunoglobulin and corticosteroids were treated with rituximab and followed prospectively. Immunocytochemistry was used to detect anti-CNTN1 and anti-NF155 antibodies and ELISA with human recombinant CNTN1 and NF155 proteins was used to determine antibody titers. Results: Two patients had a marked improvement; another patient improved slightly after 10 years of stable, severe disease; and the fourth patient had an ischemic stroke unrelated to treatment and was lost to follow-up. Autoantibodies decreased in all patients after rituximab treatment. Conclusions: Rituximab treatment is an option for patients with CIDP with IgG4 anti-CNTN1/NF155 antibodies who are resistant to conventional therapies. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class IV evidence that rituximab is effective for patients with treatment-resistant CIDP with IgG4 anti-CNTN1 or anti-NF155 antibodies. PMID:26401517

  11. Diffusion of myelin water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Trevor J; Osborne, Michael T; Does, Mark D

    2006-08-01

    We studied compartmentally specific characteristics of water diffusion in excised frog sciatic nerve by combining T1 or T2 selective acquisitions with pulse-gradient spin-echo (PGSE) diffusion weighting, with the specific objective of characterizing myelin water diffusion. Combining a PGSE with a Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) acquisition provided apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) for each of the three T2 components found in nerve, including the short-lived component believed to be derived from myelin water. Double-inversion-recovery (DIR) preparation provided an alternate means of discriminating myelin water, and in combination with PGSE provided somewhat different measures of ADC. The DIR measures yielded myelin water ADCs of 0.37 microm2/ms (parallel to nerve) and 0.13 microm2/ms (perpendicular to nerve). These ADC estimates were postulated to be more accurate than those based on T2 discrimination, although the difference between the two findings is not clear. PMID:16767712

  12. Glycans of myelin proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedzik, Jan; Jastrzebski, Jan Pawel; Grandis, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Human P0 is the main myelin glycoprotein of the peripheral nervous system. It can bind six different glycans, all linked to Asn(93) , the unique glycosylation site. Other myelin glycoproteins, also with a single glycosylation site (PMP22 at Asn(36) , MOG at Asn(31) ), bind only one glycan. The MAG has 10 glycosylation sites; the glycoprotein OMgp has 11 glycosylation sites. Aside from P0, no comprehensive data are available on other myelin glycoproteins. Here we review and analyze all published data on the physicochemical structure of the glycans linked to P0, PMP22, MOG, and MAG. Most data concern bovine P0, whose glycan moieties have an MW ranging from 1,294.56 Da (GP3) to 2,279.94 Da (GP5). The pI of glycosylated P0 protein varies from pH 9.32 to 9.46. The most charged glycan is MS2 containing three sulfate groups and one glucuronic acid; whereas the least charged one is the BA2 residue. All glycans contain one fucose and one galactose. The most mannose rich are the glycans MS2 and GP4, each of them has four mannoses; OPPE1 contains five N-acetylglucosamines and one sulfated glucuronic acid; GP4 contains one sialic acid. Furthermore, human P0 variants causing both gain and loss of glycosylation have been described and cause peripheral neuropathies with variable clinical severity. In particular, the substitution T(95) ?M is a very common in Europe and is associated with a late-onset axonal neuropathy. Although peripheral myelin is made up largely of glycoproteins, mutations altering glycosylation have been described only in P0. This attractive avenue of research requires further study. PMID:25213400

  13. F3/contactin, a neuronal cell adhesion molecule implicated in axogenesis and myelination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Julien; Bonnon, Carine; Girault, Jean-Antoine; Faivre-Sarrailh, Catherine

    2002-10-01

    A general feature of the cell adhesion molecules belonging to the immunoglobulin family (Ig-CAMs) is to display a modular structure that provides a framework for multiple binding sites for other recognition molecules. Among this family, F3/contactin is a glycan phosphatidyl-inositol (GPI)-anchored molecule expressed by neurons that displays the distinctiveness to exert heterophilic but no homophilic binding activities. The Ig domains of F3/contactin were shown to interact with the L1 family of Ig-CAMs, including L1, NrCAM, and neurofascin. Binding between F3/contactin and NrCAM is known to modulate axonal elongation of the cerebellar granule cells and to control sensory axon guidance. F3/contactin mediates neuron-glial contacts through its association with extracellular matrix components (tenascin-R, tenascin-C) and RPTPbeta/phosphacan, influencing axonal growth and fasciculation. Another major role of F3/contactin is to organize axonal subdomains at the node of Ranvier of myelinated fibers in interplay with other Ig-CAMs, through its binding with caspr/paranodin at paranodes and the voltage-gated sodium channels in the nodal region. The F3/contactin deficient mice display a severe ataxia correlated with defects in axonal and dendritic projections in the cerebellum. These mice also display defects in nerve influx conduction due to the disruption of the axo-glial contacts at paranodes. Finally, the recent identification of a Drosophila homologue of F3/contactin indicated that this family of GPI-anchored CAMs plays a conserved function in axonal insulation. PMID:12500940

  14. Myelin glycolipids and their functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffel, W; Bosio, A

    1997-10-01

    During myelination, oligodendrocytes in the CNS and Schwann cells in the PNS synthesise myelin-specific proteins and lipids for the assembly of the axon myelin sheath. A dominant class of lipids in the myelin bilayer are the glycolipids, which include galactocerebroside (GalC), galactosulfatide (sGalC) and galactodiglyceride (GalDG). A promising approach for unravelling the roles played by various lipids in the myelin membrane involves knocking out the genes encoding important enzymes in lipid biosynthesis. The recent ablation of the ceramide galactosyltransferase ( cgt) gene in mice is the first example. The cgt gene encodes a key enzyme in glycolipid biosynthesis. Its absence causes glycolipid deficiency in the lipid bilayer, breakdown of axon insulation and loss of saltatory conduction. Additional knock-out studies should provide important insights into the various functions of glycolipids in myelinogenesis and myelin structure. PMID:9384539

  15. GM1 improves neurofascin155 association with lipid rafts and prevents rat brain myelin injury after hypoxia-ischemia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Y.P., Zhang; Q.L., Huang; C.M., Zhao; J.L., Tang; Y.L., Wang.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available White matter injury characterized by damage to myelin is an important process in hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD). Because the oligodendrocyte-specific isoform of neurofascin, neurofascin 155 (NF155), and its association with lipid rafts are essential for the establishment and stabilization of t [...] he paranodal junction, which is required for tight interaction between myelin and axons, we analyzed the effect of monosialotetrahexosyl ganglioside (GM1) on NF155 expression and its association with lipid rafts after HIBD in Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 12-15 g, on day 7 post-partum (P7; N = 20 per group). HIBD was induced on P7 and the rats were divided into two groups: one group received an intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg/kg GM1 three times and the other group an injection of saline. There was also a group of 20 sham-operated rats. After sacrifice, the brains of the rats were removed on P30 and studied by immunochemistry, SDS-PAGE, Western blot analysis, and electron microscopy. Staining showed that the saline group had definite rarefaction and fragmentation of brain myelin sheaths, whereas the GM1 group had no obvious structural changes. The GM1 group had 1.9-2.9-fold more GM1 in lipid rafts than the saline group (fraction 3-6; all P

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging and myelin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postnatal development of the brain is characterized by growth and by myelination. Myelination of the brain normally extends from birth until about two years of age. MRI changes corresponding to the various myelination stages are due mainly to changes in the water content of the cerebral parenchyma. Myelination kinetics follow a fairly precise timetable, with variations across areas of the brain. Abnormalities of white matter are responsible for relatively stereotyped, nonspecific manifestations, which are mainly due to an increase in the amount of water contained in diseased white matter, whatever the cause of the disorder. Interpretation is based on the location, distribution, and progression of lesions. (authors). 7 refs., 5 figs

  17. Dynamic properties of a reconstituted myelin sheath

    OpenAIRE

    Knoll, W.; Natali, F.; Peters, J; Nanekar, R. (Rahul); Wang, C; Kursula, P.

    2010-01-01

    Myelin is a multilamellar membrane which, wrapping the nerve axons, increases the efficiency of nervous signal transmission. Indeed, the molecular components of the myelin sheath interact tightly with each other and molecules on the axonal surface to drive myelination, to keep both myelin and the axon intact, and to transduce signals from myelin to the axon and vice versa. Myelin is strongly affected in human demyelinating diseases in both the central and peripheral nervous system (CNS and PN...

  18. Developmental impairment of compound action potential in the optic nerve of myelin mutant taiep rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncagliolo, Manuel; Schlageter, Carol; León, Claudia; Couve, Eduardo; Bonansco, Christian; Eguibar, José R

    2006-01-01

    The taiep rat is a myelin mutant with an initial hypomyelination, followed by a progressive demyelination of the CNS. The neurological correlates start with tremor, followed by ataxia, immobility episodes, epilepsy and paralysis. The optic nerve, an easily-isolable central tract fully myelinated by oligodendrocytes, is a suitable preparation to evaluate the developmental impairment of central myelin. We examined the ontogenic development of optic nerve compound action potentials (CAP) throughout the first 6 months of life of control and taiep rats. Control optic nerves (ON) develop CAPs characterized by three waves. Along the first month, the CAPs of taiep rats showed a delayed maturation, with lower amplitudes and longer latencies than controls; at P30, the conduction velocity has only a third of the normal value. Later, as demyelination proceeds, the conduction velocity of taiep ONs begins to decrease and CAPs undergo a gradual temporal dispersion. CAPs of control and taiep showed differences in their pharmacological sensitivity to TEA and 4-AP, two voltage dependent K+ channel-blockers. As compared with TEA, 4-AP induced a significant increase of the amplitudes and a remarkable broadening of CAPs. After P20, unlike controls, the greater sensitivity to 4-AP exhibited by taiep ONs correlates with the detachment and retraction of paranodal loops suggesting that potassium conductances could regulate the excitability as demyelination of CNS axons progresses. It is concluded that the taiep rat, a long-lived mutant, provides a useful model to study the consequences of partial demyelination and the mechanisms by which glial cells regulate the molecular organization and excitability of axonal membranes during development and disease. PMID:16360123

  19. Reactivity to myelin antigens in multiple sclerosis. Peripheral blood lymphocytes respond predominantly to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein.

    OpenAIRE

    Kerlero de Rosbo, N; Milo, R.; Lees, M B; Burger, D; Bernard, C C; Ben-Nun, A (Avraham)

    1993-01-01

    Although T cell responses to the quantitatively major myelin proteins, myelin basic protein (MBP) and proteolipid protein (PLP), are likely to be of importance in the course of multiple sclerosis (MS), cell-mediated autoimmune responses to other myelin antigens, in particular quantitatively minor myelin antigens, such as myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) and the central nervous system-specific myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG), could also play a prevalent role in disease initiation...

  20. PERIPHERAL MYELIN PROTEIN-22 IS EXPRESSED IN CNS MYELIN

    OpenAIRE

    De Gasperi, Rita; Gama Sosa, Miguel A.; Naumowicz, Zuzanna; Hof, Patrick R; Notterpek, Lucia; Davis, Kenneth L; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Elder, Gregory A

    2010-01-01

    Myelin abnormalities exist in schizophrenia leading to the hypothesis that oligodendrocyte dysfunction plays a role in the pathophysiology of the disease. The expression of the mRNA for the peripheral myelin protein-22 (PMP-22) is decreased in schizophrenia and recent genetic evidence suggests a link between PMP-22 and schizophrenia. While PMP-22 mRNA is found in both rodent and human brain it has been generally thought that no protein expression occurs. Here we show that PMP-22 protein is pr...

  1. Myelination in very low birth weight infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prognostic significance of cerebral myelination was evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in very low birth weight infants. Myelination was graded in two specified sites, optic radiation and corpus callosum, based on the stages of normal term babies and healthy premature infants. The subjects were 30 preterm infants weighing less than 1,500 gm at birth. MRI was performed at 4 to 7 months (corrected age). The normal myelination stage was seen in 18 cases, while a delayed stage was noticed in 12 cases. In the normal myelination group, only 1 case (6%) had handicaps. In the delayed myelination group, 8 cases (67%) had handicaps. Our results showed that delayed myelination was closely related to a poor prognosis. We believe that MRI would be a very good imaging modality for predicting the outcome of very low birth weight infants, particularly in terms of evaluation of myelination. (author)

  2. Morphometric studies of myelination in the spinal cord of mice exposed developmentally to aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, M S; Tarara, R P

    1999-12-01

    Swiss-Webster mice were exposed to diets containing 7 or 1000 microg aluminum (Al)/g as Al lactate from conception through maturity (45 days of age). This exposure has previously been shown to cause changes in CNS myelin composition and peroxidizability; in this study myelin sheath widths were measured. Initially, samples of epon embedded, toluidine blue stained cervical spinal cord sectioned at 0.5 mm were examined light microscopically. Qualitatively, Al-treated mice appeared to have a diffuse paleness in nerve tracts. No indication of myelin structural damage (splitting, degeneration) was noted. Quantitative microscopy was performed using images captured with Scion Image Dage 1.59 at 1000x with oil. Axon perimeters and sheaths were measured with NIH image using a standardized sampling pattern in the right medial dorsal and ventral regions of the cervical spinal cord in 6 mice (3 male, 3 female) per group. Mean myelin sheath widths were 16% smaller in the Al-treated group compared to controls (p=.03). There was no effect of sex or region (dorsal/ventral). Axon perimeters were also smaller on the average in the Al treated group but this difference was not significant (p=.16). The relationship between sheath width and axon diameter was similar in the two groups. The density of myelinated axons was greater in some areas for the Al-treated group. The data indicate that dietary aluminum exposure can interfere with myelination in the spinal cord. PMID:10693976

  3. Schwann cell myelination requires Dynein function

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    Langworthy Melissa M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interaction of Schwann cells with axons triggers signal transduction that drives expression of Pou3f1 and Egr2 transcription factors, which in turn promote myelination. Signal transduction appears to be mediated, at least in part, by cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP because elevation of cAMP levels can stimulate myelination in the absence of axon contact. The mechanisms by which the myelinating signal is conveyed remain unclear. Results By analyzing mutations that disrupt myelination in zebrafish, we learned that Dynein cytoplasmic 1 heavy chain 1 (Dync1h1, which functions as a motor for intracellular molecular trafficking, is required for peripheral myelination. In dync1h1 mutants, Schwann cell progenitors migrated to peripheral nerves but then failed to express Pou3f1 and Egr2 or make myelin membrane. Genetic mosaic experiments revealed that robust Myelin Basic Protein expression required Dync1h1 function within both Schwann cells and axons. Finally, treatment of dync1h1 mutants with a drug to elevate cAMP levels stimulated myelin gene expression. Conclusion Dync1h1 is required for retrograde transport in axons and mutations of Dync1h1 have been implicated in axon disease. Our data now provide evidence that Dync1h1 is also required for efficient myelination of peripheral axons by Schwann cells, perhaps by facilitating signal transduction necessary for myelination.

  4. The acquisition of myelin: a success story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalc, Bernard

    2006-01-01

    The myelin sheath, and hence the myelin-forming cells (i.e. Schwann cells in the PNS and oligodendrocytes in the CNS), have been a crucial acquisition of vertebrates. The major function of myelin is to increase the velocity of propagation of nerve impulses. Invertebrate axons are ensheathed by glial cells, but do not have a compact myelin. As a consequence, action potentials along invertebrate axons propagate at about 1 m/s, or less. This is sufficient, however, for the survival of small animals (between 0.1 and 30cm). Among invertebrates, only the cephalopods are larger. By increasing their axonal diameter to 1 mm or more, cephalopods have been able to increase the speed of propagation of action potentials and therefore adapt nerve conduction to their larger body size. However, due to the physical constraint imposed by the skull and vertebrae, vertebrates had to find an alternative solution. This was achieved by introducing the myelin sheath, which leads action potentials to propagate at speeds of 50-100m/s without increasing the diameter of their axons. Not all vertebrate axons, however, are myelinated. In the protovertebrates (lancelets, hagfishes, lampreys), which belong to the agnathes (jawless fishes), axons are not ensheathed by myelin. Among living vertebrates, the most ancient myelinated species are the cartilaginous fishes (sharks, rays), suggesting that acquisition of myelin is concomitant with the acquisition of a hinged-jaw, i.e. the gnathostoma. The close association between the apparition of a hinged-jaw and the myelin sheath has led to speculation that among the devonian fishes that have disappeared today, the jawless conodonts and ostracoderms were not myelinated, and that myelin was first acquired by the oldest gnathostomes: the placoderms. I also question where myelin first appeared: the PNS, the CNS or both? I provide evidence that, in fact, it is not the type of myelin-forming cell that is crucial, but the appearance of axonal signals, rendering axons receptive to inducing an ensheathing glial cell to wrap around the axon. Under certain circumstances or in some species, invertebrate ensheathing glial cells wrap around axon to form a pseudo-myelin sheath. Therefore, to form myelin it was not compulsory to 'invent' a new cell type. Hence my conclusion that myelination has most probably started simultaneously in the PNS and the CNS, using pre-existing ensheathing glial cells. PMID:16805421

  5. MRI assessment of myelination: an age standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    777 cerebral MRI examinations of children aged 3 days to 14 years were staged for myelination to establish an age standardization. Staging was performed using a system proposed in a previous paper, separately ranking 10 different regions of the brain. Interpretation of the results led to the identification of foue clinical diagnoses that are frequently associated with delays in myelination: West syndrome, cerebral palsy, developmental retardation, and congenital anomalies. In addition, it was found that assessment of myelination in children with head injuries was not practical as alterations in MRI signal can simulate earlier stages of myelination. Age limits were therefore calculated from the case material after excluding all children with these conditions. When simplifications of the definition of the stages are applied, these age limits for the various stages of myelination of each of the 10 regions of the brain make the staging system applicable for routine assessment of myelination. (orig.)

  6. Detection of Myelination Using a Novel Histological Probe

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang, Zhongmin; Nesterov, Evgueni E.; Skoch, Jesse; Lin, Tong; Hyman, Bradley T; Swager, Timothy M.; Bacskai, Brian J; Reeves, Steven A

    2005-01-01

    Current methods for myelin staining in tissue sections include both histological and immunohistochemical techniques. Fluorescence immunohistochemistry, which uses antibodies against myelin components such as myelin basic protein, is often used because of the convenience for multiple labeling. To facilitate studies on myelin, this paper describes a quick and easy method for direct myelin staining in rodent and human tissues using novel near-infrared myelin (NIM) dyes that are comparable to oth...

  7. Labelled splitting

    OpenAIRE

    Fietzke, A.; Weidenbach, C.

    2008-01-01

    We define a superposition calculus with explicit splitting and an explicit, new backtracking rule on the basis of labelled clauses. For the first time we show a superposition calculus with explicit backtracking rule sound and complete. The new backtracking rule advances backtracking with branch condensing known from SPASS. An experimental evaluation of an implementation of the new rule shows that it improves considerably the previous SPASS splitting implementation. Finally, we discuss the rel...

  8. Assessing intracortical myelin in the living human brain using myelinated cortical thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Christopher D.; Bazin, Pierre-Louis; Tardif, Christine L.; Sehmbi, Manpreet; Hashim, Eyesha; Zaharieva, Nadejda; Minuzzi, Luciano; Frey, Benicio N.; Bock, Nicholas A.

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in the myelination of the cerebral cortex may underlie abnormal cortical function in a variety of brain diseases. Here, we describe a technique for investigating changes in intracortical myelin in clinical populations on the basis of cortical thickness measurements with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 3 Tesla. For this, we separately compute the thickness of the shallower, lightly myelinated portion of the cortex and its deeper, heavily myelinated portion (referred to herein as unmyelinated and myelinated cortex, respectively). Our expectation is that the thickness of the myelinated cortex will be a specific biomarker for disruptions in myeloarchitecture. We show representative atlases of total cortical thickness, T, unmyelinated cortical thickness, G, and myelinated cortical thickness, M, for a healthy group of 20 female subjects. We further demonstrate myelinated cortical thickness measurements in a preliminary clinical study of 10 bipolar disorder type-I subjects and 10 healthy controls, and report significant decreases in the middle frontal gyrus in T, G, and M in the disorder, with the largest percentage change occurring in M. This study highlights the potential of myelinated cortical thickness measurements for investigating intracortical myelin involvement in brain disease at clinically relevant field strengths and resolutions. PMID:26557052

  9. Nonenzymatic glycosylation of bovine myelin basic protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the CNS myelin sheath the nonenzymatic glycosylation reaction (at the early stage of the Amadori product) occurs only with the myelin basic protein and not with the other myelin proteins. This was observed in isolated bovine myelin by in vitro incubation with [14C]-galactose and [14C]-glucose. The respective in-vitro incorporation rates for purified bovine myelin basic protein with D-galactose, D-glucose and D-mannose were 7.2, 2.4 and 2.4 mmoles/mole myelin basic protein per day at 370C. A more rapid, HPLC method was devised and characterized to specifically analyze for the Amadori product. The HPLC method was correlated to the [14C]-sugar incorporation method for myelin basic protein under a set of standard reaction conditions using [14C]-glucose and [14C]-mannose with HPLC values at 1/6 and 1/5 of the [14C]-sugar incorporation method. A novel myelin basic protein purification step has been developed that yields a relativity proteolytic free preparation that is easy to work with, being totally soluble at a neutral pH. Nine new spots appear for a trypsinized glycosylated MBP in the paper peptide map of which eight correspond to positions of the [3H]-labeled Amadori product in affinity isolated peptides. These studies provide a general characterization of and a structural basis for investigations on nonenzymatically glycosylated MBP as well as identifying MBP as the only nonenzymatically glycosylated protein in the CNS myelin sheath which may accumulate during aging, diabetes, and demyelinating diseases in general

  10. Stimulation of adult oligodendrogenesis by myelin-specific T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsted Nielsen, Helle; Toft-Hansen, Henrik; Lambertsen, Kate Lykke; Owens, Trevor; Finsen, Bente

    2011-01-01

    In multiple sclerosis (MS), myelin-specific T cells are normally associated with destruction of myelin and axonal damage. However, in acute MS plaque, remyelination occurs concurrent with T-cell infiltration, which raises the question of whether T cells might stimulate myelin repair. We investigated the effect of myelin-specific T cells on oligodendrocyte formation at sites of axonal damage in the mouse hippocampal dentate gyrus. Infiltrating T cells specific for myelin proteolipid protein stimu...

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging and myelin; Imagerie par resonance magnetique et myeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamsbaum, C.; Andre, C. [Hopital Saint-Vincent-de-Paul, 75 - Paris (France); Rolland, Y. [CMC, 78 -Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines (France)

    1995-09-01

    Postnatal development of the brain is characterized by growth and by myelination. Myelination of the brain normally extends from birth until about two years of age. MRI changes corresponding to the various myelination stages are due mainly to changes in the water content of the cerebral parenchyma. Myelination kinetics follow a fairly precise timetable, with variations across areas of the brain. Abnormalities of white matter are responsible for relatively stereotyped, nonspecific manifestations, which are mainly due to an increase in the amount of water contained in diseased white matter, whatever the cause of the disorder. Interpretation is based on the location, distribution, and progression of lesions. (authors). 7 refs., 5 figs.

  12. Ephaptic coupling of myelinated nerve fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binczak, S.; Eilbeck, J. C.; Scott, Alwyn C.

    Numerical predictions of a simple myelinated nerve fiber model are compared with theoretical results in the continuum and discrete limits, clarifying the nature of the conduction process on an isolated nerve axon. Since myelinated nerve fibers are often arranged in bundles, this model is used to ...... study ephaptic (nonsynaptic) interactions between impulses on parallel fibers, which may play a functional role in neural processing. (C) 2001 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.......Numerical predictions of a simple myelinated nerve fiber model are compared with theoretical results in the continuum and discrete limits, clarifying the nature of the conduction process on an isolated nerve axon. Since myelinated nerve fibers are often arranged in bundles, this model is used to...

  13. Split symmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchmuller, Wilfried; Dierigl, Markus; Ruehle, Fabian; Schweizer, Julian

    2015-11-01

    We consider six-dimensional supergravity with gauge group SO (10) × U(1)A, compactified on the orbifold T2 /Z2. Three quark-lepton generations arise as zero modes of a bulk 16-plet due to magnetic flux of the anomalous U(1)A. Boundary conditions at the four fixed points break SO (10) to subgroups whose intersection is the Standard Model gauge group. The gauge and Higgs sector consist of "split" SO (10) multiplets. As a consequence of the U(1)A flux, squarks and sleptons are much heavier than gauge bosons, Higgs bosons, gauginos and higgsinos. We thus obtain a picture similar to "split supersymmetry". The flavor structure of the quark and lepton mass matrices is determined by the symmetry breaking at the orbifold fixed points.

  14. Split symmetries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfried Buchmuller

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We consider six-dimensional supergravity with gauge group SO(10×U(1A, compactified on the orbifold T2/Z2. Three quark–lepton generations arise as zero modes of a bulk 16-plet due to magnetic flux of the anomalous U(1A. Boundary conditions at the four fixed points break SO(10 to subgroups whose intersection is the Standard Model gauge group. The gauge and Higgs sector consist of “split” SO(10 multiplets. As a consequence of the U(1A flux, squarks and sleptons are much heavier than gauge bosons, Higgs bosons, gauginos and higgsinos. We thus obtain a picture similar to “split supersymmetry”. The flavor structure of the quark and lepton mass matrices is determined by the symmetry breaking at the orbifold fixed points.

  15. Splitting Descartes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schilhab, Theresa

    2007-01-01

    Kognition og Pædagogik vol. 48:10-18. 2003 Short description : The cognitivistic paradigm and Descartes' view of embodied knowledge. Abstract: That the philosopher Descartes separated the mind from the body is hardly news: He did it so effectively that his name is forever tied to that division. But what exactly is Descartes' point? How does the Kartesian split hold up to recent biologically based learning theories?

  16. Myelin-based inhibitors of oligodendrocyte myelination: clues from axonal growth and regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Feng; Christin Chong, S Y; Chan, Jonah R

    2013-04-01

    The differentiation of and myelination by oligodendrocytes (OLs) are exquisitely regulated by a series of intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms. As each OL can make differing numbers of myelin segments with variable lengths along similar axon tracts, myelination can be viewed as a graded process shaped by inhibitory/inductive cues during development. Myelination by OLs is a prime example of an adaptive process determined by the microenvironment and architecture of the central nervous system (CNS). in this review, we discuss how myelin formation by OLs may be controlled by the heterogeneous microenvironment of the CNS. Then we address recent findings demonstrating that neighboring OLs may compete for available axon space, and highlight our current understanding of myelin-based inhibitors of axonal regeneration that are potentially responsible for the reciprocal dialogue between OLs and determine the numbers and lengths of myelin internodes. Understanding the mechanisms that control the spatiotemporal regulation of myelinogenic potential during development may provide valuable insight into therapeutic strategies for promoting remyelination in an inhibitory microenvironment. PMID:23516141

  17. Astrocytic TIMP-1 Promotes Oligodendrocyte Differentiation and Enhances CNS Myelination

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Craig S.; Milner, Richard; NISHIYAMA, AKIKO; Frausto, Ricardo F.; SERWANSKI, DAVID R.; Pagarigan, Roberto R.; Whitton, J. Lindsay; Miller, Robert H.; CROCKER, STEPHEN J.

    2011-01-01

    Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) is an extracellular protein and endogenous regulator of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) secreted by astrocytes in response to CNS myelin injury. We have previously reported that adult TIMP-1KO mice exhibit poor myelin repair following demyelinating injury. This observation led us to hypothesize a role for TIMP-1 in oligodendrogenesis and CNS myelination. Herein, we demonstrate that compact myelin formation is significantly delayed in TIMP-1KO ...

  18. Myelin proteomics : molecular anatomy of an insulating sheath

    OpenAIRE

    Jahn, Olaf; Tenzer, Stefan; Werner, Hauke B.

    2009-01-01

    Fast-transmitting vertebrate axons are electrically insulated with multiple layers of nonconductive plasma membrane of glial cell origin, termed myelin. The myelin membrane is dominated by lipids, and its protein composition has historically been viewed to be of very low complexity. In this review, we discuss an updated reference compendium of 342 proteins associated with central nervous system myelin that represents a valuable resource for analyzing myelin biogenesis and white matter homeost...

  19. CNS Myelin Sheath Lengths Are an Intrinsic Property of Oligodendrocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Bechler, Marie E.; Byrne, Lauren; ffrench-Constant, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Since Río-Hortega’s description of oligodendrocyte morphologies nearly a century ago, many studies have observed myelin sheath-length diversity between CNS regions [1–3]. Myelin sheath length directly impacts axonal conduction velocity by influencing the spacing between nodes of Ranvier. Such differences likely affect neural signal coordination and synchronization [4]. What accounts for regional differences in myelin sheath lengths is unknown; are myelin sheath lengths determined solely by ax...

  20. Stimulation of adult oligodendrogenesis by myelin-specific T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsted Nielsen, Helle; Toft-Hansen, Henrik; Lambertsen, Kate Lykke; Owens, Trevor; Finsen, Bente

    2011-01-01

    In multiple sclerosis (MS), myelin-specific T cells are normally associated with destruction of myelin and axonal damage. However, in acute MS plaque, remyelination occurs concurrent with T-cell infiltration, which raises the question of whether T cells might stimulate myelin repair. We investiga...

  1. Evaluation of myelination and myelination disorders with turbo inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daldrup, H.E.; Schuierer, G.; Link, T.M.; Moeller, H.; Bick, U.; Peters, P.E. [Institute of Clinical Radiology, Westfaelische Wilhelms Universitaet, D-48149 Muenster (Germany); Kurlemann, G. [Department of Pediatrics, Westfaelische Wilhelms Universitaet, D-48149 Muenster (Germany)

    1997-12-01

    The aim of our work was to determine the efficacy of turbo inversion recovery spin echo (TIRSE) pulse sequences in differentiating patients with normal and abnormal myelination. Twenty neurological normal children (aged 5 months to 12 years) as well as 65 children presenting clinically with neurologic developmental deficits (aged 2 months to 10 years) were examined using TIRSE, T1-weighted SE, and T2-weighted turbo SE pulse sequences. Contrast-to-noise-ratio (CNR) between myelinated white and gray matter was compared for the different pulse sequences. In addition, two readers analyzed all images qualitatively by consensus. The CNR values were significantly higher on TIRSE images as compared with conventional images (p < 0.05). Forty-two neurologically abnormal patients displayed a normal myelination on all sequences, whereas 23 showed an abnormal myelination. The TIRSE sequence provided a sensitive and specific depiction of an abnormal myelination in all of these patients. The TIRSE sequence provided additional information to conventional pulse sequences in determining myelination disorders in children, especially in children older than 2 years. (orig.) With 9 figs., 25 refs.

  2. Progesterone synthesis in the nervous system: implications for myelination and myelin repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MichaelSchumacher

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Progesterone is well known as a female reproductive hormone and in particular for its role in uterine receptivity, implantation and the maintenance of pregnancy. However, neuroendocrine research over the past decades has established that progesterone has multiple functions beyond reproduction. Within the nervous system, its neuromodulatory and neuroprotective effects are much studied. Although progesterone has been shown to also promote myelin repair, its influence and that of other steroids on myelination and remyelination is relatively neglected. Reasons for this are that hormonal influences are still not considered as a central problem by most myelin biologists, and that neuroendocrinologists are not sufficiently concerned with the importance of myelin in neuron functions and viability. The effects of progesterone in the nervous system involve a variety of signaling mechanisms. The identification of the classical intracellular progesterone receptors as therapeutic targets for myelin repair suggests new health benefits for synthetic progestins, specifically designed for contraceptive use and hormone replacement therapies. There are also major advantages to use natural progesterone in neuroprotective and myelin repair strategies, because progesterone is converted to biologically active metabolites in nervous tissues and interacts with multiple target proteins. The delivery of progesterone however represents a challenge because of its first-pass metabolism in digestive tract and liver. Recently, the intranasal route of progesterone administration has received attention for easy and efficient targeting of the brain. Progesterone in the brain is derived from the steroidogenic endocrine glands or from local synthesis by neural cells. Stimulating the formation of endogenous progesterone is currently explored as an alternative strategy for neuroprotection, axonal regeneration and myelin repair.

  3. Axon-glia interaction and membrane traffic in myelin formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin White

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In vertebrate nervous systems myelination of neuronal axons has evolved to increase conduction velocity of electrical impulses with minimal space and energy requirements. Myelin is formed by specialised glial cells which ensheath axons with a lipid-rich insulating membrane. Myelination is a multi-step process initiated by axon-glia recognition triggering glial polarisation followed by targeted myelin membrane expansion and compaction. Thereby, a myelin sheath of complex subdomain structure is established. Continuous communication between neurons and glial cells is essential for myelin maintenance and axonal integrity. A diverse group of diseases, from multiple sclerosis to schizophrenia, have been linked to malfunction of myelinating cells reflecting the physiological importance of the axon-glial unit. This review describes the mechanisms of axonal signal integration by oligodendrocytes emphasising the central role of the Src-family kinase Fyn during CNS myelination. Furthermore, we discuss myelin membrane trafficking with particular focus on endocytic recycling and the control of PLP (proteolipid protein transport by SNARE proteins. Finally, PLP mistrafficking is considered in the context of myelin diseases.

  4. Uncompacted myelin lamellae in peripheral nerve biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vital, Claude; Vital, Anne; Bouillot, Sandrine; Favereaux, Alexandre; Lagueny, Alain; Ferrer, Xavier; Brechenmacher, Christiane; Petry, Klaus G

    2003-01-01

    Since 1979, the authors have studied 49 peripheral nerve biopsies presenting uncompacted myelin lamellae (UML). Based on the ultrastructural pattern of UML they propose a 3-category classification. The first category includes cases displaying regular UML, which was observed in 43 cases; it was more frequent in 9 cases with polyneuropathy organomegaly endocrinopathy m-protein skin changes (POEMS) syndrome as well as in 1 case of Charcot-Marie-Tooth 1B with a novel point mutation in the P0 gene. The second category consists of cases showing irregular UML, observed in 4 cases with IgM monoclonal gammopathy and anti-myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) activity. This group included 1 benign case and 3 B-cell malignant lymphomas. The third category is complex UML, which was present in 2 unrelated patients with an Arg 98 His missense mutation in the P0 protein gene. Irregular and complex UML are respectively related to MAG and P0, which play a crucial role in myelin lamellae compaction and adhesion. PMID:12554530

  5. Myelination of the brain in MRI: a staging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a retrospective study 516 cranial MRI examinations of children aged 1 month to 14 years were reevaluated for myelination. An objective staging system for the assessment of the degree of myelination was designed, based on the characteristic patterns of myelin-typical signal which develop in the course of brain maturation. Thus myelination can be estimated using only routine MRI examinations; no additional measurements of signal intensities are necessary. In order to obtain detailed information, ten regions of the brain are ranked separately, with comparisons of the T1- and T2-weighted images for each region. The application of the staging system to the case material revealed typical age ranges for the stages, and retarded myelination in some children. In most cases the observed retardation affected several regions but never the whole brain. Such delays can only be detected by separate assessment of the degree of myelination in each region of the brain. (orig.)

  6. Effect of electroconvulsive therapy on serum myelin basic protein immunoreactivity.

    OpenAIRE

    Hoyle, N. R.; Pratt, R T; Thomas, D G

    1984-01-01

    A sensitive radioimmunoassay that can detect brain damage in cases of head injury and stroke was applied to blood samples from 13 patients before and after they received multiple treatments with electroconvulsive therapy for psychiatric disorder. None of the patients showed a significant increase in serum myelin basic protein immunoreactivity. As increased serum myelin basic protein immunoreactivity may reflect myelin damage it is apparent that in these patients electroconvulsive therapy did ...

  7. Proteomic mapping provides powerful insights into functional myelin biology

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Christopher M.; Marta, Cecilia B.; Claycomb, Robert J.; Han, David K.; Rasband, Matthew N; Coetzee, Timothy; Pfeiffer, Steven E.

    2004-01-01

    Myelin is a dynamic, functionally active membrane necessary for rapid action potential conduction, axon survival, and cytoarchitecture. The number of debilitating neurological disorders that occur when myelin is disrupted emphasizes its importance. Using high-resolution 2D gel electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, and immunoblotting, we have developed an extensive proteomic map of proteins present in myelin, identifying 98 proteins corresponding to at least 130 of the ?200 spots on the map. Thi...

  8. Mapping infant brain myelination with magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deoni, Sean C L; Mercure, Evelyne; Blasi, Anna; Gasston, David; Thomson, Alex; Johnson, Mark; Williams, Steven C R; Murphy, Declan G M

    2011-01-12

    Myelination, the elaboration of myelin surrounding neuronal axons, is essential for normal brain function. The development of the myelin sheath enables rapid synchronized communication across the neural systems responsible for higher order cognitive functioning. Despite this critical role, quantitative visualization of myelination in vivo is not possible with current neuroimaging techniques including diffusion tensor and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Although these techniques offer insight into structural maturation, they reflect several different facets of development, e.g., changes in axonal size, density, coherence, and membrane structure; lipid, protein, and macromolecule content; and water compartmentalization. Consequently, observed signal changes are ambiguous, hindering meaningful inferences between imaging findings and metrics of learning, behavior or cognition. Here we present the first quantitative study of myelination in healthy human infants, from 3 to 11 months of age. Using a new myelin-specific MRI technique, we report a spatiotemporal pattern beginning in the cerebellum, pons, and internal capsule; proceeding caudocranially from the splenium of the corpus callosum and optic radiations (at 3-4 months); to the occipital and parietal lobes (at 4-6 months); and then to the genu of the corpus callosum and frontal and temporal lobes (at 6-8 months). Our results also offer preliminary evidence of hemispheric myelination rate differences. This work represents a significant step forward in our ability to appreciate the fundamental process of myelination, and provides the first ever in vivo visualization of myelin maturation in healthy human infancy. PMID:21228187

  9. On the stability and growth of single myelin figures

    CERN Document Server

    Zou, L N; Zou, Ling-Nan; Nagel, Sidney R.

    2006-01-01

    Myelin figures are long thin cylindrical structures that typically grow into a dense tangled mass when water is added to the concentrated lamellar phase of certain surfactants. We show that, if one starts from a well-ordered initial state, single myelin figures can be produced in isolation thus allowing a detailed study of their growth and stability. These structures grow with their base at the exposed edges of bilayer stacks as material is transported from the base into the myelin. Furthermore, myelins are non-equilibrium structures which require a driving force to form and grow; when the driving force is removed, they do not persist but retract into their parent structure.

  10. Proteomic mapping provides powerful insights into functional myelin biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Christopher M; Marta, Cecilia B; Claycomb, Robert J; Han, David K; Rasband, Matthew N; Coetzee, Timothy; Pfeiffer, Steven E

    2004-03-30

    Myelin is a dynamic, functionally active membrane necessary for rapid action potential conduction, axon survival, and cytoarchitecture. The number of debilitating neurological disorders that occur when myelin is disrupted emphasizes its importance. Using high-resolution 2D gel electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, and immunoblotting, we have developed an extensive proteomic map of proteins present in myelin, identifying 98 proteins corresponding to at least 130 of the approximately 200 spots on the map. This proteomic map has been applied to analyses of the localization and function of selected proteins, providing a powerful tool to investigate the diverse functions of myelin. PMID:15070771

  11. Transmembrane domain of myelin protein zero can form dimers: possible implications for myelin construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotkowski, Megan L; Kim, Sanguk; Phillips, Martin L; Partridge, Anthony W; Deber, Charles M; Bowie, James U

    2007-10-30

    Myelin protein zero (MPZ) is the major integral membrane protein of peripheral nerve myelin in higher vertebrates, mediating homoadhesion of the multiple, spiraling wraps of the myelin sheath. Previous studies have shown that full-length MPZ can form dimers and tetramers, and biochemical studies on the extracellular domain (ECD) indicate that it can form a tetramer, albeit very weakly. On the basis of cross-linking studies and equilibrium sedimentation of a transmembrane (TM) domain peptide (MPZ-TM), we find that the MPZ-TM can form homodimers. We further characterized the dimer by measuring the effects of alanine and leucine substitutions on the ability of the TM to dimerize in Escherichia coli membranes. Our results indicate that the primary packing interface for the MPZ TM homodimer is a glycine zipper (GxxxGxxxG) motif. We also find that the G134R mutation, which lies within the glycine zipper packing interface and causes Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1B, severely inhibits dimerization, suggesting that dimerization of the TM domain may be important for the normal functioning of MPZ. By combining our new results with prior work, we suggest a new model for an MPZ lattice that may form during the construction of myelin. PMID:17915947

  12. Stereological methods for estimating the myelin sheaths of the myelinated fibers in white matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Chen; Yang, Shu; Chen, Lin; Lu, Wei; Tang, Yong; Gundersen, Hans Jørgen Gottlieb; Qiu, Xuan

    2009-01-01

    . Isotropic, uniform random (IUR) sections were ensured by the use of the isector technique. One section with the thickness of 60 nm was cut from the center of each epon block. Eight to 10 fields of vision were randomly photographed under a transmission electron microscope. The total length of the myelinated...

  13. Neuroactive steroids and peripheral myelin proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnaghi, V; Cavarretta, I; Galbiati, M; Martini, L; Melcangi, R C

    2001-11-01

    The present review summarizes observations obtained in our laboratories which underline the importance of neuroactive steroids (i.e., progesterone (PROG), dihydroprogesterone (5alpha-DH PROG), tetrahydroprogesterone (3alpha, 5alpha-TH PROG), testosterone (T), dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and 5alpha-androstan-3alpha,17beta-diol (3alpha-diol)) in the control of the gene expression of myelin proteins (i.e. glycoprotein Po (Po) and the peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22)) in the peripheral nervous system. Utilizing different in vivo (aged and adult male rats) and in vitro (Schwann cell cultures) experimental models, we have observed that neuroactive steroids are able to stimulate the mRNA levels of Po and PMP22. The effects of these neuroactive steroids, which are able to interact with classical (progesterone receptor, PR, and androgen receptor, AR) and non-classical (GABA(A) receptor) steroid receptors is further supported by our demonstration in sciatic nerve and/or Schwann cells of the presence of these receptors. On the basis of the observations obtained in the Schwann cells cultures, we suggest that the stimulatory effect of neuroactive steroids on Po is acting through PR, while that on PMP22 needs the GABA(A) receptor. The present findings might be of importance for the utilization of specific receptor ligands as new therapeutical approaches for the rebuilding of the peripheral myelin, particularly in those situations in which the synthesis of Po and PMP22 is altered (i.e. demyelinating diseases like Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A and type 1B, hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies and the Déjérine-Sottas syndrome, aging, and after peripheral injury). PMID:11744100

  14. Cortical maturation and myelination in healthy toddlers and young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deoni, Sean C L; Dean, Douglas C; Remer, Justin; Dirks, Holly; O'Muircheartaigh, Jonathan

    2015-07-15

    The maturation of cortical structures, and the establishment of their connectivity, are critical neurodevelopmental processes that support and enable cognitive and behavioral functioning. Measures of cortical development, including thickness, curvature, and gyrification have been extensively studied in older children, adolescents, and adults, revealing regional associations with cognitive performance, and alterations with disease or pathology. In addition to these gross morphometric measures, increased attention has recently focused on quantifying more specific indices of cortical structure, in particular intracortical myelination, and their relationship to cognitive skills, including IQ, executive functioning, and language performance. Here we analyze the progression of cortical myelination across early childhood, from 1 to 6 years of age, in vivo for the first time. Using two quantitative imaging techniques, namely T1 relaxation time and myelin water fraction (MWF) imaging, we characterize myelination throughout the cortex, examine developmental trends, and investigate hemispheric and gender-based differences. We present a pattern of cortical myelination that broadly mirrors established histological timelines, with somatosensory, motor and visual cortices myelinating by 1 year of age; and frontal and temporal cortices exhibiting more protracted myelination. Developmental trajectories, defined by logarithmic functions (increasing for MWF, decreasing for T1), were characterized for each of 68 cortical regions. Comparisons of trajectories between hemispheres and gender revealed no significant differences. Results illustrate the ability to quantitatively map cortical myelination throughout early neurodevelopment, and may provide an important new tool for investigating typical and atypical development. PMID:25944614

  15. Proposed evolutionary changes in the role of myelin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiefel, Klaus M.; Torben-Nielsen, Benjamin; Coggan, Jay S.

    2013-01-01

    Myelin is the multi-layered lipid sheet periodically wrapped around neuronal axons. It is most frequently found in vertebrates. Myelin allows for saltatory action potential (AP) conduction along axons. During this form of conduction, the AP travels passively along the myelin-covered part of the axon, and is recharged at the intermittent nodes of Ranvier. Thus, myelin can reduce the energy load needed and/or increase the speed of AP conduction. Myelin first evolved during the Ordovician period. We hypothesize that myelin's first role was mainly energy conservation. During the later “Mesozoic marine revolution,” marine ecosystems changed toward an increase in marine predation pressure. We hypothesize that the main purpose of myelin changed from energy conservation to conduction speed increase during this Mesozoic marine revolution. To test this hypothesis, we optimized models of myelinated axons for a combination of AP conduction velocity and energy efficiency. We demonstrate that there is a trade-off between these objectives. We then compared the simulation results to empirical data and conclude that while the data are consistent with the theory, additional measurements are necessary for a complete evaluation of the proposed hypothesis. PMID:24265603

  16. Proposed Evolutionary Changes In The Role Of Myelin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JaySCoggan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Myelin is the multi-layered lipid sheet periodically wrapped around neuronal axons. It is most frequently found in vertebrates. Myelin allows for saltatory action potential (AP conduction along axons. During this form of conduction, the AP travels passively along the myelin-covered part of the axon, and is recharged at the intermittent nodes of Ranvier. Thus, myelin can reduce the energy load needed and/or increase the speed of AP conduction. Myelin first evolved during the Ordovician period. We hypothesize that myelin's first role was mainly energy conservation. During the later “Mesozoic marine revolution”, marine ecosystems changed towards an increase in marine predation pressure. We hypothesize that the main purpose of myelin changed from energy conservation to conduction speed increase during this Mesozoic marine revolution. To test this hypothesis, we optimized models of myelinated axons for a combination of AP conduction velocity and energy efficiency. We demonstrate that there is a trade-off between these objectives. We then compared the simulation results to empirical data and conclude that while the data are consistent with the theory, additional measurements are necessary for a complete evaluation of the proposed hypothesis.

  17. Measuring longitudinal myelin water fraction in new multiple sclerosis lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy S. Vargas

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: FAST T2 provides a clinically feasible method to quantify MWF in new MS lesions. The observed influence of baseline MWF, which represents a combined effect of both resolving edema and myelin change within acute lesions, suggests that the extent of initial inflammation impacts final myelin recovery.

  18. The Dyadic Splitting Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, J.; Spellman, M. E.

    2002-01-01

    Article describes how defensive splitting, a theory used to understand the interpersonal dynamics of individuals who were traumatized in childhood, can affect a couple's relationship. A scale was developed to measure splitting in couples. Results appear to confirm the instrument's ability to identify splitting and to distinguish healthy couples…

  19. Canonic Route Splitting

    OpenAIRE

    Knapen, Luk; Bellemans, Tom; Janssens, Davy; Wets, Geert

    2014-01-01

    There are multiple ways to split a path in a directed graph into largest sub-paths of minimal cost. All possible splits constitute path partitions of the same size. By calculating two specific path splittings, it is possible to identify subsets of the vertices (splitVer- texSets) that can be used to generate every possible path splitting by taking one vertex from each such subset and connecting the resulting vertices by a least cost path. This is interesting in transportation science when inv...

  20. Targeted overexpression of a golli–myelin basic protein isoform to oligodendrocytes results in aberrant oligodendrocyte maturation and myelination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin C Jacobs

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, several in vitro studies have shown that the golli–myelin basic proteins regulate Ca2+ homoeostasis in OPCs (oligodendrocyte precursor cells and immature OLs (oligodendrocytes, and that a number of the functions of these cells are affected by cellular levels of the golli proteins. To determine the influence of golli in vivo on OL development and myelination, a transgenic mouse was generated in which the golli isoform J37 was overexpressed specifically within OLs and OPCs. The mouse, called JOE (J37-overexpressing, is severely hypomyelinated between birth and postnatal day 50. During this time, it exhibits severe intention tremors that gradually abate at later ages. After postnatal day 50, ultrastructural studies and Northern and Western blot analyses indicate that myelin accumulates in the brain, but never reaches normal levels. Several factors appear to underlie the extensive hypomyelination. In vitro and in vivo experiments indicate that golli overexpression causes a significant delay in OL maturation, with accumulation of significantly greater numbers of pre-myelinating OLs that fail to myelinate axons during the normal myelinating period. Immunohistochemical studies with cell death and myelin markers indicate that JOE OLs undergo a heightened and extended period of cell death and are unable to effectively myelinate until 2 months after birth. The results indicate that increased levels of golli in OPC/OLs delays myelination, causing significant cell death of OLs particularly in white matter tracts. The results provide in vivo evidence for a significant role of the golli proteins in the regulation of maturation of OLs and normal myelination.

  1. Stimulation of adult oligodendrogenesis by myelin-specific T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsted Nielsen, Helle; Toft-Hansen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    In multiple sclerosis (MS), myelin-specific T cells are normally associated with destruction of myelin and axonal damage. However, in acute MS plaque, remyelination occurs concurrent with T-cell infiltration, which raises the question of whether T cells might stimulate myelin repair. We investigated the effect of myelin-specific T cells on oligodendrocyte formation at sites of axonal damage in the mouse hippocampal dentate gyrus. Infiltrating T cells specific for myelin proteolipid protein stimulated proliferation of chondroitin sulfate NG2-expressing oligodendrocyte precursor cells early after induction via axonal transection, resulting in a 25% increase in the numbers of oligodendrocytes. In contrast, T cells specific for ovalbumin did not stimulate the formation of new oligodendrocytes. In addition, infiltration of myelin-specific T cells enhanced the sprouting response of calretinergic associational/commissural fibers within the dentate gyrus. These results have implications for the perception of MS pathogenesis because they show that infiltrating myelin-specific T cells can stimulate oligodendrogenesis in the adult central nervous system.

  2. The mechanism of neuropathy in peripheral myelin protein 22 mice

    OpenAIRE

    Robertson, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    Mutations in the gene for peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) are associated with peripheral neuropathy in mice and humans. PMP22 is produced mainly in Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system where it is localised to compact myelin. The function of PMP22 is unclear but its low abundance makes it unlikely to be a structural myelin protein. I have studied the peripheral nerves of two different mouse models with alterations in the pmp22 gene. (1) The Trembler-J (Tr^J) mous...

  3. Split-target neutronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monte Carlo simulations show that, for the LANSCE split-target of machineable tungsten, about 60% of the low-energy (20 MeV) particles are also forward directed. Consequently, the neutronic performance of the LANSCE Target-Moderator-Reflector-Shield (TMRS) system is not adversely impacted by employing a split-target. Implementing a split-target allows us to use flux-trap moderators around the void zone between the targets to simultaneously service twelve neutron flight paths. (author)

  4. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 is an essential receptor for myelin phagocytosis

    OpenAIRE

    Gaultier, Alban; Wu, Xiaohua; Le Moan, Natacha; Takimoto, Shinako; Mukandala, Gatambwa; Akassoglou, Katerina; Campana, W. Marie; Gonias, Steven L.

    2009-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease in which myelin is progressively degraded. Because degraded myelin may both initiate and accelerate disease progression, clearing degraded myelin from extracellular spaces may be critical. In this study, we prepared myelin vesicles (MV) from rat brains as a model of degraded myelin. Murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) rapidly internalized MVs, which accumulated in lysosomes only when these cells expressed low-density lip...

  5. Peripheral neuropathies caused by mutations in the myelin protein zero.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shy, Michael E

    2006-03-15

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1B (CMT1B) is caused by mutations in the major PNS myelin protein myelin protein zero (MPZ). MPZ is a member of the immunoglobulin supergene family and functions as an adhesion molecule helping to mediate compaction of PNS myelin. Mutations in MPZ appear to either disrupt myelination during development, leading to severe early onset neuropathies, or to disrupt axo-glial interactions leading to late onset neuropathies in adulthood. Identifying molecular pathways involved in early and late onset CMT1B will be crucial to understand how MPZ mutations cause CMT1B so that rational therapies for both early and late onset neuropathies can be developed. PMID:16414078

  6. Hemimegalencephaly: signal changes suggesting abnormal myelination on MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagishita, A. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Tokyo Metropolitan Neurological Hospital (Japan); Arai, N. [Dept. of Clinical Neuropathology, Tokyo Metropolitan Inst. for Neuroscience, Tokyo (Japan); Tamagawa, K. [Dept. of Neuropediatrics, Tokyo Metropolitan Neurological Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Oda, M. [Dept. of Neuropathology, Tokyo Metropolitan Neurological Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-11-01

    We reviewed the MRI of 17 patients with hemimegalencephaly to investigate abnormal myelination in this condition. On images of seven patients aged 18 months or less, the white matter on the affected side suggested advanced myelination for the age. On T1-weighted images of three patients aged 1 month, the anterior limb of the internal capsule in the affected hemisphere was myelinated, and T1 shortening was not clearly seen in the pre- and postcentral gyri. The cortical grey matter and subcortical white matter was isointense in two patients. Images of two patients aged 4 to 5 months and of five patients aged 8-18 months showed myelination that extended more peripherally in the white matter of the affected hemisphere. (orig.) With 3 figs., 1 tab., 8 refs.

  7. Mapping early stage of myelin degradation at nanoscale resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Poccia, Nicola; Ricci, Alessandro; Caporale, Alessandra S; Di Cola, Emanuela; Hawkins, Thomas A; Bianconi, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    To provide insight into the early process of degradation often occurring in severely debilitating diseases with myelin pathology an increased level of spatial structural resolution is needed to bear in the biological realm. Although many observations have connected changes in the periodicity of myelin with illness, few information exist about the microscopic process in the early period of damage of the nerve and how these changes time percolate in space. Here we fill this gap by using first, a short time scale for data collection of scanning micro X-ray diffraction microscopy and second, methods of statistical physics for the analysis of time evolution of this non-invasive local structure experimental approach. We have mapped the time evolution of the fluctuations in myelin period in the degradation nerve process in a freshly extracted sciatic nerve of Xenopus laevis with a spatial resolution of 1 micron. We identify the first stage of myelin degradation with the period evolving through a bimodal distribution...

  8. Structural insights into the antigenicity of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein

    OpenAIRE

    Breithaupt, Constanze; Schubart, Anna; Zander, Hilke; Skerra, Arne; Huber, Robert; Linington, Christopher; Jacob, Uwe

    2003-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a chronic disease of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by inflammation, demyelination, and axonal loss. The immunopathogenesis of demyelination in multiple sclerosis involves an autoantibody response to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG), a type I transmembrane protein located at the surface of CNS myelin. Here we present the crystal structures of the extracellular domain of MOG (MOGIgd) at 1.45-Å resolution and the complex of ...

  9. Feasibility of Imaging Myelin Lesions in Multiple Sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Zavodszky, Maria I.; Graf, John F.; Tan Hehir, Cristina A.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to provide a feasibility assessment for PET imaging of multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions based on their decreased myelin content relative to the surrounding normal-appearing brain tissue. The imaging agent evaluated for this purpose is a molecule that binds strongly and specifically to myelin basic protein. Physiology-based pharmacokinetic modeling combined with PET image simulation applied to a brain model was used to examine whether such an agent would allow the dif...

  10. A novel PET marker for in vivo quantification of myelination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chunying; Wang, Changning; Popescu, Daniela C; Zhu, Wenxia; Somoza, Eduardo A; Zhu, Junqing; Condie, Allison G; Flask, Christopher A; Miller, Robert H; Macklin, Wendy; Wang, Yanming

    2010-12-15

    C-11-labeled N-methyl-4,4'-diaminostilbene ([(11)C]MeDAS) was synthesized and evaluated as a novel radiotracer for in vivo microPET imaging of myelination. [(11)C]MeDAS exhibits optimal lipophilicity for brain uptake with a logP(oct) value of 2.25. Both in vitro and ex vivo staining exhibited MeDAS accumulation in myelinated regions such as corpus callosum and striatum. The corpus callosum region visualized by MeDAS is much larger in the hypermyelinated Plp-Akt-DD mouse brain than in the wild-type mouse brain, a pattern that was also consistently observed in Black-Gold or MBP antibody staining. Ex vivo autoradiography demonstrated that [(11)C]MeDAS readily entered the mouse brain and selectively labeled myelinated regions with high specificity. Biodistribution studies showed abundant initial brain uptake of [(11)C]MeDAS with 2.56% injected dose/whole brain at 5 min post injection and prolonged retention in the brain with 1.37% injected dose/whole brain at 60 min post injection. An in vivo pharmacokinetic profile of [(11)C]MeDAS was quantitatively analyzed through a microPET study in an Plp-Akt-DD hypermyelinated mouse model. MicroPET studies showed that [(11)C]MeDAS exhibited a pharmacokinetic profile that readily correlates the radioactivity concentration to the level of myelination in the brain. These studies suggest that MeDAS is a sensitive myelin probe that provides a direct means to detect myelin changes in the brain. Thus, it can be used as a myelin-imaging marker to monitor myelin pathology in vivo. PMID:21071233

  11. Myelin-associated Glycoprotein gene and brain morphometry in schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    JamesKennedy; JasonPLerch; ArashNazeri

    2012-01-01

    Myelin and oligodendrocyte disruption may be a core feature of schizophrenia pathophysiology. The purpose of the present study was to localize the effects of previously identified risk variants in the myelin associated glycoprotein gene on brain morphometry in schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. 45 schizophrenia patients and 47 matched healthy controls underwent clinical, structural magnetic resonance imaging, and genetics procedures. Gray and white matter cortical lobe volumes alon...

  12. Novel signals controlling embryonic Schwann cell development, myelination and dedifferentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirsky, Rhona; Woodhoo, Ashwin; Parkinson, David B; Arthur-Farraj, Peter; Bhaskaran, Ambily; Jessen, Kristján R

    2008-06-01

    Immature Schwann cells found in perinatal rodent nerves are generated from Schwann cell precursors (SCPs) that originate from the neural crest. Immature Schwann cells generate the myelinating and non-myelinating Schwann cells of adult nerves. When axons degenerate following injury, Schwann cells demyelinate, proliferate and dedifferentiate to assume a molecular phenotype similar to that of immature cells, a process essential for successful nerve regeneration. Increasing evidence indicates that Schwann cell dedifferentiation involves activation of specific receptors, intracellular signalling pathways and transcription factors in a manner analogous to myelination. We have investigated the roles of Notch and the transcription factor c-Jun in development and after nerve transection. In vivo, Notch signalling regulates the transition from SCP to Schwann cell, times Schwann cell generation, controls Schwann cell proliferation and acts as a brake on myelination. Notch is elevated in injured nerves where it accelerates the rate of dedifferentiation. Likewise, the transcription factor c-Jun is required for Schwann cell proliferation and death and is down-regulated by Krox-20 on myelination. Forced expression of c-Jun in Schwann cells prevents myelination, and in injured nerves, c-Jun is required for appropriate dedifferentiation, the re-emergence of the immature Schwann cell state and nerve regeneration. Thus, both Notch and c-Jun are negative regulators of myelination. The growing realisation that myelination is subject to negative as well as positive controls and progress in molecular identification of negative regulators is likely to impact on our understanding of demyelinating disease and mechanisms that control nerve repair. PMID:18601657

  13. Self-segregation of myelin membrane lipids in model membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurlova, Larisa; Kahya, Nicoletta; Aggarwal, Shweta; Kaiser, Hermann-Josef; Chiantia, Salvatore; Bakhti, Mostafa; Pewzner-Jung, Yael; Ben-David, Oshrit; Futerman, Anthony H; Brügger, Britta; Simons, Mikael

    2011-12-01

    Rapid conduction of nerve impulses requires coating of axons by myelin sheaths, which are multilamellar, lipid-rich membranes produced by oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system. To act as an insulator, myelin has to form a stable and firm membrane structure. In this study, we have analyzed the biophysical properties of myelin membranes prepared from wild-type mice and from mouse mutants that are unable to form stable myelin. Using C-Laurdan and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, we find that lipids are tightly organized and highly ordered in myelin isolated from wild-type mice, but not from shiverer and ceramide synthase 2 null mice. Furthermore, only myelin lipids from wild-type mice laterally segregate into physically distinct lipid phases in giant unilamellar vesicles in a process that requires very long chain glycosphingolipids. Taken together, our findings suggest that oligodendrocytes exploit the potential of lipids to self-segregate to generate a highly ordered membrane for electrical insulation of axons. PMID:22261060

  14. Myelin Recovery in Multiple Sclerosis: The Challenge of Remyelination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward L. Hogan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is the most common demyelinating and an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system characterized by immune-mediated myelin and axonal damage, and chronic axonal loss attributable to the absence of myelin sheaths. T cell subsets (Th1, Th2, Th17, CD8+, NKT, CD4+CD25+ T regulatory cells and B cells are involved in this disorder, thus new MS therapies seek damage prevention by resetting multiple components of the immune system. The currently approved therapies are immunoregulatory and reduce the number and rate of lesion formation but are only partially effective. This review summarizes current understanding of the processes at issue: myelination, demyelination and remyelination—with emphasis upon myelin composition/ architecture and oligodendrocyte maturation and differentiation. The translational options target oligodendrocyte protection and myelin repair in animal models and assess their relevance in human. Remyelination may be enhanced by signals that promote myelin formation and repair. The crucial question of why remyelination fails is approached is several ways by examining the role in remyelination of available MS medications and avenues being actively pursued to promote remyelination including: (i cytokine-based immune-intervention (targeting calpain inhibition, (ii antigen-based immunomodulation (targeting glycolipid-reactive iNKT cells and sphingoid mediated inflammation and (iii recombinant monoclonal antibodies-induced remyelination.

  15. Split Cord Malformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurdal Gezercan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Split cord malformations are rare form of occult spinal dysraphism in children. Split cord malformations are characterized by septum that cleaves the spinal canal in sagittal plane within the single or duplicated thecal sac. Although their precise incidence is unknown, split cord malformations are exceedingly rare and represent %3.8-5 of all congenital spinal anomalies. Characteristic neurological, urological, orthopedic clinical manifestations are variable and asymptomatic course is possible. Earlier diagnosis and surgical intervention for split cord malformations is associated with better long-term fuctional outcome. For this reason, diagnostic imaging is indicated for children with associated cutaneous and orthopedic signs. Additional congenital anomalies usually to accompany the split cord malformations. Earlier diagnosis, meticuolus surgical therapy and interdisciplinary careful evaluation and follow-up should be made for good prognosis. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(2.000: 199-207

  16. Coded Splitting Tree Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar

    This paper presents a novel approach to multiple access control called coded splitting tree protocol. The approach builds on the known tree splitting protocols, code structure and successive interference cancellation (SIC). Several instances of the tree splitting protocol are initiated, each...... instance is terminated prematurely and subsequently iterated. The combined set of leaves from all the tree instances can then be viewed as a graph code, which is decodable using belief propagation. The main design problem is determining the order of splitting, which enables successful decoding as early as...... possible. Evaluations show that the proposed protocol provides considerable gains over the standard tree splitting protocol applying SIC. The improvement comes at the expense of an increased feedback and receiver complexity....

  17. Concentric Split Flow Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A concentric split flow filter may be configured to remove odor and/or bacteria from pumped air used to collect urine and fecal waste products. For instance, filter may be designed to effectively fill the volume that was previously considered wasted surrounding the transport tube of a waste management system. The concentric split flow filter may be configured to split the air flow, with substantially half of the air flow to be treated traveling through a first bed of filter media and substantially the other half of the air flow to be treated traveling through the second bed of filter media. This split flow design reduces the air velocity by 50%. In this way, the pressure drop of filter may be reduced by as much as a factor of 4 as compare to the conventional design.

  18. Myelin and oligodendrocyte development in the canine spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Joshua A; Figari, Carlos; Radcliff, Abigail B; Mckee, Camille; Duncan, Ian D

    2016-04-01

    We studied the developmental pattern of oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelin formation in the fetal canine spinal cord from E40 to P0. The pattern of development matches what has been described in the spinal cord of humans, rodents, and many other species. Oligodendrocytes were first found at E40, close to the central canal, with their spread in a tangential manner to the ventral and then lateral columns. Myelin development followed the same pattern but was not seen until E46. A clear subpial zone lacking glial cells and myelin was seen in the lateral column in early development, suggesting that there may also be a radial component of migration of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) from a ventral site. This spatial-temporal developmental pattern seen in wild type matches a delay in myelination of the superficial tracts of the spinal cord seen in a canine myelin mutant, suggesting that the mutation prevents the distribution and differentiation of OPCs at an early, but narrow, window of time during fetal development. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:930-939, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26338416

  19. Selective and compartmentalized myelin expression of HspB5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quraishe, S; Wyttenbach, A; Matinyarare, N; Perry, V H; Fern, R; O'Connor, V

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, we reveal myelin-specific expression and targeting of mRNA and biochemical pools of HspB5 in the mouse CNS. Our observations are based on in situ hybridization, electron microscopy and co-localization with 2',3'-Cyclic-Nucleotide 3'-Phosphodiesterase (CNPase), reinforcing this myelin-selective expression. HspB5 mRNA might be targeted to these structures based on its presence in discrete clusters resembling RNA granules and the presence of a putative RNA transport signal. Further, sub-cellular fractionation of myelin membranes reveals a distinct sub-compartment-specific association and detergent solubility of HspB5. This is akin to other abundant myelin proteins and is consistent with HspB5's association with cytoskeletal/membrane assemblies. Oligodendrocytes have a pivotal role in supporting axonal function via generating and segregating the ensheathing myelin. This specialization places extreme structural and metabolic demands on this glial cell type. Our observations place HspB5 in oligodendrocytes which may require selective and specific chaperone capabilities to maintain normal function and neuronal support. PMID:26718604

  20. Diffusion tensor imaging and myelin composition analysis reveal abnormal myelination in corpus callosum of canine mucopolysaccharidosis I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenzale, James M; Nestrasil, Igor; Chen, Steven; Kan, Shih-Hsin; Le, Steven Q; Jens, Jacqueline K; Snella, Elizabeth M; Vondrak, Kristen N; Yee, Jennifer K; Vite, Charles H; Elashoff, David; Duan, Lewei; Wang, Raymond Y; Ellinwood, N Matthew; Guzman, Miguel A; Shapiro, Elsa G; Dickson, Patricia I

    2015-11-01

    Children with mucopolysaccharidosis I (MPS I) develop hyperintense white matter foci on T2-weighted brain magnetic resonance (MR) imaging that are associated clinically with cognitive impairment. We report here a diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and tissue evaluation of white matter in a canine model of MPS I. We found that two DTI parameters, fractional anisotropy (a measure of white matter integrity) and radial diffusivity (which reflects degree of myelination) were abnormal in the corpus callosum of MPS I dogs compared to carrier controls. Tissue studies of the corpus callosum showed reduced expression of myelin-related genes and an abnormal composition of myelin in MPS I dogs. We treated MPS I dogs with recombinant alpha-l-iduronidase, which is the enzyme that is deficient in MPS I disease. The recombinant alpha-l-iduronidase was administered by intrathecal injection into the cisterna magna. Treated dogs showed partial correction of corpus callosum myelination. Our findings suggest that abnormal myelination occurs in the canine MPS I brain, that it may underlie clinically-relevant brain imaging findings in human MPS I patients, and that it may respond to treatment. PMID:26222335

  1. Excitation block in a nerve fibre model owing to potassium-dependent changes in myelin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brazhe, Alexey; Maksimov, G. V.; Mosekilde, Erik; Sosnovtseva, O. V.

    2011-01-01

    The myelinated nerve fibre is formed by an axon and Schwann cells or oligodendrocytes that sheath the axon by winding around it in tight myelin layers. Repetitive stimulation of a fibre is known to result in accumulation of extracellular potassium ions, especially between the axon and the myelin....... Uptake of potassium leads to Schwann cell swelling and myelin restructuring that impacts the electrical properties of the myelin. In order to further understand the dynamic interaction that takes place between the myelin and the axon, we have modelled submyelin potassium accumulation and related changes...... in myelin resistance during prolonged high-frequency stimulation. We predict that potassium-mediated decrease in myelin resistance leads to a functional excitation block with various patterns of altered spike trains. The patterns are found to depend on stimulation frequency and amplitude and to range...

  2. Rapid myelin water content mapping on clinical MR systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonkova, Vyara; Arhelger, Volker [Fachhochschule Koblenz, RheinAhrCampus Remagen (Germany); Schenk, Jochen [Radiologisches Institut, Koblenz (Germany); Neeb, Heiko [Fachhochschule Koblenz, RheinAhrCampus Remagen (Germany); Koblenz Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Medical Engineering and Information Processing - MTI Mittelrhein

    2012-07-01

    We present an algorithm for the fast mapping of myelin water content using standard multiecho gradient echo acquisitions of the human brain. The method extents a previously published approach for the simultaneous measurement of brain T{sub 1}, T{sup *}{sub 2} and total water content. Employing the multiexponential T{sup *}{sub 2} decay signal of myelinated tissue, myelin water content was measured based on the quantification of two water pools ('myelin water' and 'rest') with different relaxation times. As the existing protocol was focussed on the fast mapping of quantitative MR parameters with whole brain coverage in clinically relevant measurement times, the sampling density of the T{sup *}{sub 2} curve was compromised to 10 echo times with a T {sub Emax} of approx. 40 ms. Therefore, pool amplitudes were determined using a quadratic optimisation approach. The optimisation was constrained by including a priori knowledge about brain water pools. All constraints were optimised in a simulation study to minimise systematic error sources given the incomplete knowledge about the real pool-specific relaxation properties. Based on the simulation results, whole brain in vivo myelin water content maps were acquired in 10 healthy controls and one subject with multiple sclerosis. The in vivo results obtained were consistent with previous reports which demonstrates that a simultaneous whole brain mapping of T{sub 1}, T{sup *}{sub 2}, total and myelin water content is feasible on almost any modern MR scanner in less than 10 minutes. (orig.)

  3. A Novel PET Marker for In Vivo Quantification of Myelination

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Chunying; Wang, Changing; Popescu, Daniela; Zhu, Wenxia; Somoza, Eduardo; Zhu, Junqing; Condie, Allison G.; Flask, Chris; Miller, Robert H.; Macklin, Wendy; Wang, Yanming

    2010-01-01

    C-11-Labeled N-methyl-4,4?-diaminostilbene ([11C]MeDAS) was synthesized and evaluated as a novel radiotracer for in vivo microPET imaging of myelination. [11C]MeDAS exhibits optimal lipophilicity for brain uptake with a logPoct value of 2.25. Both in vitro and ex vivo staining exhibited MeDAS accumulation in myelinated regions such as corpus callosum and striatum. The corpus callosum region visualized by MeDAS is much larger in the hypermyelinated Plp-Akt-DD mouse brain than in the wild-type ...

  4. Molecular anatomy and genetics of myelin proteins in the peripheral nervous system.

    OpenAIRE

    Snipes, G. J.; Suter, U.

    1995-01-01

    Myelin contains a number of proteins, the major examples of which are protein zero (Po), P2 protein, peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22), myelin basic proteins (MBPs), myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) and the recently described connexin 32 (Cx32). This list is probably still incomplete. The localisation and possible functions of these proteins are reviewed. In the past few years a number of inherited demyelinating neuropathies in mice and the human have been shown to be due to mutations ...

  5. (O)Mega Split

    CERN Document Server

    Benakli, Karim; Goodsell, Mark

    2015-01-01

    We study two realisations of the Fake Split Supersymmetry Model (FSSM), the simplest model that can easily reproduce the experimental value of the Higgs mass for an arbitrarily high supersymmetry scale, as a consequence of swapping higgsinos for equivalent states, fake higgsinos, with suppressed Yukawa couplings. If the LSP is identified as the main Dark matter component, then a standard thermal history of the Universe implies upper bounds on the supersymmetry scale, which we derive. On the other hand, we show that renormalisation group running of soft masses above the supersymmetry scale barely constrains the model - in stark contrast to Split Supersymmetry - and hence we can have a "Mega Split" spectrum even with all of these assumptions and constraints, which include the requirements of a correct relic abundance, a gluino life-time compatible with Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and absence of signals in present direct detection experiments of inelastic dark matter. In an appendix we describe a related scenario, ...

  6. Aspects of Split Supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Arkani-Hamed, N; Giudice, Gian Francesco; Romanino, A

    2005-01-01

    We explore some fundamental differences in the phenomenology, cosmology and model building of Split Supersymmetry compared with traditional low-scale supersymmetry. We show how the mass spectrum of Split Supersymmetry naturally emerges from theories where the dominant source of supersymmetry breaking preserves an $R$ symmetry, characterize the class of theories where the unavoidable $R$-breaking by gravity can be neglected, and point out a new possibility, where supersymmetry breaking is directly communicated at tree level to the visible sector via renormalizable interactions. Next, we discuss possible low-energy signals for Split Supersymmetry. The absence of new light scalars removes all the phenomenological difficulties of low-energy supersymmetry, associated with one-loop flavor and CP violating effects. However, the electric dipole moments of leptons and quarks do arise at two loops, and are automatically at the level of present limits with no need for small phases, making them accessible to several ongo...

  7. Split spline screw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranish, John M. (inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A split spline screw type payload fastener assembly, including three identical male and female type split spline sections, is discussed. The male spline sections are formed on the head of a male type spline driver. Each of the split male type spline sections has an outwardly projecting load baring segment including a convex upper surface which is adapted to engage a complementary concave surface of a female spline receptor in the form of a hollow bolt head. Additionally, the male spline section also includes a horizontal spline releasing segment and a spline tightening segment below each load bearing segment. The spline tightening segment consists of a vertical web of constant thickness. The web has at least one flat vertical wall surface which is designed to contact a generally flat vertically extending wall surface tab of the bolt head. Mutual interlocking and unlocking of the male and female splines results upon clockwise and counter clockwise turning of the driver element.

  8. Aspect splits and parasitic marking

    OpenAIRE

    Woolford, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Aspect splits can affect agreement, Case, and even preposition insertion. This paper discusses the functional ‘why’ and the theoretical ‘how’ of aspect splits. Aspect splits are an economical way to mark aspect by preserving or suppressing some independent element in one aspect. In formal terms, they are produced in the same way as coda conditions in phonology, with positional/contextual faithfulness.This approach captures the additive effects of cross-cutting splits. Aspect splits are analyz...

  9. Clozapine promotes glycolysis and myelin lipid synthesis in cultured oligodendrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann Steiner

    2014-11-01

    Our findings support the superior impact of clozapine on white matter integrity in schizophrenia as previously observed, suggesting that this drug improves the energy supply and myelin lipid synthesis in oligodendrocytes. Characterizing the underlying signal transduction pathways may pave the way for novel oligodendrocyte-directed schizophrenia therapies.

  10. Lymphocyte adherence to myelinated tissue in multiple sclerosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Dore-Duffy, P.; Goertz, V; Rothman, B L

    1980-01-01

    A small subpopulation of human peripheral blood T lymphocytes has the capacity to adhere selectively to myelinated sections of human and nonhuman brain tissue. Adherence of lymphocytes from patients with multiple sclerosis is significantly greater than adherence of control lymphocytes. Monocytes inhibit binding in controls. This function appears to be lost by multiple sclerosis monocytes.

  11. Expression of myelin proteins in the opossum optic nerve: late appearance of inhibitors implicates an earlier non-myelin factor in preventing ganglion cell regeneration.

    OpenAIRE

    Maclaren, RE

    1996-01-01

    The pattern of appearance of myelin-associated proteins in the visual system of the Brazilian opossum Monodelphis domestica is described. Whole mounts of optic nerve, chiasm, and optic tract were sectioned horizontally and incubated with antibodies to myelin basic protein (MBP), proteolipid protein (PLP), myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), "Rip," and the neurite inhibitory protein (IN-1), followed by visualization with diaminobenzidine and a peroxidase-conjugated secondary antibody. PLP is...

  12. Myelination as an expression of the functional maturity of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Knaap, M S; Valk, J; Bakker, C J; Schooneveld, M; Faber, J A; Willemse, J; Gooskens, R H

    1991-10-01

    A prospective cross-sectional study was performed on hydrocephalic infants and children. MRI was used to assess the state of myelination and to quantify the intracranial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volume repeatedly in all children. At the same time, neurodevelopmental testing was performed. A positive correlation was found between the progress of myelination and psychomotor development, but there were no significant correlations between CSF volume and myelination or between CSF volume and psychomotor development. This study provides strong evidence in favour of Flechsig's thesis that myelination expresses the functional maturity of the brain. The interdependency of neuronal maturation and progress of myelination are discussed. PMID:1743407

  13. (O)Mega split

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benakli, Karim; Darmé, Luc; Goodsell, Mark D.

    2015-11-01

    We study two realisations of the Fake Split Supersymmetry Model (FSSM), the simplest model that can easily reproduce the experimental value of the Higgs mass for an arbitrarily high supersymmetry scale M S , as a consequence of swapping higgsinos for equivalent states, fake higgsinos, with suppressed Yukawa couplings. If the LSP is identified as the main Dark matter component, then a standard thermal history of the Universe implies upper bounds on M S , which we derive. On the other hand, we show that renormalisation group running of soft masses above M S barely constrains the model — in stark contrast to Split Supersymmetry — and hence we can have a "Mega Split" spectrum even with all of these assumptions and constraints, which include the requirements of a correct relic abundance, a gluino life-time compatible with Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and absence of signals in present direct detection experiments of inelastic dark matter. In an appendix we describe a related scenario, Fake Split Extended Supersymmetry, which enjoys similar properties.

  14. Plasmonic solar water splitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of the optoelectronic effects of plasmonic metal nanoparticles on semiconductors has led to compelling evidence for plasmon-enhanced water splitting. We review the relevant physics, device geometries, and research progress in this area. We focus on localized surface plasmons and their effects on semiconductors, particularly in terms of energy transfer, scattering, and hot electron transfer.

  15. The Splitting Loope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Jesse L. M.; Norton, Anderson

    2011-01-01

    Teaching experiments have generated several hypotheses concerning the construction of fraction schemes and operations and relationships among them. In particular, researchers have hypothesized that children's construction of splitting operations is crucial to their construction of more advanced fractions concepts (Steffe, 2002). The authors…

  16. Tibetan medical interpretation of myelin lipids and multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husted, Cynthia; Dhondup, Lobsang

    2009-08-01

    Tibetan medicine integrates diet, lifestyle, herbs, and accessory therapies to increase health and longevity. A comparison of the three humor theory of Tibetan medicine and the three thermodynamic phase properties of myelin lipids exemplifies how integrating medical systems can increase understanding of complex chronic disabling conditions. As a correlative study to microscopically better understand multiple sclerosis (MS) from the view of Tibetan medicine, the physical disruption of central nervous system myelin membranes in MS is interpreted from the theory of the three humors (vital energies) of Tibetan medicine: rLung (Wind), MKhris pa (Bile), and Bad gen (Phlegm). The three classes of myelin lipids--phospholipids, sphingolipids, and cholesterol--are interpreted as one of three humors based on Langmuir isotherm thermodynamic measurements. The nature of rLung is movement or change. Myelin sphingolipids have rLung properties based on thermodynamic observations of changes in phase organization. MKhris pa is fire, energetic. Phospholipids have MKhris pa properties based on thermodynamic observations of being energetic membrane lipids with fast molecular motions and fluid-like properties. The nature of Bad gen is substance and form; it dominates body structure. Cholesterol relates to Bad gen because it dominates membrane structure. We propose a theoretical relationship whereby demyelination in MS is viewed as a continuum of imbalance of the three humors as understood in Tibetan medicine. Myelin lipid data is presented to support this theoretical relationship. Clinically, MS is, in general, a rLung-MKhrispa disorder in women and a Bad gen-MKhrispa disorder in men, with rLung-MKhrispa excess in both genders during exacerbation, inflammation, and demyelination. Studying Tibetan medicine in its traditional context will create an integrative model for the treatment of MS and other chronic conditions. PMID:19743559

  17. Astrocytic TIMP-1 Promotes Oligodendrocyte Differentiation and Enhances CNS Myelination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Craig S.; Milner, Richard; Nishiyama, Akiko; Frausto, Ricardo F.; Serwanski, David R.; Pagarigan, Roberto R.; Whitton, J. Lindsay; Miller, Robert H.; Crocker, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) is an extracellular protein and endogenous regulator of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) secreted by astrocytes in response to CNS myelin injury. We have previously reported that adult TIMP-1KO mice exhibit poor myelin repair following demyelinating injury. This observation led us to hypothesize a role for TIMP-1 in oligodendrogenesis and CNS myelination. Herein, we demonstrate that compact myelin formation is significantly delayed in TIMP-1KO mice which coincided with dramatically reduced numbers of white matter astrocytes in the developing CNS. Analysis of differentiation in CNS progenitor cells (neurosphere) cultures from TIMP-1KO mice revealed a specific deficit of NG2+ oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. Application of rmTIMP-1 to TIMP-1KO neurosphere cultures evoked a dose-dependent increase in NG2+ cell numbers, while treatment with GM6001, a potent broad spectrum MMP inhibitor did not. Similarly, administration of recombinant murine TIMP-1 (rmTIMP-1) to A2B5+ immunopanned oligodendrocyte progenitors significantly increased the number of differentiated O1+ oligodendrocytes, while antisera to TIMP-1 reduced oligodendrocyte numbers. We also determined that A2B5+ oligodendrocyte progenitors grown in conditioned media derived from TIMP-1KO primary glial cultures resulted in reduced differentiation of mature O1+ oligodendrocytes. Finally, we report that addition of rmTIMP-1 to primary glial cultures resulted in a dose-dependent proliferative response of astrocytes. Together, these findings describe a previously uncharacterized role for TIMP-1 in the regulation of oligodendrocytes and astrocytes during development and provide a novel function for TIMP-1 on myelination in the developing CNS. PMID:21508247

  18. Axonal plasticity elicits long-term changes in oligodendroglia and myelinated fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DrØjdahl, Nina; Nielsen, Helle Hvilsted

    2010-01-01

    Axons are linked to induction of myelination during development and to the maintenance of myelin and myelinated tracts in the adult CNS. Currently, it is unknown whether and how axonal plasticity in adult CNS impacts the myelinating cells and their precursors. In this article, we report that newly formed axonal sprouts are able to induce a protracted myelination response in adult CNS. We show that newly formed axonal sprouts, induced by lesion of the entorhino-hippocampal perforant pathway, have the ability to induce a myelination response in stratum radiatum and lucidum CA3. The lesion resulted in significant recruitment of newly formed myelinating cells, documented by incorporation of the proliferation marker bromodeoxyuridine into chondroitin sulphate NG2 expressing cells in stratum radiatum and lucidum CA3 early after lesion, and the occurrence of a 28% increase in the number of oligodendrocytes, of which some had incorporated bromodeoxyuridine, 9 weeks post-lesion. Additionally, a marked increase (41%) in myelinated fibres was detected in silver stained sections. Interestingly, these apparently new fibres achieved the same axon diameter as unlesioned mice but myelin thickness remained thinner than normal, suggesting that the sprouting axons in stratum radiatum and lucidum CA3 were not fully myelinated 9 weeks after lesion. Our combined results show that sprouting axons provide a strong stimulus to oligodendrocyte lineage cells to engage actively in the myelination processes in the adult CNS.

  19. Frog muscle spindles with unbranched myelinated afferent axons: the response to stretch and the length of the first myelinated segment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, F; Komatsu, Y

    1977-01-01

    1. Twenty-five muscle spindles innervated by unbranched myelinated axons in the capsule were isolated from sartorius muscle in young frogs (2-2--9-5 g in weight, 28-47 mm in rostro-caudal length). 2. The lengths and the diameters of the first myelinated segments varied from 30 to 170 mum and from 9 to 20 mum respectively. There was no relationship between the lengths and the diameters. 3. Dynamic and static components were analysed from discharge rates of the muscle spindles during ramp-and-hold stretches of 0-8 mm from different initial lengths. The values of the dynamic components to a certain stretch stimulation increased with shortening in the length of the first myelinated segment. The values of the static components were independent in length. 4. The amplitudes of action potentials recorded from the spindle terminal decreased during the dynamic phase of the stretch. The ratio of amplitude decrease at the end of the dynamic phase versus the initial length depended upon the length of the first myelinated segment. 5. These results suggest that the discharges during stretch may arise at the first node, though the spontaneous discharges may be generated at the terminal. PMID:139468

  20. Regulation of myelin genes implicated in psychiatric disorders by functional activity in axons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Fields

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Myelination is a highly dynamic process that continues well into adulthood in humans. Several recent gene expression studies have found abnormal expression of genes involved in myelination in the prefrontal cortex of brains from patients with schizophrenia and other psychiatric illnesses. Defects in myelination could contribute to the pathophysiology of psychiatric illness by impairing information processing as a consequence of altered impulse conduction velocity and synchrony between cortical regions carrying out higher level cognitive functions. Myelination can be altered by impulse activity in axons and by environmental experience. Psychiatric illness is treated by psychotherapy, behavioral modification, and drugs affecting neurotransmission, raising the possibility that myelinating glia may not only contribute to such disorders, but that activity-dependent effects on myelinating glia could provide one of the cellular mechanisms contributing to the therapeutic effects of these treatments. This review examines evidence showing that genes and gene networks important for myelination can be regulated by functional activity in axons.

  1. Neuronal Regulation of Schwann Cell Mitochondrial Ca2+ Signaling during Myelination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Ino

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Schwann cells (SCs myelinate peripheral neurons to promote the rapid conduction of action potentials, and the process of myelination is known to be regulated by signals from axons to SCs. Given that SC mitochondria are one of the potential regulators of myelination, we investigated whether SC mitochondria are regulated by axonal signaling. Here, we show a purinergic mechanism that sends information from neurons to SC mitochondria during myelination. Our results show that electrical stimulation of rat sciatic nerve increases extracellular ATP levels enough to activate purinergic receptors. Indeed, electrical stimulation of sciatic nerves induces Ca2+ increases in the cytosol and the mitochondrial matrix of surrounding SCs via purinergic receptor activation. Chronic suppression of this pathway during active myelination suppressed the longitudinal and radial development of myelinating SCs and caused hypomyelination. These results demonstrate a neuron-to-SC mitochondria signaling, which is likely to have an important role in proper myelination.

  2. Enhanced Action Potential Passage Through the Node of Ranvier of Myelinated Axons via Proton Hopping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kier, Lemont; Hall, Lowell; Tombes, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    Nerve impulses travel along myelinated axons as much as 300-fold faster than they do along unmyelinated axons. Myelination is essential for normal nervous system behavior in vertebrates as illustrated by leukodystrophies, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or multiple sclerosis (MS), where myelin is degenerated or damaged. The increased conduction velocity that occurs in myelinated axons is dependent on gaps in the myelin called Nodes of Ranvier that are enriched in ion channels. These Nodes are separated by long stretches of myelin insulation where no transmembrane ion conductance occurs. It is believed that the action potential jumps or skips between nodes, conserving its information content, while maintaining its speed. In this study, a model is presented that implicates Nodes of Ranvier as responsible for regenerating the proton hopping that is responsible for nerve impulse conductance in myelinated axons. PMID:26205832

  3. Impossibility of obtaining split links from split links via twistings

    OpenAIRE

    Ozawa, Makoto

    2001-01-01

    We show that if a split link is obtained from a split link $L$ in $S^3$ by $1/n$-Dehn surgery along a trivial knot $C$, then the link $L\\cup C$ is splittable. That is to say, it is impossible to obtain a split link from a split link via a non-trivial twisting. As its corollary, we completely determine when a trivial link is obtained from a trivial link via a twisting.

  4. Of mothers and myelin: Aberrant myelination phenotypes in mouse model of Angelman syndrome are dependent on maternal and dietary influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, Mark D; Carson, Robert P; Lagrange, Andre H

    2015-09-15

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a number of neurological problems, including developmental delay, movement disorders, and epilepsy. AS results from the loss of UBE3A (an imprinted gene) expressed from the maternal chromosome in neurons. Given the ubiquitous expression of Ube3a and the devastating nature of AS, the role of environmental and maternal effects has been largely ignored. Severe ataxia, anxiety-like behaviors and learning deficits are well-documented in patients and AS mice. More recently, clinical imaging studies of AS patients suggest myelination may be delayed or reduced. Utilizing a mouse model of AS, we found disrupted expression of cortical myelin proteins, the magnitude of which is influenced by maternal status, in that the aberrant myelination in the AS pups of AS affected mothers were more pronounced than those seen in AS pups raised by unaffected (Ube3a (m+/p-)) Carrier mothers. Furthermore, feeding the breeding mothers a higher fat (11% vs 5%) diet normalizes these myelin defects. These effects are not limited to myelin proteins. Since AS mice have abnormal stress responses, including altered glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression, we measured GR expression in pups from Carrier and affected AS mothers. AS pups had higher GR expression than their WT littermates. However, we also found an effect of maternal status, with reduced GR levels in pups from affected mothers compared to genotypically identical pups raised by unaffected Carrier mothers. Taken together, our findings suggest that the phenotypes observed in AS mice may be modulated by factors independent of Ube3a genotype. PMID:26028516

  5. The control of central nervous system myelination and the phenotypic characterisation of a novel zebrafish mutant: akineto(u45).

    OpenAIRE

    Hawkins, T.

    2004-01-01

    Part 1 of this thesis addresses the control of myelination in the central nervous system (CNS). We have a sound knowledge of myelin structure, particularly the molecules and cells involved in its make-up. However, our understanding of the control of myelin formation is scanty. Myelination of CNS tracts during development follows a strictly ordered schedule suggesting local control by axons. Here I present evidence that CNS axons need to form synaptic connections before they can be myelinated....

  6. The Split sudâmja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar Šimunovi?

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The name of the Split feast Sudamja!Sudajma ("festa sancti Domnii" has not yet been adequately explained. The author believes that the name originated from the Old Dalmatian adjective san(ctu + Domn?u. In the adjective santu the cluster /an/ in front of·a consonant gave in Croatian the back nasal /q/ pronounced until the end of the 10th century and giving /u/ after that. In this way the forms *Sudumja and similar originated. The short stressed /u/ in the closed syllable was percieved by the Croatian folk as their semivowel which later gave /a/ = Sudamja. The author connects this feature with that in the toponimes Makar (< *mt.k"br < *mukru < Muccurum, Bakar (< *btk"&r < *bukur < Buccuri, Skadar (< *skbdr < *skudr < Skutari, Skopje(< *sktp < Skupi etc. The metathesis /mj/ > /jm/ is well known in Croatian dialectology (sumja > sujma, and it resembles the metatheses which occurs in the Split toponimes: Sukošjân > Sukojšãn ( < *santu Cassianu, Pojišân/Pojšiin (< *pasianu < Pansianu. The author finds the same feature in the toponime Dumja?a (: *Dumi- + -a?a. He considers these features as Croatian popular adaptations which have not occured in the personal name Dujam, the toponime Dujmova?a "terrae s. Domnii" and in the adjective sandujamski, because of the link with the saint's name Domnio!Duymo etc., which has been well liked and is frequent as name of Split Romas as well as Croats from the foundation of Split, has never been broken.

  7. Split Malcev Algebras

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Antonio J Calderón Martín; Manuel Forero Piulestán; José M Sánchez Delgado

    2012-05-01

    We study the structure of split Malcev algebras of arbitrary dimension over an algebraically closed field of characteristic zero. We show that any such algebras is of the form $M=\\mathcal{U}+\\sum_jI_j$ with $\\mathcal{U}$ a subspace of the abelian Malcev subalgebra and any $I_j$ a well described ideal of satisfying $[I_j, I_k]=0$ if $j\

  8. Syntax for Split Preorders

    CERN Document Server

    Dosen, K

    2009-01-01

    A split preorder is a preordering relation on the disjoint union of two sets, which function as source and target when one composes split preorders. The paper presents by generators and equations the category SplPre, whose arrows are the split preorders on the disjoint union of two finite ordinals. The same is done for the subcategory Gen of SplPre, whose arrows are equivalence relations, and for the category Rel, whose arrows are the binary relations between finite ordinals, and which has an isomorphic image within SplPre by a map that preserves composition, but not identity arrows. It was shown previously that SplPre and Gen have an isomorphic representation in Rel in the style of Brauer. The syntactical presentation of Gen and Rel in this paper exhibits the particular Frobenius algebra structure of Gen and the particular bialgebraic structure of Rel, the latter structure being built upon the former structure in SplPre. This points towards algebraic modelling of various categories motivated by logic, and re...

  9. Liver X receptors alpha and beta promote myelination and remyelination in the cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meffre, Delphine; Shackleford, Ghjuvan'Ghjacumu; Hichor, Mehdi; Gorgievski, Victor; Tzavara, Eleni T; Trousson, Amalia; Ghoumari, Abdel M; Deboux, Cyrille; Nait Oumesmar, Brahim; Liere, Philippe; Schumacher, Michael; Baulieu, Etienne-Emile; Charbonnier, Frédéric; Grenier, Julien; Massaad, Charbel

    2015-06-16

    The identification of new pathways governing myelination provides innovative avenues for remyelination. Liver X receptors (LXRs) ? and ? are nuclear receptors activated by oxysterols that originated from the oxidation of cholesterol. They are crucial for cholesterol homeostasis, a major lipid constituent of myelin sheaths that are formed by oligodendrocytes. However, the role of LXRs in myelin generation and maintenance is poorly understood. Here, we show that LXRs are involved in myelination and remyelination processes. LXRs and their ligands are present in oligodendrocytes. We found that mice invalidated for LXRs exhibit altered motor coordination and spatial learning, thinner myelin sheaths, and reduced myelin gene expression. Conversely, activation of LXRs by either 25-hydroxycholesterol or synthetic TO901317 stimulates myelin gene expression at the promoter, mRNA, and protein levels, directly implicating LXR?/? in the transcriptional control of myelin gene expression. Interestingly, activation of LXRs also promotes oligodendroglial cell maturation and remyelination after lysolecithin-induced demyelination of organotypic cerebellar slice cultures. Together, our findings represent a conceptual advance in the transcriptional control of myelin gene expression and strongly support a new role of LXRs as positive modulators in central (re)myelination processes. PMID:26023184

  10. Physiological noise compensation in gradient-echo myelin water imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Yoonho; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Lee, Jongho

    2015-10-15

    In MRI, physiological noise which originates from cardiac and respiratory functions can induce substantial errors in detecting small signals in the brain. In this work, we explored the effects of the physiological noise and their compensation methods in gradient-echo myelin water imaging (GRE-MWI). To reduce the cardiac function induced inflow noise, flow saturation RF pulses were applied to the inferior portion of the head, saturating inflow blood signals. For the respiratory function induced B0 fluctuation compensation, a navigator echo was acquired, and respiration induced phase errors were corrected during reconstruction. After the compensations, the resulting myelin water images show substantially improved image quality and reproducibility. These improvements confirm the importance and usefulness of the physiological noise compensations in GRE-MWI. PMID:26172308

  11. Peripheral nervous system plasmalogens regulate Schwann cell differentiation and myelination

    OpenAIRE

    da Silva, Tiago Ferreira; Eira, Jessica; Lopes, André T.; Malheiro, Ana R.; Sousa, Vera; Luoma, Adrienne; Avila, Robin L; Wanders, Ronald J. A.; Just, Wilhelm W.; Kirschner, Daniel A; Sousa, Mónica M.; Brites, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata (RCDP) is a developmental disorder characterized by hypotonia, cataracts, abnormal ossification, impaired motor development, and intellectual disability. The underlying etiology of RCDP is a deficiency in the biosynthesis of ether phospholipids, of which plasmalogens are the most abundant form in nervous tissue and myelin; however, the role of plasmalogens in the peripheral nervous system is poorly defined. Here, we used mouse models of RCDP...

  12. Cross-Reactive Myelin Antibody Induces Renal Disease

    OpenAIRE

    PETERSON, LISA K.; Masaki, Takahisa; Wheelwright, Steven R.; TSUNODA, IKUO; Fujinami, Robert S

    2008-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an autoimmune model for multiple sclerosis (MS). Previously, we reported renal immunoglobulin (Ig) deposition in mice with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG92-106) induced progressive-EAE and naïve mice injected with MOG92-106 hybridoma cells producing antibody that cross-reacts with various autoantigens including double-stranded DNA. To assess whether MOG92-106 antibodies actually induce kidney changes, the extent of renal Ig depositi...

  13. The peripheral myelin protein 22 and epithelial membrane protein family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetten, A M; Suter, U

    2000-01-01

    The peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) and the epithelial membrane proteins (EMP-1, -2, and -3) comprise a subfamily of small hydrophobic membrane proteins. The putative four-transmembrane domain structure as well as the genomic structure are highly conserved among family members. PMP22 and EMPs are expressed in many tissues, and functions in cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis have been reported. EMP-1 is highly up-regulated during squamous differentiation and in certain tumors, and a role in tumorigenesis has been proposed. PMP22 is most highly expressed in peripheral nerves, where it is localized in the compact portion of myelin. It plays a crucial role in normal physiological and pathological processes in the peripheral nervous system. Progress in molecular genetics has revealed that genetic alterations in the PMP22 gene, including duplications, deletions, and point mutations, are responsible for several forms of hereditary peripheral neuropathies, including Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A), Dejerine-Sottas syndrome (DDS), and hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP). The natural mouse mutants Trembler and Trembler-J contain a missense mutation in different hydrophobic domains of PMP22, resulting in demyelination and Schwann cell proliferation. Transgenic mice carrying many copies of the PMP22 gene and PMP22-null mice display a variety of defects in the initial steps of myelination and/or maintenance of myelination, whereas no pathological alterations are detected in other tissues normally expressing PMP22. Further characterization of the interactions of PMP22 and EMPs with other proteins as well as their regulation will provide additional insight into their normal physiological function and their roles in disease and possibly will result in the development of therapeutic tools. PMID:10697408

  14. Myelin-associated changes in mouse brain following irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goals of this study were to quantify myelin-associated changes in the brain following single doses of radiation and to determine their relationship to the dose limits that this tissue can tolerate. Mice developed a transient loss of balance 1 month after 60 Gy doses 250 kVp X-rays to the brain and 3-4 months after 30-45 Gy radiation, but not after lower doses. The symptoms were transient and lasted ? 1 month. The ED50/300 for radiation-induced brain death, which occurred largely between 200 and 240 days, was 32.4 Gy (29.1, 35.5 Gy, 95% confidence limit of mean). At the time that animals developed neurological symptoms, 3-4 months after irradiation with doses of 30-45 Gy, biochemical assays of myelin-associated proteins showed decreases in 2',3' -cyclic nucleotide phosphohydrolase (CNPase) and myelin basic protein (MBP) levels that were not seen with lower radiation doses. By 120-180 days, further dose-dependent decreases in both CNPase and MBP levels were found after 20-45 Gy irradiation that preceded and correlated with death. The correlation of the decrease in CNPase and MBP levels with the incidence of transient neurological malfunction and animal death, together with histological evidence, suggests that demyelination is responsible for these phenomena. (author)

  15. Proliferation of Schwann cells induced by axolemmal and myelin membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purified Schwann Cells were cultured from neonatal rat sciatic nerve using a modification of the method of Brockes. Schwann cells and contaminating fibroblasts were unambiguously identified using fluorescent antibodies of 2'3' cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase and the thy 1.1 antigen respectively. The Schwann cells were quiescent unless challenged with mitogens. They proliferated rapidly in response to the soluble mitogen, cholera toxin, or to membrane fractions from rat CNS or PNS, prepared by the method of DeVries. Mitogenic activity was present in both axolemmal and myelin enriched fractions and promoted a 10-15 fold increase in the rate of 3H-thymidine uptake. The axolemmal mitogen was sensitive to heat (800C for 10 minutes), trypsin digestion (0.05% x 30 mins) or to treatment with endoglycosidase D, suggesting that it could be a glycoprotein. Fifty percent of the axolemmal mitogenic activity was solubilized in 1% octyl-glucoside. The solubilized material, however, was very unstable and further purification was not possible. The myelin associated mitogenic activity was markedly different. It was resistant to freeze thaw cycles, trypsin digestion of endoglycosidase treatment and the activity was actually enhanced by heating at 1000C for two hours. It is proposed that the axolemmal activity is responsible for Schwann cell proliferation during development and that the myelin associated activity promotes Schwann cell proliferation during Wallerian degeneration

  16. Neurotoxocarosis alters myelin protein gene transcription and expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, Lea; Beyerbach, Martin; Lühder, Fred; Beineke, Andreas; Strube, Christina

    2015-06-01

    Neurotoxocarosis is an infection of the central nervous system caused by migrating larvae of the common dog and cat roundworms (Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati), which are zoonotic agents. As these parasites are prevalent worldwide and neuropathological and molecular investigations on neurotoxocarosis are scare, this study aims to characterise nerve fibre demyelination associated with neurotoxocarosis on a molecular level. Transcription of eight myelin-associated genes (Cnp, Mag, Mbp, Mog, Mrf-1, Nogo-A, Plp1, Olig2) was determined in the mouse model during six time points of the chronic phase of infection using qRT-PCR. Expression of selected proteins was analysed by Western blotting or immunohistochemistry. Additionally, demyelination and neuronal damage were investigated histologically. Significant differences (p???0.05) between transcription rates of T. canis-infected and uninfected control mice were detected for all analysed genes while T. cati affected five of eight investigated genes. Interestingly, 2', 3 ´-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (Cnp) and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (Mog) were upregulated in both T. canis- and T. cati-infected mice preceding demyelination. Later, CNPase expression was additionally enhanced. As expected, myelin basic protein (Mbp) was downregulated in cerebra and cerebella of T. canis-infected mice when severe demyelination was present 120 days post infectionem (dpi). The transcriptional pattern observed in the present study appears to reflect direct traumatic and hypoxic effects of larval migration as well as secondary processes including host immune reactions, demyelination and attempts to remyelinate damaged areas. PMID:25773181

  17. Natural electromagnetic waveguide structures based on myelin sheath in the neural system

    CERN Document Server

    Xue, Jiongwei

    2012-01-01

    The saltatory propagation of action potentials on myelinated axons is conventionally explained by the mechanism employing local circuit ionic current flows between nodes of Ranvier. Under this framework, the myelin sheath with up to 100 layers of membrane only serves as the insulating shell. The speed of action potentials is measured to be as fast as 100 m/s on myelinated axons, but ions move in fluids at just 100 nm/s in a 1 V/m electric field. We show here the action potentials, in the form of electromagnetic (EM) pulses, can propagate in natural EM waveguide structures formed by the myelin sheath merged in fluids. The propagation time is mainly cost on the duration for triggering EM pulses at nodes of Ranvier. The result clearly reveals the evolution of axons from the unmyelinated to the myelinated, which has remarkably enhanced the propagation efficiency by increasing the thickness of myelin sheath.

  18. Guanine nucleotides stimulate hydrolysis of phosphatidyl inositol bis phosphate in human myelin membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phosphodiesterase activity was stimulated in myelin membranes in the presence of guanine nucleotide analogues. This activity was reduced in myelin membranes which had been adenosine diphosphate ribosylated in the presence of cholera toxin which ADP-ribosylated three proteins of Mr 46,000, 43,000 and 18,500. Aluminum fluoride treatment of myelin had the same stimulatory effects on phosphodiesterase activity as did the guanine nucleotides

  19. Guanine nucleotides stimulate hydrolysis of phosphatidyl inositol bis phosphate in human myelin membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulias, C.; Moscarello, M.A. (Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario (Canada))

    1989-07-14

    Phosphodiesterase activity was stimulated in myelin membranes in the presence of guanine nucleotide analogues. This activity was reduced in myelin membranes which had been adenosine diphosphate ribosylated in the presence of cholera toxin which ADP-ribosylated three proteins of Mr 46,000, 43,000 and 18,500. Aluminum fluoride treatment of myelin had the same stimulatory effects on phosphodiesterase activity as did the guanine nucleotides.

  20. Antibodies to native myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein are serologic markers of early inflammation in multiple sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Lalive, Patrice H; Menge, Til; Delarasse, Cecile; Della Gaspera, Bruno; Pham-Dinh, Danielle; Villoslada, Pablo; von Büdingen, H.-C.; Genain , Claude P

    2006-01-01

    Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) is an integral membrane protein expressed in CNS oligodendrocytes and outermost myelin lamellae. Anti-MOG Abs cause myelin destruction (demyelination) in animal models of multiple sclerosis (MS); however, such pathogenic Abs have not yet been characterized in humans. Here, a method that specifically detects IgG binding to human MOG in its native, membrane-embedded conformation on MOG-transfected mammalian cells was used to evaluate the significance of...

  1. Identification of a pathogenic antibody response to native myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein in multiple sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Dun; Srivastava, Rajneesh; Nessler, Stefan; Grummel, Verena; Sommer, Norbert; Brück, Wolfgang; Hartung, Hans-Peter; Stadelmann, Christine; Hemmer, Bernhard

    2006-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system. Although the cause of MS is still uncertain, many findings point toward an ongoing autoimmune response to myelin antigens. Because of its location on the outer surface of the myelin sheath and its pathogenicity in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model, myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) is one of the potential disease-causing self antigens in MS. However, the role of MOG in the pathog...

  2. Sorting and trafficking of proteins in oligodendrocytes during myelin membrane biogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Klunder, Lammert,

    2007-01-01

    During myelin formation OLGs may utilize basic mechanisms of epithelial membrane trafficking, as described and summarized in the introductory chapter (Chapter 1). However, whether specific transport pathways, unique to myelin biogenesis are involved and how such pathways might be regulated in biogenesis and maintenance of the myelin sheath, is largely unexplored. Such insight is of major relevance for devising strategies for exogenous manipulation to stimulate and/or promote de novo biogen...

  3. Assessing white matter ischemic damage in dementia patients by measurement of myelin proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Barker, Rachel; Wellington, Dannielle; Esiri, Margaret M; Love, Seth

    2013-01-01

    White matter ischemia is difficult to quantify histologically. Myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) is highly susceptible to ischemia, being expressed only adaxonally, far from the oligodendrocyte cell body. Myelin-basic protein (MBP) and proteolipid protein (PLP) are expressed throughout the myelin sheath. We compared MAG, MBP, and PLP levels in parietal white matter homogenates from 17 vascular dementia (VaD), 49 Alzheimer's disease (AD), and 33 control brains, after assessing the post-mort...

  4. Central myelin gene expression during postnatal development in rats exposed to nicotine gestationally

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Junran; Dwyer, Jennifer B.; Gautier, Nicole M.; LESLIE, FRANCES M.; Li, Ming D

    2013-01-01

    Abnormal myelin gene expression in the central nervous system (CNS) is associated with many mental illnesses, including psychiatric disorders and drug addiction. We have previously shown that prenatal exposure to nicotine, the major psychoactive component in cigarette smoke, alters myelin gene expression in the CNS of adolescent rats. To examine whether this effect is specific for adolescents, we examined myelin gene expression in the CNS of juveniles and adults. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats ...

  5. Exercise Decreases Myelin-Associated Glycoprotein Expression in the Spinal Cord and Positively Modulates Neuronal Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Ghiani, Cristina A.; Ying, Zhe; de Vellis, Jean; GOMEZ-PINILLA, FERNANDO

    2007-01-01

    To successfully grow, neurons need to overcome the effects of hostile environments, such as the inhibitory action of myelin. We have evaluated the potential of exercise to overcome the intrinsic limitation of the central nervous system for axonal growth. In line with the demonstrated ability of exercise to increase the regenerative potential of neurons, here we show that exercise reduces the inhibitory capacity of myelin. Cortical neurons grown on myelin from exercised rats showed a more pron...

  6. Functional organization of an Mbp enhancer exposes striking transcriptional regulatory diversity within myelinating glia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dionne, Nancy; Dib, Samar; Finsen, Bente; Denarier, Eric; Kuhlmann, Tanja; Drouin, Régen; Kokoeva, Maia; Hudson, Thomas J; Siminovitch, Kathy; Friedman, Hana C; Peterson, Alan C

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, large caliber axons are ensheathed by myelin, a glial specialization supporting axon integrity and conferring accelerated and energy-efficient action potential conduction. Myelin basic protein (MBP) is required for normal myelin elaboration with maximal mbp transcription in oligodendrocytes requiring the upstream M3 enhancer. To further characterize the mechanism regulating mbp transcription, we defined M3 structure/function relationships by evaluating its evolutionary conservation, ...

  7. Dicer in Schwann cells is required for myelination and axonal integrity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, Jorge A.; Baumann, Reto; Norrmén, Camilla; Somandin, Christian; Miehe, Michaela; Jacob, Claire; Lühmann, Tessa; Hall-Bozic, Heike; Mantei, Ned; Meijer, Dies; Suter, Ueli

    2010-01-01

    Dicer is responsible for the generation of mature micro-RNAs (miRNAs) and loading them into RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). RISC functions as a probe that targets mRNAs leading to translational suppression and mRNA degradation. Schwann cells (SCs) in the peripheral nervous system undergo...... promyelinating stage and fail to start forming myelin. At the molecular level, the promyelinating transcription factor Krox20 and several myelin proteins [including myelin associated glycoprotein (MAG) and PMP22] were strongly reduced in mutant sciatic nerves. In contrast, the myelination inhibitors SOX2, Notch1...

  8. Endogenous phosphorylation of basic protein in myelin of varying degrees of compaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fractions containing myelin of varying degrees of compaction were prepared from human white matter. Protein kinase activity in these fractions was measured by using both endogenous and exogenous myelin basic protein (MBP) as substrates. In both cases, less compact myelin fractions possessed higher levels of protein kinase activity than the compact myelin fraction. In addition, the specific activity of phosphorylated basic protein was greater in the loosely compacted fractions than in compact multilamellar myelin. When basic protein in compact myelin or the myelin fractions was phosphorylated by the endogenous kinase, approximately 70% of the [32P]phosphate was incorporated at a single site, identified as Ser-102. The remaining 30% was found in three other minor sites. Electron microscopy of less compact myelin showed it was composed of fewer lamellae which correlated with a relative decrease in the proportion of cationic charge isomers (microheteromers) when MBP was subjected to gel electrophoresis at alkaline pH. The shift in charge microheterogeneity of basic protein to the less cationic isomers in the less compact myelin fractions correlated with an increase in protein kinase activity and a greater specific activity of phosphorylated basic protein

  9. Leptogenesis from split fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a new type of leptogenesis mechanism based on a two-scalar split-fermions framework. At high temperatures the bulk scalar vacuum expectation values (VEVs) vanish and lepton number is strongly violated. Below some temperature, Tc, the scalars develop extra dimension dependent VEVs. This transition is assumed to proceed via a first order phase transition. In the broken phase the fermions are localized and lepton number violation is negligible. The lepton-bulk scalar Yukawa couplings contain sizable CP phases which induce lepton production near the interface between the two phases. We provide a qualitative estimation of the resultant baryon asymmetry which agrees with current observation. The neutrino flavor parameters are accounted for by the above model with an additional approximate U(1) symmetry

  10. Leptogenesis from split fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagatani, Yukinori; Perez, Gilad

    2004-01-11

    We present a new type of leptogenesis mechanism based on a two-scalar split-fermions framework. At high temperatures the bulk scalar vacuum expectation values (VEVs) vanish and lepton number is strongly violated. Below some temperature, T{sub c}, the scalars develop extra dimension dependent VEVs. This transition is assumed to proceed via a first order phase transition. In the broken phase the fermions are localized and lepton number violation is negligible. The lepton-bulk scalar Yukawa couplings contain sizable CP phases which induce lepton production near the interface between the two phases. We provide a qualitative estimation of the resultant baryon asymmetry which agrees with current observation. The neutrino flavor parameters are accounted for by the above model with an additional approximate U(1) symmetry.

  11. Split families unified

    CERN Document Server

    Craig, Nathaniel; Gherghetta, Tony

    2012-01-01

    We present a simple supersymmetric model of split families consistent with flavor limits that preserves the successful prediction of gauge coupling unification and naturally accounts for the Higgs mass. The model provides an intricate connection between the Standard Model flavor hierarchy, supersymmetric flavor problem, unification and the Higgs mass. In particular unification favors a naturally large Higgs mass from D-term corrections to the quartic couplings in the Higgs potential. The unification scale is lowered with a stable proton that can account for the success of b-tau Yukawa coupling unification. The sparticle spectrum is similar to that of natural supersymmetry, as motivated by the supersymmetric flavor problem and recent LHC bounds, with a heavy scalar particle spectrum except for a moderately light stop required for viable electroweak symmetry breaking. Finally, Higgs production and decays, NLSP decays, and new states associated with extending the Standard Model gauge group above the TeV scale pr...

  12. Fuel pin bundle splitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The patent describes the splitting of a bundle of nuclear fuel pins into smaller bundles, during the dismantling of a fuel element, in preparation for the reprocessing of the spent fuel. The size of the small bundles are such that they are suitable for cropping in an easily maintainable shearing machine. The cropping of fuel pins into short sections exposes the irradiated fuel to be reprocessed. The invention involves feeding a number of blades into the exposed end of a fuel pin bundle. The bundle is forced out of the containing sheath by a ram, and the fuel pins are forced to pass either side of theblades, there by the bundle is sorted into a number of smaller bundles. (U.K.)

  13. Syndrome of myelinated retinal nerve fibres, myopia, amblyopia and strabismus in a Nigerian

    OpenAIRE

    Osaguona, Vivian B.; Uhumwangho, Odarosa M.

    2014-01-01

    Myelinated retinal nerve fibres (MRNF) are rare congenital anomalies. They may present in a syndrome characterised by ipsilateral myelinated retinal nerve fibres, myopia and amblyopia. We report a case of this rare condition with unilateral extensive MRNF, axial myopia, amblyopia and strabismus in a Nigerian girl.

  14. The effects of normal aging on myelinated nerve fibers in monkey central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Peters

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of aging on myelinated nerve fibers of the central nervous system are complex. Many myelinated nerve fibers in white matter degenerate and are lost, leading to some disconnections between various parts of the central nervous system. Other myelinated nerve fibers are affected differently, because only their sheaths degenerate, leaving the axons intact. Such axons are remyelinated by a series of internodes that are much shorter than the original ones and are composed of thinner sheaths. Thus the myelin-forming cells of the central nervous system, the oligodendrocytes, remain active during aging. Indeed, not only do these neuroglial cell remyelinate axons, with age they also continue to add lamellae to the myelin sheaths of intact nerve fibers, so that sheaths become thicker. It is presumed that the degeneration of myelin sheaths is due to the degeneration of the parent oligodendrocyte, and that the production of increased numbers of internodes as a consequence of remyelination requires additional oligodendrocytes. Whether there is a turnover of oligodendrocytes during life has not been studied in primates, but it has been established that over the life span of the monkey, there is a substantial increase in the numbers of oligodendrocytes. While the loss of some myelinated nerve fibers leads to some disconnections, the degeneration of other myelin sheaths and the subsequent remyelination of axons by shorter internodes slow down the rate conduction along nerve fibers. These changes affect the integrity and timing in neuronal circuits, and there is evidence that they contribute to cognitive decline.

  15. Demyelination induces the decline of the myelinated fiber length in aged rat white matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Chen; Yang, Shu; Zhang, Wei; Lu, Wei; Nyengaard, Jens R; Morrison, John H; Tang, Yong

    2009-01-01

    formed from the demyelination of the myelinated fibers could not replenish the age-related loss of the unmyelinated fibers in the white matter. In conclusion, this study suggested that demyelination of myelinated fibers with small diameters in aged white matter might be the key mechanism of the...

  16. Preliminary Evidence of Increased Hippocampal Myelin Content in Veterans with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda L Chao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent findings suggest the formation of myelin in the central nervous system by oligodendrocytes is a continuous process that can be modified with experience. For example, a recent study showed that immobilization stress increased oligodendrogensis in the dentate gyrus of adult rat hippocampus. Because changes in myelination represents an adaptive form of brain plasticity that has a greater reach in the adult brain than other forms of plasticity (e.g., neurogenesis, the objective of this “proof of concept” study was to examine whether there are differences in myelination in the hippocampi of humans with and without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. We used the ratio of T1-weighted/T2-weighted magnetic resonance image (MRI intensity to estimate the degree of hippocampal myelination in 19 male veterans with PTSD and 19 matched trauma-exposed male veterans without PTSD (mean age: 43 +12 years. We found that veterans with PTSD had significantly more hippocampal myelin than trauma-exposed controls. There was also found a positive correlation between estimates of hippocampal myelination and PTSD and depressive symptom severity. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine hippocampal myelination in humans with PTSD. These results provide preliminary evidence for stress-induced hippocampal myelin formation as a potential mechanism underlying the brain abnormalities associated with vulnerability to stress.

  17. Myelin/oligodendrocyte glycoprotein is a member of a subset of the immunoglobulin superfamily encoded within the major histocompatibility complex.

    OpenAIRE

    Pham-Dinh, D.; MATTEI, M. G.; Nussbaum, J L; Roussel, G.; Pontarotti, P.; Roeckel, N; Mather, I H; Artzt, K; Lindahl, K F; Dautigny, A.

    1993-01-01

    Myelin/oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) is found on the surface of myelinating oligodendrocytes and external lamellae of myelin sheaths in the central nervous system, and it is a target antigen in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis. We have isolated bovine, mouse, and rat MOG cDNA clones and shown that the developmental pattern of MOG expression in the rat central nervous system coincides with the late stages of myelination. The amino-terminal, extracellular do...

  18. Ultrastructural Alterations of Myelinated Fibers and Oligodendrocytes in the Prefrontal Cortex in Schizophrenia: A Postmortem Morphometric Study

    OpenAIRE

    Diana D. Orlovskaya; Rachmanova, Valentina I.; Vikhreva, Olga V.; Uranova, Natalya A.

    2011-01-01

    Schizophrenia is believed to result from altered neuronal connectivity and impaired myelination. However, there are few direct evidence for myelin abnormalities in schizophrenia. We performed electron microscopic study of myelinated fibers and oligodendrocytes and morphometric study of myelinated fibers in the prefrontal cortex in gray and white matters in schizophrenia and normal controls. Six types of abnormal fibers and ultrastructural alterations of oligodendrocytes were found in schizoph...

  19. Severe hypomyelination of the murine CNS in the absence of myelin-associated glycoprotein and fyn tyrosine kinase.

    OpenAIRE

    Biffiger, K; Bartsch, S.; Montag, D; Aguzzi, A.; Schachner, M.; Bartsch, U

    2000-01-01

    The analysis of mice deficient in the myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) or Fyn, a nonreceptor-type tyrosine kinase proposed to act as a signaling molecule downstream of MAG, has revealed that both molecules are involved in the initiation of myelination. To obtain more insights into the role of the MAG-Fyn signaling pathway during initiation of myelination and formation of morphologically intact myelin sheaths, we have analyzed optic nerves of MAG-, Fyn- and MAG/Fyn-deficient mice. We obser...

  20. Japanese neuropathy patients with peripheral myelin protein-22 gene aneuploidy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebo, R.V.; Li, L.Y.; Flandermeyer, R.R. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Peripheral myelin protein (PMP-22) gene aneuploidy results in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease Type 1A (CMT1A) and the Hereditary Neuropathy with Liability to Pressure Palsy (HNPP) in Japanese patients as well as Caucasian Americans. Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT), the most common genetic neuropathy, results when expression of one of at least seven genes is defective. CMT1A, about half of all CMT mutations, is usually associated with a duplication spanning the peripheral myelin protein-22 gene on distal chromosome band 17p11.2. Autosomal dominant HNPP (hereditary pressure and sensory neuropathy, HPSN) results from a deletion of the CMT1A gene region. Multicolor in situ hybridization with PMP-22 gene region probe characterized HNPP deletion reliably and detected all different size duplications reported previously. In summary, 72% of 28 Japanese CMT1 (HMSNI) patients tested had the CMT1A duplication, while none of the CMT2 (HMSNII) or CMT3 (HMSNIII) patients had a duplication. Three cases of HNPP were identified by deletion of the CMT1A gene region on chromosome 17p. HNPP and CMT1A have been reported to result simultaneously from the same unequal recombination event. The lower frequency of HNPP compared to CMT1A suggests that HNPP patients have a lower reproductive fitness than CMT1A patients. This result, along with a CMT1A duplication found in an Asian Indian family, demonstrates the broad geographic distribution and high frequency of PMP-22 gene aneuploidy.

  1. Myelin-associated Glycoprotein gene and brain morphometry in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JamesKennedy

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Myelin and oligodendrocyte disruption may be a core feature of schizophrenia pathophysiology. The purpose of the present study was to localize the effects of previously identified risk variants in the myelin associated glycoprotein gene on brain morphometry in schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. 45 schizophrenia patients and 47 matched healthy controls underwent clinical, structural magnetic resonance imaging, and genetics procedures. Gray and white matter cortical lobe volumes along with subcortical structure volumes were calculated from T1-weighted MRI scans. Each subject was also genotyped for the two disease-associated MAG single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs720308 and rs720309. Repeated measures general linear model analysis found significant region by genotype and region by diagnosis interactions for the effects of MAG risk variants on lobar gray matter volumes. No significant associations were found with lobar white matter volumes or subcortical structure volumes. Follow-up univariate general linear models found the AA genotype of rs720308 predisposed schizophrenia patients to left temporal and parietal gray matter volume deficits. These results suggest that the effects of the MAG gene on cortical gray matter volume in schizophrenia patients can be localized to temporal and parietal cortices. Our results support a role for MAG gene variation in brain morphometry in schizophrenia, align with other lines of evidence implicating MAG in schizophrenia, and provide genetically-based insight into the heterogeneity of brain imaging findings in this disorder.

  2. Functional organization of an Mbp enhancer exposes striking transcriptional regulatory diversity within myelinating glia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dionne, Nancy; Dib, Samar

    2015-01-01

    In mammals, large caliber axons are ensheathed by myelin, a glial specialization supporting axon integrity and conferring accelerated and energy-efficient action potential conduction. Myelin basic protein (MBP) is required for normal myelin elaboration with maximal mbp transcription in oligodendrocytes requiring the upstream M3 enhancer. To further characterize the mechanism regulating mbp transcription, we defined M3 structure/function relationships by evaluating its evolutionary conservation, DNA footprints and the developmental programing conferred in mice by M3 derivatives. Multiple M3 regulatory element combinations were found to drive expression in oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells with a minimal 129 bp sequence conferring expression in oligodendrocytes throughout myelin elaboration, maintenance and repair. Unexpectedly, M3 derivatives conferred markedly different spatial and temporal expression programs thus illuminating striking transcriptional heterogeneity within post-mitotic oligodendrocytes. Finally, one M3 derivative engaged only during primary myelination, not during adult remyelination, demonstrating that transcriptional regulation in the two states is not equivalent. GLIA 2015.

  3. A quantitative measure of myelination development in infants, using MR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to measure myelination of frontal lobe changes in infants and young children. Twenty-four cases of infants and children (age range 12-121 months) were evaluated by a quantitative assessment of T2-weighted MR image features. Reliable quantitative changes between white and gray matter correlated with developmental age in a group of children with no neurological findings. Myelination appears to be an increasing exponential function with the greatest rate of change occurring over the first 3 years of life. The quantitative changes observed were in accordance with previous qualitative judgments of myelination development. Children with periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) showed delays in achieving levels of myelination when compared to normal children and adjusted for chronological age. The quantitative measure of myelination development may prove to be useful in assessing the stages of development and helpful in the quantitative descriptions of white matter disorders such as PVL. (orig.)

  4. Contribution of axonal transport to the renewal of myelin phospholipids in peripheral nerves. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinetics of phospholipid constituents transferred from the axon to the myelin sheath were studied in the oculomotor nerve (OMN) and the ciliary ganglion (CG) of chicken. Axons of the OMN were loaded with transported phospholipids after an intracerebral injection of [2-3H]glycerol or [3H]labeled choline. Quantitative electron microscope radioautography revealed that labeled lipids were transported in the axons mainly associated with the smooth endoplasmic reticulum. Simultaneously, the labeling of the myelin sheath was found in the Schmidt-Lanterman clefts and the inner myelin layers. The outer Schwann cell cytoplasm and the outer myelin layers contained some label with [methyl-3H]choline, but virtually none with [2-3H]glycerol. With time the radioactive lipids were redistributed throughout and along the whole myelin sheath. (Auth.)

  5. Split-ball resonator

    CERN Document Server

    Kuznetsov, Arseniy I; Fu, Yuan Hsing; Viswanathan, Vignesh; Rahmani, Mohsen; Valuckas, Vytautas; Kivshar, Yuri; Pickard, Daniel S; Lukiyanchuk, Boris

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a new concept of split-ball resonator and demonstrate a strong omnidirectional magnetic dipole response for both gold and silver spherical plasmonic nanoparticles with nanometer-scale cuts. Tunability of the magnetic dipole resonance throughout the visible spectral range is demonstrated by a change of the depth and width of the nanoscale cut. We realize this novel concept experimentally by employing the laser-induced transfer method to produce near-perfect spheres and helium ion beam milling to make cuts with the nanometer resolution. Due to high quality of the spherical particle shape, governed by strong surface tension forces during the laser transfer process, and the clean, straight side walls of the cut made by helium ion milling, magnetic resonance is observed at 600 nm in gold and at 565 nm in silver nanoparticles. Structuring arbitrary features on the surface of ideal spherical resonators with nanoscale dimensions provides new ways of engineering hybrid resonant modes and ultra-high near-f...

  6. Dipole Splitting Algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Hasegawa, K

    2014-01-01

    The Catani-Seymour dipole subtraction is a general and powerful procedure to calculate the QCD next-to-leading order corrections for collider observables. We clearly define a practical algorithm to use the dipole subtraction. The algorithm is named as the Dipole Splitting Algorithm (DSA). The DSA is applied to arbitrary process by following the well defined steps. The results of the created subtraction terms can be summarized in a compact form at tables. We give a template for the summary tables. One advantage of the DSA is to allow the straightforward proof of the consistency of the created subtraction terms. The proof algorithm is presented in the accompany paper. We demonstrate the DSA at two example processes, $pp \\to \\mu^{-}\\mu^{+}$ and $pp \\to 2\\,jets$. Further as a confirmation of the DSA it is shown that the analytical results obtained by the DSA at the Drell-Yan process exactly agree with the well-known results by the traditional method.

  7. Split-illumination electron holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We developed a split-illumination electron holography that uses an electron biprism in the illuminating system and two biprisms (applicable to one biprism) in the imaging system, enabling holographic interference micrographs of regions far from the sample edge to be obtained. Using a condenser biprism, we split an electron wave into two coherent electron waves: one wave is to illuminate an observation area far from the sample edge in the sample plane and the other wave to pass through a vacuum space outside the sample. The split-illumination holography has the potential to greatly expand the breadth of applications of electron holography.

  8. Translation of myelin basic protein mRNA in oligodendrocytes is regulated by integrin activation and hnRNP-K

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Lisbeth Schmidt; Chan, Colin W; ffrench-Constant, Charles

    2011-01-01

    translation of a key sheath protein, myelin basic protein (MBP), by reversing the inhibitory effect of the mRNA 3?UTR. During oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination ?6?1-integrin interacts with hnRNP-K, an mRNA-binding protein, which binds to MBP mRNA and translocates from the nucleus to the myelin...... sheath. Furthermore, knockdown of hnRNP-K inhibits MBP protein synthesis during myelination. Together, these results identify a novel pathway by which axoglial adhesion molecules coordinate MBP synthesis with myelin sheath formation...

  9. ISR split-field magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    The experimental apparatus used at intersection 4 around the Split-Field Magnet by the CERN-Bologna Collaboration (experiment R406). The plastic scintillator telescopes are used for precise pulse-height and time-of-flight measurements.

  10. APPLICATION OF STEREOLOGICAL METHODS TO STUDY THE WHITE MATTER AND MYELINATED FIBERS THEREIN OF RAT BRAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Yang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available An efficient and unbiased stereological method was applied to estimate the white matter volume, the total volume, total length and mean diameter of the myelinated fibers in the white matter and the total volume of the myelin sheaths in the white matter of rat brain. The white matter volume was obtained with the Cavalieri principle. Four tissue blocks were sampled from the entire white matter in a uniform random fashion. The length density of the myelinated fibers in the white matter was obtained from the isotropic, uniform, random sections ensured by the isector. The volume density of the myelinated fibers in the white matter was estimated by point counting. The total length and the total volume of the myelinated fibers in the white matter were estimated by multiplying the white matter volume and the length density and the volume density of the myelinated fibers in the white matter, respectively. The size of nerve fibers was derived by measuring the profile diameter perpendicular to its longest axis. The results were satisfactory in the sense that the sampling variance introduced by the stereological estimation procedure was a minor fraction of the observed variance. The comparison of the white matter and the myelinated fibers in the white matter between rat brain and human brain was also made in the present study.

  11. STEREOLOGY OF NEURONAL CONNECTIONS (MYELINATED FIBERS OF WHITE MATTER AND SYNAPSES OF NEOCORTEX IN HUMAN BRAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Tang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Unbiased stereological sampling and counting techniques for estimating the total length, total volume and diameter distribution of myelinated nerve fibers in white matter and the total number of synapses in neocortex of human autopsy brains were described. Uniform random sampling of tissues from entire hemisphere was performed. The total volume and total length of myelinated fibers in white matter were estimated from the product of the volume of white matter obtained with the Cavalieri principle and the volume density and length density of myelinated fibers in white matter, respectively. The volume density of myelinated nerve fibers in white a matter was estimated with a point counting method. The length density of myelinated fibers in white matter was estimated from the isotropic, uniform random sections that were ensured by the sector. The diameter of myelinated fibers was derived by measuring the profile diameterperpendicular to its longest axis. The ethanolic phosphotungstic acid staining technique was modified for staining synapses in human autopsy brains. The total number of synapses in each neocortical region was estimated as the product of the volume of each neocortical region and the numerical density of synapses in each region. The numerical density of synapses in each neocortical region was obtained with the disector at the electron microscopical level. The presented methods will be useful for quantitative studies of the changes of myelinated nerve fibers and synapses in various distinct regions of the central nervous system due to development, aging and diseases.

  12. Single myelin fiber imaging in living rodents without labeling by deep optical coherence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Arous, Juliette; Binding, Jonas; Léger, Jean-François; Casado, Mariano; Topilko, Piotr; Gigan, Sylvain; Boccara, A Claude; Bourdieu, Laurent

    2011-11-01

    Myelin sheath disruption is responsible for multiple neuropathies in the central and peripheral nervous system. Myelin imaging has thus become an important diagnosis tool. However, in vivo imaging has been limited to either low-resolution techniques unable to resolve individual fibers or to low-penetration imaging of single fibers, which cannot provide quantitative information about large volumes of tissue, as required for diagnostic purposes. Here, we perform myelin imaging without labeling and at micron-scale resolution with >300-?m penetration depth on living rodents. This was achieved with a prototype [termed deep optical coherence microscopy (deep-OCM)] of a high-numerical aperture infrared full-field optical coherence microscope, which includes aberration correction for the compensation of refractive index mismatch and high-frame-rate interferometric measurements. We were able to measure the density of individual myelinated fibers in the rat cortex over a large volume of gray matter. In the peripheral nervous system, deep-OCM allows, after minor surgery, in situ imaging of single myelinated fibers over a large fraction of the sciatic nerve. This allows quantitative comparison of normal and Krox20 mutant mice, in which myelination in the peripheral nervous system is impaired. This opens promising perspectives for myelin chronic imaging in demyelinating diseases and for minimally invasive medical diagnosis. PMID:22112117

  13. Claudin-11 Tight Junctions in Myelin Are a Barrier to Diffusion and Lack Strong Adhesive Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denninger, Andrew R; Breglio, Andrew; Maheras, Kathleen J; LeDuc, Geraldine; Cristiglio, Viviana; Demé, Bruno; Gow, Alexander; Kirschner, Daniel A

    2015-10-01

    The radial component is a network of interlamellar tight junctions (TJs) unique to central nervous system myelin. Ablation of claudin-11, a TJ protein, results in the absence of the radial component and compromises the passive electrical properties of myelin. Although TJs are known to regulate paracellular diffusion, this barrier function has not been directly demonstrated for the radial component, and some evidence suggests that the radial component may also mediate adhesion between myelin membranes. To investigate the physical properties of claudin-11 TJs, we compared fresh, unfixed Claudin 11-null and control nerves using x-ray and neutron diffraction. In Claudin 11-null tissue, we detected no changes in myelin structure, stability, or membrane interactions, which argues against the notion that myelin TJs exhibit significant adhesive properties. Moreover, our osmotic stressing and D2O-H2O exchange experiments demonstrate that myelin lacking claudin-11 is more permeable to water and small osmolytes. Thus, our data indicate that the radial component serves primarily as a diffusion barrier and elucidate the mechanism by which TJs govern myelin function. PMID:26445439

  14. Advances in myelin imaging with potential clinical application to pediatric imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spader, Heather S; Ellermeier, Anna; O'Muircheartaigh, Jonathan; Dean, Douglas C; Dirks, Holly; Boxerman, Jerrold L; Cosgrove, G Rees; Deoni, Sean C L

    2013-04-01

    White matter development and myelination are critical processes in neurodevelopment. Myelinated white matter facilitates the rapid and coordinated brain messaging required for higher-order cognitive and behavioral processing. Whereas several neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis are associated with gross white matter damage and demyelination, other disorders such as epilepsy may involve altered myelination in the efferent or afferent white matter pathways adjoining epileptic foci. Current MRI techniques including T1 weighting, T2 weighting, FLAIR, diffusion tensor imaging, and MR spectroscopy permit visualization of gross white matter abnormalities and evaluation of underlying white matter fiber architecture and integrity, but they provide only qualitative information regarding myelin content. Quantification of these myelin changes could provide new insight into disease severity and prognosis, reveal information regarding spatial location of foci or lesions and the associated affected neural systems, and create a metric to evaluate treatment efficacy. Multicomponent analysis of T1 and T2 relaxation data, or multicomponent relaxometry (MCR), is a quantitative imaging technique that is sensitive and specific to myelin content alteration. In the past, MCR has been associated with lengthy imaging times, but a new, faster MCR technique (mcDESPOT) has made quantitative analysis of myelin content more accessible for clinical research applications. The authors briefly summarize traditional white matter imaging techniques, describe MCR and mcDESPOT, and discuss current and future clinical applications of MCR, with a particular focus on pediatric epilepsy. PMID:23544415

  15. Reduced Myelination and Increased Glia Reactivity Resulting from Severe Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barateiro, Andreia; Chen, Shujuan; Yueh, Mei-Fei; Fernandes, Adelaide; Domingues, Helena Sofia; Relvas, João; Barbier, Olivier; Nguyen, Nghia; Tukey, Robert H; Brites, Dora

    2016-01-01

    Bilirubin-induced neurologic dysfunction (BIND) and kernicterus has been used to describe moderate to severe neurologic dysfunction observed in children exposed to excessive levels of total serum bilirubin (TSB) during the neonatal period. Here we use a new mouse model that targets deletion of the Ugt1 locus and the Ugt1a1 gene in liver to promote hyperbilirubinemia-induced seizures and central nervous system toxicity. The accumulation of TSB in these mice leads to diffuse yellow coloration of brain tissue and a marked cerebellar hypoplasia that we characterize as kernicterus. Histologic studies of brain tissue demonstrate that the onset of severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, characterized by seizures, leads to alterations in myelination and glia reactivity. Kernicterus presents as axonopathy with myelination deficits at different brain regions, including pons, medulla oblongata, and cerebellum. The excessive accumulation of TSB in the early neonatal period (5 days after birth) promotes activation of the myelin basic protein (Mbp) gene with an accelerated loss of MBP that correlates with a lack of myelin sheath formation. These changes were accompanied by increased astroglial and microglial reactivity, possibly as a response to myelination injury. Interestingly, cerebellum was the area most affected, with greater myelination impairment and glia burden, and showing a marked loss of Purkinje cells and reduced arborization of the remaining ones. Thus, kernicterus in this model displays not only axonal damage but also myelination deficits and glial activation in different brain regions that are usually related to the neurologic sequelae observed after severe hyperbilirubinemia. PMID:26480925

  16. Mobilization of endogenous neural stem cells for myelin repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Cayre

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In the adult brain, a pool of neural stem cells resides in the subventricular zone (SVZ, including oligodendrocyte progenitors. One strategy to enhance myelin repair properties of SVZ progenitors is to control their migration behaviour and to favour their exit from the rostral migratory stream (RMS leading them to the olfactory bulb (OB. We evidenced that SVZ progenitors grafted in white matter tracts of the intact adult forebrain can migrate along them and give rise efficiently to myelinating oligodendrocytes. Thus, one limiting step in the repair process seems to be the capacity of progenitors to exit the RMS, which we attempted to overcome by several approaches. We first demonstrated that environmental enrichment associated with physical exercise promotes SVZ cell mobilization in the context of demyelinating lesions. Among candidate neurotrophin mediators, we focused on EGF and showed that intranasal HB-EGF administration, which robustly stimulates neural progenitor cell proliferation, promotes SVZ cell recruitment towards demyelinated lesions as well, but commits SVZ-recruited cells toward an astroglial phenotype. Then we targeted molecules that modulate the migration of SVZ progenitor cells such as the intrinsic glycoprotein Reelin. Using grafts of SVZ progenitors engineered to produce Reelin, we showed that ectopic expression of Reelin in the corpus callosum increased migration of SVZ and RMS progenitors toward periventricular structures. In vitro, Reelin influences neuronal and astrocytic differentiation of cultured neural stem/progenitor cells. Finally, we used microarray analysis to decipher the mechanisms underlying the migration of SVZ progenitors to the subcortical white matter in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mice.

  17. PMP22 expression in dermal nerve myelin from patients with CMT1A

    OpenAIRE

    Katona, Istvan; Wu, Xingyao; Feely, Shawna M.E.; Sottile, Stephanie; Siskind, Carly E; Miller, Lindsey J; Shy, Michael E; LI, JUN

    2009-01-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A) is caused by a 1.4 Mb duplication on chromosome 17p11.2, which contains the peripheral myelin protein-22 (PMP22) gene. Increased levels of PMP22 in compact myelin of peripheral nerves have been demonstrated and presumed to cause the phenotype of CMT1A. The objective of the present study was to determine whether an extra copy of the PMP22 gene in CMT1A disrupts the normally coordinated expression of PMP22 protein in peripheral nerve myelin and to eva...

  18. Memory cells specific for myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) transfer experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis1

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Jessica L.; Kithcart, Aaron P; Smith, Kristen M.; Shawler, Todd; Cox, Gina M.; Caroline C. Whitacre

    2011-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory disease of the CNS mediated by CD4+ T cells directed against myelin antigens. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is induced by immunization with myelin antigens like myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG). We have explored transfer of EAE using MOG35-55-specific TCR transgenic (2D2) T cells. Unsorted 2D2 Th1 cells reliably transferred EAE. Further, we found that CD44hiCD62Llo effector/memory CD4+ T cells are likely responsible for dis...

  19. Delayed myelination in a rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata case: MR spectroscopy findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkan, Alpay; Kutlu, Ramazan; Yakinci, Cengiz; Sigirci, Ahmet; Aslan, Mehmet; Sarac, Kaya

    2003-01-01

    Rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata is a member of genetic peroxisomal disorders. Delayed myelination, which is probably related to the inadequacy of plasmalogens biosynthesis, is an important feature of this disorder. Direct assessment of neuropathologic aspects of RCDP syndrome such as neuronal degeneration and delayed myelination is possible with MR spectroscopy. In this report, MR spectroscopy findings (decreased Cho/Cr and increased Ins-Gly/Cr ratios and increased levels of mobile lipids) of a rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata case supporting delayed myelination are presented. This is the second report of MR spectroscopy examination of the specific brain metabolic changes associated with rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata. PMID:12620550

  20. Charge Isomers of Myelin Basic Protein: Structure and Interactions with Membranes, Nucleotide Analogues, and Calmodulin

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Chaozhan; Neugebauer, Ute; Bürck, Jochen; Myllykoski, Matti; Baumgärtel, Peter; Popp, Jürgen; Kursula, Petri

    2011-01-01

    As an essential structural protein required for tight compaction of the central nervous system myelin sheath, myelin basic protein (MBP) is one of the candidate autoantigens of the human inflammatory demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis, which is characterized by the active degradation of the myelin sheath. In this work, recombinant murine analogues of the natural C1 and C8 charge components (rmC1 and rmC8), two isoforms of the classic 18.5-kDa MBP, were used as model proteins to get insi...

  1. Focally folded myelin in Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy type 1B with Ser49Leu in the myelin protein zero.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrizi, G M; Taioli, F; Cavallaro, T; Rigatelli, F; Simonati, A; Mariani, G; Perrone, P; Rizzuto, N

    2000-09-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1 B (CMT1B) is a demyelinating neuropathy caused by mutations in the myelin protein zero (P0) gene (MPZ). A few cases of CMT1B were recently found to be characterized by focally folded myelin sheaths in nerve biopsy specimens; the significance of this association is unknown. Here, we describe two unrelated pedigrees harboring a heterozygous Ser49Leu substitution in P0ex. In both pedigrees, the mutation caused a late-onset, relatively mild CMT1B; in one pedigree, two patients had atrophy of peroneal muscles but hypertrophy of the gastrocnemius muscles. The sural nerve biopsy performed in the two index cases revealed an identical chronic demyelinating and remyelinating neuropathy dominated by focal foldings of the myelin sheath shaped either as tomacula or as out/infoldings. The report adds Ser49Leu to the mutations of P0ex associated with focally folded myelin and provides strong evidence that such a structural alteration of the myelin sheath reflects a distinct pathogenetic mechanism in a subgroup of CMT1B. PMID:10965800

  2. Focally folded myelin in Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1B disease is associated with Asn131Lys mutation in myelin protein zero gene: short report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocha?ski, A; Drac, H; Jedrzejowska, H; Hausmanowa-Petrusewicz, I

    2003-09-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1B (CMT1B) is a demyelinating neuropathy inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. The majority of CMT1B cases are caused by mutations in the myelin protein zero (P0) gene (MPZ). Only a few mutations in MPZ gene have been reported to be associated with focally folded myelin sheaths. We have studied five patients from one family with five generations, affected by CMT1B disease. The morphological studies of sural nerve biopsy performed in the proband revealed fibers with focally folded myelin. DNA sequencing analysis showed the Asn131Lys mutation in the MPZ gene in three members of the affected family. PMID:12940837

  3. Normal expression of myelin protein zero with frame-shift mutation correlates with mild phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steck, Andreas J; Erne, Beat; Pareyson, Davide; Sghirlanzoni, Angelo; Taroni, Franco; Schaeren-Wiemers, Nicole

    2006-03-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding for myelin protein zero (MPZ) cause inherited demyelinating peripheral neuropathies of different severity. The molecular and cellular mechanisms by which the MPZ mutations cause neuropathy are incompletely understood. We investigated MPZ, myelin basic protein, and peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) protein expression levels in a nerve biopsy of a Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1B patient heterozygous for the Val 102 frame-shift mutation. We demonstrate by quantitative immunohistochemical as well as by Western blot analyses that MPZ expression levels were not reduced in myelin membranes, a finding that is in accordance with the mild phenotype of this patient. Our data show that heterozygous 'loss-of-function' of MPZ may not necessarily lead to reduced protein levels. In conclusion, we demonstrate that careful analysis of protein expression levels in peripheral nerve tissues provides important information with respect to the understanding of the molecular basis of these neuropathies. PMID:16519783

  4. Brain and cord myelin water imaging: a progressive multiple sclerosis biomarker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Kolind

    2015-01-01

    Interpretation: In this study we demonstrated that mcDESPOT can be used to measure myelin and atrophy in the brain and spinal cord. Results correlate well with clinical disability scores in PPMS representing cognitive, fine motor and ambulatory disability.

  5. Lesioned corticospinal tract axons regenerate in myelin-free rat spinal cord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savio, T.; Schwab, M.E. (Univ. of Zurich (Switzerland))

    1990-06-01

    In the adult central nervous system (CNS) of higher vertebrates lesioned axons seemed unable to regenerate and reach their former target regions due to influences of the CNS microenvironment. Evidence from in vitro and biochemical experiments has demonstrated the presence of inhibitory substrate components in CNS tissue, in particular in white matter. These CNS components, which strongly inhibit neurite growth, were identified as minor membrane proteins of defined molecular mass (35 and 250 kDa) in oligodendrocyte membranes and CNS myelin. Oligodendrocyte development and myelin formation can be prevented by x-irradiation of newborn rats. Here we show that in myelin-free spinal cords cortico-spinal tract fibers transected at 2 weeks of age show reelongation of many millimeters within 2-3 weeks after the lesion. In normally myelinated controls, regenerative sprouts grew less than 1.7 mm caudal to the lesion.

  6. The MR evaluation of normal children and disorders of neuronal migration and myelination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were available for review in 10 healthy children (aged one month-4 years) and 5 pediatric patients with disorders of neuronal migration and myelination during the developing process (aged 2-10 years). Such disorders in the 5 patients were megalencephaly, pachygyria, heterotopia, delayed myelination, and dysmyelinating disease. In the heathy group, myelination was matured during the first two years on MRI. This was depicted earlier on T1-weighted images than T2-weighted images (7 months vs one year and 9 months after birth). Abnormality in myelination was clearly visualized on T2-weighted images. Furthermore, MRI had the ability to detect morphologically the associated brain malformations. Thus, MRI may be a promising diagnostic procedure of choice in pediatric brain abnormality. (N.K.)

  7. Neutron scattering studies on protein dynamics using the human myelin peripheral membrane protein P2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laulumaa, Saara; Kursula, Petri; Natali, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Myelin is a multilayered proteolipid membrane structure surrounding selected axons in the vertebrate nervous system, which allows the rapid saltatory conduction of nerve impulses. Deficits in myelin formation and maintenance may lead to chronic neurological disease. P2 is an abundant myelin protein from peripheral nerves, binding between two apposing lipid bilayers. We studied the dynamics of the human myelin protein P2 and its mutated P38G variant in hydrated powders using elastic incoherent neutron scattering. The local harmonic vibrations at low temperatures were very similar for both samples, but the mutant protein had increased flexibility and softness close to physiological temperatures. The results indicate that a drastic mutation of proline to glycine at a functional site can affect protein dynamics, and in the case of P2, they may explain functional differences between the two proteins.

  8. Structure and stability of internodal myelin in mouse models of hereditary neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Robin L; Inouye, Hideyo; Baek, Rena C; Yin, Xinghua; Trapp, Bruce D; Feltri, M Laura; Wrabetz, Lawrence; Kirschner, Daniel A

    2005-11-01

    Peripheral neuropathies often result in abnormalities in the structure of internodal myelin, including changes in period and membrane packing, as observed by electron microscopy (EM). Mutations in the gene that encodes the major adhesive structural protein of internodal myelin in the peripheral nervous system of humans and mice--P0 glycoprotein--correlate with these defects. The mechanisms by which P0 mutations interfere with myelin packing and stability are not well understood and cannot be provided by EM studies that give static and qualitative information on fixed material. To gain insights into the pathogenesis of mutant P0, we used x-ray diffraction, which can detect more subtle and dynamic changes in native myelin, to investigate myelin structure in sciatic nerves from murine models of hereditary neuropathies. We used mice with disruption of one or both copies of the P0 gene (models of Charcot-Marie-Tooth-like neuropathy [CMT1B] or Dejerine-Sottas-like neuropathy) and mice with a CMT1B resulting from a transgene encoding P0 with an amino terminal myc-tag. To directly test the structural role of P0, we also examined a mouse that expresses P0 instead of proteolipid protein in central nervous system myelin. To link our findings on unfixed nerves with EM results, we analyzed x-ray patterns from unembedded, aldehyde-fixed nerves and from plastic-embedded nerves. From the x-ray patterns recorded from whole nerves, we assessed the amount of myelin and its quality (i.e. relative thickness and regularity). Among sciatic nerves having different levels of P0, we found that unfixed nerves and, to a lesser extent, fixed but unembedded nerves gave diffraction patterns of sufficient quality to distinguish periods, sometimes differing by a few Angstroms. Certain packing abnormalities were preserved qualitatively by aldehyde fixation, and the relative amount and structural integrity of myelin among nerves could be distinguished. Measurements from the same nerve over time showed that the amount of P0 affected myelin's stability against swelling, thus directly supporting the hypothesis that packing defects underlie instability in "live" or intact myelin. Our findings demonstrate that diffraction can provide a quantitative basis for understanding, at a molecular level, the membrane packing defects that occur in internodal myelin in demyelinating peripheral neuropathies. PMID:16254492

  9. Peripheral myelin protein 22 is a constituent of intercellular junctions in epithelia

    OpenAIRE

    Notterpek, Lucia; Roux, Kyle J.; Amici, Stephanie A.; Yazdanpour, Amy; Rahner, Christoph; Fletcher, Brad S.

    2001-01-01

    Alterations in peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) gene expression are associated with a host of heritable demyelinating peripheral neuropathies, yet the function of the protein remains unknown. PMP22 expression is highest in myelinating Schwann cells of peripheral nerves; however, significant levels of PMP22 mRNAs can be detected in a variety of non-neural tissue, including epithelia. To date, PMP22 protein expression and localization in non-neural tissues have not b...

  10. Peripheral Myelin Protein 22 is Regulated Post-Transcriptionally by miRNA-29a

    OpenAIRE

    Verrier, Jonathan D; Lau, Pierre; Hudson, Lynn; Murashov, Alexander K.; Renne, Rolf; Notterpek, Lucia

    2009-01-01

    Peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) is a dose-sensitive, disease-associated protein primarily expressed in myelinating Schwann cells. Either reduction or overproduction of PMP22 can result in hereditary neuropathy, suggesting a requirement for correct protein expression for peripheral nerve biology. PMP22 is post-transcriptionally regulated and the 3?untranslated region (3?UTR) of the gene exerts a negative effect on translation. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small regulatory molecules that functio...

  11. Differential aggregation of the Trembler and Trembler J mutants of peripheral myelin protein 22

    OpenAIRE

    Tobler, Andreas R.; Ning LIU; Mueller, Lukas; Shooter, Eric M.

    2001-01-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding the peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22), a tetraspan protein in compact peripheral myelin, are one of the causes of inherited demyelinating peripheral neuropathy. Most PMP22 mutations alter the trafficking of the PMP22 protein in Schwann cells, and this different trafficking has been proposed as the underlying mechanism of the disease. To explore this problem further, we compared the aggregation of wild-type Pmp22 with those of the t...

  12. Erythropoietin treatment alleviates ultrastructural myelin changes induced by murine cerebral malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hempel, Casper; Hyttel, Poul; Staalsø, Trine; Nyengaard, Jens Randel; Kurtzhals, Jørgen Al

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Cerebral malaria (CM) is a severe complication of malaria with considerable mortality. In addition to acute encephalopathy, survivors frequently suffer from neurological sequelae. The pathogenesis is incompletely understood, hampering the development of an effective...... for electron microscopy. Myelin sheaths in the corpus callosum were analysed with transmission electron microscopy and stereology. RESULTS: The infection caused clinical CM, which was counteracted by EPO. The total number of myelinated axons was identical in the four groups and mice with CM did not...

  13. Molecular characterization of antibody specificities against myelin/oligodendrocyte glycoprotein in autoimmune demyelination

    OpenAIRE

    von Büdingen, Hans-Christian; Hauser, Stephen L.; Fuhrmann, Antje; Nabavi, Cameron B.; Lee, Joy I.; Genain , Claude P

    2002-01-01

    Myelin/oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) is a target antigen for myelin-destructive Abs in autoimmune central nervous system demyelinating disorders. Little is known about the molecular and structural basis of these pathogenic Ab responses. Here, we have characterized anti-MOG Ab specificities in the marmoset model of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, by means of a combinatorial IgG-Fab library. We found that a diverse population of Ig genes encodes for auto-Abs that exclusively recog...

  14. Immunologische Kreuzreaktivität zwischen dem Myelin-Oligodendrozyten-Glykoprotein (MOG) und Butyrophilin (BTN) bei Multipler Sklerose

    OpenAIRE

    Guggenmos, Johannes

    2003-01-01

    The aetiology of multiple sclerosis (MS) is believed to involve environmental factors that disrupt self-tolerance to myelin autoantigens but their identity and mode of action are unknown. This study reports that the epitope specificity of autoantibodies to the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG), an important candidate autoantigen in MS, is heterogeneous and that MOG exhibits extensive immunological cross-reactivity with the bovine milk protein butyrophilin (BTN), an ubiquitous dietary ...

  15. CD4+ T cell responses to myelin autoantigens: activation, memory and tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Chen-Yen

    2009-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a CD4+ T cell mediated autoimmune disease of the central nervous system and shares many characteristics with multiple sclerosis (MS). Induction of EAE is mediated by myelin reactive CD4+ T helper (Th) cells, particularly Th1 and Th17 cells, which can be provoked by the immunization with myelin derived protein (or peptide) and Toll-like receptor (TLR) stimulus (eg, complete Freund¡s adjuvant, CFA). If given an injection of solub...

  16. Pathogenic myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies recognize glycosylated epitopes and perturb oligodendrocyte physiology

    OpenAIRE

    Marta, Cecilia B.; Oliver, Alfred R.; Sweet, Rebecca A.; Pfeiffer, Steven E.; Ruddle, Nancy H.

    2005-01-01

    Antibodies to myelin components are routinely detected in multiple sclerosis patients. However, their presence in some control subjects has made it difficult to determine their contribution to disease pathogenesis. Immunization of C57BL/6 mice with either rat or human myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) leads to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and comparable titers of anti-MOG antibodies as detected by ELISA. However, only immunization with human (but not rat) MOG result...

  17. Gpr126 Functions in Schwann Cells to Control Differentiation and Myelination via G-Protein Activation

    OpenAIRE

    Mogha, Amit; Benesh, Andrew E.; Patra, Chinmoy; Engel, Felix B.; Schöneberg, Torsten; Liebscher, Ines; Monk, Kelly R

    2013-01-01

    The myelin sheath surrounding axons ensures that nerve impulses travel quickly and efficiently, allowing for the proper function of the vertebrate nervous system. We previously showed that the adhesion G-protein-coupled receptor (aGPCR) Gpr126 is essential for peripheral nervous system myelination, although the molecular mechanisms by which Gpr126 functions were incompletely understood. aGPCRs are a significantly understudied protein class, and it was unknown whether Gpr126 couples to G-prote...

  18. Membrane interactions in nerve myelin: II. Determination of surface charge from biochemical data.

    OpenAIRE

    Inouye, H.; Kirschner, D. A.

    1988-01-01

    In our accompanying paper (Inouye and Kirschner, 1988) we calculated the surface charge density at the extracellular surfaces in peripheral and central nervous system (PNS; CNS) myelins from observations on the dependency of the width of the extracellular space on pH and ionic strength. Here, we have determined the surface charge density of the membrane surfaces in myelin from its chemical composition and the localization of some of its molecular components. We then analyzed the attractive an...

  19. Inhibition of Myelin Membrane Sheath Formation by Oligodendrocyte-derived Exosome-like Vesicles*

    OpenAIRE

    Bakhti, M.; Winter, C.; Simons, M.

    2010-01-01

    Myelin formation is a multistep process that is controlled by a number of different extracellular factors. During the development of the central nervous system (CNS), oligodendrocyte progenitor cells differentiate into mature oligodendrocytes that start to enwrap axons with myelin membrane sheaths after receiving the appropriate signal(s) from the axon or its microenvironment. The signals required to initiate this process are unknown. Here, we show that oligodendrocytes secrete small membrane...

  20. Complement receptor-3 negatively regulates the phagocytosis of degenerated myelin through tyrosine kinase Syk and cofilin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadas Smadar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intact myelin, which normally surrounds axons, breaks down in Wallerian degeneration following axonal injury and during neurodegenerative diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Clearance of degenerated myelin by phagocytosis is essential since myelin impedes repair and exacerbates damage. CR3 (complement receptor-3 is a principal phagocytic receptor in myelin phagocytosis. We studied how tyrosine kinase Syk (spleen tyrosine kinase and cofilin control phagocytosis of degenerated myelin by CR3 in microglia and macrophages. Syk is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase that CR3 recruits to convey cellular functions. Cofilin is an actin-depolymerizing protein that controls F-actin (filamentous actin remodeling (i.e., disassembly and reassembly by shifting between active unphosphorylated and inactive phosphorylated states. Results Syk was continuously activated during prolonged phagocytosis. Phagocytosis increased when Syk activity and expression were reduced, suggesting that normally Syk down regulates CR3-mediated myelin phagocytosis. Levels of inactive p-cofilin (phosphorylated cofilin decreased transiently during prolonged phagocytosis. In contrast, p-cofilin levels decreased continuously when Syk activity and expression were continuously reduced, suggesting that normally Syk advances the inactive state of cofilin. Observations also revealed inverse relationships between levels of phagocytosis and levels of inactive p-cofilin, suggesting that active unphosphorylated cofilin advances phagocytosis. Active cofilin could advance phagocytosis by promoting F-actin remodeling, which supports the production of membrane protrusions (e.g., filopodia, which, as we also revealed, are instrumental in myelin phagocytosis. Conclusions CR3 both activates and downregulates myelin phagocytosis at the same time. Activation was previously documented. We presently demonstrate that downregulation is mediated through Syk, which advances the inactive phosphorylated state of cofilin. Self-negative control of phagocytosis by the phagocytic receptor can be useful in protecting phagocytes from excessive phagocytosis (i.e., “overeating” during extended exposure to particles that are destined for ingestion.

  1. A novel method to study the local mitochondrial fusion in myelinated axons in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Chuan-Li; Rodenkirch, Lance; Schultz, Justin R; Chiu, Shing Yan

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial remodeling (replication, fission/fusion) is a dynamically regulated process with diverse functions in neurons. A myelinated axon is an extension from the cell soma of a fully differentiated neuron. Mitochondria, once synthesized in the cell body, enter the axon displaying robust trafficking and accumulation at nodes of Ranvier to match metabolic needs. This long-distance deployment of mitochondria to axons raises the issue of whether myelinated axons can function independently o...

  2. Split liver transplantation: What's unique?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, Aparna R

    2015-09-24

    The intraoperative management of split liver transplantation (SLT) has some unique features as compared to routine whole liver transplantations. Only the liver has this special ability to regenerate that confers benefits in survival and quality of life for two instead of one by splitting livers. Primary graft dysfunction may result from small for size syndrome. Graft weight to recipient body weight ratio is significant for both trisegmental and hemiliver grafts. Intraoperative surgical techniques aim to reduce portal hyperperfusion and decrease venous portal pressure. Ischemic preconditioning can be instituted to protect against ischemic reperfusion injury which impacts graft regeneration. Advancement of the technique of SLT is essential as use of split cadaveric grafts expands the donor pool and potentially has an excellent future. PMID:26421261

  3. Damage to Myelin and Oligodendrocytes: A Role in Chronic Outcomes Following Traumatic Brain Injury?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William L. Maxwell

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence in the experimental and clinical traumatic brain injury (TBI literature that loss of central myelinated nerve fibers continues over the chronic post-traumatic phase after injury. However, the biomechanism(s of continued loss of axons is obscure. Stretch-injury to optic nerve fibers in adult guinea-pigs was used to test the hypothesis that damage to the myelin sheath and oligodendrocytes of the optic nerve fibers may contribute to, or facilitate, the continuance of axonal loss. Myelin dislocations occur within internodal myelin of larger axons within 1–2 h of TBI. The myelin dislocations contain elevated levels of free calcium. The volume of myelin dislocations increase with greater survival and are associated with disruption of the axonal cytoskeleton leading to secondary axotomy. Waves of Ca2+ depolarization or spreading depression extend from the initial locus injury for perhaps hundreds of microns after TBI. As astrocytes and oligodendrocytes are connected via gap junctions, it is hypothesized that spreading depression results in depolarization of central glia, disrupt axonal ionic homeostasis, injure axonal mitochondria and allow the onset of axonal degeneration throughout an increasing volume of brain tissue; and contribute toward post-traumatic continued loss of white matter.

  4. Erythropoietin treatment alleviates ultrastructural myelin changes induced by murine cerebral malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hempel, Casper; Hyttel, Poul

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cerebral malaria (CM) is a severe complication of malaria with considerable mortality. In addition to acute encephalopathy, survivors frequently suffer from neurological sequelae. The pathogenesis is incompletely understood, hampering the development of an effective, adjunctive therapy, which is not available at present. Previously, erythropoietin (EPO) was reported to significantly improve the survival and outcome in a murine CM model. The study objectives were to assess myelin thickness and ultrastructural morphology in the corpus callosum in murine CM and to adress the effects of EPO treatment in this context. METHODS: The study consisted of two groups of Plasmodium berghei-infected mice and two groups of uninfected controls that were either treated with EPO or placebo (n?=?4 mice/group). In the terminal phase of murine CM the brains were removed and processed for electron microscopy. Myelin sheaths in the corpus callosum were analysed with transmission electron microscopy and stereology. RESULTS: The infection caused clinical CM, which was counteracted by EPO. The total number of myelinated axons was identical in the four groups and mice with CM did not have reduced mean thickness of the myelin sheaths. Instead, CM mice had significantly increased numbers of abnormal myelin sheaths, whereas EPO-treated mice were indistinguishable from uninfected mice. Furthermore, mice with CM had frequent and severe axonal injury, pseudopodic endothelial cells, perivascular oedemas and intracerebral haemorrhages. CONCLUSIONS: EPO treatment reduced clinical signs of CM and reduced cerebral pathology. Murine CM does not reduce the general thickness of myelin sheaths in the corpus callosum.

  5. Hypothyroxinemia induced by maternal mild iodine deficiency impairs hippocampal myelinated growth in lactational rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Wang, Yi; Dong, Jing; Wang, Yuan; Min, Hui; Song, Binbin; Shan, Zhongyan; Teng, Weiping; Xi, Qi; Chen, Jie

    2015-11-01

    Hypothyroxinemia induced by maternal mild iodine deficiency causes neurological deficits and impairments of brain function in offspring. Hypothyroxinemia is prevalent in developing and developed countries alike. However, the mechanism underlying these deficits remains less well known. Given that the myelin plays an important role in learning and memory function, we hypothesize that hippocampal myelinated growth may be impaired in rat offspring exposed to hypothyroxinemia induced by maternal mild iodine deficiency. To test this hypothesis, the female Wistar rats were used and four experimental groups were prepared: (1) control; (2) maternal mild iodine deficiency diet inducing hypothyroxinemia; (3) hypothyroidism induced by maternal severe iodine deficiency diet; (4) hypothyroidism induced by maternal methimazole water. The rats were fed the diet from 3 months before pregnancy to the end of lactation. Our results showed that the physiological changes occuring in the hippocampal myelin were altered in the mild iodine deficiency group as indicated by the results of immunofluorescence of myelin basic proteins on postnatal day 14 and postnatal day 21. Moreover, hypothyroxinemia reduced the expressions of oligodendrocyte lineage transcription factor 2 and myelin-related proteins in the treatments on postnatal day 14 and postnatal day 21. Our data suggested that hypothyroxinemia induced by maternal mild iodine deficiency may impair myelinated growth of the offspring. PMID:24753110

  6. Split ring containment attachment device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A containment attachment device is described for operatively connecting a glovebag to plastic sheeting covering hazardous material. The device includes an inner split ring member connected on one end to a middle ring member wherein the free end of the split ring member is inserted through a slit in the plastic sheeting to captively engage a generally circular portion of the plastic sheeting. A collar potion having an outer ring portion is provided with fastening means for securing the device together wherein the glovebag is operatively connected to the collar portion. 5 figs

  7. Splitting strings on integrable backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We use integrability to construct the general classical splitting string solution on R x S3. Namely, given any incoming string solution satisfying a necessary self-intersection property at some given instant in time, we use the integrability of the worldsheet ?-model to construct the pair of outgoing strings resulting from a split. The solution for each outgoing string is expressed recursively through a sequence of dressing transformations, the parameters of which are determined by the solutions to Birkhoff factorization problems in an appropriate real form of the loop group of SL2(C). (orig.)

  8. Mass splitting induced by gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The exact combination of internal and geometrical symmetries and the associated mass splitting problem is discussed. A 10-parameter geometrical symmetry is defined in a curved space-time in such a way that it is a combination of de Sitter groups. In the flat limit it reproduces the Poincare-group and its Lie algebra has a nilpotent action on the combined symmetry only in that limit. An explicit mass splitting expression is derived and an estimation of the order of magnitude for spin-zero mesons is made. (author)

  9. Split supersymmetry in brane models

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ignatios Antoniadis

    2006-11-01

    Type-I string theory in the presence of internal magnetic fields provides a concrete realization of split supersymmetry. To lowest order, gauginos are massless while squarks and sleptons are superheavy. For weak magnetic fields, the correct Standard Model spectrum guarantees gauge coupling unification with $\\sin^{2} \\theta_{W} = 3/8$ at the com-pactification scale of $M_{GUT} \\simeq 2 \\times 10^{16}$ GeV. I discuss mechanisms for generating gaugino and higgsino masses at the TeV scale, as well as generalizations to models with split extended supersymmetry in the gauge sector.

  10. Splitting strings on integrable backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicedo, Benoit

    2011-05-15

    We use integrability to construct the general classical splitting string solution on R x S{sup 3}. Namely, given any incoming string solution satisfying a necessary self-intersection property at some given instant in time, we use the integrability of the worldsheet {sigma}-model to construct the pair of outgoing strings resulting from a split. The solution for each outgoing string is expressed recursively through a sequence of dressing transformations, the parameters of which are determined by the solutions to Birkhoff factorization problems in an appropriate real form of the loop group of SL{sub 2}(C). (orig.)

  11. Tablet Splitting: A Risky Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... take medications because of the downturn in the economy, according to a recent survey by the American ... which means you might absorb the medicine too fast or not at all. What if You Still Want to Split a Tablet? ... Food and Drug Administration 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver ...

  12. Understanding the Role of the Axon/glia Functional Unit in Myelination and Remyelination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Montani

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Myelin loss is one of the major mechanisms underlying the pathology of several serious neurological disorders, e.g. multiple sclerosis. Remyelination is a process required to recover physiological activity and consists of a complex network of events thought to be regulated by multiple not yet understood pathways occurring in response to the unpredictable pathological process of demyelination in an adult system, therefore differing from the spatial and temporal organized process of developmental myelination. In the adult peripheral nervous system remyelination occurs spontaneously, allowing function restoration. In the central nervous system after few years of disease evolution ongoing CNS remyelination is often insufficient to preserve axon integrity and chronically demyelinated axons undergo degeneration causing irreversible clinical decline. In the past few years it has been realized that myelinating glial cells directly and extensively interacts with the axons through bidirectional communication. Recent data suggest an active role of the axon/glia functional unit in the maintenance of axon integrity, whose preservation could be the key to prevent chronic progressive disability. Despite of the importance of these processes, no comprehensive study has clarified the molecules involved in the establishment and maintenance of an efficient axon/glial functional unit in myelination/remyelination. We aim to address this question using a multidisciplinary systems biology approach integrating proteomics (iTRAQ, bioinformatics, cell and molecular biology. We plan to: - Elucidate which key molecules play a role in the establishment and maintenance of the CNS axon/glia functional unit during developmental myelination, by screening membrane proteins expressed on the nude axons just before myelination and on myelin; - compare the developmental axon/glia membrane proteome to that of the nude axon following demyelination and subsequently newly formed myelin, to identify differentially expressed proteins which could play a role in the establishment of an inefficient remyelination; - validate potential key players and test their role in myelination/remyelination in vitro by functional assays. Profiling the proteome could be the next fundamental step to understand myelination as well as the disregulation of the proteomic program which can cause defective CNS remyelination, and could permit the identification of new disease-related factors and therapeutical targets. Acknowledgements: L. Montani is EU founded under FP7 scheme: Marie Curie IEF 2008 - Intra European Fellowship - Project AXOGLIA, IBMC -

  13. Peripheral myelin of Xenopus laevis: role of electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions in membrane compaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, XiaoYang; Cerullo, Jana; Dawli, Tamara; Priest, Christina; Haddadin, Zaid; Kim, Angela; Inouye, Hideyo; Suffoletto, Brian P; Avila, Robin L; Lees, Jonathan P B; Sharma, Deepak; Xie, Bo; Costello, Catherine E; Kirschner, Daniel A

    2008-04-01

    P0 glycoprotein is the major structural protein of peripheral nerve myelin where it is thought to modulate inter-membrane adhesion at both the extracellular apposition, which is labile upon changes in pH and ionic strength, and the cytoplasmic apposition, which is resistant to such changes. Most studies on P0 have focused on structure-function correlates in higher vertebrates. Here, we focused on its role in the structure and interactions of frog (Xenopus laevis) myelin, where it exists primarily in a dimeric form. As part of our study, we deduced the full sequence of X. laevis P0 (xP0) from its cDNA. The xP0 sequence was found to be similar to P0 sequences of higher vertebrates, suggesting that a common mechanism of PNS myelin compaction via P0 interaction might have emerged through evolution. As previously reported for mouse PNS myelin, a similar change of extracellular apposition in frog PNS myelin as a function of pH and ionic strength was observed, which can be explained by a conformational change of P0 due to protonation-deprotonation of His52 at P0's putative adhesive interface. On the other hand, the cytoplasmic apposition in frog PNS myelin, like that in the mouse, remained unchanged at different pH and ionic strength. The contribution of hydrophobic interactions to stabilizing the cytoplasmic apposition was tested by incubating sciatic nerves with detergents. Dramatic expansion at the cytoplasmic apposition was observed for both frog and mouse, indicating a common hydrophobic nature at this apposition. Urea also expanded the cytoplasmic apposition of frog myelin likely owing to denaturation of P0. Removal of the fatty acids that attached to the single Cys residue in the cytoplasmic domain of P0 did not change PNS myelin structure of either frog or mouse, suggesting that the P0-attached fatty acyl chain does not play a significant role in PNS myelin compaction and stability. These results help clarify the present understanding of P0's adhesion role and the role of its acylation in compact PNS myelin. PMID:18065238

  14. Neuroactive steroids influence peripheral myelination: A promising opportunity for preventing or treating age-dependent dysfunctions of peripheral nerves

    OpenAIRE

    R.C. Melcangi; Azcoitia, I.; M. Ballabio; Cavarretta, I.; Gonzalez, L.C.; Leonelli, E.; Magnaghi, V.; Veiga, S.; Garcia-Segura, Luis M

    2003-01-01

    The process of aging deeply influences morphological and functional parameters of peripheral nerves. The observations summarized here indicate that the deterioration of myelin occurring in the peripheral nerves during aging may be explained by the fall of the levels of the major peripheral myelin proteins [e.g., glycoprotein Po (Po) and peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22)]. Neuroactive steroids, such as progesterone (PROG), dihydroprogesterone (5?-DH PROG), and tetrahydroprogesterone (3?,5?-...

  15. Crystal structure of the extracellular domain of human myelin protein zero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhigang; Wang, Yong; Yedidi, Ravikiran S.; Brunzelle, Joseph S.; Kovari, Iulia A.; Sohi, Jasloveleen; Kamholz, John; Kovari, Ladislau C. (WSU-MED); (NWU)

    2012-03-27

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT), a hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy, is the most common genetic neuropathy with an incidence of 1 in 2600. Several forms of CMT have been identified arising from different genomic abnormalities such as CMT1 including CMT1A, CMT1B, and CMTX. CMT1 with associated peripheral nervous system (PNS) demyelination, the most frequent diagnosis, demonstrates slowed nerve conduction velocities and segmental demyelination upon nerve biopsy. One of its subtypes, CMT1A, presents a 1.5-Mb duplication in the p11-p12 region of the human chromosome 17 which encodes peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22). CMT1B, a less common form, arises from the mutations in the myelin protein zero (MPZ) gene on chromosome 1, region q22-q23, which encodes the major structural component of the peripheral myelin. A rare type of CMT1 has been found recently and is caused by point mutations in early growth response gene 2 (EGR2), encoding a zinc finger transcription factor in Schwann cells. In addition, CMTX, an X-linked form of CMT, arises from a mutation in the connexin-32 gene. Myelin protein zero, associated with CMT1B, is a transmembrane protein of 219 amino acid residues. Human MPZ consists of three domains: 125 residues constitute the glycosylated immunoglobulin-like extracellular domain; 27 residues span the membrane; and 67 residues comprise the highly basic intracellular domain. MPZ makes up approximately 50% of the protein content of myelin, and is expressed predominantly in Schwann cells, the myelinating cell of the PNS. Myelin protein zero, a homophilic adhesion molecule, is a member of the immunoglobulin super-family and is essential for normal myelin structure and function. In addition, MPZ knockout mice displayed abnormal myelin that severely affects the myelination pathway, and overexpression of MPZ causes congenital hypomyelination of peripheral nerves. Myelin protein zero mutations account for {approx}5% of patients with CMT. To date, over 125 different mutations in the MPZ gene leading to peripheral neuropathy in patients have been reported worldwide (http://www.molgen. ua.ac.be/CMTMutations). All identified mutations resulting in a change or deletion of amino acid residues in MPZ give rise to neuropathy with the exception of R215L, which instead causes a benign polymorphism. Furthermore, more detailed analysis has classified the MPZ mutations into two major groups. In the first group, the mutations disrupt the intracellular processing of MPZ and are primarily associated with early onset neuropathy. It has been proposed that the mutated MPZ is trapped inside the cell rather than being transported to the plasma membrane. However, other evidence suggests that the mutated MPZ protein is expressed on the plasma membrane, but dominant-negatively disrupts the structure of myelin. In the second group, the MPZ mutations are associated with late onset neuropathy as these mutations cause only mild demyelination. The underlying mechanism is elusive with the hypothesis being that the second group of mutations cause minor abnormalities in the myelin sheath that over time may lead to aberrant Schwann cell-axon interactions and subsequently to axonal degeneration. The crystal structure of the extracellular domain of human MPZ (hP0ex) fused with maltose binding protein (MBP) is reported at 2.1 {angstrom} resolution. While the crystal structure of rat MPZ extracellular domain (rP0ex) is available, the crystal structure of the human counterpart is useful for the analysis of the two homologs as well as a comparison between the two species. The hP0ex molecule reveals subtle structural variations between two homologs allowing comparison of the human myelin protein zero to that of the rat protein. The alignment of these homologs is shown in Figure 1(a).

  16. Cool covered sky-splitting spectrum-splitting FK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Placing a plane mirror between the primary lens and the receiver in a Fresnel Köhler (FK) concentrator gives birth to a quite different CPV system where all the high-tech components sit on a common plane, that of the primary lens panels. The idea enables not only a thinner device (a half of the original) but also a low cost 1-step manufacturing process for the optics, automatic alignment of primary and secondary lenses, and cell/wiring protection. The concept is also compatible with two different techniques to increase the module efficiency: spectrum splitting between a 3J and a BPC Silicon cell for better usage of Direct Normal Irradiance DNI, and sky splitting to harvest the energy of the diffuse radiation and higher energy production throughout the year. Simple calculations forecast the module would convert 45% of the DNI into electricity

  17. Cool covered sky-splitting spectrum-splitting FK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohedano, Rubén; Miñano, Juan C.; Benitez, Pablo; Buljan, Marina; Chaves, Julio; Falicoff, Waqidi; Hernandez, Maikel; Sorgato, Simone

    2014-09-01

    Placing a plane mirror between the primary lens and the receiver in a Fresnel Köhler (FK) concentrator gives birth to a quite different CPV system where all the high-tech components sit on a common plane, that of the primary lens panels. The idea enables not only a thinner device (a half of the original) but also a low cost 1-step manufacturing process for the optics, automatic alignment of primary and secondary lenses, and cell/wiring protection. The concept is also compatible with two different techniques to increase the module efficiency: spectrum splitting between a 3J and a BPC Silicon cell for better usage of Direct Normal Irradiance DNI, and sky splitting to harvest the energy of the diffuse radiation and higher energy production throughout the year. Simple calculations forecast the module would convert 45% of the DNI into electricity.

  18. Cool covered sky-splitting spectrum-splitting FK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohedano, Rubén; Chaves, Julio; Falicoff, Waqidi; Hernandez, Maikel; Sorgato, Simone [LPI, Altadena, CA, USA and Madrid (Spain); Miñano, Juan C.; Benitez, Pablo [LPI, Altadena, CA, USA and Madrid, Spain and Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM), Madrid (Spain); Buljan, Marina [Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM), Madrid (Spain)

    2014-09-26

    Placing a plane mirror between the primary lens and the receiver in a Fresnel Köhler (FK) concentrator gives birth to a quite different CPV system where all the high-tech components sit on a common plane, that of the primary lens panels. The idea enables not only a thinner device (a half of the original) but also a low cost 1-step manufacturing process for the optics, automatic alignment of primary and secondary lenses, and cell/wiring protection. The concept is also compatible with two different techniques to increase the module efficiency: spectrum splitting between a 3J and a BPC Silicon cell for better usage of Direct Normal Irradiance DNI, and sky splitting to harvest the energy of the diffuse radiation and higher energy production throughout the year. Simple calculations forecast the module would convert 45% of the DNI into electricity.

  19. Environmental tobacco smoke in the early postnatal period induces impairment in brain myelination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Larissa H; Annoni, Raquel; Balestrin, Natalia T; Coleto, Priscila L; Duro, Stephanie O; Garcia, Raphael C T; Pacheco-Neto, Maurílio; Mauad, Thais; Camarini, Rosana; Britto, Luiz R G; Marcourakis, Tania

    2015-11-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is associated with high morbidity and mortality, mainly in children. However, few studies focus on the brain development effects of ETS exposure. Myelination mainly occurs in the early years of life in humans and the first three postnatal weeks in rodents and is sensitive to xenobiotics exposure. This study investigated the effects of early postnatal ETS exposure on myelination. BALB/c mice were exposed to ETS generated from 3R4F reference research cigarettes from the third to the fourteenth days of life. The myelination of nerve fibers in the optic nerve by morphometric analysis and the levels of Olig1 and myelin basic protein (MBP) were evaluated in the cerebellum, diencephalon, telencephalon, and brainstem in infancy, adolescence, and adulthood. Infant mice exposed to ETS showed a decrease in the percentage of myelinated fibers in the optic nerve, compared with controls. ETS induced a decrease in Olig1 protein levels in the cerebellum and brainstem and an increase in MBP levels in the cerebellum at infant. It was also found a decrease in MBP levels in the telencephalon and brainstem at adolescence and in the cerebellum and diencephalon at adulthood. The present study demonstrates that exposure to ETS, in a critical phase of development, affects the percentage of myelinated fibers and myelin-specific proteins in infant mice. Although we did not observe differences in the morphological analysis in adolescence and adulthood, there was a decrease in MBP levels in distinctive brain regions suggesting a delayed effect in adolescence and adulthood. PMID:25182420

  20. Developmental abnormalities in the nerves of peripheral myelin protein 22-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amici, Stephanie A; Dunn, William A; Notterpek, Lucia

    2007-02-01

    Peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) is a tetraspan glycoprotein whose misexpression is associated with a family of hereditary peripheral neuropathies. In a recent report, we have characterized a novel PMP22-deficient mouse model in which the first two coding exons were replaced by the lacZ reporter. To investigate further the myelin abnormalities in the absence of PMP22, sciatic nerves and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neuron explant cultures from PMP22-deficient mice were studied at various stages of myelination. Throughout the first 3 months of postnatal development, myelin protein and beta4 integrin levels are dramatically reduced, whereas p75 and beta1 integrin remain elevated. By immunostaining, the distributions of several glial proteins, including beta4 integrin, the voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.1, and E-cadherin, are altered. Schwann cells from PMP22-deficient mice are able to produce limited amounts of myelin in DRG explant cultures, yet the internodal segments are dramatically fewer and shorter. The comparison of PMP22-deficient mice with other PMP22 mutant models reveals that the decrease in beta4 integrin is specific to an absence of PMP22. Furthermore, whereas lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 and ubiquitin are notably up-regulated in nerves of PMP22-deficient mice, heat shock protein 70 levels remain constant or decrease compared with wild-type or PMP22 mutant samples. Together these results support a role for PMP22 in the early events of peripheral nerve myelination. Additionally, although myelin abnormalities are a commonality among PMP22 neuropathic models, the underlying subcellular mechanisms are distinct and depend on the specific genetic abnormality. PMID:17131416

  1. Influence of myelin proteins on the structure and dynamics of a model membrane with emphasis on the low temperature regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoll, W. [University Joseph Fourier, UFR PhiTEM, Grenoble (France); Institut Laue–Langevin, Grenoble (France); Peters, J. [University Joseph Fourier, UFR PhiTEM, Grenoble (France); Institut Laue–Langevin, Grenoble (France); Institut de Biologie Structurale, Grenoble (France); Kursula, P. [University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland); CSSB–HZI, DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Gerelli, Y. [Institut Laue–Langevin, Grenoble (France); Natali, F., E-mail: natali@ill.fr [Institut Laue–Langevin, Grenoble (France); CNR–IOM–OGG, c/o Institut Laue–Langevin, Grenoble (France)

    2014-11-28

    Myelin is an insulating, multi-lamellar membrane structure wrapped around selected nerve axons. Increasing the speed of nerve impulses, it is crucial for the proper functioning of the vertebrate nervous system. Human neurodegenerative diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, are linked to damage to the myelin sheath through demyelination. Myelin exhibits a well defined subset of myelin-specific proteins, whose influence on membrane dynamics, i.e., myelin flexibility and stability, has not yet been explored in detail. In a first paper [W. Knoll, J. Peters, P. Kursula, Y. Gerelli, J. Ollivier, B. Demé, M. Telling, E. Kemner, and F. Natali, Soft Matter 10, 519 (2014)] we were able to spotlight, through neutron scattering experiments, the role of peripheral nervous system myelin proteins on membrane stability at room temperature. In particular, the myelin basic protein and peripheral myelin protein 2 were found to synergistically influence the membrane structure while keeping almost unchanged the membrane mobility. Further insight is provided by this work, in which we particularly address the investigation of the membrane flexibility in the low temperature regime. We evidence a different behavior suggesting that the proton dynamics is reduced by the addition of the myelin basic protein accompanied by negligible membrane structural changes. Moreover, we address the importance of correct sample preparation and characterization for the success of the experiment and for the reliability of the obtained results.

  2. Cholesterol regulates the endoplasmic reticulum exit of the major membrane protein P0 required for peripheral myelin compaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saher, Gesine; Quintes, Susanne; Möbius, Wiebke; Wehr, Michael C; Krämer-Albers, Eva-Maria; Brügger, Britta; Nave, Klaus-Armin

    2009-05-13

    Rapid impulse conduction requires electrical insulation of axons by myelin, a cholesterol-rich extension of the glial cell membrane with a characteristic composition of proteins and lipids. Mutations in several myelin protein genes cause endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention and disease, presumably attributable to failure of misfolded proteins to pass the ER quality control. Because many myelin proteins partition into cholesterol-rich membrane rafts, their interaction with cholesterol could potentially be part of the ER quality control system. Here, we provide in vitro and in vivo evidence that the major peripheral myelin protein P0 requires cholesterol for exiting the ER and reaching the myelin compartment. Cholesterol dependency of P0 trafficking in heterologous cells is mediated by a cholesterol recognition/interaction amino acid consensus (CRAC) motif. Mutant mice lacking cholesterol biosynthesis in Schwann cells suffer from severe hypomyelination with numerous uncompacted myelin stretches. This demonstrates that high-level cholesterol coordinates P0 export with myelin membrane synthesis, which is required for the correct stoichiometry of myelin components and for myelin compaction. PMID:19439587

  3. Influence of myelin proteins on the structure and dynamics of a model membrane with emphasis on the low temperature regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myelin is an insulating, multi-lamellar membrane structure wrapped around selected nerve axons. Increasing the speed of nerve impulses, it is crucial for the proper functioning of the vertebrate nervous system. Human neurodegenerative diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, are linked to damage to the myelin sheath through demyelination. Myelin exhibits a well defined subset of myelin-specific proteins, whose influence on membrane dynamics, i.e., myelin flexibility and stability, has not yet been explored in detail. In a first paper [W. Knoll, J. Peters, P. Kursula, Y. Gerelli, J. Ollivier, B. Demé, M. Telling, E. Kemner, and F. Natali, Soft Matter 10, 519 (2014)] we were able to spotlight, through neutron scattering experiments, the role of peripheral nervous system myelin proteins on membrane stability at room temperature. In particular, the myelin basic protein and peripheral myelin protein 2 were found to synergistically influence the membrane structure while keeping almost unchanged the membrane mobility. Further insight is provided by this work, in which we particularly address the investigation of the membrane flexibility in the low temperature regime. We evidence a different behavior suggesting that the proton dynamics is reduced by the addition of the myelin basic protein accompanied by negligible membrane structural changes. Moreover, we address the importance of correct sample preparation and characterization for the success of the experiment and for the reliability of the obtained results

  4. miR-32 and its target SLC45A3 regulate the lipid metabolism of oligodendrocytes and myelin

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Daesung; Howng, Shen Yi B.; Ptá?ek, Louis J; Fu, Ying-Hui

    2012-01-01

    Oligodendrocytes generate large amounts of myelin by extension of their cell membranes. Though lipid is the major component of myelin, detailed lipid metabolism in the maintenance of myelin is not understood. We reported previously that miR-32 might be involved in myelin maintenance (Shin et al., 2009). Here we demonstrate a novel role for miR-32 in oligodendrocyte function and development through the regulation of SLC45A3 (solute carrier family 45, member 3) and other downstream targets such...

  5. Label-free real-time imaging of myelination in the Xenopus laevis tadpole by in vivo stimulated Raman scattering microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chun-Rui; Zhang, Delong; Slipchenko, Mikhail N.; Cheng, Ji-Xin; Hu, Bing

    2014-08-01

    The myelin sheath plays an important role as the axon in the functioning of the neural system, and myelin degradation is a hallmark pathology of multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury. Electron microscopy, fluorescent microscopy, and magnetic resonance imaging are three major techniques used for myelin visualization. However, microscopic observation of myelin in living organisms remains a challenge. Using a newly developed stimulated Raman scattering microscopy approach, we report noninvasive, label-free, real-time in vivo imaging of myelination by a single-Schwann cell, maturation of a single node of Ranvier, and myelin degradation in the transparent body of the Xenopus laevis tadpole.

  6. A novel mutation, Thr65Ala, in the MPZ gene in a patient with Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1B disease with focally folded myelin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanski, A; Drac, H; Kabzi?ska, D; Hausmanowa-Petrusewicz, I

    2004-03-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1B disease is a demyelinating neuropathy caused by mutations in the Myelin Protein Zero gene. It is inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion. So far only a few patients with a focally folded myelin phenotype on nerve biopsy have been shown to have mutations in the Myelin Protein Zero gene. In this report we describe a Polish patient with Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1B disease. Sural nerve biopsy demonstrated focally folded myelin. Molecular genetic analysis of the coding region of the Myelin Protein Zero gene revealed a novel mutation, Thr65Ala, in exon 2 of the Myelin Protein Zero gene. PMID:15036333

  7. Characterization of dodecylphosphocholine/myelin basic protein complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stoichiometry of myelin basic protein (MBP)/dodecylphosphocholine (DPC) complexes and the location of protein segments in the micelle have been investigated by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), ultracentrifugation, photon correlation light scattering, 31P, 13C, and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and electron microscopy. Ultracentrifugation measurements indicate that MBP forms stoichiometrically well-defined complexes consisting of 1 protein molecule and approximately 140 detergent molecules. The spin-labels 5-, 12-, and 16-doxylstearate have been incorporated into DPC/MBP aggregates. EPR spectral parameters and 13C and 1H NMR relaxation times indicate that the addition of MBP does not affect the environment and location of the labels or the organization of the micelles except for a slight increase in size. Previous results indicating that the protein lies primarily near the surface of the micelle have been confirmed by comparing 13C NMR spectra of the detergent with and without protein with spectra of protein/detergent aggregates containing spin-labels. Electron micrographs of the complexes taken by using the freeze-fracture technique confirm that the estimated size obtained by light-scattering measurements. Overall, these results indicate that mixtures of MBP and DPC can form highly porous particles with well-defined protein and lipid stoichiometry. The structural integrity of these particles appears to be based on protein-lipid interactions. In addition, electron micrographs of aqueous DPC/MBP suspensions show the formation of a small amount of material consisting of large arrays of detergent micelles, suggesting that MBP is capable of inducing large changes in the overall organization of the detergent

  8. 7 CFR 51.2958 - Splits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...United States Standards for Grades of Walnuts in the Shell Definitions § 51.2958 Splits. Splits...walnuts with the seam opened completely around the nut so that the two halves of the shell are held together only by the...

  9. Exposure to serotonin adversely affects oligodendrocyte development and myelination in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Lir-Wan; Bhatt, Abhay; Tien, Lu-Tai; Zheng, Baoying; Simpson, Kimberly L; Lin, Rick C S; Cai, Zhengwei; Kumar, Praveen; Pang, Yi

    2015-05-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) has been implicated to play critical roles in early neural development. Recent reports have suggested that perinatal exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) resulted in cortical network miswiring, abnormal social behavior, callosal myelin malformation, as well as oligodendrocyte (OL) pathology in rats. To gain further insight into the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying SSRIs-induced OL and myelin abnormalities, we investigated the effect of 5-HT exposure on OL development, cell death, and myelination in cell culture models. First, we showed that 5-HT receptor 1A and 2A subtypes were expressed in OL lineages, using immunocytochemistry, Western blot, as well as intracellular Ca(2+) measurement. We then assessed the effect of serotonin exposure on the lineage development, expression of myelin proteins, cell death, and myelination, in purified OL and neuron-OL myelination cultures. For pure OL cultures, our results showed that 5-HT exposure led to disturbance of OL development, as indicated by aberrant process outgrowth and reduced myelin proteins expression. At higher doses, such exposure triggered a development-dependent cell death, as immature OLs exhibited increasing susceptibility to 5-HT treatment compared to OL progenitor cells (OPC). We showed further that 5-HT-induced immature OL death was mediated at least partially via 5-HT2A receptor, since cell death could be mimicked by 5-HT2A receptor agonist 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane hydrochloride, (±)-2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine hydrochloride, but atten-uated by pre-treatment with 5-HT2A receptor antagonist ritanserin. Utilizing a neuron-OL myelination co-culture model, our data showed that 5-HT exposure significantly reduced the number of myelinated internodes. In contrast to cell injury observed in pure OL cultures, 5-HT exposure did not lead to OL death or reduced OL density in neuron-OL co-cultures. However, abnormal patterns of contactin-associated protein (Caspr) clustering were observed at the sites of Node of Ranvier, suggesting that 5-HT exposure may affect other axon-derived factors for myelination. In summary, this is the first study to demonstrate that manipulation of serotonin levels affects OL development and myelination, which may contribute to altered neural connectivity noted in SSRIs-treated animals. The current in vitro study demonstrated that exposure to high level of serotonin (5-HT) led to aberrant oligodendrocyte (OL) development, cell injury, and myelination deficit. We propose that elevated extracellular serotonin levels in the fetal brain, such as upon the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) during pregnancy, may adversely affect OL development and/or myelination, thus contributing to altered neural connectivity seen in Autism Spectrum Disorders. OPC = oligodendrocyte progenitor cell. PMID:25382136

  10. On Split Lie Triple Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Antonio J Calderón Martín

    2009-04-01

    We begin the study of arbitrary split Lie triple systems by focussing on those with a coherent 0-root space. We show that any such triple systems with a symmetric root system is of the form $T=\\mathcal{U}+\\sum_j I_j$ with $\\mathcal{U}$ a subspace of the 0-root space $T_0$ and any $I_j$ a well described ideal of , satisfying $[I_j,T,I_k]=0$ if $j\

  11. Split Nonthreshold Laplacian Integral Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkland, Stephen; de Freitas, Maria Aguieiras Alvarez; Del Vecchio, Renata Raposo; de Abreu, Nair Maria Maia

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article is to answer a question posed by Merris in European Journal of Combinatorics, 24(2003)413¡430, about the pos sibility of finding split nonthreshold graphs that are Laplacian integral, i.e., graphs for which the eigenvalues of the corresponding Laplacian matrix are integers. Using Kronecker products, balanced incomplete block designs, and solutions to certain Diophantine equations, we show how to build infinite families of these graphs.

  12. Quantum Teleportation and Beam Splitting

    OpenAIRE

    Fichtner, Karl-Heinz; Ohya, Masanori

    2000-01-01

    Following the previous paper in which quantum teleportation is rig orously discussed with coherent entangled states given by beam splittings, we further discuss two types of models, perfect teleportation model and non-perfect teleportation model, in general scheme. Then the difference among several models, i.e., the perfect models and the non-perfect models, is studied. Our teleportation models are constructed by means of coherent states in some Fock space with counting meas...

  13. Empirical Methods for Compound Splitting

    CERN Document Server

    Koehn, P; Koehn, Philipp; Knight, Kevin

    2003-01-01

    Compounded words are a challenge for NLP applications such as machine translation (MT). We introduce methods to learn splitting rules from monolingual and parallel corpora. We evaluate them against a gold standard and measure their impact on performance of statistical MT systems. Results show accuracy of 99.1% and performance gains for MT of 0.039 BLEU on a German-English noun phrase translation task.

  14. Evaluation of Optimal Split-Plot Designs

    OpenAIRE

    Julian Mbegbu; Ogege Ikhata Francis

    2012-01-01

    The study introduced an algorithm for generating optimal split-plot designs. The designs were considered as optimal because they were capable and ecient in estimating the xed e ects of the statistical model that is appropriate given the split-plot design structure. Here, we introduced I-optimal design of split-plot experiments. The algorithm used in this research does not require the prior speci cation of a candidate set. Therefore, making the design of split-plot experiments computationally ...

  15. Perinatal chronic hypoxia induces cortical inflammation, hypomyelination, and peripheral myelin-specific T cell autoreactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Sterling B; Kong, Xiagmei; Venkataraman, Ramgopal; Savedra, Allen Michael; Kernie, Steven G; Stowe, Ann M; Raman, Lakshmi

    2016-01-01

    pCH is an important risk factor for brain injury and long-term morbidity in children, occurring during the developmental stages of neurogenesis, neuronal migration, and myelination. We show that a rodent model of pCH results in an early decrease in mature myelin. Although pCH does increase progenitor oligodendrocytes in the developing brain, BrdU labeling revealed a loss in dividing progenitor oligodendrocytes, indicating a defect in mature cell replacement and myelinogenesis. Mice continued to exhibited hypomyelination, concomitant with long-term impairment of motor function, weeks after cessation of pCH. The implication of a novel neuroimmunologic interplay, pCH also induced a significant egress of infiltrating CD4 T cells into the developing brain. This pCH-mediated neuroinflammation included oligodendrocyte-directed autoimmunity, with an increase in peripheral myelin-specific CD4 T cells. Thus, both the loss of available, mature, myelin-producing glial cells and an active increase in autoreactive, myelin-specific CD4 T cell infiltration into pCH brains may contribute to early pCH-induced hypomyelination in the developing CNS. The elucidation of potential mechanisms of hypoxia-driven autoimmunity will expand our understanding of the neuroimmune axis during perinatal CNS disease states that may contribute to long-term functional disability. PMID:26038434

  16. Actin filament turnover drives leading edge growth during myelin sheath formation in the central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Sebastian; Snaidero, Nicolas; Mitkovski, Mišo; Velte, Caroline; Brückner, Bastian R.; Alexopoulos, Ioannis; Czopka, Tim; Jung, Sang Y.; Rhee, Jeong S.; Janshoff, Andreas; Witke, Walter; Schaap, Iwan A.T.; Lyons, David A.; Simons, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Summary During central nervous system development, oligodendrocytes wrap their plasma membrane around axons to generate multi-lamellar myelin sheaths. To drive growth at the leading edge of myelin at the interface with the axon, mechanical forces are necessary, but the underlying mechanisms are not known. Using an interdisciplinary approach that combines morphological, genetic and biophysical analyses, we identified a key role for actin filament network turnover in myelin growth. At the onset of myelin biogenesis, F-actin is redistributed to the leading edge, where its polymerization-based forces push out non-adhesive and motile protrusions. F-actin disassembly converts protrusions into sheets by reducing surface tension and in turn inducing membrane spreading and adhesion. We identified the actin depolymerizing factor ADF/Cofilin1, which mediates high F-actin turnover rates, as essential factor in this process. We propose that F-actin turnover is the driving force in myelin wrapping by regulating repetitive cycles of leading edge protrusion and spreading. PMID:26166299

  17. CNS myelin structural modification induced in vitro by phospholipases A2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunes Quartino, Pablo J; Pusterla, Julio M; Galván Josa, Victor M; Fidelio, Gerardo D; Oliveira, Rafael G

    2016-01-01

    Myelin is the self-stacked membrane surrounding axons; it is also the target of several pathological and/or neurodegenerative processes like multiple sclerosis. These processes involve, among others, the hydrolytic attack by phospholipases. In this work we describe the changes in isolated myelin structure after treatment with several secreted PLA2 (sPLA2), by using small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements. It was observed that myelin treated with all the tested sPLA2s (from cobra and bee venoms and from pig pancreas) preserved the lamellar structure but displayed an enlarged separation between membranes in certain zones. Additionally, the peak due to membrane asymmetry was clearly enhanced. The coherence length was also lower than the non-treated myelin, indicating increased disorder. These SAXS results were complemented by Langmuir film experiments to follow myelin monolayer hydrolysis at the air/water interface by a decrease in electric surface potential at different surface pressures. All enzymes produced hydrolysis with no major qualitative difference between the isoforms tested. PMID:26514604

  18. Myelin Abnormalities in the Optic and Sciatic Nerves in Mice With GM1-Gangliosidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinecke, Karie A.; Luoma, Adrienne; d’Azzo, Alessandra; Kirschner, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    GM1-gangliosidosis is a glycosphingolipid lysosomal storage disease involving accumulation of GM1 and its asialo form (GA1) primarily in the brain. Thin-layer chromatography and X-ray diffraction were used to analyze the lipid content/composition and the myelin structure of the optic and sciatic nerves from 7- and 10-month old ?-galactosidase (?-gal) +/? and ?-gal ?/? mice, a model of GM1gangliosidosis. Optic nerve weight was lower in the ?-gal ?/? mice than in unaffected ?-gal +/? mice, but no difference was seen in sciatic nerve weight. The levels of GM1 and GA1 were significantly increased in both the optic nerve and sciatic nerve of the ?-gal ?/? mice. The content of myelin-enriched cerebrosides, sulfatides, and plasmalogen ethanolamines was significantly lower in optic nerve of ?-gal ?/? mice than in ?-gal +/? mice; however, cholesteryl esters were enriched in the ?-gal ?/? mice. No major abnormalities in these lipids were detected in the sciatic nerve of the ?-gal ?/? mice. The abnormalities in GM1 and myelin lipids in optic nerve of ?-gal ?/? mice correlated with a reduction in the relative amount of myelin and periodicity in fresh nerve. By contrast, the relative amount of myelin and periodicity in the sciatic nerves from control and ?-gal ?/? mice were indistinguishable, suggesting minimal pathological involvement in sciatic nerve. Our results indicate that the greater neurochemical pathology observed in the optic nerve than in the sciatic nerve of ?-gal ?/? mice is likely due to the greater glycolipid storage in optic nerve. PMID:25694553

  19. Movement and structure of mitochondria in oligodendrocytes and their myelin sheaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinholm, Johanne E; Vervaeke, Koen; Tadross, Michael R; Tkachuk, Ariana N; Kopek, Benjamin G; Brown, Timothy A; Bergersen, Linda H; Clayton, David A

    2016-05-01

    Mitochondria play several crucial roles in the life of oligodendrocytes. During development of the myelin sheath they are essential providers of carbon skeletons and energy for lipid synthesis. During normal brain function their consumption of pyruvate will be a key determinant of how much lactate is available for oligodendrocytes to export to power axonal function. Finally, during calcium-overload induced pathology, as occurs in ischemia, mitochondria may buffer calcium or induce apoptosis. Despite their important functions, very little is known of the properties of oligodendrocyte mitochondria, and mitochondria have never been observed in the myelin sheaths. We have now used targeted expression of fluorescent mitochondrial markers to characterize the location and movement of mitochondria within oligodendrocytes. We show for the first time that mitochondria are able to enter and move within the myelin sheath. Within the myelin sheath the highest number of mitochondria was in the cytoplasmic ridges along the sheath. Mitochondria moved more slowly than in neurons and, in contrast to their behavior in neurons and astrocytes, their movement was increased rather than inhibited by glutamate activating NMDA receptors. By electron microscopy we show that myelin sheath mitochondria have a low surface area of cristae, which suggests a low ATP production. These data specify fundamental properties of the oxidative phosphorylation system in oligodendrocytes, the glial cells that enhance cognition by speeding action potential propagation and provide metabolic support to axons. GLIA 2016;64:810-825. PMID:26775288

  20. Water translocation from the axial cylinder to myelin sheath structures of the nerve fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotnikov, O S; Kokurina, T N; Kuznetsova, I N; Vasyagina, N Yu

    2011-10-01

    We studied isolated myelinated nerve fibers from frog sciatic nerve surviving in Ringer solution or in water-free liquid perfluorodecalin immiscible with water or mineral oil. Swelling of incisures and perikaryon, loosening of myelin in the node, and formation of the axial cylinder varicosities were found in the fibers surviving in Ringer solution after 5-7 h. The same process, swelling of Schmidt-Lantermann myelin incisures, Schwann cell perikaryon, and loosening of myelin lamellae in the Ranvier nodes was found in water-free perfluorodecalin medium. However, swelling of the perikaryon and incisures spread along the axial cylinder and the reaction of the fiber developed in perfluorodecalin much later and unfolded slower than in the control. These changes developed much sooner and progressed much more rapidly than in perfluorodecalin in fibers surviving in mineral oil. Swelling of the myelin sheath structures in water-free medium indicated an uncommon new form of the neuron-glia relationships: water translocation from the axial cylinder to Schwann cell under unfavorable conditions. PMID:22485225

  1. Labelling by axonal transport of myelin-associated proteins in the rabbit visual pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After intraocular injections of [3H]leucine, six regions of the visual pathway of adult rabbit were used to study the spatio-temporal pattern of the slow anterograde axonal transport of radioactive proteins associated with the particulate fraction, the water-soluble fraction and the myelin fraction. Unlike other fractions, myelin-associated labelled proteins represented a time-constant percentage of total tissue radioactivity. This percentage increased from the first half to the second half of the optic nerve and remained high in the chiasma and tract. The peak specific radioactivity of myelin decreased in the same direction. At the peak of myelin radioactivity of a given region the label was typically associated with four protein bands, L1-L4, of 40000-68000 mol.wt. The basic protein, the proteolipid protein and the W1 component of the Wolfgram proteins were not significantly labelled. The radioactivity associated with the W2 component could be derived from the closely migrating L3 component. At shorter survival times no clear labelling pattern could be detected. At longer survival times radioactivity was almost totally localized around band L3. The results presented underline the importance of choosing appropriate experimental conditions to obtain a consistent labelling pattern of myelin-associated proteins. (author)

  2. Insertion of Mutant Proteolipid Protein Results in Missorting of Myelin Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaurs-Barriere, Catherine; Wong, Kondi; Weibel, Thais D.; Abu-Asab, Mones; Weiss, Michael D.; Kaneski, Christine R.; Mixon, Tong-Hui; Bonavita, Simona; Creveaux, Isabelle; Heiss, John D.; Tsokos, Maria; Goldin, Ehud; Quarles, Richard H.; Boespflug-Tanguy, Odile; Schiffmann, Raphael

    2014-01-01

    Two brothers with a leukodystrophy, progressive spastic diplegia, and peripheral neuropathy were found to have proteinaceous aggregates in the peripheral nerve myelin sheath. The patients’ mother had only subclinical peripheral neuropathy, but the maternal grandmother had adult-onset leukodystrophy. Sequencing of the proteolipid protein (PLP) gene showed a point mutation IVS4 + 1 G?A within the donor splice site of intron 4. We identified one transcript with a deletion of exon 4 (?ex4, 169bp) encoding for PLP and DM20 proteins and lacking two transmembrane domains, and a second transcript with exon 4 + 10bp encoding three transmembrane domains. Immunohistochemistry showed abnormal aggregation in the myelin sheath of MBP and P0. Myelin-associated glycoprotein was present in the Schmidt–Lanterman clefts but significantly reduced in the periaxonal region. Using immunogold electron microscopy, we demonstrated the presence of mutated PLP/DM20 and the absence of the intact protein in the patient peripheral myelin sheath. We conclude that insertion of mutant PLP/DM20 with resulting aberrant distribution of other myelin proteins in peripheral nerve may constitute an important mechanism of dysmyelination in disorders associated with PLP mutations. PMID:14681886

  3. Incorporation of fucose and leucine into PNS myelin proteins in nerves undergoing early Wallerian degeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The simultaneous incorporation of [3H]fucose and [1-14C]leucine into normal rat sciatic nerve was examined using an in vitro incubation model. A linear rate of protein precursor uptake was found in purified myelin protein over 1/2-6 hr of incubation utilizing a supplemented medium containing amino acids. This model was then used to examine myelin protein synthesis in nerves undergoing degeneration at 1-4 days following a crush injury. Data showed a statistically significant decrease in the ratio of fucose to leucine at 2, 3, and 4 days of degeneration, which was the consequence of a significant increase in leucine uptake. These results, plus substantial protein recovery in axotomized nerves, are indicative of active synthesis of proteins that purify with myelin during early Wallerian degeneration

  4. MR imaging evaluation of early myelination patterns in normal and developmentally delayed infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gray-white matter differentiation of myelination patterns in 64 normal and developmentally delayed children (aged 4 days to 36 months) was evaluated using either 0.3-T or 0.35-T imaging systems and T2-weighted pulse sequences (spin echo 2,000/80-84). Progression of myelination was correlated with mapping of myelination using stained pathologic sections. Gray-white matter patterns observed were defined as (1) infantile, (2) isointense, and (3) early adult. In children scanned sequentially, progression through these patterns was demonstrated. In developmentally delayed children, the infantile and isointense patterns persisted in the age distribution of the normal and developmentally delayed children (P values: infantiles, <.025; isointense, <.01; early adult, <.05)

  5. Locomotion, physical development, and brain myelination in rats treated with ionizing radiation in utero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaman, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    Effects of ionizing radiation on the emergence of locomotion skill and some physical development parameters were studied in laboratory rats (Fisher F-344 inbred strain). Rats were treated with 3 different doses of radiation (150 R, 15 R, and 6.8 R) delivered on the 20th day of the prenatal life. Results indicated that relatively moderate (15 R) to high (150 R) doses of radiation have effects on certain locomotion and physical development parameters. Exposure to 150 R affected pivoting, cliff-avoidance, upper jaw tooth eruption, body weight, and organs, such as brain, cerebral cortex, ovary, kidney, heart and spleen weights. Other parameters, such as negative geotaxis, eye opening, and lower jaw tooth eruption appeared to be affected in the 150 R treated animals. Exposure to 15 R affected pivoting and cliff-avoidance parameters. The cerebral cortex weight of the 15 R treated animals was found to be reduced at the age of day 30. Exposure to 6.8 R had no adverse effects on these parameters. Prenatal exposure to 150 R of radiation reduced the cerebral cortex weight by 22.07% at 30 days of age, and 20.15% at 52 days of age which caused a reduction in cerebral cortex myelin content by 20.16, and 22.89% at the ages of day 30 and day 52 respectively. Exposure to 150 R did not affect the myelin content of the cerebellum or the brain stem; or the myelin concentration (mg myelin/g brain tissue weight) of the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and the brain stem. Exposure to 15 R, and 6.8 R did not affect either the myelin content or the myelin concentration of these brain areas.

  6. Locomotion, physical development, and brain myelination in rats treated with ionizing radiation in utero

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of ionizing radiation on the emergence of locomotion skill and some physical development parameters were studied in laboratory rats (Fisher F-344 inbred strain). Rats were treated with 3 different doses of radiation (150 R, 15 R, and 6.8 R) delivered on the 20th day of the prenatal life. Results indicated that relatively moderate (15 R) to high (150 R) doses of radiation have effects on certain locomotion and physical development parameters. Exposure to 150 R affected pivoting, cliff-avoidance, upper jaw tooth eruption, body weight, and organs, such as brain, cerebral cortex, ovary, kidney, heart and spleen weights. Other parameters, such as negative geotaxis, eye opening, and lower jaw tooth eruption appeared to be affected in the 150 R treated animals. Exposure to 15 R affected pivoting and cliff-avoidance parameters. The cerebral cortex weight of the 15 R treated animals was found to be reduced at the age of day 30. Exposure to 6.8 R had no adverse effects on these parameters. Prenatal exposure to 150 R of radiation reduced the cerebral cortex weight by 22.07% at 30 days of age, and 20.15% at 52 days of age which caused a reduction in cerebral cortex myelin content by 20.16, and 22.89% at the ages of day 30 and day 52 respectively. Exposure to 150 R did not affect the myelin content of the cerebellum or the brain stem; or the myelin concentration (mg myelin/g brain tissue weight) of the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and the brain stem. Exposure to 15 R, and 6.8 R did not affect either the myelin content or the myelin concentration of these brain areas

  7. Normal myelination of the child brain on MRI - a meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To establish age limits for the assessment of normal myelination of the brain on T1-weighted (T1w) and T2-weighted (T2w) images. Method: Comparison of previous publications (Barkovich et al. 1988, Grodd 1993, Hayakawa et al. 1990, Hittmair et al. 1994, Martin et al. 1988/1990/1991, Nakagawa et al. 1998, Staudt et al. 1993/1994, Stricker et al. 1990). Results: Despite technical and methodological differences, these studies principally agreed on the timing of myelination for most regions of the brain. Thus, a common timetable could be established: At 1 month, myelin is visible on both T1w and T2w in the medulla oblongata, tegmentum pontis, cerebellar peduncles and vermis, quadrigeminal plate, decussation of superior cerebellar peduncles, thalamus, posterior limb of internal capsule, optic radiation, corona radiata. Thereafter, the myelin-typical signal in the different regions of the brain should be present at the following ages (M=months): Anterior limb of internal capsule (2 M: T1w; 7 M: T2w), splenium of corpus callosum (4 M: T1w; 6 M: T2w), genu of corpus callosum (6 M: T1w; 8 M: T2w), centrum semiovale (2 M: T1w; 7 M: T2w). Branching of myelin into the gyri of the telencephalon (=arborization) appears at the latest at: occipital lobe (5 M: T1w; 12 M: T2w) and frontal lobe (7 M: T1w; 14 M: T2w). Conclusion: These extracted age limits can be used for a more reliable assessment of myelination than the time-tables from a single study. (orig.)

  8. Chronic intermittent ethanol induced axon and myelin degeneration is attenuated by calpain inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samantaray, Supriti; Knaryan, Varduhi H; Patel, Kaushal S; Mulholland, Patrick J; Becker, Howard C; Banik, Naren L

    2015-10-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption causes multifaceted damage to the central nervous system (CNS), underlying mechanisms of which are gradually being unraveled. In our previous studies, activation of calpain, a calcium-activated neutral protease has been found to cause detrimental alterations in spinal motor neurons following ethanol (EtOH) exposure in vitro. However, it is not known whether calpain plays a pivotal role in chronic EtOH exposure-induced structural damage to CNS in vivo. To test the possible involvement of calpain in EtOH-associated neurodegenerative mechanisms the present investigation was conducted in a well-established mouse model of alcohol dependence - chronic intermittent EtOH (CIE) exposure and withdrawal. Our studies indicated significant loss of axonal proteins (neurofilament light and heavy, 50-60%), myelin proteins (myelin basic protein, 20-40% proteolipid protein, 25%) and enzyme (2', 3'-cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase, 21-55%) following CIE in multiple regions of brain including hippocampus, corpus callosum, cerebellum, and importantly in spinal cord. These CIE-induced deleterious effects escalated after withdrawal in each CNS region tested. Increased expression and activity of calpain along with enhanced ratio of active calpain to calpastatin (sole endogenous inhibitor) was observed after withdrawal compared to EtOH exposure. Pharmacological inhibition of calpain with calpeptin (25 ?g/kg) prior to each EtOH vapor inhalation significantly attenuated damage to axons and myelin as demonstrated by immuno-profiles of axonal and myelin proteins, and Luxol Fast Blue staining. Calpain inhibition significantly protected the ultrastructural integrity of axons and myelin compared to control as confirmed by electron microscopy. Together, these findings confirm CIE exposure and withdrawal induced structural alterations in axons and myelin, predominantly after withdrawal and corroborate calpain inhibition as a potential protective strategy against EtOH associated CNS degeneration. PMID:26100335

  9. Myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) protects neurons from acute toxicity using a ganglioside-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Niraj R; Nguyen, Thien; Bullen, John W; Griffin, John W; Schnaar, Ronald L

    2010-03-17

    Myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), a protein expressed on the innermost wrap of myelin, contributes to long-term axon stability as evidenced by progressive axon degeneration in Mag-null mice. Recently, MAG was also found to protect axons from acute toxic insults. In the current study, rat dorsal root ganglion neurons were cultured on control substrata and substrata adsorbed with myelin proteins. Neurons on myelin-adsorbed surfaces were resistant to acute degeneration of neurites induced by vincristine, a cancer chemotherapeutic agent with neuropathic side effects. Myelin-mediated protection was reversed by anti-MAG antibody and was absent when cells were cultured on extracts from Mag-null mouse myelin, confirming the protective role of MAG. Gangliosides (sialylated glycosphingolipids) are one functional class of axonal receptors for MAG. In the current studies, a direct role for gangliosides in mediating the acute protective effects of MAG was established. Treatment of neurons with sialidase, an enzyme that cleaves the terminal sialic acids required for MAG binding, reversed MAG's protective effect, as did treatment with (1R,2R)-1-phenyl-2-hexadecanoylamino-3-pyrrolidino-1-propanol, an inhibitor of glycosphingolipid biosynthesis. In contrast, treatment with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C, an enzyme that cleaves Nogo receptors (NgR, another class of MAG receptor), or with a peptide inhibitor of an NgR-associated signaling molecule p75(NTR), failed to diminish MAG-mediated protection. Inhibiting the Rho-associated protein kinase ROCK reversed protection. We conclude that MAG protects neurites from acute toxic insult via a ganglioside-mediated signaling pathway that involves activation of RhoA. Understanding MAG-mediated protection may provide opportunities to reduce axonal damage and loss. PMID:20436925

  10. Innovative wedge axe in making split firewood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interteam Oy, a company located in Espoo, has developed a new method for making split firewood. The tools on which the patented System Logmatic are based are wedge axe and cylindrical splitting-carrying frame. The equipment costs about 495 FIM. The block of wood to be split is placed inside the upright carrying frame and split in a series of splitting actions using the innovative wedge axe. The finished split firewood remains in the carrying frame, which (as its name indicates) also serves as the means for carrying the firewood. This innovative wedge-axe method was compared with the conventional splitting of wood using an axe (Fiskars -handy 1400 splitting axe costing about 200 FIM) in a study conducted at TTS-Institute. There were eight test subjects involved in the study. In the case of the wedge-axe method, handling of the blocks to be split and of the finished firewood was a little quicker, but in actual splitting it was a little slower than the conventional axe method. The average productivity of splitting the wood and of the work stages related to it was about 0.4 m3 per effective hour in both methods. The methods were also equivalent of one another in terms of the load imposed by the work when measured in terms of the heart rate. As regards work safety, the wedge-axe method was superior to the conventional method, but the continuous striking action and jolting transmitted to the arms were unpleasant (orig.)

  11. Mutations in the Myelin Protein Zero result in a spectrum of Charcot-Marie-Tooth phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocha?ski, A

    2004-05-01

    Initially the Myelin Protein Zero gene was shown to be mutated in the demyelinating form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT1). The vast majority of the mutations in the Myelin Protein Zero gene have been detected in the Charcot-Marie-Tooth (1B) disease, however, some of them were found in patients suffering from congenital hypomyelinating neuropathy and axonal type Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. In this study, a Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease phenotype diversity associated with different mutations in the MPZ gene, is described. PMID:15298082

  12. Gain of glycosylation: a new pathomechanism of myelin protein zero mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prada, Valeria; Passalacqua, Mario; Bono, Maria; Luzzi, Paola; Scazzola, Sara; Nobbio, Lucilla Alessandra; Capponi, Simona; Bellone, Emilia; Mandich, Paola; Mancardi, Gianluigi; Shy, Michael; Schenone, Angelo; Grandis, Marina

    2012-03-01

    We report the first case of a missense mutation in MPZ causing a gain of glycosylation in myelin protein zero, the main protein of peripheral nervous system myelin. The patient was affected by a severe demyelinating neuropathy caused by a missense mutation, D32N, that created a new glycosylation sequence. We confirmed that the mutant protein is hyperglycosylated, is partially retained into the Golgi apparatus in vitro, and disrupts intercellular adhesion. By sequential experiments, we demonstrated that hyperglycosylation is the main mechanism of this mutation. Gain of glycosylation is a new mechanism in Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1B. PMID:22451207

  13. Malnutrition and myelin structure: an X-ray scattering study of rat sciatic and optic nerves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taking advantage of the fast and accurate X-ray scattering techniques recently developed in our laboratory, we tackled the study of the structural alterations induced in myelin by malnutrition. Our work was performed on sciatic and optic nerves dissected from rats fed with either a normal or a low-protein caloric diet, as a function of age (from birth to 60 days). By way of electrophysiological controls we also measured (on the sciatic nerves) the height and velocity of the compound action potential. Malnutrition was found to decrease the amount of myelin and to impair the packing order of the membranes in the sheaths. (orig.)

  14. Dominant-negative effect on adhesion by myelin Po protein truncated in its cytoplasmic domain

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    The myelin Po protein is believed to hold myelin together via interactions of both its extracellular and cytoplasmic domains. We have already shown that the extracellular domains of Po can interact in a homophilic manner (Filbin, M.T., F.S. Walsh, B.D. Trapp, J.A. Pizzey, and G.I. Tennekoon. 1990. Nature (Lond.). 344:871-872). In addition, we have shown that for this homophilic adhesion to take place, the cytoplasmic domain of Po must be intact and most likely interacting with the cytoskeleto...

  15. Malnutrition and myelin structure: an X-ray scattering study of rat sciatic and optic nerves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, V.; Vargas, R.; Marquez, G.; Vonasek, E.; Mateu, L. [Dept. de Biologia Estructural, Caracas (Venezuela); Luzzati, V. [Centre de Genetique Moleculaire, CNRS, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Borges, J. [Servicio de Neurologia, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas (Venezuela)

    2000-07-01

    Taking advantage of the fast and accurate X-ray scattering techniques recently developed in our laboratory, we tackled the study of the structural alterations induced in myelin by malnutrition. Our work was performed on sciatic and optic nerves dissected from rats fed with either a normal or a low-protein caloric diet, as a function of age (from birth to 60 days). By way of electrophysiological controls we also measured (on the sciatic nerves) the height and velocity of the compound action potential. Malnutrition was found to decrease the amount of myelin and to impair the packing order of the membranes in the sheaths. (orig.)

  16. Peripheral myelin of Xenopus laevis: Role of electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions in membrane compaction

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Xiaoyang; Cerullo, Jana; Dawli, Tamara; Priest, Christina; Haddadin, Zaid; Kim, Angela; Inouye, Hideyo; Suffoletto, Brian P; Avila, Robin L; Lees, Jonathan P. B.; Sharma, Deepak; Xie, Bo; Catherine E. Costello; Kirschner, Daniel A

    2007-01-01

    P0 glycoprotein is the major structural protein of peripheral nerve myelin where it is thought to modulate inter-membrane adhesion at both the extracellular apposition, which is labile upon changes in pH and ionic strength, and the cytoplasmic apposition, which is resistant to such changes. Most studies on P0 have focused on structure-function correlates in higher vertebrates. Here, we focused on its role in the structure and interactions of frog (Xenopus laevis) myelin, where it exists prima...

  17. Two novel missense mutations in the myelin protein zero gene causes Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 2 and Déjérine-Sottas syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Sand Jette C; Braathen Geir J; Russell Michael B

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) phenotype caused by mutation in the myelin protein zero (MPZ) gene varies considerably, from early onset and severe forms to late onset and milder forms. The mechanism is not well understood. The myelin protein zero (P0) mediates adhesion in the spiral wraps of the Schwann cell's myelin sheath. The crystalline structure of the extracellular domain of the myelin protein zero (P0ex) is known, while the transmembrane and intracellular structure i...

  18. Split-by-edges trees

    OpenAIRE

    Brændeland, Asbjørn

    2015-01-01

    A split-by-edges tree of a graph G on n vertices is a binary tree T where the root = V(G), every leaf is an independent set in G, and for every other node N in T with children L and R there is a pair of vertices {u, v} in N such that L = N - v, R = N - u, and uv is an edge in G. It follows from the definition that every maximal independent set in G is a leaf in T, and the maximum independent sets of G are the leaves closest to the root of T.

  19. Quantum teleportation and beam splitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the previous paper in which quantum teleportation is rigorously discussed with coherent entangled states given by beam splittings, we further discuss two types of models, the perfect teleportation model and non-perfect teleportation model, in a general scheme. Then the difference among several models, i.e., the perfect models and the non-perfect models, is studied. Our teleportation models are constructed by means of coherent states in some Fock space with counting measures, so that our model can be treated in the frame of usual optical communication. (orig.)

  20. Split quaternion nonlinear adaptive filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujang, Bukhari Che; Took, Clive Cheong; Mandic, Danilo P

    2010-04-01

    A split quaternion learning algorithm for the training of nonlinear finite impulse response adaptive filters for the processing of three- and four-dimensional signals is proposed. The derivation takes into account the non-commutativity of the quaternion product, an aspect neglected in the derivation of the existing learning algorithms. It is shown that the additional information taken into account by a rigorous treatment of quaternion algebra provides improved performance on hypercomplex processes. A rigorous analysis of the convergence of the proposed algorithms is also provided. Simulations on both benchmark and real-world signals support the approach. PMID:19926443

  1. Rectangular split-ring resonators with single-split and two-splits under different excitations at microwave frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zahertar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, transmission characteristics of rectangular split-ring resonators with single-split and two-splits are analyzed at microwave frequencies. The resonators are coupled with monopole antennas for excitation. The scattering parameters of the devices are investigated under different polarizations of E and H fields. The magnetic resonances induced by E and H fields are identified and the differences in the behavior of the resonators due to orientations of the fields are explained based on simulation and experimental results. The addition of the second split of the device is investigated considering different configurations of the excitation vectors. It is demonstrated that the single-split and the two-splits resonators exhibit identical transmission characteristics for a certain excitation configuration as verified with simulations and experiments. The presented resonators can effectively function as frequency selective media for varying excitation conditions.

  2. Rectangular split-ring resonators with single-split and two-splits under different excitations at microwave frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahertar, S.; Yalcinkaya, A. D.; Torun, H.

    2015-11-01

    In this work, transmission characteristics of rectangular split-ring resonators with single-split and two-splits are analyzed at microwave frequencies. The resonators are coupled with monopole antennas for excitation. The scattering parameters of the devices are investigated under different polarizations of E and H fields. The magnetic resonances induced by E and H fields are identified and the differences in the behavior of the resonators due to orientations of the fields are explained based on simulation and experimental results. The addition of the second split of the device is investigated considering different configurations of the excitation vectors. It is demonstrated that the single-split and the two-splits resonators exhibit identical transmission characteristics for a certain excitation configuration as verified with simulations and experiments. The presented resonators can effectively function as frequency selective media for varying excitation conditions.

  3. Spin resonance without spin splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hell, M.; Sothmann, B.; Leijnse, M.; Wegewijs, M. R.; König, J.

    2015-05-01

    We predict that a single-level quantum dot without discernible splitting of its spin states develops a spin-precession resonance in charge transport when embedded into a spin valve. The resonance occurs in the generic situation of Coulomb blockaded transport with ferromagnetic leads whose polarizations deviate from perfect antiparallel alignment. The resonance appears when electrically tuning the interaction-induced exchange field perpendicular to one of the polarizations—a simple condition relying on vectors in contrast to usual resonance conditions associated with energy splittings. The spin resonance can be detected by stationary d I /d V spectroscopy and by oscillations in the time-averaged current using a gate-pulsing scheme. The generic noncollinearity of the ferromagnets and junction asymmetry allow for an all-electric determination of the spin-injection asymmetry, the anisotropy of spin relaxation, and the magnitude of the exchange field. We also investigate the impact of a nearby superconductor on the resonance position. Our simplistic model turns out to be generic for a broad class of coherent few-level quantum systems.

  4. Gluon splitting in a shockwave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iancu, E.; Laidet, J.

    2013-10-01

    The study of azimuthal correlations in particle production at forward rapidities in proton-nucleus collisions provides direct information about high gluon density effects, like gluon saturation, in the nuclear wavefunction. In the kinematical conditions for proton-lead collisions at the LHC, the forward di-hadron production is dominated by partonic processes in which a gluon from the proton splits into a pair of gluons, while undergoing multiple scattering off the dense gluon system in the nucleus. We compute the corresponding cross-section using the Colour Glass Condensate effective theory, which enables us to include the effects of multiple scattering and gluon saturation in the leading logarithmic approximation at high energy. This opens the way towards systematic studies of angular correlations in two-gluon production, similar to previous studies for quark-gluon production in the literature. We consider in more detail two special kinematical limits: the "back-to-back correlation limit", where the transverse momenta of the produced gluons are much larger than the nuclear saturation momentum, and the "double parton scattering limit", where the two gluons are produced by a nearly collinear splitting occurring prior to the collision. We argue that saturation effects remain important even for relatively high transverse momenta (i.e. for nearly back-to-back configurations), leading to geometric scaling in the azimuthal distribution.

  5. Gluon splitting in a shockwave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iancu, E., E-mail: edmond.iancu@cea.fr; Laidet, J., E-mail: julien.laidet@cea.fr

    2013-10-23

    The study of azimuthal correlations in particle production at forward rapidities in proton–nucleus collisions provides direct information about high gluon density effects, like gluon saturation, in the nuclear wavefunction. In the kinematical conditions for proton–lead collisions at the LHC, the forward di-hadron production is dominated by partonic processes in which a gluon from the proton splits into a pair of gluons, while undergoing multiple scattering off the dense gluon system in the nucleus. We compute the corresponding cross-section using the Colour Glass Condensate effective theory, which enables us to include the effects of multiple scattering and gluon saturation in the leading logarithmic approximation at high energy. This opens the way towards systematic studies of angular correlations in two-gluon production, similar to previous studies for quark–gluon production in the literature. We consider in more detail two special kinematical limits: the “back-to-back correlation limit”, where the transverse momenta of the produced gluons are much larger than the nuclear saturation momentum, and the “double parton scattering limit”, where the two gluons are produced by a nearly collinear splitting occurring prior to the collision. We argue that saturation effects remain important even for relatively high transverse momenta (i.e. for nearly back-to-back configurations), leading to geometric scaling in the azimuthal distribution.

  6. Signature splitting in 135Pr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In-beam spectroscopic study of 135Pr was made using 91 MeV 120Sn(19F,4n) reaction. A strong negative parity proton band based on the h/sub 11/2-/ 1/2[550] configuration with ? = -1/2 was observed. Possibly ? = +1/2 unfavored band is observed. Also two positive parity proton bands are observed most likely based on the g/sub 7/2+/ 5/2[413] configurations with ? = +-1/2. In all cases (except for the (?,?) = (-,+1/2) band) the backbending is caused by alignment of two h/sub 11/2-/ 9/2[514] quasi-neutrons. For the strongly decoupled ?(-) bands the observed signature splitting decreases with increasing rotational frequency. The signature splitting of the positive parity bands increases with rotational frequency and then inverts above the backbending. This is interpreted to be caused by the quasi-neutrons, which drive the ?-deformation to the negative values. 18 refs., 6 figs

  7. Algebraic techniques for diagonalization of a split quaternion matrix in split quaternionic mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tongsong; Jiang, Ziwu; Zhang, Zhaozhong

    2015-08-01

    In the study of the relation between complexified classical and non-Hermitian quantum mechanics, physicists found that there are links to quaternionic and split quaternionic mechanics, and this leads to the possibility of employing algebraic techniques of split quaternions to tackle some problems in complexified classical and quantum mechanics. This paper, by means of real representation of a split quaternion matrix, studies the problem of diagonalization of a split quaternion matrix and gives algebraic techniques for diagonalization of split quaternion matrices in split quaternionic mechanics.

  8. Telugu Bigram Splitting using Consonant-based and Phrase-based Splitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kameswara Rao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Splitting is a conventional process in most of Indian languages according to their grammar rules. It is called ‘pada vicchEdanam’ (a Sanskrit term for word splitting and is widely used by most of the Indian languages. Splitting plays a key role in Machine Translation (MT particularly when the source language (SL is an Indian language. Though this splitting may not succeed completely in extracting the root words of which the compound is formed, but it shows considerable impact in Natural Language Processing (NLP as an important phase. Though there are many types of splitting, this paper considers only consonant based and phrase based splitting.

  9. Rapamycin improves peripheral nerve myelination while it fails to benefit neuromuscular performance in neuropathic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicks, Jessica; Lee, Sooyeon; Harris, Andrew; Falk, Darin J; Todd, Adrian G; Arredondo, Karla; Dunn, William A; Notterpek, Lucia

    2014-10-01

    Charcot--Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A) is a hereditary peripheral neuropathy characterized by progressive demyelination and distal muscle weakness. Abnormal expression of peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) has been linked to CMT1A and is modeled by Trembler J (TrJ) mice, which carry the same leucine to proline substitution in PMP22 as affected pedigrees. Pharmacologic modulation of autophagy by rapamycin in neuron-Schwann cell explant cultures from neuropathic mice reduced PMP22 aggregate formation and improved myelination. Here we asked whether rapamycin administration by food supplementation, or intraperitoneal injection, could alleviate the neuropathic phenotype of affected mice and improve neuromuscular performance. Cohorts of male and female wild type (Wt) and TrJ mice were assigned to placebo or rapamycin treatment starting at 2 or 4months of age and tested monthly on the rotarod. While neither long-term feeding (8 or 10months) on rapamycin-enriched diet, or short-term injection (2months) of rapamycin improved locomotor performance of the neuropathic mice, both regimen benefited peripheral nerve myelination. Together, these results indicate that while treatment with rapamycin benefits the myelination capacity of neuropathic Schwann cells, this intervention does not improve neuromuscular function. The observed outcome might be the result of the differential response of nerve and skeletal muscle tissue to rapamycin. PMID:25014022

  10. LINGO-1 antibody ameliorates myelin impairment and spatial memory deficits in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jun-Jun; Ren, Qing-Guo; Xu, Lin; Zhang, Zhi-Jun

    2015-01-01

    More than 50% of multiple sclerosis patients develop cognitive impairment. However, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear, and there is no effective treatment. LINGO-1 (LRR and Ig domain containing NOGO receptor interacting protein 1) has been identified as an inhibitor of oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination. Using the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse model, we assessed cognitive function at early and late stages of EAE, determined brain expression of myelin basic protein (MBP) and investigated whether the LINGO-1 antibody could restore deficits in learning and memory and ameliorate any loss of MBP. We found that deficits in learning and memory occurred in late EAE and identified decreased expression of MBP in the parahippocampal cortex (PHC) and fimbria-fornix. Moreover, the LINGO-1 antibody significantly improved learning and memory in EAE and partially restored MBP in PHC. Furthermore, the LINGO-1 antibody activated the AKT/mTOR signaling pathway regulating myelin growth. Our results suggest that demyelination in the PHC and fimbria-fornix might contribute to cognitive deficits and the LINGO-1 antibody could ameliorate these deficits by promoting myelin growth in the PHC. Our research demonstrates that LINGO-1 antagonism may be an effective approach to the treatment of the cognitive impairment of multiple sclerosis patients. PMID:26383267

  11. Detection of Autoantibodies Against Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein in Multiple Sclerosis and Related Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spadaro, Melania; Meinl, Edgar

    2016-01-01

    Autoantibodies against myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) occur in a proportion of patients with different inflammatory demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system, such as childhood multiple sclerosis (MS), acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD). We describe here in detail a sensitive cell-based assay that allows the identification of autoantibodies against MOG in serum. PMID:25814289

  12. Reoxygenation of anoxic peripheral nerve myelinated axons promotes re-establishment of normal elemental composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehning, E J; Stys, P K; LoPachin, R M

    1996-04-01

    Previously we have shown that in vitro anoxia of rat peripheral nerve myelinated axons causes sequential deregulation of axoplasmic Na, K and Ca; i.e., an initial influx of Na and loss of K is coupled to subsequent Ca accumulation [7]. In the present study, we examined the ability of PNS axons to recover normal elemental composition following oxygen deprivation. Thus, electron probe X-ray microanalysis was used to determine the effects of post-anoxia reoxygenation on the concentrations of elements (i.e., Na, K, Cl, Ca, Mg, P and S) in rat posterior tibial nerve myelinated axons and Schwann cells. Results indicate that following 180 min of anoxia, peripheral nerve reoxygenation (60 and 120 min) promoted progressive recovery of normal elemental composition in axoplasm and mitochondria of small, medium and large diameter tibial nerve fibers. Our observations also indicate that small axons recovered normal elemental concentrations more rapidly than larger counterparts. Schwann cells and myelin exhibited only modest elemental disruption during anoxia from which reoxygenation promoted full reparation. The ability of peripheral nerve axons to restore normal elemental composition during post-anoxia reoxygenation is in marked contrast to the exacerbation of elemental deregulation which ensued during in vitro reoxygenation of anoxic rat CNS fibers [14]. This differential response to reoxygenation represents a fundamental difference in the pathophysiology of myelinated axons in the CNS and PNS. PMID:8739638

  13. Myelination Is Associated with Processing Speed in Early Childhood: Preliminary Insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Nicolas; Kurth, Salome; Doucette, Margaret Rae; Wiseheart, Melody; Deoni, Sean C L; Dean, Douglas C; O'Muircheartaigh, Jonathan; Blackwell, Katharine A; Munakata, Yuko; LeBourgeois, Monique K

    2015-01-01

    Processing speed is an important contributor to working memory performance and fluid intelligence in young children. Myelinated white matter plays a central role in brain messaging, and likely mediates processing speed, but little is known about the relationship between myelination and processing speed in young children. In the present study, processing speed was measured through inspection times, and myelin volume fraction (VFM) was quantified using a multicomponent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) approach in 2- to 5-years of age. Both inspection times and VFM were found to increase with age. Greater VFM in the right and left occipital lobes, the body of the corpus callosum, and the right cerebellum was significantly associated with shorter inspection times, after controlling for age. A hierarchical regression showed that VFM in the left occipital lobe predicted inspection times over and beyond the effects of age and the VFM in the other brain regions. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that myelin supports processing speed in early childhood. PMID:26440654

  14. Changes in the anisotropy of oriented membrane dynamics induced by myelin basic protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natali, F. [OGG-INFM, Grenoble (France); Gliozzi, A.; Rolandi, R.; Relini, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica and Istituto Nazionale per la Fisica della Materia, Universita di Genova (Italy); Cavatorta, P.; Deriu, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica and Istituto Nazionale per la Fisica della Materia, Universita di Parma (Italy); Fasano, A. [Dipartimento di Biochimica e Biologia Molecolare, Universita di Bari (Italy); Riccio, P. [Dipartimento di Biologia D.B.A.F., Universita della Basilicata, Potenza (Italy)

    2002-07-01

    We report recent results showing the evidence of the effect induced by physiological amounts of myelin basic protein (MBP) on the dynamics of dimyristoyl L-a-phosphatidic acid (DMPA) membranes. Incoherent elastic neutron scattering scans, performed over a wide temperature range, have shown that the anisotropy of motions in oriented membranes is significantly enhanced by the presence of MBP. (orig.)

  15. Changes in the anisotropy of oriented membrane dynamics induced by myelin basic protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report recent results showing the evidence of the effect induced by physiological amounts of myelin basic protein (MBP) on the dynamics of dimyristoyl L-a-phosphatidic acid (DMPA) membranes. Incoherent elastic neutron scattering scans, performed over a wide temperature range, have shown that the anisotropy of motions in oriented membranes is significantly enhanced by the presence of MBP. (orig.)

  16. Changes in the anisotropy of oriented membrane dynamics induced by myelin basic protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natali, F.; Gliozzi, A.; Rolandi, R.; Relini, A.; Cavatorta, P.; Deriu, A.; Fasano, A.; Riccio, P.

    We report recent results showing the evidence of the effect induced by physiological amounts of myelin basic protein (MBP) on the dynamics of dimyristoyl L-a-phosphatidic acid (DMPA) membranes. Incoherent elastic neutron scattering scans, performed over a wide temperature range, have shown that the anisotropy of motions in oriented membranes is significantly enhanced by the presence of MBP.

  17. Erythropoietin promotes oligodendrogenesis and myelin repair following lysolecithin-induced injury in spinal cord slice culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Lysolecithin-induced demyelination elevated EpoR expression in OPCs. ? In association with elevated EpoR, EPO increased OPCs proliferation. ? EPO enhanced the oligodendrogenesis via activation of JAK2 pathway. ? EPO promoted myelin repair following lysolecithin-induced demyelination. -- Abstract: Here, we sought to delineate the effect of EPO on the remyelination processes using an in vitro model of demyelination. We report that lysolecithin-induced demyelination elevated EPO receptor (EpoR) expression in oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs), facilitating the beneficial effect of EPO on the formation of oligodendrocytes (oligodendrogenesis). In the absence of EPO, the resultant remyelination was insufficient, possibly due to a limiting number of oligodendrocytes rather than their progenitors, which proliferate in response to lysolecithin-induced injury. By EPO treatment, lysolecithin-induced proliferation of OPCs was accelerated and the number of myelinating oligodendrocytes and myelin recovery was increased. EPO also enhanced the differentiation of neural progenitor cells expressing EpoR at high level toward the oligodendrocyte-lineage cells through activation of cyclin E and Janus kinase 2 pathways. Induction of myelin-forming oligodendrocytes by high dose of EPO implies that EPO might be the key factor influencing the final differentiation of OPCs. Taken together, our data suggest that EPO treatment could be an effective way to enhance remyelination by promoting oligodendrogenesis in association with elevated EpoR expression in spinal cord slice culture after lysolecithin-induced demyelination.

  18. Transfer of axonally transported phospholipids into myelin isolated from the rabbit optic pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contribution of the axonal transport to the biosynthesis of myelin phospholipids was investigated in the rabbit optic pathway. A double labeling technique was used. The same animals were injected with one isotope intravitreally and the other intraventricularly. This procedure allows double labeling of the optic nerves, optic tracts, lateral geniculate bodies (LGB), and superior colliculus (SC). The precursors simultaneously injected were: [1-14C]palmitate (15 microCi intravitreally in both eyes or 50 microCi intraventricularly) and [2-3H]glycerol (50 microCi intravitreally in both eyes of 100 microCi intraventricularly). Twenty four hours and 10 days after the injections, myelin was purified from pooled optic nerves and optic tracts as well as from pooled LGBs or SCs. The phospholipids were extracted and then separated by thin-layer chromatography; the specific radioactivity of the various classes of phospholipids was determined. Using both administration routes of C- or 3H-precursors, the distribution of label and specific radioactivity of myelin phospholipids in the retina and in all other optic structures were very similar. Phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylserine + phosphoinositol were preferentially labeled with both precursors. These results suggest that, in the rabbit optic pathway the phospholipids synthesized in the retinal ganglion cells and transported along the axons, could undergo transaxonal transfer into myelin

  19. Axonal plasticity elicits long-term changes in oligodendroglia and myelinated fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drøjdahl, Nina; Nielsen, Helle Hvilsted; Gardi, Jonathan E; Wree, Andreas; Peterson, Alan C; Nyengaard, Jens Randel; Eyer, Joël; Finsen, Bente

    2010-01-01

    in significant recruitment of newly formed myelinating cells, documented by incorporation of the proliferation marker bromodeoxyuridine into chondroitin sulphate NG2 expressing cells in stratum radiatum and lucidum CA3 early after lesion, and the occurrence of a 28% increase in the number of...

  20. Enhanced microglial clearance of myelin debris in T cell-infiltrated central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helle Hvilsted; Ladeby, Rune; Fenger, Christina; Toft-Hansen, Henrik; Babcock, Alicia A; Owens, Trevor; Finsen, Bente

    2009-01-01

    Acute multiple sclerosis lesions are characterized by accumulation of T cells and macrophages, destruction of myelin and oligodendrocytes, and axonal damage. There is, however, limited information on neuroimmune interactions distal to sites of axonal damage in the T cell-infiltrated central nervo...

  1. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans impede myelination by oligodendrocytes after perinatal white matter injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Ying-Ping; Sun, Yi; Hu, Lan; Li, Zhi-Hua; Xu, Quan-Mei; Pei, Yi-Ling; Huang, Zhi-Heng; Yang, Zhen-Gang; Chen, Chao

    2015-07-01

    Hypomyelination is the major cause of neurodevelopmental deficits that are associated with perinatal white matter injury. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are known to exert inhibitory effects on the migration and differentiation of oligodendrocytes (OLs). However, few studies describe the roles of CSPGs in myelination by OLs and the cognitive dysfunction that follows perinatal white matter injury. Here, we examined the alterations in the expression of CSPGs and their functional impact on the maturation of OLs and myelination in a neonatal rat model of hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury. Three-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats underwent a right common carotid artery ligation and were exposed to hypoxia (6% oxygen for 2.5h). Rats were given chondroitinase ABC (cABC) via an intracerebroventricular injection to digest CSPGs. Animals were sacrificed at 7, 14, 28 and 56days after HI injury and the accompanying surgical procedure. We found that the expression of CSPGs was significantly up-regulated in the cortical regions surrounding the white matter after HI injury. cABC successfully degraded CSPGs in the rats that received cABC. Immunostaining showed decreased expression of the pre-oligodendrocyte marker O4 in the cingulum, external capsule and corpus callosum in HI+cABC rats compared to HI rats. However HI+cABC rats exhibited greater maturation of OLs than did HI rats, with increased expression of O1 and myelin basic protein in the white matter. Furthermore, using electron microscopy, we demonstrated that myelin formation was enhanced in HI+cABC rats, which had an increased number of myelinated axons and decreased G-ratios of myelin compared to HI rats. Finally, HI+cABC rats performed better in the Morris water maze task than HI rats, which indicates an improvement in cognitive ability. Our results suggest that CSPGs inhibit both the maturation of OLs and the process of myelination after neonatal HI brain injury. The data also raise the possibility that modifying CSPGs may repair this type of lesion associated with demyelination. PMID:25862289

  2. Quasiperiodic Tip Splitting in Directional Solidification

    OpenAIRE

    Utter, B.; Ragnarsson, R; Bodenschatz, E

    2001-01-01

    We report experimental results on the tip splitting dynamics of seaweed growth in directional solidification of succinonitrile alloys with poly(ethylene oxide) or acetone as solutes. The seaweed or dense branching morphology was selected by solidifying grains which are oriented close to the {111} plane. Despite the random appearance of the growth, a quasiperiodic tip splitting morphology was observed in which the tip alternately splits to the left and to the right. The tip s...

  3. Wave splitting and lattice dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A wave-splitting approach used elsewhere to solve a black-hole scattering problem is adapted to the formal solution of arbitrary self-adjoint wave equations in 1+1 dimensions and yields potentially useful results in this more general case. It is then shown that the self-adjoint wave equation being solved, and the non-self-adjoint linear wave equations satisfied by the one-way component waves, are naturally related to a pair of motions of the (1+1)-dimensional Toda lattice that together comprise a motion of the Kac-van Moerbeke lattice. This provides a partial explanation for the peculiar fact that every motion of the Kac-van Moerbeke lattice can be viewed as two interpolated motions of the Toda lattice. (author)

  4. Gauge Mediated Mini-Split

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Timothy; Knapen, Simon

    2015-01-01

    We propose a simple model of split supersymmetry from gauge mediation. This model features gauginos that are parametrically a loop factor lighter than scalars, accommodates a Higgs boson mass of 125 GeV, and incorporates a simple solution to the $\\mu-b_\\mu$ problem. The gaugino mass suppression can be understood as resulting from collective symmetry breaking. Imposing collider bounds on $\\mu$ and requiring viable electroweak symmetry breaking implies small $a$-terms and small $\\tan \\beta$ -- the stop mass ranges from $10^5$ to $10^8 \\mbox{ GeV}$. In contrast with models with anomaly + gravity mediation (which also predict a one-loop loop suppression for gaugino masses), our gauge mediated scenario predicts aligned squark masses and a gravitino LSP. Gluinos, electroweakinos and Higgsinos can be accessible at the LHC and/or future colliders for a wide region of the allowed parameter space.

  5. Salt splitting with ceramic membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this task is to develop ceramic membrane technologies for salt splitting of radioactively contaminated sodium salt solutions. This technology has the potential to reduce the low-level waste (LLW) disposal volume, the pH and sodium hydroxide content for subsequent processing steps, the sodium content of interstitial liquid in high-level waste (HLW) sludges, and provide sodium hydroxide free of aluminum for recycle within processing plants at the DOE complex. Potential deployment sites include Hanford, Savannah River, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The technical approach consists of electrochemical separation of sodium ions from the salt solution using sodium (Na) Super Ion Conductors (NaSICON). As the name implies, sodium ions are transported rapidly through these ceramic crystals even at room temperatures

  6. Gluon splitting in a shockwave

    CERN Document Server

    Iancu, Edmond

    2013-01-01

    The study of azimuthal correlations in particle production at forward rapidities in proton-nucleus collisions provides direct information about high gluon density effects, like gluon saturation, in the nuclear wavefunction. In the kinematical conditions for proton-lead collisions at the LHC, the forward di-hadron production is dominated by partonic processes in which a gluon from the proton splits into a pair of gluons, while undergoing multiple scattering off the dense gluon system in the nucleus. We compute the corresponding cross-section using the Colour Glass Condensate effective theory, which enables us to include the effects of multiple scattering and gluon saturation in the leading logarithmic approximation at high energy. This opens the way towards systematic studies of angular correlations in two-gluon production, similar to previous studies for quark-gluon production in the literature. We consider in more detail two special kinematical limits: the "back-to-back correlation limit", where the transver...

  7. Salt splitting with ceramic membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurath, D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this task is to develop ceramic membrane technologies for salt splitting of radioactively contaminated sodium salt solutions. This technology has the potential to reduce the low-level waste (LLW) disposal volume, the pH and sodium hydroxide content for subsequent processing steps, the sodium content of interstitial liquid in high-level waste (HLW) sludges, and provide sodium hydroxide free of aluminum for recycle within processing plants at the DOE complex. Potential deployment sites include Hanford, Savannah River, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The technical approach consists of electrochemical separation of sodium ions from the salt solution using sodium (Na) Super Ion Conductors (NaSICON). As the name implies, sodium ions are transported rapidly through these ceramic crystals even at room temperatures.

  8. Ribosomal trafficking is reduced in Schwann cells following induction of myelination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M. Love

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Local synthesis of proteins within the Schwann cell periphery is extremely important for efficient process extension and myelination, when cells undergo dramatic changes in polarity and geometry. Still, it is unclear how ribosomal distributions are developed and maintained within Schwann cell projections to sustain local translation. In this multi-disciplinary study, we expressed a plasmid encoding a fluorescently labeled ribosomal subunit (L4-GFP in cultured primary rat Schwann cells. This enabled the generation of high-resolution, quantitative data on ribosomal distributions and trafficking dynamics within Schwann cells during early stages of myelination, induced by ascorbic acid treatment. Ribosomes were distributed throughout Schwann cell projections, with ~2-3 bright clusters along each projection. Clusters emerged within 1 day of culture and were maintained throughout early stages of myelination. Three days after induction of myelination, net ribosomal movement remained anterograde (directed away from the Schwann cell body, but ribosomal velocity decreased to about half the levels of the untreated group. Statistical and modeling analysis provided additional insight into key factors underlying ribosomal trafficking. Multiple regression analysis indicated that net transport at early time points was dependent on anterograde velocity, but shifted to dependence on anterograde duration at later time points. A simple, data-driven rate kinetics model suggested that the observed decrease in net ribosomal movement was primarily dictated by an increased conversion of anterograde particles to stationary particles, rather than changes in other directional parameters. These results reveal the strength of a combined experimental and theoretical approach in examining protein localization and transport, and provide evidence of an early establishment of ribosomal populations within Schwann cell projections with a reduction in trafficking following initiation of myelination.

  9. Peripheral nervous system manifestations in a Sandhoff disease mouse model: nerve conduction, myelin structure, lipid analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strichartz Gary R

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sandhoff disease is an inherited lysosomal storage disease caused by a mutation in the gene for the ?-subunit (Hexb gene of ?-hexosaminidase A (?? and B (??. The ?-subunit together with the GM2 activator protein catabolize ganglioside GM2. This enzyme deficiency results in GM2 accumulation primarily in the central nervous system. To investigate how abnormal GM2 catabolism affects the peripheral nervous system in a mouse model of Sandhoff disease (Hexb-/-, we examined the electrophysiology of dissected sciatic nerves, structure of central and peripheral myelin, and lipid composition of the peripheral nervous system. Results We detected no significant difference in signal impulse conduction velocity or any consistent change in the frequency-dependent conduction slowing and failure between freshly dissected sciatic nerves from the Hexb+/- and Hexb-/- mice. The low-angle x-ray diffraction patterns from freshly dissected sciatic and optic nerves of Hexb+/- and Hexb-/- mice showed normal myelin periods; however, Hexb-/- mice displayed a ~10% decrease in the relative amount of compact optic nerve myelin, which is consistent with the previously established reduction in myelin-enriched lipids (cerebrosides and sulfatides in brains of Hexb-/- mice. Finally, analysis of lipid composition revealed that GM2 content was present in the sciatic nerve of the Hexb-/- mice (undetectable in Hexb+/-. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate the absence of significant functional, structural, or compositional abnormalities in the peripheral nervous system of the murine model for Sandhoff disease, but do show the potential value of integrating multiple techniques to evaluate myelin structure and function in nervous system disorders.

  10. Astrocytic tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) promotes oligodendrocyte differentiation and enhances CNS myelination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Craig S; Milner, Richard; Nishiyama, Akiko; Frausto, Ricardo F; Serwanski, David R; Pagarigan, Roberto R; Whitton, J Lindsay; Miller, Robert H; Crocker, Stephen J

    2011-04-20

    Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) is an extracellular protein and endogenous regulator of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) secreted by astrocytes in response to CNS myelin injury. We have previously reported that adult TIMP-1 knock-out (KO) mice exhibit poor myelin repair following demyelinating injury. This observation led us to hypothesize a role for TIMP-1 in oligodendrogenesis and CNS myelination. Herein, we demonstrate that compact myelin formation is significantly delayed in TIMP-1 KO mice, a situation that coincided with dramatically reduced numbers of white matter astrocytes in the developing CNS. Analysis of differentiation in CNS progenitor cells (neurosphere) cultures from TIMP-1 KO mice revealed a specific deficit of NG2(+) oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. Application of recombinant murine TIMP-1 (rmTIMP-1) to TIMP-1 KO neurosphere cultures evoked a dose-dependent increase in NG2(+) cell numbers, while treatment with GM6001, a potent broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor did not. Similarly, administration of rmTIMP-1 to A2B5(+) immunopanned oligodendrocyte progenitors significantly increased the number of differentiated O1(+) oligodendrocytes, while antisera to TIMP-1 reduced oligodendrocyte numbers. We also determined that A2B5(+) oligodendrocyte progenitors grown in conditioned media derived from TIMP-1 KO primary glial cultures resulted in reduced differentiation of mature O1(+) oligodendrocytes. Finally, we report that addition of rmTIMP-1 to primary glial cultures resulted in a dose-dependent proliferative response of astrocytes. Together, these findings describe a previously uncharacterized role for TIMP-1 in the regulation of oligodendrocytes and astrocytes during development and provide a novel function for TIMP-1 on myelination in the developing CNS. PMID:21508247

  11. Whole brain myelin mapping using T1- and T2-weighted MR imaging data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Wenderoth

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite recent advancements in MR imaging, non-invasive mapping of myelin in the brain still remains an open issue. Here we attempted to provide a potential solution. Specifically, we developed a processing workflow based on T1-w and T2-w MR data to generate an optimized myelin enhanced contrast image. The workflow allows whole brain mapping using the T1-w/T2-w technique, which was originally introduced as a non-invasive method for assessing cortical myelin content. The hallmark of our approach is a retrospective calibration algorithm, applied to bias-corrected T1-w and T2-w images, that relies on image intensities outside the brain. This permits standardizing the intensity histogram of the ratio image, thereby allowing for across-subject statistical analyses. Quantitative comparisons of image histograms within and across different datasets confirmed the effectiveness of our normalization procedure. Not only did the calibrated T1-w/T2-w images exhibit a comparable intensity range, but also the shape of the intensity histograms was largely corresponding. We also assessed the reliability and specificity of the ratio image compared to other MR-based techniques, such as magnetization transfer ratio, fractional anisotropy and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery. With respect to these other techniques, T1-w/T2-w had consistently high values, as well as low inter-subject variability, in brain structures where myelin is most abundant. Overall, our results suggested that the T1-w/T2-w technique may be a valid tool supporting the non-invasive mapping of myelin in the brain. Therefore, it might find important applications in the study of brain development, aging and disease.

  12. Depleting endogenous neurotrophin-3 enhances myelin formation in the Trembler-J mouse, a model of a peripheral neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Varma, Sushama; Tsao, David; Shooter, Eric M; Tolwani, Ravi J

    2007-10-01

    The heterozygous Trembler-J (TrJ/+) mouse, containing a point mutation in the peripheral myelin protein 22 (Pmp22) gene, is characterized by severe hypomyelination and is a representative model of Charcot-Marie-Tooth 1A (CMT1A) disease/Dejerine-Sottas syndrome (DSS). Given that the neurotrophin-3 (NT3)-TrkC signaling pathway is inhibitory to myelination during development, we investigated the role of the NT3-TrkC pathway in myelination and manipulated this pathway to improve myelin formation in the CMT1A/DSS mouse model. Injection of NT3 to the TrJ/+ mice decreased the myelin protein P(0) level in the sciatic nerves. Suppressing the NT3-TrkC pathway with TrkC-Fc, an NT3 scavenger, enhanced myelination in vitro and in vivo in the TrJ/+ mouse. Furthermore, we found that full-length TrkC was expressed in adult TrJ/+ mouse sciatic nerves but was not detected in the wild-type adults, suggesting that the full-length TrkC is a potential target of treatment to enhance myelination in the TrJ/+ mouse. PMID:17628499

  13. Salt splitting using ceramic membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurath, D.E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Many radioactive aqueous wastes in the DOE complex have high concentrations of sodium that can negatively affect waste treatment and disposal operations. Sodium can decrease the durability of waste forms such as glass and is the primary contributor to large disposal volumes. Waste treatment processes such as cesium ion exchange, sludge washing, and calcination are made less efficient and more expensive because of the high sodium concentrations. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Ceramatec Inc. (Salt Lake City UT) are developing an electrochemical salt splitting process based on inorganic ceramic sodium (Na), super-ionic conductor (NaSICON) membranes that shows promise for mitigating the impact of sodium. In this process, the waste is added to the anode compartment, and an electrical potential is applied to the cell. This drives sodium ions through the membrane, but the membrane rejects most other cations (e.g., Sr{sup +2}, Cs{sup +}). The charge balance in the anode compartment is maintained by generating H{sup +} from the electrolysis of water. The charge balance in the cathode is maintained by generating OH{sup {minus}}, either from the electrolysis of water or from oxygen and water using an oxygen cathode. The normal gaseous products of the electrolysis of water are oxygen at the anode and hydrogen at the cathode. Potentially flammable gas mixtures can be prevented by providing adequate volumes of a sweep gas, using an alternative reductant or destruction of the hydrogen as it is generated. As H{sup +} is generated in the anode compartment, the pH drops. The process may be operated with either an alkaline (pH>12) or an acidic anolyte (pH <1). The benefits of salt splitting using ceramic membranes are (1) waste volume reduction and reduced chemical procurement costs by recycling of NaOH; and (2) direct reduction of sodium in process streams, which enhances subsequent operations such as cesium ion exchange, calcination, and vitrification.

  14. Enhancement of Schwann cell myelin formation by K252a in the Trembler-J mouse dorsal root ganglion explant culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Varma, Sushama; Shooter, Eric M; Tolwani, Ravi J

    2005-02-01

    The Trembler-J (TrJ) mouse, containing a point mutation in the peripheral myelin protein 22 gene, is characterized by severe hypomyelination and is a representative model of Charcot-Marie-Tooth 1A disease/Dejerine-Sottas Syndrome. Previous studies have shown that protein kinase inhibitor K252a enhances wild-type Schwann cell myelination in culture. We used a dorsal root ganglion (DRG) explant culture system from the heterozygous TrJ/+ mouse to investigate if myelination could be enhanced by K252a. The TrJ/+ DRG explant cultures replicated some important features of the TrJ/+ mouse, showing reduced myelin protein accumulation, thinner myelin sheaths, and shortened myelin internodes. K252a increased myelin protein accumulation and myelin sheath thickness but did not substantially increase myelin internode length. Furthermore, the TrJ/+ DRG explant culture and sciatic nerves continued to respond to K252a during the stage when myelination is complete in the wild type. A general tyrosine kinase inhibitor, genistein, but not inhibitors of serine/threonine protein kinase inhibitors, had a similar effect to K252a. K252a is therefore able to partially overcome hypomyelination by enhancing mutant Schwann cell myelin formation in the TrJ/+ mouse. PMID:15605381

  15. Myelination delay in the cerebral white matter of immature rats with kaolin-induced hydrocephalus is reversible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Bigio, M R; Kanfer, J N; Zhang, Y W

    1997-09-01

    We hypothesized that hydrocephalus in young animals could cause a delay in myelination. Hydrocephalus was induced in 3-week-old rats by injecting kaolin into the cisterna magna. Ventricular size was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging. After 1 to 4 weeks, rats were either sacrificed, or treated by diversionary shunting of cerebrospinal fluid and then sacrificed 3 to 4 weeks later. Samples of corpus callosum/supraventricular white matter, fimbria, medulla, and spinal cord were assayed for myelin-related enzyme activities including p-nitrophenylphosphorylcholine phosphocholine phosphodiesterase (PNPCP), glycerophosphocholine phosphocholine phosphodiesterase (GPCP), and 2',3'-cyclic neucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase), and the oligodendrocyte enzyme UDP-galactose, ceramide galactosyltransferase (CGa1T). Myelin basic protein (MBP) and proteolipid protein (PLP) were assayed in cerebrum by immunoblots and Northern blot. The corpus callosum was processed for electron microscopy and myelin thickness to axon diameter ratios were quantified. One week after induction of hydrocephalus, CGa1T and GPCP activity were reduced in the corpus callosum there was less MBP and PLP in the cerebrum, and myelin sheaths around axons greater than 0.4 micron in diameter were abnormally thin. With persistent hydrocephalus, the corpus callosum became thinned, axons were lost, and myelin-related enzyme activities and proteins were decreased. Treatment of hydrocephalus at 1 week largely prevented the damage while shunting at 4 weeks failed to restore the injured white matter. Early reduction in CGa1T activity in the medulla and spinal cord suggest that oligodendrocyte production of myelin was reduced, even before irreversible damage occurred in the corticospinal tracts. We conclude that hydrocephalus in the immature rat brain delays myelination, but compensatory myelination is possible if treatment is instituted prior to the development of axonal injury. Possible mechanisms of oligodendrocyte impairment are discussed. PMID:9291946

  16. Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-35-55 peptide induces severe chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in HLA-DR2-transgenic mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Rich, C; Link, JM; Zamora, A.; Jacobsen, H; Meza-Romero, R; OFFNER, H.; JONES, R.; Burrows, GG; Fugger, L; Vandenbark, AA

    2004-01-01

    The use of HLA class II-transgenic (Tg) mice has facilitated identification of antigenic T cell epitopes that may contribute to inflammation in T cell-mediated diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis (MS). In this study, we compared the encephalitogenic activity of three DR2-restricted myelin determinants [mouse (m) myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-35-55, human (h)MOG-35-55 and myelin basic protein (MBP)-87-99] in Tg mice expressing the MS-associated DR2 allele, ...

  17. Quantitative analysis of the myelin g-ratio from electron microscopy images of the macaque corpus callosum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stikov, Nikola; Campbell, Jennifer S.W.; Stroh, Thomas; Lavelée, Mariette; Frey, Stephen; Novek, Jennifer; Nuara, Stephen; Ho, Ming-Kai; Bedell, Barry J.; Dougherty, Robert F.; Leppert, Ilana R.; Boudreau, Mathieu; Narayanan, Sridar; Duval, Tanguy; Cohen-Adad, Julien; Picard, Paul-Alexandre; Gasecka, Alicja; Côté, Daniel; Pike, G. Bruce

    2015-01-01

    We provide a detailed morphometric analysis of eight transmission electron micrographs (TEMs) obtained from the corpus callosum of one cynomolgus macaque. The raw TEM images are included in the article, along with the distributions of the axon caliber and the myelin g-ratio in each image. The distributions are analyzed to determine the relationship between axon caliber and g-ratio, and compared against the aggregate metrics (myelin volume fraction, fiber volume fraction, and the aggregate g-ratio), as defined in the accompanying research article entitled ‘In vivo histology of the myelin g-ratio with magnetic resonance imaging’ (Stikov et al., NeuroImage, 2015). PMID:26217818

  18. Quantitative analysis of the myelin g-ratio from electron microscopy images of the macaque corpus callosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Stikov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We provide a detailed morphometric analysis of eight transmission electron micrographs (TEMs obtained from the corpus callosum of one cynomolgus macaque. The raw TEM images are included in the article, along with the distributions of the axon caliber and the myelin g-ratio in each image. The distributions are analyzed to determine the relationship between axon caliber and g-ratio, and compared against the aggregate metrics (myelin volume fraction, fiber volume fraction, and the aggregate g-ratio, as defined in the accompanying research article entitled ‘In vivo histology of the myelin g-ratio with magnetic resonance imaging’ (Stikov et al., NeuroImage, 2015.

  19. Quintessence and phantom emerging from the split-complex field, split-quaternion field and split-complex DBI field

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Changjun; Shen, You-Gen

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by the mathematic theory of split-complex numbers (or hyperbolic numbers, also perplex numbers) and the split-quaternion numbers (or coquaternion numbers), we define the notion of split-complex scalar field and the split-quaternion scalar field. Then we explore the cosmic evolution of these scalar fields in the background of spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker Universe. We find that both the quintessence field and the phantom field could naturally emerge in these scalar fields. Introducing the metric of field space, these theories fall into a subclass of the multi-field theories which have been extensively studied in inflationary cosmology. Using the brane world model, the split-complex Dirac-Born-Infeld Lagrangian is constructed and analyzed.

  20. The mystery of the split earlobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raveendran, Sherine Subodhini; Amarasinghe, Lalantha

    2004-12-01

    The ancient art of body piercing has rejuvenated in the recent years as part of the fashion process. The ear is the most frequent body part to be pierced to wear jewelry. Split earlobes are commonly presented to plastic surgeons and the recurrence rate is high. The etiology of the acquired split earlobe was thought to be attributable to either trauma or heavy earrings. In this study, the authors explored the cause of the split earlobe and recurrence after surgical repair. Twenty-five patients who were using gold earrings presented with split earlobe and were studied, and the etiology of the condition was analyzed. A questionnaire was completed and the tissue obtained during surgical repair of the split earlobes was submitted for histopathological studies. This group of patients was compared with 17 subjects having stretched earlobe who were using heavy gold earrings. The control group consists of 50 subjects using gold earrings with normal earlobes. Clinical presentation and the histological studies suggest that allergy to metals used in the earring could lead to split earlobe. There is a difference between the split earlobe and stretched earlobe; the latter results from constant pull by heavy earrings. The authors present a new theory regarding the etiology of split earlobe and recommend that avoiding the offending metal in the earring is indispensable to prevent recurrence. PMID:15577366

  1. Standard Model Particles from Split Octonions

    CERN Document Server

    Gogberashvili, Merab

    2016-01-01

    We model physical signals using elements of the algebra of split octonions over the field of real numbers. Elementary particles are corresponded to the special elements of the algebra that nullify octonionic norms (zero divisors). It is shown that the standard model particle spectrum naturally follows from the classification of the independent primitive zero divisors of split octonions.

  2. Operator splitting for dissipative delay equations

    OpenAIRE

    Bátkai, András; Csomós, Petra; Farkas, Bálint

    2010-01-01

    We investigate operator splitting methods for a special class of nonlinear partial differential equations with delay. Using results from the theory of nonlinear contraction semigroups in Hilbert spaces, we explain the convergence of the splitting procedure. The order of the convergence is also investigated in detail along with numerical comparisons.

  3. Transferring Goods or Splitting a Resource Pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Jacob; Van Assen, Marcel A. L. M.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the consequences for exchange outcomes of the violation of an assumption underlying most social psychological research on exchange. This assumption is that the negotiated direct exchange of commodities between two actors (pure exchange) can be validly represented as two actors splitting a fixed pool of resources (split pool…

  4. Countering the Creative Misbehavior of "Staff Splitting."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Mary Beth

    1995-01-01

    Discusses five variations of staff splitting, a psychological process that starts with seemingly innocent comments that fester in the subconscious of others, leading members of the staff to seek evidence of inconsistencies and individual differences. Provides explicit guidelines and insights about how to turn staff splitting into an opportunity…

  5. Lysosomal delivery of the major myelin glycoprotein in the absence of myelin assembly: posttranslational regulation of the level of expression by Schwann cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major myelin protein, P0, has been shown to have decreased levels of expression and altered oligosaccharide processing after the disruption of Schwann cell-axon interaction. We show here that lysosomal degradation of the glycoprotein shortly after its synthesis accounts for much of its decreased expression in the permanently transected adult rat sciatic nerve, a denervated preparation where there is no axonal regeneration or myelin assembly. If [3H]mannose incorporation into sciatic nerve endoneurial slices is examined in the presence of the lysosomotropic agent, NH4Cl, a marked increase in the level of newly synthesized P0 is seen. Pulse-chase analysis of [3H]mannose-labeled P0 in the presence of NH4Cl indicates that this increase is a consequence of inhibition of P0 degradation that normally occurs 1-2 h after biosynthesis in the transected nerve. P0 degradation can also be inhibited if lysosomal function is disturbed by dilation of secondary lysosomes with L-methionine methyl ester. The addition of deoxymannonojirimycin or swainsonine (SW), inhibitors of oligosaccharide-processing mannosidases I and II, respectively, also results in a decrease in P0 degradation. This inhibition is presumably caused by a blockage of transport to the lysosomes due to altered processing of the glycoprotein, although the direct inhibition of lysosomal mannosidases cannot be excluded. In contrast to the transected nerve, addition of NH4Cl or SW has no effect on P0 levels in the crushed nerve, where myelin assembly occurs. The delivery of P0 to the lysosomes of the transected nerve Schwann cells does not appear to be triggered by the mannose-6-phosphate transport system involved in acid hydrolase routing

  6. Quasiperiodic Tip Splitting in Directional Solidification

    CERN Document Server

    Utter, B C; Bodenschatz, E

    2001-01-01

    We report experimental results on the tip splitting dynamics of seaweed growth in directional solidification of succinonitrile alloys with poly(ethylene oxide) or acetone as solutes. The seaweed or dense branching morphology was selected by solidifying grains which are oriented close to the {111} plane. Despite the random appearance of the growth, a quasiperiodic tip splitting morphology was observed in which the tip alternately splits to the left and to the right. The tip splitting frequency f was found to be related to the growth velocity V as a power law f V^{1.5}. This finding is consistent with the predictions of a tip splitting model that is also presented. Small anisotropies are shown to lead to different kinds of seaweed morphologies.

  7. Line splitting in the Schumann resonance oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickolaenko, A. P.; Sentman, Davis D.

    2007-04-01

    We discuss detection of line splitting in the global electromagnetic (Schumann) resonances. The lifting of resonance degeneracy is usually not visible in the ordinary power spectrum of either the electric or magnetic field components since splitting is small in comparison with the natural width of the resonance lines. Splitting may be detected by exploiting the spatial structure of the fields and/or the elliptical polarization of the magnetic field. The spatial properties were utilized in synchronous and coherent measurements of the vertical electric field at two longitudinally separated observatories. The results were attributed to line splitting. An alternative interpretation was also advanced that takes into account the source-receiver separation. The lifting of degeneracy also appears as a frequency-dependent elliptical polarization of the horizontal magnetic field vector, which has been found experimentally. We compare measurement and computational data, and their reciprocity proves the detection of Schumann resonance line splitting.

  8. LDL receptor-related protein-1 is a sialic-acid-independent receptor for myelin-associated glycoprotein that functions in neurite outgrowth inhibition by MAG and CNS myelin

    OpenAIRE

    Stiles, Travis L.; Dickendesher, Travis L.; Gaultier, Alban; Fernandez-Castaneda, Anthony; Mantuano, Elisabetta; Giger, Roman J.; Gonias, Steven L.

    2013-01-01

    In the injured adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS), products are generated that inhibit neuronal sprouting and regeneration. In recent years, most attention has focused on the myelin-associated inhibitory proteins (MAIs) Nogo-A, OMgp, and myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG). Binding of MAIs to neuronal cell-surface receptors leads to activation of RhoA, growth cone collapse, and neurite outgrowth inhibition. In the present study, we identify low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-re...

  9. Innovative solar thermochemical water splitting.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogan, Roy E. Jr.; Siegel, Nathan P.; Evans, Lindsey R.; Moss, Timothy A.; Stuecker, John Nicholas (Robocasting Enterprises, Albuquerque, NM); Diver, Richard B., Jr.; Miller, James Edward; Allendorf, Mark D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); James, Darryl L. (Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX)

    2008-02-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is evaluating the potential of an innovative approach for splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen using two-step thermochemical cycles. Thermochemical cycles are heat engines that utilize high-temperature heat to produce chemical work. Like their mechanical work-producing counterparts, their efficiency depends on operating temperature and on the irreversibility of their internal processes. With this in mind, we have invented innovative design concepts for two-step solar-driven thermochemical heat engines based on iron oxide and iron oxide mixed with other metal oxides (ferrites). The design concepts utilize two sets of moving beds of ferrite reactant material in close proximity and moving in opposite directions to overcome a major impediment to achieving high efficiency--thermal recuperation between solids in efficient counter-current arrangements. They also provide inherent separation of the product hydrogen and oxygen and are an excellent match with high-concentration solar flux. However, they also impose unique requirements on the ferrite reactants and materials of construction as well as an understanding of the chemical and cycle thermodynamics. In this report the Counter-Rotating-Ring Receiver/Reactor/Recuperator (CR5) solar thermochemical heat engine and its basic operating principals are described. Preliminary thermal efficiency estimates are presented and discussed. Our ferrite reactant material development activities, thermodynamic studies, test results, and prototype hardware development are also presented.

  10. Lightweight electrical connector split backshell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Elliot (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An electrical connector split backshell is provided, comprising two substantially identical backshell halves. Each half includes a first side and a cam projecting therefrom along an axis perpendicular thereto, the cam having an alignment tooth with a constant radius and an engagement section with a radius that increases with angular distance from the alignment tooth. Each half further includes a second side parallel to the first side and a circular sector opening disposed in the second side, the circular sector opening including an inner surface configured as a ramp with a constant radius, the ramp being configured to engage with an engagement section of a cam of the other half, the circular sector opening further including a relieved pocket configured to receive an alignment tooth of the cam of the other half. Each half further includes a back side perpendicular to the first and second sides and a wire bundle notch disposed in the back side, the wire bundle notch configured to align with a wire bundle notch of the other half to form a wire bundle opening. The two substantially identical halves are rotatably coupled by engaging the engagement section of each half to the ramp of the other half.

  11. Modulation of Epithelial Morphology, Monolayer Permeability, and Cell Migration by Growth Arrest Specific 3/Peripheral Myelin Protein 22

    OpenAIRE

    Roux, Kyle J.; Amici, Stephanie A.; Fletcher, Bradley S.; Notterpek, Lucia

    2005-01-01

    Peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) is associated with a subset of hereditary peripheral neuropathies. Although predominantly recognized as a transmembrane constituent of peripheral nerve myelin, PMP22 is localized to epithelial and endothelial cell-cell junctions, where its function remains unknown. In this report, we investigated the role of PMP22 in epithelial biology. Expression of human PMP22 (hPMP22) slows cell growth and induces a flattened morphology in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDC...

  12. Modeling the Presence of Myelin and Edema in the Brain Based on Multi-Parametric Quantitative MRI

    OpenAIRE

    Warntjes, Marcel; Engström, Maria; Tisell, Anders; Lundberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present a model that uses multi-parametric quantitative MRI to estimate the presence of myelin and edema in the brain. The model relates simultaneous measurement of R1 and R2 relaxation rates and proton density to four partial volume compartments, consisting of myelin partial volume, cellular partial volume, free water partial volume, and excess parenchymal water partial volume. The model parameters were obtained using spatially normalized brain images of a group ...

  13. A Study of Molecular Mimicry and Immunological Cross-reactivity between Hepatitis B Surface Antigen and Myelin Mimics

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Vergani; Giorgina Mieli-Vergani; Harold Baum; Yun Ma; Heather Smith; Dimitrios-Petrou Bogdanos

    2005-01-01

    On the basis of the reported association between hepatitis B vaccination (HBvacc) and autoimmune demyelinating complications such as multiple sclerosis (MS), we have looked for aminoacid similarities between the small hepatitis B virus surface antigen (SHBsAg), and the MS-autoantigens myelin basic protein (MBP) and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) that could serve as targets of immunological cross-reactivity. Twenty-mer...

  14. Deletion of Jun Proteins in Adult Oligodendrocytes Does Not Perturb Cell Survival, or Myelin Maintenance In Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Schreiner, Bettina; Ingold-Heppner, Barbara; Pehl, Debora; Locatelli, Giuseppe; Berrit-Schönthaler, Helia; Becher, Burkhard

    2015-01-01

    Oligodendrocytes, the myelin-forming glial cells of the central nervous system (CNS), are fundamental players in rapid impulse conduction and normal axonal functions. JunB and c-Jun are DNA-binding components of the AP-1 transcription factor, which is known to regulate different processes such as proliferation, differentiation, stress responses and death in several cell types, including cultured oligodendrocyte/lineage cells. By selectively inactivating Jun B and c-Jun in myelinating oligoden...

  15. Structure and chromosomal localization of the gene encoding the human myelin protein zero (MPZ)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayasaka, Kiyoshi; Himoro, Masato; Takada, Goro (Akita Univ. School of Medicine, Akita (Japan)); Wang, Yimin; Takata, Mizuho; Minoshima, Shinsei; Shimizu, Nobuyoshi; Miura, Masayuki; Uyemura, Keiichi (Keio Univ. School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-09-01

    The authors describe the cloning, characterization, and chromosomal mapping of the human myelin protein zero (MPZ) gene (a structural protein of myelin and an adhesive glycoprotein of the immunoglobulin superfamily). The gene is about 7 kb long and consists of six exons corresponding of the functional domains. All exon-intron junction sequences conform to the GT/AG rule. The 5[prime]-flanking region of the gene has a TA-rich element (TATA-like box), two CAAT boxes, and a single defined transcription initiation site detected by the primer extension method. The gene for human MPZ was assigned to chromosome 1q22-q23 by spot blot hybridization of flow-sorted human chromosomes and fluorescence in situ hybridization. The localization of the MPZ gene coincides with the locus for Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1B, determined by linkage analysis. 20 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Immunoscintigraphy of experimental transplantable tumours using monoclonal antibody against myelin basic protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koevesi, G.; Mohari, K.; Kocsar, L.; Fekete, B.; Szilvasi, I.; Szabo, G. (Semmelweis Univ. of Medicine, Budapest (Hungary). Dept. of Maxillofacial Surgery National Frederic Joliot Curie Radiology Radiohygiene Inst., Budapest (Hungary) Biological Centre of Hungary, Szeged (Hungary) Central State Hospital, Budapest (Hungary) Postgraduate Univ. of Medicine, Budapest (Hungary). 3. Physiological Clinic)

    1991-07-01

    Monoclonal antibody was prepared against myelin basic protein a so called pancarcinoma antigen. After labelling with {sup 131}I the monoclonal antibody was injected into Lewis-lung cancer mice and rats with Walker breast cancer. Two, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours after the labelled monoclonal antibody injection, radioimmunoimaging studies were carried out. After each gamma-camera study, organ distribution of the labelled monoclonal antibody was determined with radiobioassay technique which showed signficantly higher activity in the tumour tissue than in healthy ones. Significant sample radioactivity could be recovered in the tumour masses 48 hours after injection, which persisted even after 96 hours. The later finding might enable diagnosing types of malignancy with isotope-labelled monoclonal antibody against myelin basic protein. (orig.).

  17. Myelin- and microbe-specific antibodies in Guillain-Barré syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terryberry, J; Sutjita, M; Shoenfeld, Y; Gilburd, B; Tanne, D; Lorber, M; Alosachie, I; Barka, N; Lin, H C; Youinou, P

    1995-01-01

    We surveyed the frequency of reported infections and target autoantigens in 56 Guillain Barré syndrome (GBS) patients by detecting antibodies to myelin and microbes. Sulfatide (43%), cardiolipin (48%), GD1a (15%), SGPG (11%), and GM3 (11%) antibodies were the most frequently detected heterogenous autoantibodies. A wide spectrum of antimicrobial IgG and IgM antibodies were also detected; mumps-specific IgG (66%), adenovirus-specific IgG (52%), varicella-zoster virus-specific IgG (46%), and S. pneumoniae serotype 7-specific IgG (45%) were the most prevalent. Our results indicate that polyclonal expansion of physiologic and pathologic antibodies and/or molecular mimicry likely occurs following infection and is related to other autoimmune factors in the etiology of GBS. Although no single definitive myelin-specific autoantibody was identified, our results suggest a unique pattern of reactivity against autoantigens. PMID:8531012

  18. Regeneration of unmyelinated and myelinated sensory nerve fibres studied by a retrograde tracer method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lozeron, Pierre; Krarup, Christian; Schmalbruch, Henning

    Regeneration of myelinated and unmyelinated sensory nerve fibres after a crush lesion of the rat sciatic nerve was investigated by means of retrograde labelling. The advantage of this method is that the degree of regeneration is estimated on the basis of sensory somata rather than the number of...... axons. Axonal counts do not reflect the number of regenerated neurons because of axonal branching and because myelinated axons form unmyelinated sprouts. Two days to 10 weeks after crushing, the distal sural or peroneal nerves were cut and exposed to fluoro-dextran. Large and small dorsal root ganglion...... large neurons after crush and regeneration than in controls, indicating that regeneration of small neurons was less complete than that of large ones. This contrasted with the fact that unmyelinated axons in the regenerated sural nerve after 74 days were only slightly reduced....

  19. Selective excitation of myelin water using inversion-recovery-based preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Adam R; Does, Mark D

    2005-09-01

    T1 and T2 relaxation of excised frog sciatic nerve water was characterized at 7 T. Based on these findings, optimal timings for multiple inversion-recovery magnetization preparations were determined to selectively excite the so-called myelin-water T2 component. Subsequent double inversion-recovery and triple inversion-recovery preparations were used in combination with CPMG acquisitions to experimentally determine optimal timings and effect of the preparation. Using double inversion-recovery, optimal timings were found to excite magnetization that is predominantly (approximately 93%) derived from the myelin-water component. Greater selectivity (approximately 96%) was found by extending the preparation to triple inversion-recovery, at the price of decreasing SNR by a factor of approximately 2. PMID:16088884

  20. Split-course versus continuous radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A randomized clinical trial was performed from 1964 to 1967 to compare the therapeutic results of split-course external beam radiotherapy with those of continuously fractionated treatment. Altogether 439 consecutive patients with carcinoma of larynx, nasopharynx, hypopharynx, oropharynx, oral cavity, oesophagus and urinary bladder were included in the series. 227 patients received split-course treatment and 212 were treated by the continuous-course method. In the split-course treatment there was a 2-3 weeks' interruption after 25-30 Gy. This break was compensated by a 10% increase in the total dose. For each tumour site local control and failure rates for the 2 treatment techniques were similar. No significant differences in 5- and 10-year survival were noted. Acute side effects were milder in all patients treated with split-course. The occurrence of late reactions was similar in both treatment groups. However, severe late reactions in the urinary bladder were somewhat more in patients treated with split-course technique; the difference was not statistically significant. We conclude that there were no significant differences in local control, long-term survival and late normal tissue reactions between the treatment groups. The acute normal tissue reactions were milder in the split-course treated groups. We still regard split-course as a useful treatment modality provided the interruption is compensated with about 10% increase in total dose. However, more studies are needed to show which tumours proliferate during prolonged radiotherapy. (orig.)

  1. Long-term consequences of chronic fluoxetine exposure on the expression of myelination-related genes in the rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeze, Y; Peeters, D; Boulle, F; van den Hove, D L A; van Bokhoven, H; Zhou, H; Homberg, J R

    2015-01-01

    The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine is widely prescribed for the treatment of symptoms related to a variety of psychiatric disorders. After chronic SSRI treatment, some symptoms remediate on the long term, but the underlying mechanisms are not yet well understood. Here we studied the long-term consequences (40 days after treatment) of chronic fluoxetine exposure on genome-wide gene expression. During the treatment period, we measured body weight; and 1 week after treatment, cessation behavior in an SSRI-sensitive anxiety test was assessed. Gene expression was assessed in hippocampal tissue of adult rats using transcriptome analysis and several differentially expressed genes were validated in independent samples. Gene ontology analysis showed that upregulated genes induced by chronic fluoxetine exposure were significantly enriched for genes involved in myelination. We also investigated the expression of myelination-related genes in adult rats exposed to fluoxetine at early life and found two myelination-related genes (Transferrin (Tf) and Ciliary neurotrophic factor (Cntf)) that were downregulated by chronic fluoxetine exposure. Cntf, a neurotrophic factor involved in myelination, showed regulation in opposite direction in the adult versus neonatally fluoxetine-exposed groups. Expression of myelination-related genes correlated negatively with anxiety-like behavior in both adult and neonatally fluoxetine-exposed rats. In conclusion, our data reveal that chronic fluoxetine exposure causes on the long-term changes in expression of genes involved in myelination, a process that shapes brain connectivity and contributes to symptoms of psychiatric disorders. PMID:26393488

  2. Electron microscopic study of the myelinated nerve fibres and the perineurial cell basement membrane in the diabetic human peripheral nerves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the quantitative and ultrastructural changes in myelinated nerve fibers and the basement membranes of the perineurial cells in diabetic nerves. The study was performed at the Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdul-Aziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia from 2003 to 2005. Human sural nerves were obtained from 15 lower limbs and 5 diabetic nerve biopsies. The total mean and density of myelinated nerve fibers per fascicle were calculated, with density of microtubules and mitochondria in the axoplasm. The number of the perineurial cell basement membrane layers was counted, and thickness of the basement membrane was measured. Among the 15 diabetic and 5 normal human sural nerves, the average diameters, number and surface area of myelinated nerve fibers and axonal microtubules density were found to be less in diabetic nerves. Mitochondrial density was higher in diabetic axons. Thickness of the perineurial cell basement membrane had a greater mean, but the number of perineurial cell layers was less than that of the diabetic group. The inner cellular layer of the perineurium of the diabetic nerves contained large vacuoles containing electron-dense degenerated myelin. A few specimens showed degenerated myelinated nerve fibers, while others showed recovering ones. Retracted axoplasms were encountered with albumin extravasation. Diabetes caused an increase in perineurial permeability. The diabetic sural nerve showed marked decrease in the myelinated nerve fibres, increase degenerated mitochondria, and decreased microtubules. (author)

  3. Erythropoietin promotes oligodendrogenesis and myelin repair following lysolecithin-induced injury in spinal cord slice culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Yun Kyung; Kim, Gunha; Park, Serah; Sim, Ju Hee; Won, You Jin [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1 Pungnap-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Chang Ho [Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 290-3 Jeonha-dong, Dong-gu, Ulsan 682-714 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Jong Yoon, E-mail: jyyoo@amc.seoul.kr [Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1 Pungnap-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Hea Nam, E-mail: hnhong@amc.seoul.kr [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1 Pungnap-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lysolecithin-induced demyelination elevated EpoR expression in OPCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In association with elevated EpoR, EPO increased OPCs proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EPO enhanced the oligodendrogenesis via activation of JAK2 pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EPO promoted myelin repair following lysolecithin-induced demyelination. -- Abstract: Here, we sought to delineate the effect of EPO on the remyelination processes using an in vitro model of demyelination. We report that lysolecithin-induced demyelination elevated EPO receptor (EpoR) expression in oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs), facilitating the beneficial effect of EPO on the formation of oligodendrocytes (oligodendrogenesis). In the absence of EPO, the resultant remyelination was insufficient, possibly due to a limiting number of oligodendrocytes rather than their progenitors, which proliferate in response to lysolecithin-induced injury. By EPO treatment, lysolecithin-induced proliferation of OPCs was accelerated and the number of myelinating oligodendrocytes and myelin recovery was increased. EPO also enhanced the differentiation of neural progenitor cells expressing EpoR at high level toward the oligodendrocyte-lineage cells through activation of cyclin E and Janus kinase 2 pathways. Induction of myelin-forming oligodendrocytes by high dose of EPO implies that EPO might be the key factor influencing the final differentiation of OPCs. Taken together, our data suggest that EPO treatment could be an effective way to enhance remyelination by promoting oligodendrogenesis in association with elevated EpoR expression in spinal cord slice culture after lysolecithin-induced demyelination.

  4. Autophagy Promotes Oligodendrocyte Survival and Function following Dysmyelination in a Long-Lived Myelin Mutant

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Chelsey M.; Mayer, Joshua A.; Duncan, Ian D

    2013-01-01

    The Long–Evans shaker (les) rat has a mutation in myelin basic protein that results in severe CNS dysmyelination and subsequent demyelination during development. During this time, les oligodendrocytes accumulate cytoplasmic vesicles, including lysosomes and membrane-bound organelles. However, the mechanism and functional relevance behind these oligodendrocyte abnormalities in les have not been investigated. Using high-magnification electron microscopy, we identified the accumulations in les o...

  5. Rapamycin activates autophagy and improves myelination in explant cultures from neuropathic mice

    OpenAIRE

    Rangaraju, Sunitha; Verrier, Jonathan D; Madorsky, Irina; Nicks, Jessica; Dunn, William A; Notterpek, Lucia

    2010-01-01

    Misexpression and cytosolic retention of peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) within Schwann cells (SCs) is associated with a genetically heterogeneous group of demyelinating peripheral neuropathies. PMP22 overproducer C22 and spontaneous mutant Trembler J (TrJ) mice display neuropathic phenotypes and affected nerves contain abnormally localized PMP22. Nutrient deprivation-induced autophagy is able to suppress the formation of PMP22 aggregates in a toxin-induced cellular model, and improve lo...

  6. Reversible Folding of Human Peripheral Myelin Protein 22, a Tetraspan Membrane Protein†

    OpenAIRE

    Schlebach, Jonathan P.; Peng, Dungeng; Kroncke, Brett M.; Mittendorf, Kathleen F.; Narayan, Malathi; Carter, Bruce D.; Sanders, Charles R

    2013-01-01

    Misfolding of the ?-helical membrane protein peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of the common neurodegenerative disease known as Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMTD) and also several other related peripheral neuropathies. Emerging evidence suggests that the propensity of PMP22 to misfold in the cell may be due to an intrinsic lack of conformational stability. Therefore, quantitative studies of the conformational equilibrium of PMP22 are needed to gain i...

  7. Pharmacological induction of the heat shock response improves myelination in a neuropathic model

    OpenAIRE

    Rangaraju, Sunitha; Madorsky, Irina; Pileggi, Jocelyn Go; Kamal, Adeela; Notterpek, Lucia

    2008-01-01

    Misexpression and intracellular retention of peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) is associated with hereditary neuropathies in humans, including Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A). Mice expressing extra copies of the human PMP22, termed C22, display morphologic and behavioral characteristics of CMT1A. In neuropathic Schwann cells, the turnover of the newly-synthesized PMP22 is decreased, leading to the formation of cytosolic protein aggregates. To aid the processing of PMP22 and all...

  8. Complement activating antibodies to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein in neuromyelitis optica and related disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Mader Simone; Gredler Viktoria; Schanda Kathrin; Rostasy Kevin; Dujmovic Irena; Pfaller Kristian; Lutterotti Andreas; Jarius Sven; Di Pauli Franziska; Kuenz Bettina; Ehling Rainer; Hegen Harald; Deisenhammer Florian; Aboul-Enein Fahmy; Storch Maria K

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Serum autoantibodies against the water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4) are important diagnostic biomarkers and pathogenic factors for neuromyelitis optica (NMO). However, AQP4-IgG are absent in 5-40% of all NMO patients and the target of the autoimmune response in these patients is unknown. Since recent studies indicate that autoimmune responses to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) can induce an NMO-like disease in experimental animal models, we speculate that MOG might...

  9. Multiple sclerosis patients show sexual dimorphism in cytokine responses to myelin antigens

    OpenAIRE

    Moldovan, Ioana R.; Cotleur, Anne C.; Zamor, Natacha; Butler, Robert S.; Pelfrey, Clara M.

    2007-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis affects more women than men. The reasons for this are unknown. Previously, we have shown significant differences in women versus men in inflammatory cytokine responses to the major protein component of myelin, proteolipid protein (PLP), which is thought to be a target in MS patients. Here, using the ELISPOT assay, we examined sex differences in single-cell secretion of Th1 and Th2 cytokines from freshly isolated PBMC between relapsing remitting (RR) MS patients and healthy ...

  10. Self-antigen tetramers discriminate between myelin autoantibodies to native or denatured protein

    OpenAIRE

    O’Connor, Kevin C; McLaughlin, Katherine A; De Jager, Philip L.; Chitnis, Tanuja; Bettelli, Estelle; Xu, Chenqi; Robinson, William H; Cherry, Sunil V; Bar-Or, Amit; Banwell, Brenda; Fukaura, Hikoaki; Fukazawa, Toshiyuki; Tenembaum, Silvia; Wong, Susan J.; Tavakoli, Norma P

    2007-01-01

    The role of autoantibodies in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) and other demyelinating diseases is controversial, in part because widely used western blotting and ELISA methods either do not permit the detection of conformation-sensitive antibodies or do not distinguish them from conformation-independent antibodies. We developed a sensitive assay based on self-assembling radiolabeled tetramers that allows discrimination of antibodies against folded or denatured myelin oligodendrocy...

  11. Conformational epitopes of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein are targets of potentially pathogenic antibody responses in multiple sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Menge Til; Lalive Patrice H; von Büdingen H -Christian; Genain Claude P

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Myelin/oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) is a putative autoantigen in multiple sclerosis (MS). Establishing the pathological relevance and validity of anti-MOG antibodies as biomarkers has yielded conflicting reports mainly due to different MOG isoforms used in different studies. Because epitope specificity may be a key factor determining anti-MOG reactivity we aimed at identifying a priori immunodominant MOG epitopes by monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and at assessing clini...

  12. Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein–specific T Cell Receptor Transgenic Mice Develop Spontaneous Autoimmune Optic Neuritis

    OpenAIRE

    Bettelli, Estelle; Pagany, Maria; Weiner, Howard L.; Linington, Christopher; Sobel, Raymond A.; Kuchroo, Vijay K

    2003-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is considered to be an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS) that in many patients first presents clinically as optic neuritis. The relationship of optic neuritis to MS is not well understood. We have generated novel T cell receptor (TCR) transgenic mice specific for myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG). MOG-specific transgenic T cells are not deleted nor tolerized and are functionally competent. A large proportion (>30%) of MOG-specific TCR trans...

  13. The crystal structure of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein, a key autoantigen in multiple sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Clements, Craig S.; Reid, Hugh H.; Beddoe, Travis; Tynan, Fleur E.; Perugini, Matthew A; Johns, Terrance G.; Bernard, Claude C A; Rossjohn, Jamie

    2003-01-01

    Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) is a key CNS-specific autoantigen for primary demyelination in multiple sclerosis. Although the disease-inducing role of MOG has been established, its precise function in the CNS remains obscure. To gain new insights into the physiological and immunopathological role of MOG, we determined the 1.8-Å crystal structure of the MOG extracellular domain (MOGED). MOGED adopts a classical Ig (Ig variable domain) fold that was observed to form an antiparallel ...

  14. Vaccination with DNA encoding a myelin autoantigen exacerbates experimental autoimmune encephalitis

    OpenAIRE

    Bourquin, Carole

    2000-01-01

    The ultimate goal in the treatment of autoimmune diseases is to reestablish tolerance to self antigens. One strategy to induce tolerance is to express the target autoantigen by DNA vaccination. In this work, the potential of vaccination with a DNA construct encoding the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG), an important candidate autoantigen in multiple sclerosis, to induce tolerance and protect against experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) was assessed. Unexpectedly, mice vac...

  15. Age-dependent B cell Autoimmunity to a Myelin Surface Antigen in Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    McLaughlin, Katherine A; Chitnis, Tanuja; Newcombe, Jia; Franz, Bettina; Kennedy, Julia; McArdel, Shannon; Kuhle, Jens; Kappos, Ludwig; Rostasy, Kevin; Pohl, Daniela; Gagne, Donald; Ness, Jayne M.; Tenembaum, Silvia; O'Connor, Kevin C.; Viglietta, Vissia

    2009-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) typically manifests in early to mid adulthood, but there is increasing recognition of pediatric-onset MS, aided by improvements in imaging techniques. The immunological mechanisms of disease are largely unexplored in pediatric-onset MS, in part because studies have historically focused on adult-onset disease. We investigated autoantibodies to myelin surface antigens in a large cohort of pediatric MS cases by flow cytometric labeling of transfectants that expressed diff...

  16. Polyreactive Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein Antibodies: Implications for Systemic Autoimmunity in Progressive Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    OpenAIRE

    PETERSON, LISA K.; TSUNODA, IKUO; Masaki, Takahisa; Fujinami, Robert S

    2007-01-01

    Two myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG92–106) monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were produced from an A.SW mouse with progressive experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Polyreactivity/specificity of the mAbs was demonstrated by ELISA. Functionality and a potential role in pathogenesis of systemic autoimmunity were demonstrated in vitro in a lymphocytotoxicity assay and in vivo upon injection into naïve mice. Injection of MOG mAb producing hybridomas into naïve mice resulted in immunoglob...

  17. Myelin-oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies in adults with a neuromyelitis optica phenotype.

    OpenAIRE

    Kitley, J; WOODHALL, M; Waters, P.; Leite, MI; Devenney, E; Craig, J; Palace, J.; Vincent, A

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To report an association of myelin-oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibodies with aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibody-seronegative neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) in adults. METHODS: We describe the clinical and serologic features of 4 adult patients with an NMO/NMOSD phenotype who had antibodies to MOG. RESULTS: Twenty-seven adult AQP4-seronegative NMO/NMOSD patients were tested for MOG antibodies. Four patients (3 male, 1 female) with se...

  18. Redox regulation of cytokine-mediated inhibition of myelin gene expression in human primary oligodendrocytes

    OpenAIRE

    JANA, Malabendu; Pahan, Kalipada

    2005-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) of unknown etiology. Several studies have shown that demyelination in MS is caused by proinflammatory mediators which are released by perivascular infiltrates and/or activated glial cells. To understand if proinflammatory mediators such as IL (interleukin)-1? and TNF (tumor necrosis factor)-? are capable of modulating the expression of myelin-specific genes, we investigated the effect of...

  19. Microglial Fc Receptors Mediate Physiological Changes Resulting From Antibody Cross-Linking of Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein

    OpenAIRE

    Marta, Cecilia B.; Bansal, Rashmi; Pfeiffer, Steven E.

    2008-01-01

    Antibodies to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) have been implicated in Multiple Sclerosis demyelination through activation of complement and/or macrophage-effector processes. We presented a novel mechanism, whereby MOG on oligodendrocytes, when cross-linked with anti-MOG and secondary antibody resulted in its repartitioning into lipid rafts, and changes in protein phosphorylation and morphology. Here, we show that similar events occur when anti-MOG is cross-linked with Fc receptors (...

  20. Steroid responsive polyneuropathy in a family with a novel myelin protein zero mutation

    OpenAIRE

    Donaghy, M; Sisodiya, S; Kennett, R.; McDonald, B.; Haites, N.; Bell, C

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To report a novel hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN) phenotype, with partial steroid responsiveness, caused by a novel dominant mutation in the myelin protein zero (MPZ) gene. Most MPZ mutations lead to the HMSN type I phenotype, with recent reports of Déjérine-Sottas, congenital hypomyelination, and HMSN II also ascribed to MPZ mutations. Differing phenotypes may reflect the effect of particular mutations on MPZ structure and adhesivity.?METHO...

  1. T(2)-relaxometry for myelin water fraction extraction using wald distribution and extended phase graph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhondi-Asl, Alireza; Afacan, Onur; Mulkern, Robert V; Warfield, Simon K

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative assessment of myelin density in the white matter is an emerging tool for neurodegenerative disease related studies such as multiple sclerosis and Schizophrenia. For the last two decades, T2 relaxometry based on multi-exponential fitting to a single slice multi-echo sequence has been the most common MRI technique for myelin water fraction (MWF) mapping, where the short T2 is associated with myelin water. However, modeling the spectrum of the relaxations as the sum of large number of impulse functions with unknown amplitudes makes the accuracy and robustness of the estimated MWF's questionable. In this paper, we introduce a novel model with small number of parameters to simultaneously characterize transverse relaxation rate spectrum and B1 inhomogeneity at each voxel. We use mixture of three Wald distributions with unknown mixture weights, mean and shape parameters to represent the distribution of the relative amount of water in between myelin sheets, tissue water, and cerebrospinal fluid. The parameters of the model are estimated using the variable projection method and are used to extract the MWF at each voxel. In addition, we use Extended Phase Graph (EPG) method to compensate for the stimulated echoes caused by B1 inhomogeneity. To validate our model, synthetic and real brain experiments were conducted where we have compared our novel algorithm with the non-negative least squares (NNLS) as the state-of-the-art technique in the literature. Our results indicate that we can estimate MWF map with substantially higher accuracy as compared to the NNLS method. PMID:25320793

  2. Circulating antibody to myelin basic protein in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sera from multiple sclerosis patients with relapsing-remitting disease and normal subjects were tested for antibody to myelin basic protein by a sensitive radioimmunoassay. The results showed a marginally decreased titre in multiple sclerosis superimposed on a seasonal variation. There was no correlation with the clinical state of the patients. Results are discussed briefly in relation to humoral antibody function in multiple sclerosis and experimental autoimmune encephalitis. (author)

  3. Induction of Oligodendrocyte Differentiation and In Vitro Myelination by Inhibition of Rho-Associated Kinase

    OpenAIRE

    Pedraza, Carlos E.; Taylor, Christopher, Lama; Pereira, Albertina; Seng, Michelle; Tham, Chui-Se; Izrael, Michal; Webb, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In inflammatory demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS), myelin degradation results in loss of axonal function and eventual axonal degeneration. Differentiation of resident oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) leading to remyelination of denuded axons occurs regularly in early stages of MS but halts as the pathology transitions into progressive MS. Pharmacological potentiation of endogenous OPC maturation and remyelination is now recognized as a promising th...

  4. Insertion of Mutant Proteolipid Protein Results in Missorting of Myelin Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Vaurs-Barriere, Catherine; Wong, Kondi; Weibel, Thais D.; ABU-ASAB, Mones; Weiss, Michael D.; Kaneski, Christine R.; Mixon, Tong-Hui; Bonavita, Simona; Creveaux, Isabelle; Heiss, John D; Tsokos, Maria; Goldin, Ehud; Quarles, Richard H.; Boespflug-Tanguy, Odile; Schiffmann, Raphael

    2003-01-01

    Two brothers with a leukodystrophy, progressive spastic diplegia, and peripheral neuropathy were found to have proteinaceous aggregates in the peripheral nerve myelin sheath. The patients’ mother had only subclinical peripheral neuropathy, but the maternal grandmother had adult-onset leukodystrophy. Sequencing of the proteolipid protein (PLP) gene showed a point mutation IVS4 + 1 G?A within the donor splice site of intron 4. We identified one transcript with a deletion of exon 4 (?ex4, 169bp)...

  5. Muonic hydrogen ground state hyperfine splitting

    CERN Document Server

    Faustov, R N

    2003-01-01

    Corrections of order alpha^5, alpha^6 are calculated in the hyperfine splitting of muonic hydrogen ground state. Nuclear structure effects are taken into account in one- and two-loop Feynman amplitudes by means of the proton electromagnetic form factors. The modification of the hyperfine splitting part of the Breit potential due to electron vacuum polarization is considered. Total numerical value of the 1S state hyperfine splitting 182.725 meV in (mu p) can play the role of proper estimation for the corresponding experiment with the accuracy 30 ppm.

  6. Photoinduced water splitting with oxotitanium tetraphenylporphyrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawski, O; Izdebska, K; Karpiuk, E; Nowacki, J; Suchocki, A; Sobolewski, A L

    2014-08-01

    Photocatalytic splitting of water was investigated in a heterogeneous system consisting of micro-crystallites of oxotitanium tetraphenylporphyrin deposited on fused silica plates, immersed in water and excited within the visible range of their absorption spectra. The water photolysis was evidenced by the spectroscopic detection of hydroxyl radicals generated in the reaction. The experimental results confirm the mechanism of water splitting and generation of OH? radicals proposed theoretically by Sobolewski and Domcke [Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2012, 14, 12807] for the oxotitaniumporphyrin-water complex. It is shown that photocatalytic water splitting occurs in pure water, and neither pH-bias nor external voltage is required to promote the reaction. PMID:24938429

  7. Anomalous Kondo Spin Splitting in Quantum Dots

    OpenAIRE

    Hualde, J. M. Aguiar; Chiappe, G.; Anda, E. V.

    2006-01-01

    The Zeeman splitting of localized electrons in a quantum dot in the Kondo regime is studied using a new slave-boson formulation. Our results show that the Kondo peak splitting depends on the gate potential applied to the quantum dot and on the topology of the system. A common fact of any geometry is that the differential susceptibility shows a strong non linear behavior. It was shown that there exist a critical field above which the Kondo resonance is splitted out. This critical field rapidly...

  8. Examining the relationships between cortical maturation and white matter myelination throughout early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croteau-Chonka, Elise C; Dean, Douglas C; Remer, Justin; Dirks, Holly; O'Muircheartaigh, Jonathan; Deoni, Sean C L

    2016-01-15

    Cortical development and white matter myelination are hallmark processes of infant and child neurodevelopment, and play a central role in the evolution of cognitive and behavioral functioning. Non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been used to independently track these microstructural and morphological changes in vivo, however few studies have investigated the relationship between them despite their concurrency in the developing brain. Further, because measures of cortical morphology rely on underlying gray-white matter tissue contrast, which itself is a function of white matter myelination, it is unclear if contrast-based measures of cortical development accurately reflect cortical architecture, or if they merely represent adjacent white matter maturation. This may be particularly true in young children, in whom brain structure is rapidly maturing. Here for the first time, we investigate the dynamic relationship between cortical and white matter development across early childhood, from 1 to 6years. We present measurements of cortical thickness with respect to cortical and adjacent myelin water fraction (MWF) in 33 bilateral cortical regions. Significant results in only 14 of 66 (21%) cortical regions suggest that cortical thickness measures are not heavily driven by changes in adjacent white matter, and that brain imaging studies of cortical and white matter maturation reflect distinct, but complimentary, neurodevelopmental processes. PMID:26499814

  9. Myelin protein zero gene mutated in Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1B patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Ying; Li, Lanying; Lepercq, J.; Lebo, R.V. (Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)); Brooks, D.G.; Ravetch, J.V. (Sloan-Kettering Institute, New York, NY (United States)); Trofatter, J.A. (Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States))

    1993-11-15

    The autosomal dominant of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT), whose gene is type 1B (CMT1B), has slow nerve conduction with demyelinated Schwann cells. In this study the abundant peripheral myelin protein zero (MPZ) gene, MPZ, was mapped 130 kb centromeric to the Fc receptor immunoglobulin gene cluster in band 1q22, and a major MPZ point mutation was found to cosegregate with CMT1B in one large CMT1B family. The MPZ point mutation in 18 of 18 related CMT1B pedigree 1 patients converts a positively charged lysine in codon 96 to a negatively charged glutamate. The same MPZ locus cosegregates with the CMT1B disease gene in a second CMT1B family [total multipoint logarithm of odds (lod) = 11.4 at [theta] = 0.00] with a splice junction mutation. Both mutations occur in MPZ protein regions otherwise conserved identically in human, rat, and cow since these species diverged 100 million years ago. MPZ protein, expressed exclusively in myelinated peripheral nerve Schwann cells, constitutes >50% of myelin protein. These mutations are anticipated to disrupt homophilic MPZ binding and result in CMT1B peripheral nerve demyelination.

  10. Resetting translational homeostasis restores myelination in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1B mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Antonio, Maurizio; Musner, Nicolò; Scapin, Cristina; Ungaro, Daniela; Del Carro, Ubaldo; Ron, David; Feltri, M Laura; Wrabetz, Lawrence

    2013-04-01

    P0 glycoprotein is an abundant product of terminal differentiation in myelinating Schwann cells. The mutant P0S63del causes Charcot-Marie-Tooth 1B neuropathy in humans, and a very similar demyelinating neuropathy in transgenic mice. P0S63del is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum of Schwann cells, where it promotes unfolded protein stress and elicits an unfolded protein response (UPR) associated with translational attenuation. Ablation of Chop, a UPR mediator, from S63del mice completely rescues their motor deficit and reduces active demyelination by half. Here, we show that Gadd34 is a detrimental effector of CHOP that reactivates translation too aggressively in myelinating Schwann cells. Genetic or pharmacological limitation of Gadd34 function moderates translational reactivation, improves myelination in S63del nerves, and reduces accumulation of P0S63del in the ER. Resetting translational homeostasis may provide a therapeutic strategy in tissues impaired by misfolded proteins that are synthesized during terminal differentiation. PMID:23547100

  11. Myelin-like structures seen intracellularly in renal tubule cells subjected to ischemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamada,Teruo

    1980-02-01

    Full Text Available Renal cortex was studied during experimentally induced ischemia. A transient increase in anerobic glycolysis occurred with concomitant swelling of both the Golgi apparatus and mitochondria. These intracytoplasmic organelles underwent marked changes in their intracellular positions. Infolding of cytoplasmic membrane at the basal side of proximal tubule cells increased in complexity and proceeded to enclose various intracytoplasmic microorganelles such as mitochondria and the Golgi apparatus. Piling up in layers was particularly marked around mitochondria. This piling up appeared as myelin-like structures on the free surface of, and within, proximal tubule cells, and followed disruption of the brush border at the free surface. Histological examination of thin sections showed that the fused portions of this brush border were actually brush border cytoplasmic membrane piled up in layers giving the appearance of myelin-like structures. After two hours of ischemia, parts of the membrane of these myelin-like structures were disrupted. Large vacuoles developed and these were thought to be related to the large vacuoles seen during cell degeneration.

  12. Rubidium uptake and accumulation in peripheral myelinated internodal axons and Schwann cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehning, E J; Gaughan, C L; Eichberg, J; LoPachin, R M

    1997-09-01

    To study mechanisms of K+ transport in peripheral nerve, uptake of rubidium (Rb+), a K+ tracer, was characterized in rat tibial nerve myelinated axons and glia. Isolated nerve segments were perfused with zero-K+ Ringer's solutions containing Rb+ (1-20 mM) and x-ray microanalysis was used to measure water content and concentrations of Rb, Na, K, and Cl in internodal axoplasm, mitochondria, and Schwann cell cytoplasm and myelin. Both axons and Schwann cells were capable of removing extracellular Rb+ (Rb+(o)) and exchanging it for internal K+. Uptake into axoplasm, Schwann cytoplasm, and myelin was a saturable process over the 1-10 mM Rb+(o) concentration range, although corresponding axoplasmic uptake rates were higher than respective glial velocities. Mitochondrial accumulation was a linear function of axoplasmic Rb+ concentrations, which suggests involvement of a nonenzymatic process. At 20 mM Rb+(o), a differential stimulatory response was observed; i.e., axoplasmic Rb+ uptake velocities increased more than fivefold relative to the 10 mM rate, and glial cytoplasmic uptake rose almost threefold. Finally, Rb+(o) uptake rate into axons and glia was completely inhibited by ouabain (2-4 mM) exposure or incubation at 4 degrees C. These results suggest that Rb+ uptake into peripheral nerve internodal axons and Schwann cells is mediated by Na+,K+-ATPase activity and implicate the presence of axonal- and glial-specific Na+ pump isozymes. PMID:9282918

  13. Attractin/Mahogany/Zitter plays a critical role in myelination of the central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramoto, Takashi; Kitada, Kazuhiro; Inui, Toshihide; Sasaki, Yoshifumi; Ito, Kazumi; Hase, Takao; Kawagachi, Saburo; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Nakao, Kazuwa; Barsh, Gregory S.; Nagao, Minako; Ushijima, Toshikazu; Serikawa, Tadao

    2001-01-01

    The rat zitter (zi) mutation induces hypomyelination and vacuolation in the central nervous system (CNS), which result in early-onset tremor and progressive flaccid paresis. By positional cloning, we found a marked decrease in Attractin (Atrn) mRNA in the brain of the zi/zi rat and identified zi as an 8-bp deletion at a splice donor site of Atrn. Atrn has been known to play multiple roles in regulating physiological processes that are involved in monocyte–T cell interaction, agouti-related hair pigmentation, and control of energy homeostasis. Rat Atrn gene encoded two isoforms, a secreted and a membrane form, as a result of alternative splicing. The zi mutation at the Atrn locus darkened coat color when introduced into agouti rats, as also described in mahogany (mg) mice, carrying the homozygous mutation at the Atrn locus. Transgenic rescue experiments showed that the membrane-type Atrn complemented both neurological alteration and abnormal pigmentation in zi/zi rats, but that the secreted-type Atrn complemented neither mutant phenotype. Furthermore, we discovered that mg mice exhibited hypomyelination and vacuolation in the CNS associated with body tremor. We conclude from these results that the membrane Atrn has a critical role in normal myelination in the CNS and would provide insights into the physiology of myelination as well as the etiology of myelin diseases. PMID:11209055

  14. Vitamin D3 potentiates myelination and recovery after facial nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montava, Marion; Garcia, Stéphane; Mancini, Julien; Jammes, Yves; Courageot, Joël; Lavieille, Jean-Pierre; Feron, François

    2015-10-01

    Roles of vitamin D on the immune and nervous systems are increasingly recognized. Two previous studies demonstrated that ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) or cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) induced functional recovery and increased myelination in a rat model of peroneal nerve transection. The current report assessed whether cholecalciferol was efficient in repairing transected rabbit facial nerves. Animals were randomized into two groups of rabbits with an unilateral facial nerve surgery: the vitamin D group included animals receiving a weekly oral bolus of vitamin D3 (200 IU/kg/day), from day 1 post-surgery; the control group included animals receiving a weekly oral bolus of vehicle (triglycerides). Contralateral unsectioned facial nerves from all experimental animals were used as controls for the histological study. The facial functional index was measured every week while the inner diameter of myelin sheath and the G ratio were quantified at the end of the 3 month experiment. The current report indicates that cholecalciferol significantly increases functional recovery and myelination, after 12 weeks of treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study investigating the therapeutic benefit of vitamin D supplementation in an animal model of facial paralysis. It paves further the way for clinical trials based on the administration of this steroid in individuals with injured facial nerves. PMID:25261104

  15. Poincaré Map Based on Splitting Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firstly, by using the Liouville formula, we prove that the Jacobian matrix determinants of splitting methods are equal to that of the exact Sow. However, for the explicit Runge–Kutta methods, there is an error term of order p + 1 for the Jacobian matrix determinants. Then, the volume evolution law of a given region in phase space is discussed for different algorithms. It is proved that splitting methods can exactly preserve the sum of Lyapunov exponents invariable. Finally, a Poincaré map and its energy distribution of the Duffing equation are computed by using the second-order splitting method and the Heun method (a second-order Runge–Kutta method). Computation illustrates that the results by splitting methods can properly represent systems' chaotic phenomena. (general)

  16. Divided Opinions on the Split Fovea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Andrew W.; Brysbaert, Marc

    2010-01-01

    We explain once again the distinction between the "split fovea theory" and the "bilateral projection theory", and consider the implications of the two theories for understanding the processing of centrally fixated words and faces.

  17. Split rank of triangle and quadrilateral inequalities

    CERN Document Server

    Dey, Santanu

    2009-01-01

    A simple relaxation of two rows of a simplex tableau is a mixed integer set consisting of two equations with two free integer variables and non-negative continuous variables. Recently Andersen, Louveaux, Weismantel and Wolsey (2007) and Cornuejols and Margot (2008) showed that the facet-defining inequalities of this set are either split cuts or intersection cuts obtained from lattice-free triangles and quadrilaterals. Through a result by Cook, Kannan and Schrijver (1990), it is known that one particular class of facet-defining triangle inequality does not have a finite split rank. In this paper, we show that all other facet-defining triangle and quadrilateral inequalities have a finite split-rank. The proof is constructive and given a facet-defining triangle or quadrilateral inequality we present an explicit sequence of split inequalities that can be used to generate it.

  18. Spacetime Splitting, Admissible Coordinates and Causality

    CERN Document Server

    Bini, D; Mashhoon, B

    2012-01-01

    To confront relativity theory with observation, it is necessary to split spacetime into its temporal and spatial components. The (1+3) timelike threading approach involves restrictions on the gravitational potentials $(g_{\\mu \

  19. Structural basis of photosynthetic water-splitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photosynthetic water-splitting takes place in photosystem II (PSII), a membrane protein complex consisting of 20 subunits with an overall molecular mass of 350 kDa. The light-induced water-splitting reaction catalyzed by PSII not only converts light energy into biologically useful chemical energy, but also provides us with oxygen indispensible for sustaining oxygenic life on the earth. We have solved the structure of PSII at a 1.9 Å resolution, from which, the detailed structure of the Mn4CaO5-cluster, the catalytic center for water-splitting, became clear. Based on the structure of PSII at the atomic resolution, possible mechanism of light-induced water-splitting was discussed

  20. Structural basis of photosynthetic water-splitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Jian-Ren [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology/Faculty of Science, Okayama University, Okayama (Japan); Umena, Yasufumi [The OCU Advanced Research Institute for Natural Science and Technology (OCARINA), Osaka City University, Osaka, Japan and PRESTO, JST (Japan); Kawakami, Keisuke [The OCU Advanced Research Institute for Natural Science and Technology (OCARINA), Osaka City University, Osaka (Japan); Kamiya, Nobuo [The OCU Advanced Research Institute for Natural Science and Technology (OCARINA), Osaka City University, Osaka, Japan and Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, Osaka (Japan)

    2013-12-10

    Photosynthetic water-splitting takes place in photosystem II (PSII), a membrane protein complex consisting of 20 subunits with an overall molecular mass of 350 kDa. The light-induced water-splitting reaction catalyzed by PSII not only converts light energy into biologically useful chemical energy, but also provides us with oxygen indispensible for sustaining oxygenic life on the earth. We have solved the structure of PSII at a 1.9 Å resolution, from which, the detailed structure of the Mn{sub 4}CaO{sub 5}-cluster, the catalytic center for water-splitting, became clear. Based on the structure of PSII at the atomic resolution, possible mechanism of light-induced water-splitting was discussed.

  1. Dominated splittings for flows with singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We obtain sufficient conditions for an invariant splitting over a compact invariant subset of a C1 flow Xt to be dominated. In particular, we reduce the requirements to obtain sectional hyperbolicity and hyperbolicity. (paper)

  2. Irrational beliefs, attitudes about competition, and splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, P J; Morris, R J; Miller, L

    2001-03-01

    Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) theoretically promotes actualization of both individualistic and social-oriented potentials. In a test of this assumption, the Belief Scale and subscales from the Survey of Personal Beliefs served as measures of what REBT presumes to be pathogenic irrationalities. These measures were correlated with the Hypercompetitive Attitude Scale (HCAS), the Personal Development Competitive Attitude Scale (PDCAS), factors from the Splitting Index, and self-esteem. Results for the HCAS and Self-Splitting supported the REBT claim about individualistic self-actualization. Mostly nonsignificant and a few counterintuitive linkages were observed for irrational beliefs with the PDCAS, Family-Splitting, and Other-Splitting, and these data suggested that REBT may be less successful in capturing the "rationality" of a social-oriented self-actualization. PMID:11241364

  3. PMP22 expression in dermal nerve myelin from patients with CMT1A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katona, Istvan; Wu, Xingyao; Feely, Shawna M. E.; Sottile, Stephanie; Siskind, Carly E.; Miller, Lindsey J.; Shy, Michael E.

    2009-01-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A) is caused by a 1.4 Mb duplication on chromosome 17p11.2, which contains the peripheral myelin protein-22 (PMP22) gene. Increased levels of PMP22 in compact myelin of peripheral nerves have been demonstrated and presumed to cause the phenotype of CMT1A. The objective of the present study was to determine whether an extra copy of the PMP22 gene in CMT1A disrupts the normally coordinated expression of PMP22 protein in peripheral nerve myelin and to evaluate PMP22 over-expression in patients with CMT1A and determine whether levels of PMP22 are molecular markers of disease severity. PMP22 expression was measured by taking skin biopsies from patients with CMT1A (n = 20) and both healthy controls (n = 7) and patients with Hereditary Neuropathy with liability to Pressure Palsies (HNPP) (n = 6), in which patients have only a single copy of PMP22. Immunological electron microscopy was performed on the skin biopsies to quantify PMP22 expression in compact myelin. Similar biopsies were analysed by real time PCR to measure PMP22 mRNA levels. Results were also correlated with impairment in CMT1A, as measured by the validated CMT Neuropathy Score. Most, but not all patients with CMT1A, had elevated PMP22 levels in myelin compared with the controls. The levels of PMP22 in CMT1A were highly variable, but not in HNPP or the controls. However, there was no correlation between neurological disabilities and the level of over-expression of PMP22 protein or mRNA in patients with CMT1A. The extra copy of PMP22 in CMT1A results in disruption of the tightly regulated expression of PMP22. Thus, variability of PMP22 levels, rather than absolute level of PMP22, may play an important role in the pathogenesis of CMT1A. PMID:19447823

  4. Antenna Splitting Functions for Massive Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larkoski, Andrew J.; Peskin, Michael E.; /SLAC

    2011-06-22

    An antenna shower is a parton shower in which the basic move is a color-coherent 2 {yields} 3 parton splitting process. In this paper, we give compact forms for the spin-dependent antenna splitting functions involving massive partons of spin 0 and spin 1/2. We hope that this formalism we have presented will be useful in describing the QCD dynamics of the top quark and other heavy particles at LHC.

  5. Laser beam splitting by polarization encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Chenhao

    2015-03-20

    A scheme is proposed to design a polarization grating that splits an incident linearly polarized beam to an array of linearly polarized beams of identical intensity distribution and various azimuth angles of linear polarization. The grating is equivalent to a wave plate with space-variant azimuth angle and space-variant phase retardation. The linear polarization states of all split beams make the grating suitable for coherent beam combining architectures based on Dammann gratings. PMID:25968540

  6. Split-Quaternions and the Dirac Equation

    CERN Document Server

    Antonuccio, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    We show that Dirac 4-spinors admit an entirely equivalent formulation in terms of 2-spinors defined over the split-quaternions. In this formalism, a Lorentz transformation is represented as a $2 \\times 2$ unitary matrix over the split-quaternions. The corresponding Dirac equation is then derived in terms of these 2-spinors. In this framework the $SO(3,2; {\\bf R})$ symmetry of the Lorentz invariant scalar $\\overline{\\psi}\\psi$ is manifest.

  7. Localization in splitting of matter waves

    OpenAIRE

    Jääskeläinen, Markku; Stenholm, Stig

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we present an analysis of how matter waves, guided as propagating modes in potential structures, are split under adiabatic conditions. The description is formulated in terms of localized states obtained through a unitary transformation acting on the mode functions. The mathematical framework results in coupled propagation equations that are decoupled in the asymptotic regions as well before as after the split. The resulting states have the advantage of describing propagation in ...

  8. Ink Film Splitting Acoustics in Offset Printing

    OpenAIRE

    Voltaire, Joakim

    2006-01-01

    This thesis claims a relationship between the film splitting sound emission from the printing press nip and the dynamic interaction occurring there between ink, fountain solution and substrate in offset lithography. The film splitting sound derives from the cavitation formed by the pressure drop in the second half of the print nip flow passage. As the ink film is strained, the cavities expand and eventually implode into breaking filaments at the nip exit, while emitting a partly audible, broa...

  9. Split as an In-migration Centre

    OpenAIRE

    Klempi?, Sanja

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with problems of demographic development in Split with an emphasis on in-migration. The analysis covers the central urban zone of Split (central city). Industrialisation after the Second World War had a decisive impact on the economic and demographic development of the city. This process attracted a large number of in-migrants from the neighbouring islands, from Zagora (i.e. the Dalmatian Hinterland) and from other parts of Dalmatia. This paper presents the results of researc...

  10. Splitting tensile test for fibre reinforced concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Denneman, Erik; Kearsley, Elsabe P.; Visser, Alex T.

    2011-01-01

    The splitting tensile test is a much used method to determine the tensile strength of concrete. The conventional test procedure is known to have a number of limitations related to size effect and boundary conditions. Furthermore, it has been reported to be impossible to determine the tensile strength of Fibre Reinforced Concrete (FRC) using the standard splitting tensile test method. The objective of this paper is to present a methodology to obtain a close estimate of the true tensile strengt...

  11. Kondo spin splitting with slave boson

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J. M. Aguiar, Hualde; G., Chiappe; E.V., Anda.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The slave boson (SB) technique is employed to study the Zeeman spin splitting in a quantum dot. Unlike traditional SB method, each spin is renormalized differently. Two geometries are compared: side connected and embedded. In both cases, it's shown a non linear behavior of the splitting as a functio [...] n of the magnetic field applied. The results are in line with the latest experiments.

  12. Determination of structure coefficients from splitting matrices

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert, F.; Woodhouse, JH

    2000-01-01

    The splitting matrix for a set of coupled multiplets is a linear combination of structure coefficients, first-order Coriolis terms and terms for ellipticity and centrifugal force. These latter terms are calculated for a good 1-D earth model and removed. The first-order Coriolis terms are then uniquely determined. They are linear functionals of the density of the 1-D model. The remaining splitting matrix is an orthogonal transformation of the structure coefficients. The inverse orthogonal tran...

  13. Anomalous magnetic splitting of the Kondo resonance

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Joel E.; Wen, Xiao-Gang

    1999-01-01

    The splitting of the Kondo resonance in the density of states of an Anderson impurity in finite magnetic field is calculated from the exact Bethe-ansatz solution. The result gives an estimate of the electron spectral function for nonzero magnetic field and Kondo temperature, with consequences for transport experiments on quantum dots in the Kondo regime. The strong correlations of the Kondo ground state cause a significant low-temperature reduction of the peak splitting. Exp...

  14. Observers and Splitting Structures in Relativistic Electrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Auchmann, Bernhard; Kurz, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a relativistic splitting structure as a means to map fields and equations of electromagnetism from curved four-dimensional space-time to three-dimensional observer's space. We focus on a minimal set of mathematical structures that are directly motivated by the language of the physical theory. Space-time, world-lines, time translation, space platforms, and time synchronization all find their mathematical counterparts. The splitting structure is defined without re...

  15. Efficient presentation of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptides but not protein by astrocytes from HLA-DR2 and HLA-DR4 transgenic mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Kort, JJ; Kawamura, K.; Fugger, L; Weissert, R.; Forsthuber, TG

    2006-01-01

    The role of astrocytes in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) is not well understood. Astrocytes may modulate the activity of pathogenic T cells by presenting myelin antigens in combination with pro- or anti-inflammatory signals. Astrocytes have been shown to present myelin basic protein (MBP) and proteolipid protein (PLP) to T cells, but it has remained unresolved whether astrocytes present myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG), which has been implicated as an important autoantig...

  16. ABSENCE OF OLIGODENDROGLIAL GLUCOSYLCERAMIDE SYNTHESIS DOES NOT RESULT IN CNS MYELIN ABNORMALITIES OR ALTER THE DYSMYELINATING PHENOTYPE OF CGT-DEFICIENT MICE

    OpenAIRE

    Saadat, Laleh; DUPREE, JEFFREY L.; Kilkus, John; Han, Xianlin; Traka, Maria; Proia, Richard L; Dawson, Glyn; POPKO, BRIAN

    2010-01-01

    To examine the function of glycosphingolipids (GSLs) in oligodendrocytes, the myelinating cells of the central nervous system (CNS), mice were generated that lack oligodendroglial expression of UDP-glucose ceramide glucosyltransferase (encoded by Ugcg). These mice (Ugcgflox/flox;Cnp/Cre) did not show any apparent clinical phenotype, their total brain and myelin extracts had normal GSL content, including ganglioside composition, and myelin abnormalities were not detected in their CNS. These da...

  17. DETECTION OF FLUX EMERGENCE, SPLITTING, MERGING, AND CANCELLATION OF NETWORK FIELD. I. SPLITTING AND MERGING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frequencies of magnetic patch processes on the supergranule boundary, namely, flux emergence, splitting, merging, and cancellation, are investigated through automatic detection. We use a set of line-of-sight magnetograms taken by the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) on board the Hinode satellite. We found 1636 positive patches and 1637 negative patches in the data set, whose time duration is 3.5 hr and field of view is 112'' × 112''. The total numbers of magnetic processes are as follows: 493 positive and 482 negative splittings, 536 positive and 535 negative mergings, 86 cancellations, and 3 emergences. The total numbers of emergence and cancellation are significantly smaller than those of splitting and merging. Further, the frequency dependence of the merging and splitting processes on the flux content are investigated. Merging has a weak dependence on the flux content with a power-law index of only 0.28. The timescale for splitting is found to be independent of the parent flux content before splitting, which corresponds to ?33 minutes. It is also found that patches split into any flux contents with the same probability. This splitting has a power-law distribution of the flux content with an index of –2 as a time-independent solution. These results support that the frequency distribution of the flux content in the analyzed flux range is rapidly maintained by merging and splitting, namely, surface processes. We suggest a model for frequency distributions of cancellation and emergence based on this idea.

  18. Quintessence and phantom emerging from the split-complex field and the split-quaternion field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Changjun; Chen, Xuelei; Shen, You-Gen

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the mathematic theory of split-complex numbers (or hyperbolic numbers, also perplex numbers) and the split-quaternion numbers (or coquaternion numbers), we define the notion of split-complex scalar field and the split-quaternion scalar field. Then we explore the cosmic evolution of these scalar fields in the background of spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker Universe. We find that both the quintessence field and the phantom field could naturally emerge in these scalar fields. Introducing the metric of field space, these theories fall into a subclass of the multi-field theories which have been extensively studied in inflationary cosmology.

  19. Downregulation of the microtubule associated protein tau impairs process outgrowth and myelin basic protein mRNA transport in oligodendrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiberlich, Veronika; Bauer, Nina G; Schwarz, Lisa; Ffrench-Constant, Charles; Goldbaum, Olaf; Richter-Landsberg, Christiane

    2015-09-01

    Oligodendrocytes, the myelin forming cells of the CNS, are characterized by their numerous membranous extensions, which enwrap neuronal axons and form myelin sheaths. During differentiation oligodendrocytes pass different morphological stages, downregulate the expression of the proteoglycan NG2, and acquire major myelin specific proteins, such as myelin basic proteins (MBP) and proteolipid protein. MBP mRNA is transported in RNA granules along the microtubules (MTs) to the periphery and translated locally. MTs participate in the elaboration and stabilization of the myelin forming extensions and are essential for cellular sorting processes. Their dynamic properties are regulated by microtubule associated proteins (MAPs). The MAP tau is present in oligodendrocytes and involved in the regulation and stabilization of the MT network. To further elucidate the functional significance of tau in oligodendrocytes, we have downregulated tau by siRNA technology and studied the effects on cell differentiation and neuron-glia contact formation. The data show that tau knockdown impairs process outgrowth and leads to a decrease in MBP expression. Furthermore, MBP mRNA transport to distant cellular extensions is impaired and cells remain in the NG2 stage. In myelinating cocultures with dorsal root ganglion neurons, oligodendrocyte precursor cells after tau miR RNA lentiviral knockdown develop into NG2 positive cells with very long and thin processes, contacting axons loosely, but fail to form internodes. This demonstrates that tau is important for MBP mRNA transport and involved in process formation. The disturbance of the balance of tau leads to abnormalities in oligodendrocyte differentiation, neuron-glia contact formation and the early myelination process. PMID:25847153

  20. Cdc42 and Rac1 signaling are both required for and act synergistically in the correct formation of myelin sheaths in the CNS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thurnherr, Tina; Benninger, Yves; Wu, Xunwei; Chrostek, Anna; Krause, Sven M; Nave, Klaus-Armin; Franklin, Robin J M; Brakebusch, Cord; Suter, Ueli; Relvas, João B

    2006-01-01

    The formation of myelin sheaths in the CNS is the result of a complex series of events involving oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) proliferation, directed migration, and the morphological changes associated with axon ensheathment and myelination. To examine the role of Rho GTPases in oligoden......The formation of myelin sheaths in the CNS is the result of a complex series of events involving oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) proliferation, directed migration, and the morphological changes associated with axon ensheathment and myelination. To examine the role of Rho GTPases in...

  1. Quetiapine inhibits microglial activation by neutralizing abnormal STIM1 mediated intercellular calcium homeostasis and promotes myelin repair in a cuprizone -induced mouse model of de-myelination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiming Kong

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Microglial activation has been considered as a crucial process in the pathogenesis of neuro-inflammation and psychiatric disorders. Several antipsychotic drugs have been shown to display inhibitory effects on microglial activation in vitro, possibly through the suppression of elevated intracellular calcium (Ca2+ concentration. However the exact underlying mechanisms still remain elusive. In this study, we aimed to investigate the inhibitory effects of quetiapine (Que, an atypical antipsychotic drug, on microglial activation. We utilize a chronic cuprizone (CPZ-induced de-myelination mouse model to determine the direct effect of Que on microglial activation. Our results show that treatment with Que significantly reduced recruitment and activation of microglia/macrophage in the lesion of corpus callosum and promoted re-myelination after CPZ withdraw. Our in vitro studies also confirm the direct effect of Que on lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced activation of microglial N9 cells whereby Que significantly inhibited the release of nitric oxide (NO and tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?. Moreover, we demonstrated that pre-treatment with Que, neutralized the up-regulation of STIM1 induced by LPS and declined both LPS and thapsigargin (Tg-induced store operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE. Finally we found that pre-treatment with Que significantly reduced the translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B p65 subunit from cytoplasm to nuclei in LPS-activated primary microglial cells. Overall, our data suggested that Que may inhibit microglial activation by neutralization of the LPS-induced abnormal STIM1 mediated intercellular calcium homeostasis.

  2. Exposure to As, Cd and Pb-mixture impairs myelin and axon development in rat brain, optic nerve and retina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rai, Nagendra Kumar; Ashok, Anushruti [Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (India); Developmental Toxicology, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research (CSIR-IITR) (India); Rai, Asit; Tripathi, Sachin [Developmental Toxicology, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research (CSIR-IITR) (India); Nagar, Geet Kumar [Endocrinology, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute (CSIR-CDRI) (India); Mitra, Kalyan [Electron Microscopy Unit, CSIR-CDRI, Lucknow 226001 (India); Bandyopadhyay, Sanghamitra, E-mail: sanghmitra@iitr.res.in [Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (India); Developmental Toxicology, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research (CSIR-IITR) (India)

    2013-12-01

    Arsenic (As), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) are the major metal contaminants of ground water in India. We have reported the toxic effect of their mixture (metal mixture, MM), at human relevant doses, on developing rat astrocytes. Astrocyte damage has been shown to be associated with myelin disintegration in CNS. We, therefore, hypothesized that the MM would perturb myelinating white matter in cerebral cortex, optic nerve (O.N.) and retina. We observed modulation in the levels of myelin and axon proteins, such as myelin basic protein (MBP), proteolipid protein, 2?-, 3?-cyclic-nucleotide-3?-phosphodiesterase, myelin-associated glycoprotein and neurofilament (NF) in the brain of developing rats. Dose and time-dependent synergistic toxic effect was noted. The MBP- and NF-immunolabeling, as well as luxol-fast blue (LFB) staining demonstrated a reduction in the area of intact myelin-fiber, and an increase in vacuolated axons, especially in the corpus-callosum. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of O.N. revealed a reduction in myelin thickness and axon-density. The immunolabeling with MBP, NF, and LFB staining in O.N. supported the TEM data. The hematoxylin and eosin staining of retina displayed a decrease in the thickness of nerve-fiber, plexiform-layer, and retinal ganglion cell (RGC) count. Investigating the mechanism revealed a loss in glutamine synthetase activity in the cerebral cortex and O.N., and a fall in the brain derived neurotrophic factor in retina. An enhanced apoptosis in MBP, NF and Brn3b-containing cells justified the diminution in myelinating axons in CNS. Our findings for the first time indicate white matter damage by MM, which may have significance in neurodevelopmental-pediatrics, neurotoxicology and retinal-cell biology. - Highlights: • As, Cd and Pb-mixture, at human relevant dose, demyelinate developing rat CNS. • The attenuation in myelin and axon is synergistic. • The optic nerve and brain demonstrate reduced glutamine synthetase. • The retina exhibits diminished neurotrophin levels and cellular differentiation. • The toxic effect is apoptotic.

  3. Exposure to As, Cd and Pb-mixture impairs myelin and axon development in rat brain, optic nerve and retina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenic (As), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) are the major metal contaminants of ground water in India. We have reported the toxic effect of their mixture (metal mixture, MM), at human relevant doses, on developing rat astrocytes. Astrocyte damage has been shown to be associated with myelin disintegration in CNS. We, therefore, hypothesized that the MM would perturb myelinating white matter in cerebral cortex, optic nerve (O.N.) and retina. We observed modulation in the levels of myelin and axon proteins, such as myelin basic protein (MBP), proteolipid protein, 2?-, 3?-cyclic-nucleotide-3?-phosphodiesterase, myelin-associated glycoprotein and neurofilament (NF) in the brain of developing rats. Dose and time-dependent synergistic toxic effect was noted. The MBP- and NF-immunolabeling, as well as luxol-fast blue (LFB) staining demonstrated a reduction in the area of intact myelin-fiber, and an increase in vacuolated axons, especially in the corpus-callosum. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of O.N. revealed a reduction in myelin thickness and axon-density. The immunolabeling with MBP, NF, and LFB staining in O.N. supported the TEM data. The hematoxylin and eosin staining of retina displayed a decrease in the thickness of nerve-fiber, plexiform-layer, and retinal ganglion cell (RGC) count. Investigating the mechanism revealed a loss in glutamine synthetase activity in the cerebral cortex and O.N., and a fall in the brain derived neurotrophic factor in retina. An enhanced apoptosis in MBP, NF and Brn3b-containing cells justified the diminution in myelinating axons in CNS. Our findings for the first time indicate white matter damage by MM, which may have significance in neurodevelopmental-pediatrics, neurotoxicology and retinal-cell biology. - Highlights: • As, Cd and Pb-mixture, at human relevant dose, demyelinate developing rat CNS. • The attenuation in myelin and axon is synergistic. • The optic nerve and brain demonstrate reduced glutamine synthetase. • The retina exhibits diminished neurotrophin levels and cellular differentiation. • The toxic effect is apoptotic

  4. Tissue transglutaminase activity is involved in the differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells into myelin-forming oligodendrocytes during CNS remyelination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Strien, Miriam E; Baron, Wia; Bakker, Erik N T P; Bauer, Jan; Bol, John G J M; Brevé, John J P; Binnekade, Rob; Van Der Laarse, Willem J; Drukarch, Benjamin; Van Dam, Anne-Marie

    2011-11-01

    During normal brain development, axons are myelinated by mature oligodendrocytes (OLGs). Under pathological, demyelinating conditions within the central nervous system (CNS), axonal remyelination is only partially successful because oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) largely remain in an undifferentiated state resulting in a failure to generate myelinating OLGs. Tissue Transglutaminase (TG2) is a multifunctional enzyme, which amongst other functions, is involved in cell differentiation. Therefore, we hypothesized that TG2 contributes to differentiation of OPCs into OLGs and thereby stimulates remyelination. In vivo studies, using the cuprizone model for de- and remyelination in TG2(-/-) and wild-type mice, showed that during remyelination expression of proteolipid protein mRNA, as a marker for remyelination, in the corpus callosum lags behind in TG2(-/-) mice resulting in less myelin formation and, moreover, impaired recovery of motor behavior. Subsequent in vitro studies showed that rat OPCs express TG2 protein and activity which reduces when the cells have matured into OLGs. Furthermore, when TG2 activity is pharmacologically inhibited, the differentiation of OPCs into myelin-forming OLGs is dramatically reduced. We conclude that TG2 plays a prominent role in remyelination of the CNS, probably through stimulating OPC differentiation into myelin-forming OLGs. Therefore, manipulating TG2 activity may represent an interesting new target for remyelination in demyelinating diseases. PMID:21818782

  5. Development and applications of a solid-phase radioimmunoassay for the P0 protein of peripheral myelin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The assay uses antigen-coated plastic microwells, with antibody binding detected by 125I-labelled protein A. Either peripheral myelin proteins or purified P0 may be used as the antigen. This method allows the detection of 0.8 ng of P0 (20 ng/ml). Results showed little or no immunoreactivity in extracts of brain, central myelin, liver, purified myelin basic proteins, cultured, purified secondary Schwann cells, or membrane preparations from these cells. P0 was clearly detectable in Schwann cell cultures from 3- 4-day-old rats at 12-18 h after dissociation (4% of the level in adult sciatic nerve) and in extracts of one-day-old rat sciatic nerve (2% of the level in adult nerve). Myelin basic protein radioimmunoassays showed that the ratio of P0 to myelin basic protein is essentially constant in extracts of sciatic nerve from one-day-old, four-day-old, and young adult rats. Another results was that P0 levels are reduced in the trembler mouse sciatic nerve. (author)

  6. Electroactive biodegradable polyurethane significantly enhanced Schwann cells myelin gene expression and neurotrophin secretion for peripheral nerve tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yaobin; Wang, Ling; Guo, Baolin; Shao, Yongpin; Ma, Peter X

    2016-05-01

    Myelination of Schwann cells (SCs) is critical for the success of peripheral nerve regeneration, and biomaterials that can promote SCs' neurotrophin secretion as scaffolds are beneficial for nerve repair. Here we present a biomaterials-approach, specifically, a highly tunable conductive biodegradable flexible polyurethane by polycondensation of poly(glycerol sebacate) and aniline pentamer, to significantly enhance SCs' myelin gene expression and neurotrophin secretion for peripheral nerve tissue engineering. SCs are cultured on these conductive polymer films, and the biocompatibility of these films and their ability to enhance myelin gene expressions and sustained neurotrophin secretion are successfully demonstrated. The mechanism of SCs' neurotrophin secretion on conductive films is demonstrated by investigating the relationship between intracellular Ca(2+) level and SCs' myelination. Furthermore, the neurite growth and elongation of PC12 cells are induced by adding the neurotrophin medium suspension produced from SCs-laden conductive films. These data suggest that these conductive degradable polyurethanes that enhance SCs' myelin gene expressions and sustained neurotrophin secretion perform great potential for nerve regeneration applications. PMID:26897537

  7. 7 CFR 51.2731 - U.S. Spanish Splits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. Spanish Splits. 51.2731 Section 51.2731... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Spanish Type Peanuts Grades § 51.2731 U.S. Spanish Splits. “U.S. Spanish Splits” consists of shelled Spanish type peanut kernels which are split or...

  8. Compressive Split-Step Fourier Method

    CERN Document Server

    Bayindir, Cihan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper an approach for decreasing the computational effort required for the split-step Fourier method (SSFM) is introduced. It is shown that using the sparsity property of the simulated signals, the compressive sampling algorithm can be used as a very efficient tool for the split-step spectral simulations of various phenomena which can be modeled by using differential equations. The proposed method depends on the idea of using a smaller number of spectral components compared to the classical split-step Fourier method with a high number of components. After performing the time integration with a smaller number of spectral components and using the compressive sampling technique with l1 minimization, it is shown that the sparse signal can be reconstructed with a significantly better efficiency compared to the classical split-step Fourier method. Proposed method can be named as compressive split-step Fourier method (CSSFM). For testing of the proposed method the Nonlinear Schrodinger Equation and its one-s...

  9. Urban pattern: Layout design by hierarchical domain splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yongliang

    2013-11-01

    We present a framework for generating street networks and parcel layouts. Our goal is the generation of high-quality layouts that can be used for urban planning and virtual environments. We propose a solution based on hierarchical domain splitting using two splitting types: streamline-based splitting, which splits a region along one or multiple streamlines of a cross field, and template-based splitting, which warps pre-designed templates to a region and uses the interior geometry of the template as the splitting lines. We combine these two splitting approaches into a hierarchical framework, providing automatic and interactive tools to explore the design space.

  10. Myelin protein zero: mutations in the cytoplasmic domain interfere with its cellular trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konde, Viren; Eichberg, Joseph

    2006-05-01

    The cytoplasmic domain of myelin protein zero (MPZ), the principal protein of peripheral myelin, undergoes phosphorylation on several serine residues and a tyrosine group that is maximal during peak nerve myelination. Mutations that could affect MPZ phosphorylation cause the inherited neuropathy, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease Type 1B. To investigate a possible role for phosphorylation in regulation of MPZ trafficking within the cell, we expressed wild-type and mutated MPZ-enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion proteins in cultured Schwann-like cells. Whereas wild-type protein is present almost entirely at the cell surface, mutation of serine 204 to alanine or at a nearby presumed PKC substrate motif (198RSTK201) causes 40-60% of protein to be retained in the cytoplasm. Mutation of S204 to aspartate, which introduces a permanent negative charge, also impairs MPZ movement to the plasma membrane. In contrast, tyrosine 191 mutation has no effect on MPZ cellular distribution. Simultaneous alteration of S204 and Y191 produces much less perturbation of MPZ trafficking than mutation of S204 alone. Colocalization studies showed that mutated MPZ-EGFP trapped in the cytoplasm associates with all organelles in the secretory pathway. Previous studies have shown that cytoplasmic mutations at serine, but not tyrosine phosphorylation sites, abolish MPZ adhesive properties. Our results suggest that this loss of adhesion may be due, at least in part, to a failure of sufficient MPZ to reach the cell surface and that this impaired trafficking is associated with deficient serine phosphorylation in the cytoplasmic domain. PMID:16493674

  11. Systemic 5-fluorouracil treatment causes a syndrome of delayed myelin destruction in the central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Ruolan

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer treatment with a variety of chemotherapeutic agents often is associated with delayed adverse neurological consequences. Despite their clinical importance, almost nothing is known about the basis for such effects. It is not even known whether the occurrence of delayed adverse effects requires exposure to multiple chemotherapeutic agents, the presence of both chemotherapeutic agents and the body's own response to cancer, prolonged damage to the blood-brain barrier, inflammation or other such changes. Nor are there any animal models that could enable the study of this important problem. Results We found that clinically relevant concentrations of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU; a widely used chemotherapeutic agent were toxic for both central nervous system (CNS progenitor cells and non-dividing oligodendrocytes in vitro and in vivo. Short-term systemic administration of 5-FU caused both acute CNS damage and a syndrome of progressively worsening delayed damage to myelinated tracts of the CNS associated with altered transcriptional regulation in oligodendrocytes and extensive myelin pathology. Functional analysis also provided the first demonstration of delayed effects of chemotherapy on the latency of impulse conduction in the auditory system, offering the possibility of non-invasive analysis of myelin damage associated with cancer treatment. Conclusions Our studies demonstrate that systemic treatment with a single chemotherapeutic agent, 5-FU, is sufficient to cause a syndrome of delayed CNS damage and provide the first animal model of delayed damage to white-matter tracts of individuals treated with systemic chemotherapy. Unlike that caused by local irradiation, the degeneration caused by 5-FU treatment did not correlate with either chronic inflammation or extensive vascular damage and appears to represent a new class of delayed degenerative damage in the CNS.

  12. Metabotropic GABA-B receptors in the PNS: role in nociception and myelination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bettler

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Metabotropic GABA-B receptors are present in the CNS where they play important roles in the modulation of nociceptive transmission and pain. Many preclinical studies reported that the GABA-B specific agonist baclofen is antinociceptive in different models of acute and chronic pain. The study of GABA-B1 knockout mice further supports the contribution of GABA-B receptors to central nociceptive processing. These mice are hyperalgesic, showing a reduced latency to thermal and mechanical stimuli. A tonic GABA-B receptor activation therefore appears to contribute to the establishment of the nociceptive threshold. Interestingly, GABA-B receptors are expressed in the peripheral nervous system (PNS, mainly in the Schwann cells where they control cell proliferation and myelination. Emerging evidence obtained in GABA-B1 knockout mice indicates that these mice exhibit gait alterations and reduced allodynic sensitivity too. Furthermore, GABA-B1-deficient mice show morphological and molecular changes in peripheral nerves, including an increase in the number of small myelinated fibers, as well as in small neurons of the lumbar dorsal root ganglia. These fibers are supposed to be A_ nociceptive fibers. Consequently, it has been suggested that GABA-B receptors are implicated in the PNS myelination process. The possibility that PNS alterations contribute to the sensory phenotypes observed in GABAB1- deficient mice has been also hypothesized. The study in conditional mice that specifically lack the GABA-B1 receptor in the Schwann cells or in motoneurons will aim to clarify the role of GABA-B receptors in peripheral pain sensitivity.

  13. Immunodominant fragments of myelin basic protein initiate T cell-dependent pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Huaqing

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The myelin sheath provides electrical insulation of mechanosensory A?-afferent fibers. Myelin-degrading matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs damage the myelin sheath. The resulting electrical instability of A?-fibers is believed to activate the nociceptive circuitry in A?-fibers and initiate pain from innocuous tactile stimulation (mechanical allodynia. The precise molecular mechanisms, responsible for the development of this neuropathic pain state after nerve injury (for example, chronic constriction injury, CCI, are not well understood. Methods and results Using mass spectrometry of the whole sciatic nerve proteome followed by bioinformatics analyses, we determined that the pathways, which are classified as the Infectious Disease and T-helper cell signaling, are readily activated in the nerves post-CCI. Inhibition of MMP-9/MMP-2 suppressed CCI-induced mechanical allodynia and concomitant TNF-? and IL-17A expression in nerves. MMP-9 proteolysis of myelin basic protein (MBP generated the MBP84-104 and MBP68-86 digest peptides, which are prominent immunogenic epitopes. In agreement, the endogenous MBP69-86 epitope co-localized with MHCII and MMP-9 in Schwann cells and along the nodes of Ranvier. Administration of either the MBP84-104 or MBP68-86 peptides into the naïve nerve rapidly produced robust mechanical allodynia with a concomitant increase in T cells and MHCII-reactive cell populations at the injection site. As shown by the genome-wide expression profiling, a single intraneural MBP84-104 injection stimulated the inflammatory, immune cell trafficking, and antigen presentation pathways in the injected naïve nerves and the associated spinal cords. Both MBP84-104-induced mechanical allodynia and characteristic pathway activation were remarkably less prominent in the T cell-deficient athymic nude rats. Conclusions These data implicate MBP as a novel mediator of pain. Furthermore, the action of MMPs expressed within 1?day post-injury is critical to the generation of tactile allodynia, neuroinflammation, and the immunodominant MBP digest peptides in nerve. These MBP peptides initiate mechanical allodynia in both a T cell-dependent and -independent manner. In the course of Wallerian degeneration, the repeated exposure of the cryptic MBP epitopes, which are normally sheltered from immunosurveillance, may induce the MBP-specific T cell clones and a self-sustaining immune reaction, which may together contribute to the transition of acute pain into a chronic neuropathic pain state.

  14. Rapamycin improves peripheral nerve myelination while it fails to benefit neuromuscular performance in neuropathic mice

    OpenAIRE

    Nicks, Jessica; Lee, Sooyeon; Harris, Andrew; Falk, Darin J.; Todd, Adrian G.; Arredondo, Karla; Dunn, William A; Notterpek, Lucia

    2014-01-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A) is a hereditary peripheral neuropathy characterized by progressive demyelination and distal muscle weakness. Abnormal expression of peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) has been linked to CMT1A and is modeled by Trembler J (TrJ) mice, which carry the same leucine to proline substitution in PMP22 as affected pedigrees. Pharmacologic modulation of autophagy by rapamycin in neuron-Schwann cell explant cultures from neuropathic mice reduced PMP22 aggreg...

  15. Myelin-specific regulatory T cells accumulate in the CNS but fail to control autoimmune inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Korn, Thomas; Reddy, Jayagopala; GAO, WENDA; Bettelli, Estelle; Awasthi, Amit; Petersen, Troels R.; Bäckström, B. Thomas; Sobel, Raymond A.; Wucherpfennig, Kai W.; Strom, Terry B.; Oukka, Mohamed; Kuchroo, Vijay K

    2007-01-01

    Treatment with ex vivo–generated regulatory T cells (T-reg) has been regarded as a potentially attractive therapeutic approach for autoimmune diseases. However, the dynamics and function of T-reg in autoimmunity are not well understood. Thus, we developed Foxp3gfp knock-in (Foxp3gfp.KI) mice and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)35–55/IAb (MHC class II) tetramers to track autoantigen-specific effector T cells (T-eff) and T-reg in vivo during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (E...

  16. Tracing Myelin Protein Zero (P0) in vivo by construction of P0-GFP fusion proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Van Broeckhoven Christine; Nelis Eva; Fuchs Christina; Oezbey Sevinc; Ekici Arif B; Schachner Melitta; Rautenstrauss Bernd

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Background Mutations in P0, the major protein of the myelin sheath in peripheral nerves, cause the inherited peripheral neuropathies Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1B (CMT1B), Dejerine-Sottas syndrome (DSS) and congenital hypomyelination (CH). We reported earlier a de novo insertional mutation c.662_663GC (Ala221fs) in a DSS patient. The c.662_663GC insertion results in a frame shift mutation Ala221fs altering the C-terminal amino acid sequence. The adhesion-relevant intracellular ...

  17. Myelin basic protein reduces molecular motions in DMPA, an elastic neutron scattering study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natali, F.; Gliozzi, A.; Rolandi, R.; Cavatorta, P.; Deriu, A.; Fasano, A.; Riccio, P.

    2001-07-01

    We have studied the effect of physiological amounts of myelin basic protein (MBP) on pure dimyristoyl L- ?-phosphatidic acid (DMPA) vesicles using the elastic neutron scattering technique. Elastic scans have been performed in a wide temperature range (20-300 K). In the lower temperature region the behaviour of the integrated elastic intensity was the typical one of harmonic systems. The analysis of the Q and T dependence performed in terms of an asymmetric double well potential clearly showed that the effect of the protein consisted in a significant reduction of the conformational mobility of the DMPA bilayers and in the stabilisation of the membrane.

  18. Myelin Abnormalities in the Optic and Sciatic Nerves in Mice With GM1-Gangliosidosis

    OpenAIRE

    Heinecke, Karie A.; Luoma, Adrienne; d’Azzo, Alessandra; Kirschner, Daniel A; Seyfried, Thomas N

    2015-01-01

    GM1-gangliosidosis is a glycosphingolipid lysosomal storage disease involving accumulation of GM1 and its asialo form (GA1) primarily in the brain. Thin-layer chromatography and X-ray diffraction were used to analyze the lipid content/composition and the myelin structure of the optic and sciatic nerves from 7- and 10-month old ?-galactosidase (?-gal) +/? and ?-gal ?/? mice, a model of GM1gangliosidosis. Optic nerve weight was lower in the ?-gal ?/? mice than in unaffected ?-gal +/? mice, but ...

  19. Symmetric splitting of very light systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fission reactions that produce fragments close to one half the mass of the composite system are traditionally observed in heavy nuclei. In light systems, symmetric splitting is rarely observed and poorly understood. It would be interesting to verify the existence of the symmetric splitting of compound nuclei with A 12C + 40Ca, 141 MeV 9Be + 40Ca and 153 MeV 6Li + 40Ca. The out-of-plane correlation of symmetric products was also measured for the reaction 186 MeV 12C + 40Ca. The coincidence measurements of the 12C + 40Ca system demonstrated that essentially all of the inclusive yield of symmetric products around 400 results from a binary decay. To characterize the dependence of the symmetric splitting process on the excitation energy of the 12C + 40C system, inclusive measurements were made at bombarding energies of 74, 132, 162, and 185 MeV

  20. Hyperfine interaction and zero-field splitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unpaired electrons and nuclei with magnetic moments produce hyperfine and zero-field splittings in the spectra of molecules. From the former one learns about the character of the wavefunction and obtains some structural and spin-density information. Zero-field splittings are indicative of magnetic anisotropy which is also related to the electronic properties. Examples taken from electron-spin-resonance and far-infrared spectra of matrix-isolated molecules will be considered. Recent examples that may be discussed are a gallium arsenide cluster (Ga2As3), transition-metal dioxides and dihydrides (RhH2), transition-metal diatomic ions (Nb2+) and the zero-field splitting in nickelocene. In some of these cases, comparison can be made with an initio theoretical calculations of the properties of their ground electronic states

  1. Heterogeneous photocatalyst materials for water splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Akihiko; Miseki, Yugo

    2009-01-01

    This critical review shows the basis of photocatalytic water splitting and experimental points, and surveys heterogeneous photocatalyst materials for water splitting into H2 and O2, and H2 or O2 evolution from an aqueous solution containing a sacrificial reagent. Many oxides consisting of metal cations with d0 and d10 configurations, metal (oxy)sulfide and metal (oxy)nitride photocatalysts have been reported, especially during the latest decade. The fruitful photocatalyst library gives important information on factors affecting photocatalytic performances and design of new materials. Photocatalytic water splitting and H2 evolution using abundant compounds as electron donors are expected to contribute to construction of a clean and simple system for solar hydrogen production, and a solution of global energy and environmental issues in the future (361 references). PMID:19088977

  2. A Split Sprint mission to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Kyle; Duffey, Jack; D'Annible, Dom; Holdridge, Jeff; Thompson, Walter; Armstrong, Robert C.

    1992-01-01

    Comprehensive infrastructure analysis is central to developing architectures necessary to support the Space Exploration Initiative. In the ``Split Sprint'' architecture, the cargo is split from the crew. An efficient low thrust ``slow boat'' is used for the cargo and a high thrust ``sprint'' vehicle is used for the crew. Infrastructure analysis is utilized in developing initial element designs to meet the transportation system requirements of the slit sprint architecture. Infrastructure analysis considers technology availability, launch vehicle volume and lift requirements, on orbit assembly, trajectory design and optimization, system reduncancy requirements and evolutionary capability. The resulting infrastructure includes propulsion system options for the crew and cargo space transfer vehicles. For the cargo, an SP-100 derived nuclear electric propulsion system was developed. For the crew, either a conventional cryogenic (LO2/LH2) propulsion system or nuclear thermal propulsion system is utilized. It is shown that the split sprint mission competes effectively with conventional approaches to the Mars mission.

  3. High efficiency beam splitting for H- accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beam splitting for high energy accelerators has typically involved a significant loss of beam and radiation. This paper reports on a new method of splitting beams for H- accelerators. This technique uses a high intensity flash of light to strip a fraction of the H- beam to H0 which are then easily separated by a small bending magnet. A system using a 900-watt (average electrical power) flashlamp and a highly efficient collector will provide 10-3 to 10-2 splitting of a 50 MeV H- beam. Results on the operation and comparisons with stripping cross sections are presented. Also discussed is the possibility for developing this system to yield a higher stripping fraction

  4. Observers and splitting structures in relativistic electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auchmann, B.; Kurz, S.

    2014-10-01

    We introduce a relativistic splitting structure as a means to map fields and equations of electromagnetism from curved four-dimensional space-time to three-dimensional observer's space. We focus on a minimal set of mathematical structures that are directly motivated by the language of the physical theory. Space-time, world-lines, time translation, space platforms and time synchronization all find their mathematical counterparts. The splitting structure is defined without recourse to coordinates or frames. This is noteworthy since, in much of the prevalent literature, observers are identified with adapted coordinates and frames. Among the benefits of the approach is a concise and insightful classification of splitting structures that is juxtaposed to a classification of observers. The application of the framework to the Ehrenfest paradox and Schiff's ‘Question in General Relativity’ further illustrates the advantages of the framework, enabling a compact, yet profound analysis of the problems at hand.

  5. Observers and splitting structures in relativistic electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We introduce a relativistic splitting structure as a means to map fields and equations of electromagnetism from curved four-dimensional space–time to three-dimensional observer's space. We focus on a minimal set of mathematical structures that are directly motivated by the language of the physical theory. Space–time, world-lines, time translation, space platforms and time synchronization all find their mathematical counterparts. The splitting structure is defined without recourse to coordinates or frames. This is noteworthy since, in much of the prevalent literature, observers are identified with adapted coordinates and frames. Among the benefits of the approach is a concise and insightful classification of splitting structures that is juxtaposed to a classification of observers. The application of the framework to the Ehrenfest paradox and Schiff's ‘Question in General Relativity’ further illustrates the advantages of the framework, enabling a compact, yet profound analysis of the problems at hand. (paper)

  6. Rapid Simultaneous Mapping of Total and Myelin Water Content, T1 and T2* in Multiple Sclerosis

    CERN Document Server

    Arhelger, Volker; Gliedstein, Detlef; Lafontaine, Marie-Sofie; Tonkova, Vyara; Holz, Dietrich; Böer, Andreas; Schenk, Jochen; Neeb, Heiko; (,; Koblenz, University of Applied Sciences; Koblenz, Radiologisches Institut Hohenzollernstrasse; Engineering, Institute for Medical; Koblenz, Information Processing; Boeer, Neurologie Dr; Koblenz,

    2010-01-01

    Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging might provide a more specific insight into disease process, progression and therapeutic response of multiple sclerosis. We present an extension of a previously published approach for the simultaneous mapping of brain T1, T2* and total water content. In addition to those three parameters, the method presented in the current work allows for the measurement of myelin bound water content, a surrogate marker of tissue myelination. Myelin water was measured based on its distinct relaxation with reduced T2*, resulting in a multiexponential decay signal. However, only 10 points could be acquired on the relaxation curve within a maximum echo time of <40ms as the quantitative protocol has been adapted previously for fast acquisitions with whole brain coverage. The sparse sampling required an adaption of the optimisation approach with additional constraints necessary in order to obtain reliable results. Therefore, the corresponding pool fractions were determined using linear op...

  7. Spin splitting in open quantum dots

    OpenAIRE

    Evaldsson, M.; Zozoulenko, I. V.; Ciorga, M.; Zawadzki, P.; Sachrajda, A. S.

    2003-01-01

    We present results from a theoretical and experimental study of spin-splitting in small open lateral quantum dots (i.e. in the regime when the dot is connected to the reservoirs via leads that support one or more propagating modes). We demonstrate that the magnetoconductance shows a pronounced splitting of the conductance peaks (or dips) which persists over a wide range of magnetic fields (from zero field to the edge-state regime) and is virtually independent of magnetic field. A numerical an...

  8. Splitting neutrino masses and showering into Sky

    OpenAIRE

    Fargion, D.; D'Armiento, D.; Iacobelli, M.; Lanciano, O.; P. Oliva; Lucentini, P. G. De Sanctis; Grossi, M.; de Santis, M.

    2006-01-01

    Neutrino masses might be as light as a few time the atmospheric neutrino mass splitting. High Energy ZeV cosmic neutrinos (in Z-Showering model) might hit relic ones at each mass in different resonance energies in our nearby Universe. This non-degenerated density and energy must split UHE Z-boson secondaries (in Z-Burst model) leading to multi injection of UHECR nucleons within future extreme AUGER energy. Secondaries of Z-Burst as neutral gamma, below a few tens EeV are bet...

  9. Splitting methods for the nonlocal Fowler equation

    CERN Document Server

    Bouharguane, Afaf

    2011-01-01

    We consider a nonlocal scalar conservation law proposed by Andrew C. Fowler to describe the dynamics of dunes, and we develop a numerical procedure based on splitting methods to approximate its solutions. We begin by proving the convergence of the well-known Lie formula, which is an approximation of the exact solution of order one in time. We next use the split-step Fourier method to approximate the continuous problem using the fast Fourier transform and the finite difference method. Our numerical experiments confirm the theoretical results.

  10. Smooth globally hyperbolic splittings and temporal functions

    CERN Document Server

    Bernal, A N; Bernal, Antonio N.; S\\'anchez, Miguel

    2004-01-01

    Geroch's theorem about the splitting of globally hyperbolic spacetimes is a central result in global Lorentzian Geometry. Nevertheless, this result was obtained at a topological level, and the possibility to obtain a metric (or, at least, smooth) version has been controversial since its publication in 1970. In fact, this problem has remained open until a definitive proof, recently provided by the authors. Our purpose is to summarize the history of the problem, explain the smooth and metric splitting results (including smoothability of time functions in stably causal spacetimes), and sketch the ideas of the solution.

  11. Myelinated fibers in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1B with Arg98His mutation of Po protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, A; Yamamoto, T; Yamamori, S; Sudo, K; Fukushima, Y; Ikeda, M

    1999-12-15

    This study was undertaken to characterize the clinical, electrophysiologic, and histopathologic features of five presumably unrelated Japanese patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease type 1B and Arg98His substitution of Po protein and, in particular, to correlate Arg98His substitution to the ultrastructural abnormalities of the myelin sheath. Systematic morphometric studies of the sural nerve, where the CMT type 1B gene abnormality is expressed, have not been performed, especially on the basis of the type of mutation causing CMT type 1B. Electrophysiologic evaluation of limb nerves and morphometric analysis of sural nerves obtained at biopsy were performed. Ultrastructural myelin abnormalities were precisely examined. Clinical symptoms appeared from the second to the fifth decade. All probands presented with gait disturbance. Motor and sensory conduction velocities in the median and ulnar nerves ranged from 10 to 30 m/s. Segmental demyelination and remyelination and marked loss of myelinated fibers were the main findings. On electron microscopy, widening between major dense lines was found between the paired intraperiod lines, where the extramembranous portion of the Po protein resides. This widening is probably directly related to Arg98His substitution. Focal uncompaction of major dense lines coexisted with this widening. This uncompaction, which directly decreases the number of myelin lamellae, may be a secondary effect of Arg98His substitution on the intramembranous domain of Po protein. In conclusion, myelin changes at both extracellular and cytoplasmic appositions of Schwann cell membranes were found in association with Arg98His substitution of Po protein. This study contributes to a better understanding of myelin abnormalities in patients with CMT type 1B and Arg98His or other similar extramembranous amino acid substitutions of Po protein. PMID:10581375

  12. Unmyelinated nerve fibers in the human dental pulp express markers for myelinated fibers and show sodium channel accumulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Michael A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dental pulp is a common source of pain and is used to study peripheral inflammatory pain mechanisms. Results show most fibers are unmyelinated, yet recent findings in experimental animals suggest many pulpal afferents originate from fibers that are myelinated at more proximal locations. Here we use the human dental pulp and confocal microscopy to examine the staining relationships of neurofilament heavy (NFH, a protein commonly expressed in myelinated afferents, with other markers to test the possibility that unmyelinated pulpal afferents originate from myelinated axons. Other staining relationships studied included myelin basic protein (MBP, protein gene product (PGP 9.5 to identify all nerve fibers, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH to identify sympathetic fibers, contactin-associated protein (caspr to identify nodal sites, S-100 to identify Schwann cells and sodium channels (NaChs. Results Results show NFH expression in most PGP9.5 fibers except those with TH and include the broad expression of NFH in axons lacking MBP. Fibers with NFH and MBP show NaCh clusters at nodal sites as expected, but surprisingly, NaCh accumulations are also seen in unmyelinated fibers with NFH, and in fibers with NFH that lack Schwann cell associations. Conclusions The expression of NFH in most axons suggests a myelinated origin for many pulpal afferents, while the presence of NaCh clusters in unmyelinated fibers suggests an inherent capacity for the unmyelinated segments of myelinated fibers to form NaCh accumulations. These findings have broad implications on the use of dental pulp to study pain mechanisms and suggest possible novel mechanisms responsible for NaCh cluster formation and neuronal excitability.

  13. Focal cerebral ischemia induces increased myelin basic protein and growth-associated protein-43 gene transcription in peri-infarct areas in the rat brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, R; Christensen, Thomas; Lehrmann, E; Diemer, Nils Henrik; Finsen, B

    2001-01-01

    Although oligodendrocytes are vulnerable to focal cerebral ischemia, remyelination of denuded or regenerating axons in the peri-infarct area has been observed in the central nervous system. We studied the expression of myelin basic protein (MBP), a major component of central nervous system myelin...

  14. Retroviral-mediated gene transfer of the peripheral myelin protein PMP22 in Schwann cells: modulation of cell growth.

    OpenAIRE

    Zoidl, G.; Blass-Kampmann, S; D'Urso, D; Schmalenbach, C; Müller, H. W.

    1995-01-01

    The peripheral myelin gene PMP22 is the rat and human homologue of the murine growth arrest-specific gene gas3. Besides a putative role of PMP22 in myelination, a regulatory function in cell growth has been suspected. Here we have investigated both the expression of PMP22 during cell cycle progression of cultured rat Schwann cells and the influence of altered levels of PMP22 on Schwann cell growth. When resting cells were stimulated to begin the cell cycle, the regulation of PMP22 mRNA resemb...

  15. Measurement of myelin basic protein by radioimmunoassay in closed head trauma, multiple sclerosis and other neurological diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A double antibody sequential radioimmunoassay for human myelin basic protein (MBP) has been developed. The assay utilizes a rabbit antibody to human MBP and purified rabbit MBP as the radiolabelled antigen. This assay was used to analyze cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 22 patients with severe head injury, 61 other cases of various neurological disorders, and 106 normal controls. The results showed that closed head trauma caused moderate to severe elevations in CSF MBP, and elevated CSF MBP was detectable in several diseases which involve CNS myelin

  16. P0 (Protein Zero) Mutation S34C Underlies Instability of Internodal Myelin in S63C Mice*

    OpenAIRE

    Avila, Robin L; D'Antonio, Maurizio; Bachi, Angela; Inouye, Hideyo; Feltri, M. Laura; Wrabetz, Lawrence; Kirschner, Daniel A

    2010-01-01

    P0 constitutes 50–60% of protein in peripheral nerve myelin and is essential for its structure and stability. Mutations within the P0 gene (MPZ) underlie a variety of hereditary neuropathies. MpzS63C transgenic mice encode a P0 with a serine to cysteine substitution at position 34 in the extracellular domain of mature P0 (P0S34C), associated with the hypomyelinating Déjérine-Sottas syndrome in human. S63C mice develop a dysmyelinating neuropathy, with packing defects in peripheral myelin. Her...

  17. Effect of prenatal neutron irradiation on expression of myelin genes and glycoprotein genes in developing rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of prenatal neutron irradiation on the expression of myelin genes and glycoprotein genes in the brain of rats is studied. The observed postradiation enhancement of the expression of glial and neuronal genes involved in the process of myelinization and differentiation in the central nervous system, is related to a necessity to compensate the functional disorders of the brain caused by radiation death of neuroblasts. A specific molecular mechanism of compensation reaction of brain cells of prenatally irradiated rats is described for the first time; the mechanism consists in the activation of the expression of specific glial genes and genes of neuronal surface glycoproteins

  18. Myelin structure is a key difference in the x-ray scattering signature between meningioma, schwannoma and glioblastoma multiforme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) patterns of benign and malignant brain tumour tissue were examined. Independent component analysis was used to find a feature set representing the images collected. A set of coefficients was then used to describe each image, which allowed the use of the statistical technique of flexible discriminant analysis to discover a hidden order in the data set. The key difference was found to be in the intensity and spectral content of the second and fourth order myelin scattering peaks. This has clearly demonstrated that significant differences in the structure of myelin exist in the highly malignant glioblastoma multiforme as opposed to the benign: meningioma and schwannoma

  19. A heme binding site on myelin basic protein: characterization, location, and significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacher, M; Nicot, C; Pflumm, M; Luchins, J; Beychok, S; Waks, M

    1984-05-15

    Myelin basic protein (MBP), an extrinsic membrane protein from the myelin sheath, binds dicyanohemin. The binding generates absorption bands in the Soret region and quenches the fluorescence emitted by the sole tryptophan residue. The absorption titration curves in the Soret demonstrate that the binding is stoichiometric, one heme per protein, with a large value of the extinction coefficient (8 X 10(4) M-1 cm-1 at 420 nm). Fluorescence quenching titration curves indicate an identical stoichiometry and a low quenching efficiency of 20%. From the heme titration curve the association constant between dicyanohemin and MBP is estimated to be greater than or equal to 10 nM-1 in 50 mM 4-morpholinepropanesulfonic acid buffer, pH 7.0, at 20 degrees C. Digestion of MBP by Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease yields a peptide (38-118) whose heme binding properties are identical to those of MBP. In contrast, peptides obtained by digestion of MBP with cathepsin D do not exhibit any specific binding of dicyanohemin. The cleavage of the Phe-Phe (42-43) bond appears to be critical in this respect. A comparison of the sequence immediately preceding, including these residues with a probable heme binding site of a mitochondrial cytochrome b, reveals a high degree of homology. The possible significance of heme binding is discussed. PMID:6202238

  20. Temporal and spatial expression analysis of peripheral myelin protein 22 (Pmp22) in developing Xenopus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tae, Hyun-Jin; Rahman, Md Mahfujur; Park, Byung-Yong

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral myelin protein 22 (Pmp22), a member of the junction protein family Claudin/EMP/PMP22, contributes to the formation and maintenance of myelin sheaths in the peripheral nervous system. Apart from the establishment and maintenance of peripheral nerves, Pmp22 and its family member have also participated in a broad range of more general processes including cell cycle regulation and apoptosis during development. Pmp22 has been identified from several vertebrate species including mouse, human and zebrafish. However, Pmp22 has not been identified from Xenopus embryos yet. In this paper, we cloned Pmp22 from Xenopus laevis and evaluated its expression during embryogenesis. We found that Pmp22 was initially expressed in the mesoderm and cement gland during the neurula stage. At early tailbud stage, strong expression of Pmp22 was detected in the trigeminal and profundal ganglia as well as developing somites and branchial arches. Later in development, Pmp22 was expressed specifically in cranio-facial cartilage, roof plate and floor plate of the developing brain, otic vesicle and lens. Pmp22 is also strongly expressed in the developing trachea and lungs. Based on its expression in facial tissues, we propose that Pmp22 may be involved in the formation of head structure in addition to the maintenance of functional peripheral nerves in Xenopus embryos. PMID:25616247

  1. Supplementation with complex milk lipids during brain development promotes neuroplasticity without altering myelination or vascular density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosamond B. Guillermo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Supplementation with complex milk lipids (CML during postnatal brain development has been shown to improve spatial reference learning in rats. Objective: The current study examined histo-biological changes in the brain following CML supplementation and their relationship to the observed improvements in memory. Design: The study used the brain tissues from the rats (male Wistar, 80 days of age after supplementing with either CML or vehicle during postnatal day 10–80. Immunohistochemical staining of synaptophysin, glutamate receptor-1, myelin basic protein, isolectin B-4, and glial fibrillary acidic protein was performed. The average area and the density of the staining and the numbers of astrocytes and capillaries were assessed and analysed. Results: Compared with control rats, CML supplementation increased the average area of synaptophysin staining and the number of GFAP astrocytes in the CA3 sub-region of the hippocampus (p<0.01, but not in the CA4 sub-region. The supplementation also led to an increase in dopamine output in the striatum that was related to nigral dopamine expression (p<0.05, but did not alter glutamate receptors, myelination or vascular density. Conclusion: CML supplementation may enhance neuroplasticity in the CA3 sub-regions of the hippocampus. The brain regions-specific increase of astrocyte may indicate a supporting role for GFAP in synaptic plasticity. CML supplementation did not associate with postnatal white matter development or vascular remodelling.

  2. Adult mesenchymal stem cell therapy for myelin repair in Multiple Sclerosis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Francisco J, Rivera; Ludwig, Aigner.

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating immune-mediated disease of the central nervous system (CNS). It is the most frequent neurological disease in young adults and affects over 2 million people worldwide. Current treatments reduce the relapse rate and the formation of inflammatory lesions in th [...] e CNS, but with only temporary and limited success. Despite the presence of endogenous oligodendroglial progenitors (OPCs) and of spontaneous remyelination, at least in early MS its levels and its qualities are apparently insufficient for a sustained endogenous functional repair. Therefore, novel MS therapies should consider not only immunemodulatory but also myelin repair activities. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represent an attractive alternative to develop a cell-based therapy for MS. MSCs display stromal features and exert bystander immunemodulatory and neuroprotective activities. Importantly, MSCs induce oligodendrocyte fate decision and differentiation/maturation of adult neural progenitors, suggesting the existence of MSC-derived remyelination activity. Moreover, transplanted MSCs promote functional recovery and myelin repair in different MS animal models. Here, we summarize the current knowledge on endogenous mechanisms for remyelination and proposed autologous MSC therapy as a promising strategy for MS treatment.

  3. Marked phenotypic variation in a family with a new myelin protein zero mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, A; Züchner, S; Siska, E; Mechler, F; Molnar, M J

    2005-11-01

    Myelin protein zero (MPZ) is a member of the immunoglobulin gene superfamily, which has a role in myelin compaction. MPZ gene mutations cause mostly demyelinating neuropathies of the Charcot-Marie-Tooth 1B type (CMT1B), but axonal CMT have been described as well. There is a broad spectrum of phenotypic manifestation of neuropathies caused by MPZ mutations. Some mutations of MPZ cause severe early-onset neuropathies such as Dejerine-Sottas disease, while others cause the classical CMT phenotype with normal early milestones but development of disability during the first two decades of life. We describe a family in which five members of three consecutive generations had a heterozygous mutation in nucleotide position 143 with a T-C transition in exon 2 of the MPZ gene. The resulting substitution of Leu48 with proline has not been previously described. The age of onset of symptoms varied from 8 months to 41 years. The marked variation of the age of disease onset and clinical phenotype in this one family, related to the same MPZ mutation, suggests that in addition to the type and intragenic location of the mutation, other putative modifying gene(s) are regulating MPZ gene expression, mRNA stability and posttranslational protein modification and may have an important effect on the ultimate clinical phenotype. PMID:16198109

  4. Screening of the myelin protein zero gene in patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowski, Adam; Kocha?ski, Andrzej

    2004-01-01

    The myelin protein zero gene (MPZ) coding for the most abundant protein of the peripheral myelin was shown to be mutated in Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1B disease (CMT1B). Later on MPZ mutations have been shown in axonal type of CMT (CMT2). Recently three novel MPZ gene mutations were reported in congenital hypomyelinating neuropathy (CHN). In contrast to the previously reported studies, focused on CMT1B disease, we aimed to analyze the coding and promoter sequences of the MPZ gene in a group of patients with three CMT phenotypes i.e.: CMT1, CMT2 and CHN. Over 500 PCR products were screened by single strand conformation polymorphism analysis (SSCP) and heteroduplex analysis (HA). In one CMT2 family we founded the E56K mutation in the MPZ gene and in one CHN patient the T124K substitution was detected. In agreement with previously reported studies we conclude that MPZ gene screening should be performed for wide phenotype spectrum of CMT. PMID:15094849

  5. Clinical implications of peripheral myelin protein 22 for nerve compression and neural regeneration: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui-Chou, Helen G; Hashemi, Sharyhar S; Hoke, Ahmet; Dellon, A Lee

    2011-01-01

    Peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) is a major component of the peripheral myelin sheath. The PMP22 gene is located on chromosome 17p11.2, and defects in PMP22 gene have been implicated in several common inherited peripheral neuropathies. Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP), Charcot-Marie Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A), Dejerine-Sottas syndrome, and congenital hypomyelinating neuropathy are all associated with defects in PMP22 gene. The disease phenotypes mirror the range of expression of PMP22 due to the corresponding genetic defect. HNPP, characterized by a milder recurrent episodic focal demyelinating neuropathy, is attributed to a deletion leading to PMP22 underexpression. On the other end of the spectrum, CMT1A leads to a more uniform demyelination and axonal loss, resulting in severe progressive distal weakness and paresthesias; it is due to a duplication at 17p11.2 leading to PMP22 overexpression. Additional point mutations result in varying phenotypes due to dysfunction of the resultant PMP22 protein. All inherited neuropathies are diagnosed with a combination of physical findings on examination, electromyography, sural nerve biopsies, and genetic testing. Treatment and management of these disorders differ depending on the underlying genetic defect, nerves involved, and resulting functional impairments. A review of current literature elucidates clinical, microsurgical implications, and management of patients with PMP22-related neuropathy. PMID:20976668

  6. Gabapentin attenuates neuropathic pain and improves nerve myelination after chronic sciatic constriction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Câmara, Carlos C; Araújo, Celina V; de Sousa, Kalina Kelma Oliveira; Brito, Gerly A C; Vale, Mariana L; Raposo, Ramon da Silva; Mendonça, Fabiana Evaristo; Mietto, Bruno S; Martinez, Ana Maria B; Oriá, Reinaldo B

    2015-10-21

    Gabapentin (GBP) is an anti-convulsive drug often used as analgesic to control neuropathic pain. This study aimed at evaluating oral GBP treatment (30, 60, 120mg/kg, 60min prior to chronic constriction of the sciatic nerve (CCSN) along 15-day treatment post-injury, 12h/12h) by monitoring spontaneous and induced-pain behaviors in Wistar rats on 5th and 15th days post-injury during early neuropathic events. CCSN animals receiving saline were used as controls. Another aim of this study was to evaluate GBP effects on myelin basic protein (MBP) on the 5th and 15th days post-injury and nerve morphology by transmission electron microscopy to address nerve regeneration. On the 5th and 15th days, GBP (60mg/kg) reduced neuropathic pain behaviors (scratching and biting) in the ipsilateral paw and alleviated mechanical allodynia in comparison with the neuropathic saline group. GBP significantly increased climbing and rearing behaviors in CCSN and CCSN-free animals suggesting increased motor activity rather than sedation. We found three-fold significant increase in MBP expression by western blots on the 15th day when compared to controls. In addition, GPB (60mg/kg) improved nerve axonal, fiber and myelin area 15 days post-surgery. In conclusion, GBP alleviated mechanical and thermal allodynia and spontaneous pain-related behaviors and improved later nerve morphology. Our findings suggest that GBP improve nerve remyelination after chronic constriction of the sciatic nerve. PMID:26391746

  7. Production, crystallization and neutron diffraction of fully deuterated human myelin peripheral membrane protein P2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laulumaa, Saara; Blakeley, Matthew P; Raasakka, Arne; Moulin, Martine; Härtlein, Michael; Kursula, Petri

    2015-11-01

    The molecular details of the formation of the myelin sheath, a multilayered membrane in the nervous system, are to a large extent unknown. P2 is a peripheral membrane protein from peripheral nervous system myelin, which is believed to play a role in this process. X-ray crystallographic studies and complementary experiments have provided information on the structure-function relationships in P2. In this study, a fully deuterated sample of human P2 was produced. Crystals that were large enough for neutron diffraction were grown by a ten-month procedure of feeding, and neutron diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.4 Å from a crystal of 0.09 mm(3) in volume. The neutron crystal structure will allow the positions of H atoms in P2 and its fatty-acid ligand to be visualized, as well as shedding light on the fine details of the hydrogen-bonding networks within the P2 ligand-binding cavity. PMID:26527266

  8. The ketogenic diet compensates for AGC1 deficiency and improves myelination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlin, Maria; Martin, Daniel A; Hedlund, Zandra; Jonsson, Monica; von Döbeln, Ulrika; Wedell, Anna

    2015-11-01

    The brain aspartate-glutamate carrier (AGC1) is specifically expressed in neurons, where it transports aspartate from the mitochondria to the cytosol, and plays a role in transfer of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)-reducing equivalents into the mitochondria as a part of the malate-aspartate shuttle. Deficient function of AGC1 underlies an inborn error of metabolism that presents with severe hypotonia, arrested psychomotor development, and seizures from a few months of age. In AGC1 deficiency, there is secondary hypomyelination due to lack of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), which is normally generated by acetylation of aspartate in the neuron and required for fatty acid synthesis by the adjacent oligodendrocyte. Based on experiences from AGC2 deficiency, we predicted that reduced glycolysis should compensate for the metabolic defect and allow resumed myelination in AGC1 deficiency. Carbohydrate restriction was therefore initiated in a patient with AGC1 deficiency at 6 years of age by introducing a ketogenic diet. The response was dramatic, clinically as well as radiologically. Psychomotor development showed clear improvement, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) indicated resumed myelination. This is the first successful treatment of secondary hypomyelination reported. Because AGC1 is driven by the proton gradient generated by the neuronal mitochondrial respiratory chain, the results have potential relevance for secondary hypomyelination in general. PMID:26401995

  9. Contribution of axonal transport to the renewal of myelin phospholipids in peripheral nerves. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The classes of radioactive phospholipids appearing in the ciliary ganglion (CG) and especially in the myelin sheath of the intraorbital part of the oculomotor nerve (OMN) were determined after the intracerebral injection of [2-3H]glycerol and [methyl-14C]choline to chickens. Analysis of the radioactive compounds in water-soluble fractions and chloroform-methanol extracts was performed by thin-layer chromatography (TLC). The water-soluble content of the OMN and CG was much poorer in [2-3H]glycerol and metabolites than in [methyl-14C]choline and derivatives. All classes of glycerophospholipids were found to be axonally transported along the OMN and into the CG, but choline-phosphoglycerides (CPG) were largely predominant. In myelin fractions from the OMN, the specific radioactivity (SRA) of CPG labeled with [2-3H]glycerol reached a maximum earlier (40 h) than the SRA of CPG labeled with [methyl-14C]choline. A 25-fold enhancement of the [14C]SRA of sphingomyelin (SM) was observed between 12 h and 7 days. (Auth.)

  10. Adult mesenchymal stem cell therapy for myelin repair in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J Rivera

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is a demyelinating immune-mediated disease of the central nervous system (CNS. It is the most frequent neurological disease in young adults and affects over 2 million people worldwide. Current treatments reduce the relapse rate and the formation of inflammatory lesions in the CNS, but with only temporary and limited success. Despite the presence of endogenous oligodendroglial progenitors (OPCs and of spontaneous remyelination, at least in early MS its levels and its qualities are apparently insufficient for a sustained endogenous functional repair. Therefore, novel MS therapies should consider not only immunemodulatory but also myelin repair activities. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs represent an attractive alternative to develop a cell-based therapy for MS. MSCs display stromal features and exert bystander immunemodulatory and neuroprotective activities. Importantly, MSCs induce oligodendrocyte fate decision and differentiation/maturation of adult neural progenitors, suggesting the existence of MSC-derived remyelination activity. Moreover, transplanted MSCs promote functional recovery and myelin repair in different MS animal models. Here, we summarize the current knowledge on endogenous mechanisms for remyelination and proposed autologous MSC therapy as a promising strategy for MS treatment.

  11. Supporting Students' Constructions of the Splitting Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Anderson; Wilkins, Jesse L. M.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated the effectiveness of particular instructional practices that support students' constructions of the partitive unit fraction scheme and measurement concepts for fractions. Another body of research has demonstrated the power of a particular mental operation--the splitting operation--in supporting students'…

  12. Czech, Slovak science ten years after split

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    Ten years after the split of Czechoslovakia Czech and Slovak science are facing the same difficulties: shortage of money for research, poor salaries, obsolete equipment and brain drain, especially of the young, according to a feature in the Daily Lidove Noviny (1 page).

  13. Spin splitting in 2D monochalcogenide semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Do, Dat T; Lai, Chih-Wei

    2015-01-01

    We report ab initio calculations of the spin splitting of the uppermost valence band (UVB) and the lowermost conduction band (LCB) in bulk and atomically thin GaS, GaSe, GaTe, and InSe. These layered monochalcogenides appear in four major polytypes ($\\epsilon$, $\\beta$, $\\gamma$, and $\\delta$) depending on the stacking order, except for the monoclinic GaTe. Bulk and few-layer $\\epsilon$- and $\\gamma$-type, as well as odd-number few-layer $\\beta$-type GaS, GaSe, and InSe crystals are noncentrosymmetric. The spin splittings of the UVB and the LCB near the $\\Gamma$ point in the Brillouin zone are finite, but still smaller than those in a zinc-blende semiconductor, such as GaAs. On the other hand, the spin splitting is zero in centrosymmetric bulk and even-number few-layer $\\beta$-type GaS, GaSe, and InSe, owing to the constraint of spatial inversion symmetry. By contrast, GaTe exhibits zero spin splitting because it is centrosymmetric down to a single layer. The electron and hole spin relaxation times in these s...

  14. Mechanics analysis of molar tooth splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barani, Amir; Chai, Herzl; Lawn, Brian R; Bush, Mark B

    2015-03-01

    A model for the splitting of teeth from wedge loading of molar cusps from a round indenting object is presented. The model is developed in two parts: first, a simple 2D fracture mechanics configuration with the wedged tooth simulated by a compact tension specimen; second, a full 3D numerical analysis using extended finite element modeling (XFEM) with an embedded crack. The result is an explicit equation for splitting load in terms of indenter radius and key tooth dimensions. Fracture experiments on extracted human molars loaded axially with metal spheres are used to quantify the splitting forces and thence to validate the model. The XFEM calculations enable the complex crack propagation, initially in the enamel coat and subsequently in the interior dentin, to be followed incrementally with increasing load. The fracture evolution is shown to be stable prior to failure, so that dentin toughness, not strength, is the controlling material parameter. Critical conditions under which tooth splitting in biological and dental settings are likely to be met, however rare, are considered. PMID:25584989

  15. Crystal-field splitting in Pr dideuteride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From inelastic neutron scattering experiments, it is concluded that the crystal-field splitting in PrD/sub 1.95/ is 41 meV. Because of this high value, the antiferromagnetic ordering below T/sub N/ = 2.3 K is ascribed to a magnetic ground state, probably GAMMA5, of the Pr3+ ions

  16. Helioseismic Solar Cycle Changes and Splitting Coefficients

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S. C. Tripathy; Kiran Jain; A. Bhatnagar

    2000-09-01

    Using the GONG data for a period over four years, we have studied the variation of frequencies and splitting coefficients with solar cycle. Frequencies and even-order coefficients are found to change significantly with rising phase of the solar cycle. We also find temporal variations in the rotation rate near the solar surface.

  17. On splitting polynomials with noncommutative coefficients

    OpenAIRE

    Maszczyk, Tomasz

    2007-01-01

    It is shown that for every splitting of a polynomial with noncommutative coefficients into linear factors $(X-a_{k})$ with $a_{k}$'s commuting with coefficients, any cyclic permutation of linear factors gives the same result and all $a_{k}$ are roots of that polynomial. Examples are given and analyzed from Galois theory point of view.

  18. Source splitting via the point source method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We introduce a new algorithm for source identification and field splitting based on the point source method (Potthast 1998 A point-source method for inverse acoustic and electromagnetic obstacle scattering problems IMA J. Appl. Math. 61 119–40, Potthast R 1996 A fast new method to solve inverse scattering problems Inverse Problems 12 731–42). The task is to separate the sound fields uj, j = 1, ..., n of n element of N sound sources supported in different bounded domains G1, ..., Gn in R3 from measurements of the field on some microphone array—mathematically speaking from the knowledge of the sum of the fields u = u1 + ... + un on some open subset ? of a plane. The main idea of the scheme is to calculate filter functions g1,…, gn, n element of N, to construct ul for l = 1, ..., n from u|? in the form ul (x) = ?? gl,x(y)u(y)ds(y), l=1,... n. (1) We will provide the complete mathematical theory for the field splitting via the point source method. In particular, we describe uniqueness, solvability of the problem and convergence and stability of the algorithm. In the second part we describe the practical realization of the splitting for real data measurements carried out at the Institute for Sound and Vibration Research at Southampton, UK. A practical demonstration of the original recording and the splitting results for real data is available online

  19. Isospin Splittings of Doubly Heavy Baryons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC; Guo, Feng-Kun; /Bonn U., HISKP /Bonn U.; Hanhart, Christoph; /Julich, Forschungszentrum /JCHP, Julich /IAS, Julich; Meissner, Ulf-G.; /Julich, Forschungszentrum /JCHP, Julich /IAS, Julich /Bonn U., HISKP /Bonn U.

    2011-08-18

    The SELEX Collaboration has reported a very large isospin splitting of doubly charmed baryons. We show that this effect would imply that the doubly charmed baryons are very compact. One intriguing possibility is that such baryons have a linear geometry Q-q-Q where the light quark q oscillates between the two heavy quarks Q, analogous to a linear molecule such as carbon dioxide. However, using conventional arguments, the size of a heavy-light hadron is expected to be around 0.5 fm, much larger than the size needed to explain the observed large isospin splitting. Assuming the distance between two heavy quarks is much smaller than that between the light quark and a heavy one, the doubly heavy baryons are related to the heavy mesons via heavy quark-diquark symmetry. Based on this symmetry, we predict the isospin splittings for doubly heavy baryons including {Xi}{sub cc}, {Xi}{sub bb} and {Xi}{sub bc}. The prediction for the {Xi}{sub cc} is much smaller than the SELEX value. On the other hand, the {Xi}{sub bb} baryons are predicted to have an isospin splitting as large as (6.3 {+-} 1.7) MeV. An experimental study of doubly bottomed baryons is therefore very important to better understand the structure of baryons with heavy quarks.

  20. Conversion efficiency in a solar splitting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we report on concentrator photovoltaic system made by splitting the solar system based on separate Si, GaAs, and InGaN solar cells. The SSCPV module was fabricated and conversion efficiency up to 24.8% was achieved for the concentration factor of 12.8 that is in correlation with theoretical predictions

  1. Interaction between the C-terminal region of human myelin basic protein and calmodulin: analysis of complex formation and solution structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayashi Nobuhiro

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The myelin sheath is a multilamellar membrane structure wrapped around the axon, enabling the saltatory conduction of nerve impulses in vertebrates. Myelin basic protein, one of the most abundant myelin-specific proteins, is an intrinsically disordered protein that has been shown to bind calmodulin. In this study, we focus on a 19-mer synthetic peptide from the predicted calmodulin-binding segment near the C-terminus of human myelin basic protein. Results The interaction of native human myelin basic protein with calmodulin was confirmed by affinity chromatography. The binding of the myelin basic protein peptide to calmodulin was tested with isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC in different temperatures, and Kd was observed to be in the low μM range, as previously observed for full-length myelin basic protein. Surface plasmon resonance showed that the peptide bound to calmodulin, and binding was accompanied by a conformational change; furthermore, gel filtration chromatography indicated a decrease in the hydrodynamic radius of calmodulin in the presence of the peptide. NMR spectroscopy was used to map the binding area to reside mainly within the hydrophobic pocket of the C-terminal lobe of calmodulin. The solution structure obtained by small-angle X-ray scattering indicates binding of the myelin basic protein peptide into the interlobal groove of calmodulin, while calmodulin remains in an extended conformation. Conclusion Taken together, our results give a detailed structural insight into the interaction of calmodulin with a C-terminal segment of a major myelin protein, the myelin basic protein. The used 19-mer peptide interacts mainly with the C-terminal lobe of calmodulin, and a conformational change accompanies binding, suggesting a novel mode of calmodulin-target protein interaction. Calmodulin does not collapse and wrap around the peptide tightly; instead, it remains in an extended conformation in the solution structure. The observed affinity can be physiologically relevant, given the high abundance of both binding partners in the nervous system.

  2. On the additive splitting procedures and their computer realization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farago, I.; Thomsen, Per Grove; Zlatev, Z.

    2008-01-01

    Two additive splitting procedures are defined and studied in this paper. It is shown that these splitting procedures have good stability properties. Some other splitting procedures, which are traditionally used in mathematical models used in many scientific and engineering fields, are sketched. All...... splitting procedures are tested by using six different numerical methods for solving differential equations. Many conclusions, which are related both to the comparison of the additive splitting procedures with the other splitting procedures and to the influence of the numerical methods for solving...

  3. Local Control of Neurofilament Accumulation during Radial Growth of Myelinating Axons in Vivo: Selective Role of Site-Specific Phosphorylation

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez, Ivelisse; HASSINGER, LINDA; Sihag, Ram K; Cleveland, Don W; Mohan, Panaiyur; Nixon, Ralph A

    2000-01-01

    The accumulation of neurofilaments required for postnatal radial growth of myelinated axons is controlled regionally along axons by oligodendroglia. Developmentally regulated processes previously suspected of modulating neurofilament number, including heavy neurofilament subunit (NFH) expression, attainment of mature neurofilament subunit stoichiometry, and expansion of interneurofilament spacing cannot be primary determinants of regional accumulation as we show each of these factors precede ...

  4. Myelin-oligodendrocyte glycoprotein is a member of a subset of the immunoglobulin superfamily encoded within the major histocompatibility complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham-Dinh, D.; Dautigny, A. (Institut des Neurosciences, Paris (France)); Mattei, M.G.; Roeckel, N. (Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale Unite, Marseille (France)); Nussbaum, J.H.; Roussel, G. (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique Unite, Strasbourg (France)); Pontarotti, P. (Centre Natinal de la Recherche Scientifique Unite, Toulouse (France)); Mather, I.H. (Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)); Artzt, K. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)); Lindahl, K.F. (Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States))

    1993-09-01

    Myelin/oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) is found on the surface of myelinating oligodendrocytes and external lamellae of myelin sheaths in the central nervous system, and it is target antigen in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis. The authors have isolated bovine, mouse, and rat MOG cDNA clones and shown that the developmental pattern of MOG expression in the rat central nervous system coincides with the late stages of myelination. The amino-terminal, extracellular domain of MOG has characteristics of an immunoglobulin variable domain and is 46% and 41% identical with the amino terminus of bovine butyrophilin (expressed in the lactating mammary gland) and B-G antigens of the chicken major histocompatibility complex (MHC), respectively; these proteins thus form a subset of the immunoglobulin superfamily. The homology between MOG and B-G extends beyond their structure and genetic mapping to their ability to induce strong antibody responses and has implications for the role of MOG in pathological, autoimmune conditions. The authors colocalized the MOG and BT genes to the human MHC on chromosome 6p21.3-p22. The mouse MOG gene was mapped to the homologous band C of chromosome 17, within the M region of the mouse MHC. 38 refs., 6 figs.

  5. Chronic stress regulates NG2(+) cell maturation and myelination in the prefrontal cortex through induction of death receptor 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Youjun; Zhang, Yini; Luo, Fei; Li, Baoming

    2016-03-01

    Chronic stress significantly affects neuron morphometry and function in the prefrontal cortex, a brain region controlling cognition and emotion. However, whether and how chronic stress regulates the maturation of NG2-expressing oligodendrocyte precursor cell (NG2(+) cell) and the importance of these changes remained unknown. Here, we report that exposing adult mice to chronic stress results in NG2(+) cell atrophy and myelination arrested in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and impaired mPFC-dependent functions. These alterations, are phenocopied by overexpression of death receptor 6 (DR6) in NG2(+) cell. Conversely, selectively silencing of DR6 in the NG2(+) cell can partly rescue NG2(+) cell atrophy and cognitive deficiency caused by chronic stress. We further demonstrate that myelination appears necessary for mPFC-dependent cognitive processes, as lysolecithin (LPC)-induced demyelination specifically in the mPFC is sufficient to cause these behavioral and cognitive impairments. Our results indicate that chronic stress impairs cognitive functions, at least in part, through modulation of NG2(+) cell maturation and myelination, and suggest that myelination is require for normal cognitive functions. PMID:26772637

  6. [Interdependent changes of the axon and Schwann cell in the process of reactive remodeling of a myelinated nerve fiber].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokurina, T N; Sotnikov, O S; Novakovskaia, S A; Egorov, A S; Kozhevets, R V; Solnushkin, S D; Chikhman, V N

    2013-01-01

    Using the inverted phase-contrast microscope, the living undamaged frog sciatic nerve fibers and the fibers mechanically injured to varying degrees, were studied. It was found that the swelling of myelin incisures (MI) (of Schmidt-Lanterman) occured according to the principles similar to those controlling the changes of the myelin gap (node of Ranvier) and depended on the swelling of a Schwann cell (SC) perikaryon. It was detected that this was a single process, which which could be united in a complex of nonspecific changes of a myelinated nerve fiber. It was also demonstrated that under the action of mechanical injury and hypotonic solution, swelling of MI, nodes of Ranvier and SC perikaryon occurred without modifications of outer fiber diameter, due to the pronounced local axon thinning. Electron microscopic study of the cytoskeletal axonal structures showed that there was not a simple local contraction of an axon, but a significant local increase in the density of cytoskeletal components of the axoplasm (by 200-275%). Reactive reversible remodeling of a myelinated fiber suggests a new type of interaction between the axon and SC, the mechanism of reversible translocation of liquid axoplasmic fraction to the glial cell cytoplasm. PMID:23898720

  7. Myelin staining of deep white matter in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and unipolar major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regenold, William T; Phatak, Pornima; Marano, Christopher M; Gearhart, Lorie; Viens, Claudia H; Hisley, K Calvin

    2007-06-30

    Neuroimaging and postmortem studies suggest the involvement of white matter disease in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and unipolar major depression. To date there is no published, collective study of myelin staining in these three psychiatric disorders. Deep white matter lesions, potentially affecting corticolimbic circuits, have been particularly implicated in late life depression and poor outcome bipolar disorder. We hypothesized that individuals with these disorders would manifest reduced deep white matter myelin staining compared to normal controls. Sixty transverse sections of fixed dorsolateral prefrontal cortex - 15 from individuals with each psychiatric disorder and 15 from normal controls - were stained according to the method of Kluver and Barrera. Myelin staining intensity was quantified by digital image analysis and expressed as a percent of grey matter staining for a given section. Mean deep (but not gyral) white matter myelin staining was less intense in all three psychiatric groups compared to control. This difference was statistically significant for the bipolar and unipolar groups, with a strong trend toward attenuated staining in the schizophrenic group. Our findings are consistent with postmortem and neuroimaging studies of affective disorders that indicate an increased prevalence of deep white matter lesions in unipolar and bipolar affective disorders. PMID:17433451

  8. Molecular characterization of myelin protein zero in Xenopus laevis peripheral nerve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Bo; Luo, Xiaoyang; Zhao, Cheng; Priest, Christina Marie; Chan, Shiu-Yung; O'Connor, Peter B.; Kirschner, Daniel A.; Costello, Catherine E.

    2007-12-01

    Myelin protein zero (P0), a glycosylated single-pass transmembrane protein, is essential in the formation and maintenance of peripheral nervous system (PNS) compact myelin. P0 in Xenopus (xP0) exists primarily as a dimeric form that remains stable after various physical and chemical treatments. In exploring the nature of the interactions underlying the dimer stability, we found that xP0 dimer dissociated into monomer during continuous elution gel electrophoresis and conventional SDS-PAGE, indicating that the dimer is stabilized by non-covalent interactions. Furthermore, as some of the gel-purified monomer re-associated into dimer on SDS-PAGE gels, there is likely a dynamic equilibrium between xP0 dimer and monomer in vivo. Because the carbohydrate and fatty acyl moieties may be crucial for the adhesion role of P0, we used sensitive mass spectrometry approaches to elucidate the detailed N-glycosylation and S-acylation profiles of xP0. Asn92 was determined to be the single, fully-occupied glycosylation site of xP0, and a total of 12 glycans was detected that exhibited new structural features compared with those observed from P0 in other species: (1) the neutral glycans were composed mainly of high mannose and hybrid types; (2) 5 of 12 were acidic glycans, among which three were sialylated and the other two were sulfated; (3) none of the glycans had core fucosylation; and (4) no glucuronic acid, hence no HNK-1 epitope, was detected. The drastically different carbohydrate structures observed here support the concept of the species-specific variation in N-glycosylation of P0. Cys152 was found to be acylated with stearoyl (C18:0), whereas palmitoyl (C16:0) is the corresponding predominant fatty acyl group on P0 from higher vertebrates. We propose that the unique glycosylation and acylation patterns of Xenopus P0 may underlie its unusual dimerization behavior. Our results should shed light on the understanding of the phylogenetic development of P0's adhesion role in PNS compact myelin.

  9. Gender effect on neurodegeneration and myelin markers in an animal model for multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massella Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple sclerosis (MS varies considerably in its incidence and progression in females and males. In spite of clinical evidence, relatively few studies have explored molecular mechanisms possibly involved in gender-related differences. The present study describes possible cellular- and molecular-involved markers which are differentially regulated in male and female rats and result in gender-dependent EAE evolution and progression. Attention was focused on markers of myelination (MBP and PDGF?R and neuronal distress and/or damage (GABA synthesis enzymes, GAD65 and GAD67, NGF, BDNF and related receptors, in two CNS areas, i.e. spinal cord and cerebellum, which are respectively severely and mildly affected by inflammation and demyelination. Tissues were sampled during acute, relapse/remission and chronic phases and results were analysed by two-way ANOVA. Results 1. A strong gender-dependent difference in myelin (MBP and myelin precursor (PDGF?R marker mRNA expression levels is observed in control animals in the spinal cord, but not in the cerebellum. This is the only gender-dependent difference in the expression level of the indicated markers in healthy animals; 2. both PDGF?R and MBP mRNAs in the spinal cord and MBP in the cerebellum are down-regulated during EAE in gender-dependent manner; 3. in the cerebellum, the expression profile of neuron-associated markers (GAD65, GAD67 is characterized by a substantial down-regulation during the inflammatory phase of the disease, which does not differ between male and female rats (two-way ANOVA; 4. there is an up-regulation of NGF, trkA and p75 mRNA expression in the early phases of the disease (14 and 21 days post-immunization, which is not different between male and female. Conclusions It is reported herein that the regulation of markers involved in demyelination and neuroprotection processes occurring during EAE, a well-established MS animal model, is gender- and time-dependent. These findings might contribute to gender- and phase disease-based therapy strategies.

  10. Meshed split skin graft for extensive vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas C

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available A 30 year old female presented with generalized stable vitiligo involving large areas of the body. Since large areas were to be treated it was decided to do meshed split skin graft. A phototoxic blister over recipient site was induced by applying 8 MOP solution followed by exposure to UVA. The split skin graft was harvested from donor area by Padgett dermatome which was meshed by an ampligreffe to increase the size of the graft by 4 times. Significant pigmentation of the depigmented skin was seen after 5 months. This procedure helps to cover large recipient areas, when pigmented donor skin is limited with minimal risk of scarring. Phototoxic blister enables easy separation of epidermis thus saving time required for dermabrasion from recipient site.

  11. Timelike single-logarithm-resummed splitting functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albino, S.; Bolzoni, P.; Kniehl, B.A. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Kotikov, A.V. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Joint Inst. of Nuclear Research, Moscow (Russian Federation). Bogoliubov Lab. of Theoretical Physics

    2011-08-15

    We calculate the single logarithmic contributions to the quark singlet and gluon matrix of timelike splitting functions at all orders in the modified minimal-subtraction (MS) scheme. We fix two of the degrees of freedom of this matrix from the analogous results in the massive-gluon regularization scheme by using the relation between that scheme and the MS scheme. We determine this scheme transformation from the double logarithmic contributions to the timelike splitting functions and the coefficient functions of inclusive particle production in e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation now available in both schemes. The remaining two degrees of freedom are fixed by reasonable physical assumptions. The results agree with the fixed-order results at next-to-next-to-leading order in the literature. (orig.)

  12. Oblique split technique in septal reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tastan, Eren; Sozen, Tevfik

    2013-12-01

    The septum is considered to be the most important anatomical structure in providing nasal support. Because of a variety of potential etiologies nasal septum could be severely deformed or even diminished. Autogenous cartilage has generally been considered the gold standard grafting material in reconstructive septal surgery for creating the infrastructure of the nose. In the restructuring of the nasal skeleton autogenous cartilage can be harvested from the auricle or the rib. For the major septal problems requiring a large volume of tissues with severe structural defects costal cartilage is considered the best graft material. Apart from its advantages, warping has been the main problem with costal cartilage grafting. Oblique split method, provides straight costal cartilage grafts of varying thicknesses without the risk of warping. Segmental reconstruction of the L-strut with oblique split method, composed of dorsal and caudal struts, enables fine adjustment of height of the reconstructed septum. PMID:24327247

  13. Strong contribution to octet baryon mass splittings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We calculate the md?mu contribution to the mass splittings in baryonic isospin multiplets using SU(3) chiral perturbation theory and lattice QCD. Fitting isospin-averaged perturbation theory functions to PACS-CS and QCDSF-UKQCD Collaboration lattice simulations of octet baryon masses, and using the physical light-quark mass ratio mu/md as input, allows Mn?Mp, M???M?+ and M???M?0 to be evaluated from the full SU(3) theory. The resulting values for each mass splitting are consistent with the experimental values after allowing for electromagnetic corrections. In the case of the nucleon, we find Mn?Mp=2.9±0.4 MeV, with the dominant uncertainty arising from the error in mu/md.

  14. Solar Water Splitting Using Semiconductor Photocatalyst Powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Solar energy conversion is essential to address the gap between energy production and increasing demand. Large scale energy generation from solar energy can only be achieved through equally large scale collection of the solar spectrum. Overall water splitting using heterogeneous photocatalysts with a single semiconductor enables the direct generation of H2 from photoreactors and is one of the most economical technologies for large-scale production of solar fuels. Efficient photocatalyst materials are essential to make this process feasible for future technologies. To achieve efficient photocatalysis for overall water splitting, all of the parameters involved at different time scales should be improved because the overall efficiency is obtained by the multiplication of all these fundamental efficiencies. Accumulation of knowledge ranging from solid-state physics to electrochemistry and a multidisciplinary approach to conduct various measurements are inevitable to be able to understand photocatalysis fully and to improve its efficiency. PMID:26134367

  15. Splitting Technique Initialization in Local PCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Sharma

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The local Principal Component Analysis (PCA reduces linearly redundant components that may present in higher dimensional space. It deploys an initial guess technique which can be utilized when the distribution of a given multivariate data is known to the user. The problem in initialization arises when the distribution is not known. This study explores a technique that can be easily integrated in the local PCA design and is efficient even when the given statistical distribution is unknown. The initialization using this proposed splitting technique not only splits and reproduces the mean vector but also the orientation of components in the subspace domain. This would ensure that all clusters are used in the design. The proposed integration with the reconstruction distance local PCA design enables easier data processing and more accurate representation of multivariate data. A comparative approach is undertaken to demonstrate the greater effectiveness of the proposed approach in terms of percentage error.

  16. Evolution of Advection Upstream Splitting Method Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Meng-Sing

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on the evolution of advection upstream splitting method(AUSM) schemes. The main ingredients that have led to the development of modern computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods have been reviewed, thus the ideas behind AUSM. First and foremost is the concept of upwinding. Second, the use of Riemann problem in constructing the numerical flux in the finite-volume setting. Third, the necessity of including all physical processes, as characterised by the linear (convection) and nonlinear (acoustic) fields. Fourth, the realisation of separating the flux into convection and pressure fluxes. The rest of this review briefly outlines the technical evolution of AUSM and more details can be found in the cited references. Keywords: Computational fluid dynamics methods, hyperbolic systems, advection upstream splitting method, conservation laws, upwinding, CFD

  17. Transport properties of isospin effective mass splitting

    CERN Document Server

    Rizzo, J; Di Toro, M; Greco, V

    2004-01-01

    We investigate in detail the momentum dependence ($MD$) of the effective in medium Nucleon-Nucleon ($NN$) interaction in the isovector channel. We focus the discussion on transport properties of the expected neutron-proton ($n/p$) effective mass splitting at high isospin density. We look at observable effects from collective flows in Heavy Ion Collisions ($HIC$) of charge asymmetric nuclei at intermediate energies. Using microscopic kinetic equation simulations nucleon transverse and elliptic collective flows in $Au+Au$ collisions are evaluated. In spite of the reduced charge asymmetry of the interacting system interesting $isospin-MD$ effects are revealed. Good observables, particularly sensitive to the $n/p$-mass splitting, appear to be the differences between neutron and proton flows. The importance of more exclusive measurements, with a selection of different bins of the transverse momenta ($p_t$) of the emitted particles, is stressed. In more inclusive data a compensation can be expected from different $...

  18. Spin polarization of the split Kondo state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bergmann, Kirsten; Ternes, Markus; Loth, Sebastian; Lutz, Christopher P; Heinrich, Andreas J

    2015-02-20

    Spin-resolved scanning tunneling microscopy is employed to quantitatively determine the spin polarization of the magnetic field-split Kondo state. Tunneling conductance spectra of a Kondo-screened magnetic atom are evaluated within a simple model taking into account inelastic tunneling due to spin excitations and two Kondo peaks positioned symmetrically around the Fermi energy. We fit the spin state of the Kondo-screened atom with a spin Hamiltonian independent of the Kondo effect and account for Zeeman splitting of the Kondo peak in the magnetic field. We find that the width and the height of the Kondo peaks scales with the Zeeman energy. Our observations are consistent with full spin polarization of the Kondo peaks, i.e., a majority spin peak below the Fermi energy and a minority spin peak above. PMID:25763966

  19. Isospin breaking in octet baryon mass splittings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using an SU(3) flavour symmetry breaking expansion in the quark mass, we determine the QCD component of the nucleon, Sigma and Xi mass splittings of the baryon octet due to up-down (and strange) quark mass differences in terms of the kaon mass splitting. Provided the average quark mass is kept constant, the expansion coefficients in our procedure can be determined from computationally cheaper simulations with mass degenerate sea quarks and partially quenched valence quarks. Both the linear and quadratic terms in the SU(3) flavour symmetry breaking expansion are considered; it is found that the quadratic terms only change the result by a few percent, indicating that the expansion is highly convergent.

  20. Height in Splittings of Hyperbolic Groups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mahan Mitra

    2004-02-01

    Suppose is a hyperbolic subgroup of a hyperbolic group . Assume there exists $n>0$ such that the intersection of essentially distinct conjugates of is always finite. Further assume splits over with hyperbolic vertex and edge groups and the two inclusions of are quasi-isometric embeddings. Then is quasiconvex in . This answers a question of Swarup and provides a partial converse to the main theorem of [23].

  1. Groundstate splitting around rotating mini Blackholes

    OpenAIRE

    Sturm, I.; Witte, F. M. C.

    2007-01-01

    In this letter we present the result of a spin-dependent groundstate-energy calculation for fermionic boundstates in the spacetime around a rotating blackhole. Using a slow rotation approximation and a minimax variational approach we find boundstate energies of 0 to 5 percent of the fermions flatspace restmass. The groundstate displays a spin-dependent splitting with an energy difference of about 10 percent of the binding energy. For a dilute gas of primordial mini blackhole...

  2. Splitting trees with neutral mutations at birth

    OpenAIRE

    Richard, Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    We consider a population model where individuals behave independently from each other and whose genealogy is described by a chronological tree called splitting tree. The individuals have i.i.d. (non-exponential) lifetime durations and give birth at constant rate to clonal or mutant children in an infinitely many alleles model with neutral mutations. First, to study the allelic partition of the population, we are interested in its frequency spectrum, which, at a fixed time, d...

  3. Design of a Cocoa Pod Splitting Machine

    OpenAIRE

    I.A. Adetunde; S.K. Adzimah and E.K. Asiam

    2010-01-01

    This study outlines the design of a very efficient, highly productive, cost- effective, ergonomic and environmentally friendly cocoa splitting machine that will be used by cocoa Farmers world - wide to increase and boost productivity and enhance the quality of coca products to the highest possible level devoid of any hazards, dangers or perils. This machine can be manufactured from locally available scraps and assembled and maintained at a relatively low cost. The knives which do the splittin...

  4. A thermodynamically compatible splitting procedure in hyperelasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A material is hyperelastic if the stress tensor is obtained by variation of the stored energy function. The corresponding 3D mathematical model of hyperelasticity written in the Eulerian coordinates represents a system of 14 conservative partial differential equations submitted to stationary differential constraints. A classical approach for numerical solving of such a 3D system is a geometrical splitting: the 3D system is split into three 1D systems along each spatial direction and solved then by using a Godunov type scheme. Each 1D system has 7 independent eigenfields corresponding to contact discontinuity, longitudinal waves and shear waves. The construction of the corresponding Riemann solvers is not an easy task even in the case of isotropic solids. Indeed, for a given specific energy it is extremely difficult, if not impossible, to check its rank-one convexity which is a necessary and sufficient condition for hyperbolicity of the governing equations. In this paper, we consider a particular case where the specific energy is a sum of two terms. The first term is the hydrodynamic energy depending only on the density and the entropy, and the second term is the shear energy which is unaffected by the volume change. In this case a very simple criterion of hyperbolicity can be formulated. We propose then a new splitting procedure which allows us to find a numerical solution of each 1D system by solving successively three 1D sub-systems. Each sub-system is hyperbolic, if the full system is hyperbolic. Moreover, each sub-system has only three waves instead of seven, and the velocities of these waves are given in explicit form. The last property allows us to construct reliable Riemann solvers. Numerical 1D tests confirm the advantage of the new approach. A multi-dimensional extension of the splitting procedure is also proposed

  5. The Penrose Transform in the Split Signature

    OpenAIRE

    Aryapoor, Masood

    2008-01-01

    A version of the Penrose transform is introduced in the split signature. It relates the cohomological data with supports on the open subsets of the complex 3-projective space and kernel of differential operators on the (real) Grassmannian of 2-planes in the Euclidean 4-space. As an example we derive a cohomological interpretation of the so-called X-ray transform. Furthermore, a cohomological realization of the so-called "minimal" representation of SL(4,R) is given. We also p...

  6. Phase splitting for periodic Lie systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores-Espinoza, R; Vorobiev, Yu M [Departamento de Matematicas, Universidad de Sonora (Mexico); De Lucas, J, E-mail: rflorese@gauss.mat.uson.m, E-mail: delucas@impan.gov.p, E-mail: yurimv@guaymas.uson.m [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain)

    2010-05-21

    In the context of the Floquet theory, using a variation of parameter argument, we show that the logarithm of the monodromy of a real periodic Lie system with appropriate properties admits a splitting into two parts called dynamic and geometric phases. The dynamic phase is intrinsic and linked to the Hamiltonian of a periodic linear Euler system on the co-algebra. The geometric phase is represented as a surface integral of the symplectic form of a co-adjoint orbit.

  7. Atom beams split by gentle persuasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two different research teams have taken a big step toward atom interferometry. They have succeeded in splitting atomic beams by using atoms in spin states that neither absorb nor reemit laser light. By proper adjustment of experimental conditions, atoms are changed from one spin state to another, without passing through the intermediary excited state. The atoms in essence absorb momentum from the laser photons, without absorption or emission of photons. The change in momentum deflects atoms in the proper spin state

  8. Splitting and focusing of neutrino collective states

    OpenAIRE

    Marklund, Mattias; Shukla, Padma K.; Stenflo, Lennart

    2003-01-01

    It is shown that the collective nonlinear interactions between intense neutrino or anti-neutrino fluxes and a dense neutrino plasma are governed by a multi-dimensional coupled cubic Schr\\"odinger equation in which the interaction potential is positive or negative depending on the neutrino type. The cubic Schr\\"odinger equation describes the splitting and focusing of intense neutrino beams due to the nonlinear excitations associated with the modifications of the individual neutrino energies in...

  9. A Frequency Splitting Method For CFM Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Udesen, Jesper; Gran, Fredrik; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2006-01-01

    The performance of conventional CFM imaging will often be degraded due to the relatively low number of pulses (4-10) used for each velocity estimate. To circumvent this problem we propose a new method using frequency splitting (FS). The FS method uses broad band chirps as excitation pulses instead of narrow band pulses as in conventional CFM imaging. By appropriate filtration, the returned signals are divided into a number of narrow band signals which are approximately disjoint. After clutter fi...

  10. A thermodynamically compatible splitting procedure in hyperelasticity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favrie, N., E-mail: nicolas.favrie@univ-amu.fr; Gavrilyuk, S., E-mail: sergey.gavrilyuk@univ-amu.fr; Ndanou, S., E-mail: serge.ndanou@univ-amu.fr

    2014-08-01

    A material is hyperelastic if the stress tensor is obtained by variation of the stored energy function. The corresponding 3D mathematical model of hyperelasticity written in the Eulerian coordinates represents a system of 14 conservative partial differential equations submitted to stationary differential constraints. A classical approach for numerical solving of such a 3D system is a geometrical splitting: the 3D system is split into three 1D systems along each spatial direction and solved then by using a Godunov type scheme. Each 1D system has 7 independent eigenfields corresponding to contact discontinuity, longitudinal waves and shear waves. The construction of the corresponding Riemann solvers is not an easy task even in the case of isotropic solids. Indeed, for a given specific energy it is extremely difficult, if not impossible, to check its rank-one convexity which is a necessary and sufficient condition for hyperbolicity of the governing equations. In this paper, we consider a particular case where the specific energy is a sum of two terms. The first term is the hydrodynamic energy depending only on the density and the entropy, and the second term is the shear energy which is unaffected by the volume change. In this case a very simple criterion of hyperbolicity can be formulated. We propose then a new splitting procedure which allows us to find a numerical solution of each 1D system by solving successively three 1D sub-systems. Each sub-system is hyperbolic, if the full system is hyperbolic. Moreover, each sub-system has only three waves instead of seven, and the velocities of these waves are given in explicit form. The last property allows us to construct reliable Riemann solvers. Numerical 1D tests confirm the advantage of the new approach. A multi-dimensional extension of the splitting procedure is also proposed.

  11. Almost split sequences for Knorr lattices

    OpenAIRE

    Poulton, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Let $O$ be a complete d.v.r. and $G$ a finite group. We give two applications of an adjunction in the stable category of $OG$. The first application gives necessary and sufficient conditions for the middle term of an almost split sequence terminating in a Knorr lattice to be indecomposable. The second characterises the stable endomorphism rings of Heller lattices of kG-modules.

  12. Multiplet mass splitting in a gravitational field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An expression for the mass splitting of particles belonging to the same spin multiplet defined in a space-time of general relativity is derived. The geometrical symmetry is a subgroup of SO(r,s), 9 >=r > 3, 5 >=s >=1, the mass operator being proportional to the second order Casimir operator of that subgroup. A brief analysis of the calculated values as compared to the experimental data is included. (Author)

  13. Magnetization transfer ratio does not correlate to myelin content in the brain in the MOG-EAE mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjær, Sveinung; Bø, Lars; Myhr, Kjell-Morten; Torkildsen, Øivind; Wergeland, Stig

    2015-01-01

    Magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) is a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method which may detect demyelination not detected by conventional MRI in the central nervous system of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). A decrease in MTR value has previously been shown to correlate to myelin loss in the mouse cuprizone model for demyelination. In this study, we investigated the sensitivity of MTR for demyelination in the myelin oligodendrocyte (MOG) 1-125 induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse model. A total of 24 female c57Bl/6 mice were randomized to a control group (N?=?6) or EAE (N?=?18). MTR images were obtained at a preclinical 7 Tesla Bruker MR-scanner before EAE induction (baseline), 17-19 days (midpoint) and 31-32 days (endpoint) after EAE induction. Mean MTR values were calculated in five regions of the brain and compared to weight, EAE severity score and myelin content assessed by immunostaining for proteolipid protein and luxol fast blue, lymphocyte and monocyte infiltration and iron deposition. Contrary to what was expected, MTR values in the EAE mice were higher than in the control mice at the midpoint and endpoint. No significant difference in myelin content was found according to histo- or immunohistochemistry. Changes in MTR values did not correlate to myelin content, iron content, lymphocyte or monocyte infiltration, weight or EAE severity scores. This suggest that MTR measures of brain tissue can give significant differences between control mice and EAE mice not caused by demyelination, inflammation or iron deposition, and may not be useful surrogate markers for demyelination in the MOG1-125 mouse model. PMID:25744931

  14. Clobetasol and Halcinonide Act as Smoothened Agonists to Promote Myelin Gene Expression and RxR? Receptor Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcu, Giampiero; Serone, Eliseo; De Nardis, Velia; Di Giandomenico, Daniele; Lucisano, Giuseppe; Scardapane, Marco; Poma, Anna; Ragnini-Wilson, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    One of the causes of permanent disability in chronic multiple sclerosis patients is the inability of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) to terminate their maturation program at lesions. To identify key regulators of myelin gene expression acting at the last stages of OPC maturation we developed a drug repositioning strategy based on the mouse immortalized oligodendrocyte (OL) cell line Oli-neu brought to the premyelination stage by stably expressing a key factor regulating the last stages of OL maturation. The Prestwick Chemical Library® of 1,200 FDA-approved compound(s) was repositioned at three dosages based on the induction of Myelin Basic Protein (MBP) expression. Drug hits were further validated using dosage-dependent reproducibility tests and biochemical assays. The glucocorticoid class of compounds was the most highly represented and we found that they can be divided in three groups according to their efficacy on MBP up-regulation. Since target identification is crucial before bringing compounds to the clinic, we searched for common targets of the primary screen hits based on their known chemical-target interactomes, and the pathways predicted by top ranking compounds were validated using specific inhibitors. Two of the top ranking compounds, Halcinonide and Clobetasol, act as Smoothened (Smo) agonists to up-regulate myelin gene expression in the Oli-neuM cell line. Further, RxR? activation is required for MBP expression upon Halcinonide and Clobetasol treatment. These data indicate Clobetasol and Halcinonide as potential promyelinating drugs and also provide a mechanistic understanding of their mode of action in the pathway leading to myelination in OPCs. Furthermore, our classification of glucocorticoids with respect to MBP expression provides important novel insights into their effects in the CNS and a rational criteria for their choice in combinatorial therapies in de-myelinating diseases. PMID:26658258

  15. On the invariants of the splitting algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Thorup, Anders

    2011-01-01

    For a given monic polynomial $p(t)$ of degree $n$ over a commutative ring $k$, the splitting algebra is the universal $k$-algebra in which $p(t)$ has $n$ roots, or, more precisely, over which $p(t)$ factors, $p(t)=(t-\\xi_1)...(t-\\xi_n)$. The symmetric group $S_r$ for $1\\le r\\le n$ acts on the splitting algebra by permuting the first $r$ roots $\\xi_1,...,\\xi_r$. We give a natural, simple condition on the polynomial $p(t)$ that holds if and only if there are only trivial invariants under the actions. In particular, if the condition on $p(t)$ holds then the elements of $k$ are the only invariants under the action of $S_n$. We show that for any $n\\ge 2$ there is a polynomial $p(t)$ of degree $n$ for which the splitting algebra contains a nontrivial element invariant under $S_n$. The examples violate an assertion by A. D. Barnard from 1974.

  16. Myelin protein zero Val102fs mutation manifesting with isolated spinal root hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchini, Corrado; Marsala, Sandro Zambito; Bendini, Matteo; Taioli, Federica; Damante, Giuseppe; Lonigro, Incoronata Renata; Fabrizi, Gian Maria

    2009-12-01

    The Val102fs mutation of the myelin protein zero gene (MPZ) has been associated with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1B (CMT1B). Here we describe an unusual presentation of the Val102fs mutation characterized by symptoms of spinal root hypertrophy with no overt peroneal muscular atrophy. Two sisters aged 41 and 35 years complained of neck pain and presented only pes cavus or deep-tendon hyporeflexia. In both of them magnetic resonance imaging revealed non-enhancing hypertrophy of spinal roots misdiagnosed as neurofibromatosis; neurophysiology disclosed a demyelinating neuropathy and addressed the correct molecular diagnosis. This report adds new data concerning the clinical presentations of MPZ mutations. PMID:19906531

  17. Instability of Myelin Tubes under Dehydration deswelling of layered cylindrical structures

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, C M; Olmsted, P D; MacKintosh, F C

    2001-01-01

    We report experimental observations of an undulational instability of myelin figures. Motivated by this, we examine theoretically the deformation and possible instability of concentric, cylindrical, multi-lamellar membrane structures. Under conditions of osmotic stress (swelling or dehydration), we find a stable, deformed state in which the layer deformation is given by \\delta R ~ r^{\\sqrt{B_A/(hB)}}, where B_A is the area compression modulus, B is the inter-layer compression modulus, and h is the repeat distance of layers. Also, above a finite threshold of dehydration (or osmotic stress), we find that the system becomes unstable to undulations, first with a characteristic wavelength of order \\sqrt{xi d_0}, where xi is the standard smectic penetration depth and d_0 is the thickness of dehydrated region.

  18. Protein-membrane interaction: effect of myelin basic protein on the dynamics of oriented lipids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natali, F.; Relini, A.; Gliozzi, A.; Rolandi, R.; Cavatorta, P.; Deriu, A.; Fasano, A.; Riccio, P

    2003-08-01

    We have studied the effect of physiological amounts of myelin basic protein (MBP) on pure dimyristoyl L-{alpha}-phosphatidic acid (DMPA) oriented membranes. The investigation has been carried out using several complementary experimental methods to provide a detailed characterization of the proteo-lipid complexes. In particular, taking advantage of the power of the quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) technique as optimal probe in biology, a significant effect is suggested to be induced by MBP on the anisotropy of lipid dynamics across the liquid-gel phase transition. Thus, the enhancement of the spatially restricted, vertical translation motion of DMPA is suggested to be the main responsible for the increased contribution of the out of plane lipid dynamics observed at 340 K.

  19. Protein membrane interaction: effect of myelin basic protein on the dynamics of oriented lipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natali, F.; Relini, A.; Gliozzi, A.; Rolandi, R.; Cavatorta, P.; Deriu, A.; Fasano, A.; Riccio, P.

    2003-08-01

    We have studied the effect of physiological amounts of myelin basic protein (MBP) on pure dimyristoyl L-?-phosphatidic acid (DMPA) oriented membranes. The investigation has been carried out using several complementary experimental methods to provide a detailed characterization of the proteo-lipid complexes. In particular, taking advantage of the power of the quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) technique as optimal probe in biology, a significant effect is suggested to be induced by MBP on the anisotropy of lipid dynamics across the liquid-gel phase transition. Thus, the enhancement of the spatially restricted, vertical translation motion of DMPA is suggested to be the main responsible for the increased contribution of the out of plane lipid dynamics observed at 340 K.

  20. Palmitoylethanolamide restores myelinated-fibre function in patients with chemotherapy-induced painful neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truini, A; Biasiotta, A; Di Stefano, G; La Cesa, S; Leone, C; Cartoni, C; Federico, V; Petrucci, M T; Cruccu, G

    2011-12-01

    We assessed the effect of palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) on pain and nerve function in patients with chemotherapy-induced painful neuropathy, in 20 patients undergoing thalidomide and bortezomib treatment for multiple myeloma. All patients were evaluated before and after a two-month treatment with PEA 300 mg BID using pain and warmth thresholds; blinded examiners measured motor and sensory nerve fibre function and laser-evoked potentials. Although no variables returned to normal values, pain and all neurophysiological measures ? assessing A?, A?, and A? fibres ? significantly improved (P 0.50). Although a placebo effect might play a role in the reported pain relief, the changes in neurophysiological measures indicate that PEA exerted a positive action on myelinated fibre groups. PEA, possibly by moderating mast cell hyperactivity, relieved conduction blocks secondary to endoneural edema. In a severe condition such as painful neuropathy associated with multiple myeloma and chemotherapy, a safe substance such as PEA provides significant restoration of nerve function. PMID:22229320

  1. $F$ tests for the strip-split plot design

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz-Pachón, Daniel Andrés; Zimmermann, Francisco J. P.; López, Luis Alberto

    2015-01-01

    In this article we present the structure of the $F$ tests, the variance components and the approximate degrees of freedom for each of the eight possible mixed models of the strip-split plot design. We present an example to illustrate the model and compare it to more traditional settings like a three-way factorial design and a split-split plot model.

  2. Nonuniform molecular features of myelinating Schwann cells in models for CMT1: distinct disease patterns are associated with NCAM and c-Jun upregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Dennis; Groh, Janos; Wettmarshausen, Jennifer; Martini, Rudolf

    2014-05-01

    We investigated three models for Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1 (CMT1) neuropathy, comprising mice lacking connexin 32 (Cx32def), mice with reduced myelin protein zero (P0) expression (P0het) and transgenic mouse mutants overexpressing peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22tg), with regard of the expression of the developmentally regulated molecules NCAM, L1, the low-affinity NGF-receptor p75 (p75(NTR) ) and the transcription factor component c-Jun. We found that all molecules were uniformly expressed by myelin deficient and supernumerary Schwann cells. The mutant myelinating Schwann cells of PMP22tg mice showed a robust NCAM-immunoreactivity in Schmidt-Lanterman incisures (SLI) that accompanies other early onset abnormalities, such as the presence of supernumerary Schwann cells and impaired myelin formation in some fibers. In line with this, Cx32def and P0het mice, which represent demyelinating models, only rarely express NCAM in SLI. Surprisingly, c-Jun immunoreactivity displayed a mosaic-like pattern with mostly negative and some weakly or moderately positive nuclei both in myelinating Schwann cells and Remak cells of wildtype (wt), P0het and PMP22tg mice. However, c-Jun expression was substantially upregulated in myelinating Schwann cells of Cx32def mice and spatially associated with axon perturbation, a typical predemyelinating feature of Cx32 deficiency. Additionally, c-Jun upregulation was correlated with an elevated level of GDNF, possibly causally linked to the typical compensatory sprouting of axons in Cx32def mice and CMT1X patients. Our findings suggest that in myelinating Schwann cells of distinct models of CMT1, c-Jun upregulation is a marker for predemyelinating axonal perturbation while myelin-related NCAM expression is indicative for early Schwann cell abnormalities. PMID:24526449

  3. Changes of myelin in the rat brain after whole-brain irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The whole brain of SD rats was irradiated by the single dose of 2, 10, or 30Gy. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used for the content measurement of myelin basic protein (MBP) in telencephalon tissue at 1 week, 1 month, 3 months and 6 months after irradiation. Both the Luxol fast blue staining with image analysis and the electron microscope were used to investigate the histomorphologic and ultrastructural characteristics of demyelination. The MBP content of telencephalon tissue in control rats were 78-82 ?g/mL, there were no difference in all the 2Gy irradiated, 1 week and 1 month after 10 to 30Gy irradiated groups. But at 3 and 6 months after 10Gy and 30Gy irradiated rats, there MBP content were in 50-62 ?g/mL level, which were a significant decrease compared with the control groups (p<0.01). Typical demyelination in corpus callosum of rats was observed in 30Gy irradiation after 6 months, but no evidence of demyelination was seen in all the other rats. The ultra-structural changes of myelin and oligodendrocytes were detected in 10Gy and 30Gy exposure after 1 to 6 months observed by electron microscope. All the demyelination changes were seen correlated with the dosage and duration after irradiation. These findings indicate that the radiation-related molecular and pathological characteristic changes of demyelination can be assessed in 3 to 6 months after single 10Gy to 30Gy whole-brain irradiation in SD rats. (authors)

  4. A novel method to study the local mitochondrial fusion in myelinated axons in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuan-Li; Rodenkirch, Lance; Schultz, Justin R; Chiu, Shing Yan

    2012-05-30

    Mitochondrial remodeling (replication, fission/fusion) is a dynamically regulated process with diverse functions in neurons. A myelinated axon is an extension from the cell soma of a fully differentiated neuron. Mitochondria, once synthesized in the cell body, enter the axon displaying robust trafficking and accumulation at nodes of Ranvier to match metabolic needs. This long-distance deployment of mitochondria to axons raises the issue of whether myelinated axons can function independently of the cell body to execute mitochondrial remodeling to match local demands. Mitochondrial fusion has been suggested to occur in axons in simple neuronal cultures in vitro. However, whether such events occur in vivo in an intact nervous system remains unanswered. Here we describe a novel technique which allows monitoring of mitochondrial fusion in intact sciatic nerve of frog (Xenopus laevis). Mitochondrial population was labeled by injecting two different MitoTracker dyes (Red and Green), spatially apart along sciatic nerves surgically and then allow to "meet"in vivo. At 24h post-surgery, the sciatic nerves were taken out for mitochondrial imaging at the half-way point. During the post-injection periods, the anterograde-directed Green mitochondria meet with the retrograde-directed Red mitochondria. If fusion occurs, the merged of Green and Red fluorophores in the same mitochondrion will produce a Yellow color in merged images. The labeled mitochondria were observed with a Nikon A1 confocal microscope. Our new mitochondrial imaging method opens an avenue to separately assess the role of local axonal mitochondrial fusion, independent of the cell body of nerve fibers. PMID:22484559

  5. Brain microsomal fatty acid elongation is increased in abcd1-deficient mouse during active myelination phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Masashi; Kawamichi, Misato; Shimura, Yusuke; Kawaguchi, Kosuke; Watanabe, Shiro; Imanaka, Tsuneo

    2015-12-01

    The dysfunction of ABCD1, a peroxisomal ABC protein, leads to the perturbation of very long chain fatty acid (VLCFA) metabolism and is the cause of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy. Abcd1-deficient mice exhibit an accumulation of saturated VLCFAs, such as C26:0, in all tissues, especially the brain. The present study sought to measure microsomal fatty acid elongation activity in the brain of wild-type (WT) and abcd1-deficient mice during the course of development. The fatty acid elongation activity in the microsomal fraction was measured by the incorporation of [2-(14)C]malonyl-CoA into fatty acids in the presence of C16:0-CoA or C20:0-CoA. Cytosolic fatty acid synthesis activity was completely inhibited by the addition of N-ethylmaleimide (NEM). The microsomal fatty acid elongation activity in the brain was significantly high at 3 weeks after birth and decreased substantially at 3 months after birth. Furthermore, we detected two different types of microsomal fatty acid elongation activity by using C16:0-CoA or C20:0-CoA as the substrate and found the activity toward C20:0-CoA in abcd1-deficient mice was higher than the WT 3-week-old animals. These results suggest that during the active myelination phase the microsomal fatty acid elongation activity is stimulated in abcd1-deficient mice, which in turn perturbs the lipid composition in myelin. PMID:26108493

  6. Circular Permutation Prediction Reveals a Viable Backbone Disconnection for Split Proteins: An Approach in Identifying a New Functional Split Intein

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Yun-Tzai; Su, Tz-Hsiang; Lo, Wei-Cheng; Lyu, Ping-Chiang; Sue, Shih-Che

    2012-01-01

    Split-protein systems have emerged as a powerful tool for detecting biomolecular interactions and reporting biological reactions. However, reliable methods for identifying viable split sites are still unavailable. In this study, we demonstrated the feasibility that valid circular permutation (CP) sites in proteins have the potential to act as split sites and that CP prediction can be used to search for internal permissive sites for creating new split proteins. Using a protein ligase, intein, ...

  7. A leucine-to-proline mutation in the putative first transmembrane domain of the 22-kDa peripheral myelin protein in the trembler-J mouse.

    OpenAIRE

    Suter, U.; Moskow, J J; Welcher, A A; Snipes, G. J.; Kosaras, B; Sidman, R.L.; Buchberg, A. M.; Shooter, E. M.

    1992-01-01

    Peripheral myelin protein PMP-22 is a potential growth-regulating myelin protein that is expressed by Schwann cells and predominantly localized in compact peripheral myelin. A point mutation in the Pmp-22 gene of inbred trembler (Tr) mice was identified and proposed to be responsible for the Tr phenotype, which is characterized by paralysis of the limbs as well as tremors and transient seizures. In support of this hypothesis, we now report the fine mapping of the Pmp-22 gene to the immediate ...

  8. Consimilarity of Split Quaternion Matrices and a Solution of the Split Quaternion Matrix Equation X-AX_B=C

    OpenAIRE

    Kosal, Hidayet Huda; Akyigit, Mahmut; Tosun, Murat

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the consimilarity of complex matrices is generalized for the split quaternions. In this regard, coneigenvalue and coneigenvector are de?ned for split quaternion matrices. Also, the existence of solution to the split quaternion matrix equation X-AXB = C is characterized and the solution of the equation in the explicit form are derived via its real representation.

  9. SplitRFLab: A MATLAB GUI toolbox for receiver function analysis based on SplitLab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mijian; Huang, Hui; Huang, Zhouchuan; Wang, Liangshu

    2016-02-01

    We add new modules for receiver function (RF) analysis in SplitLab toolbox, which includes the manual RF analysis module, automatic RF analysis and related quality control modules, and H- k stacking module. The updated toolbox (named SplitRFLab toolbox), especially its automatic RF analysis module, could calculate the RFs quickly and efficiently, which is very useful in RF analysis with huge amount of seismic data. China is now conducting the ChinArray project that plans to deploy thousands of portable stations across Chinese mainland. Our SplitRFLab toolbox may obtain reliable RF results quickly at the first time, which provide essentially new constraint to the crustal and mantle structures.

  10. Numerical modelling of SHPB splitting tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvez, F.; Sanchez Galvez, V.

    2003-09-01

    The Splitting or Brazi1ian test of disks is a useful method to measure tensile strength on brittle materials. When the tensile stress reaches the tensile strength, the disk fails on the loading plane. Nevertheless, the stress state is not uniaxial and the material undergoes compressive stresses, normal to the tensile ones. On materials with a high compressive/tensile strength ratio as ceramics or concrete, the failure of the material is produced by the tensile stress, whereas no damage is caused by compressive stresses. This is the reason why splitting tests of disks have been proved to be an excellent solution to measure tensile strength on brittle materials like ceramics or concrete. This technique bas been used for years to test brittle materials on static conditions, and more recently, it has been brought into use on dynamic tests, as Hopkinson bar experiments. The results obtained on these experiments have been useful and fully accepted by the materials researchers. The loading process has been modelled by different authors and tests results have been justified when loading conditions remain static or in a low strain rate. In this paper, a numerical modelling of the splitting test is extended to high strain rates in 3D. Numerical results are compared with actual tests carried out in a Hopkinson bar published in previous papers. Results show that the specimen is under equilibrium only if the initial slope of the incident pulse is not very abrupt. A 3D effect has been noticed showing that tensile stress levels are higher on the specimen surfaces than inside the material, and it bas a direct influence on the tensile strength measured by means of the maximum load achieved and has to be taken into account. Finally, the crack patterns of the failure on the specimen are compared with actual tests showing a good agreement.

  11. Basic dynamics of split Stirling refrigerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waele, A. T. A. M.; Liang, W.

    2008-09-01

    The basic features of the split Stirling refrigerator, driven by a linear compressor, are described. Friction of the compressor piston and of the regenerator, and the viscous losses due to the gas flow through the regenerator matrix are taken into account. The temperature at the cold end is an input parameter. The general equations are derived which are subsequently treated in the harmonic approximation. Examples are given of application of the relations for describing optimum-performance conditions as well as the interrelationship between cooler and heat-engine operation.

  12. Computational model of photocatalytic water splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolewski, Andrzej L; Domcke, Wolfgang

    2008-08-14

    The photochemistry of a supramolecular system consisting of a (truncated) chlorophyll, benzoquinone and water has been explored with ab initio computational methods. It is shown that this photosynthetic model system can split a water molecule upon the absorption of a visible photon via an electron-driven proton-transfer process. It is suggested that the coupled transfer of an electron and a proton in hydrogen-bonded systems is mechanistically superior to electronic charge separation in covalently bonded donor-bridge-acceptor systems. PMID:18642889

  13. Comparing Electrochemical and Biological Water Splitting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossmeisl, Jan; Dimitrievski, Kristian; Siegbahn, P.; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of density functional theory calculations, we compare the free energies of key intermediates in the water splitting reaction over transition metal oxide surfaces to those of the Mn cluster in photo system II. In spite of the very different environments in the enzyme system and on the......, the biological catalyst appears to be best....... inorganic catalyst surface of an acidic electrolysis cell, the thermochemical features of the catalysts can be directly compared. We suggest a simple test for a thermochemically optimal catalyst. We show that, although both the RuO2 surface and the Mn cluster in photo system II are quite close to optimal...

  14. Hyperfine splitting in hydrogen with form factors

    CERN Document Server

    Daza, F Garcia; Nowakowski, M

    2010-01-01

    Proton structure corrections to the hyperfine splittings in hydrogen are evaluated using the Breit potential with electromagnetic form factors. In contrast to other methods, several new features emerge: the Breit potential with $q^2$-dependent form factors is just an extension of the standard Breit equation which gives the hyperfine Hamiltonian. Order $\\alpha^5$ corrections are obtained from a one-photon exchange amplitude and time-independent perturbation theory. Structure corrections to $D_{21} = 8 E^{2S}_{hfs} - E^{1S}_{hfs}$ start at order $\\alpha^6$. QED corrections are comparable to structure corrections which must be evaluated ab initio.

  15. Multiparty hierarchical quantum-information splitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Xinwen; Zhang Dengyu; Tang Shiqing; Xie Lijun, E-mail: xwwang0826@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Physics and Electronic Information Science, Hengyang Normal University, Hengyang 421008 (China)

    2011-02-14

    We propose a scheme for multiparty hierarchical quantum-information splitting (QIS) with a multipartite entangled state, where a boss distributes a secret quantum state to two grades of agents asymmetrically. The agents who belong to different grades have different authorities for recovering the boss's secret. Except for the boss's Bell-state measurement, no nonlocal operation is involved. The presented scheme is also shown to be secure against eavesdropping. Such a hierarchical QIS is expected to find useful applications in the field of modern multipartite quantum cryptography.

  16. Large Bandgap Semiconductors for Solar Water Splitting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malizia, Mauro

    photoelectrochemical water splitting devices having tandem design. The increase of the photovoltage produced by GaP under illumination was the main goal of this work. GaP has a bandgap of 2.25 eV and could in theory produce a photovoltage of approximately 1.7 V. Instead, the photovoltage produced by the semiconductor.......The photocurrent density generated by GaP was increased by more than 60% by electrochemical etching of the surface. The etching process produces a rough microstructured surface that increases the optical path length of the incident photons and the collection of photogenerated electrons.Furthermore, the synthesis...

  17. On split graphs with four distinct eigenvalues

    OpenAIRE

    Goldberg, Felix; Kirkland, Steve; Varghese, Anu; Vijayakumar, Ambat

    2014-01-01

    It is a well-known fact that a graph of diameter $d$ has at least $d+1$ eigenvalues. Let us call a graph \\emph{$d$-extremal} if it has diameter $d$ and exactly $d+1$ eigenvalues. Such graphs have been intensively studied by various authors. %Much attention has been devoted to the study of graphs that are extremal with respect to this relation: \\emph{i.e} have diameter $d$ and exactly $d+1$ distinct eigenvalues. A graph is \\emph{split} if its vertex set can be partitioned into a clique and a s...

  18. Comparing Electrochemical and Biological Water Splitting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossmeisl, Jan; Dimitrievski, Kristian

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of density functional theory calculations, we compare the free energies of key intermediates in the water splitting reaction over transition metal oxide surfaces to those of the Mn cluster in photo system II. In spite of the very different environments in the enzyme system and on the inorganic catalyst surface of an acidic electrolysis cell, the thermochemical features of the catalysts can be directly compared. We suggest a simple test for a thermochemically optimal catalyst. We show that, although both the RuO2 surface and the Mn cluster in photo system II are quite close to optimal, the biological catalyst appears to be best.

  19. Split rank of triange and quadrilateral inequalities

    OpenAIRE

    Louveaux, Quentin

    2009-01-01

    A simple relaxation consisting of two rows of a simplex tableau is a mixed-integer set with two equations, two free integer variables, and nonnegative continuous variables. Recently, Andersen et al. and Cornuéjols and Margot showed that the facet- defining inequalities of this set are either split cuts or intersection cuts obtained from lattice-free triangles and quadrilaterals. From an example given by Cook, Kannan and Schrijver it is known that one particular class of facet-defining triang...

  20. Split rank of two-row cuts

    OpenAIRE

    Louveaux, Quentin

    2009-01-01

    A simple relaxation consisting of two rows of a simplex tableau is a mixed-integer set with two equations, two free integer variables, and nonnegative continuous variables. Recently, Andersen et al. and Cornuéjols and Margot showed that the facet- defining inequalities of this set are either split cuts or intersection cuts obtained from lattice-free triangles and quadrilaterals. From an example given by Cook et al. it is known that one particular class of facet-defining triangle inequality d...

  1. Photoelectrochemical water splitting materials, processes and architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Lewerenz, Hans-Joachim

    2013-01-01

    There has been a resurgence of interest in light-induced water splitting as the search for storable carbon neutral energy becomes more urgent. Although the history of the basic idea dates back more than four decades, efficient, economical and stable integrated devices have yet to be realized. In the continuing quest for such devices, the field of photoelectrochemistry is entering a new phase where the extraordinary interdisciplinary of the research and development efforts are opening new avenues. This aspect of current research effort is reflected in the chapters of this book, which encompass

  2. The second order pole over split quaternions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libine, Matvei

    2015-04-01

    This is an addition to a series of papers [1, 2, 3, 4], where we develop quaternionic analysis from the point of view of representation theory of the conformal Lie group and its Lie algebra. In this paper we develop split quaternionic analogues of certain results from [4]. Thus we introduce a space of functions Dh ⊕ Da with a natural action of the Lie algebra gl(2, HC) ≊ sl(4, C), decompose Dh ⊕ Da into irreducible components and find the gl(2, Hc)- equivariant projectors onto each of these irreducible components.

  3. Dominated Splitting and Pesin's Entropy Formula

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Wenxiang

    2010-01-01

    Let $M$ be a compact manifold and $f:\\,M\\to M$ be a $C^1$ diffeomorphism on $M$. If $\\mu$ is an $f$-invariant probability measure which is absolutely continuous relative to Lebesgue measure and for $\\mu$ $a.\\,\\,e.\\,\\,x\\in M,$ there is a dominated splitting $T_{orb(x)}M=E\\oplus F$ on its orbit $orb(x)$, then we give an estimation through Lyapunov characteristic exponents from below in Pesin's entropy formula, i.e., the metric entropy $h_\\mu(f)$ satisfies

  4. Miniaturized Planar Split-Ring Resonator Antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2009-01-01

    A miniaturized planar antenna based on a broadside-coupled split ring resonator excited by an arc-shaped dipole is presented. The excitation dipole acts as a small tuning capacitor in series with a parallel RLC circuit represented by the SRR. The antenna resonance frequency and dimensions a essentially determined by the SRR, while by varying the dipole arm length the input resistance is changed in a wide range, thus matching the antenna to a feed line and compensating for simulation and manufact...

  5. Schwann-cell differentiation in clonal cultures of the neural crest, as evidenced by the anti-Schwann cell myelin protein monoclonal antibody.

    OpenAIRE

    Dupin, E; Baroffio, A; Dulac, C; Cameron-Curry, P; Le Douarin, N. M.

    1990-01-01

    In the vertebrate embryo, Schwann cells lining the peripheral nerves originate from the neural crest (NC), a structure that also gives rise to ganglion satellite cells, most of the neurons of the peripheral nervous system, melanocytes, and part of the cranial mesenchyme. We have studied the emergence of the Schwann cell lineage in vitro in clonal cultures of quail mesencephalic NC cells by using the Schwann cell myelin protein antigen as an early and specific marker for myelinating and nonmye...

  6. T cell reactivity to P0, P2, PMP-22, and myelin basic protein in patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Csurhes, P; Sullivan, A.; Green, K.; Pender, M.; McCombe, P

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: It has been suggested that autoimmunity to peripheral myelin proteins is involved in the pathogenesis of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP). We aimed to compare reactivity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to antigens of peripheral myelin proteins in patients with GBS and patients with CIDP with that of healthy controls and patients with other non-immune mediated neuropathies (ON).

  7. Rational Design and Synthesis of Altered Peptide Ligands based on Human Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein 35–55 Epitope: Inhibition of Chronic Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Theodore Tselios; Mihalis Aggelidakis; Anthi Tapeinou; Vivian Tseveleki; Ioannis Kanistras; Dimitrios Gatos; John Matsoukas

    2014-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system and is an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS). Although the etiology of MS remains unclear, there is evidence T-cell recognition of immunodominant epitopes of myelin proteins, such as the 35–55 epitope of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG), plays a pathogenic role in the induction of chronic EAE. Cyclization of peptides is of great interest since the limited stability of linear ...

  8. Serum Levels of Anti-Myelin Antibodies in Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis Patients during Different Phases of Disease Activity and Immunomodulatory Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Angelucci; Massimiliano Mirabella; Giovanni Frisullo; Marcella Caggiula; Pietro Attilio Tonali; Anna Paola Batocchi

    2005-01-01

    Antibodies against myelin oligodendrocyte antigens have been found in the immunoreactive brain lesions of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients. Recently it has been proposed that these antibodies can be used as a prognostic marker in the course of disease. However, the serum levels of these autoantibodies during different phases of disease activity or after an immunomodulatory therapy have been poorly investigated. In this study the serum levels of anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) (...

  9. Myelin/oligodendrocyte glycoprotein–deficient (MOG-deficient) mice reveal lack of immune tolerance to MOG in wild-type mice

    OpenAIRE

    Delarasse, Cécile; Daubas, Philippe; Mars, Lennart T.; Vizler, Csaba; Litzenburger, Tobias; Iglesias, Antonio; Bauer, Jan; Della Gaspera, Bruno; Schubart, Anna; Decker, Laurence; Dimitri, Dalia; Roussel, Guy; Dierich, Andrée; Amor, Sandra; Dautigny, André

    2003-01-01

    We studied the immunological basis for the very potent encephalitogenicity of myelin/oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG), a minor component of myelin in the CNS that is widely used to induce experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). For this purpose, we generated a mutant mouse lacking a functional mog gene. This MOG-deficient mouse presents no clinical or histological abnormalities, permitting us to directly assess the role of MOG as a target autoantigen in EAE. In contrast to WT mice,...

  10. Curcumin Treatment Abrogates Endoplasmic Reticulum Retention and Aggregation-Induced Apoptosis Associated with Neuropathy-Causing Myelin Protein Zero–Truncating Mutants

    OpenAIRE

    Khajavi, Mehrdad ; Inoue, Ken ; Wiszniewski, Wojciech ; Ohyama, Tomoko ; Snipes, G. Jackson ; Lupski, James R. 

    2005-01-01

    Mutations in MPZ, the gene encoding myelin protein zero (MPZ), the major protein constituent of peripheral myelin, can cause the adult-onset, inherited neuropathy Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, as well as the more severe, childhood-onset Dejerine-Sottas neuropathy and congenital hypomyelinating neuropathy. Most MPZ-truncating mutations associated with severe forms of peripheral neuropathy result in premature termination codons within the terminal or penultimate exons that are not subject to non...

  11. Multimodal coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy reveals microglia-associated myelin and axonal dysfunction in multiple sclerosis-like lesions in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Imitola, Jaime; Côté, Daniel; Rasmussen, Stine; Xie, X. Sunney; Liu, Yingru; Chitnis, Tanuja; Sidman, Richard L.; Lin, Charles P; Khoury, Samia J.

    2011-01-01

    Myelin loss and axonal degeneration predominate in many neurological disorders; however, methods to visualize them simultaneously in live tissue are unavailable. We describe a new imaging strategy combining video rate reflectance and fluorescence confocal imaging with coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy tuned to CH2 vibration of myelin lipids, applied in live tissue of animals with chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Our method allows monitoring over t...

  12. SKS Splitting offshore California from ALBACORE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, J.; Davis, P. M.; Kohler, M. D.

    2012-12-01

    The development and evolution of the Pacific-North America plate boundary offshore Southern California is of great geodynamical interest. For better understanding, the Asthenospheric and Lithospheric Broadband Architecture from the California Offshore Region Experiment (ALBACORE) was initiated. ALBACORE is a network of 24 broadband and 10 short-period ocean bottom seismometers (OBSs) deployed across the southwestern region of the Pacific-North American plate boundary. Other than at scattered island stations present seismic array data ends at the coastline due to the difficulty of measurements further to sea. The experiment is intended to study many aspects of the Pacific-North American plate boundary. In this study we calculate SKS splitting parameters in an effort to measure the anisotropy of the region. The first step involved determining the orientations of each seismometer due to twisting during deployment. P wave arrivals are used and waveforms of each OBS are compared to nearby island stations of the California Seismic Network. The horizontal waveforms from the OBS's are rotated until the rotated components achieved maximum correlation with North and East components at a nearby station. The rotation angle is further constrained by particle motion. Once orientations are established, we calculate SKS splitting parameters by minimizing energy in the transverse component.

  13. Colorimetry and TV Colour Splitting Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kaiser

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The colorimetric standard of the present-day television system goes back to the American NTSC system from 1953. In this RGB colorimetric system it is not possible, for basic reasons, to produce a scanning device which will provide signals suitable for controlling any displayed unit. From the very beginning of the television system the scanning device has produced inevitable colour deformation. The range of reproductive colours is not fully utilized either by a contemporary Cathode Ray Tube display unit or by a Liquid Crystal Display. In addition, the range is not sufficient for true reproduction of colours. Specific technical and scientific applications in which colour bears a substantial part of the information (cosmic development, medicine demand high fidelity colour reproduction. The colour splitting system, working in the RGB colorimetric system, continues to be universally used. This article submits the results of a design for a colour splitting system working in the XYZ colorimetric system (hereafter referred to as the XYZ prism. A way to obtain theoretical spectral reflectances of partial XYZ prism filters is briefly described. These filters are then approximated by real optical interference filters and the geometry of the XYZ prism is established.

  14. Transport properties of isospin effective mass splitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate in detail the momentum dependence (MD) of the effective in medium nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction in the isovector channel. We focus the discussion on transport properties of the expected neutron-proton (n/p) effective mass splitting at high isospin density. We look at observable effects from collective flows in heavy ion collisions (HIC) of charge asymmetric nuclei at intermediate energies. Using microscopic kinetic equation simulations nucleon transverse and elliptic collective flows in Au+Au collisions are evaluated. In spite of the reduced charge asymmetry of the interacting system interesting isospin-MD effects are revealed. Good observables, particularly sensitive to the n/p mass splitting, appear to be the differences between neutron and proton flows. The importance of more exclusive measurements, with a selection of different bins of the transverse momenta (pt) of the emitted particles, is stressed. In more inclusive data a compensation can be expected from different pt-contributions, due to the microscopic isospin-MD structure of the nuclear mean field in asymmetric matter

  15. Micro-Miniature Split Stirling Linear Crycooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veprik, A.; Zehtzer, S.; Vilenchik, H.; Pundak, N.

    2010-04-01

    Novel tactics for rescue, surveillance, reconnaissance, force protection, perimeter security, navigation and targeting often involve the use of miniature infrared imagers, where the cooled imaging systems are known to be superior to their uncooled rivals in terms of working range, resolution and ability to distinguish/track fast moving objects in dynamic infrared scenes. The latest technological advances in industrial applications of high-temperature infrared detectors have spurred the development of linearly driven, long life, dynamically quiet and aurally undetectable micro-miniature split Stirling linear cryogenic coolers. Recent progress in designing highly efficient "moving magnet" resonant linear actuators and dedicated smart electronics have enabled further improvements to the cooler's size, weight, power consumption, cooldown time and ownership costs. The authors report on the development of a novel micro-miniature split Stirling linear cryogenic cooler, where, by means of increasing the driving frequency up to 90 Hz, it appeared possible to shorten the cold finger to 19 mm. The cooler was specifically designed to cool a new generation of 130 K infrared detectors for portable infrared imagers, where compactness, low steady-state power consumption, fast cool-down time, vibration export and aural stealth are of primary concern.

  16. Artificial photosynthesis: understanding water splitting in nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Nicholas; Pantazis, Dimitrios A; Neese, Frank; Lubitz, Wolfgang

    2015-06-01

    In the context of a global artificial photosynthesis (GAP) project, we review our current work on nature's water splitting catalyst. In a recent report (Cox et al. 2014 Science 345, 804-808 (doi:10.1126/science.1254910)), we showed that the catalyst-a Mn4O5Ca cofactor-converts into an 'activated' form immediately prior to the O-O bond formation step. This activated state, which represents an all Mn(IV) complex, is similar to the structure observed by X-ray crystallography but requires the coordination of an additional water molecule. Such a structure locates two oxygens, both derived from water, in close proximity, which probably come together to form the product O2 molecule. We speculate that formation of the activated catalyst state requires inherent structural flexibility. These features represent new design criteria for the development of biomimetic and bioinspired model systems for water splitting catalysts using first-row transition metals with the aim of delivering globally deployable artificial photosynthesis technologies. PMID:26052426

  17. Alteration of split renal function during Captopril treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two different methods to evaluate the alteration of split renal function following continued Captopril treatment were studied in a total of 21 patients with hypertension. Eight patients with renovascular hypertension (five with unilateral renal artery stenosis and three with bilateral renal artery stenoses), three patients with diabetic nephropathy, one patient with primary aldosteronism, and nine patients with essential hypertension were included. The studies were performed the day prior to receiving Captopril (baseline), and 6th or 7th day following continued Captopril treatment (37.5 mg or 75 mg/day). Split effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) after injections of I-131 hippuran and Tc-99m DTPA were measured using kidney counting corrected for depth and dose, described by Schlegel and Gates. In the patients with renovascular hypertension, split GFR in the stenotic kidney was significantly decreased 6th or 7th day following continued Captopril treatment compared to a baseline value. And split ERPF in the stenotic kidney was slightly increased although significant increase of split ERPF was not shown. In the patients with diabetic nephropathy, primary aldosteronism or essential hypertension, on the other hand, split GFR was not changed and split ERPF was slightly increased. These findings suggest that the Captopril induced alterations of split renal function may be of importance for the diagnosis of renovascular hypertension. For this purpose, split GFR determination is more useful than split ERPF determination. (author)

  18. Charcot-Marie-Tooth 1B caused by expansion of a familial myelin protein zero (MPZ) gene duplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speevak, Marsha D; Farrell, Sandra A

    2013-10-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease is a group of hereditary disorders affecting the motor and sensory nerves of the peripheral nervous system. CMT patterns of inheritance include dominant, recessive, and X-linked disorders. Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, type 1B (CMT1B, OMIM 118200) is an autosomal dominant neuropathy caused by mutations in myelin protein zero (MPZ, OMIM 159440), a structural protein of peripheral myelin. Most causative MPZ mutations are missense sequence variants; however, recent clinical reports have described cases of CMT1B caused by increased dosage of the MPZ gene, with over-expression of the MPZ protein suspected to be causative of the disorder. We report an unusual case of early onset de novo CMT1B, caused by amplification of a familial, apparently benign, MPZ duplication. PMID:23811036

  19. Severe demyelination but no astrocytopathy in clinically definite neuromyelitis optica with anti-myelin-oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Kensuke; Kiyota, Naoki; Kuroda, Hiroshi; Sato, Douglas Kazutoshi; Nishiyama, Shuhei; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Misu, Tatsuro; Nakashima, Ichiro; Fujihara, Kazuo; Aoki, Masashi

    2015-04-01

    We report a patient with neuromyelitis optica (NMO) presenting anti-myelin-oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-seropositive, in whom biomarkers of demyelination and astrocyte damage were measured during an acute attack. A 31-year-old man developed right optic neuritis followed by longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis, fulfilling the criteria for definite NMO. He was anti-MOG-seropositive and anti-aquaporin-4 seronegative. The myelin basic protein level was markedly elevated whereas glial fibrillary acidic protein was not detectable in cerebrospinal fluid during an acute attack. His symptoms quickly improved after high-dose methylprednisolone therapy. This case suggests that NMO patients with anti-MOG may have severe demyelination in the absence of astrocyte injury. PMID:25257613

  20. Absence of oligodendroglial glucosylceramide synthesis does not result in CNS myelin abnormalities or alter the dysmyelinating phenotype of CGT-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadat, Laleh; Dupree, Jeffrey L; Kilkus, John; Han, Xianlin; Traka, Maria; Proia, Richard L; Dawson, Glyn; Popko, Brian

    2010-03-01

    To examine the function of glycosphingolipids (GSLs) in oligodendrocytes, the myelinating cells of the central nervous system (CNS), mice were generated that lack oligodendroglial expression of UDP-glucose ceramide glucosyltransferase (encoded by Ugcg). These mice (Ugcg(flox/flox);Cnp/Cre) did not show any apparent clinical phenotype, their total brain and myelin extracts had normal GSL content, including ganglioside composition, and myelin abnormalities were not detected in their CNS. These data indicate that the elimination of gangliosides from oligodendrocytes is not detrimental to myelination. These mice were also used to asses the potential compensatory effect of hydroxyl fatty acid glucosylceramide (HFA-GlcCer) accumulation in UDP-galactose:ceramide galactosyltransferase (encoded by Cgt, also known as Ugt8a) deficient mice. At postnatal day 18, the phenotypic characteristics of the Ugcg(flox/flox);Cnp/Cre;Cgt(-/-) mutants, including the degree of hypomyelination, were surprisingly similar to that of Cgt(-/-) mice, suggesting that the accumulation of HFA-GlcCer in Cgt(-/-) mice does not modify their phenotype. These studies demonstrate that abundant, structurally intact myelin can form in the absence of glycolipids, which normally represent over 20% of the dry weight of myelin. PMID:19705459