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Papaya Lethal Yellowing Virus (PLYV) Infects Vasconcellea cauliflora  

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Papaya lethal yellowing virus (PLYV) é um dos três vírus descritos infectando mamoeiros (Carica papaya L.) no Brasil. Vasconcellea cauliflora (Jacq.) A. DC., antes denominada de Carica cauliflora (Jacq.), é uma reconhecida fonte de resistência natural ao Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), causador da "Mancha Anelar" ou "Mosaico" do mamoeiro. Neste estudo é demonstrado que V. cauliflora pode ser infectada por PLYV mediante inoculação mecânica. Esta é a segunda hospedeira de PLYV descrita ...

Amaral, P. P. R.; Resende, R. O.; Souza, M. T.

2006-01-01

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Citogenética de especies de Vasconcellea (Caricaceae Cytogenetic of Vasconcellea species (Caricaceae  

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Full Text Available Conocer aspectos básicos de la citogenética de las papayas de montaña o papayuelas, especies del género Vasconcellea (Caricaceae originarias de Ecuador y Colombia, fue el objetivo del trabajo. Botones florales se fijaron en etanol-acético 3:1 por 24h, luego se transfirieron a nueva solución y se almacenaron en frío. Los microsporocitos y los granos de polen se tiñieron con acetocarmín (1%. Se evaluaron las fases de meiosis y la viabilidad de polen para describir el comportamiento cromosómico. Se encontró que: 1 todas las seis especies estudiadas fueron diploides (2n=2x=18; 2 se describió el número cromosómico para V. sphaerocarpa, V. longiflora y V. palandensis (2n=18; 3 el grado de asimetría de los complementos cromosómicos indicó un proceso de evolución; 4 la presencia de numerosos NOR en V. sphaerocarpa está relacionada con los micronucleolos y corroboró el posible origen híbrido; y 5 V. cauliflora (42.98% y V. cundinamarcensis (47.93% presentaron la más baja viabilidad polínica.This work aims to know basic aspects of cytogenetics of mountain papayas' or 'papayuelas', Vasconcellea species (Caricaceae, originated from Ecuador and Colombia. Flower buds were fixed in 3:1 acetic-alcohol solution for 24 hr, transferred to new solution and stored al low temperature. Both microsporocytes and pollen grains were stained with 1% acetic carmine. Meiosis phases and pollen viability were evaluated to describe chromosome behavior. We found that: 1 all tested species were diploid (2n=2x=18; 2 chromosome number of V. sphaerocarpa, V. longiflora and V. palandensis (2n=18 were by first time reported; 3 asymmetry level of chromosome complements indicated a evolution process in these species; 4 presence of numerous NOR in V. sphaerocarpa associated to micronucleoli corroborated its possible hybrid origin; and 5 V. cauliflora (42.98% and V. cundinamarcensis (47.93% presented the low percentage of pollen viability.

Creucí Maria Caetano

2008-12-01

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Citogenética de especies de Vasconcellea (Caricaceae) / Cytogenetic of Vasconcellea species (Caricaceae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Conocer aspectos básicos de la citogenética de las papayas de montaña o papayuelas, especies del género Vasconcellea (Caricaceae) originarias de Ecuador y Colombia, fue el objetivo del trabajo. Botones florales se fijaron en etanol-acético 3:1 por 24h, luego se transfirieron a nueva solución y se al [...] macenaron en frío. Los microsporocitos y los granos de polen se tiñieron con acetocarmín (1%). Se evaluaron las fases de meiosis y la viabilidad de polen para describir el comportamiento cromosómico. Se encontró que: 1) todas las seis especies estudiadas fueron diploides (2n=2x=18); 2) se describió el número cromosómico para V. sphaerocarpa, V. longiflora y V. palandensis (2n=18); 3) el grado de asimetría de los complementos cromosómicos indicó un proceso de evolución; 4) la presencia de numerosos NOR en V. sphaerocarpa está relacionada con los micronucleolos y corroboró el posible origen híbrido; y 5) V. cauliflora (42.98%) y V. cundinamarcensis (47.93%) presentaron la más baja viabilidad polínica. Abstract in english This work aims to know basic aspects of cytogenetics of mountain papayas' or 'papayuelas', Vasconcellea species (Caricaceae), originated from Ecuador and Colombia. Flower buds were fixed in 3:1 acetic-alcohol solution for 24 hr, transferred to new solution and stored al low temperature. Both microsp [...] orocytes and pollen grains were stained with 1% acetic carmine. Meiosis phases and pollen viability were evaluated to describe chromosome behavior. We found that: 1) all tested species were diploid (2n=2x=18); 2) chromosome number of V. sphaerocarpa, V. longiflora and V. palandensis (2n=18) were by first time reported; 3) asymmetry level of chromosome complements indicated a evolution process in these species; 4) presence of numerous NOR in V. sphaerocarpa associated to micronucleoli corroborated its possible hybrid origin; and 5) V. cauliflora (42.98%) and V. cundinamarcensis (47.93%) presented the low percentage of pollen viability.

Creucí Maria, Caetano; Túlio César, Lagos Burbano; Claudia Lorena, Sandoval Sierra; César Augusto, Posada Tique; Diego Geraldo, Caetano Nunes.

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Citogenética de especies de Vasconcellea (Caricaceae  

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Full Text Available Conocer aspectos básicos de la citogenética de las papayas de montaña o papayuelas, especies del género Vasconcellea (Caricaceae originarias de Ecuador y Colombia, fue el objetivo del trabajo. Botones florales se fijaron en etanol-acético 3:1 por 24h, luego se transfirieron a nueva solución y se almacenaron en frío. Los microsporocitos y los granos de polen se tiñieron con acetocarmín (1%. Se evaluaron las fases de meiosis y la viabilidad de polen para describir el comportamiento cromosómico. Se encontró que: 1 todas las seis especies estudiadas fueron diploides (2n=2x=18; 2 se describió el número cromosómico para V. sphaerocarpa, V. longiflora y V. palandensis (2n=18; 3 el grado de asimetría de los complementos cromosómicos indicó un proceso de evolución; 4 la presencia de numerosos NOR en V. sphaerocarpa está relacionada con los micronucleolos y corroboró el posible origen híbrido; y 5 V. cauliflora (42.98% y V. cundinamarcensis (47.93% presentaron la más baja viabilidad polínica.

Caetano Creucí María

2008-12-01

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Rapid divergence and expansion of the X chromosome in papaya  

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X chromosomes have long been thought to conserve the structure and gene content of the ancestral autosome from which the sex chromosomes evolved. We compared the recently evolved papaya sex chromosomes with a homologous autosome of a close relative, the monoecious Vasconcellea monoica, to infer changes since recombination stopped between the papaya sex chromosomes. We sequenced 12 V. monoica bacterial artificial chromosomes, 11 corresponding to the papaya X-specific region, and 1 to a papaya ...

2012-01-01

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NOTE - ISSR markers for genetic relationships in Caricaceae and sex differentiation in papaya  

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Full Text Available ISSR markers are polymorphic and their results easily reproducible. They are therefore intensely used in phylogeneticstudies and sex differentiation of some economically interesting plant species. The objectives of this study were to analyze the geneticdiversity in Caricaceae using ISSR markers, to identify a specific ISSR band that could distinguish female from hermaphroditepapaya genotypes and to verify whether this marker could be used for early sex differentiation. The ISSR-PCR was performed withnine primers and they could distinguish all species. It was observed that Jacaratia spinosa was closer to Vasconcellea than toCarica. The species C. papaya was only distantly related to both genera. A 500 bp ISSR marker was found in 25 % of the papayagenotypes studied. Specifically in these cases this marker could be used for early sex differentiation in papaya.

Telma Nair Santana Pereira

2011-01-01

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ISSR markers for genetic relationships in Caricaceae and sex differentiation in papaya / Marcadores ISSR nas relações genéticas em Cariaceae e na identificação sexual do mamoeiro  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Os marcadores ISSR apresentam amplo polimorfismo e alta reprodutibilidade de resultados, o que tem intensificado seu uso em estudos filogenéticos e na diferenciação sexual de algumas espécies de interesse econômico. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram analisar a divergência genética em Caricaceae util [...] izando-se marcadores ISSR, identificar uma marca capaz de diferenciar plantas hermafroditas e femininas em mamoeiro e verificar se este marcador pode ser utilizado na sexagem precoce de diferentes genótipos da espécie. O estudo foi conduzido com nove primers, os quais foram capazes de distinguir todas as espécies. Observou-se que Jacaratia spinosa ficou mais próxima de Vasconcellea do que de Carica. A espécie C. papaya mostrou-se geneticamente distante de ambos os gêneros. Verificou-se ainda a presença de um fragmento ISSR de 500 pb em 25 % dos genótipos de mamoeiro estudados, podendo ser usado para auxiliar a sexagem precoce do mamoeiro especificamente nesses casos. Abstract in english ISSR markers are polymorphic and their results easily reproducible. They are therefore intensely used in phylogenetic studies and sex differentiation of some economically interesting plant species. The objectives of this study were to analyze the genetic diversity in Caricaceae using ISSR markers, t [...] o identify a specific ISSR band that could distinguish female from hermaphrodite papaya genotypes and to verify whether this marker could be used for early sex differentiation. The ISSR-PCR was performed with nine primers and they could distinguish all species. It was observed that Jacaratia spinosa was closer to Vasconcellea than to Carica. The species C. papaya was only distantly related to both genera. A 500 bp ISSR marker was found in 25 % of the papaya genotypes studied. Specifically in these cases this marker could be used for early sex differentiation in papaya.

Fabiane Rabelo da, Costa; Telma Nair Santana, Pereira; Ana Paula Candido, Gabriel; Messias Gonzaga, Pereira.

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In vitro morphogenic responses of Vasconcellea chilensis Planch. ex A. DC (Caricaceae) / Respuestas morfogenéticas in vitro de Vasconcellea chilensis Planch. ex A. DC (Caricaceae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish La formación de brotes múltiples bajo condiciones in vitro pudo ser inducida en secciones nodales de plantas adultas de "palo gordo" Vasconcellea chilensis ex Carica chilensis, mediante el uso de altos niveles de tidiazuron (TDZ), ácido indolacético (AIA) y en presencia de addenda orgánica (hidroliz [...] ado enzimático de caseína, sulfato de adenina y cisteína) incluidas en el medio nutritivo "WPM". Dichos brotes se iniciaron sincrónicamente, en forma de agregados compactos y/o en hileras, sobre la superficie del explante. En subcultivo, los brotes evidenciaron elongación tornando a color verde, con iniciación de nuevos brotes desde la base y, a pesar de la presencia de ácido indolbutírico (AIB) como única hormona, no desarrollaron raíces. Otros explantes ensayados, tales como pecíolos, no evidenciaron respuesta. Solo secciones de hojas iniciaron la formación de una estructura compacta o callo a nivel de la nervadura principal transcurridas 4-5 semanas, tornándose pardo luego y con posterior muerte tisular Abstract in english Multiple shoot formation was induced in vitro on nodal sections excised from adult "palo gordo" plants of Vasconcellea chilensis ex Carica chilensis, in the presence of relatively high levels of thidiazuron (TDZ), indole-3- acetic acid (IAA) and organic addenda included in the WPM formulation includ [...] ing casein hydrolysate, adenine sulfate and cystein. Multiple shoots appeared simultaneously in strands or clusters on the surface of the explants; usually two or more clusters with new shoots were initiated, all showing synchronous growth. In subculture, in the presence of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) as single hormone, root formation did not take place; the shoots turned green instead, evidenced elongation and development of new shoots at the base of the explants. Other explants, such as petioles and leaf sections exhibited callus initiation upon the vascular system after 4-5 weeks; however, this tissue turned brown later on and died

Miguel, Jordan Z.

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Quarantine System for Papaya.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel system to ensure that papaya are free of fruit flies so as to meet quarantine restrictions is described. Papaya are subjected to selection on the basis of color in combination with a two-stage heated fluid treatment wherein time and temperature of...

H. M. Couey C. F. Hayes

1985-01-01

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Industrializacion de la Papaya (Industrialization of the Papaya).  

Science.gov (United States)

The origin, characteristics, types, maturation, storage, and zones of production of the papaya are presented and the preservation and utilization are described. Tables indicating the proportions of papaya to other fruits in canned production are given. An...

L. L. Orellana

1974-01-01

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BASKETFUL BENEFITS OF PAPAYA  

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Full Text Available Papaya (Carica papaya linn is well known for its exceptional nutritional and medicinal properties throughout the world. From the times immemorial, the whole Papaya plant including its leaves, seeds, ripe and unripe fruits and their juice is used as a traditional medicine. The fruit has a large oval shape, yellowish-green skin and yellow flesh. Nowadays, Papaya is considered as a Nutraceutical fruit due to its multi-faceted medicinal properties. The prominent medicinal properties of Papaya include Anti-fertility, Uterotonic, Diuretic, Anti-hypertensive, Hypolipidemic, Anti-helmintic, Wound-healing, Anti-fungal, Anti-bacterial, Anti-tumor and Free radical scavenging activities. Phytochemically, the whole plant contains enzymes (Papain, carotenoids, alkaloids, monoterpenoids, flavonoids, minerals and vitamins. In the present review article, a humble attempt is made to compile all the strange facts available about this tasty fruit. This tasty fruit of Papaya is popular among family members of all ages for the delicious dishes derived from it.

Parle Milind

2011-07-01

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Post-irradiation identification of papaya ( Carica papaya L.) fruit  

Science.gov (United States)

Impact of radiation processing on the volatile essential oil profile of papaya ( Carica papaya) was investigated. Gamma-radiation processing resulted in the appearance of a new peak in the GLC profile that was identified as phenol. The observed dose dependent increase in phenol content suggested possible use of this compound as a marker for radiation processed papaya.

Chatterjee, Suchandra; Variyar, Prasad S.; Sharma, Arun

2012-03-01

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Post-irradiation identification of papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Impact of radiation processing on the volatile essential oil profile of papaya (Carica papaya) was investigated. Gamma-radiation processing resulted in the appearance of a new peak in the GLC profile that was identified as phenol. The observed dose dependent increase in phenol content suggested possible use of this compound as a marker for radiation processed papaya. - Highlights: ? Effect of ?-irradiation on the essential oil profile of papaya is demonstrated. ? ?-Irradiation resulted in a dose dependent increase in a new peak, phenol. ? Phenol formed in the volatile oil is proposed as a new marker of irradiated food. ? Content of phenol remained unchanged during the entire storage period.

2012-03-01

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Identification and detection of genetically modified papaya resistant to papaya ringspot virus strains in Thailand.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many lines of genetically modified (GM) papaya (Carica papaya Linnaeus) have been developed worldwide to resist infection from various strains of papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). We found an unidentified and unauthorized GM papaya in imported processed papaya food. Transgenic vector construct that provides resistance to the PRSV strains isolated in Thailand was detected. An original and specific real-time polymerase chain reaction method was generated to qualitatively detect the PRSV-Thailand-resistant GM papaya. PMID:24172062

Nakamura, Kosuke; Kondo, Kazunari; Kobayashi, Tomoko; Noguchi, Akio; Ohmori, Kiyomi; Takabatake, Reona; Kitta, Kazumi; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Nishimaki-Mogami, Tomoko

2014-01-01

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Purification and characterization of an alpha-mannosidase from the tropical fruit babaco ( Vasconcellea x heilbornii Cv. babaco).  

Science.gov (United States)

An alpha-mannosidase (EC 3.2.1.24) present in the lyophilized latex of babaco ( Vasconcellea heilbornii ) has been purified to apparent homogeneity by native PAGE. The purification involves a three-step procedure with successive anion exchange with Q Sepharose HP, lectin affinity chromatography using ConA Sepharose 4B, and gel filtration using Superdex 200 prep grade. The molecular mass was determined to be in the range of 260-280 kDa by Superdex 200 prep grade gel filtration, and isoelectric focusing showed a pI range between 5.85 and 6.55, suggesting different glycosylated isoforms. The optimal temperature for the alpha-mannosidase was determined to lie between 50 and 60 degrees C, and the optimal pH was 4.5 at 50 degrees C. The K(m) value for p-nitrophenyl alpha-mannopyranoside (pNPM) was found to be 1.25 mM and the V(max), 2.4 microkat mg(-1) at 50 degrees C and 1.94 microkat mg(-1) at 40 degrees C. The pure alpha-mannosidase was specific for mannose and did not display activity for any other tested synthetic substrates. PMID:18939850

Blom, Hans; Reyes, Fernanda; Carlsson, Jan

2008-11-26

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Digital Transcriptome Analysis of Putative Sex-Determination Genes in Papaya (Carica papaya)  

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Papaya (Carica papaya) is a trioecious plant species that has male, female and hermaphrodite flowers on different plants. The primitive sex chromosomes genetically determine the sex of the papaya. Although draft sequences of the papaya genome are already available, the genes for sex determination have not been identified, likely due to the complicated structure of its sex-chromosome sequences. To identify the candidate genes for sex determination, we conducted a transcriptome analysis of flow...

2012-01-01

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Growth and yield of papaya under irrigation  

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Thermal units or degree day systems can both be used to quantify relationships between plants and air temperature. The Northern Fluminense region holds no tradition for irrigated papaya (Carica papaya L.) cropping and, because of the need for irrigation, it is important knowing its growth and development characteristics under these conditions. This study aimed to determine the relationship between growth rate of papaya plants and degree days, and its effect on crop productivity, under differe...

2003-01-01

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Physical-chemical analyses of irradiated papayas (Carica papaya L.)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Papaya is cultivated in Espirito Santo State/Brazil and as it stands up to irradiation, it is important to validate this technology, since it is already being applied in some countries. Penetration energy, ratio (relation between soluble solids and titrable acidity) and skin color were evaluated to verify the influence of four different doses of irradiation (0.0, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.00 kGy) on papayas, during 21 days. As a result for the skin color and the penetration energy, it was found that in the first days after irradiation, these variables increased with increase in radiation dose; however, after a time lapse, the tendency inverted and the irradiated fruits had a slower ripening process. For the ratio, a very important variable that it is responsible for the fruit taste, no difference was found between irradiated and the control fruit. Color and texture measurements are dependent on the storage temperature.

Camargo, R.J. [Radiation Technology Center, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Lineu Prestes, 2242, 05508-900, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Tadini, C.C. [Chemical Engineering Department, Escola Politecnica, Sao Paulo University, P.O. Box 61548, 05424-970, SP (Brazil); Sabato, S.F. [Radiation Technology Center, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Lineu Prestes, 2242, 05508-900, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: sfsabato@ipen.br

2007-11-15

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Physical-chemical analyses of irradiated papayas (Carica papaya L.)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Papaya is cultivated in Espirito Santo State/Brazil and as it stands up to irradiation, it is important to validate this technology, since it is already being applied in some countries. Penetration energy, ratio (relation between soluble solids and titrable acidity) and skin color were evaluated to verify the influence of four different doses of irradiation (0.0, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.00 kGy) on papayas, during 21 days. As a result for the skin color and the penetration energy, it was found that in the first days after irradiation, these variables increased with increase in radiation dose; however, after a time lapse, the tendency inverted and the irradiated fruits had a slower ripening process. For the ratio, a very important variable that it is responsible for the fruit taste, no difference was found between irradiated and the control fruit. Color and texture measurements are dependent on the storage temperature

2007-11-01

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Physical-chemical analyses of irradiated papayas ( Carica papaya L.)  

Science.gov (United States)

Papaya is cultivated in Espírito Santo State/Brazil and as it stands up to irradiation, it is important to validate this technology, since it is already being applied in some countries. Penetration energy, ratio (relation between soluble solids and titrable acidity) and skin color were evaluated to verify the influence of four different doses of irradiation (0.0, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.00 kGy) on papayas, during 21 days. As a result for the skin color and the penetration energy, it was found that in the first days after irradiation, these variables increased with increase in radiation dose; however, after a time lapse, the tendency inverted and the irradiated fruits had a slower ripening process. For the ratio, a very important variable that it is responsible for the fruit taste, no difference was found between irradiated and the control fruit. Color and texture measurements are dependent on the storage temperature.

Camargo, R. J.; Tadini, C. C.; Sabato, S. F.

2007-11-01

 
 
 
 
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Somatic embryogenesis of Carica Papaya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the somatic embryogenesis of Carica papaya. Culture medium used was1/2 strength MS basal medium supplemented with 6% sucrose, 0.27 % agar, glutamine and various concentrations of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). After 8 weeks in culture, the best concentration of 2,4-D to induce somatic embryo is at 45.2 ?M. (Author)

2006-09-01

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The draft genome of the transgenic tropical fruit tree papaya (Carica papaya Linnaeus)  

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Papaya, a fruit crop cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions, is known for its nutritional benefits and medicinal applications. Here we report a 3× draft genome sequence of ‘SunUp’ papaya, the first commercial virus-resistant transgenic fruit tree1 to be sequenced. The papaya genome is three times the size of the Arabidopsis genome, but contains fewer genes, including significantly fewer disease-resistance gene analogues. Comparison of the five sequenced genomes suggests a minimal...

Ming, Ray; Hou, Shaobin; Feng, Yun; Yu, Qingyi; Dionne-laporte, Alexandre; Saw, Jimmy H.; Senin, Pavel; Wang, Wei; Ly, Benjamin V.; Lewis, Kanako L. T.; Salzberg, Steven L.; Feng, Lu; Jones, Meghan R.; Skelton, Rachel L.; Murray, Jan E.

2008-01-01

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Genetic diversity studies of Papaya meleira virus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Papaya (Carica papaya) is a fruit crop of great economic and social importance for Brazil and other papaya-producing countries. Brazil is the second largest producer in the world. The papaya sticky disease, caused by Papaya meleira virus (PMeV), has caused great losses in the major Brazilian papaya- [...] producing states. In order to estimate the genetic diversity of PMeV, latex samples were collected from papaya plants in the states of Bahia, Espírito Santo, Pernambuco, Ceará and Rio Grande do Norte, and total RNA was extracted. Specific primer for the replicase region allowed the amplification, by RT-PCR, of a fragment of approximately 560 bp from 31 isolates. The sequence analysis indicated a level of conservation greater than 88% among isolates. Furthermore, comparative analyzes indicated that PMeV has similarity with mycoviruses of the family Totiviridae. This phylogenetic relationship was reinforced by the presence of conserved motifs within in the RdRp regions from mycoviruses.

Daltro, Cleidiane B.; Abreu, Emanuel Felipe Medeiros; Aragão, Francisco Jose Lima; Andrade, Eduardo C..

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EFFECT OF UNRIPE CARICA PAPAYA ON UTERUS  

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Full Text Available The present study was under taken to establish the uterine stimulant activity of aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya. The effect of the aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya was studied on isolated rat uterus and embryo. Uterine stimulant activity was compared with clinically available drug oxytocin and the effect on embryo was compared with misoprostol. In the in vitro model, Carica papaya showed contractile effect on the isolated uterus in diestrus stage and when administered orally in dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg to pregnant rats, resulted in gradual decrease in body weight indicating embryonic resorption. The present study confirms the uterine stimulant activity of aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya fruit.

Meera Sumanth

2013-06-01

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Improving Tenderness of Spent Layer Hens Meat Using Papaya Leaves (Carica papaya  

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Full Text Available Two experiments were performed to study the use of papaya leaves as a meat tenderizer. The first experiment was to evaluate the effect of papaya dry leaves added to hen’s diet before slaughter. Spent hens (n=48 were used, half of them were fed a concentrate ration containing10% dried papaya leaves powder (DPLP while others received layer ration (Control, for 10 days. The second experiment involved a comparison between papaya leaves juice (PLJ, fresh papaya leaves (FPL and vinegar solution (VS as marinades applied to meat for one or two hours before cooking. Spent layer hens (n=42 were used for tenderness evaluation method. After slaughtering and preparing the chickens two methods of cooking were used (oven and moist cooking. The cooked parts (breast, thigh and drumstick were subjected to a panel test evaluation according to a designed questionnaire. Addition of dried papaya leaves powder to spent layer hens ration significantly (P?0.05 increased the level of meat tenderness. Moist cooking had significantly (P?0.05 improved meat tenderization compared to oven cooking. Meat treated with fresh papaya leaves had significantly (P?0.05 improved tenderness. It was concluded that wrapping the tough meat of spent layer hens with fresh papaya leaves for one hour and moist cooking improve tenderness of meat.

H. O. Abdalla, N. N. A. Ali, F. S. Siddig and S. A. M. Ali*

2013-01-01

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Nutritional Analysis of two Local Varieties of Papaya (Carica papaya L. at Different Maturation Stages  

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Full Text Available Two varieties, Local-1 and Local-2 of papaya (Carica papaya L. were analyzed at four maturity stages (green, mature, ripen and rotten to obtain a comparative information on their nutritional parameters such as pH, moisture, ash, TTA protein, lipid, carbohydrate, free sugar, reducing sugar, carotene, riboflavin, thiamin, ascorbic acid, calcium, sodium, magnesium, potassium, iron and phosphorus content. The nutrient composition of papaya flesh was found to vary at different maturation stage. The pH, moisture content increases gradually with advancement of maturity in healthy papaya but decreases at rotten stage. The ash, TTA and fiber content was found to be maximum in mature stages and gradually deceases from ripen stage to rotten stage. The results on carbohydrate shown that ripe papaya is a good source of carbohydrate (23.5±0.04 g % but the content decreases in rotten stage. The concentration of protein, lipid, riboflavin and thiamine are extremely low in ripe papaya. The free sugar, reducing sugar and starch content gradually increases up to ripen stage but decreases at rotten stage. Ripe papaya is a very rich source of vitamin A and vitamin C but their concentrations decrease abruptly at rotten stage. The minerals such as calcium, sodium, magnesium, potassium and phosphorus content of papaya flesh gradually increases with the advancement of maturity whereas the increasing level of iron declines at ripen stages.

Luthfunnesa Bari

2006-01-01

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Erwinia mallotivora sp., a New Pathogen of Papaya (Carica papaya in Peninsular Malaysia  

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Full Text Available Erwinia mallotivora was isolated from papaya infected with dieback disease showing the typical symptoms of greasy, water-soaked lesions and spots on leaves. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain belonged to the genus Erwinia and was united in a monophyletic group with E. mallotivora DSM 4565 (AJ233414. Earlier studies had indicated that the causal agent for this disease was E. papayae. However, our current studies, through Koch’s postulate, have confirmed that papaya dieback disease is caused by E. mallotivora. To our knowledge, this is the first new discovery of E. mallotivora as a causal agent of papaya dieback disease in Peninsular Malaysia. Previous reports have suggested that E. mallotivora causes leaf spot in Mallotus japonicus. However, this research confirms it also to be pathogenic to Carica papaya.

Noriha Mat Amin

2010-12-01

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Influence of ripening stages on antioxidant properties of papaya fruit (Carica papaya L.)  

Science.gov (United States)

Papaya (Carica papaya L. cv Eksotika) is one of the most commonly consumed tropical fruits by humans, especially Malaysians. The objective of this study was to determine the phenolic compounds and antioxidants activity in different ripening stages of papaya fruit. The fruits were harvested at five different, stages RS1, RS2, RS3, RS4, and RS5 corresponding to 12, 14, 16, 18, and 20 weeks after anthesis, respectively. Papayas fruit at five different stage of ripening were obtained from farms at Pusat Flora Cheras, JabatanPertanian and Hulu Langat Semenyih, Selangor, Malaysia. The antioxidants activity were analyzed using the total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), ferric reducing antioxidant Power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The analyses were conducted in triplicate and the data were subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS. The results showed significant differences (Pantioxidant content of papaya fruits.

Addai, Zuhair Radhi; Abdullah, Aminah; Mutalib, Sahilah Abd.

2013-11-01

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Ecophysiology of papaya: a review Ecofisiologia do mamoeiro: uma revisão  

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Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a principal horticultural crop of tropical and subtropical regions. Knowledge of how papaya responds to environmental factors provides a scientific basis for the development of management strategies to optimize fruit yield and quality. A better understanding of genotypic responses to specific environmental factors will contribute to efficient agricultural zoning and papaya breeding programs. The objective of this review is to present current research knowledge rel...

2007-01-01

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DESHIDRATACIÓN OSMÓTICA DE FRUTOS DE PAPAYA HAWAIANA (Carica papaya L. EN CUATRO AGENTES EDULCORANTES OSMOTIC DEHYDRATION OF HAWAIIAN PAPAYA FRUITS (Carica papaya L. USING FOUR SWEETENER AGENTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Trozos de papaya hawaiiana (Carica papaya L. fueron sometidos a un proceso de osmo-deshidratación usando cuatro agentes edulcorantes: miel de abejas, miel de caña, crema de miel de abejas y sacarosa en medio acuoso a 79 grados Brix, temperatura de 20 ºC y 23 horas de inmersión. Los resultados estadísticos mostraron que el agente de mayor capacidad deshidratante fue la miel de abejas y el menor la sacarosa. Además, los análisis cinéticos indicaron que la máxima transferencia de masa ocurre en las primeras cuatro horas del proceso y la máxima pérdida de masa del producto que puede ser alcanzada fue de 32 % con un contenido de humedad final en los frutos de papaya osmodeshidratada de 41,3 % b.h.Pieces of Hawaiian papaya (Carica papaya L. were subjected to osmotic dehydration using four sweetener agents: honey, molasses, honey cream and sucrose in aqueous solution to 79 degrees Brix, 20 ºC temperature and 23 hours of immersion. The statistical results showed that honey was the sweetener agent with highest osmotic capacity while sucrose had the lowest. The kinetic analysis also showed that the maximum mass transfer occurs during the first four hours of the process and the maximum mass loss of the product that can be attained was 32 % with a final moisture content of 41,3 % w.b.

Margarita Maria Ríos Pérez

2005-12-01

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DESHIDRATACIÓN OSMÓTICA DE FRUTOS DE PAPAYA HAWAIANA (Carica papaya L.) EN CUATRO AGENTES EDULCORANTES / OSMOTIC DEHYDRATION OF HAWAIIAN PAPAYA FRUITS (Carica papaya L.) USING FOUR SWEETENER AGENTS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Trozos de papaya hawaiiana (Carica papaya L.) fueron sometidos a un proceso de osmo-deshidratación usando cuatro agentes edulcorantes: miel de abejas, miel de caña, crema de miel de abejas y sacarosa en medio acuoso a 79 grados Brix, temperatura de 20 ºC y 23 horas de inmersión. Los resultados estad [...] ísticos mostraron que el agente de mayor capacidad deshidratante fue la miel de abejas y el menor la sacarosa. Además, los análisis cinéticos indicaron que la máxima transferencia de masa ocurre en las primeras cuatro horas del proceso y la máxima pérdida de masa del producto que puede ser alcanzada fue de 32 % con un contenido de humedad final en los frutos de papaya osmodeshidratada de 41,3 % b.h. Abstract in english Pieces of Hawaiian papaya (Carica papaya L.) were subjected to osmotic dehydration using four sweetener agents: honey, molasses, honey cream and sucrose in aqueous solution to 79 degrees Brix, 20 ºC temperature and 23 hours of immersion. The statistical results showed that honey was the sweetener ag [...] ent with highest osmotic capacity while sucrose had the lowest. The kinetic analysis also showed that the maximum mass transfer occurs during the first four hours of the process and the maximum mass loss of the product that can be attained was 32 % with a final moisture content of 41,3 % w.b.

Margarita Maria, Ríos Pérez; Carlos Julio, Márquez Cardozo; Héctor José, Ciro Velásquez.

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Evaluación de híbridos de papaya (carica papaya l. en pococí, limón, Costa Rica  

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Full Text Available Evaluación de híbridos de papaya (Carica papaya L. en Pococí, Limón, Costa Rica. Se estableció un experimento con nueve híbridos de papaya con el objetivo de determinar sus potenciales agronómicos y comerciales en una región de alta pluviosidad (cantón de Pococí, provincia de Limón. Las características evaluadas fueron tamaño de fruta, productividad total, brix de la pulpa y susceptibilidad a la antracnosis de la fruta causado por Colletotrichum gloesporioides. Se determinó que solo uno de los materiales mostró características similares al testigo comercial como fruta para consumo en fresco. Otro de los híbridos tuvo potencial para uso con fines agroindustriales.

Antonio Bogantes

2004-01-01

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Correlation between ethylene emission and skin colour changes during papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit ripening  

Science.gov (United States)

The skin colour changes and ethylene emission rates were monitored during papaya (C. papaya L.) fruit ripening. Two groups of papaya (‘Formosa’ and ‘Solo’) were applied in this study. The total colour difference was used as measured parameter and the corresponding half time of its saturation was used as correlation parameter. A high correlation factor between the saturation half time and corresponding climacteric peak time was found. It was concluded that high ethylene emission rate in ‘Solo’ fruit promotes a quick change of the total colour difference.

da Silva, M. G.; Oliveira, J. G.; Vitoria, A. P.; Corrêa, S. F.; Pereira, M. G.; Campostrini, E.; Santos, E. O.; Cavalli, A.; Vargas, H.

2005-06-01

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Effect of gamma irradiation in papaya (Carica papaya L.) harvested in three degrees of maturation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The papaya is a fragile tropical fruit with thin skin, susceptible to post harvest diseases and mechanical injuries. Furthermore, it is sensible to low temperatures and at normal conditions it ripens rapidly, increasing the difficulties with storage. The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of gamma irradiation in papayas harvested in three degrees of maturation, in order to increase shelf life. To accomplish that, papayas were harvested in perfect quality conditions, washed, submitted to carnauba wax and selected by skin coloration into three distinct degrees of maturation: Mat 0, or beginning of yellow coloration; Mat 1, yellow stripes more developed, and Mat 2, one third yellow. Half of them were submitted to irradiation with 0, 75 kGy, while the others became control treatment. They were analyzed in four different periods of conservation, which were 1 day after irradiation (DAI) refrigerated (11 +- 1 deg C), 14 DAI refrigerated, 14 DAI refrigerated + 3 at room temperature (RT = 24 deg +- 2 deg C) and 14 DAI refrigerated + 6 at RT. The effect of irradiation was not influenced by the maturation degree at harvest. Irradiation promoted firmness maintenance of papaya and, therefore, delayed ripening; modified the green color of papaya to a lighter tone, which determined more homogeneity in the skin yellow color development (greater values of L* and b*), and turned the papaya flesh color lighter (rower values of b*). There was no effect of irradiation in papaya weight loss, in the occurrence of diseases, in the development of surface yellow color, in the parameter a* of papaya skin color, in the parameters L*, a* and chroma of flesh color, p H and total soluble solids content. Visual and organoleptic sensorial tests were accomplished with papayas from a new delivery in the conservation period of 14 DAI refrigerated + 3 at RT. In the visual test was evaluated the appearance of papaya in the following treatments: Mat O control, Mat O irradiated, Mat 1 control, Mat 1 irradiated, Mat 2 control e Mat 2 irradiated, in which the first one received lower scores due to the occurrence of ratting on one of the papayas. In the organoleptic test, the parameters firmness, sweetness and acceptance were evaluated for the following treatments: control, Mat O irradiated, Mat 1 irradiated e Mat 2 irradiated. There was no difference between treatments for the sweetness parameter. The irradiated treatments received better scores for firmness as well as papayas irradiated at Mat 1 and 2 for acceptance (author)

2001-01-01

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Free radical scavenging activity of papaya juice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Papaya juice is an efficient scavenger of highly reactive hydroxyl radicals (OH radical) formed during 60Co irradiation of water. The OH anion radicals were detected by the electron spin resonance (ESR) technique of spin trapping using DMPO (5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide) or by a colorimetric assay in which salicylate is converted into polyhydroxybenzoic acids. Papaya juice is also able to quench the ESR signal of a stable free radical (TEMPOL) and the ESR signal of the DMPO-OH adduct. The active substance(s) in papaya juice are heat-stable, dialyzable, and soluble in water but not in lipid solvents. The active agents do not appear to be ascorbate, tocopherol, or carotenoids. (author)

1989-01-01

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7 CFR 319.56-25 - Papayas from Central America and Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Papayas from Central America and Brazil. 319...Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-25 Papayas from Central America and Brazil. The Solo type of papaya may be imported into the...

2009-01-01

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Caracterizacion, Manejo y Almacenamiento de Papaya (The Papaya: Characteristics, Handling, and Storage).  

Science.gov (United States)

Papaya were studied during maturation at normal temperatures. The results obtained: the pepsins content increased, changes in protopectina and soluble peptina were less noticeable; acid content increased until a maximum and then decreased, the content of ...

M. C. de Arriola J. F. Menchu C. Rolz

1976-01-01

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Antibacterial substance from Carica papaya fruit extract.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ripe and unripe Carica papaya fruits (epicarp, endocarp, seeds and leaves) were extracted separately and purified. All the extracts except that of leaves produced very significant antibacterial activity on Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Shigella flexneri. The MIC of the substance was small (0.2-0.3 mg/ml) for gram-positive bacteria and large (1.5-4 mg/ml) for gram-negative bacteria. The substance was bactericidal and showed properties of a protein. Other proteins previously found in C. papaya did not show antibacterial activity. PMID:7097295

Emeruwa, A C

1982-01-01

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Erwinia mallotivora sp., a New Pathogen of Papaya (Carica papaya) in Peninsular Malaysia  

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Erwinia mallotivora was isolated from papaya infected with dieback disease showing the typical symptoms of greasy, water-soaked lesions and spots on leaves. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain belonged to the genus Erwinia and was united in a monophyletic group with E. mallotivora DSM 4565 (AJ233414). Earlier studies had indicated that the causal agent for this disease was E. papayae. However, our current studies, through Koch’s postulate, have confirmed ...

2010-01-01

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Erwinia mallotivora sp., a New Pathogen of Papaya (Carica papaya) in Peninsular Malaysia  

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Erwinia mallotivora was isolated from papaya infected with dieback disease showing the typical symptoms of greasy, water-soaked lesions and spots on leaves. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain belonged to the genus Erwinia and was united in a monophyletic group with E. mallotivora DSM 4565 (AJ233414). Earlier studies had indicated that the causal agent for this disease was E. papayae. However, our current studies, through Koch’s postulate, have confirmed...

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Uptake of 32P labelled superphosphate by endomycorrhizal papaya (Carica papaya cv. Coorg honey dew)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In papaya (Carica papaya cv. Coorg honey dew), there was an increase in 32P uptake and total phosphorus in plants inoculated with mycorrhizal fungi Glomus mossae and G. fasciculatum. Phosphorus derived from fertilizer (Pdff) was lower in mycorrhizal plants while soil derived P, utilisation of P and A values were higher showing thereby that mycorrhizal plants had utilised forms of phosphorus not available to non-mycorrhizal plants. (author). 13 refs., 1 tab

1995-12-01

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Effects of the Papaya meleira virus on papaya latex structure and composition.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spontaneous latex exudation is the main symptom of papaya sticky (meleira) disease caused by the Papaya meleira virus (PMeV), a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus. This paper describes different effects of PMeV on papaya latex. Latex samples were subjected to different histochemical tests to evaluate their chemical composition. Additionally, the integrity of the latex particles was assessed by transmission and scanning electron microscopy analysis. Biochemical and micro- and macro-element measurements were performed. PMeV dsRNA extraction was performed to evaluate the interaction of the virus with the latex particles. Sticky diseased latex was positive for alkaloid biosynthesis and showed an accumulation of calcium oxalate crystals. PMeV also increased H(2)O(2) synthesis within sticky diseased laticifers. The protein, sugar and water levels were altered, probably due to chemical changes. The morphology of the latex particles was further altered; PMeV particles seemed to be bound to the latex particles. The alkaloid and H(2)O(2) biosynthesis in the papaya laticifers indicate a papaya defense response against PMeV. However, such efforts failed, as the virus affected the plant latex. The effects described here suggest some advantages of the infection process, including facilitating the movement of the virus within the papaya plant. PMID:19194708

Rodrigues, Silas P; Da Cunha, Maura; Ventura, José A; Fernandes, Patricia Machado Bueno

2009-05-01

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Incidencia y severidad de la antracnosis en líneas e híbridos de papaya (Carica papaya)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Incidencia y severidad de la antracnosis en líneas e híbridos de papaya (Carica papaya). El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la incidencia y severidad de la antracnosis (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides), en frutas de papaya. El experimento se realizó en Guápiles, Limón, Costa Rica, entre los a [...] ños 2010 y 2011. Se sembraron cinco líneas y cuatro híbridos bajo un diseño de bloques completos al azar con tres repeticiones. Se evaluó la incidencia y severidad de la antracnosis, así como la firmeza y los sólidos solubles (grados Brix) de la fruta. Los híbridos presentaron características intermedias a los padres para las características evaluadas. En la antracnosis de fruta, la resistencia tiende a ser dominante para el material evaluado. Abstract in english Incidence and severity of anthracnose in breeding lines and crosses of papaya (Carica papaya). The objective of this study was to determine the incidence and severity of papaya fruit anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides). The experiment was carried out in Guápiles, Limón, Costa Rica, between [...] the years 2010 and 2011. Five lines and four crosses were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Evaluated traits were incidence and severity of anthracnose, fruit firmness and total soluble solids content of the pulp. Results suggest that the crosses have intermediate characteristics to those of their parent lines for these traits. In the specific case of anthracnose, evidence also suggests that the resistance to this disease tends to be inherited in a dominant manner.

Antonio, Bogantes-Arias; Eric, Mora-Newcomer.

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Gene technology for papaya ringspot virus disease management.  

Science.gov (United States)

Papaya (Carica papaya) is severely damaged by the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). This review focuses on the development of PRSV resistant transgenic papaya through gene technology. The genetic diversity of PRSV depends upon geographical distribution and the influence of PRSV disease management on a sequence of PRSV isolates. The concept of pathogen-derived resistance has been employed for the development of transgenic papaya, using a coat protein-mediated, RNA-silencing mechanism and replicase gene-mediated transformation for effective PRSV disease management. The development of PRSV-resistant papaya via post-transcriptional gene silencing is a promising technology for PRSV disease management. PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya is environmentally safe and has no harmful effects on human health. Recent studies have revealed that the success of adoption of transgenic papaya depends upon the application, it being a commercially viable product, bio-safety regulatory issues, trade regulations, and the wider social acceptance of the technology. This review discusses the genome and the genetic diversity of PRSV, host range determinants, molecular diagnosis, disease management strategies, the development of transgenic papaya, environmental issues, issues in the adoption of transgenic papaya, and future directions for research. PMID:24757435

Azad, Md Abul Kalam; Amin, Latifah; Sidik, Nik Marzuki

2014-01-01

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Efecto positivo de aplicaciones de ácido salicílico en la productividad de papaya (Carica papaya) / Positive effect of salicylic acid application on productivity of papaya (Carica papaya)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Durante dos años se realizó un experimento con papaya (Carica papaya) cv. Maradol en condiciones de campo en Yucatán en el que se estudio el efecto de aspersiones de bajas concentraciones de ácido salicílico (AS), en la productividad del frutal. El AS a concentraciones de 0.01 ?M incremento el porce [...] ntaje de plantas hermafroditas en 20% sobre el control e incremento significativamente la altura y grosor de la planta. Esta misma concentración incremento 19.7% el número de frutos por planta, en 2% el peso de los frutos y en 21.9% el rendimiento por hectárea. El AS a todas las concentraciones probadas incremento significativamente la variable de productividad analizada. Abstract in english For two years, was conducted an experiment with papaya (Carica papaya) cv. Maradol under field conditions in Yucatan in which was studied the effect of spraying low concentrations of salicylic acid (SA), in the productivity of fruit. The SA to concentrations of 0.01 (?M increased the percentage of h [...] ermaphroditic plants in 20% over the control and significantly increased the height and thickness of plants. This same concentration increased 19.7% the number of fruits per plant, in 2% of the fruit weight and 21.9% the yield per hectare. The SA at all concentrations tested, significantly increased the productivity variable analyzed.

Rodolfo, Martin-Mex; Ángel, Nexticapan-Garcéz; Rubí, Herrera-Tuz; Silvia, Vergara-Yoisura; Alfonso, Larqué-Saavedra.

2012-12-01

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Nematodos fitoparásitos asociados al cultivo de papaya (Carica papaya L.) en Colima, México / Phytoparasitic nematodes associated with the cultivation of papaya (Carica papaya L.) in Colima, Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este estudio tuvo como objetivo detectar e identificar los géneros de nematodos fitoparásitos asociados al cultivo de papaya (Caricapapaya L.) en los municipios de Tecomán y Colima, Colima. Se seleccionaron diez huertos, de siete ranchos en los que se colectaron muestras de raíces y suelo rizosféric [...] o; en cada muestra se cuantificó e identificaron las poblaciones de los fitonematodos. Para la identificación específica de Meloidogyne, se analizaron cortes perineales de las hembras y se confirmó por reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR). Los géneros de fitonematodos detectados e identificados fueron: Aphelenchus, Ditylenchus, Helicotylenchus, Paratylenchus, Pratylenchus, Rotylenchulus, Rotylenchus, Trophurus, Tylenchorrhynchus, Tylenchus, y Meloidogyne, con la especie M. incognita. Los resultados permiten el reporte por primera vez de M. incognita, asociado al cultivo de papaya en Colima, México. Abstract in english This study aimed to detect and identify phytoparasitic nematodes associated with the cultivation of papaya (Caricapapaya L.) in the municipalities of Tecomán and Colima, Colima. We selected ten orchards, seven ranches in which samples were collected roots and rhizosphere soil, in each sample was qua [...] ntified and identified populations of phytoparasitic nematodes. For specific identification of Meloidogyne, perineal cuts were analyzed and confirmed females by chain reaction (PCR). The genera of phytoparasitic nematodes were detected and identified: Aphelenchus, Ditylenchus, Helicotylenchus, Paratylenchus, Pratylenchus, Rotylenchulus, Rotylenchus, Trophurus, Tylenchorrhynchus, Tylenchus, and Meloidogyne, with the species M. incognita. The results allow the first report of M incognita associated with papaya in Colima, Mexico.

José Ángel, Martínez Gallardo; Tomás, Díaz Valdés; Raúl, Allende Molar; José Alfonso, Ortiz Meza; Raymundo Saúl, García Estrada; José Armando, Carrillo Fasio.

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Papaya seed represents a rich source of biologically active isothiocyanate.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study, papaya (Carica papaya) seed and edible pulp were carefully separated and then the contents of benzyl isothiocyanate and the corresponding glucosinolate (benzyl glucosinolate, glucotropaeolin) quantified in each part. The papaya seed with myrosinase inactivation contained >1 mmol of benzyl glucosinolate in 100 g of fresh seed. This content is equivalent to that of Karami daikon (the hottest Japanese white radish) or that of cress. The papaya seed extract also showed a very high activity of myrosinase and, without myrosinase inactivation, produced 460 micromol of benzyl isothiocyanate in 100 g of seed. In contrast, papaya pulp contained an undetectable amount of benzyl glucosinolate and showed no significant myrosinase activity. The n-hexane extract of the papaya seed homogenate was highly effective in inhibiting superoxide generation and apoptosis induction in HL-60 cells, the activities of which are comparable to those of authentic benzyl isothiocyanate. PMID:17469845

Nakamura, Yoshimasa; Yoshimoto, Motoko; Murata, Yoshiyuki; Shimoishi, Yasuaki; Asai, Yumi; Park, Eun Young; Sato, Kenji; Nakamura, Yasushi

2007-05-30

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Optimization of process parameters for osmotic dehydration of papaya cubes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Process temperature (30, 40 and 50 °C), syrup concentration (50, 60 and 70o Brix) and process time (4, 5 and 6 h) for osmotic dehydration of papaya (Carica papaya) cubes were optimized for the maximum water loss and optimum sugar gain by using response surface methodology. The peeled and pre-processed papaya cubes of 1 cm size were immersed in sugar syrup at constant temperature water bath having syrup to papaya cubes ratio of 4:1 (w/w). The cubes were removed from bath at pre-decided tim...

Jain, S. K.; Verma, R. C.; Murdia, L. K.; Jain, H. K.; Sharma, G. P.

2011-01-01

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Nutritional Analysis of two Local Varieties of Papaya (Carica papaya L.) at Different Maturation Stages  

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Two varieties, Local-1 and Local-2 of papaya (Carica papaya L.) were analyzed at four maturity stages (green, mature, ripen and rotten) to obtain a comparative information on their nutritional parameters such as pH, moisture, ash, TTA protein, lipid, carbohydrate, free sugar, reducing sugar, carotene, riboflavin, thiamin, ascorbic acid, calcium, sodium, magnesium, potassium, iron and phosphorus content. The nutrient composition of papaya flesh was found to vary at different maturation ...

2006-01-01

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Isolation and functional characterization of a lycopene ?-cyclase gene that controls fruit colour of papaya (Carica papaya L.)  

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The colour of papaya fruit flesh is determined largely by the presence of carotenoid pigments. Red-fleshed papaya fruit contain lycopene, whilst this pigment is absent from yellow-fleshed fruit. The conversion of lycopene (red) to ?-carotene (yellow) is catalysed by lycopene ?-cyclase. This present study describes the cloning and functional characterization of two different genes encoding lycopene ?-cyclases (lcy-?1 and lcy-?2) from red (Tainung) and yellow (Hybrid 1B) papaya cultivars. ...

Devitt, Luke C.; Fanning, Kent; Dietzgen, Ralf G.; Holton, Timothy A.

2010-01-01

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COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON ANTHELMINTIC POTENTIAL OF CUCURBITA MAXIMA (PUMPKIN SEEDS AND CARICA PAPAYA (PAPAYA SEEDS  

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Full Text Available The crude extract of Carica papaya (papaya seeds (CP and Cucurbita maxima (Pumpkin seeds (CM were assayed against adult earthworms (Pheretima posthuma for the evaluation of anthelmintic activity. Various concentrations of both extracts were tested and results were expressed in terms of time for paralysis (P and time for death (D of worms. Albendazole was used as a reference standard. The result showed that in both of the extracts (i.e. CP and CM dose of 60 mg / ml possesses more wormicidal activity. The time of paralysis was 1.88 ± 0.52 minute and 1.93 ± 0.57 minute whereas the time of death was 3.45 ± 0.17 minute and 4.90 ± 0.18 minute in the case of Carica papaya and Cucurbita maxima respectively. In conclusion, the use of seeds of Carica papaya (CP and Cucurbita maxima (CM for anthelmintic activity have been confirmed and further studies are suggested to isolate the active principles responsible for the activity. Both the extracts showed significant anthelmintic activity, but the comparative study showed that out of these two, Carica papaya proves to be a better anthelmintic remedy.

Sengupta Rupa

2013-08-01

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Proteomic analysis of papaya (Carica papaya L.) displaying typical sticky disease symptoms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) hosts the only described laticifer-infecting virus (Papaya meleira virus, PMeV), which is the causal agent of papaya sticky disease. To understand the systemic effects of PMeV in papaya, we conducted a comprehensive proteomic analysis of leaf samples from healthy and diseased plants grown under field conditions. First, a reference 2-DE map was established for proteins from healthy samples. A total of 486 reproducible spots were identified, and MALDI-TOF-MS/MS data identified 275 proteins accounting for 159 distinct proteins from 231 spots that were annotated. Second, the differential expression of proteins from healthy and diseased leaves was determined through parallel experiments, using 2-DE and DIGE followed by MALDI-TOF-MS/MS and LC-IonTrap-MS/MS, respectively. Conventional 2-DE analysis revealed 75 differentially expressed proteins. Of those, 48 proteins were identified, with 26 being upregulated (U) and 22 downregulated (D). In general, metabolism-related proteins were downregulated, and stress-responsive proteins were upregulated. This expression pattern was corroborated by the results of the DIGE analysis, which identified 79 differentially expressed proteins, with 23 identified (17 U and 6 D). Calreticulin and the proteasome subunits 20S and RPT5a were shown to be upregulated during infection by both 2-DE and DIGE analyses. These data may help shed light on plant responses against stresses and viral infections. PMID:21630455

Rodrigues, Silas P; Ventura, José A; Aguilar, Clemente; Nakayasu, Ernesto S; Almeida, Igor C; Fernandes, Patricia M B; Zingali, Russolina B

2011-07-01

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Fusarium species associated with fruit rot of banana (Musa spp.), papaya (Carica papaya) and guava (Psidium guajava)  

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A total of 60 isolates of Fusarium were isolated from fruit rot of banana (Musa spp.), papaya (Carica papaya) and guava(Psidium guajava). The most common species recovered from the fruit rot of the three fruit crops were F. semitectum(40 %), F. solani (38.3 %), F. verticillioides (11.7 %) and F. oxysporum (10 %). Fusarium semitectum was isolated from fruit rot of banana, papaya and guava; F. oxysporum from banana and papaya; F. solani from banana and guava and F.verticillioides from banana. F...

2012-01-01

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Selection and estimation of the genetic gain in segregating generations of papaya (Carica papaya L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In Brazil, papaya is sustained by a narrow genetic basis, with few genetically distinct cultivars for planting.Therefore, this study aimed to select and estimate the direct and combined genetic gains for commercial fruit yield (Yld Plt-1in segregating generations of papaya. Six traits were simultaneously targeted in combined selection and were attributedweights associated to agronomic values. Direct selection however was based on Yld Plt-1 only. Results indicated geneticvariability in the segregating generations for the evaluated traits and although combined selection achieved a lower geneticgain in Yld Plt-1, it offers greater chances of success in the following generations since favorable and unfavorable agronomictraits of papaya are considered. These results motivated the recommendation to advance generations with 30 plants, selectedfrom a total of 345 plants, considering all segregating treatments.

Francisco Filho da Silva

2008-01-01

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Extraction and characteristics of seed oil from Papaya (Carica papaya in Congo-Brazzaville  

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Full Text Available Papaya seeds were collected and dried. This study was carried out on papaya seed to clarify their proximate composition and the characteristics of the extracted oil including unsaponifiable matter and fatty acid composition. The seed is a rich source of protein (26.78% and crude fiber (21.4%. Palmitic acid was the main saturated fatty acid (15.22%, while linoleic acid was the major unsaturated fatty acid (76.38% in all lipid classes. The physical properties of the oil extracts showed the state to be liquid at room temperature. Carica papaya seeds have ash content of 3.2% (with the presence of following minerals: K, Na, Ca, P and Mg. However, Ca and P occur in appreciable quantities (1821±2.12 mg/100 g dry matter and 1156±1.8 mg/100 g dry mater, respectively.

G. Bouanga-Kalou

2011-03-01

56

Oxidative processes during 'Golden' papaya fruit ripening  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english 'Golden' papayas at maturity stage 1 (15% yellow skin) were chosen to study selected oxidative processes, the activity of antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation in storage at 22°C, during the ripening of the fruit. An increase in ethylene production was observed on the second day of storage and [...] it was followed by an increase in respiration. An increased activity of catalase, glutathione reductase and ascorbate peroxidase was observed concurrently or soon after this increase in ethylene production and respiration. The increased activity of these enzymes near the peaks of ethylene production and respiration is related to the production of oxidants accompanying the onset of ripening. On the fourth day of storage, there was an increased lipid peroxidation and decreased activities of catalase, glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase. Lipid peroxidation induces the increase of antioxidant enzymes, which can be verified by further increases in the activities of catalase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase. Unlike the other antioxidant enzymes, the ascorbate peroxidase activity in the pulp increased continuously during ripening, suggesting its important role in combating reactive oxygen species during papaya ripening. With regard to physical-chemical characteristics, the soluble solids did not vary significantly, the acidity and ascorbic acid contents increased, and hue angle and firmness decreased during storage. The results revealed that there was variation in the activity of antioxidant enzymes, with peaks of lipid peroxidation during the ripening of 'Golden' papaya. These results provide a basis for future research, especially with regard to the relationships among the climacteric stage, the activation of antioxidant enzymes and the role of ascorbate peroxidase in papaya ripening.

Evellyn Couto Oliveira, Resende; Paula Fabiane, Martins; Ricardo Antunes de, Azevedo; Angelo Pedro, Jacomino; Ilana Urbano, Bron.

57

Oxidative processes during 'Golden' papaya fruit ripening  

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Full Text Available 'Golden' papayas at maturity stage 1 (15% yellow skin were chosen to study selected oxidative processes, the activity of antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation in storage at 22°C, during the ripening of the fruit. An increase in ethylene production was observed on the second day of storage and it was followed by an increase in respiration. An increased activity of catalase, glutathione reductase and ascorbate peroxidase was observed concurrently or soon after this increase in ethylene production and respiration. The increased activity of these enzymes near the peaks of ethylene production and respiration is related to the production of oxidants accompanying the onset of ripening. On the fourth day of storage, there was an increased lipid peroxidation and decreased activities of catalase, glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase. Lipid peroxidation induces the increase of antioxidant enzymes, which can be verified by further increases in the activities of catalase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase. Unlike the other antioxidant enzymes, the ascorbate peroxidase activity in the pulp increased continuously during ripening, suggesting its important role in combating reactive oxygen species during papaya ripening. With regard to physical-chemical characteristics, the soluble solids did not vary significantly, the acidity and ascorbic acid contents increased, and hue angle and firmness decreased during storage. The results revealed that there was variation in the activity of antioxidant enzymes, with peaks of lipid peroxidation during the ripening of 'Golden' papaya. These results provide a basis for future research, especially with regard to the relationships among the climacteric stage, the activation of antioxidant enzymes and the role of ascorbate peroxidase in papaya ripening.

Evellyn Couto Oliveira Resende

2012-06-01

58

Antioxidant Activity of Papaya Seed Extracts  

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The antioxidant activities of the ethanol, petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water extract fractions from the seeds of papaya were evaluated in this study. The ethyl acetate fraction showed the strongest DPPH and hydroxyl free radical-scavenging activities, and its activities were stronger than those of ascorbic acid and sodium benzoate, respectively. The n-butanol fraction demonstrated the greatest ABTS+ radicals scavenging activity. The ethyl acetate fraction and the n-butanol f...

2011-01-01

59

Oxidative processes during 'Golden' papaya fruit ripening  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

'Golden' papayas at maturity stage 1 (15% yellow skin) were chosen to study selected oxidative processes, the activity of antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation in storage at 22°C, during the ripening of the fruit. An increase in ethylene production was observed on the second day of storage and it was followed by an increase in respiration. An increased activity of catalase, glutathione reductase and ascorbate peroxidase was observed concurrently or soon after this increase in ethylene p...

Evellyn Couto Oliveira Resende; Paula Fabiane Martins; Ricardo Antunes de Azevedo; Angelo Pedro Jacomino; Ilana Urbano Bron

2012-01-01

60

Molecular detection of Papaya meleira virus in the latex of Carica papaya by RT-PCR  

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A RT-PCR assay was developed for early and accurate detection of Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) in the latex from infected papayas. The meleira disease is characterized by an excessive exudation of more fluidic latex from fruits, leaves and stems. This latex oxidises and gives the fruit a ¿sticky¿ texture. In the field, disease symptoms are seen almost exclusively on fruit. However, infected plants can be a source of virus for dissemination by insects. Primers specific for PMeV were designed b...

Araujo, M. M. M.; Tavares, E. T.; Silva, F. R.; Marinho, V. L. D.; Souza, M. T.

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Response of commercially important papaya cultivars to papaya ringspot virus in eastern U.P. conditions  

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Papaya ringspot disease caused by papaya ringspot potyvirus (PRSV) was found to be widespread in the eastern U.P., restricting commercial cultivation of the crop. The virus was reported to cause about 70% yield loss in this region with 95% disease inci...

2012-01-01

62

Influence of gamma radiation on carbohydrates metabolism of ripening papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Solo)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Food irradiation is one of the most promising treatments that can be utilized for fruits disinfestation and extension of shelf life. The authors studied the influence of 0,5 kGy of Gamma irradiation on the soluble carbohydrates composition of papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Solo) fruit, and on sucrose metabolizing enzymes: sucrose synthase (SS), sucrose-phosphate synthase, acid and neutral invertases activities, during ripening. The results demonstrated that ethylene production, total soluble sugars, sucrose content, and sucrose-phosphate synthase and invertases activities were affected by irradiation, but not respiration, glucose and fructose content, and SS activity. (author)

1999-01-01

63

Dwarf mutant of papaya (Carica papaya L.) induced by gamma rays  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Treating the seeds of papaya with 15 Krad of gamma rays, three plants were isolated from the M3 population. Repeated full sibmating among the progenies of these dwarf mutants helped in establishing a homozygous population of dwarf papaya in M6 generation. Though the per plant yield in mutant is less, nevertheless its importance is envisaged in the fact that it is likely to incur less damage by wind and storm, can be better managed and more number of plants can be accomodated per unit area, thus giving increased yield per hectare. (author)

1981-09-01

64

Growth and yield of papaya under irrigation  

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Full Text Available Thermal units or degree day systems can both be used to quantify relationships between plants and air temperature. The Northern Fluminense region holds no tradition for irrigated papaya (Carica papaya L. cropping and, because of the need for irrigation, it is important knowing its growth and development characteristics under these conditions. This study aimed to determine the relationship between growth rate of papaya plants and degree days, and its effect on crop productivity, under different irrigation levels. An experiment was set up with the cultivar "Improved Sunrise Soil 72/12", in a randomized blocks design, with seven irrigation water depths and three repetitions; crop growth and yield parameters were evaluated. There were significant correlations between water depths and degree days. Polynomial models of 2nd and 3rd order appropriately fitted the relationships degree day versus plant height, stem diameter, crown diameter and number of emitted leaves, for each water depth. Growth parameters related to degree days and to the applied treatments are indicative of yield potential. The total water depth that promoted the greatest fruit yield was 2,937 mm.

Almeida Frederico Terra de

2003-01-01

65

Gamma radiation in papaya harvested at three stages of maturation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Papaya is a fragile, perishable fruit, highly accepted worldwide. To keep the quality of papaya from harvest to the consumers, conservation techniques are often used; among them is the application of gamma irradiation. The objective of this work was to evaluate gamma irradiation in papayas harvested at three degrees of maturation, in order to increase shelf life. Papayas were harvested in perfect quality conditions and selected by skin coloration into three distinct degrees of maturation: maturation 0, or beginning of yellow coloration; maturation 1, yellow stripes more developed, and maturation 2, one third yellow. Half of them were irradiated with 0.75 kGy, while the other half became control treatment. They were analyzed in four periods of conservation, which were 1 DAI (days after irradiation refrigerated at 11 {+-} 1 deg C), 14 DAI, 14 DAI + 3 DRT (room temperature at 24 deg C {+-} 2 deg C) and 14 DAI + 6 DRT. The papaya maturation degree at harvest did not influence the radiation effect. Irradiation maintained firmness of papaya and, therefore, delayed ripening; modified the green color of papaya to a lighter, more intense tone, which determined more homogeneity in the development of the skin's yellow color (greater values of L{sup *} and chroma). There was no effect of irradiation in papaya weight loss, occurrence of diseases, chroma of flesh color, p H and total soluble solids contents. (author)

Pimentel, Rodrigo Meirelles de Azevedo; Walder, Julio Marcos Melges [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Irradiacao de Alimentos]. E-mail: jmwalder@cena.usp.br

2004-04-01

66

Gamma radiation in papaya harvested at three stages of maturation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Papaya is a fragile, perishable fruit, highly accepted worldwide. To keep the quality of papaya from harvest to the consumers, conservation techniques are often used; among them is the application of gamma irradiation. The objective of this work was to evaluate gamma irradiation in papayas harvested at three degrees of maturation, in order to increase shelf life. Papayas were harvested in perfect quality conditions and selected by skin coloration into three distinct degrees of maturation: maturation 0, or beginning of yellow coloration; maturation 1, yellow stripes more developed, and maturation 2, one third yellow. Half of them were irradiated with 0.75 kGy, while the other half became control treatment. They were analyzed in four periods of conservation, which were 1 DAI (days after irradiation refrigerated at 11 ± 1 deg C), 14 DAI, 14 DAI + 3 DRT (room temperature at 24 deg C ± 2 deg C) and 14 DAI + 6 DRT. The papaya maturation degree at harvest did not influence the radiation effect. Irradiation maintained firmness of papaya and, therefore, delayed ripening; modified the green color of papaya to a lighter, more intense tone, which determined more homogeneity in the development of the skin's yellow color (greater values of L* and chroma). There was no effect of irradiation in papaya weight loss, occurrence of diseases, chroma of flesh color, p H and total soluble solids contents. (author)

2004-01-01

67

Gamma radiation in papaya harvested at three stages of maturation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Papaya is a fragile, perishable fruit, highly accepted worldwide. To keep the quality of papaya from harvest to the consumers, conservation techniques are often used; among them is the application of gamma irradiation. The objective of this work was to evaluate gamma irradiation in papayas harvested at three degrees of maturation, in order to increase shelf life. Papayas were harvested in perfect quality conditions and selected by skin coloration into three distinct degrees of maturation: maturation 0, or beginning of yellow coloration; maturation 1, yellow stripes more developed, and maturation 2, one third yellow. Half of them were irradiated with 0.75 kGy, while the other half became control treatment. They were analyzed in four periods of conservation, which were 1 DAI (days after irradiation refrigerated at 11 ± 1°C, 14 DAI, 14 DAI + 3 DRT (room temperature at 24° ± 2°C and 14 DAI + 6 DRT. The papaya maturation degree at harvest did not influence the radiation effect. Irradiation maintained firmness of papaya and, therefore, delayed ripening; modified the green color of papaya to a lighter, more intense tone, which determined more homogeneity in the development of the skin's yellow color (greater values of L* and croma. There was no effect of irradiation in papaya weight loss, occurrence of diseases, croma of flesh color, pH and total soluble solids contents.

Pimentel Rodrigo Meirelles de Azevedo

2004-01-01

68

Factibilidad técnica de la utilización de cobertura vegetal en papaya (Carica papaya L. mediante la aplicación localizada de herbicidas  

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Full Text Available Factibilidad técnica de la utilización de cobertura vegetal en papaya (Carica papaya L. mediante la aplicación localizada de herbicidas. Se estudió la factibilidad de utilizar cobertura vegetal en papaya (Carica papaya L. bajo un sistema de siembra sobre lomillos. El objetivo fue establecer un área libre de malezas sobre el lomillo para permitir la colocación del fertilizante cerca del sistema radical de la papaya. Se evaluó el control de malezas de cuatro herbicidas (gifosato, oxifluorfen, pendimetalina y acetaclor sobre especies de hoja ancha, poáceas y ciperáceas, así como el posible daño de los herbicidas al cultivo y su efecto sobre el crecimiento y rendimiento de las plantas de papaya. El herbicida glifosato fue eficiente en el control de poáceas pero no contra hojas anchas. Se obtuvo muy buen control general de malezas hasta los 90 después de la aplicación con los tratamientos preemergentes oxifluorfen+pendimetalina y acetaclor. Los dos primeros herbicidas afectaron levemente las plantas de papaya cuando se aplicaron a los 10 días después de la siembra. El acetaclor no causó daño en las plantas de papaya en ninguna de las aplicaciones. No hubo diferencias entre los tratamientos con respecto a las variables de crecimiento y rendimiento del cultivo.

Eric Mora

2004-01-01

69

Effects of chloroformic extracts from washed and unwashed papaya seeds (Carica papaya) on the sperm concentration of dogs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Papaya seeds (Carica papaya Linn) have been found to have a significant effect on sperm characteristics in some mammals, including humans, but no studies have investigated the effects on dogs. In the present study, a significant decrease in sperm concentration was observed in a group of dogs treated with extracts from washed papaya seeds, but no decrease was observed in the group of dogs treated with non-washed seeds. An important effect of extract components from washed seeds such as fatty acids is probably involved in the reduction of sperm production because of Sertoli cell damage, as has been suggested for langur monkeys. Dilution of the active components in the non-washed papaya seeds or interference with some of the components may reduce the expected effect on spermatogenesis. This first report on the effects of a chloroformic extract of papaya seeds in dogs suggests that an increased dose is necessary to achieve azoospermia. PMID:19650877

Ortega-Pacheco, A; Jiménez-Coello, M; Gutiérrez-Blanco, E; Acosta-Viana, K Y; Guzmán-Marín, E; Zavala-Sánchez, M A; Montalvo-Beltrán, N E; Pérez-Gutiérrez, M S

2010-12-01

70

Marcadores RAPD para la identificación del sexo en papaya (Carica papaya L. en Colombia  

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Full Text Available

La determinación del sexo en plantas de papaya es considerado un sistema intrigante, debido a que esta especie presenta tres sexos (macho, hembra y hermafrodita determinados por un locus multialélico. Además, esta especie no presenta cromosomas sexuales morfológicamente diferenciables. Los marcadores moleculares pueden asociarse a características de interés, como en el presente caso, al sexo en plántulas de papaya. Con el objetivo de identificar marcadores moleculares que permitan una rápida identificación del sexo en genotipos colombianos de plántulas de papaya, se aplicó la técnica RAPD (ampliación aleatoria de polimorfismos del ADN. El estudio encontró tres marcadores RAPD polimórficos, los cuales permitieron diferenciar los sexos de la papaya. Dos marcadores fueron específicos para plantas macho y hermafrodita, y un tercero para plantas hembra. Estos nuevos marcadores moleculares podrán ser beneficiosos en la determinación del sexo en genotipos colombianos de papaya.

Chaves-Bedoya Giovanni

2009-08-01

71

Effects of heat, irradiation and their combination on the keeping quality of papaya (carica papaya linn.)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An experimental work has been done to determine the effect of gamma irradiation either alone or in combination with hot water dipping on the shelf life of fresh papaya. Mature green papayas of 'semangka paris' variety were treated under 3 different conditions, i.e. dipped in hot water at 50 Celsius degrees for 10 minutes; irradiated in air with a dose of 0.5 kGy; treated with combination of hot water dipping at 50 Celsius degrees for 10 minutes and irradiation with a dose of 0.5 kGy, and stored at ambient conditions. Quality evaluation was done subjectively during storage on the colour, texture, and taste. Besides, weight loss was also observed. Chemical characteristics, namely the contents of vitamin C, ?-carotene, total soluble pectin, and reducing sugar were also determined as objective parameters. The results revealed that ripening of mature green papaya could be delayed by irradiation with the dose of 0.5 kGy. Best result was obtained from the combination treatment. The treated papayas were still acceptable up to 8 days of storage, whereas the untreated ones were acceptable only up to 5 days of storage. (author)

1998-01-01

72

Compostos fenólicos inibidores da germinação em sementes de mamão (Carica papaya Phenolic compound inhibitors in papaya seeds (Carica papaya L.  

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Full Text Available Sementes de mamão germinam lenta e irregularmente, o que tem sido atribuído à presença da sarcotesta. O trabalho teve como objetivos avaliar o efeito inibitório de extratos de sarcotesta na germinação de sementes de alface e quantificar compostos fenólicos em sementes de mamão. Foram utilizados frutos de mamão do grupo Formosa, híbrido Tainung 01, colhidos em Maio e Setembro/2005, obtendo-se sementes com e sem sarcotesta que foram avaliadas quanto à germinação aos 15 e 30 dias após a semeadura. Realizou-se um bioensaio com sementes de alface, que foram colocadas para germinar em substrato umedecido com água e com soluções obtidas a partir de extrato da sarcotesta de sementes de mamão. Determinou-se, também, o conteúdo de compostos fenólicos nas diferentes estruturas destas (sarcotesta, esclerotesta, endosperma e embrião, utilizando-se o ácido tânico como padrão e para reação de coloração, o reagente Folin-Ciacalteau, com leitura em espectrofotômetro a 765 nm. Verificou-se que o extrato de sarcotesta inibe a germinação e o crescimento da raiz primária das plântulas de alface, devido à presença de compostos fenólicos. Maior quantidade destes compostos foi observada na esclerotesta das sementes de mamão, seguida da sarcotesta, sendo praticamente nula a presença de tais compostos no embrião e no endosperma. Sementes oriundas da colheita de Maio/2005 exibiram dormência, apresentando maior conteúdo de fenóis na sarcotesta quando comparadas às sementes obtidas de frutos colhidos em Setembro/2005, as quais não apresentaram dormência.The slow and erratic germination of papaya seeds has been attributed to inhibitors present in the sarcotesta. This study was undertaken to evaluate the inhibition effect of sarcotesta extract on lettuce seed germination and to quantify phenolic compounds in papaya seeds. Papaya fruits of the Formosa group, hybrid Tainung 01, were harvested in May and September/2005. At each harvest time, seeds with and without sarcotesta were obtained and the germination percentage was evaluated at 15 and 30 days after seeding. A bioassay was performed with lettuce seeds, which germinated in substratum moistened with water (control and with solutions obtained from papaya sarcotesta extract. The phenolic compounds were quantified in different structures of papaya seeds (sarcotesta, esclerotesta, endosperm and embryo, using tannic acid as standard and the color reaction with Folin-Ciacalteau reagent measured at 765 nm by spectrophotometry. The bioassay indicated that sarcotesta extract inhibits the germination and growth of the lettuce seedling primary roots due to the presence of inhibitory substances (phenols. A high amount of these substances was found in the papaya seed esclerotesta, followed by the sarcotesta, but there was practically no concentration of these compounds in the embryo and endosperm. Seeds extracted from fruits harvested in May 2005 had dormancy and higher phenolic content compared to seeds harvested in September 2005, which did not exhibit dormancy.

Daí Tokuhisa

2007-01-01

73

77 FR 31294 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Papaya...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Information Collection; Importation of Papaya From Colombia and Ecuador AGENCY: Animal...importation of commercial shipments of fresh papaya from Colombia and Ecuador into the continental...importation of commercial shipments of fresh papaya from Colombia and Ecuador, contact...

2012-05-25

74

Sequences of the coat protein gene from brazilian isolates of Papaya ringspot virus Seqüência do gene da proteína capsidial de isolados brasileiros de Papaya ringspot virus  

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Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is the causal agent of the main papaya (Carica papaya) disease in the world. Brazil is currently the world's main papaya grower, responsible for about 40% of the worldwide production. Resistance to PRSV on transgenic plants expressing the PRSV coat protein (cp) gene was shown to be dependent on the sequence homology between the cp transgene expressed in the plant genome and the cp gene from the incoming virus, in an isolate-specific fashion. Therefore, knowledge o...

2002-01-01

75

Preparation and sensory evaluation of papaya milk shake  

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The present investigation was undertaken with the object of studying the standard procedure of preparation of milk shake from buffalo milk blended with papaya and studied for its acceptability. Milk shake was prepared from different proportions of buffalo milk and papaya pulp i.e. 100:0 (T0), 90:10 (T1), 85:15 (T2) and 80:20 (T3). The sensory score for overall acceptability of papaya milk shake of treatments T0, T1, T2 and T3 were 8.18, 8.56, 8.23 and 8.03, respectively. It was observed that ...

2010-01-01

76

Isolation and functional characterization of a lycopene ?-cyclase gene that controls fruit colour of papaya (Carica papaya L.)  

Science.gov (United States)

The colour of papaya fruit flesh is determined largely by the presence of carotenoid pigments. Red-fleshed papaya fruit contain lycopene, whilst this pigment is absent from yellow-fleshed fruit. The conversion of lycopene (red) to ?-carotene (yellow) is catalysed by lycopene ?-cyclase. This present study describes the cloning and functional characterization of two different genes encoding lycopene ?-cyclases (lcy-?1 and lcy-?2) from red (Tainung) and yellow (Hybrid 1B) papaya cultivars. A mutation in the lcy-?2 gene, which inactivates enzyme activity, controls lycopene production in fruit and is responsible for the difference in carotenoid production between red and yellow-fleshed papaya fruit. The expression level of both lcy-?1 and lcy-?2 genes is similar and low in leaves, but lcy-?2 expression increases markedly in ripe fruit. Isolation of the lcy-?2 gene from papaya, that is preferentially expressed in fruit and is correlated with fruit colour, will facilitate marker-assisted breeding for fruit colour in papaya and should create possibilities for metabolic engineering of carotenoid production in papaya fruit to alter both colour and nutritional properties.

Devitt, Luke C.; Fanning, Kent; Dietzgen, Ralf G.; Holton, Timothy A.

2010-01-01

77

Antioxidant Activity of Papaya Seed Extracts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The antioxidant activities of the ethanol, petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water extract fractions from the seeds of papaya were evaluated in this study. The ethyl acetate fraction showed the strongest DPPH and hydroxyl free radical-scavenging activities, and its activities were stronger than those of ascorbic acid and sodium benzoate, respectively. The n-butanol fraction demonstrated the greatest ABTS+ radicals scavenging activity. The ethyl acetate fraction and the n-butanol fraction not only showed higher antioxidant activities than the petroleum ether fraction, water fraction and ethanol fraction, but also showed higher superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide radicals scavenging activities than those of the other extract fractions. The high amount of total phenolics and total flavonoids in the ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions contributed to their antioxidant activities. The ethyl acetate fraction was subjected to column chromatography, to yield two phenolic compounds, p-hydroxybenzoic acid (1 and vanillic acid (2, which possessed significant antioxidant activities. Therefore, the seeds of papaya and these compounds might be used as natural antioxidants.

Haofu Dai

2011-07-01

78

Antioxidant activity of papaya seed extracts.  

Science.gov (United States)

The antioxidant activities of the ethanol, petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water extract fractions from the seeds of papaya were evaluated in this study. The ethyl acetate fraction showed the strongest DPPH and hydroxyl free radical-scavenging activities, and its activities were stronger than those of ascorbic acid and sodium benzoate, respectively. The n-butanol fraction demonstrated the greatest ABTS? radicals scavenging activity. The ethyl acetate fraction and the n-butanol fraction not only showed higher antioxidant activities than the petroleum ether fraction, water fraction and ethanol fraction, but also showed higher superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide radicals scavenging activities than those of the other extract fractions. The high amount of total phenolics and total flavonoids in the ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions contributed to their antioxidant activities. The ethyl acetate fraction was subjected to column chromatography, to yield two phenolic compounds, p-hydroxybenzoic acid and vanillic acid, which possessed significant antioxidant activities. Therefore, the seeds of papaya and these compounds might be used as natural antioxidants. PMID:21788927

Zhou, Kaibing; Wang, Hui; Mei, Wenli; Li, Xiaona; Luo, Ying; Dai, Haofu

2011-01-01

79

New approach for papaya latex storage without virus degradation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) is the causal agent of papaya (Carica papaya L.) sticky disease, which has been detected through analysis of its double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) genome from plant latex. In this work we demonstrate that PMeV dsRNA is protected during 25 days when latex is diluted in citrate buffer pH 5.0 (1:1 v/v) and maintained at -20ºC. At the same temperature, some protection was observed for pure latex or latex diluted in ultra-pure water. Conversely, the dsRNA was almost completely degraded after 25 days when maintained at 25ºC, indicating the need for freezing. The proper procedures to collect and store papaya latex described here will contribute to efficient and large scale use of molecular diagnosis of PMeV. PMID:24031329

Rodrigues, Silas P; Andrade, Josemar S; Ventura, José A; Fernandes, Patricia M B

2009-01-01

80

ESR detection procedure of irradiated papaya containing high water content  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

ESR signals were recorded from irradiated papaya at liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K), and freeze-dried irradiated papaya at room temperature (295 K). Two side peaks from the flesh at the liquid nitrogen temperature indicated a linear dose response for 3-14 days after the {gamma}-irradiation. The line shapes recorded from the freeze-dried specimens were sharper than those at liquid nitrogen temperature.

Kikuchi, Masahiro, E-mail: kikuchi.masahiro@jaea.go.j [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki-machi, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Shimoyama, Yuhei [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki-machi, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Ukai, Mitsuko [Hokkaido University of Education, 1-2 Hachiman-cho, Hakodate, Hokkaido 040-8567 (Japan); Kobayashi, Yasuhiko [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki-machi, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)

2011-05-15

 
 
 
 
81

ESR detection procedure of irradiated papaya containing high water content  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ESR signals were recorded from irradiated papaya at liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K), and freeze-dried irradiated papaya at room temperature (295 K). Two side peaks from the flesh at the liquid nitrogen temperature indicated a linear dose response for 3-14 days after the ?-irradiation. The line shapes recorded from the freeze-dried specimens were sharper than those at liquid nitrogen temperature.

2011-05-01

82

Las estrategias del silencio: Pedro Llastra y la postvanguardia chilena  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este artículo examina cómo se inserta la poesía de Pedro Lastra en una coyuntura histórica precisa: la de la revisión de los paradigmas de la vanguardia chilena una vez que sus principales representantes se identificaron con un canon continenal [...] Abstract in english This article discursses how Pedro Lastra's reflects the complexities of a period usually known in the Spanish American tradition as "the post vanguard". It specifically focuses on how his work revises the legacy of the most important Chilean avant-garde poets [...

MIGUEL, GOMES.

83

Molecular detection of Papaya meleira virus in the latex of Carica papaya by RT-PCR.  

Science.gov (United States)

A RT-PCR assay was developed for early and accurate detection of Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) in the latex from infected papayas. The meleira disease is characterized by an excessive exudation of more fluidic latex from fruits, leaves and stems. This latex oxidises and gives the fruit a "sticky" texture. In the field, disease symptoms are seen almost exclusively on fruit. However, infected plants can be a source of virus for dissemination by insects. Primers specific for PMeV were designed based on nucleotide sequences of the viral dsRNA obtained using a RT-RAPD approach. When tested for RT-PCR amplification, one of these primers (C05-3') amplified a 669-nucleotide fragment using dsRNA obtained from purified virus particles as a template. The translated sequence of this DNA fragment showed a certain degree of similarity to the amino acid sequence of RNA-dependent RNA polymerases from other dsRNA viruses. When used as the single primer in two RT-PCR kits available commercially, primer C05-3' also amplified the DNA fragment from papaya latex of infected, but not from healthy plants. The RT-PCR-based method developed in this study could simplify early plant disease diagnosis, assist in monitoring the dissemination of the pathogen within and between fields, and assist in guiding plant disease management. PMID:17826848

Araújo, Marília Mendes Melo de; Tavares, Eder Torres; Silva, Felipe Rodrigues da; Marinho, Vera Lúcia de Almeida; Júnior, Manoel Teixeira Souza

2007-12-01

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Sex determination in flowering plants: papaya as a model system.  

Science.gov (United States)

Unisexuality in flowering plants evolved from a hermaphrodite ancestor. Transition from hermaphrodite to unisexual flowers has occurred multiple times across the different lineages of the angiosperms. Sexuality in plants is regulated by genetic, epigenetic and physiological mechanisms. The most specialized mechanism of sex determination is sex chromosomes. The sex chromosomes ensure the stable segregation of sexual phenotypes by preventing the recombination of sex determining genes. Despite continuous efforts, sex determining genes of dioecious plants have not yet been cloned. Concerted efforts with various model systems are necessary to understand the complex mechanism of sex determination in plants. Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a tropical fruit tree with three sex forms, male, hermaphrodite, and female. Sexuality in papaya is determined by an XY chromosome system that is in an early evolutionary stage. The male and hermaphrodite of papaya are controlled by two different types of Y chromosomes: Y and Y(h). Large amounts of information in the area of genetics, genomics, and epigenetics of papaya have been accumulated over the last few decades. Relatively short lifecycle, small genome size, and readily available genetic and genomic resources render papaya an excellent model system to study sex determination and sex chromosomes in flowering plants. PMID:24467896

Aryal, Rishi; Ming, Ray

2014-03-01

85

7 CFR 319.56-25 - Papayas from Central America and Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Papayas from Central America and Brazil. 319.56-25 Section 319.56-25...56-25 Papayas from Central America and Brazil. The Solo type of papaya may be...one of the following locations: (1) Brazil: State of Espirito...

2009-01-01

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ESTIMACIÓN DEL ÁREA FOLIAR DE PAPAYA (Carica papaya L. BASADA EN MUESTREO NO DESTRUCTIVO ESTIMATION OF PAPAYA (Carica papaya L. LEAF AREA BASED ON NON-DESTRUCTIVE SAMPLING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El cultivo de papaya (Carica papaya L. es muy importante en la fruticultura del departamento de Córdoba, por la buena calidad de la fruta producida. La investigación, se realizó en Montería, a 13msnm, temperatura media de 27.4°C, precipitación anual de 1346,1mm, humedad relativa de 84% y brillo solar anual de 2180,2 horas, con el fin de obtener un modelo que permita estimar el área foliar de la planta, a partir de muestreo no destructivo. Mediante muestreo aleatorio simple, se seleccionaron hojas sanas de plantas adultas, de diferentes tamaños y distintas etapas de desarrollo, de los doseles superior, medio e inferior, de la variedad Maradol roja. Se tomaron medidas longitudinales: largo y ancho máximo de la hoja, ancho de la hoja a un medio, un tercio, un cuarto, un quinto y dos tercios de su largo, ancho máximo de lóbulos y longitud de nervadura de los mismos, con la finalidad de determinar las medidas altamente relacionadas con el área fotosintética de la hoja. El área foliar (Y, se midió por el método de relación peso: área, sobre una muestra de 30 hojas por dosel. Se construyeron modelos de regresión simple y múltiple, para luego seleccionar el de mejor ajuste. Se seleccionó un modelo de regresión simple, cuya variable explicativa corresponde a la longitud de la nervadura central del lóbulo izquierdo, contiguo al adyacente lóbulo medio (X. El modelo ajustado resultó ser: o = -303,0742 + 31,2028X, R² = 0,9335.The papaya (Carica papaya L is a very important crop in the Cordoba state, especially for the good fruit quality. This research was carried out at Montería at 13masl, 27.4°C, annual rainfall of 1346.1mm, 84% relative humidity and 2180.2 hours annual sunlight, in order to obtain a model to estimate the plants leaf area, based on non-destructive sampling. A probability sampling procedure was used to select different size leaves and developmental stages from the upper, middle and lower canopy of adult plants of the red Maradol variety. Maximum leaf length and width, width of the middle third, fourth, fifth and two-thirds of leaf length, lobe width and midrib length of every lobe were registered with the purpose of identifying measures highly related to photosynthetic leaf area. The leaf area (Y was measured based on the weight:area relation, from 30 leaves per canopy sample. Simple linear regression models and multiple linear regression were adjusted. A simple linear regression model was selected which independent variable representing the length of the midrib, next to the left next lobe and adjacent to the middle lobe (X. The adjusted model was: or = -303,0742 + 31,2028X, R² = 0,9335.

Carlos Cardona Ayala

87

Comparison of the lipase activity in hydrolysis and acyl transfer reactions of two latex plant extracts from babaco (Vasconcellea x Heilbornii Cv.) and Plumeria rubra: Effect of the Aqueous microenvironment.  

Science.gov (United States)

The enzymatic properties of Plumeria rubra latex have been evaluated for the first time, showing a high activity in both hydrolysis and synthesis reactions, and compared to the biocatalytic behavior of babaco (Vasconcellea x Heilbornii cv.) latex. Both biocatalysts have been optimized by studying the various parameters that influence reaction kinetics. The optimum temperatures for hydrolysis reactions were 50 and 55 degrees C for babaco and Plumeria, respectively. The optimum pH for babaco latex was 7, whereas for Plumeria latex, two optimal pH values (4 and 7) were observed. With regard to esterification and acyl transfer reactions such as alcoholysis and interesterification, the influence of thermodynamic water activity on reaction yields was determined and correlated with water sorption and desorption isotherms. When babaco latex is used as a biocatalyst, optimal synthesis reaction yields are obtained when the enzymatic extract is stabilized at a water activity value of 0.38, which corresponds to a water content of 5.7%. This optimal level of hydration is located on the linear portion of the biocatalyst's sorption isotherm, where the water molecules exhibit high-energy interactions with the protein network. In synthesis reactions (esterification, alcoholysis, and interesterification) biocatalyzed by Plumeria latex, correlation between best reaction yields and water activity cannot be done. Indeed, the sorption isotherm plot has an atypical shape, indicating that water might be trapped in the latex matrix and, consequently, that the water content of the biocatalyst is highly dependent on the hydration history of the latex. PMID:16569067

Cambon, Emmanuelle; Gouzou, Fanny; Pina, Michel; Barea, Bruno; Barouh, Nathalie; Lago, Regina; Ruales, Jenny; Tsai, Shau-Wei; Villeneuve, Pierre

2006-04-01

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Development of transgenic papayas expressing the coat protein gene from a Brazilian isolate of Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) = Desenvolvimento de mamoeiros transgênicos resistentes a vírus expressando o gene da capa protéica de um isolado brasileiro de Papaya ringspot virus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Translatable and nontranslatable versions of the coat protein (cp) gene of a Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) isolate collected in the state of Bahia, Brazil, were engineered for expression in Sunrise and Sunset Solo varieties of papaya (Carica papaya). The biolistic system was used to transform secondary somatic embryo cultures derived from immature zygotic embryos. Fifty-four transgenic lines, 26 translatable and 28 nontranslatable gene versions, were regenerated, with a transformation efficien...

2005-01-01

89

Development of virus resistant transgenic papayas expressing the coat protein gene from a Brazilian isolate of Papaya ringspot virus Desenvolvimento de mamoeiros transgênicos resistentes a vírus expressando o gene da capa protéica de um isolado brasileiro de Papaya ringspot virus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Translatable and nontranslatable versions of the coat protein (cp) gene of a Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) isolate collected in the state of Bahia, Brazil, were engineered for expression in Sunrise and Sunset Solo varieties of papaya (Carica papaya). The biolistic system was used to transform secondary somatic embryo cultures derived from immature zygotic embryos. Fifty-four transgenic lines, 26 translatable and 28 nontranslatable gene versions, were regenerated, with a transformation efficien...

2005-01-01

90

Presença dos vírus da mancha anelar e do amarelo letal em frutos de mamoeiro comercializados The presence of Papaya ringspot virus and Papaya lethal yellowing virus in commercialized papaya fruits  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Considerando os índices elevados de incidência de vírus que infetam o mamoeiro (Carica papaya) em condições de campo e seus sintomas típicos nos frutos, foi efetuado um levantamento na Central de Comercialização do Estado do Ceará (CEASA) de frutos infetados com o vírus da mancha anelar do mamoeiro (Papaya ringspot virus, PRSV) e o vírus do amarelo letal do mamoeiro (Papaya lethal yellowing virus, PLYV). Os principais Centros de comercialização de frutos são as CEASAs e os produ...

2008-01-01

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Escarificación química de semilla de papaya / Chemical scarification of papaya seed  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La germinación tardía y errática de semilla de papaya es afectada por la presencia de la sarcotesta, membrana que contiene compuestos fenólicos inductores de latencia, misma que inhibe el intercambio de líquidos y gases, prolongar el período de secado y facilitar la colonización de fitopatógenos. La [...] s técnicas utilizadas en el beneficio de semilla de papaya para eliminar la sarcotesta son limitadas, por tanto, el objetivo del presente estudio fue obtener tecnología útil en éste aspecto, para lo cual se comparó tratamientos a base de hidróxido de sodio, ácido sulfúrico y clorhídrico, y evaluó su efecto en la calidad física, sanitaria y fisiológica de la semilla. La investigación se realizó en el Laboratorio de Análisis de Semillas del Colegio de Postgraduados, Campus Montecillo, Estado de México, en 2011. El NaOH al 25 % y 15 min de inmersión, eliminó 98% de sarcotesta, presentó sólo 2% de incidencia de micoflora, incremento y homogeneizó la germinación. El H2SO4 eliminó al 100% la sarcotesta, inhibió la colonización de hongos con sólo 6%, cuando se empleó en forma concentrada, pero afecto negativamente la germinación. El HCl fue ineficiente en eliminar la sarcotesta (9.6%), presentó la más alta colonización de hongos (97% de incidencia) y el menor porcentaje de germinación (7%). Los efectos positivos del uso de NaOH en el beneficio de semilla de papaya, simula la degradación natural de la sarcotesta y mejora la condición de la semilla por lo que resulta una alternativa viable para su empleo en el acondicionamiento de semilla. Abstract in english Late germinating and erratic seed from papaya is affected by the presence of sarcotesta, membrane containing phenolic compounds inducing latency same which inhibits the exchange of liquids and gases, prolongs the drying period and facilitates colonization of pathogens. The techniques used in benefit [...] of the papaya seed to eliminate the sarcotesta are limited, therefore the aim of this study was to obtain useful technology in this aspect, which was compared to other treatments with sodium hydroxide, sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid and assessed its effect on the physical, health and physiological quality of the seed. The research was conducted at the Seed Testing Laboratory of the Graduate College, Campus Montecillo, State of Mexico, in 2011. NaOH to 25% and 15 min of immersion, removed 98% of sarcotesta, presented just 2% of incidence of micoflora, an increased and homogenized germination. H2SO4 to 100% removed the sarcotesta, inhibited fungal colonization with only 6% when used in concentrated form, but negatively affected the germination. The HCl was ineffective in eliminating sarcotesta (9.6%) had the highest fungal colonization (97% incidence) and the lowest germination percentage (7%). The positive effects of the use of NaOH in the benefit of papaya seed, is that simulates natural degradation of sarcotesta and improves the condition of the seed, so it is a viable alternative for use in conditioning seed.

Romero Rodríguez, Jorge Arturo; Mejía Contreras, José Apolinar; Carballo Carballo, Aquiles; López Jiménez, Alfredo; Rangel Lucio, José Antonio; Ávila Reséndiz, Catarino.

92

Preparation and sensory evaluation of papaya milk shake  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present investigation was undertaken with the object of studying the standard procedure of preparation of milk shake from buffalo milk blended with papaya and studied for its acceptability. Milk shake was prepared from different proportions of buffalo milk and papaya pulp i.e. 100:0 (T0, 90:10 (T1, 85:15 (T2 and 80:20 (T3. The sensory score for overall acceptability of papaya milk shake of treatments T0, T1, T2 and T3 were 8.18, 8.56, 8.23 and 8.03, respectively. It was observed that the papaya milk shake prepared from 90 parts of buffalo milk and 10 parts of papaya pulp was most acceptable and ranked between like very much to like extremely. The addition of higher proportion of pulp in the blend scored towards lower side by a panel of judges. [Vet World 2010; 3(4.000: 185-187

S. T. Pakalwad

2010-08-01

93

ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF PAPAYA LEAF EXTRACTS AGAINST PATHOGENIC BACTERIA  

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Full Text Available It was reported that the extracts of papaya leaves could inhibit the growth of Rhizopus stolonifer. Antibacterial activity of Carica papaya leaf extracts on pathogenic bacteria was observed in this study. Papaya leaves were extracted by using maceration method and three kinds of solvents: ethanol, ethyl acetate, and hexane. Papaya leaf extracts were tested against Bacillus stearothermophilus, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas sp., and Escherichia coli by agar diffusion method. The objectives of this study were to determine extract ability against pathogenic bacteria, to observe the influence of pH, NaCl, and heat on extracts ability, and to observe extract ability against B. stearothermophilus spores. The data showed that ethyl acetate extract could inhibit B. stearothermophilus, L. monocytogenes, Pseudomonas sp., and E. coli. The extract activity was influenced by pH, and it was more effective in low pH. The extract activity was influenced by NaCl against B. stearothermophillus and E. coli. However, it was not influenced by NaCl in bioassay against L. monocytogenes and Pseudomonas sp. The extract activity was influenced by heating process against all the bacteria tested. The extracts inhibited B. stearothermophilus spores as well. Papaya leaves are potential natural anti-bacteria, which might be used in certain kinds of food.

Adolf Jan Nexson Parhusip

2011-11-01

94

Indução de brotos laterais de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L. Induction of lateral shoots of papaya tree (Carica papaya L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo estudar o efeito da benzilaminopurina e do ácido giberélico, bem como a forma de aplicação destes, na produção de brotos laterais de mamoeiro. Foram utilizados mamoeiros 'Sunrise Solo' e os reguladores vegetais benzilaminopurina (BAP e ácido giberélico (GA, na concentração de 500 mg.L-1. As formas de aplicação de BAP + GA estudadas foram: pulverização; pasta de lanolina; injeção; completo, que consistiu na utilização de todas as formas de aplicação, e o controle, constituído pela ausência de aplicação de reguladores. Foram realizadas três aplicações semanais dos reguladores em cada forma de aplicação, sendo eliminado o meristema apical de todas as plantas após a última aplicação. O comprimento e o diâmetro dos brotos laterais foram avaliados aos 30; 55 e 86 dias após a retirada da gema apical. O uso de reguladores favoreceu a produção de brotos laterais. A pulverização apresentou os melhores resultados tanto em relação ao número de brotos obtidos quanto à conformação das estacas, seguida pela injeção e pasta de lanolina.The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP and gibberellic acid (GA, as well as the form of application of these growth regulators in the plant, for the production of lateral shoots on papaya trees. Twelve months old 'Sunrise Solo' papaya trees were treated with BAP and GA, in the concentration of 500 mg.L-1. BAP + GA were applied to the trees by means of spraying, lanolin paste, injection, and a combination of all three procedures (complete. Untreated plants were used as control. After three successive applications of the plant growth regulators in each form of application, at one week intervals, all plants were decapitated. The length and diameter of the lateral shoots were measured at 30, 55 and 86 days after decapitation. The use of plant growth regulators favored the production of lateral shoots. The highest proliferation of lateral shoots was obtained by spraying the canopy of the trees with BAP + GA, followed by injection and lanolin paste applications.

José Segundo Giampan

2005-04-01

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Analysis of ripening-related gene expression in papaya using an Arabidopsis-based microarray  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Papaya (Carica papaya L. is a commercially important crop that produces climacteric fruits with a soft and sweet pulp that contain a wide range of health promoting phytochemicals. Despite its importance, little is known about transcriptional modifications during papaya fruit ripening and their control. In this study we report the analysis of ripe papaya transcriptome by using a cross-species (XSpecies microarray technique based on the phylogenetic proximity between papaya and Arabidopsis thaliana. Results Papaya transcriptome analyses resulted in the identification of 414 ripening-related genes with some having their expression validated by qPCR. The transcription profile was compared with that from ripening tomato and grape. There were many similarities between papaya and tomato especially with respect to the expression of genes encoding proteins involved in primary metabolism, regulation of transcription, biotic and abiotic stress and cell wall metabolism. XSpecies microarray data indicated that transcription factors (TFs of the MADS-box, NAC and AP2/ERF gene families were involved in the control of papaya ripening and revealed that cell wall-related gene expression in papaya had similarities to the expression profiles seen in Arabidopsis during hypocotyl development. Conclusion The cross-species array experiment identified a ripening-related set of genes in papaya allowing the comparison of transcription control between papaya and other fruit bearing taxa during the ripening process.

Fabi João Paulo

2012-12-01

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An Analysis on DNA Fingerprints of Thirty Papaya Cultivars (Carica papaya L.), Grown in Thailand with the Use of Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms Technique  

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The experiment was carried out at the Department of Horticulture, Ubon Ratchathani University, Ubon Ratchathani province, Northeast Thailand during June 2002 to May 2003 aims to identify DNA fingerprints of thirty papaya cultivars with the use of Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLP) technique. Papaya cultivars were collected from six different research centers in Thailand. Papaya plants of each cultivar were grown under field conditions up to four months then leaf numbers 2 and 3 of...

2007-01-01

97

Chemical Profile of Unripe Pulp of Carica papaya  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Unripe pulp of Carica papaya was screened to test for the presence of certain phytochemicals. Chemical composition of the pulp were determined. Phytochemical screening of mature unripe pulp of Carica papaya (dry weight showed the presence of saponins and cardenolides while chemical analysis revealed the presence of potassium (223.0mg/100g as well as sodium, calcium, iron, phosphorus, zinc, copper, magnesium and manganese in considerable quantities. Proximate analysis of the pulp showed that it contained starch (43.28%, sugars (15.15%, crude protein (13.63%, crude fat (1.29%, moisture (10.65% and fibre (1.88%. All these results indicate that the pulp of mature unripe Carica papaya contains nutrients and mineral elements that may be useful in nutrition. The presence of some phytochemicals like saponins and cardenolides explained the astringent action of the plant encountered in the numerous therapeutic uses.

O.I. Oloyede

2005-01-01

98

Removal of hazardous pharmaceutical dyes by adsorption onto papaya seeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) seeds were used as adsorbent to remove toxic pharmaceutical dyes (tartrazine and amaranth) from aqueous solutions, in order to extend application range. The effects of pH, initial dye concentration, contact time and temperature were investigated. The kinetic data were evaluated by the pseudo first-order, pseudo second-order and Elovich models. The equilibrium was evaluated by the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models. It was found that adsorption favored a pH of 2.5, temperature of 298 K and equilibrium was attained at 180-200 min. The adsorption kinetics followed the pseudo second-order model, and the equilibrium was well represented by the Langmuir model. The maximum adsorption capacities were 51.0 and 37.4 mg g(-1) for tartrazine and amaranth, respectively. These results revealed that papaya seeds can be used as an alternative adsorbent to remove pharmaceutical dyes from aqueous solutions. PMID:25026586

Weber, Caroline Trevisan; Collazzo, Gabriela Carvalho; Mazutti, Marcio Antonio; Foletto, Edson Luiz; Dotto, Guilherme Luiz

2014-01-01

99

INFLUENCE OF THICKNESS ON THE DRYING OF PAPAYA PUREE (Carica papaya L. THROUGH REFRACTANCE WINDOWTM TECHNOLOGY  

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Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la influencia del espesor de las muestras (2, 3 y 4 mm sobre las cinéticas de secado, actividad de agua (aw y color (?E de rodajas de puré de papaya procesadas por tecnología de ventana de refractanciaTM (RWTM. Adicionalmente se evaluó la difusividad del agua (Deff teniendo en cuenta el encogimiento. Los datos de humedad se ajustaron mediante los modelos de Newton y Midilli. Los resultados mostraron que a menor espesor el secado fue más rápido, los valores de aw fueron menores y los ?E superiores. Las muestras alcanzaron 0.0652, 0.1132 y 0.2624 g agua/ g sólido seco en 60 min para rodajas de 2, 3 y 4 mm, respectivamente. El Modelo de Midilli fue el más apropiado para predecir las curvas de secado de papaya por RWTM. Deff disminuyó a menor espesor y su orden de magnitud fue de 10-10 m2/s.

MAR\\u00CDA U. OCOR\\u00D3-ZAMORA

2013-01-01

100

A new highly effective anticysticercosis vaccine expressed in transgenic papaya.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of transgenic plants as new antigen-delivery systems for subunit vaccines has been increasingly explored. We herein report progress toward a papaya-based vaccine against cysticercosis. Synthetic peptides (KETc1, KETc12, KETc7) were successfully expressed in 19 different transgenic papaya clones and found to be immunogenic. Complete protection against cysticercosis was induced with the soluble extract of the clones that expressed the higher levels of transcripts in up to 90% of the immunized mice. This study represents a key step towards the development of a more effective, sustainable and affordable oral subunit vaccine against human and pig cysticercosis. PMID:17399859

Hernández, Marisela; Cabrera-Ponce, José Luis; Fragoso, Gladis; López-Casillas, Fernando; Guevara-García, Arturo; Rosas, Gabriela; León-Ramírez, Claudia; Juárez, Patricia; Sánchez-García, Guadalupe; Cervantes, Jaquelynne; Acero, Gonzalo; Toledo, Andrea; Cruz, Carmen; Bojalil, Rafael; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Sciutto, Edda

2007-05-22

 
 
 
 
101

Consumer in-store response to irradiated papayas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, purchase behavior of California consumers in response to irradiated papayas is described. The papayas were shipped from Hawaii and irradiated in California under a permit by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service and approved by the California Department of Food and Agriculture. Results show that the superior appearance of the irradiated fruit appealed to consumers and that two-thirds or more of the people queried indicated that they would buy irradiated produce. It is noted that this marketing took place in a supportive environment with no protestors present. Informational material was available

1987-01-01

102

Empleo de un Recubrimiento Formulado con Propóleos para el Manejo Poscosecha de Frutos de Papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Hawaiana Use of a Coating Formulated with Propolis for Postharvest Handling of Papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Hawaiian Fruits  

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Full Text Available Resumen. El fruto de papaya es reconocido por las propiedades nutricionales y sensoriales; no obstante, su tiempo de vida útil en poscosecha es muy corto. En los últimos años, para incrementar la vida de almacenamiento del fruto se ha implementado el uso de recubrimientos como vehículos de agentes antimicrobianos y antioxidantes, entre otros. En este trabajo se comparó el efecto de dos recubrimientos; cera comercial (control y cera comercial conteniendo un extracto etanólico de propóleos (5% p/v, sobre la vida en poscosecha de frutos de papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Hawaiana almacenados a temperatura ambiente (28 ± 2 ºC y humedad relativa entre 65 y 70%. El efecto de los recubrimientos se determinó mediante el índice de deterioro de los frutos y el recuento microbiano (mesófilos aerobios, mohos y levaduras. Adicionalmente, se evaluaron durante 12 días las propiedades fisicoquímicas de los frutos (cambio de color, textura, pH, acidez total titulable, pérdida de peso y sólidos solubles. Los resultados mostraron que las papayas tratadas con el recubrimiento formulado con el extracto de propóleos, presentó un menor deterioro en cuanto a su apariencia y mayor inhibición del crecimiento de microorganismos durante los primeros 6 días de evaluación en comparación con los frutos control; además, no se observaron diferencias, producto de los recubrimientos, en relación a las características fisicoquímicas de los frutos.Abstract. Papaya fruit is known for the nutritional and sensory properties; however, its postharvest shelf life is very short. In recent years, to extend the storage life of this fruit, the use of coatings as a carrier of antimicrobial agents and antioxidants, has been implemented. In this work, the effect of two coatings, commercial wax (control and commercial wax containing an ethanolic extract of propolis (5% w/v on the postharvest of papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Hawaiian was compared. The fruits were stored at room temperature (28 ± 2 ºC and a relative humidity between 65 and 70%. The effect of coatings was determined by the deterioration index of the fruit, and the microbial counts (aerobic mesophiles, molds and yeasts. Additionally, during 12 days were evaluated physicochemical properties of the fruits (color, texture, pH, titratable acidity, weight loss and soluble solids. The results showed that the papaya fruits treated with the coating containing the propolis extract presented less deterioration in their appearance and greater inhibition growth of microorganisms during the first 6 days compared with control fruits; moreover, no differences among the coatings in relation to the physicochemical characteristics of the fruit were observed.

Elizabeth Barrera Bello

2012-06-01

103

Odour-active compounds in papaya fruit cv. Red Maradol.  

Science.gov (United States)

Application of solid-phase microextraction and simultaneous distillation-extraction combined with GC-FID, GC-MS, aroma extract dilution analysis, and odour activity value were used to analyse volatile compounds from papaya fruit cv. Red Maradol and to estimate the most odour-active compounds. The analyses led to the identification of 137 compounds; 118 of them were positively identified. Twenty-five odorants were considered as odour-active compounds and contribute to the typical papaya aroma, from which ethyl butanoate, benzyl isothiocyanate, 1-hexen-3-one, (E)-?-ionone, and methyl benzoate were the most odour-active compounds. PMID:24176322

Pino, Jorge A

2014-03-01

104

Consumer in-store response to irradiated papayas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study, purchase behavior of California consumers in response to irradiated papayas is described. The papayas were shipped from Hawaii and irradiated in California under a permit by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service and approved by the California Department of Food and Agriculture. Results show that the superior appearance of the irradiated fruit appealed to consumers and that two-thirds or more of the people queried indicated that they would buy irradiated produce. It is noted that this marketing took place in a supportive environment with no protestors present. Informational material was available.

Bruhn, C.M.; Noell, J.W.

1987-09-01

105

Dengue fever treatment with Carica papaya leaves extracts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The main objective of the current study is to investigate the potential of Carica papaya leaves extracts against Dengue fever in 45 year old patient bitten by carrier mosquitoes. For the treatment of Dengue fever the extract was prepared in water. 25 mL of aqueous extract of C. papaya leaves was administered to patient infected with Dengue fever twice daily i.e. morning and evening for five consecutive days. Before the extract administration the blood samples from patient were analyzed. Plate...

Ahmad, Nisar; Fazal, Hina; Ayaz, Muhammad; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Mohammad, Ijaz; Fazal, Lubna

2011-01-01

106

Empleo de un Recubrimiento Formulado con Propóleos para el Manejo Poscosecha de Frutos de Papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Hawaiana) / Use of a Coating Formulated with Propolis for Postharvest Handling of Papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Hawaiian) Fruits  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Resumen. El fruto de papaya es reconocido por las propiedades nutricionales y sensoriales; no obstante, su tiempo de vida útil en poscosecha es muy corto. En los últimos años, para incrementar la vida de almacenamiento del fruto se ha implementado el uso de recubrimientos como vehículos de agentes a [...] ntimicrobianos y antioxidantes, entre otros. En este trabajo se comparó el efecto de dos recubrimientos; cera comercial (control) y cera comercial conteniendo un extracto etanólico de propóleos (5% p/v), sobre la vida en poscosecha de frutos de papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Hawaiana) almacenados a temperatura ambiente (28 ± 2 ºC) y humedad relativa entre 65 y 70%. El efecto de los recubrimientos se determinó mediante el índice de deterioro de los frutos y el recuento microbiano (mesófilos aerobios, mohos y levaduras). Adicionalmente, se evaluaron durante 12 días las propiedades fisicoquímicas de los frutos (cambio de color, textura, pH, acidez total titulable, pérdida de peso y sólidos solubles). Los resultados mostraron que las papayas tratadas con el recubrimiento formulado con el extracto de propóleos, presentó un menor deterioro en cuanto a su apariencia y mayor inhibición del crecimiento de microorganismos durante los primeros 6 días de evaluación en comparación con los frutos control; además, no se observaron diferencias, producto de los recubrimientos, en relación a las características fisicoquímicas de los frutos. Abstract in english Abstract. Papaya fruit is known for the nutritional and sensory properties; however, its postharvest shelf life is very short. In recent years, to extend the storage life of this fruit, the use of coatings as a carrier of antimicrobial agents and antioxidants, has been implemented. In this work, the [...] effect of two coatings, commercial wax (control) and commercial wax containing an ethanolic extract of propolis (5% w/v) on the postharvest of papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Hawaiian) was compared. The fruits were stored at room temperature (28 ± 2 ºC) and a relative humidity between 65 and 70%. The effect of coatings was determined by the deterioration index of the fruit, and the microbial counts (aerobic mesophiles, molds and yeasts). Additionally, during 12 days were evaluated physicochemical properties of the fruits (color, texture, pH, titratable acidity, weight loss and soluble solids). The results showed that the papaya fruits treated with the coating containing the propolis extract presented less deterioration in their appearance and greater inhibition growth of microorganisms during the first 6 days compared with control fruits; moreover, no differences among the coatings in relation to the physicochemical characteristics of the fruit were observed.

Elizabeth, Barrera Bello; Marcela, Gil Loaiza; Carlos Mario, García Pajón; Diego Luis, Durango Restrepo; Jesús Humberto, Gil González.

107

Apertura y Eficiencia Productiva: La Industria Chilena, 1975-1988 Apertura y Eficiencia Productiva: La Industria Chilena, 1975-1988  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Apertura y Eficiencia Productiva: La Industria Chilena, 1975-1988 The results of Chile's profound economic liberalizations remain the subject of ongoing debate. Using the Total Factor Productivity approach (TFP; we review the industrial sector performance during the 1975-1988 period. Our analysis shows that greater competitiveness dictated by economic liberalization was not accomplished through technical change but, rather, through intensive factor use (1976-81, or extensive factor use (1984-88. After exhaustion of the "easy phase", new levels of productive efficiency necessitated technical innovation, that is, investment in equipment, training. and reorganization of productive processes. However, after the 1982-83 crisis, firms did not follow this path: previous financial stress and low wage costs determined a growth path based on extensive use of labor, thereby delaying technological modernization of the industrial sector.

Enrique Román

1993-03-01

108

Caracterización y evaluación de dos híbridos de papaya en Cuba / Characterization and evaluation of two papaya hybrids in Cuba  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La papaya (Carica papaya L.) es considerada como una de las frutas de mayor valor nutritivo y digestivo, siendo utilizada ampliamente en dietas alimenticias, así como gran aceptación a nivel nacional e internacional. Su cultivo puede constituir una gran alternativa para la diversificación agrícola e [...] n las regiones de Cuba, debido a la existencia de áreas con condiciones edafoclimáticas favorables para desarrollar este frutal. Actualmente, los problemas que afectan al cultivo de la papaya son el bajo número de variedades explotadas comercialmente y la susceptibilidad a plagas y enfermedades. Una alternativa viable para la solución de este problema es recurrir a la ampliación de la base genética del papayo mediante la obtención de híbridos con resistencia a plagas y enfermedades, lo que contribuirá de manera decisiva en el mejoramiento del cultivo. El objetivo de esta investigación fue realizar la caracterización fenológica y productiva de dos híbridos de papaya "HGxMA" y "HGxMR" perteneciente al banco de germoplasma de este frutal ubicado en la Unidad Científico-Tecnológica de Base (UCTB) Jagüey Grande, Matanzas del período enero 2005 a noviembre 2007. Los resultados corroboraron que los híbridos presentan características fenotípicas del grupo formosa, frutos con forma elongata en las plantas hermafroditas. El peso medio de los frutos fue de 1.80 kg ("HGxMR") y 2.7 kg ("HGxMA"), de pulpa color naranja-rojiza y amarilla, respectivamente, así como, con una productividad entre 63.4 y 99.8.5 kg planta-1, características que evidencian la posibilidad de utilizarlos en programas de mejoramiento genético del cultivo y en el uso directo por los productores. Actualmente, el mercado consumidor de frutas de papaya de gran tamaño a nivel mundial va creciendo de manera considerable. Por estas razones, estos cultivares de papaya pueden constituir una opción con mayores potencialidades para satisfacer la demanda de los consumidores del cultivo. Abstract in english Papaya is considered one of the fruits of greatest nutritional and digestive value. It is widely used in diets and it has a high acceptance at national and international level. Its culture can constitute a great alternative for agricultural diversification in Cuba regions, due to the existence of ar [...] eas with favorable edaphoclimatic conditions to develop this fruit tree. Nowadays the problems that affect papaya culture are the low number of commercially developed varieties and the susceptibility to pests and diseases. A viable alternative to solve this problem is to widen the genetic papaya base obtaining hybrids with resistance to pest and disease that will contribute decisively to the culture improvement. In this work, the phenology and productive characterization has been done of two papaya hybrids "HGxMA" and "HGxMR" belonging to the germoplasm bank of this fruit tree, located at the Unidad Cientifico-Tecnologica de Base (UCTB) Jagüey Grande, Matanzas. The results confirm that the hybrids present phenotypical characteristics of the Formosa Group, with elongated fruits in hermaphroditic plants. The fruit average weigtht is 1.80 kg ("HGxMR") and 2.7 kg ("HGxMA"), of range-reddish and yellow pulp, respectively and productivity between 63.4 and 99.8.5 kg planta-1, characteristic that show the possibility of use them in genetic improvement programs and the direct use by producers. At present, the markert of big papaya fruits is increasing considerably worldwide. For these reasons, these papaya cultivars can constitute an option with greater potentialities to satisfy consumers demand of the culture.

Alonso Esquivel, Maruchi; Tornet Quintana, Yoel; Ramos Ramírez, Roberto; Farrés Armenteros, Emilio; Aranguren González, Maikel; Rodríguez Martínez, Douglas.

109

Herencia de la concentración de los sólidos soluble entre líneas parentales de papaya (carica papaya l. y sus híbridos  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Herencia de la concentración de los sólidos solubles entre líneas parentales de papaya (Carica papaya L. y sus híbridos. Se estableció un experimento con el objetivo de determinar el patrón de herencia de la concentración de sólidos solubles de frutas (medido como grados brix entre tres líneas de papaya y sus tres posibles híbridos. Se utilizaron como materiales parentales tres líneas genéticas con niveles de azúcares significativamente diferentes entre ellos. Se determinó que la característica de alto contenido de sólidos solubles se comportó de manera dominante sobre un bajo contenido de los mismos. Se concluyó que existe un gran potencial para explotar comercialmente este patrón dominante al posibilitar el uso de germoplasma de buenas características agronómicas pero deficientes en sus contenidos de azúcares en sus frutas. La posible naturaleza de los factores que intervienen en la característica estudiada se discuten.

Antonio Bogantes

2004-01-01

110

Antibacterial effects of Carica papaya fruit on common wound organisms.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the study was to investigate antibacterial activity of ripe and unripe Carica papaya on selected micro-organisms. Cultures of micro-organisms were routinely maintained in nutrient agar slants at 4 degrees C. Extracts of immature, mature and ripe Carica papaya fruit were obtained by separately grinding factions of the epicarp, endocarp and seeds and filtering them through gauze. Sensitivity tests were conducted by adding 0.06 ml of extract to agar wells (6 mm diameter) prepared from 20 ml agar seeded with 10(6) cells/ml suspension of one of the eight organisms per plate. The inoculated plates were allowed to equilibrate at 4 degrees C for 1 hour, incubated at 37 degrees C for 24 hours, and zones of inhibition measured in millimetres. Anti-bacterial activity was expressed in terms of the radius of zone of inhibition. Seed extracts from the fruit showed inhibition in the following order: B cereus > E coli > S faecalis > S aureus > P vulgaris > S flexneri. No significant difference was found in bacterial sensitivity between immature, mature and ripe fruits. No inhibition zone was produced by epicarp and endocarp extracts. Carica papaya seeds contain anti-bacterial activity that inhibits growth of gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. Observed activity was independent of stage of fruit maturity. Carica papaya has antibacterial effects that could be useful in treating chronic skin ulcers to promote healing. PMID:15040064

Dawkins, G; Hewitt, H; Wint, Y; Obiefuna, P C; Wint, B

2003-12-01

111

Administration Dependent Antioxidant Effect of Carica papaya Seeds Water Extract  

Science.gov (United States)

Carica papaya is widely used in folk medicine as herbal remedy to prevent, protect against, and cure several diseases. These curative properties are based on the presence in different parts of the plant of phytochemical nutrients with antioxidant effect. Seeds are the less exploited part; thus this study is aimed at assessing the antioxidant activities of the C. papaya seeds water extract against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) oxidative stress in human skin Detroit 550 fibroblasts. C. papaya seeds water extract is not toxic and acts as a potent free radical scavenger, providing protection to Detroit 550 fibroblasts that underwent H2O2 oxidative stress. Data show that (i) the maximum protective effect is achieved by the simultaneous administration of the extract with 1?mM H2O2; (ii) the extract in presence of an oxidative stress does not increase catalase activity and prevents the release of cytochrome C and the inner mitochondrial transmembrane potential (??m) loss; (iii) the extract is more efficient than vitamin C to hamper the oxidative damage; (iv) the purified subfractions of the seeds water extract exert the same antioxidant effect of whole extract. In conclusion, C. papaya seeds water extract is potentially useful for protection against oxidative stress.

Panzarini, Elisa; Dwikat, Majdi; Mariano, Stefania; Vergallo, Cristian; Dini, Luciana

2014-01-01

112

Administration Dependent Antioxidant Effect of Carica papaya Seeds Water Extract.  

Science.gov (United States)

Carica papaya is widely used in folk medicine as herbal remedy to prevent, protect against, and cure several diseases. These curative properties are based on the presence in different parts of the plant of phytochemical nutrients with antioxidant effect. Seeds are the less exploited part; thus this study is aimed at assessing the antioxidant activities of the C. papaya seeds water extract against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) oxidative stress in human skin Detroit 550 fibroblasts. C. papaya seeds water extract is not toxic and acts as a potent free radical scavenger, providing protection to Detroit 550 fibroblasts that underwent H2O2 oxidative stress. Data show that (i) the maximum protective effect is achieved by the simultaneous administration of the extract with 1?mM H2O2; (ii) the extract in presence of an oxidative stress does not increase catalase activity and prevents the release of cytochrome C and the inner mitochondrial transmembrane potential (?? m ) loss; (iii) the extract is more efficient than vitamin C to hamper the oxidative damage; (iv) the purified subfractions of the seeds water extract exert the same antioxidant effect of whole extract. In conclusion, C. papaya seeds water extract is potentially useful for protection against oxidative stress. PMID:24795765

Panzarini, Elisa; Dwikat, Majdi; Mariano, Stefania; Vergallo, Cristian; Dini, Luciana

2014-01-01

113

Ecophysiology of papaya: a review Ecofisiologia do mamoeiro: uma revisão  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Papaya (Carica papaya L. is a principal horticultural crop of tropical and subtropical regions. Knowledge of how papaya responds to environmental factors provides a scientific basis for the development of management strategies to optimize fruit yield and quality. A better understanding of genotypic responses to specific environmental factors will contribute to efficient agricultural zoning and papaya breeding programs. The objective of this review is to present current research knowledge related to the effect of environmental factors and their interaction with the photosynthetic process and whole-plant physiology. This review demonstrates that environmental factors such as light, wind, soil chemical and physical characteristics, temperature, soil water, relative humidity, and biotic factors such as mycorrhizal fungi and genotype profoundly affect the productivity and physiology of papaya. An understanding of the environmental factors and their interaction with physiological processes is extremely important for economically sustainable production in the nursery or in the field. With improved, science-based management, growers will optimize photosynthetic carbon assimilation and increase papaya fruit productivity and quality.O mamoeiro (Carica papaya L. é uma das principais culturas das regiões tropicais e subtropicais. O conhecimento das respostas dessa cultura aos fatores do ambiente pode fornecer bases científicas para traçarem-se estratégias de manejo que possam otimizar a produção e a qualidade dos frutos. Um melhor entendimento das respostas dos genótipos aos fatores específicos do ambiente poderá contribuir para um eficiente zoneamento agrícola e para futuros programas de melhoramento da espécie. Objetivou-se apresentar o estado-da-arte do conhecimento relacionado aos efeitos e à interação dos fatores ambientes sobre o processo fotossintético e a fisiologia da planta inteira. Nesta revisão, demonstra-se que os fatores do ambiente, como luz, vento, característica físicas e químicas do solo, temperatura, água no solo, umidade relativa, além de fatores bióticos, como fungos micorrízicos e o genótipo, podem afetar intensamente a produtividade e a fisiologia do mamoeiro. Uma compreensão da ação dos fatores do ambiente e suas interações com o processo fisiológico dessa espécie são de grande importância para a sustentabilidade econômica da produção do mamoeiro, em condições de viveiro e de campo. A partir de um manejo da cultura baseado em resultados científicos, será possível otimizar a assimilação fotossintética do carbono e elevar a qualidade e produção de frutos do mamoeiro.

Eliemar Campostrini

2007-12-01

114

Preferential reproduction mode of hermaphrodite papaya plant (Carica papaya L; Caricaceae) Modo de reprodução preferencial de plantas hermafroditas de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L; Caricaceae)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This research was done to study the reproductive system of papaya hermaphrodite plant based on the histochemical nature of pollen grain, stigma receptivity, in vivo pollen grain germination and pollen:ovule ratio. In the histochemical analysis, pollen grains were stained by using Sudan IV and I2KI solution ; the stigma receptivity was assessed by alpha-naphthtyl acetate solution in closed and opened flowers. Pollen germination and pollen tube growing were examined in flower buds near anthesis...

Pedro Corrêa Damasceno junior; Telma Nair Santana Pereira; Messias Gonzaga Pereira; Francisco Filho da Silva; Margarete de Magalhães Souza; Rodrigo Gualandi Nicoli

2009-01-01

115

Sensitivity of papaya seeds to gamma-irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The major problems faced by the papaya industry in Malaysia are the papaya ringspot virus disease and the short shelf-life of the fruit. Efforts have been made to address these problems and they include conventional breeding and selection and biotechnological tools for development of transgenic papayas with PRSV resistance and delayed fruit ripening characteristics. Irradiation-induced changes in papaya for selection of improved varieties could offer another approach to resolve these problems. As the first step, the radio-sensitivity of papaya seed must be established before mass irradiation of the materials to generate the desired variability for evaluation and selection later. For the first approximation dosage, the seeds of two local. varieties, Sekaki and Eksotika were irradiated as either dry seeds or as pre-germinated seeds (soaked overnight in water and surface-dried). The dosage ranged from 0 to 300 Gy. Wet pre-germinated seeds were all killed at 100 Gy while dry seeds did not show loss of viability even at 300 Gy. The dosage for dry seeds was raised to 1000 Gy in the following experiment and the LD 50 (or half-kill) was estimated to be 650 Gy. However, at this dosage, seedling growth was markedly reduced and this dosage may not be suitable for mass irradiation. From the growth data, it was estimated that 525 Gy was the dosage that reduced 50% of growth in height and this dosage was recommended for mass irradiation of dry seeds. For wet, pre-germinated seeds, results from the third experiment indicated that 42.5 Gy was the optimal dosage for mass irradiation. At this dosage, both seed germination and seedling growth was reduced by 50%. (Author)

2002-10-15

116

Estereotipos de género en la publicidad: un análisis de contenido de las revistas chilenas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cuando los valores masculinos tienen influencia dominante en una cultura, aquélla se ve reflejada en los estereotipos de género en la publicidad. Recíprocamente, estos estereotipos tienen un efecto sobre la socialización de los grupos y el posicionamiento de las marcas. En culturas con un bajo índice de masculinidad (Hofstede, 2001 como la cultura chilena, se esperaría una baja o nula estereotipación de género en la publicidad (An y Kim, 2007; Milner y Collins, 1998. Usando análisis de contenido, este estudio examina los estereotipos de género en la publicidad gráfica chilena. Específicamente, se analizan diez indicadores de estereotipación de género en la publicidad. Los resultados de este estudio revelan la existencia de estereotipos de género en la publicidad chilena en seis de los diez indicadores empleados.

Rebeca Fernández

2008-01-01

117

Antiplasmodial Properties and Bioassay-Guided Fractionation of Ethyl Acetate Extracts from Carica papaya Leaves  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We investigated the antiplasmodial properties of crude extracts from Carica papaya leaves to trace the activity through bioassay-guided fractionation. The greatest antiplasmodial activity was observed in the ethyl acetate crude extract. C. papaya showed a high selectivity for P. falciparum against CHO cells with a selectivity index of 249.25 and 185.37 in the chloroquine-sensitive D10 and chloroquine-resistant DD2 strains, respectively. Carica papaya ethyl acetate extract was subjected to bio...

Melariri, Paula; Campbell, William; Etusim, Paschal; Smith, Peter

2011-01-01

118

Growth and yield of papaya under irrigation Crescimento e produção do mamoeiro sob irrigação  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Thermal units or degree day systems can both be used to quantify relationships between plants and air temperature. The Northern Fluminense region holds no tradition for irrigated papaya (Carica papaya L.) cropping and, because of the need for irrigation, it is important knowing its growth and development characteristics under these conditions. This study aimed to determine the relationship between growth rate of papaya plants and degree days, and its effect on crop productivity, under differe...

2003-01-01

119

Reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid detection of Papaya ringspot virus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) and Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV), which causes disease symptoms similar to PRSV, threaten commercial production of both non-transgenic-papaya and PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya in China. A reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay to detect PLDMV was developed previously. In this study, the development of another RT-LAMP assay to distinguish among transgenic, PRSV-infected and PLDMV-infected papaya by detection of PRSV is reported. A set of four RT-LAMP primers was designed based on the highly conserved region of the P3 gene of PRSV. The RT-LAMP method was specific and sensitive in detecting PRSV, with a detection limit of 1.15×10(-6)?g of total RNA per reaction. Indeed, the reaction was 10 times more sensitive than one-step RT-PCR. Field application of the RT-LAMP assay demonstrated that samples positive for PRSV were detected only in non-transgenic papaya, whereas samples positive for PLDMV were detected only in commercialized PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya. This suggests that PRSV remains the major limiting factor for non-transgenic-papaya production, and the emergence of PLDMV threatens the commercial transgenic cultivar in China. However, this study, combined with the earlier development of an RT-LAMP assay for PLDMV, will provide a rapid, sensitive and cost-effective diagnostic power to distinguish virus infections in papaya. PMID:24769198

Shen, Wentao; Tuo, Decai; Yan, Pu; Yang, Yong; Li, Xiaoying; Zhou, Peng

2014-08-01

120

La convergencia de las regiones chilenas, 1960-2009  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En el presente artículo se analizan cincuenta años de convergencia económica para las regiones de Chile, en un contexto de cambios políticos radicales asociados a profundas transformaciones económicas. Para el análisis de convergencia del PIB per cápita se consideraron los sub períodos 1960-1973, 1973-1989 y 1989-2009, mientras que para la variable productividad se consideraron los sub períodos 1976-1989 y 1989-2009. El análisis se llevó a cabo empleando las definiciones de convergencia ? absoluta y ? usando corte transversal y datos panel. Las estimaciones de panel concluyen un proceso de convergencia ? para todo el período 1960-2009 de 55 años para reducir la mitad de la brecha. Sin embargo, para el análisis de convergencia ? muestra una reducción de la dispersión en los cincuenta años, pero desacelerándose a partir de 1990. Adicionalmente, fueron estimadas las funciones de distribución de las variables PIB y productividad anuales usando kernels, evidenciándose una persistente desigualdad regional, especialmente desde 1985 en adelante, al observarse la formación del fenómeno de la bimodalidad, es decir, emerge una brecha entre ciertas regiones con mayores niveles de renta y otras con menores niveles. Los antecedentes cuantificados nos indican un lento ajuste a los cambios de las economías regionales y una escasa efectividad del mercado a la hora de solucionar las disparidades regionales. En consecuencia, la convergencia de las regiones chilenas es una asignatura pendiente en las políticas públicas de Chile

Alejandro Corvalán

2012-06-01

 
 
 
 
121

Interacciones tempranas y género infantil en familias monoparentales chilenas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio transversal de las interacciones madre-hijo(a en familias monoparentales chilenas de bajo ingresos, considerando las diferencias según el género infantil. Participan 80 díadas, con 39 niñas y 41 niños entre los 4 y 15 meses y se evalúa la calidad de las interacciones con el instrumento CARE-Index. Se observan altos puntajes en depresión y estrés materno, así como un promedio en la calidad de la interacción que indica necesidad de intervención, mostrando lo anterior vulnerabilidad en las díadas del estudio. Las díadas con infantes de género masculino muestran interacciones significativamente más difíciles con sus madres que las de género femenino, quienes a su vez muestran interacciones significativamente más pasivas que los infantes de género masculino. Los tamaños de efecto observados en las diferencias son medianos en ambos casos. Se observa también complementariedad en las conductas de madres e hijos(as, obteniéndose correlaciones positivas y significativas entre sensibilidad materna y cooperatividad infantil, control materno y las conductas difíciles de los infantes, así como entre la conducta no responsiva de las madres y la actitud pasiva en los niños(as. Se discuten los hallazgos a partir de las teorías existentes en relación a género infantil e interacciones tempranas, en el contexto de familias monoparentales a cargo de la madre.

Marcia Olhaberry Huber

2012-01-01

122

Genetic variability of papaya lethal yellowing virus isolates from Ceará and Rio Grande do Norte States, Brazil Variabilidade genética de isolados do papaya lethal yellowing virus dos Estados do Ceará e Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The papaya (Carica papaya) is a fruit crop of great economic importance throughout the Brazilian northeast, which is responsible for 60% of the national output. Papayas in the states of Ceará and Rio Grande do Norte are affected by lethal yellowing disease, caused by papaya lethal yellowing virus (PLYV). Previous work suggested that PLYV is a putative sobemovirus. To assess the genetic variability of PLYV, foliar samples were collected in October 2008 and October 2009 in commercial fields fr...

2012-01-01

123

76 FR 13972 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Fresh Papaya Fruit From...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2011-0013...Papaya Fruit From Malaysia Into the Continental...Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION...papaya) fruit from Malaysia into the...

2011-03-15

124

Effect of gamma irradiation in papaya (Carica papaya L.) harvested in three degrees of maturation.; Efeito da irradiacao gama em mamao papaia (Carica papaya L.) colhido em tres pontos de maturacao  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The papaya is a fragile tropical fruit with thin skin, susceptible to post harvest diseases and mechanical injuries. Furthermore, it is sensible to low temperatures and at normal conditions it ripens rapidly, increasing the difficulties with storage. The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of gamma irradiation in papayas harvested in three degrees of maturation, in order to increase shelf life. To accomplish that, papayas were harvested in perfect quality conditions, washed, submitted to carnauba wax and selected by skin coloration into three distinct degrees of maturation: Mat 0, or beginning of yellow coloration; Mat 1, yellow stripes more developed, and Mat 2, one third yellow. Half of them were submitted to irradiation with 0, 75 kGy, while the others became control treatment. They were analyzed in four different periods of conservation, which were 1 day after irradiation (DAI) refrigerated (11 +- 1 deg C), 14 DAI refrigerated, 14 DAI refrigerated + 3 at room temperature (RT = 24 deg +- 2 deg C) and 14 DAI refrigerated + 6 at RT. The effect of irradiation was not influenced by the maturation degree at harvest. Irradiation promoted firmness maintenance of papaya and, therefore, delayed ripening; modified the green color of papaya to a lighter tone, which determined more homogeneity in the skin yellow color development (greater values of L* and b*), and turned the papaya flesh color lighter (rower values of b*). There was no effect of irradiation in papaya weight loss, in the occurrence of diseases, in the development of surface yellow color, in the parameter a* of papaya skin color, in the parameters L*, a* and chroma of flesh color, p H and total soluble solids content. Visual and organoleptic sensorial tests were accomplished with papayas from a new delivery in the conservation period of 14 DAI refrigerated + 3 at RT. In the visual test was evaluated the appearance of papaya in the following treatments: Mat O control, Mat O irradiated, Mat 1 control, Mat 1 irradiated, Mat 2 control e Mat 2 irradiated, in which the first one received lower scores due to the occurrence of ratting on one of the papayas. In the organoleptic test, the parameters firmness, sweetness and acceptance were evaluated for the following treatments: control, Mat O irradiated, Mat 1 irradiated e Mat 2 irradiated. There was no difference between treatments for the sweetness parameter. The irradiated treatments received better scores for firmness as well as papayas irradiated at Mat 1 and 2 for acceptance (author)

Pimentel, Rodrigo Meirelles de Azevedo

2001-07-01

125

Analysis of ripening-related gene expression in papaya using an Arabidopsis-based microarray  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a commercially important crop that produces climacteric fruits with a soft and sweet pulp that contain a wide range of health promoting phytochemicals. Despite its importance, little is known about transcriptional modifications during papaya fruit ripening and their control. In this study we report the analysis of ripe papaya transcriptome by using a cross-species (XSpecies) microarray technique based on the phylogenet...

2012-01-01

126

Cyanogenesis in glucosinolate-producing plants: Carica papaya and Carica quercifolia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Carica papaya, Carica quercifolia, Carica hastata, Caricaceae, Passifloraceae, Biosynthesis, Glucosinolates, Cyanohydrin glycosides, Cyanogenic glycosides, Prunasin, Tetraphyllin B, Cyclopentenylglycine

Olafsdottir, E.S.; Jørgensen, Lise Bolt

2002-01-01

127

76 FR 49725 - Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Fresh Papaya Fruit From Malaysia into the...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Importation of Fresh Papaya Fruit From Malaysia into the Continental United States AGENCY...United States of fresh papaya fruit from Malaysia. Based on the findings of a pest risk...importation of fresh papaya fruit from Malaysia. DATES: Effective Date: August...

2011-08-11

128

40 CFR 174.515 - Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement...Exemptions § 174.515 Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement...tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus are exempt from the...

2010-07-01

129

Sensitivity of a real-time PCR method for the detection of transgenes in a mixture of transgenic and non-transgenic seeds of papaya (Carica papaya L.)  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Genetically engineered (GE) ringspot virus-resistant papaya cultivars ‘Rainbow’ and ‘SunUp’ have been grown in Hawai’i for over 10 years. In Hawai’i, the introduction of GE papayas into regions where non-GE cultivars are grown and where feral non-GE papayas exist have been accompanied with concerns associated with transgene flow. Of particular concern is the possibility of transgenic seeds being found in non-GE papaya fruits via cross-pollination. Development of high-throughput methods to reliably detect the adventitious presence of such transgenic material would benefit both the scientific and regulatory communities. Results We assessed the accuracy of using conventional qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as well as real-time PCR-based assays to quantify the presence of transgenic DNA from bulk samples of non-GE papaya seeds. In this study, an optimized method of extracting high quality DNA from dry seeds of papaya was standardized. A reliable, sensitive real-time PCR method for detecting and quantifying viral coat protein (cp) transgenes in bulk seed samples utilizing the endogenous papain gene is presented. Quantification range was from 0.01 to 100 ng/?l of GE-papaya DNA template with a detection limit as low as 0.01% (10 pg). To test this system, we simulated transgene flow using known quantities of GE and non-GE DNA and determined that 0.038% (38 pg) GE papaya DNA could be detected using real-time PCR. We also validated this system by extracting DNA from known ratios of GE seeds to non-GE seeds of papaya followed by real-time PCR detection and observed a reliable detection limit of 0.4%. Conclusions This method for the quick and sensitive detection of transgenes in bulked papaya seed lots using conventional as well as real-time PCR-based methods will benefit numerous stakeholders. In particular, this method could be utilized to screen selected fruits from maternal non-GE papaya trees in Hawai’i for the presence of transgenic seed at typical regulatory threshold levels. Incorporation of subtle differences in primers and probes for variations in cp worldwide should allow this method to be utilized elsewhere when and if deregulation of transgenic papaya occurs.

2013-01-01

130

Effects of Different Concentrations and Applications of Calcium on Storage Life and Physicochemical Characteristics of Papaya (Carica Papaya L.)  

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Papaya (Carica Papaya L.) fruits index 2 were treated with 1.5, 2.5 and 3.5% solutions of calcium chloride by dipping and vacuum infiltration (-33 Kpa) or untreated (0%) as control. Effects of these treatments were evaluated on storage life and postharvest quality characteristics of papaya. After 21 days of storage at 13±1°C, the fruits were removed from storage for physicochemical analysis. Following additional five days holding in the storage condition for fruits used for eva...

2008-01-01

131

Effects of Different Concentrations and Applications of Calcium on Storage Life and Physicochemical Characteristics of Papaya (Carica Papaya L.)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Papaya (Carica Papaya L.) fruits index 2 were treated with 1.5, 2.5 and 3.5% solutions of calcium chloride by dipping and vacuum infiltration (-33 Kpa) or untreated (0%) as control. Effects of these treatments were evaluated on storage life and postharvest quality characteristics of papaya. After 21 days of storage at 13±1°C, the fruits were removed from storage for physicochemical analysis. Following additional five days holding in the storage condition for fruits used for evaluatio...

2008-01-01

132

Una taxonomía de las universidades chilenas / Taxonomy of chilean universities  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se propone una taxonomía de las universidades chilenas mediante análisis factorial, que resulta distinta a las tipologías de Brunner (2005, 2009), Parada (2010), Torres y Zenteno (2011) y Rosso y Reyes (2012), y supera las objeciones de Bernasconi (2006). Evita, además, distinciones binarias del tip [...] o tradicional/privada, investigación/docencia, metropolitana/regional, católica/laica, etc. Tampoco establece rankings ni utiliza condiciones históricas, legales u otras alejadas de los modos de operación efectivos de las universidades. La siguiente taxonomía las agrupa según un pool de variables relevantes (investigación, tamaño, composición, acreditación, etc.) que da pie a cinco tipos de universidades: investigación, masivas, de acreditación, elitistas y no elitistas. Se espera aportar en la comprensión de las universidades y contribuir a las políticas públicas con herramientas conceptuales para abordar la diversidad universitaria. Abstract in english We propose a taxonomy of Chilean universities through a factor analysis with different results from those produced by typologies of Brunner (2005, 2009), Parada (2010), Torres and Zenteno (2011) and Rosso and Reyes (2012), overcoming Bernasconi’s objections (2006). It avoids binary distinction [...] s like traditional/private, metropolitan/regional, catholic/secular, etc. It does not establish rankings nor use historical, legal or other distinctions not referred to the effective universities’ operational characteristics. Universities are grouped according to a pool of relevant variables (research, size, composition, accreditation, etc.). Five types of universities are generated: Research, Massive, Accreditation, Elite and Non-Elite. This research intends to contribute to the understanding of universities in Chile and to public policies with conceptual tools for addressing the diversity of universities.

Muñoz, Miguel; Blanco, Christian.

133

Anatomy of somatic embryogenesis in Carica papaya L.  

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Mature zygotic embryos of Carica papaya L. ?Sunrise Solo? were used as explants for embryogenesis induction. The explants were inoculated on Murashige and Skoog culture medium supplemented with 2 mg.L-1 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and incubated in darkness at 25+2°C. Histological analysis of callogenesis and somatic embryogenesis indicated occurrence of direct and indirect somatic embryogenesis development. Direct somatic embryo formation was observed from hypocotyledonary epidermic cells...

2001-01-01

134

Anatomy of somatic embryogenesis in Carica papaya L.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mature zygotic embryos of Carica papaya L. ‘Sunrise Solo’ were used as explants for embryogenesis induction. The explants were inoculated on Murashige and Skoog culture medium supplemented with 2 mg.L-1 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and incubated in darkness at 25+2°C. Histological analysis of callogenesis and somatic embryogenesis indicated occurrence of direct and indirect somatic embryogenesis development. Direct somatic embryo formation was observed from hypocotyledonary epidermic c...

2001-01-01

135

Stability of proteinase from Carica papaya latex in dense gases  

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Proteinase from Carica papaya latex was tested on its thermal stability at atmospheric pressure and in supercritical carbon dioxide, near-critical propane and dimethyl-ether. In supercritical carbon dioxide at 300 bar thermalactivation of the examined proteinase was improved in the comparison toatmospheric pressure. In propane and dimethyl-ether (300 bar) activity of the examined proteinase decreased. Influence of compressionžexpansion cycles on residual activity of the same proteinase in su...

Habulin, Maja; Primoz?ic?, Mateja; Knez, Z?eljko

2012-01-01

136

Predacious mites in papaya (Carica papaya L.) orchards: in search of a biological control agent of phytophagous mite pests Ácaros predadores em pomares de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L.): em busca de um agente de controle biológico de ácaros fitófagos  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study was conducted to search for potential mite predators to control phytophagous mites in papaya orchards. Bimonthly surveys, from January 1999 to February 2000, were carried out in two orchards, one in Silva Jardim (RJ), where pests are naturally controlled, and one at Linhares (ES), where pests are chemically controlled. All mite species collected from buds, new leaves, old leaves, and floral buttons of papaya trees and from weed leaves were quantified and identified to at least fami...

Collier, Karin F. S.; Lima, Jose O. G.; Albuquerque, Gilberto S.

2004-01-01

137

A rapid detection for irradiated fresh papayas using ESR spectroscopy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The detections of radicals induced in irradiated both fresh and dried papayas were carried out at liquid nitrogen and room temperature using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. Fresh papayas irradiated by the ?-rays were separated into flesh and skin that subjected to the ESR detection. The ESR spectra of the specimen at liquid-nitrogen temperature were observed clearly at a week after the ?-irradiation. Those signals were consisted from main peak at g=2.000 and side peaks at g=2.018 and 1.982. They showed a linear response against the dose. Furthermore, the side peaks from freeze-dried papaya flesh stored at 4degC were observed clearly at two weeks after the ?-irradiation. Those signals also showed the linear dose-response. The detection scheme for irradiated fresh fruits can be done by two stages: 1) A screening test of ESR signals at liquid nitrogen temperature using fresh samples. 2) A room temperature ESR measurement using freeze-dry samples. (author)

2011-04-01

138

Detection of Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus by reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification.  

Science.gov (United States)

Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV) can infect transgenic papaya resistant to a related pathogen, Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), posing a substantial threat to papaya production in China. Current detection methods, however, are unable to be used for rapid detection in the field. Here, a reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed for the detection of PLDMV, using a set of four RT-LAMP primers designed based on the conserved sequence of PLDMV CP. The RT-LAMP method detected specifically PLDMV and was highly sensitive, with a detection limit of 1.32×10(-6) ?g of total RNA per reaction. Indeed, the reaction was 10 times more sensitive than one-step RT-PCR, while also requiring significantly less time and equipment. The effectiveness of RT-LAMP and one-step RT-PCR in detecting the virus were compared using 90 field samples of non-transgenic papaya and 90 field samples of commercialized PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya from Hainan Island. None of the non-transgenic papaya tested positive for PLDMV using either method. In contrast, 19 of the commercialized PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya samples tested positive by RT-LAMP assay, and 6 of those tested negative by RT-PCR. Therefore, the PLDMV-specific RT-LAMP is a simple, rapid, sensitive, and cost-effective tool in the field diagnosis and control of PLDMV. PMID:24100065

Shen, Wentao; Tuo, Decai; Yan, Pu; Li, Xiaoying; Zhou, Peng

2014-01-01

139

Radiacao gama como um processo quarentenario para Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) e Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied., 1830) (Diptera: tephritidae) em mamao papaya (Carica papaya L.) cultivar sunrise solo. (Gamma radiation use as a quarantine treatment for Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) and Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied., 1830) in papaya fruits (Carica papaya, Linnaeus), cultivar sunrise solo).  

Science.gov (United States)

The gamma irradiation as treatment for control of the immature stages of fruit flies, C. capitata and A. fraterculus in papaya fruits, cultivar Sunrise Solo is studied. The gamma rays attenuation was observed by one and two papaya fruits placed between so...

J. T. Faria

1989-01-01

140

Hypoglycemic effect of Carica papaya leaves in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditional plant treatment for diabetes has shown a surging interest in the last few decades. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the hypoglycemic effect of the aqueous extract of C. papaya leaves in diabetic rats. Several studies have reported that some parts of the C. papaya plant exert hypoglycemic effects in both animals and humans. Methods Diabetes was induced in rats by intraperitoneal administration of 60 mg/kg of streptozotocin (STZ. The aqueous extract of C. papaya was administered in three different doses (0.75, 1.5 and 3 g/100 mL as drinking water to both diabetic and non-diabetic animals during 4 weeks. Results The aqueous extract of Carica papaya (0.75 g and 1.5 g/100 mL significantly decreased blood glucose levels (pC. papaya could help islet regeneration manifested as preservation of cell size. In the liver of diabetic treated rats, C. papaya prevented hepatocyte disruption, as well as accumulation of glycogen and lipids. Finally, an antioxidant effect of C. papaya extract was also detected in diabetic rats. Conclusions This study showed that the aqueous extract of C. papaya exerted a hypoglycemic and antioxidant effect; it also improved the lipid profile in diabetic rats. In addition, the leaf extract positively affected integrity and function of both liver and pancreas.

Juárez-Rojop Isela Esther

2012-11-01

 
 
 
 
141

Draft Genome Sequence of Erwinia mallotivora BT-MARDI, Causative Agent of Papaya Dieback Disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Erwinia mallotivora was isolated from papaya trees infected with dieback disease, which were planted at the Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI), Malaysia. Here, we report a draft genome sequence of E. mallotivora BT-MARDI, which offers an important source of information for understanding pathogen and host interaction during papaya dieback development. PMID:24812220

Redzuan, R Ahmad; Abu Bakar, N; Rozano, L; Badrun, R; Mat Amin, N; Mohd Raih, M F

2014-01-01

142

Draft Genome Sequence of Erwinia mallotivora BT-MARDI, Causative Agent of Papaya Dieback Disease  

Science.gov (United States)

Erwinia mallotivora was isolated from papaya trees infected with dieback disease, which were planted at the Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI), Malaysia. Here, we report a draft genome sequence of E. mallotivora BT-MARDI, which offers an important source of information for understanding pathogen and host interaction during papaya dieback development.

Abu Bakar, N.; Rozano, L.; Badrun, R.; Mat Amin, N.; Mohd Raih, M. F.

2014-01-01

143

Characterization of a high oleic oil extracted from papaya (Carica papaya L.) seeds / Caracterização de um óleo alto oleico extraído de sementes de mamão (Carica papaya L.)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese As características físico-químicas e as composições de ácidos graxos, tocoferóis e carotenoides do óleo bruto extraído de sementes de mamão (Carica papaya L.), variedade formosa, foram investigadas. O rendimento em óleo das sementes foi de 29,16%. Os dados obtidos para os índices analíticos comparam [...] -se bem com os de outros óleos comestíveis. O óleo apresentou elevada resistência à oxidação (77,97 horas). Os principais ácidos graxos quantificados foram o oleico (71,30%), seguido pelo palmítico (16,16%), linoleico (6,06%) e esteárico (4,73%). O ? e ?-tocoferol foram os tocoferóis predominantes com 51,85 e18,9 mg.kg-1, respectivamente. A ?-criptoxantina (4,29 mg.kg-1) e o ?-caroteno (2,76 mg.kg-1) foram os carotenóides quantificados e o conteúdo de compostos fenólicos totais foi de 957,60 mg.kg-1. Assim, a potencial utilização das sementes de mamão para a produção de óleo parece ser favorável. Entretanto, estudos toxicológicos são ainda necessários antes de o óleo ser indicado para utilização em alimentos. Abstract in english The physicochemical characteristics, fatty acid, tocopherol, and carotenoid composition of a crude oil extracted from papaya (Carica papaya L.) seeds, formosa variety, were investigated. The oil yield from the seeds was 29.16%. The data obtained for the analytical indexes were in agreement with thos [...] e of other edible oils. The oil obtained had high oxidation resistance (77.97 hours). The major fatty acids in total lipid were oleic (71.30%), palmitic (16.16%), linoleic (6.06%), and stearic (4.73%) acid. The ? and ?-tocopherol were the predominant tocopherols with 51.85 and 18.89 mg.kg-1, respectivelly. The ?-cryptoxanthin (4.29 mg.kg-1) and ?-carotene (2.76 mg.kg-1) were the carotenoids quantified, and the content of total phenolic compounds was 957.60 mg.kg-1. Therefore, the potential utilization of the papaya seeds for oil production seems favorable. However, toxicological studies need to be carried out before the oil is appropriate for food applications.

Malacrida, Cassia Roberta; Kimura, Mieko; Jorge, Neuza.

144

Reguladores vegetais na quebra da dominância apical de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L.) / Plant growth regulators on breaking apical dominance in papaya plants (Carica papaya L.)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O trabalho avaliou os efeitos de reguladores vegetais sobre a quebra da dominância apical de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L. cv. Improved Sunrise Solo). A aplicação dos reguladores vegetais foi iniciada quando as plantas tinham seis meses de idade, totalizando três aplicações, a intervalos de sete dias, [...] constando dos seguintes tratamentos: T1- água (testemunha); T2- GA3 250 mg L-1; T3- GA3 500 mg L-1; T4- benziladenina (BA) 250 mg L-1; T5- BA 500 mg L-1; T6- GA3 125 mg L-1 + BA 125 mg L-1; T7- GA3 250 mg L-1 + BA 250 mg L-1. Esses tratamentos foram acompanhados da remoção ou não da gema apical. Os resultados mostraram que plantas tratadas com GA3 + BA a 125 e 250 mg L-1, com e sem a remoção da gema apical, apresentaram maior número de brotações que a testemunha, a qual não apresentou nenhuma brotação das gemas laterais. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to study the effects of gibberelin and cytokinin on breaking apical dominance and axillary buds growth of the Carica papaya L. Papaya plants sprayed three times within a period of 7 days, with the following treatments: T1- water (control), T2- GA3 250 mg L-1, T3- GA3 5 [...] 00 mg L-1, T4- benzyladenine (BA) 250 mg L-1, T5- BA 500 mg L-1, T6- GA3 125 mg L-1 + BA 125 mg L-1, T7- GA3 250 mg L-1 + BA 250 mg L-1. The treatments were carried out with or without removal of the apical buds. After 36 days of the last plant growth regulators application was observed lateral bud numbers, lateral buds length and lateral buds diameter. The results showed that there were a higher number of shoots in plants treated with GA3 at 125 mg L-1 + BA at 125 mg L-1 and GA3 at 250mg L-1 + BA at 250 mg L-1. The removal of the apical bud helped the sprouting of the papaya plants.

Ono, Elizabeth Orika; Grana Júnior, José Francisco; Rodrigues, João Domingos.

145

Effect of heat treatment on ethylene and CO2 emissions rates during papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit ripening  

Science.gov (United States)

Ripening studies of nontreated and treated papaya (papaya L) are accomplished by monitoring the ethylene and CO2 emission rates of that climacteric fruit, to evaluate its shelf life. The treatments simulate the commercial Phitosanitarian process used to avoid the fly infestation. Ethylene emission was measured using a commercial CO2 laser driven photoacoustic setup and CO2, using a commercial gas analysis also based on the photothermal effect. The results show a marked change in ethylene and CO2 emission rate pattern for treated fruits when compared to the ones obtained for nontreated fruits and a displacement of the climacteric pick shown that the treatment causes a decrease of shelf life of fruit.

da Silva, M. G.; Santos, E. O.; Sthel, M. S.; Cardoso, S. L.; Cavalli, A.; Monteiro, A. R.; de Oliveira, J. G.; Pereira, M. G.; Vargas, H.

2003-01-01

146

Label-free quantitative proteomics reveals differentially regulated proteins in the latex of sticky diseased Carica papaya L. plants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) is so far the only described laticifer-infecting virus, the causal agent of papaya (Carica papaya L.) sticky disease. The effects of PMeV on the laticifers’ regulatory network were addressed here through the proteomic analysis of papaya latex. Using both 1-DE- and 1D-LC-ESI-MS/MS, 160 unique papaya latex proteins were identified, representing 122 new proteins in the latex of this plant. Quantitative analysis by normalized spectral counting revealed 10 down-regula...

Rodrigues, Silas P.; Ventura, Jose? A.; Aguilar, Clemente; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Choi, Hyungwon; Sobreira, Tiago J. P.; Nohara, Lilian L.; Wermelinger, Luciana S.; Almeida, Igor C.; Zingali, Russolina B.; Fernandes, Patricia M. B.

2012-01-01

147

Histopathological changes in Wistar albino rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya  

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Full Text Available Background: Exposure of animals to xenobiotics may or may not trigger adverse response at cellular levels. Aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya is consumed by sickle cell patients as antisickling agent in Western Nigeria. Aim: This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of Carica papaya on certain organs in Wister albino rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya. Materials and Methods: Different doses of aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya were administered orally daily for 42 days to six groups of rats. At the end of exposure, the animals were sacrificed and tissue sections were prepared from livers, kidneys, hearts and small intestines using standard techniques. Results: Histopathological results showed that no pathological changes were observed in tissue sections of experimental animals when compared with tissue sections of the same organs in control animals. Conclusion: No pathological changes were elicited in the organs of rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya.

Taofeeq Oduola

2010-05-01

148

Tolerance induction to saline stress in papaya seeds treated with potassium nitrate and sildenafil citrate  

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Full Text Available Papaya fruit (Carica papaya is a species of great commercial agriculture importance. Although has a saline stress sensitivity. Potassium nitrate (KNO3 and nitric oxide are substances that inducing saline stress tolerance. The aim of this study was evaluate the effects of sildenafil citrate (SC and KNO3 on the papaya seeds germination of under saline stress. Papaya seeds of hybrids Calimosa and JS12x Waimanalo were immersed in distilled water or KNO3 solutions and SC and followed germinated in distilled water or NaCl solution –0.3 MPa. Seeds of the hybrid JS12x Waimanalo had higher percentages of germination and normal seedlings. The controls of the two hybrids did not show saline stress tolerance during germination. Seeds of the hybrid JS12x Waimanalo, when treated with KNO3 or SC showed stress tolerance. The growth regulators tested were important in the induction of saline tolerance in papaya seeds.

Rafael Fonsêca Zanotti

2013-12-01

149

Evaluation of platelet augmentation activity of Carica papaya leaf aqueous extract in rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Carica papaya leaves have been used traditionally to treat indigestion, as a vermifuge. Carica papayaleaves have also been shown to possess anti-tumor and immunomodulatory effects. The current study aims at determining the effect of Carica papaya leaves aqueous extract in increasing the platelet count in thrombocytopenic rat model. Aqueous extract of Carica papaya leaves at concentration of 400mg/kg and 800mg/kg were given to cyclophosphamide induced thrombocytopenic rats for a period of fifteen days. Blood was withdrawn at various time intervals to determine the platelet count. Also, the clotting time was determined on the 15th day of the study by capillary method. Carica papaya leaf extract was found to increase the platelet count and also to decrease the clotting time in rats. The study aims at determining the possible effects of papaya leaves in thrombocytopenia occurring in dengue fever.

Swati Patil

2013-01-01

150

Potencial antifúngico de extractos de cuatro especies vegetales sobre el crecimiento de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides en papaya (Carica papaya en poscosecha  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El manejo de antracnosis por Colletotrichum gloeosporioides es el problema más importante en poscosecha de frutos tropicales. La actividad antifúngica de diferentes extractos vegetales fue evaluada in vitro e in vivo para controlar la antracnosis poscosecha en papaya. Extractos de ajo (Allium sativum (10 y 15 % y canela (Cinnamomum zeylanicum (0,0050; 0,0100; 0,0150 % mostraron efecto fungicida en contra de C. gloeosporioides para supresión de crecimiento micelial (100 %, inhibición de germinación (100 % y esporulación del hongo (100 %, considerándose estos extractos como los más promisorios para inhibir el desarrollo del hongo in vitro. Estudios in vivo también revelaron que los extracto de ajo (11,74 % y canela a dosis de 0,0054 % aplicada antes y al mismo tiempo de la inoculación con C. gloeosporioides, fueron las dosis óptimas para el control (severidad de la antracnosis en frutos de papaya artificialmente inoculados, mientras que a mayores dosis la severidad aumentó. La variable fitotoxicidad arrojó resultados consistentes con lo anterior, comprobándose que al aumentar las dosis de extracto de canela se presentó cambio de color en los frutos. Los resultados sugieren la posibilidad de usar estos extractos a dosis adecuadas como biofungicidas para controlar antracnosis en papaya en poscosecha.

Nadia Landero Valenzuela

2013-01-01

151

Estudio de la conservación de la papaya (Carica papaya L. asociado a la aplicación de películas comestibles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Brasil es un importante productor de papaya, pero sólo una pequeña parte se exporta. Esta fruta es altamente perecedera, por lo que el control de la maduración es esencial para aumentar la vida útil, tanto para el mercado interno como para la exportación. Una alternativa que ha cobrado impulso en el mercado es el uso de películas comestibles biodegradables, entre ellas la película producida a partir de almidón de yuca. En este estudio se evaluó el efecto de una película de almidón de yuca (2 % sobre la papaya almacenadas a temperatura ambiental (25 ± 2 ºC y a 8 °C, y 82 % de humedad relativa durante 6 días de almacenamiento. Se realizaron análisis de pérdida de peso, color, pH, acidez, carotenoides totales, vitamina C y sólidos solubles totales, cada tres días de almacenamiento. La película comestible de almidón de yuca resultó ser una buena alternativa para la preservación de la papaya durante seis días de almacenamiento, en relación a los parámetros pH, grados Brix, acidez y carotenoides.

Alessandra Almeida Castro

2011-01-01

152

Heat shock and gamma radiation in the quarantine process of Papaya CV. Solo(Carica papaya L.)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: To export, it is not only necessary to achieve quality standards, but also, quarantine standards. The main function of irradiation is quarantine control of fruit flies, therefore it is necessary to combine with treatments which focus at keeping fruit quality. The objective of this work was the evaluation of the quality of papaya submitted to heat treatment followed by irradiation at quarantine doses. Papayas were selected green and separated in treatments: a) control; irradiation at doses; b) 250, c) 500 Gy; d) hot water at 60 deg C for 30 seconds; and combined to doses e) 250, f) 500 Gy. The papayas were stored at 21 (± 1 deg C) with relative humidity of 85 - 90%, and then after 8 days, they were evaluated by their soluble solid content, pH, titratable acidity, firmness, decay index and internal color. The analysis of mass loss and external color were executed at 0, 2, 4 and 7 days after irradiation. It was observed that in fruits submitted to hot water (d, e, f) there were less decay and in combined treatments (e, f) it was verified higher firmness. In the second day, irradiated treatments (b, c, e, f) were more yellow than the others. As to the other parameters evaluated, there were no differences between treatments (author)

2007-10-05

153

Heat shock and gamma radiation in the quarantine process of Papaya CV. Solo(Carica papaya L.)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Full text: To export, it is not only necessary to achieve quality standards, but also, quarantine standards. The main function of irradiation is quarantine control of fruit flies, therefore it is necessary to combine with treatments which focus at keeping fruit quality. The objective of this work was the evaluation of the quality of papaya submitted to heat treatment followed by irradiation at quarantine doses. Papayas were selected green and separated in treatments: a) control; irradiation at doses; b) 250, c) 500 Gy; d) hot water at 60 deg C for 30 seconds; and combined to doses e) 250, f) 500 Gy. The papayas were stored at 21 ({+-} 1 deg C) with relative humidity of 85 - 90%, and then after 8 days, they were evaluated by their soluble solid content, pH, titratable acidity, firmness, decay index and internal color. The analysis of mass loss and external color were executed at 0, 2, 4 and 7 days after irradiation. It was observed that in fruits submitted to hot water (d, e, f) there were less decay and in combined treatments (e, f) it was verified higher firmness. In the second day, irradiated treatments (b, c, e, f) were more yellow than the others. As to the other parameters evaluated, there were no differences between treatments (author)

Pimentel, Rodrigo M.A.; Walder, Julio M.M. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: rmapiment@cena.usp.br; jmwalder@cena.usp.br; Marcondes, Yvens E.M. [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: yvensmar@unimep.br

2007-07-01

154

Evaluation of Antimicrobial Properties of Edible Surface Coating Based on Carrageenan Conjugated with Silver Nanoparticles on Sekaki Papaya (Carica Papaya cv. Sekaki): A New Antimicrobial Edible Coating  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Antibacterial properties of edible surface coating based on carrageenan incorporated with silver nanoparticles (SNPs), was investigated against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus to obtain optimum concentration of SNPs. Results obtained indicate that SNPs with concentration of 40 ml L-1 effectively inhibited the growth of both Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria. Sekaki papaya fruits were then coated with prepared edible coating formulation comprising of carrageenan (0.8 % w/v) and glycerol (1.0 % w/v) with and without SNPs (40 ppm) and stored at ambient conditions (26±2 degree Celsius and 60±10 % RH). Microbial analysis of coated and uncoated papaya samples during storage indicated that the edible coating comprising of carrageenan, glycerol and SNPs, strongly inhibited the growth of fungus that caused post harvest diseases of papaya as compared to uncoated and coated papaya fruits with edible coating without SNPs. (author)

2011-07-04

155

An Analysis on DNA Fingerprints of Thirty Papaya Cultivars (Carica papaya L., Grown in Thailand with the Use of Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms Technique  

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Full Text Available The experiment was carried out at the Department of Horticulture, Ubon Ratchathani University, Ubon Ratchathani province, Northeast Thailand during June 2002 to May 2003 aims to identify DNA fingerprints of thirty papaya cultivars with the use of Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLP technique. Papaya cultivars were collected from six different research centers in Thailand. Papaya plants of each cultivar were grown under field conditions up to four months then leaf numbers 2 and 3 of each cultivar (counted from top were chosen for DNA extraction and the samples were used for AFLP analysis. Out of 64 random primers being used, 55 pairs gave an increase in DNA bands but only 12 pairs of random primers were randomly chosen for the final analysis of the experiment. The results showed that AFLP markers gave Polymorphic Information Contents (PIC of three ranges i.e., AFLP markers of 235 lied on a PIC range of 0.003-0.05, 47 for a PIC range of 0.15-0.20 and 12 for a PIC range of 0.35-0.40. The results on dendrogram cluster analysis revealed that the thirty papaya cultivars were classified into six groups i.e., (1 Kaeg Dum and Malador (2 Kaeg Nuan (3 Pakchong and Solo (4 Taiwan (5 Co Coa Hai Nan and (6 Sitong. Nevertheless, in spite of the six papaya groups all papaya cultivars were genetically related to each other where diversity among the cultivars was not significantly found.

Janthasri Ratchadaporn

2007-01-01

156

An analysis on DNA fingerprints of thirty papaya cultivars (Carica papaya L.), grown in Thailand with the use of amplified fragment length polymorphisms technique.  

Science.gov (United States)

The experiment was carried out at the Department of Horticulture, Ubon Ratchathani University, Ubon Ratchathani province, Northeast Thailand during June 2002 to May 2003 aims to identify DNA fingerprints of thirty papaya cultivars with the use of Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLP) technique. Papaya cultivars were collected from six different research centers in Thailand. Papaya plants of each cultivar were grown under field conditions up to four months then leaf numbers 2 and 3 of each cultivar (counted from top) were chosen for DNA extraction and the samples were used for AFLP analysis. Out of 64 random primers being used, 55 pairs gave an increase in DNA bands but only 12 pairs of random primers were randomly chosen for the final analysis of the experiment. The results showed that AFLP markers gave Polymorphic Information Contents (PIC) of three ranges i.e., AFLP markers of 235 lied on a PIC range of 0.003-0.05, 47 for a PIC range of 0.15-0.20 and 12 for a PIC range of 0.35-0.40. The results on dendrogram cluster analysis revealed that the thirty papaya cultivars were classified into six groups i.e., (1) Kaeg Dum and Malador (2) Kaeg Nuan (3) Pakchong and Solo (4) Taiwan (5) Co Coa Hai Nan and (6) Sitong. Nevertheless, in spite of the six papaya groups all papaya cultivars were genetically related to each other where diversity among the cultivars was not significantly found. PMID:19090101

Ratchadaporn, Janthasri; Sureeporn, Katengam; Khumcha, U

2007-09-15

157

Caracterización del aceite de coquito de palma chilena (Jubaea chilensis  

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Full Text Available The characteristics of the seeds from Chilean palm and the detailed composition of its fat are studied starting from 4 lots of seeds from the two regions being the major producers of Chilean palm seeds. From the proximate composition of the seeds a high content of fats is deduced with a mean value of 67.3%. The contents of proteins, carbohydrates and fibre were in the range of 7-11%. A detailed analysis of the fat indicates a high content of saturated fatty acids being capric, caprilic, lauric and miristic acids the major fatty acids. For this reason the presence of a high percentage of medium-chain triglycerides are detected in the triglyceride analysis. As for tocopherols, the fat contains low amounts of α-, γ- y δ-tocopherol with a total average of 84 mg/kg. Concerning phytosterols, the total content was around 1000 mg/kg being β-sitosterol and Î?7-estigmastenol the two major sterolsSe analizan las características generales del coquito de palma chilena y se estudia con detalle la composición de su aceite. Con este objetivo, se analizan 4 lotes de coquitos procedentes de las dos regiones de Chile donde existe mayor producción. La composición proximal del coquito indica un contenido muy mayoritario de grasa, con un promedio de 67,3% mientras los contenidos de proteínas, hidratos de carbono y fibra se encuentran entre el 7 y el 11%. Un análisis detallado de la grasa muestra un contenido elevado de ácidos grasos saturados (alrededor del 85% siendo los ácidos cáprico, caprílico, láurico y mirístico los que se encuentran en mayor concentración, lo que origina un elevado porcentaje de triglicéridos de cadena media. Respecto a los tocoferoles, el aceite contiene cantidades limitadas de α-, γ- y δ-tocoferol con un valor promedio total de 84 mg/kg, no detectándose la presencia de tocotrienoles. Respecto a los fitoesteroles, el contenido total es del orden de 1000 mg/kg siendo los esteroles mayoritarios el β-sitosterol y el Î?7-estigmastenol.

Torija, M. Esperanza

2008-03-01

158

Comportamiento mecánico de frutos de papaya bajo compresión axial / Mechanical behavior of papaya fruits under axial compression  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los frutos de papaya (Caricapapaya L.) son muy susceptibles a los daños mecánicos, lo que repercute en fuertes pérdidas en poscosecha. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar el comportamiento mecánico de frutos de papaya en poscosecha, para lo cual se realizaron dos experimentos en el Campo Ex [...] perimental Las Huastecas, INIFAP durante los años 2011 y 2012. Las variables evaluadas fueron la fuerza y la deformación requeridas por los frutos para alcanzar el límite elástico, el punto de biocedencia y el punto de ruptura. La compresión se realizó con un Instron Universal 4460. En el primer experimento se evaluaron frutos en madurez de consumo tratados en pre-cosecha con cinco combinaciones de fertilización; los tratamiento N-P-K-Cu-Zn, N-P-K-Ca-Zn, N-P-K y N-P-K-Fe-Zn registraron mayor resistencia a la fuerza de compresión y resultaron diferentes al tratamiento N-P-K-Mn-Zn (Tukey, p? 0.05). En el segundo experimento se evaluaron tres cultivares en dos estados de madurez; los frutos en madurez fisiológica fueron más resistentes para alcanzar el límite elástico (414 N), con relación a los frutos en madurez de consumo (67 N), con diferencias estadísticas (Tukey, p? 0.05). Los frutos del híbrido PK 02 requirieron mayor fuerza para alcanzar el límite elástico (298 N), con relación a los frutos de la variedad Maradol roja (250 N) y del híbrido PK 03 (173 N), con diferencias (Tukey, p? 0.05). Se concluye que los frutos de papaya tuvieron un comportamiento mecánico diferente, en función del manejo nutricional, del tipo de cultivar y del estado de madurez. Abstract in english The fruits of papaya (Carica papaya L.) are very susceptible to mechanical damage, which results in heavy losses in post-harvest. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanical behavior of papaya fruits in post-harvest, for which two experiments were conducted in the Experimental Field The Hua [...] steca, INIFAP during the years 2011 and 2012. The variables evaluated were the strength and deformation required for the fruit to reach the elastic limit, biocedence and the breaking point. The compression was performed with a Instron Universal 4460. In the first experiment for ripening fruit treated with pre-harvest five combinations of fertilization, the treatment N-P-K-Cu-Zn, N-P-K-Ca-Zn, N-P-K-Fe-Zn reported increased resistance to force compression and was different to the treatment N-P-K-Mn-Zn (Tukey, p? .05). In the second experiment three cultivars were evaluated in two states of maturity, the fruits at physiological maturity were more resistant to attain the elastic limit (414 N) in relation to ripening (67 N), with statistical differences (Tukey, p? .05). The fruits of the hybrid PK 02 required more force to achieve the yield strength (298 N) with respect to the fruits of the variety Maradol roja (250 N) and the hybrid PK 03 (173 N), with differences (Tukey, p? .05). It is concluded that papaya fruits had different mechanical behavior depending on the nutritional management, the type of cultivar and maturity.

Enrique, Vázquez García; Horacio, Mata Vázquez; Rafael, Ariza Flores; Felipe, Santamaría Basulto; Irán, Alia Tejacal.

159

Optical and ultrastructural study of the pollen grain development in hermaphrodite papaya tree (Carica papaya L.  

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Full Text Available The objective of this study was to describe the pollen grain development in hermaphrodite papaya tree. The flower buds were collected at different stages of the development and the anthers were treated chemically for observation under optical and electronic transmission microscopes. The pollen grain development followed the normal pattern described for the Angiosperms. The pollen grain development was described from meiocyte to the mature pollen grain. In the microsporogenesis, the microspore mother cells or the meiocytes underwent meiosis giving rise to the tetrads that were enclosed by the calose. Later, the tetrads were released by the dissolution of the calose by calase activity and microspores underwent mitosis. Microgametogenesis was characterized by asymmetrical mitotic division of each microspore giving rise to bi-nucleate pollen grains. The structures similar to the plastids were found in the cytoplasm and close to the nucleus of the generative cell. Gradual degeneration was observed in the tapetum during the male gamete development.Esta pesquisa descreve os estádios de formação do gameta masculino (grão de pólen em mamoeiro. Para isto foram coletados botões florais em diferentes etapas de desenvolvimento e as anteras foram tratadas quimicamente para serem observadas ao microscópio óptico e eletrônico de transmissão. O desenvolvimento do grão de pólen seguiu o padrão normal para Angiospermas. Foram descritos os estádios de desenvolvimento do grão de pólen desde meiócitos ou células mães de micrósporos até o grão de pólen binucleado. Na microesporogênese, as células esporogênicas sofreram meiose dando origem as tétrades, com posterior liberação dos micrósporos da tétrade. A microgametogênese caracterizou-se, principalmente, pela divisão mitótica assimétrica de cada micrósporo originando grãos de pólen binucleados. Estruturas semelhantes a plastídios foram encontradas no citoplasma da célula generativa e agregados próximos ao núcleo da célula generativa. Observou-se degeneração gradativa das células do tapete no decorrer da formação do gameta.

Lídia Márcia Silva Santos

2008-06-01

160

Optical and ultrastructural study of the pollen grain development in hermaphrodite papaya tree (Carica papaya L.)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Esta pesquisa descreve os estádios de formação do gameta masculino (grão de pólen) em mamoeiro. Para isto foram coletados botões florais em diferentes etapas de desenvolvimento e as anteras foram tratadas quimicamente para serem observadas ao microscópio óptico e eletrônico de transmissão. O desenvo [...] lvimento do grão de pólen seguiu o padrão normal para Angiospermas. Foram descritos os estádios de desenvolvimento do grão de pólen desde meiócitos ou células mães de micrósporos até o grão de pólen binucleado. Na microesporogênese, as células esporogênicas sofreram meiose dando origem as tétrades, com posterior liberação dos micrósporos da tétrade. A microgametogênese caracterizou-se, principalmente, pela divisão mitótica assimétrica de cada micrósporo originando grãos de pólen binucleados. Estruturas semelhantes a plastídios foram encontradas no citoplasma da célula generativa e agregados próximos ao núcleo da célula generativa. Observou-se degeneração gradativa das células do tapete no decorrer da formação do gameta. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to describe the pollen grain development in hermaphrodite papaya tree. The flower buds were collected at different stages of the development and the anthers were treated chemically for observation under optical and electronic transmission microscopes. The pollen grain [...] development followed the normal pattern described for the Angiosperms. The pollen grain development was described from meiocyte to the mature pollen grain. In the microsporogenesis, the microspore mother cells or the meiocytes underwent meiosis giving rise to the tetrads that were enclosed by the calose. Later, the tetrads were released by the dissolution of the calose by calase activity and microspores underwent mitosis. Microgametogenesis was characterized by asymmetrical mitotic division of each microspore giving rise to bi-nucleate pollen grains. The structures similar to the plastids were found in the cytoplasm and close to the nucleus of the generative cell. Gradual degeneration was observed in the tapetum during the male gamete development.

Santos, Lídia Márcia Silva; Pereira, Telma Nair Santana; Souza, Margarete Magalhães de; Damasceno Junior, Pedro Correa; Costa, Fabiane Rabelo da; Ribeiro, Beatriz Ferreira; Freitas, Noil Gomes de; Pereira, Messias Gonzaga.

 
 
 
 
161

Effects of Edible Micronized Chitosan Coating on Quality and Shelf Life of Sliced Papaya  

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Full Text Available Papaya pulp is very perishable and has a short shelf life. Manually sliced papayas were treated with 0%, 0.25%, 0.5%, and 1% chitosan (non-micronized and micronized aqueous solutions; placed into plastic trays, and over-wrapped with PVDC film and then stored at 4°C. Color, soluble solid content, water loss, and total plate count of samples were evaluated. Chitosan coating had the ability to maintain the lightness of the sliced papayas. The a* values of the micronized chitosan-coated sliced papayas were significantly lower than those of the-coated. The sliced papayas that had been treated with 1% MC had a higher total soluble solid content and lower b* value after four days of storage. Also, the chitosan coating on the sliced papaya effectively retarded water loss and inhibited the growth of microorganisms. The results reveal that applying a chitosan coating effectively maintained the quality attributes and prolonged the shelf life of the sliced papayas.

Min-Sheng Su

2013-08-01

162

Molluscicidal activity of Carica papaya and Areca catechu against the freshwater snail Lymnaea acuminata.  

Science.gov (United States)

The molluscicidal activity of seed and lyophilized latex powder of Carica papaya and seed powder of Areca catechu against the vector snail Lymnaea acuminata was studied. The toxicity of these plant products was time and dose dependent. The toxicity of C. papaya lyophilized latex powder (LC(50) at 96 h: 8.38 mg/l) was more pronounced than that of A. catechu seed powder (LC(50) at 96 h: 12.32 mg/l) and C. papaya seed powder (LC(50) at 96 h: 61.56 mg/l). Ethanolic extracts of C. papaya seed and A. catechu seed were more toxic than their other extracts. The ethanolic extract of A. catechu seed (LC(50) at 24h: 17.21 mg/l) was more effective than the ethanolic extract of C. papaya seed (LC(50) at 24h: 53.38 mg/l). The LC(50) of column-purified fraction of A. catechu seed at 96 h was 3.99 mg/l, whereas that of C. papaya seed was 7.06 mg/l. C. papaya and A. catechu may be used as potent molluscicides since the concentrations used to kill the snails were not toxic for the fish Colisa fasciatus which shares the same habitat with the snail L. acuminata. PMID:18280663

Jaiswal, Preetee; Singh, D K

2008-04-15

163

Wound-healing potential of an ethanol extract of Carica papaya (Caricaceae) seeds.  

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Carica papaya L. (Linn) (Caricaceae) is traditionally used to treat various skin disorders, including wounds. It is widely used in developing countries as an effective and readily available treatment for various wounds, particularly burns. This study evaluated the wound-healing and antimicrobial activity of C. papaya seed extract. Ethanol extract of C. papaya seed (50 mg/kg/day) was evaluated for its wound-healing activity in Sprague-Dawley rats using excision wound model. Animals were randomly divided into four groups of six each (group 1 served as control, group 2 treated with papaya seed extract, group 3 treated with a standard drug mupirocin and papaya seed extract (1:1 ratio) and group 4 treated with a mupirocin ointment. Rate of wound contraction and hydroxyproline content were determined to assess the wound-healing activity of the seed extract. The group 2 animals showed a significant decrease in wound area of 89% over 13 days when compared with groups 1 (82%), 3 (86%) and 4 (84%) respectively. The hydroxyproline content was significantly higher with the granulation tissue obtained from group 2 animals which were treated with C. papaya seed extract. Histological analysis of granulation tissue of the group 2 animals showed the deposition of well-organized collagen. The extract exhibited antimicrobial activity against Salmonella choleraesuis and Staphylococcus aureus. Our results suggest that C. papaya promotes significant wound healing in rats and further evaluation for this activity in humans is suggested. PMID:22296524

Nayak, Bijoor Shivananda; Ramdeen, Ria; Adogwa, Andrew; Ramsubhag, Adash; Marshall, Julien Rhodney

2012-12-01

164

Alternativa comercial para extender vida de anaquel de papaya 'Maradol' / A commercial alternative to extend shelf-life of 'Maradol' papaya  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto del 1-Metilciclopropeno (1-MCP) y etileno (solos o en combinación) para manipular el proceso de maduración y extender vida de anaquel de papaya 'Maradol'. Durante el 2007 se realizaron tres ensayos: 1. Efecto del 1-MCP en papaya almacenada en condici [...] ones de mercadeo y refrigeración más mercadeo; 2. Papaya tratada con 1-MCP y etileno y mezcla 1-MCP + etileno; 3. Evaluación comercial del 1-MCP y etileno en papaya. Se analizaron pérdida de peso, color externo, firmeza, color de pulpa y sólidos solubles totales. Se encontró que el 1-MCP a 100 nl·litro-1 retrasó el desarrollo de color externo y pulpa e inhibió el ablandamiento de los frutos. También se observó que el etileno a dosis de 100 µl·litro-1 aplicado después del 1-MCP no revirtió el efecto de éste, sin embargo, el 1-MCP aplicado después del etileno redujo la velocidad de ablandamiento y el desarrollo del color en cáscara y pulpa inducido por el etileno. Se concluye que el 1-MCP a 100 nl·litro-1 por 12 horas aplicado después del etileno puede ser una técnica viable para manipular el proceso de maduración y alargar vida de anaquel de papaya 'Maradol'. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) and ethylene (alone or combined) to handle the ripening process and to extend the shelf-life of 'Maradol' papaya. During 2007 three assays were conducted: 1. Effect of 1-MCP in papaya stored under marketing simula [...] tion and refrigeration plus marketing simulatio; 2. Papaya treated with 1-MCP and ethylene and the mixture of 1-MCP plus ethylene; 3. Commercial evaluation of 1-MCP and ethylene on papaya. Weight loss, external color, firmness, pulp color and total soluble solids were evaluated. It was found that 1-MCP at 100 nl·liter-1 delayed the development of external and pulp color, and inhibited the fruit softening. Also it was observed that ethylene at 100 µl·liter-1 applied after 1-MCP was unable to reverse the 1-MCP effect. However, 1-MCP applied after ethylene delayed fruit softening and the development of skin and pulp color induced by the ethylene application. It was concluded that 1-MCP at 100 nl·liter-1 for 12 hours applied after ethylene may be a viable technique to manipulate the ripening process and to extend the shelf-life of 'Maradol' papaya.

Osuna-García, J. A.; Pérez-Barraza, M. H.; Vázquez-Valdivia, V.; Urías-López, M. A..

165

Consideraciones sobre la utilización de diferentes densidades en el cultivo de papaya (Carica papaya, L.) "Baixinho de Santa Amalia" en islas canarias / Different plantation densities for papaya (Carica papaya, L) cv. "Baixinho de Santa Amalia" culture in the canary islands  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El cultivo de papaya en Islas Canarias se ha extendido en los últimos años bajo condiciones de invernadero. La utilización de cultivares de papaya tipo "Baixinho de Santa Amalia" (mutante natural del cultivar "Sunrise") de porte bajo, emisión de la flor a corta altura y precocidad en la floración, r [...] esultan de gran interés sobre todo en esta clase de medios. Estas características fenológicas hacen posible el manejo del cultivo a mayores densidades que las empleadas con otros cultivares. Por lo tanto, se ha planteado este trabajo cuyo objetivo principal es determinar cual es el marco de plantación óptimo, que permita obtener mayores rendimientos sin depreciar la calidad del fruto. Para ello, se ha evaluado la producción tanto de las plantas hermafroditas como de las plantas femeninas durante dos ciclos de cultivo, así como las características organolépticas, grado de carpeloidía y deformación de los frutos. Los resultados indican que la densidad mayor, proporciona mejor comportamiento de las plantas así como mayor producción de frutos y menor porcentaje de fruta desechable. Abstract in english The growth of papaya plants under greenhouse conditions has recently become the norm in the Canary Islands. The use of "Baixinho de Santa Amalia" (a natural mutant of the "Sunrise" cultivar), which is a dwarf cultivar flowering early and not high up the plant, is the great interest, above all under [...] these conditions. These phenological characteristic make possible the planting at higher densities than for other cultivars. This study has been carried out to determine the optimal planting density to permit greater production without reducing fruit quality. To this aim the yield, both of hermaphrodite and female plants, has been evaluated through two crop cycles, as well as studying the organoleptic characteristics, degree of carpellody and deformation of the fruits. The results suggest that the highest density provides better plant perfomance as well as higher fruit production and lower percentage of rejected fruit.

Mª Cristina Rodriguez, Pastor.

166

Estudo e modelagem da cinética de desidratação osmótica do mamão formosa (Carica papaya L.) / Kinetics and modeling on osmotic dehydration of papaya (Carica papaya L.)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho teve como objetivo o estudo da cinética e modelagem do processo de desidratação osmótica de cubos de mamão Formosa (Carica papaya L.), assim como da qualidade do produto final. O tratamento osmótico foi conduzido a 30ºC, com agitação de 110rpm, utilizando-se dois tipos de soluçõe [...] s de sacarose 70ºBrix: a primeira contendo lactato de sódio 2,4% p/p e ácido láctico 0,1M e a segunda com lactato de sódio 2,4% p/p e ácido cítrico 0,1M. O estudo da cinética de desidratação osmótica mostrou que a solução contendo ácido cítrico apresentou valor de perda de água (WL), ao final de 48 horas de processo, ligeiramente superior ao encontrado para a solução contendo ácido láctico. Comportamento contrário ocorreu para o ganho de sólidos (SG). O ajuste dos dados experimentais foi realizado através do modelo difusional para geometria cúbica, sem considerar encolhimento durante o processo e um modelo empírico de dois parâmetros. Os coeficientes de difusividade efetiva de água (Def) variaram de 1,27 a 5,03 x 10-10 m²/s. A qualidade da fruta após processamento foi avaliada através de análises de vitamina C, carotenóides totais, acidez e pH. Abstract in english The present work had as objective the study of kinetics and mathematical modeling of osmotic dehydration process of papaya cubes (Carica papaya L.), as well as the quality of the final product. The osmotic treatment was carried out for 30ºC, with agitation 110rpm, with two types of 70ºBrix sucrose s [...] olutions: solution containing sodium lactate 2,4% w/w and lactic acid 0,1M and another one with sodium lactate 2,4% w/w and citric acid 0,1M. The study of kinetics of osmotic dehydration showed the solution containing citric acid had a water loss (WL) value, at the end of 48 hours of process, lightly superior to the found for the solution containing lactic acid. Opposite behavior happened for the solid gain (SG). Modeling of experimental data was accomplished through the difusional model for cubic geometry, considering no shrinkage during the process and an empirical two parameters one. The coefficients of effective difusivity of water (Def) varied from 1,27 to 5,03 x 10-10 m²/s. Quality of fruit after processing was evaluated through vitamin C, total carotenoid, acidity and pH analyses.

Ânoar Abbas, El-Aquar; Fernanda E. Xidieh, Murr.

167

Estudo e modelagem da cinética de desidratação osmótica do mamão formosa (Carica papaya L. Kinetics and modeling on osmotic dehydration of papaya (Carica papaya L.  

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Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo o estudo da cinética e modelagem do processo de desidratação osmótica de cubos de mamão Formosa (Carica papaya L., assim como da qualidade do produto final. O tratamento osmótico foi conduzido a 30ºC, com agitação de 110rpm, utilizando-se dois tipos de soluções de sacarose 70ºBrix: a primeira contendo lactato de sódio 2,4% p/p e ácido láctico 0,1M e a segunda com lactato de sódio 2,4% p/p e ácido cítrico 0,1M. O estudo da cinética de desidratação osmótica mostrou que a solução contendo ácido cítrico apresentou valor de perda de água (WL, ao final de 48 horas de processo, ligeiramente superior ao encontrado para a solução contendo ácido láctico. Comportamento contrário ocorreu para o ganho de sólidos (SG. O ajuste dos dados experimentais foi realizado através do modelo difusional para geometria cúbica, sem considerar encolhimento durante o processo e um modelo empírico de dois parâmetros. Os coeficientes de difusividade efetiva de água (Def variaram de 1,27 a 5,03 x 10-10 m²/s. A qualidade da fruta após processamento foi avaliada através de análises de vitamina C, carotenóides totais, acidez e pH.The present work had as objective the study of kinetics and mathematical modeling of osmotic dehydration process of papaya cubes (Carica papaya L., as well as the quality of the final product. The osmotic treatment was carried out for 30ºC, with agitation 110rpm, with two types of 70ºBrix sucrose solutions: solution containing sodium lactate 2,4% w/w and lactic acid 0,1M and another one with sodium lactate 2,4% w/w and citric acid 0,1M. The study of kinetics of osmotic dehydration showed the solution containing citric acid had a water loss (WL value, at the end of 48 hours of process, lightly superior to the found for the solution containing lactic acid. Opposite behavior happened for the solid gain (SG. Modeling of experimental data was accomplished through the difusional model for cubic geometry, considering no shrinkage during the process and an empirical two parameters one. The coefficients of effective difusivity of water (Def varied from 1,27 to 5,03 x 10-10 m²/s. Quality of fruit after processing was evaluated through vitamin C, total carotenoid, acidity and pH analyses.

Ânoar Abbas El-Aquar

2003-04-01

168

Preferential reproduction mode of hermaphrodite papaya plant (Carica papaya L; Caricaceae Modo de reprodução preferencial de plantas hermafroditas de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L; Caricaceae  

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Full Text Available This research was done to study the reproductive system of papaya hermaphrodite plant based on the histochemical nature of pollen grain, stigma receptivity, in vivo pollen grain germination and pollen:ovule ratio. In the histochemical analysis, pollen grains were stained by using Sudan IV and I2KI solution ; the stigma receptivity was assessed by alpha-naphthtyl acetate solution in closed and opened flowers. Pollen germination and pollen tube growing were examined in flower buds near anthesis with 0.1% aniline blue. To estimate the pollen:ovule ratio , anthers from each flower bud were dissected and all pollen grains were counted; ovules were dissected from ovaries and were counted under stereomicroscope. The results indicated that papaya pollen grains are of lipidic nature; the stigmas were receptive before the opening and until 48 hours after opening; the pollen grains germinated and emitted polinic tube before flower opening and the pollen:ovule ratio indicated the predominance of autogamous reproductive system. These results indicate that hermaphrodite papaya trees is preferentially of optional autogamous with cleistogamy.Esta pesquisa teve o objetivo de estudar o sistema reprodutivo preferencial de plantas hermafroditas de mamoeiro, com base na natureza histoquímica dos grãos de pólen, receptividade do estigma, teste de germinação in vivo do grão de pólen e razão pólen : óvulo. Na análise histoquímica dos grãos de pólen, foram utilizados os corantes Sudan IV e solução de I2KI; a receptividade do estigma foi avaliada com a solução de acetato de alfa-naftil em flores abertas e fechadas. A germinação e o crescimento do tubo polínico in vivo foram avaliados em flores fechadas, utilizando solução de azul de anilina a 0,1%. Para estimar a razão pólen:óvulo, anteras de cada flor foram dissecadas, e os grãos de pólen foram contados; ovários foram dissecados, e os óvulos foram contados sob estereomicroscópio. Os resultados indicaram que os grãos de pólen do mamoeiro são de natureza lipídica; os estigmas estavam receptivos antes da abertura e até 48 h após a abertura; os grãos de pólen germinaram e emitiram tubo polínico antes da abertura floral, e a relação pólen:óvulo, indicou predominância do sistema reprodutivo autógamo. Esses resultados indicaram que o modo de reprodução preferencial do mamoeiro hermafrodita é autógamo facultativo com cleistogamia.

Pedro Corrêa Damasceno junior

2009-03-01

169

Preferential reproduction mode of hermaphrodite papaya plant (Carica papaya L; Caricaceae) / Modo de reprodução preferencial de plantas hermafroditas de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L; Caricaceae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Esta pesquisa teve o objetivo de estudar o sistema reprodutivo preferencial de plantas hermafroditas de mamoeiro, com base na natureza histoquímica dos grãos de pólen, receptividade do estigma, teste de germinação in vivo do grão de pólen e razão pólen : óvulo. Na análise histoquímica dos grãos de p [...] ólen, foram utilizados os corantes Sudan IV e solução de I2KI; a receptividade do estigma foi avaliada com a solução de acetato de alfa-naftil em flores abertas e fechadas. A germinação e o crescimento do tubo polínico in vivo foram avaliados em flores fechadas, utilizando solução de azul de anilina a 0,1%. Para estimar a razão pólen:óvulo, anteras de cada flor foram dissecadas, e os grãos de pólen foram contados; ovários foram dissecados, e os óvulos foram contados sob estereomicroscópio. Os resultados indicaram que os grãos de pólen do mamoeiro são de natureza lipídica; os estigmas estavam receptivos antes da abertura e até 48 h após a abertura; os grãos de pólen germinaram e emitiram tubo polínico antes da abertura floral, e a relação pólen:óvulo, indicou predominância do sistema reprodutivo autógamo. Esses resultados indicaram que o modo de reprodução preferencial do mamoeiro hermafrodita é autógamo facultativo com cleistogamia. Abstract in english This research was done to study the reproductive system of papaya hermaphrodite plant based on the histochemical nature of pollen grain, stigma receptivity, in vivo pollen grain germination and pollen:ovule ratio. In the histochemical analysis, pollen grains were stained by using Sudan IV and I2KI s [...] olution ; the stigma receptivity was assessed by alpha-naphthtyl acetate solution in closed and opened flowers. Pollen germination and pollen tube growing were examined in flower buds near anthesis with 0.1% aniline blue. To estimate the pollen:ovule ratio , anthers from each flower bud were dissected and all pollen grains were counted; ovules were dissected from ovaries and were counted under stereomicroscope. The results indicated that papaya pollen grains are of lipidic nature; the stigmas were receptive before the opening and until 48 hours after opening; the pollen grains germinated and emitted polinic tube before flower opening and the pollen:ovule ratio indicated the predominance of autogamous reproductive system. These results indicate that hermaphrodite papaya trees is preferentially of optional autogamous with cleistogamy.

Damasceno junior, Pedro Corrêa; Pereira, Telma Nair Santana; Pereira, Messias Gonzaga; Silva, Francisco Filho da; Souza, Margarete de Magalhães; Nicoli, Rodrigo Gualandi.

170

Presença dos vírus da mancha anelar e do amarelo letal em frutos de mamoeiro comercializados The presence of Papaya ringspot virus and Papaya lethal yellowing virus in commercialized papaya fruits  

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Full Text Available Considerando os índices elevados de incidência de vírus que infetam o mamoeiro (Carica papaya em condições de campo e seus sintomas típicos nos frutos, foi efetuado um levantamento na Central de Comercialização do Estado do Ceará (CEASA de frutos infetados com o vírus da mancha anelar do mamoeiro (Papaya ringspot virus, PRSV e o vírus do amarelo letal do mamoeiro (Papaya lethal yellowing virus, PLYV. Os principais Centros de comercialização de frutos são as CEASAs e os produtos comercializados nos supermercados são, em grande parte, adquiridos nesses Centros. Os frutos coletados aleatoriamente nas bancas de comercialização da CEASA foram levados ao Laboratório de Virologia Vegetal, da Universidade Federal do Ceará (UFC para análises sintomatológicas e testes de "enzyme linked immunosorent assay" (ELISA indireto, com anti-soros específicos para o PRSV e PLYV. De acordo com os resultados das análises sintomatológicas, confirmadas por sorologia, dentre os 8.400 frutos analisados, 5,5% estavam infetados por PRSV e 1,2% por PLYV, demonstrando a necessidade de implementar um programa rigoroso de controle, envolvendo erradicação de fontes de vírus no campo, representados por plantas infetadas nos pomares, áreas abandonadas e inclusive cultivos de fundo de quintal.Considering the high incidence of virus in papaya (Carica papaya orchards and their typical symptoms in the fruits, a survey was carried out in the Central Market in the State of Ceará (CEASA for the presence of papaya fruits infected with Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV and Papaya lethal yellowing virus (PLYV. CEASAs are the most important fruit commercial centers, and a great number of plant products sold in supermarkets are obtained in CEASA. Fruits were randomly collected from CEASA stalls and brought to the Plant Virus Laboratory at the Federal University of Ceará (UFC to be analyzed for typical virus symptoms and tested by indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA against antisera specific to PRSV and PLYV. According to the results obtained by symptom analysis, which were confirmed by serology, among the 8,400 fruits analyzed 5.5% were infected with PRSV and 1.2% with PLYV, showing the need to implement a control program involving eradication of virus sources in the field, represented by infected plants in papaya orchards, abandoned orchards and infected plants identified in backyards.

Najara F. Ramos

2008-12-01

171

Presença dos vírus da mancha anelar e do amarelo letal em frutos de mamoeiro comercializados / The presence of Papaya ringspot virus and Papaya lethal yellowing virus in commercialized papaya fruits  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Considerando os índices elevados de incidência de vírus que infetam o mamoeiro (Carica papaya) em condições de campo e seus sintomas típicos nos frutos, foi efetuado um levantamento na Central de Comercialização do Estado do Ceará (CEASA) de frutos infetados com o vírus da mancha anelar do mamoeiro [...] (Papaya ringspot virus, PRSV) e o vírus do amarelo letal do mamoeiro (Papaya lethal yellowing virus, PLYV). Os principais Centros de comercialização de frutos são as CEASAs e os produtos comercializados nos supermercados são, em grande parte, adquiridos nesses Centros. Os frutos coletados aleatoriamente nas bancas de comercialização da CEASA foram levados ao Laboratório de Virologia Vegetal, da Universidade Federal do Ceará (UFC) para análises sintomatológicas e testes de "enzyme linked immunosorent assay" (ELISA) indireto, com anti-soros específicos para o PRSV e PLYV. De acordo com os resultados das análises sintomatológicas, confirmadas por sorologia, dentre os 8.400 frutos analisados, 5,5% estavam infetados por PRSV e 1,2% por PLYV, demonstrando a necessidade de implementar um programa rigoroso de controle, envolvendo erradicação de fontes de vírus no campo, representados por plantas infetadas nos pomares, áreas abandonadas e inclusive cultivos de fundo de quintal. Abstract in english Considering the high incidence of virus in papaya (Carica papaya) orchards and their typical symptoms in the fruits, a survey was carried out in the Central Market in the State of Ceará (CEASA) for the presence of papaya fruits infected with Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) and Papaya lethal yellowing v [...] irus (PLYV). CEASAs are the most important fruit commercial centers, and a great number of plant products sold in supermarkets are obtained in CEASA. Fruits were randomly collected from CEASA stalls and brought to the Plant Virus Laboratory at the Federal University of Ceará (UFC) to be analyzed for typical virus symptoms and tested by indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) against antisera specific to PRSV and PLYV. According to the results obtained by symptom analysis, which were confirmed by serology, among the 8,400 fruits analyzed 5.5% were infected with PRSV and 1.2% with PLYV, showing the need to implement a control program involving eradication of virus sources in the field, represented by infected plants in papaya orchards, abandoned orchards and infected plants identified in backyards.

Najara F., Ramos; Aline K.Q., Nascimento; Maria Fátima B., Gonçalves; José Albérsio A., Lima.

172

Pengaruh getah pepaya (Carica papaya terhadap sintasan tokolan udang windu (Panaeus monodon pada kepadatan yang berbeda selama pengangkutan  

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Full Text Available The objective of present study was to evaluate the possibility of papaya’s latex (Carica papaya as anti stress or larvaside for tiger shrimp (Panaeus monodon post larvae Pl 14-30 during transportation. The tiger shrimp post larvae was collected from BBAP Ujung Batee, Aceh Besar on September, 2012. Reseach method used the completely random design with two factors, density of post larvae with three treatments (1000; 1500 dan 2000 ind/l and concentration of papaya’s latex with four treatments (0; 100; 200 dan 300 ppm and three replications for each treatments. The effect of papaya’s latex on tiger shrimp post larvae was observed by calculating the percentage of post larvae’s survival rate. The calculation was only done after twelve hours of transportation, due to the everage of survival rate percentage of post larvae on all levels of density was less than 50%. The ANOVA test showed that the density and the concentration factors gave significance effect on survival rate of tiger shrimp post larvae (P<0,05. The results showed that survival rate of tiger shrimp post larvae (PL 14-30 were decreased with increasing of larvae density and concentration of papaya’s latex. However, Duncan’s test showed that the highest survival rate was obtained at 1.000 ind/l and 0 ppm of papaya’s latex. Hence, the effect of papaya’s latex concentration treatments in this study was larvaside on tiger shrimp post larvae.

Sofyatuddin Karina

2013-04-01

173

Influencia del tamaño empresarial sobre los resultados: un estudio comparativo entre empresas chilenas y españolas  

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Full Text Available Con la finalidad de contribuir en la importancia que tiene el tamaño empresarial en el resultado que alcanzan las organizaciones, la presente investigación persigue dos objetivos. En primer lugar, realizar una revisión bibliográfica del tamaño de las empresas y su relación con los resultados empresariales, y en segundo lugar, contrastar los planteamientos anteriores para aportar evidencia empírica al respecto, a través de un análisis comparativo entre empresas chilenas y españolas. El contraste se realiza sobre un panel completo de empresas industriales chilenas y españolas, para el periodo 1999-2005 y se emplea un modelo de efectos aleatorios. Utilizando técnicas para datos de panel se descubre que existe una relación entre el tamaño y los resultados empresariales, y además que el tamaño es una variable que influye significativamente en los resultados de las empresas. En conclusión, las empresas que deseen alcanzar mejores resultados deben considerar la dimensión empresarial o su tamaño como una variable relevante para dicho propósito.

Patricia Huerta

2010-01-01

174

INFLUENCE OF THICKNESS ON THE DRYING OF PAPAYA PUREE (Carica papaya L.) THROUGH REFRACTANCE WINDOWTM TECHNOLOGY / INFLUENCIA DEL ESPESOR EN SECADO DE PURÉ DE PAPAYA (Carica Papaya L.) POR TECNOLOGÍA DE VENTANA DE REFRACTANCIA®  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la influencia del espesor de las muestras (2, 3 y 4 mm) sobre las cinéticas de secado, actividad de agua (a w) y color (deltaE) de rodajas de puré de papaya procesadas por tecnología de ventana de refractanciaTM (RW™). Adicionalmente se evaluó la difusividad d [...] el agua (Deff) teniendo en cuenta el encogimiento. Los datos de humedad se ajustaron mediante los modelos de Newton y Midilli. Los resultados mostraron que a menor espesor el secado fue más rápido, los valores de a w fueron menores y los deltaE superiores. Las muestras alcanzaron 0.0652, 0.1132 y 0.2624 g agua/ g sólido seco en 60 min para rodajas de 2, 3 y 4 mm, respectivamente. El Modelo de Midilli fue el más apropiado para predecir las curvas de secado de papaya por RW™. Deff disminuyó a menor espesor y su orden de magnitud fue de 10-10 m²/s. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of sample thickness (2, 3 and 4 mm) on the drying kinetics, water activity (a w) and color (deltaE) of papaya puree slices processed through Refractance WindowTM technology (RW™). Additionally, the water diffusion coefficient (Deff) was evaluated t [...] aking into account the shrinkage effect. The experimental values of moisture were fitted using Newton's and Midilli's models. The results showed that the lower the thickness, the faster the drying, the lower the values of a w and the higher the deltaE. The samples reached 0.0652, 0.1132 and 0.2624 g water/ g dry solid in 60 min for 2, 3 and 4 mm slices, respectively. Midilli's model was the most appropriate to predict the experimental curves of papaya drying through RW™. Deff decreased at a lower thickness and its order of magnitude was of 10-10 m²/s.

MARÍA U., OCORÓ-ZAMORA; ALFREDO A., AYALA-APONTE.

175

Relaxation phenomena of radicals induced in irradiated fresh papayas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electron spin resonance spectrometry of the ?-irradiated fresh papayas followed by freeze-drying and powderization was performed. We found a strong single peak in the flesh was observed at g=2.004 and attributed to organic free radicals. Using the method of Lund et al., relaxation times of the peak from 0 to 14 days-stored samples after ?-irradiation were calculated. T2 showed a dose response, while T1 kept almost constant by the increment of doses. The ?-radiation-induced radicals showing progressive saturation behaviors can be caused through a different pathway from indirect effects by the low LET radiations. (author)

2010-09-01

176

Bioactivity of Carica papaya (Caricaceae) against Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)  

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The composition of a chloroform seed extract of C. papaya was determined by GC-MS. Nineteen compounds were identified, with oleic (45.97%), palmitic (24.1%) and stearic (8.52%) acids being the main components. The insecticidal and insectistatic activities of the extract and the three main constituents were tested. Larval duration increased by 3.4 d and 2.5 d when the extract was used at 16,000 and 9,600 ppm, respectively, whereas the pupal period increased by 2.2 d and 1.1 d at the same conce...

Salud Pérez-Gutiérrez; Miguel Angel Zavala-Sánchez; Marco Martín González-Chávez; Norma Cecilia Cárdenas-Ortega; Miguel Angel Ramos-López

2011-01-01

177

Empleo del método de secado convectivo combinado para la deshidratación de papaya (Carica papaya L.), variedad Maradol roja / Use of convective dry method combined for dehydration of papaya fruit (Carica papaya L.), variety Maradol roja  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La presente investigación tiene como objetivo evaluar el método de secado convectivo de papaya (Carica papaya L.) variedad Maradol roja, combinado con la aplicación de pretratamientos de osmosis (DOSC) y escaldado simple (ESSC), mediante el efecto de los factores tecnológicos del secador: temperatur [...] a (40 y 60 ºC) y velocidad del flujo de aire (2,5 y 1,5 m/s) sobre el comportamiento de las propiedades de calidad de la fruta deshidratada y la cinética del proceso. El pretratamiento de escaldado simple se realizó en agua destilada caliente a 70°C durante 15 minutos y la deshidratación osmótica u osmosis a 60 °C por 4 horas a frutas cortadas en cubos de 1,5± 0,2 cm de largo por 1,0±0,01 cm de espesor, utilizando una solución de sacarosa comercial a 50°Brix. Como diseño experimental se empleó un Diseño Factorial Completo 2² y para el procesamiento estadístico de los datos el software STATGRAPHICS Plus 5.1. Como principales resultados se obtuvo que en ambos procesos el aumento de la temperatura a 60 ºC y la reducción de la velocidad del flujo de aire a 1,5 m/s disminuyó el tiempo de secado con valores de R² >0,95 y ? Abstract in english This research aim is to evaluate the convective dry method of papaya fruit (Carica papaya L.), variety Maradol roja, combined with simply blanching (ESSC) and Osmosis (DOSC) pre-treatments by the effect of technological factors of dryer: temperature (40 y 60 ºC) and air flow speed (2,5 y 1,5 m/s) ab [...] ove the behavior of quality properties in dehydrated fruit and the process´s kinetic. The simple blanching was realized using hot water 70 °C per 15 min and the osmotic dehydration 60 °C per 4 h to the cubes with 1,5±0,2 cm length per 1,0 ± 0,01 cm de thickness, using a sucrose osmotic solution at 50 °Brix concentration. As experimental design was used a Full Factorial 2² Design and the STATGRAPHICS Plus 5.1 software. As principal results was obtained that in both process the higher temperature to 60 ºC and lower air flow speed to 1,5 m/s provokes a reduction on drying time with value of R² >0,95 y ?

Sahylin, Muñiz Becerá; Antihus, Hernández Gómez; Annia, García Pereira; Lilia, Méndez Lagunas.

178

High-density linkage mapping revealed suppression of recombination at the sex determination locus in papaya.  

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A high-density genetic map of papaya (Carica papaya L.) was constructed using 54 F(2) plants derived from cultivars Kapoho and SunUp with 1501 markers, including 1498 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers, the papaya ringspot virus coat protein marker, morphological sex type, and fruit flesh color. These markers were mapped into 12 linkage groups at a LOD score of 5.0 and recombination frequency of 0.25. The 12 major linkage groups covered a total length of 3294.2 cM, with an ...

Ma, Hao; Moore, Paul H.; Liu, Zhiyong; Kim, Minna S.; Yu, Qingyi; Fitch, Maureen M. M.; Sekioka, Terry; Paterson, Andrew H.; Ming, Ray

2004-01-01

179

Effects of Edible Micronized Chitosan Coating on Quality and Shelf Life of Sliced Papaya  

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Papaya pulp is very perishable and has a short shelf life. Manually sliced papayas were treated with 0%, 0.25%, 0.5%, and 1% chitosan (non-micronized and micronized) aqueous solutions; placed into plastic trays, and over-wrapped with PVDC film and then stored at 4°C. Color, soluble solid content, water loss, and total plate count of samples were evaluated. Chitosan coating had the ability to maintain the lightness of the sliced papayas. The a* values of the micron...

2013-01-01

180

Regiones fronterizas y flujos culturales: La peruanidad en una región chilena  

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El artículo discute las dinámicas culturales que articulan la zona fronteriza del norte de Chile (Arica) y sur peruano (Tacna). El argumento central es que se observa un creciente proceso de influencia de la cultura peruana en la ciudad de Arica, fenómeno que denominamos "la peruanidad de una región chilena". Los factores que influyen tienen que ver con el impacto regional de la globalización; la prolongada crisis económica de Arica; el acelerado crecimiento económico del sur d...

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Validación chilena del cuestionario de evaluación de apego en el adulto CAMIR  

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El objetivo de esta investigación fue examinar la confiabilidad y validez del instrumento de evaluación de apego en el adulto, .Cartes: Modèles Individuels de Relation (CAMIR)., en la realidad sociocultural chilena. Este instrumento, basado en la teoría del apego, es un cuestionario de auto-reporte que evalúa los modelos operativos internos en adultos y otras escalas relacionadas al apego. Los participantes fueron 578 sujetos, 204 hombres y 374 mujeres, con edades entre 14 y 80 años. Lo...

2009-01-01

182

Dormancia en semillas de papaya cv maradol roja durante el almacenamiento / Dormancy of papaya seeds cv Maradol Roja during storage  

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Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Dormancia en semillas de papaya cv Maradol Roja durante el almacenamiento. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar el efecto de la humedad de la semilla cultivar Maradol Roja y la temperatura durante el almacenamiento, en la dormancia de la papaya. Este trabajo fue desarrollado en el Laborat [...] orio Nacional de Semillas de la Empresa Productora y Comercializadora de Semillas, provincia La Habana, Cuba, en el período noviembre 2006 a enero 2008. Fueron extraídas las semillas de frutos de papaya cv Maradol Roja, y se secaron a tres contenidos de humedad (12%, 10,56% y 9,26%), y acondicionadas en bolsas de polietileno y almacenadas a 15ºC y 4ºC. El porcentaje de germinación, altura y peso fresco de la planta fueron realizadas al inicio y después de tres, seis, nueve y doce meses de almacenamiento. Hubo tendencia a la disminución de la germinación en los primeros seis meses del almacenamiento, alcanzándose los valores más bajos del porcentaje de germinación (55,6%). A partir de los nueve y doce meses fue detectado un aumento significativo en la germinación, independiente del contenido de humedad de la semilla. El ambiente de 15ºC favoreció mayor germinación en períodos mayores de almacenamiento en relación a las mantenidas a 4ºC, que exhibieron mejores porcentajes de germinación en un período menor (tres meses de almacenamiento). La dormancia finalizó en los periodos de almacenamiento a los nueve y doce meses, independientemente del contenido de humedad. Abstract in english Dormancy of papaya seeds cv Maradol Roja during storage. The objective of this work was to determine the effect of humidity content of papaya cv Maradol Roja and storage temperatura on dormany. The work was conducted at the Laboratorio Nacional de Semillas, Empresa Productora y Comercializadora de S [...] emillas, La Habana, Cuba, from November 2006 to January 2008. Seeds were extracted from papaya fruits cv Maradol Roja and dried to three humidiy contents (12%, 10,56% y 9,26%), and aconditioned in polyiethylene bags and stored at 15ºC and 4ºC. Percentaje of seed germination, heigth and fresh weight of the seedlings were measured at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months in storage. There was a trend towards reduced seed germination during the first 6 months in storage (55,6%). After 9 and 12 months a significant incresase in germination was observed, independent of seed water content. Seeds stored in environment at 15ºC favored germination after longer sotrage compared to seeds kept in storage for shorter periods (3 months). Seed dormany concluded between 9 and 12 months in storage irrespective of seed water content.

Maruchi, Alonso-Esquivel; Yoleinis, Ortiz-López; Roberto, Ramos-Ramírez; Hugo, Oliva-Diaz; Maricela, Capote-del Sol.

183

Viabilidade polínica de Carica papaya L.: uma comparação metodológica Pollen viability of Carica papaya L.: a methodological comparison  

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Full Text Available A viabilidade polínica do mamoeiro cultivar 'Sunrise Solo' (Carica papaya L. foi estudada utilizando germinação in vitro e testes colorimétricos, assim como a validade dos testes colorimétricos como estimativa de viabilidade comparada àquela do teste germinativo. Os dois meios de cultura, descritos na literatura como meios eficientes para germinação da espécie, diferem basicamente pela presença de nutrientes essenciais e concentração de ágar. O meio de cultura sem elementos essenciais e com maior concentração de ágar forneceu o melhor índice de germinação polínica (65%. Os cinco corantes testados foram: 2,3,5-cloreto de trifeniltetrazólio (TTC, Alexander, carmim acético, lugol e Sudan IV. O teste de coloração com TTC forneceu estimativa de viabilidade (67,5% equivalente ao teste de germinação in vitro e, portanto, confiável de viabilidade polínica. Os demais corantes testados superestimaram a viabilidade polínica (> 90%, porém são eficientes na determinação de constituintes celulares e da integridade do grão de pólen.Pollen viability of Carica papaya L. 'Sunrise Solo' cultivar was estimated using in vitro germination and pollen stain tests. Two culture media described in the literature as efficient for pollen in vitro germination of C. papaya were used. Germination was higher in the media without essential elements but with a higher concentration of agar (65% compared with 51.5%. These results were compared with viability estimates based on staining pollen. The five stains used to test for pollen viability were: 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride - TTC, Alexander's stain, acetocarmine, iodine-potassium iodide and Sudan IV. Pollen viability estimated with TTC was 67.5% and similar to germination results providing a reliable estimate of in vitro germination. The four other stains overestimated pollen viability (> 90%, and their use should be restricted to determining cell constituents, and pollen grain integrity.

Márcia Munhoz

2008-06-01

184

Desenvolvimento de genótipos de mamoeiro tolerantes à mancha fisiológica / Development of papaya genotypes (Carica papaya L.) tolerant to skin freckles  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O mamoeiro é uma das fruteiras tropicais de grande impacto na fruticultura brasileira. Os principais entraves à expansão da cultura são a baixa variabilidade genética e a ocorrência de doenças que encarecem a produção. Neste contexto, realizou-se um cruzamento entre os genótipos 'JS12' e 'Golden' na [...] expectativa de se transferir a característica coloração verde-clara da casca dos frutos (característica Golden), associada à tolerância da mancha fisiológica do mamoeiro, do genitor 'Golden' para o genitor 'JS12'. A variação genética entre e dentro das progênies segregantes obtidas foi avaliada na população RC1S1. Três indivíduos possuidores da característica Golden (38RC1S1-11, 30RC1S1-10 e 31RC1S1-10) foram selecionados pela análise de agrupamento. Estas progênies aliam maior proporção genômica do genitor recorrente (JS12) e bons atributos morfoagronômicos, sendo os mais indicados para o avanço das autofecundações e retrocruzamentos em mamoeiro. Abstract in english Papaya is a tropical fruit of high impact in Brazilian fruit crop. The main barriers to the expansion of the crop are reduced genetic variability and disease occurrence that results in the more expensive production. In this context it was made a cross between the genotypes ' JS12' and 'Golden' in th [...] e expectation of transferring the trait pale green peel of the fruit (Golden trait), associated as tolerant papaya skin freckles from the 'Golden' genitor to the 'JS12' genitor. The population BC1S1 was evaluated for its genetic variation between and within segregating progenies. Three individuals possessing the Golden characteristics (38BC1S1-11, 31BC1S1-10 and 30BC1S1-10-10) were selected. These progenies combine greater genomic proportion of the recurrent parent and good morphoagronomic attributes being the most suitable for the advancement of self pollination and backcrossing in papaya.

Fernanda de Oliveira, Pinto; Helaine Christine Cancela, Ramos; Deisy Lúcia, Cardoso; Lucas Nunes da, Luz; Messias Gonzaga, Pereira.

185

Increasing the shelf- life of papaya through vacuum packing.  

Science.gov (United States)

The main objective of this study was to increase the shelf life of fruits through vacuum packing. Papaya fruits were pretreated with waxing, oil application, purafil packets, tissue paper wrapping given along with control and were packed in 150 gauge thickness polyethylene film bags under vacuum and another set of these samples under without vacuum. The fruits were then stored at room and refrigerated temperature and analyzed for chemical changes. Results showed that the shelf life of the fruits increased under vacuum packing with room and refrigeration temperatures for one and four weeks respectively. The fruits packed without any pretreatment in 150 gauge polyethylene bags maintained the quality with minimum changes followed by waxing, purafil and oil application. During storage moisture, acidity, Vitamin C and total sugar decreased whereas reducing sugar and total soluble solids (TSS) increased during storage. The sensory qualities declined with the period of storage and temperature differences. The study concluded that vacuum packaging and refrigeration conditions increased the shelf life of the papaya fruits. PMID:24426064

Padmanaban, Geetha; Singaravelu, Kanchana; Annavi, Susheela Thirumaran

2014-01-01

186

Modelos de demanda por manzanas frescas chilenas en países de la Unión Europea Equações de demanda para maçãs frescas, chilenas, em países da União Européia  

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Full Text Available Se usó la técnica de regresión de mínimos cuadrados ordinarios para estimar la demanda por importaciones de manzanas frescas exportadas por Chile en cinco países de la Unión Europea. Para las estimaciones se utilizaron observaciones anuales del periodo 1984 a 2003. Los resultados demuestran que (1 la demanda por importaciones de manzanas frescas chilenas depende de las tradicionales variables ingreso o gasto en consumo per cápita, (2 los precios relativos y la variación del tipo de cambio real juegan un papel destacado en la explicación de la demanda por importaciones, y (3 la demanda responde de manera diferente frente a los cambios en las variables explicativas en cada mercado.Foi usada a técnica de regressão de mínimos quadrados ordinários para estimar a demanda das importações de maçãs frescas exportadas pelo cinco países da União Européia. Para fazer as estimações foram utilizadas observações anuais do período 1984 a 2003. Os resultados demostram que (1 a demanda por importações de maçãs frescas chilenas depende das tradicionais variáveis ingresso ou gasto em consumo per cápita, (2 os preços relativos e a variação do tipo de câmbio real tem una importante participação na explicação da demanda por importações, e (3 a demanda responde de forma diferente com relação às mudanças nas variáveis explicativas em cada mercado.

Germán Lobos Andrade

2005-04-01

187

Development of virus resistant transgenic papayas expressing the coat protein gene from a Brazilian isolate of Papaya ringspot virus Desenvolvimento de mamoeiros transgênicos resistentes a vírus expressando o gene da capa protéica de um isolado brasileiro de Papaya ringspot virus  

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Full Text Available Translatable and nontranslatable versions of the coat protein (cp gene of a Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV isolate collected in the state of Bahia, Brazil, were engineered for expression in Sunrise and Sunset Solo varieties of papaya (Carica papaya. The biolistic system was used to transform secondary somatic embryo cultures derived from immature zygotic embryos. Fifty-four transgenic lines, 26 translatable and 28 nontranslatable gene versions, were regenerated, with a transformation efficiency of 2.7%. Inoculation of cloned R0 plants with PRSV BR, PRSV HA or PRSV TH, Brazilian, Hawaiian and Thai isolates, respectively, revealed lines with mono-, double-, and triple-resistance. After molecular analysis and a preliminary agronomic evaluation, 13 R1 and R2 populations were incorporated into the papaya-breeding program at Embrapa Cassava and Tropical Fruits, in Cruz das Almas, Bahia, Brazil.Versões traduzíveis e não traduzíveis do gene da capa protéica (cp de um isolado de Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV coletado no Estado da Bahia, Brasil, foram produzidas para expressão nas variedades Sunrise e Sunset Solo de mamoeiro (Carica papaya. O sistema de biobalística foi utilizado para transformar embriões somáticos secundários derivados de embriões zigóticos imaturos. Cinqüenta e quatro linhas transgênicas, sendo 26 contendo versões traduzíveis e 28 contendo versões não traduzíveis do gene cp foram regeneradas, o que resultou em 2,7% de eficiência de transformação, quando considerado o número de linhas transgênicas obtidas por embrião zigótico imaturo excisado. Desafios de plantas R0 com PRSV BR, PRSV HA ou PRSV TH, respectivamente isolado brasileiro, havaiano e tailandês, revelaram linhas com resistência a um, dois e três isolados de PRSV. Após análises moleculares e avaliação agronômica preliminar, 13 populações R1 e R2 de mamoeiros transgênicos foram incorporadas ao programa de melhoramento genético da Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura, em Cruz das Almas, Bahia, Brasil.

Manoel T. Souza Júnior

2005-08-01

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Efficacy of Essential Oils on the Conidial Germination, Growth of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz. Penz. and Sacc and Control of Postharvest Diseases in Papaya (Carica papaya L.  

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Full Text Available The efficacy of nine essential oils were investigated in vitro on conidial germination and mycelial growth inhibition of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides isolate from papaya (Carica papaya L.. In general, better antifungal effect was observed with Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Syzygium aromaticum oils which had strong inhibition of conidial germination of C. gloeosporioides at 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 ?g mL-1 and a dose dependent inhibition mycelial growth was caused by these oils. Teloxys ambrosioides, Mentha piperita and Ruta chalepensis oils exhibited a moderate action at 150, 200 and 250 ?g mL-1 on conidial germination and mycelial growth inhibition. Allium sativum, Citrus aurantifolia and Eucalyptus globulus oils had no antifungal activity at different concentration. Taking into account the in vitro results, C. zeylanicum and S. aromaticum oils were evaluated on papaya fruit during storage at ambient temperature and 14°C. The lowest infection percentage were for papaya fruits treated with S. aromaticum at 50 ?g mL-1 at both temperature tested, nevertheless did not overcome the activity of synthetic fungicide. After storage at both temperature, values of Soluble Solids Content (SSC was not significantly different. S. aromaticum oils may be a possibility to control C. gloeosporioides of papaya fruit.

Laura Leticia Barrera-Necha

2008-01-01

189

Immobilization of mycoplana sp. MVMB2 isolated from petroleum contaminated soil onto papaya stem (carica papaya l.) and its application on degradation of phenanthrene  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study presents the degradation of phenanthrene using immobilized Mycoplana sp. MVMB2 isolated from contaminated soil. Papaya stem pretreated by two stage processes, treating with acid or alkali and drying, was used for the immobilization of Mycoplana sp. Alkali pretreated papaya stem was found to be most effective in cell uptake compared to acid treated one. The maximum immobilization capacity at various physiochemical conditions for the alkali pretreated papaya stem was found to be at 320 min time, pH 6.5, 30 C temperature, and 18.6 x 106 cells/mL initial concentrations. The adsorption mechanism of Mycoplana sp. MVMB2 on pretreated papaya stem was assessed using various kinetic and isotherm models. The immobilization of Mycoplana sp. MVMB2 on to pretreated papaya stem was corroborated by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transformed IR spectroscopy analysis. The performance of immobilized cells in batch reactor showed more than 95% phenanthrene degradation within 72 h, whereas, free cells were found to require 120 h. The immobilized cells also showed better degradation performance in the packed column study. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

2012-08-01

190

Immobilization of mycoplana sp. MVMB2 isolated from petroleum contaminated soil onto papaya stem (carica papaya l.) and its application on degradation of phenanthrene  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study presents the degradation of phenanthrene using immobilized Mycoplana sp. MVMB2 isolated from contaminated soil. Papaya stem pretreated by two stage processes, treating with acid or alkali and drying, was used for the immobilization of Mycoplana sp. Alkali pretreated papaya stem was found to be most effective in cell uptake compared to acid treated one. The maximum immobilization capacity at various physiochemical conditions for the alkali pretreated papaya stem was found to be at 320 min time, pH 6.5, 30 C temperature, and 18.6 x 10{sup 6} cells/mL initial concentrations. The adsorption mechanism of Mycoplana sp. MVMB2 on pretreated papaya stem was assessed using various kinetic and isotherm models. The immobilization of Mycoplana sp. MVMB2 on to pretreated papaya stem was corroborated by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transformed IR spectroscopy analysis. The performance of immobilized cells in batch reactor showed more than 95% phenanthrene degradation within 72 h, whereas, free cells were found to require 120 h. The immobilized cells also showed better degradation performance in the packed column study. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

Brinda Lakshmi, Mahalingam; Muthukumar, Karuppan; Velan, Manickam [Environmental Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, A.C. College of Technology, Anna University, Chennai (India)

2012-08-15

191

Industrial Hygiene Report, Walk-Through Survey, Papaya Packing/Shipping Facilities, Hilo, Hawaii, July 1983,  

Science.gov (United States)

Worker exposure to ethylene-dibromide (EDB) was investigated at three papaya packing and shipping facilities (SIC-0723) in Hilo, Hawaii. Breathing zone samples were collected in the three facilities over a three day period. Blind spikes were submitted as ...

D. Clapp

1983-01-01

192

Effect of cut-type on quality of minimally processed papaya  

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BACKGROUND: This research was undertaken to study the effects of different cut-types (cube, parallelepiped, cylinder and sphere) on the quality and shelf-life of papaya cv. Sunrise Solo. Physicochemical analyses were

2008-01-01

193

Influence of gamma radiation on carbohydrates metabolism of ripening papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Solo); Metabolismo de carboidratos durante o amadurecimento do mamao (Carica papaya L. Cv. Solo): influencia da radiacao gama  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Food irradiation is one of the most promising treatments that can be utilized for fruits disinfestation and extension of shelf life. The authors studied the influence of 0,5 kGy of Gamma irradiation on the soluble carbohydrates composition of papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Solo) fruit, and on sucrose metabolizing enzymes: sucrose synthase (SS), sucrose-phosphate synthase, acid and neutral invertases activities, during ripening. The results demonstrated that ethylene production, total soluble sugars, sucrose content, and sucrose-phosphate synthase and invertases activities were affected by irradiation, but not respiration, glucose and fructose content, and SS activity. (author)

Gomez, M.L.P.A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FCF/USP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas; Lajolo, F.M.; Cordenunsi, B.R. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FCF/USP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Dept. de Alimentos e Nutricao Experimental

1999-05-15

194

First records of two mealybug species in Brazil and new potential pests of papaya and coffee  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Five mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) plant pest species: Dysmicoccus grassii (Leonardi), Ferrisia malvastra (McDaniel), Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell), Phenacoccus tucumanus Granara de Willink, and Pseudococcus elisae Borchsenius are recorded for the first time in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. These are the first records of D. grassii in Brazil, from papaya (Carica papaya, Caricaceae), and from coffee (Coffea canephora, Rubiaceae). Ferrisia malvastra is also newly recorded in Brazi...

Culik, Mark P.; Dos Santos Martins, David; Gullan, Penny J.

2006-01-01

195

Chemical Profile of Unripe Pulp of Carica papaya  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Unripe pulp of Carica papaya was screened to test for the presence of certain phytochemicals. Chemical composition of the pulp were determined. Phytochemical screening of mature unripe pulp of Carica papaya (dry weight) showed the presence of saponins and cardenolides while chemical analysis revealed the presence of potassium (223.0mg/100g) as well as sodium, calcium, iron, phosphorus, zinc, copper, magnesium and manganese in considerable quantities. Proximate analysis of...

2005-01-01

196

Hypoglycemic effect of Carica papaya leaves in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats  

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Abstract Background Traditional plant treatment for diabetes has shown a surging interest in the last few decades. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the hypoglycemic effect of the aqueous extract of C. papaya leaves in diabetic rats. Several studies have reported that some parts of the C. papaya plant exert hypoglycemic effects in both animals and humans. Methods Diabetes was induced in rats by intraperitoneal administration of...

2012-01-01

197

Protective effect of dried fruits of Carica papaya on hepatotoxicity in rat  

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Full Text Available Aqueous and ethanol extracts of Carica papaya has been evaluated for its hepatoprotective activity in rat. The aqueous and ethanol extracts of Carica papaya showed significant hepatoprotection against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity. The protective activity was evaluated by using biochemical parameters such as serum bilirubin, serum alanine amino transferase (ALT, aspartate amino transferase (AST and alkaline phosphatase. The histopathological changes of liver were compared with control.

Md. Zafor Sadeque, Zinnat Ara Begum

2010-06-01

198

Antifungal Activity in Ethanolic Extracts of Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol Leaves and Seeds  

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Bioactive compounds from vegetal sources are a potential source of natural antifungic. An ethanol extraction was used to obtain bioactive compounds from Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol leaves and seeds of discarded ripe and unripe fruit. Both, extraction time and the papaya tissue flour:organic solvent ratio significantly affected yield, with the longest time and highest flour:solvent ratio producing the highest yield. The effect of time on extraction efficiency was confirmed by qualitative iden...

Cha?vez-quintal, Pedro; Gonza?lez-flores, Tania; Rodri?guez-buenfil, Ingrid; Gallegos-tintore?, Santiago

2011-01-01

199

The Aqueous Seed Extract Of Carica papaya Linn. Prevents Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Hepatotoxicity In Rats  

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Summary: Carica papaya Linn. is known to have a versatile application in African folkloric medicine. In the current study, the dose-dependent (100 – 400 mg/kg/day/oral route) and time-course protective effects of the 400 mg/kg/oral route of the aqueous seed extract of unripe and mature Carica papaya fruit (CPE) were investigated in carbon tetrachlori...

Adeneye, A. A.; Olagunju, J. A.; Banjo, Aa F.; Abdul, S. F.; Sanusi, O. A.; Sanni, O. O.; Osarodion, B. A.; Shonoiki, O. E.

2009-01-01

200

Efectos de la fertilización con nitrógeno en la producción de papaya (Carica papaya L. y en la incidencia de virosis.  

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Full Text Available En un suelo Vertic Aplustoll arcilloso sobre franco esmetítico, isohipertérmico, del Centro de Producción Agropecuaria ACotové@, ubicado en el municipio de Santafé de Antioquia, en la zona de vida bosque seco Tropical (bs-T, se realizó un trabajo para determinar la respuesta de la variedad de papaya AU.N. Cotové@ (Carica papaya L. a la fertilización con N en dosis de 0, 183 y 366 kg/ha, equivalentes a dosis individuales de 5, 5, 10, 15, 25, 25, 25 y 10,10, 20, 30, 50, 50, 50 g de N/planta, respectivamente, fertilizando cada mes durante los primeros 4 meses después del transplante y cada 2 meses posteriormente, durante un período de 9 meses. Se suministraron además dosis constantes de P, K, S, Fe, Mn, Zn, y B. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques al azar con cuatro repeticiones y 10 plantas por unidad experimental, con distancias entre plantas de 2 m y entre surcos de 3m.

Vallejo G. Gladys

1999-06-01

 
 
 
 
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Degradación cinética de carotenoides obtenidos de frutos de Carica papaya L Kinetic degradation of carotenoids from Carica papaya L. fruits  

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Full Text Available Se evaluó la degradación de carotenoides extraídos de frutos de lechosa (Carica papaya L.. Los pigmentos previamente separados y liofilizados fueron almacenados en la oscuridad. Se midió su absorbancia a 440 nm, cada 15 días. Se determinó el orden de reacción, tiempo de vida media (t1/2 y constante de velocidad de degradación (k. La degradación de los carotenoides siguio una cinética de primer orden. El producto liofilizado presento t1/2: 43,3 días y k: 0,0160 días-1. Bajo estas condiciones experimentales los carotenoides tardaran 250 días en degradarse por completo.Degradation of carotenoids from Carica papaya L. fruits was evaluated. Pigments previously extracted from the fruit, were lyophilized, stored in the dark and monitored spectrophotometrically by absorbance at 440 nm, over intervals of 15 days. Reaction order, half-life (t1/2 and constant degradation rate (k were determined. Reactions followed a first order kinetic model. The lyophilized product presented t1/2: 43.3 days and k: 0.0160 days-1. Under these experimental conditions the carotenoid concentrations will be zero at 250 days.

M. J. Moreno Alvarez

2003-04-01

202

Effects of Ripe Carica Papaya Seed Powder on Testicular Histology of Boars  

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Full Text Available The effect of oral administration of ripe Carica Papaya seed powder on testicular histology of Sus scrofa domestica boars has been addressed in the present article. Fifteen pubertal Large White boars were randomly selected and divided into two groups. Each boar in the experimental group received a daily dose of 300mg C Papaya mixed with 0.5 kg of conventional pig feed while the control group received a placebo. The experiment was carried out for 56 days in the University of Nairobi. After every two weeks, one boar from the control group and two from the experimental group were castrated and testicular tissue samples processed for histology. At the end of 56 days the remaining entire boars were maintained for 14 days and 60 days respectively without the papaya powder to assess reversibility. The test material had no effect on haematological parameters. However, histopathological changes of the seminiferous epithelium which appeared to be dependent upon duration of C Papaya consumption was noticed, these changes were reversible.Although the mechanism(s for the effect of papaya seed extract is not explained by this study, it is observed that papaya seed powder causes gradual disorganization, exfoliation and loss of spermatocytes and spermatids.

Kipyegon AN*, HM Mutembei, VT Tsuma and JA Oduma1

2012-09-01

203

Effect of packaging materials and storage environment on postharvest quality of papaya fruit.  

Science.gov (United States)

This experiment was conducted to assess the effects of packaging materials and storage environments on shelf life of papaya fruit (Carica papaya L.). A factorial combination of five packaging materials and two storage environments using randomized complete block design with three replications were used. The papaya fruits were evaluated for weight loss, percentage marketability, firmness, total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid, reducing sugar and total sugar content. The packaged and cooled fruits remained firmer than unpackaged and evaporatively cooled fruits. Higher chemical compositions were recorded in the control fruits stored under ambient conditions during the earlier times of storage. Packaging and cooling maintained the chemical quality of papaya fruits better than the control sample fruits towards the end of storage periods. The evaporatively cooled storage combined with packaging improved the shelf life of papaya fruits by more than two fold. The polyethylene bag packaging combined with evaporatively cooled storage maintained the superior quality of papaya fruit for a period of 21 days. This integrated agro-technology is recommended for postharvest loss reduction biotechnology in hot regions. PMID:24876636

Azene, Mulualem; Workneh, Tilahun Seyoum; Woldetsadik, Kebede

2014-06-01

204

Oral dosing with papaya latex is an effective anthelmintic treatment for sheep infected with Haemonchus contortus  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The cysteine proteinases in papaya latex have been shown to have potent anthelmintic properties in monogastric hosts such as rodents, pigs and humans, but this has not been demonstrated in ruminants. Methods In two experiments, sheep were infected concurrently with 5,000 infective larvae of Haemonchus contortus and 10,000 infective larvae of Trichostrongylus colubriformis and were then treated with the supernatant from a suspension of papaya latex from day 28 to day 32 post-infection. Faecal egg counts were monitored from a week before treatment until the end of the experiment and worm burdens were assessed on day 35 post-infection. Results We found that the soluble fraction of papaya latex had a potent in vivo effect on the abomasal nematode H. contortus, but not on the small intestinal nematode T. colubriformis. This effect was dose-dependent and at tolerated levels of gavage with papaya latex (117 ?mol of active papaya latex supernatant for 4 days, the H. contortus worm burdens were reduced by 98%. Repeated treatment, daily for 4 days, was more effective than a single dose, but efficacy was not enhanced by concurrent treatment with the antacid cimetidine. Conclusions Our results provide support for the idea that cysteine proteinases derived from papaya latex may be developed into novel anthelmintics for the treatment of lumenal stages of gastro-intestinal nematode infections in sheep, particularly those parasitizing the abomasum.

Donnan Alison A

2011-03-01

205

Genótipos melhorados de mamão (Carica papaya L.: avaliação tecnológica dos frutos na forma de sorvete Improved genotypes of papaya (Carica papaya L.: technological evaluation as ice-cream  

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Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo a avaliação tecnológica na forma de sorvete, de frutos de cinco genótipos selecionados de mamão (CMF012, CMF020, CMF023, CMF031, CMF047, provenientes do Banco Ativo de Germoplasma da Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura, Cruz das Almas, Bahia. Estes genótipos foram identificados em estudos anteriores por apresentarem cor atraente, sabor agradável e valores elevados de sólidos solúveis (ºBrix. As amostras de sorvete foram submetidas à avaliação sensorial para os atributos aparência, cor, aroma, sabor e textura, através de testes afetivos, utilizando-se escala hedônica estruturada de nove pontos. Realizou-se determinações de pH, acidez total titulável, sólidos solúveis (ºBrix, "ratio", ácido ascórbico, sólidos totais, cinzas, proteínas, lipídeos, açúcares totais, redutores e não-redutores. Os resultados das avaliações sensoriais e físico-químicas foram analisados através de ANOVA e teste de Tukey. Os sorvetes demonstraram elevada aceitação, obtendo médias correspondentes ao conceito "gostei moderadamente" para todos os atributos avaliados. Os genótipos CMF020 e CMF031 destacaram-se alcançando média correspondente ao termo da escala hedônica "gostei muito" para o atributo sabor. Os provadores não indicaram prevalência entre os produtos quanto à aparência, cor e textura; portanto, os genótipos pouco atraentes como fruto de mesa, poderão ser aproveitados na indústria para elaboração de sorvete. Além disso, podem ser considerados como uma sobremesa valiosa e nutritiva, pois apresentaram níveis satisfatórios de carboidratos e razoáveis de vitamina C e proteínas. O estudo demonstrou que o sorvete de mamão é uma excelente alternativa para o aproveitamento da fruta.The objective of the present work was to evaluate as an alternative of consumption the ice-cream of five selective papaya genotypes (CMF012, CMF020, CMF023, CMF031, CMF047 obtained from the Active Germplasm Bank for Papaya at Embrapa Cassava and Fruit Crops, located in Cruz das Almas, Bahia State, Brazil. These genotypes were identified at before studies because they showed atractive colour, good flavour and highter soluble solid (ºBrix. Sensory analyses of the ice-creams were carried out using affective tests (9 point hedonic scale for the attributes of overall appearance, colour, odour, flavour and texture. The following physico-chemical determinations were carried out: pH, total titrable acidity, soluble solid (ºBrix, ratio, vitamin C, total solid, ash, protein, lipid, total sugars, reducing and non-reducing sugars.The sensory and physico-chemical data were submitted to an analysis of variation, followed the Tukey test. The ice creams showed higher scores for all of attributes. The genotypes CMF020 and CMF031 were preferred in terms of flavour. The judges didn!t indicate preference among the products in terms of overall appearance, colour and texture, so the less atractive genotypes for the fresh fruit market, could be utilized for the industry to make ice cream. They are a nutritive dessert, because they showed enough carbohydrates, vitamin C and protein contents. This study showed that the papaya ice cream is an excellent alternative of consumption.

Ligia R.R. Santana

2003-12-01

206

Genótipos melhorados de mamão (Carica papaya L.): avaliação tecnológica dos frutos na forma de sorvete / Improved genotypes of papaya (Carica papaya L.): technological evaluation as ice-cream  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho teve como objetivo a avaliação tecnológica na forma de sorvete, de frutos de cinco genótipos selecionados de mamão (CMF012, CMF020, CMF023, CMF031, CMF047), provenientes do Banco Ativo de Germoplasma da Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura, Cruz das Almas, Bahia. Estes genótipos foram [...] identificados em estudos anteriores por apresentarem cor atraente, sabor agradável e valores elevados de sólidos solúveis (ºBrix). As amostras de sorvete foram submetidas à avaliação sensorial para os atributos aparência, cor, aroma, sabor e textura, através de testes afetivos, utilizando-se escala hedônica estruturada de nove pontos. Realizou-se determinações de pH, acidez total titulável, sólidos solúveis (ºBrix), "ratio", ácido ascórbico, sólidos totais, cinzas, proteínas, lipídeos, açúcares totais, redutores e não-redutores. Os resultados das avaliações sensoriais e físico-químicas foram analisados através de ANOVA e teste de Tukey. Os sorvetes demonstraram elevada aceitação, obtendo médias correspondentes ao conceito "gostei moderadamente" para todos os atributos avaliados. Os genótipos CMF020 e CMF031 destacaram-se alcançando média correspondente ao termo da escala hedônica "gostei muito" para o atributo sabor. Os provadores não indicaram prevalência entre os produtos quanto à aparência, cor e textura; portanto, os genótipos pouco atraentes como fruto de mesa, poderão ser aproveitados na indústria para elaboração de sorvete. Além disso, podem ser considerados como uma sobremesa valiosa e nutritiva, pois apresentaram níveis satisfatórios de carboidratos e razoáveis de vitamina C e proteínas. O estudo demonstrou que o sorvete de mamão é uma excelente alternativa para o aproveitamento da fruta. Abstract in english The objective of the present work was to evaluate as an alternative of consumption the ice-cream of five selective papaya genotypes (CMF012, CMF020, CMF023, CMF031, CMF047) obtained from the Active Germplasm Bank for Papaya at Embrapa Cassava and Fruit Crops, located in Cruz das Almas, Bahia State, [...] Brazil. These genotypes were identified at before studies because they showed atractive colour, good flavour and highter soluble solid (ºBrix). Sensory analyses of the ice-creams were carried out using affective tests (9 point hedonic scale) for the attributes of overall appearance, colour, odour, flavour and texture. The following physico-chemical determinations were carried out: pH, total titrable acidity, soluble solid (ºBrix), ratio, vitamin C, total solid, ash, protein, lipid, total sugars, reducing and non-reducing sugars.The sensory and physico-chemical data were submitted to an analysis of variation, followed the Tukey test. The ice creams showed higher scores for all of attributes. The genotypes CMF020 and CMF031 were preferred in terms of flavour. The judges didn!t indicate preference among the products in terms of overall appearance, colour and texture, so the less atractive genotypes for the fresh fruit market, could be utilized for the industry to make ice cream. They are a nutritive dessert, because they showed enough carbohydrates, vitamin C and protein contents. This study showed that the papaya ice cream is an excellent alternative of consumption.

Ligia R.R., Santana; Fernando C.A.U., Matsuura; Ricardo L., Cardoso.

207

Emergência e matéria seca de plantas daninhas na cultura do mamoeiro (Carica papaya Emergence and dry matter of weeds in papaya crop (Carica papaya  

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Full Text Available O objetivo deste experimento foi avaliar o "banco" de sementes de plantas daninhas através do método da emergência de plântulas, na cultura do mamoeiro, em que se empregaram diferentes sistemas de manejo. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com três repetições e seis tratamentos: capina em área total; herbicida nas linhas + grade nas entrelinhas; subsolagem cruzada antes do plantio + capina em área total; subsolagem cruzada antes do plantio + herbicida nas linhas e feijão de porco nas entrelinhas; subsolagem cruzada antes do plantio + herbicida nas linhas e crotalária nas entrelinhas; e herbicida nas linhas + vegetação nativa nas entrelinhas da cultura, roçada quando necessário. A avaliação do banco de sementes foi feita aos 30, 60, 90 e 120 dias após a implantação de um bioensaio em casa de vegetação, com amostras retiradas no campo nas épocas chuvosa e seca, na profundidade de 0-15 cm. A matéria seca das plantas daninhas foi obtida utilizando-se um quadrado de 0,5 x 0,5 m, jogado a lanço quatro vezes nas parcelas. Os sistemas de manejo de capina em área total e de herbicida na linha + grade nas entrelinhas de plantio de mamoeiros, com feijão-de-porco e crotalária, reduzem o banco de sementes no solo. Dos adubos verdes, crotalária e feijão-de-porco, o primeiro altera a dinâmica do "banco" de sementes de forma mais significativa.The objective of this work was to evaluate the seed bank of weeds through the seedling emergence method in papaya crop, using different tillage systems. A randomized complete block design was used, with three replications and six treatments: weeding in total area, herbicide in the rows + disc in the interrows, crossed sub soiling before planting + weeding in total area, crossed sub soiling before planting + herbicide in the rows and pig bean in the interrows, crossed sub soiling before planting + herbicide in the row + crotalaria in the interrows and crossed sub soiling before planting + herbicide in the rows + native vegetation in the interrows, cleared when necessary. Seed bank evaluation was performed at 30, 60, 90 and 120 days after implantation of the experiment in the greenhouse with samples collected in the field in the rainy and dry seasons at 0-15 cm in depth. Weed dry matter was obtained by using a square of 0.5 x 0.5 m sorted four times in the plots. The weeding management systems in total area and herbicide in the row + disc in the papaya crop interrows with pig bean and crotalaria reduce seed bank in the soil. Among the green fertilizers, crotalaria alters more significantly the dynamics of the seed bank than pig bean.

I.S. Santana

2005-12-01

208

Phytophthora palmivora causando podridão de frutos de mamoeiro no Pará Phytophthora palmivora, causal agent of fruit rots of papaya in the State of Pará, Brazil  

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Full Text Available Phytophthora palmivora was isolated from papaya (Carica papaya fruit rots, from commercial growth in Capanema County, Pará. The fungus was pathogenic to healthy inoculated fruits and reisolated, fullfiling the Koch postulates. This is the first report of this pathogen on papaya in Pará, Brazil.

DINALDO R. TRINDADE

2002-07-01

209

Associação de moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae) com a "meleira do mamoeiro" (Carica papaya L.) / Association of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) with the sticky disease of papaya (Carica papaya L.)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in english Since 1988, the medfly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) was described infesting papaya (Carica papaya) cv. Sunrise Solo in North of the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Two experiments were carried out to determine the infestation of C. capitata and Anastrepha obliqua (Macq.) in papaya fruit, healthy [...] and infected by sticky disease. In the 1st experiment (forced infestation), no infestation of C. capitata in the healthy fruits was observed, and 60.6 pupae/fruit were obtained in the infected fruit. For A. obliqua, the infestation index was 10.3 and 72.4 pupae/fruit for healthy and infected fruit respectively. In the 2nd experiment (inoculated eggs), the infestation index for C. capitata was 4.0 and 6.3 pupae/fruit and for A. obliqua 10.1 and 10.4 pupae/fruit, for healthy and infected fruit respectively. The high suscetibility of green fruit of papaya infected by sticky disease for C. capitata and A. obliqua was discussed

Nascimento, Antonio S.; R. Matrangolo, Walter J.; Barbosa, Cristiane J.; Marques, Oton M.; Habibe, Tuffi C..

210

Anatomy of somatic embryogenesis in Carica papaya L.  

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Full Text Available Mature zygotic embryos of Carica papaya L. ?Sunrise Solo? were used as explants for embryogenesis induction. The explants were inoculated on Murashige and Skoog culture medium supplemented with 2 mg.L-1 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and incubated in darkness at 25+2°C. Histological analysis of callogenesis and somatic embryogenesis indicated occurrence of direct and indirect somatic embryogenesis development. Direct somatic embryo formation was observed from hypocotyledonary epidermic cells only from explant 18 days after inoculation. Somatic embryos formed indirectly were originated from embryogenic superficial cells of pre-embryonic complexes located on peripherical and on internal cell layers of callus 49 days after inoculation. Diverse morphological differences including disformed embryos were observed among the somatic embryos.

Fernando Juliana A.

2001-01-01

211

Identification of gamma-irradiated papaya, melon and watermelon  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ionizing radiation can be used to control spoilage microorganisms and to increase the shelf life of fresh fruits and vegetables in replacement for the treatment with chemical fumigants. In order to enforce labelling regulations, methods for detecting the irradiation treatment directly in the produce are required. Recently, a number of detection methods for irradiated food have been adopted by the Codex Comission. A rapid screening method for qualitative detection of irradiation is the DNA Comet Assay. The applicability of the DNA Comet Assay for distinguishing irradiated papaya, melon, and watermelon was evaluated. The samples were treated in a {sup 60}Co facility at dose levels of 0.0, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 kGy. The irradiated samples showed typical DNA fragmentation whereas cells from non-irradiated ones appeared intact. In addition to the DNA Comet Assay also the half-embryo test was applied in melon and watermelon to detect the irradiation treatment.

Marin-Huachaca, N.S.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge E-mail: jmancini@usp.br; Delincee, Henry E-mail: henry.delincee@bfe.uni-karlsruhe.de; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H. E-mail: villavic@net.ipen.br

2004-10-01

212

Identification of gamma-irradiated papaya, melon and watermelon  

Science.gov (United States)

Ionizing radiation can be used to control spoilage microorganisms and to increase the shelf life of fresh fruits and vegetables in replacement for the treatment with chemical fumigants. In order to enforce labelling regulations, methods for detecting the irradiation treatment directly in the produce are required. Recently, a number of detection methods for irradiated food have been adopted by the Codex Comission. A rapid screening method for qualitative detection of irradiation is the DNA Comet Assay. The applicability of the DNA Comet Assay for distinguishing irradiated papaya, melon, and watermelon was evaluated. The samples were treated in a 60Co facility at dose levels of 0.0, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0kGy. The irradiated samples showed typical DNA fragmentation whereas cells from non-irradiated ones appeared intact. In addition to the DNA Comet Assay also the half-embryo test was applied in melon and watermelon to detect the irradiation treatment.

Marín-Huachaca, Nélida S.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; Delincée, Henry; Villavicencio, Anna Lúcia C. H.

2004-09-01

213

Identification of gamma-irradiated papaya, melon and watermelon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ionizing radiation can be used to control spoilage microorganisms and to increase the shelf life of fresh fruits and vegetables in replacement for the treatment with chemical fumigants. In order to enforce labelling regulations, methods for detecting the irradiation treatment directly in the produce are required. Recently, a number of detection methods for irradiated food have been adopted by the Codex Comission. A rapid screening method for qualitative detection of irradiation is the DNA Comet Assay. The applicability of the DNA Comet Assay for distinguishing irradiated papaya, melon, and watermelon was evaluated. The samples were treated in a 60Co facility at dose levels of 0.0, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 kGy. The irradiated samples showed typical DNA fragmentation whereas cells from non-irradiated ones appeared intact. In addition to the DNA Comet Assay also the half-embryo test was applied in melon and watermelon to detect the irradiation treatment

2003-09-07

214

EVALUACIÓN DE DOS HÍBRIDOS DE PAPAYA INTRODUCIDOS EN CUBA  

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Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se realizó la caracterización morfológica de 2 híbridos de papaya "Tainung-01" y "Scarlett Princess" introducidos en el banco de germoplasma del Instituto de Investigaciones en Fruticultura Tropical, La Habana, Cuba. Y fueron comparados con el cultivar cubano Maradol. Los resultados corroboraron que los híbridos presentan características fenotípicas del Grupo Formosa, frutos de forma elongata en las plantas hermafroditas. El peso medio de los frutos es de 1,6 kg (''Tainung-01'' y 1,7 kg (''Scarlett Princess'', de pulpa color naranja-rojiza y roja, respectivamente, así como, con una productividad entre 98,5 y 63,8 kg.planta-1, características que evidencian la posibilidad de utilizarlos en programas de mejoramiento genético del cultivo y directamente por los productores.

Maruchi Alonso

2009-01-01

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Anatomy of somatic embryogenesis in Carica papaya L.  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Embriões zigóticos maduros de Carica papaya L. ‘Sunrise Solo’ foram utilizados como explantes para indução da embriogênese. Estes explantes foram inoculados em meio de cultura de Murashige & Skoog suplementado com 2,0 mg.L-1 de 2,4 ácido diclorofenoxiacético (2,4-D) e mantidos no escuro em câmara de [...] crescimento à temperatura de 21°C por período de tempo variável. Através da análise histológica foi possível verificar que os primeiros embriões somáticos formaram-se diretamente a partir de células únicas da epiderme hipocotiledonar do explante após o 18º dia de cultura. Porém, os demais embriões somáticos originaram-se indiretamente a partir de células superficiais de complexos pré-embriônicos presentes nas camadas periféricas e internas do calo após o 49º dia de cultura. Foram detectadas algumas diferenças morfológicas entre os embriões somáticos obtidos. Abstract in english Mature zygotic embryos of Carica papaya L. ‘Sunrise Solo’ were used as explants for embryogenesis induction. The explants were inoculated on Murashige and Skoog culture medium supplemented with 2 mg.L-1 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and incubated in darkness at 25+2°C. Histological analysis of call [...] ogenesis and somatic embryogenesis indicated occurrence of direct and indirect somatic embryogenesis development. Direct somatic embryo formation was observed from hypocotyledonary epidermic cells only from explant 18 days after inoculation. Somatic embryos formed indirectly were originated from embryogenic superficial cells of pre-embryonic complexes located on peripherical and on internal cell layers of callus 49 days after inoculation. Diverse morphological differences including disformed embryos were observed among the somatic embryos.

Juliana A., Fernando; Murilo, Melo; Marli K. M., Soares; Beatriz, Appezzato-da-Glória.

216

Análisis comparativo y perfil de publicaciones en la Revista Chilena de Pediatría 2001-2006 / Comparative analysis and publication profile in Revista Chilena de Pediatría 2001-2006  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La Revista Chilena de Pediatría (Rev Chil Pediatr), publicación oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría está indexada en SciELO pero no en la Librería Médica de EEUU (NLM). Objetivos: a) determinar el perfil de los artículos publicados y visitados en la Rev Chil Pediatr, compararlo con el de Jor [...] nal de Pediatría de Brasil (J Ped Br) y el de Journal of Pediatrics (J Ped) de Estados Unidos; b) evaluar la visibilidad de Rev Chil Pediatr y compararla con la Revista Médica de Chile. Métodos: Se evaluaron los ejemplares en línea de las revistas mencionadas a través de la base de datos SciELO y PubMed entre 2001 a 2006. Se tomó una muestra representativa y aleatoria de los artículos publicados en ese período para cada revista. Adicionalmente se evaluaron los artículos más visitados de la Rev Chil Pediatr y se clasificaron como originales (investigación clínica y básica) y no originales (editorial, caso clínico, revisión y otros). Todos los artículos fueron catalogados según su contenido en una de las 25 especialidades médicas definidas. Además se comparó el número de visitas anuales y globales a la Rev Chil Pediatr y a la Revista Médica de Chile y se analizaron las citaciones más frecuentes otorgadas y recibidas por la Rev Chil Pediatr en ese período. Resultados: De 512 artículos en la Rev Chil Pediatr, se analizaron 220; 35% fueron originales y 65% no originales, publicando un porcentaje significativamente menor de artículos originales que el J Ped Br y que el J Ped (p Abstract in english Background: The Revista Chilena de Pediatría (Rev Chil Pediatr), official journal of Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría is index in SciELO, but not in the National Library of Medicine (NLM) of USA. Objectives: a) Determine the profile of published and visited articles of Rev Chil Ped, in order to compare [...] them with the Jornal de Pediatria from Brazil (J Ped Br) and the Journal of Pediatrics (J Ped) from USA. b) Evaluate the visibility of Rev Chil Pediatr compared to Revista Medica de Chile (Rev Med Chil). Method: On line issues from the above mentioned journal were evaluated through SciELO database and PubMed database from 2001 - 2006. A random and representative subset of published articles was obtained from each one of the 3 journals during the referred period. The most visited articles from Rev Chil Pediatr were analyzed and classified as originals (clinical and basic research) and non originals (editorial, clinical case, reviews and others). The articles were classified according to thematic content in 25 medical specialties. In addition, the number of annual visits to Rev Chil Pediatr and Rev Med Chil were analyzed, including the most frequent citations given and received in that period of time. Results: Out of 512 articles in Rev Chil Pediatr, 220 were analyzed; 35% were originals and 65% non originals, with a significant lower percentage of original articles compared to J Ped Br and J Ped (p

HARRIS D, PAUL R; LIEBBE G, JOSÉ LUIS; SOTOMAYOR A, JONATHAN; UGARTE P, FRANCISCA; CANO SCH, FRANCISCO.

217

Canto para una semilla: Luis Advis, Violeta Parra y la modernización de la música popular chilena  

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Full Text Available El objetivo del presente artículo es aportar algunas reflexiones sobre la obra Canto para una semilla del compositor chileno Luis Advis (1972, fundamentalmente a partir de sus dimensiones culturales e históricas. El significado de esta obra es observado en relación con los debates y cuestionamientos a los que se ve enfrentado el compositor en la sociedad chilena durante las décadas de 1960 y 1970, los cuales se constituyen como expresión de las transformaciones provocadas por la modernización en nuestro país. Esta experiencia concreta de la modernidad se ve reflejada en el contenido poético de las décimas de Violeta Parra, que constituyen el soporte dramático de la obra de Luis Advis, así como también en las vinculaciones entre música culta y música popular, que darán origen posteriormente a la Nueva Canción Chilena y, con ello, redefinirán también el lugar que la música popular posee en nuestra sociedadThis article is a study of the piece Canto para una semilla (Song for a Seed by the Chilean composer Luis Advis (1972, primarily in its cultural and historical dimensions. The meaning of the work is sought in its interrelations with the problems and debates within the Chilean society of the 1960s and 1970s, which were related to the transformations brought about by modernization in Chile. This is mirrored in the poetic content of the décimas written by Violeta Parra, which constitute the dramatic support for Luis Advis's work. This is further related to the connections between art music and popular music which will later originate the Nueva Canción Chilena (New Chilean Song this redefining the place of popular music in our society

avier Osorio Fernández

2006-06-01

218

Canto para una semilla: Luis Advis, Violeta Parra y la modernización de la música popular chilena  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo del presente artículo es aportar algunas reflexiones sobre la obra Canto para una semilla del compositor chileno Luis Advis (1972), fundamentalmente a partir de sus dimensiones culturales e históricas. El significado de esta obra es observado en relación con los debates y cuestionamiento [...] s a los que se ve enfrentado el compositor en la sociedad chilena durante las décadas de 1960 y 1970, los cuales se constituyen como expresión de las transformaciones provocadas por la modernización en nuestro país. Esta experiencia concreta de la modernidad se ve reflejada en el contenido poético de las décimas de Violeta Parra, que constituyen el soporte dramático de la obra de Luis Advis, así como también en las vinculaciones entre música culta y música popular, que darán origen posteriormente a la Nueva Canción Chilena y, con ello, redefinirán también el lugar que la música popular posee en nuestra sociedad Abstract in english This article is a study of the piece Canto para una semilla (Song for a Seed) by the Chilean composer Luis Advis (1972), primarily in its cultural and historical dimensions. The meaning of the work is sought in its interrelations with the problems and debates within the Chilean society of the 1960s [...] and 1970s, which were related to the transformations brought about by modernization in Chile. This is mirrored in the poetic content of the décimas written by Violeta Parra, which constitute the dramatic support for Luis Advis's work. This is further related to the connections between art music and popular music which will later originate the Nueva Canción Chilena (New Chilean Song) this redefining the place of popular music in our society

avier, Osorio Fernández.

219

Evaluation of schistosomicidal and leishmanicidal activities from Carica papaya (Linn. stem and phytochemical composition  

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Full Text Available Carica papaya Linn., is a member of the small family Caricaceae. Each part of papaya tree possesses economic value and is considered as a valuable nutraceutical fruit plant. C. papaya has a wide range of purported medicinal properties including antiseptic, antiparasitic, anti inflammatory, antidiabetic and contraceptive activity. While there are only limited data to support most of these uses, there are some evidences for their use in healing decubitus ulcers and other wounds and in treating intestinal worms in humans. It can be chosen as a source of papain for the development of various industrial and pharmaceutical products for various diseases. This present study was carried out to evaluate schistosomicidal and leishmanicidal activities and also to investigate the phytochemical composition of the C. papaya methanol extract. The extract was tested using Schistosoma mansoni and Leishmania amazonensis assays. The results showed that C. papaya methanol extract has a little or no activity against S. mansoni or L. amazonensis. Against S. mansoni, the extract showed no lethal effect, but a reduction in the motor activity at highest concentrations was observed. On the other hand, against L. amazonensis, the extract caused lysis of only 15.3±4.6 of parasites at the concentration of 400 µg/mL. Phytochemical analysis of 80% methanol extract of C. papaya stem showed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, carbohydrates and triterpenes. This is the first report about the schitosomicidal and leishmanicidal activities of C. papaya stems methanol extract and its chemical composition, particularly triterpenes which have shown significant schitosomicidal and leishmanicidal activities

Khaled Nabih Rashed

2013-10-01

220

Estratégias associadas à criação e destruição do valor em empresas chilenas  

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Full Text Available A geração do valor adicionado é, hoje, um dos objetivos principais no mundo dos negócios, e da sua manutenção dependerá a continuação da empresa no mercado. Com a combinação ótima dos recursos e a percepção favorável dos agentes, participando na corrente de valor, são maiores as possibilidades de se alcançar preços melhores ou redução da estrutura de custo, que, conseqüentemente, pode criar vantagens para o competidor na indústria. Este estudo analisa duas indústrias chilenas importantes, e a maneira como as variáveis distintas, internas e externas, afetam as posições do mercado.

Marcelo González Araya

2007-06-01

 
 
 
 
221

Interculturalidad y ciencias de la educación en lengua de señas chilena  

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Full Text Available Los paradigmas de intervención orales para la cultura sorda afectan la percepción sobre la lengua de señas Chilena . Esto provoca debates emanados de una subvaloración, dadas sus particularidades visuales: iconicidad e isomorfismo, subvaloración nacida de una incomprensión en la lectura de investigaciones internacionales (por escasez de estudios nacionales, especialmente acerca del lenguaje corporeizado. Esto se contradice con nuevas investigaciones en psicolingüística cognitiva acer-ca de embodied cognition . El abordaje de la LSCh a partir de nuevas teorías atraviesa la interculturalidad y educación a fin de proponerse la metáfora de “la cultura en el cuerpo” como modalidad de estudio contemporáneo.

Carolina-Alejandra-de-Lourdes Becerra-Sepúlveda

2013-08-01

222

Study about papaya (Carica papaya L.) conservation submitted to a combined treatment of irradiation and an edible film of quitosan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this research, on a first stage the effect of two treatments were studied: thermal, and a chitosan edible coating, combined with four different irradiation doses: 0,00 kGy, 0,50 kGy, 0,75 kGy and 1,00 kGy for effects in the ripening of papaya (Carica Papaya) cv. Golden. To evaluate the influence of these two factors in the physical-chemical characteristics of the fruit during ripening, analysis on color, both skin and pulp, firmness, soluble solids, pH and titrable acidity were performed. The incidence of fungi in fruit skin was also analyzed. The fruits were first maintained at 10 deg C chamber for fifteen days to simulate maritime transportation to the importer country and then transferred to a 25 deg C chamber aiming simulation of the commercialization conditions. From this first step, the conclusion was that chitosan in the concentration of 2% was not able to contain the fungi development and that it also influenced in a significant form the variable pH. A more expressive result was obtained for irradiation doses of 0,75 kGy and 1,00 kGy, as it was observed in the beginning the acceleration in ripening through the variables skin color and penetration energy of the fruit pulp. When storage temperature was changed to 25 deg C this situation inverted for these same variables and a two day delay was observed on the development of yellow color on the fruit skin and loss of pulp firmness. The variables titrable acidity, soluble solids and pulp color were not influenced by treatment or by irradiation. On a second stage, the fruits, in the same condition of the previous stage, were analyzed in relation of their mass and ripening stage using a ripening scale provided by the producer of the fruits for this experiment, as to evaluate the gradual development of fruit ripening according to the various treatments (chitosan 3%, thermal or control) and irradiation dose (0,00 kGy and 0,75 kGy). Confirming the results obtained in the first stage, the irradiation was able to delay ripening in one day and a half approximately. The chitosan in these new conditions of test propitiated fungi development and the fruits coated with chitosan did not ripe in the way it was seen to come. A last stage was done to verify consumer behavior in respect to an irradiated papaya. By three different sensorial tests it was verified if provers were able to perceive significant difference between irradiated and non irradiated samples, what was the acceptance of a irradiated sample and the intention of purchase of a irradiated and a non irradiated papaya. Conclusion from these tests was that the difference established in the triangular test was not enough to establish significant difference between the acceptances of the two samples in the four parameters tested: appearance, texture, aroma and flavor. For the purchase intention it was verified that the irradiation is not a barrier for the consumer. (author)

2004-01-01

223

Use of microsatellite markers in molecular analysis of segregating populations of papaya (Carica papaya L.) derived from backcrossing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Brazil is the world leader in papaya production. However, only a small number of cultivars are registered for commercial planting, mainly owing to delays in obtaining cultivars and the high costs of the field phase of breeding programs. These costs can be reduced when molecular tools are combined with conventional breeding methods. In the present study, we conducted a molecular analysis of a self-fertilized population of a first backcrossing generation of BC1S1 papaya plants via microsatellite markers both to monitor the level of homozygosity and the gene/allele transfer that confers the Golden trait (fruit color) and to assess the parental genomic proportion in the genotypes studied. Based on the analysis of 20 polymorphic microsatellite loci, 19 genotypes with the Golden trait belonging to BC1S1 were evaluated in addition to the parental genotypes. Genetic distance was estimated through weighted index. The genotypes were then grouped using the hierarchical nearest neighbor method, and the analysis of principal coordinates was used to measure the proportion of parental genomes in the segregating genotypes. The mean value of the inbreeding coefficient was 0.36. The analysis of the principal coordinates revealed that on average, 64% of the recurrent parent genome was present in the population. Together, the analyses allowed the selection of 3 individuals for the next backcross cycle (33BC1S1-18, 34BC1S1-16, and 37BC1S1-10). These individuals had a higher proportion of the recurrent parent and were grouped close to the recurrent parent in the cluster analysis. PMID:23884768

Pinto, F O; Pereira, M G; Luz, L N; Cardozo, D L; Ramos, H C C; Macedo, C M P

2013-01-01

224

Molecular diagnosis of Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) from leaf samples of Carica papaya L. using conventional and real-time RT-PCR.  

Science.gov (United States)

Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) is the causal agent of papaya sticky disease. This study describes two methods for molecular diagnosis of PMeV using conventional and real-time PCR. These methods were shown to be more efficient than current methods of viral detection using extraction of PMeV dsRNA and observation of symptoms in the field. The methods described here were used to evaluate the effect of inoculation of papaya plants with purified PMeV dsRNA on the progress of PMeV infection. A single inoculation with PMeV dsRNA was observed to delay the progress of the virus infection by several weeks. The possibility of vertical transmission of PMeV was also investigated. No evidence was found for PMeV transmission through seeds collected from diseased fruit. The implications of these results for the epidemiology of PMeV and the management of papaya sticky disease are discussed. PMID:22193169

Abreu, Paolla M V; Piccin, João G; Rodrigues, Silas P; Buss, David S; Ventura, José A; Fernandes, Patricia M B

2012-03-01

225

Modulation of jejunal contractions by extract of Carica papaya L. seeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Carica papaya L. (papaya) seed preparations are used in traditional medicine to expel intestinal worms in human and ruminants. In the present study, an ethanol extract of papaya seeds (EEPS; 0.1-6.4 mg/mL) caused concentration-dependent inhibition of jejunal contractions in contrast to corresponding concentrations of DMSO (solvent control). The inhibitory effect of EEPS on jejunal contractions was significantly irreversible. Previous studies have indicated that benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) is the main bioactive compound responsible for the anthelmintic activity of papaya seeds. In the present study, standard BITC (0.01-0.64 mmol/L) also caused significant irreversible inhibition of jejunal contractions. Recovery of jejunal contractions after BITC-induced inhibition was weaker than recovery after EEPS-induced inhibition (BITC versus EEPS: 19 +/- 7% vs 38 +/- 13%). Cryosections of the jejunum showed marked morphological damage of the segments treated with BITC in contrast to DMSO-treated segments. EEPS-induced jejunal damage was, however, less marked. These results indicate that papaya seed extract and BITC, its principal bioactive constituent are capable of weakening the contractile capability of rabbit isolated jejunum. It is thus envisaged that at the toxic level that will be needed to kill and expel intestinal worms in vivo, BITC may also cause impairment of intestinal functions. PMID:16161026

Adebiyi, Adebowale; Adaikan, P Ganesan

2005-07-01

226

Metáforas en Lengua de Señas Chilena / Metaphors in Chilean Sign Language  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este estudio describe las características del lenguaje metafórico de personas sordas chilenas y su impacto en la comprensión lingüística. La relevancia de esta pregunta radica en la escasez de investigaciones realizadas, particularmente a nivel nacional. Se desarrolló un estudio cualitativo en base [...] a análisis de videos de sujetos sordos en habla espontánea. Se confeccionó una lista de metáforas conceptuales y no conceptuales en Lengua de Señas Chilena. Posteriormente se evaluó su comprensión en un grupo de sujetos sordos, educados con modalidad comunicativa de lengua de señas. Los resultados obtenidos permiten observar la existencia de metáforas propias de la cultura sorda. Ellas serían coherentes con las particulares experiencias de los sujetos sordos y no necesariamente concuerdan con el lenguaje oral. Abstract in english The present study examined the characteristics of Chilean deaf people's metaphoric language and its relevance in linguistic comprehension. This key question is based in the scarcity of studies conducted in Chile. A qualitative study was developed, on the basis of analysis of videos of Chilean deaf p [...] eople spontaneous sign language. A list of conceptual and no conceptual metaphors in Chilean sign language was developed. The comprehension of these metaphors was evaluated in a group of deaf subjets, educated using sign language communication. The results identify the existence of metaphors of the deaf culture. These methaphors would be coherent with the particular experiences of deaf subjets and do not necessarily agree with spoken language.

Carolina, Becerra.

227

Metáforas en Lengua de Señas Chilena Metaphors in Chilean Sign Language  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este estudio describe las características del lenguaje metafórico de personas sordas chilenas y su impacto en la comprensión lingüística. La relevancia de esta pregunta radica en la escasez de investigaciones realizadas, particularmente a nivel nacional. Se desarrolló un estudio cualitativo en base a análisis de videos de sujetos sordos en habla espontánea. Se confeccionó una lista de metáforas conceptuales y no conceptuales en Lengua de Señas Chilena. Posteriormente se evaluó su comprensión en un grupo de sujetos sordos, educados con modalidad comunicativa de lengua de señas. Los resultados obtenidos permiten observar la existencia de metáforas propias de la cultura sorda. Ellas serían coherentes con las particulares experiencias de los sujetos sordos y no necesariamente concuerdan con el lenguaje oral.The present study examined the characteristics of Chilean deaf people's metaphoric language and its relevance in linguistic comprehension. This key question is based in the scarcity of studies conducted in Chile. A qualitative study was developed, on the basis of analysis of videos of Chilean deaf people spontaneous sign language. A list of conceptual and no conceptual metaphors in Chilean sign language was developed. The comprehension of these metaphors was evaluated in a group of deaf subjets, educated using sign language communication. The results identify the existence of metaphors of the deaf culture. These methaphors would be coherent with the particular experiences of deaf subjets and do not necessarily agree with spoken language.

Carolina Becerra

2008-05-01

228

CALIDAD DE VIDA RELACIONADA CON EL CLIMATERIO EN UNA POBLACIÓN CHILENA DE MUJERES SALUDABLES  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Aplicar una versión chilena de la escala MRS para evaluar calidad de vida de mujeres climatéricas. Métodos: Aplicación de la versión chilena de la escala MRS a mujeres de 45-64 años inscritas en el SSMO: Grupo 1, concurrentes a controles preventivos de salud (n=844) y Grupo 2, concurrentes [...] a ginecólogo (n=360). Resultados: El adecuado comportamiento del instrumento fue confirmado porque el análisis de confiabilidad interna, que presentó un alfa de Crombach >0,86; la confiabilidad externa mostró una correlación en re-encuesta del Grupo 1 y 2 con coeficiente de Pearson p Abstract in english Objective: To apply a chilean version of the MRS scale to evaluate quality of life in climacteric women. Methods: Application of chilean version of the MRS scale in 45-64 year-old women registered at Metropolitan Health Service (MHS) of Chile. Group 1, women attending programmed health preventive co [...] ntrols (n=844); and Group 2, women who require attention by gynecologist (n=360). Results: The suitable behavior of the used instrument was confirmed because the analysis of internal reliability showed Crombach's alpha >0.8; external reliability showed correlation in re-test of both group with Pearson's coefficient p

Sócrates, Aedo M; Arnaldo, Porcile J; Cristina, Irribarra A.

229

Emergência e matéria seca de plantas daninhas na cultura do mamoeiro (Carica papaya) / Emergence and dry matter of weeds in papaya crop (Carica papaya)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste experimento foi avaliar o "banco" de sementes de plantas daninhas através do método da emergência de plântulas, na cultura do mamoeiro, em que se empregaram diferentes sistemas de manejo. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com três repetições e seis tratamentos: [...] capina em área total; herbicida nas linhas + grade nas entrelinhas; subsolagem cruzada antes do plantio + capina em área total; subsolagem cruzada antes do plantio + herbicida nas linhas e feijão de porco nas entrelinhas; subsolagem cruzada antes do plantio + herbicida nas linhas e crotalária nas entrelinhas; e herbicida nas linhas + vegetação nativa nas entrelinhas da cultura, roçada quando necessário. A avaliação do banco de sementes foi feita aos 30, 60, 90 e 120 dias após a implantação de um bioensaio em casa de vegetação, com amostras retiradas no campo nas épocas chuvosa e seca, na profundidade de 0-15 cm. A matéria seca das plantas daninhas foi obtida utilizando-se um quadrado de 0,5 x 0,5 m, jogado a lanço quatro vezes nas parcelas. Os sistemas de manejo de capina em área total e de herbicida na linha + grade nas entrelinhas de plantio de mamoeiros, com feijão-de-porco e crotalária, reduzem o banco de sementes no solo. Dos adubos verdes, crotalária e feijão-de-porco, o primeiro altera a dinâmica do "banco" de sementes de forma mais significativa. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the seed bank of weeds through the seedling emergence method in papaya crop, using different tillage systems. A randomized complete block design was used, with three replications and six treatments: weeding in total area, herbicide in the rows + disc in the [...] interrows, crossed sub soiling before planting + weeding in total area, crossed sub soiling before planting + herbicide in the rows and pig bean in the interrows, crossed sub soiling before planting + herbicide in the row + crotalaria in the interrows and crossed sub soiling before planting + herbicide in the rows + native vegetation in the interrows, cleared when necessary. Seed bank evaluation was performed at 30, 60, 90 and 120 days after implantation of the experiment in the greenhouse with samples collected in the field in the rainy and dry seasons at 0-15 cm in depth. Weed dry matter was obtained by using a square of 0.5 x 0.5 m sorted four times in the plots. The weeding management systems in total area and herbicide in the row + disc in the papaya crop interrows with pig bean and crotalaria reduce seed bank in the soil. Among the green fertilizers, crotalaria alters more significantly the dynamics of the seed bank than pig bean.

I.S., Santana; M.F.S.P., Peixoto; J.E.B., Carvalho; L.S.V., Sampaio; C.A.S., Ledo; C.P., Peixoto.

230

Combined Treatment of UV and Gamma Radiation of Papaya for Decay Control  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An exploratory study was made to determine if combining u.v. and gamma radiation treatment at selective doses would decrease the fungal decay incidence in papaya (Carica papaya L. var. Solo), and thereby increase the marketable life of the fruit. Also studied was the effect of the combined treatment on the spores of Aschochyta spp., Colletotrichium spp. and Phytophthora spp., which are commonly found on papaya grown in Hawaii. This was to test the postulate that the combined treatment would prevent photoreactivation of the disrupted nuclei in microorganisms and lead to eventual death. Experimental results did not indicate a conclusive trend to effectiveness but suggested a number of problems to be resolved before the treatment can become useful in fungal decay control of fruits. (author)

1978-04-01

231

Combined treatment of UV and gamma radiation of papaya for decay control  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An exploratory study was made to determine if combining u.v. and gamma radiation treatment at selective doses would decrease the fungal decay incidence in papaya (Carica papaya L. var. Solo), and thereby increase the marketable life of the fruit. Also studied was the effect of the combined treatment on the spores of Aschochyta spp., Colletotrichium spp. and Phytophthora spp., which are commonly found on papaya grown in Hawaii. This was to test the postulate that the combined treatment would prevent photoreactivation of the disrupted nuclei in microorganisms and lead to eventual death. Experimental results did not indicate a conclusive trend to effectiveness but suggested a number of problems to be resolved before the treatment can become useful in fungal decay control of fruits. (author)

1977-11-25

232

Abortifacient properties of aqueous extract of Carica papaya (Linn) seeds on female Sprague-Dawley rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Experiments were conducted to investigate the abortifacient potential of aqueous extract of Carica papaya (Linn) seeds in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Oral doses of 100 and 800 mg/kg body weight were administered once a day on days 1-10 post-coitum. No significant differences in total body weight were found in foetuses exposed to these regimes. However, in the group treated with 100 mg/kg body weight, there was a significant increase (p extract of Carica papaya (Linn) seeds does not adversely affect prenatal development. The altered toxicological profile indicates that the abortifacient property is a high dose side effect. The results indicate that Carica papaya toxicity can adversely affect the foetus. PMID:12163882

Oderinde, O; Noronha, C; Oremosu, A; Kusemiju, T; Okanlawon, O A

2002-06-01

233

The effect of gamma radiation on the chemical content, texture and shelf life of papaya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Commercially matured papaya, Carica papaya var. Solo were gamma irradiated at doses of 0 kGy, 0.75 kGy, 1.0 KGy and 1.5 kGy. The production rate of ethylene, development of ripening colour, pectin substances and ascorbic acid content as well as the weight losses were studied during storage at room temperature. Ethylene production, development of ripening colour and softening were found to be retarded by irradiation. Irradiation also slowed down the reduction rate of alcohol insoluble substances and hydrochloric acid soluble pectin and the increment of water soluble pectin and hexamataphosphate soluble pectin. Doses of 1.0 kGy and 1.5 kGy effectively suppressed the synthesis of vitamin C although no effect on the existing ascorbic acid was detected. The weight losses of papaya were not affected by irradiation treatment

1990-06-01

234

Processamento mínimo de mamão 'formosa' Fresh cut of 'formosa' papaya  

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Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido para verificar o efeito do tamanho do corte, 2,5 x 2,5cm (corte 1 e 2,5 x 5,0cm (corte 2, e da temperatura de armazenamento (3, 6 e 9ºC, na velocidade da modificação da atmosfera ambiente e nas características químicas de mamões do grupo `Formosa' minimamente processados e embalados em copos plásticos (500ml. A concentração de CO2 no interior destes copos aumentou 2 a 3 vezes, durante as primeiras 6 horas após o corte, para depois diminuir e se estabilizar. Esta concentração aumentou com o aumento da temperatura de armazenamento. A umidade dos pedaços diminuiu consideravelmente nos dois primeiros dias, e a temperatura que melhor conservou a umidade foi a de 6ºC. A acidez total titulável foi menor no corte 2, com as maiores reduções a 6 e 9oC. Os teores de sólidos solúveis totais não variaram entre os tratamentos, e os cuidados higiênicos adotados durante o processamento permitiram a obtenção de produtos com baixa contagem microbiana, 10³UFC.g-1 nos pedaços armazenados a 9ºC após sete dias, e com boa manutenção da qualidade sensorial das mesmas. Estes resultados permitem indicar o mamão `Formosa' para a produção de produtos minimamente processados, na forma de pedaços, com conservação refrigerada (3 e 6ºC por um período de 7 dias.This work was undertaken to verify the effect of cutting size, 2.5 x 2.5cm (chunk 1, 2.5 x 5.0cm (chunk 2, and storage temperatures (3, 6 and 9ºC, on atmosphere modification rate and chemical characteristics of `Formosa' fresh-cut papaya packed in plastic cups (500 ml. The CO2 concentration into theses cups increased fron two to three fold during first 6 hours after cutting, then it decreased and stabilized. This concentration increased with the storage temperature increasing. The chunks's moisture remarkably decreased in the first 2 days, and the temperature which best sustained the moisture was 6ºC. The titratable total acidity was lower in chunk 2, with the highest reductions at 6 and 9ºC. The total soluble solids content did not vary between treatments, and hygienic care adopted during processing allowed to obtain low microbial counting products, 10³ CFU.g-1 in chunks stored at 9ºC after seven days and with good maintenance of its sensorial quality. These results allow to indicate `Formosa' papaya for fresh-cuts production, in chunk form, with refrigerated conservation (3 e 6ºC for 7 day periods.

Gustavo Henrique de Almeida TEIXEIRA

2001-01-01

235

Use of morpho-agronomic traits and DNA profiling for classification of genetic diversity in papaya.  

Science.gov (United States)

We examined the genetic diversity of papaya (Carica papaya) based on morpho-agronomic and molecular data. Twenty-seven genotypes grown in Brazil were analyzed with 11 AFLP primer combinations, 23 ISSR markers, 22 qualitative, and 30 quantitative descriptors. For the joint analyses, we used the Gower algorithm (Joint Gower) and the average value of the individual dissimilarity matrix for each type of data (Average-Joint Gower); 359 AFLP and 52 ISSR polymorphic bands were found. Approximately 29.2 and 7.7% of the AFLP and ISSR bands, respectively, were genotype-specific and may therefore be used for papaya variety protection. Although there was a significant correlation between the qualitative and quantitative descriptor dissimilarity matrices (r = 0.43), the morpho-agronomic data were not highly correlated with the molecular data. Moreover, correlation between AFLP and ISSR dissimilarity matrices was nearly null (r = -0.01). Joint Gower analysis of all data showed high correlations, especially for AFLP markers, most likely due to the larger number of bands, generating a strong bias in the diversity estimates. The Average-Joint Gower analysis allowed a better balance between the correlations for the continuous and the discrete variables. The results generated by clustering analysis distinguished 5 genetically distinct groups. While we found that papaya genotypes are significantly variable for many traits, we observed that Average-Joint Gower analysis allowed for genotype clustering based on the most widely used criterion for classifying papaya genotypes, which is fruit type ('Formosa' or 'Solo'). This information helps provide an accurate estimate of the genetic diversity and structure of papaya germplasm, which will be used for further breeding strategies. PMID:23546977

de Jesus, O N; de Freitas, J P X; Dantas, J L L; de Oliveira, E J

2013-01-01

236

Effects of papaya seed extract and benzyl isothiocyanate on vascular contraction.  

Science.gov (United States)

To investigate their potentially toxic effects on mammalian vascular smooth muscle, pentane extracts of papaya seeds and the chief active ingredient in the extracts, benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC), were tested for their effects on the contraction of strips of dog carotid artery. BITC and the papaya seed extract caused relaxation when added to tissue strips that had been pre-contracted with phenylephrine (PE). Incubation of the tissue with papaya seed extract or BITC caused inhibition of contraction when the strips were subsequently contracted with KCl or PE. This relaxation and inhibition of contraction did not appear to be endothelium-dependent, as endothelium-denuded rings showed the same degree of relaxation or inhibition of contraction in response to the preparations/drugs as those with the endothelium intact. The effects of both BITC and the extract were irreversible, i.e., the tissue did not recover to normal contractile ability after extensive washing. Exposure of the tissue to the papaya seed extract caused slower relaxation of the tissue, compared to controls, both after contraction with PE and subsequent addition of carbachol (CCh), and after contraction with KCl and then washing. Calcium imaging studies using cultured endothelial cells showed strong influxes of Ca2+ into the cells in response to addition of the papaya seed extract. We conclude that these extracts, when present in high concentration, are cytotoxic by increasing the membrane permeability to Ca2+, and that the vascular effects of papaya seed extracts are consistent with the notion that BITC is the chief bio-active ingredient. PMID:12052434

Wilson, Ruth K; Kwan, Tony K; Kwan, Chiu-Yin; Sorger, George J

2002-06-21

237

L-ascorbic acid, ?-carotene and lycopene content in papaya fruits (Carica papaya) with or without physiological skin freckles / Conteúdo de ácido l-ascórbico, ?-caroteno e licopeno em frutos de mamão (Carica papaya) com e sem mancha fisiológica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A Mancha Fisiológica do Mamão (MFM) é uma desordem da casca do mamão, que deprecia a aparência do fruto e prejudica a sua comercialização, embora não prejudique o seu valor nutritivo. Considerando ser o mamão, uma boa fonte de ácido L-ascórbico, b-caroteno e licopeno, esta pesquisa visou determinar [...] o índice destes componentes em frutas de mamão, das variedades do grupo 'Formosa' e 'Solo', com e sem Mancha Fisiológica do Mamão (MFM) aparente na pele. As frutas foram colhidas na região do sudeste de Brasil. O teor de ácido L-ascórbico foi determinado pela técnica de titulação. Os índices do b-caroteno e do licopeno foram determinados pela técnica de cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (HPLC). O teor de ácido L-ascórbico variou de (59,9 ± 3,4) mg 100 g-1 a (112,4 ± 12,6) mg 100 g-1 de polpa fresca de mamão. O teor de b-caroteno variou de (0,19 ± 0,07) mg 100 g-1 a (0,56 ± 0,09) mg 100 g-1 e o do licopeno variou de (1,44 ± 0,28) mg 100 g-1 a (3,39 ± 0,32) mg 100 g-1 de polpa fresca de mamão. Os índices de ácidos L-ascórbico na polpa dos frutos de mamão com MFM variaram de 7,0 mg 100 g-1 a 10,0 mg 100 g-1 a mais do que os teores encontrados na polpa dos frutos de mamão sem a MFM (P Abstract in english The Skin Freckles is a papaya skin disorder that depreciates de fruit appearance and hampers its commercialization, although not lowering its nutritive value. Being the papaya a good source of ascorbic acid, ?-carotene and licopene this research aimed at determining L-ascorbic acid, ?-carotene and l [...] icopene content in papaya fruits, from 'Formosa' and 'Solo' group varieties, with and without apparent physiological skin disease (skin freckles). Fruits were harvested in the Southeast Region of Brazil. L-ascorbic acid content was determined by titration technique. ?-carotene and licopene contents were determined by high performance liquid chromatography technique (HPLC). L-ascorbic acid content in papaya fruits ranged from (59.9 ± 3.4) mg 100 g-1 to (112.4 ± 12.6) mg 100 g-1 in fresh papaya pulp. ?-carotene content ranged from (0.19 ± 0.07) mg 100 g-1 to (0.56 ± 0.09) mg 100 g-1 and that of licopene ranged from (1.44 ± 0.28) mg 100 g-1 to (3.39 ± 0.32) mg 100 g-1 in fresh papaya pulp. L-ascorbic acid contents of papaya fruits with skin disease averaged 7.0 mg 100 g-1 to 10.0 mg 100 g-1 higher than those of papaya fruits without skin freckles (P

Leandro Marelli de, Souza; Karla Silva, Ferreira; José Benício Paes, Chaves; Sílvio Lopes, Teixeira.

238

L-ascorbic acid, ?-carotene and lycopene content in papaya fruits (Carica papaya with or without physiological skin freckles Conteúdo de ácido l-ascórbico, ?-caroteno e licopeno em frutos de mamão (Carica papaya com e sem mancha fisiológica  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Skin Freckles is a papaya skin disorder that depreciates de fruit appearance and hampers its commercialization, although not lowering its nutritive value. Being the papaya a good source of ascorbic acid, ?-carotene and licopene this research aimed at determining L-ascorbic acid, ?-carotene and licopene content in papaya fruits, from 'Formosa' and 'Solo' group varieties, with and without apparent physiological skin disease (skin freckles. Fruits were harvested in the Southeast Region of Brazil. L-ascorbic acid content was determined by titration technique. ?-carotene and licopene contents were determined by high performance liquid chromatography technique (HPLC. L-ascorbic acid content in papaya fruits ranged from (59.9 ± 3.4 mg 100 g-1 to (112.4 ± 12.6 mg 100 g-1 in fresh papaya pulp. ?-carotene content ranged from (0.19 ± 0.07 mg 100 g-1 to (0.56 ± 0.09 mg 100 g-1 and that of licopene ranged from (1.44 ± 0.28 mg 100 g-1 to (3.39 ± 0.32 mg 100 g-1 in fresh papaya pulp. L-ascorbic acid contents of papaya fruits with skin disease averaged 7.0 mg 100 g-1 to 10.0 mg 100 g-1 higher than those of papaya fruits without skin freckles (P A Mancha Fisiológica do Mamão (MFM é uma desordem da casca do mamão, que deprecia a aparência do fruto e prejudica a sua comercialização, embora não prejudique o seu valor nutritivo. Considerando ser o mamão, uma boa fonte de ácido L-ascórbico, b-caroteno e licopeno, esta pesquisa visou determinar o índice destes componentes em frutas de mamão, das variedades do grupo 'Formosa' e 'Solo', com e sem Mancha Fisiológica do Mamão (MFM aparente na pele. As frutas foram colhidas na região do sudeste de Brasil. O teor de ácido L-ascórbico foi determinado pela técnica de titulação. Os índices do b-caroteno e do licopeno foram determinados pela técnica de cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (HPLC. O teor de ácido L-ascórbico variou de (59,9 ± 3,4 mg 100 g-1 a (112,4 ± 12,6 mg 100 g-1 de polpa fresca de mamão. O teor de b-caroteno variou de (0,19 ± 0,07 mg 100 g-1 a (0,56 ± 0,09 mg 100 g-1 e o do licopeno variou de (1,44 ± 0,28 mg 100 g-1 a (3,39 ± 0,32 mg 100 g-1 de polpa fresca de mamão. Os índices de ácidos L-ascórbico na polpa dos frutos de mamão com MFM variaram de 7,0 mg 100 g-1 a 10,0 mg 100 g-1 a mais do que os teores encontrados na polpa dos frutos de mamão sem a MFM (P < 0,05.

Leandro Marelli de Souza

2008-01-01

239

Effect of ionizing radiation on the activity of pectinesterase in papaya (cultivar solo)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Papaya fruits (Carica papaya L.) were exposed to ionizing radiation gamma type ( sup(60)Co), using a dose of 0.7kGy, and then stored in a cold room at 10C with a relative humidity of 85% for a period of 25 days. The pectinesterase activity of the irradiated fruits was found to be similar to that of the non-irradiated fruits during the storage period. The radiation dose maintained the texture and enzyme activity of the irradiated fruits the same as that of the non-irradiated fruits. (author)

1988-01-01

240

Effect of 60Co ? irradiation and GA3 treatment on mutation of Carica papaya L  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The seeds of Carica papaya L. were irradiated by 60Co ?-rays of 10-40 Gy and treated by GA3 of 10-50 mg/L after irradiation. The results showed that small nuclear cell percentage, chromosome variation percentage and leaf variability of papaya seedling increased with increase of irradiation dose, the pollen fertility and fruit quality decreased. GA3 of 10-50 mg/L treatment after irradiation could alleviate the irradiation harm, and the effect of lower concentration of GA3 was better than higher concentration with lower dose irradiation, however, the effect of higher concentration of GA3 was better with higher dose irradiation

2003-10-01

 
 
 
 
241

Quality of Guava and Papaya Fruit Pulp as Influenced by Blending Ratio and Storage Period  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Guava and papaya are the most widely grown commercial fruits of central India. Both the fruits are nutritive and may be used for processing. The analysis of organoleptic characters (i.e., colour, flavour, texture, taste and overall acceptability) and qualitative characters (i.e., TSS, pH, acidity, ascorbic acid content) of guava and papaya fruits was conducted on fresh fruit, prepared pulp and mixed pulp. During the storage of fruit pulp at low temperature (6±1°C), the decrease in overall a...

2011-01-01

242

CHARACTERIZATION OF PAPAYA FRUIT MEDIATED SILVER NANOPARTICLES AND EVALUATION OF ITS ANTIMICROBIAL AND WOUND HEALING ACTIVITY  

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Full Text Available The field of Nanotechnology is the most active area of research in modern material science. Though there are many chemical as well as physical methods, green synthesis of nanomaterial is the most emerging method of synthesis. We report the synthesis of antibacterial silver nanoparticles using Papaya. The synthesized AgNPs have been characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy and SEM microscopy. The silver nanoparticles stabilized by Papaya fruit extract were found to have enhanced antimicrobial activity against well-known pathogenic strains Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris and E. coli.

EnamalaNarmadha

2013-07-01

243

Asymmetric purine-pyrimidine distribution in cellular small RNA population of papaya  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The small RNAs (sRNA) are a regulatory class of RNA mainly represented by the 21 and 24-nucleotide size classes. The cellular sRNAs are processed by RNase III family enzyme dicer (Dicer like in plant) from a self-complementary hairpin loop or other type of RNA duplexes. The papaya genome has been sequenced, but its microRNAs and other regulatory RNAs are yet to be analyzed. Results We analyzed the genomic features of the papaya sRNA populatio...

2012-01-01

244

Assessment of the Anti-Protozoal Activity of Crude Carica papaya Seed Extract against Trypanosoma cruzi  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In order to determine the in vivo activity against the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, two doses (50 and 75 mg/kg) of a chloroform extract of Carica papaya seeds were evaluated compared with a control group of allopurinol. The activity of a mixture of the three main compounds (oleic, palmitic and stearic acids in a proportion of 45.9% of oleic acid, 24.1% of palmitic and 8.52% of stearic acid previously identified in the crude extract of C. papaya was evaluated at doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg...

2013-01-01

245

Phytochemistry and Heamatological Potential of Ethanol Seed Leaf and Pulp Extracts of Carica papaya (Linn.  

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Full Text Available This study was aimed at qualitative evaluation of the ethanol seed, leaf and pulp extracts of C. papaya for bioactive compounds and also to investigate their effect on the haematology in male albino rats. A 3x4 factorial experimental layout using randomized complete design was adopted. Results show that the phytochemicals found in seed, leaf and pulp were almost the same but however, in varying proportions. Present result also revealed that there were significant effects (pC. papaya extracts could be used to enhance the production of selected blood parameters, taking issue of dosage into consideration.

O. Udensi

2011-01-01

246

Effect of Carica papaya bark extract on oxidative stress parameters in testes of male albino rats  

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Summary: Carica papaya bark has contraceptive benefits when given at a high dose in male rats the mechanism at which it achieves this is yet to be fully understood. Forty male Wistar rats were used for the study. They were randomized into 8 groups Ia, IIa, IIIa, Ib, IIb, IIIb, IV and V respectively (n=5). Groups Ia-IIIa and Ib-IIIb were treated for 4 and 8 weeks with Carica papaya bark...

Kusemiju, T. O.; Yama, O. E.; Okanlawon, A. O.

2011-01-01

247

Papaya extract to treat dengue: a novel therapeutic option?  

Science.gov (United States)

Dengue is a viral disease that today affects a vast number of people in over 125 countries and is responsible for a sizable number of deaths. In the absence of an effective antiviral drug to treat the disease, various treatments are being investigated. Studies have indicated that the juice of the leaves of the Carica papaya plant from the family Caricaceae could help to increase the platelet levels in these patients. This review describes some of the published studies on this topic. The search was done independently by the two authors using PubMed, Google and the library database and included relevant articles of the last 10 years. A total of 7 studies were included in this review, which were one animal study, one case report, three case series and two randomized controlled trials. Although many of the studies and case reports published in literature lack adequate information, some of the studies do raise the possibility that this treatment could be an important option in the future. Further large-scale studies could establish the usefulness or ineffectiveness of this natural product in the treatment of dengue. PMID:24971201

Sarala, N; Paknikar, Ss

2014-05-01

248

Bioactivity of Carica papaya (Caricaceae) against Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

The composition of a chloroform seed extract of C. papaya was determined by GC-MS. Nineteen compounds were identified, with oleic (45.97%), palmitic (24.1%) and stearic (8.52%) acids being the main components. The insecticidal and insectistatic activities of the extract and the three main constituents were tested. Larval duration increased by 3.4 d and 2.5 d when the extract was used at 16,000 and 9,600 ppm, respectively, whereas the pupal period increased by 2.2 d and 1.1 d at the same concentrations. Larval viability values were 0%, 29.2%, and 50% when the extract was applied at 24,000, 16,000, and 9,600 ppm, respectively; pupal viability was 42.9% and 66.7% at 16,000 and 9,600 ppm; and pupal weight decreased by 25.4% and 11.5% at 16,000 and 9,600 ppm. The larval viability of the main compounds was 33.3%, 48.5%, and 62.5% when exposed to 1,600 ppm of palmitic acid, oleic acid, or stearic acid, respectively. PMID:21892128

Pérez-Gutiérrez, Salud; Zavala-Sánchez, Miguel Angel; González-Chávez, Marco Martín; Cárdenas-Ortega, Norma Cecilia; Ramos-López, Miguel Angel

2011-01-01

249

Possible immunomodulatory actions of Carica papaya seed extract.  

Science.gov (United States)

Carica papaya seed extract is currently being marketed as a nutritional supplement with purported ability "to rejuvenate the body condition and to increase energy". The product claims to improve immunity against common infection and body functioning. The present study was initiated to analyze the chemical constituents of the Carica Seed Extract and determine the potential immunomodulatory properties of the different bioactive fractions. These immunomodulatory activities of crude Carica Seed Extract and its bioactive fractions were examined in vitro using lymphocyte proliferation assays and complement-mediated hemolytic assay. Three major observations were made in this study: (1) the crude Carica Seed Extract and two other bioactive fractions significantly enhanced the phytohemagglutinin responsiveness of lymphocytes; (2) none of the Carica Seed Extract (at the concentrations used in this study) was able to protect the lymphocytes from the toxic effects of chromium; and (3) some of the bioactive fractions of Carica Seed Extract were able to significantly inhibit the classical complement-mediated hemolytic pathway. These findings provide evidence for immunostimulatory and anti-inflammatory actions of Carica Seed Extract. No single compound is likely responsible for these activities. Further purification, isolation and characterization of the active components are needed. PMID:14724345

Mojica-Henshaw, Mariluz P; Francisco, Angelica D; De Guzman, Florecita; Tigno, Xenia T

2003-01-01

250

Bioactivity of Carica papaya (Caricaceae against Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae  

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Full Text Available The composition of a chloroform seed extract of C. papaya was determined by GC-MS. Nineteen compounds were identified, with oleic (45.97%, palmitic (24.1% and stearic (8.52% acids being the main components. The insecticidal and insectistatic activities of the extract and the three main constituents were tested. Larval duration increased by 3.4 d and 2.5 d when the extract was used at 16,000 and 9,600 ppm, respectively, whereas the pupal period increased by 2.2 d and 1.1 d at the same concentrations. Larval viability values were 0%, 29.2%, and 50% when the extract was applied at 24,000, 16,000, and 9,600 ppm, respectively; pupal viability was 42.9% and 66.7% at 16,000 and 9,600 ppm; and pupal weight decreased by 25.4% and 11.5% at 16,000 and 9,600 ppm. The larval viability of the main compounds was 33.3%, 48.5%, and 62.5% when exposed to 1,600 ppm of palmitic acid, oleic acid, or stearic acid, respectively.

Norma Cecilia Cárdenas-Ortega

2011-09-01

251

Label-free quantitative proteomics reveals differentially regulated proteins in the latex of sticky diseased Carica papaya L. plants.  

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Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) is so far the only described laticifer-infecting virus, the causal agent of papaya (Carica papaya L.) sticky disease. The effects of PMeV on the laticifers' regulatory network were addressed here through the proteomic analysis of papaya latex. Using both 1-DE- and 1D-LC-ESI-MS/MS, 160 unique papaya latex proteins were identified, representing 122 new proteins in the latex of this plant. Quantitative analysis by normalized spectral counting revealed 10 down-regulated proteins in the latex of diseased plants, 9 cysteine proteases (chymopapain) and 1 latex serine proteinase inhibitor. A repression of papaya latex proteolytic activity during PMeV infection was hypothesized. This was further confirmed by enzymatic assays that showed a reduction of cysteine-protease-associated proteolytic activity in the diseased papaya latex. These findings are discussed in the context of plant responses against pathogens and may greatly contribute to understand the roles of laticifers in plant stress responses. PMID:22465191

Rodrigues, Silas P; Ventura, José A; Aguilar, Clemente; Nakayasu, Ernesto S; Choi, HyungWon; Sobreira, Tiago J P; Nohara, Lilian L; Wermelinger, Luciana S; Almeida, Igor C; Zingali, Russolina B; Fernandes, Patricia M B

2012-06-18

252

Creencias sobre Papanicolaou y cáncer cérvicouterino en un grupo de mujeres chilenas  

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Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Antecedentes: Son variadas las descripciones en relación a las creencias y como estas se relacionan con las conductas preventivas en cáncer cérvicouterino. Objetivo: Describir las creencias que tienen un grupo de mujeres chilenas pertenecientes al sistema público de atención acerca del Papanicolaou [...] y cáncer cérvicouterino. Método: Estudio analítico de corte transversal realizado en 333 mujeres chilenas. Se estudiaron las creencias sobre el Papanicolaou y el cáncer cérvicouterino con un instrumento desarrollado y validado en población chilena (CPC-28). Resultados: El 96% de las mujeres refiere tener un Papanicolaou en los últimos 3 años. El antecedente familiar es reportado por el 49,8% como causa de cáncer cérvicouterino. La barrera principal para adherir al Papanicolaou es la falta de conocimiento en cuanto a la edad requerida. La principal señal de acción que impulsa a que la mujer adhiera al tamizaje es la indicación entregada por el doctor. El beneficio mas importante es el cuidado de la salud. El 14,1% señala la presencia de relaciones sexuales como necesaria para adherir al tamizaje. El 17,4% de las mujeres se percibe fuera de riesgo de desarrollar un cáncer cérvicouterino. Las 6 dimensiones estudiadas se correlacionan entre si. Conclusión: Las creencias deben ser consideradas al momento de intervenir una población, empezando por valorarlas y comprenderlas para posteriormente poder modificarlas. Abstract in english Background: Many reasons has been described about relation between beliefs and cervical cancer behaviors. Objective: To describe the beliefs about cervical cancer and Pap test in a group of chilean women. Method: Cross sectional and analytic study was done with 333 chilean women. Beliefs about cervi [...] cal cancer and Pap test was studied with the CPC-28 questionnaire, developed and validated in Chilean population. Results: 96% have had a Pap test in the last 3 years. Family history about cervical cancer was reported by 49.8% as a cause of cervical cancer. The principal barrier to Pap test was lack of knowledge about the age. The principal cue to action was the doctor recommendation. The benefit was the care of health. The sexual intercourse was reported by 14.1% as necessary to take a Pap test. The risk to develop cervical cancer is reported by 17.4%. The six dimensions studied were correlated between them. Conclusion: The beliefs must be considered to education programs, firstly understanding and then modifying them.

María Teresa, Urrutia S.

253

BIOPROSPECTING: A TOOL TO CONSERVE CHILEAN BRYOPHYTES / BIOPROSPECCIÓN: UNA HERRAMIENTA PARA LA CONSERVACIÓN DE BRIÓFITAS CHILENAS  

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Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Esta revisión presenta el estado actual del conocimiento de la diversidad de las briófitas chilenas (musgos, hepáticas y antocerotas), de los metabolitos secundarios de estas plantas y de la actividad biológica de extractos obtenidos a partir de especies de poblaciones chilenas. Nuestro objetivo es [...] determinar el potencial de estas plantas como fuente de moléculas útiles para las industrias farmacéutica y agroalimentaria, y promover su conservación. Sólo de un 3,7% de las briófitas chilenas (55 spp.) han sido analizados químicamente sus extractos (metanol, éter, etanol, diclorometano, acetona y hexano). Se ha evaluado la actividad biológica sólo de cuatro especies de poblaciones chileno-argentinas (Porella chilensis (Lehm. & Lindenb.) Trevi., Riccardia polyclada (Mitt. ex Thurn) Hässel, Balantiopsis cancellata (Nees) Stephani, y Sphagnum magellanicum Brid.). La mayor parte de los estudios se ha concentrado en hepáticas de amplia distribución en el Hemisferio Austral y en los bosques templados de Chile y Argentina. Se discuten brevemente aspectos relacionados a la bioprospección como herramienta para la conservación, y al cultivo in vitro de briófitas con fines productivos y de conservación. Abstract in english Here, we present the current state of knowledge on the diversity of Chilean bryophytes (mosses, liverworts, and hornworts), the secondary metabolites present in these plants, and the biological activity of extracts from populations of Chilean species. Our goal is to establish the potential of these [...] plants as a source of useful molecules for pharmaceutical and agricultural industries, thus promoting their conservation. Only 3,7% of Chilean bryophytes (55 spp.) have been analyzed using chemical characterization of their extracts (methanol, ether, ethanol, dichloromethane, acetone and hexane). Only four species from Chilean and Argentinian populations (Porella chilensis (Lehm. & Lindenb.) Trevi., Riccardiapolyclada (Mitt. ex Thurn) Hässel, Balantiopsis cancellata (Nees) Stephani, and Sphagnum magellanicum Brid.) have been evaluated for biological activity. The majority of these studies have concentrated on liverworts widely distributed in the Southern Hemisphere and in the temperate forests of the southern half of Chile and adjacent Argentina. We briefly discuss aspects related to the use of bioprospecting as a conservation tool as well as the maintenance of in vitro bryophyte cultures with the goal of conservation and production.

Jorge, Cuvertino-Santoni; Gloria, Montenegro.

254

Cytogenetics of Chilean angiosperms: Advances and prospects Citogenética de angiospermas chilenas: Avances y proyecciones  

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Full Text Available Cytogenetic data on Chilean angiosperms have been reported since at least eight decades ago; however, much of this information is disperse in diverse sources and is not readily available as a comprehensive document that allows having a general vision on advances and gaps in this matter. The goal of this paper is to summarize the advances and prospets on cytogenetic studies of the Chilean angiosperms based on compiled publications from 1929 to 2010. We found 78 publications supplied by four groups of Chilean researchers and some foreign specialists. Cytogenetic data have been reported for 139 Chilean angiosperm species (2.8 % of the total, which belong to 58 genera and 34 families. During 2001-2010 there was an increase in the number of publications, being available 40 reports including 95 additional species. Based on these data, we hope that such a trend can be maintained in the next decade if the current research groups and young specialists continue to be interested in the study of native plants.Los datos citogenéticos sobre angiospermas chilenas han sido reportados desde al menos ocho décadas atrás; sin embargo, mucha de esta información está dispersa en diversas fuentes y no está disponible como un documento completo que permita tener una visión general sobre los avances y vacíos en esta materia. El objetivo de este trabajo es resumir los avances y proyecciones sobre los estudios citogenéticos disponibles para angiospermas chilenas, basado en publicaciones recopiladas desde 1929 hasta el 2010. Nosotros encontramos 78 publicaciones aportadas por cuatro grupos de investigadores chilenos y por algunos especialistas extranjeros. Datos citogenéticos han sido reportados para 139 especies de angiospermas chilenas (2.8 % del total, las cuales pertenecen a 58 géneros y 34 familias. Durante los años 2001-2010, existió un incremento en el número de publicaciones estando disponibles 40 reportes que incluyen 95 especies adicionales. Basados en estos datos, esperamos que esta tendencia pueda ser mantenida en la siguiente década si los actuales grupos de investigación y especialistas jóvenes siguen interesados en estudiar plantas nativas.

PEDRO JARA-SEGUEL

2012-03-01

255

Carotenoids are more bioavailable from papaya than from tomato and carrot in humans: a randomised cross-over study.  

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Carrot, tomato and papaya represent important dietary sources of ?-carotene and lycopene. The main objective of the present study was to compare the bioavailability of carotenoids from these food sources in healthy human subjects. A total of sixteen participants were recruited for a randomised cross-over study. Test meals containing raw carrots, tomatoes and papayas were adjusted to deliver an equal amount of ?-carotene and lycopene. For the evaluation of bioavailability, TAG-rich lipoprotein (TRL) fractions containing newly absorbed carotenoids were analysed over 9·5 h after test meal consumption. The bioavailability of ?-carotene from papayas was approximately three times higher than that from carrots and tomatoes, whereas differences in the bioavailability of ?-carotene from carrots and tomatoes were insignificant. Retinyl esters appeared in the TRL fractions at a significantly higher concentration after the consumption of the papaya test meal. Similarly, lycopene was approximately 2·6 times more bioavailable from papayas than from tomatoes. Furthermore, the bioavailability of ?-cryptoxanthin from papayas was shown to be 2·9 and 2·3 times higher than that of the other papaya carotenoids ?-carotene and lycopene, respectively. The morphology of chromoplasts and the physical deposition form of carotenoids were hypothesised to play a major role in the differences observed in the bioavailability of carotenoids from the foods investigated. Particularly, the liquid-crystalline deposition of ?-carotene and the storage of lycopene in very small crystalloids in papayas were found to be associated with their high bioavailability. In conclusion, papaya was shown to provide highly bioavailable ?-carotene, ?-cryptoxanthin and lycopene and may represent a readily available dietary source of provitamin A for reducing the incidence of vitamin A deficiencies in many subtropical and tropical developing countries. PMID:23931131

Schweiggert, Ralf M; Kopec, Rachel E; Villalobos-Gutierrez, Maria G; Högel, Josef; Quesada, Silvia; Esquivel, Patricia; Schwartz, Steven J; Carle, Reinhold

2014-02-01

256

New approach for papaya latex storage without virus degradation Nova metodologia de armazenamento do latex de mamão sem degradação viral  

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Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) is the causal agent of papaya (Carica papaya L.) sticky disease, which has been detected through analysis of its double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) genome from plant latex. In this work we demonstrate that PMeV dsRNA is protected during 25 days when latex is diluted in citrate buffer pH 5.0 (1:1 v/v) and maintained at -20°C. At the same temperature, some protection was observed for pure latex or latex diluted in ultra-pure water. Conversely, the dsRNA was almost complete...

Rodrigues, Silas P.; Andrade, Josemar S.; Ventura, Jose? A.; Fernandes, Patricia M. B.

2009-01-01

257

Construction of Papaya Male and Female BAC Libraries and Application in Physical Mapping of the Sex Chromosomes  

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Papaya is a major fruit crop in the tropics and has recently evolved sex chromosomes. Towards sequencing the papaya sex chromosomes, two bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries were constructed from papaya male and female genomic DNA. The female BAC library was constructed using restriction enzyme BstY I and consists of 36,864 clones with an average insert size of 104?kb, providing 10.3x genome equivalents. The male BAC library was constructed using restriction enzyme EcoR I and con...

2011-01-01

258

Análisis comparativo y perfil de publicaciones en la Revista Chilena de Pediatría 2001-2006 Comparative analysis and publication profile in Revista Chilena de Pediatría 2001-2006  

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Full Text Available La Revista Chilena de Pediatría (Rev Chil Pediatr, publicación oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría está indexada en SciELO pero no en la Librería Médica de EEUU (NLM. Objetivos: a determinar el perfil de los artículos publicados y visitados en la Rev Chil Pediatr, compararlo con el de Jornal de Pediatría de Brasil (J Ped Br y el de Journal of Pediatrics (J Ped de Estados Unidos; b evaluar la visibilidad de Rev Chil Pediatr y compararla con la Revista Médica de Chile. Métodos: Se evaluaron los ejemplares en línea de las revistas mencionadas a través de la base de datos SciELO y PubMed entre 2001 a 2006. Se tomó una muestra representativa y aleatoria de los artículos publicados en ese período para cada revista. Adicionalmente se evaluaron los artículos más visitados de la Rev Chil Pediatr y se clasificaron como originales (investigación clínica y básica y no originales (editorial, caso clínico, revisión y otros. Todos los artículos fueron catalogados según su contenido en una de las 25 especialidades médicas definidas. Además se comparó el número de visitas anuales y globales a la Rev Chil Pediatr y a la Revista Médica de Chile y se analizaron las citaciones más frecuentes otorgadas y recibidas por la Rev Chil Pediatr en ese período. Resultados: De 512 artículos en la Rev Chil Pediatr, se analizaron 220; 35% fueron originales y 65% no originales, publicando un porcentaje significativamente menor de artículos originales que el J Ped Br y que el J Ped (p Background: The Revista Chilena de Pediatría (Rev Chil Pediatr, official journal of Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría is index in SciELO, but not in the National Library of Medicine (NLM of USA. Objectives: a Determine the profile of published and visited articles of Rev Chil Ped, in order to compare them with the Jornal de Pediatria from Brazil (J Ped Br and the Journal of Pediatrics (J Ped from USA. b Evaluate the visibility of Rev Chil Pediatr compared to Revista Medica de Chile (Rev Med Chil. Method: On line issues from the above mentioned journal were evaluated through SciELO database and PubMed database from 2001 - 2006. A random and representative subset of published articles was obtained from each one of the 3 journals during the referred period. The most visited articles from Rev Chil Pediatr were analyzed and classified as originals (clinical and basic research and non originals (editorial, clinical case, reviews and others. The articles were classified according to thematic content in 25 medical specialties. In addition, the number of annual visits to Rev Chil Pediatr and Rev Med Chil were analyzed, including the most frequent citations given and received in that period of time. Results: Out of 512 articles in Rev Chil Pediatr, 220 were analyzed; 35% were originals and 65% non originals, with a significant lower percentage of original articles compared to J Ped Br and J Ped (p < 0.05. The thematic areas with more articles were respiratory disease, infectious diseases and nutrition with 9.1, 7.7 and 7.7%, respectively. Rev Chil Pediatr published twice as many nutrition articles and five times more public health articles compared to J Ped (p < 0.05. The most visited articles on line were of nutrition, infectious diseases, respiratory diseases and neonatology. Among the 10 most visited articles from Rev Chil Pediatr, 7 were review articles. Since 2005, an explosive growth is detected in the number of visits to articles from Rev Chil Pediatr in SciELO. When the number of visits was adjusted to the number of physicians belonging to the corresponding society, there was a higher number of visits to Rev Chil Pediatr from 2005 compared to Rev Med Chile. Conclusion: The thematic content of Rev Chil Pediatr is similar to regional journals, but different to international ones. There is an appropriate correlation between published and visited articles. SciELO has been an important tool that contributes to the diffusion of research published in Rev Chil Pediatr

PAUL R HARRIS D

2007-06-01

259

Reação de germoplasma e híbridos de mamoeiro à mancha-de-phoma (Phoma caricae-papayae em condições de campo Reaction of germplasm and hybrid of papaya to phoma-spot (Phoma caricae-papayae in field conditions  

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Full Text Available Com o objetivo de se avaliar germoplasmas e híbridos de mamoeiro quanto à resistência a mancha-de-phoma em folhas, foram conduzidos três experimentos em blocos ao acaso com duas repetições na empresa Caliman Agrícola S/A, Linhares, Espírito Santo. Avaliou-se, em duas épocas, a incidência e a severidade da mancha-de-phoma em folhas de 50 genótipos e de 68 híbridos. Os genótipos que apresentaram menores severidades de doença foram 'Maradol', 'Maradol GL', 'Papaya 46', 'Tailândia' e 'SH 15-04' e os que apresentaram menores incidências foram 'Maradol', 'Maradol GL', 'Americano', 'Tailândia' e 'Baixinho de Santa Amália'. Os híbridos com menores incidências foram 'Americano x Waimanalo', 'Sekati x JS 12', 'Maradol x Taiwan et' e 'Maradol x Caliman G' enquanto que as menores severidades foram observadas em 'Calimosa x Tailândia', 'Calimosa x Maradol', 'Sekati x Caliman AM' e 'Sekati x JS 12'. Estes resultados orientarão o melhoramento voltado para a resistência à mancha-de-phoma na cultura do mamoeiro por meio de hibridizações, bem como auxiliarão na escolha de cultivares para o plantio, visando reduzir a necessidade de controle químico na cultura do mamoeiro.With the objective of evaluating germplasm and hybrids of papaya for their reaction to phoma-spot in leaves, three experiments were performed in a completely randomized block design with two replications at Agricultural Caliman S/A, in Linhares, Espírito Santo, Brazil. The incidence and severity of phoma-spot were evaluated in leaves of 50 genotypes and 68 hybrids. The lowest levels of disease severity were observed in 'Maradol', 'Maradol GL', 'Papaya 46', 'Tailândia', and 'SH 15-04' whereas the lowest incidences were detected in 'Maradol', 'Maradol GL', 'Americano', 'Tailândia' and 'Baixinho de Santa Amália'. The hybrids 'Calimosa x Tailândia', 'Calimosa x Maradol', 'Sekati x Caliman AM' and 'Sekati x JS 12' presented the lowest levels of severity, whereas 'Americano x Waimanalo', 'Sekati x JS 12', 'Maradol x Taiwan et' and 'Maradol x Caliman G' had the lowest incidence of disease. These results should be useful as a guide in breeding for resistance to phoma-spot of the papaya crop through hybridization, as well as in the recommendation of cultivars, seeking to reduce the necessity of chemical control in papaya crops.

Marcelo Vivas

2010-01-01

260

Reação de germoplasma e híbridos de mamoeiro à mancha-de-phoma (Phoma caricae-papayae) em condições de campo / Reaction of germplasm and hybrid of papaya to phoma-spot (Phoma caricae-papayae) in field conditions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Com o objetivo de se avaliar germoplasmas e híbridos de mamoeiro quanto à resistência a mancha-de-phoma em folhas, foram conduzidos três experimentos em blocos ao acaso com duas repetições na empresa Caliman Agrícola S/A, Linhares, Espírito Santo. Avaliou-se, em duas épocas, a incidência e a severid [...] ade da mancha-de-phoma em folhas de 50 genótipos e de 68 híbridos. Os genótipos que apresentaram menores severidades de doença foram 'Maradol', 'Maradol GL', 'Papaya 46', 'Tailândia' e 'SH 15-04' e os que apresentaram menores incidências foram 'Maradol', 'Maradol GL', 'Americano', 'Tailândia' e 'Baixinho de Santa Amália'. Os híbridos com menores incidências foram 'Americano x Waimanalo', 'Sekati x JS 12', 'Maradol x Taiwan et' e 'Maradol x Caliman G' enquanto que as menores severidades foram observadas em 'Calimosa x Tailândia', 'Calimosa x Maradol', 'Sekati x Caliman AM' e 'Sekati x JS 12'. Estes resultados orientarão o melhoramento voltado para a resistência à mancha-de-phoma na cultura do mamoeiro por meio de hibridizações, bem como auxiliarão na escolha de cultivares para o plantio, visando reduzir a necessidade de controle químico na cultura do mamoeiro. Abstract in english With the objective of evaluating germplasm and hybrids of papaya for their reaction to phoma-spot in leaves, three experiments were performed in a completely randomized block design with two replications at Agricultural Caliman S/A, in Linhares, Espírito Santo, Brazil. The incidence and severity of [...] phoma-spot were evaluated in leaves of 50 genotypes and 68 hybrids. The lowest levels of disease severity were observed in 'Maradol', 'Maradol GL', 'Papaya 46', 'Tailândia', and 'SH 15-04' whereas the lowest incidences were detected in 'Maradol', 'Maradol GL', 'Americano', 'Tailândia' and 'Baixinho de Santa Amália'. The hybrids 'Calimosa x Tailândia', 'Calimosa x Maradol', 'Sekati x Caliman AM' and 'Sekati x JS 12' presented the lowest levels of severity, whereas 'Americano x Waimanalo', 'Sekati x JS 12', 'Maradol x Taiwan et' and 'Maradol x Caliman G' had the lowest incidence of disease. These results should be useful as a guide in breeding for resistance to phoma-spot of the papaya crop through hybridization, as well as in the recommendation of cultivars, seeking to reduce the necessity of chemical control in papaya crops.

Marcelo, Vivas; Silvaldo Felipe da, Silveira; Carlos Eduardo Pessanha da Silva, Terra; Messias Gonzaga, Pereira.

 
 
 
 
261

Validación chilena del cuestionario de evaluación de apego en el adulto CAMIR  

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Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue examinar la confiabilidad y validez del instrumento de evaluación de apego en el adulto, .Cartes: Modèles Individuels de Relation (CAMIR., en la realidad sociocultural chilena. Este instrumento, basado en la teoría del apego, es un cuestionario de auto-reporte que evalúa los modelos operativos internos en adultos y otras escalas relacionadas al apego. Los participantes fueron 578 sujetos, 204 hombres y 374 mujeres, con edades entre 14 y 80 años. Los sujetos completaron el CAMIR y medidas de vínculo y sintomatología actual, a través del Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI and Outcome Questionnaire OQ-45.2. A través del análisis estadístico de los resultados se evaluaron las características psicométricas del test y se analiz ó la posibilidad de generar normas locales para la prueba. Los resultados confirmaron que el CAMIR es un instrumento confiable y válido en la evaluación de los modelos internos de relación en adultos.

Blaise Pierrehumbert

2009-01-01

262

Integración metodológica para el estudio del texto de las sentencias penales chilenas  

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Full Text Available Proponemos una metodología para describir la estructura y el funcionamiento del texto "sentencia penal chilena" y evaluar la calidad de su argumentación. La importancia de estos procesos radica en que la sentencia es un caso paradigmático del modo en que las sociedades construyen lo bueno y lo malo. En virtud de la especificidad del género y del registro lingüístico del texto en estudio, integramos elementos de pragma-dialéctica, de lingüística sistémico funcional y de Modified Wigmorean Analysis para suplir las desventajas individuales de cada metodología y optimizar sus ventajas. Se revisa someramente el aparato crítico que sustenta cada una de las estrategias de análisis, luego, a través del estudio de un fragmento de una sentencia real, demostramos la factibilidad de la integración y concluimos revisando la posibilidad de usar esta propuesta en comparaciones intertextuales e interdiscursivas.

Claudio Antonio Agüero San Juan

2010-01-01

263

Estimacion de VAR Bayesianos para la Economia Chilena / Estimating Bayesian VAR for the Chilean Economy  

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Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este trabajo se estiman VAR Bayesianos para la economía chilena. Bajo esta metodología se estudian los mecanismos de transmisión de la política monetaria y se realizan ejercicios de proyecciones para las principales variables macroeconómicas. Luego se contrastan estos resultados con los obtenidos [...] de estimaciones de VAR tradicionales presentados en la literatura previa y se discuten algunas implicancias para el diseño de la política monetaria. Abstract in english In this paper Bayesian Vector Autoregression (BVAR) models are estimated for the Chilean economy. Under this approach, the transmission mechanisms of monetary policy and forecast exercises are studied and evaluated for the main macroeconomic variables. Then, the results are contrasted with the stand [...] ard VAR models presented in the previous literature for the case of Chile and the implications for the monetary policy design are discussed.

Jaramillo G, Patricio.

264

Actividad antioxidante y antimicrobiana de mieles monoflorales de plantas nativas chilenas  

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Full Text Available Chile presenta una gran diversidad de especies vegetales endémicas y nativas que pueden dar origen a mieles producidas por Apis mellifera. En base a la diversidad de mieles poliflorales y monoflorales que han sido identificadas anteriormente en Chile, se propuso estudiar la actividad antioxidante y biológica para controlar el crecimiento de microorganismos patógenos. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el contenido de fenoles totales, actividad antioxidante (Métodos de FRAP y DPPH y la actividad antibacteriana de mieles monoflorales de plantas nativas chilenas. Se utilizaron 59 mieles de diferente origen geográfico para determinar su origen botánico, mediante análisis melisopalinológico. La actividad antibactariana se evaluó contra Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus y Streptococcus pyogenes, determinando la concentración mínima bactericida (CMB. Los resultados indicaron que las mieles nativas de Chile muestran diferencias significativas tanto en la actividad antioxidante como en la actividad contra patógenos, la que depende del origen botánico y geográfico, pudiendo estar asociada al contenido de polifenoles.

Gloria MONTENEGRO

2013-01-01

265

De Atenea a Afrodita: La risa y el amor en la cultura chilena  

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Full Text Available La risa es la expresión gestual primera del amor como afirmación de la vida. En estesentido es el principio de la cultura chilena. Para encontrar su sentido histórico se haceimprescindible traspasar los límites y las limitaciones coloniales de Occidente. Se vuelvenecesario examinar los gestos amorosos que provienen tanto del mundo indígena comodel mundo ibérico. Estos son los fundamentos de nuestra vida cultural. Estos mundosfueron ensombrecidos con la construcción del pequeño Estado nacional burgués du-rante los siglos XIX y XX. Ese pequeño Estado estuvo inspirado en Atenea, la diosa de larazón y de la fuerza, del bien y de la verdad. Ahí no existió risa ni comicidad verdaderas.Sólo recuperando la imagen de Afrodita, representación de la diosa del amor que ríe,podemos reencontrarnos con la inmensa alegría y la enorme belleza de nuestra legítimaconvivencia social.

Maximiliano Salinas Campos

2007-01-01

266

Determinantes de la Competitividad de las Exportaciones de Uva de Mesa Chilena, 1984-2004  

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Full Text Available La industria frutícola chilena ha logrado situarse como una de las más prosperas en la canasta exportadora del país y ha tenido una signifi cativa importancia en el mercado mundial, logrando posicionarse como el segundo exportador a nivel mundial. Dado lo anterior, estudiar la competitividad de dicha industria es importante para el desarrollo exportador del sector agroindustrial chileno y para la economía en general. Por ello, el objetivo de este trabajo fue medir la competitividad de la uva de mesa a través del índice de Vollrath (1991 y estudiar sus determinantes. El análisis del indicador demostró que la competitividad fue, en general, creciente hasta el año 2002 y que las principales determinantes de la competitividad son el tipo de cambio real y el producto interno bruto real.

Arcadio Cerda U.

2011-01-01

267

Clases medias chilenas y transgresión de la homogamia: una perspectiva histórica  

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Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este trabajo estudiamos a las clases medias chilenas desde el punto de vista de procesos poco reflexivos de transgresión, que son relevantes cuando se enfrentan las desigualdades sociales desde la perspectiva de los propios individuos, como ocurre respecto de la homogamia. Un estudio histórico, d [...] esde el período post-colonial hasta hoy, nos permite caracterizar cómo ocurren estas transgresiones. Abstract in english In this paper we study the Chilean middle classes from the point of view of small reflexive processes of transgression, which are relevant when addressing social inequalities from the perspective of the individuals themselves, as for homogamy. An historical study, from the post-colonial period until [...] today, allows us to characterize how these transgressions happens.

Oscar, Mac-Clure.

268

Clases medias chilenas y transgresión de la homogamia: una perspectiva histórica  

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Full Text Available En este trabajo estudiamos a las clases medias chilenas desde el punto de vista de procesos poco reflexivos de transgresión, que son relevantes cuando se enfrentan las desigualdades sociales desde la perspectiva de los propios individuos, como ocurre respecto de la homogamia. Un estudio histórico, desde el período post-colonial hasta hoy, nos permite caracterizar cómo ocurren estas transgresiones.In this paper we study the Chilean middle classes from the point of view of small reflexive processes of transgression, which are relevant when addressing social inequalities from the perspective of the individuals themselves, as for homogamy. An historical study, from the post-colonial period until today, allows us to characterize how these transgressions happens.

Oscar Mac-Clure

2012-01-01

269

Parámetros poblacionales de Tetranychus merganser Boudreaux (Acari: Tetranychidae) en papayo (Carica papaya L.) a diferentes temperaturas / Population parameters of Tetranychus merganser Boudreaux (Acari: Tetranychidae) in papaya (Carica papaya L.) at different temperatures  

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Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El ácaro Tetranychus merganser es una de las especies que causa mayor daño económico en la zona productora de papayo (Carica papaya) del estado de Veracruz, México. Por tanto, se requiere conocer aspectos de su biología para tomar mejores decisiones de su manejo. Se obtuvo una colonia de ácaros a pa [...] rtir de una hembra recolectada en el municipio de Manlio F. Altamirano, y se incrementó la población en invernadero sobre hojas de frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris). El objetivo fue evaluar la influencia de la temperatura en los parámetros poblacionales de esta especie y sobre la duración de sus fases de desarrollo. Para ello se iniciaron cohortes desde huevecillos y expuestas a las siguientes condiciones: temperaturas constantes (19, 23, 27, 31, 33 y 35 °C); 60±2 % de humedad relativa; fotoperiodo de 14:10 h luz:oscuridad y alimentación en discos de hojas de papaya. La duración del ciclo de vida de T. merganser disminuyó de 52.3 hasta 12.9 d con el aumento de la temperatura. La tasa neta reproductiva (Ro) fue 37.40, 62.38, 43.98, 10.47 y 2.32 para 19, 23, 27, 31 y 33° C; a 35 °C la cohorte no fue viable. La tasa intrínseca de crecimiento poblacional (r m) fue 0.08, 0.19, 0.21, 0.18 y 0.12 a las temperaturas anotadas. El desarrollo óptimo ocurrió entre 23 y 27 °C. Aunque el papayo no es su mejor hospedero comparado con parámetros poblacionales más favorables obtenidos por otros autores en frijol, T. merganser puede comportarse como plaga en papayo en las condiciones ambientales predominantes en la zona. Abstract in english Tetranychus merganser is a mite species that causes greater economic damage in the papaya (Carica papaya) production area in the state of Veracruz, Mexico. Therefore, it was necessary to study their biology in order to make better decisions in their management. We obtained a colony of mites from a f [...] emale collected in the municipality of Manlio F. Altamirano, and expanded their population on bean leaves (Phaseolus vulgaris) under greenhouse conditions. The objective was to evaluate the influence of temperature on the population parameters of this species and the duration of their developmental stages. For this purpose, we established cohorts starting with eggs, and exposed them to the following conditions: constant temperatures (19, 23, 27, 31, 33 and 35 °C); 60±2 % relative humidity, photoperiod of 14:10 h light:dark, and fed with papaya leaf discs. The duration of the life cycle of T. merganser decreased from 52.3 to 12.9 d with the increase of temperature. The net reproductive rate (R) was 37.40, 62.38, 43.98, 10.47 and 2.32 for 19, 23, 27, 31 and 33 °C; at 35 °C, the cohort was not viable. The intrinsic rate of population increase (r m) was 0.08, 0.19, 0.21, 0.18 and 0.12 at the temperatures recorded. Optimal development occurred between 23 and 27 C. Although papaya is not its best host compared to more favorable population parameters obtained by other authors in beans, T. merganser can behave like a pest in papaya under the environmental conditions prevailing in the area.

Noel, Reyes-Pérez; Juan A., Villanueva-Jiménez; Mónica, de la Cruz Vargas-Mendoza; Héctor, Cabrera-Mireles; Gabriel, Otero-Colina.

270

Toponimia chilena: "la lejana posesión" Chilean toponymy: the far-away possession  

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Full Text Available La toponimia de la Isla de Pascua está casi totalmente dominada por vocablos pascuenses. Este predominio ha aumentado a pesar de las expediciones holandesas, españolas e inglesas durante el siglo XVIII, las misiones religiosas francesas, las asonadas esclavistas desde Perú y la toma de posesión y administración chilenas durante el siglo siguiente. Estas visitas, muy especialmente la de la expedición española de 1770, deberían haber extinguido los topónimos rapa nui, como ha sucedido con otras lenguas autóctonas en Chile. Muy por el contrario, muchos nombres pascuenses ya se habían establecido a mediados del siglo XIX y con la administración chilena se ha producido un aumento en la toponimia vernácula, hasta el punto de que ella es dominante en la actualidad. La supervivencia del rapa nui como lengua viva es solamente uno de los factores que explican este predominio.The toponymy of Easter Island is almost completely dominated by names in Rapa Nui, the native language. This dominance has increased in spite of the Dutch, Spanish and English expeditions during the eighteenth century as well as the French religious missions, the slave raids from Peru , and the Chilean administration of the island during the following century. All of these, particularly the Spanish expedition of 1770, should have resulted in the extinction of the Rapa Nui toponymy, as has happened with other native languages in Chile. Quite the contrary, many native place names were already established by the middle of the nineteenth century; under Chilean administration there has been an increase in the vernacular place names, to such an extent that the latter are dominant at present. The survival of Rapa Nui as a living language is just one of the factors accounting for this dominance.

Guillermo Latorre

2001-01-01

271

Toponimia chilena: "la lejana posesión" / Chilean toponymy: the far-away possession  

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Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La toponimia de la Isla de Pascua está casi totalmente dominada por vocablos pascuenses. Este predominio ha aumentado a pesar de las expediciones holandesas, españolas e inglesas durante el siglo XVIII, las misiones religiosas francesas, las asonadas esclavistas desde Perú y la toma de posesión y ad [...] ministración chilenas durante el siglo siguiente. Estas visitas, muy especialmente la de la expedición española de 1770, deberían haber extinguido los topónimos rapa nui, como ha sucedido con otras lenguas autóctonas en Chile. Muy por el contrario, muchos nombres pascuenses ya se habían establecido a mediados del siglo XIX y con la administración chilena se ha producido un aumento en la toponimia vernácula, hasta el punto de que ella es dominante en la actualidad. La supervivencia del rapa nui como lengua viva es solamente uno de los factores que explican este predominio. Abstract in english The toponymy of Easter Island is almost completely dominated by names in Rapa Nui, the native language. This dominance has increased in spite of the Dutch, Spanish and English expeditions during the eighteenth century as well as the French religious missions, the slave raids from Peru , and the Chil [...] ean administration of the island during the following century. All of these, particularly the Spanish expedition of 1770, should have resulted in the extinction of the Rapa Nui toponymy, as has happened with other native languages in Chile. Quite the contrary, many native place names were already established by the middle of the nineteenth century; under Chilean administration there has been an increase in the vernacular place names, to such an extent that the latter are dominant at present. The survival of Rapa Nui as a living language is just one of the factors accounting for this dominance.

Guillermo, Latorre.

272

Literatura chilena de exilio, un vacío epistemológico / Chilean literature of exile, an epistemological emptiness  

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Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este artículo se presenta como una reflexión acerca del desinterés actual que supone, dentro del panorama literario en Chile, el estudio de la literatura creada por autores y autoras chilenas durante el exilio chileno ocurrido entre 1973 y 1989. Una reflexión que espero sirva como referente para aqu [...] ellos investigadores que se interesen por estudiar y dar a conocer los diversos corpus literarios vinculados al exilio chileno vivido en diferentes países del mundo. Una producción literaria aún por desvelar y que agrupa un conjunto de corpus literarios que nos hablan del pasado reciente de Chile y sus habitantes, una literatura chilena de exilio en la cual las experiencias de dolor y desarraigo dan paso a la apertura al otro y al encuentro con diversas memorias culturales. Abstract in english This paper presents a reflection on the current lack of interest within the literary scene of Chile related to the study of literature created by Chilean authors during their exile abroad between 1973 and 1989. A reflection that I hope will serve as a reference for those researchers who are interest [...] ed in studying and publicizing the different literary corpus that came up during the Chilean exile in different countries all over the world. A literature which is still to reveal and that groups together a wide range of literary corpus telling the story of the recent past suffered by Chile and its people, a Chilean literature of exile in which the experiences of pain and uprooting paved the way for an opening to each other as well as for the meeting and the interaction of various cultural memories.

Garay C, Sol Marina.

273

Changes in protein profile during coagulation of latex from Carica papaya  

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Full Text Available We describe the changes in peptide composition by SDS-PAGE analysis of latex from Carica papaya collected at various times after incision of the unripe fruit. The data show that during latex coagulation several peptides are processed in an orderly fashion.

L.G. Silva

1997-05-01

274

Induction of Resistance to Papaya Black Spot Elicited by Acibenzolar-S-Methyl  

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Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of acibenzolar-S-methyl tested at 5 concentrations (0, 1, 5, 25 and 100 ?M a.i. for its ability to protect papaya (Carica papaya cv. Rainbow from black spot (Asperisporium caricae following inoculation with the fungus. Effects of resistance induction treatment against black spot disease were evaluated by measuring the plant height and stem diameter. Disease symptoms were scored weekly by visually estimating disease severity of plants on the basis of a 5-class visual scale of 0 (no symptoms to 4 (extensive lesions on leaves. Accumulation of defence-related proteins in papaya leaves were also analysed and compared. Results revealed that the level of protection against A. caricae was dose-dependent. Maximum reduction of the disease in leaves was obtained with 25-100 ?M acibenzolar-S-methyl, with a time interval of 3 days between application of the activator and inoculation with the pathogen. The systemic resistance elicitation was characterized by an increase in 2 pathogenesis-related proteins, chitinase and ?-1, 3-glucanase. These results indicate that acibenzolar-S-methyl induces partial resistance in papaya against black spot disease which may provide the grower a new option for integrated management of the disease.

A.A.R. Oliveira

2014-01-01

275

Changes in protein profile during coagulation of latex from Carica papaya  

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We describe the changes in peptide composition by SDS-PAGE analysis of latex from Carica papaya collected at various times after incision of the unripe fruit. The data show that during latex coagulation several peptides are processed in an orderly fashion.

1997-01-01

276

PHYSICO-CHEMICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL EVALUATION OF CARICA PAPAYA LINN. UNRIPE FRUITS  

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Full Text Available Present study was performed for the development of quality standards of Carica papaya Linn. commonly known as Papita belonging to family Caricaceae is well known for its exceptional nutritional and medicinal properties. The study comprises of physico-chemical and phytochemical evaluation to confirm purity and authenticity of Carica papaya L. unripe fruit using WHO guidelines. Microscopy of the fruit showed presence thick cuticle, parenchyma, epicarp, mesocarp endocarp, calcium oxalate crystals, laticifers, etc. Successive extractive value and hot extractive value was found highest in alcoholic extract 48.34 % and 44.90 % respectively (on dry weight basis. Mean ash values (% are 8.63 (total, 0.79 (acid insoluble ash, and 5.30 (water soluble ash and moisture content was found to be 9.41 % and the phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of carbohydrates, terpenoids, flavonoids, phenolic compounds in different extracts of Carica papaya L. fruit. TLC fingerprinting profile of different extracts were also developed and quantification of ?-carotene was also done by using nhexane:acetone (8.5:1.5 as a mobile phase at 415 nm and found to be higher in pet ether Carica papaya L. fruit extract 1.55 % w/w.

Anjum Varisha

2013-08-01

277

Assessment of the anti-protozoal activity of crude Carica papaya seed extract against Trypanosoma cruzi.  

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In order to determine the in vivo activity against the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, two doses (50 and 75 mg/kg) of a chloroform extract of Carica papaya seeds were evaluated compared with a control group of allopurinol. The activity of a mixture of the three main compounds (oleic, palmitic and stearic acids in a proportion of 45.9% of oleic acid, 24.1% of palmitic and 8.52% of stearic acid previously identified in the crude extract of C. papaya was evaluated at doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg. Both doses of the extracts were orally administered for 28 days. A significant reduction (p papaya extract in comparison with the positive control group (allopurinol 8.5 mg/kg). Parasitemia in animals treated with the fatty acids mixture was also significantly reduced (p seed extracts of C. papaya (from ripe fruit) are able to reduce the number of parasites from both parasite stages, blood trypomastigote and amastigote (intracellular stage). PMID:24126379

Jiménez-Coello, Matilde; Guzman-Marín, Eugenia; Ortega-Pacheco, Antonio; Perez-Gutiérrez, Salud; Acosta-Viana, Karla Y

2013-01-01

278

Benzyl isothiocyanate is the chief or sole anthelmintic in papaya seed extracts.  

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Papaya (Carica papaya) seeds were extracted in an aqueous buffer or in organic solvents, fractionated by chromatography on silica and aliquots tested for anthelmintic activity by viability assays using Caenorhabditis elegans. For all preparations and fractions tested, anthelmintic activity and benzyl isothiocyanate content correlated positively. Aqueous extracts prepared from heat-treated seeds had no anthelmintic activity or benzyl isothiocyanate content although both appeared when these extracts were incubated with a myrosinase-containing fraction prepared from papaya seeds. A 10 h incubation of crude seed extracts at room temperature led to a decrease in anthelmintic activity and fractionated samples showed a lower benzyl isothiocyanate content relative to non-incubated controls. Benzyl thiocyanate, benzyl cyanide, and benzonitrile were not detected in any preparations and cyanogenic glucosides. which were present, could not account for the anthelmintic activity detected. Thus, our results are best explained if benzyl isothiocyanate is the predominant or sole anthelmintic agent in papaya seed extracts regardless of how seeds are extracted. PMID:11393524

Kermanshai, R; McCarry, B E; Rosenfeld, J; Summers, P S; Weretilnyk, E A; Sorger, G J

2001-06-01

279

Assessment of the Anti-Protozoal Activity of Crude Carica papaya Seed Extract against Trypanosoma cruzi  

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Full Text Available In order to determine the in vivo activity against the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, two doses (50 and 75 mg/kg of a chloroform extract of Carica papaya seeds were evaluated compared with a control group of allopurinol. The activity of a mixture of the three main compounds (oleic, palmitic and stearic acids in a proportion of 45.9% of oleic acid, 24.1% of palmitic and 8.52% of stearic acid previously identified in the crude extract of C. papaya was evaluated at doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg. Both doses of the extracts were orally administered for 28 days. A significant reduction (p < 0.05 in the number of blood trypomastigotes was observed in animals treated with the evaluated doses of the C. papaya extract in comparison with the positive control group (allopurinol 8.5 mg/kg. Parasitemia in animals treated with the fatty acids mixture was also significantly reduced (p < 0.05, compared to negative control animals. These results demonstrate that the fatty acids identified in the seed extracts of C. papaya (from ripe fruit are able to reduce the number of parasites from both parasite stages, blood trypomastigote and amastigote (intracellular stage.

Karla Y. Acosta-Viana

2013-10-01

280

Anthelmintic activity of papaya seeds on Hymenolepis diminuta infections in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study is to see the anthelmintic activity potential of papaya seeds against Hymenolepis diminuta in rats. The objectives of this study were: (1) to determine the effectiveness of papaya seeds on helminths especially H. diminuta in rats and (2) to determine the effective dose level on helminths in rats. Thirty six male rats from strain Sprague-Dawley were chosen as samples in this experiment. Two types of dose level were used for papaya seeds treatments such as 0.6 g kg-1 and 1.2 g kg-1. The geometric mean (GEM) was used to calculate mean for eggs per gram (EPG) before and after the treatment to be included in the reduction percentage calculation. After 21 days post treatment, necropsies were done to get the worm count and the GEM was used to calculate the efficacy percentage for the treatment. Results from this study showed that the reduction percentages in EPG for papaya seeds treatment for both doses level were very high which is 96.8% for 0.6g kg-1 dose level and 96.2% for 1.2 g kg-1 dose level. Whereas the efficacy percentage based on the worm counts for both doses level were also very high that was 90.77% for 0.6 g kg-1 dose level and 93.85% for 1.2 g kg-1. PMID:23202594

Sapaat, A; Satrija, F; Mahsol, H H; Ahmad, A H

2012-12-01

 
 
 
 
281

Avaliação do efeito de fosfitos na redução da varíola (Asperisporium caricae do mamoeiro (Carica papaya Evaluation of phosphite applications for severity of papaya black spot (Asperisporium caricae  

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Full Text Available O controle da varíola do mamoeiro é necessário; portanto, propôs-se, neste estudo, avaliar o efeito de aplicações foliares de fosfitos (K, Ca, Mg e Cu sobre a doença. Dois fosfitos e o fungicida Fosetyl-Al foram testados em condições de campo, com plantas naturalmente infectadas pelo patógeno. Dez fosfitos e o fungicida Fosetyl-Al foram testados sob telado também com plantas naturalmente infectadas por A. caricae. Tanto no experimento de campo quanto sob telado, os tratamentos contendo fosfito reduziram a severidade da doença.The control of black spot of papaya is necessary, therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of foliar applications of phosphites (K, Ca, Mg and Cu on papaya black spot. Two phosphites and the fungicide Fosetyl-Al were tested on a field trial with papaya plants naturally infected by the pathogen. Ten phosphites and the fungicide Fosetyl-Al were tested in a greenhouse trial, also with plants naturally infected by A. caricae. In both, field and greenhouse trials, the phosphite treatments reduced black spot severity.

Alexei de Campos Dianese

2008-09-01

282

Efecto de la cocción y del grado de maduración de frutas de mamón (Carica papaya L.) sobre la calidad del mamón en almíbar / Effect of cooking and fruit ripening of papaya (Carica papaya L.) on quality of papaya in syrup  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo estudiar el efecto del grado de maduración de la fruta y la cocción sobre la retención de calcio y la firmeza del mamón en almíbar. Para los ensayos se emplearon frutas en dos grados de maduración distintos. La elaboración de frutas en almíbar se realizó con u [...] n tratamiento previo. El pre-tratamiento consistió en impregnar la fruta en soluciones isotónicas de lactato de calcio y la cocción se realizó en solución de sacarosa. Además se realizaron ensayos de elaboración del producto por cocción de frutas verdes frescas, sin pre-tratamiento, en almíbar con adición de 1,5% de lactato de calcio y en almíbar sin adición de calcio. Se midió el contenido de calcio y la firmeza en la fruta fresca, pre-tratada y pos-cocción. Los resultados experimentales indicaron que durante el pre-tratamiento las frutas verde y madura ganan 84,1 y 103,2 mg Ca/100g fruta fresca, respectivamente. Durante la cocción se retiene un 52,8% y 65,6% del calcio ganado, en fruta verde y madura respectivamente. El proceso de cocción de fruta verde en almíbar con lactato de calcio generó un producto con una ganancia de calcio de 78,6 mg Ca/100 g de fruta fresca y la cocción en almíbar (sin calcio) mantuvo los valores del contenido de calcio de la fruta fresca. El pre-tratamiento con calcio incrementa la firmeza de la fruta; la posterior cocción en almíbar favorece la firmeza en el caso de la fruta madura pero disminuye marcadamente la firmeza de la fruta verde. Abstract in english In this study the effect of fruit ripeness on the calcium retention and the firmness of papaya in syrup were investigated. The fruits in syrup were developed from pretreated papaya samples. The pretreatment consisted in an impregnation stage using isotonic solutions of calcium lactate, and the subse [...] quent cooking of the samples in sucrose syrup. In addition, green fruit without pretreatment was processed as a control. It was cooked in syrup with addition of 1.5% of calcium lactate and without calcium. Calcium content, color and firmness were measured in fresh fruit, pre-treated and processed samples.. Experimental results showed that during the pretreatment, green and ripe fruits increased their calcium content in 84.1 and 103.2 mg Ca/100g fresh fruit, respectively. During cooking, green and ripe fruits retained 52.8% and 65.6%, respectively, of the calcium content previously gained. Processed green fruits with calcium in syrup gained 78.6 mg Ca/100g fresh fruit, while those processed without mineral addition maintained the initial values of calcium content. The pretreatment with calcium increased the firmness of the fresh fruit, for both green and mature samples. After cooking, the ripe fruit firmness increased, as opposed to that of the green fruit, which decreased notoriously.

Lovera, Nancy N; Ramallo, Laura; Salvadori, Viviana O.

283

Validación Chilena del Cuestionario de Evaluación del Apego Romántico Experiences in Close Relationships (ECR: Análisis de la Validez de Criterio  

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Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue analizar la validez de criterio del cuestionario de apego romántico Ex - periences in Close Relationships (ECR, Brennan, Clark y Shaver, 1998 para la población chilena de adultos. Este cuestionario evalúa las dos dimensiones del apego romántico adulto: la evitación (de la intimidad y la ansiedad (acerca de las relaciones. Los participantes fueron 549 adultos, quienes completaron el cuestionario ECR y el cuestionario de apego adulto CaMir. Se evaluó las propiedades psicométricas del cuestionario, mostrando que es un instrumento con una adecuada validez de criterio y con una estructura factorial que representa las dos dimensiones teóricas propuestas por los autores originales. Se concluye que la versión chilena del ECR es válida para examinar el apego romántico en la adultez.

Andru00E9s Fresno

2013-01-01

284

Transmission efficiency of Papaya ringspot virus by three aphid species.  

Science.gov (United States)

The transmission efficiency of Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) by three aphid vectors (i.e., Aphis gossypii, A. craccivora, and Myzus persicae) was studied. Efficiency was measured by single-aphid inoculation, group inoculation (using five aphids), duration of virus retention, and the number of plants following a single acquisition access period (AAP) to which the aphids could successfully transmit the virus. Single-aphid inoculation studies indicated that M. persicae (56%) and A. gossypii (53%) were significantly more efficient in transmitting PRSV than A. craccivora (38%). Further, in the former two species, the time required for initiation of the first probe on the inoculation test plant was significantly shorter compared to A. craccivora. PRSV transmission efficiency was 100% in all three species when a group of five aphids were used per plant. There was a perceptible decline in transmission efficiency as the sequestration period increased, although M. persicae successfully transmitted PRSV after 30 min of sequestration. A simple leaf-disk assay technique was employed for evaluating the transmission efficiency of three species of aphids. The results of leaf-disk assays also indicated that A. gossypii (48%) and M. persicae (56%) were more efficient PRSV vectors than A. craccivora. Using leaf-disk assays, the ability of individual aphids to inoculate PRSV serially to a number of plants was studied. Following a single AAP on an infected leaf, M. persicae was more efficient than the other two species with 52.5% transmission after the first inoculation access period (IAP). However, its inoculation efficiency significantly decreased with the second and subsequent IAPs. A. gossypii was able to transmit PRSV sequentially up to four successive leaf disks, but with significantly declining efficiency. Since A. gossypii is reported to be the numerically dominant vector in south India in addition to being a more efficient vector capable of inoculating PRSV to multiple plants, it should be the target vector for control strategies. PMID:18943221

Kalleshwaraswamy, C M; Kumar, N K Krishna

2008-05-01

285

Preservation of papaya by gamma radiation of cobalt 60  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The preservation of papaya cultivar Solo was submit to the irradiation at a dose of 80 krad and storage in room temperature to 250 C and with refrigeration to 100 C and the mean relative humidity of the air was 85% and 92% respectively, was studied. First the fruits was submit to the fungi control, with hot water, 470 C to 20 min. After the packaging in carton box the fruits was immediately irradiated by EMBRARAD S.A. and after that storage. Fruits were storage at room temperature was ripened after 9 days. Any difference was observed inside and outside colour of the irradiated and the control fruits. The only difference was the texture. In the radiated ripped fruit was 1,95 kg/cm2 and by the control samples 0,80 kg/cm2. Respiration of irradiated fruit was more active in comparison with the control samples, but don't enter into senescence. Storage at 100 C was the best results being obtained for 30 days such the control sample with the irradiated. But the irradiated fruit was more yellow and uniform in relation to the control samples. Also the texture was more consistent in mean of 2,12 kg/cm2 and 1,36 kg/cm2, respectively. In that temperature the respiration of irradiated fruits was minor in comparison with the control samples. During the storage don't have difference in the weight losses, between the irradiated and the control samples fruits. (author)

1987-01-01

286

First record of Trialeurodes variabilis (Quaintance) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on Carica papaya L. in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil Primeiro registro de Trialeurodes variabilis (Quaintance) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) em Carica papaya L. no Espírito Santo  

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Surveys were conducted to identify whitefly pests of papaya in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. The whitefly species Trialeurodes variabilis (Quaintance) is reported for the first time in the state, where it was found on papaya at six locations in Sooretama and Linhares municipalities in October to December 2002 and June 2003.Foram realizados levantamentos para identificar as moscas-brancas que ocorrem em mamoeiro no estado do Espírito Santo. É registrada pela primeira vez a presen...

2004-01-01

287

Efficacy of Essential Oils on the Conidial Germination, Growth of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Penz. and Sacc and Control of Postharvest Diseases in Papaya (Carica papaya L.)  

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The efficacy of nine essential oils were investigated in vitro on conidial germination and mycelial growth inhibition of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides isolate from papaya (Carica papaya L.). In general, better antifungal effect was observed with Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Syzygium aromaticum oils which had strong inhibition of conidial germination of C. gloeosporioides at 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 ?g mL-1 and a dose dep...

2008-01-01

288

LEAF GAS EXCHANGE CHARACTERISTICS OF FOUR PAPAYA GENOTYPES DURING DIFFERENT STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT TROCAS GASOSAS EM FOLHAS DE DIFERENTES ESTÁDIOS DE DESENVOLVIMENTO EM GENÓTIPOS DE MAMOEIRO (Carica papaya L.)  

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In this research, was used four papaya (Carica papaya L.) genotypes: three from the 'Solo ( Sunrise Solo TJ, Sunrise Solo 72/12 and Baixinho de Santa Amália) group and one from the 'Formosa' group (Know-You 01). They were grown in plastic pots containing a sandy-clay-loam soil subjected to pH correction and fertilization, under greenhouse conditions. Throughout the experimental period plants were subjected to periodic irrigation to maintain the soil humitidy around field capacity. The experi...

ELIEMAR CAMPOSTRINI; OSVALDO KIYOSHI YAMANISHI; Martinez, Carlos A.

2001-01-01

289

Participación chilena en reuniones IADR mundiales, 2001-2012 Chilean participation in IADR general sessions, 2001-2012  

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Introducción: Las reuniones mundiales de la International Association for Dental Research (IADR) representan una de las instancias más importantes para la divulgación de las investigaciones odontológicas a nivel de congresos. El objetivo del presente trabajo es caracterizar la participación de investigadores de instituciones chilenas en reuniones IADR mundiales durante el período 2001-2012. Metodología: Estudio bibliométrico, la búsqueda se realizó en la plataforma web Conference Ex...

2013-01-01

290

Neomanierismo, minimalismo y neobarroco en la poesía chilena contemporánea Neomannerism, minimalism and neobaroque in contemporary Chilean poetry  

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Este artículo analiza la poesía chilena de tradición vanguardista, con énfasis en la producción de Enrique Lihn, Oscar Hahn, Gonzalo Millán, Diego Maquieira y Tomás Harris. La hipótesis es que en esta escritura es posible determinar un conjunto de categorías que se encuentran imbricadas en el corpus en estudio: neomanierismo, minimalismo y neobarroco, entre las más relevantesThis article analyzes Chilean poetry of "avant-garde" tradition with emphasis on the works of Enr...

2005-01-01

291

ODONTODACTYLUS HAWAIIENSIS MANNING,1967 (STAMATOPODA, GONODACTYLIDAE) EN AGUAS CHILENAS / ODONTODACTYLUS HAWAIIENSIS MANNING,1967 (STOMATOPODA, GONODACTYLIDAE) IN CHILEAN WATERS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish RESUMEN Se identifica y registra, por primera vez, la especie Odontodactylus hawaiiensis Manning, 1967 en aguas oceánicas chilenas, extendiéndose su distribución geográfica desde el Archipiélago Hawaiiano (islas Maui, Molokai y Hawaii) hasta los alrededores de la isla Salas y Gómez [...] Abstract in english ABSTRACT An species of Stomatopod is identified from Chilean oceanic waters Odontodactylus hawaiiensis Manning, 1967; it is reported from waters around Salas and Gómez island [...

Retamal, Marco A..

292

ODONTODACTYLUS HAWAIIENSIS MANNING,1967 (STAMATOPODA, GONODACTYLIDAE EN AGUAS CHILENAS ODONTODACTYLUS HAWAIIENSIS MANNING,1967 (STOMATOPODA, GONODACTYLIDAE IN CHILEAN WATERS  

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Full Text Available RESUMEN Se identifica y registra, por primera vez, la especie Odontodactylus hawaiiensis Manning, 1967 en aguas oceánicas chilenas, extendiéndose su distribución geográfica desde el Archipiélago Hawaiiano (islas Maui, Molokai y Hawaii hasta los alrededores de la isla Salas y GómezABSTRACT An species of Stomatopod is identified from Chilean oceanic waters Odontodactylus hawaiiensis Manning, 1967; it is reported from waters around Salas and Gómez island

Marco A. Retamal

2002-01-01

293

Variación de los indicadores de mortalidad evitable entre comunas chilenas como aproximación a las desigualdades de salud  

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OBJETIVOS:Analizar variaciones de mortalidad evitable entre comunas, utilizando diversos indicadores, como aproximación operacional para estimar desigualdades de salud. MÉTODOS:Análisis de variación de áreas pequeñas en una muestra de 117 de las 335 comunas chilenas en 1992. Usando datos secundarios, se desarrollaron y analizaron indicadores de mortalidad evitable, tales como los años de vida potencial perdidos (AVPP), la mortalidad evitable (ME) (con antecedentes y criterios basados e...

2002-01-01

294

Effect of green and ripe Carica papaya epicarp extracts on wound healing and during pregnancy.  

Science.gov (United States)

The traditional use of papaya to treat many diseases, especially skin conditions and its prohibition for consumption during pregnancy has prompted us to determine whether papaya extracts both from green and ripe fruits improve wound healing and also produce foetal toxicity. Aqueous extracts of green papaya epicarp (GPE) and ripe papaya epicarp (RPE) were applied on induced wounds on mice. GPE treatment induced complete healing in shorter periods (13 days) than that required while using RPE (17 days), sterile water (18 days) and Solcoseryl ointment (21 days). Extracts were administered orally (1 mg/g body weight/day) to pregnant mice from day 10 and onwards after conception. 3 (n=7) mice and 1 (n=6) mice given RPE and misoprostol, an abortive drug, respectively experienced embryonic resorption while this effect was observed in none of the mice given GPE (n=5) and water (n=5). The average body weight of live pups delivered by mice given GPE (1.12+/-0.04 g) was significantly lower than those delivered by mice given water (1.38+/-0.02 g). In SDS-PAGE, proteins were distributed in three bands (Mr range approximately 8-29 kDa). Band intensity at Mr approximately 28-29 kDa was higher in GPE than in RPE. In contrast, band intensity at low Mr (approximately 8 kDa) was found to be higher in RPE than in GPE. Notably, the band corresponding to Mr approximately 23-25 kDa was absent in RPE. These differences in composition may have contributed to the different wound healing and abortive effects of green and ripe papaya. PMID:18468758

Anuar, Nor Suhada; Zahari, Shafiyyah Solehah; Taib, Ibrahim Adham; Rahman, Mohammad Tariqur

2008-07-01

295

Evaluation of the Combination of Vitamin D3 and Papaya Leaf on Muscle Antioxidant Activity of Spent Chicken  

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Full Text Available Eighty spent chickens were employed in this study to assay the effect of combination of vitamin D3 and papaya leaf on antioxidant activity of meat in spent layer hens. Diets were a corn-soybean meal based diet for finisher layer with and without vitamin D3 which was supplemented with different levels of 0, 0.5, 1 and 2% for papaya leaf meal. Experiment lasted for 21 days. At day 0, 7, 14 and 21, the birds were scarified and breast muscle was obtained to determine antioxidant activity. Antioxidant activity was measured using 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-Picrylhydrazyl (DPPH. Result obtained from this study demonstrated that antioxidant activity of meat showed remarkable improvement between dietary treatments fed mix of vitamin D3 and papaya leaf and control group. In conclusion, vitamin D3 and papaya leaf when combined indicated an improvement in antioxidant activity of the spent meat.

A.Q. Sazili

2011-01-01

296

Injúria pelo frio em frutos de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L. cv 'Golden' Chilling injury in papaya fruits (Carica papaya L. cv 'Golden'  

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Full Text Available Os sintomas da injúria pelo frio em frutos de mamoeiro cv 'Golden' foram investigados neste trabalho.Os frutos apresentando de 10% a 15% de coloração amarela na casca, foram classificados na linha de operação de embalagem da Caliman Agrícola S.A (Linhares-ES e após receberam tratamentos térmicos e químicos. Os frutos foram embalados com filmes plásticos e estocados a 6ºC e 13ºC (85-95% UR em uma incubadora (BOD por 30 dias. Em intervalos de tempo definidos, seis frutos foram analisados quanto à firmeza, mudança de cor e aparência. A firmeza foi analisada tanto na região mais externa quanto na região mais interna do mesocarpo. De acordo com os resultados encontrados, os frutos estocados a 6ºC apresentaram os sintomas de escurecimento da casca entre o sexto e o décimo segundo dia de estocagem e também não perderam a cor verde após trinta dias de estocagem, conforme identificado pelos parâmetros de Hunter L (luminosidade, Hunter a (degradação da clorofila e Hunter b (amarelecimento. A firmeza foi drasticamente reduzida nos seis primeiros dias de estocagem nas duas temperaturas. Contudo, ela permaneceu mais elevada na parte externa do mesocarpo durante todo o período de estocagem à 13ºC. Os frutos estocados à 6ºC mostraram um aumento na firmeza, nas duas partes do mesocarpo, entre o sexto e o décimo oitavo dia de armazenamento devido à incidência da injúria pelo frio.The symptoms of chilling injury in papaya fruit cv -Golden' were investigated in this work. Fruits presenting 10% to 15% of fruit skin yellowing were sorted in the packaging line of the Caliman Agrícola S.A (Linhares-ES, after received chemical and heat treatments. The fruits were wrapped in a plastic film and stored at temperatures of 6ºC and 13ºC (85-95% RH in an incubator (BOD for 30 days. At defined time intervals, six fruits were evaluated regarding to firmness, appearance and color change. The fruit firmness was evaluated as in the outer as in the inner mesocarp halves. According to the results found, the fruits stored at 6ºC presented skin scald symptoms between six and twelve days of storage and failure to ripen after thirty days, as identified by the Hunter L (luminosity, Hunter a (loss of chlorophyll and Hunter b (yellowing. The firmness showed a high decrease in the six days of storage in both storage temperatures. However, it stayed higher in the outer mesocarp during all the storage period at 13ºC. Fruits stored at 6ºC showed an increment in firmness in both mesocarp halves between six and eighteen days of storage due to the chilling injury incidence.

Robson Ferreira de Almeida

2005-04-01

297

Injúria pelo frio em frutos de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L.) cv 'Golden' / Chilling injury in papaya fruits (Carica papaya L.) cv 'Golden'  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os sintomas da injúria pelo frio em frutos de mamoeiro cv 'Golden' foram investigados neste trabalho.Os frutos apresentando de 10% a 15% de coloração amarela na casca, foram classificados na linha de operação de embalagem da Caliman Agrícola S.A (Linhares-ES) e após receberam tratamentos térmicos e [...] químicos. Os frutos foram embalados com filmes plásticos e estocados a 6ºC e 13ºC (85-95% UR) em uma incubadora (BOD) por 30 dias. Em intervalos de tempo definidos, seis frutos foram analisados quanto à firmeza, mudança de cor e aparência. A firmeza foi analisada tanto na região mais externa quanto na região mais interna do mesocarpo. De acordo com os resultados encontrados, os frutos estocados a 6ºC apresentaram os sintomas de escurecimento da casca entre o sexto e o décimo segundo dia de estocagem e também não perderam a cor verde após trinta dias de estocagem, conforme identificado pelos parâmetros de Hunter L (luminosidade), Hunter a (degradação da clorofila) e Hunter b (amarelecimento). A firmeza foi drasticamente reduzida nos seis primeiros dias de estocagem nas duas temperaturas. Contudo, ela permaneceu mais elevada na parte externa do mesocarpo durante todo o período de estocagem à 13ºC. Os frutos estocados à 6ºC mostraram um aumento na firmeza, nas duas partes do mesocarpo, entre o sexto e o décimo oitavo dia de armazenamento devido à incidência da injúria pelo frio. Abstract in english The symptoms of chilling injury in papaya fruit cv -Golden' were investigated in this work. Fruits presenting 10% to 15% of fruit skin yellowing were sorted in the packaging line of the Caliman Agrícola S.A (Linhares-ES), after received chemical and heat treatments. The fruits were wrapped in a plas [...] tic film and stored at temperatures of 6ºC and 13ºC (85-95% RH) in an incubator (BOD) for 30 days. At defined time intervals, six fruits were evaluated regarding to firmness, appearance and color change. The fruit firmness was evaluated as in the outer as in the inner mesocarp halves. According to the results found, the fruits stored at 6ºC presented skin scald symptoms between six and twelve days of storage and failure to ripen after thirty days, as identified by the Hunter L (luminosity), Hunter a (loss of chlorophyll) and Hunter b (yellowing). The firmness showed a high decrease in the six days of storage in both storage temperatures. However, it stayed higher in the outer mesocarp during all the storage period at 13ºC. Fruits stored at 6ºC showed an increment in firmness in both mesocarp halves between six and eighteen days of storage due to the chilling injury incidence.

Robson Ferreira de, Almeida; Eder Dutra de, Resende; Letícia, Vitorazi; Lanamar de Almeida, Carlos; Luciana Konda de Azevedo, Pinto; Hugo Rafael Fonseca da, Silva; Meire Lelis Leal, Martins.

298

Occurrence of the green leafhopper of papaya, Solanasca bordia (Langlitz) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), in Brazil Ocorrência de Solanasca bordia (Langlitz) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), cigarrinha verde do mamoeiro, no Brasil  

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This article reports the presence of the green leafhopper of papaya, Solanasca bordia (Langlitz) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) on papaya, based on a survey of commercial papaya orchards in Espírito Santo, in six municipalities, in 2001/2002 (Linhares, Jaguaré, Sooretama, Pinheiros, Vitória e Serra).Neste artigo é relatada no mamoeiro a espécie de cigarrinha verde do mamoeiro, Solanasca bordia (Langlitz) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), resultado de um levantamento realizado em lavouras comerci...

Martins, David Dos S.; Culik, Mark P.

2005-01-01

299

Starch edible coating of papaya: effect on sensory characteristics Revestimento de mamão papaia por películas de amido: efeito nas características sensoriais  

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The coating of papayas with Cassava Starch (CS) and carboxymethyl starch (CMS) is an alternative to extend the shelf life of these fruits. This study evaluated the effect of the three different levels of CS and CMS (1, 3, and 5%) on sensory characteristics of papayas during storage. Nine selected and trained assessors evaluated 13 sensory attributes using the Multiple Comparison Test. The appearance and flavor attributes of the papayas treated with CS and CMS were compared to the control or r...

Ariane Castricini; Regina Celi Cavestré Coneglian; Rosires Deliza

2012-01-01

300

Etiologia e estratégias de controle de viroses do mamoeiro no brasil Etiology and control strategies of papaya virus diseases in Brazil  

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As viroses constituem o principal grupo de doenças do mamoeiro (Carica papaya), ocasionando grandes perdas na produção, podendo chegar à destruição total das plantações afetadas. Embora mais de dez vírus tenham sido constatados infetando naturalmente o mamoeiro, em todo o mundo, no Brasil, até o presente, foram assinaladas apenas as ocorrências do vírus da mancha anelar do mamoeiro (Papaya ringspot virus, PRSV), do vírus do amarelo letal do mamoeiro (Papaya lethal yellowing virus...

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Gambaran Histologis Testis Mencit (Mus musculus L.) Yang Mendapat Kombinasi Ekstrak Air Biji Pepaya (Carica papaya L.) Dan Testosteron Undekanoat (TU)  

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Many traditional use of medicinal plants to treat different sort of disease, including fertility has done. This research observed the influence of papaya seed (Carica papaya L.) extract and Testosterone Undekanoat (TU) combination in testicle histology of mice (Mus musculus L.) which designed in complete random design (RAL) that divide to 5 control groups and 5 treatment groups. The papaya seed extract (30mg/day) gived orally from 0 week until 24 weeks. The time interval for intramuscular inj...

2012-01-01

302

Morphological study of bone marrow to assess the effects of lead acetate on haemopoiesis and aplasia and the ameliorating role of Carica papaya extract  

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Lead causes damage to the body by inducing oxidative stress. The sites of damage include the bone marrow, where marrow hypoplasia and osteosclerosis may be observed. Leaves of Carica papaya, which have antioxidant and haemopoietic properties, were tested against the effect of lead acetate in experimental rats. The rats were divided into 8 groups; control, lead acetate only, Carica papaya (50 mg and 200 mg), post-treatment with Carica papaya (50 mg and 200 mg) following lead acetate administra...

Tham, Ching S.; Chakravarthi, Srikumar; Haleagrahara, Nagaraja; Alwis, Ranjit

2013-01-01

303

Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction (UAE) and Solvent Extraction of Papaya Seed Oil: Yield, Fatty Acid Composition and Triacylglycerol Profile  

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The main objective of the current work was to evaluate the suitability of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) for the recovery of oil from papaya seed as compared to conventional extraction techniques (i.e., Soxhlet extraction (SXE) and solvent extraction (SE)). In the present study, the recovery yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil obtained from different extraction methods and conditions were compared. Results indicated that both solvent extraction (...

2013-01-01

304

n vitro study of antiamoebic effect of methanol extract of mature seeds of Carica papaya on trophozoites of Entamoeba histolytica  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Antiamoebic activity of methanol extract of mature seeds of Carica papaya was tested in vitro on axenic culture of Entamoeba histolytica using metronidazole as a reference amoebicidal agent. The MIC of seed extract was > 62.5 µg/mL as compared to < 0.8 µg/mL for metronidazole. The present study suggests that the mature seeds of C. papaya have antiamoebic effect but less pronounced than metronidazole.

Sujit Kumar Sarker, Nilufar Begum, Dinesh Mondal, Md. Abdullah Siddique, Mohammad A. Rashid

2010-06-01

305

Analysis of Carica papaya Telomeres and Telomere-Associated Proteins: Insights into the Evolution of Telomere Maintenance in Brassicales  

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Telomeres are terminal regions of linear eukaryotic chromosomes that are critical for genome stability and continued cell proliferation. The draft assembly of the papaya genome provides an opportunity to analyze and compare the evolution of telomeric DNA sequence composition and telomere maintenance machinery in this and other organisms of the Brassicales Order, which includes Arabidopsis. Here we investigate telomere size and sequence variation at papaya chromosome ends. As with most other p...

2008-01-01

306

Comparative Study of Quality Changes in Shea Butter Coated Pawpaw Carica papaya Fruit During Storage  

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The storage of shea butter coated pawpaw carica papaya fruit at different storage temperature was investigated as regard the nutrients, sugars and minerals. Freshly harvested just ripe fruit of pawpaw carica papaya was coated with shea butter and stored at room temperature (27°C ± 1°C), refrigeration temperature (10°C ± 1°C)and freezing temperature (-5°C ± 1°C) for 8 days. The proximate, sugar (glucose, fructose and galactose) and minerals (Ca, Mg, Fe and Zn) were subse...

Adetuyi, F. O.; Ayileye, T. A.; Dada, I. B. O.

2008-01-01

307

Sorologia e sobrevivência do vírus do amarelo letal do mamoeiro Serology and surviving characteristics of Papaya lethal yellowing virus  

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O vírus do amarelo letal do mamoeiro (Papaya lethal yellowing virus, PLYV) é responsável por uma das principais doenças do mamoeiro (Carica papaya) no Nordeste brasileiro. O PLYV pode ser transmitido através do solo, água, instrumento de corte e mãos contaminadas. A presente pesquisa teve como objetivo estudar as características biológicas, sorológicas e físicas de um isolado do vírus e avaliar sua sobrevivência em tecido seco infetado. O PLYV foi detectado por "Enzyme linked...

2010-01-01

308

Ultrastruktur Hepar Mencit (Mus Musculus L.) Setelah Pemberian Ekstrak Air Biji Pepaya (Carica Papaya L.) Dan Testosteron Undekanoat (Tu)  

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The influence of papaya (Carica papaya L.) seed water extract and testosterone undekanoat (TU) to the structure of mouse liver (Mus musculus L.) was be conducted in a Laboratory of Animal Structure-Biology Departement, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Sumatera Utara, Medan. This research used completely randomized design that consist of 5 controls and 5 treatments, using 5 mice. The treatments were conducted for 24 weeks. Each mouse was treated by muscular injection ...

2013-01-01

309

Efecto del cloruro de sodio sobre el crecimiento y estado nutricional de plantas de papaya / Effect of sodium chloride on growth and mineral content of papaya plant  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La limitada disponibilidad de agua de calidad para la agricultura de las zonas áridas y semiáridas ha propiciado el uso de agua de moderada a alta salinidad. La papaya (Carica papaya L.), aunque se reporta con diferentes sensibilidades al estrés salino, es una especie de gran potencial frutícola par [...] a ser cultivada económicamente en las regiones semiáridas del estado Lara, Venezuela. El objetivo de este ensayo fue evaluar el efecto de la salinidad ocasionada por el NaCl sobre el crecimiento vegetativo y el estado nutricional de la papaya ‘Maradol’ desarrollada bajo una estructura de techo transparente. Como fuente salina se utilizó cloruro de sodio grado analítico, el cual se adicionó a través del agua de riego en cuatro tratamientos (0,001; 2,0; 4,0 y 8,0 dS·m-1) bajo un diseño completamente aleatorizado con cuatro repeticiones, hasta finalizar la fase juvenil del desarrollo. Se evaluó la longitud del tallo, biomasa seca aérea y radical, área foliar, área de sección del tallo, contenido relativo de clorofila (SPAD) y el contenido de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn, Cu, Fe y Na a nivel foliar. Los tratamientos afectaron el crecimiento vegetativo de las plantas durante toda la fase juvenil del desarrollo. Se observó, además, reducción del contenido de clorofila con el estrés por NaCl. Los tenores N y Na incrementaron, mientras que, los de K, Zn, Cu y Fe disminuyeron. Los niveles de P, Ca, Mg y Mn, no se afectaron. En base a los resultados obtenidos la papaya ‘Maradol’ puede ser considerada como un cultivar de moderada tolerancia al NaCl. Abstract in english Due to limited availability of low-salinity water in arid and semi-arid regions, water use of moderate to high salinity in agriculture of those regions is unavoidable. Papaya, although exhibits different sensitivities to salinity, has great potential to be cultivated in semi-arid regions of Lara Sta [...] te, Venezuela. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of irrigation with water containing different levels of NaCl on growth and nutrient content of papaya ‘Maradol’. The experiment was carried out under a structure with transparent ceiling until the end of the plant juvenile phase. NaCl treatments were applied to irrigation water to obtain 0.001, 2.0, 4.0 and 8.0 dS·m-1 electrical conductivity under a completely randomized design with four replications. Shoot length, shoot and root dry mater, leaf area, stem-cross-sectional area, relative chlorophyll content (SPAD), and leaf N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn, Cu, Fe and Na concentration were evaluated The presence of NaCl in the irrigation water caused inhibition of growth in young plants. Significant reduction in contents of chlorophyll was also detected. Tissue concentration of N and Na increased with increasing levels of NaCl, while K, Zn, Cu and Fe decreased. Ca, Mg, P and Mn, were not affected. On the basis of data obtained, papaya ‘Maradol’ can be considered as a moderately NaCl tolerant cultivar.

Jorge, Parés; Carmen, Basso.

310

Promover la salud mental con mujeres chilenas en desventaja social / Promoting mental health in socially disadvantaged chilean women / Promover a saúde mental com mulheres chilenas em desvantagem social  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese Descreve-se uma experiência do projeto chileno-canadense, intitulado "Promover a saúde mental de mulheres chilenas em desvantagem social: os Segredos de Maruja". Apresentam-se os objetivos, as etapas das intervenções e as avaliações preliminares. Com a participação das mulheres usuárias dos Centros [...] de Saúde, profissionais de saúde e autoridades da comunidade de La Pintana, foi construído, aplicado e avaliado um projeto de intervenção para apoiar as mulheres na tomada de decisões que favorecessem sua saúde mental, pessoal, familiar e social. A intervenção contemplou o desenho, a produção, a distribuição e a avaliação de 12 cartilhas educativas tipo calendários, cada uma referente a três temas de saúde mental considerado importante pelas mesmas mulheres: identidade e auto-estima; vínculos e comunicação; e autocuidado. Cada cartilha tem um teste de autodiagnóstico e endereços dos recursos sociais comunitários. Ademais, comprometeu as enfermeiras que trabalham nos Centros de Saúde que incorporaram esta estratégia no seu atendimento habitual e avaliaram seu impacto tanto na sua identidade e autonomia profissional quanto na melhoria da qualidade do cuidado brindado às mulheres. Abstract in spanish Se descrive una parte de la experiencia del proyecto Chileno/Canadiense: "Promover la salud mental de las mujeres chilenas en desventaja social: Los Secretos de Maruja". Se describen los objetivos, las etapas del proceso, de intervención y los resultados de las evaluaciones preliminares. Con la part [...] icipación de las mujeres usuárias de los centros de salud, profesionales y autoridades de la comuna de La Pintana, se construyó, aplicó y evaluó un proyecto de intervención para apoyar a las mujeres en la toma de decisiones que favorezcan su salud mental personal, familiar y social. La intervención contempló el diseño, producción, distribución y evaluación de 12 folletos educativos tipo calendarios, cada uno respecto a tres temas de salud mental identificados por las mismas mujeres: Identidad y autoestima, Vínculo y Comunicación y Autocuidado. Además se involucró a las enfermeras que trabajan en los Centros de Salud, quienes incorporaron esta estrategia a la atención de salud habitual y evaluaron su impacto en la identidad, autonomía profesional y en la mejoría de la calidad del cuidado. Abstract in english This paper describes a Chilean/Canadian intervention project about Mental Health Promotion with socially disadvantaged women called "Maruja's secrets". We present their objectives, each stage of the intervention process and preliminary evaluations. With the participation of women of the community, h [...] ealth professionals and authorities of health members of La Pintana, we conceive, develop and evaluate an intervention to support and coach women in decision making to improve their personnel and social mental health. The intervention process include design, engaged community nurses, distribution and evaluation of 12 educative color calendars, each one with 14 messages about mental health issues, that were discovered in focus groups with the same women: Identity and self- esteem; communication and selfcare. Each calendar has 14 messages, a self-diagnosis test and addresses of community social resources. Community nurses were involved in the distribution and they evaluate their experience as a way of strengthening nursing identity and the quality of nursing care.

M Soledad, Rivera; M Sylvia, Campos; Solange, Campos; Ilta, Lange; Mila, Urrutia; Angela, Castellano.

311

New record of scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) as pests of papaya in Brazil Novo registro de Cochonilhas (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) como pragas do mamoeiro no Brasil  

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The occurrence of Coccus hesperidum L., 1758 and Aonidiella comperei McKenzie, 1937 was registered for the first time on papaya in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Also A. comperei and Selenaspidus articulatus (Morgan, 1889) were registered on papaya in the state of Rio Grande do Norte. This is the first record of A. comperei and S. articulatus on papaya in Brazil, and the first record of S. articulatus on papaya in the world.É registrada pela primeira vez a ocorrência de Coccus he...

2004-01-01

312

Comparisons of Production Costs and Profit of Three Different Technology Levels of Papaya Production in Tabasco, Mexico  

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Full Text Available The survey was carried out from September 2006 to January 2007 in three papaya production sites located in main papaya production zones in Tabasco; SE Mexico. There are differences in size of the cultivated area, in the yield of the papaya as well as in production costs and profit, according to the different technology levels in the farming systems: low, medium and high technology cultivation level. The financial evaluations were carried out in three sites with different productive technologies. The comparison of the agronomic and economic traits results for low technology level in: V AN of 2359.00 USD, BCR in 1.9 and an equilibrium point of 3750.00 USD, TIR of 0.25. In order to avoid loses, a quantity of 10714 kg papaya should be sold. In medium technology VAN is 1605.10 USD, BCR is 1.7, TIR 0.20 and the equilibrium point is 12800.00 USD. 36571 kg of papaya should be yearly sold. In high technology level VAN is 11749.40, BCR is 2.73, TIR 0.43 and the equilibrium point is 12187.50 USD, 34821 kg papaya should be sold yearly. The indicators showed that all three levels are profitable and economically viable.

E. Guzmán-Ramón

2008-04-01

313

Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction (UAE and Solvent Extraction of Papaya Seed Oil: Yield, Fatty Acid Composition and Triacylglycerol Profile  

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Full Text Available The main objective of the current work was to evaluate the suitability of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE for the recovery of oil from papaya seed as compared to conventional extraction techniques (i.e., Soxhlet extraction (SXE and solvent extraction (SE. In the present study, the recovery yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil obtained from different extraction methods and conditions were compared. Results indicated that both solvent extraction (SE, 12 h/25 °C and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE methods recovered relatively high yields (79.1% and 76.1% of total oil content, respectively. Analysis of fatty acid composition revealed that the predominant fatty acids in papaya seed oil were oleic (18:1, 70.5%–74.7%, palmitic (16:0, 14.9%–17.9%, stearic (18:0, 4.50%–5.25%, and linoleic acid (18:2, 3.63%–4.6%. Moreover, the most abundant triacylglycerols of papaya seed oil were triolein (OOO, palmitoyl diolein (POO and stearoyl oleoyl linolein (SOL. In this study, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE significantly (p < 0.05 influenced the triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil, but no significant differences were observed in the fatty acid composition of papaya seed oil extracted by different extraction methods (SXE, SE and UAE and conditions.

Hasanah Mohd Ghazali

2013-10-01

314

Estudos morfo-anatômicos de sementes de dois genótipos de mamão(Carica papaya L. Morphological and anatomical studies of seeds of two genotypes of papaya Carica papaya L.  

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Full Text Available A propagação do mamoeiro Carica papaya L. é realizada por meio de mudas oriundas das sementes. Apesar da importância da semente do mamoeiro para a formação dos pomares comerciais, estudos morfológicos e anatômicos neste sentido são raros. O presente trabalho descreve aspectos morfológicos e anatômicos das estruturas que constituem as sementes de dois genótipos do mamoeiro, Sunrise Solo 783 e Formosa Roxo 45. Sunrise Solo 783 e Formosa Roxo 45 pertencem aos dois grandes grupos 'Solo' e 'Formosa' respectivamente. Os referidos genótipos foram oriundos do banco de germoplasma da Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (UENF em parceria com Empresa Caliman Agrícola S.A. A pesquisa foi conduzida no Laboratório de Microscopia Eletrônica da Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA, Lavras, MG.Para a caracterização morfológica procedeu-se a dissecação e observação das estruturas utilizando bisturi, pinças e sexploradora sob microscópio estereoscópio. Para a caracterização anatômica utilizou-se a microscopia eletrônica de varredura. As amostras foram preparadas de acordo com a metodologia de rotina do Laboratório de Microscopia Eletrônica da UFLA e observadas a alto vácuo em diversos aumentos no microscópio Leo Evo 40, à distância de trabalho de 10 mm. As medições foram realizadas usando-se o Software Leo User Interface (versão Leo 3.2. Os estudos morfológicos permitiram identificar as estruturas que compõem a semente do mamoeiro e os estudos anatômicos permitiram observar a existência de diferenças estruturais e dimensionais entre as células dos dois genótipos estudados.The papaya (Carica papaya L. propagation is made by seedlings produced from true seeds. Although the use of seeds in the implementation of commercial papaya orchards is well documented in literature, studies on the anatomy and morphology of these structures are in small number. In present work morphological and anatomical aspects of the seeds from two papaya genotypes Sunrise Solo 783 and Formosa Roxo 45,belonging to two grand groups ´Solo` and ´Formosa` are described. These genotypes were obtained of Gemoplasm Bank of the Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (UENF in cooperation with the company Caliman Agricola S.A. The work was carried out at the Eletronic Microscopy and Ultra-strutural Analisys Laboratory of the Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA. To make the morphological characterization, the seeds were dissected carefully by hand and observed in the stereomicroscope. For the anatomic studies, seeds were prepared according to the routine protocol of the LME and observed in scanning electronic microscope Leo Evo 40, at work distance of 10 mm under high vacuum conditions. Measurements were made using the Software Leo User Interface (Version Leo 3.2. The results of the morphological studies provide adequate conditions to observe the different structures of the papaya seeds and from anatomic studies it was possible to verify structural and dimensional differences among the cells of the two genotypes under investigation.

Sônia Aparecida dos Santos

2009-01-01

315

Estudos morfo-anatômicos de sementes de dois genótipos de mamão(Carica papaya L.) / Morphological and anatomical studies of seeds of two genotypes of papaya Carica papaya L.  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A propagação do mamoeiro Carica papaya L. é realizada por meio de mudas oriundas das sementes. Apesar da importância da semente do mamoeiro para a formação dos pomares comerciais, estudos morfológicos e anatômicos neste sentido são raros. O presente trabalho descreve aspectos morfológicos e anatômic [...] os das estruturas que constituem as sementes de dois genótipos do mamoeiro, Sunrise Solo 783 e Formosa Roxo 45. Sunrise Solo 783 e Formosa Roxo 45 pertencem aos dois grandes grupos 'Solo' e 'Formosa' respectivamente. Os referidos genótipos foram oriundos do banco de germoplasma da Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (UENF) em parceria com Empresa Caliman Agrícola S.A. A pesquisa foi conduzida no Laboratório de Microscopia Eletrônica da Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), Lavras, MG.Para a caracterização morfológica procedeu-se a dissecação e observação das estruturas utilizando bisturi, pinças e sexploradora sob microscópio estereoscópio. Para a caracterização anatômica utilizou-se a microscopia eletrônica de varredura. As amostras foram preparadas de acordo com a metodologia de rotina do Laboratório de Microscopia Eletrônica da UFLA e observadas a alto vácuo em diversos aumentos no microscópio Leo Evo 40, à distância de trabalho de 10 mm. As medições foram realizadas usando-se o Software Leo User Interface (versão Leo 3.2). Os estudos morfológicos permitiram identificar as estruturas que compõem a semente do mamoeiro e os estudos anatômicos permitiram observar a existência de diferenças estruturais e dimensionais entre as células dos dois genótipos estudados. Abstract in english The papaya (Carica papaya L.) propagation is made by seedlings produced from true seeds. Although the use of seeds in the implementation of commercial papaya orchards is well documented in literature, studies on the anatomy and morphology of these structures are in small number. In present work morp [...] hological and anatomical aspects of the seeds from two papaya genotypes Sunrise Solo 783 and Formosa Roxo 45,belonging to two grand groups ´Solo` and ´Formosa` are described. These genotypes were obtained of Gemoplasm Bank of the Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (UENF) in cooperation with the company Caliman Agricola S.A. The work was carried out at the Eletronic Microscopy and Ultra-strutural Analisys Laboratory of the Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA). To make the morphological characterization, the seeds were dissected carefully by hand and observed in the stereomicroscope. For the anatomic studies, seeds were prepared according to the routine protocol of the LME and observed in scanning electronic microscope Leo Evo 40, at work distance of 10 mm under high vacuum conditions. Measurements were made using the Software Leo User Interface (Version Leo 3.2). The results of the morphological studies provide adequate conditions to observe the different structures of the papaya seeds and from anatomic studies it was possible to verify structural and dimensional differences among the cells of the two genotypes under investigation.

Santos, Sônia Aparecida dos; Silva, Roberto Ferreira da; Pereira, Messias Gonzaga; Alves, Eduardo; Machado, José da Cruz; Borém, Flávio Meira; Guimarães, Renato Mendes; Marques, Elizabeth Rosemeire.

316

Asymmetric purine-pyrimidine distribution in cellular small RNA population of papaya  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The small RNAs (sRNA are a regulatory class of RNA mainly represented by the 21 and 24-nucleotide size classes. The cellular sRNAs are processed by RNase III family enzyme dicer (Dicer like in plant from a self-complementary hairpin loop or other type of RNA duplexes. The papaya genome has been sequenced, but its microRNAs and other regulatory RNAs are yet to be analyzed. Results We analyzed the genomic features of the papaya sRNA population from three sRNA deep sequencing libraries made from leaves, flowers, and leaves infected with Papaya Ringspot Virus (PRSV. We also used the deep sequencing data to annotate the micro RNA (miRNA in papaya. We identified 60 miRNAs, 24 of which were conserved in other species, and 36 of which were novel miRNAs specific to papaya. In contrast to the Chargaff’s purine-pyrimidine equilibrium, cellular sRNA was significantly biased towards a purine rich population. Of the two purine bases, higher frequency of adenine was present in 23nt or longer sRNAs, while 22nt or shorter sRNAs were over represented by guanine bases. However, this bias was not observed in the annotated miRNAs in plants. The 21nt species were expressed from fewer loci but expressed at higher levels relative to the 24nt species. The highly expressed 21nt species were clustered in a few isolated locations of the genome. The PRSV infected leaves showed higher accumulation of 21 and 22nt sRNA compared to uninfected leaves. We observed higher accumulation of miRNA* of seven annotated miRNAs in virus-infected tissue, indicating the potential function of miRNA* under stressed conditions. Conclusions We have identified 60 miRNAs in papaya. Our study revealed the asymmetric purine-pyrimidine distribution in cellular sRNA population. The 21nt species of sRNAs have higher expression levels than 24nt sRNA. The miRNA* of some miRNAs shows higher accumulation in PRSV infected tissues, suggesting that these strands are not totally functionally redundant. The findings open a new avenue for further investigation of the sRNA silencing pathway in plants.

Aryal Rishi

2012-12-01

317

La Generación Messenger: Relevancia de la mensajería instantánea en la adolescencia chilena  

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Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese Em meio às mudanças que geraram a chamada Era da Informação, o fenômeno da Comunicação Mediada por Computador (cmc) ganha importância. Isto diz respeito ao crescente acesso da sociedade chilena à internet, o que a posiciona como líder na América Latina. Considerando a familiaridade dos jovens com as [...] novas tecnologias, este grupo etéreo é o que se apropria com maior intensidade desta nova ferramenta comunicativa. A mensagem instantânea passa a ser uma importante ferramenta para os processos de socialização dos jovens, ocupando o lugar que em décadas passadas era do telefone. Diferente de outras tecnologias, a mensagem instantânea constitui um dos poucos elementos comuns que atravessa os segmentos sociais e as diversas tribos urbanas, pela qual os jovens chilenos vivem seus processos de construção de identidade. Abstract in spanish En medio de los cambios que ha generado la llamada Era de la Información, adquiere importancia el fenómeno de la Comunicación Mediada por Computador (CMC). Esto se relaciona con el creciente acceso de la sociedad chilena hacia la internet, que lo posiciona como líder en Latinoamérica en el tema. Dad [...] a la cercanía que los jóvenes tienen con las nuevas tecnologías, este grupo etáreo es el que se apropia con mayor intensidad de esta nueva herramienta comunicativa. La mensajería instantánea pasa a ser una importante herramienta para los procesos de socialización de los jóvenes, ocupando el lugar que en décadas pasadas tuvo el teléfono. A diferencia de otras tecnologías, la mensajería se convierte en uno de los pocos elementos comunes que cruza los segmentos sociales y las variadas tribus urbanas en las cuales los jóvenes chilenos viven sus procesos de construcción de la identidad. Abstract in english In the middle of changes has generated by Age of Information called, acquired importance the phenomenon of Computer Mediated Communication (cmc). This is related to the increasing access that the Chilean society towards the internet, that positions it like leader in Latin America in the subject. By [...] the proximity that the young people have with new technologies, this age group has been has itself appropriate with greater intensity of this new communicative tool. The instant messaging has become an important tool by he socialization processes of the young people, having occupied the place that in last decades use the telephone. Compared to other technologies the mail has become one of the few common elements that it crosses the social segments and the varied urban tribes in who the Chilean young people live their processes on construction of the identity.

Luis, Cárcamo Ulloa; Felipe, Nesbet Montecinos.

318

Control de dos especies de Colletotrichum causantes de antracnosis en frutos de papaya Maradol Control of two species of Colletotrichum causing anthracnose in Maradol papaya fruits  

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Full Text Available La antracnosis es una limitante de la vida útil de los frutos de papaya, es causada principalmente por Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, aunque es posible encontrar otras especies de Colletotrichum causando enfermedades en un mismo cultivo. Para el control de la antracnosis en Yucatán se recomiendan varios fungicidas, pero no todos están permitidos por la agencia de protección al ambiente (EPA de los Estados Unidos de América, principal país al cual se exporta la papaya yucateca. El presente estudio tuvo como objetivos identificar el agente causal de la antracnosis de papaya en Yucatán, evaluar el efecto de fungicidas que cuentan con registro de EPA sobre las especies que causan antracnosis y explorar el efecto de inductores a resistencia en el control de esta enfermedad. Durante marzo y mayo de 2006 se obtuvieron nueve aislamientos de Colletotrichum en frutos de tres regiones productoras de Yucatán, los cuales se identificaron mediante claves taxonómicas. La evaluación de los productos se hizo mediante bioensayos de sensibilidad in vitro y la efectividad en frutos inoculados, posteriormente en agosto de 2007, noviembre de 2007 y febrero de 2008, se evaluó el efecto de la aplicación poscosecha de los fungicidas e inductores de resistencia sobre la antracnosis en frutos infectados naturalmente desde campo. En las tres localidades se encontraron dos especies que causan antracnosis identificadas como C. gloeosporioides y C. dematium. En condiciones in vitro el desarrollo de C. gloeosporioides fue inhibido por prochloraz, ferbam, azoxystrobin, tryfloxystrobin y clorotalonil; el desarrollo de C. dematium fue inhibido sólo por prochloraz, ferbam y clorotalonil. En frutos inoculados prochloraz tuvo 100% de efectividad para las dos especies, mientras que azoxystrobin tuvo 87.5% de efectividad para C. gloeosporioides y 3.3% para C. dematium.Anthracnose is a limitation of papaya fruits' life, mainly caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, although it is possible to find other Colletotrichum species causing diseases in the same crop. In order to control anthracnose in Yucatán, several fungicides are recommended, but not all of them are allowed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA of the United States, the main country to which Yucatan's papaya is exported. This study aimed to identify the causal agent of anthracnose of papaya in Yucatan, to evaluate the effect of fungicides that have EPA registration on species that cause anthracnose and to explore the effect of resistance inducers in controlling this disease. During March and May 2006, nine isolates of Colletotrichum were obtained from fruits of three producing regions of Yucatán, which were identifed using taxonomic keys. The product evaluation was done by sensitivity in vitro bioassays and the effectiveness in inoculated fruits, ensuing in August 2007, November 2007 and February 2008, the effect of postharvest application of fungicides and resistance inducers on anthracnose on naturally infected fruits from the field were evaluated. In the three sites, two species that cause anthracnose were found and identified as C. gloeosporioides and C. dematium. Under in vitro conditions, C. gloeosporioides development was inhibited by prochloraz, ferbam, azoxystrobin, tryfloxystrobin and chlorothalonil; C. dematium development was inhibited only by prochloraz, ferbam and chlorothalonil. In inoculated fruits, prochloraz was 100% effective for both species, while azoxystrobin was 87.5% effective in C. gloeosporioides and 3.3% in C. dematium.

Felipe Santamaría Basulto

2011-10-01

319

Control de dos especies de Colletotrichum causantes de antracnosis en frutos de papaya Maradol / Control of two species of Colletotrichum causing anthracnose in Maradol papaya fruits  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La antracnosis es una limitante de la vida útil de los frutos de papaya, es causada principalmente por Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, aunque es posible encontrar otras especies de Colletotrichum causando enfermedades en un mismo cultivo. Para el control de la antracnosis en Yucatán se recomiendan v [...] arios fungicidas, pero no todos están permitidos por la agencia de protección al ambiente (EPA) de los Estados Unidos de América, principal país al cual se exporta la papaya yucateca. El presente estudio tuvo como objetivos identificar el agente causal de la antracnosis de papaya en Yucatán, evaluar el efecto de fungicidas que cuentan con registro de EPA sobre las especies que causan antracnosis y explorar el efecto de inductores a resistencia en el control de esta enfermedad. Durante marzo y mayo de 2006 se obtuvieron nueve aislamientos de Colletotrichum en frutos de tres regiones productoras de Yucatán, los cuales se identificaron mediante claves taxonómicas. La evaluación de los productos se hizo mediante bioensayos de sensibilidad in vitro y la efectividad en frutos inoculados, posteriormente en agosto de 2007, noviembre de 2007 y febrero de 2008, se evaluó el efecto de la aplicación poscosecha de los fungicidas e inductores de resistencia sobre la antracnosis en frutos infectados naturalmente desde campo. En las tres localidades se encontraron dos especies que causan antracnosis identificadas como C. gloeosporioides y C. dematium. En condiciones in vitro el desarrollo de C. gloeosporioides fue inhibido por prochloraz, ferbam, azoxystrobin, tryfloxystrobin y clorotalonil; el desarrollo de C. dematium fue inhibido sólo por prochloraz, ferbam y clorotalonil. En frutos inoculados prochloraz tuvo 100% de efectividad para las dos especies, mientras que azoxystrobin tuvo 87.5% de efectividad para C. gloeosporioides y 3.3% para C. dematium. Abstract in english Anthracnose is a limitation of papaya fruits' life, mainly caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, although it is possible to find other Colletotrichum species causing diseases in the same crop. In order to control anthracnose in Yucatán, several fungicides are recommended, but not all of them are [...] allowed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of the United States, the main country to which Yucatan's papaya is exported. This study aimed to identify the causal agent of anthracnose of papaya in Yucatan, to evaluate the effect of fungicides that have EPA registration on species that cause anthracnose and to explore the effect of resistance inducers in controlling this disease. During March and May 2006, nine isolates of Colletotrichum were obtained from fruits of three producing regions of Yucatán, which were identifed using taxonomic keys. The product evaluation was done by sensitivity in vitro bioassays and the effectiveness in inoculated fruits, ensuing in August 2007, November 2007 and February 2008, the effect of postharvest application of fungicides and resistance inducers on anthracnose on naturally infected fruits from the field were evaluated. In the three sites, two species that cause anthracnose were found and identified as C. gloeosporioides and C. dematium. Under in vitro conditions, C. gloeosporioides development was inhibited by prochloraz, ferbam, azoxystrobin, tryfloxystrobin and chlorothalonil; C. dematium development was inhibited only by prochloraz, ferbam and chlorothalonil. In inoculated fruits, prochloraz was 100% effective for both species, while azoxystrobin was 87.5% effective in C. gloeosporioides and 3.3% in C. dematium.

Felipe, Santamaría Basulto; Raúl, Díaz Plaza; Omar, Gutiérrez Alonso; Jorge, Santamaría Fernández; Alfonso, Larqué Saavedra.

320

A microsatellite library for Carica papaya L. cv. Sunrise solo / Marcadores microssatélites para Carica papaya L. cv. Sunrise solo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Em áreas experimentais das Fazendas de Ensino e Pesquisa da UNESP/Campus de Ilha Solteira e Jaboticabal foram selecionadas e marcadas 20 plantas hermafroditas e 20 femininas dos cultivares Sunrise Solo, Improved Sunrise Solo cv.72/12 e Baixinho de Santa Amália. As sementes provenientes dos frutos se [...] lecionados foram plantadas para analisar-se a eficiência da autofecundação e a freqüência dos sexos nas progênies. Posteriormente, amostras de tecido foliar jovem das plantas matrizes foram coletadas para a extração de DNA. Foram construídas cinco bibliotecas enriquecidas de seqüências microsatélites, utilizando-se as sondas (TCA)10, (TC)13, (GATA)4, (CAC)10 e (TGAG)8. Foi possível o desenvolvimento de primers somente com a biblioteca que utilizou a sonda (TCA)10 . Esta permitiu o desenho de 32 pares de primers. Destes, 31 apresentaram padrão de banda única em agarose Metaphor e em acrilamida. Para o primer S36 foram observadas 2 bandas, mas sem polimorfismo para diferenciação da forma sexual na cultura do mamoeiro. No entanto, estes primers poderão ser testados na investigação de outras características em populações segregantes desta espécie e de espécies afins, análises de germoplasma, identificação de cultivares, evolução parental e marcas em melhoramento assistido. Abstract in english In experimental areas of the Education and Researches Ilha Solteira and Jaboticabal UNESP/Campus farms were selected and tagged 20 hermaphrodite plants and 20 feminine of cultivar Sunrise Solo, Improved Sunrise Solo cv.72/12 and Baixinho of Santa Amália.The seeds origined of the selected fruits were [...] cropped to be analysed the self-pollination efficiency and frequency of the sex in the progenies. After that, samples of the young leaf of the matrix plants were colected for the extration of the DNA. It was built five library enriched of microsatellite sequencies, using probes (TCA)10, (TC)13, (GATA)4, (CAC)10 e (TGAG)8.It was possible the development of the primers only in the library that has utilized the probe (TCA)10. This probe allowed the design of 32 primer pairs. From these, 31 presented pattern of unique band in agarose Metaphor and in acrilamide. For primer S36 were observed 2 bands, but with no polymorphism to differentiation in the sexual form at papaya tree culture. However, these primers can be tested, in the futures, in the investigation of the others features in segregated populations of this specie and the related species, germoplasm analysis, cultivars identification, parent evolution and molecular markers for the assisted plant breeding programs.

Santos, Silvia Correa; Ruggiero, Carlos; Silva, Cristina Lacerda Soares Petrarolha; Lemos, Eliana Gertrudes Macedo.

 
 
 
 
321

A microsatellite library for Carica papaya L. cv. Sunrise solo Marcadores microssatélites para Carica papaya L. cv. Sunrise solo  

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Full Text Available In experimental areas of the Education and Researches Ilha Solteira and Jaboticabal UNESP/Campus farms were selected and tagged 20 hermaphrodite plants and 20 feminine of cultivar Sunrise Solo, Improved Sunrise Solo cv.72/12 and Baixinho of Santa Amália.The seeds origined of the selected fruits were cropped to be analysed the self-pollination efficiency and frequency of the sex in the progenies. After that, samples of the young leaf of the matrix plants were colected for the extration of the DNA. It was built five library enriched of microsatellite sequencies, using probes (TCA10, (TC13, (GATA4, (CAC10 e (TGAG8.It was possible the development of the primers only in the library that has utilized the probe (TCA10. This probe allowed the design of 32 primer pairs. From these, 31 presented pattern of unique band in agarose Metaphor and in acrilamide. For primer S36 were observed 2 bands, but with no polymorphism to differentiation in the sexual form at papaya tree culture. However, these primers can be tested, in the futures, in the investigation of the others features in segregated populations of this specie and the related species, germoplasm analysis, cultivars identification, parent evolution and molecular markers for the assisted plant breeding programs.Em áreas experimentais das Fazendas de Ensino e Pesquisa da UNESP/Campus de Ilha Solteira e Jaboticabal foram selecionadas e marcadas 20 plantas hermafroditas e 20 femininas dos cultivares Sunrise Solo, Improved Sunrise Solo cv.72/12 e Baixinho de Santa Amália. As sementes provenientes dos frutos selecionados foram plantadas para analisar-se a eficiência da autofecundação e a freqüência dos sexos nas progênies. Posteriormente, amostras de tecido foliar jovem das plantas matrizes foram coletadas para a extração de DNA. Foram construídas cinco bibliotecas enriquecidas de seqüências microsatélites, utilizando-se as sondas (TCA10, (TC13, (GATA4, (CAC10 e (TGAG8. Foi possível o desenvolvimento de primers somente com a biblioteca que utilizou a sonda (TCA10 . Esta permitiu o desenho de 32 pares de primers. Destes, 31 apresentaram padrão de banda única em agarose Metaphor e em acrilamida. Para o primer S36 foram observadas 2 bandas, mas sem polimorfismo para diferenciação da forma sexual na cultura do mamoeiro. No entanto, estes primers poderão ser testados na investigação de outras características em populações segregantes desta espécie e de espécies afins, análises de germoplasma, identificação de cultivares, evolução parental e marcas em melhoramento assistido.

Silvia Correa Santos

2003-08-01

322

Nutrição mineral do mamoeiro(Carica papaya L.): IV - desenvolvimento dos frutos e exportação de nutrientes através da colheita / Mineral nutrition of papaya tree (Carica papaya L.): IV - fruit development and nutrient exportation by harvesting  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os propósitos deste trabalho foram: avaliar o desenvolvimento do fruto do mamoeiro (Carica papaya L.), determinar as variações das concentrações dos nutrientes durante seu crescimento e calcular as quantidades de nutrientes exportados pela colheita dos frutos. Dentre os resultados obtidos constatou- [...] se que, as quantidades de nutrientes exportadas através da colheita, por tonelada de frutos foram: N-1.770g- P - 220 g; K-2.120 g; Ca-350 g; Mg - 180 g; S-200g: B-989 mg; Cu-130 mg; Fe-3.364 mg; Mn -1.847 mg; Mo-8 mg e Zn-1.385 mg. Abstract in english The present research was set out under field conditions in "Presidente Medici" Experimental Statiom, at Botucatu county, São Paulo, Brazil, on a soil classified as Paleudalf and a climate classified as Cf.b.. The purposes were to follow papaya fruit development and to determine the variations in fru [...] it nutrient concentration during growth, as well as to calculate total exported nutrients by fruits. It was concluded that nutrients exportation by tons of harvested fruit was: N - 1.770 g; P - 200 g; K 2.120 g; Ca -350 g; Mg - 180 g; S - 200 g; B - 989 mg; Cu - 300 mg; Fe -3,364 mg; Mh - 1,847 mg; Mo - 8 mg; and, Zn - 1,385 mg.

Rubens José Pietsch, Cunha; Henrique Paulo, Haag.

323

First records of two mealybug species in Brazil and new potential pests of papaya and coffee.  

Science.gov (United States)

Five mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) plant pest species: Dysmicoccus grassii (Leonardi), Ferrisia malvastra (McDaniel), Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell), Phenacoccus tucumanus Granara de Willink, and Pseudococcus elisae Borchsenius are recorded for the first time in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. These are the first records of D. grassii in Brazil, from papaya (Carica papaya, Caricaceae), and from coffee (Coffea canephora, Rubiaceae). Ferrisia malvastra is also newly recorded in Brazil, where it was found on Bidens pilosa (Asteraceae). Ferrisia virgata was collected from an unidentified weed and Phenacoccus tucumanus from Citrus sp. (Rutaceae). Plotococcus capixaba Kondo was found on pitanga ( Eugenia cf. pitanga, Myrtaceae) and Pseudococcus elisae on Coffea canephora , which are new host records for these mealybugs. PMID:19537975

Culik, Mark P; Martins, David dos Santos; Gullan, Penny J

2006-01-01

324

The effect of gamma radiation on the peroxides activity, colour and ascorbic acid content of papaya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The activity of peroxidase enzyme increases during ripening with external colour used as a maturity index. An experiment indicated that 200 Krad dose level was most effective in inhibiting any increase in peroxidase activity when papaya was stored at room temperature. The doses of 25, 50 and 100 Krad level at least double the shelf life of fruit with 100 Krad was the most effective when kept in the cold. The development of yellow colour and synthesis of vitamin C is not effected. So, this preliminary study indicates that gamma radiation prolongs the shelf life of papaya when stored at cold or room temperature due to the inhibiting of the ripening process. It is also suggested that treatment of fungicides combined with gamma radiation might have an additive effect on shelf life

1977-01-01

325

Effects of irradiation on the organoleptic quality and ripening process of papaya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Papaya variety Eksotika harvested at stage 2 of maturity (green skin with a tinge of yellow) were cleaned, air dried and exposed to irradiation at lower doses i.e. 250, 500, 750, 1000 Gray and then were kept at 20 deg. C for up to 9 days or until ripe. Sensory evaluation was carried out the storage period in order to determine effects of radiation on organoleptic quality and ripening process. About 15-24 experienced panelists were involved in the sensory evaluation. It was found that effect on the organoleptic quality of fruit irradiated with dose at 1000 Gray was unacceptable. Nevertheless, the quality was very much less affected by irradiation at 750 Gray or lower. In general the irradiated papaya ripened earlier than the control where the skin colour change by turning from green to 100% yellow but gives harder texture. Freckles on skin surface during ripening were reduced by irradiation

1992-01-01

326

Effect of the potassium permanganate during papaya fruit ripening: Ethylene production  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of potassium permanganate (KMnO4) on the ripening process of papaya fruits by monitoring the ethylene emission rates is reported. The ethylene emission was monitored by a photoacoustic spectrometer. Two experimental conditions were applied, being one of them just putting the fruit alone inside the sampling chamber and the second, modifying the atmosphere by the presence of KMnO4. The use of the ethylene absorber reduces the autocatalytic process of ethylene during papaya fruit ripening. For 20 g of KMnO4 the maximal intensity of the ethylene emission decreases by a factor two. Using the same amount of KMnO4, a reduction of about 2.2% in the concentration of ethylene for a mixture of 1ppmv of ethylene in synthetic air was observed.

Corrêa, S. F.; Filho, M. B.; da Silva, M. G.; Oliveira, J. G.; Aroucha, E. M. M.; Silva, R. F.; Pereira, M. G.; Vargas, H.

2005-06-01

327

Induction of functional sterility in male rats by low dose Carica papaya seed extract treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

The result revealed that a short term administration of an aqueous extract of Carica papaya seed manifested an androgen deprived effect on the target organs and thereby caused antifertility effect in adult male albino rats. The complete loss of fertility is attributed to decline in sperm motility and alteration in their morphology as well as to reduced contractile response of the vas deferens. The androgen deprived effect of the extract led to slight alteration in the histoarchitecture and weight of the reproductive organs, mainly cauda and distal vas deferens which has been related to their greater androgen sensitivity in comparison to the other target organs and or their greatly diminished target organ response to testosterone or its metabolites. The data revealed that functional sterility could be induced in male rats by papaya extract treatment, which promises to be a potential male contraceptive. PMID:6675389

Chinoy, N J; George, S M

1983-01-01

328

Antifertility investigations on the crude chloroform extract of Carica papaya Linn. seeds in male albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Crude chloroform extract of C. papaya seeds (5 mg/animal/day, po, for 20, 40 and 60 days) was investigated for contraceptive efficacy and related side effects in male albino rats. The crude extract reduced fertility to zero per cent by 40 to 60 days of treatment. Suppression of cauda epididymal sperm motility was the most pronounced effect of the drug administration. Scanning electron microscopic observations revealed treatment induced abnormalities in sperms. Cauda epididymal and testicular sperm counts decreased following treatment. Clinical parameters did not show any alterations. Results suggest that the contraceptive effects of chloroform extract of papaya seeds are mainly post-testicular in nature without influencing toxicological profile and libido of the animals. PMID:1293029

Lohiya, N K; Goyal, R B

1992-11-01

329

Effects of papaya seeds extract on the sperm characteristics of dogs.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of chloroform extracts from seeds of the papaya plant (Carica papaya) on the spermatic characteristics of dogs was evaluated at doses of 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg, Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Structural and ultrastructural changes in sperm cells and testicular parenchyma were also evaluated, and possible side effects were noted. Significant reductions in sperm concentration and motility were observed starting from Days 60 and 75, respectively, in all treated groups (Pextract occurred in all treated groups independently of the extract concentration. Alteration of the epididymal environment may reduce the motility of sperm cells, considering that their structure was normal. Sperm characteristics in treated animals were considered to be similar to those of sub-fertile dogs. However, these effects may be temporary, and dogs may recover normal sperm characteristics when the extract is withdrawn. PMID:22030338

Ortega-Pacheco, Antonio; Jimenez-Coello, Matilde; Acosta-Viana, Karla Y; Guzman-Marin, Eugenia; Gutierrez-Blanco, Eduardo; Luna-Flores, Wendy S; Zavala-Sanchez, Miguel A; Gonzalez-Robles, Arturo; Perez-Gutierrez, Maria S

2011-11-01

330

Effects of crude aqueous extract of Carica papaya seeds in male albino mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of an aqueous extract of Carica papaya seeds (5 mg/kg body/day im and 20 mg/kg body wt/day oral) were investigated in male mice treated for 60 days. Reversibility studies were also carried out to elucidate if any induced effects were transient. The aqueous extract did not manifest any estrogenic effects in male mice, and LD50 studies indicated its nontoxic nature. The body weight or the weights of reproductive organs, kidney, and adrenal were not affected, indicating that the extract did not promote body weight gain through obesity or water retention. The serum SGOT, SGPT, protein, and cholesterol levels were also within the normal range in the extract-treated mice, suggesting that the extract does not influence liver function or cholesterol and protein metabolism. These data suggest that the aqueous extracts of papaya seeds is safe and could serve as an effective male contraceptive in rodents. PMID:8186628

Chinoy, N J; D'Souza, J M; Padman, P

1994-01-01

331

Phytochemistry and heamatological potential of ethanol seed leaf and pulp extracts of Carica papaya (Linn.).  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was aimed at qualitative evaluation of the ethanol seed, leaf and pulp extracts of C. papaya for bioactive compounds and also to investigate their effect on the haematology in male albino rats. A 3 x 4 factorial experimental layout using randomized complete design was adopted. Results show that the phytochemicals found in seed, leaf and pulp were almost the same but however, in varying proportions. Present result also revealed that there were significant effects (p extracts on the heamatology of the treated rats, which was blamed on the varying and different variants ofbioactive compounds found in the extracts they were administered with. Suggestively, C. papaya extracts could be used to enhance the production of selected blood parameters, taking issue of dosage into consideration. PMID:21902066

Ikpeme, E V; Ekaluo, U B; Kooffreh, M E; Udensi, O

2011-03-15

332

Enzymatic wound debridement; role of papaya in the management of post cesarean gaped wounds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background: Enzymatic wound debridement is an emerging concept in facilitating the wound healing process. Papaya has de-sloughing, antibacterial and wound healing properties. It has been used in African countries since centuries for different medicinal pur-poses. Apart from anecdotal reports and few studies on chronic ulcers and burns, no planned studies are available to support its action in postoperative wound infection.Objectives: To compare efficacy and safety of papaya dressing with conventional wound dressing with povidone iodine in post cesarean section gaped wounds. Setting: Gynecology Unit 3, Sir Ganga Ram Hospital Lahore - Pakistan, over a period of six months(June 2012 to Nov 2012). Study Design: Randomized, quasi experimental stu-dy. Materials and Methods: The study sample included 60 patients with post cesarean section gaped wounds. The sample was divided into two groups; thirty patients as Group A or the study group received Papaya dressing and rest of thirty patients as Group B or the control group received Povidone iodine dressing. Wounds were thoroughly washed with saline and then mashed unripe papaya was spread over the whole area of wound in the study group and povidone iodine in the control group. Wounds were covered with sterile bandage for at least 48 hours in study group and 24 hours in the control group. The process was repeated till a clean base of wound with healthy granulation tis-sue was achieved suitable for secondary suture. The efficacy parameters studied were the duration of time needed to develop healthy granulation tissue and total duration of hospital stay which were compared bet-ween the two groups. Safety factors studied were the adverse effects of medications used in the study. Results: Out of 1200 cesarean sections done during study period, sixty (5%) were gaped in the post-operative period. Out of 60, 55 (90%) were emergency and only 5 (10%) were elective cesarean sections. All the sixty patients with postoperative gaped wounds were included in the study, of which 30 patients received Papaya and 30 received Povidone iodine dressing. Time required to induce healthy granulation tissue was significantly shorter in the papaya group as compared to povidone iodine group (3.4 +- 0.4 days versus 7.2 +- 0.2 days).Similarly the duration of hospital stay was also short in the study as compared to control group i.e. 11.6 +- 1.2 days and 16.8 +- 1.4 days respectively. The side effects of medications used in study (papaya and povidone iodine) like local irritation and hyper-sensitivity reactions were minor and not significally different in both groups. Conclusion: Papaya dressing is effective, safe, widely available and cost effective for wound healing in post-operative infected gaped wounds. (author)

2012-01-01

333

Quality of Guava and Papaya Fruit Pulp as Influenced by Blending Ratio and Storage Period  

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Full Text Available Guava and papaya are the most widely grown commercial fruits of central India. Both the fruits are nutritive and may be used for processing. The analysis of organoleptic characters (i.e., colour, flavour, texture, taste and overall acceptability and qualitative characters (i.e., TSS, pH, acidity, ascorbic acid content of guava and papaya fruits was conducted on fresh fruit, prepared pulp and mixed pulp. During the storage of fruit pulp at low temperature (6±1°C, the decrease in overall acceptability of both the pulp was observed with increase in storage period. However, blending of both the pulp in different ratios influenced the organoleptic characters as well as the qualitative characters of the blended pulp.

Prabhat K. Nema

2011-01-01

334

Studies on Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (Am. Fungi on Mineral Nutrition of Carica papaya L.  

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Full Text Available Experiment was conducted to study the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on mineral nutrition of Carica papaya var. Surya. The experiment comprised of un-inoculated seedlings, seedlings inoculated with Glomus intraradices Schenck & Smith, seedlings inoculated with Glomus mosseae [(Nicol. & Gerd. Gerd. & Trappe] and seedlings inoculated with mixed inoculum [Glomus intraradices (Schenck & Smith + Glomus mosseae (Nicol. & Gerd. Gerd. & Trappe]. Studies revealed that total potassium and total phosphorus content of mycorrhizal leaf petiole was higher in inoculated plants as compared to controls and varied significantly within the treatments. Glomus mosseae was the most effective species of AM fungi, in influencing mineral nutrition of papaya followed by mixed inoculum (GI +GM and Glomus intraradices respectively.

Bernard Felinov RODRIGUES

2009-06-01

335

AMELIORATION OF GENOTOXICITY BY PAPAYA EXTRACT INDUCED BY ARSENIC CONTAMINATED DRINKING WATER  

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Full Text Available Arsenic is an established genotoxic carcinogen in human. Arsenic trioxide (0.04mg/animal when administeredorally daily to albino swiss mice for 15 continuous days, increased the incidence of abnormalities to 30.6% inmeiotic metaphase chromosome, 5.88% in the gross morphology of sperm head and decreased the sperm countper unit volume of caput epididymal suspension to 64.16 in comparison to the control. The concurrent treatmentof papaya fruit extract and arsenic trioxide significantly decreased the abnormalities to19.6% in meioticchromosome, 4.16% in the sperm head morphology and increased the mean count of sperm to 82.28. Theincrease in abnormality of meiotic chromosome as well as abnormality in gross morphology of the sperm headand decrease in sperm count, as observed upon arsenic trioxide treatment, were ameliorated by the aqueouspapaya fruit extract. Therefore, it is suggested that the papaya fruit extract may reduce the risk of arsenic-inducedgenotoxicity.

DHARMSHILA KUMARI

2013-01-01

336

Studies on physiologically active root distribution and appropriate method of fertilizer application using isotopic techniques in two varieties of papaya (Carica papaya) during pre-bearing stage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Coorg Honey Dew and Surya varieties of papaya aged 10 weeks, the abundance of active roots at 10 cm depth decreased during 20 to 100 days after injection of carrier-free 32P from 77% to 62% in the former and from 89% to 47% in the latter. Bulk of the active roots (85-65%) resided between 10 to 50 cm radial distance. While the phosphorus derived from fertilizer (Pdff) 32P-labelled superphosphate varied from 0.72 to 10.27%, placement between 10 and 40 cm radial distance was appropriate. (author)

1999-01-01

337

Efecto del etileno sobre el ACC y ACC oxidasa en la maduración de papaya 'maradol' / Ethylene effect on ACC content and ACC oxidase during ripening of 'maradol' papaya  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Frutos de papaya 'Maradol' (Carica papaya L.) fueron tratados con etileno en aire sintético (0, 100, 300 y 500 µL L-1) en contenedores de fibra de vidrio a diferentes tiempos de exposición (8, 16 y 24 h). Después del tratamiento, los frutos fueron transferidos para su maduración a temperatura ambien [...] te (25 °C). Los análisis efectuados en cada tratamiento fueron: firmeza, azúcares reductores, sólidos solubles, acidez titulable, color de cascara y pulpa (Hue), velocidad de producción de etileno (VPE), contenido de ácido 1-aminociclopropano-1-carboxílico (ACC) y actividad de la enzima formadora de etileno (ACC oxidasa). Los resultados indicaron que el primer cambio notable fue el color en la cascara (amarillo) y en la pulpa (naranja), típicos en un fruto listo para el consumo. Los frutos expuestos a 500 µL L-1 de etileno por 16 y 24 h mostraron un pico climatérico un día después del tratamiento, mientras que los frutos expuestos por solamente 8 h mostraron su pico climatérico 2 d después de la exposición al etileno. Las papayas expuestas a 500 µL L-1 de etileno por 16 y 24 h produjeron bajos valores de Hue en menos tiempo que el testigo, y su contenido de ACC aumentó a 2.7 nmol g-1 h-1, la actividad de la ACC oxidasa a 3 nL g-1 h-1, y la velocidad de producción de etileno (VPE) a 24 nL g-1 h-1. Estas condiciones permitieron que se alcanzaran valores de firmeza de 5.2 kgf cm-2 y 12 % de sólidos solubles a los 6 d a 25 °C. El contenido de azúcares reductores, valores de pH y la acidez no mostraron diferencias significativas (P > 0.05) entre tratamientos. Los frutos testigo alcanzaron valores similares después de 8 d de maduración directa. Los resultados sugieren que es posible acelerar la maduración de papaya 'Maradol' de 8 a 3 d por exposición a atmósferas con etileno. Abstract in english 'Maradol' papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruits were subjected to atmospheres containing certified mixtures of synthetic air and ethylene (0, 100, 300 and 500 µL L-1) in fiberglass containers for different periods (8, 16 and 24 h). After exposure, fruits were transferred to ambient conditions (25 °C) for [...] ripening. The analyses performed on each treatment were: firmness, soluble solids content, reducing sugars content, titratable acidity, peel and flesh color (Hue), ethylene production rate (EPR), 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) content and ethylene-forming enzyme (ACC oxidadese) activity. Results showed that the first noticeable change in fruits was the yellow and red color turning in peel and flesh respectively, both typical of a fully ripe and ready-to-eat-papaya fruit. Fruits exposed to 500 µL L-1 of ethylene for 16 and 24 h showed a climacteric peak one day after treatment, while fruits exposed for only 8 h displayed their climacteric peak 2 d after ethy-lene exposure. Papayas treated for 16 and 24 h developed very low Hue values in a shorter time then the control, and their ACC content increased to 2.7 nmol g-1 h-1. ACC oxidase activity also increased to 3 nL g-1 h-1, and EPR reached 24 nL g-1 h-1. This set of conditions allowed fruits to reach firmness values of 5.2 kgf cm-2 and 12 % of soluble solids after 6 d at 25 °C. Reducing sugars content and percent age of titratable acidity were not different (P > 0.05) between treatments. Similar values were found in control fruits after 8 d at normal ripening conditions. Results suggest that it is possible to shorten ripening of 'Maradol' papaya fruit from 8 to 3 d after application of exogenous ethylene.

Javier De la, Cruz; Gilber, Vela; Lidia, Dorantes; Hugo S., García.

338

Fitotoxicidade de fungicidas, acaricidas e inseticidas sobre o mamoeiro (Carica papaya L.) cultivar sunrise solo improved line 72/12 / Toxic effects of pesticides products on papaya plant (Carica papaya L.) cv. sunrise solo improved line 72/12  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Estudaram-se os efeitos fitotóxicos de fungicidas, acaricidas e inseticidas e algumas associações entre eles, em plantas de mamoeiros (Carica papaya L.) cv. Sunrise Solo Improved Line 72/12, em condições de verão, no município de São Mateus - ES, localizado na região produtora do Estado. O experimen [...] to foi arranjado em delineamento de blocos casualizados, com 4 repetições e 03 plantas úteis por parcela experimental. Foram utilizados os seguintes produtos, com as respectivas doses, para cada 100 l de água: abamectin (Vertimec 18 CE - 50 ml); dicofol + tetradiphon (Carbax - 200 ml), fenbutatin oxide (Torque 500 SC - 60 ml); mancozeb (Dithane PM - 200g); oxicloreto de cobre (Reconil - 400g) e thiabendazole (Tecto 450 - 100ml). Analisou-se a fitotoxicidade dos produtos em relação à altura da planta, nº de folhas, número de flores e frutos ; diâmetro do caule e queimaduras ou injúrias foliares. As medições e contagens foram feitas um dia antes das pulverizações, 15 e 30 dias após. Constatou-se que o Vertimec 18 CE, associado ao Reconil ou ao Tecto 450, ocasionou leves injúrias foliares, detectadas aos 15 dias após as pulverizações, que se tornaram praticamente imperceptíveis, aos 30 dias após as pulverizações; e que Dithane PM, Reconil, Tecto 450, Carbax, Torque 500 SC, Dithane PM + Carbax, Dithane PM + Torque 500 SC, Dithane PM + Vertimec 18 CE, Reconil + Carbax, Reconil + Torque 500 SC, Tecto 450 + Carbax e, Tecto 450 + + Torque 500 SC não interferiram nos parâmetros de desenvolvimento e de produção estudados, bem como não causaram injúrias ou queimaduras nas folhas dos mamoeiros. Abstract in english In this work was studied the phytotoxic effect of inseticides, acaricides and fungicides alone and in combination, on papaya plants (Carica papaya L.); cv. Sunrise Solo Improved Line 72/12, under field conditions. The experiment were conducted in a farm, located at São Mateus county, the most import [...] ant papaya region in the State of Espírito Santo.The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with four replications, with three plants by plot. The products with their respective dose in a volume of 100 l H2O were: abamectin (Vertimec 18 CE - 50 ml); dicofol + tetradifon (Carbax - 200 ml); fenbutatin oxide (Torque 500 SC - 60 ml); mancozeb (Dithane PM - 200g).; cuprix oxychloride (Reconil 400g) and thiabendazole (Tecto 450 - 100ml). Plants were evaluated for plant high, number of leaves, flowers and fruits, and extension of leaf injury, one day before, 15 and 30 days after spray. Vertimec 18 CE in combination with Reconil or Tecto 450, caused light leaf injuries, observed only15 days after spraying. These plants recovered from leaf injury and 30 days later, no leaf lesion was observed. Dithane PM, Reconil, Tecto 450, Carbax, Torque 500 SC, Dithane PM + Carbax , Dithane PM + Torque 500 SC, Dithane PM + Vertimec 18 CE, Reconil + Carbax, Reconil + Torque 500 SC, Tecto 450 + Carbax and Tecto 450 + Torque 500 SC, did not affected plant growth and yield studied. No leaf burns injury were caused in papaya plants.

Alcílio, Vieira; Carlos, Ruggiero; Sérgio Lucio David, Marin.

339

Uso de esterco associado à adubação mineral na produção de mudas de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L. The use of manure associated with mineral fertilization in papaya (Carica papaya L. seedling production  

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Full Text Available Na composição do substrato para produção de mudas de mamoeiro, recomenda-se o uso de adubação orgânica, que traz como vantagens a melhoria das características físicas, químicas e biológicas do solo, criando um ambiente favorável ao desenvolvimento inicial das mudas, bem como boa resposta do mamoeiro. Os materiais orgânicos desempenham ainda um importante papel na nutrição das plantas como fornecedores de nutrientes. Contudo, observa-se que existe uma grande variação nas recomendações e quase sempre a adubação orgânica está associada à adubação mineral. Neste contexto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi o de verificar os efeitos do uso de esterco de curral associado ou não à adubação mineral no substrato sobre a formação de mudas de mamoeiro. O Experimento foi conduzido na FEP/UNESP/Câmpus de Ilha Solteira-SP. O delineamento utilizado foi em blocos, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas, sendo parcelas as cultivares e subparcelas os substratos. Cada parcela com 5 repetições e 10 plantas úteis por subparcela. Para a comparação das médias, utilizou-se o teste de Tukey. Com base nos resultados obtidos, pode-se concluir que: a Na formação das mudas de mamoeiro, o esterco de curral pode ser utilizado sem a necessidade de adubação mineral com o superfosfato simples e o cloreto de potássio; b O esterco de curral foi capaz de fornecer às mudas de mamoeiro os nutrientes N, P, K, Ca, Mg e Cu, necessários para seu desenvolvimento até o transplantio para o campo.The use of organic fertilization is recommended to be added to the substrate for papaya seedling production, as it enhances the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the soil, creating a favorable environment for the initial development of the plants, which results in better plant growth. The organic matter has also the important role of providing nutrients to the plants. However, there is great variation in the recommendations, and in most cases organic fertilization is associated with mineral supplementation. The objective of this research was to verify the effects of the use of corral manure, associated or not with mineral fertilization, added to the papaya seedling substrate. The experiment was deployed at the Teaching and Research Farm of the College of Engineering of Ilha Solteira, UNESP, in Ilha Solteira, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The design was set in blocks, in split plots, where papaya cultivars were the whole unit and substrates the subunit treatments. Each unit with 5 replications and the subunit composed of 10 plants each. Means were separated by Tukey test. Results indicated that: a papaya seedling production the corral manure can be used without supplementation of simple superphosphate and potassium chloride, b corral manure alone supplied nutrients N, P, K, Ca, Mg and Cu to the papaya seedlings until transplanted to the field.

Regina Célia Faria Simão Canesin

2006-12-01

340

An analysis of the performance of chilean aquacultural exports. (1995-2005) / Análise do comportamento das exportações aqüícolas chilenas (1995-2005) / Análisis del comportamiento de las exportaciones acuícolas chilenas (1995-2005)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: English Abstract in portuguese As políticas cambiárias e de livre mercado introduzidas pelos últimos governos do Chile com o objetivo expresso de promover as exportações de produtos tradicionais e não tradicionais, têm tido como conseqüência, em particular, um relativo auge da aqüicultura. O cultivo do salmão é de renome, e expor [...] tações menos conhecidas deste setor têm uma importância cada vez maior no comportamento global da economia chilena. O objetivo deste artigo é a análise do comportamento das exportações aqüícolas chilenas para o período 1995-2005, como complemento de um trabalho anterior sobre as exportações agrícolas chilenas. Analisou-se o comportamento de vários indicadores de especialização (vantagem comparativa revelada e contribuição à balança comercial), estrutura de comercio (participação da exportação dos produtos selecionados no total das exportações) e competitividade (índices de participação setorial e de quota de mercado) em cada categoria exportada. Onze categorias do Sistema Harmonizado foram reduzidas a seis: salmão, filete de peixe, algas, ostras, mexilhões e invertebrados aquáticos. Além disso, se analisou o comportamento do principal país exportador e competidor de Chile em cada categoria selecionada. Os resultados permitem concluir que, exceções aparte, as exportações aqüícolas tanto de Chile como de seus principais competidores contam com um relativamente alto grau de especialização. Também mostram tendências na competitividade que podem ajudar a tomar medidas corretivas onde necessárias. Estes resultados podem ser úteis para os responsáveis na implementação de políticas com beneficio para o sector e para a economia em geral. Abstract in spanish Las políticas cambiarias y de libre mercado introducidas por los últimos gobiernos de Chile con el objetivo expreso de promover las exportaciones de productos tradicionales y no tradicionales, han tenido como consecuencia, en particular, un relativo auge de la acuicultura. El cultivo del salmón es d [...] e renombre, y exportaciones menos conocidas de este sector tienen una importancia cada vez mayor en el comportamiento global de la economía chilena. El objetivo de este artículo es el análisis del comportamiento de las exportaciones acuícolas chilenas para el periodo 1995-2005, como complemento de un trabajo anterior sobre las exportaciones agrícolas chilenas. Se analizó el comportamiento de varios indicadores de especialización (ventaja comparativa revelada y contribución a la balanza comercial), estructura de comercio (participación de la exportación de los productos seleccionados en el total de las exportaciones) y competitividad (índices de participación sectorial y de cuota de mercado) en cada categoría exportada. Once categorías del Sistema Armonizado fueron reducidas a seis: salmón, filete de pescado, algas, ostiones, mejillones e invertebrados acuáticos. Además, se analizó el comportamiento del principal país exportador y competidor de Chile en cada categoría seleccionada. Los resultados permiten concluir que, excepciones aparte, las exportaciones acuícolas tanto de Chile como de sus principales competidores gozan de un relativamente alto grado de especialización. También muestran tendencias en la competitividad que pueden ayudar a tomar medidas correctivas donde se necesite. Estos resultados pueden ser útiles a aquellos responsables de implementar políticas con beneficio para el sector y para la economía en general. Abstract in english Exchange rate and market liberalization policies put in place by recent Chilean administrations with the stated goal of promoting exports in both traditional and non-traditional sectors have resulted in a relative boom for the aquacultural activities in particular. The farming of salmon is well know [...] n, and less traditional exports in this area are beginning to play a larger role in the performance of the Chilean economy as a whole. This paper’s objective is

Cristian, Morales; Ramón, Lacayo; Rodrigo, Sfeir.

 
 
 
 
341

Phenol induced by irradiation does not impair sensory quality of fenugreek and papaya  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of radiation processing on the sensory quality of fenugreek and papaya exposed to doses in the range of 2.5-10 kGy and 100 Gy-2.5 kGy respectively was investigated. Despite an increase in the content of phenol in the volatile oil of these food products overall sensory quality of the irradiated and control samples was not significantly affected by radiation processing.

Chatterjee, Suchandra; Variyar, Prasad S.; Sharma, Arun

2013-11-01

342

Caracterização anatômica de órgãos vegetativos do mamoeiro Anatomical characterization of vegetative organs of papaya plants  

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Full Text Available O mamoeiro (Carica papaya L. é uma planta cuja importância econômica cresceu bastante nos últimos anos, bem como os trabalhos científicos relacionados ao seu crescimento e à sua fisiologia. Infelizmente, foram realizados poucos trabalhos em relação à sua anatomia. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho é caracterizar anatomicamente plantas do mamoeiro em estádios iniciais do crescimento. Esses estudos são importantes porque podem ser utilizados, principalmente, para correlações com o crescimento e a fisiologia dessa planta. Após coletadas, amostras frescas de raiz, caule e folha foram seccionadas transversalmente à mão livre, e os cortes submetidos ao processo de coloração com safranina e azul de astra. Observou-se que a raiz apresenta estrutura hexarca e caracteriza-se como sendo não axial. A estrutura anatômica do caule, nas regiões mais maduras, assemelha-se à estrutura do pecíolo. A lâmina foliar apresenta epiderme uniestratificada com mesofilo dorsiventral, e os estômatos anomocíticos são observados na face abaxial.Papaya (Carica papaya L. is a plant whose economic importance and scientific studies related to its growth and its physiology have greatly increased in recent years. Unfortunately, few researches in relation to its anatomy were performed. Thus, it was aimed to characterize the anatomically papaya plants in the early stages of growth. These studies are important because they can be used, mainly, for correlations with the growth and the physiology of this plant. After collected, the anatomical cuts of fresh root, stem and leaf were manually performed and their visualization were made through a coloration process using safranine and astra blue. The root structure is hexarc and is characterized as non-axial. The anatomical structure of the stem is similar to petiole in the mature parts. Leaf blade showed an uniestratified epidermis with dorsiventral mesophyll and anomocytic stomata were observed in the leaf abaxial surface.

Cláudia Elena Carneiro

2009-06-01

343

Prospects and problems of irradiating papaya. A case study in Hawaii  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The United States Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) ban of ethylene dibromide (EDB) as a fruit fumigant has forced Hawaii's papaya industry to search for alternative treatments. Among various alternatives considered, irradiation process is the most efficacious because fruits can be sorted, packaged, chilled and conveyed to an irradiator for low-dose treatments (0.26 kGy for disinfestation) before shipment to export markets. The papaya industry in Hawaii, however, has not assigned a high priority to the irradiation process. Instead, the industry opted for the double-dip hot water treatment which was rushed to become an USDA-approved procedure shortly before 1 September 1984. Three major concerns expressed by the papaya industry about the irradiation process as a replacement for chemical fumigation are: (1) Capital investment; (2) Logistics of irradiation processing and fruit transport; and (3) Consumer acceptance. The outlook for radiation disinfestation of Hawaii-grown papaya is quite good in spite of these concerns expressed by the industry. Some packers are beginning to feel that there are more advantages and benefits in adopting this process than the disadvantage of negative publicity about nuclear technology. With the availability of irradiation, the fruit and vegetable industry in Hawaii could be expanded by increased production and sales of new or existing crops. A worthwhile task ahead would be for the food industry, government agencies and researchers to join forces in conducting an effective consumer education programme by assuring the public that irradiated foods are safe. Concurrently, certain segments of the food industry should consider and prepare for the processing and marketing of irradiated foods. (author)

1985-03-04

344

Control of papaya fruits anthracnose by essential oil of Ricinus communis  

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The aim of this work was to investigate the potential of castor oil for the control of papaya diseases caused by the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and the bacterium Pseudomonas caricapapayae. The treatment with 1% castor oil did not significantly affect the fungal growth. The effectiveness of castor oil for the control of anthracnose was shown when 5% and 10% (v/v) were used in the assays resulting in reduced mycelial growth. Fungal sporulation was strongly inhibited at 10% (v/v) conc...

2012-01-01

345

Dynamic transposable element accumulation in the nascent sex chromosomes of papaya  

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From their inception, Y chromosomes in plants and animals are subjected to the powerful effects of Müller’s ratchet, a process spurred by suppression of recombination that results in a rapid accumulation of mutations and repetitive elements. These mutations eventually lead to gene loss and degeneration of the Y chromosome. Y chromosomes in mammals are ancient, whereas most sex chromosomes in plants and many in insects and fish evolved recently. Sex type in papaya is controlled by a pair of...

Vanburen, Robert; Ming, Ray

2013-01-01

346

Characterization of benzyl isothiocyanate and phenyl acetonitrile from papayas by mass spectrometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two unidentified analytical responses in a papaya extract were structurally determined by mass spectrometry to be benzyl isothiocyanate and phenyl acetonitrile. Both these compounds have previously been shown to result from degradation of benzylglucosinolate that occurs naturally in the seeds of the fruit. Characterization by mass spectrometry has now provided a convenient mechanism to detect both these degradation compounds in extracts resulting from routine pesticide residue analysis. PMID:3391960

Cairns, T; Siegmund, E G; Stamp, J J; Jacobs, R M

1988-01-01

347

Ethanol Extract of Carica papaya Seeds Induces Reversible Contraception in Adult Male Wistar Rats  

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Full Text Available The quest for the development of an ideal male contraceptive has led to the discovery of the antifertility property of some species of C. papaya seed extracts. This study investigates the antifertility activity and reversibility of ethanol extract of C. papaya seeds in sexually matured male Wistar rats. 30 adult males and 60 female Wistar rats weighing between 180 and 220 g were used for the study. The male rats were randomly divided into 3 groups of 10 each. Group I which served as control were orally administered distilled water while groups II and III received 100 and 250 mg/kg/day of ethanol extract of C. papaya seeds respectively for a period of 90 days. 5 males from each group were subjected to fertility test before they were sacrificed to harvest the testes for histopathological analysis. The administration of the extract was discontinued for another 90 days period and the remaining 5 males in each group were subjected to fertility test before they were sacrificed to obtain the testes for histopathological analysis. The results showed normal pregnancy outcome in the females paired with the control group, reduced and zero pregnancy outcome in the females paired with the 100 and 250 mg/kg groups respectively after 90-day administration of the extract. After 90 days of discontinued administration of extract, normal pregnancy outcome were recorded in both the control and treated groups. The result of the histopathological analysis showed a moderate and highly depleted germinal epithelium in the 100 and 250 mg/kg groups respectively after 90 day administration of the extract. The germinal epithelium seen in both the control and the experimental groups were normal after 90 days discontinued extract administration. The study concludes that ethanol extract of C. papaya seeds induces reversible male contraception in Wistar rats.

Wilson O. Hamman

2011-11-01

348

Toxicological effects of Carica papaya seed extract on spermatozoa of mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigations were carried out on epididymal spermatozoa of male mice to study the effects of high dosages (100, 200 and 300 mg kg(-1) bwt) of aqueous Carica papaya seed extract. The results revealed a significant dosedependent suppression of cauda epididymal sperm motility coinciding with a decrease in sperm count and viability. When tested 45 days after the withdrawal of treatment, complete normalcy was restored, proving that the induced effects were transient. PMID:17080407

Verma, R J; Nambiar, Deepa; Chinoy, N J

2006-01-01

349

Sensory acceptance of mixed nectar of papaya, passion fruit and acerola  

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Full Text Available Nectars are beverages formulated with the juice or pulp of one or more fruits, plus water and sugar in concentrations resulting in a "ready-to-drink" product. Recently, the market for such products has greatly expanded. Fruit mixtures present a series of advantages, such as the combination of different aromas and flavors and the sum of their nutritional components. The objective of this work was to develop a nectar based on papaya pulp and passion fruit juice, enriched with the vitamin C present in acerola pulp, optimizing the formulation using sensory consumer tests and a response surface statistical methodology. Eleven formulations were prepared using different concentrations of papaya pulp and passion fruit juice and sucrose, and maintaining the concentration of acerola pulp constant. The sensory tests were carried out with 22 non-trained panelists using a structured 9-point hedonic scale to evaluate overall acceptance. The acceptance means were submitted to regression analysis, by first calculating a polynomial quadratic equation. A predictive model was adjusted considering only those parameters where P < 0.05, and a response surface was generated. The overall acceptance of nectars of different formulations varied from 5 ("neither liked nor disliked" to more than 7 ("liked moderately", showing that some products can be considered adequate to consumers, like the nectar produced with 37.5% papaya pulp, 7.5% passion fruit juice, and 5.0% acerola pulp, added of 15% sucrose. A quadratic predictive overall acceptance model, with a regression coefficient of 0.97 was obtained. The sensory acceptance of nectars was positively affected by increases in the concentrations of papaya pulp and of sucrose. Thus, some products presented good sensory acceptance suggesting commercial potential.

Matsuura Fernando César Akira Urbano

2004-01-01

350

Phytochemical and Antifungal Profiles of the Seeds of Carica Papaya L.  

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Phytochemical investigation of the ethanolic extracts of the seeds of Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae) led to the isolation of 2,3,4-trihydroxytoluene (caricaphenyl triol) and glyceryl-1-(2’,3’,4’-trihydroxybenzoyl)-2,3-dioleate (papayaglyceride) as the new phytoconstituents along with the known components glyceryl-1-oleiyl-2,3-dilinoleiate, glyceryl-1-oleiyl-2,3-diarachidate, glyceryl-1-linoleiyl-2,3-distearate, carpaine, glyceryl-1,2-dipalmitate, glyceryl trimyristate, glyceryl tristeara...

Singh, Onkar; Ali, M.

2011-01-01

351

EVALUACIÓN DE TRES CULTIVARES DE PAPAYA DEL GRUPO SOLO BASADA EN CARACTERES DE CRECIMIENTO Y PRODUCTIVIDAD  

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Full Text Available La papaya (Carica papaya L. es uno de los frutales más importantes y ampliamente distribuidos en los países tropicales y subtropicales. Debido a la explotación monovarietal basada en el cultivar "Maradol" en Cuba, este cultivo está sujeto a serios riesgos. Para ello, la introducción, caracterización y el mantenimiento de nuevos cultivares en el germoplasma de esta especie constituye un factor primordial con fines de identificación y obtención de nuevos genotipos. En el presente trabajo se muestra el comportamiento de tres cultivares de papaya introducidos en el banco de germoplasma de este frutal perteneciente al Instituto de Investigaciones en Fruticultura Tropical. Los resultados indicaron que los cultivares 'BH-65' y 'Baixinho de Santa Amalia' mostraron diferencias significativas en el carácter altura de la planta con respecto al cultivar 'Sunset'. El número de hojas totales emitidas por año estuvo por encima de 100, lo que indica una buena adaptabilidad de los genotipos a las condiciones de nuestro ensayo. Los cultivares 'BH-65' y 'Baixinho de Santa Amalia' emitieron la primera flor a menor altura, carácter que se considera útil con fines productivos. De manera general, se apreció un crecimiento y desarrollo vegetativo favorable, así como una excelente productividad en los tres cultivares de papaya del grupo Solo, lo que representa un gran avance para el desarrollo de futuros programas de mejoramiento y su utilización con fines comerciales. La simple introducción de genotipos del grupo Solo al país puede promover una significativa expansión del cultivo y abrir futuras vías de comercialización de la fruta, debido a su gran aceptación en el mercado de exportación.

Maruchi Alonso

2008-01-01

352

Prevalencia de vaginosis bacteriana en trabajadoras sexuales chilenas / Prevalence of bacterial vaginosis in Chilean sex workers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Determinar la prevalencia de vaginosis bacteriana (VB) en trabajadoras sexuales chilenas y relacionar los hallazgos con variables sociodemográficas, sexuales y clínicas. MÉTODO: Se estudió una muestra de 379 trabajadoras sexuales que asistían para control a Unidades de Atención y Control d [...] e Salud Sexual de Chile. A todas se las entrevistó para obtener antecedentes sociodemográficos y sexuales, se les realizó evaluación clínica que incluyó características del flujo vaginal, pH y prueba de aminas, y se les tomó una muestra vaginal para tinción de Gram. Para el diagnóstico de VB se empleó el criterio de Nugent. Los datos fueron analizados con EPI-INFO 3.4.1 y BioStat, utilizándose un grado de significación de P Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (BV) in Chilean sex workers and relate the findings to sociodemographic, sexual, and clinical variables. METHODS: A sample of 379 sex workers seen in Chilean Sexual Health Monitoring and Care Units for check-ups was studied. All of them w [...] ere interviewed to obtain their sociodemographic and sexual history. A clinical examination was performed that included the characteristics of vaginal discharge, pH, and amine test. A vaginal sample was taken for Gram stain. The Nugent criteria were used for the diagnosis of BV. The data was analyzed with EPI-INFO 3.4.1 and BioStat, using a degree of significance of P

Gloria, Venegas; Gioconda, Boggiano; Erica, Castro.

353

EXILIO E INSILIO: REPRESENTACIONES POLÍTICAS Y SUJETOS ESCINDIDOS EN LA POESÍA CHILENA DE LOS SETENTA  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este artículo hace un recuento y un análisis de la poesía chilena que se produce dentro y fuera de Chile en los años setenta, con especial énfasis en la concepción del exilio y el insilio. Además de focalizarse en las problemáticas "exilio-insilio", su desarrollo y posterior integración, este trabaj [...] o analiza fundamentalmente las relaciones que se producen entre los poetas y su entorno a través de sus representaciones subjetivas en diferentes situaciones y lugares, especialmente urbanos. Tanto las ciudades del interior como las ciudades del exilio adquieren connotaciones represivas que inciden en las problemáticas de un sujeto escindido en los poemas. Abstract in english This article is an inventory and analysis of Chilean Poetry in the seventies, written in Chile and abroad, emphasizing the "exilio" and "insilio" concept. Apart from focusing on the "exilio-insilio " problem, its development and subsequent integration, this work analyzes the relationships between po [...] ets and their environment by means of subjective representations in different situations and places (especially urban). The cities of Chile, as well as foreign cities in the countries of exile, acquire repressive connotations, which influence the problems of the divided subject in this poetry.

Naín, Nómez.

354

Historia y escritura corporal en la poesía chilena y canadiense contemporánea  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El artículo establece un recorrido panorámico por las diferentes estrategias textuales que la poesía de mujeres chilena y canadiense ha utilizado desde fines del siglo XIX hasta fines del siglo XX. En el trabajo se analizan sus contextos específicos y sus diferencias geográficas y culturales, pero t [...] ambién se muestran ciertas bases comunes basadas en la relación escritura-cuerpo y en la construcción de sujetos que buscan instalar su historia personal y colectiva a partir de un discurso de ruptura y crítica Abstract in english This paper establishes a panoramic journey through different textual strategies that Chilean and Canadian women poets have used from the end of the Nineteenth Century up until the end of the Twentieth Century. Specific contexts and geographic and cultural differences are analysed, but we also show c [...] ertain common foundations related to writing-body relationships and subject construction that seek to install a personal and collective history through a rupturist and critical discourse

Naín, Nómez; Fernanda, Moraga.

355

Notas sobre ecocrítica y poesía chilena / Notes on ecocriticism and Chilean poetry  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se examinan algunas prácticas poéticas chilenas, caracterizadas por presentar visiones profundas de los sujetos humanos y la naturaleza. Se indaga en ellos tanto las relaciones de los sujetos con su medio y la presencia de una conciencia ecológica activa, como la plasmación discursiva de un imaginar [...] io vinculado a esa conciencia relacional: la plas-mación de vivencias de profunda integración del ser humano con el cosmos. Se indaga tanto los referentes ambientales como la articulación de elementos de la naturaleza en tanto expresión de los sujetos textuales. Abstract in english Certain Chilean poetics practices are examined, which present profound visions of human subjects and of nature. The inquiry focuses on both the subjects' relations with their environment, and the presence of an active ecological awareness, as well as the literary concretion of an imagery linked to t [...] hat relational awareness: the concretion of experiences of a profound integration of the human being with the cosmos. Environ-mental referents and the articulation of natural elements as expression of textual subjects are approached within the frame of globalization processes and the defense of regional cultural values.

Mauricio, Ostria González.

356

Regiones fronterizas y flujos culturales: La peruanidad en una región chilena  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El artículo discute las dinámicas culturales que articulan la zona fronteriza del norte de Chile (Arica) y sur peruano (Tacna). El argumento central es que se observa un creciente proceso de influencia de la cultura peruana en la ciudad de Arica, fenómeno que denominamos "la peruanidad de una región [...] chilena". Los factores que influyen tienen que ver con el impacto regional de la globalización; la prolongada crisis económica de Arica; el acelerado crecimiento económico del sur de Perú; el agotamiento del clásico enfoque de la geo-política, y la influencia de los nuevos programas educacionales. Abstract in english This article discusses the cultural dynamics that shape the border area in Northern Chile (Arica) and Southern Peru (Tacna). The main argument is the emergence of a growing influence of Peruvian culture in the city of Arica, which we label as ¨Peruvinization of a Chilean Region¨. The factors that in [...] fluence this process have to do with the regional impact of globalization, the prolonged economic crisis in Arica, the accelerated economic growth of Southern Peru, the outdating of the classical geopolitical approach, and the influence of new educational programs.

Juan, Podestá Arzubiaga.

357

Regiones fronterizas y flujos culturales: La peruanidad en una región chilena  

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Full Text Available El artículo discute las dinámicas culturales que articulan la zona fronteriza del norte de Chile (Arica y sur peruano (Tacna. El argumento central es que se observa un creciente proceso de influencia de la cultura peruana en la ciudad de Arica, fenómeno que denominamos "la peruanidad de una región chilena". Los factores que influyen tienen que ver con el impacto regional de la globalización; la prolongada crisis económica de Arica; el acelerado crecimiento económico del sur de Perú; el agotamiento del clásico enfoque de la geo-política, y la influencia de los nuevos programas educacionales.This article discusses the cultural dynamics that shape the border area in Northern Chile (Arica and Southern Peru (Tacna. The main argument is the emergence of a growing influence of Peruvian culture in the city of Arica, which we label as ¨Peruvinization of a Chilean Region¨. The factors that influence this process have to do with the regional impact of globalization, the prolonged economic crisis in Arica, the accelerated economic growth of Southern Peru, the outdating of the classical geopolitical approach, and the influence of new educational programs.

Juan Podestá Arzubiaga

2011-01-01

358

Screening of Antagonistic Bacteria for Biocontrol Activities on Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in Papaya  

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Full Text Available Of the 27 antagonistic bacteria isolated from the fructosphere of papaya and screened by dual and concomitant test, four isolates of bacteria (B23, B19, B04 and B15 had high antagonistic activities against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides of papaya. Using the Biolog system, isolates B23 and B19 were identified as Burkholderia cepacia and B04 and B15 as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Both B. cepacia and P. aeruginosa strongly inhibited the fungal growth by an average of 74.13 and 68.45%, respectively during in vitro screening on PDA medium. The bacteria also produced volatile as well as diffusible substances. Malformation of hyphae occurred in the presence of both bacteria. Hyphae were thickened, vacuolar and many swellings occurred in them or at the tips of hyphal strand. However, B. cepacia was found most efficacious biocontrol agent in this study. Total inhibition (100% in spore germination was noted in presence of B. cepacia at 24 h after treatment. Filter sterilized culture filtrate of B. cepacia also significantly inhibited the mycelial growth (59.2% and spore germination (100% of the test fungus, thus suggesting that an antibiotic substance (s may be produced by the bacterium. Therefore, in vitro activities of the B. cepacia against C. gloeosporioides of papaya in this study suggested that the bacterium can be an effective biological control agent.

M.A. Rahman

2007-01-01

359

Isolation of natural inhibitors of papain obtained from Carica papaya latex  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho apresenta novos dados sobre inibidores naturais de papaína. O látex fresco de frutos verdes de Carica papaya foi coletado pela manhã em plantações da região de Araraquara, SP, Brasil e imediatamente transportado ao laboratório em banho de gelo. Três frações com efeito inibitório da ati [...] vidade esterásica da papaína foram isoladas a partir do látex fresco, através de diálise, filtração em Sephadex G-25 e cromatografia em SP-Sephadex C-25. As frações isoladas identificadas como inibidores I e II, mostraram reação negativa à ninidrina; entretanto, a fração identificada como P-III mostrou reação positiva. Dados cinéticos revelaram inibição não-competitiva (inibidor I) e incompetitiva (inibidores II e P-III). Abstract in english Studies were carried out to natural papain inhibitor from papaya latex. Fresh latex from green fruits of Carica papaya was collected and immediately transported in ice bath to the lab, from which three fractions with inhibitor effect of esterase papain activity were isolated by latex dialysis, Sepha [...] dex G-25 gel filtration and ionic exchange chromatography in SP-Sephadex C-25. The isolated fractions, identified as inhibitors I and II, showed a negative reaction with ninhydrin; however, the fraction identified as P-III showed positive reaction with ninhydrin. Kinetics data showed non-competitive inhibition (inhibitor I) and uncompetitive (inhibitors II and P-III).

Rubens, Monti; Jonas, Contiero; Antonio José, Goulart.

360

Isolation of natural inhibitors of papain obtained from Carica papaya latex  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Studies were carried out to natural papain inhibitor from papaya latex. Fresh latex from green fruits of Carica papaya was collected and immediately transported in ice bath to the lab, from which three fractions with inhibitor effect of esterase papain activity were isolated by latex dialysis, Sephadex G-25 gel filtration and ionic exchange chromatography in SP-Sephadex C-25. The isolated fractions, identified as inhibitors I and II, showed a negative reaction with ninhydrin; however, the fraction identified as P-III showed positive reaction with ninhydrin. Kinetics data showed non-competitive inhibition (inhibitor I and uncompetitive (inhibitors II and P-III.Este trabalho apresenta novos dados sobre inibidores naturais de papaína. O látex fresco de frutos verdes de Carica papaya foi coletado pela manhã em plantações da região de Araraquara, SP, Brasil e imediatamente transportado ao laboratório em banho de gelo. Três frações com efeito inibitório da atividade esterásica da papaína foram isoladas a partir do látex fresco, através de diálise, filtração em Sephadex G-25 e cromatografia em SP-Sephadex C-25. As frações isoladas identificadas como inibidores I e II, mostraram reação negativa à ninidrina; entretanto, a fração identificada como P-III mostrou reação positiva. Dados cinéticos revelaram inibição não-competitiva (inibidor I e incompetitiva (inibidores II e P-III.

Rubens Monti

2004-09-01

 
 
 
 
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Estimación de las necesidades hídricas de la papaya utilizando la aproximación de los coeficientes culturales duales  

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Full Text Available Considerando el incremento de la actividad de riego en el cultivo de la papaya durante los últimos años, resulta de interés el conocimiento de los elementos técnicos y agronomicos necesarios para una adecuada programación del riego a partir de la estimación de las necesidades hidrícas del cultivo. Para esto se utilizo el modelo SIMDualKc el cual efectua el calculo de la evapotranspiración del cultivo (ETc y la programación del riego a partir de la metodología de los coeficientes culturales duales (Kc=Kcb+Ke. La investigación fue realizada en la Estación Experimental de Riego y Drenaje, situada en Alquízar, provincia La Habana, Cuba. Los experimentos fueron desarrollados entre el período marzo-noviembre 1997. Se utilizó la Papaya var. "Maradol roja". La calibración consistió en la búsqueda de los coeficientes culturales basales para las diferentes etapas de desarrollo del cultivo reduciendo al mínimo las diferencias entre los valores simulados y observados del contenido de humedad del suelo. Fue evaluada la bondad de ajuste de las predicciones del modelo, realizándose una serie de análisis estadísticos. Se puede concluir que el modelo puede ser utilizado para la generación de calendarios alternativos de riego destinados a mejorar el ahorro de agua y la productividad de la papaya en estas condiciones edafoclimáticas.

Geisy Heru00E1ndez

2012-01-01

362

Gamma irradiation as a quarantine treatment for carambola, papaya and mango  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Preliminary experiments carried out on the effects of irradiation on carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.), papaya (Carica papaya L.) and mango (Mangifera indica L.) with regard to fruit fly treatment, fruit injury and the physicochemical and organoleptic properties showed that irradiation can be successfully developed and should be investigated further as a quarantine treatment for these fruits. Emergence of normal adult fruit flies of the Dacus dorsalis complex did not occur when infested carambolas were treated at doses as low as 100 Gy. Carambola showed external symptoms of injury at irradiation doses in excess of 200 Gy. There appeared to be some reduction in sugar content at doses exceeding 100 Gy. Papaya, cv. ''Eksotika'', tolerated irradiation up to 300 Gy. Irradiation at this dose did not alter the ripening behaviour, nor did it cause any injury or alter the organoleptic properties of the fruit. An additional benefit was that doses above 250 Gy significantly reduced freckling of the fruit and enhanced its cosmetic value. ''Eksotika'' is an ideal candidate for quarantine treatment using gamma irradiation. Mango, cv. ''Harumanis'', tolerated irradiation fairly well. Exposure of fruit to doses of up to 750 Gy did not produce significant injury. (author). 13 refs, 2 figs, 17 tabs

1992-08-01

363

Foliar Spray of Humic Substances on Seedling Production of Papaya (Pawpaw  

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Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study the effect of humic substances on seedling production of papaya cv. Formosa. A completed randomized blocks design with five treatments (humic acid doses was adopted, with five repetitions of 10 seedlings each, with a total of 250 seedlings. The following humic substances doses studied were 0 (unsprayed, 7.5, 15, 22.5 and 30 mL m2 (0, 0.40, 0.80, 1.19 and 1.59 mL seedling-1, were sprayed at 15, 25 and 35 days after sowing. At the end of the experiment (45 days after sowing the following variables were recorded: (1 plant height; (2 stem diameter; (3 dry weight of shoots and roots; (4 root length; (5 root volume and (6 Leaf Chlorophyll. Thus, our studies demonstrate that: (1 humic substances sprayed positively affect aerial part and root system of papaya seedlings and (2 seedling quality of papaya are improved by humic acids foliar spray although further studies are need to obtain a dose recommendation.

F.G. Albano

2011-01-01

364

LEAF GAS EXCHANGE CHARACTERISTICS OF FOUR PAPAYA GENOTYPES DURING DIFFERENT STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT  

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Full Text Available In this research, was used four papaya (Carica papaya L. genotypes: three from the 'Solo ( Sunrise Solo TJ, Sunrise Solo 72/12 and Baixinho de Santa Amália group and one from the 'Formosa' group (Know-You 01. They were grown in plastic pots containing a sandy-clay-loam soil subjected to pH correction and fertilization, under greenhouse conditions. Throughout the experimental period plants were subjected to periodic irrigation to maintain the soil humitidy around field capacity. The experiment was conducted 73 days after sowing. In all genotypes, leaf gas exchange characteristics were determined. The net photosynthetic rate (A, mumol m-2 s-1 , stomatal conductance (g s mol m-2 s-1, leaf temperature (T I, 0C and intercellular carbon dioxide concentration (ci, muL L-1 on the 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th and 9th leaves from the plant apex were determined. No significant differences were observed for A, g s, c i, or Tl either among the leaves sampled from any of the genotypes. A was positively correlated with g s and in the other hand T I and g s were negatively correlated. The results suggest that, for 73 DAP, all the sampled papaya leaves functioned as sources of organs.

CAMPOSTRINI ELIEMAR

2001-01-01

365

Severity of papaya ringspot in different genotypes of the Solo group introduced in Cuba  

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Full Text Available The severity of Papaya ring-spot virus (PRSV-P induced symptoms was evaluated in five papaya´s genotypes fromthe Solo group introduced in Cuba. Under field conditions different organs of plants were samples by grading from1 to 5. Additional, evaluations regarding incubation period, number of infected plants and disease intensity wereevaluated under the greenhouse conditions. The intensity of symptoms varies according to experimental conditions.In the fields conditions `Sunset´, `Baixinho de Santa Amalia´ and `Golden´ showed most intensities symptoms, whilethe rest behaved as moderate. Under greenhouse conditions `BH-65´ and `Sunset´ developed strong symptoms,`Golden´ and `Baixinho de Santa Amalia´ were intermediate and `Sunrise Solo´ was the less affected. `Sunset´,`Sunrise Solo´ and `Golden´ showed the most severe affectations in the fruits. In the fields less severe symptomswere developed in the leaves than those in other parts of the plant, and under the greenhouse conditions. These arethe firsts results obtained in Cuba about this genotypes from the Solo group vs PRSV-P, revealing important resultsfor the genetic breeding programs and varieties diversifications studies of this fruit.

Douglas Rodríguez

2011-01-01

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Antifungal Activity in Ethanolic Extracts of Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol Leaves and Seeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bioactive compounds from vegetal sources are a potential source of natural antifungic. An ethanol extraction was used to obtain bioactive compounds from Ca