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Sample records for papaya chilena vasconcellea

  1. Papaya Lethal Yellowing Virus (PLYV) Infects Vasconcellea cauliflora

    Amaral, P.P.R.; Resende, de R.O.; Souza, M.T.

    2006-01-01

    Papaya lethal yellowing virus (PLYV) é um dos três vírus descritos infectando mamoeiros (Carica papaya L.) no Brasil. Vasconcellea cauliflora (Jacq.) A. DC., antes denominada de Carica cauliflora (Jacq.), é uma reconhecida fonte de resistência natural ao Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), causador da "Ma

  2. Deshidratación osmótica de la papaya chilena (Vasconcellea pubescens e influencia de la temperatura y concentración de la solución sobre la cinética de transferencia de materia Desidratação osmótica do mamão chileno (Vasconcellea pubescens e influência da temperatura e concentração da solução sobre a cinética de transferência de matéria

    Antonio Vega-Gálvez

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar la cinética de deshidratación osmótica de la papaya chilena (Vasconcellea pubescens, utilizando dos variables experimentales: la temperatura (30, 40, 50 °C y concentración (40, 50 y 60% de la solución osmótica. Se determinó la variación de masa total, masa de agua y masa de sólidos solubles y se modeló con las ecuaciones difusionales, además en esta investigación se consideró y utilizó una modificación de la ecuación propuesta por Biswal-Bozorgmehr. Estos modelos fueron evaluados por medio del coeficiente de regresión lineal, suma de errores cuadrados, raíz media de los errores cuadrados y Chi-cuadrado. Al comparar los valores experimentales con los calculados, se demostró que el modelo Biswal-Bozorgmehr modificado obtuvo mejor ajuste sobre la variación de masa de agua y sólidos solubles. Mediante la ecuación de Arrhenius se analizó el efecto de la temperatura sobre los parámetros cinéticos (Kw y Kss y difusividad efectiva de agua (Dwe y sólidos solubles (Dsse. De acuerdo al diseño factorial, se observó que la temperatura no influyó sobre la difusividad efectiva de agua y de sólidos, pero sí la concentración de la solución osmótica. La mejor condición de salida de agua y ganancia de sólidos solubles durante la deshidratación osmótica de la papaya chilena fue a 30 °C con una concentración del 60%.O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a cinética de desidratação osmótica do mamão chileno (Vasconcellea pubescens utilizando duas variáveis experimentais: temperatura (30, 40 e 50 °C e concentração (40, 50 e 60% da solução osmótica. Para este estudo, determinou-se a variação de massa total, de massa de água, de massa de sólidos solúveis, modeladas com as equações difusionais. Nesta investigação, também se considera e se usa uma modificação da equação proposta por Biswal-Bozorgmehr. Estes modelos foram avaliados através do coeficiente de regress

  3. Extraction Techniques for Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity Determination of Chilean Papaya (Vasconcellea pubescens) Fruit

    Elsa Uribe; Alvaro Delgadillo; Claudia Giovagnoli-Vicuña; Issis Quispe-Fuentes; Liliana Zura-Bravo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to assess and compare different extraction methods by using high hydrostatic pressure (HHPE), ultrasound (UE), agitation (AE), and their combinations for the extraction of bioactive compounds of Chilean papaya. Extract antioxidant capacity was evaluated by three methods (i.e., DPPH, FRAP, and Voltammetry) and phenolic compounds and vitamin C were determined by HPLC. Papaya sample extraction was performed by HHPE at 500 MPa for 10 min and UE and AE for 30 min, respecti...

  4. Papaya

    Papaya is a plant. The leaves are used to make medicine. Papaya is used for preventing and treating gastrointestinal tract ... of the lymphatic system caused by parasitic worms. Papaya contains a chemical called papain, which is commonly ...

  5. Intestinal obstruction due to Vasconcellea seeds: Report of three cases and literature review

    Montoya-González, Juliana; Vasco, Alejandra; Hoyos-Figueroa, Francisco; Osorio-Cadavid, Natalia; Marín-Agudelo, Alejandro; Jaramillo-Bustamante, Juan Camilo

    2015-01-01

    Vasconcellea spp., is a species of Andean papaya commonly cultivated in rural communities close to Medellín, Colombia. Due to the pleasant and sweet flavor of its fruits, children frequently ingest its seeds accidentally. After ingestion, the seeds are engaged in the colonic lumen and block the exit of stools, causing pain and bloating, and promoting bacterial translocation. Diagnosis is based on clinical history and rectal examination. Treatment depends on the degree of local and systemic in...

  6. Palynology of Carica and Vasconcellea (Caricaceae Palinología de Carica y Vasconcellea (Caricaceae

    Lagos Túlio César

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Palynology of Carica and Vasconcellea (Caricaceae. The pollen of C. papaya and agreements of Vasconcellea cauliflora, V. cundinamarcensis, V. crassipetala, V. goudotiana, V. x heilbornii var. chrysopetala, V. longiflora and V. sphaerocarpa collected in the Colombian Coffee Growing Zone, using the technique of acetolisis for optic microscopy and the fixation procedure with glutaraldehide, dehydration and ionization with gold-palade, for scanning electronic microscopy was described. The pollen grains were characterized using descriptors, which include the characters of taxonomic value for pollen identification, genetically determined. The most important are the number, position and character of the aperture (NPC and exine ornamentation and stratification. The pollen is of medium size for both genera, tricolporate, zonoaperturate, prolate-spheroid to subprolate, isopolar radial symmetry, tectate, dug, foveolate, with columelas. These characters have demonstrated a great contribution to the taxonomy of Caricaceae because the cluster analysis allowed distinguish very well the two genera.

    Se describe el polen de C. papaya y accesiones de Vasconcellea cauliflora, V. cundinamarcensis, V. crassipetala, V. goudotiana, V. x heilbornii var. chrysopetala, V. longiflora y V. sphaerocarpa recolectadas en la Zona Cafetera de Colombia, empleando la técnica de acetólisis para microscopía óptica y el procedimiento de fijación con glutaraldehído, deshidratación e ionización con oro paladio, para microscopía electrónica de barrido (MEB. Se caracterizaron los granos de polen por medio de una lista de descriptores que incluyeron los caracteres de valor taxonómico para identi

  7. Citogenética de especies de Vasconcellea (Caricaceae

    Creucí Maria Caetano

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Conocer aspectos básicos de la citogenética de las papayas de montaña o papayuelas, especies del género Vasconcellea (Caricaceae originarias de Ecuador y Colombia, fue el objetivo del trabajo. Botones florales se fijaron en etanol-acético 3:1 por 24h, luego se transfirieron a nueva solución y se almacenaron en frío. Los microsporocitos y los granos de polen se tiñieron con acetocarmín (1%. Se evaluaron las fases de meiosis y la viabilidad de polen para describir el comportamiento cromosómico. Se encontró que: 1 todas las seis especies estudiadas fueron diploides (2n=2x=18; 2 se describió el número cromosómico para V. sphaerocarpa, V. longiflora y V. palandensis (2n=18; 3 el grado de asimetría de los complementos cromosómicos indicó un proceso de evolución; 4 la presencia de numerosos NOR en V. sphaerocarpa está relacionada con los micronucleolos y corroboró el posible origen híbrido; y 5 V. cauliflora (42.98% y V. cundinamarcensis (47.93% presentaron la más baja viabilidad polínica.

  8. Intestinal obstruction due to Vasconcellea seeds: Report of three cases and literature review

    Montoya-González, Juliana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Vasconcellea spp., is a species of Andean papaya commonly cultivated in rural communities close to Medellín, Colombia. Due to the pleasant and sweet flavor of its fruits, children frequently ingest its seeds accidentally. After ingestion, the seeds are engaged in the colonic lumen and block the exit of stools, causing pain and bloating, and promoting bacterial translocation. Diagnosis is based on clinical history and rectal examination. Treatment depends on the degree of local and systemic involvement and includes disimpaction of rectal contents under general anesthesia and colonic washes with 0.9% saline solution. In severe cases derivative colostomy has been required. In the literature there are no reports of intestinal obstruction due to Vasconcellea seeds, possibly because it has been mistaken for seeds of the genus Carica. In this article, three cases treated at pediatric services in Medellín, Colombia, in 2012 and 2013 are described. We note that this is a rarely suspected disease, leading to late diagnosis and potential catastrophic consequences. It is important to educate people to prevent the ingestion of the seeds.

  9. Citogenética de especies de Vasconcellea (Caricaceae

    Caetano Creucí María

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Conocer aspectos básicos de la citogenética de las papayas de montaña o papayuelas, especies del género Vasconcellea (Caricaceae originarias de Ecuador y Colombia, fue el objetivo del trabajo. Botones florales se fijaron en etanol-acético 3:1 por 24h, luego se transfirieron a nueva solución y se almacenaron en frío. Los microsporocitos y los granos de polen se tiñieron con acetocarmín (1%. Se evaluaron las fases de meiosis y la viabilidad de polen para describir el comportamiento cromosómico. Se encontró que: 1 todas las seis especies estudiadas fueron diploides (2n=2x=18; 2 se describió el número cromosómico para V. sphaerocarpa, V. longiflora y V. palandensis (2n=18; 3 el grado de asimetría de los complementos cromosómicos indicó un proceso de evolución; 4 la presencia de numerosos NOR en V. sphaerocarpa está relacionada con los micronucleolos y corroboró el posible origen híbrido; y 5 V. cauliflora (42.98% y V. cundinamarcensis (47.93% presentaron la más baja viabilidad polínica.

  10. Mejoramiento de la germinación, control de la hiperhidricidad y formación de brotes en Vasconcellea stipulata Badillo

    Rosa Armijos González

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Vasconcellea stipulata has great commercial importance because of its enzymatic activity and as a source for genetic improvement of papaya since it is resistant to the papaya ringspot virus. However, due to its low regeneration by seeds and limited knowledge of its genetic and pharmaceutical properties, this species is not widely cultivated. For propagation, in vitro culture of seeds has been used to address this problem, but hyperhydricity, a physiological disorder, mainly expressed in the developing embryonic axis and specifically associated with this species, is a significant constraint. In order to obtain elite material for culture of V. stipulata, the aim of this work was to increase germination, to control hyperhydricity in embryos and to evaluate the potential to induce morphogenic responses, i.e., shoot formation. Our results showed that it is possible to increase germination up to 53% under in vitro conditions within a short period in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. In addition, hyperhydricity was significantly reduced (50% in vitro when gibberellic acid concentrations were included on a 1/2 Nitsch and Nitsch nutrient medium, resulting in approximately 80% recovery of viable seedlings. Finally, other plant growth regulators were evaluated and found to trigger shoot formation in axillary buds as well as induce the formation of callus in leaf sections derived of seedlings.

  11. A dated phylogeny of the papaya family (Caricaceae) reveals the crop's closest relatives and the family's biogeographic history.

    Carvalho, Fernanda Antunes; Renner, Susanne S

    2012-10-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya) is a crop of great economic importance, and the species was among the first plants to have its genome sequenced. However, there has never been a complete species-level phylogeny for the Caricaceae, and the crop's closest relatives are therefore unknown. We investigated the evolution of the Caricaceae based on sequences from all species and genera, the monospecific Carica, African Cylicomorpha with two species, South American Jacaratia and Vasconcellea with together c. 28 species, and Mexican/Guatemalan Jarilla and Horovitzia with four species. Most Caricaceae are trees or shrubs; the species of Jarilla, however, are herbaceous. We generated a matrix of 4711 nuclear and plastid DNA characters and used maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian analysis to infer species relationships, rooting trees on the Moringaceae. Divergence times were estimated under relaxed and strict molecular clocks, using different subsets of the data. Ancestral area reconstruction relied on a ML approach. The deepest split in the Caricaceae occurred during the Late Eocene, when the ancestor of the Neotropical clade arrived from Africa. In South America, major diversification events coincide with the Miocene northern Andean uplift and the initial phase of the tectonic collision between South America and Panama resulting in the Panamanian land bridge. Carica papaya is sister to Jarilla/Horovitzia, and all three diverged from South American Caricaceae in the Oligocene, 27 (22-33) Ma ago, coincident with the early stages of the formation of the Panamanian Isthmus. The discovery that C. papaya is closest to a clade of herbaceous or thin-stemmed species has implications for plant breeders who have so far tried to cross papaya only with woody highland papayas (Vasconcellea). PMID:22659516

  12. Sex Determination in Papaya

    Sex determination is an intriguing system in trioecious papaya. Over the past seven decades various hypotheses, based on the knowledge and information available at the time, have been proposed to explain the genetics of the papaya's sex determination. These include a single gene with three alleles...

  13. BASKETFUL BENEFITS OF PAPAYA

    Parle Milind

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Papaya (Carica papaya linn is well known for its exceptional nutritional and medicinal properties throughout the world. From the times immemorial, the whole Papaya plant including its leaves, seeds, ripe and unripe fruits and their juice is used as a traditional medicine. The fruit has a large oval shape, yellowish-green skin and yellow flesh. Nowadays, Papaya is considered as a Nutraceutical fruit due to its multi-faceted medicinal properties. The prominent medicinal properties of Papaya include Anti-fertility, Uterotonic, Diuretic, Anti-hypertensive, Hypolipidemic, Anti-helmintic, Wound-healing, Anti-fungal, Anti-bacterial, Anti-tumor and Free radical scavenging activities. Phytochemically, the whole plant contains enzymes (Papain, carotenoids, alkaloids, monoterpenoids, flavonoids, minerals and vitamins. In the present review article, a humble attempt is made to compile all the strange facts available about this tasty fruit. This tasty fruit of Papaya is popular among family members of all ages for the delicious dishes derived from it.

  14. Post-irradiation identification of papaya ( Carica papaya L.) fruit

    Chatterjee, Suchandra; Variyar, Prasad S.; Sharma, Arun

    2012-03-01

    Impact of radiation processing on the volatile essential oil profile of papaya ( Carica papaya) was investigated. Gamma-radiation processing resulted in the appearance of a new peak in the GLC profile that was identified as phenol. The observed dose dependent increase in phenol content suggested possible use of this compound as a marker for radiation processed papaya.

  15. Papaya: environment and crop physiology

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a principal horticultural crop of tropical and subtropical regions. Knowledge of how papaya responds to environmental factors provides a scientific basis for the development of management strategies to optimize fruit yield and quality. A better understanding of genotyp...

  16. Papaya ringspot virus (Potyviridae)

    Papaya ringspot virus, a member of the family Potyviridae, is single stranded RNA plant virus with a monocistronic genome of about 10,326 nucleotides that is expressed via a large polyprotein subsequently cleaved into functional proteins. It causes severe damage on cucurbit crops such as squash and...

  17. Características Físico-Químicas del Látex de Papayuelo (Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis Badillo, Caricaceae Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Papayuelo Latex (Vasconcellea Cundinamarcensis Badillo, Caricaceae

    Leslie V Vidal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó el rendimiento y la actividad enzimática de la papaína presente en el látex de papayuelo (Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis, cultivado en Cobquecura, VIII región del Bío-Bío, Chile, durante un año. Entre enero y diciembre, las plantas, frutos y látex, obtenidos de frutos inmaduros, fueron caracterizados con el propósito de conocer el comportamiento del cultivo a través de las estaciones del año, y comprender las posibles relaciones entre los parámetros estudiados. El diseño experimental fue completamente aleatorio y los datos se procesaron mediante un ANDEVA y prueba de rangos múltiples de Duncan. Se encontró diferencia estadística significativa entre estaciones en cuanto al desarrollo de la planta y sus características. Los mayores rendimientos de látex se obtuvieron en la estación de primavera, mientras que la actividad enzimática se mantuvo constante durante el año de estudio.A study to determine the yield and enzymatic activity of papain present in the latex obtained from papayuelo fruit (Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis cultivated in Cobquecura, VIII Bío-Bío Region in Chile, during one year was done. Between January and December the papayuelo plants, fruits and latex obtained from unripe fruits were characterized. The objective of the study was to know the species behavior through the seasons and the relation between the parameters studied. The experimental design was completely random, and the data were processed through ANOVA and Duncan’s multiple range test. A significant statistical difference in plant growth and plan characteristics between seasons was found. The higher latex yields were obtained in spring, whereas the enzymatic activity was constant through the year.

  18. Post-irradiation identification of papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit

    Impact of radiation processing on the volatile essential oil profile of papaya (Carica papaya) was investigated. Gamma-radiation processing resulted in the appearance of a new peak in the GLC profile that was identified as phenol. The observed dose dependent increase in phenol content suggested possible use of this compound as a marker for radiation processed papaya. - Highlights: ► Effect of γ-irradiation on the essential oil profile of papaya is demonstrated. ► γ-Irradiation resulted in a dose dependent increase in a new peak, phenol. ► Phenol formed in the volatile oil is proposed as a new marker of irradiated food. ► Content of phenol remained unchanged during the entire storage period.

  19. TRANSGENIC PAPAYA: A CASE FOR MANAGING RISKS OF PAPAYA RINGSPOT VIRUS IN HAWAII

    In May 1992, papaya ringspot virus (PRSV was detected in the Puna district of Hawaii Island, the main papaya growing region of the state of Hawaii. By 1994 Hawaii's papaya industry was facing devastating damage from PRSV. Efforts to develop resistant transgenic papaya were started in the mid 1980s...

  20. Las franjas electorales en la experiencia chilena

    Juan Ignacio García Rodríguez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Expone la experiencia chilena sobre el establecimiento y regulación de las franjas electorales, para lo cual analiza la constitucionalidad de la franja, los principios involucrados, las disposiciones regulatorias, el papel del Consejo Nacional de Televisión, la jurisprudencia que sobre el tema ha sido emitida por el Tribunal Calificador de Elecciones y los retos que el sistema de franjas electorales enfrenta a futuro como lo es su aplicación a las elecciones primarias de los partidos políticos.

  1. La guerra en la dramaturgia chilena

    Faúndez Carreño, Tania

    2014-01-01

    La guerra se ha constituido un tema constante en la dramaturgia chilena, la cual a su vez se ha vinculado estrechamente con la identidad nacional. La pulsión de la guerra, con sus mecanismos discursivos institucionales (histórico, político, cultural, militar, nacional), sus ondulaciones y su dificultad misma de la representación sobre la escena han resonado en la dramaturgia patria desde la consolidación de la República en el siglo XIX (1817) hasta la apoteósica celebración del Bicentenario n...

  2. Improving Tenderness of Spent Layer Hens Meat Using Papaya Leaves (Carica papaya)

    H. O. Abdalla, N. N. A. Ali, F. S. Siddig and S. A. M. Ali*

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments were performed to study the use of papaya leaves as a meat tenderizer. The first experiment was to evaluate the effect of papaya dry leaves added to hen’s diet before slaughter. Spent hens (n=48) were used, half of them were fed a concentrate ration containing10% dried papaya leaves powder (DPLP) while others received layer ration (Control), for 10 days. The second experiment involved a comparison between papaya leaves juice (PLJ), fresh papaya leaves (FPL) and vinegar soluti...

  3. Complete Genome Sequence of Papaya Ringspot Virus Isolated from Genetically Modified Papaya in Hainan Island, China.

    Zhao, Guangyuan; Yan, Pu; Shen, Wentao; Tuo, Decai; Li, Xiaoying; Zhou, Peng

    2015-01-01

    The complete genome sequence (10,326 nucleotides) of a papaya ringspot virus isolate infecting genetically modified papaya in Hainan Island of China was determined through reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. The virus shares 92% nucleotide sequence identity with the isolate that is unable to infect PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya. PMID:26358610

  4. Allergenicity assessment of the Papaya ringspot virus coat protein expressed in transgenic Rainbow papaya

    The virus-resistant, transgenic commercial papaya cultivars Rainbow and SunUp (Carica papaya L.) have been consumed locally in Hawaii and elsewhere in the mainland US and Canada since their release to planters in Hawaii in 1998. These cultivars are derived from transgenic papaya line 55-1 and carry ...

  5. Managing papaya ringspot virus: Impact of grass barriers on alate aphid immigration into papaya orchards

    Papaya ringspot virus, transmitted by alate aphids, is the most limiting factor of papaya production in the Caribbean region. Although there are transgenic papaya varieties that provide protection from this virus, these varieties are effective only in certain regions against certain strains of the v...

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of Papaya Ringspot Virus Isolated from Genetically Modified Papaya in Hainan Island, China

    Zhao, Guangyuan; Yan, Pu; Shen, Wentao; Tuo, Decai; Li, Xiaoying; Zhou, Peng

    2015-01-01

    The complete genome sequence (10,326 nucleotides) of a papaya ringspot virus isolate infecting genetically modified papaya in Hainan Island of China was determined through reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. The virus shares 92% nucleotide sequence identity with the isolate that is unable to infect PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya.

  7. Physical-chemical analyses of irradiated papayas (Carica papaya L.)

    Camargo, R.J. [Radiation Technology Center, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Lineu Prestes, 2242, 05508-900, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Tadini, C.C. [Chemical Engineering Department, Escola Politecnica, Sao Paulo University, P.O. Box 61548, 05424-970, SP (Brazil); Sabato, S.F. [Radiation Technology Center, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Lineu Prestes, 2242, 05508-900, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: sfsabato@ipen.br

    2007-11-15

    Papaya is cultivated in Espirito Santo State/Brazil and as it stands up to irradiation, it is important to validate this technology, since it is already being applied in some countries. Penetration energy, ratio (relation between soluble solids and titrable acidity) and skin color were evaluated to verify the influence of four different doses of irradiation (0.0, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.00 kGy) on papayas, during 21 days. As a result for the skin color and the penetration energy, it was found that in the first days after irradiation, these variables increased with increase in radiation dose; however, after a time lapse, the tendency inverted and the irradiated fruits had a slower ripening process. For the ratio, a very important variable that it is responsible for the fruit taste, no difference was found between irradiated and the control fruit. Color and texture measurements are dependent on the storage temperature.

  8. Physical-chemical analyses of irradiated papayas ( Carica papaya L.)

    Camargo, R. J.; Tadini, C. C.; Sabato, S. F.

    2007-11-01

    Papaya is cultivated in Espírito Santo State/Brazil and as it stands up to irradiation, it is important to validate this technology, since it is already being applied in some countries. Penetration energy, ratio (relation between soluble solids and titrable acidity) and skin color were evaluated to verify the influence of four different doses of irradiation (0.0, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.00 kGy) on papayas, during 21 days. As a result for the skin color and the penetration energy, it was found that in the first days after irradiation, these variables increased with increase in radiation dose; however, after a time lapse, the tendency inverted and the irradiated fruits had a slower ripening process. For the ratio, a very important variable that it is responsible for the fruit taste, no difference was found between irradiated and the control fruit. Color and texture measurements are dependent on the storage temperature.

  9. Physical-chemical analyses of irradiated papayas (Carica papaya L.)

    Papaya is cultivated in Espirito Santo State/Brazil and as it stands up to irradiation, it is important to validate this technology, since it is already being applied in some countries. Penetration energy, ratio (relation between soluble solids and titrable acidity) and skin color were evaluated to verify the influence of four different doses of irradiation (0.0, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.00 kGy) on papayas, during 21 days. As a result for the skin color and the penetration energy, it was found that in the first days after irradiation, these variables increased with increase in radiation dose; however, after a time lapse, the tendency inverted and the irradiated fruits had a slower ripening process. For the ratio, a very important variable that it is responsible for the fruit taste, no difference was found between irradiated and the control fruit. Color and texture measurements are dependent on the storage temperature

  10. La izquierda chilena contemparánea

    Manuel Antonio Garretón

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo, el autor examina las particularidades de la izquierda chilena para entender su papel en los gobiernos democráticos desde los años 70. El autor parte de la premisa de la existencia, durante los años 90, de dos izquierdas: una, el socialismo dentro de la coalición; la otra, el comunismo fuera de ella. En el trabajo se sostiene que la izquierda socialista ha sido el principal motor de la coalición y su papel específico se ha concentrado en los temas socio-económicos ligados a la igualdad, a la justicia, a los derechos humanos y a las propuestas culturales de tipo progresista. Asimismo, se analizan las particularidades esenciales de los gobiernos democráticos chilenos y se examinan los temas y las tareas pendientes. El artículo concluye con un balance del papel de la izquierda y de los retos que aún tiene por delante.

  11. Costo de flete de las exportaciones chilenas: 2000-2008

    Gonzalo Becerra M.; Claudio Vicuña U.

    2008-01-01

    El costo de flete que enfrentan las exportaciones chilenas muestra una trayectoria creciente en el lapso 2000-2008, caracterizada por oscilaciones. Las cifras del primer semestre de 2008, medidas en términos reales, se acercan a los US$75/tonelada, mientras que en 2000 se ubicaban en torno a los US$50/tonelada. A partir de la influencia que ejerce el cobre, el sector más relevante de las exportaciones chilenas lo constituye el mineral, con un costo de flete que se ha más que duplicado en el p...

  12. Somatic embryogenesis of Carica Papaya

    This paper describes the somatic embryogenesis of Carica papaya. Culture medium used was1/2 strength MS basal medium supplemented with 6% sucrose, 0.27 % agar, glutamine and various concentrations of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). After 8 weeks in culture, the best concentration of 2,4-D to induce somatic embryo is at 45.2 μM. (Author)

  13. Gene Technology for Papaya Ringspot Virus Disease Management

    Md. Abul Kalam Azad; Latifah Amin; Nik Marzuki Sidik

    2014-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya) is severely damaged by the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). This review focuses on the development of PRSV resistant transgenic papaya through gene technology. The genetic diversity of PRSV depends upon geographical distribution and the influence of PRSV disease management on a sequence of PRSV isolates. The concept of pathogen-derived resistance has been employed for the development of transgenic papaya, using a coat protein-mediated, RNA-silencing mechanism and replicase...

  14. Ocorrência de Ovulariopsis papayae Bijl em folhas de mamoeiro Occurrence of Ovulariopsis papayae Bijl in papaya leaves

    Ivan José Antunes Ribeiro

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available É citada pela primeira vez, em nossas condições, a ocorrência de oídio causado por Ovulariopsis papayae Bijl em folhas de mamoeiro (Cacica papaya L.. São descritas a sintomatologia, as características morfológicas do patógeno e o teste de patogenicidade.The occurrence causing powdery mildew in papaya leaves was observed for the first time in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The symptomatology and the morphological characteristics of the pathogen were described and the pathogenicity was comproved.

  15. The draft genome of the transgenic tropical fruit tree papaya ( Carica papaya Linnaeus)

    Ming, Ray; Hou, Shaobin; Feng, Yun; Yu, Qinguyi; Thimmapuram, Jyothi

    2008-01-01

    Papaya, a fruit crop cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions, is known for its nutritional benefits and medicinal applications. Here we report a 3 draft genome sequence of 'SunUp' papaya, the first commercial virus-resistant transgenic fruit tree1 to be sequenced. The papaya genome is three times the size of the Arabidopsis genome, but contains fewer genes, including significantly fewer disease-resistance gene analogues. Comparison of the five sequenced genomes suggests a minimal angio...

  16. The draft genome of the transgenic tropical fruit tree papaya (Carica papaya Linnaeus)

    Ming, Ray; Hou, Shaobin; Feng, Yun; Yu, Qingyi; Dionne-Laporte, Alexandre; Saw, Jimmy H.; Senin, Pavel; Wang, Wei; Ly, Benjamin V; Lewis, Kanako L. T.; Salzberg, Steven L.; Feng, Lu; Jones, Meghan R; Skelton, Rachel L; Murray, Jan E

    2008-01-01

    Papaya, a fruit crop cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions, is known for its nutritional benefits and medicinal applications. Here we report a 3× draft genome sequence of ‘SunUp’ papaya, the first commercial virus-resistant transgenic fruit tree1 to be sequenced. The papaya genome is three times the size of the Arabidopsis genome, but contains fewer genes, including significantly fewer disease-resistance gene analogues. Comparison of the five sequenced genomes suggests a minimal angi...

  17. Effect of Biopreservatives on Storage Life of Papaya (Carica papaya L.)

    Fatema H. Brishti; Jawadul Misir; Ayesha Sarker

    2013-01-01

    In this experiment the effect on post-harvest preservation of papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit coated with either Aloe gel (AG; 100%) or papaya leaf extract with Aloe gel (PLEAG; 1:1) was studied. To evaluate the role of coating on ripening behavior and quality of papaya the uncoated and coated fruits were stored and ripened at room temperature (25 °C-29 °C) and 82-84% relative humidity. Physico-chemical properties were analyzed at 4 day intervals during the storage period. The incidence of ...

  18. Molecular detection of Papaya meleira virus in the latex of Carica papaya by RT-PCR

    Araujo, de M.M.M.; Tavares, E.T.; Silva, da F.R.; Marinho, V.L.D.; Souza, M.T.

    2007-01-01

    A RT-PCR assay was developed for early and accurate detection of Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) in the latex from infected papayas. The meleira disease is characterized by an excessive exudation of more fluidic latex from fruits, leaves and stems. This latex oxidises and gives the fruit a ¿sticky¿ text

  19. The draft genome of the transgenic tropical fruit tree papaya (Carica papaya Linnaeus).

    We report a draft genome sequence of ‘SunUp’ papaya, the first commercial virus-resistant transgenic fruit tree crop. The papaya genome has more than two times the DNA but about 28% fewer genes than the genome of the related botanical model Arabidopsis. A lack of genome duplication, atypical of angi...

  20. Improving Tenderness of Spent Layer Hens Meat Using Papaya Leaves (Carica papaya

    H. O. Abdalla, N. N. A. Ali, F. S. Siddig and S. A. M. Ali*

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were performed to study the use of papaya leaves as a meat tenderizer. The first experiment was to evaluate the effect of papaya dry leaves added to hen’s diet before slaughter. Spent hens (n=48 were used, half of them were fed a concentrate ration containing10% dried papaya leaves powder (DPLP while others received layer ration (Control, for 10 days. The second experiment involved a comparison between papaya leaves juice (PLJ, fresh papaya leaves (FPL and vinegar solution (VS as marinades applied to meat for one or two hours before cooking. Spent layer hens (n=42 were used for tenderness evaluation method. After slaughtering and preparing the chickens two methods of cooking were used (oven and moist cooking. The cooked parts (breast, thigh and drumstick were subjected to a panel test evaluation according to a designed questionnaire. Addition of dried papaya leaves powder to spent layer hens ration significantly (P≤0.05 increased the level of meat tenderness. Moist cooking had significantly (P≤0.05 improved meat tenderization compared to oven cooking. Meat treated with fresh papaya leaves had significantly (P≤0.05 improved tenderness. It was concluded that wrapping the tough meat of spent layer hens with fresh papaya leaves for one hour and moist cooking improve tenderness of meat.

  1. Papaya (Carica papaya) lysozyme is a member of the family 19 (Basic, class II) chitinases

    Subroto, T; Sufiati, S; Beintema, JJ

    1999-01-01

    The most comprehensive studies on a plant lysozyme (EC 3.2.1.17) are those on the enzyme from papaya (Carica papaya) latex, published in 1967 and 1969. However, the N-terminal amino acid sequence of five amino acid sequence of this enzyme, determined by manual Edman degradation, did not allow assign

  2. Validation and use of DNA markers for sex determination in papaya (Carica papaya)

    Profitable papaya production requires female and hermaphrodite plants in higher number than male plants. This is only possible if sex of plants is determined at an early growth stage. The present study was conducted to validate sex-linked DNA markers using plants from two Pakistani papaya varieties and subsequently utilize them for determination of sex in juvenile papaya plants. One hundred and five plants (including 49 male and 56 female) of two Pakistani Papaya varieties at flowering stage were screened with six DNA markers viz., W-11, T12, SDP, Napf-76Napf-76, PKBT4 and PKBT5. All male plants exhibited amplification of sex-linked alleles with markers T12 and W11, whereas, 96% and 95% of female plants showed the absence of sex-linked allele with these markers, respectively. Markers SDP, PKBT5 and Napf-76 showed the presence of sex-linked alleles in 98%, 96% and 93% of male plants, respectively, whereas the same markers showed the absence of sex-linked alleles in 100%, 96% and 94% of female plants. One marker, PKBT4 could not produce expected PCR amplification reported previously. The five DNA markers were further used to screen 171 papaya seedlings. These markers clearly differentiated male and female sex types in the studied papaya plants. Results of our study are likely to facilitate Pakistani papaya breeders and growers to incorporate DNA based screening at juvenile stage to determine sex at early stage and to ensure profitable papaya production. (author)

  3. Erwinia mallotivora sp., a New Pathogen of Papaya (Carica papaya in Peninsular Malaysia

    Noriha Mat Amin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Erwinia mallotivora was isolated from papaya infected with dieback disease showing the typical symptoms of greasy, water-soaked lesions and spots on leaves. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain belonged to the genus Erwinia and was united in a monophyletic group with E. mallotivora DSM 4565 (AJ233414. Earlier studies had indicated that the causal agent for this disease was E. papayae. However, our current studies, through Koch’s postulate, have confirmed that papaya dieback disease is caused by E. mallotivora. To our knowledge, this is the first new discovery of E. mallotivora as a causal agent of papaya dieback disease in Peninsular Malaysia. Previous reports have suggested that E. mallotivora causes leaf spot in Mallotus japonicus. However, this research confirms it also to be pathogenic to Carica papaya.

  4. Erwinia mallotivora sp., a new pathogen of papaya (Carica papaya) in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Amin, Noriha Mat; Bunawan, Hamidun; Redzuan, Rohaiza Ahmad; Jaganath, Indu Bala S

    2010-01-01

    Erwinia mallotivora was isolated from papaya infected with dieback disease showing the typical symptoms of greasy, water-soaked lesions and spots on leaves. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain belonged to the genus Erwinia and was united in a monophyletic group with E. mallotivora DSM 4565 (AJ233414). Earlier studies had indicated that the causal agent for this disease was E. papayae. However, our current studies, through Koch's postulate, have confirmed that papaya dieback disease is caused by E. mallotivora. To our knowledge, this is the first new discovery of E. mallotivora as a causal agent of papaya dieback disease in Peninsular Malaysia. Previous reports have suggested that E. mallotivora causes leaf spot in Mallotus japonicus. However, this research confirms it also to be pathogenic to Carica papaya. PMID:21339975

  5. CARICA PAPAYA: A COMPLETE PACKAGE OF NUTRITIONALAND MEDICINAL BENEFITS

    Karabhari Rekha Bhaskar

    2014-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya Linn.) is well known for its exceptional nutritional and medicinal properties throughout the world. From the times immemorial, the whole Carica papaya plant including its leaves, seeds, ripe and unripe fruits and their juice is used as traditional medicine. The fruit has a large oval shape, yellowish -green skin and yellow flesh. Now a day, Carica papaya is considered as nutraceutical fruit due to its multi faceted medicinal and nutritional properties. Th...

  6. Diversity of Papaya ringspot virus isolates in Puerto Rico

    Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) devastates papaya production worldwide. In Puerto Rico, papaya fields can be completely infected with PRSV within a year of planting. Information about the diversity of the Puerto Rican PRSV population is relevant in order to establish a control strategy in the island. T...

  7. Transgenic Papaya: Can We Proceed Beyond the Hawaiian Experience?

    The story of the development, deregulation, and commercialization of the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) resistant transgenic SunUp and Rainbow papaya for Hawaii is quite well known at least among plant virologist and knowledgeable people in the field of papaya. Thus, the story will be only briefly r...

  8. Correlation between ethylene emission and skin colour changes during papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit ripening

    da Silva, M. G.; Oliveira, J. G.; Vitoria, A. P.; Corrêa, S. F.; Pereira, M. G.; Campostrini, E.; Santos, E. O.; Cavalli, A.; Vargas, H.

    2005-06-01

    The skin colour changes and ethylene emission rates were monitored during papaya (C. papaya L.) fruit ripening. Two groups of papaya (‘Formosa’ and ‘Solo’) were applied in this study. The total colour difference was used as measured parameter and the corresponding half time of its saturation was used as correlation parameter. A high correlation factor between the saturation half time and corresponding climacteric peak time was found. It was concluded that high ethylene emission rate in ‘Solo’ fruit promotes a quick change of the total colour difference.

  9. Effect of gamma irradiation in papaya (Carica papaya L.) harvested in three degrees of maturation

    The papaya is a fragile tropical fruit with thin skin, susceptible to post harvest diseases and mechanical injuries. Furthermore, it is sensible to low temperatures and at normal conditions it ripens rapidly, increasing the difficulties with storage. The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of gamma irradiation in papayas harvested in three degrees of maturation, in order to increase shelf life. To accomplish that, papayas were harvested in perfect quality conditions, washed, submitted to carnauba wax and selected by skin coloration into three distinct degrees of maturation: Mat 0, or beginning of yellow coloration; Mat 1, yellow stripes more developed, and Mat 2, one third yellow. Half of them were submitted to irradiation with 0, 75 kGy, while the others became control treatment. They were analyzed in four different periods of conservation, which were 1 day after irradiation (DAI) refrigerated (11 +- 1 deg C), 14 DAI refrigerated, 14 DAI refrigerated + 3 at room temperature (RT = 24 deg +- 2 deg C) and 14 DAI refrigerated + 6 at RT. The effect of irradiation was not influenced by the maturation degree at harvest. Irradiation promoted firmness maintenance of papaya and, therefore, delayed ripening; modified the green color of papaya to a lighter tone, which determined more homogeneity in the skin yellow color development (greater values of L* and b*), and turned the papaya flesh color lighter (rower values of b*). There was no effect of irradiation in papaya weight loss, in the occurrence of diseases, in the development of surface yellow color, in the parameter a* of papaya skin color, in the parameters L*, a* and chroma of flesh color, p H and total soluble solids content. Visual and organoleptic sensorial tests were accomplished with papayas from a new delivery in the conservation period of 14 DAI refrigerated + 3 at RT. In the visual test was evaluated the appearance of papaya in the following treatments: Mat O control, Mat O irradiated, Mat 1

  10. Papaya Development Model As A Competitive Local Superior Commodity

    Reny Sukmawani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to study the comparative advantage and papaya competitive and to design its development model by using the approach of local base agriculture development. This research uses survey method. The resulting research shows that papaya is a base commodity that has comparative advantage and competitive. The development papaya in the district of Sukabumi is quite good bases on eight superior creations. But in order to be the main sector in economic development and has a competition, the development of papaya must concern to its influence factors. In supporting papaya development as a competitive local superior commodity, it needs to be done some efforts are as follows: (1 increase a skillful worker; (2 improve business management; (3 increase papaya productivity by using technology and study papaya planted technology in specific local superior commodity; (4 develop the involvement of the business relation; (5 provide market information and information technology network; and (6 improve infrastructures.

  11. Free radical scavenging activity of papaya juice

    Papaya juice is an efficient scavenger of highly reactive hydroxyl radicals (OH radical) formed during 60Co irradiation of water. The OH anion radicals were detected by the electron spin resonance (ESR) technique of spin trapping using DMPO (5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide) or by a colorimetric assay in which salicylate is converted into polyhydroxybenzoic acids. Papaya juice is also able to quench the ESR signal of a stable free radical (TEMPOL) and the ESR signal of the DMPO-OH adduct. The active substance(s) in papaya juice are heat-stable, dialyzable, and soluble in water but not in lipid solvents. The active agents do not appear to be ascorbate, tocopherol, or carotenoids. (author)

  12. Uptake of 32P labelled superphosphate by endomycorrhizal papaya (Carica papaya cv. Coorg honey dew)

    In papaya (Carica papaya cv. Coorg honey dew), there was an increase in 32P uptake and total phosphorus in plants inoculated with mycorrhizal fungi Glomus mossae and G. fasciculatum. Phosphorus derived from fertilizer (Pdff) was lower in mycorrhizal plants while soil derived P, utilisation of P and A values were higher showing thereby that mycorrhizal plants had utilised forms of phosphorus not available to non-mycorrhizal plants. (author). 13 refs., 1 tab

  13. Gene Technology for Papaya Ringspot Virus Disease Management

    Md. Abul Kalam Azad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Papaya (Carica papaya is severely damaged by the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV. This review focuses on the development of PRSV resistant transgenic papaya through gene technology. The genetic diversity of PRSV depends upon geographical distribution and the influence of PRSV disease management on a sequence of PRSV isolates. The concept of pathogen-derived resistance has been employed for the development of transgenic papaya, using a coat protein-mediated, RNA-silencing mechanism and replicase gene-mediated transformation for effective PRSV disease management. The development of PRSV-resistant papaya via post-transcriptional gene silencing is a promising technology for PRSV disease management. PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya is environmentally safe and has no harmful effects on human health. Recent studies have revealed that the success of adoption of transgenic papaya depends upon the application, it being a commercially viable product, bio-safety regulatory issues, trade regulations, and the wider social acceptance of the technology. This review discusses the genome and the genetic diversity of PRSV, host range determinants, molecular diagnosis, disease management strategies, the development of transgenic papaya, environmental issues, issues in the adoption of transgenic papaya, and future directions for research.

  14. Gene technology for papaya ringspot virus disease management.

    Azad, Md Abul Kalam; Amin, Latifah; Sidik, Nik Marzuki

    2014-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya) is severely damaged by the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). This review focuses on the development of PRSV resistant transgenic papaya through gene technology. The genetic diversity of PRSV depends upon geographical distribution and the influence of PRSV disease management on a sequence of PRSV isolates. The concept of pathogen-derived resistance has been employed for the development of transgenic papaya, using a coat protein-mediated, RNA-silencing mechanism and replicase gene-mediated transformation for effective PRSV disease management. The development of PRSV-resistant papaya via post-transcriptional gene silencing is a promising technology for PRSV disease management. PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya is environmentally safe and has no harmful effects on human health. Recent studies have revealed that the success of adoption of transgenic papaya depends upon the application, it being a commercially viable product, bio-safety regulatory issues, trade regulations, and the wider social acceptance of the technology. This review discusses the genome and the genetic diversity of PRSV, host range determinants, molecular diagnosis, disease management strategies, the development of transgenic papaya, environmental issues, issues in the adoption of transgenic papaya, and future directions for research. PMID:24757435

  15. Update on the development of virus-resistant papaya: Virus-resistant transgenic papaya for people in rural communities of Thailand

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is one of the most important and preferred crops in rural communities in Thailand. Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is a serious disease of papaya throughout Thailand. Efforts to control the virus by various methods either have not been successful or have not resulted in sustai...

  16. PROCESOS DE CANONIZACIÓN DE LA LITERATURA CHILENA

    Iván Carrasco M

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo estudia los procesos de canonización en la literatura chilena y sus relaciones con las identidades socioculturales, desde la generación romántica de 1852 (ó 1842 hasta la última década del siglo XX, delimitando sus autores, textos y metatextos canónicos. La hipótesis que organiza el trabajo es que la literatura chilena se inició en torno a un canon único, que ha sido reemplazado a través del tiempo por cánones plurales, paralelos y contrapuestos.This paper studies the literary canonization processes in Chilean literature andtheir relations with social and cultural identities. Its purpose is to establish the boundaries of the texts and metatexts written by Chilean canonical authors, starting with the romantic generation of 1852 (or 1842 and ending up with the works published in the last decade of 'the XX century. The hypothesis of this essay is that Chilean literature can be said to have its origins focused on a single canon, which is later replaced by a series of plural, parallel and even opposite canons.

  17. The evolution of sex chromosomes in papaya

    Yu, Qingyi; Moore, Paul H.; Alam, Maqsudul; Jiang, Jiming; Paterson, Andrew H.; Vyskot, Boris; Ming, Ray

    San Diego, 2006. W340-W340. [Plant & Animal Genomes XIV Conference. 14.01.2006-18.01.2006, San Diego] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA521/06/0056; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507 Keywords : evolution * sex chromosomes * papaya Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  18. Transgenic Papaya: Development, Release, Impact, and Challenges

    Although the technology for developing virus-resistant transgenic plants through the use of the coat protein of a virus was unveiled twenty years ago, it is surprising to note that only a three virus-resistant plants (squash, potato, and papaya) have been commercialized in the U.S. The transgenic p...

  19. CARICA PAPAYA: A COMPLETE PACKAGE OF NUTRITIONALAND MEDICINAL BENEFITS

    Karabhari Rekha Bhaskar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Papaya (Carica papaya Linn. is well known for its exceptional nutritional and medicinal properties throughout the world. From the times immemorial, the whole Carica papaya plant including its leaves, seeds, ripe and unripe fruits and their juice is used as traditional medicine. The fruit has a large oval shape, yellowish -green skin and yellow flesh. Now a day, Carica papaya is considered as nutraceutical fruit due to its multi faceted medicinal and nutritional properties. The prominent medicinal properties of Carica papaya include anti-fertility, uterotonic, and diuretic, anti-hypertensive, wound healing, anti bacterial activities. Nutritionally the whole plant contains enzymes, vitamin A, vitamin C, B-complex vitamins and potassium. The present article reviews the nutritional and medicinal uses of Carica papaya.

  20. Optimization of process parameters for osmotic dehydration of papaya cubes

    S.K. Jain; R. C. Verma; Murdia, L. K.; Jain, H. K.; Sharma, G. P.

    2010-01-01

    Process temperature (30, 40 and 50 °C), syrup concentration (50, 60 and 70o Brix) and process time (4, 5 and 6 h) for osmotic dehydration of papaya (Carica papaya) cubes were optimized for the maximum water loss and optimum sugar gain by using response surface methodology. The peeled and pre-processed papaya cubes of 1 cm size were immersed in sugar syrup at constant temperature water bath having syrup to papaya cubes ratio of 4:1 (w/w). The cubes were removed from bath at pre-decided time, r...

  1. Physical Characteristics of the Leaves and Latex of Papaya Plants Infected with the Papaya meleira Virus.

    Magaña-Álvarez, Anuar; Vencioneck Dutra, Jean Carlos; Carneiro, Tarcio; Pérez-Brito, Daisy; Tapia-Tussell, Raúl; Ventura, Jose Aires; Higuera-Ciapara, Inocencio; Fernandes, Patricia Machado Bueno; Fernandes, Antonio Alberto Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    Sticky disease, which is caused by Papaya meleira virus (PMeV), is a significant papaya disease in Brazil and Mexico, where it has caused severe economic losses, and it seems to have spread to Central and South America. Studies assessing the pathogen-host interaction at the nano-histological level are needed to better understand the mechanisms that underlie natural resistance. In this study, the topography and mechanical properties of the leaf midribs and latex of healthy and PMeV-infected papaya plants were observed by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Healthy plants displayed a smooth surface with practically no roughness of the leaf midribs and the latex and a higher adhesion force than infected plants. PMeV promotes changes in the leaf midribs and latex, making them more fragile and susceptible to breakage. These changes, which are associated with increased water uptake and internal pressure in laticifers, causes cell disruption that leads to spontaneous exudation of the latex and facilitates the spread of PMeV to other laticifers. These results provide new insights into the papaya-PMeV interaction that could be helpful for controlling papaya sticky disease. PMID:27092495

  2. Proteomic analysis of papaya (Carica papaya L.) displaying typical sticky disease symptoms.

    Rodrigues, Silas P; Ventura, José A; Aguilar, Clemente; Nakayasu, Ernesto S; Almeida, Igor C; Fernandes, Patricia M B; Zingali, Russolina B

    2011-07-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) hosts the only described laticifer-infecting virus (Papaya meleira virus, PMeV), which is the causal agent of papaya sticky disease. To understand the systemic effects of PMeV in papaya, we conducted a comprehensive proteomic analysis of leaf samples from healthy and diseased plants grown under field conditions. First, a reference 2-DE map was established for proteins from healthy samples. A total of 486 reproducible spots were identified, and MALDI-TOF-MS/MS data identified 275 proteins accounting for 159 distinct proteins from 231 spots that were annotated. Second, the differential expression of proteins from healthy and diseased leaves was determined through parallel experiments, using 2-DE and DIGE followed by MALDI-TOF-MS/MS and LC-IonTrap-MS/MS, respectively. Conventional 2-DE analysis revealed 75 differentially expressed proteins. Of those, 48 proteins were identified, with 26 being upregulated (U) and 22 downregulated (D). In general, metabolism-related proteins were downregulated, and stress-responsive proteins were upregulated. This expression pattern was corroborated by the results of the DIGE analysis, which identified 79 differentially expressed proteins, with 23 identified (17 U and 6 D). Calreticulin and the proteasome subunits 20S and RPT5a were shown to be upregulated during infection by both 2-DE and DIGE analyses. These data may help shed light on plant responses against stresses and viral infections. PMID:21630455

  3. COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON ANTHELMINTIC POTENTIAL OF CUCURBITA MAXIMA (PUMPKIN SEEDS AND CARICA PAPAYA (PAPAYA SEEDS

    Sengupta Rupa

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The crude extract of Carica papaya (papaya seeds (CP and Cucurbita maxima (Pumpkin seeds (CM were assayed against adult earthworms (Pheretima posthuma for the evaluation of anthelmintic activity. Various concentrations of both extracts were tested and results were expressed in terms of time for paralysis (P and time for death (D of worms. Albendazole was used as a reference standard. The result showed that in both of the extracts (i.e. CP and CM dose of 60 mg / ml possesses more wormicidal activity. The time of paralysis was 1.88 ± 0.52 minute and 1.93 ± 0.57 minute whereas the time of death was 3.45 ± 0.17 minute and 4.90 ± 0.18 minute in the case of Carica papaya and Cucurbita maxima respectively. In conclusion, the use of seeds of Carica papaya (CP and Cucurbita maxima (CM for anthelmintic activity have been confirmed and further studies are suggested to isolate the active principles responsible for the activity. Both the extracts showed significant anthelmintic activity, but the comparative study showed that out of these two, Carica papaya proves to be a better anthelmintic remedy.

  4. Physical Characteristics of the Leaves and Latex of Papaya Plants Infected with the Papaya meleira Virus

    Anuar Magaña-Álvarez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sticky disease, which is caused by Papaya meleira virus (PMeV, is a significant papaya disease in Brazil and Mexico, where it has caused severe economic losses, and it seems to have spread to Central and South America. Studies assessing the pathogen-host interaction at the nano-histological level are needed to better understand the mechanisms that underlie natural resistance. In this study, the topography and mechanical properties of the leaf midribs and latex of healthy and PMeV-infected papaya plants were observed by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Healthy plants displayed a smooth surface with practically no roughness of the leaf midribs and the latex and a higher adhesion force than infected plants. PMeV promotes changes in the leaf midribs and latex, making them more fragile and susceptible to breakage. These changes, which are associated with increased water uptake and internal pressure in laticifers, causes cell disruption that leads to spontaneous exudation of the latex and facilitates the spread of PMeV to other laticifers. These results provide new insights into the papaya-PMeV interaction that could be helpful for controlling papaya sticky disease.

  5. Physical Characteristics of the Leaves and Latex of Papaya Plants Infected with the Papaya meleira Virus

    Magaña-Álvarez, Anuar; Vencioneck Dutra, Jean Carlos; Carneiro, Tarcio; Pérez-Brito, Daisy; Tapia-Tussell, Raúl; Ventura, Jose Aires; Higuera-Ciapara, Inocencio; Fernandes, Patricia Machado Bueno; Fernandes, Antonio Alberto Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    Sticky disease, which is caused by Papaya meleira virus (PMeV), is a significant papaya disease in Brazil and Mexico, where it has caused severe economic losses, and it seems to have spread to Central and South America. Studies assessing the pathogen-host interaction at the nano-histological level are needed to better understand the mechanisms that underlie natural resistance. In this study, the topography and mechanical properties of the leaf midribs and latex of healthy and PMeV-infected papaya plants were observed by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Healthy plants displayed a smooth surface with practically no roughness of the leaf midribs and the latex and a higher adhesion force than infected plants. PMeV promotes changes in the leaf midribs and latex, making them more fragile and susceptible to breakage. These changes, which are associated with increased water uptake and internal pressure in laticifers, causes cell disruption that leads to spontaneous exudation of the latex and facilitates the spread of PMeV to other laticifers. These results provide new insights into the papaya-PMeV interaction that could be helpful for controlling papaya sticky disease. PMID:27092495

  6. Influence of ripening stages on antioxidant properties of papaya fruit (Carica papaya L.)

    Addai, Zuhair Radhi; Abdullah, Aminah; Mutalib, Sahilah Abd.

    2013-11-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L. cv Eksotika) is one of the most commonly consumed tropical fruits by humans, especially Malaysians. The objective of this study was to determine the phenolic compounds and antioxidants activity in different ripening stages of papaya fruit. The fruits were harvested at five different, stages RS1, RS2, RS3, RS4, and RS5 corresponding to 12, 14, 16, 18, and 20 weeks after anthesis, respectively. Papayas fruit at five different stage of ripening were obtained from farms at Pusat Flora Cheras, JabatanPertanian and Hulu Langat Semenyih, Selangor, Malaysia. The antioxidants activity were analyzed using the total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), ferric reducing antioxidant Power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The analyses were conducted in triplicate and the data were subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS. The results showed significant differences (P< 0.05) were found at different stages of ripening. The total phenol content TPC, TFC, FRAP and DPPH values increased significantly (P<0.05) with the ripening process. The results showed the important role of the ripening stage in increasing the antioxidant content of papaya fruits.

  7. Digital transcriptome analysis of putative sex-determination genes in papaya (Carica papaya.

    Naoya Urasaki

    Full Text Available Papaya (Carica papaya is a trioecious plant species that has male, female and hermaphrodite flowers on different plants. The primitive sex chromosomes genetically determine the sex of the papaya. Although draft sequences of the papaya genome are already available, the genes for sex determination have not been identified, likely due to the complicated structure of its sex-chromosome sequences. To identify the candidate genes for sex determination, we conducted a transcriptome analysis of flower samples from male, female and hermaphrodite plants using high-throughput SuperSAGE for digital gene expression analysis. Among the short sequence tags obtained from the transcripts, 312 unique tags were specifically mapped to the primitive sex chromosome (X or Y(h sequences. An annotation analysis revealed that retroelements are the most abundant sequences observed in the genes corresponding to these tags. The majority of tags on the sex chromosomes were located on the X chromosome, and only 30 tags were commonly mapped to both the X and Y(h chromosome, implying a loss of many genes on the Y(h chromosome. Nevertheless, candidate Y(h chromosome-specific female determination genes, including a MADS-box gene, were identified. Information on these sex chromosome-specific expressed genes will help elucidating sex determination in the papaya.

  8. Fusarium species associated with fruit rot of banana (Musa spp.), papaya (Carica papaya) and guava (Psidium guajava)

    Zakaria, L.; Mazzura, W. C.; Kong, W. H.; S. Baharuddin

    2012-01-01

    A total of 60 isolates of Fusarium were isolated from fruit rot of banana (Musa spp.), papaya (Carica papaya) and guava(Psidium guajava). The most common species recovered from the fruit rot of the three fruit crops were F. semitectum(40 %), F. solani (38.3 %), F. verticillioides (11.7 %) and F. oxysporum (10 %). Fusarium semitectum was isolated from fruit rot of banana, papaya and guava; F. oxysporum from banana and papaya; F. solani from banana and guava and F.verticillioides from banana. F...

  9. Extraction and characteristics of seed oil from Papaya (Carica papaya in Congo-Brazzaville

    G. Bouanga-Kalou

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Papaya seeds were collected and dried. This study was carried out on papaya seed to clarify their proximate composition and the characteristics of the extracted oil including unsaponifiable matter and fatty acid composition. The seed is a rich source of protein (26.78% and crude fiber (21.4%. Palmitic acid was the main saturated fatty acid (15.22%, while linoleic acid was the major unsaturated fatty acid (76.38% in all lipid classes. The physical properties of the oil extracts showed the state to be liquid at room temperature. Carica papaya seeds have ash content of 3.2% (with the presence of following minerals: K, Na, Ca, P and Mg. However, Ca and P occur in appreciable quantities (1821±2.12 mg/100 g dry matter and 1156±1.8 mg/100 g dry mater, respectively.

  10. Whole-photosynthesis and transpiration in field-grown papaya plants

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a principal horticultural crop of tropical and subtropical regions. Knowledge of papaya response to environmental factors provides a scientific basis to develop management strategies to optimize fruit yield and quality. In papaya, the photosynthetic capacity also influ...

  11. Apertura y Eficiencia Productiva: La Industria Chilena, 1975-1988 Apertura y Eficiencia Productiva: La Industria Chilena, 1975-1988

    Enrique Román

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available Apertura y Eficiencia Productiva: La Industria Chilena, 1975-1988 The results of Chile's profound economic liberalizations remain the subject of ongoing debate. Using the Total Factor Productivity approach (TFP; we review the industrial sector performance during the 1975-1988 period. Our analysis shows that greater competitiveness dictated by economic liberalization was not accomplished through technical change but, rather, through intensive factor use (1976-81, or extensive factor use (1984-88. After exhaustion of the "easy phase", new levels of productive efficiency necessitated technical innovation, that is, investment in equipment, training. and reorganization of productive processes. However, after the 1982-83 crisis, firms did not follow this path: previous financial stress and low wage costs determined a growth path based on extensive use of labor, thereby delaying technological modernization of the industrial sector.

  12. Carica papaya microRNAs are responsive to Papaya meleira virus infection.

    Paolla M V Abreu

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs are implicated in the response to biotic stresses. Papaya meleira virus (PMeV is the causal agent of sticky disease, a commercially important pathology in papaya for which there are currently no resistant varieties. PMeV has a number of unusual features, such as residence in the laticifers of infected plants, and the response of the papaya to PMeV infection is not well understood. The protein levels of 20S proteasome subunits increase during PMeV infection, suggesting that proteolysis could be an important aspect of the plant defense response mechanism. To date, 10,598 plant microRNAs have been identified in the Plant miRNAs Database, but only two, miR162 and miR403, are from papaya. In this study, known plant microRNA sequences were used to search for potential microRNAs in the papaya genome. A total of 462 microRNAs, representing 72 microRNA families, were identified. The expression of 11 microRNAs, whose targets are involved in 20S and 26S proteasomal degradation and in other stress response pathways, was compared by real-time PCR in healthy and infected papaya leaf tissue. We found that the expression of miRNAs involved in proteasomal degradation increased in response to very low levels of PMeV titre and decreased as the viral titre increased. In contrast, miRNAs implicated in the plant response to biotic stress decreased their expression at very low level of PMeV and increased at high PMeV levels. Corroborating with this results, analysed target genes for this miRNAs had their expression modulated in a dependent manner. This study represents a comprehensive identification of conserved miRNAs inpapaya. The data presented here might help to complement the available molecular and genomic tools for the study of papaya. The differential expression of some miRNAs and identifying their target genes will be helpful for understanding the regulation and interaction of PMeV and papaya.

  13. Carica papaya microRNAs are responsive to Papaya meleira virus infection.

    Abreu, Paolla M V; Gaspar, Clicia G; Buss, David S; Ventura, José A; Ferreira, Paulo C G; Fernandes, Patricia M B

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs are implicated in the response to biotic stresses. Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) is the causal agent of sticky disease, a commercially important pathology in papaya for which there are currently no resistant varieties. PMeV has a number of unusual features, such as residence in the laticifers of infected plants, and the response of the papaya to PMeV infection is not well understood. The protein levels of 20S proteasome subunits increase during PMeV infection, suggesting that proteolysis could be an important aspect of the plant defense response mechanism. To date, 10,598 plant microRNAs have been identified in the Plant miRNAs Database, but only two, miR162 and miR403, are from papaya. In this study, known plant microRNA sequences were used to search for potential microRNAs in the papaya genome. A total of 462 microRNAs, representing 72 microRNA families, were identified. The expression of 11 microRNAs, whose targets are involved in 20S and 26S proteasomal degradation and in other stress response pathways, was compared by real-time PCR in healthy and infected papaya leaf tissue. We found that the expression of miRNAs involved in proteasomal degradation increased in response to very low levels of PMeV titre and decreased as the viral titre increased. In contrast, miRNAs implicated in the plant response to biotic stress decreased their expression at very low level of PMeV and increased at high PMeV levels. Corroborating with this results, analysed target genes for this miRNAs had their expression modulated in a dependent manner. This study represents a comprehensive identification of conserved miRNAs inpapaya. The data presented here might help to complement the available molecular and genomic tools for the study of papaya. The differential expression of some miRNAs and identifying their target genes will be helpful for understanding the regulation and interaction of PMeV and papaya. PMID:25072834

  14. Physical Characteristics of the Leaves and Latex of Papaya Plants Infected with the Papaya meleira Virus

    Anuar Magaña-Álvarez; Jean Carlos Vencioneck Dutra; Tarcio Carneiro; Daisy Pérez-Brito; Raúl Tapia-Tussell; Jose Aires Ventura; Inocencio Higuera-Ciapara; Patricia Machado Bueno Fernandes; Antonio Alberto Ribeiro Fernandes

    2016-01-01

    Sticky disease, which is caused by Papaya meleira virus (PMeV), is a significant papaya disease in Brazil and Mexico, where it has caused severe economic losses, and it seems to have spread to Central and South America. Studies assessing the pathogen-host interaction at the nano-histological level are needed to better understand the mechanisms that underlie natural resistance. In this study, the topography and mechanical properties of the leaf midribs and latex of healthy and PMeV-infected pa...

  15. Erwinia mallotivora sp., a New Pathogen of Papaya (Carica papaya) in Peninsular Malaysia

    Noriha Mat Amin; Hamidun Bunawan; Rohaiza Ahmad Redzuan; Indu Bala S. Jaganath

    2010-01-01

    Erwinia mallotivora was isolated from papaya infected with dieback disease showing the typical symptoms of greasy, water-soaked lesions and spots on leaves. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain belonged to the genus Erwinia and was united in a monophyletic group with E. mallotivora DSM 4565 (AJ233414). Earlier studies had indicated that the causal agent for this disease was E. papayae. However, our current studies, through Koch’s postulate, have confirmed th...

  16. Influence of gamma radiation on carbohydrates metabolism of ripening papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Solo)

    Food irradiation is one of the most promising treatments that can be utilized for fruits disinfestation and extension of shelf life. The authors studied the influence of 0,5 kGy of Gamma irradiation on the soluble carbohydrates composition of papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Solo) fruit, and on sucrose metabolizing enzymes: sucrose synthase (SS), sucrose-phosphate synthase, acid and neutral invertases activities, during ripening. The results demonstrated that ethylene production, total soluble sugars, sucrose content, and sucrose-phosphate synthase and invertases activities were affected by irradiation, but not respiration, glucose and fructose content, and SS activity. (author)

  17. Dwarf mutant of papaya (Carica papaya L.) induced by gamma rays

    Treating the seeds of papaya with 15 Krad of gamma rays, three plants were isolated from the M3 population. Repeated full sibmating among the progenies of these dwarf mutants helped in establishing a homozygous population of dwarf papaya in M6 generation. Though the per plant yield in mutant is less, nevertheless its importance is envisaged in the fact that it is likely to incur less damage by wind and storm, can be better managed and more number of plants can be accomodated per unit area, thus giving increased yield per hectare. (author)

  18. Extraction and characteristics of seed oil from Papaya (Carica papaya) in Congo-Brazzaville

    G. Bouanga-Kalou; A. Kimbonguila; J.M. Nzikou; F.B. Ganongo-Po; F.E. Moutoula; E. Panyoo-Akdowa; Th. Silou and S. Desobry

    2011-01-01

    Papaya seeds were collected and dried. This study was carried out on papaya seed to clarify their proximate composition and the characteristics of the extracted oil including unsaponifiable matter and fatty acid composition. The seed is a rich source of protein (26.78%) and crude fiber (21.4%). Palmitic acid was the main saturated fatty acid (15.22%), while linoleic acid was the major unsaturated fatty acid (76.38%) in all lipid classes. The physical properties of the oil extracts showed the ...

  19. Penggunaan Sari Buah Pepaya ( Carica papaya L.) Dalam Sediaan Krim Pelembab

    Ferida, Teti

    2011-01-01

    Papaya (Carica Papaya L.) is one of sample natural material can be as moisturizing skin. Papaya contain some kind of enzyme, vitamin, and mineral. Papaya was rich of vitamin A, B1, and C. which very important to ward free radical. Beside vitamin, papaya also has mineral as calcium. Phosphor, potassium, iron, carbohidrat, protein and lipid. Containing of sugar in ripe papaya among sucrose, glucose and fructose. Based on the contains can be tried to do a research by papaya extract to made be...

  20. Gamma radiation in papaya harvested at three stages of maturation

    Papaya is a fragile, perishable fruit, highly accepted worldwide. To keep the quality of papaya from harvest to the consumers, conservation techniques are often used; among them is the application of gamma irradiation. The objective of this work was to evaluate gamma irradiation in papayas harvested at three degrees of maturation, in order to increase shelf life. Papayas were harvested in perfect quality conditions and selected by skin coloration into three distinct degrees of maturation: maturation 0, or beginning of yellow coloration; maturation 1, yellow stripes more developed, and maturation 2, one third yellow. Half of them were irradiated with 0.75 kGy, while the other half became control treatment. They were analyzed in four periods of conservation, which were 1 DAI (days after irradiation refrigerated at 11 ± 1 deg C), 14 DAI, 14 DAI + 3 DRT (room temperature at 24 deg C ± 2 deg C) and 14 DAI + 6 DRT. The papaya maturation degree at harvest did not influence the radiation effect. Irradiation maintained firmness of papaya and, therefore, delayed ripening; modified the green color of papaya to a lighter, more intense tone, which determined more homogeneity in the development of the skin's yellow color (greater values of L* and chroma). There was no effect of irradiation in papaya weight loss, occurrence of diseases, chroma of flesh color, p H and total soluble solids contents. (author)

  1. Papaya Ringspot Virus: Characteristics, Pathogenicity, Sequence Variability and Control

    Taxonomy: Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is an aphid-transmitted plant virus belonging to the genus Potyvirus of the family Potyviridae with a positive sense RNA genome. PRSV isolates belong to either one of two major strains, P-type or W-type. The P-type infects both papaya and cucurbits whereas th...

  2. Gamma radiation in papaya harvested at three stages of maturation

    Pimentel, Rodrigo Meirelles de Azevedo; Walder, Julio Marcos Melges [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Irradiacao de Alimentos]. E-mail: jmwalder@cena.usp.br

    2004-04-01

    Papaya is a fragile, perishable fruit, highly accepted worldwide. To keep the quality of papaya from harvest to the consumers, conservation techniques are often used; among them is the application of gamma irradiation. The objective of this work was to evaluate gamma irradiation in papayas harvested at three degrees of maturation, in order to increase shelf life. Papayas were harvested in perfect quality conditions and selected by skin coloration into three distinct degrees of maturation: maturation 0, or beginning of yellow coloration; maturation 1, yellow stripes more developed, and maturation 2, one third yellow. Half of them were irradiated with 0.75 kGy, while the other half became control treatment. They were analyzed in four periods of conservation, which were 1 DAI (days after irradiation refrigerated at 11 {+-} 1 deg C), 14 DAI, 14 DAI + 3 DRT (room temperature at 24 deg C {+-} 2 deg C) and 14 DAI + 6 DRT. The papaya maturation degree at harvest did not influence the radiation effect. Irradiation maintained firmness of papaya and, therefore, delayed ripening; modified the green color of papaya to a lighter, more intense tone, which determined more homogeneity in the development of the skin's yellow color (greater values of L{sup *} and chroma). There was no effect of irradiation in papaya weight loss, occurrence of diseases, chroma of flesh color, p H and total soluble solids contents. (author)

  3. 75 FR 22207 - Importation of Papayas From Colombia and Ecuador

    2010-04-28

    ... published in the Federal Register (74 FR 18161-18166, Docket No. APHIS-2008-0050) a proposal\\1\\ to amend the... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 RIN 0579-AC95 Importation of Papayas From... importation of commercial shipments of fresh papayas from Colombia and Ecuador into the continental...

  4. Effects of heat, irradiation and their combination on the keeping quality of papaya (carica papaya linn.)

    An experimental work has been done to determine the effect of gamma irradiation either alone or in combination with hot water dipping on the shelf life of fresh papaya. Mature green papayas of 'semangka paris' variety were treated under 3 different conditions, i.e. dipped in hot water at 50 Celsius degrees for 10 minutes; irradiated in air with a dose of 0.5 kGy; treated with combination of hot water dipping at 50 Celsius degrees for 10 minutes and irradiation with a dose of 0.5 kGy, and stored at ambient conditions. Quality evaluation was done subjectively during storage on the colour, texture, and taste. Besides, weight loss was also observed. Chemical characteristics, namely the contents of vitamin C, β-carotene, total soluble pectin, and reducing sugar were also determined as objective parameters. The results revealed that ripening of mature green papaya could be delayed by irradiation with the dose of 0.5 kGy. Best result was obtained from the combination treatment. The treated papayas were still acceptable up to 8 days of storage, whereas the untreated ones were acceptable only up to 5 days of storage. (author)

  5. Effect of Biopreservatives on Storage Life of Papaya (Carica papaya L.

    Fatema H. Brishti

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE In this experiment the effect on post-harvest preservation of papaya (Carica papaya L. fruit coated with either Aloe gel (AG; 100% or papaya leaf extract with Aloe gel (PLEAG; 1:1 was studied. To evaluate the role of coating on ripening behavior and quality of papaya the uncoated and coated fruits were stored and ripened at room temperature (25 °C-29 °C and 82-84% relative humidity. Physico-chemical properties were analyzed at 4 day intervals during the storage period. The incidence of disease attack was also visually observed. The overall results showed the superiority of AG and PLEAG coating in lengthening the shelf-life of papaya fruit compared to controls which showed significant decay from 6th day onward and complete decay within 12 days of storage. The AG and PLEAG coated fruits maintained their shelf life for 12 days and decayed at 16th day. The coated fruits also maintained their color, flavor and firmness up to 12 days of storage. An increase in ascorbic acid content (120.2 mg/100 g was also found in coated fruits in contrast to the control (59 mg/100 g. Only 27% disease incidence was observed in AG and 13% in PLEAG coated fruits as compared to control (100% during the storage period. The results of this study show that both AG and PLEAG coatings have excellent potential to be used on fresh produce to maintain quality and extend shelf-life.

  6. COMUNEROS ANDINOS EN LA ADMINISTRACIÓN CHILENA (ARICA, 1880-1929

    ALBERTO DÍAZ ARAYA

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Se evalúa el impacto generado en los sectores rurales andinos de Arica por la implementación de la estructura y burocracia administrativa chilena post Guerra del Pacífico. A través de registros documentales se hace explícita la participación de comuneros indígenas en la trama estatal chilena en un período de conflicto político y de identidades nacionales. Palabras claves: Comunidad andina – administración chilena – Arica y Tacna. Abstract Assesses the impact generated in the rural Andes Arica for implementing the administrative structure and bureaucracy in Chile after the Pacific War. Through documentary record makes explicit the participation of indigenous community members in the plot Chilean state over a period of political and national identities. Keywords : Andean Community - Chilean government - Arica and Tacna.

  7. Promover la salud mental con mujeres chilenas en desventaja social

    M Soledad Rivera

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Se descrive una parte de la experiencia del proyecto Chileno/Canadiense: “Promover la salud mental de las mujeres chilenas en desventaja social: Los Secretos de Maruja”. Se describen los objetivos, las etapas del proceso, de intervención y los resultados de las evaluaciones preliminares. Con la participación de las mujeres usuárias de los centros de salud, profesionales y autoridades de la comuna de La Pintana, se construyó, aplicó y evaluó un proyecto de intervención para apoyar a las mujeres en la toma de decisiones que favorezcan su salud mental personal, familiar y social. La intervención contempló el diseño, producción, distribución y evaluación de 12 folletos educativos tipo calendarios, cada uno respecto a tres temas de salud mental identificados por las mismas mujeres: Identidad y autoestima, Vínculo y Comunicación y Autocuidado. Además se involucró a las enfermeras que trabajan en los Centros de Salud, quienes incorporaron esta estrategia a la atención de salud habitual y evaluaron su impacto en la identidad, autonomía profesional y en la mejoría de la calidad del cuidado

  8. Development of Transgenic Papaya through Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation

    Md. Abul Kalam Azad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Transgenic papaya plants were regenerated from hypocotyls and immature zygotic embryo after cocultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA-4404 carrying a binary plasmid vector system containing neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII gene as the selectable marker and β-glucuronidase (GUS as the reporter gene. The explants were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens on regeneration medium containing 500 mg/L carbenicillin + 200 mg/L cefotaxime for one week. The cocultivated explants were transferred into the final selection medium containing 500 mg/L carbenicillin + 200 mg/L cefotaxime + 50 mg/L kanamycin for callus induction as well as plant regeneration. The callus derived from the hypocotyls of Carica papaya cv. Shahi showed the highest positive GUS activities compared to Carica papaya cv. Ranchi. The transformed callus grew vigorously and formed embryos followed by transgenic plantlets successfully. The result of this study showed that the hypocotyls of C. papaya cv. Shahi and C. papaya cv. Ranchi are better explants for genetic transformation compared to immature embryos. The transformed C. papaya cv. Shahi also showed the maximum number of plant regeneration compared to that of C. papaya cv. Ranchi.

  9. Whole genome sequence analysis of unidentified genetically modified papaya for development of a specific detection method.

    Nakamura, Kosuke; Kondo, Kazunari; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Ishigaki, Takumi; Noguchi, Akio; Katsumata, Hiroshi; Takasaki, Kazuto; Futo, Satoshi; Sakata, Kozue; Fukuda, Nozomi; Mano, Junichi; Kitta, Kazumi; Tanaka, Hidenori; Akashi, Ryo; Nishimaki-Mogami, Tomoko

    2016-08-15

    Identification of transgenic sequences in an unknown genetically modified (GM) papaya (Carica papaya L.) by whole genome sequence analysis was demonstrated. Whole genome sequence data were generated for a GM-positive fresh papaya fruit commodity detected in monitoring using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The sequences obtained were mapped against an open database for papaya genome sequence. Transgenic construct- and event-specific sequences were identified as a GM papaya developed to resist infection from a Papaya ringspot virus. Based on the transgenic sequences, a specific real-time PCR detection method for GM papaya applicable to various food commodities was developed. Whole genome sequence analysis enabled identifying unknown transgenic construct- and event-specific sequences in GM papaya and development of a reliable method for detecting them in papaya food commodities. PMID:27006240

  10. Radiation-induced mutation breeding of papaya

    Irradiation-induced mutation breeding of papaya commenced at the Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI) in August, 2000. This research was initiated under a Coordinated Research Project (CRP - D23023) with assistance from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). In the preliminary dosimetry study, seeds from two local papaya varieties, Sekaki and Eksotika were irradiated, either as dry seeds or as pre-soaked seeds (soaked overnight in water and surface-dried) with radiation doses ranging from 0 to 300 Gy. 100 Gy dose was lethal for all wet presoaked seeds while dry seed did not show loss of viability, even at 300 Gy. From the growth data it was estimated that dose of 525 Gy reduced shoot elongation by 50%, and this dose was recommended for mass irradiation of dry seeds. For wet, pre-soaked seeds results indicated that 42.5 Gy was the optimal dose for mass irradiation. At this dose, both seeds germination and seedlings growth were reduced by 50%. In a massive irradiation experiment 2,000 Eksotika seeds were irradiated at 42.5 Gy (pre-soaked) and another 2,000 at 525 Gy (dry). In the M2 population, numerous physiological defects were observed, including stem splitting, leaf variegation and puckering, and crinkled dwarfs. In the M3 population, a wide variability was recorded for a number of traits. M3 seedlings derived from presoaked seeds irradiated a low 42.5 Gy dose presented a high number of plants that were shorter and more vigorous in leaf development compared to those irradiated at 525 Gy and to non-irradiated control seedlings. The distribution patterns of M3 progenies for nine quantitative field characters showed great variation, often exceeding the limits of the control population. There appears to be good prospects in improving Eksotika papaya especially in the development of dwarf trees with lower fruit bearing stature, higher total soluble solids in fruits and larger fruit size. Several M2 and M3 putative mutants also

  11. Pengujian Ekstrak n-Heksana dan Etanol terhadap Aktivitas Antibakteri Biji Pepaya (Carica papaya L.) dari Dua Varietas

    Ginting, Ovalina Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    Papaya seed can be beneficial as drug of digestion trouble, diarrhoea and skin disease.The aim research is understanding antibacterial activity from n-hexane extract and ethanol extract from seed of two varieties of papaya (Carica papaya L.) to Escherichia coli (ATCC 10536) and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 29737). Papaya seed used in this research came from seeds of bird papaya and chocolate papaya. Extraction was done of two type solvents which were polar (ethanol) and non polar (n-hexane)...

  12. New approach for papaya latex storage without virus degradation

    Silas P. Rodrigues; Andrade, Josemar S.; José A. Ventura; Fernandes, Patricia M. B.

    2009-01-01

    Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) is the causal agent of papaya (Carica papaya L.) sticky disease, which has been detected through analysis of its double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) genome from plant latex. In this work we demonstrate that PMeV dsRNA is protected during 25 days when latex is diluted in citrate buffer pH 5.0 (1:1 v/v) and maintained at -20ºC. At the same temperature, some protection was observed for pure latex or latex diluted in ultra-pure water. Conversely, the dsRNA was almost completel...

  13. Compositional changes during papaya fruit ripening

    The objective of this study was to investigate compositional changes during ripening of Baladi, Ekostika I and Ekostika II papaya fruit cultivars at 20±1°C and 85% -90% relative humidity. The fruits of the three cultivars exhibited a typical climacteric pattern of respiration with peak of respiration of 82,92 and 98 mg CO2/ kg-hr, reached after 10 days in the three cultivars, respectively. Weight loss, total soluble solids (TSS), total sugars and ascorbic acid content progressively increased during ripening of the three papaya cultivars. More increase in TSS and total sugars was observed after the climacteric peak of respiration. Fruit tissue firmness and total phenolic compounds decreased continuously during ripening in the three cultivars. Reducing sugars, total protein and titratable acidity steadily increased to reach a peak, which coincided with climacteric peak of respiration, and subsequently decreased afterwards. The local Baladi cultivar had a lower respiration rate, more firm and less weight loss during ripening, which may indicate a longer shelf life than the other two introduced cultivars. On the other hand, the introduced cultivars were higher in TSS, total and reducing sugars and ascorbic acid content and lower in titratable acidity and phenolic compounds, which may reflect a better eating quality.(Author)

  14. Radiation disinfestation as a quarantine treatment for solo papaya

    Solo papaya is subject to infestation by the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). Since ethylene dibromide has been banned for use as a fumigant for fruits, gamma radiation was investigated as an alternative quarantine disinfestation treatment for solo papaya. Results of small-scale laboratory tests showed that 150 Gy completely prevented the emergence of B. dorsalis. For egg-infested solo papaya, pupal recovered decreased with increasing dose while insect survival was not associated with fruit maturity. For larvae-infested ones, insect survival, in general, was highest in the full-ripe stage and lowest in the one-fourth-ripe stage of the fruit. Confirmatory tests of the proposed treatment using more than 100,000 test insects revealed that 150 Gy radiation dose is sufficient to provide Probit 9 quarantine security for solo papaya. (author). 10 refs.; 1 fig.; 4 tabs

  15. Effects of chemical treatments on fresh-cut papaya.

    Albertini, Silvana; Lai Reyes, Andrés Enrique; Trigo, Juliana Moreno; Sarriés, Gabriel Adrián; Spoto, Marta Helena Fillet

    2016-01-01

    Four treatments (control, 0.1% cinnamaldehyde, 0.75% calcium chloride and combination of 0.1% cinnamaldehyde and 0.75% calcium chloride) were used to evaluate chemical effects on shelf life, quality and sensory acceptability of fresh-cut papaya (Carica papaya L.). Papaya slices were packed and covered with polypropylene film, stored at 5 °C; and evaluated after 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 days for microbiological and physicochemical changes. A sensory evaluation was performed at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 days. There was no occurrence of Salmonella, Escherichia coli or psychotropic bacteria. The cinnamaldehyde alone and a combination of cinnamaldehyde and calcium chloride treatments yielded better control of the total coliforms. The combination treatment decreased the CO2 concentration and increased the maintenance of papaya firmness. All the treatments had acceptability. The combination treatment was the most effective treatment for flavor, taste, and preservation until day 12. PMID:26213093

  16. Evaluation of fruit leather made from two cultivars of papaya

    ZUHAIR RADHI ADDAI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Two papaya cultivars were used to manufacture fruit leather. The objective of this study was to formulate papaya leather from locally grown papaya using natural ingredients like pectin, honey and citric acid. The fresh fruits were pureed and mix with natural ingredients, and dried in an oven at 60°C for 12 hours. The physicochemical properties and antioxidant activity were determined.The results showed that fruit leather made from Hongkong cultivar is significantly (P<0.05 higher in sensory parameters as well as physicochemical properties and antioxidant activity. The phenolics content and antioxidant activity increased by process of drying the fruit leather compared to fresh fruits in both papaya cultivars. Therefore, the consumer requirements for healthy and safe food products were respected.

  17. KARAKTERISASI PAPAIN DARI DAUN PEPAYA (Carica Papaya L. CHARACTERIZATION OF PAPAIN FROM Carica Papaya L. LEAVES

    Zusfahair; Dian Riana Ningsih; Febrina Nur Habibah

    2014-01-01

    Enzim yang menempati urutan pertama dalam pemanfaatannya di bidang industri adalah protease. Protease dapat digunakan sebagai katalis untuk reaksi yang menggunakan pelarut organik. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui karakteristik ekstrak kasar papain dari daun pepaya (Carica papaya L.) yang meliputi suhu dan pH optimum, pengaruh EDTA dan ion-ion logam, serta kestabilannya dalam pelarut organik seperti metanol, aseton, dan toluena, serta potensinya sebagai katalis dalam pelarut organik....

  18. Optical and ultrastructural study of the pollen grain development in hermaphrodite papaya tree (Carica papaya L.)

    Lídia Márcia Silva Santos; Telma Nair Santana Pereira; Margarete Magalhães de Souza; Pedro Correa Damasceno Junior; Fabiane Rabelo da Costa; Beatriz Ferreira Ribeiro; Noil Gomes de Freitas; Messias Gonzaga Pereira

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the pollen grain development in hermaphrodite papaya tree. The flower buds were collected at different stages of the development and the anthers were treated chemically for observation under optical and electronic transmission microscopes. The pollen grain development followed the normal pattern described for the Angiosperms. The pollen grain development was described from meiocyte to the mature pollen grain. In the microsporogenesis, the microspore...

  19. Post-transcriptional gene silencing is involved in resistance of transgenic papayas to Papaya Ringspot Virus

    Ruanjan, P.; Kertbundit, Sunee; Juříček, Miloslav

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 3 (2007), s. 517-520. ISSN 0006-3134 Grant ostatní: BIOTEC, NASDA(TH) BT-B-06-PG-14-4503 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : Carica papaya * reverse transcription PCR * COAT PROTEIN GENE Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.259, year: 2007

  20. ESR detection procedure of irradiated papaya containing high water content

    Kikuchi, Masahiro; Shimoyama, Yuhei; Ukai, Mitsuko; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko

    2011-05-01

    ESR signals were recorded from irradiated papaya at liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K), and freeze-dried irradiated papaya at room temperature (295 K). Two side peaks from the flesh at the liquid nitrogen temperature indicated a linear dose response for 3-14 days after the γ-irradiation. The line shapes recorded from the freeze-dried specimens were sharper than those at liquid nitrogen temperature.

  1. ESR detection procedure of irradiated papaya containing high water content

    ESR signals were recorded from irradiated papaya at liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K), and freeze-dried irradiated papaya at room temperature (295 K). Two side peaks from the flesh at the liquid nitrogen temperature indicated a linear dose response for 3-14 days after the γ-irradiation. The line shapes recorded from the freeze-dried specimens were sharper than those at liquid nitrogen temperature.

  2. ESR detection procedure of irradiated papaya containing high water content

    Kikuchi, Masahiro, E-mail: kikuchi.masahiro@jaea.go.j [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki-machi, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Shimoyama, Yuhei [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki-machi, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Ukai, Mitsuko [Hokkaido University of Education, 1-2 Hachiman-cho, Hakodate, Hokkaido 040-8567 (Japan); Kobayashi, Yasuhiko [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki-machi, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)

    2011-05-15

    ESR signals were recorded from irradiated papaya at liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K), and freeze-dried irradiated papaya at room temperature (295 K). Two side peaks from the flesh at the liquid nitrogen temperature indicated a linear dose response for 3-14 days after the {gamma}-irradiation. The line shapes recorded from the freeze-dried specimens were sharper than those at liquid nitrogen temperature.

  3. Complete genome sequence of an isolate of papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus from commercialized PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya in China.

    Tuo, D; Shen, W; Yan, P; Li, Ch; Gao, L; Li, X; Li, H; Zhou, P

    2013-01-01

    Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus is highly destructive to commercial papaya production. Here, the complete genome sequence was determined for an isolate of papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus, designated PLDMV-DF, infecting the commercialized papaya ringspot virus (PRSV)-resistant transgenic papaya from China. Excluding the 3'-poly (A) tail, the sequence shares high sequence identity to several PLDMV isolates from Taiwan and Japan and is phylogenetically most closely related to the isolate from Japan. Infection of PLDMV-DF in transgenic PRSV-resistant papaya may indicate emergence of this disease in genetically engineered plants. The reported sequence for this isolate may help generate bi-transgenic papaya resistant to PRSV and PLDMV. PMID:24294960

  4. The Extraction and Properties of Carica papaya Seed Oil

    Y.M. Li

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the suitability of Ultrasound-Microwave synergistic Extraction (UMAE for the recovery of papaya seed oil as compared to Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction (UAE. The efficiency of these two methods was assessed by comparing the physicochemical properties and oxidative stability of papaya seed oil. The analytic tests were color, unsaponifiable matters, iodine value, acid value and peroxide value. The fatty acid components were analyzed by GC. Results indicated that the Ultrasound-Microwave synergistic Extraction (UMAE considerably impact on the physicochemical properties of the extracted papaya seed oil, UMAE provided papaya seed oil with obviously lighter color, lower unsaponifiable matters (2.53% and higher oxidative stability (PV, 0.98 m mol/kg than that of UAE. Analysis of fatty acid composition revealed that 13 kinds of components are identified and the total amount of fatty acids accounted for 93.13% of papaya seed oil, the predominant fatty acids in papaya seed oil were oleic (18:1, 72.60%, palmitic (16:0, 18.00%, linoleic acid (18:2, 5.80% and stearic (18:0, 3.60%.

  5. Antioxidant capacity of juice from different papaya (Carica papaya L.) cultivars grown under greenhouse conditions in Turkey

    Aysun ÖZKAN; Hamide GÜBBÜK; GÜNEŞ, Esma; ERDOĞAN, Ayşe

    2011-01-01

    The fruits of Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae) are valuable as food and are also used in traditional medicine. The present study was designed to assess the antioxidant potential of the juices of 3 papaya cultivars (PCJ): Sunrise Solo, Red Lady, and Tainung. The antioxidant capacity of PCJ obtained from fully ripened fruit was determined by the following methods: scavenging of the free radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), reducing power assay, scavenging of superoxide radicals, 2-deoxyri...

  6. Efficacy of four plant extracts on nematodes associated with papaya in Sindh, Pakistan

    This investigation examines the effect of ethanol extracts of four plant species--Azadirachta indica (neem), Withania somnifera (ashwagandha), Tagetes erecta (marigold) and Eucalyptus citriodora (eucalyptus)--against nematodes associated with papaya (Carica papaya), and it assesses their influence o...

  7. Effects of Different Concentrations and Applications of Calcium on Storage Life and Physicochemical Characteristics of Papaya (Carica Papaya L.

    T. M. M. Mahmud

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Papaya (Carica Papaya L. fruits index 2 were treated with 1.5, 2.5 and 3.5% solutions of calcium chloride by dipping and vacuum infiltration (-33 Kpa or untreated (0% as control. Effects of these treatments were evaluated on storage life and postharvest quality characteristics of papaya. After 21 days of storage at 13±1°C, the fruits were removed from storage for physicochemical analysis. Following additional five days holding in the storage condition for fruits used for evaluation of the rate of disease incidence and storage life. Postharvest dip treatments at different concentrations of calcium prolonged storage life, slowed down the ripening processes and maintained the quality of papaya. Whereas, it was effectively greater with calcium infiltration treatments than that for dip treatments. Calcium infiltration extended the storage life and retained the quality as calcium concentrations increased up to 2.5% and then declined. The desired effect was obtained at 2.5% infiltration compared with other treatments. The least disease incidence was found in those fruits infiltrated with 2.5% calcium. Hence, it can be concluded that postharvest infiltration of calcium at 2.5% has the potential to control disease incidence, prolong the storage life and preserve valuable attributes of postharvest papaya, presumably because of its effects on inhibition of ripening and senescence process and loss of the fruit firmness of papaya.

  8. Penentuan Dosis Insektisida Nabati Ekstrak Air Daun Pepaya (Carica papaya L.) Terhadap Larva Buah Jeruk

    Ratna

    2016-01-01

    Background: The use ofsynthetic insecticides on an ongoing basis can have a negative impact on human health and the environment. Required control alternative. Papaya leaves(Carica papaya L.)can be developedas aninsecticide active ingredient vegetable contains the enzyme papain, alkaloids, flavonoids, polyphenols, quinones, and terpenoids. Purpose: determine the effectof water extract papaya leaves mortality on larvae citrus fruit and Effective doses of water extract papaya leaves right as ...

  9. Sequences of the coat protein gene from brazilian isolates of Papaya ringspot virus

    LIMA ROBERTO C. A.; SOUZA JR. MANOEL T.; PIO-RIBEIRO GILVAN; LIMA J. ALBERSIO A.

    2002-01-01

    Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is the causal agent of the main papaya (Carica papaya) disease in the world. Brazil is currently the world's main papaya grower, responsible for about 40% of the worldwide production. Resistance to PRSV on transgenic plants expressing the PRSV coat protein (cp) gene was shown to be dependent on the sequence homology between the cp transgene expressed in the plant genome and the cp gene from the incoming virus, in an isolate-specific fashion. Therefore, knowledge o...

  10. 7 CFR 319.56-25 - Papayas from Central America and Brazil.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Papayas from Central America and Brazil. 319.56-25... § 319.56-25 Papayas from Central America and Brazil. The Solo type of papaya may be imported into the... shipment to the United States in one of the following locations: (1) Brazil: State of Espirito Santo;...

  11. The dsRNA Virus Papaya Meleira Virus and an ssRNA Virus Are Associated with Papaya Sticky Disease.

    Tathiana Ferreira Sá Antunes

    Full Text Available Papaya sticky disease, or "meleira", is one of the major diseases of papaya in Brazil and Mexico, capable of causing complete crop loss. The causal agent of sticky disease was identified as an isometric virus with a double stranded RNA (dsRNA genome, named papaya meleira virus (PMeV. In the present study, PMeV dsRNA and a second RNA band of approximately 4.5 kb, both isolated from latex of papaya plants with severe symptoms of sticky disease, were deep-sequenced. The nearly complete sequence obtained for PMeV dsRNA is 8,814 nucleotides long and contains two putative ORFs; the predicted ORF1 and ORF2 display similarity to capsid proteins and RdRp's, respectively, from mycoviruses tentatively classified in the family Totiviridae. The sequence obtained for the second RNA is 4,515 nucleotides long and contains two putative ORFs. The predicted ORFs 1 and 2 display 48% and 73% sequence identity, respectively, with the corresponding proteins of papaya virus Q, an umbravirus recently described infecting papaya in Ecuador. Viral purification in a sucrose gradient allowed separation of particles containing each RNA. Mass spectrometry analysis indicated that both PMeV and the second RNA virus (named papaya meleira virus 2, PMeV2 were encapsidated in particles formed by the protein encoded by PMeV ORF1. The presence of both PMeV and PMeV2 was confirmed in field plants showing typical symptoms of sticky disease. Interestingly, PMeV was detected alone in asymptomatic plants. Together, our results indicate that sticky disease is associated with double infection by PMeV and PMeV2.

  12. The dsRNA Virus Papaya Meleira Virus and an ssRNA Virus Are Associated with Papaya Sticky Disease.

    Sá Antunes, Tathiana Ferreira; Amaral, Raquel J Vionette; Ventura, José Aires; Godinho, Marcio Tadeu; Amaral, Josiane G; Souza, Flávia O; Zerbini, Poliane Alfenas; Zerbini, Francisco Murilo; Fernandes, Patricia Machado Bueno

    2016-01-01

    Papaya sticky disease, or "meleira", is one of the major diseases of papaya in Brazil and Mexico, capable of causing complete crop loss. The causal agent of sticky disease was identified as an isometric virus with a double stranded RNA (dsRNA) genome, named papaya meleira virus (PMeV). In the present study, PMeV dsRNA and a second RNA band of approximately 4.5 kb, both isolated from latex of papaya plants with severe symptoms of sticky disease, were deep-sequenced. The nearly complete sequence obtained for PMeV dsRNA is 8,814 nucleotides long and contains two putative ORFs; the predicted ORF1 and ORF2 display similarity to capsid proteins and RdRp's, respectively, from mycoviruses tentatively classified in the family Totiviridae. The sequence obtained for the second RNA is 4,515 nucleotides long and contains two putative ORFs. The predicted ORFs 1 and 2 display 48% and 73% sequence identity, respectively, with the corresponding proteins of papaya virus Q, an umbravirus recently described infecting papaya in Ecuador. Viral purification in a sucrose gradient allowed separation of particles containing each RNA. Mass spectrometry analysis indicated that both PMeV and the second RNA virus (named papaya meleira virus 2, PMeV2) were encapsidated in particles formed by the protein encoded by PMeV ORF1. The presence of both PMeV and PMeV2 was confirmed in field plants showing typical symptoms of sticky disease. Interestingly, PMeV was detected alone in asymptomatic plants. Together, our results indicate that sticky disease is associated with double infection by PMeV and PMeV2. PMID:27166626

  13. Effect of gamma-irradiation on ripening papaya pectin

    Papaya (Carica papaya, L., var. Sunset) at three initial ripeness stages were irradiated with 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0, or 1.5 kGy gamma-irradiation and pectin changes during ripening determined. A significant linear relationship was found between irradiation dose and firmness immediately after irradiation. Irradiation had no effect on fruit skin or flesh color of papaya fruit irradiated at the 5 to 30% yellow stage and allowed to ripen. Papaya irradiated when 5 to 30% yellow showed no significant changes in pectin methylesterase activity when ripe. Immediately after irradiation, the pectin in 10 to 30% yellow papaya showed depolymerization and demethoxylation, though no effect on pectin methylesterase activity was detected. There was an increase in water soluble pectin (WSP), while chelator soluble (CSP) and alkali soluble pectin (ASP) decreased, with a significant decline in the methanol content of the ASP fraction. After the 25 to 30% yellow ripeness stage, fruit irradiated at 0.50 to 1.0 kGy had less pectic depolymerization, and had a firmer texture than nonirradiated when ripe. A lower level of WSP and higher levels of CSP and ASP were found in ripe fruit that had been irradiated at 0.5 to 1.0 kGy when 25 to 30% yellow skin with a significant quadratic relationship between irradiation dose and the three pectin fractions. The firmness of these irradiated fruit were retained for two days longer than the nonirradiated control. (author)

  14. Effect of ozone on anthracnose physicochemical responses and gene expression in papaya (carica papaya l.)

    Ong, Mei Kying

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of varying levels of ozone (0, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5 or 5.0 ppm) for 96 h on 1. the in vitro and in vivo growth of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, the causal organism of anthracnose; 2. the reactive oxygen species generation and spore mitochondria of C. gloeosporioides using transmission electron microscope, fluorescence microscope and laser scanning confocal microscope; 3. the production of defence-related enzymes in papaya; 4. microbiological analysi...

  15. Subchronic Immunotoxicity Assessment of Genetically Modified Virus-Resistant Papaya in Rats.

    Lin, Hsin-Tang; Lee, Wei-Cheng; Tsai, Yi-Ting; Wu, Jhaol-Huei; Yen, Gow-Chin; Yeh, Shyi-Dong; Cheng, Ying-Huey; Chang, Shih-Chieh; Liao, Jiunn-Wang

    2016-07-27

    Papaya is an important fruit that provides a variety of vitamins with nutritional value and also holds some pharmacological properties, including immunomodulation. Genetically modified (GM) papaya plants resistant to Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) infection have been generated by cloning the coat protein gene of the PRSV which can be used as a valuable strategy to fight PRSV infection and to increase papaya production. In order to assess the safety of GM papaya as a food, this subchronic study was conducted to assess the immunomodulatory responses of the GM papaya line 823-2210, when compared with its parent plant of non-GM papaya, Tainung-2 (TN-2), in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Both non-GM and GM 823-2210 papaya fruits at low (1 g/kg bw) and high (2 g/kg bw) dosages were administered via daily oral gavage to male and female rats consecutively for 90 days. Immunophenotyping, mitogen-induced splenic cell proliferation, antigen-specific antibody response, and histopathology of the spleen and thymus were evaluated at the end of the experiment. Results of immunotoxicity assays revealed no consistent difference between rats fed for 90 days with GM 823-2210 papaya fruits, as opposed to those fed non-GM TN-2 papaya fruits, suggesting that with regard to immunomodulatory responses, GM 823-2210 papaya fruits maintain substantial equivalence to fruits of their non-GM TN-2 parent. PMID:27396727

  16. Physico-chemical characteristics of papaya (Carica papaya L.) seed oil of the Hong Kong/Sekaki variety.

    Yanty, Noorzianna Abdul Manaf; Marikkar, Jalaldeen Mohammed Nazrim; Nusantoro, Bangun Prajanto; Long, Kamariah; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd

    2014-01-01

    A study was carried out to determine the physicochemical characteristics of the oil derived from papaya seeds of the Hong Kong/Sekaki variety. Proximate analysis showed that seeds of the Hong Kong/Sekaki variety contained considerable amount of oil (27.0%). The iodine value, saponification value, unsaponifiable matter and free fatty acid contents of freshly extracted papaya seed oil were 76.9 g I2/100g oil, 193.5 mg KOH/g oil, 1.52% and 0.91%, respectively. The oil had a Lovibond color index of 15.2Y + 5.2B. Papaya seed oil contained ten detectable fatty acids, of which 78.33% were unsaturated. Oleic (73.5%) acid was the dominant fatty acids followed by palmitic acid (15.8%). Based on the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis, seven species of triacylglycerols (TAGs) were detected. The predominant TAGs of papaya seed oil were OOO (40.4%), POO (29.1%) and SOO (9.9%) where O, P, and S denote oleic, palmitic and stearic acids, respectively. Thermal analysis by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed that papaya seed oil had its major melting and crystallization transitions at 12.4°C and -48.2°C, respectively. Analysis of the sample by Z-nose (electronic nose) instrument showed that the sample had a high level of volatile compounds. PMID:25174674

  17. Simultaneous detection of papaya ringspot virus, papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus, and papaya mosaic virus by multiplex real-time reverse transcription PCR.

    Huo, P; Shen, W T; Yan, P; Tuo, D C; Li, X Y; Zhou, P

    2015-12-01

    Both the single infection of papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV) or papaya mosaic virus (PapMV) and double infection of PRSV and PLDMV or PapMV which cause indistinguishable symptoms, threaten the papaya industry in Hainan Island, China. In this study, a multiplex real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) was developed to detect simultaneously the three viruses based on their distinctive melting temperatures (Tms): 81.0±0.8°C for PRSV, 84.7±0.6°C for PLDMV, and 88.7±0.4°C for PapMV. The multiplex real-time RT-PCR method was specific and sensitive in detecting the three viruses, with a detection limit of 1.0×10(1), 1.0×10(2), and 1.0×10(2) copies for PRSV, PLDMV, and PapMV, respectively. Indeed, the reaction was 100 times more sensitive than the multiplex RT-PCR for PRSV, and 10 times more sensitive than multiplex RT-PCR for PLDMV. Field application of the multiplex real-time RT-PCR demonstrated that some non-symptomatic samples were positive for PLDMV by multiplex real-time RT-PCR but negative by multiplex RT-PCR, whereas some samples were positive for both PRSV and PLDMV by multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay but only positive for PLDMV by multiplex RT-PCR. Therefore, this multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay provides a more rapid, sensitive and reliable method for simultaneous detection of PRSV, PLDMV, PapMV and their mixed infections in papaya. PMID:26666186

  18. Growth of Listeria monocytogenes in melon, watermelon and papaya pulps.

    Penteado, Ana L; Leitão, Mauro F F

    2004-04-01

    Growth of Listeria monocytogenes in low-acid fruits (melon, watermelon and papaya) at different times of incubation and at temperatures of 10, 20 and 30 degrees C was studied. Fruit pulp portions with an average pH of 5.87, 5.50 and 4.87 for melon, watermelon and papaya, respectively, were obtained aseptically, homogenized, weighed and inoculated with suspensions (approximately 10(2) CFU/g) of L. monocytogenes. Generation times of 7.12, 13.03 and 15.05 h at 10 degrees C, 1.74, 2.17 and 6.42 h at 20 degrees C and 0.84, 1.00 and 1.16 h at 30 degrees C were obtained, respectively, for melon, watermelon and papaya. The results showed that L. monocytogenes grew in low-acid fruits at all tested temperatures, although growth was diminished, but not inhibited at 10 degrees C. PMID:15033271

  19. La Economia Chilena Frente a la Crisis Financiera: Respuestas Contra-Ciclicas y Desafios Pendientes

    Ricardo Ffrench-Davis; Rodrigo Heresi

    2014-01-01

    Ante el contagio de la crisis financiera internacional, la economia chilena experimento una intensa reduccion del precio del cobre y de los influjos de capitales. Consecuentemente, la demanda agregada y el empleo de trabajo y capital productivo se contrajeron hacia fines de 2008. En ese escenario, a diferencia de la reaccion frente al contagio de la crisis asiatica, la autoridad economica adopto un amplio conjunto de politicas publicas contra-ciclicas, caracterizadas principalmente por un aum...

  20. Paisajes del agua y trayectorias del arraigo en la Patagonia chilena

    Muñoz Rebolledo, Mª Dolores

    2011-01-01

    El artículo analiza las dificultades de asentarase en los paisajes de la vastedad en la Patagonia chilena, en la zona del río Baker y lago General Carrera. Toma como referencia la definicíión de paisaje contenida en el marco teórico y otros antecedentes expuestos en el capítulo 2 de la tesis doctoral

  1. Field released transgenic papaya effect on soil microbial communities and enzyme activities

    WEI Xiang-dong; ZOU Hui-ling; CHU Lee-min; LIAO Bin; YE Chang-min; LAN Chong-yu

    2006-01-01

    Soil properties, microbial communities and enzyme activities were studied in soil amended with replicase (RP)-transgenic or non-transgenic papaya under field conditions. Compared with non-transgenic papaya, significant differences (P<0.05) were observed in total nitrogen in soils grown with transgenic papaya. There were also significant differences (P<0.05) in the total number of colony forming units (CFUs) of bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi between soils amended with RP-transgenic plants and non-transgenic plants. Compared with non-transgenic papaya, the total CFUs of bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi in soil with transgenic papaya increased by 0.43-1.1, 0.21-0.80 and 0.46-0.73 times respectively. Significantly higher (P<0.05) CFUs of bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi resistant to kanamycin (Km) were obtained in soils with RP-transgenic papaya than those with non-transgenic papaya in all concentrations of Km. Higher resistance quotients for Kmr (kanam ycin resistant) bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi were found in soil planted with RP-transgenic papaya, and the resistance quotients for KTr bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi in soils with transgenic papaya increased 1.6-4.46, 0.63-2.5 and 0.75-2.30 times. RP-transgenic papaya and non-transgenic papaya produced significantly different enzyme activities in arylsulfatase (5.4-5.9x), polyphenol oxidase (0.7-1.4x), invertase (0.5-0.79x), cellulase (0.23-0.35x) and phosphodiesterase (0.16-0.2x). The former three soil enzymes appeared to be more sensitive to the transgenic papaya than the others, and could be useful parameters in assessing the effects of transgenic papaya.Transgenic papaya could alter soil chemical properties, enzyme activities and microbial communities.

  2. Sequence and genome organization of papaya meleira virus infecting papaya in Brazil.

    Abreu, Emanuel F M; Daltro, Cleidiane B; Nogueira, Elsa O P L; Andrade, Eduardo C; Aragão, Francisco J L

    2015-12-01

    Papaya sticky disease ('meleira') was first observed in Brazil at the beginning of the 1980s. The disease is characterized by intense latex exudation from the fruit surface that becomes dark as it oxidizes, which makes it difficult to sell. The causal agent, which has been called papaya meleira virus (PMeV), has been identified as an isometric virus particle, approximately 50 nm in diameter, with a double-stranded RNA genome. Here, we report the first complete sequence and organization of the 8.7-kb viral dsRNA genome. Two ORFs coding for a putative coat protein and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) were predicted. In silico analysis revealed that the translated ORF2 contains the conserved domains characteristic of an RdRp protein (pfam02123:RdRP 4), which is a family that includes RdRps from members of the genera Luteovirus, Totivirus and Rotavirus. Evolutionary analysis with amino acid sequences with the RdRps from members of the family Totiviridae and some dsRNA viruses showed that PMeV RdRp did not root itself in any genus. PMID:26370790

  3. INFLUENCE OF THICKNESS ON THE DRYING OF PAPAYA PUREE (Carica papaya L. THROUGH REFRACTANCE WINDOWTM TECHNOLOGY

    MARÍA U. OCORÓ-ZAMORA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la influencia del espesor de las muestras (2, 3 y 4 mm sobre las cinéticas de secado, actividad de agua (aw y color (∆E de rodajas de puré de papaya procesadas por tecnología de ventana de refractanciaTM (RWTM. Adicionalmente se evaluó la difusividad del agua (Deff teniendo en cuenta el encogimiento. Los datos de humedad se ajustaron mediante los modelos de Newton y Midilli. Los resultados mostraron que a menor espesor el secado fue más rápido, los valores de aw fueron menores y los ∆E superiores. Las muestras alcanzaron 0.0652, 0.1132 y 0.2624 g agua/ g sólido seco en 60 min para rodajas de 2, 3 y 4 mm, respectivamente. El Modelo de Midilli fue el más apropiado para predecir las curvas de secado de papaya por RWTM. Deff disminuyó a menor espesor y su orden de magnitud fue de 10-10 m2/s.

  4. NUEVO ACTIVADOR FISIOLOGICO POTENCIALIZADOR DE LA FRUCTIFICACIÓN EN PAPAYA ( Carica papaya L.

    RICARDO HERNÁNDEZ PÉREZ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Nuevos productos son aplicados actualmente con éxito en agricultura sustentable con el fin de activar rutas metabólicas específicas en plantas, los que son conocidos comercialmente como activadores fisiológicos, desestresantes o potencializadores del rendimiento. Sin embargo, pocas investigaciones han logrado introducir en la práctica tales alternativas. En este estudio se ofrece información sobre los resultados de un nuevo formulado denominado A-CETAS/07, obtenido a partir de residuos de la industria azucarera y complementado con moléculas antioxidantes. Este se comparó con un activador comercial (testigo y se aplicó foliarmente para estimular el potencial de fructificación en papaya ( L Carica papaya., cv. Maradol roja. Los resultados evidenciaron una revigorización de las plantas, con aumento progresivo del rendimiento a medida que se incrementó la dosis de A-CETAS/07, por encima de la media histórica regional entre 64 - 74 t ha-1 a los 9 meses después del trasplante, lo cual representa una alternativa económica y con impacto favorable en el medio ambiente.

  5. Imobilisasi Enzim Papain Dari Getah Papaya Dengan Alginant

    Firman Sebayang

    2009-01-01

    Telah dilakukan isolasi enzim papain dari getah papaya (Carica papaya). Isolasi papain dalam penelitian ini menggunakan aseton 85% sebagai pengendap enzim. Setelah melalui tahap penyaringan dan pengeringan beku diperoleh papain 1,25 gram untuk setiap 50 ml getah. Imobilisasi isolat enzim papain dengan metoda penjebakan(entrapment) menggunakan alginat sebagai matrik polimer. pH optimum enzim imobil diperoleh 7,0 dan temperatur optimum 55oC dengan aktivitas enzim 55,60 unit/ml, sedangkan pH opt...

  6. Consumer in-store response to irradiated papayas

    In this study, purchase behavior of California consumers in response to irradiated papayas is described. The papayas were shipped from Hawaii and irradiated in California under a permit by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service and approved by the California Department of Food and Agriculture. Results show that the superior appearance of the irradiated fruit appealed to consumers and that two-thirds or more of the people queried indicated that they would buy irradiated produce. It is noted that this marketing took place in a supportive environment with no protestors present. Informational material was available

  7. Effect of maleic hydrazide and waxing on quality and shelf life of papaya (carica papaya L.) fruits

    The effect of post harvest treatment of maleic hydrazide (MH) with and with out waxing on the quality and shelf-life of Baladi and Ekostika I papaya fruits at 18 ±1°C and 85%-90% relative humidity was evaluated. Maleic hydrazide at 250 and 500 ppm significantly delayed fruit ripening by two and three days in both papaya cultivars, respectively, compared with untreated fruits. The higher the concentration, the more was the delay in fruit ripening. The results also showed that waxing addition to MH resulted in a delay of two more days in fruit ripening that treatment with MH alone. The effect of MH and waxing treatments in delaying papaya fruits ripening was manifested in retarded respiratory climacteric, reduced weight loss and delayed fruit softening and increase in total soluble solids and ascorbic acid content.(Author)

  8. Study of the extraction process of papain from latex of papaya (carica papaya l.) fruits cv. maradol

    Andrade Mahecha, Margarita M; Morales Rodríguez, Olga; Martínez Correa, Hugo A.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we studied the extraction process of papain, present in the latex of papaya fruit (Carica papaya L.) cv. Maradol.  The variables studied in the extraction of papain were: latex:alcohol ratio (1:2.1 and 1:3) and drying method (vacuum and refractance window).  Papain enzyme responses were obtained in terms of enzymatic activity and yield of the extraction process. The best result in terms of enzyme activity and yield was obtained by vacuum drying and a latex:alcohol ratio of 1:3. ...

  9. An ultrasonic system for determining papaya physiological properties

    Ibrahim, Sallehuddin; Ramli, Azlin; Yunus, Mohd Amri Md

    2015-05-01

    There is an increasing need for high quality fruit. As such it is important to have a fast, accurate and reliable method for measuring and monitoring the quality of fruit from the field to the consumer. This paper presents an investigation on the use of a non-destructive ultrasonic system which can be used to measure the quality of papaya.

  10. Estimation of papaya leaf area using the central vein length

    Campostrini Eliemar

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Four genotypes of papaya (Carica papaya L. two from the 'Solo' group (Sunrise Solo and Improved Sunrise Solo line 72/12 and two from the 'Formosa' group (Tainung 02 and Known-You 01, grown in Macaé, RJ, Brazil (lat. 22(0 24' S, long. 41(0 42' W, were used in this study. Twenty-five mature leaves from each genotype were sampled four and five months after seedling transplant to the field to determine the length of the leaf central vein (LLCV and the leaf area (LA. According to covariance analyses there were no significant differences in the slope and intercept of the mathematical models calculated for each genotype. Thus, a single mathematical model (Log LA = 0.315 + 1.85 Log LLCV, R²=0.898 was adjusted to estimate the LA using the length of LLCV for the four genotypes. An unique model can be applied to estimate the LA for the four papaya genotypes using LLCV in the range from 0.25 to 0.60 m, and for papaya trees 150 to 180 days after transplanting.

  11. 78 FR 48628 - Importation of Papayas From Peru

    2013-08-09

    .... APHIS-2012-0014, Regulatory Analysis and Development, PPD, APHIS, Station 3A-03.8, 4700 River Road Unit..., PPQ, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit 133, Riverdale, MD 20737-1231; (301) 851- 2036. SUPPLEMENTARY... the risk associated with the importation of papayas from Central America, Brazil, Colombia,...

  12. Papaya fruit quality management during the postharvest supply chain

    Papayas are popular in tropical and subtropical regions and are being exported in large volumes to Europe, the U.S. and Japan. The fruit has excellent taste, exotic flavor and nutritional properties, being rich in vitamins A, C, and antioxidants. However, due to its highly perishable nature it has n...

  13. Ekstraksi Minyak dari Biji Pepaya (Carica Papaya) dengan Metode Soxhlet Extraction dengan Mengunakan N-Butil Asetat

    Purwanto, Sigit

    2016-01-01

    Papaya seed it is a waste product from home industry. Commonly, papaya seed used to be a new plant to grow. Papaya seed have a potential as a edible oil. Soxhlet is used to obtain the oil from papaya seed by using several solvent such as: petroleum ether, methanol and n-hexane. In this research, papaya seed as raw material by using a solvent n-butyl acetate. The variables studied were the time of extraction and the ratio papaya seed to solvent . The results showed that the highest fatty acid ...

  14. Callus induction in papaya (Carica papaya L. and synseed production for low temperature storage and cryopreservation

    Teixeira da Silva Jaime A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The mid- to long-term preservation of papaya (Carica papaya L. would allow for the safeguarding of important germplasm. In this study, soft friable callus (SFC and hard callus (HC were induced from the first two true leaves of 10-day-old seedlings containing a midrib derived from the germinated seed of two cultivars (‘Rainbow’ and ‘Sunrise Solo’. Following germination on a Murashige and Skoog (MS medium that contained 3% sucrose and was free of plant growth regulators (PGRs, sections of the first true leaves from 10-day-old seedlings were exposed to seven published callus or somatic embryogenesis protocols for zygotic embryos, leaves or hypocotyls. Optimal SFC and HC induction was carried out on a half-strength MS medium following the Fitch (1993 or the Ascêncio-Cabral et al. (2008 protocol, respectively. SFC formed shoots that could then convert to plants when transferred to a full-strength MS medium devoid of PGRs. Plantlets 10-cm tall were acclimatised in two steps: first by in vitro acclimatisation in aerated vessels, the Vitron, under CO2-enriched (3000 ppm CO2, then by the transfer of individually rooted plantlets in Rockwool® blocks to a substrate of soil: pine bark : perlite (1:1:1, v/v/v. SFC and HC were then encapsulated in alginate beads, which were exposed to low temperature storage (LTS at 10°C and 15°C, and also cryopreserved for 30 days. All encapsulated alginate beads that contained SFC, HC or leaf tissue that had been stored under LTS or cryopreserved were able to regenerate callus when placed on an optimal callus induction medium. Plants derived from the control, LTS and cryopreservation protocols, either from SFC or HC, were successfully acclimatised.

  15. Sensitivity of papaya seeds to gamma-irradiation

    The major problems faced by the papaya industry in Malaysia are the papaya ringspot virus disease and the short shelf-life of the fruit. Efforts have been made to address these problems and they include conventional breeding and selection and biotechnological tools for development of transgenic papayas with PRSV resistance and delayed fruit ripening characteristics. Irradiation-induced changes in papaya for selection of improved varieties could offer another approach to resolve these problems. As the first step, the radio-sensitivity of papaya seed must be established before mass irradiation of the materials to generate the desired variability for evaluation and selection later. For the first approximation dosage, the seeds of two local. varieties, Sekaki and Eksotika were irradiated as either dry seeds or as pre-germinated seeds (soaked overnight in water and surface-dried). The dosage ranged from 0 to 300 Gy. Wet pre-germinated seeds were all killed at 100 Gy while dry seeds did not show loss of viability even at 300 Gy. The dosage for dry seeds was raised to 1000 Gy in the following experiment and the LD 50 (or half-kill) was estimated to be 650 Gy. However, at this dosage, seedling growth was markedly reduced and this dosage may not be suitable for mass irradiation. From the growth data, it was estimated that 525 Gy was the dosage that reduced 50% of growth in height and this dosage was recommended for mass irradiation of dry seeds. For wet, pre-germinated seeds, results from the third experiment indicated that 42.5 Gy was the optimal dosage for mass irradiation. At this dosage, both seed germination and seedling growth was reduced by 50%. (Author)

  16. DESHIDRATACIÓN OSMÓTICA DE FRUTOS DE PAPAYA HAWAIANA (Carica papaya L. EN CUATRO AGENTES EDULCORANTES OSMOTIC DEHYDRATION OF HAWAIIAN PAPAYA FRUITS (Carica papaya L. USING FOUR SWEETENER AGENTS

    Margarita Maria Ríos Pérez

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Trozos de papaya hawaiiana (Carica papaya L. fueron sometidos a un proceso de osmo-deshidratación usando cuatro agentes edulcorantes: miel de abejas, miel de caña, crema de miel de abejas y sacarosa en medio acuoso a 79 grados Brix, temperatura de 20 ºC y 23 horas de inmersión. Los resultados estadísticos mostraron que el agente de mayor capacidad deshidratante fue la miel de abejas y el menor la sacarosa. Además, los análisis cinéticos indicaron que la máxima transferencia de masa ocurre en las primeras cuatro horas del proceso y la máxima pérdida de masa del producto que puede ser alcanzada fue de 32 % con un contenido de humedad final en los frutos de papaya osmodeshidratada de 41,3 % b.h.Pieces of Hawaiian papaya (Carica papaya L. were subjected to osmotic dehydration using four sweetener agents: honey, molasses, honey cream and sucrose in aqueous solution to 79 degrees Brix, 20 ºC temperature and 23 hours of immersion. The statistical results showed that honey was the sweetener agent with highest osmotic capacity while sucrose had the lowest. The kinetic analysis also showed that the maximum mass transfer occurs during the first four hours of the process and the maximum mass loss of the product that can be attained was 32 % with a final moisture content of 41,3 % w.b.

  17. Antagonism or synergism between papaya ringspot virus and papaya mosaic virus in Carica papaya is determined by their order of infection.

    Chávez-Calvillo, Gabriela; Contreras-Paredes, Carlos A; Mora-Macias, Javier; Noa-Carrazana, Juan C; Serrano-Rubio, Angélica A; Dinkova, Tzvetanka D; Carrillo-Tripp, Mauricio; Silva-Rosales, Laura

    2016-02-01

    Antagonism between unrelated plant viruses has not been thoroughly described. Our studies show that two unrelated viruses, papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) and papaya mosaic virus (PapMV) produce different symptomatic outcomes during mixed infection depending on the inoculation order. Synergism occurs in plants infected first with PRSV or in plants infected simultaneously with PRSV and PapMV, and antagonism occurs in plants infected first with PapMV and later inoculated with PRSV. During antagonism, elevated pathogenesis-related (PR-1) gene expression and increased reactive oxygen species production indicated the establishment of a host defense resulting in the reduction in PRSV titers. Polyribosomal fractioning showed that PRSV affects translation of cellular eEF1α, PR-1, β-tubulin, and PapMV RNAs in planta, suggesting that its infection could be related to an imbalance in the translation machinery. Our data suggest that primary PapMV infection activates a defense response against PRSV and establishes a protective relationship with the papaya host. PMID:26765969

  18. Portable chlorophyll meter (PCM-502) values are related to total chlorophyll concentration and photosynthetic capacity in papaya (Carica papaya L.)

    This study was carried out to verify the practical use of the portable chlorophyll meter-PCM502 (PCM) in two papaya cultivars with contrasting green coloring of the leaf blade (‘Golden’: yellowish-green; ‘Solo’: dark green). The relationship was studied between the photosynthetic process and leaf n...

  19. Purification and characterization of a papaya (Carica papaya L.) pectin methylesterase isolated from a commercial papain preparation

    We purified a single stable pectin methylesterase (CpL-PME; EC 3.1.1.11) from a commercial papain preparation, which is isolated from Carica papaya (L.) fruit latex. This CpL-PME was separated from the abundant cysteine endopeptidases activities using sequential hydrophobic interaction and cation-ex...

  20. Chemical treatment of papaya seeds aiming at long-term storage and control of damping off

    Silvia de Carvalho Campos Botelho; Silvaldo Felipe da Silveira; Roberto Ferreira da Silva; Alexandre Pio Viana

    2014-01-01

    Damping off is a nursery disease of great economic importance in papaya and seed treatment may be an effective measure to control. The aim of this work was to evaluate the quality of papaya seeds treated with fungicides and stored under two environmental and packaging conditions. Additionally, the efficiency of fungicide treatments in the control of damping-off caused by Rhizoctonia solani was evaluated. Papaya seeds were treated with the fungicides Captan, Tolylfluanid and the mixture Tolylf...

  1. In vitro erythrocyte membrane stabilization properties of Carica papaya L. leaf extracts

    Priyanga Ranasinghe; Pathmasiri Ranasinghe; Abeysekera, W. P. Kaushalya M.; G A Sirimal Premakumara; Perera, Yashasvi S; Padmalal Gurugama; Gunatilake, Saman B.

    2012-01-01

    Background : Carica papaya L. fruit juice and leaf extracts are known to have many beneficial medical properties. Recent reports have claimed possible beneficial effects of C. papaya L. leaf juice in treating patients with dengue viral infections. This study aims to evaluate the membrane stabilization potential of C. papaya L. leaf extracts using an in vitro hemolytic assay. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in between June and August 2010. Two milliliters of blood from healthy v...

  2. Metáforas en Lengua de Señas Chilena Metaphors in Chilean Sign Language

    Carolina Becerra

    2008-01-01

    Este estudio describe las características del lenguaje metafórico de personas sordas chilenas y su impacto en la comprensión lingüística. La relevancia de esta pregunta radica en la escasez de investigaciones realizadas, particularmente a nivel nacional. Se desarrolló un estudio cualitativo en base a análisis de videos de sujetos sordos en habla espontánea. Se confeccionó una lista de metáforas conceptuales y no conceptuales en Lengua de Señas Chilena. Posteriormente se evaluó su comprensión ...

  3. Reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid detection of Papaya ringspot virus.

    Shen, Wentao; Tuo, Decai; Yan, Pu; Yang, Yong; Li, Xiaoying; Zhou, Peng

    2014-08-01

    Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) and Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV), which causes disease symptoms similar to PRSV, threaten commercial production of both non-transgenic-papaya and PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya in China. A reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay to detect PLDMV was developed previously. In this study, the development of another RT-LAMP assay to distinguish among transgenic, PRSV-infected and PLDMV-infected papaya by detection of PRSV is reported. A set of four RT-LAMP primers was designed based on the highly conserved region of the P3 gene of PRSV. The RT-LAMP method was specific and sensitive in detecting PRSV, with a detection limit of 1.15×10(-6)μg of total RNA per reaction. Indeed, the reaction was 10 times more sensitive than one-step RT-PCR. Field application of the RT-LAMP assay demonstrated that samples positive for PRSV were detected only in non-transgenic papaya, whereas samples positive for PLDMV were detected only in commercialized PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya. This suggests that PRSV remains the major limiting factor for non-transgenic-papaya production, and the emergence of PLDMV threatens the commercial transgenic cultivar in China. However, this study, combined with the earlier development of an RT-LAMP assay for PLDMV, will provide a rapid, sensitive and cost-effective diagnostic power to distinguish virus infections in papaya. PMID:24769198

  4. Poetas mapuches en la literatura chilena Mapuche poets in Chilean literature

    Iván Carrasco M

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se estudia el modo en que las tradiciones textuales etnoliterarias de los mapuches y literarias de los españoles, se han imbricado en la literatura chilena a través del tiempo, y los aportes que ha dejado la incorporación de poetas de cultura mapuche en la poesía chilena contemporánea. En particular, se establece que autores como Sebastián Queupul, Pedro Alonzo, Elicura Chihuailaf y Leonel Lienlaf han participado en la conformación de la poesía etnocultural, dentro de la cual han propuesto una visión intercultural que sobrepasa los límites de la etnoliteratura mapuche y la literatura chilena tradicional, y un conjunto de estrategias textuales compartidas con otros poetas (enunciación sincrética, intertextualidad transliteraria y codificación plural, en la cual han creado una variedad propia, el doble registro.This paper studies the way in which mapuche textual ethnoliterary traditions and Spanish literary traditions have mixed in the Chilean literature through time, and the contribution of Mapuche poets to contemporary Chilean poetry, particularly, authors such as Sebastián Queupul, Pedro Alonzo, Elicura Chihuailaf and Leonel Lienlaf, where they have created an intercultural view that goes beyond the limits of the mapuche ethnoliterature and Chilean traditional literature, together with a bunch of text strategies shared with others poets (syncretic enunciation, transliterary intertext and plural codification, where they have created their own variety, the double register.

  5. Sequences of the coat protein gene from brazilian isolates of Papaya ringspot virus Seqüência do gene da proteína capsidial de isolados brasileiros de Papaya ringspot virus

    ROBERTO C.A. LIMA; Manoel T. Souza Jr.; GILVAN PIO-RIBEIRO; J. Albersio A. Lima

    2002-01-01

    Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is the causal agent of the main papaya (Carica papaya) disease in the world. Brazil is currently the world's main papaya grower, responsible for about 40% of the worldwide production. Resistance to PRSV on transgenic plants expressing the PRSV coat protein (cp) gene was shown to be dependent on the sequence homology between the cp transgene expressed in the plant genome and the cp gene from the incoming virus, in an isolate-specific fashion. Therefore, knowledge o...

  6. Cyanogenesis in glucosinolate-producing plants: Carica papaya and Carica quercifolia

    Olafsdottir, E.S.; Jørgensen, Lise Bolt; Jaroszewski, Jerzy W.

    Carica papaya, Carica quercifolia, Carica hastata, Caricaceae, Passifloraceae, Biosynthesis, Glucosinolates, Cyanohydrin glycosides, Cyanogenic glycosides, Prunasin, Tetraphyllin B, Cyclopentenylglycine......Carica papaya, Carica quercifolia, Carica hastata, Caricaceae, Passifloraceae, Biosynthesis, Glucosinolates, Cyanohydrin glycosides, Cyanogenic glycosides, Prunasin, Tetraphyllin B, Cyclopentenylglycine...

  7. EFEITOS DO CAPITAL INTELECTUAL SOBRE O DESEMPENHO FINANCEIRO EM EMPRESAS BRASILEIRAS E CHILENAS

    Salete Turra; Danielle Paná Vergini; Fellipe André Jacomossi; Nelson Hein

    2015-01-01

    O objetivo da pesquisa foi verificar a influência do Capital Intelectual medido pelo Valor Agregado do Capital Intelectual (VACI) sobre o desempenho financeiro em empresas brasileiras e chilenas no ano de 2013. Realizou-se uma pesquisa descritiva, documental, com abordagem quantitativa por meio da técnica estatística correlação canônica. Os dados foram coletados na base de dados da Tomnson®. Os resultados do estudo demonstraram correlação canônica existente entre as variáveis que compõem o VA...

  8. Referentes internacionales para el giro reformista de la izquierda chilena (1975-1990

    Marcelo Mella Polanco

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo analiza el giro reformista de la izquierda chilena durante el régimen autoritario de Pinochet. Para lograrlo, se expone cómo la penetración de ideas provenientes del marxismo analítico homogeneizó un importante sector de intelectuales y expertos opositores de Pinochet, constituyendo, de esta forma, un nuevo mainstream político-académico capaz de renovar los marcos epistémicos de las ciencias sociales y diseñar la transición a la democracia.

  9. Verbo de concordancia en la lengua de señas chilena

    Dora Adamo Quintela; Irene Cabrera Ramírez; Pamela Lattapiat Navarro; Ximena Acuña Robertson

    1999-01-01

    El presente trabajo trata sobre una clase verbo de la lengua de señas chilena, el verbo de concordancia. A través de su descripción se da cuenta de los diversos mecanismos utilizados por el sistema de la lengua de señas para establecer la concordancia entre el sujeto y el objeto, que funcionan en la oración mediante el proceso de inflexión gramatical. Una característica relevante de la LSCh consiste en la utilización del espacio para producir modificaciones gramaticales regulares, entendidas ...

  10. Implementación del enfoque de derechos humanos: la reforma sanitaria chilena

    Nuria Cunill-Grau; Margarita Fernández

    2014-01-01

    EI propósito de este trabajo es analizar la incidencia de la arquitectura institucional publica en la implementación de las políticas públicas con enfoque de derechos humanos. Se adopta como caso de estudio la reforma sanitaria chilena a partir del año 2005, que reconoce garantías exigibles de acceso, oportunidad, calidad y protección financiera para un conjunto de problemas de salud a la ciudadanía, independientemente de su adscripción al sistema público 0 privado. La metodología integró un ...

  11. La Predicción de la Insolvencia de Empresas Chilenas

    Felipe Zurita

    2008-01-01

    Este trabajo compara modelos de inestabilidad financiera de naturaleza estadística y basados en la teoría de opciones, para el conjunto de sociedades anónimas abiertas chilenas. Los modelos estadísticos tienen un ajuste adecuado, aunque la peculiar historia de las quiebras en el período considerado, a saber, su aglomeración al inicio, pone en duda su utilidad como herramienta predictiva. En el segundo caso, en cambio, el promedio de probabilidades de quiebra muestra una alta correlación con i...

  12. Effect of gamma irradiation in papaya (Carica papaya L.) harvested in three degrees of maturation.; Efeito da irradiacao gama em mamao papaia (Carica papaya L.) colhido em tres pontos de maturacao

    Pimentel, Rodrigo Meirelles de Azevedo

    2001-07-01

    The papaya is a fragile tropical fruit with thin skin, susceptible to post harvest diseases and mechanical injuries. Furthermore, it is sensible to low temperatures and at normal conditions it ripens rapidly, increasing the difficulties with storage. The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of gamma irradiation in papayas harvested in three degrees of maturation, in order to increase shelf life. To accomplish that, papayas were harvested in perfect quality conditions, washed, submitted to carnauba wax and selected by skin coloration into three distinct degrees of maturation: Mat 0, or beginning of yellow coloration; Mat 1, yellow stripes more developed, and Mat 2, one third yellow. Half of them were submitted to irradiation with 0, 75 kGy, while the others became control treatment. They were analyzed in four different periods of conservation, which were 1 day after irradiation (DAI) refrigerated (11 +- 1 deg C), 14 DAI refrigerated, 14 DAI refrigerated + 3 at room temperature (RT = 24 deg +- 2 deg C) and 14 DAI refrigerated + 6 at RT. The effect of irradiation was not influenced by the maturation degree at harvest. Irradiation promoted firmness maintenance of papaya and, therefore, delayed ripening; modified the green color of papaya to a lighter tone, which determined more homogeneity in the skin yellow color development (greater values of L* and b*), and turned the papaya flesh color lighter (rower values of b*). There was no effect of irradiation in papaya weight loss, in the occurrence of diseases, in the development of surface yellow color, in the parameter a* of papaya skin color, in the parameters L*, a* and chroma of flesh color, p H and total soluble solids content. Visual and organoleptic sensorial tests were accomplished with papayas from a new delivery in the conservation period of 14 DAI refrigerated + 3 at RT. In the visual test was evaluated the appearance of papaya in the following treatments: Mat O control, Mat O irradiated, Mat 1

  13. Transcriptome Profiling Revealed Stress-Induced and Disease Resistance Genes Up-Regulated in PRSV Resistant Transgenic Papaya

    Fang, Jingping; Lin, Aiting; Qiu, Weijing; Cai, Hanyang; Umar, Muhammad; Chen, Rukai; Ming, Ray

    2016-01-01

    Papaya is a productive and nutritious tropical fruit. Papaya Ringspot Virus (PRSV) is the most devastating pathogen threatening papaya production worldwide. Development of transgenic resistant varieties is the most effective strategy to control this disease. However, little is known about the genome-wide functional changes induced by particle bombardment transformation. We conducted transcriptome sequencing of PRSV resistant transgenic papaya SunUp and its PRSV susceptible progenitor Sunset t...

  14. 77 FR 31294 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Papaya...

    2012-05-25

    ... Collection; Importation of Papaya From Colombia and Ecuador AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... with regulations for the importation of commercial shipments of fresh papaya from Colombia and Ecuador... importation of commercial shipments of fresh papaya from Colombia and Ecuador, contact Ms. Dorothy...

  15. Effects of Different Concentrations and Applications of Calcium on Storage Life and Physicochemical Characteristics of Papaya (Carica Papaya L.)

    T. M. M. Mahmud; A. Al Eryani-Raqeeb; Syed Omar, S. R.; A. R. Mohamed Zaki; Al E. Abdul-Rahman

    2008-01-01

    Papaya (Carica Papaya L.) fruits index 2 were treated with 1.5, 2.5 and 3.5% solutions of calcium chloride by dipping and vacuum infiltration (-33 Kpa) or untreated (0%) as control. Effects of these treatments were evaluated on storage life and postharvest quality characteristics of papaya. After 21 days of storage at 13±1°C, the fruits were removed from storage for physicochemical analysis. Following additional five days holding in the storage condition for fruits used for evaluation o...

  16. EVALUACIÓN DE MARCADORES GENÉTICOS PARA DISCRIMINACIÓN ENTRE HEMBRAS Y HERMAFRODITAS DE PAPAYA (Carica papaya L.) VARIEDAD ‘MARADOL’

    Violeta Aspeitia-Echegaray; Ma. Alejandra Torres-Tapia; Dulce V. Mendoza-Rodríguez; M. Humberto Reyes-Valdés

    2014-01-01

    La papaya ( Carica papaya L.) presenta tres tipos sexuales: macho, hembra y hermafrodita, de los cuales solo el último posee valor comercial y calidad de exportación. Con base en su morfología, dichos tipos únicamente pueden ser identificados a partir de la floración. La segregación del sexo en esta especie se explica con un modelo de un locus multialélico, aunque tiene una base molecular más compleja ya que puede intervenir más de un gen. En la papaya ‘Maradol’ se presentan casi exclusivamen...

  17. Purification of papain from fresh latex of Carica papaya

    Rubens Monti; Carmelita A. Basilio; Henrique C. Trevisan; Jonas Contiero

    2000-01-01

    In the present study we wish to report a method of crystallizing papain from fresh papaya latex which gave higher yields than previously reported. This method does not involve the use of sulphydryl reagents. The papain thus obtained is practically pure and shows a single band when submitted to electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gel, and is identical to the papain obtained by other methods. In routine enzymatic assays, specific activity was measured using Z-gly-pNP and BAEE as substrates. Papai...

  18. Development of transgenic papayas expressing the coat protein gene from a Brazilian isolate of Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) = Desenvolvimento de mamoeiros transgênicos resistentes a vírus expressando o gene da capa protéica de um isolado brasileiro de Papaya ringspot virus

    Souza, M.T.; Níckel, O.; Gonsalves, D.

    2005-01-01

    Translatable and nontranslatable versions of the coat protein (cp) gene of a Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) isolate collected in the state of Bahia, Brazil, were engineered for expression in Sunrise and Sunset Solo varieties of papaya (Carica papaya). The biolistic system was used to transform seconda

  19. Ripening behavior of papaya (Carica papaya L.) exposed to gamma irradiation

    Papaya fruit treated with 250 Gy of γ-irradiation frequently softened more uniformly than non-irradiated fruit. Fruit with less than 25% of their surface colored yellow placed immediately into storage at 10 °C after irradiation developed skin scald. This was prevented by delaying storage by 12 h. Fruit that were irradiated when 30% of the skin was yellowed softened at a slower rate than non-irradiated fruit. There was no difference in softening rate between irradiated and non-irradiated fruit at the mature green stage. Fruit stored for 14 days at 10 °C before returning to 25 °C had a slightly slower rate of softening than fruit allowed to ripen at 25 °C without storage. Premature flesh softening occurred occasionally in fruit that had between 8 and 18% of the skin yellow and 70–90% flesh coloring when irradiated. Premature softening occurred in the tests run on fruit that were harvested during the warmer months; fruit harvested during the cooler months did not show the condition. The conditions of growth that predispose fruit to more rapid softening following γ-irradiation were not determined

  20. The potential of papaya leaf extract in controlling Ganoderma boninense

    Tay, Z. H.; Chong, K. P.

    2016-06-01

    Basal Stem Rot (BSR) disease causes significant losses to the oil palm industry. Numerous controls have been applied in managing the disease but no conclusive result was reported. This study investigated the antifungal potential of papaya leaf extracts against Ganoderma boninense, the causal pathogen of BSR. Among the five different solvents tested in extraction of compounds from papaya leaf, methanol and acetone gave the highest yield. In vitro antifungal activity of the methanol and acetone extracts were evaluated against G. boninense using agar dilution at four concentrations: 5 mg mL-1, 15 mg mL-1, 30 mg mL-1and 45 mg mL-1. The results indicated a positive correlation between the concentration of leaf extracts and the inhibition of G. boninense. ED50 of methanol and acetone crude extracts were determined to be 32.016 mg mL-1and 65.268 mg mL-1, respectively. The extracts were later semi-purified using solid phase extraction (SPE) and the nine bioactive compounds were identified: decanoic acid, 2-methyl-, Z,Z-10-12-Hexadecadien-1-ol acetate, dinonanoin monocaprylin, 2-chloroethyl oleate, phenol,4-(1-phenylethyl)-, phenol,2,4-bis(1-phenylethyl)-, phenol-2-(1-phenylethyl)-, ethyl iso-allocholate and 1- monolinoleoylglycerol trimethylsilyl ether. The findings suggest that papaya leaf extracts have the ability to inhibit the growth of G. boninense, where a higher concentration of the extract exhibits better inhibition effects.

  1. A rapid detection for irradiated fresh papayas using ESR spectroscopy

    The detections of radicals induced in irradiated both fresh and dried papayas were carried out at liquid nitrogen and room temperature using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. Fresh papayas irradiated by the γ-rays were separated into flesh and skin that subjected to the ESR detection. The ESR spectra of the specimen at liquid-nitrogen temperature were observed clearly at a week after the γ-irradiation. Those signals were consisted from main peak at g=2.000 and side peaks at g=2.018 and 1.982. They showed a linear response against the dose. Furthermore, the side peaks from freeze-dried papaya flesh stored at 4degC were observed clearly at two weeks after the γ-irradiation. Those signals also showed the linear dose-response. The detection scheme for irradiated fresh fruits can be done by two stages: 1) A screening test of ESR signals at liquid nitrogen temperature using fresh samples. 2) A room temperature ESR measurement using freeze-dry samples. (author)

  2. Efecto de la madurez, geometría y presión sobre la cinética de transferencia de masa en la deshidratación osmótica de papaya (Carica papaya L., var. Maradol)

    Lina Marcela Chavarro-Castrillón; Claudia Isabel Ochoa-Martínez; Alfredo Ayala-Aponte

    2006-01-01

    Las papayas obtenidas en el raleo (papayas menos desarrolladas entresacadas de los árboles para beneficiar el crecimiento de las otras) generalmente se descartan. Alternativamente, estas papayas pueden secarse por un proceso de deshidratación osmótica y secado térmico convencional para usarlas como snacks o como ingrediente para otros productos. Se comparó la cinética de transferencia de masa en la deshidratación osmótica de papayas de raleo frente a papayas desarrolladas con diferente grado ...

  3. Bio-safety of transgenic papaya resistant against Papaya ring spot virus%抗病毒转基因番木瓜及其安全性问题

    李世访

    2011-01-01

    本文对番木瓜生产上存在的病害问题、转基因番木瓜的研发、转基因番木瓜国际竞争的动态与趋势、转基因番木瓜的安全性、转基因木瓜的标识等几个方面进行综述.%This paper was focused on the following issues: 1) Diseases of papaya; 2) Research and development of transgenic papaya; 3) Trends of international competition on transgenic papaya; 4) Safety of transgenic papaya; 5) Identification of transgenic papaya.

  4. Effect of heat treatment on ethylene and CO2 emissions rates during papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit ripening

    da Silva, M. G.; Santos, E. O.; Sthel, M. S.; Cardoso, S. L.; Cavalli, A.; Monteiro, A. R.; de Oliveira, J. G.; Pereira, M. G.; Vargas, H.

    2003-01-01

    Ripening studies of nontreated and treated papaya (papaya L) are accomplished by monitoring the ethylene and CO2 emission rates of that climacteric fruit, to evaluate its shelf life. The treatments simulate the commercial Phitosanitarian process used to avoid the fly infestation. Ethylene emission was measured using a commercial CO2 laser driven photoacoustic setup and CO2, using a commercial gas analysis also based on the photothermal effect. The results show a marked change in ethylene and CO2 emission rate pattern for treated fruits when compared to the ones obtained for nontreated fruits and a displacement of the climacteric pick shown that the treatment causes a decrease of shelf life of fruit.

  5. Selection and testing of epiphytic yeasts to control anthacnose in post-harvest of papaya fruit

    Capdeville, G.; Souza, M.T.; Santos, J.R.P.; Miranda, S.P.; Caetano, A.R.; Torres, F.A.G.

    2007-01-01

    Anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, is a major post-harvest disease in papaya fruit. The major objectives of the present work were to isolate, select and test the in vitro and in vivo ability of epiphytic microorganisms, isolated from papaya fruit and leaf surfaces, in controlling

  6. A Current Overview of the Papaya meleira virus, an Unusual Plant Virus

    Paolla M. V. Abreu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Papaya meleira virus (PMeV is the causal agent of papaya sticky disease, which is characterized by a spontaneous exudation of fluid and aqueous latex from the papaya fruit and leaves. The latex oxidizes after atmospheric exposure, resulting in a sticky feature on the fruit from which the name of the disease originates. PMeV is an isometric virus particle with a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA genome of approximately 12 Kb. Unusual for a plant virus, PMeV particles are localized on and linked to the polymers present in the latex. The ability of the PMeV to inhabit such a hostile environment demonstrates an intriguing interaction of the virus with the papaya. A hypersensitivity response is triggered against PMeV infection, and there is a reduction in the proteolytic activity of papaya latex during sticky disease. In papaya leaf tissues, stress responsive proteins, mostly calreticulin and proteasome-related proteins, are up regulated and proteins related to metabolism are down-regulated. Additionally, PMeV modifies the transcription of several miRNAs involved in the modulation of genes related to the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Until now, no PMeV resistant papaya genotype has been identified and roguing is the only viral control strategy available. However, a single inoculation of papaya plants with PMeV dsRNA delayed the progress of viral infection.

  7. A current overview of the Papaya meleira virus, an unusual plant virus.

    Abreu, Paolla M V; Antunes, Tathiana F S; Magaña-Álvarez, Anuar; Pérez-Brito, Daisy; Tapia-Tussell, Raúl; Ventura, José A; Fernandes, Antonio A R; Fernandes, Patricia M B

    2015-04-01

    Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) is the causal agent of papaya sticky disease, which is characterized by a spontaneous exudation of fluid and aqueous latex from the papaya fruit and leaves. The latex oxidizes after atmospheric exposure, resulting in a sticky feature on the fruit from which the name of the disease originates. PMeV is an isometric virus particle with a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) genome of approximately 12 Kb. Unusual for a plant virus, PMeV particles are localized on and linked to the polymers present in the latex. The ability of the PMeV to inhabit such a hostile environment demonstrates an intriguing interaction of the virus with the papaya. A hypersensitivity response is triggered against PMeV infection, and there is a reduction in the proteolytic activity of papaya latex during sticky disease. In papaya leaf tissues, stress responsive proteins, mostly calreticulin and proteasome-related proteins, are up regulated and proteins related to metabolism are down-regulated. Additionally, PMeV modifies the transcription of several miRNAs involved in the modulation of genes related to the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Until now, no PMeV resistant papaya genotype has been identified and roguing is the only viral control strategy available. However, a single inoculation of papaya plants with PMeV dsRNA delayed the progress of viral infection. PMID:25856636

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of Erwinia mallotivora BT-MARDI, Causative Agent of Papaya Dieback Disease.

    Redzuan, R Ahmad; Abu Bakar, N; Rozano, L; Badrun, R; Mat Amin, N; Mohd Raih, M F

    2014-01-01

    Erwinia mallotivora was isolated from papaya trees infected with dieback disease, which were planted at the Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI), Malaysia. Here, we report a draft genome sequence of E. mallotivora BT-MARDI, which offers an important source of information for understanding pathogen and host interaction during papaya dieback development. PMID:24812220

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of Erwinia mallotivora BT-MARDI, Causative Agent of Papaya Dieback Disease

    Redzuan, R. Ahmad; Abu Bakar, N; Rozano, L.; Badrun, R.; Mat Amin, N.; Mohd Raih, M. F.

    2014-01-01

    Erwinia mallotivora was isolated from papaya trees infected with dieback disease, which were planted at the Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI), Malaysia. Here, we report a draft genome sequence of E. mallotivora BT-MARDI, which offers an important source of information for understanding pathogen and host interaction during papaya dieback development.

  10. Effect of papaya trunk angle on infestation by white peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Hemiptera: Diaspididae)

    Two papaya (Carica papaya L.) seedlings growing in one planting hole often results in angular or non-vertical growth of the trees. Data on trunk angularity, or leaning, (deviation from the vertical line of reference) and white peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona Targioni-Tozzetti (Hemiptera: Dias...

  11. Evaluating Hawaii-Grown Papaya for Resistance to Internal Yellowing Disease Caused by Enterobacter cloacae

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) cultivars and breeding lines were evaluated for resistance to Enterobacter cloacae (Jordan) Hormaeche & Edwards, the bacterial causal agent of internal yellowing disease (IY), using a range of concentrations of the bacterium. Linear regression analysis was performed and IY ...

  12. The Papaya Y Chromosome Evolved Recently and Shows Gene Paucity and DNA Sequence Expansion

    Sex chromosomes in flowering plants, in contrast to those in animals, evolved relatively recently and only a few are heteromorphic. At cytological level, the sex chromosomes of papaya appear homomorphic, nevertheless, we are finding the papaya Y chromosome shows features of incipient sex chromosome ...

  13. Cloning Of Organ-Specific Genes from Papaya Using cDNA-AFLP

    Papaya is a fast growing and productive fruit crop in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. Papaya industry has benefited from application of molecular biology and biotechnology for crop improvement, particularly for viral disease resistance using transgenic varieties. The goal of this researc...

  14. Atypical internal yellowing of papaya fruit in Hawaii caused by Enterobacter sakazakii

    Internal yellowing (IY), characterized by yellow discolored tissue around the papaya (Carica papaya) seed cavity, diffuse margins and the presence of a distinctly rotten odor, was first reported in 1987. These symptoms were associated with the causal agent Enterobacter cloacae. Here we report the fo...

  15. DEVELOPMENT, REPRODUCTION, AND SURVIVAL OF PAPAYA MEALYBUG (HOMOPTERA: PSEUDOCOCCIDAE) ON DIFFERENT HOST PLANT SPECIES

    Papaya mealybug (Paracoccus marginatus @illiams and Granara de Willink (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae)) is a polyghagus insect and a pest of various tropical crops and ornamentals. It was introduced into the United States in 1998 in Florida. Papaya mealybug potentially poses a threat to numerous agricul...

  16. Hypoglycemic effect of Carica papaya leaves in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Juárez-Rojop Isela Esther

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditional plant treatment for diabetes has shown a surging interest in the last few decades. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the hypoglycemic effect of the aqueous extract of C. papaya leaves in diabetic rats. Several studies have reported that some parts of the C. papaya plant exert hypoglycemic effects in both animals and humans. Methods Diabetes was induced in rats by intraperitoneal administration of 60 mg/kg of streptozotocin (STZ. The aqueous extract of C. papaya was administered in three different doses (0.75, 1.5 and 3 g/100 mL as drinking water to both diabetic and non-diabetic animals during 4 weeks. Results The aqueous extract of Carica papaya (0.75 g and 1.5 g/100 mL significantly decreased blood glucose levels (pC. papaya could help islet regeneration manifested as preservation of cell size. In the liver of diabetic treated rats, C. papaya prevented hepatocyte disruption, as well as accumulation of glycogen and lipids. Finally, an antioxidant effect of C. papaya extract was also detected in diabetic rats. Conclusions This study showed that the aqueous extract of C. papaya exerted a hypoglycemic and antioxidant effect; it also improved the lipid profile in diabetic rats. In addition, the leaf extract positively affected integrity and function of both liver and pancreas.

  17. An umbra-like virus of papaya discovered in Ecuador: detection, occurrence and phylogenetic relatedness

    Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) extractions from papaya leaves infected with Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) revealed the presence of an unusual 4kb band, in addition to the presumed PRSV-associated 10kb band. Partial sequence of RT-PCR products from the 4kb dsRNA revealed homology to genomes of several me...

  18. Papaya is not a host for Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus

    The economic value of tomato production is threatened by tomato yellow leaf-curl virus TYLCV and its vector, the silverleaf whitefly Bemisia tabaci biotype B (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). Use of papaya Carica papaya L. as a banker plant for a whitefly parasitoid shows promise as a whitefly m...

  19. Molecular characterization and pathogenicity of Erwinia spp. associated with pineapple [Ananas comosus (L. Merr.] and papaya (Carica papaya L.

    Ramachandran Kogeethavani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Erwinia species are well-known pathogens of economic importance in Malaysia causing serious damage to high-value fruit crops that include pineapple [Ananas comosus (L. Merr.] and papaya (Carica papaya L..The 16S rRNA sequence using eubacteria fD1 and rP2 primers, identified two bacteria species; Dickeya zeae from pineapple heart rot, and Erwinia mallotivora from papaya dieback. Phylogenetic analysis based on the neighbor-joining method indicated that all the bacterial isolates clustered in their own taxa and formed monophyletic clades. From the pathogenicity test, all isolates of D. zeae and E. mallotivora showed pathogenic reactions on their respective host plants. Genetic variability of these isolates was assessed using repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR fingerprinting. The results indicated interspecies, and intraspecies variation in both species’ isolates. There were more polymorphic bands shown by rep-PCR fingerprints than enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC and BOX- PCRs, however both species’ isolates produced distinguishable banding patterns. Unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA cluster analysis indicated that all Dickeya and Erwinia isolates from the same species were grouped in the same main cluster. Similarity among the isolates ranged from 77 to 99%. Sequencing of 16S rRNA using eubacteria fD1 and rP2 primers, and rep-PCR fingerprinting revealed diversity among Dickeya and Erwinia isolates. But this method appears to be reliable for discriminating isolates from pineapple heart rot and papaya dieback.

  20. Label-free quantitative proteomics reveals differentially regulated proteins in the latex of sticky diseased Carica papaya L. plants

    Silas P. Rodrigues; José A. Ventura; Aguilar, Clemente; Nakayasu, Ernesto S; Choi, Hyungwon; Sobreira, Tiago J. P.; Nohara, Lilian L.; Wermelinger, Luciana S.; Almeida, Igor C.; Zingali, Russolina B.; Fernandes, Patricia M. B.

    2012-01-01

    Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) is so far the only described laticifer-infecting virus, the causal agent of papaya (Carica papaya L.) sticky disease. The effects of PMeV on the laticifers’ regulatory network were addressed here through the proteomic analysis of papaya latex. Using both 1-DE- and 1D-LC-ESI-MS/MS, 160 unique papaya latex proteins were identified, representing 122 new proteins in the latex of this plant. Quantitative analysis by normalized spectral counting revealed 10 down-regulate...

  1. Geographical and Genetic Divergence Among Papaya ringspot virus Populations Within Hainan Province, China.

    Zhao, Hui; Jia, Rui Zong; Zhang, Yu-Liang; Zhu, Yun Judy; Zeng, Hui-Cai; Kong, Hua; McCafferty, Heather; Guo, An-Ping; Peng, Ming

    2016-08-01

    Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) severely affects the global papaya industry. Transgenic papaya has been proven to have effective resistance to PRSV isolates from Hawaii, Thailand, Taiwan, and other countries. However, those transgenic cultivars failed to show resistance to Hainan Island isolates. Some 76 PRSV samples, representative of all traditional papaya planting areas across five cities (Wen Chang, n = 13; Cheng Mai, n = 14; Chang Jiang, n = 11; Le Dong, n = 25; and San Ya, n = 13) within Hainan Province, were investigated. Results revealed three genetic diversity groups (Hainan I, II, and III) that correlated with geographical distribution. Frequent mutations among PRSV isolates from Hainan were also observed. The high genetic divergence in PRSV isolates from Hainan is likely to be the cause of the failure of genetically modified papaya that targets sequence-specific virus. PMID:27070425

  2. Histopathological changes in Wistar albino rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya

    Taofeeq Oduola

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exposure of animals to xenobiotics may or may not trigger adverse response at cellular levels. Aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya is consumed by sickle cell patients as antisickling agent in Western Nigeria. Aim: This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of Carica papaya on certain organs in Wister albino rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya. Materials and Methods: Different doses of aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya were administered orally daily for 42 days to six groups of rats. At the end of exposure, the animals were sacrificed and tissue sections were prepared from livers, kidneys, hearts and small intestines using standard techniques. Results: Histopathological results showed that no pathological changes were observed in tissue sections of experimental animals when compared with tissue sections of the same organs in control animals. Conclusion: No pathological changes were elicited in the organs of rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya.

  3. Histopathological changes in Wistar albino rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya

    Taofeeq Oduola

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Exposure of animals to xenobiotics may or may not trigger adverse response at cellular levels. Aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya is consumed by sickle cell patients as antisickling agent in Western Nigeria. Aim : This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of Carica papaya on certain organs in Wister albino rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya. Materials and Methods : Different doses of aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya were administered orally daily for 42 days to six groups of rats. At the end of exposure, the animals were sacrificed and tissue sections were prepared from livers, kidneys, hearts and small intestines using standard techniques. Results : Histopathological results showed that no pathological changes were observed in tissue sections of experimental animals when compared with tissue sections of the same organs in control animals. Conclusion : No pathological changes were elicited in the organs of rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya.

  4. Hurdle technology to preserve the 'Golden' papaya post harvest quality

    With the purpose of evaluating a combination of post harvest techniques on papaya Golden storage, the following treatments were investigated: carton boxes packaging (CP); CP + plastic bag of PEBD - low density polyethylene film, with 0.05mm of thickness (PE); CP + PEBD with 0.025mm of thickness impregnated with mineral ethylene scavenger (PEAbs); gamma-irradiation (0.4 kGy and 0.7 kGy); and refrigerated storage at 10 deg C e 90% of relative humidity for 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 days plus five days under environmental conditions to allow ripening and to simulate the product marketing. To evaluate the effects on fruit quality the following measurements were taken: - first experiment, disease incidence, skin color and loss of turgidity (as visual variables); skin and flesh color, weight loss, flesh firmness, total soluble solids, total titratable acidity, pH, lycopene and beta-carotene composition; - second experiment, sensorial analysis on samples submitted to the treatments with better results from the first experiment. Post harvest diseases were the main factor responsible for discarding fruits. Percentage of weight loss was higher on papayas stored without plastic packaging. Time affected the flesh firmness (F = 95%). However, there wasn't influence of the treatments on that parameter. A significant effect on skin color was observed with interaction between irradiation (0.4 and 0.7 kGy) and storage period. Once reached the edible stage, irradiated papayas presented more uniformity on skin color. For beta-carotene and Lycopene, the mean values were 1.27 to 1.79 and 19.16 to 23.90 mug/ml of flesh, respectively. But those substances weren't affected by the combined methods or the time. The same behavior were observed for total soluble solids, total titratable acidity and pH (mean values of 11.53 to 12.20 deg Brix, 0.117 to 0.136 g of citric acid/100g of flesh and 4.91 to 5.04, respectively). On sensory evaluation, the judges didn't get to detect significant

  5. Yellow Krang – A New Cultivar Of Papaya For Green Consumption With Tolerance To Papaya Ringspot Virus

    Janthasri Rapatsa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of a papaya cultivar for unripe or green consumption that has resistance to papaya ringspot virus (PRSV began in 2004 by crossing red-fleshed ‘Red Krang’ cultivar with yellow-fleshed Sai Nampeung cultivar. Numerous diverse hybrids that were obtained were selected in a recurrent selection until 2010. The ’Yellow Krang’ line was selected because of the early and high yielding, elongated fruit shape, is yellow and crispy flesh when unripe and suitable for consumption as green papaya, and tolerance to PRSV. From 2010 to 2015 the ‘Yellow Krang’ line was refined through pure line selection. It was evaluated in four growing areas in Thailand for 3 years. The field trial showed that ‘Yellow Krang’ can be classified as dwarf, reaching a height of 110-150 cm, early bearing, with mean 105 days to first flower anthesis; an average of 100 flowers and 206 fruits per plant, mean fruit weight 1.2 kg, mean fruit thickness 2.4 cm, mean fruit firmness 7.15 Newtons; high yielding, with mean fresh weight yield of 134.606 kg/hectare; and 24.86% incidence of PRSV.

  6. Heat shock and gamma radiation in the quarantine process of Papaya CV. Solo(Carica papaya L.)

    Full text: To export, it is not only necessary to achieve quality standards, but also, quarantine standards. The main function of irradiation is quarantine control of fruit flies, therefore it is necessary to combine with treatments which focus at keeping fruit quality. The objective of this work was the evaluation of the quality of papaya submitted to heat treatment followed by irradiation at quarantine doses. Papayas were selected green and separated in treatments: a) control; irradiation at doses; b) 250, c) 500 Gy; d) hot water at 60 deg C for 30 seconds; and combined to doses e) 250, f) 500 Gy. The papayas were stored at 21 (± 1 deg C) with relative humidity of 85 - 90%, and then after 8 days, they were evaluated by their soluble solid content, pH, titratable acidity, firmness, decay index and internal color. The analysis of mass loss and external color were executed at 0, 2, 4 and 7 days after irradiation. It was observed that in fruits submitted to hot water (d, e, f) there were less decay and in combined treatments (e, f) it was verified higher firmness. In the second day, irradiated treatments (b, c, e, f) were more yellow than the others. As to the other parameters evaluated, there were no differences between treatments (author)

  7. Heat shock and gamma radiation in the quarantine process of Papaya CV. Solo(Carica papaya L.)

    Pimentel, Rodrigo M.A.; Walder, Julio M.M. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: rmapiment@cena.usp.br; jmwalder@cena.usp.br; Marcondes, Yvens E.M. [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: yvensmar@unimep.br

    2007-07-01

    Full text: To export, it is not only necessary to achieve quality standards, but also, quarantine standards. The main function of irradiation is quarantine control of fruit flies, therefore it is necessary to combine with treatments which focus at keeping fruit quality. The objective of this work was the evaluation of the quality of papaya submitted to heat treatment followed by irradiation at quarantine doses. Papayas were selected green and separated in treatments: a) control; irradiation at doses; b) 250, c) 500 Gy; d) hot water at 60 deg C for 30 seconds; and combined to doses e) 250, f) 500 Gy. The papayas were stored at 21 ({+-} 1 deg C) with relative humidity of 85 - 90%, and then after 8 days, they were evaluated by their soluble solid content, pH, titratable acidity, firmness, decay index and internal color. The analysis of mass loss and external color were executed at 0, 2, 4 and 7 days after irradiation. It was observed that in fruits submitted to hot water (d, e, f) there were less decay and in combined treatments (e, f) it was verified higher firmness. In the second day, irradiated treatments (b, c, e, f) were more yellow than the others. As to the other parameters evaluated, there were no differences between treatments (author)

  8. Evaluation of Antimicrobial Properties of Edible Surface Coating Based on Carrageenan Conjugated with Silver Nanoparticles on Sekaki Papaya (Carica Papaya cv. Sekaki): A New Antimicrobial Edible Coating

    Antibacterial properties of edible surface coating based on carrageenan incorporated with silver nanoparticles (SNPs), was investigated against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus to obtain optimum concentration of SNPs. Results obtained indicate that SNPs with concentration of 40 ml L-1 effectively inhibited the growth of both Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria. Sekaki papaya fruits were then coated with prepared edible coating formulation comprising of carrageenan (0.8 % w/v) and glycerol (1.0 % w/v) with and without SNPs (40 ppm) and stored at ambient conditions (26±2 degree Celsius and 60±10 % RH). Microbial analysis of coated and uncoated papaya samples during storage indicated that the edible coating comprising of carrageenan, glycerol and SNPs, strongly inhibited the growth of fungus that caused post harvest diseases of papaya as compared to uncoated and coated papaya fruits with edible coating without SNPs. (author)

  9. Potential Test of Papaya Leaf and Seed Extract (Carica Papaya) as Larvicides against Anopheles Mosquito Larvae Mortality. SP IN Jayapura, Papua Indonesia

    Arsunan

    2015-01-01

    Anopheles mosquitoes, sp is the main vector of malaria disease that is widespread in many parts of the world including in Papua Province. There are four speciesof Anopheles mosquitoes, sp, in Papua namely: An.farauti, An.koliensis, An. subpictus, and An.punctulatus. Larviciding synthetic cause resistance. This study aims to analyze the potential of papaya leaf and seeds extracts (Carica papaya) as larvicides against the mosquitoes Anopheles sp. The experiment was conducted at the Laboratory o...

  10. An Analysis on DNA Fingerprints of Thirty Papaya Cultivars (Carica papaya L., Grown in Thailand with the Use of Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms Technique

    Janthasri Ratchadaporn

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out at the Department of Horticulture, Ubon Ratchathani University, Ubon Ratchathani province, Northeast Thailand during June 2002 to May 2003 aims to identify DNA fingerprints of thirty papaya cultivars with the use of Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLP technique. Papaya cultivars were collected from six different research centers in Thailand. Papaya plants of each cultivar were grown under field conditions up to four months then leaf numbers 2 and 3 of each cultivar (counted from top were chosen for DNA extraction and the samples were used for AFLP analysis. Out of 64 random primers being used, 55 pairs gave an increase in DNA bands but only 12 pairs of random primers were randomly chosen for the final analysis of the experiment. The results showed that AFLP markers gave Polymorphic Information Contents (PIC of three ranges i.e., AFLP markers of 235 lied on a PIC range of 0.003-0.05, 47 for a PIC range of 0.15-0.20 and 12 for a PIC range of 0.35-0.40. The results on dendrogram cluster analysis revealed that the thirty papaya cultivars were classified into six groups i.e., (1 Kaeg Dum and Malador (2 Kaeg Nuan (3 Pakchong and Solo (4 Taiwan (5 Co Coa Hai Nan and (6 Sitong. Nevertheless, in spite of the six papaya groups all papaya cultivars were genetically related to each other where diversity among the cultivars was not significantly found.

  11. An analysis on DNA fingerprints of thirty papaya cultivars (Carica papaya L.), grown in Thailand with the use of amplified fragment length polymorphisms technique.

    Ratchadaporn, Janthasri; Sureeporn, Katengam; Khumcha, U

    2007-09-15

    The experiment was carried out at the Department of Horticulture, Ubon Ratchathani University, Ubon Ratchathani province, Northeast Thailand during June 2002 to May 2003 aims to identify DNA fingerprints of thirty papaya cultivars with the use of Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLP) technique. Papaya cultivars were collected from six different research centers in Thailand. Papaya plants of each cultivar were grown under field conditions up to four months then leaf numbers 2 and 3 of each cultivar (counted from top) were chosen for DNA extraction and the samples were used for AFLP analysis. Out of 64 random primers being used, 55 pairs gave an increase in DNA bands but only 12 pairs of random primers were randomly chosen for the final analysis of the experiment. The results showed that AFLP markers gave Polymorphic Information Contents (PIC) of three ranges i.e., AFLP markers of 235 lied on a PIC range of 0.003-0.05, 47 for a PIC range of 0.15-0.20 and 12 for a PIC range of 0.35-0.40. The results on dendrogram cluster analysis revealed that the thirty papaya cultivars were classified into six groups i.e., (1) Kaeg Dum and Malador (2) Kaeg Nuan (3) Pakchong and Solo (4) Taiwan (5) Co Coa Hai Nan and (6) Sitong. Nevertheless, in spite of the six papaya groups all papaya cultivars were genetically related to each other where diversity among the cultivars was not significantly found. PMID:19090101

  12. Creencias y prácticas de literacidad en familias chilenas con distintos niveles educativos

    Lissi María Rosa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El estudio describe las creencias y prácticas de literacidad de familias con distinta educación en Chile. Participaron 188 niños y niñas de kindergarten y sus familias. Los padres contestaronun cuestionario acerca de su nivel educacional, ciertas prácticas de literacidcd familiar, y sus creencias acerca del desarrollo de ésta. Los resultados muestran diferencias y similitudes con resultados de países desarrollados. Las principales diferencias se dan en la frecuencia de ciertas prácticas, las que ocurren con menor frecuencia en las familias chilenas, independientemente del nivel educacional. Las principales similitudes con los hallazgos de países desarrollados se dan en las asociaciones entre el nivel educacional de la familia y las variables de literacidad familiar

  13. Interacciones tempranas y género infantil en familias monoparentales chilenas

    Marcia Olhaberry Huber

    2012-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio transversal de las interacciones madre-hijo(a) en familias monoparentales chilenas de bajo ingresos, considerando las diferencias según el género infantil. Participan 80 díadas, con 39 niñas y 41 niños entre los 4 y 15 meses y se evalúa la calidad de las interacciones con el instrumento CARE-Index. Se observan altos puntajes en depresión y estrés materno, así como un promedio en la calidad de la interacción que indica necesidad de intervención, mostrando lo anterior vuln...

  14. Curar, prevenir y asistir: Medicina y salud en la historia chilena

    Soledad Zarate C., María; del Campo P., Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Este estudio identifica y describe parte de la bibliografía disponible sobre historia de la medicina y la salud pública chilena, relativas al periodo colonial y republicano. La literatura revisada reúne títulos producidos por médicos e historiadores profesionales, comentándose los aportes temáticos y metodológicos de ambas producciones. Asimismo, el artículo consigna límites analíticos y ciertas debilidades de esta historiografía y sugiere nuevas interrogantes para futuros estudios.  This ...

  15. Implementación del enfoque de derechos humanos: la reforma sanitaria chilena

    Nuria Cunill-Grau

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available EI propósito de este trabajo es analizar la incidencia de la arquitectura institucional publica en la implementación de las políticas públicas con enfoque de derechos humanos. Se adopta como caso de estudio la reforma sanitaria chilena a partir del año 2005, que reconoce garantías exigibles de acceso, oportunidad, calidad y protección financiera para un conjunto de problemas de salud a la ciudadanía, independientemente de su adscripción al sistema público 0 privado. La metodología integró un análisis cualitativo de normas legales, instrumentos de gestión y entrevistas en profundidad principalmente a directivos de salud. Los resultados muestran que, no obstante los evidentes logros de la reforma chilena en pos de la equidad en salud, resultan limitados sus esfuerzos de dotar de gobernanza sistémica, accountability y espacio público a su arquitectura institucional, comprometiendo con ello su intención de instaurar un enfoque de derechos humanos. Se concluye que el patrón hegemónico de diseño institucional, organización y gestión de los servicios sociales requiere ser enfrentado para construirviabilidad a la implementación de este tipo de política y se sugiere la importancia de adoptar estrategias diferenciadas de accountabitily que consideren las asimetrías sociales en la apropiación y exigibilidad de los derechos.

  16. Starch edible coating of papaya: effect on sensory characteristics

    Ariane Castricini

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The coating of papayas with Cassava Starch (CS and carboxymethyl starch (CMS is an alternative to extend the shelf life of these fruits. This study evaluated the effect of the three different levels of CS and CMS (1, 3, and 5% on sensory characteristics of papayas during storage. Nine selected and trained assessors evaluated 13 sensory attributes using the Multiple Comparison Test. The appearance and flavor attributes of the papayas treated with CS and CMS were compared to the control or reference sample (R - fruit without coating using a nine-point scale, which varied from 1: less intense than R; 5: equal to R; 9: more intense than R. The samples were coded with three digit numbers and evaluated with repetition by a panel of assessors. In general, appearance was more affected by the coatings than flavor. Fruits coated with 3 and 5% of both coatings kept the green color longer than the other coating’s concentrations, and at 5% the color of the fruits was less uniform on the last evaluation day. The 3 and 5% CS coating gave greater brightness to the fruits. 5% CMS favored the presence of fungi and damaged the fruit surface at the 14th day of storage. The CS coating at 5% presented peeled surface during all experimental time. Changes in fruits’ flavor were perceived at the 12th and 14th days of storage. A less characteristic flavor and a bitter taste were noticed in the fruits coated with CS and CMS at 5% at the 12th day of storage.

  17. Papaya Extract to Treat Dengue: A Novel Therapeutic Option?

    N Sarala; Paknikar, SS

    2014-01-01

    Dengue is a viral disease that today affects a vast number of people in over 125 countries and is responsible for a sizable number of deaths. In the absence of an effective antiviral drug to treat the disease, various treatments are being investigated. Studies have indicated that the juice of the leaves of the Carica papaya plant from the family Caricaceae could help to increase the platelet levels in these patients. This review describes some of the published studies on this topic. The searc...

  18. Relaxation phenomena of radicals induced in irradiated fresh papayas

    Electron spin resonance spectrometry of the γ-irradiated fresh papayas followed by freeze-drying and powderization was performed. We found a strong single peak in the flesh was observed at g=2.004 and attributed to organic free radicals. Using the method of Lund et al., relaxation times of the peak from 0 to 14 days-stored samples after γ-irradiation were calculated. T2 showed a dose response, while T1 kept almost constant by the increment of doses. The γ-radiation-induced radicals showing progressive saturation behaviors can be caused through a different pathway from indirect effects by the low LET radiations. (author)

  19. A Current Overview of the Papaya meleira virus, an Unusual Plant Virus

    Paolla M. V. Abreu; Antunes, Tathiana F. S.; Anuar Magaña-Álvarez; Daisy Pérez-Brito; Raúl Tapia-Tussell; José A. Ventura; Antonio A. R. Fernandes; Fernandes, Patricia M. B.

    2015-01-01

    Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) is the causal agent of papaya sticky disease, which is characterized by a spontaneous exudation of fluid and aqueous latex from the papaya fruit and leaves. The latex oxidizes after atmospheric exposure, resulting in a sticky feature on the fruit from which the name of the disease originates. PMeV is an isometric virus particle with a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) genome of approximately 12 Kb. Unusual for a plant virus, PMeV particles are localized on and linked to ...

  20. Papaya pulp gelling: is it premature ripening or problems of water accumulation in the apoplast?

    Jurandi Gonçalves de Oliveira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Gelled aspect in papaya fruit is typically confused with premature ripening. This research reports the characterization of this physiological disorder in the pulp of papaya fruit by measuring electrolyte leakage, Pi content, lipid peroxidation, pulp firmness, mineral contents (Ca, Mg and K - in pulp and seed tissues, and histological analysis of pulp tissue. The results showed that the gelled aspect of the papaya fruit pulp is not associated with tissue premature ripening. Data indicate a reduction of the vacuole water intake as the principal cause of the loss of cellular turgor; while the waterlogged aspect of the tissue may be due to water accumulation in the apoplast.

  1. Sales de calcio mejoran vida de anaquel y aceptabilidad general de papaya (Carica papaya L. var. Maradol fresca cortada

    Nayely Leyva López

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Las tendencias actuales de los consumidores por alimentos sanos y de conveniencia promueven un mayor consumo de frutas y hortalizas, donde destacan productos frescos cortados. Sin embargo, por su naturaleza estos productos pueden ser muy susceptibles a diferentes alteraciones que afectan su calidad. El uso de aditivos como sales de calcio representa una alternativa tecnológica para mantener, o incluso mejorar, la calidad durante su vida de anaquel. Por lo anterior el objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar el efecto de sales de calcio en papaya fresca cortada sobre la calidad física, química, microbiológica, nutracéutica y sensorial. Cubos de papaya, variedad Maradol (2 cm de arista fueron tratados con lactato y cloruro de calcio al 1,0 y 3,0 %, bajo condiciones de inmersión por 2 min a 40 °C. Las muestras tratadas fueron colocadas en vasos de polietileno tereftalato (PET de 500 mL tapa, y almacenadas por 8 días a 5 °C. En comparación con los frutos testigo, los tratamientos a base de calcio demostraron mejorar la firmeza (~ 8 N, principalmente los frutos tratados con cloruro de calcio al 3,0 %. Por otra parte, la calidad nutracéutica (fenólicos totales no se vio afectada por el uso de sales de calcio, mientras que las evaluaciones microbiológicas demuestran condiciones de inocuidad conforme a normatividad. Se sugiere el uso de cloruro de calcio para fines de comercializar papaya fresca cortada.

  2. Sales de calcio mejoran vida de anaquel y aceptabilidad general de papaya (Carica papaya L. var. Maradol fresca cortada

    Nayely Leyva López

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Las tendencias actuales de los consumidores por alimentos sanos y de conveniencia promueven un mayor consumo de frutas y hortalizas, donde destacan productos frescos cortados. Sin embargo, por su naturaleza estos productos pueden ser muy susceptibles a diferentes alteraciones que afectan su calidad. El uso de aditivos como sales de calcio representa una alternativa tecnológica para mantener, o incluso mejorar, la calidad durante su vida de anaquel. Por lo anterior el objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar el efecto de sales de calcio en papaya fresca cortada sobre la calidad física, química, microbiológica, nutracéutica y sensorial. Cubos de papaya, variedad Maradol (2 cm de arista fueron tratados con lactato y cloruro de calcio al 1,0 y 3,0 %, bajo condiciones de inmersión por 2 min a 40 °C. Las muestras tratadas fueron colocadas en vasos de polietileno tereftalato (PET de 500 mL con tapa, y almacenadas por 8 días a 5 °C. En comparación con los frutos testigo, los tratamientos a base de calcio demostraron mejorar la firmeza (~ 8 N, principalmente los frutos tratados con cloruro de calcio al 3,0 %. Por otra parte, la calidad nutracéutica (fenólicos totales no se vio afectada por el uso de sales de calcio, mientras que las evaluaciones microbiológicas demuestran condiciones de inocuidad conforme a normatividad. Se sugiere el uso de cloruro de calcio para fines de comercializar papaya fresca cortada.

  3. Estética, política y vida cotidiana. El caso de la pintura callejera chilena

    Patricio Rodriguez-Plaza

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo trata de compartir una reflexión académica con respecto al fenómeno de la pintura callejera chilena, entendiéndola como un hecho estético total, que lo es menos por sus producciones y resultados que por los usos y percepciones que lo entretejen, conforman y desparraman por la ciudad.

  4. Estética, política y vida cotidiana. El caso de la pintura callejera chilena

    Patricio Rodriguez-Plaza

    2005-01-01

    Este artículo trata de compartir una reflexión académica con respecto al fenómeno de la pintura callejera chilena, entendiéndola como un hecho estético total, que lo es menos por sus producciones y resultados que por los usos y percepciones que lo entretejen, conforman y desparraman por la ciudad.

  5. Methanolysis of Carica papaya Seed Oil for Production of Biodiesel

    Foluso O. Agunbiade

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The future of fossil fuel sources of energy has necessitated the need to search for renewable alternatives. Thus, Carica papaya seed oil (CPSO was employed as feedstock for the production of biodiesel by methanolysis. The seed was obtained locally, dried, and extracted with n-hexane. The CPSO was analyzed for specific gravity, viscosity, iodine value, and saponification value, among others using standard methods. The oil was transesterified by two-stage catalysis with oil to methanol mole ratio of 1 : 9. The biodiesel produced was subjected to standard fuel tests. The seed has an oil yield of 31.2% which is commercially viable. The kinematic viscosity of the oil at 313 K was 27.4 mm2s−1 while that of Carica papaya oil methylester (CPOME was reduced to 3.57 mm2s−1 and the specific gravity was 0.84 comparable with other seed-oil biodiesels and number 2 diesel. Other oil properties were compared favourably with seed oils already documented for biodiesel synthesis. CPOME’s cloud and pour points were 275 K and 274 K, respectively, and relatively higher than other biodiesels and number 2 diesel. CPOME exhibits moderate corrosion of copper strip. The methanolysis improved the fuel properties of the CPOME similar to other biodiesels. CPSO therefore exhibits a potential for biodiesel production.

  6. The treatment of paediatric burns using topical papaya.

    Starley, I F; Mohammed, P; Schneider, G; Bickler, S W

    1999-11-01

    Due to the limited resources for the management of burns in most regions of Africa there is a significant role for many aspects of traditional African medicine. The active component of many traditional preparations is often of plant origin and more than 25 plants have been described as useful in relations to burns and wound healing. Carica papaya is currently used in The Gambia at the Royal Victoria Hospital, Banjul in the Paediatric Unit as the major component of burns dressings, where it is well tolerated by the children. Cheap and widely available, the pulp of the papaya fruit is mashed and applied daily to full thickness and infected burns. It appears to be effective in desloughing necrotic tissue, preventing burn wound infection, and providing a granulating wound suitable for the application of a split thickness skin graft. Possible mechanisms of action include the activity of proteolytic enzymes chymopapain and papain, as well as an antimicrobial activity, although further studies are required. PMID:10563690

  7. Dengue fever treatment with Carica papaya leaves extracts

    Nisar Ahmad; Hina Fazal; Muhammad Ayaz; Bilal Haider Abbasi; Ijaz Mohammad; Lubna Fazal

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of the current study is to investigate the potential of Carica papaya leaves extracts against Dengue fever in 45 year old patient bitten by carrier mosquitoes. For the treatment of Dengue fever the extract was prepared in water. 25 mL of aqueous extract of C. papaya leaves was administered to patient infected with Dengue fever twice daily i.e. morning and evening for five consecutive days. Before the extract administration the blood samples from patient were analyzed. Platelets count (PLT), White Blood Cells (WBC) and Neutrophils (NEUT) decreased from 176×103/μL, 8.10×10 3/μL, 84.0% to 55×10 3/μL, 3.7×10 3/μL and 46.0%. Subsequently, the blood samples were rechecked after the administration of leaves extract. It was observed that the PLT count increased from 55×103/μL to 168×10 3/μL, WBC from 3.7×10 3/μL to 7.7×10 3/μL and NEUT from 46.0% to 78.3%. From the patient feelings and blood reports it showed that Caricapapaya leaves aqueous extract exhibited potential activity against Dengue fever. Furthermore, the different parts of this valuable specie can be further used as a strong natural candidate against viral diseases.

  8. Immobilization of mycoplana sp. MVMB2 isolated from petroleum contaminated soil onto papaya stem (carica papaya l.) and its application on degradation of phenanthrene

    This study presents the degradation of phenanthrene using immobilized Mycoplana sp. MVMB2 isolated from contaminated soil. Papaya stem pretreated by two stage processes, treating with acid or alkali and drying, was used for the immobilization of Mycoplana sp. Alkali pretreated papaya stem was found to be most effective in cell uptake compared to acid treated one. The maximum immobilization capacity at various physiochemical conditions for the alkali pretreated papaya stem was found to be at 320 min time, pH 6.5, 30 C temperature, and 18.6 x 106 cells/mL initial concentrations. The adsorption mechanism of Mycoplana sp. MVMB2 on pretreated papaya stem was assessed using various kinetic and isotherm models. The immobilization of Mycoplana sp. MVMB2 on to pretreated papaya stem was corroborated by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transformed IR spectroscopy analysis. The performance of immobilized cells in batch reactor showed more than 95% phenanthrene degradation within 72 h, whereas, free cells were found to require 120 h. The immobilized cells also showed better degradation performance in the packed column study. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Immobilization of mycoplana sp. MVMB2 isolated from petroleum contaminated soil onto papaya stem (carica papaya l.) and its application on degradation of phenanthrene

    Brinda Lakshmi, Mahalingam; Muthukumar, Karuppan; Velan, Manickam [Environmental Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, A.C. College of Technology, Anna University, Chennai (India)

    2012-08-15

    This study presents the degradation of phenanthrene using immobilized Mycoplana sp. MVMB2 isolated from contaminated soil. Papaya stem pretreated by two stage processes, treating with acid or alkali and drying, was used for the immobilization of Mycoplana sp. Alkali pretreated papaya stem was found to be most effective in cell uptake compared to acid treated one. The maximum immobilization capacity at various physiochemical conditions for the alkali pretreated papaya stem was found to be at 320 min time, pH 6.5, 30 C temperature, and 18.6 x 10{sup 6} cells/mL initial concentrations. The adsorption mechanism of Mycoplana sp. MVMB2 on pretreated papaya stem was assessed using various kinetic and isotherm models. The immobilization of Mycoplana sp. MVMB2 on to pretreated papaya stem was corroborated by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transformed IR spectroscopy analysis. The performance of immobilized cells in batch reactor showed more than 95% phenanthrene degradation within 72 h, whereas, free cells were found to require 120 h. The immobilized cells also showed better degradation performance in the packed column study. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. In vitro erythrocyte membrane stabilization properties of Carica papaya L. leaf extracts

    Priyanga Ranasinghe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Carica papaya L. fruit juice and leaf extracts are known to have many beneficial medical properties. Recent reports have claimed possible beneficial effects of C. papaya L. leaf juice in treating patients with dengue viral infections. This study aims to evaluate the membrane stabilization potential of C. papaya L. leaf extracts using an in vitro hemolytic assay. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in between June and August 2010. Two milliliters of blood from healthy volunteers and patients with serologically confirmed current dengue infection were freshly collected and used in the assays. Fresh papaya leaves at three different maturity stages (immature, partly matured, and matured were cleaned with distilled water, crushed, and the juice was extracted with 10 ml of cold distilled water. Freshly prepared cold water extracts of papaya leaves (1 ml containing 30 μl of papaya leaf extracts, 20 μl from 40% erythrocytes suspension, and 950 μl of phosphate buffered saline were used in the heat-induced and hypotonic-induced hemolytic assays. In dose response experiments, six different concentrations (9.375, 18.75, 37.5, 75, 150, and 300 μg/ml of freeze dried extracts of the partly matured leaves were used. Membrane stabilization properties were investigated with heat-induced and hypotonicity-induced hemolysis assays. Results: Extracts of papaya leaves of all three maturity levels showed a significant reduction in heat-induced hemolysis compared to controls (P 0.05 different from one another. Heat-induced hemolysis inhibition activity did not demonstrate a linear dose response relationship. At 37.5 μg/ml concentration of the extract, a marked inhibition of hypotonicity-induced hemolysis was observed. Conclusion: C. papaya L. leaf extracts showed a significant inhibition of hemolysis in vitro and could have a potential therapeutic effect on disease processes causing destabilization of biological membranes.

  11. Oxidative Stress in Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease: Effect of Extracts of Fermented Papaya Powder

    Mario Barbagallo; Francesco Marotta; Dominguez, Ligia J

    2015-01-01

    Brain tissue is particularly susceptible to oxidative stress (OS). Increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reduced antioxidant systems, and decreased efficiency in repairing mechanisms have been linked to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Postmortem studies in AD patients' brains have shown oxidative damage markers (i.e., lipid peroxidation, protein oxidative damage, and glycoxidation). Fermented papaya (FPP, a product of Carica papaya Linn fermentation with yeast) is a nutraceutical s...

  12. Biodiesel Production by Enzymatic Transesterification of Papaya Seed Oil and Rambutan Seed Oil

    Wong, C. S.; R. Othman

    2014-01-01

    Biodiesel production from vegetable oil has gained attention as an alternative fuel to minimize the usage of fossil fuels and reduce greenhouse gases pollution. In Malaysia, oils from local fruit seeds of papaya and rambutan are potential feedstock for biodiesel production due to their high lipid contents and easily available. In the present study, papaya and rambutan seed oils were extracted via soxhlet apparatus using n-hexane and the oil yields were in between 34–40%. The extracted oils we...

  13. THE ROLE OF PAPAYA DRESSINGS IN THE MAN AGEMENT OF DIABETIC FOOT ULCERS: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Bapurapu; Madipeddi; Boda; Dodda Ramesh; Sridhar Reddy; Karthik; Shankaraiah

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES : To determine the role of grated papaya fruit dressings in the management of diabetic foot ulcers. STUDY DESIGN: In our study, all the patients with diabetic foot ulcers (n=94) were included. The initial management was control of hyperglycemia, surgical debridement, ant ibiotics and then wound care with the help of grated papaya dressings. In this study, dressings were changed every 24 hours. The wound was considered healthy, when it wa...

  14. Quality Characteristics, Nutraceutical Profile, and Storage Stability of Aloe Gel-Papaya Functional Beverage Blend

    Pushkala Ramachandran; Srividya Nagarajan

    2014-01-01

    Aloe vera gel, well known for its nutraceutical potential, is being explored as a functional ingredient in a wide array of health foods and drinks. Processing of exotic fruits and herbal botanicals into functional beverage is an emerging sector in food industry. The present study was undertaken to develop a spiced functional RTS beverage blend using Aloe gel (AG) and papaya. Aloe gel (30%), papaya pulp (15%), spice extract (5%), and citric acid (0.1%) were mixed in given proportion to prepare...

  15. Antifungal Activity in Ethanolic Extracts of Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol Leaves and Seeds

    Chávez-Quintal, Pedro; González-Flores, Tania; Rodríguez-Buenfil, Ingrid; Gallegos-Tintoré, Santiago

    2011-01-01

    Bioactive compounds from vegetal sources are a potential source of natural antifungic. An ethanol extraction was used to obtain bioactive compounds from Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol leaves and seeds of discarded ripe and unripe fruit. Both, extraction time and the papaya tissue flour:organic solvent ratio significantly affected yield, with the longest time and highest flour:solvent ratio producing the highest yield. The effect of time on extraction efficiency was confirmed by qualitative iden...

  16. Pengaruh Pemeraman, Pengeringan, dan Keadaan Kulit Biji Terhadap Perkecambahan Benih Pepaya (Carica papaya L.) Varietas Red Lady

    Sebayang, Amelia

    2014-01-01

    Ripening of papaya leads to increase the rate of maturity and seed viability. Papaya seeds require light for germination. The light requirement could be supplied with drying before the seeds were planted. There is a phenolic compound in sarcotesta surrounding the papaya seed which act as a germination inhibitor. This experiment was conducted in the Seed Technology Laboratory, Agriculture Faculty, University of Sumatera Utara during Juli-September 2013, using a factorial randomized block desi...

  17. Oral dosing with papaya latex is an effective anthelmintic treatment for sheep infected with Haemonchus contortus

    Donnan Alison A

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cysteine proteinases in papaya latex have been shown to have potent anthelmintic properties in monogastric hosts such as rodents, pigs and humans, but this has not been demonstrated in ruminants. Methods In two experiments, sheep were infected concurrently with 5,000 infective larvae of Haemonchus contortus and 10,000 infective larvae of Trichostrongylus colubriformis and were then treated with the supernatant from a suspension of papaya latex from day 28 to day 32 post-infection. Faecal egg counts were monitored from a week before treatment until the end of the experiment and worm burdens were assessed on day 35 post-infection. Results We found that the soluble fraction of papaya latex had a potent in vivo effect on the abomasal nematode H. contortus, but not on the small intestinal nematode T. colubriformis. This effect was dose-dependent and at tolerated levels of gavage with papaya latex (117 μmol of active papaya latex supernatant for 4 days, the H. contortus worm burdens were reduced by 98%. Repeated treatment, daily for 4 days, was more effective than a single dose, but efficacy was not enhanced by concurrent treatment with the antacid cimetidine. Conclusions Our results provide support for the idea that cysteine proteinases derived from papaya latex may be developed into novel anthelmintics for the treatment of lumenal stages of gastro-intestinal nematode infections in sheep, particularly those parasitizing the abomasum.

  18. Variation in the Coat Protein Gene of Papaya ringspot Virus Isolates from Multiple Locations of China

    2007-01-01

    The potyvirus Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is an important pathogen of papaya that causes severe losses in economic crops for papaya production globally. The coat protein (CP) genes of five PRSV isolates originating from different locations in China were cloned and sequenced. The CP-coding region varied in size from 864-873 nucleotides, encoding proteins of 288-291 amino acids. The five Chinese isolates of PRSV have been characterized as papaya-infecting (PRSV-P). The CP sequences of the Chinese isolates were compared with those of previously published PRSV isolates originating from different countries at amino acid levels. A number of KE repeat boxes in the N terminus of the PRSV-CP were found in all Chinese isolates. The phylogenetic branching pattern revealed that there was certain extended grouping between geographic locations, and the Asian type probably represents the oldest population of PRSV. The information of CP genes will be useful in designing and developing durable virus resistant-PRSV transgenic papaya in China. Meanwhile broad-spectrum-virus resistant, strongly resistant-PRSV and good safe papaya lines are required.

  19. Evaluación de híbridos de papaya (carica papaya l. en pococí, limón, Costa Rica

    Eric Mora

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluación de híbridos de papaya (Carica papaya L. en Pococí, Limón, Costa Rica. Se estableció un experimento con nueve híbridos de papaya con el objetivo de determinar sus potenciales agronómicos y comerciales en una región de alta pluviosidad (cantón de Pococí, provincia de Limón. Las características evaluadas fueron tamaño de fruta, productividad total, brix de la pulpa y susceptibilidad a la antracnosis de la fruta causado por Colletotrichum gloesporioides. Se determinó que solo uno de los materiales mostró características similares al testigo comercial como fruta para consumo en fresco. Otro de los híbridos tuvo potencial para uso con fines agroindustriales.

  20. Gamma radiation use as a quarantine treatment for Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) and Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied., 1830) in papaya fruits (Carica papaya, Linnaeus), cultivar sunrise solo

    The gamma irradiation as treatment for control of the immature stages of fruit flies, C. capitata and A. fraterculus in papaya fruits, cultivar Sunrise Solo is studied. The gamma rays attenuation was observed by one and two papaya fruits placed between source and infested fruit, and this changed the radiation doses required to obtain mortality in eggs and larvae of the Medfly. The efficacy of irradiation was higher when the infested papayas were packed in paper box. The radiation dose determined using the Probit 9 concept, for immature stages mortality of C. capitata was 107,74 Gy and for A. fraterculus was 50,82 Gy. The sterilizing doses for adults of C. capitata and D. fraterculus, irradiated as pupae, was 60 Gy and 40 Gy, respectively. (author)

  1. L-ascorbic acid, β-carotene and lycopene content in papaya fruits (Carica papaya) with or without physiological skin freckles Conteúdo de ácido l-ascórbico, β-caroteno e licopeno em frutos de mamão (Carica papaya) com e sem mancha fisiológica

    Leandro Marelli de Souza; Karla Silva Ferreira; José Benício Paes Chaves; Sílvio Lopes Teixeira

    2008-01-01

    The Skin Freckles is a papaya skin disorder that depreciates de fruit appearance and hampers its commercialization, although not lowering its nutritive value. Being the papaya a good source of ascorbic acid, β-carotene and licopene this research aimed at determining L-ascorbic acid, β-carotene and licopene content in papaya fruits, from 'Formosa' and 'Solo' group varieties, with and without apparent physiological skin disease (skin freckles). Fruits were harvested in the Southeast R...

  2. Indução de brotos laterais de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L. Induction of lateral shoots of papaya tree (Carica papaya L.

    José Segundo Giampan

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo estudar o efeito da benzilaminopurina e do ácido giberélico, bem como a forma de aplicação destes, na produção de brotos laterais de mamoeiro. Foram utilizados mamoeiros 'Sunrise Solo' e os reguladores vegetais benzilaminopurina (BAP e ácido giberélico (GA, na concentração de 500 mg.L-1. As formas de aplicação de BAP + GA estudadas foram: pulverização; pasta de lanolina; injeção; completo, que consistiu na utilização de todas as formas de aplicação, e o controle, constituído pela ausência de aplicação de reguladores. Foram realizadas três aplicações semanais dos reguladores em cada forma de aplicação, sendo eliminado o meristema apical de todas as plantas após a última aplicação. O comprimento e o diâmetro dos brotos laterais foram avaliados aos 30; 55 e 86 dias após a retirada da gema apical. O uso de reguladores favoreceu a produção de brotos laterais. A pulverização apresentou os melhores resultados tanto em relação ao número de brotos obtidos quanto à conformação das estacas, seguida pela injeção e pasta de lanolina.The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP and gibberellic acid (GA, as well as the form of application of these growth regulators in the plant, for the production of lateral shoots on papaya trees. Twelve months old 'Sunrise Solo' papaya trees were treated with BAP and GA, in the concentration of 500 mg.L-1. BAP + GA were applied to the trees by means of spraying, lanolin paste, injection, and a combination of all three procedures (complete. Untreated plants were used as control. After three successive applications of the plant growth regulators in each form of application, at one week intervals, all plants were decapitated. The length and diameter of the lateral shoots were measured at 30, 55 and 86 days after decapitation. The use of plant growth regulators favored the production of lateral shoots. The

  3. Control de dos especies de Colletotrichum causantes de antracnosis en frutos de papaya Maradol Control of two species of Colletotrichum causing anthracnose in Maradol papaya fruits

    Felipe Santamaría Basulto; Raúl Díaz Plaza; Omar Gutiérrez Alonso; Jorge Santamaría Fernández; Alfonso Larqué Saavedra

    2011-01-01

    La antracnosis es una limitante de la vida útil de los frutos de papaya, es causada principalmente por Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, aunque es posible encontrar otras especies de Colletotrichum causando enfermedades en un mismo cultivo. Para el control de la antracnosis en Yucatán se recomiendan varios fungicidas, pero no todos están permitidos por la agencia de protección al ambiente (EPA) de los Estados Unidos de América, principal país al cual se exporta la papaya yucateca. El presente e...

  4. Empleo del método de secado convectivo combinado para la deshidratación de papaya (Carica papaya L.), variedad Maradol roja

    Sahylin Muñiz Becerá; Antihus Hernández Gómez; Annia García Pereira; Lilia Méndez Lagunas

    2013-01-01

    La presente investigación tiene como objetivo evaluar el método de secado convectivo de papaya (Carica papaya L.) variedad Maradol roja, combinado con la aplicación de pretratamientos de osmosis (DOSC) y escaldado simple (ESSC), mediante el efecto de los factores tecnológi- cos del secador: temperatura (40 y 60oC) y velocidad del flujo de aire (2,5 y 1,5 m/s) sobre el comportamiento de las propiedades de calidad de la fruta deshidratada y la cinética del proceso. El pretratamiento de escaldad...

  5. Heat treatment and gamma radiation on the control of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Penz. et Sacc., causal agent of the papaya fruits (Carica papaya L.) anthracnose

    For controlling papaya anthracnose on stored fruits the effect of heat treatment and gamma radiation on Colletotrichum gloeosporioides was studied in vitro and in vivo. Some physiological studies with four isolades of C. gloeosporioides from papaya fruits concerning the best conditions for mycelial growth and sporulation were also performed. The results showed that the best conditions for isolates development in BDA were: temperature between 25 and 270 C for mycelium radial growth; between 27 and 300 C under 12 hours alternating periods of fluorescent). (author). 131 refs., 9 figs., 33 tabs

  6. Morfología de la flor y de la semilla de papaya (carica papaya l.): variedad maradol e híbrido tainung-1

    Gil, Arlette Ivonne; Miranda, Diego

    2010-01-01

    Con el objetivo de analizar la morfología de la flor y de la semilla de papaya (Carica papaya L.) de la variedad ‘Maradol’ y el híbrido ‘Tainung-1’, se recolectó el material vegetal en dos plantaciones y se llevaron al laboratorio de Fisiología de Cultivos, Facultad de Agronomía, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, con el fin de realizar las descripciones correspondientes de los tres tipos de flores (femeninas, hermafroditas y estaminadas) y de la semilla, sus características externas (...

  7. Pengaruh Konsentrasi Natrium Klorida (NaCl) dan Lama Perendaman Buffer Fosfat Terhadap Perolehan Crude Papain Dari Daun Papain (Carica Papaya, L.)

    Hasibuan, Pinta Rizki Mala

    2016-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is one of the fruits of commodities internationally, either in the form of fresh fruit or as processed products. The leaves are green still not fully utilized. In papaya enzyme papain which allegedly contained can be used as a meat tenderizer. Papain is a protease enzyme contained in papaya latex, whether in fruit, stems and leaves, as an enzyme capable of solving the protein molecules, current papain into products that are beneficial to human life, either at home or...

  8. Identification of gamma-irradiated papaya, melon and watermelon

    Marin-Huachaca, N.S.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge E-mail: jmancini@usp.br; Delincee, Henry E-mail: henry.delincee@bfe.uni-karlsruhe.de; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H. E-mail: villavic@net.ipen.br

    2004-10-01

    Ionizing radiation can be used to control spoilage microorganisms and to increase the shelf life of fresh fruits and vegetables in replacement for the treatment with chemical fumigants. In order to enforce labelling regulations, methods for detecting the irradiation treatment directly in the produce are required. Recently, a number of detection methods for irradiated food have been adopted by the Codex Comission. A rapid screening method for qualitative detection of irradiation is the DNA Comet Assay. The applicability of the DNA Comet Assay for distinguishing irradiated papaya, melon, and watermelon was evaluated. The samples were treated in a {sup 60}Co facility at dose levels of 0.0, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 kGy. The irradiated samples showed typical DNA fragmentation whereas cells from non-irradiated ones appeared intact. In addition to the DNA Comet Assay also the half-embryo test was applied in melon and watermelon to detect the irradiation treatment.

  9. Identification of gamma-irradiated papaya, melon and watermelon

    Ionizing radiation can be used to control spoilage microorganisms and to increase the shelf life of fresh fruits and vegetables in replacement for the treatment with chemical fumigants. In order to enforce labelling regulations, methods for detecting the irradiation treatment directly in the produce are required. Recently, a number of detection methods for irradiated food have been adopted by the Codex Comission. A rapid screening method for qualitative detection of irradiation is the DNA Comet Assay. The applicability of the DNA Comet Assay for distinguishing irradiated papaya, melon, and watermelon was evaluated. The samples were treated in a 60Co facility at dose levels of 0.0, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 kGy. The irradiated samples showed typical DNA fragmentation whereas cells from non-irradiated ones appeared intact. In addition to the DNA Comet Assay also the half-embryo test was applied in melon and watermelon to detect the irradiation treatment

  10. Identification of gamma-irradiated papaya, melon and watermelon

    Marín-Huachaca, Nélida S.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; Delincée, Henry; Villavicencio, Anna Lúcia C. H.

    2004-09-01

    Ionizing radiation can be used to control spoilage microorganisms and to increase the shelf life of fresh fruits and vegetables in replacement for the treatment with chemical fumigants. In order to enforce labelling regulations, methods for detecting the irradiation treatment directly in the produce are required. Recently, a number of detection methods for irradiated food have been adopted by the Codex Comission. A rapid screening method for qualitative detection of irradiation is the DNA Comet Assay. The applicability of the DNA Comet Assay for distinguishing irradiated papaya, melon, and watermelon was evaluated. The samples were treated in a 60Co facility at dose levels of 0.0, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0kGy. The irradiated samples showed typical DNA fragmentation whereas cells from non-irradiated ones appeared intact. In addition to the DNA Comet Assay also the half-embryo test was applied in melon and watermelon to detect the irradiation treatment.

  11. Verbo de concordancia en la lengua de señas chilena

    Dora Adamo Quintela

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo trata sobre una clase verbo de la lengua de señas chilena, el verbo de concordancia. A través de su descripción se da cuenta de los diversos mecanismos utilizados por el sistema de la lengua de señas para establecer la concordancia entre el sujeto y el objeto, que funcionan en la oración mediante el proceso de inflexión gramatical. Una característica relevante de la LSCh consiste en la utilización del espacio para producir modificaciones gramaticales regulares, entendidas como procesos de inflexión, a través de la co-ocurrencia de parámetros gestual-visuales, que permiten una comunicación eficiente entre sus usuarios. (This article focuses on a particular type of verb used in Chilean Sign Language: the verb of agreement. Through its description, different mechanisms used to show subject-object accord operating through inflection are presented. A relevant feature of Chilean Sign Language (LSCh, is to use space to mark regular grammatical modifications, understood as processes of inflection through the co-occurrence of visual-kinetic parameters that allow its user an efficient communication.

  12. LOS DERECHOS SOCIALES DE PRESTACIÓN EN LA JURISPRUDENCIA CHILENA

    José Ignacio Martínez Estay

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Parte importante de los derechos sociales consisten en prestaciones. Desde el punto de vista jurídico ello parece ser una limitante para su garantía y satisfacción, pues dependen de los recursos económicos de que disponga el Estado. Por eso, lo usual es que si se constitucionalizan no llevan aparejada una garantía jurisdiccional. Así ocurre en la Constitución chilena. Dicha limitación se ve ratificada por la jurisprudencia de la Corte Suprema, que reiteradamente ha negado lugar a recursos de protección en que se intentaba la tutela de derechos sociales consistentes en prestaciones, vinculándolos a algún derecho protegido jurisdiccionalmente. Pero la reciente jurisprudencia del Tribunal Constitucional respecto del derecho a la protección de la salud y del derecho a la seguridad social contradice lo anterior, atribuyéndole a los derechos sociales consistentes en prestaciones el mismo valor que el de los demás derechos y libertades.

  13. Perfil bibliométrico de la odontología chilena, 2001-2010 Bibliometric profile of chilean dentistry, 2001-2010

    R Cartes-Velásquez; P Aravena Torres

    2012-01-01

    Introducción: Caracterizar la producción científica personal, institucional o nacional es una necesidad creciente para comprender y mejorar la generación de conocimiento. El objetivo de este trabajo es definir el perfil bibliométrico de la odontología chilena en la última década. Metodología: En la plataforma Web of Knowledge, mediante un algoritmo se realizó la búsqueda de las publicaciones odontológicas chilenas ISI. Los datos: número de publicaciones; factor de impacto (FI); Top-10 de: aut...

  14. Study about papaya (Carica papaya L.) conservation submitted to a combined treatment of irradiation and an edible film of quitosan

    In this research, on a first stage the effect of two treatments were studied: thermal, and a chitosan edible coating, combined with four different irradiation doses: 0,00 kGy, 0,50 kGy, 0,75 kGy and 1,00 kGy for effects in the ripening of papaya (Carica Papaya) cv. Golden. To evaluate the influence of these two factors in the physical-chemical characteristics of the fruit during ripening, analysis on color, both skin and pulp, firmness, soluble solids, pH and titrable acidity were performed. The incidence of fungi in fruit skin was also analyzed. The fruits were first maintained at 10 deg C chamber for fifteen days to simulate maritime transportation to the importer country and then transferred to a 25 deg C chamber aiming simulation of the commercialization conditions. From this first step, the conclusion was that chitosan in the concentration of 2% was not able to contain the fungi development and that it also influenced in a significant form the variable pH. A more expressive result was obtained for irradiation doses of 0,75 kGy and 1,00 kGy, as it was observed in the beginning the acceleration in ripening through the variables skin color and penetration energy of the fruit pulp. When storage temperature was changed to 25 deg C this situation inverted for these same variables and a two day delay was observed on the development of yellow color on the fruit skin and loss of pulp firmness. The variables titrable acidity, soluble solids and pulp color were not influenced by treatment or by irradiation. On a second stage, the fruits, in the same condition of the previous stage, were analyzed in relation of their mass and ripening stage using a ripening scale provided by the producer of the fruits for this experiment, as to evaluate the gradual development of fruit ripening according to the various treatments (chitosan 3%, thermal or control) and irradiation dose (0,00 kGy and 0,75 kGy). Confirming the results obtained in the first stage, the irradiation was able to

  15. JOAQUÍN EDWARDS BELLO: CRÓNICA Y CRÍTICA DE LA VIDA COTIDIANA CHILENA

    Leónidas Morales T

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Si bien el objeto central del artículo es la crítica a la vida cotidiana chilena en Joaquín Edwards Bello, en su primera parte se detiene en algunos aspectos importantes del género en que la crítica se da, la crónica urbana, asociados a su origen periodístico, a su estructura, a su lector y al estado de la modernidad chilena que su irrupción a comienzos del XX implica. En la segunda parte, y sobre la base de un breve corpus cronístico, el artículo intenta definir lo esencial de la crítica de Edwards como una crítica a un modo específico (no interrumpido desde la Colonia de ejercerse el poder en la sociedad chilena, uno de extrema polarización, y a los discursos ideológicos que le prestan la cobertura de su "naturalización".This article focuses on the criticism of Chilean everyday life in the writings of Joaquín Edwards Bello. The first part concentrates on important aspects of urban chronicle as a genre associated to its journalistic origin, structure, readership, and the conditions of Chilean modernity at the beginning of the 20th century. Supported by a brief corpus of chronicles, the second part of the article attempts to define one essential feature present in Edwards's criticism: namely a criticism of both a specific and uninterrupted mode in which power has been imposed on the Chilean society effecting extreme forms of polarization and the ideological discourses that "naturalize" its presence.

  16. Molecular diagnosis of Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) from leaf samples of Carica papaya L. using conventional and real-time RT-PCR.

    Abreu, Paolla M V; Piccin, João G; Rodrigues, Silas P; Buss, David S; Ventura, José A; Fernandes, Patricia M B

    2012-03-01

    Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) is the causal agent of papaya sticky disease. This study describes two methods for molecular diagnosis of PMeV using conventional and real-time PCR. These methods were shown to be more efficient than current methods of viral detection using extraction of PMeV dsRNA and observation of symptoms in the field. The methods described here were used to evaluate the effect of inoculation of papaya plants with purified PMeV dsRNA on the progress of PMeV infection. A single inoculation with PMeV dsRNA was observed to delay the progress of the virus infection by several weeks. The possibility of vertical transmission of PMeV was also investigated. No evidence was found for PMeV transmission through seeds collected from diseased fruit. The implications of these results for the epidemiology of PMeV and the management of papaya sticky disease are discussed. PMID:22193169

  17. Relationships between SAP-flow measurements, whole-canopy transpiration and reference evapotranspiration in field-grown papaya (Carica papaya L.)

    Whole-canopy gas exchange measurement in papaya can provide a scientific basis to optimize irrigation, and fruit yield and quality. The objectives of this study were to: 1) verify the relationship between xylem sap flow measured by the heat coefficient method and whole canopy transpiration in ‘Gra...

  18. Low-dose gamma irradiation following hot water immersion of papaya (Carica papaya linn.) fruits provides additional control of postharvest fungal infection to extend shelf life

    Low-dose gamma irradiation (0.08 kGy over 10 min), a level significantly below that required to satisfy the majority of international quarantine regulations, has been employed to provide a significant reduction in visible fungal infection on papaya fruit surfaces. This is appropriate for local and national markets in producer countries where levels of commercial acceptability can be retained despite surface lesions due to fungal infection. Irradiation alone and in combination with hot-water immersion (50 °C for 10 min) has been applied to papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruits at both the mature green and 1/3 yellow stages of maturity. The incidence and severity of surface fungal infections, including anthracnose, were significantly reduced by the combined treatment compared to irradiation or hot water treatment alone, extending storage at 11 °C by 13 days and retaining commercial acceptability. The combined treatment had no significant, negative impact on ripening, with quality characteristics such as surface and internal colour change, firmness, soluble solids, acidity and vitamin C maintained at acceptable levels. - Highlights: • Storage of papaya extended to 28 days whilst retaining commercial quality. • Additive effect of low gamma irradiation (0.08 kGy over 10 min) and hot-water treatment. • Significant reduction in surface fungal lesions. • No significant impact on colour change or flesh quality during storage

  19. La construcción discursiva de los imaginarios sociales: el caso de la medicina popular chilena

    Gerardo Álvarez; Andrea Álvarez; Marisol Facuse

    2002-01-01

    En este artículo se da cuenta del estado de avance de una investigación interdisciplinaria (lingüística, psicología, sociología) sobre las representaciones de cuerpo (salud/enfermedad) en la medicina popular chilena (Proyecto FONDECYT 1000376). No se trata de una investigación sobre la medicina como tal. El objetivo es rastrear el imaginario sobre el cuerpo que subyace a las prácticas curativas y que se revela a través del discurso de las sanadoras populares (mapuches y no mapuches), y luego ...

  20. DE ARMARIOS Y BIBLIOTECAS: MASCULINIDAD Y TRADICIÓN LITERARIA CHILENA EN LA NARRATIVA DE ALBERTO FUGUET

    Cristian Opazo

    2009-01-01

    La tesis de este ensayo postula que la narrativa de Alberto Fuguet puede ser leída como un proyecto escriturario que propone una (nueva) estrategia retórica por la cual representar los desvíos del género sexual. Según este modus operandi, en las narraciones de Fuguet, tanto el acto de reprimir como el de explicitar los desvíos de la masculinidad, se ejecutan a través de un juego de citas a la tradición literaria chilena. En los textos de José Donoso, Jorge Edwards y Alfredo Gómez Morel, entre...

  1. Interculturalidad y ciencias de la educación en lengua de señas chilena

    Carolina-Alejandra-de-Lourdes Becerra-Sepúlveda

    2013-01-01

    Los paradigmas de intervención orales para la cultura sorda afectan la percepción sobre la lengua de señas Chilena . Esto provoca debates emanados de una subvaloración, dadas sus particularidades visuales: iconicidad e isomorfismo, subvaloración nacida de una incomprensión en la lectura de investigaciones internacionales (por escasez de estudios nacionales), especialmente acerca del lenguaje corporeizado. Esto se contradice con nuevas investigaciones en psicolingüística cognitiva acer-ca de e...

  2. Incorporación del paisaje en la gestión del territorio de la Patagonia Chilena

    Maria Dolores Muñoz; Gerardo Azócar

    2014-01-01

    Este artículo presenta una metodología para el análisis y gestión del paisaje en la Patagonia chilena, un territorio que se destaca por la belleza y diversidad de los paisajes del agua generados por la presencia de grandes lagos, ríos, fiordos, humedales y campos de hielo. El primer caso de estudio es una investigación para evaluar las potencialidades turísticas y territoriales de los paisajes del agua en la cuenca del río Baker. Se utiliza una metodología interdisciplinaria y técnicas de ...

  3. 40 CFR 174.515 - Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    2010-07-01

    ...; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus are exempt... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 174.515 Section 174.515 Protection of...

  4. Production of Internal Yellowing Symptoms on Resistant and Susceptible Papaya Cultivars by Enterobacter cloacae at Varying Inoculum Concentrations

    Internal yellowing (IY) is a bacterial disease of ripening papaya flesh caused by Enterobacter cloacae and characterized by yellow softening tissue. IY restricts food safety of value-added products like fresh or frozen papaya cubes. The incidence of E. cloacae presumably differs in resistant (R) a...

  5. 76 FR 49725 - Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Fresh Papaya Fruit From Malaysia into the...

    2011-08-11

    ... United States of fresh papaya fruit (Carica papaya) from Malaysia. The pest risk analysis consisted of a... the findings of a pest risk analysis, which we made available to the public for review and comment... Federal Register announcing the availability of a pest risk analysis that evaluates the risks...

  6. KURSUS SINGKAT DAN PELATIHAN PEMANFAATAN PEPAYA (CARISA PAPAYA L. MENJADI MANISAN KERING BUAH PEPAYA DI DESA TIMUHUN, KECAMATAN BANJARANGKAN, KABUPATEN KLUNGKUNG

    I Made Nada

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In Desa Timuhun, eventhough papaya is not primary fruit product, but usually papaya is planted among the other plants and easily to grow. Papaya has good potency to be processed to become food product. Matured papaya fruit is usually fresh served for desk fruit. On the other hand, for papaya which is not mature yet, usually used for vegetable. Papaya has high water content, so it makes papaya fruit easy to experience damage. With papaya processing, papaya which is originally assumed improper to be sold or to be consumed (mechanical damage, diseased, acid, physical damage and will only to be thrown, finally can be used. The making of papaya dry candy is one of effort to preserve and to vary form of papaya serving. It also improves the economic value of papaya. The making of papaya can be conducted in big or small scale. The activity objectives are to introduce and give additional knowledge to society about papaya processing technology, to increase economic added value of papaya and the using of papaya which is improper to be sold or to be consumed becoming valuable food product .Realization of the objectives above are by performing an information sharing and discussion with the society about process of the making dry candy from papaya, training of papaya dry candy making, introduce simple technology of dry candy papaya making. This activity was performed at the head of Desa Timuhun office, on Friday, September 14, 2007 and was attended by 26 persons, including association of woman farmer and the staff in that office. The result of this activity shows that there was positive response of people who attend this activity, because by processing papaya fruit into dry candy, have a lot of advantage compare to sale it freshly. Beside that, this dry candy is healthy snack, without synthetic preservation, enriched with vitamins which is useful for health, also this dry candy is still good up to 1 month and of course it could to improve economic

  7. Control Strategies of Papaya Mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Willink in the Laboratory Condition

    M.J.H. Biswas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The laboratory experiment was conducted at the laboratory of the Department of Entomology, Bangladesh Agricultural University to determine the effectiveness of polythene band, predatory ladybird beetles (available species found in Bangladesh viz. Coccinella transversalis (F., Micraspis discolor (F., Menochilus sexmaculatus (F., Cyclonida sanguinea, Adalia bipunctata, Coccinella novemnotata and Illeis koebelei, four chemical insecticides and three botanical oils in controlling papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink. The chemical insecticides were Sevin 85 SP, Dimethoate 40 EC, Fipronil 50 EC, Deltamethrin 2.5 EC, and the botanical oils were Neem oil, Mahogany oil and Karanja oil. In the laboratory experiment, polythene banding failed to prevent the plant from the infestation of papaya mealybug. Seven commonly available species of ladybird beetles in Bangladesh did not provide any control to papaya mealybug. Among the chemical insecticides, Sevin 85 SP and Dimethoate 40 EC showed significant mortality of papaya mealybug. Deltamethrin 2.5 EC and Neem oil (2% provided moderate control of the pest. The remaining insecticides and botanical oils were less effective to control papaya mealybug.

  8. Carbon disulfide formation in papaya under conditions of dithiocarbamate residue analysis.

    Abakerli, R B; Sparrapan, R; Sawaya, A C H F; Eberlin, M N; Jara, J L P; Rodrigues, N R; Fay, E F; Luiz, A J B; Galvão, T D L; Martins, D dos S; Yamanishi, O K; Toledo, H H B

    2015-12-01

    Golden, Sunrise Solo and Tainung cultivars of papaya were found to release CS2 when submitted to experimental conditions of dithiocarbamate residue analysis. Three common analytical methods were used to quantitate CS2; one spectrophotometric method and two chromatographic methods. All three methods gave positive CS2 results for all three papaya varieties. Other endogenous compounds present in isooctane extracts of papaya fractions detected via gas chromatography (GC/ITD) using electron ionization (EI) were: carbonyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, 2-methylthiophene, 3-methylthiophene, 2-ethylthiophene, 3-ethylthiophene, benzylisothiocyanate, benzylthiocyanate and benzonitrile. Control samples were obtained from papaya plantations cultivated in experimental areas, in which no treatment with fungicides of the dithiocarbamate group was applied. Endogenous CS2 levels were compared with true dithiocarbamate residues measured in papaya samples from the field trials following applications of the mancozeb fungicide. Three days after application, true dithiocarbamate residues, measured by the procedure with isooctane partitioning and GC-ITD, were at the average level of 2 mg kg(-1). PMID:26041166

  9. Eradication of Bactrocera papayae (Diptera: Tephritidae) by male annihilation and protein baiting in Queensland, Australia

    An established population of Bactrocera papayae Drew and Hancock (Asian papaya fruit fly) was detected on the Australian mainland near Cairns, north Queensland, on 16 October 1995 (Fay et al. 1997). Coincidentally, the first flies were bred from green papaya, a host not normally utilised in the unripe state by indigenous fruit fly species. B. papayae is a member of the Oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis) complex (Drew and Hancock 1994) and has more than 190 known hosts in Southeast Asia, where it is a major pest species. Consequently, the threat to Australian horticulture posed by the incursion was recognised immediately. By 26 October 1995, breeding populations were confirmed around Cairns, Mossman and Mareeba and a Pest Quarantine Area (PQA) was legislated. By 1 November 1995, following detections south of Innisfail, the PQA boundaries were set at 144 deg. 15'E, 19 deg. 00'S, covering nearly 78,000 km2. B. papayae was ultimately trapped over some 20,000 km2. A national eradication campaign began in November 1995, undertaken by the Queensland Department of Primary Industries

  10. Anglicismos y aculturación en la sociedad chilena (English loanwords: acculturation in chilean society

    Constanza Gerding Salas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available La implementación del modelo económico neoliberal estadounidense enChile hace cuatro décadas y la participación del país en la globalización han provocado cambios fundamentales en la sociedad. De hecho, los efectos de la adopción de dicho paradigma se reflejan en diversos ámbitos, incluido el del uso de la lengua. Por esta razón, resulta de interés para lingüistas y traductores indagar acerca de la influencia del idioma inglés y de la cultura estadounidense en la sociedad chilena. De allí que los objetivos de este estudio fueron constatar la presencia de préstamos del inglés en la prensa escrita, para describirlos, determinar su frecuencia de uso e inferir las causas de su adopción. Para lograr estos objetivos se clasificaron de forma manual y semiautomática préstamos del inglés extraídos de periódicos entre enero de 2003 y diciembre de 2009. Se analizó las unidades recopiladas según sus características formales, frecuencia de aparición y áreas del saber a las que pertenecían. Se determinó que los préstamos del inglés se adoptan más que adaptan y que tienen una fuerte presencia en la redacción periodística actual, específicamente en economía, computación, deportes y cultura. Además, se pudo establecer que su uso estaría determinado por cuatro factores: vacío denominativo, prestigio social, economía lingüística y preferencia de los usuarios. Finalmente, se concluyó que la lengua inglesa y la cultura estadounidense tienen una presencia significativa en la prensa chilena. (The implementation of the US-inspired neoliberal economic model in Chile four decades ago and the country’s participation in the globalization process have led to fundamental societal changes. In fact, the effect of the adoption of this paradigm is reflected in several areas, including that of the use of the language. For this reason, it is interesting for linguists and translators to find out the influence of the English language and

  11. INCORPORACIÓN DEL PAISAJE EN LA GESTIÓN DEL TERRITORIO DE LA PATAGONIA CHILENA

    MARÍA DOLORES MUÑOZ

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta una metodología para el análisis y gestión del paisaje en la Patagonia chilena, un territorio que se destaca por la belleza y diversidad de los paisajes del agua generados por la presencia de grandes lagos, ríos, fiordos, humedales y campos de hielo. El primer caso de estudio es una investigación para evaluar las potencialidades turísticas y territoriales de los paisajes del agua en la cuenca del río Baker. Se utiliza una metodología interdisciplinaria y técnicas de medición, cualitativa y cuantitativa, que permitieran analizar los valores espaciales, ambientales, territoriales y culturales asociados al paisaje. Un aspecto esencial fue incorporar la valoración social del paisaje. El segundo caso, ubicado en el estrecho de Magallanes, corresponde a una metodología de análisis territorial como base para diseñar un Plan de Manejo Turístico en el Área Marina Protegida Francisco Coloane (que incluye al Parque Marino Francisco Coloane. Comprende el análisis de las condiciones ambientales, las características del paisaje y potencialidades del turismo de intereses especiales asociado al paisaje para respaldar la propuesta de gestión. En ambos casos, la metodología considera al paisaje como principal recurso territorial y plantea una forma de gestión respaldada por principios de sustentabilidad ambiental y social.

  12. Boletín de la Academia Chilena de la Historia

    JUAN GUILLERMO MUÑOZ CORREA

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Juan José Fernández Valdés, “El límite marítimo chileno-peruano” Luego de entregar los antecedentes desde el Tratado de Ancón, la doctrina de las 200 millas marítimas de 1947, primero por Chile y poco más de un mes después por Perú, que señaló expresamente que serían medidas “siguiendo la línea de los paralelos geográficos”, continúa analizando todas las acciones en torno al tema, no solo de estos dos países, sino los posteriores de Ecuador, Colombia, tanto decretos supremos, convenios, declaraciones, como sus ratificaciones por los respectivos estados. También repasa los puntos internacionales, como la Convención de las Naciones Unidas sobre el Derecho del Mar, signada en 1982, cuyo artículo 12 alude al método de la línea media o equidistancia para la delimitación marítima entre dos estados, exceptuando los casos en que por derechos históricos hubiera otra situación, a pesar de lo cual la posición peruana es la de adaptarse a dicho punto 12, de cuyas manifestaciones en diferentes años da cuenta este artículo, como de las consiguientes reacciones por parte de la cancillería chilena.

  13. Combined Treatment of UV and Gamma Radiation of Papaya for Decay Control

    An exploratory study was made to determine if combining u.v. and gamma radiation treatment at selective doses would decrease the fungal decay incidence in papaya (Carica papaya L. var. Solo), and thereby increase the marketable life of the fruit. Also studied was the effect of the combined treatment on the spores of Aschochyta spp., Colletotrichium spp. and Phytophthora spp., which are commonly found on papaya grown in Hawaii. This was to test the postulate that the combined treatment would prevent photoreactivation of the disrupted nuclei in microorganisms and lead to eventual death. Experimental results did not indicate a conclusive trend to effectiveness but suggested a number of problems to be resolved before the treatment can become useful in fungal decay control of fruits. (author)

  14. Phenol induced by irradiation does not impair sensory quality of fenugreek and papaya

    The effect of radiation processing on the sensory quality of fenugreek and papaya exposed to doses in the range of 2.5–10 kGy and 100 Gy–2.5 kGy respectively was investigated. Despite an increase in the content of phenol in the volatile oil of these food products overall sensory quality of the irradiated and control samples was not significantly affected by radiation processing. - Highlights: • Sensory quality of fenugreek and papaya is not significantly affected by radiation processing. • Irradiation did not adversely affect the overall acceptability of the processed samples. • Radiation processing was thus successfully applied to the preservation of fenugreek and papaya

  15. The effect of gamma radiation on the chemical content, texture and shelf life of papaya

    Commercially matured papaya, Carica papaya var. Solo were gamma irradiated at doses of 0 kGy, 0.75 kGy, 1.0 KGy and 1.5 kGy. The production rate of ethylene, development of ripening colour, pectin substances and ascorbic acid content as well as the weight losses were studied during storage at room temperature. Ethylene production, development of ripening colour and softening were found to be retarded by irradiation. Irradiation also slowed down the reduction rate of alcohol insoluble substances and hydrochloric acid soluble pectin and the increment of water soluble pectin and hexamataphosphate soluble pectin. Doses of 1.0 kGy and 1.5 kGy effectively suppressed the synthesis of vitamin C although no effect on the existing ascorbic acid was detected. The weight losses of papaya were not affected by irradiation treatment

  16. Combined treatment of UV and gamma radiation of papaya for decay control

    An exploratory study was made to determine if combining u.v. and gamma radiation treatment at selective doses would decrease the fungal decay incidence in papaya (Carica papaya L. var. Solo), and thereby increase the marketable life of the fruit. Also studied was the effect of the combined treatment on the spores of Aschochyta spp., Colletotrichium spp. and Phytophthora spp., which are commonly found on papaya grown in Hawaii. This was to test the postulate that the combined treatment would prevent photoreactivation of the disrupted nuclei in microorganisms and lead to eventual death. Experimental results did not indicate a conclusive trend to effectiveness but suggested a number of problems to be resolved before the treatment can become useful in fungal decay control of fruits. (author)

  17. Stability and efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells based on papaya-leaf dye

    Suyitno, Suyitno; Saputra, Trisma Jaya; Supriyanto, Agus; Arifin, Zainal

    2015-09-01

    The present article reports on the enhancement of the performance and stability of natural dye-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Natural dyes extracted from papaya leaves (PL) were investigated as sensitizers in TiO2-based DSSCs and evaluated in comparison with N719 dye. The acidity of the papaya-leaf extract dyes was tuned by adding benzoic acid. The TiO2 film-coated fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrates were prepared using the doctor-blade method, followed by sintering at 450 °C. The counter electrode was coated by chemically deposited catalytic platinum. The working electrodes were immersed in N719 dye and papaya dye solutions with concentrations of 8 g/100 mL. The absorbance spectra of the dyes were obtained by ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy. The energy levels of the dyes were measured by the method of cyclic voltammetry. In addition, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to determine the characteristic functionalities of the dye molecules. The DSSC based on the N719 dye displayed a highest efficiency of 0.87% whereas those based on papaya-leaf dye achieved 0.28% at pH 3.5. The observed improved efficiency of the latter was attributed to the increased current density value. Furthermore, the DSSCs based on papaya-leaf dye with pH 3.5-4 exhibited better stability than those based on N719 dye. However, further studies are required to improve the current density and stability of natural dye-based DSSCs, including the investigation of alternative dye extraction routes, such as isolating the pure chlorophyll from papaya leaves and stabilizing it.

  18. Habitat fragmentation threatens wild populations of Carica papaya (Caricaceae) in a lowland rainforest.

    Chávez-Pesqueira, Mariana; Suárez-Montes, Pilar; Castillo, Guillermo; Núñez-Farfán, Juan

    2014-07-11

    • Premise of the study: Wild populations of domesticated species constitute a genetic reservoir and are fundamental to the evolutionary potential of species. Wild papaya (Carica papaya) is a rare, short-lived, gap-colonizing, dioecious tree that persists in the forest by continuous dispersal. Theoretically, these life-history characteristics render wild papaya highly susceptible to habitat fragmentation, with anticipated negative effects on its gene pool. Further, species dioecy may cause founder effects to generate local biases in sex ratio, decreasing effective population size.• Methods: We contrasted the genetic diversity and structure of C. papaya between wild populations from rainforest fragments and continuous forest at Los Tuxtlas, Mexico. We evaluated recent migration rates among populations as well as landscape resistance to gene flow. Finally, we calculated the sex ratio of the populations in both habitats.• Key results: Populations of wild papaya in rainforest fragments showed lower genetic diversity and higher population differentiation than populations in continuous rainforest. Estimates of recent migration rates showed a higher percentage of migrants moving from the continuous forest to the forest fragments than in the opposite direction. Agricultural land and cattle pasture were found to be the most resistant matrices to gene flow. Finally, biased sex ratios were seen to affect the effective population size in both habitats.• Conclusions: The mating system, rarity, and short life cycle of C. papaya are exacerbating the effects of rainforest fragmentation on its genetic diversity, threatening the persistence of its natural populations in the proposed place of origin as well as its genetic reservoir. PMID:25016010

  19. Scarabaeidae family species in the Carica papaya L. in Ciego de Ávila

    Maria Luisa Sisne Luis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A white light trap was placed in Carica papaya L. plantations, as Sisne, 2009 and MINAG, 1985 establishes, in the Citric Enterprise of Ciego de Ávila during the period between º May and July of 2010 with the objective of determining the composition of genus and species of the order Coleoptera family Scarabaeidae associated to the agroecosystem. The species. Cyclocephala cubana Chapin, Anomala calceata Chev. y Phyllophaga crenaticollis Blanch are associated to Carica papaya L. crops in these areas.

  20. Penentuan Lc50 Dari Getah Buah Pepaya (Carica Papaya L.) Terhadap Ikan Nila (Oreochromis Niloticus)

    Islami, Harita

    2015-01-01

    One plant that contains the enzyme papain and papaya fruit kimopapain is sap. Papaya latex compounds also produce alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids, and nonprotein amino acid which is highly toxic to insects, causing death. Acute toxicity is the degree of the toxic effects of a compound that occurs in brief ( 24 hours ) after administration of single doses. LC50 is the concentration that causes the death of as many as 50 % of the test organisms. The test is performed by using as many as 330 f...

  1. Effect of ionizing radiation on the activity of pectinesterase in papaya (cultivar solo)

    Papaya fruits (Carica papaya L.) were exposed to ionizing radiation gamma type ( sup(60)Co), using a dose of 0.7kGy, and then stored in a cold room at 10C with a relative humidity of 85% for a period of 25 days. The pectinesterase activity of the irradiated fruits was found to be similar to that of the non-irradiated fruits during the storage period. The radiation dose maintained the texture and enzyme activity of the irradiated fruits the same as that of the non-irradiated fruits. (author)

  2. Effect of 60Co γ irradiation and GA3 treatment on mutation of Carica papaya L

    The seeds of Carica papaya L. were irradiated by 60Co γ-rays of 10-40 Gy and treated by GA3 of 10-50 mg/L after irradiation. The results showed that small nuclear cell percentage, chromosome variation percentage and leaf variability of papaya seedling increased with increase of irradiation dose, the pollen fertility and fruit quality decreased. GA3 of 10-50 mg/L treatment after irradiation could alleviate the irradiation harm, and the effect of lower concentration of GA3 was better than higher concentration with lower dose irradiation, however, the effect of higher concentration of GA3 was better with higher dose irradiation

  3. Chemical Characterization and in Vitro Cytotoxicity on Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells of Carica Papaya Leaf Extracts

    Thao T. Nguyen; Marie-Odile Parat; Mark P. Hodson; Jenny Pan; Paul N. Shaw; Hewavitharana, Amitha K.

    2015-01-01

    In traditional medicine, Carica papaya leaf has been used for a wide range of therapeutic applications including skin diseases and cancer. In this study, we investigated the in vitro cytotoxicity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Carica papaya leaves on the human oral squamous cell carcinoma SCC25 cell line in parallel with non-cancerous human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. Two out of four extracts showed a significantly selective effect towards the cancer cells and were found to contain high l...

  4. Papaya extract to treat dengue: a novel therapeutic option?

    Sarala, N; Paknikar, Ss

    2014-05-01

    Dengue is a viral disease that today affects a vast number of people in over 125 countries and is responsible for a sizable number of deaths. In the absence of an effective antiviral drug to treat the disease, various treatments are being investigated. Studies have indicated that the juice of the leaves of the Carica papaya plant from the family Caricaceae could help to increase the platelet levels in these patients. This review describes some of the published studies on this topic. The search was done independently by the two authors using PubMed, Google and the library database and included relevant articles of the last 10 years. A total of 7 studies were included in this review, which were one animal study, one case report, three case series and two randomized controlled trials. Although many of the studies and case reports published in literature lack adequate information, some of the studies do raise the possibility that this treatment could be an important option in the future. Further large-scale studies could establish the usefulness or ineffectiveness of this natural product in the treatment of dengue. PMID:24971201

  5. Potentiating Cancer Immunotherapy Using Papaya Mosaic Virus-Derived Nanoparticles.

    Lebel, Marie-Ève; Chartrand, Karine; Tarrab, Esther; Savard, Pierre; Leclerc, Denis; Lamarre, Alain

    2016-03-01

    The recent development of novel immunotherapies is revolutionizing cancer treatment. These include, for example, immune checkpoint blockade, immunomodulation, or therapeutic vaccination. Although effective on their own, combining multiple approaches will most likely be required in order to achieve the maximal therapeutic benefit. In this regard, the papaya mosaic virus nanoparticle (PapMV) has shown tremendous potential as (i) an immunostimulatory molecule, (ii) an adjuvant, and (iii) a vaccine platform through its intrinsic capacity to activate the innate immune response in an IFN-α-dependent manner. Here, we demonstrate that intratumor administration of PapMV significantly slows down melanoma progression and prolongs survival. This correlates with enhanced chemokine and pro-inflammatory-cytokine production in the tumor and increased immune-cell infiltration. Proportions of total and tumor-specific CD8(+) T cells dramatically increase following PapMV treatment whereas those of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) concomitantly decrease. Moreover, systemic PapMV administration prevents metastatic tumor-implantation in the lungs. Importantly, PapMV also synergistically improves the therapeutic benefit of dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccination and PD-1 blockade by potentiating antitumor immune responses. This study illustrates the immunostimulatory potential of a plant virus-derived nanoparticle for cancer therapy either alone or in conjunction with other promising immunotherapies in clinical development. PMID:26891174

  6. Label-free quantitative proteomics reveals differentially regulated proteins in the latex of sticky diseased Carica papaya L. plants.

    Rodrigues, Silas P; Ventura, José A; Aguilar, Clemente; Nakayasu, Ernesto S; Choi, HyungWon; Sobreira, Tiago J P; Nohara, Lilian L; Wermelinger, Luciana S; Almeida, Igor C; Zingali, Russolina B; Fernandes, Patricia M B

    2012-06-18

    Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) is so far the only described laticifer-infecting virus, the causal agent of papaya (Carica papaya L.) sticky disease. The effects of PMeV on the laticifers' regulatory network were addressed here through the proteomic analysis of papaya latex. Using both 1-DE- and 1D-LC-ESI-MS/MS, 160 unique papaya latex proteins were identified, representing 122 new proteins in the latex of this plant. Quantitative analysis by normalized spectral counting revealed 10 down-regulated proteins in the latex of diseased plants, 9 cysteine proteases (chymopapain) and 1 latex serine proteinase inhibitor. A repression of papaya latex proteolytic activity during PMeV infection was hypothesized. This was further confirmed by enzymatic assays that showed a reduction of cysteine-protease-associated proteolytic activity in the diseased papaya latex. These findings are discussed in the context of plant responses against pathogens and may greatly contribute to understand the roles of laticifers in plant stress responses. PMID:22465191

  7. Conocimientos y autoeficacia asociados a la prevención del VIH y SIDA en mujeres chilenas Conhecimentos e autoeficacia sócios à prevenção do HIV e AIDS em mulheres chilenas Knowledge and self efficacy associated to HIV and AIDS prevention in Chilean women

    Natalia Villegas Rodríguez; Lilian Marcela Ferrer Lagunas; Rosina Cianelli Acosta; Sarah Miner; Loreto Lara Campos; Nilda Peragallo

    2011-01-01

    Objetivo. Evaluar la relación existente entre conocimientos y autoeficacia asociados al VIH/SIDA en mujeres chilenas en desventaja social. Metodología. Estudio correlacional, que utiliza la medición basal del estudio "Testeando una intervención en VIH y SIDA en mujeres chilenas", realizada entre 2006 y 2008, que tiene una muestra de 496 mujeres entre 18 y 49 años residentes en dos comunas de Santiago de Chile. Las participantes respondieron un cuestionario estructurado aplicado por entrevista...

  8. Transcriptome Profiling Revealed Stress-Induced and Disease Resistance Genes Up-Regulated in PRSV Resistant Transgenic Papaya.

    Fang, Jingping; Lin, Aiting; Qiu, Weijing; Cai, Hanyang; Umar, Muhammad; Chen, Rukai; Ming, Ray

    2016-01-01

    Papaya is a productive and nutritious tropical fruit. Papaya Ringspot Virus (PRSV) is the most devastating pathogen threatening papaya production worldwide. Development of transgenic resistant varieties is the most effective strategy to control this disease. However, little is known about the genome-wide functional changes induced by particle bombardment transformation. We conducted transcriptome sequencing of PRSV resistant transgenic papaya SunUp and its PRSV susceptible progenitor Sunset to compare the transcriptional changes in young healthy leaves prior to infection with PRSV. In total, 20,700 transcripts were identified, and 842 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) randomly distributed among papaya chromosomes. Gene ontology (GO) category analysis revealed that microtubule-related categories were highly enriched among these DEGs. Numerous DEGs related to various transcription factors, transporters and hormone biosynthesis showed clear differences between the two cultivars, and most were up-regulated in transgenic papaya. Many known and novel stress-induced and disease-resistance genes were most highly expressed in SunUp, including MYB, WRKY, ERF, NAC, nitrate and zinc transporters, and genes involved in the abscisic acid, salicylic acid, and ethylene signaling pathways. We also identified 67,686 alternative splicing (AS) events in Sunset and 68,455 AS events in SunUp, mapping to 10,994 and 10,995 papaya annotated genes, respectively. GO enrichment for the genes displaying AS events exclusively in Sunset was significantly different from those in SunUp. Transcriptomes in Sunset and transgenic SunUp are very similar with noteworthy differences, which increased PRSV-resistance in transgenic papaya. No detrimental pathways and allergenic or toxic proteins were induced on a genome-wide scale in transgenic SunUp. Our results provide a foundation for unraveling the mechanism of PRSV resistance in transgenic papaya. PMID:27379138

  9. Diferencias entre la composición sectorial y ocupacional de las principales ciudades chilenas

    Marcelo Lufín Varas

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available La planifcación regional y urbana ha tendido a fjarse exclusivamente en la composición sectorial de las economías locales, asumiendo en forma implícita que la estructura de ocupaciones por actividad es similar a lo largo de un país. Si bien este supuesto parece ser cierto para el conjunto del tejido productivo, se encuentran diferencias signifcativas cuando se analizan ocupaciones específcas. Entre ellas destacan aquellas intensivas en conocimiento, las cuales tienden a estar sobrerrepresen-tadas en las principales ciudades. Se propone una metodología para el análisis de la relación existente entre la estructura de ocupaciones y la estructura sectorial y se aplica al estudio de las principales ciudades chilenas en 2002 a partir de la información del Censo de población, con el objetivo de estimar en qué medida estas estructuras divergen y si existen concentraciones relativas de ocupaciones, observándose que aquellas relacionadas con el conocimiento y la toma de decisiones empresariales tienen una presencia mayor que la esperada en el área metropolitana de Santiago.Regional and urban planning have tended to be exclusively focused on the industrial mix of local economies, implicitly assuming that the occupational mix of economic activities is similar throughout a country. Tis assumption seems to be right fom the perspective of the productive system as a whole, however signifcant diferences arise when analyzing certain occupations. Among them, knowledge-intensive occupations stand out and tend to be overrepresented in the main urban areas. A methodolog y is proposed to analyze the relationship between the occupational and industrial structures. Tis methodology is applied to the case of the principal Chilean cities in 2002 using data fom the population Census in order to estimate the extent to which these structures diverge and whether or not there are relative concentrations of occupations. Results show that the presence of managerial

  10. ANÁLISIS DE CONSULTAS A UN BUSCADOR DE LA WEB CHILENA

    Ricardo Baeza-Yates

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Los buscadores de páginas Web son herramientas indispensables de orientación para sus usuarios, lo cual refleja la gran cantidad de personas que los utilizan diariamente. Las bitácoras (logs que registran el uso de un buscador son una valiosa fuente de información: nos hablan de las expectativas, preferencias y necesidades de las personas, es decir, qué esperan ellas encontrar en la Web. El resultado del análisis de logs de uso tiene un importante valor comercial, en particular para el comercio electrónico y la publicidad en Internet. El objetivo de este estudio es encontrar relaciones entre las consultas de los usuarios de la Web Chilena (.cl y las diversas áreas de clasificación de sus diferentes sitios. También se esperan encontrar relaciones entre los tipos de búsqueda realizados y los sitios visitados, para así conocer la necesidad que los lleva a formular sus consultas. La información obtenida está basada en los logs del buscador chileno TodoCL [1] entre febrero y marzo de 2004.Web page search engines are essential tools on users’ orientation, which is reflected by the big amount of people who are using them every day. The logs, reflecting the Web search engine uses, are a valuable source of information: they give us information about the users’ expectations, preferences and needs, which is everything that they expect to find on the Web. The results from the logs usage analysis have an important commercial value, in particular, for e-commerce and Internet publicity. The purpose of this study is to find relations between Chilean Web (.cl users’ queries and the different classification areas for its web sites. Also we expect to find relations between the search types made and the web sites visited, trying to get the need behind the query . The data used for this study was gotten from the Chilean search engine TodoCL, between February and March 2004.

  11. Caracterización del aceite de coquito de palma chilena (Jubaea chilensis

    Torija, M. Esperanza

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of the seeds from Chilean palm and the detailed composition of its fat are studied starting from 4 lots of seeds from the two regions being the major producers of Chilean palm seeds. From the proximate composition of the seeds a high content of fats is deduced with a mean value of 67.3%. The contents of proteins, carbohydrates and fibre were in the range of 7-11%. A detailed analysis of the fat indicates a high content of saturated fatty acids being capric, caprilic, lauric and miristic acids the major fatty acids. For this reason the presence of a high percentage of medium-chain triglycerides are detected in the triglyceride analysis. As for tocopherols, the fat contains low amounts of α-, γ- y δ-tocopherol with a total average of 84 mg/kg. Concerning phytosterols, the total content was around 1000 mg/kg being β-sitosterol and Δ7-estigmastenol the two major sterolsSe analizan las características generales del coquito de palma chilena y se estudia con detalle la composición de su aceite. Con este objetivo, se analizan 4 lotes de coquitos procedentes de las dos regiones de Chile donde existe mayor producción. La composición proximal del coquito indica un contenido muy mayoritario de grasa, con un promedio de 67,3% mientras los contenidos de proteínas, hidratos de carbono y fibra se encuentran entre el 7 y el 11%. Un análisis detallado de la grasa muestra un contenido elevado de ácidos grasos saturados (alrededor del 85% siendo los ácidos cáprico, caprílico, láurico y mirístico los que se encuentran en mayor concentración, lo que origina un elevado porcentaje de triglicéridos de cadena media. Respecto a los tocoferoles, el aceite contiene cantidades limitadas de α-, γ- y δ-tocoferol con un valor promedio total de 84 mg/kg, no detectándose la presencia de tocotrienoles. Respecto a los fitoesteroles, el contenido total es del orden de 1000 mg/kg siendo los esteroles mayoritarios el

  12. ‘Buscamos una voz que nos reciba’. Narrativa chilena reciente: lecturas cómplices

    Daza D., Paulina

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This research explores certain suggested ways of reading recent Chilean narratives, focusing particularly on a corpus of works by four authors: Alvaro Bisama, Alejandra Costamagna, María José Viera-Gallo and Alejandro Zambra. It is proposed that from reception it is possible to specify certain ways of reading that manifest themselves in the degree of complicity achieved between the reader and the works, where this is defined by the reader’s cooperation or participation in the act of reading. The reader is drawn into the work by following the signs given in it, shifting from a critical to emotional reading by updating the stories through a close link between writer, the work and the reader. Thus the works are always read in a complicit way, but from different viewpoints and on different levels. Taking these nuances into account we aim to revise three ways of complicit reading: a through appropriation of the past, b politically and c dynamically.Esta investigación centra su estudio en algunas propuestas de lectura para la narrativa chilena reciente, especialmente un corpus compuesto por un conjunto de obras de cuatro autores: Álvaro Bisama, Alejandra Costamagna, María José Viera-Gallo y Alejandro Zambra. Se propone que desde la recepción es posible precisar algunas formas de lectura que se concretan pensando en el grado de complicidad que logra el lector con estas obras, determinada por su relación de colaboración o participación en el acto de leer. El lector se acercará más o menos a la obra siguiendo las señas propuestas en ella, así las formas de leer irán desde lo crítico hasta lo afectivo, actualizando los relatos a partir de un estrecho vínculo entre escritor, obra y lector. De esta forma la lectura siempre será cómplice, pero desde diferentes aspectos y en distintos grados. Teniendo en cuenta estos matices revisaremos tres formas de lectura cómplice: a de apropiación del pasado, b política y c dinámica.

  13. Estudios en papaya mínimamente procesada por deshidratación osmótica

    CEBALLOS CHAN, GERMÁN ENRIQUE

    2008-01-01

    Se ha estudiado el efecto de tratamientos osmóticos con disoluciones de sacarosa de diferente concentración (45 y 65 ºBrix), con y sin aplicación de pulso de vacío y con y sin adición de lactato de calcio (1%), en diferentes propiedades relacionadas con la calidad de papaya, en aras a evaluar la factibilidad de utilizar estos tratamientos en la obtención de papaya mínimamente procesada. Se ha caracterizado la cinética del proceso en láminas de papaya y se ha analizado el efecto de los tratami...

  14. Antihyperglycaemic effects of ethanol extracts of Carica papaya and Pandanus amaryfollius leaf in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    Sasidharan, Sreenivasan; Sumathi, Vello; Jegathambigai, Naidu Rameshwar; Latha, Lachimanan Yoga

    2011-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a global disease that is increasing in an alarming rate. The present study was undertaken to study the antidiabetic effect of the ethanol extracts of Carica papaya and Pandanus amaryfollius on streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. The results of the present study indicated that there was no significant difference in the body weight of the treated groups when compared to diabetic control. Whereas, there was significant (P papaya and P. amaryfollius. The antidiabetic effect of C. papaya and P. amaryfollius observed in the present study may be due to the presence of these phytochemicals. PMID:21707251

  15. Valorization of agroindustrial wastes: Identification by LC-MS and NMR of benzylglucosinolate from papaya (Carica papaya L.) seeds, a protective agent against lipid oxidation in edible oils.

    Castro-Vargas, Henry I; Baumann, Wolfram; Parada-Alfonso, Fabián

    2016-07-01

    In the present study we report the characterization of benzylglucosinolate (BG) isolated from papaya (Carica papaya L.) seeds. A methanolic extract was fractionated and further purified by solid phase extraction (SPE). It was analyzed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS), and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1) H and (13) C-NMR) as well, and the target compound BG was identified by these two techniques. The effect of BG on lipid oxidation in edible vegetable oil (EO) was shown by observing some lipid oxidation products (linoleic acid hydroperoxides, LHP; hexanal, HEX; nonanal, NON; thiobarbituric acid reactives species, TBARS). BG reduced lipid oxidation production in EO by over 80%, as compared to a control sample and in this way has proved to be a useful antioxidant, even more effective than some antioxidants used by food industry. PMID:26756135

  16. Cytogenetics of Chilean angiosperms: Advances and prospects Citogenética de angiospermas chilenas: Avances y proyecciones

    PEDRO JARA-SEGUEL

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Cytogenetic data on Chilean angiosperms have been reported since at least eight decades ago; however, much of this information is disperse in diverse sources and is not readily available as a comprehensive document that allows having a general vision on advances and gaps in this matter. The goal of this paper is to summarize the advances and prospets on cytogenetic studies of the Chilean angiosperms based on compiled publications from 1929 to 2010. We found 78 publications supplied by four groups of Chilean researchers and some foreign specialists. Cytogenetic data have been reported for 139 Chilean angiosperm species (2.8 % of the total, which belong to 58 genera and 34 families. During 2001-2010 there was an increase in the number of publications, being available 40 reports including 95 additional species. Based on these data, we hope that such a trend can be maintained in the next decade if the current research groups and young specialists continue to be interested in the study of native plants.Los datos citogenéticos sobre angiospermas chilenas han sido reportados desde al menos ocho décadas atrás; sin embargo, mucha de esta información está dispersa en diversas fuentes y no está disponible como un documento completo que permita tener una visión general sobre los avances y vacíos en esta materia. El objetivo de este trabajo es resumir los avances y proyecciones sobre los estudios citogenéticos disponibles para angiospermas chilenas, basado en publicaciones recopiladas desde 1929 hasta el 2010. Nosotros encontramos 78 publicaciones aportadas por cuatro grupos de investigadores chilenos y por algunos especialistas extranjeros. Datos citogenéticos han sido reportados para 139 especies de angiospermas chilenas (2.8 % del total, las cuales pertenecen a 58 géneros y 34 familias. Durante los años 2001-2010, existió un incremento en el número de publicaciones estando disponibles 40 reportes que incluyen 95 especies adicionales. Basados

  17. Gastroprotective and Anti-ulcer activity of Aloe vera juice, Papaya fruit juice and Aloe vera and Papaya fruit combined juice in Ethanol induced Ulcerated Rats

    Mr. S. Gopinathan; D. Naveenraj

    2013-01-01

    Peptic ulcer is the most prevalent gastrointestinal disease. Even though a wide range of drugs are available for the treatment of peptic ulcer, but many of these do not fulfill all the requirements and have side effects. These factors have attracted researchers to investigate the natural products which have more efficacy, less side effects and less expensive for the treatment of peptic ulcer disease. In the present study the anti ulcer activity of (1) Aloe vera juice, (2) papaya fruit juice (...

  18. Caracterización de accesiones de papaya (Carica papaya L. a través de marcadores AFLP en Cuba

    Maruchi Alonso Esquivel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Los marcadores moleculares son herramientas valiosas en los estudios genéticos en plantas, y están siendo empleados exitosamente en programas de mejoramiento principalmente en la elección de progenitores y en la selección. El polimorfismo observado mediante la técnica molecular AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism ha sido de utilidad para estudios de diversidad genética en frutales. En el presente trabajo se realizó la caracterización molecular de 12 accesiones de papaya (Carica papaya L. del banco de germoplasma del Instituto de Investigaciones en Fruticultura Tropical (IIFT, empleando la técnica AFLP. Se evaluaron seis combinaciones de iniciadores para la amplificación selectiva, las cuales amplificaron un total de 431 bandas con 73,3% de polimorfismo. El número total de patrones de bandas identificados fue igual en todas las combinaciones utilizadas, con un porcentaje de identificación alto, lo que sugiere que dichas combinaciones pudieran ser empleadas para estudios de variabilidad genética en papaya. En general, los resultados presentados demuestran que existe diversidad genética entre las accesiones evaluadas, lo cual constituye un reflejo del origen que presentan los genotipos analizados a partir de la introducción de materiales foráneos y la polinización abierta de un grupo de materiales selectos. Por tanto, se recomienda retomar la prospección y selección de accesiones locales, así como la introducción de nuevos genotipos foráneos, como dos vías fundamentales para aumentar la diversidad genética presente en el banco de germoplasma de papaya de Cuba. Palabras clave: marcadores moleculares, polimorfismo, diversidad genética.

  19. Potencial antifúngico de extractos de cuatro especies vegetales sobre el crecimiento de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides en papaya (Carica papaya en poscosecha

    Nadia Landero Valenzuela

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El manejo de antracnosis por Colletotrichum gloeosporioides es el problema más importante en poscosecha de frutos tropicales. La actividad antifúngica de diferentes extractos vegetales fue evaluada in vitro e in vivo para controlar la antracnosis poscosecha en papaya. Extractos de ajo (Allium sativum (10 y 15 % y canela (Cinnamomum zeylanicum (0,0050; 0,0100; 0,0150 % mostraron efecto fungicida en contra de C. gloeosporioides para supresión de crecimiento micelial (100 %, inhibición de germinación (100 % y esporulación del hongo (100 %, considerándose estos extractos como los más promisorios para inhibir el desarrollo del hongo in vitro. Estudios in vivo también revelaron que los extracto de ajo (11,74 % y canela a dosis de 0,0054 % aplicada antes y al mismo tiempo de la inoculación con C. gloeosporioides, fueron las dosis óptimas para el control (severidad de la antracnosis en frutos de papaya artificialmente inoculados, mientras que a mayores dosis la severidad aumentó. La variable fitotoxicidad arrojó resultados consistentes con lo anterior, comprobándose que al aumentar las dosis de extracto de canela se presentó cambio de color en los frutos. Los resultados sugieren la posibilidad de usar estos extractos a dosis adecuadas como biofungicidas para controlar antracnosis en papaya en poscosecha.

  20. Low-dose gamma irradiation following hot water immersion of papaya (Carica papaya linn.) fruits provides additional control of postharvest fungal infection to extend shelf life

    Rashid, M. H. A.; Grout, B. W. W.; Continella, A.; Mahmud, T. M. M.

    2015-05-01

    Low-dose gamma irradiation (0.08 kGy over 10 min), a level significantly below that required to satisfy the majority of international quarantine regulations, has been employed to provide a significant reduction in visible fungal infection on papaya fruit surfaces. This is appropriate for local and national markets in producer countries where levels of commercial acceptability can be retained despite surface lesions due to fungal infection. Irradiation alone and in combination with hot-water immersion (50 °C for 10 min) has been applied to papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruits at both the mature green and 1/3 yellow stages of maturity. The incidence and severity of surface fungal infections, including anthracnose, were significantly reduced by the combined treatment compared to irradiation or hot water treatment alone, extending storage at 11 °C by 13 days and retaining commercial acceptability. The combined treatment had no significant, negative impact on ripening, with quality characteristics such as surface and internal colour change, firmness, soluble solids, acidity and vitamin C maintained at acceptable levels.

  1. Potencial antifúngico de extractos de cuatro especies vegetales sobre el crecimiento de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides en papaya (Carica papaya en poscosecha

    Nadia Landero Valenzuela

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available El manejo de antracnosis por Colletotrichum gloeosporioides es el problema más importante en poscosecha de frutos tropicales. La actividad antifúngica de diferentes extractos vegetales fue evaluada in vitro e in vivo para controlar la antracnosis poscosecha en papaya. Extractos de ajo (Allium sativum (10 y 15 % y canela (Cinnamomum zeylanicum (0,0050; 0,0100; 0,0150 % mostraron efecto fungicida en contra de C. gloeosporioides para supresión de crecimiento micelial (100 %, inhibición de germinación (100 % y esporulación del hongo (100 %, considerándose estos extractos como los más promisorios para inhibir el desarrollo del hongo in vitro. Estudios in vivo también revelaron que los extracto de ajo (11,74 % y canela a dosis de 0,0054 % aplicada antes y al mismo tiempo de la inoculación con C. gloeosporioides, fueron las dosis óptimas para el control (severidad de la antracnosis en frutos de papaya artificialmente inoculados, mientras que a mayores dosis la severidad aumentó. La variable fitotoxicidad arrojó resultados consistentes con lo anterior, comprobándose que al aumentar las dosis de extracto de canela se presentó cambio de color en los frutos. Los resultados sugieren la posibilidad de usar estos extractos a dosis adecuadas como biofungicidas para controlar antracnosis en papaya en poscosecha.

  2. Estudio de la conservación de la papaya (Carica papaya L. asociado a la aplicación de películas comestibles

    Alessandra Almeida Castro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Brasil es un importante productor de papaya, pero sólo una pequeña parte se exporta. Esta fruta es altamente perecedera, por lo que el control de la maduración es esencial para aumentar la vida útil, tanto para el mercado interno como para la exportación. Una alternativa que ha cobrado impulso en el mercado es el uso de películas comestibles biodegradables, entre ellas la película producida a partir de almidón de yuca. En este estudio se evaluó el efecto de una película de almidón de yuca (2 % sobre la papaya almacenadas a temperatura ambiental (25 ± 2 ºC y a 8 °C, y 82 % de humedad relativa durante 6 días de almacenamiento. Se realizaron análisis de pérdida de peso, color, pH, acidez, carotenoides totales, vitamina C y sólidos solubles totales, cada tres días de almacenamiento. La película comestible de almidón de yuca resultó ser una buena alternativa para la preservación de la papaya durante seis días de almacenamiento, en relación a los parámetros pH, grados Brix, acidez y carotenoides.

  3. Line 63-1: A New Virus-resistant Transgenic Papaya

    Tennant, P.; Souza, M.T.; Fitch, M.M.; Manshardt, R.; Slightom, J.L.; Gonsalves, D.

    2005-01-01

    The disease resistance of a transgenic line expressing the coat protein (CP) gene of the mild strain of the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) from Hawaii was further analyzed against PRSV isolates from Hawaii and other geographical regions. Line 63-1 originated from the same transformation experiment tha

  4. Molecular and Clinical Effects of Green Tea and Fermented Papaya Preparation on Diabetes and Cardiovascular Diseases

    2014-11-14

    Assess the Effect of Green Tea on Diabetes; Assess the Effect of Fermented Papaya Pretration on Diabetes; Effects of Green Tea and FPP on C-reactive Proteins; Effects of Green Tea and FPP of Lipid Profiles in Diabetes; Effect of Green Tea and FPP on Atheroma Formation

  5. Assessment of the Anti-Protozoal Activity of Crude Carica papaya Seed Extract against Trypanosoma cruzi

    Karla Y. Acosta-Viana

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the in vivo activity against the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, two doses (50 and 75 mg/kg of a chloroform extract of Carica papaya seeds were evaluated compared with a control group of allopurinol. The activity of a mixture of the three main compounds (oleic, palmitic and stearic acids in a proportion of 45.9% of oleic acid, 24.1% of palmitic and 8.52% of stearic acid previously identified in the crude extract of C. papaya was evaluated at doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg. Both doses of the extracts were orally administered for 28 days. A significant reduction (p < 0.05 in the number of blood trypomastigotes was observed in animals treated with the evaluated doses of the C. papaya extract in comparison with the positive control group (allopurinol 8.5 mg/kg. Parasitemia in animals treated with the fatty acids mixture was also significantly reduced (p < 0.05, compared to negative control animals. These results demonstrate that the fatty acids identified in the seed extracts of C. papaya (from ripe fruit are able to reduce the number of parasites from both parasite stages, blood trypomastigote and amastigote (intracellular stage.

  6. Application of Transgenic Technologies to Papaya: Developments and Biosafety Assessments in Thailand

    Kertbundit, Sunee; Juříček, Miloslav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 1 (2010), s. 52-57. ISSN 1749-0413 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : coat protein-mediated resistance * GMO * Papaya ringspot virus Subject RIV: EF - Botanics http://home.ueb.cas.cz/publikace/2010_Kertbundit_TransgenicPlantJournal_52.pdf

  7. Biodiesel Production by Enzymatic Transesterification of Papaya Seed Oil and Rambutan Seed Oil

    C. S. Wong

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel production from vegetable oil has gained attention as an alternative fuel to minimize the usage of fossil fuels and reduce greenhouse gases pollution. In Malaysia, oils from local fruit seeds of papaya and rambutan are potential feedstock for biodiesel production due to their high lipid contents and easily available. In the present study, papaya and rambutan seed oils were extracted via soxhlet apparatus using n-hexane and the oil yields were in between 34–40%. The extracted oils were subjected to enzymatic transesterification by the immobilized Candida rugosa lipase as a catalyst under room temperature with varies molar ratios of methanol to oil. The highest biodiesel yield for papaya seed oil and rambutan seed oil was found to be 96% and 89% at methanol-to-oil ratios of 6:1 and 8:1, respectively. Results also showed a higher biodiesel yield using lipase immobilized on the magnetic particles as the heterogeneous catalyst compared to the yield obtained using free enzyme as the homogeneous catalyst. The properties of biodiesel such as density, acid value, iodine value and cetane number were analyzed and found to meet the European Standard of Biodiesel. The study shows that papaya and rambutan seed oils have the potential to be used as alternative feedstock for biodiesel production than the full dependence on palm oil in Malaysia.

  8. THE ROLE OF PAPAYA DRESSINGS IN THE MAN AGEMENT OF DIABETIC FOOT ULCERS: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Bapurapu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES : To determine the role of grated papaya fruit dressings in the management of diabetic foot ulcers. STUDY DESIGN: In our study, all the patients with diabetic foot ulcers (n=94 were included. The initial management was control of hyperglycemia, surgical debridement, ant ibiotics and then wound care with the help of grated papaya dressings. In this study, dressings were changed every 24 hours. The wound was considered healthy, when it was covered with healthy granulation tissue and had epithelial growth on wound edges. RES ULTS: In this study, results reveal that majority (83.0% of the patients were male. Among them, surgical debridement was done for sixty three patients (67.2% and thirty one patients (33.8% required amputation. After the initial surgical debridement papaya dr essings were needed in about 89.0%. Six patients (7% needed further surgical debridement and four (4.0% required amputations. Duration of healing was 17 to 28 days. Mean healing period was 21.56 days. CONCLUSION: Topical grated papaya dressings provide g ood enzymatic wound debridement. It is cost effective, reduces the duration of healing time, number of surgical debridements required and reduces the incidence of amputation

  9. Chromosomal location and gene paucity of the male specific region on papaya Y chromosome

    Yu, Q.; Hou, S.; Hobza, Roman; Feltus, F.A.; Wang, X.; Jin, W.; Skelton, R.L.; Blas, A.; Lemke, C.; Saw, J.H.; Moore, P.H.; Alam, M.; Jiang, J.; Paterson, A.H.; Vyskot, Boris; Ming, R.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 278, č. 2 (2007), s. 177-185. ISSN 1617-4615 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA521/06/0056 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : Carica papaya * repetitive sequences * sex chromosome Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.978, year: 2007

  10. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of the glutaminyl cyclase from Carica papaya latex

    The glutaminyl cyclase isolated from C. papaya latex has been crystallized using the hanging-drop method. Diffraction data have been collected at ESRF beamline BM14 and processed to 1.7 Å resolution. In living systems, the intramolecular cyclization of N-terminal glutamine residues is accomplished by glutaminyl cyclase enzymes (EC 2.3.2.5). While in mammals these enzymes are involved in the synthesis of hormonal and neurotransmitter peptides, the physiological role played by the corresponding plant enzymes still remains to be unravelled. Papaya glutaminyl cyclase (PQC), a 33 kDa enzyme found in the latex of the tropical tree Carica papaya, displays an exceptional resistance to chemical and thermal denaturation as well as to proteolysis. In order to elucidate its enzymatic mechanism and to gain insights into the structural determinants underlying its remarkable stability, PQC was isolated from papaya latex, purified and crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 62.82, b = 81.23, c = 108.17 Å and two molecules per asymmetric unit. Diffraction data have been collected at ESRF beamline BM14 and processed to a resolution of 1.7 Å

  11. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of the glutaminyl cyclase from Carica papaya latex

    Azarkan, Mohamed [Laboratoire de Chimie Générale I, Faculté de Médecine-ULB CP609, 808 Route de Lennik, B-1070 Brussels (Belgium); Clantin, Bernard; Bompard, Coralie [CNRS-UMR 8525, Institut de Biologie de Lille, BP 477, 1 Rue du Professeur Calmette, F-59021 Lille (France); Belrhali, Hassan [EMBL Grenoble Outstation, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, BP 181, F-38042 Grenoble CEDEX 9 (France); Baeyens-Volant, Danielle [Laboratoire de Chimie Générale I, Faculté de Médecine-ULB CP609, 808 Route de Lennik, B-1070 Brussels (Belgium); Looze, Yvan [Laboratoire de Chimie Générale, Institut de Pharmacie-ULB CP206/04, Boulevard du Triomphe, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Villeret, Vincent, E-mail: vincent.villeret@ibl.fr [CNRS-UMR 8525, Institut de Biologie de Lille, BP 477, 1 Rue du Professeur Calmette, F-59021 Lille (France); Wintjens, René, E-mail: vincent.villeret@ibl.fr [Laboratoire de Chimie Générale, Institut de Pharmacie-ULB CP206/04, Boulevard du Triomphe, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Laboratoire de Chimie Générale I, Faculté de Médecine-ULB CP609, 808 Route de Lennik, B-1070 Brussels (Belgium)

    2005-01-01

    The glutaminyl cyclase isolated from C. papaya latex has been crystallized using the hanging-drop method. Diffraction data have been collected at ESRF beamline BM14 and processed to 1.7 Å resolution. In living systems, the intramolecular cyclization of N-terminal glutamine residues is accomplished by glutaminyl cyclase enzymes (EC 2.3.2.5). While in mammals these enzymes are involved in the synthesis of hormonal and neurotransmitter peptides, the physiological role played by the corresponding plant enzymes still remains to be unravelled. Papaya glutaminyl cyclase (PQC), a 33 kDa enzyme found in the latex of the tropical tree Carica papaya, displays an exceptional resistance to chemical and thermal denaturation as well as to proteolysis. In order to elucidate its enzymatic mechanism and to gain insights into the structural determinants underlying its remarkable stability, PQC was isolated from papaya latex, purified and crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 62.82, b = 81.23, c = 108.17 Å and two molecules per asymmetric unit. Diffraction data have been collected at ESRF beamline BM14 and processed to a resolution of 1.7 Å.

  12. Autosomal Degeneration as the Process for the Evolution of a Primitive Y Chromosome in Papaya

    Plant sex chromosomes, in contrast to those in animals, evolved recently and only a few are heteromorphic. Genomic analyses of the homomorphic sex chromosomes of papaya show features of the early stages of sex chromosome evolution. Sequence analysis of 20% of the male specific region (MSY) shows tha...

  13. Chemical Characterization and in Vitro Cytotoxicity on Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells of Carica papaya Leaf Extracts.

    Nguyen, Thao T; Parat, Marie-Odile; Hodson, Mark P; Pan, Jenny; Shaw, Paul N; Hewavitharana, Amitha K

    2016-01-01

    In traditional medicine, Carica papaya leaf has been used for a wide range of therapeutic applications including skin diseases and cancer. In this study, we investigated the in vitro cytotoxicity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Carica papaya leaves on the human oral squamous cell carcinoma SCC25 cell line in parallel with non-cancerous human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. Two out of four extracts showed a significantly selective effect towards the cancer cells and were found to contain high levels of phenolic and flavonoid compounds. The chromatographic and mass spectrometric profiles of the extracts obtained with Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry were used to tentatively identify the bioactive compounds using comparative analysis. The principal compounds identified were flavonoids or flavonoid glycosides, particularly compounds from the kaempferol and quercetin families, of which several have previously been reported to possess anticancer activities. These results confirm that papaya leaf is a potential source of anticancer compounds and warrant further scientific investigation to validate the traditional use of papaya leaf to treat cancer. PMID:26712788

  14. Chemical characterization of the flour of peel and seed from two papaya cultivars

    Cláudia Mendes dos Santos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Papaya is among the currently most important tropical fruits grown in Brazil and in the world. The fruit is mainly consumed fresh although it offers many industrial products. The processing of this fruit, as well as its fresh consumption, results in large amounts of waste, such as peels and seeds. Papaya consumption is one of the causes of significant loss of food value; therefore, new aspects on the use of its waste as by-products, or in the production of food additives, or even the incorporation of its flour in food have aroused great interest because these are products of high nutritional value, and their use may be economically viable. The objective of this study was to produce and characterize peel and seed flours from two papaya cultivars (Havai and Calimosa for their chemical constituents focusing on possible use in foods. The proximate and mineral composition, titratable acidity, soluble solids, pH, contents of vitamin C, and phenolic compounds were determined. According to the results obtained, the papaya peel and seed flours had high contents of protein and fiber and therefore can be used as alternative sources of nutrients and can also be added in foods avoiding waste and adding value to the fruit.

  15. Chemical Characterization and in Vitro Cytotoxicity on Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells of Carica Papaya Leaf Extracts

    Thao T. Nguyen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In traditional medicine, Carica papaya leaf has been used for a wide range of therapeutic applications including skin diseases and cancer. In this study, we investigated the in vitro cytotoxicity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Carica papaya leaves on the human oral squamous cell carcinoma SCC25 cell line in parallel with non-cancerous human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. Two out of four extracts showed a significantly selective effect towards the cancer cells and were found to contain high levels of phenolic and flavonoid compounds. The chromatographic and mass spectrometric profiles of the extracts obtained with Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry were used to tentatively identify the bioactive compounds using comparative analysis. The principal compounds identified were flavonoids or flavonoid glycosides, particularly compounds from the kaempferol and quercetin families, of which several have previously been reported to possess anticancer activities. These results confirm that papaya leaf is a potential source of anticancer compounds and warrant further scientific investigation to validate the traditional use of papaya leaf to treat cancer.

  16. Chemical treatment of papaya seeds aiming at long-term storage and control of damping off

    Silvia de Carvalho Campos Botelho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Damping off is a nursery disease of great economic importance in papaya and seed treatment may be an effective measure to control. The aim of this work was to evaluate the quality of papaya seeds treated with fungicides and stored under two environmental and packaging conditions. Additionally, the efficiency of fungicide treatments in the control of damping-off caused by Rhizoctonia solani was evaluated. Papaya seeds were treated with the fungicides Captan, Tolylfluanid and the mixture Tolylfluanid + Captan (all commercial wettable powder formulations. Seeds of the control group were not treated. The seeds were stored for nine months in two conditions: packed in aluminum coated paper and kept at 7 ± 1ºC and in permeable kraft paper and kept in non-controlled environment. At the beginning of the storage and every three months the seed quality (germination and vigor tests, emergence rate index, height, dry mass and damping of plants in pre and post-emergence (in contaminated substrate and mycelia-free substrate were analyzed. Both storage conditions as well as the fungicide treatments preserved the germination and seed vigor. In the infested substrate, seedling emergence was favored by fungicides, but in post-emergence, fungicides alone did not control the damping off caused by R. solani. Symptoms of damping off were not observed in the clean substrate. The results showed that the fungicide treatments may be used to pretreat papaya seed for long-term storage and commercialization.

  17. Extraction of light filth from whole leaves of alfalfa, lemon balm, papaya, and spearmint: collaborative study.

    Nakashima, M J; Glaze, L E

    1987-01-01

    Results are reported for a collaborative study to extend AOAC method 44.A06-44.A08 to extraction of light filth from whole leaves of alfalfa, lemon balm, papaya, and spearmint. A 5 g (spearmint) or 10 g (alfalfa, lemon balm, papaya) test portion is defatted with isopropanol in a simple reflux apparatus. Rat hairs, insect fragments, and whole insects are isolated by wet sieving on a No. 230 sieve, a deaerating boil in 40% isopropanol, and flotation with mineral oil-heptane (85 + 15) from Tween 80-Na4EDTA (1 + 1) and 40% isopropanol in a Wildman trap flask. Each product was spiked at a different level. For rat hairs, recoveries averaged 82.2% from alfalfa, 88.9% from lemon balm, 80.6% from papaya, and 79.6% from spearmint. Recoveries of whole or equivalent insects from these products averaged 66.1, 218.8, 69.4, and 85.4%, respectively; recoveries of insect fragments from these products averaged 89.6, 94.4, 94.1, and 88.1%, respectively. The method has been adopted official first action for extraction of light filth from whole leaves of alfalfa, papaya, and spearmint. The extension of the method to lemon balm was not recommended because of interferences by intrinsic whole insects, which were the same species as the spike material. PMID:3436916

  18. Preservation of papaya by gamma radiation of cobalt 60

    The preservation of papaya cultivar Solo was submit to the irradiation at a dose of 80 krad and storage in room temperature to 250 C and with refrigeration to 100 C and the mean relative humidity of the air was 85% and 92% respectively, was studied. First the fruits was submit to the fungi control, with hot water, 470 C to 20 min. After the packaging in carton box the fruits was immediately irradiated by EMBRARAD S.A. and after that storage. Fruits were storage at room temperature was ripened after 9 days. Any difference was observed inside and outside colour of the irradiated and the control fruits. The only difference was the texture. In the radiated ripped fruit was 1,95 kg/cm2 and by the control samples 0,80 kg/cm2. Respiration of irradiated fruit was more active in comparison with the control samples, but don't enter into senescence. Storage at 100 C was the best results being obtained for 30 days such the control sample with the irradiated. But the irradiated fruit was more yellow and uniform in relation to the control samples. Also the texture was more consistent in mean of 2,12 kg/cm2 and 1,36 kg/cm2, respectively. In that temperature the respiration of irradiated fruits was minor in comparison with the control samples. During the storage don't have difference in the weight losses, between the irradiated and the control samples fruits. (author)

  19. Purification of papain from fresh latex of Carica papaya

    Rubens Monti

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we wish to report a method of crystallizing papain from fresh papaya latex which gave higher yields than previously reported. This method does not involve the use of sulphydryl reagents. The papain thus obtained is practically pure and shows a single band when submitted to electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gel, and is identical to the papain obtained by other methods. In routine enzymatic assays, specific activity was measured using Z-gly-pNP and BAEE as substrates. Papain crystallized by this method, without the use of high concentrations of salts or thiol-containing substances such as cysteine and dithiothreitol, is obtained in the form of a complex with natural inhibitors existent in latex which can be removed by dialysis.No presente trabalho apresenta-se um método de cristalização da papaína oriunda do látex fresco de mamão, o qual apresenta uma alta produtividade em relação aos métodos previamente descritos. A metodologia aqui descrita não envolve o uso de reagentes sulfidrílicos, a papaína foi obtida de forma praticamente pura, apresentando uma simples banda quando submetida a eletroforese, e com propriedades idênticas àquelas obtidas por outros métodos. A atividade específica foi determinada utilizando Z-gly-pNP e BAEE como substrato. A papaína obtida por essa metodologia, sem uso de substâncias tais como cisteína e ditiotreitol, apresenta-se na forma de um complexo com inibidores naturais, os quais podem ser removidos por diálise.

  20. Interculturalidad y ciencias de la educación en lengua de señas chilena

    Carolina-Alejandra-de-Lourdes Becerra-Sepúlveda

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Los paradigmas de intervención orales para la cultura sorda afectan la percepción sobre la lengua de señas Chilena . Esto provoca debates emanados de una subvaloración, dadas sus particularidades visuales: iconicidad e isomorfismo, subvaloración nacida de una incomprensión en la lectura de investigaciones internacionales (por escasez de estudios nacionales, especialmente acerca del lenguaje corporeizado. Esto se contradice con nuevas investigaciones en psicolingüística cognitiva acer-ca de embodied cognition . El abordaje de la LSCh a partir de nuevas teorías atraviesa la interculturalidad y educación a fin de proponerse la metáfora de “la cultura en el cuerpo” como modalidad de estudio contemporáneo.

  1. Metáforas en Lengua de Señas Chilena Metaphors in Chilean Sign Language

    Carolina Becerra

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio describe las características del lenguaje metafórico de personas sordas chilenas y su impacto en la comprensión lingüística. La relevancia de esta pregunta radica en la escasez de investigaciones realizadas, particularmente a nivel nacional. Se desarrolló un estudio cualitativo en base a análisis de videos de sujetos sordos en habla espontánea. Se confeccionó una lista de metáforas conceptuales y no conceptuales en Lengua de Señas Chilena. Posteriormente se evaluó su comprensión en un grupo de sujetos sordos, educados con modalidad comunicativa de lengua de señas. Los resultados obtenidos permiten observar la existencia de metáforas propias de la cultura sorda. Ellas serían coherentes con las particulares experiencias de los sujetos sordos y no necesariamente concuerdan con el lenguaje oral.The present study examined the characteristics of Chilean deaf people's metaphoric language and its relevance in linguistic comprehension. This key question is based in the scarcity of studies conducted in Chile. A qualitative study was developed, on the basis of analysis of videos of Chilean deaf people spontaneous sign language. A list of conceptual and no conceptual metaphors in Chilean sign language was developed. The comprehension of these metaphors was evaluated in a group of deaf subjets, educated using sign language communication. The results identify the existence of metaphors of the deaf culture. These methaphors would be coherent with the particular experiences of deaf subjets and do not necessarily agree with spoken language.

  2. DEL MALTRATO AL UXORICIDIO. LA VIOLENCIA «PUERTAS ADENTRO» EN LA ALDEA CHILENA TRADICIONAL (Siglo XIX

    René Salinas Meza

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo pone de manifiesto el contexto en el cual las mujeres chilenas de las aldeas del siglo XIX son víctimas de diversos tipos de agresiones físicas, directas e indirectas, y psicológicas. Las conductas violentas de los agresores son explicadas en el marco de una comunidad que las reconoce como un componente habitual de la vida cotidiana. Así, se delimitan espacios específicos en los que se desenvuelven las relaciones de la gente, tales como el mundo urbano de la aldea y el mundo doméstico de la casa. En ambos, las personas construyen redes colectivas de solidaridad y fraternidad; pero, al mismo tiempo, desarrollan relaciones de competencia que son generadoras de roces y agresiones que ilustran la sociabilidad y el parentesco. Por otra parte, las mujeres agredidas confundieron a menudo la agresión con la aceptación de la autoridad masculina que permitía suponer la existencia de un matrimonio socialmente aceptado y cotidianamente bien llevado. La actitud de rebeldía femenina chocaba con el rechazo social y el ejercicio de un poder marital que se expresaba en conductas agresivas. Así, las relaciones en la pareja no fueron entre iguales, sino jerárquicas, imponiendo a las mujeres un rol subordinado y dependiente frente a los hombres, los que, a su vez, ostentaban la autoridad suficiente para controlarlas y castigarlas. Con la ayuda documental de un abundante número de expedientes judiciales se intenta comprender y explicar las conductas que asumen hombres y mujeres en la relación familiar desarrollada en las aldeas chilenas del siglo XIX.

  3. The use of sodium alginate-based coating and cellulose acetate in papaya post-harvest preservation

    Denise Andrade Silva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the ripening of papaya fruit (Carica papaya L. at room temperature (±25°C and10°C with 80% relative humidity, coated with edible film based on sodium alginate (1% and cellulose acetate film (3% by dipping the fruit in the suspensions for 1 min. On the application of the treatment and every three days during 12 days of storage, fruit were evaluated for weight loss, firmness, total carotenoid content, lycopene content and vitamin C content of the pulp. The cellulose acetate film extended the shelf-life of papayas, without affecting their quality. This treatment delayed fruit ripening, whose changes in all the parameters analyzed were significantly slower than fruit treated with sodium alginate-based coating. The coating with cellulose acetate at 3% was more effective in the preservation of papaya stored for 12 days under both temperatures.

  4. Green synthesis and antibacterial activity screening of silver nanoparticles reduced by papaya (Carica papaya L.) leaves extract

    The field of nano technology is the most active area of research in modern material sciences. Though there are many chemical, as well as physical methods, green synthesis is the most emerging method of synthesis. This study aimed to describe a cost effective and environment friendly technique for green synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The synthesis of silver nanoparticles was prepared by adding Carica papaya L. leaves extract to 1mM silver nitrate solution. The color change in reaction mixture (pale yellow to dark brown color was observed during the incubation period , due to excitation of surface plasmon vibrations in silver nanoparticles. Nanoparticles were characterized using UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) pattern, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy-Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDX) analysis. Absorption spectra of silver nanoparticles formed in the reaction media has absorbance peak at 280 nm, broadening of peak indicates that the particles are poly dispersed. SEM analysis described the morphology and the size of the particles. XRD confirmed the crystalline structure of the nanoparticles. The presence of the elemental silver was observed in the graph obtained from EDX analysis, which also supports the XRD results. The biomass of plants produces their nano materials by a process called bio mineralization. The tests cultures included in the study were Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Salmonella. Results showed that the maximum inhibitory effect using 1mM silver nitrates against the microbes were obtained. The approach of plant-mediated synthesis appears to be cost efficient, eco-friendly and easy alternative to conventional methods of silver nanoparticles synthesis (author)

  5. Interlaboratory validation data on real-time polymerase chain reaction detection for unauthorized genetically modified papaya line PRSV-YK

    Kosuke Nakamura

    2016-06-01

    Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR detection method for unauthorized genetically modified (GM papaya (Carica papaya L. line PRSV-YK (PRSV-YK detection method was developed using whole genome sequence data (DDBJ Sequenced Read Archive under accession No. PRJDB3976. Interlaboratory validation datasets for PRSV-YK detection method were provided. Data indicating homogeneity of samples prepared for interlaboratory validation were included. Specificity and sensitivity test data for PRSV-YK detection method were also provided.

  6. Protective role of Carica papaya (Linn.) in electron beam radiation induced hematological and cytogenetic damages in Swiss albino mice

    Carica papaya (Linn.) is known to possess various biomedical applications. It has remarkable antioxidant properties. The main objective of the study was to evaluate the leaf extracts of Carica papaya (Linn.) on hematologic and cytogenetic changes occurring due to irradiation of mice to sub-lethal doses of Electron Beam Radiation (EBR). Analysis of hematological changes occurring due to irradiation of mice to sub-lethal doses of EBR, and the effects of Carica papaya (Linn.) extract on the same. The Assessment of hematopoietic stress by spleen colony forming unit and spleen body weight index. The analysis of cell proliferation and immunomodulation with response to the effects of Carica papaya (Linn.) extract by estimation of IL-6. The estimation of serum total antioxidants, lipid peroxidation and analyzing the activities of enzymes like SOD, ALP, and AST. Male Swiss albino mice were fed orally with papaya aqueous leaf extract for 15 days. They were irradiated with a whole body dose of 6 Gy Electron Beam radiation. The mice were dissected for liver, kidney, bone marrow, spleen and brain. The hematological studies were done using blood cell count in an automated cell counter. The biochemical estimations like urea, creatinine, SGOT, SGPT, Total Protein, Albumin, Bilirubin were done using the serum and homogenates. The total antioxidant capacity, the antioxidant enzymes were estimated. The Interleukin-6 levels were estimated in serum to assess immune modulation. The results show a decrease in the hematological parameters in radiated animals. The papaya treated groups have shown modulation in the hematological parameters. The extract has also reduced the suppression of the bone marrow induced by radiation. The radiation induced liver damage is also reduced in papaya treated groups. The aqueous extract of Carica papaya (Linn.) has shown protective effects in electron beam radiation induced tissue damages in Swiss Albino mice (author)

  7. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction (UAE) and Solvent Extraction of Papaya Seed Oil: Yield, Fatty Acid Composition and Triacylglycerol Profile

    Hasanah Mohd Ghazali; Chin Ping Tan; Hamed Mirhosseini; Shadi Samaram

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of the current work was to evaluate the suitability of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) for the recovery of oil from papaya seed as compared to conventional extraction techniques (i.e., Soxhlet extraction (SXE) and solvent extraction (SE)). In the present study, the recovery yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil obtained from different extraction methods and conditions were compared. Results indicated that both solvent extraction (...

  8. Current status of tropical fruit breeding and genetics for three tropical fruit species cultivated in Japan: pineapple, mango, and papaya

    Ogata, Tatsushi; Yamanaka, Shinsuke; Shoda, Moriyuki; Urasaki, Naoya; Yamamoto, Toshiya

    2016-01-01

    Tropical fruit crops are predominantly produced in tropical and subtropical developing countries, but some are now grown in southern Japan. Pineapple (Ananas comosus), mango (Mangifera indica) and papaya (Carica papaya) are major tropical fruits cultivated in Japan. Modern, well-organized breeding systems have not yet been developed for most tropical fruit species. Most parts of Japan are in the temperate climate zone, but some southern areas such as the Ryukyu Islands, which stretch from Kyu...

  9. Gambaran Histologis Testis Mencit (Mus musculus L.) Yang Mendapat Kombinasi Ekstrak Air Biji Pepaya (Carica papaya L.) Dan Testosteron Undekanoat (TU)

    Hikmatullah, Desy

    2012-01-01

    Many traditional use of medicinal plants to treat different sort of disease, including fertility has done. This research observed the influence of papaya seed (Carica papaya L.) extract and Testosterone Undekanoat (TU) combination in testicle histology of mice (Mus musculus L.) which designed in complete random design (RAL) that divide to 5 control groups and 5 treatment groups. The papaya seed extract (30mg/day) gived orally from 0 week until 24 weeks. The time interval for intramuscular inj...

  10. Pemulihan Spermatozoa Mencit (Mus musculus L.) dengan Vitamin C setelah Pemberian Ekstrak Air Biji Pepaya (Carica papaya L.) dan Testosteron Undekanoat (TU).

    Lestari, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Water extract of papaya seeds and testosterone undecanoate (TU) resulted in decreased quality and quantity of spermatozoa. Decrease in the quality and quantity of spermatozoa can be restored by administering Vitamin C. The research "Recovery Spermatozoa Mice (Mus musculus L.) with Vitamin C after Giving Water Seed Extract Papaya (Carica papaya L.) and Testosterone Undekanoat (TU)" using male mice (Mus musculus L.) grown fertile ± 3-month-old body weight 25-30 grams were 70 mices are divided i...

  11. CADÁVER TUERTO, DE EDUARDO LABARCA EN EL MARCO DE LA "NOVELA HISTÓRICA CHILENA RECIENTE" Corpse, de Eduardo Labarca under The "Historical Novel Recent Chilean

    Eduardo Barraza J

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Cadáver tuerto (2005 anticipa las variaciones del género novelesco en la literatura chilena, privilegiando y contemplando el proceso de la escritura. Labarca parodia en esta novela los cruces entre la ficción, la realidad y la historia, entre la vida y la autobiografía, entre el discurso televisivo, radial y del periodismo escrito, de modo tal que da un notorio giro discursivo a la narrativa chilena de filiación histórica.Cadáver tuerto (2005 anticipates the variations of the novel genre in Chilean literatura, priviledging and contemplating the writing process. Labarca parodies, in this novel, the crossings among fiction and reality, between life and autobiography, between television, radio and written newsprint discourse.

  12. Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and solvent extraction of papaya seed oil: yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile.

    Samaram, Shadi; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Tan, Chin Ping; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of the current work was to evaluate the suitability of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) for the recovery of oil from papaya seed as compared to conventional extraction techniques (i.e., Soxhlet extraction (SXE) and solvent extraction (SE)). In the present study, the recovery yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil obtained from different extraction methods and conditions were compared. Results indicated that both solvent extraction (SE, 12 h/25 °C) and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) methods recovered relatively high yields (79.1% and 76.1% of total oil content, respectively). Analysis of fatty acid composition revealed that the predominant fatty acids in papaya seed oil were oleic (18:1, 70.5%-74.7%), palmitic (16:0, 14.9%-17.9%), stearic (18:0, 4.50%-5.25%), and linoleic acid (18:2, 3.63%-4.6%). Moreover, the most abundant triacylglycerols of papaya seed oil were triolein (OOO), palmitoyl diolein (POO) and stearoyl oleoyl linolein (SOL). In this study, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) significantly (p < 0.05) influenced the triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil, but no significant differences were observed in the fatty acid composition of papaya seed oil extracted by different extraction methods (SXE, SE and UAE) and conditions. PMID:24152670

  13. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction (UAE and Solvent Extraction of Papaya Seed Oil: Yield, Fatty Acid Composition and Triacylglycerol Profile

    Hasanah Mohd Ghazali

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the current work was to evaluate the suitability of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE for the recovery of oil from papaya seed as compared to conventional extraction techniques (i.e., Soxhlet extraction (SXE and solvent extraction (SE. In the present study, the recovery yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil obtained from different extraction methods and conditions were compared. Results indicated that both solvent extraction (SE, 12 h/25 °C and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE methods recovered relatively high yields (79.1% and 76.1% of total oil content, respectively. Analysis of fatty acid composition revealed that the predominant fatty acids in papaya seed oil were oleic (18:1, 70.5%–74.7%, palmitic (16:0, 14.9%–17.9%, stearic (18:0, 4.50%–5.25%, and linoleic acid (18:2, 3.63%–4.6%. Moreover, the most abundant triacylglycerols of papaya seed oil were triolein (OOO, palmitoyl diolein (POO and stearoyl oleoyl linolein (SOL. In this study, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE significantly (p < 0.05 influenced the triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil, but no significant differences were observed in the fatty acid composition of papaya seed oil extracted by different extraction methods (SXE, SE and UAE and conditions.

  14. Anatomia foliar de plantas transgênicas e não transgênicas de Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae Leaf anatomy of genetically modified and wild-type Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae

    Marcos Vinicius Leal-Costa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O mamoeiro, Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae é uma espécie americana, cujos frutos são largamente consumidos em todo mundo. Devido às perdas de produção provocadas por viroses e a dificuldade em controlá-las por métodos convencionais, a espécie tem sido alvo de pesquisas de melhoramento genético envolvendo transgenia para resistência a vírus. O presente trabalho descreve a anatomia foliar de plantas de mamoeiro convencional e transgênico resistente ao vírus da mancha anelar-Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV com inserção da capa protéica viral. As duas cultivares apresentam pecíolo com endoderme e fibras pericíclicas. As folhas são hipoestomáticas e dorsiventrais, com laticíferos acompanhando os feixes vasculares e grande concentração de idioblastos com drusas de oxalato de cálcio. A epiderme é glabra, possuindo estômatos anomocíticos e anisocíticos, com células de paredes anticlinais retas na face adaxial e levemente sinuosas na face abaxial. O presente trabalho concluiu que o processo de transformação genética não alterou as características anatômicas das folhas de C. papaya, servindo de subsídio para avaliação da conformidade anatômica da cultivar transgênica.Papaya, Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae, is an American species, consumed worldwide. A major limitation to papaya production is attack by viruses, like the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV. Papaya has been genetically modified to increase its resistance to PRSV. The aim of this research was to compare the leaf anatomy of wild-type and genetically modified (GM C. papaya plants to evaluate the influence of genetic modification on leaf anatomy. Wild-type and GM plants showed petiole with endodermis and pericycle fibers. The leaves are hypostomatic and dorsiventral, with laticifers along vascular system and abundant druses of calcium oxalate. The epidermis was glabrous and presented anomocytic and anisocytic stomata, straight anticlinal walls on the adaxial face and

  15. Sex and aggregation pheromone transport after methyl eugenol consumption in male Bactrocera papayae

    Amongst at least 52 sibling species complexes in the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae), B. papayae (formerly Mal B) Drew and Hancock (Drew and Hancock 1994) is beginning to emerge as an economically important insect pest which poses a severe threat to the fruit cultivation in both subtropical and tropical countries. In Malaysia, B. papayae is one of the most damaging pests which infests many commercially grown fruits (Tan and Lee 1982). Like the Oriental fruit fly and its sibling species complex, B. carambolae Drew and Hancock, B. papayae is also strongly attracted to, and compulsively feeds on, methyl eugenol (ME) (Tan 1993). Chemical analyses revealed that in B. papayae males, ME is converted to phenylpropanoids which are then selectively accumulated in the rectal gland. Of the three major volatile substances, 2-allyl-4,5-dimethoyphenol (allyl-DMP) was detected in higher quantities relative to the trans-coniferyl alcohol (4-(3-hydroxy-E-propenyl)-2-methoxyphenol) (CF) and cis-3,4-dimethoxycinnamyl alcohol (cis-DMC) (Nishida et al. 1988a, 1988b). Behavioural studies have also shown that allyl-DMP and CF function as male sex and aggregation pheromone in B. papayae (Tan and Nishida 1996, Hee and Tan 1998). Allyl-DMP was found to be the most attractive compound and cis-DMC the least attractive to the males (Tan 1996). Consumption of ME enhances the mating competitiveness of males. This is demonstrated by the strong attraction of females to conspecific ME-fed males in wind tunnel experiments (Hee and Tan 1998). In male-male mating competition for virgin females, males that fed on ME performed significantly better (Shelly and Dewire 1994, Tan and Nishida 1996). Thus it appears that ME-fed males produced signals that were more attractive. However, the characterisation and understanding of the functions of these phenylpropanoids have not been accompanied by studies of their physiological mode of transport in male flies. The current

  16. Radiation induced mutation to develop dwarf and precocious lines of papaya

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is one of the most important fruit cultivated throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the country. Almost all the varieties of papaya developed either through selection or hybridization. As regards mutation breeding, very little work has been done in India. Only one variety PusaNanha has been developed through mutation breeding by treating the seed of papaya strain Pusa 1-15 with 15Kr gamma rays. Mutation breeding is the most appropriate for improving one or two easily identifiable traits in an otherwise well accepted breeding lines or commercial variety. Dwarfness and earliness in flowering are important traits in high density planting as breeding objective for improving papaya varieties for high yield with medium size fruits and good fruit quality. With these objectives, seeds of the papaya P 7-2 were treated with gamma rays 0.1, 0.15, 0.2, 0.25 and 0.3 kGy. The control recorded maximum germination (68%). Among the other treatments maximum germination (64.25%) was recorded at 0.1 kGy. The germination percentage was observed to be least (45%) at 0.3 kGy. Minimum length of seedlings (8.5 cm) and diameter (3.92 mm) was recorded in treatment 0.1 kGy while maximum length (19.2 cm) and diameter (6.26 mm) was recorded in treatment 0.3 kGy after 30 days of sowing. Minimum height of the plant (79.24 cm) was recorded in treatment 0.1 kGy while maximum (112.20) in control. Minimum plant girth (33.40 cm) was measured in 0.3 kGy while maximum (44.34 cm) in 0.15 kGy treatment. Minimum height at first flower initiation (55.28 cm), days to flower initiation (78.28) and length of petiole (60.45 cm) was noted in treatment 0.1 kGy while maximum height at first flower initiation (78.2 cm), days to flower initiation (87.46) and length of petiole (68.24 cm) was found in control. Among treatments, maximum number (18) of fruit was counted in 0.3 kGy treatment while maximum weight of fruit (750 g) was recorded in control. Maximum TSS (10.6 °Brix) in

  17. Asymmetric purine-pyrimidine distribution in cellular small RNA population of papaya

    Aryal Rishi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The small RNAs (sRNA are a regulatory class of RNA mainly represented by the 21 and 24-nucleotide size classes. The cellular sRNAs are processed by RNase III family enzyme dicer (Dicer like in plant from a self-complementary hairpin loop or other type of RNA duplexes. The papaya genome has been sequenced, but its microRNAs and other regulatory RNAs are yet to be analyzed. Results We analyzed the genomic features of the papaya sRNA population from three sRNA deep sequencing libraries made from leaves, flowers, and leaves infected with Papaya Ringspot Virus (PRSV. We also used the deep sequencing data to annotate the micro RNA (miRNA in papaya. We identified 60 miRNAs, 24 of which were conserved in other species, and 36 of which were novel miRNAs specific to papaya. In contrast to the Chargaff’s purine-pyrimidine equilibrium, cellular sRNA was significantly biased towards a purine rich population. Of the two purine bases, higher frequency of adenine was present in 23nt or longer sRNAs, while 22nt or shorter sRNAs were over represented by guanine bases. However, this bias was not observed in the annotated miRNAs in plants. The 21nt species were expressed from fewer loci but expressed at higher levels relative to the 24nt species. The highly expressed 21nt species were clustered in a few isolated locations of the genome. The PRSV infected leaves showed higher accumulation of 21 and 22nt sRNA compared to uninfected leaves. We observed higher accumulation of miRNA* of seven annotated miRNAs in virus-infected tissue, indicating the potential function of miRNA* under stressed conditions. Conclusions We have identified 60 miRNAs in papaya. Our study revealed the asymmetric purine-pyrimidine distribution in cellular sRNA population. The 21nt species of sRNAs have higher expression levels than 24nt sRNA. The miRNA* of some miRNAs shows higher accumulation in PRSV infected tissues, suggesting that these strands are not totally

  18. Control de dos especies de Colletotrichum causantes de antracnosis en frutos de papaya Maradol Control of two species of Colletotrichum causing anthracnose in Maradol papaya fruits

    Felipe Santamaría Basulto

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available La antracnosis es una limitante de la vida útil de los frutos de papaya, es causada principalmente por Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, aunque es posible encontrar otras especies de Colletotrichum causando enfermedades en un mismo cultivo. Para el control de la antracnosis en Yucatán se recomiendan varios fungicidas, pero no todos están permitidos por la agencia de protección al ambiente (EPA de los Estados Unidos de América, principal país al cual se exporta la papaya yucateca. El presente estudio tuvo como objetivos identificar el agente causal de la antracnosis de papaya en Yucatán, evaluar el efecto de fungicidas que cuentan con registro de EPA sobre las especies que causan antracnosis y explorar el efecto de inductores a resistencia en el control de esta enfermedad. Durante marzo y mayo de 2006 se obtuvieron nueve aislamientos de Colletotrichum en frutos de tres regiones productoras de Yucatán, los cuales se identificaron mediante claves taxonómicas. La evaluación de los productos se hizo mediante bioensayos de sensibilidad in vitro y la efectividad en frutos inoculados, posteriormente en agosto de 2007, noviembre de 2007 y febrero de 2008, se evaluó el efecto de la aplicación poscosecha de los fungicidas e inductores de resistencia sobre la antracnosis en frutos infectados naturalmente desde campo. En las tres localidades se encontraron dos especies que causan antracnosis identificadas como C. gloeosporioides y C. dematium. En condiciones in vitro el desarrollo de C. gloeosporioides fue inhibido por prochloraz, ferbam, azoxystrobin, tryfloxystrobin y clorotalonil; el desarrollo de C. dematium fue inhibido sólo por prochloraz, ferbam y clorotalonil. En frutos inoculados prochloraz tuvo 100% de efectividad para las dos especies, mientras que azoxystrobin tuvo 87.5% de efectividad para C. gloeosporioides y 3.3% para C. dematium.Anthracnose is a limitation of papaya fruits' life, mainly caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides

  19. Characterization of the exogenous insert and development of event-specific PCR detection methods for genetically modified Huanong No. 1 papaya.

    Guo, Jinchao; Yang, Litao; Liu, Xin; Guan, Xiaoyan; Jiang, Lingxi; Zhang, Dabing

    2009-08-26

    Genetically modified (GM) papaya (Carica papaya L.), Huanong No. 1, was approved for commercialization in Guangdong province, China in 2006, and the development of the Huanong No. 1 papaya detection method is necessary for implementing genetically modified organism (GMO) labeling regulations. In this study, we reported the characterization of the exogenous integration of GM Huanong No. 1 papaya by means of conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and thermal asymmetric interlaced (TAIL)-PCR strategies. The results suggested that one intact copy of the initial construction was integrated in the papaya genome and which probably resulted in one deletion (38 bp in size) of the host genomic DNA. Also, one unintended insertion of a 92 bp truncated NptII fragment was observed at the 5' end of the exogenous insert. Furthermore, we revealed its 5' and 3' flanking sequences between the insert DNA and the papaya genomic DNA, and developed the event-specific qualitative and quantitative PCR assays for GM Huanong No. 1 papaya based on the 5' integration flanking sequence. The relative limit of detection (LOD) of the qualitative PCR assay was about 0.01% in 100 ng of total papaya genomic DNA, corresponding to about 25 copies of papaya haploid genome. In the quantitative PCR, the limits of detection and quantification (LOD and LOQ) were as low as 12.5 and 25 copies of papaya haploid genome, respectively. In practical sample quantification, the quantified biases between the test and true values of three samples ranged from 0.44% to 4.41%. Collectively, we proposed that all of these results are useful for the identification and quantification of Huanong No. 1 papaya and its derivates. PMID:19645503

  20. Estudio de la conservación de la papaya (Carica papaya L.) asociado a la aplicación de películas comestibles

    Alessandra Almeida Castro; Jane Delane Reis Pimentel; Danilo Santos Souza; Thaciana Vieira de Oliveira; Mariana da Costa Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Brasil es un importante productor de papaya, pero sólo una pequeña parte se exporta. Esta fruta es altamente perecedera, por lo que el control de la maduración es esencial para aumentar la vida útil, tanto para el mercado interno como para la exportación. Una alternativa que ha cobrado impulso en el mercado es el uso de películas comestibles biodegradables, entre ellas la película producida a partir de almidón de yuca. En este estudio se evaluó el efecto de una película de almidón de yuca ...

  1. Studies on physiologically active root distribution and appropriate method of fertilizer application using isotopic techniques in two varieties of papaya (Carica papaya) during pre-bearing stage

    In Coorg Honey Dew and Surya varieties of papaya aged 10 weeks, the abundance of active roots at 10 cm depth decreased during 20 to 100 days after injection of carrier-free 32P from 77% to 62% in the former and from 89% to 47% in the latter. Bulk of the active roots (85-65%) resided between 10 to 50 cm radial distance. While the phosphorus derived from fertilizer (Pdff) 32P-labelled superphosphate varied from 0.72 to 10.27%, placement between 10 and 40 cm radial distance was appropriate. (author)

  2. Studies on Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (Am. Fungi on Mineral Nutrition of Carica papaya L.

    Sharda Waman KHADE

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Experiment was conducted to study the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on mineral nutrition of Carica papaya var. Surya. The experiment comprised of un-inoculated seedlings, seedlings inoculated with Glomus intraradices Schenck & Smith, seedlings inoculated with Glomus mosseae [(Nicol. & Gerd. Gerd. & Trappe] and seedlings inoculated with mixed inoculum [Glomus intraradices (Schenck & Smith + Glomus mosseae (Nicol. & Gerd. Gerd. & Trappe]. Studies revealed that total potassium and total phosphorus content of mycorrhizal leaf petiole was higher in inoculated plants as compared to controls and varied significantly within the treatments. Glomus mosseae was the most effective species of AM fungi, in influencing mineral nutrition of papaya followed by mixed inoculum (GI +GM and Glomus intraradices respectively.

  3. Effects of irradiation on the organoleptic quality and ripening process of papaya

    Papaya variety Eksotika harvested at stage 2 of maturity (green skin with a tinge of yellow) were cleaned, air dried and exposed to irradiation at lower doses i.e. 250, 500, 750, 1000 Gray and then were kept at 20 deg. C for up to 9 days or until ripe. Sensory evaluation was carried out the storage period in order to determine effects of radiation on organoleptic quality and ripening process. About 15-24 experienced panelists were involved in the sensory evaluation. It was found that effect on the organoleptic quality of fruit irradiated with dose at 1000 Gray was unacceptable. Nevertheless, the quality was very much less affected by irradiation at 750 Gray or lower. In general the irradiated papaya ripened earlier than the control where the skin colour change by turning from green to 100% yellow but gives harder texture. Freckles on skin surface during ripening were reduced by irradiation

  4. The effect of gamma radiation on the peroxides activity, colour and ascorbic acid content of papaya

    The activity of peroxidase enzyme increases during ripening with external colour used as a maturity index. An experiment indicated that 200 Krad dose level was most effective in inhibiting any increase in peroxidase activity when papaya was stored at room temperature. The doses of 25, 50 and 100 Krad level at least double the shelf life of fruit with 100 Krad was the most effective when kept in the cold. The development of yellow colour and synthesis of vitamin C is not effected. So, this preliminary study indicates that gamma radiation prolongs the shelf life of papaya when stored at cold or room temperature due to the inhibiting of the ripening process. It is also suggested that treatment of fungicides combined with gamma radiation might have an additive effect on shelf life

  5. Enzymatic wound debridement; role of papaya in the management of post cesarean gaped wounds

    Background: Enzymatic wound debridement is an emerging concept in facilitating the wound healing process. Papaya has de-sloughing, antibacterial and wound healing properties. It has been used in African countries since centuries for different medicinal pur-poses. Apart from anecdotal reports and few studies on chronic ulcers and burns, no planned studies are available to support its action in postoperative wound infection.Objectives: To compare efficacy and safety of papaya dressing with conventional wound dressing with povidone iodine in post cesarean section gaped wounds. Setting: Gynecology Unit 3, Sir Ganga Ram Hospital Lahore - Pakistan, over a period of six months(June 2012 to Nov 2012). Study Design: Randomized, quasi experimental stu-dy. Materials and Methods: The study sample included 60 patients with post cesarean section gaped wounds. The sample was divided into two groups; thirty patients as Group A or the study group received Papaya dressing and rest of thirty patients as Group B or the control group received Povidone iodine dressing. Wounds were thoroughly washed with saline and then mashed unripe papaya was spread over the whole area of wound in the study group and povidone iodine in the control group. Wounds were covered with sterile bandage for at least 48 hours in study group and 24 hours in the control group. The process was repeated till a clean base of wound with healthy granulation tis-sue was achieved suitable for secondary suture. The efficacy parameters studied were the duration of time needed to develop healthy granulation tissue and total duration of hospital stay which were compared bet-ween the two groups. Safety factors studied were the adverse effects of medications used in the study. Results: Out of 1200 cesarean sections done during study period, sixty (5%) were gaped in the post-operative period. Out of 60, 55 (90%) were emergency and only 5 (10%) were elective cesarean sections. All the sixty patients with postoperative gaped

  6. Effect of the potassium permanganate during papaya fruit ripening: Ethylene production

    Corrêa, S. F.; Filho, M. B.; da Silva, M. G.; Oliveira, J. G.; Aroucha, E. M. M.; Silva, R. F.; Pereira, M. G.; Vargas, H.

    2005-06-01

    The effect of potassium permanganate (KMnO4) on the ripening process of papaya fruits by monitoring the ethylene emission rates is reported. The ethylene emission was monitored by a photoacoustic spectrometer. Two experimental conditions were applied, being one of them just putting the fruit alone inside the sampling chamber and the second, modifying the atmosphere by the presence of KMnO4. The use of the ethylene absorber reduces the autocatalytic process of ethylene during papaya fruit ripening. For 20 g of KMnO4 the maximal intensity of the ethylene emission decreases by a factor two. Using the same amount of KMnO4, a reduction of about 2.2% in the concentration of ethylene for a mixture of 1ppmv of ethylene in synthetic air was observed.

  7. Empleo de un Recubrimiento Formulado con Propóleos para el Manejo Poscosecha de Frutos de Papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Hawaiana Use of a Coating Formulated with Propolis for Postharvest Handling of Papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Hawaiian Fruits

    Elizabeth Barrera Bello

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. El fruto de papaya es reconocido por las propiedades nutricionales y sensoriales; no obstante, su tiempo de vida útil en poscosecha es muy corto. En los últimos años, para incrementar la vida de almacenamiento del fruto se ha implementado el uso de recubrimientos como vehículos de agentes antimicrobianos y antioxidantes, entre otros. En este trabajo se comparó el efecto de dos recubrimientos; cera comercial (control y cera comercial conteniendo un extracto etanólico de propóleos (5% p/v, sobre la vida en poscosecha de frutos de papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Hawaiana almacenados a temperatura ambiente (28 ± 2 ºC y humedad relativa entre 65 y 70%. El efecto de los recubrimientos se determinó mediante el índice de deterioro de los frutos y el recuento microbiano (mesófilos aerobios, mohos y levaduras. Adicionalmente, se evaluaron durante 12 días las propiedades fisicoquímicas de los frutos (cambio de color, textura, pH, acidez total titulable, pérdida de peso y sólidos solubles. Los resultados mostraron que las papayas tratadas con el recubrimiento formulado con el extracto de propóleos, presentó un menor deterioro en cuanto a su apariencia y mayor inhibición del crecimiento de microorganismos durante los primeros 6 días de evaluación en comparación con los frutos control; además, no se observaron diferencias, producto de los recubrimientos, en relación a las características fisicoquímicas de los frutos.Abstract. Papaya fruit is known for the nutritional and sensory properties; however, its postharvest shelf life is very short. In recent years, to extend the storage life of this fruit, the use of coatings as a carrier of antimicrobial agents and antioxidants, has been implemented. In this work, the effect of two coatings, commercial wax (control and commercial wax containing an ethanolic extract of propolis (5% w/v on the postharvest of papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Hawaiian was compared. The fruits were stored at

  8. Uso de esterco associado à adubação mineral na produção de mudas de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L. The use of manure associated with mineral fertilization in papaya (Carica papaya L. seedling production

    Regina Célia Faria Simão Canesin

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Na composição do substrato para produção de mudas de mamoeiro, recomenda-se o uso de adubação orgânica, que traz como vantagens a melhoria das características físicas, químicas e biológicas do solo, criando um ambiente favorável ao desenvolvimento inicial das mudas, bem como boa resposta do mamoeiro. Os materiais orgânicos desempenham ainda um importante papel na nutrição das plantas como fornecedores de nutrientes. Contudo, observa-se que existe uma grande variação nas recomendações e quase sempre a adubação orgânica está associada à adubação mineral. Neste contexto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi o de verificar os efeitos do uso de esterco de curral associado ou não à adubação mineral no substrato sobre a formação de mudas de mamoeiro. O Experimento foi conduzido na FEP/UNESP/Câmpus de Ilha Solteira-SP. O delineamento utilizado foi em blocos, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas, sendo parcelas as cultivares e subparcelas os substratos. Cada parcela com 5 repetições e 10 plantas úteis por subparcela. Para a comparação das médias, utilizou-se o teste de Tukey. Com base nos resultados obtidos, pode-se concluir que: a Na formação das mudas de mamoeiro, o esterco de curral pode ser utilizado sem a necessidade de adubação mineral com o superfosfato simples e o cloreto de potássio; b O esterco de curral foi capaz de fornecer às mudas de mamoeiro os nutrientes N, P, K, Ca, Mg e Cu, necessários para seu desenvolvimento até o transplantio para o campo.The use of organic fertilization is recommended to be added to the substrate for papaya seedling production, as it enhances the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the soil, creating a favorable environment for the initial development of the plants, which results in better plant growth. The organic matter has also the important role of providing nutrients to the plants. However, there is great variation in the recommendations, and in most cases

  9. La solidez de la economía chilena a la luz de las reformas estructurales: 1970-1997

    Ángeles SÁNCHEZ DÍEZ

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En el presente artículo se recogen las principales reformas estructurales que han tenido lugar en Chile desde 1970 y que constituyen la base de la solidez actual de dicha economía latinoamericana. Se propone una división en períodos en la que se distingue la época del gobierno de la Unidad Popular, el gobierno de la Junta Militar y la transición a la democracia para evaluar los resultados económicos que se registraron a la luz de las distintas estrategias de desarrollo. Las principales reformas que se dieron en el periodo 1970-1973 bajo la "vía chilena hacia el socialismo" fueron la creación del Área de Propiedad social, la profundización de la Reforma Agraria y la nacionalización de la Gran Minería Durante el monetarismo ortodoxo (1974-1982 destacan como principales reformas la liberalización y desregulación de los mercados, la l a ronda de privatizaciones, la apertura comercial, la liberalización financiera y las "siete modernizaciones", todas ellas respaldadas por la ortodoxia de la denominada Escuela de Chicago. Tras la profunda crisis de 1982 que afectó a todo el continente latinoamericano fue necesario replantear el modelo y se introdujeron distintas medidas de carácter neoliberal que consiguieron que fuera posible aprovechar los beneficios de las reformas realizadas con anterioridad. La transición a la democracia constituye un reto para la sociedad chilena, en tanto que contando con las bases de una economía sólida deben incorporarse la visión social y política para que el crecimiento se convierta en desarrollo. En este sentido toma importancia la última estrategia de la CEPAL de "Transformación productiva con equidad".ABSTRACT: In this paper, the main structural reforms are searched, which happened between 1970 and 1995. These are the base of the actual economic framework. The different considered periods are: the "Unidad Popular" government, the military government and the democratic transition. Finally

  10. Development and Validation of a Multiplex Reverse Transcription PCR Assay for Simultaneous Detection of Three Papaya Viruses

    Decai Tuo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV, Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV, and Papaya mosaic virus (PapMV produce similar symptoms in papaya. Each threatens commercial production of papaya on Hainan Island, China. In this study, a multiplex reverse transcription PCR assay was developed to detect simultaneously these three viruses by screening combinations of mixed primer pairs and optimizing the multiplex RT-PCR reaction conditions. A mixture of three specific primer pairs was used to amplify three distinct fragments of 613 bp from the P3 gene of PRSV, 355 bp from the CP gene of PLDMV, and 205 bp from the CP gene of PapMV, demonstrating the assay’s specificity. The sensitivity of the multiplex RT-PCR was evaluated by showing plasmids containing each of the viral target genes with 1.44 × 103, 1.79 × 103, and 1.91 × 102 copies for the three viruses could be detected successfully. The multiplex RT-PCR was applied successfully for detection of three viruses from 341 field samples collected from 18 counties of Hainan Island, China. Rates of single infections were 186/341 (54.5%, 93/341 (27.3%, and 3/341 (0.9%, for PRSV, PLDMV, and PapMV, respectively; 59/341 (17.3% of the samples were co-infected with PRSV and PLDMV, which is the first time being reported in Hainan Island. This multiplex RT-PCR assay is a simple, rapid, sensitive, and cost-effective method for detecting multiple viruses in papaya and can be used for routine molecular diagnosis and epidemiological studies in papaya.

  11. Tratamientos postcosecha en el control de la antracnosis y calidad de frutos de papaya "maradol"

    López Navarrete, María Consepción

    2010-01-01

    Colletrotricum gloeosporioides agente causal de la antracnosis, siendo el principal patógeno postcosecha en papaya, causando pérdidas en la calidad del fruto. El objetivo de este trabajo en la primera fase fue evaluar la efectividad de los fungicidas azoxystrobin, trifloxystrobin, pyraclostrobin, prochloraz, thiabendazol sobre la germinación y el crecimiento micelial in vitro de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, así como la efectividad biológica de los fungicidas y la termoterapia (tratamient...

  12. Prediction of genetic gain from selection indices for disease resistance in papaya hybrids

    Marcelo Vivas; Silvaldo Felipe da Silveira; Messias Gonzaga Pereira

    2012-01-01

    In order to select superior hybrids for the concentration of favorable alleles for resistance to papaya black spot, powdery mildew and phoma spot, 67 hybrids were evaluated in two seasons, in 2007, in a randomized block design with two replications. Genetic gains were estimated from the selection indices of Smith & Hazel, Pesek & Baker, Williams, Mulamba & Mock, with selection intensity of 22.39%, corresponding to 15 hybrids. The index of Mulamba & Mock showed gains more suitable for the five...

  13. Testers for combining ability and selection of papaya hybrids resistant to fungal diseases

    Carlos Eduardo Pessanha da Silva Terra; Messias Gonzaga Pereira; Marcelo Vivas; Silvaldo Felipe da Silveira

    2011-01-01

    Genetic resistance represents a sustainable alternative to disease control in papaya crop. The purpose of this studywas to evaluate the use of testers to estimate combining ability and select hybrids resistant to black spot, phoma spot and chocolatespot. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design with two replications and 20 plants per plot. The severity ofphoma spot and black spot on leaves and the lesion area of black spot and chocolate spot on fruits were evaluated in twosea...

  14. Sensory acceptance of mixed nectar of papaya, passion fruit and acerola

    Matsuura Fernando César Akira Urbano

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Nectars are beverages formulated with the juice or pulp of one or more fruits, plus water and sugar in concentrations resulting in a "ready-to-drink" product. Recently, the market for such products has greatly expanded. Fruit mixtures present a series of advantages, such as the combination of different aromas and flavors and the sum of their nutritional components. The objective of this work was to develop a nectar based on papaya pulp and passion fruit juice, enriched with the vitamin C present in acerola pulp, optimizing the formulation using sensory consumer tests and a response surface statistical methodology. Eleven formulations were prepared using different concentrations of papaya pulp and passion fruit juice and sucrose, and maintaining the concentration of acerola pulp constant. The sensory tests were carried out with 22 non-trained panelists using a structured 9-point hedonic scale to evaluate overall acceptance. The acceptance means were submitted to regression analysis, by first calculating a polynomial quadratic equation. A predictive model was adjusted considering only those parameters where P < 0.05, and a response surface was generated. The overall acceptance of nectars of different formulations varied from 5 ("neither liked nor disliked" to more than 7 ("liked moderately", showing that some products can be considered adequate to consumers, like the nectar produced with 37.5% papaya pulp, 7.5% passion fruit juice, and 5.0% acerola pulp, added of 15% sucrose. A quadratic predictive overall acceptance model, with a regression coefficient of 0.97 was obtained. The sensory acceptance of nectars was positively affected by increases in the concentrations of papaya pulp and of sucrose. Thus, some products presented good sensory acceptance suggesting commercial potential.

  15. Phenol induced by irradiation does not impair sensory quality of fenugreek and papaya

    Chatterjee, Suchandra; Variyar, Prasad S.; Sharma, Arun

    2013-11-01

    The effect of radiation processing on the sensory quality of fenugreek and papaya exposed to doses in the range of 2.5-10 kGy and 100 Gy-2.5 kGy respectively was investigated. Despite an increase in the content of phenol in the volatile oil of these food products overall sensory quality of the irradiated and control samples was not significantly affected by radiation processing.

  16. Prospects and problems of irradiating papaya. A case study in Hawaii

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) ban of ethylene dibromide (EDB) as a fruit fumigant has forced Hawaii's papaya industry to search for alternative treatments. Among various alternatives considered, irradiation process is the most efficacious because fruits can be sorted, packaged, chilled and conveyed to an irradiator for low-dose treatments (0.26 kGy for disinfestation) before shipment to export markets. The papaya industry in Hawaii, however, has not assigned a high priority to the irradiation process. Instead, the industry opted for the double-dip hot water treatment which was rushed to become an USDA-approved procedure shortly before 1 September 1984. Three major concerns expressed by the papaya industry about the irradiation process as a replacement for chemical fumigation are: (1) Capital investment; (2) Logistics of irradiation processing and fruit transport; and (3) Consumer acceptance. The outlook for radiation disinfestation of Hawaii-grown papaya is quite good in spite of these concerns expressed by the industry. Some packers are beginning to feel that there are more advantages and benefits in adopting this process than the disadvantage of negative publicity about nuclear technology. With the availability of irradiation, the fruit and vegetable industry in Hawaii could be expanded by increased production and sales of new or existing crops. A worthwhile task ahead would be for the food industry, government agencies and researchers to join forces in conducting an effective consumer education programme by assuring the public that irradiated foods are safe. Concurrently, certain segments of the food industry should consider and prepare for the processing and marketing of irradiated foods. (author)

  17. Efficiency of a yeast-based formulation for the biocontrol of postharvest anthracnose of papayas

    Jaqueline Rabelo de Lima; Francisco Marto Pinto Viana; Francisco Aldiel Lima; Vanessa Pieniz; Luciana Rocha Barros Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    To identify formulations of biological agents that enable survival, stability and a good surface distribution of the antagonistic agent, studies that test different application vehicles are necessary. The efficiency of two killer yeasts, Wickerhamomyces anomalus (strain 422) and Meyerozyma guilliermondii (strain 443), associated with five different application vehicles, was assessed for the protection of postharvest papayas. In this study, after 90 days of incubation at 4ºC, W. anomalus (stra...

  18. Control of papaya fruits anthracnose by essential oil of Ricinus communis

    César Luis Siqueira Júnior; Maria das Graças Machado Freire; Antônio Sérgio Nascimento Moreira; Maria Ligia Rodrigues Macedo

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the potential of castor oil for the control of papaya diseases caused by the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and the bacterium Pseudomonas caricapapayae. The treatment with 1% castor oil did not significantly affect the fungal growth. The effectiveness of castor oil for the control of anthracnose was shown when 5% and 10% (v/v) were used in the assays resulting in reduced mycelial growth. Fungal sporulation was strongly inhibited at 10% (v/v) conc...

  19. Reasoned opinion on the modification of MRLs for spirodiclofen in strawberries bananas, avocado, mango and papaya

    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, the Netherlands, herewith referred as the evaluating Member State (EMS, received an application from Bayer S.A.S-Bayer CropScience to modify the existing MRLs for spirodiclofen in strawberries and bananas and set import tolerances for papaya, avocado and mango. The Netherlands proposed to decrease the existing MRL for strawberries from 2 mg/kg to 0.02 mg/kg and to increase the MRL for banana from the limit of quantification 0.02* mg/kg to 0.3mg/kg. In order to accommodate the import of produce, the Netherlands proposed to set the MRL for papaya, mangos and avocados at 1.0 mg/kg. The Netherlands drafted an evaluation report according to Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, which was submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA. According to EFSA the data are sufficient to derive MRL proposals of 0.3 mg/kg for the proposed use in banana and 1.5 mg/kg to accommodate the reported use in the USA on avocado, noting that the MRL in the country of origin is set at the level of 1 mg/kg. EFSA has some reservations regarding the proposal that the residue trial results for avocado might be extrapolated to propose MRLs on papaya and mango. The intended use on strawberries is not adequately supported by residue data. Based on the risk assessment results, EFSA concludes that the proposed use of spirodiclofen on strawberry, banana, avocado, mango and papaya will not result in consumer exposure exceeding the toxicological reference value and therefore is unlikely to pose a consumer health risk.

  20. CARACTERIZACIÓN DE COMPOST A BASE DE ESPINILLO EN RELACIÓN A LA NORMA CHILENA No2880

    Ricardo Tighe-Neira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Caracterización de compost a base de espinillo en relación a la Norma Chilena No2880. El objetivo de este estudio fue caracterizar el compost a base de espinillo (Ulex europaeus L. y contrastar sus características físico-químicas con las de la Norma Chilena de compost (NCh 2880. El ensayo se montó en el Centro Experimental Pillanlelbún, Temuco, Chile, entre diciembre 2010 y abril de 2011. Se empleó un diseño factorial de 2×2, los factores fueron: mezcla y acelerador de compostaje (AC, ambos en dos niveles. Cuatro tratamientos: T1 U. europaeus (100% sin AC, T2 U. europaeus (78% + estiércol de bovino (22% sin AC, T3 U. europaeus (100% con AC y T4 U. europaeus (78% + estiércol de bovino (22% con AC. Se evaluó el contenido de materia orgánica (MO%, C orgánico total (%, relación C:N, N total (%, humedad (Ho%, tamaño partículas (TP%, toxicidad (% germinación de Raphanus sativus L., pH, densidad aparente (DAP kg/m3, conductividad eléctrica (CE dS/m y germinación de malezas (No de propágulos. Los tratamientos U. europaeus (100% sin AC y con AC presentaron mayor %MO, %N total y relación C:N que T2 y T4. A la vez, U. europaeus (100% sin AC, presentó un menor %C y T2 menor pH en comparación al resto de los tratamientos. Las demás variables evaluadas no presentaron diferencias significativas. Todas cumplieron con la NCh 2880, excepto toxicidad en el tratamiento con solo U. europaeus, y la CE en todos los tratamientos. Se debe reducir la CE para poder optar a su certificación por la NCh 2880.

  1. INVENTARIO DE GASES CON EFECTO INVERNADERO EMITIDOS POR LA ACTIVIDAD AGROPECUARIA CHILENA Inventory of greenhouse gas emissions by Chilean agriculture

    Rafael Novoa S.A.

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una estimación de los gases con efecto invernadero emitidos por la agricultura chilena. Los resultados indican que el año 1994, la agricultura chilena emitió 321,92 Gg de metano, 21,80 Gg de N2O; 2,96 Gg de NOx y 51,97 Gg de CO. Además, se estimó que las emisiones de COVNM llegan a 2,59 Gg año-1. Estas cifras expresadas como porcentaje de las emisiones del sector no energía chileno llegan a un 74,3 % para el metano, un 5,1 % para el CO; un 93,8 % para el N2O; un 9,8 % para los NOx y un 4,9 % para los COVNM. Al sumar el potencial de calentamiento de las emisiones de metano y óxidos de N resulta que la agricultura estaría emitiendo un total equivalente a 10.504 Gg de CO2 año-1. La silvicultura, el cambio de uso del suelo y la gestión de residuos del país, generan una captación neta de CO2 de 29.709 Gg año-1, por ello se reduce este excedente en un 32 % el que quedaría en 19.205 Gg.The greenhouse gas emissions from Chilean agriculture were estimated. The results showed that during 1994, Chilean agriculture emitted 321.92 Gg of methane; 21.80 Gg of N2O; 2.96 Gg of NOx and 51.97 Gg of CO. Also, agriculture generated 2.59 Gg year-1 of non-methane volatile compound emissions (NMVOC. These figures as a percentage of the non-energy sector emissions are as follows: 74.3% for methane; 5.1 % for CO; 93.8 % for N2O; 9.8 % for NOx and 4.9 % for NMVOC. Taking into account the potential warming effects of methane and nitrous oxide as CO2 equivalent amounts, agriculture is responsible for 10,504 Gg CO2 year-1. Since forestry, land-use changes and handling of residues in Chile represent a net capture of 29,709 CO2 Gg year-1, agriculture reduces this surplus to 35.4 %. So, the total surplus is about 19.205 Gg year-1.

  2. Posfolklore: Raíces y globalización en la música popular chilena

    González, Juan Pablo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the development of the concept of folk roots, introduced by Chilean singer-songwriters in the mid-seventies, as a strategy to legitimize their divergent practice from the norm of folklore in times of military rule. The institutionalization of this concept with the return of democracy in the early nineties and its continued tightening from a third generation of Chilean singersongwriters and bands derivatives from theater companies, allow us to discuss the problem of folk roots in times of globalization. We propose the concepts of posfolklore and hydroponic roots, attached to the trend of Chilean listeners and musicians to incorporate world music to their artistic practices and consumption. These concepts would facilitate the discussion of the mixing of influences in Chilean music and the consequent proliferation of intermediate rather than hegemonic identities in contemporary Chilean culture.

    Este artículo aborda el desarrollo del concepto de raíz folklórica, introducido por cantautores chilenos a mediados de los años setenta, como estrategia para legitimar corrientes divergentes del folklore de la norma imperante en tiempos del régimen militar. La institucionalización de este concepto con el retorno a la democracia y su continuo tensionamiento desde una tercera generación de cantautores nacionales y desde los nuevos grupos musicales derivados de compañías teatrales, permite reflexionar sobre el problema de las raíces en tiempos de globalización. Se proponen los conceptos de posfolklore y de raíces hidropónicas, adscritos a la permanente tendencia del músico y del auditor chileno a incorporar músicas del mundo a su práctica y consumo musical. Estos conceptos permiten discutir las mezclas en la música chilena y la consiguiente multiplicación de identidades intermedias más que hegemónicas en la cultura chilena contemporánea.

  3. Spatial and temporal diversity of begomoviral complexes in papayas with leaf curl disease.

    Singh-Pant, P; Pant, P; Mukherjee, S K; Mazumdar-Leighton, S

    2012-07-01

    Old World, monopartite begomoviruses associated with satellite DNA β were observed in papaya showing symptoms of leaf curl disease sampled randomly over five years from within a radius of 250 km in north-central India. Three groups of DNA A sequences were evident. One group resembled chili leaf curl virus infecting tomatoes (ChiLCuV). Another group resembled tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCuNDV). The third group was novel (tentatively named papaya leaf crumple virus, PaLCrV), with less than 89% identity to known begomovirus sequences in the GenBank database. At least seven DNA A sequences were putative recombinants. The AC4-encoding regions exhibited highest numbers of non-synonymous substitutions. Most DNA β sequences resembled tomato leaf curl virus-associated DNA βs. A few DNA β sequences were similar to that of croton yellow vein mosaic virus-associated DNA β (CroYVMVβ). One DNA β sequence was novel and showed papayas grown in plantations, kitchen gardens and feral patches in the region are vulnerable to disease outbreak. No geographic or temporal patterns were discernable in the distribution of these viruses. PMID:22437254

  4. Antiinflammatory activity of the methanolic extract of the seeds ofCarica papaya in experimental animals

    Amazu LU; Azikiwe CCA; Njoku CJ; Osuala FN; Nwosu PJC; Ajugwo AO; Enye JC

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To scientifically verify the claims of our traditional healers on the anti-inflammatory activity ofCarica papaya (C. papaya) and possibly deduce its activities.Methods:0.1 mL of fresh egg albumin was injected into the right hind-paw of adult white Wistar rats to induce inflammation an hour post intraperitoneal (IP) administration of50-200 mg/kg doses of the extract to3groups of5 rats per group. The 4th group of5 rats was used as negative control and received2 mL/kg(IP) of physiological saline, while the 5th group of5rats was used as positive-comparative control and received (IP) 150 mg/kg of aspirin. Increases in diameter of the paw were measured with the aid of Veneer Calipers before extract administration and at interval of30minutes post administration for further 2 hours. Percentage inhibition of oedema was calculated for each dose group and results were subjected to statistical analysis using studentt-test and analysis of variance(ANOVA).Results: All doses of extract showed a dose and time dependent inhibition effects of oedema(P<0.05).Conclusions:This work is at present though limited to animals, the anti-inflammatory activity of the seeds ofC. papaya is perhaps proven.

  5. Human sperm immobilization effect of Carica papaya seed extracts: an in vitro study

    NirmalKLohiya; LalitKKothari; BManivannan; PradyumnaKMishra; NeelamPathak

    2000-01-01

    Aim: To examine if the seed extracts of Carica papaya, which showed antispermatogenic/sperm immobilization properties in animal models, could cause human sperm immobilization in vitro. Methods: Chloroform extract, benzene chromatographic fraction of the chloroform extract, its methanol and ethyl acetate sub-fractions and the isolated compounds from the sub-fractions i.e., ECP 1 & 2 and MCP 1 & 2, of the seeds of Cadca papaya were used at concentrations of 0.1%, 0.5%, 1% and 2%. Sperm motility was assessed immediately after addition of extracts and every 5 minutes thereafter for 30 minutes. Results: There were dose-dependent spermicidal effects showing an instant fall in the sperm motility to less than 20 % at 2 % concentration. Isolated compounds ECP 1 & 2 were more effective inducing a motility of less than 10%. Many of the spermatozoa became vibratory on the spot. Total inhibition of motility was observed within 20 - 25 min at all concentrations of all products. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed deleterious changes in the plasma membrane of the head and mid-piece of spermatozoa. Sperm viability test and the number of abnormal spermatozoa after completion of incubation suggested that the spermatozoa were infertile. The effects were spermicidal but not spermiostatic as revealed by the sperm revival test. Conclusion: The results reveal spermicidal activity in vitro of the seed extracts of Carica papaya.

  6. Color index and correlation with physical and chemical parameters of guava, mango and papaya

    Jedman Dantas Motta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available It was used a low cost colorimeter determine the color in agricultural products. Color analysis on peel and pulps of guava, papaya and mango were made. The values found in the L*a*b* color spaces were used to calculate color indexes that were related to the soluble solids content, pH and the fruit consistence during the maturation. The results obtained permit to conclude that it is possible to estimate the ripening of papaya over the color peel, having found an accurate relation between peel color index and soluble solids content expressed in terms of the third degree equation. Nevertheless for the guava and mango there is not a relation between the peel color indexes and soluble solids content. There is not a relation between color indexes of the guava, papaya and mango pulps with soluble solids content. For all fruits studied there was not relation between color indexes of the peel or pulp with pH.

  7. Quality Characteristics, Nutraceutical Profile, and Storage Stability of Aloe Gel-Papaya Functional Beverage Blend.

    Ramachandran, Pushkala; Nagarajan, Srividya

    2014-01-01

    Aloe vera gel, well known for its nutraceutical potential, is being explored as a functional ingredient in a wide array of health foods and drinks. Processing of exotic fruits and herbal botanicals into functional beverage is an emerging sector in food industry. The present study was undertaken to develop a spiced functional RTS beverage blend using Aloe gel (AG) and papaya. Aloe gel (30%), papaya pulp (15%), spice extract (5%), and citric acid (0.1%) were mixed in given proportion to prepare the blend with TSS of 15 °Brix. The product was bottled, pasteurized, and stored at room temperature. The quality characteristics and storage stability of the spiced beverage blend (SAGPB) were compared with spiced papaya RTS beverage (SPB). Periodic analysis was carried out up to five months for various physicochemical parameters, sugar profile, bioactive compounds, microbial quality, instrumental color, and sensory acceptability. The SAGPB exhibited superior quality characteristics compared to SPB both in fresh and in stored samples. The SPB was acceptable up to four months and SAGPB for five months. The results indicate that nutraceutical rich AG could be successfully utilized to develop functional fruit beverages with improved quality and shelf life. PMID:26904652

  8. Sequencing papaya X and Yh chromosomes reveals molecular basis of incipient sex chromosome evolution.

    Wang, Jianping; Na, Jong-Kuk; Yu, Qingyi; Gschwend, Andrea R; Han, Jennifer; Zeng, Fanchang; Aryal, Rishi; VanBuren, Robert; Murray, Jan E; Zhang, Wenli; Navajas-Pérez, Rafael; Feltus, F Alex; Lemke, Cornelia; Tong, Eric J; Chen, Cuixia; Wai, Ching Man; Singh, Ratnesh; Wang, Ming-Li; Min, Xiang Jia; Alam, Maqsudul; Charlesworth, Deborah; Moore, Paul H; Jiang, Jiming; Paterson, Andrew H; Ming, Ray

    2012-08-21

    Sex determination in papaya is controlled by a recently evolved XY chromosome pair, with two slightly different Y chromosomes controlling the development of males (Y) and hermaphrodites (Y(h)). To study the events of early sex chromosome evolution, we sequenced the hermaphrodite-specific region of the Y(h) chromosome (HSY) and its X counterpart, yielding an 8.1-megabase (Mb) HSY pseudomolecule, and a 3.5-Mb sequence for the corresponding X region. The HSY is larger than the X region, mostly due to retrotransposon insertions. The papaya HSY differs from the X region by two large-scale inversions, the first of which likely caused the recombination suppression between the X and Y(h) chromosomes, followed by numerous additional chromosomal rearrangements. Altogether, including the X and/or HSY regions, 124 transcription units were annotated, including 50 functional pairs present in both the X and HSY. Ten HSY genes had functional homologs elsewhere in the papaya autosomal regions, suggesting movement of genes onto the HSY, whereas the X region had none. Sequence divergence between 70 transcripts shared by the X and HSY revealed two evolutionary strata in the X chromosome, corresponding to the two inversions on the HSY, the older of which evolved about 7.0 million years ago. Gene content differences between the HSY and X are greatest in the older stratum, whereas the gene content and order of the collinear regions are identical. Our findings support theoretical models of early sex chromosome evolution. PMID:22869747

  9. Quality Characteristics, Nutraceutical Profile, and Storage Stability of Aloe Gel-Papaya Functional Beverage Blend

    Pushkala Ramachandran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aloe vera gel, well known for its nutraceutical potential, is being explored as a functional ingredient in a wide array of health foods and drinks. Processing of exotic fruits and herbal botanicals into functional beverage is an emerging sector in food industry. The present study was undertaken to develop a spiced functional RTS beverage blend using Aloe gel (AG and papaya. Aloe gel (30%, papaya pulp (15%, spice extract (5%, and citric acid (0.1% were mixed in given proportion to prepare the blend with TSS of 15 °Brix. The product was bottled, pasteurized, and stored at room temperature. The quality characteristics and storage stability of the spiced beverage blend (SAGPB were compared with spiced papaya RTS beverage (SPB. Periodic analysis was carried out up to five months for various physicochemical parameters, sugar profile, bioactive compounds, microbial quality, instrumental color, and sensory acceptability. The SAGPB exhibited superior quality characteristics compared to SPB both in fresh and in stored samples. The SPB was acceptable up to four months and SAGPB for five months. The results indicate that nutraceutical rich AG could be successfully utilized to develop functional fruit beverages with improved quality and shelf life.

  10. Efficiency of a yeast-based formulation for the biocontrol of postharvest anthracnose of papayas

    Jaqueline Rabelo de Lima

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available To identify formulations of biological agents that enable survival, stability and a good surface distribution of the antagonistic agent, studies that test different application vehicles are necessary. The efficiency of two killer yeasts, Wickerhamomyces anomalus (strain 422 and Meyerozyma guilliermondii (strain 443, associated with five different application vehicles, was assessed for the protection of postharvest papayas. In this study, after 90 days of incubation at 4ºC, W. anomalus (strain 422 and M. guilliermondii (strain 443 were viable with all application vehicles tested. Fruits treated with different formulations (yeasts + application vehicles had a decreased severity of disease (by at least 30% compared with untreated fruits. The treatment with W. anomalus (strain 422 + 2% starch lowered disease occurrence by 48.3%. The most efficient treatments using M. guilliermondii (strain 443 were those with 2% gelatin or 2% liquid carnauba wax, both of which reduced anthracnose by 50% in postharvest papayas. Electron micrographs of the surface tissues of the treated fruits showed that all application vehicles provided excellent adhesion of the yeast to the surface. Formulations based on starch (2%, gelatin (2% and carnauba wax (2% were the most efficient at controlling fungal diseases in postharvest papayas.

  11. Reduction of hydrogen peroxide-induced erythrocyte damage by Carica papaya leaf extract

    Tebekeme Okoko; Diepreye Ere

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the in vitro antioxidant potential of Carica papaya (C. papaya) leaf extract and its effect on hydrogen peroxide-induced erythrocyte damage assessed by haemolysis and lipid peroxidation. Methods: Hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, hydrogen ion scavenging activity, metal chelating activity, and the ferrous ion reducing ability were assessed as antioxidant indices. In the other experiment, human erythrocytes were treated with hydrogen peroxide to induce erythrocyte damage. The extract (at various concentrations) was subsequently incubated with the erythrocytes and later analysed for haemolysis and lipid peroxidation as indices for erythrocyte damage. Results:Preliminary investigation of the extract showed that the leaf possessed significant antioxidant and free radical scavenging abilities using in vitro models in a concentration dependent manner (P<0.05). The extract also reduced hydrogen peroxide induced erythrocyte haemolysis and lipid peroxidation significantly when compared with ascorbic acid (P<0.05). The IC50 values were 7.33 mg/mL and 1.58 mg/mL for inhibition of haemolysis and lipid peroxidation, respectively. In all cases, ascorbic acid (the reference antioxidant) possessed higher activity than the extract. Conclusions:The findings show that C. papaya leaves possess significant bioactive potential which is attributed to the phytochemicals which act in synergy. Thus, the leaves can be exploited for pharmaceutical and nutritional purposes.

  12. Gamma irradiation as a quarantine treatment for carambola, papaya and mango

    Preliminary experiments carried out on the effects of irradiation on carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.), papaya (Carica papaya L.) and mango (Mangifera indica L.) with regard to fruit fly treatment, fruit injury and the physicochemical and organoleptic properties showed that irradiation can be successfully developed and should be investigated further as a quarantine treatment for these fruits. Emergence of normal adult fruit flies of the Dacus dorsalis complex did not occur when infested carambolas were treated at doses as low as 100 Gy. Carambola showed external symptoms of injury at irradiation doses in excess of 200 Gy. There appeared to be some reduction in sugar content at doses exceeding 100 Gy. Papaya, cv. ''Eksotika'', tolerated irradiation up to 300 Gy. Irradiation at this dose did not alter the ripening behaviour, nor did it cause any injury or alter the organoleptic properties of the fruit. An additional benefit was that doses above 250 Gy significantly reduced freckling of the fruit and enhanced its cosmetic value. ''Eksotika'' is an ideal candidate for quarantine treatment using gamma irradiation. Mango, cv. ''Harumanis'', tolerated irradiation fairly well. Exposure of fruit to doses of up to 750 Gy did not produce significant injury. (author). 13 refs, 2 figs, 17 tabs

  13. Supercritical fluid chromatography with photodiode array detection for pesticide analysis in papaya and avocado samples.

    Pano-Farias, Norma S; Ceballos-Magaña, Silvia G; Gonzalez, Jorge; Jurado, José M; Muñiz-Valencia, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    To improve the analysis of pesticides in complex food matrices with economic importance, alternative chromatographic techniques, such as supercritical fluid chromatography, can be used. Supercritical fluid chromatography has barely been applied for pesticide analysis in food matrices. In this paper, an analytical method using supercritical fluid chromatography coupled to a photodiode array detection has been established for the first time for the quantification of pesticides in papaya and avocado. The extraction of methyl parathion, atrazine, ametryn, carbofuran, and carbaryl was performed through the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe methodology. The method was validated using papaya and avocado samples. For papaya, the correlation coefficient values were higher than 0.99; limits of detection and quantification ranged from 130-380 and 220-640 μg/kg, respectively; recovery values ranged from 72.8-94.6%; precision was lower than 3%. For avocado, limit of detection values were ˂450 μg/kg; precision was lower than 11%; recoveries ranged from 50.0-94.2%. Method feasibility was tested for lime, banana, mango, and melon samples. Our results demonstrate that the proposed method is applicable to methyl parathion, atrazine, ametryn, and carbaryl, toxics pesticides used worldwide. The methodology presented in this work could be applicable to other fruits. PMID:25641906

  14. Consideraciones sobre la utilización de diferentes densidades en el cultivo de papaya (Carica papaya, L. "Baixinho de Santa Amalia" en islas canarias

    Pastor Mª Cristina Rodriguez

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo de papaya en Islas Canarias se ha extendido en los últimos años bajo condiciones de invernadero. La utilización de cultivares de papaya tipo "Baixinho de Santa Amalia" (mutante natural del cultivar "Sunrise" de porte bajo, emisión de la flor a corta altura y precocidad en la floración, resultan de gran interés sobre todo en esta clase de medios. Estas características fenológicas hacen posible el manejo del cultivo a mayores densidades que las empleadas con otros cultivares. Por lo tanto, se ha planteado este trabajo cuyo objetivo principal es determinar cual es el marco de plantación óptimo, que permita obtener mayores rendimientos sin depreciar la calidad del fruto. Para ello, se ha evaluado la producción tanto de las plantas hermafroditas como de las plantas femeninas durante dos ciclos de cultivo, así como las características organolépticas, grado de carpeloidía y deformación de los frutos. Los resultados indican que la densidad mayor, proporciona mejor comportamiento de las plantas así como mayor producción de frutos y menor porcentaje de fruta desechable.

  15. Gastroprotective and Anti-ulcer activity of Aloe vera juice, Papaya fruit juice and Aloe vera and Papaya fruit combined juice in Ethanol induced Ulcerated Rats

    S. Gopinathan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Peptic ulcer is the most prevalent gastrointestinal disease. Even though a wide range of drugs are available for the treatment of peptic ulcer, but many of these do not fulfill all the requirements and have side effects. These factors have attracted researchers to investigate the natural products which have more efficacy, less side effects and less expensive for the treatment of peptic ulcer disease. In the present study the anti ulcer activity of (1 Aloe vera juice, (2 papaya fruit juice (3 Aloe vera and papaya fruit combined juice were investigated in the ethanol induced ulcerated rats. The administration of plant juices decreased the offensive factors like ulcer index and acid secretion and also reduced the amount of protein and carbohydrates in the stomach fluid. Further, plant juices increased the defensive factors like activity of oxidative enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione. Activities of alkaline phosphatase and lipid peroxide were higher in the diseased condition and same were reduced after the treatment with plant juices. Content of haemoglobin and RBC and WBC counts were brought back to normalcy after the treatment with plant juices. The efficacy of plant juices was comparable with the reference drug- Ranitidine. The results of the present study reveal that the plant juices are having efficiency in the gastroprotective activity. It is recommended that the above said plant juices can be further studied for their anti ulcer efficacy in human subjects.

  16. Repeated Dose 28-Days Oral Toxicity Study of Carica papaya L. Leaf Extract in Sprague Dawley Rats

    Hussin Muhammad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Carica papaya L. leaves have been used in ethnomedicine for the treatment of fevers and cancers. Despite its benefits, very few studies on their potential toxicity have been described. The aim of the present study was to characterize the chemical composition of the leaf extract from ‘Sekaki’ C. papaya cultivar by UPLC-TripleTOF-ESI-MS and to investigate the sub-acute oral toxicity in Sprague Dawley rats at doses of 0.01, 0.14 and 2 g/kg by examining the general behavior, clinical signs, hematological parameters, serum biochemistry and histopathology changes. A total of twelve compounds consisting of one piperidine alkaloid, two organic acids, six malic acid derivatives, and four flavonol glycosides were characterized or tentatively identified in the C. papaya leaf extract. In the sub-acute study, the C. papaya extract did not cause mortality nor were treatment-related changes in body weight, food intake, water level, and hematological parameters observed between treatment and control groups. Some biochemical parameters such as the total protein, HDL-cholesterol, AST, ALT and ALP were elevated in a non-dose dependent manner. Histopathological examination of all organs including liver did not reveal morphological alteration. Other parameters showed non-significant differences between treatment and control groups. The present results suggest that C. papaya leaf extract at a dose up to fourteen times the levels employed in practical use in traditional medicine in Malaysia could be considered safe as a medicinal agent.

  17. Validación chilena del cuestionario de evaluación de apego en el adulto CAMIR

    Lusmenia Garrido

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue examinar la confiabilidad y validez del instrumento de evaluación de apego en el adulto, .Cartes: Modèles Individuels de Relation (CAMIR., en la realidad sociocultural chilena. Este instrumento, basado en la teoría del apego, es un cuestionario de auto-reporte que evalúa los modelos operativos internos en adultos y otras escalas relacionadas al apego. Los participantes fueron 578 sujetos, 204 hombres y 374 mujeres, con edades entre 14 y 80 años. Los sujetos completaron el CAMIR y medidas de vínculo y sintomatología actual, a través del Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI and Outcome Questionnaire OQ-45.2. A través del análisis estadístico de los resultados se evaluaron las características psicométricas del test y se analiz ó la posibilidad de generar normas locales para la prueba. Los resultados confirmaron que el CAMIR es un instrumento confiable y válido en la evaluación de los modelos internos de relación en adultos.

  18. Relación entre el rendimiento y las estrategias de crecimiento en las sociedades anónimas chilenas

    Alex Medina Giacomozzi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La relación entre los resultados empresariales y la diversificación o concentración es un tema muy rele- vante, por lo que en este artículo se exponen las evidencias obtenidas al comparar el rendimiento obtenido por 82 sociedades anónimas chilenas, seleccionadas al azar, con su estrategia de concentración o diversi- ficación. La metodología seguida implicó la clasificación de las estrategias mediante una matriz con base en el Código Industrial Internacional Uniforme (CIIU de Chile y la aplicación del método Du Pont para la determinación del resultado. La principal evidencia es que la mayoría son empresas concentradas, pero las sociedades con diversificación relacionada obtienen un mayor rendimiento promedio que las empresas concentradas y que las compa ̃ nías con estrategia de diversificación no relacionada.

  19. EXTRAÍBLES DE CORTEZAS CHILENAS: EFECTO SOBRE LA LUMINISCENCIA DE BACTERIAS EFFECT OF CHILEAN BARK EXTRACTS ON BACTERIAL LUMINESCENCE

    Hernán Poblete

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó la disminución de la bioluminiscencia de bacterias como indicador de la actividad biológica de extractos de corteza. Se analizaron cuatro cortezas nativas chilenas. La reducción de la bioluminiscencia fue diferente dependiendo de la especie de corteza. El aumento del tiempo de un tratamiento térmico de la corteza (24, 48, 72 y 144 horas con 103ºC produjo una reducción de la actividad biológica de los extractos. El estudio indica que los terpenos podrían ser responsables del efecto señaladoBioluminescence decrease of bacteria as a biological activity indicator for bark water extracts was determinate. Four Chilean barks were tested. A different reduction on bioluminescence depending on bark species was observed. Increasing time of thermal treatment of bark (24, 48, 72 and 144 hours with 103ºC produced a reduction of the biological activity of extracts. The study indicates that the terpenes could be responsible for the described effect

  20. Estudiantes con discapacidad en una universidad chilena: desafíos de la inclusión

    Gabriela Paulina VILLAFAÑE HORMAZÁBAL

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este artículo es dar cuenta de una investigación acerca de las condiciones de inclusión para los estudiantes con discapacidad en una universidad chilena. La investigación tiene un diseño cuantitativo, descriptivo y transversal. Para la recolección de datos se elaboró una encuesta que fue aplicada a 38 estudiantes con discapacidad. Los principales resultados revelan un alto nivel de retención de los estudiantes, quienes presentan una percepción positiva de su inclusión en la vida universitaria, así como una alta satisfacción con la mayoría de los servicios. Se destaca que siete de cada diez encuestados reconocen haber recibido algún tipo de atención educativa para realizar sus estudios. Sin embargo, existe una falta de articulación entre las iniciativas de la Universidad para favorecer el acceso y permanencia de personas con discapacidad; a esto se agrega la carencia de protocolos y de instancias de capacitación para profesores y administrativos. Se propone que la institución establezca un sistema de gestión que defina objetivos, estrategias y acciones para contribuir a la inclusión de personas con discapacidad.

  1. Low-dose gamma irradiation following hot Water immersion of Papaya (Carica Papaya linn.) fruits provides additional control of postharvest fungal infection to extend shelf life

    Rashid, M.H.A.; Grout, Brian William Wilson; Continella, A.;

    2015-01-01

    Low-dose gamma irradiation (0.08 kGy over 10 min), a level significantly below that required to satisfy the majority of international quarantine regulations, has been employed to provide a significant reduction in visible fungal infection on papaya fruit surfaces. This is appropriate for local and...... national markets in producer countries where levels of commercial acceptability can be retained despite surface lesions due to fungal infection. Irradiation alone and in combination with hot-water immersion (50 °C for 10 min) has been applied to papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruits at both the mature green and...... 1/3 yellow stages of maturity. The incidence and severity of surface fungal infections, including anthracnose, were significantly reduced by the combined treatment compared to irradiation or hot water treatment alone, extending storage at 11 °C by 13 days and retaining commercial acceptability. The...

  2. Elasticidades de demanda por manzanas chilenas en el mercado de la unión europea: una estimación econométrica Demand elasticities for Chilean apples in the European Union market: an econometric estimation

    Arcadio Cerda U.; Germán Lobos A.; Eduardo Kufferath Y.; Fernando Sánchez H.

    2004-01-01

    La Unión Europea (UE) es uno de los principales mercados para las manzanas (Malus domestica L.) chilenas. En este trabajo se planteó un modelo econométrico de demanda por importaciones de manzanas chilenas en la UE. Se usó la técnica de Mínimos Cuadrados Ordinarios (MCO), utilizando datos anuales del periodo 1984 a 2002, y se estimaron las elasticidades de demanda. Las variables que explicaron el comportamiento de la demanda fueron el producto interno bruto (PIB) per cápita de la UE, el preci...

  3. Study about papaya (Carica papaya L.) conservation submitted to a combined treatment of irradiation and an edible film of quitosan; Estudo do tratamento combinado de radiacao ionizante e cobertura de quitosana em mamao papaia (Carica papaya L.)

    Camargo, Rita Junqueira de

    2004-07-01

    In this research, on a first stage the effect of two treatments were studied: thermal, and a chitosan edible coating, combined with four different irradiation doses: 0,00 kGy, 0,50 kGy, 0,75 kGy and 1,00 kGy for effects in the ripening of papaya (Carica Papaya) cv. Golden. To evaluate the influence of these two factors in the physical-chemical characteristics of the fruit during ripening, analysis on color, both skin and pulp, firmness, soluble solids, pH and titrable acidity were performed. The incidence of fungi in fruit skin was also analyzed. The fruits were first maintained at 10 deg C chamber for fifteen days to simulate maritime transportation to the importer country and then transferred to a 25 deg C chamber aiming simulation of the commercialization conditions. From this first step, the conclusion was that chitosan in the concentration of 2% was not able to contain the fungi development and that it also influenced in a significant form the variable pH. A more expressive result was obtained for irradiation doses of 0,75 kGy and 1,00 kGy, as it was observed in the beginning the acceleration in ripening through the variables skin color and penetration energy of the fruit pulp. When storage temperature was changed to 25 deg C this situation inverted for these same variables and a two day delay was observed on the development of yellow color on the fruit skin and loss of pulp firmness. The variables titrable acidity, soluble solids and pulp color were not influenced by treatment or by irradiation. On a second stage, the fruits, in the same condition of the previous stage, were analyzed in relation of their mass and ripening stage using a ripening scale provided by the producer of the fruits for this experiment, as to evaluate the gradual development of fruit ripening according to the various treatments (chitosan 3%, thermal or control) and irradiation dose (0,00 kGy and 0,75 kGy). Confirming the results obtained in the first stage, the irradiation was able to

  4. Control of egg hatch ability and adult emergence of three fruit fly species in papayas by gamma irradiation

    The effects of gamma radiation on the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera Dorsalis (Hendel), melon fly, Bactrocera Cucurbitae (Coquilett), and Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis Capitata (Weidemann) were studied. Melon fly was determined to be the most susceptible of the three species. A dosage of 550 Gy rendered the eggs 100% sterile when irradiated in papayas at 4-6 hours before hatching. Oriental and mediterranean fruit flies were found to be more resistant, requiring doses of 750 and 850 Gy, respectively. A dose of only 100 Gy was needed to inhibit adult eclosion when the three species were treated at third instar larvae. Warm water treatment at 490C for 20 minutes was found sufficient in preventing the hatching of any egg in the infested papaya fruits. However, since eggs may hatch before the warm-water treatment can be applied, a combination of irradiation treatment using 100 Gy is recommended for disinfestation of papaya fruits. (author). 17 refs.; 3 tabs

  5. Métodos de extracción de semilla en papaya Golden y la relación con la longevidad Extraction methods in Golden type papaya seed and relationship with longevity

    Julio César García Dean; Mario Ernesto Vázquez Badillo; María Alejandra Torres Tapia; Sergio Ignacio Dávila Cabello; David Sánchez Aspeytia

    2011-01-01

    Es muy escasa la información disponible, relacionada al manejo de poscosecha de semilla de papaya (Carica papaya L.) y su influencia en la calidad fisiológica de la semilla, sobre todo en germinación y vigor. El trabajo de investigación se realizó en el laboratorio de producción de semillas del Centro de Capacitación y Desarrollo de Tecnología de Semillas, en el invernadero número uno de la Universidad Autónoma Agraria "Antonio Narro" (UAAAN) durante 2008. La finalidad del trabajo fue evaluar...

  6. Anatomia foliar de plantas transgênicas e não transgênicas de Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae) Leaf anatomy of genetically modified and wild-type Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae)

    Marcos Vinicius Leal-Costa; Márcia Munhoz; Paulo Ernesto Meissner Filho; Fernanda Reinert; Eliana Schwartz Tavares

    2010-01-01

    O mamoeiro, Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae) é uma espécie americana, cujos frutos são largamente consumidos em todo mundo. Devido às perdas de produção provocadas por viroses e a dificuldade em controlá-las por métodos convencionais, a espécie tem sido alvo de pesquisas de melhoramento genético envolvendo transgenia para resistência a vírus. O presente trabalho descreve a anatomia foliar de plantas de mamoeiro convencional e transgênico resistente ao vírus da mancha anelar-Papaya ringspot virus...

  7. Inhibition of Platelet Aggregation by the Leaf Extract of Carica papaya During Dengue Infection: An In Vitro Study.

    Chinnappan, Shobia; Shettikothanuru Ramachandrappa, Vijayakumar; Tamilarasu, Kadhiravan; Krishnan, Uma Maheswari; Balakrishna Pillai, Agiesh Kumar; Rajendiran, Soundravally

    2016-04-01

    Dengue cases were reported to undergo platelet activation and thrombocytopenia by a poorly understood mechanism. Recent studies suggested that Carica papaya leaf extract could recover the platelet count in dengue cases. However, no studies have attempted to unravel the mechanism of the plant extract in platelet recovery. Since there are no available drugs to treat dengue and considering the significance of C. papaya in dengue treatment, the current study aimed to evaluate two research questions: First one is to study if the C. papaya leaf extract exerts its action directly on platelets and second one is to understand if the extract can specifically inhibit the platelet aggregation during dengue viral infection. Sixty subjects with dengue positive and 60 healthy subjects were recruited in the study. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and platelet-poor plasma were prepared from both the dengue-infected and healthy control blood samples. Effect of the leaf extract obtained from C. papaya leaves was assessed on plasma obtained as well as platelets collected from both healthy and dengue-infected individuals. Platelet aggregation was significantly reduced when leaf extract preincubated with dengue plasma was added into control PRP, whereas no change in aggregation when leaf extract incubated-control plasma was added into control PRP. Upon direct addition of C. papaya leaf extract, both dengue PRP and control PRP showed a significant reduction in platelet aggregation. Within the dengue group, PRP from severe and nonsevere cases showed a significant decrease in aggregation without any difference between them. From the study, it is evident that C. papaya leaf extract can directly act on platelet. The present study, the first of its kind, found that the leaf extract possesses a dengue-specific neutralizing effect on dengue viral-infected plasma that may exert a protective role on platelets. PMID:26910599

  8. Caracterización de compost a base de espinillo en relación a la Norma Chilena Nº2880.

    Ricardo Tighe-Neira; Gina Leonelli-Cantergiani; René Montalba-Navarro; Carolina Cavieres-Acuña; Daniza Morales-Ulloa

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo de este estudio fue caracterizar el compost a base de espinillo (Ulex europaeus L.) y contrastar sus características físico-químicas con las de la Norma Chilena de compost (NCh 2880). El ensayo se montó en el Centro Experimental Pillanlelbún, Temuco, Chile, entre diciembre 2010 y abril de 2011. Se empleó un diseño factorial de 2×2, los factores fueron: mezcla y acelerador de compostaje (AC), ambos en dos niveles. Cuatro tratamientos: T1 U. europaeus (100%) sin AC, T2 U. europaeus ...

  9. La metáfora en la Lengua de Señas Chilena. Una aproximación desde la psicolingüística cognitiva

    Acuña Robertson, Ximena

    2016-01-01

    Este estudio se propone conocer la manera como se construyen y se interpretan los significados en la Lengua de Señas Chilena. Mediante el análisis de expresiones lingüísticas, se establece un conjunto de redes conceptuales y metáforas cognitivas, a través de lo cual se describe la conceptualización de dominios cognitivos relativos a la comunicación, las emociones, el tiempo y la actividad intelectual. Se enfoca sobre operaciones que subyacen, sus dominios y en qué forma esto se refleja en el ...

  10. LA ESCENA DEL CRIMEN: CIUDAD Y POESÍA EN LA TRANSICIÓN CHILENA The Crime Scene: City and poetry in Chilean Transition

    Luis Valenzuela Prado

    2011-01-01

    Un constante fluir de cauces heterogéneos convergen en las ideas de blanqueamiento y consenso en la transición chilena. Uno de estos cauces es el proceso por el cual el Estado intenta recuperar y dar confianza a la ciudadanía: la seguridad ciudadana que otorga la función de velar y de vigilar. No obstante, la presencia de un sujeto anónimo, criminal, cuyo tratamiento es presentado en el poemario Criminal (2003) de Jaime Pinos, hace mella en esta función. Así, la escenificación poética de este...

  11. Participación chilena en reuniones IADR mundiales, 2001-2012 Chilean participation in IADR general sessions, 2001-2012

    R Cartes-Velásquez

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: Las reuniones mundiales de la International Association for Dental Research (IADR) representan una de las instancias más importantes para la divulgación de las investigaciones odontológicas a nivel de congresos. El objetivo del presente trabajo es caracterizar la participación de investigadores de instituciones chilenas en reuniones IADR mundiales durante el período 2001-2012. Metodología: Estudio bibliométrico, la búsqueda se realizó en la plataforma web Conference ExchangeT...

  12. DEMANDA POR IMPORTACIONES DE UVA DE MESA CHILENA EN EL MERCADO DE ESTADOS UNIDOS Import demand for Chilean table grapes in the United States market

    Laura Nahuelhual M.

    2005-01-01

    En este trabajo se investigó el mercado estadounidense de importaciones de uva de mesa chilena, con el objetivo de analizar la competitividad de Chile en este mercado. Los estimadores de demanda para Chile, México y el resto del mundo (RDM) se obtuvieron usando el modelo LA/AIDS (Linear Approximation Almost Ideal Demand System). Se usaron datos trimestrales de cantidades de uva importadas por Estados Unidos desde cada país, valor de las importaciones y precios CIF (Cost, Insurance and Freight...

  13. EMBARAZO ECTÓPICO: FACTORES DE RIESGO Y CARACTERÍSTICAS CLÍNICAS DE LA ENFERMEDAD EN UN GRUPO DE MUJERES CHILENAS

    María Teresa Urrutia S; Lauren Poupin B; Paula Alarcón A; Magdalena Rodríguez C; Loreto Stuven R

    2007-01-01

    Antecedentes: El embarazo ectópico (EE) es una de las principales causa de muerte materna durante el primer trimestre del embarazo. En las últimas décadas se registra un aumento de su incidencia. Objetivo: Establecer los factores de riesgo asociados a esta patología, en una población de mujeres chilenas. Método: Se estudió a 50 mujeres con EE y se compararon con 100 puérperas en el mismo período. Resultados: Los factores de riesgo significativos para EE fueron: antecedentes de cirugía ginecol...

  14. Abordajes Frente al Terremoto y Tsunami del 27 de Febrero del 2010: Experiencia de la Sociedad Chilena de Psicología Clínica (SCPC)

    Jade Ortiz Barrera; Caterina Manzo García

    2010-01-01

    En el presente artículo se describe de forma sintética las actividades realizadas por la Sociedad Chilena de Psicología Clínica posteriormente al terremoto y tsunami del 27 de Febrero del 2010, en la zona sur y centro de Chile. Dentro de éstas se presenta la coordinación de capacitaciones a psicólogos y equipos de salud que trabajaron en terreno, preparación de material escrito que fue entregado a la población en la ciudad de Santiago y el trabajo conjunto con la Policía de Investigaciones en...

  15. La irrupción de la Alianza del Pacífico : ¿Cambio en la agenda de la política exterior chilena?

    Dockendorff, Andrés; Lopez, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    En este artículo se examina la agenda de la política exterior chilena a la luz de los programas de gobierno de las candidaturas presidenciales en 2009 y 2013. En términos generales, la agenda de este sector se ha caracterizado por un alto nivel de estabilidad. No obstante, con la llegada de la derecha al poder en 2010 adquirieron prominencia algunos asuntos de la agenda por sobre otros. En ese contexto se produjo el ingreso de Chile a la Alianza del Pacífico. Hasta ese punto, los cambios de g...

  16. Effect of irradiation on the biochemical and organoleptic changes during the ripening of papaya and mango fruits

    Papaya and mango rot caused by fungi is a major problem during storage and marketing. Gamma irradiation treatment was used to determine its effect on the quality of papayas and mangoes irradiated at 0,5 to 0,95 kGy. The level of respiration, soluble solids, texture, vitamin C and the sensorial evaluation were effectuated. The results indicate that irradiation treatment reduces significantly (p≤0,001) weakens the texture of mangoes. The content of soluble solids and vitamin C are not significantly affected by the irradiation. The sensory evaluation indicates that up to 0,95 kGy the sensorial quality is not changed. (author)

  17. AKTIVITAS ANTIBAKTERI GETAH PEPAYA KERING TERHADAP Staphylococcus aureus PADA DANGKE [Antibacterial Activity of Dried Papaya Latex toward Staphylococcus aureus in Dangke

    Rifah Hestyani Arum

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Dangke is a traditional milk curd product, made by coagulation of milk using fresh papaya latex. This product is usually kept at room temperature (27-30ºC until consumption. Dried papaya latex was used in this study to produce dangke, and its effect to S. aureus was determined by direct contact in TSB and dangke. Fresh papaya latex was dried using vacuum oven at 50-55ºC for 22 hours. Dried papaya latex at a concentration of 2.7x10-3 g/100 mL could reduce S. aureus approximately 1 log CFU/mL in TSB after 24 hours. Dried papaya latex and papain could maintain the S. aureus number in dangke within 24 hours storage at room temperature. The antibacterial activity of non-proteolytic compound of papaya latex, i.e ethanolic extract of papaya latex was determined by macrodilution method, resulted an the MIC90 of 8 mg/mL. The cell membrane leakage after exposure was detected by measuring the optical density of bacterial supernatant at 260 nm. The result showed that exposure to increasing antibacterial concentration resulted in increasing of optical density of S. aureus supernatant, indicating that the antibacterial caused the S. aureus membrane leakage. Fluorescence microscopy imaging showed that S. aureus exposure to antibacterial caused membrane leakage thus gave Propidium Iodide (PI chance to penetrate into the cell, as indicated by changing of fluorescence color from green to red.

  18. Heat treatment and gamma radiation on the control of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Penz. et Sacc., causal agent of the papaya fruits (Carica papaya L.) anthracnose; Tratamento termico e radiacao gamma no controle de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (PENZ.) PENTZ et SACC., agente causal da antracnose em frutos de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L.)

    Silva, Tanni Maria Werneck da

    1988-12-01

    For controlling papaya anthracnose on stored fruits the effect of heat treatment and gamma radiation on Colletotrichum gloeosporioides was studied in vitro and in vivo. Some physiological studies with four isolades of C. gloeosporioides from papaya fruits concerning the best conditions for mycelial growth and sporulation were also performed. The results showed that the best conditions for isolates development in BDA were: temperature between 25 and 27{sup 0} C for mycelium radial growth; between 27 and 30{sup 0} C under (12 hours alternating periods of fluorescent). (author). 131 refs., 9 figs., 33 tabs.

  19. EXPERIENCIA CHILENA CON EL USO DE UN ANTICONCEPTIVO ORAL COMBINADO DE ACETATO DE CLORMADINONA/ETINILESTRADIOL: ESTUDIO NO INTERVENCIONAL

    Andrea Schilling R

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Evaluar en mujeres chilenas, la eficacia, tolerabilidad y seguridad del anticonceptivo Belara® (Acetato de Clormadinona 2 mg y Etinilestradiol 0,03 mg (ACM/EE. Métodos: Estudio no intervencional, multicéntrico, prospectivo, de 6 ciclos de seguimiento, evaluando efectividad anticonceptiva, estabilidad de ciclo, tolerabilidad, seguridad y acción sobre peso, piel y cabello. Resultados: ACM/EE fue tomado por 593 mujeres durante 3426 ciclos. Hubo 2 embarazos durante el seguimiento, uno voluntario y otro involuntario; en ninguno de los casos se consideró como falla del método. Durante el tratamiento se observó mejoría progresiva en la estabilidad del ciclo menstrual, sangrado intermenstrual, amenorrea y dismenorrea, con frecuencia de 4,5%, 1,4%, 2,5% y 11,6% al sexto ciclo, respectivamente. El porcentaje de mujeres con piel normal incrementó de 25,5% antes del tratamiento a 63,6% después de seis meses de administración continua de ACM/EE. El peso promedio se mantuvo estable durante el tratamiento. Los eventos adversos mas frecuentes fueron: cefalea (10,4%, aumento de peso (8,3%, mastalgia (6,1% y trastornos del ánimo (2%. El 11% de las usuarias (n=63 suspendió ACM/EE antes de terminar los 6 meses de observación. El 97,2% de los médicos y 96,1 % de las usuarias calificaron los resultados con ACM/EE como "buenos o muy buenos". Conclusiones: Similar a los resultados reportados en la literatura europea, este estudio realizado en población chilena, confirma la eficacia, seguridad y tolerabilidad de ACM/EE así como los beneficios antiandrogénicos adicionales sobre piel y cabello, y su efecto neutral sobre el peso corporal.Objectives: To evalúate the efficacy, tolerability and safety of the contraceptive Belara® (chlormadinone 2 mg/ethinylestradiol 0.03 mg; ACM/EE in chilean women. Methods: Non interventional, multicentric, pros-pective, 6 cycles follow up trial, evaluating contraceptive efficacy, cycle stability, tolerability

  20. Evaluation of new reference genes in papaya for accurate transcript normalization under different experimental conditions.

    Xiaoyang Zhu

    Full Text Available Real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR is a preferred method for rapid and accurate quantification of gene expression studies. Appropriate application of RT-qPCR requires accurate normalization though the use of reference genes. As no single reference gene is universally suitable for all experiments, thus reference gene(s validation under different experimental conditions is crucial for RT-qPCR analysis. To date, only a few studies on reference genes have been done in other plants but none in papaya. In the present work, we selected 21 candidate reference genes, and evaluated their expression stability in 246 papaya fruit samples using three algorithms, geNorm, NormFinder and RefFinder. The samples consisted of 13 sets collected under different experimental conditions, including various tissues, different storage temperatures, different cultivars, developmental stages, postharvest ripening, modified atmosphere packaging, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP treatment, hot water treatment, biotic stress and hormone treatment. Our results demonstrated that expression stability varied greatly between reference genes and that different suitable reference gene(s or combination of reference genes for normalization should be validated according to the experimental conditions. In general, the internal reference genes EIF (Eukaryotic initiation factor 4A, TBP1 (TATA binding protein 1 and TBP2 (TATA binding protein 2 genes had a good performance under most experimental conditions, whereas the most widely present used reference genes, ACTIN (Actin 2, 18S rRNA (18S ribosomal RNA and GAPDH (Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase were not suitable in many experimental conditions. In addition, two commonly used programs, geNorm and Normfinder, were proved sufficient for the validation. This work provides the first systematic analysis for the selection of superior reference genes for accurate transcript normalization in papaya under different experimental

  1. Informativeness of minisatellite and microsatellite markers for genetic analysis in papaya.

    Oliveira, G A F; Dantas, J L L; Oliveira, E J

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate information on minisatellite and microsatellite markers in papaya (Carica papaya L.). Forty minisatellites and 91 microsatellites were used for genotyping 24 papaya accessions. Estimates of genetic diversity, genetic linkage and analyses of population structure were compared. A lower average number of alleles per locus was observed in minisatellites (3.10) compared with microsatellites (3.57), although the minisatellites showed rarer alleles (18.54 %) compared with microsatellite (13.85 %). Greater expected (He = 0.52) and observed (Ho = 0.16) heterozygosity was observed in the microsatellites compared with minisatellites (He = 0.42 and Ho = 0.11), possibly due to the high number of hermaphroditic accessions, resulting in high rates of self-fertilization. The polymorphic information content and Shannon-Wiener diversity were also higher for microsatellites (from 0.47 to 1.10, respectively) compared with minisatellite (0.38 and 0.85, respectively). The probability of paternity exclusion was high for both markers (>0.999), and the combined probability of identity was from 1.65(-13) to 4.33(-38) for mini- and micro-satellites, respectively, which indicates that both types of markers are ideal for genetic analysis. The Bayesian analysis indicated the formation of two groups (K = 2) for both markers, although the minisatellites indicated a substructure (K = 4). A greater number of accessions with a low probability of assignment to specific groups were observed for microsatellites. Collectively, the results indicated higher informativeness of microsatellites. However, the lower informative power of minisatellites may be offset by the use of larger number of loci. Furthermore, minisatellites are subject to less error in genotyping because there is greater power to detect genotyping systems when larger motifs are used. PMID:26280323

  2. La construcción discursiva de los imaginarios sociales: el caso de la medicina popular chilena

    Gerardo Álvarez

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se da cuenta del estado de avance de una investigación interdisciplinaria (lingüística, psicología, sociología sobre las representaciones de cuerpo (salud/enfermedad en la medicina popular chilena (Proyecto FONDECYT 1000376. No se trata de una investigación sobre la medicina como tal. El objetivo es rastrear el imaginario sobre el cuerpo que subyace a las prácticas curativas y que se revela a través del discurso de las sanadoras populares (mapuches y no mapuches, y luego examinar las relaciones que se establecen entre estos dos tipos de saberes: el saber médico científico "occidental" y los saberes tradicionales populares. El método de análisis deriva de la teoría de la enunciación, de la polifonía enunciativa y del análisis actancialde los relatos. (This article deals with the representation of the human body (in terms of health and sickness which underlies the curative practices of popular Chilean "curanderas" and "meicas" (Research project: FONDECYT 1000376. Through an interdisciplinary approach –linguistic, psychological and sociological– the authors examine the imagery of the human body that is revealed through discoursive practices, and the relationship between the scientific "western" medical representations and those of popular medicine women (mapuche and "hispanic". The analysis of interviews draws mainly upon the theories of enunciation (Benveniste, intertextuality (Bakhtin and the actantial analysis of tales (Greimas.

  3. Empleo del método de secado convectivo combinado para la deshidratación de papaya (Carica papaya L., variedad Maradol roja

    Sahylin Muñiz Becerá

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación tiene como objetivo evaluar el método de secado convectivo de papaya (Carica papaya L. variedad Maradol roja, combinado con la aplicación de pretratamientos de osmosis (DOSC y escaldado simple (ESSC, mediante el efecto de los factores tecnológi- cos del secador: temperatura (40 y 60oC y velocidad del flujo de aire (2,5 y 1,5 m/s sobre el comportamiento de las propiedades de calidad de la fruta deshidratada y la cinética del proceso. El pretratamiento de escaldado simple se realizó en agua destilada caliente a 70oC durante 15 minutos y la deshidratación osmótica u osmosis a 60oC por 4 horas a frutas cortadas en cubos de 1,5± 0,2 cm de largo por 1,0±0,01 cm de espesor, utilizando una solución de sacarosa comercial a 50oBrix. Como diseño experimental se empleó un Diseño Factorial Completo 22 y para el procesamiento estadístico de los datos el software STATGRAPHICS Plus 5.1. Como principales resultados se obtuvo que en ambos procesos el aumento de la temperatura a 60oC y la reducción de la velocidad del flujo de aire a 1,5 m/s disminuyó el tiempo de secado con valores de R 2 >0,95 y α<0,01. Mediante el secado a 40oC con 1,5 m/s se preserva el color y se minimiza la pérdida de peso en la fruta deshidratada con R 2 superior al 90% (α<0,01.

  4. Incidence of post-harvest fungal diseases of ripe papaya in Mymensingh

    Hamim, I.; Alam, M.Z.; Ali, M. A.; M. Ashrafuzzaman

    2014-01-01

    A survey was conducted during November, 2012 to May, 2013 to assess the status of major post harvest diseases of papaya fruits in the local markets of Mymensingh. Average percentage of diseased fruits at the markets were 29.83 and diseased fruits ranged from 20.40% to 38.04% during the study period. Highest percentage of diseased fruits (38.04%) was recorded in the month of May, 2013 followed by March, 2013 (37.98%). The minimum percentage of diseased fruits (20.40%) was recorded in January, ...

  5. Isolation And Purification Of Flavonoids From The Leaves Of Locally Produced Carica Papaya

    Yahaya Mobmi Musa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The leaves of Carica papaya 150g was defatted with N-Hexane and extracted with Methanol. The N-Hexane exract showed the presence of Flavonoid Saponin Tannin Glycoside Anthraquinone Resin and Steroid while Methanolic extract showed the presence of Flavonoid Saponin and Resins. 6g of the Methanolic extract was chromatographed using Column chromatography over Silica gel of column 200g60-200 mesh and eluted with the solvent mixture of CH2Cl2CH3OH H2O in the ratio of 70301. The yield of the isolated Flavonoid was 0.23.

  6. Isolation And Purification Of Flavonoids From The Leaves Of Locally Produced Carica Papaya

    Yahaya Mobmi Musa

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The leaves of Carica papaya 150g was defatted with N-Hexane and extracted with Methanol. The N-Hexane exract showed the presence of Flavonoid Saponin Tannin Glycoside Anthraquinone Resin and Steroid while Methanolic extract showed the presence of Flavonoid Saponin and Resins. 6g of the Methanolic extract was chromatographed using Column chromatography over Silica gel of column 200g60-200 mesh and eluted with the solvent mixture of CH2Cl2CH3OH H2O in the ratio of 70301. The yield o...

  7. Nutritional status and fruit production of Carica papaya as a function of coated and conventional urea

    Gabriel B. da Silva Júnior; Eduardo M. dos Santos; Roberto L. Silva; Ítalo H. L. Cavalcante

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT As a strategy to minimize N losses in the soil, mineral N sources, such as polymer-coated urea, have been studied as possibility to increase the synchronization of N release by the fertilizer and its absorption by plants. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the contents of macronutrients and the production of Formosa papaya as a function of sources and doses of N fertilizer applied as top-dressing in the region of Bom Jesus-PI, Brazil. The treatments were arranged in a 2 x 4 factorial...

  8. Effects of the methanolic seeds extract of Carica Papaya on plasmodium Berghei infected mice

    Amazu LU; Ebong OO; Azikiwe CCA; Unekwe PC; Siminialayi MI; Nwosu PJC; Ezeani MC; Obidiya OS; Ajugwo AO

    2009-01-01

    Objective:The leaves extract of Carica Papaya(C.Papaya)papaya has been shown to possess antimalarial ac-tivity,thus this work aims at finding out if the plants antimalarial activity is present in or extended to the seeds.Methods:The seeds of C.papaya were collected from its fruit,air dried for 5 days and ground into fine powder.80.65 g of the powder was then soaked for 48hours in 300 mL of methanol.Filtration was carried out using Whatman No.1 filter paper.The filtrate was evaporated to dryness by a three-day continuous heating on a hot plate of 30℃.The dry extract yield was scraped out of the Petri dish weighed and refrigerated until re-quired.The percentage extract yield was calculated out from the initial powder weight.A preliminary phyto-chemical study was done by re-dissolving the appropriate amount of the dry extract in distilled water and appro-priate test reagent added.The LD50 of the seeds of C.papaya was carried out using arithmetic method.Swiss albino Mice of both sexes and of average weight of 1 8-25 g were used as animals for antimalarial activity.They were housed in standard animal house,fed on Rats/Mice pellets and had non restricted excess to both feed and water throughout the 60day study period.While the non pregnant female Mice were used as test animals,the male animals were used as malaria parasite donors.Precautions were taken to ensure that all animals in the study groups were free from infection with Eperythrozoon coocoides.The female animals were then divided into three main groups (A-C)of 25 animals per group.Group A was used for malaria suppressive study (early in-fection-day 0-3)and was further subdivided to 5subgroups (a-e)of 5animals per group.Group B was used for malaria curative study (established malaria infection-day 3-7)and was further subdivided to 5subgroups (a-e) of 5animals per group.Group C was used for malaria prophylactic study (repository-4days treatment prior to malaria parasite infection)and was also further subdivided

  9. Papaya ringspot virus coat protein gene for antigen presentation Escherichia coli

    Chatchen, S.; Juříček, Miloslav; Rueda, P.; Kertbundit, Sunee

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 1 (2006), s. 16-21. ISSN 1225-8687 Grant ostatní: Thai Research Fund(TH) BT-B-06-PG-14-4503 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : antigen presentation * canine parvo virus * epitope * papaya ringspot virus Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.465, year: 2006 http://www.jbmb.or.kr/view_article.php3?cont=jbmb&kid=174&mid=3&pid=3

  10. ANTICANCER EFFECTS OF CARICA PAPAYA IN EXPERIMENTAL INDUCED MAMMARY TUMORS IN RATS

    Gurudatta M, Deshmukh YA, Naikwadi A A

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the anticancer effect of Carica papaya in DMBA induced mammary tumors in rats. Methods: Wistar rats were divided in to five groups (n=6, Group-I (Normal control administered vehicle olive oil, Group-II, Group-III ,Group-IV and V induced mammary tumors by administering single dose of DMBA (7,12 Dimethyl benz(Aanthracene orally 65 mg/kg. Group-III was administered aqueous leaf extract of Carica papaya (ALQECP in a dose of 200 mg/kg body wt for a period of 3 months, group-IV has given ALQECP 200 mg/kg body wt for a period of 21 days post 3 months of tumor induction, group-V rats were administered a small dose of Carica papaya extract intra tumor locally in the region of tumor. Results: Values of CA15-3 were increased in group-II rats (tumor control significantly, whereas in group-III (prevention group the levels of CA15-3 were found to be reduced substantially and the P value < 0.001. Similarly, CA-15-3 levels were reduced significantly in group-IV (treatment groupand P<0.005. The levels of LDH were seen to be increased in group-II, where as in group-III LDH levels were decreased and P<0.001.similarly group-IV LDH levels also reduced significantly but not to the level of group-III. Conclusion: Among the various markers for the detection of cancer antigen-15(CA15-3 and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH are important biochemical parameters that give a clear understanding of the progression and proliferation of cancer cells. In this study it was found that there is increase in the levels of markers such as CA15-3 and LDH and also the tumor volume in tumor control, these marker levels were decreased by the administration of aqueous leaf extract of Carica papaya in a dose of 200 mg/kg body wt. ALQECP not only prevented the progression of cancer growth but also has significant effect in reducing the both CA15-3 and LDH levels in treatment group.

  11. A case study to determine the geographical origin of unknown GM papaya in routine food sample analysis, followed by identification of papaya events 16-0-1 and 18-2-4.

    Prins, Theo W; Scholtens, Ingrid M J; Bak, Arno W; van Dijk, Jeroen P; Voorhuijzen, Marleen M; Laurensse, Emile J; Kok, Esther J

    2016-12-15

    During routine monitoring for GMOs in food in the Netherlands, papaya-containing food supplements were found positive for the genetically modified (GM) elements P-35S and T-nos. The goal of this study was to identify the unknown and EU unauthorised GM papaya event(s). A screening strategy was applied using additional GM screening elements including a newly developed PRSV coat protein PCR. The detected PRSV coat protein PCR product was sequenced and the nucleotide sequence showed identity to PRSV YK strains indigenous to China and Taiwan. The GM events 16-0-1 and 18-2-4 could be identified by amplifying and sequencing events-specific sequences. Further analyses showed that both papaya event 16-0-1 and event 18-2-4 were transformed with the same construct. For use in routine analysis, derived TaqMan qPCR methods for events 16-0-1 and 18-2-4 were developed. Event 16-0-1 was detected in all samples tested whereas event 18-2-4 was detected in one sample. This study presents a strategy for combining information from different sources (literature, patent databases) and novel sequence data to identify unknown GM papaya events. PMID:27451215

  12. Etiologia e estratégias de controle de viroses do mamoeiro no brasil Etiology and control strategies of papaya virus diseases in Brazil

    ROBERTO C.A. LIMA; J. Albersio A. Lima; Manoel T. Souza Jr.; GILVAN PIO-RIBEIRO; Genira P. Andrade

    2001-01-01

    As viroses constituem o principal grupo de doenças do mamoeiro (Carica papaya), ocasionando grandes perdas na produção, podendo chegar à destruição total das plantações afetadas. Embora mais de dez vírus tenham sido constatados infetando naturalmente o mamoeiro, em todo o mundo, no Brasil, até o presente, foram assinaladas apenas as ocorrências do vírus da mancha anelar do mamoeiro (Papaya ringspot virus, PRSV), do vírus do amarelo letal do mamoeiro (Papaya lethal yellowing virus, PLYV) e do ...

  13. New approach for papaya latex storage without virus degradation Nova metodologia de armazenamento do latex de mamão sem degradação viral

    Silas P. Rodrigues; Andrade, Josemar S.; José A. Ventura; Fernandes, Patricia M. B.

    2009-01-01

    Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) is the causal agent of papaya (Carica papaya L.) sticky disease, which has been detected through analysis of its double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) genome from plant latex. In this work we demonstrate that PMeV dsRNA is protected during 25 days when latex is diluted in citrate buffer pH 5.0 (1:1 v/v) and maintained at -20°C. At the same temperature, some protection was observed for pure latex or latex diluted in ultra-pure water. Conversely, the dsRNA was almost completel...

  14. Pengaruh Penambahan Ammonium Sulfat (NH4)2SO4 dan Waktu Perendaman Buffer Fosfat terhadap Perolehan Crude Papain Dari Daun Papain (Carica Papaya, L.)

    Alviyulita, Mitha

    2016-01-01

    Papaya leaves is a plant that rich in benefits. Papaya leaves contains papain enzyme which is a protease enzyme that very helpful for the industry. This study aims to determine the effect of the saturation level of ammonium sulfate (NH4)2SO4 and immersion time with phosphate buffer to get yield of protease from crude papaya. In this study varied immersion time with phosphate buffer is 0, 12, 24, and 36 hours and the saturation level of ammonium sulfate (NH4)2SO4 is 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, and 90 ...

  15. RICARDO E. LATCHAM, UN CIENTÍFICO SOCIAL: DESDE LAS OBSERVACIONES ETNOGRÁFICAS DE LA SOCIEDAD HASTA LA ARQUEOLOGÍA DE LAS CULTURAS ORIGINARIAS CHILENAS

    José Antonio González Pizarro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza la presencia intelectual de Ricardo Eduardo Latcham, ingeniero inglés, que llegado a Chile dio un mayor impulso al estudio tanto de la prehistoria latinoamericana como de la arqueología chilena, en los ámbitos del hábitat araucano y de las culturas del norte, en especial la atacameña. En este sentido, sus investigaciones prosiguieron a las de Uhle y posibilitaron integrar a los pueblos originarios del norte chileno al panorama de la prehistoria nacional. Latcham se adentró en registrar las conductas de la sociedad chilena, tanto culta como popular, de fines del siglo XIX, legando agudas anotaciones etnográficas juntamente con una labor de tenaz divulgador de los progresos de la antropología europea, convirtiéndose en un corresponsal de las revistas británicas de la disciplina. Sus obras mayores las pudo difundir en el marco de sus actividades en el Museo de Historia Natural y en la Universidad de Chile.

  16. La inclusión educativa desde la voz de madres de estudiantes con Trastornos del Espectro Autista en una muestra chilena

    Marcela Villegas Otárola

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio es mostrar la perspectiva de madres chilenas sobre la inclusión educativa de sus hijos escolarizados en centros de educación primaria, quienes presentan un Trastorno del Espectro Autista. Se recogen evidencias, desde la voz de las familias, que pueden servir como punto de partida para reflexionar sobre cómo avanzar hacia una educación más inclusiva y cómo contribuir a mejorar los apoyos que se brindan a estudiantes con discapacidad. El estudio se enmarca en un paradigma cualitativo de investigación, utilizando entrevistas no estructuradas para acceder a la información. Se ha contado con la participación de ocho madres chilenas de la Región de Valparaíso. Los resultados muestran que la valoración de la escolarización está estrechamente relacionada con el bienestar emocional, ámbito al que se le otorga mayor relevancia que al de los resultados académicos. Se destaca la importancia de los apoyos adaptados a las necesidades del sistema familiar.

  17. Content determination of benzyl glucosinolate and anti-cancer activity of its hydrolysis product inCarica papaya L.

    Ze-You Li; Yong Wang; Wen-Tao Shen; Peng Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To determine the content of benzyl glucosinolate(BG)in the pulp and the seed and investigate the anti-cancer activity of its hydrolysis product inCarica papaya L.Methods:Determination ofBG was performed on an HypersilBDS C18 column at the wavelength of214 nm with0.1% trifluoroacetic acid (TFA)aqueous solution (A) and 0.1%TFA acetonitrile (B)as the mobile phase. In vitro activity test was adopted with cultured human lung cancerH69 cellin vitro to investigate the inhibition rate of cell proliferation of benzyl isothiocyanate(BITC)againstH69 cell.Results: The pulp has more BG before the maturation of papaya and it nearly disappeared after papaya matured, while the seed containsBG at every stage. Activity test demonstrated that the a higher concentration ofBITC would have better inhibition rate of cell proliferation onH69 cell, and the IC50 was6.5 μmol/L.Conclusions:BG also can be produced in the pulp of papaya and it will be stored in the seed after the fruit has been matured. The hydrolysis product ofBG has certain cancer-prevention anti-cancer activities for human.

  18. Long-term spatial memory and morphological changes in hippocampus of Wistar rats exposed to smoke from Carica papaya leaves

    Aboyeji Lukuman Oyewole; Bamidele Victor Owoyele

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects of smoking of dried leaves of Carica papaya (pawpaw) based on ethnopharmacological information which indicated that smoking of papaya leaves could influence motor performance and learning. Methods:Twenty-four rats were used for the study, and were grouped into four groups. Groups 1 served as the control (not exposed to papaya leaves smoke), while Groups 2, 3 and 4 were exposed to smoke from 6.25 g, 12.50 g and 18.75 g of dry pawpaw leaves respectively in a smoking chamber twice daily for 21 d with each exposure lasting for 3 min. Lastly, hippocampus was harvested in each group for histological study. Results: The results showed that there were significant (P Conclusions: In conclusion, the findings from this study has demonstrated that smoking of papaya leaves has the ability to maintain an intact long-term spatial memory at all doses but retrieving such memory is faster with the low and medium dosages.

  19. Effects of chitosan-based coatings containing peppermint essential oil on the quality of post-harvest papaya fruit

    Edible coatings comprised of antimicrobial polymers based on chitosan are promising technologies to preserve post-harvest fruit quality. In this study, we investigated the potential utility of a coating made from chitosan modified by N-acylation with fatty acid to preserve post-harvest papaya qualit...

  20. Managing Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae), Using Spinosad-Based Protein Bait Sprays in Papaya Orchards in Hawaii

    The efficacy of GF-120 Fruit Fly Bait was evaluated as a control of female oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) in papaya orchards in Hawaii. Two important components of this study were field sanitation and mass trapping using the male-specific lure methyl eugenol. Three different spray ...

  1. Genetic differentiation of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. truncatum associated with Anthracnose disease of papaya (Carica papaya L.) and bell pepper (Capsium annuum L.) based on ITS PCR-RFLP fingerprinting.

    Maharaj, Ariana; Rampersad, Sephra N

    2012-03-01

    Members of the genus Colletotrichum include some of the most economically important fungal pathogens in the world. Accurate diagnosis is critical to devising disease management strategies. Two species, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. truncatum, are responsible for anthracnose disease in papaya (Carica papaya L.) and bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in Trinidad. The ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of 48 Colletotrichum isolates was sequenced, and the ITS PCR products were analyzed by PCR-RFLP analysis. Restriction site polymorphisms generated from 11 restriction enzymes enabled the identification of specific enzymes that were successful in distinguishing between C. gloeosporioides and C. truncatum isolates. Species-specific restriction fragment length polymorphisms generated by the enzymes AluI, HaeIII, PvuII, RsaI, and Sau3A were used to consistently resolve C. gloeosporioides and C. truncatum isolates from papaya. AluI, ApaI, PvuII, RsaI, and SmaI reliably separated isolates of C. gloeosporioides and C. truncatum from bell pepper. PvuII, RsaI, and Sau3A were also capable of distinguishing among the C. gloeosporioides isolates from papaya based on the different restriction patterns that were obtained as a result of intra-specific variation in restriction enzyme recognition sites in the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA region. Of all the isolates tested, C. gloeosporioides from papaya also had the highest number of PCR-RFLP haplotypes. Cluster analysis of sequence and PCR-RFLP data demonstrated that all C. gloeosporioides and C. truncatum isolates clustered separately into species-specific clades regardless of host species. Phylograms also revealed consistent topologies which suggested that the genetic distances for PCR-RFLP-generated data were comparable to that of ITS sequence data. ITS PCR-RFLP fingerprinting is a rapid and reliable method to identify and differentiate between Colletotrichum species. PMID:21720933

  2. Oxidative stress in patients with Alzheimer's disease: effect of extracts of fermented papaya powder.

    Barbagallo, Mario; Marotta, Francesco; Dominguez, Ligia J

    2015-01-01

    Brain tissue is particularly susceptible to oxidative stress (OS). Increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reduced antioxidant systems, and decreased efficiency in repairing mechanisms have been linked to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Postmortem studies in AD patients' brains have shown oxidative damage markers (i.e., lipid peroxidation, protein oxidative damage, and glycoxidation). Fermented papaya (FPP, a product of Carica papaya Linn fermentation with yeast) is a nutraceutical supplement with favorable effects on immunological, hematological, inflammatory, and OS parameters in chronic/degenerative diseases. We studied 40 patients (age 78.2 ± 1.1 years), 28 AD patients, and 12 controls. Urinary 8-OHdG was measured to assess OS. Twenty AD patients were supplemented with FPP (Immunage, 4.5 grams/day) for 6 months, while controls did not receive any treatment. At baseline, 8-OHdG was significantly higher in patients with AD versus controls (13.7 ± 1.61 ng/mL versus 1.6 ± 0.12 ng/mL, P < 0.01). In AD patients FPP significantly decreased 8-OHdG (14.1 ± 1.7 ng/mL to 8.45 ± 1.1 ng/mL, P < 0.01), with no significant changes in controls. AD is associated with increased OS, and FPP may be helpful to counteract excessive ROS in AD patients. PMID:25944987

  3. Oxidative Stress in Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease: Effect of Extracts of Fermented Papaya Powder

    Mario Barbagallo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain tissue is particularly susceptible to oxidative stress (OS. Increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS, reduced antioxidant systems, and decreased efficiency in repairing mechanisms have been linked to Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Postmortem studies in AD patients’ brains have shown oxidative damage markers (i.e., lipid peroxidation, protein oxidative damage, and glycoxidation. Fermented papaya (FPP, a product of Carica papaya Linn fermentation with yeast is a nutraceutical supplement with favorable effects on immunological, hematological, inflammatory, and OS parameters in chronic/degenerative diseases. We studied 40 patients (age 78.2 ± 1.1 years, 28 AD patients, and 12 controls. Urinary 8-OHdG was measured to assess OS. Twenty AD patients were supplemented with FPP (Immunage, 4.5 grams/day for 6 months, while controls did not receive any treatment. At baseline, 8-OHdG was significantly higher in patients with AD versus controls (13.7 ± 1.61 ng/mL versus 1.6 ± 0.12 ng/mL, P<0.01. In AD patients FPP significantly decreased 8-OHdG (14.1 ± 1.7 ng/mL to 8.45 ± 1.1 ng/mL, P<0.01, with no significant changes in controls. AD is associated with increased OS, and FPP may be helpful to counteract excessive ROS in AD patients.

  4. Prediction of genetic gain from selection indices for disease resistance in papaya hybrids

    Marcelo Vivas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to select superior hybrids for the concentration of favorable alleles for resistance to papaya black spot, powdery mildew and phoma spot, 67 hybrids were evaluated in two seasons, in 2007, in a randomized block design with two replications. Genetic gains were estimated from the selection indices of Smith & Hazel, Pesek & Baker, Williams, Mulamba & Mock, with selection intensity of 22.39%, corresponding to 15 hybrids. The index of Mulamba & Mock showed gains more suitable for the five traits assessed when it was used the criterion of economic weight tentatively assigned. Together, severity of black spot on leaves and on fruits, characteristics considered most relevant to the selection of resistant materials, expressed percentage gain of -44.15%. In addition, there were gains for other characteristics, with negative predicted selective percentage gain. The results showed that the index of Mulamba & Mock is the most efficient procedure for simultaneous selection of papaya hybrid resistant to black spot, powdery mildew and phoma spot.

  5. Germination and biochemical changes in ‘Formosa’ papaya seeds treated with plant hormones

    Rafael Fonsêca Zanotti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effects of growth regulators on germination rates and biochemical compound concentrations in Carica papaya L. seeds (‘Formosa’ group. The seeds were harvested from fruits at maturation stages 3 and 5 (50 and 75% yellow fruit skin, respectively. The effects of 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid (CEPA, KNO3 and gibberellic acid (GA3on seed germination, germination index speed, soluble sugars, starch, lipids, soluble proteins and total proteins of the papaya seeds were evaluated. The seeds from stage 5 showed a higher rate of germination 30 days after sowing than did the seeds from stage 3. Treatment with CEPA decreased seed germination, apparently due to decreased starch mobilization; the opposite response was observed following KNO3 treatment. GA3, alone or in combination with KNO3, stimulated an increase in lipid mobilization. In general, with the exception of CEPA, all growth regulators tested were effective in overcoming seed dormancy, and KNO3 was the most effective. The seeds from stage 3 fruits treated with KNO3 or KNO3 + GA3 had higher rates of germination at 14 days.

  6. High-yield production of a low-temperature-active polygalacturonase for papaya juice clarification.

    Tu, Tao; Meng, Kun; Bai, Yingguo; Shi, Pengjun; Luo, Huiying; Wang, Yaru; Yang, Peilong; Zhang, Yuhong; Zhang, Wei; Yao, Bin

    2013-12-01

    A novel endo-polygalacturonase (endo-PG I) from Achaetomium sp. Xz8 was identified, overexpressed in Pichia pastoris, and characterized in this report. Recombinant endo-PG I is distinguished from other enzyme counterparts by its high activity towards polygalacturonic acid (49,934 U/ml) and high yield in the 15-l fermentor (2.13 g/l). It exhibits optimal activity at 45 °C and remained active over a broad temperature range of 0-80 °C. Distinct from most fungal polygalacturonases that have acidic pH optima, endo-PG I is optimally active at pH 6, similar to the pH of fresh papaya juice (5.7). Endo-PG I alone reduced the viscosity of papaya juice by 17.6%, and increased its transmittance by 59.1%. When combined with a commercial pectin methylesterase, it showed much higher efficiency with a synergy degree of more than 1.25. All these favourable enzymatic properties make endo-PG I attractive for potential applications in the juice industry. PMID:23871048

  7. Nutritional status and fruit production of Carica papaya as a function of coated and conventional urea

    Gabriel B. da Silva Júnior

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT As a strategy to minimize N losses in the soil, mineral N sources, such as polymer-coated urea, have been studied as possibility to increase the synchronization of N release by the fertilizer and its absorption by plants. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the contents of macronutrients and the production of Formosa papaya as a function of sources and doses of N fertilizer applied as top-dressing in the region of Bom Jesus-PI, Brazil. The treatments were arranged in a 2 x 4 factorial scheme corresponding to N sources (coated urea and conventional urea and N doses (350, 440, 530 and 620 g plant-1 of N, with four replicates and four plants per plot. The contents of macronutrients in the leaf dry matter and fruit production were evaluated. The sources and doses of top-dressing N fertilization incremented the leaf contents of macronutrients and the production of Formosa papaya hybrid Caliman 01. Under the experimental conditions and based on the macronutrient contents considered as adequate for crop nutrition, associated with maximum fruit production (8.08 kg plant-1, the supply of 525 g of N plant-1 is recommended in the form of coated urea.

  8. Beverages of lemon juice and exotic noni and papaya with potential for anticholinergic effects.

    Gironés-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B; Ferreres, Federico; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2015-03-01

    Lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f.) juice beverages enriched either with noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) (LN) or papaya (Carica papaya L.) (LP), were characterized by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS(n), the antioxidant capacity was evaluated by (DPPH·), superoxide (O2(·-)), hydroxyl radicals (·OH) and hypochlorous acid (HOCl) assays, and their potential as acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) inhibitors was also assessed. The fruits are rich in a wide range of bioactive phenolics. Regarding DPPH·, ·OH and HOCl assays, the LP displayed strong activity, and LN was the most active against O2(·-). Concerning cholinesterases, LP was the most active, mainly due to lemon juice contribution. The effect on the cholinesterases was not as strong as in previous reports on purified extracts, but the bioactive-rich beverages offer the possibility of dietary coadjutants for daily consumption of health-promoting substances by adults with aging-related cognitive or physical disorders. PMID:25306312

  9. Control of papaya fruits anthracnose by essential oil of Ricinus communis

    César Luis Siqueira Júnior

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the potential of castor oil for the control of papaya diseases caused by the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and the bacterium Pseudomonas caricapapayae. The treatment with 1% castor oil did not significantly affect the fungal growth. The effectiveness of castor oil for the control of anthracnose was shown when 5% and 10% (v/v were used in the assays resulting in reduced mycelial growth. Fungal sporulation was strongly inhibited at 10% (v/v concentration of essential oil. The studies with the fresh fruits treated with 5% (v/v castor oil in aqueous emulsions resulted in effective reduction of pathogen spread in these fruits. No lesion was found in the fruits treated with oil, when compared to the control fruits. Castor oil showed no effect against the P. caricapapayae when tested in vitro. These results suggested the potential use of the castor bean essential oil and its fatty acids constituents for the control of anthracnose in papaya fruits.

  10. Compositional and functional dynamics of dried papaya as affected by storage time and packaging material.

    Udomkun, Patchimaporn; Nagle, Marcus; Argyropoulos, Dimitrios; Mahayothee, Busarakorn; Latif, Sajid; Müller, Joachim

    2016-04-01

    Papaya has been identified as a valuable source of nutrients and antioxidants, which are beneficial for human health. To preserve the nutritional properties after drying, appropriate storage specifications should be considered. This study aimed to investigate the quality and stability of air-dried papaya in terms of quality dynamics and behavior of bio-active compounds during storage for up to 9 months in two packaging materials: aluminum laminated polyethylene and polyamide/polyethylene. Samples with moisture content (MC) of 0.1328 g g(-1) and water activity (aw) of 0.5 were stored at 30 °C and relative humidity (RH) of 40-50%. The MC, aw, degree of browning (DB) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) content were found to notably increase as storage progressed. On the contrary, there was a significant decrease in antioxidant capacity (DPPH, FRAP and ABTS), total phenolic (TP) and ascorbic acid (AA) contents. Packaging in aluminum laminated polyethylene under ambient conditions was found to better preserve bio-active compounds and retard increases in MC, aw and DB, when compared to polyamide/polyethylene. PMID:26593545

  11. Effect of Prior Heat Stress on the Early Growth of Carica papaya

    Gideon Olarewaju OKUNLOLA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out to determine the effects of heat stress on some growth parameters like shoot height, leaf area, fresh weight, dry weight as well as the accumulation of chlorophylls in Carica papaya. Seedlings of C. papaya were exposed to prior heat stress at 40 °C. A group of plants was placed in a Gallenkamp oven for four hours; another group of plants was placed in the oven for eight hours while the third group of plants was placed in a dark cupboard for the period of eight hours. Sampling was carried out at weekly intervals starting from seven days after treatment. Plants were randomly picked from each of the three treatments. Three replicates were used for each parameter. The results obtained from the study showed that there was an increment in the shoot height, leaf area, fresh weight and dry weight from the beginning to the end of the experimental period. However, the accumulation of chlorophylls did not follow a particular pattern. The analysis of variance carried out on the data obtained showed that heat stress had a significant effect on the petiole length, shoot height, leaf length, leaf width, leaf area, fresh weight and dry weight. Heat stress, however, did not produce a significant effect on the accumulation of chlorophylls a and b and total chlorophyll.

  12. Lactogenic Activity of an Enzymatic Hydrolysate from Octopus vulgaris and Carica papaya in SD Rats.

    Cai, Bingna; Chen, Hua; Sun, Han; Sun, Huili; Wan, Peng; Chen, Deke; Pan, Jianyu

    2015-11-01

    The traditional Chinese medicine theory believes that octopus papaya soup can stimulate milk production in lactating women. The objective of this study was to determine whether dietary supplementation with an enzymatic hydrolysate of Octopus vulgaris and Carica papaya (EHOC) could increase milk production and nutritional indexes in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Female SD rats (n = 24) were fed a control diet (n = 8), EHOC-supplemented diet, or a positive control diet (Shengruzhi) from day 10 of pregnancy to day 10 of lactation. Maternal serum, mammary gland (day 10 of lactation), milk, and pup weight (daily) were collected for analysis. Results showed that the EHOC diet obviously elevated daily milk yield and pup weight compared to the control group (P supplemented dams were higher than those of the control group, especially the cholesterol, glucose, and IgG were higher by 44.98% (P < .001), 42.76% (P < .01), and 42.23% (P < .01), respectively. In conclusion, this article demonstrates that EHOC administration has beneficial effects on milk production in the dams and on performance of the dam and pup. These results indicate that EHOC could be explored as a potentially lactogenic nutriment for lactating women. PMID:26270883

  13. In silico cloning and characterization of the TGA (TGACG MOTIF-BINDING FACTOR) transcription factors subfamily in Carica papaya.

    Idrovo Espín, Fabio Marcelo; Peraza-Echeverria, Santy; Fuentes, Gabriela; Santamaría, Jorge M

    2012-05-01

    The TGA transcription factors belong to the subfamily of bZIP group D that play a major role in disease resistance and development. Most of the TGA identified in Arabidopsis interact with the master regulator of SAR, NPR1 that controls the expression of PR genes. As a first approach to determine the possible involvement of these transcription factors in papaya defense, we characterized Arabidopsis TGA orthologs from the genome of Carica papaya cv. SunUp. Six orthologs CpTGA1 to CpTGA6, were identified. The predicted CpTGA proteins were highly similar to AtTGA sequences and probably share the same DNA binding properties and transcriptional regulation features. The protein sequences alignment evidenced the presence of conserved domains, characteristic of this group of transcription factors. The phylogeny showed that CpTGA evolved into three different subclades associated with defense and floral development. This is the first report of basal expression patterns assessed by RT-PCR, from the whole subfamily of CpTGA members in different tissues from papaya cv. Maradol mature plants. Overall, CpTGA1, CpTGA3 CpTGA6 and CpTGA4 showed a basal expression in all tissues tested; CpTGA2 expressed strongly in all tissues except in petioles while CpTGA5 expressed only in petals and to a lower extent in petioles. Although more detailed studies in anthers and other floral structures are required, we suggest that CpTGA5 might be tissue-specific, and it might be involved in papaya floral development. On the other hand, we report here for the first time, the expression of the whole family of CpTGA in response to salicylic acid (SA). The expression of CpTGA3, CpTGA4 and CpTGA6 increased in response to SA, what would suggest its involvement in the SAR response in papaya. PMID:22410205

  14. Differential Gene Expression in Response to Papaya ringspot virus Infection in Cucumis metuliferus Using cDNA- Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis

    Yu-Tsung Lin; Fuh-Jyh Jan; Chia-Wei Lin; Chien-Hung Chung; Jo-Chu Chen; Shy-Dong Yeh; Hsin-Mei Ku

    2013-01-01

    A better understanding of virus resistance mechanisms can offer more effective strategies to control virus diseases. Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), Potyviridae, causes severe economical losses in papaya and cucurbit production worldwide. However, no resistance gene against PRSV has been identified to date. This study aimed to identify candidate PRSV resistance genes using cDNA-AFLP analysis and offered an open architecture and transcriptomic method to study those transcripts differentially exp...

  15. Factores que impactan los resultados empresariales: un estudio comparativo entre empresas chilenas y españolas

    Patricia Carolina Huerta Riveros

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Los resultados empresariales representan un tema que sigue concentrando el interés de los investigadores y que aún no está resuelto. Es por ello que el presente estudio persigue dos objetivos: en primer lugar, realizar una revisión bibliográfica de los factores que impactan sobre los resultados empresariales; en segundo lugar, contrastar los planteamientos anteriores para aportar evidencia empírica al respecto, a través de un análisis comparativo entre dos países. Metodológicamente se realiza un contraste sobre paneles completos de empresas industriales chilenas y españolas, utilizando dos bases de datos: (i la Encuesta Nacional Industrial Anual (ENIA y (ii la base de datos de la Encuesta Sobre Estrategias Empresariales (ESEE, respectivamente, para el periodo 2000-2007. Utilizando análisis de componentes de varianza se identifican los factores que explican más del 90% de los resultados empresariales y, empleando técnicas para datos de panel, se descubre que estos factores también influyen en los resultados obtenidos. De este modo, el presente artículo avanza en la discusión del tema, a través de su aplicación a empresas de un país en vías de desarrollo como Chile, además de analizar un aspecto descuidado en la literatura como es el estudio de la influencia de los factores, sin concentrarse únicamente en el análisis del porcentaje de explicación de los factores identificados sobre los resultados empresariales; de igual manera, este trabajo actualiza el periodo tradicionalmente investigado e incorpora un factor relevante pero menos analizado en este tipo de estudios, como es la localización geográfica, factor que contribuye a explicar significativamente el modelo propuesto. Dentro de las repercusiones que implican el estudio, es evidente que sus resultados permitirán a los directivos y dueños de empresas comprender los elementos que influyen en los resultados organizacionales, los cuales son la base de su existencia y

  16. PROYECTOS DE ELITE CHILENA DEL SIGLO XIX (I Chile’s 19th century elite’s projects

    Jorge Pinto Rodríguez

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Examen de los proyectos con que la elite chilena del siglo XIX gobernó el país. La hipótesis es que hubo un proyecto original levantado por quienes se instalan en el poder después de la Independenciaque se sostuvo en el orden, la centralización del poder, la voluntad de desarrollarnos por nosotros mismos, de espaldas a cualquier proyecto sudamericano, y materialmente sostenido en las exportaciones de nuestras materias primas. Este proyecto fue cuestionado por una generación más liberal, formada en los años 40, que llega al poder en los años 60. Admiradores del positivismo, aquellos jóvenes vieron en Europa el modelo a seguir. Para ellos, el progreso, meta final que querían lograr, fue asociado a Francia, Inglaterra y, en algunos casos, a Estados Unidos, cuyas huellas pretenden seguir, sin considerar las particularidades de Chile. Con cierta insensibilidad social e incapaz de atender las demandas de los grupos subalternos, este proyecto arrastró al país a la crisis que lo sacudió a fines del siglo XIX y comienzos del XX.This article discusses projects with which the elite ruled in the 19th century. According to the author, there was an original project led by those who ruled the country after the ; it was based on order, power centralization, and Chilean people’s own ideas on self-improvement irrespective of any other South American project and materially supported by Chilean raw materials exports. This Project was questioned by a more liberal generation rising in the 1840s and taking over power in the 1860s. Being admirers of positivism, youngsters looked at as a model to be followed. As their ultimate goal, they associated progress with and in some cases, the They wanted to follow these countries’ footsteps regardless of ’s national characteristics. With little social sensitivity and unable to meet the demands of subaltern groups, this project led the country to the crisis at the turn of the century.

  17. DE ARMARIOS Y BIBLIOTECAS: MASCULINIDAD Y TRADICIÓN LITERARIA CHILENA EN LA NARRATIVA DE ALBERTO FUGUET

    Cristian Opazo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available La tesis de este ensayo postula que la narrativa de Alberto Fuguet puede ser leída como un proyecto escriturario que propone una (nueva estrategia retórica por la cual representar los desvíos del género sexual. Según este modus operandi, en las narraciones de Fuguet, tanto el acto de reprimir como el de explicitar los desvíos de la masculinidad, se ejecutan a través de un juego de citas a la tradición literaria chilena. En los textos de José Donoso, Jorge Edwards y Alfredo Gómez Morel, entre otros, los narradores personajes de Fuguet encuentran un conjunto de figuras retóricas que les permite decir su desvío, pero de manera oblicua; es decir, cifrando la voluptuosidad de sus deseos en la lengua culturalmente prestigiosa del Canon de las Letras de Chile. Dentro de este contexto, este ensayo pesquisa las citas que los primeros trabajos de Fuguet (Sobredosis y Mala onda hacen de Casa de campo y El jardín de al lado, de José Donoso, y El río, de Alfredo Gómez Morel.This essay proposes that Alberto Fuguet s narrative may be read as a writing project with a (new rhetorical strategy by which various sexual deviances may be represented By this modus operandi, in Fuguet's stories, both manifestation and repression of male deviance are made explicit by way of a 'quotation game' in the field of Chilean literary tradition. The narrators in his texts find in the narrative of José Donoso, Jorge Edwards and Alfredo Gómez Morel, among others, a corpus of rhetorical figures which allow them to make their deviance explicit in an oblique way; that is, to condense their voluptous desire in the prestigious language of the Chilean Literary Canon. Within this context, this essay explores the quotations of Donoso 's Casa de Campo and El Jardin de al lado, and those quotations of Alfredo Garcia Morel's El río present in Alberto Fuguet's first works (Sobredosis y Mala Onda.

  18. The effect of gamma irradiation on the ripening degree of papaya by comparing the changes of colour index, texture firmness and pH value

    This study is made to see the effect of gamma radiation on papaya (carica papaya) from eksotika cultivar through colour index comparison, firmness and pH value. Dose used on fruit is 0.0 kGy, 0.5 kGy, 1.0 kGy. 1.5 kGy and 2.0 kGy. All fruit was wrapped by using plastic after fruit being radiated. Sample was stored at temperature room for 14 days and will be analysed in day 1, 3, 7, 10 and 14. It was found the dose 1.0 kGy show slowest papaya experience ripening process compared to the other dose. Through radiation found that radiation can extend further papaya life span. After day 10, found that for dose 0.0, 0.5, 1.5 and 2.0 kGy suffer rot. For dose 0.0, 0.5, 1.5 and 2.0 kGy, discovered it is not suitable with the papaya in this study. Even more cleary, radiation is good for delayed the ripening rate but it is must be suitable with the papaya. (author)

  19. Modelos de demanda por manzanas frescas chilenas en países de la Unión Europea Equações de demanda para maçãs frescas, chilenas, em países da União Européia

    Germán Lobos Andrade; Loreto Gutiérrez Bravo; Karen Pinto Briso

    2005-01-01

    Se usó la técnica de regresión de mínimos cuadrados ordinarios para estimar la demanda por importaciones de manzanas frescas exportadas por Chile en cinco países de la Unión Europea. Para las estimaciones se utilizaron observaciones anuales del periodo 1984 a 2003. Los resultados demuestran que (1) la demanda por importaciones de manzanas frescas chilenas depende de las tradicionales variables ingreso o gasto en consumo per cápita, (2) los precios relativos y la variación del tipo de cambio r...

  20. Comparison of capital structure and financial performance of Brazilian, Argentinean and Chilean companies O comportamento da estrutura de capital e a performance de firmas brasileiras, argentinas e chilenas

    Rosilene Marcon

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Capital structure and financial performance of Brazilian, Argentinean and Chilean companies were compared to identify differences using a multiple cross section study made of 1996 to 2005. Samples were taken from the Economatica® for examination of the variables of debt over PL (ENDV, operational profitability over total assets (ROAOP and profitability over PL (ROE. Variance analysis was used to detect significant differences between companies in these countries and the Scheffé test identified countries differing from the averages. Significant differences were found in average ENDV and ROAOP in five of the ten years and in ROE for seven years of these ten years. Brazilian companies, in general, differed from the Chilean and Argentinean ones; however, no significant differences were noted between the Argentinean and Chilean companies. Descriptive analysis showed that Brazilian companies had a higher ENDV for all the years, lower ROAOP during the first four years and a lower ROE for the period studied.Este trabalho tem como objetivo verificar se a estrutura de capital e o desempenho financeiro diferem entre as empresas brasileiras, argentinas e chilenas. O estudo consiste em um cross section múltiplo que compreendeu o período de 1996 a 2005. A amostra foi extraída do Economática®, tendo como variáveis o endividamento sobre o PL (ENDV, a rentabilidade operacional sobre o ativo total (ROAOP e a rentabilidade sobre o PL (ROE. A fim de apurar se havia diferenças significativas entre as firmas dos três países, utilizou-se a Análise da Variância, e, para identificar em quais países diferem tais médias, utilizou-se o teste Scheffé. Os resultados apontaram diferenças significativas nas médias do ENDV e da ROAOP em cinco dos dez anos pesquisados, e na ROE houve diferenças significativas em sete dos dez anos analisados. Em geral, as empresas brasileiras diferem das chilenas e argentinas; no entanto, os resultados não apontaram diferen

  1. 木瓜酸奶制作工艺的优化%Papaya yogurt production process optimization

    孟君; 范秉琳; 白会丽

    2014-01-01

    [Objective]The processing conditions of papaya dairy products were optimized to provide a new way for developing new types of fruit and vegetable yogurt and fortified milk. [Method]Papaya and fresh milk were used as raw ma-terials. The finished products of yogurt were used as a leavening agent. Juice yogurt was prepared with added sugar and stabi-lizer after sterilization, cooling and fermentation. The processing conditions of papaya dairy products were optimized based on single factor test and orthogonal test. [Result]The best ratio of raw materials for papaya yogurt was as follows:milk, papaya juice:sugar:yeast leavening agent (Bright probiotics fermented milk):stabilizer (CMC∶gelatin=1∶1)=100∶30∶12∶60∶0.2. The production process of fermentation was 7 h fermentation at 40 ℃and 12 h refrigerator cooling. In the conditions of optimum process, the papaya yogurt acidity was 90.02 °T. Protein content was 3.09 g/100 g. Ca, Fe and Zn content was 121.75, 3.8575, and 5.0275 mg/L, respectively.[Conclusion]The papaya yogurt was prepared using papaya and fresh milk as raw materials and commercially available yogurt as the leavening agent. It was easy to obtain raw materials. The method was simple and feasible. The fermentation time was short, hence it was particularly suitable for home-made papaya yogurt.%【目的】优化木瓜酸奶的制作工艺条件,为研制新型的果蔬酸奶及营养强化乳提供新途径。【方法】以木瓜和鲜牛奶为原料,以成品酸奶为发酵剂,加入蔗糖、稳定剂,经杀菌、冷却后发酵制备果汁型酸奶,并通过单因素试验和正交试验优化木瓜酸奶制品的工艺条件。【结果】木瓜酸奶的最佳原料配比为鲜牛奶∶木瓜汁∶蔗糖∶发酵剂(光明益生菌发酵乳)∶稳定剂(CMC∶明胶=1∶1)=100∶30∶12∶60∶0.2,生产工艺为40℃发酵7 h后放入4℃冰箱冷藏12 h。在最佳工艺条件下制备获得的木瓜酸奶酸度为90.02

  2. Involvement of AOX and UCP pathways in the post-harvest ripening of papaya fruits.

    Oliveira, M G; Mazorra, L M; Souza, A F; Silva, G M C; Correa, S F; Santos, W C; Saraiva, K D C; Teixeira, A J; Melo, D F; Silva, M G; Silva, M A P; Arrabaça, J D C; Costa, J H; Oliveira, J G

    2015-09-15

    Enhanced respiration during ripening in climacteric fruits is sometimes associated with an uncoupling between the ATP synthesis and the mitochondrial electron transport chain. While the participation of two energy-dissipating systems, one of which is mediated by the alternative oxidase (AOX) and the other mediated by the uncoupling protein (UCP), has been linked to fruit ripening, the relation between the activation of both mitochondrial uncoupling systems with the transient increase of ethylene synthesis (ethylene peak) remains unclear. To elucidate this question, ethylene emission and the two uncoupling (AOX and UCP) pathways were monitored in harvested papaya fruit during the ripening, from green to fully yellow skin. The results confirmed the typical climacteric behavior for papaya fruit: an initial increase in endogenous ethylene emission which reaches a maximum (peak) in the intermediate ripening stage, before finally declining to a basal level in ripe fruit. Respiration of intact fruit also increased and achieved higher levels at the end of ripening. On the other hand, in purified mitochondria extracted from fruit pulp the total respiration and respiratory control decrease while an increase in the participation of AOX and UCP pathways was markedly evident during papaya ripening. There was an increase in the AOX capacity during the transition from green fruit to the intermediate stage that accompanied the transient ethylene peak, while the O2 consumption triggered by UCP activation increased by 80% from the beginning to end stage of fruit ripening. Expression analyses of AOX (AOX1 and 2) and UCP (UCP1-5) genes revealed that the increases in the AOX and UCP capacities were linked to a higher expression of AOX1 and UCP (mainly UCP1) genes, respectively. In silico promoter analyses of both genes showed the presence of ethylene-responsive cis-elements in UCP1 and UCP2 genes. Overall, the data suggest a differential activation of AOX and UCP pathways in regulation

  3. Manejo de plantas daninhas na cultura do mamoeiro Weed control in papaya

    C.P. Ronchi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Apesar de o controle de plantas daninhas na cultura do mamoeiro representar um dos componentes de grande importância do custo de produção, no mundo e no Brasil, a disponibilidade de informações sobre esse tema é escassa, o que reflete a pouca importância que tem sido dada ao assunto nas últimas décadas. Neste texto são discutidos alguns avanços no manejo integrado de plantas daninhas que têm sido alcançados em vários países, particularmente no tocante à manutenção da vegetação natural ou à introdução de leguminosas na entrelinha de cultivo. Não obstante, várias espécies de plantas daninhas foram identificadas como hospedeiras de vetores de importantes viroses à cultura, com destaque para Commelina benghalensis e Solanum americanum. Isso se reveste de grande importância para o manejo (seletivo das plantas daninhas, sobretudo na produção integrada de mamão. Também são discutidos, em especial para a região norte do Estado do Espírito Santo, a seletividade de herbicidas, os períodos de controle e as principais características e aspectos práticos sobre o manejo de plantas daninhas na cultura do mamoeiro.Despite the fact that weed control entails high costs to crop production, the availability of national and international papers regarding papaya weed control is scarce, showing that little importance has been given to this subject in the last decades. Some integrated weed management advances attamed in several countries are discussed, particularly in the use of both natural groundcover or leguminous plants in the crop interrows. However, several weed species have been identified as host plants of major virus vectors to the crop, such as C. benghalensis and S. americanum. Such information is of major importance for selective weed control, particularly in the integrated system of papaya production. The present review also examined herbicide selectivity, weedy periods as well as the main characteristics and practical

  4. Effect of irradiation on color of minimally processed melon and papaya

    The access to nutritious food is an essential dimension of food meal. High potential for fresh-cut industry exists and ready-to-eat fruit market has grown rapidly in recent years due to the health benefits associated. Although there is many concerns to food safety other parameters like texture, taste, color and sensory acceptance are fundamental principles of acceptance to any food. Actually the use of instrumental measurements has proven to be a major predictor of sensory responses. According to many authors, the addition of different techniques should always be considered to provide additional information of the sensory aspects. Therefore the objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of irradiation on color of minimally processed melon and papaya. The fruits were purchased in a market of Sao Paulo, at the same point of ripeness and sent to the IPEN/CNEN-SP. The fruits were sanitized and manually cut into cubes of approximately 2 x 2 cm with the aid of stainless steel knives and packed in polyethylene bags. Melons and papaya were irradiated in a Multipurpose Gamma Source (IPEN - Sao Paulo - Brazil) and were divided in six groups for color analysis: Control; 0.5 kGy; 1.0 kGy, 1.5kGy, 2.0 kGy and 3.0kGy. After the treatment, the MP fruits were kept in a refrigerator at 4 deg C ± 1 deg C until the end of the analysis. The color of the samples was determined using a Minolta colorimeter CR-400 Chromameter. The parameters L*, a* and b* were evaluated. The results were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance One-Dimensional Analysis of Variance (One-Way-ANOVA) followed by Tukey test. All statistical analysis was performed using the program Graph Pad Prism 5 and adopting a significance level of 5 % (p* parameter of any dose despite the tendency to darkening observed for the group of 3.0 kGy. This fact also occurred for the chromatographic coordinates a* and b* which remained in the same tonality for all treatments (p<0.05). Current results indicate

  5. PENGGUNAAN GETAH PEPAYA DALAM SINTESIS ESTER XILITOL ASAM LEMAK (EXAL [The Use of Papaya Exudates for Fatty Acid Xilitol Synthesis

    Suhardi

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid xylitol-ester (FAXILE are xylitol esters of fatty acids with one to five DE (degree of esterification value. FAXILE with DE value of 3 or higher can be used as low calorie fat replacer since they have low digestive property; while the xylitol ester with DE of less than 3 can be used as emulsifier. The FAXILE synthesis experiments were carried out by esterification of xylitol with palm oil¡¦s fatty acid (POFA using papaya exudates as a lipase source. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the potential of papaya exuadates for the synthesis of FAXILE. In this first experiment, test were carried out to determine hydrolytic activity of lipases obtained from different part of papaya plant. The test, were performed with the presence of CaO and under different pH value. The papaya exudates were used for FAXILE synthesis under an optimum condition obtained from the first experiment. Samples were drawn during incubation at 40„aC for 1,2,3, and 4 days and hydroxyl number was analyzed to confirm the ester formation. The results showed that the most active exudate was from papaya leaves, followed by exudates from fruit with hydrolytic activity of 653 and 296 ƒÝmol/g. minutes, respectively. The hydrolytic activity of the fruit exudate was optimum at pH 6.0, at 45-50„aC, with the addition of CaO 4% dry exudates. The FAXILE synthesis with acid of papaya exudates was optimum at pH 6.0, at 45„aC with molar ratio of xylitol: fatty acids was 1 to 6,3 days incubation. At this condition the conversion rate xylitol to FAXILE was 79%.

  6. RNA Interference of 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic Acid Oxidase (ACO1 and ACO2 Genes Expression Prolongs the Shelf Life of Eksotika (Carica papaya L. Papaya Fruit

    Rogayah Sekeli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of using RNA interference in down regulating the expression of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase gene in Eksotika papaya. One-month old embryogenic calli were separately transformed with Agrobacterium strain LBA 4404 harbouring the three different RNAi pOpOff2 constructs bearing the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase gene. A total of 176 putative transformed lines were produced from 15,000 calli transformed, selected, then regenerated on medium supplemented with kanamycin. Integration and expression of the targeted gene in putatively transformed lines were verified by PCR and real-time RT-PCR. Confined field evaluation of a total of 31 putative transgenic lines planted showed a knockdown expression of the targeted ACO1 and ACO2 genes in 13 lines, which required more than 8 days to achieve the full yellow colour (Index 6. Fruits harvested from lines pRNAiACO2 L2-9 and pRNAiACO1 L2 exhibited about 20 and 14 days extended post-harvest shelf life to reach Index 6, respectively. The total soluble solids contents of the fruits ranged from 11 to 14° Brix, a range similar to fruits from non-transformed, wild type seed-derived plants.

  7. ¿CUÁL ES EL CRECIMIENTO DE LARGO PLAZO DE LA ECONOMÍA CHILENA? UNA RESPUESTA FORMAL PARA UNA ANTIGUA PREGUNTA

    Byron Idrovo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio es estimar la tasa de crecimiento de la economía en un contexto de plena utilización de los recursos productivos. Se emplean para el análisis modelos univariados de series de tiempo, incluyendo una tendencia determinística (con quiebres de medias, y un modelo de estado-espacio que considera una tendencia estocástica y un componente cíclico, estimado por Filtro de Kalman. El componente cíclico es calculado con y sin cambios de régimen (Markov-switching models, de acuerdo con la idea de Friedman (1993 -plucking model. Los resultados indican que la tasa de crecimiento potencial de la economía chilena sería superior al 4% anual, acompañada de ciclos económicos asimétricos.

  8. ¿Cuál es el crecimiento de largo plazo de la economía chilena? Una respuesta formal para una antigua pregunta

    Idrovo A. Byron

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio es estimar la tasa de crecimiento de la economía en un contexto de plena utilización de los recursos productivos. Se emplean para el análisis modelos univariados de series de tiempo, incluyendo una tendencia determinística (con quiebres de medias, y un modelo de estado-espacio que considera una tendencia estocástica y un componente cíclico, estimado por Filtro de Kalman. El componente cíclico es calculado con y sin cambios de régimen (Markov-switching models, de acuerdo con la idea de Friedman (1993 –plucking model. Los resultados indican que la tasa de crecimiento potencial de la economía chilena sería superior al 4% anual, acompañada de ciclos económicos asimétricos.

  9. Estudio descriptivo del desarrollo de la competencia narrativa en lengua de señas chilena (Descriptive study on narrative competence development in Chilean Sign Language)

    María Rosa Lissi; Irene Cabrera Ramírez; Dora Adamo Quintela; Ximena Acuña Robertson

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo de este estudio consiste en determinar una evolución en el desarrollo de la competencia narrativa de un grupo de niños sordos, que usan la lengua de señas chilena como su lengua natural y que se encuentran en la etapa escolar (primero a cuarto año básico). Se trata de un estudio de caso, en el que se obtiene una producción narrativa por parte de cada niño en tres momentos distintos con una diferencia de un año entre cada una. Estas narraciones son analizadas, enfocándose en dos as...

  10. El binomio identidad y cultura presentes en la historieta chilena Condorito. Aproximaciones conceptuales y análisis histórico social en la realidad nacional.

    Alejandra Loreto González Hermosilla

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El siguiente artículo tiene el objetivo general de identificar los elementos del binomio identidad y cultura presentes en la historieta chilena de René Ríos “Condorito”. Se abordarán los conceptos claves para luego generar una aproximación en el contexto histórico social al que pertenecen. De este modo se podrá observar cómo la definición de  ́lo propio ́ se encuentra representada en la historieta, además de la visión de  ́lo chileno ́ en la propuesta de Condorito.

  11. Effects of papaya leaves on thrombocyte counts in dengue--a case report.

    Siddique, Osama; Sundus, Ayesha; Ibrahim, Mohammad Faisal

    2014-03-01

    Dengue fever is on the rise in developing nations like India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh. There is no antiviral chemotherapy or vaccine for dengue virus and management of the disease is done on supportive measures. The decline in the thrombocyte count leads to dengue haemorrhagic fever accounting for complications and mortality. Oral administration of Carica papaya leaves extract is said to have a positive impact on thrombocyte count. A 23-year-old man was administered a calculated dose for five days. Blood samples were tested for complete blood count before and after the administration of the juice. Thrombocyte count had increased from 28000/micro liter to 138000/micro liter at the end of five days. We present our experience here. PMID:24864622

  12. Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. III. Tropical fruits: bananas, mangoes, and papayas

    The current status of research on the use of ionizing radiation for shelf life improvement and disinfestation of fresh tropical fruits like bananas, mangoes, and papayas are reviewed. The aspects covered are influence of maturity and physiological state of the fruits on delayed ripening and tolerance to radiation; varietal responses; changes in chemical constituents, volatiles, respiration, and ethylene evolution; biochemical mechanisms of delayed ripening and browning of irradiated fruits; and organoleptic quality. The efficacy of the combination of hot water dip and radiation treatments for control of postharvest fungal diseases are considered. The immediate potential of radiation as a quarantine treatment, in place of the currently used chemical fumigants, for disinfestation of fruit flies and mango seed weevil are discussed. Future prospects for irradiation of tropical fruits are discussed in the light of experience gained from studies conducted in different countries.146 references

  13. Effect of irradiation on color of minimally processed melon and papaya

    Fabbri, Adriana D.T.; Sagretti, Juliana M.A.; Hirashima, Fabiana K.; Rogovschi, Vladimir D.; Nunes, Thaise C.F.; Sabato, Susy F., E-mail: adriana.fabbri@yahoo.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Irradiacao de Alimentos

    2013-07-01

    The access to nutritious food is an essential dimension of food meal. High potential for fresh-cut industry exists and ready-to-eat fruit market has grown rapidly in recent years due to the health benefits associated. Although there is many concerns to food safety other parameters like texture, taste, color and sensory acceptance are fundamental principles of acceptance to any food. Actually the use of instrumental measurements has proven to be a major predictor of sensory responses. According to many authors, the addition of different techniques should always be considered to provide additional information of the sensory aspects. Therefore the objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of irradiation on color of minimally processed melon and papaya. The fruits were purchased in a market of Sao Paulo, at the same point of ripeness and sent to the IPEN/CNEN-SP. The fruits were sanitized and manually cut into cubes of approximately 2 x 2 cm with the aid of stainless steel knives and packed in polyethylene bags. Melons and papaya were irradiated in a Multipurpose Gamma Source (IPEN - Sao Paulo - Brazil) and were divided in six groups for color analysis: Control; 0.5 kGy; 1.0 kGy, 1.5kGy, 2.0 kGy and 3.0kGy. After the treatment, the MP fruits were kept in a refrigerator at 4 deg C ± 1 deg C until the end of the analysis. The color of the samples was determined using a Minolta colorimeter CR-400 Chromameter. The parameters L{sup *}, a{sup *} and b{sup *} were evaluated. The results were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance One-Dimensional Analysis of Variance (One-Way-ANOVA) followed by Tukey test. All statistical analysis was performed using the program Graph Pad Prism 5 and adopting a significance level of 5 % (p<0.05), expressed as the mean results ± standard deviation. Samples of papaya and melons showed no statistical difference for the L{sup *} parameter of any dose despite the tendency to darkening observed for the group of 3.0 kGy. This

  14. Segregación residencial en las principales ciudades chilenas: Tendencias de las tres últimas décadas y posibles cursos de acción

    Francisco Sabatini

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available El patrón de segregación residencial de las ciudades chilenas se está transformando en dos sentidos principales: está cambiando su escala geográfica y está aumentando su malignidad. Estos cambios parecen estar afectando a la mayoría de las ciudades latinoamericanas. Están vinculados con las políticas de liberalización de los mercados de suelo y con los procesos de globalización económica y cultural de las últimas décadas. En el artículo se entrega información empírica sobre los efectos de estos cambios en tres ciudades chilenas (Santiago, Valparaíso, Concepción; y se discute teóricamente la relación entre desigualdad social y segregación espacial, rechazando el enfoque usual que ve a la segunda como un mero reflejo en el espacio de la primeraThe pattern of residential segregation is undergoing two crucial changes in Chilean cities: its geographical scale is shifting, and segregation’s malignancy is increasing. Seemingly, these changes are affecting most of Latin American cities. They are linked to the land markets’ liberalization policies and to the processes of economic and cultural globalization of the past decades. This paper presents empirical data showing the effects of these changes for three Chilean cities (Santiago, Valparaíso, Concepción; and theoretically discusses the relationship between social inequality and spatial segregation, rejecting the usual approach that considers the latter as a mere spatial reflection of the first

  15. Índices de estacionalidad de los precios medios recibidos por los productores de manzanas chilenas Seasonal indices for mean prices received by Chilean apple farmers

    Germán Lobos Andrade

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar el comportamiento de los precios medios FOB (franco a bordo de manzanas frescas chilenas. A partir de este análisis, se estimaron los precios medios recibidos por los productores. Se estimaron patrones de estacionalidad ajustada de los precios recibidos por los productores de manzanas chilenas, a través del método del promedio geométrico móvil. Para las estimaciones se consideraron los precios FOB promedio mensuales desde enero de 1990 a septiembre de 2004. Los resultados mostraron: una baja estacionalidad de precios; una estabilidad de precios para junio y desde septiembre a diciembre; un valor máximo en julio. Los precios más bajos ocurrieron en abril y mayo. La principal conclusión, desde el punto de vista económico, sugiere que la rentabilidad de los huertos de manzanos podría ser incrementada, a través de un mejoramiento en el proceso de planificación de la producción.The purpose of this paper is to analyze the behavior of FOB (free on board average prices for the Chilean fresh apples. Based on this analysis, the average prices received by farmers were estimated. The patterns of seasonally adjusted price fluctuations, received by Chilean apple farmers, were estimated through average mobile geometric method. Estimates considered monthly average FOB prices from January 1990 up to September 2004. Results showed: a low seasonal price pattern; price stability for June and from September to December; the peak value in July. The lowest prices occurred in April and May. From an economic point of view, the main conclusion suggests that apple orchard profitability could be increased by an improved yield planning.

  16. Origin and evolution of female plant from an identical male plant, in carica papaya

    A field study was carried during January 2011 to March, 2013, to confirm the origin and evolution of female plant from an identical male plant in, a dioecious plant, the Carica papaya L. The plants were grown from the seeds of a normal female plant fruit. The grown, plants were identified as XX, XY and XYh (in March - April, 2012) on the basis of male and female flower bearing. The identical male plants, which usually bear only male (unisexual) flowers having calyx, corrolla and androecium, were observed also to bear bisexual flower, having calyx, corrolla, and gynoecium (ovary fused with androecium ). The fruits were set having the bisexual flowers in the identical male (hermaphrodite) plant. These fruits were kept under observation from setting to ripening stage. The ripened fruits were harvested from the identical male plants and 90-95% fruits from these plants were found with the seeds. Plants grown from these male fruit seeds produced all three type of plants i.e., male, female and hermaphrodite. This study indicated that an identical male (XYh) plant produced the female (XX) plant naturally, because of the XXY= XYh condition, which can contribute basic genetic material to male and female plants i.e an identical male (XYh = XXY= 2N +1 = 18+1= 19) produced all three type of plants, the pure male, the hermaphrodite and the female plant, originated from a single source of an identical male, as shown here. XYh = XXY g XY + XX + XXY. The propagation of all three sexes of Carica papaya from a single source of an identical male plant seeds is the first report in the world. (author)

  17. Protective Effect of Carica papaya Linn Against gamma-Radiation-Induced Tissue Damage in Rats

    The present study was designed to determine the possible protective effects of the Carica papaya fruit aqueous extract (CP) against ?-radiation induced oxidative stress, biochemical and hematological alterations in male albino rats. Papaya (250 mg/Kg BW /day) was given to male albino rats, via gavages for 6 days prior exposure to the 1st radiation fraction and the treatment was continued for 14 days after the 1st irradiation fraction till the end of the experiment (4 Gy / week up to 8 Gy total doses). The samples were taken from the blood and some organs, liver and kidney for the biochemical analysis. In the irradiated group, there were a significant decrease in RBCs, WBCs count and Hb content. Dramatic increments in the serum indices of liver (aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin) and kidney (urea, uric acid and creatinine) functions were also recorded depicting a liver and kidney impairment state. Also, a significant increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) content and Xanthine oxidase (XO) activity in parallel to a significant decrease in the activity of xanthine dehydrogenase accompanied by a significant decrease in reduced glutathione content (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) activities were recorded in both liver and kidney tissues compared to control group. Treatment with CP (250 mg/kg) was found to offer significant protection against gamma-radiation induced toxicity in the tissues, which was evident by the improved status of most of the parameters investigated. These results suggest that CP could increase the antioxidant defense systems in the liver and kidney of irradiated animals, and may protect from adverse effects of whole body radiation

  18. GROWTH OF MACROBRACHIUM ROSENBERGII FED WITH MANGO SEED KERNEL, BANANA PEEL AND PAPAYA PEEL INCORPORATED FEEDS

    P. Aarumugam

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The growth promoting potential of fruits wastes, mango seed kernel, banana peel and papaya peel on the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii post larvae (PL was evaluated. Basal diet equated to 35% protein was prepared by using soybean meal, groundnut oilcake, horse gram and wheat flour. Each fruit waste powder was separately incorporated with basal diet at a proportion of 10%. Sunflower oil was used as lipid source. Egg albumin and tapioca flour were used as binding agents. Vitamin B-complex with Vitamin-C was also mixed. Feed without any fruit waste was served as control. M. rosenbergii PL (length: 1.2-1.4 cm; weight: 0.09- 0.13 g was fed with these feeds for a period of 90 days. Significant improvements in the nutritional indices (survival rate, weight gain, biomass index, specific growth rate and condition factor, concentrations of biochemical constituents (total protein, carbohydrate and lipid, levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants (vitamin-C and E, content of minerals (Na+ and K+, activities of digestive enzymes (protease, amylase and lipase, and profiles of essential amino acids and fatty acids were recorded in fruits wastes incorporated feeds fed PL when compared with control (P< 0.003 – 0.878. The overall results indicated the fact that mango seed kernel incorporated feed was produced the best performance, followed by better performance of banana peel and good performance of papaya peel. These fruits wastes incorporated feeds enhance digestive enzymes activities and act as appetizer, which in turn enhances food utilization and ultimately yielded better survival and growth of M. rosenbergii PL. Therefore, these fruits wastes have considerable potentials in sustainable development of Macrobrachium culture.

  19. Initial growth of Carica papaya under irrigation with saline water in soil with bovine biofertilizer
    Crescimento inicial de Carica papaya sob irrigação com águas salinas em solo com biofertilizante bovino

    Francisco de Oliveira Mesquita; Rummenigge Macêdo Rodrigues; Reinaldo Ferreira Medeiros; Lourival Ferreira Cavalcante; Rafael Oliveira Batista

    2012-01-01

    The salinity is considered the major constraint to agriculture worldwide, constituting a limiting factor to growth, plant development, agricultural productivity and soil deterioration. In this direction an experiment was carried out during the period October/2009 to February/2010, in greenhouse conditions in Areia county, Paraiba State, PB, Brazil, in order to evaluate the effects of water saline on initial growth of papaya Hawaii in non-saline substrate with bovine rich biofertilizer. The su...

  20. Designing of putative siRNA against geminiviral suppressors of RNAi to develop geminivirus-resistant papaya crop.

    Saxena, Sangeeta; Kesharwani, Rupesh K; Singh, Vinayak; Singh, Sarita

    2013-01-01

    Geminiviruses are single-stranded circular DNA viruses causing leaf curl disease in papaya crop. Post-Transcriptional Gene Silencing (PTGS), also known as RNAi, acts as a natural antiviral defence mechanism and plays a role in genome maintenance and development in plants. PTGS suppression by viruses makes the plant RNA silencing machinery inefficient. Three geminiviral genes namely AV2, AC2 and AC4 are found to play the role in suppression of RNA silencing. siRNA degrades the target mRNA in a homology-dependent manner. In-silico designing of siRNA against these three genes of geminiviruses infecting Carica papaya was done using bioinformatics tools. This strategy may provide PTGS by specifically targeting the viral genes involved in suppression of plant RNA silencing machinery. PMID:23207994

  1. Binary Combination of Carica papaya, Areca catechu and Myristica fragrans with Piperonyl Butoxide / MGK-264 against Freshwater Snail Lymnaea acuminata

    Hanif, Farhat; Singh, Dinesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Piperonyl butoxide (PB) and MGK-264 were used to enhance the toxicity of the active components papain, arecoline and myristicin from the plants Carica papaya, Areca catechu and Myristica fragrans, respectively, against the vector snail Lymnaea acuminata. A time- and dose-dependent relationship was observed for the toxicity of these combinations. The toxic effects of these plant-derived molluscicides in combination with the synergists PB and MGK-264 were several times higher than the effect of the individual treatments. The highest degree of synergism was observed when MGK-264 was used in combination with C. papaya latex (10.47-fold increase) and PB was used with papain (8.35-fold increase). PMID:24575245

  2. QUALITATIVE PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF CARICA PAPAYA LEAF EXTRACT AGAINST HUMAN AND PLANT PATHOGENIC FUNGI

    Sikandar Khan Sherwani

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Plants have been explored extensively all over the globe in quest of a novel bioactive compound that could a good therapeutic candidate treating infectious diseases especially against drug resistant microbes. Qualitative phytochemical analyses of Carica papaya leaf extract reveal that except steroids and tannins all the possible phytochemical constituents including carbohydrates, proteins, anthraquinones, flavonoids, saponins, cardiac glycosides and alkaloids were present. Two ways of Carica papaya leaf extract preparations i.e crushed and boiled were tested for their antifungal activity against 6 saprophytic fungi Penicillium sp, Aspergilus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium sp, Rhizopus and Helminthosporum, 5 dermatophytic fungi Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton tonsurans and 6 yeasts including Candida albicans, Candida albicans ATCC 0383, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida galbrata, Candida tropicalis, Candida kruzei. The activity was found against majority of fungi but was much better in case of crushed leaf extract.

  3. Effect of irradiation on the biochemical and organoleptic changes during the ripening of papaya and mango fruits

    Lacroix, Monique; Bernard, Linda; Jobin, Michele; Milot, Sylvain; Gagnon, Marcel

    Papaya and mango rot caused by fungi is a major problem during storage and marketing. Gamma irradiation treatment was used to determine its effect on the quality of papayas and mangoes irradiated at 0,5 to 0,95 kGy. The level of respiration, soluble solids, texture, vitamin C and the sensorial evaluation were effectuated. The results indicate that irradiation treatment reduces significantly (p ⪕ 0,001) the level of respiration and significantly (p ⪕ 0,001) weakens the texture of mangoes. The content of soluble solids and vitamin C are not significantly affected by the irradiation. The sensory evaluation indicates that up to 0,95 kGy the sensorial quality is not changed.

  4. La enseñanza básica en Chile desde 1970 hasta 2009. Continuidades, cambiantes paradigmas e influencia extranjera en la escuela básica chilena

    Cancino, Rita

    La enseñanza básica en Chile desde 1970 hasta 2009: Continuidades, cambiantes paradigmas e influencia extranjera en la escuela básica chilena. Palabras clave: Filosofía educacional, enseñanza básica pública, paradigmas, pedagogía Resumen: En esta ponencia nos proponemos analizar la enseñanza básica...... escuela primaria chilena en sus aspectos centrales, y en qué medida los distintos regímenes políticos la han cambiado radicalmente o en su caso, han conservado sus rasgos históricos. Nos interesa también investigar los aportes de las tradiciones europeas y norteamericanas en la enseñanza básica en...

  5. Engineering of papaya mosaic virus (PapMV) nanoparticles with a CTL epitope derived from influenza NP

    Babin, Cindy; Majeau, Nathalie; Leclerc, Denis

    2013-01-01

    Background The ever-present threat of infectious disease, e.g. influenza pandemics, and the increasing need for new and effective treatments in immunotherapy are the driving forces that motivate research into new and innovative vaccine platforms. Ideally, such platforms should trigger an efficient CTL response, be safe, and easy to manufacture. We recently developed a novel nanoparticle adjuvant comprised of papaya mosaic virus (PapMV) coat protein (CP) assembled around an RNA. The PapMV nano...

  6. Biomass, virus concentration, and symptomatology of cucurbits infected by mild and severe strains of Papaya ringspot virus

    Pacheco Davi Andrade; Rezende Jorge Alberto Marques; Piedade Sônia Maria de Stefano

    2003-01-01

    Pre-immunization with mild strains of Papaya ringspot virus - type W (PRWV-W) has allowed the mosaic disease to be controlled in different cucurbit species, with increases in marketable fruit yield. The objective of this study was to compare virus concentration, biomass and symptomatology of 'Caserta' zucchini squash, 'Menina Brasileira' long-neck squash and 'Crimson Sweet' watermelon plants infected by three mild strains and one severe strain of PRSV-W. Plants were inoculated at the cotyledo...

  7. Preliminary In Vitro Antisickilng Properties of Crude Juice Extracts of Persia Americana, Citrus Sinensis, Carica Papaya and Ciklavit®

    Iweala, EE J; Uhegbu, FO; Ogu, GN

    2009-01-01

    The antisickling properties of crude juice extracts of the edible portions of three commonly consumed tropical fruits namely Persia americana, Citrus sinensis, and Carica papaya were investigated in vitro alongside a new drug preparation called Ciklavit® that has antisickling activity. Four different solvent extracts of the crude juice of each fruit including aqueous, acidic, alkaline and alcoholic extracts were prepared and their antisickling effects on sickle cell trait (HbAS) and sickle ce...

  8. Nutritional status of papaya (pawpaw (cv. Caliman 01 as a function of NK fertilization and planting space

    Eduardo Monteiro Santos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, it´s not properly known the nutritional requirements of papaya plant, there are, therefore, a need for more research projects about the management of mineral fertilizer. This study aimed to evaluate the nutritional status of papaya as a function of planting space and fertilization with NK in coverage. The experiment was developed in an experimental area of the Federal University of Piauí, Campus Prof.a Cinobelina Elvas, Bom Jesus, Piauí State, Brazil, from November 2011 to November 2012. It was adopted the randomized block design in a factorial arrangement 2 x 4 x 4, corresponding to: i planting space (single and double doses of nitrogen (0.320, 0.400, 0.480 and 0.560 kg m-2 and iii doses of potassium (0.380, 0.475, 0.570 and 0.665 kg m-2, with four replications and three plants per plot. It was evaluated the levels of macronutrients in leaf dry matter of plants of papaya, cv. Caliman 01. There is influence of planting space and fertilization with NK in foliar macronutrients, with superiority for double spacing with respect to the simple. For adequate nutritional status of papaya cv. Caliman 01, grown in single spacing it is recommended a dose of 400 g plant-1 of nitrogen combined with 440g plant-1 of potassium, while for the double spacing, it is recommended 320g plant-1 of nitrogen in combination with 440 g plant-1 of potassium.

  9. Antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic activities of aqueous extract of Carica papaya Linn. leaves in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    Yasmeen Maniyar; Prabhu Bhixavatimath

    2012-01-01

    Background: India is considered as the diabetic capital of the world. The study of plants having antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic activities may give a new approach in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Objective: The study was intended to evaluate the antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic activity of aqueous extract of leaves of Carica papaya Linn. (AECPL) in alloxan-induced diabetic albino rats. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced in albino rats by administration of alloxan monohy...

  10. Glomus intraradices Attenuates the Negative Effect of Low Pi Supply on Photosynthesis and Growth of Papaya Maradol Plants

    Nava-Gutiérrez Yolanda; Ronald Ferrera-Cerrato; Jorge M. Santamaría

    2012-01-01

    Low inorganic phosphorus (Pi) supply limits the photosynthetic process and hence plants growth and development. Contradictory reports exist in the literature on whether mycorrhyzal association can attenuate the negative effects of low Pi supply on photosynthesis and growth. In the present paper, the effect that low Pi supply may have on photosynthesis and growth of papaya Maradol plants was evaluated in intact plants and in those inoculated with two different strains of the arbuscular mycorrh...

  11. Penentuan Dosis Larutan Getah Buah Pepaya (Carica papaya L.) sebagai Pestisida Nabati Terhadap Hama Ulat Tanaman Cabai

    Khairunnisa, Rizki

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Residues of the chemical pesticide contained in plant will seriously endanger the health of people. According the WHO every year happen about 25 million cases of pesticide poisoning or about 68.493 cases everyday. The use of natural pesticide from plants is one of the solution to overcome negative impact of chemical pesticide. Carica papaya L. has enzyme papain and kimopapain highly on the latex of young fruit use of as proteolytic against caterpillar on plant. This research to ...

  12. Staphylococcal enterotoxin A gene-carrying Staphylococcus aureus isolated from foods and its control by crude alkaloid from papaya leaves.

    Handayani, Lita; Faridah, Didah Nur; Kusumaningrum, Harsi D

    2014-11-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a known pathogen causing intoxication by producing enterotoxins in food. Staphylococcal enterotoxin A is one of the enterotoxins commonly implicated in staphylococcal food poisoning. The ability of crude alkaloid extract from papaya leaves to inhibit the growth of S. aureus and staphylococcal enterotoxin A synthesis was investigated. Staphylococcal enterotoxin A gene-carrying S. aureus was isolated from raw milk and ready-to-eat foods. Crude alkaloid was extracted from ground, dried papaya leaves using ultrasonic-assisted extraction, and a MIC of the alkaloid was determined by the broth macrodilution method. Furthermore, S. aureus isolate was exposed to the crude alkaloid extract at one- and twofold MIC, and the expression of sea was subsequently analyzed using a quantitative reverse transcription real-time PCR. Ten isolates of S. aureus were obtained, and nine of those isolates were sea carriers. The yield of crude alkaloid extract was 0.48 to 1.82% per dry weight of papaya leaves. A MIC of crude alkaloid to S. aureus was 0.25 mg/ml. After exposure to the alkaloid at 0.25 and 0.5 mg/ml for 2 h, a significant increase in cycle threshold values of sea was observed. The sea was expressed 29 and 41 times less when S. aureus was exposed to crude alkaloid at one- and twofold MIC, respectively. This study revealed that crude alkaloid of papaya leaves could control staphylococcal enterotoxin A gene-carrying S. aureus by suppressing the expression of sea, in addition to the ability to inhibit the growth of S. aureus. The expression of sea was successfully quantified. PMID:25364936

  13. Study on the processing technology of Papaya Yogurt%木瓜酸奶生产工艺研究

    刘文朵

    2015-01-01

    为优化木瓜酸奶的加工工艺,在单因素试验基础上,采用正交试验优化,其最佳生产工艺为:木瓜浆用量为10%,白砂糖用量为6%,发酵时间为4 h,接种量为4%.制得的木瓜酸奶组织均匀,口感细腻,酸甜适度.%This study mainly discussed the fermentation technology of the fermented milk with Papaya Yogurt. From the single factor experiments, the factors showed significant effects were selected in the furtherorthogonal experiments designed by Design-expert software. The optimum fermentation technology parameters were as following: the addition of papaya 10%, the addition of sugar 6%, the fermentation time 4h, inoculum, 4%. Papaya yogurt prepared under these conditions was homogeneous, with exquisite taste and moderate sour.

  14. 木瓜酸奶的加工工艺%Study on Process Technology of Papaya Yogurt

    付红军

    2011-01-01

    The best craft for making papaya yogurt obtained through experiment was as follows, content of papaya slurry, 30%(m/m); white sugar consumption, 8%(m/m); Streptococcus thermophilus:Lactobacillus bulgaricus,1:1 (m':m); inoculum, 3%(m/m); fermentation temperature, 42℃; fermentation time, 6 h; compound stabilizer, CMC;PGA=0.30% :0.20%(m:m). Papaya yogurt prepared under these conditions was homogeneous, with exquisite taste and moderate sour.%通过对木瓜酸奶的加工工艺进行试验,得出其最优配方为木瓜浆质量分数30%,白砂糖用量(m/m,下同)8%,嗜热链球菌∶保加利亚乳杆菌(m∶m,下同)1.0∶1.0,接种量(m/m,下同)3%,发酵温度42℃,发酵时间6h,最佳复合稳定剂为羧甲基纤维素钠(CMC)(m/m,下同)∶海藻酸丙二醇酯(PGA)(m/m,下同)=0.30%∶0.20%,制得的木瓜酸奶组织均匀,口感细腻,酸甜适度.

  15. Effect of Fitomas-E on seedling production of papaya var. Maradol Roja in Cienfuegos,Cuba

    Fernando G. Serbelló Guzmán

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment in nursery in bag conditions was carried out at the Cienfuegos Horticultural Company, in order to evaluate the effect of different alternatives to stimulate the growth and the development of papaya seedlings (Carica papaya L. variety Maradol Red, in the period from June to September 2010. The treatments were: applying Fitomas-E, Trichoderma, EcoMic, the combination of Trichoderma + EcoMic and a control without application. We evaluated the height and diameter at four different positions, the number of leaves, green and dry mass of roots as well as for the external part of the plant at the transplantation time. The obtained data were subjected to the given statistical analyzes. Results indicate that the height and diameter of the papaya plants are increased with the application of Fitomas E and EcoMic, while a higher number of leaves is reached with the application of Fitomas E, and the combination of EcoMic with Trichoderma.

  16. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a protease inhibitor from the latex of Carica papaya

    The Kunitz-type trypsin/chymotrypsin inhibitor isolated from C. papaya latex has been crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Two different crystal forms are observed, diffracting to 2.6 and 1.7 Å. A Kunitz-type protease inhibitor purified from the latex of green papaya (Carica papaya) fruits was crystallized in the presence and absence of divalent metal ions. Crystal form I, which is devoid of divalent cations, diffracts to a resolution of 2.6 Å and belongs to space group P31 or P32. This crystal form is a merohedral twin with two molecules in the asymmetric unit and unit-cell parameters a = b = 74.70, c = 78.97 Å. Crystal form II, which was grown in the presence of Co2+, diffracts to a resolution of 1.7 Å and belongs to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 44.26, b = 81.99, c = 140.89 Å

  17. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a protease inhibitor from the latex of Carica papaya

    Azarkan, Mohamed [Université Libre de Bruxelles, Faculty of Medicine, Protein Chemistry Unit, Campus Erasme (CP 609), 808 Route de Lennik, B-1070 Brussels (Belgium); Garcia-Pino, Abel [Department of Molecular and Cellular Interactions, Vlaams Interuniversitair Instituut voor Biotechnologie and Laboratorium voor Ultrastructuur, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussel (Belgium); Dibiani, Rachid [Université Libre de Bruxelles, Faculty of Medicine, Protein Chemistry Unit, Campus Erasme (CP 609), 808 Route de Lennik, B-1070 Brussels (Belgium); Wyns, Lode; Loris, Remy, E-mail: reloris@vub.ac.be [Department of Molecular and Cellular Interactions, Vlaams Interuniversitair Instituut voor Biotechnologie and Laboratorium voor Ultrastructuur, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussel (Belgium); Baeyens-Volant, Danielle [Université Libre de Bruxelles, Faculty of Medicine, Protein Chemistry Unit, Campus Erasme (CP 609), 808 Route de Lennik, B-1070 Brussels (Belgium)

    2006-12-01

    The Kunitz-type trypsin/chymotrypsin inhibitor isolated from C. papaya latex has been crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Two different crystal forms are observed, diffracting to 2.6 and 1.7 Å. A Kunitz-type protease inhibitor purified from the latex of green papaya (Carica papaya) fruits was crystallized in the presence and absence of divalent metal ions. Crystal form I, which is devoid of divalent cations, diffracts to a resolution of 2.6 Å and belongs to space group P3{sub 1} or P3{sub 2}. This crystal form is a merohedral twin with two molecules in the asymmetric unit and unit-cell parameters a = b = 74.70, c = 78.97 Å. Crystal form II, which was grown in the presence of Co{sup 2+}, diffracts to a resolution of 1.7 Å and belongs to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 44.26, b = 81.99, c = 140.89 Å.

  18. Efficacy of ginger oil and extract combined with gum arabic on anthracnose and quality of papaya fruit during cold storage.

    Ali, Asgar; Hei, Goh Kar; Keat, Yeoh Wei

    2016-03-01

    Effect of 2.0 % ginger oil (GO) and 1.5 % ginger extract (GE) in combination with 10.0 % gum arabic (GA) was evaluated for the postharvest control of anthracnose and maintaining quality of Eksotika II papaya fruit during storage at 12 ± 1 °C and 80-85 % RH. Antifungal compounds present in GO and GE were analyzed using gas chromatography and GO was found to contain α-pinene, 1, 8-cineole and borneol, while only borneol was present in GE due to different extraction methods applied. The highest antifungal activity was shown in 2.0 % GO combined with 10 % GA, which significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited spore germination by 93 %. Based on the physicochemical properties tested, 2.0 % GO combined with 10 % GA significantly delayed the ripening of papaya. These results show that 10.0 % GA combined with 2.0 % GO is an effective postharvest biofungicide for papaya. PMID:27570268

  19. Current status of tropical fruit breeding and genetics for three tropical fruit species cultivated in Japan: pineapple, mango, and papaya.

    Ogata, Tatsushi; Yamanaka, Shinsuke; Shoda, Moriyuki; Urasaki, Naoya; Yamamoto, Toshiya

    2016-01-01

    Tropical fruit crops are predominantly produced in tropical and subtropical developing countries, but some are now grown in southern Japan. Pineapple (Ananas comosus), mango (Mangifera indica) and papaya (Carica papaya) are major tropical fruits cultivated in Japan. Modern, well-organized breeding systems have not yet been developed for most tropical fruit species. Most parts of Japan are in the temperate climate zone, but some southern areas such as the Ryukyu Islands, which stretch from Kyushu to Taiwan, are at the northern limits for tropical fruit production without artificial heating. In this review, we describe the current status of tropical fruit breeding, genetics, genomics, and biotechnology of three main tropical fruits (pineapple, mango, and papaya) that are cultivated and consumed in Japan. More than ten new elite cultivars of pineapple have been released with improved fruit quality and suitability for consumption as fresh fruit. New challenges and perspectives for obtaining high fruit quality are discussed in the context of breeding programs for pineapple. PMID:27069392

  20. L-ascorbic acid, β-carotene and lycopene content in papaya fruits (Carica papaya with or without physiological skin freckles Conteúdo de ácido l-ascórbico, β-caroteno e licopeno em frutos de mamão (Carica papaya com e sem mancha fisiológica

    Leandro Marelli de Souza

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Skin Freckles is a papaya skin disorder that depreciates de fruit appearance and hampers its commercialization, although not lowering its nutritive value. Being the papaya a good source of ascorbic acid, β-carotene and licopene this research aimed at determining L-ascorbic acid, β-carotene and licopene content in papaya fruits, from 'Formosa' and 'Solo' group varieties, with and without apparent physiological skin disease (skin freckles. Fruits were harvested in the Southeast Region of Brazil. L-ascorbic acid content was determined by titration technique. β-carotene and licopene contents were determined by high performance liquid chromatography technique (HPLC. L-ascorbic acid content in papaya fruits ranged from (59.9 ± 3.4 mg 100 g-1 to (112.4 ± 12.6 mg 100 g-1 in fresh papaya pulp. β-carotene content ranged from (0.19 ± 0.07 mg 100 g-1 to (0.56 ± 0.09 mg 100 g-1 and that of licopene ranged from (1.44 ± 0.28 mg 100 g-1 to (3.39 ± 0.32 mg 100 g-1 in fresh papaya pulp. L-ascorbic acid contents of papaya fruits with skin disease averaged 7.0 mg 100 g-1 to 10.0 mg 100 g-1 higher than those of papaya fruits without skin freckles (P A Mancha Fisiológica do Mamão (MFM é uma desordem da casca do mamão, que deprecia a aparência do fruto e prejudica a sua comercialização, embora não prejudique o seu valor nutritivo. Considerando ser o mamão, uma boa fonte de ácido L-ascórbico, b-caroteno e licopeno, esta pesquisa visou determinar o índice destes componentes em frutas de mamão, das variedades do grupo 'Formosa' e 'Solo', com e sem Mancha Fisiológica do Mamão (MFM aparente na pele. As frutas foram colhidas na região do sudeste de Brasil. O teor de ácido L-ascórbico foi determinado pela técnica de titulação. Os índices do b-caroteno e do licopeno foram determinados pela técnica de cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (HPLC. O teor de ácido L-ascórbico variou de (59,9 ± 3,4 mg 100 g-1 a (112,4 ± 12,6 mg 100 g-1

  1. Efecto de la madurez, geometría y presión sobre la cinética de transferencia de masa en la deshidratación osmótica de papaya (Carica papaya L., var. Maradol

    Lina Marcela Chavarro-Castrillón

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Las papayas obtenidas en el raleo (papayas menos desarrolladas entresacadas de los árboles para beneficiar el crecimiento de las otras generalmente se descartan. Alternativamente, estas papayas pueden secarse por un proceso de deshidratación osmótica y secado térmico convencional para usarlas como snacks o como ingrediente para otros productos. Se comparó la cinética de transferencia de masa en la deshidratación osmótica de papayas de raleo frente a papayas desarrolladas con diferente grado de madurez, considerando el efecto de la geometría de la muestra y de la presión del proceso. La deshidratación osmótica se efectuó en una solución agitada de sacarosa a 50 °Brix, a 25 °C. Se consideraron tres niveles de madurez: raleo, verde y pintona, tres geometrías: lámina, cilindro y anillo y dos niveles de presión: atmosférica y vacío. Se estudiaron como variables cinéticas la variación de peso (WR, pérdida de agua (WL y ganancia de sólidos (SG entre 10 y 180 min. La madurez tuvo efecto significativo sobre las tres respuestas de la cinética a 30 min y sobre SG a 180 min; la geometría tuvo efecto sobre WR y SG a 30 min y sobre los tres parámetros cinéticos a 180 min y la presión solamente tuvo efecto sobre WL y SG a 30 min. La mayor pérdida de agua (65% se obtuvo a 30 min para la combinación raleo/cilindro/vacío; mientras que la mayor ganancia de sólidos fue 31% para el tratamiento verde/lámina/vacío a 180 min.

  2. Características fenotípicas y agronómicas de seis genotipos de papaya (Carica papaya L. de Tuxpan, Guerrero, México

    José Ángel Alcántara Jiménez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available En México la producción de papayo (Carica papaya L. es afectada por factores genéticos, ambientales y bióticos. Destacan los daños provocados por el virus de la mancha anular, el cual reduce considerablemente la cantidad y calidad de la fruta; por eso es muy importante, conocer la productividad de los genotipos en un ambiente determinado. La presente investigación se realizó con el objetivo de evaluar el desarrollo y las características agronómicas de seis genotipos de papayo. El estudio se llevó a cabo en la localidad de Tuxpan, Guerrero, donde se cultivaron los genotipos: R4M3, Maradol, Criolla, Red Lady, Zapote y R5M2. Como diseño experimental se utilizó el de bloques completos al azar, con cuatro repeticiones. Las variables evaluadas fueron: altura al primer fruto, diámetro del cuello, altura de la planta, número de días a la cosecha, rendimiento de frutos (t/ha, número, diámetro y longitud de frutos, concentración de azúcares (grados Brix, textura, color de la pulpa y epicarpio de frutos maduros. Los datos de las variables se sometieron a análisis de varianza y prueba de comparación de medias de Tukey. En relación a la adaptación de los genotipos: todos los genotipos se desarrollaron y produjeron frutos en las condiciones de trópico seco. La variedad Maradol fue la más sobresaliente, presentando un porte menor, mayor precocidad y productividad, textura dura de pulpa, alta concentración de azúcares, buen tamaño y color.

  3. patagonia chilena. Punta Arenas

    Luis Inostroza Pino

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo trata sobre la forma de ocupación espacial de la región de magallanes, dado por el patrón de ocupación nativo, que corresponde al de las etnias locales, y el patrón que implanta la República a partir de 1843. Razones del contexto mundial apoyadas por adecuadas decisiones a nivel local, son las que permitieron el desarrollo de la Patagonia y de la ciudad de Punta Arenas fundamentalmente hasta fines del siglo XIX. La iniciación del tráfico regular entre Europa y el Pacífico, con recalada obligada en la colonia, y las medidas de Puerto libre y de incentivo a la inmigración de colonos nacionales y extranjeros, influirán decisivamente en ese desarrollo. El modesto pueblo se transforma en un importante centro urbano.

  4. La Crisis Financiera Chilena

    Philip L. Brock

    1989-01-01

    The Chilean financial crisis that began in 1981 resulted in unrecoverable loan losses estimated to be at least 20 percent of Chile's gross domestic product as of the end of 1985. This paper provides an analytical framework that stresses the importance of

  5. Risk analysis of Papaya dieback disease introduction to China%番木瓜顶梢枯死病传入中国的风险分析

    喻群芳; 张贺; 漆艳香; 陆英; 张欣; 张辉强; 谢艺贤; 蒲金基

    2014-01-01

    番木瓜顶梢枯死病(Papaya dieback disease)是番木瓜生产上最严重的病害之一。本文根据 FAO 国际植物检疫措施标准--检疫性有害生物风险分析( ISPM No.11),从番木瓜顶梢枯死病分布情况、进入可能性、定殖和扩散可能性、后果评估等方面对番木瓜顶梢枯死病传入中国开展风险分析。风险评估结果表明,番木瓜顶梢枯死病传入中国风险高,并提出了风险管理措施。%Papaya dieback disease is one of the most serious diseases of papaya production. According to the FAO’s“International standards for phytosanitary measures--Pest risk analysis for quarantine pests”(ISPMNO. 11),The risk of Papaya dieback disease introduction to China was assessed from geographical distribution, possibility of entry ,possibility of colonization and spreading ,consequence assessment. The result demonstrated that the risk of Papaya dieback disease introduction risk would be very high. Following the risk analysis, the methods of controlling the disease introducing to China were suggested.

  6. Metabolomic profiling of the phytomedicinal constituents of Carica papaya L. leaves and seeds by 1H NMR spectroscopy and multivariate statistical analysis.

    Gogna, Navdeep; Hamid, Neda; Dorai, Kavita

    2015-11-10

    Extracts from the Carica papaya L. plant are widely reported to contain metabolites with antibacterial, antioxidant and anticancer activity. This study aims to analyze the metabolic profiles of papaya leaves and seeds in order to gain insights into their phytomedicinal constituents. We performed metabolite fingerprinting using 1D and 2D 1H NMR experiments and used multivariate statistical analysis to identify those plant parts that contain the most concentrations of metabolites of phytomedicinal value. Secondary metabolites such as phenyl propanoids, including flavonoids, were found in greater concentrations in the leaves as compared to the seeds. UPLC-ESI-MS verified the presence of significant metabolites in the papaya extracts suggested by the NMR analysis. Interestingly, the concentration of eleven secondary metabolites namely caffeic, cinnamic, chlorogenic, quinic, coumaric, vanillic, and protocatechuic acids, naringenin, hesperidin, rutin, and kaempferol, were higher in young as compared to old papaya leaves. The results of the NMR analysis were corroborated by estimating the total phenolic and flavonoid content of the extracts. Estimation of antioxidant activity in leaves and seed extracts by DPPH and ABTS in-vitro assays and antioxidant capacity in C2C12 cell line also showed that papaya extracts exhibit high antioxidant activity. PMID:26163870

  7. Evaluation of the mycelial network formed by arbuscular mycorrhizal hyphae in the rhizosphere of papaya and other plants under intercropping system

    Cruz André Freire

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions to observe the distribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM hyphae in the rhizosphere of papaya and other plants under intercropping system. Special acrylic root boxes with three compartments, separated by nylon mesh screens, were constructed. One outer compartment contained seedlings of papaya (Carica papaya L. and other contained seedlings of bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flügge or millet (Pennisetum glaucum L. R. Br.. The central compartment was inoculated with an AM fungus (Gigaspora margarita. In another experiment, the outer compartments were treated with 25% MeOH eluates of bahiagrass (BRE and millet (MRE root extracts. A control box, containning only papaya seedlings was also prepared. Hyphal density, root infection levels and spore numbers were higher in the bahiagrass and millet compartments than in the papaya compartment. Similar results were found for the percentage of AM infection and the number of AM spores. In the compartments treated with BRE and MRE the density of AM hyphae was around 20%, and a few spores were found in those compartments. Few AM hyphae and spores were observed in the control compartment.

  8. Does Carica papaya leaf-extract increase the platelet count? An experimental study in a murine model

    Susiji Wickramasinghe; Roshitha Nilmini Waduge

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the potential role of fresh Carica papaya (C. papaya) leaf extract on haematological and biochemical parameters and toxicological changes in a murine model. Methods: In total 36 mice were used for the trial. Fresh C. papaya leaf extract [0.2 mL (2 g)/mouse] was given only to the test group (18 mice). General behavior, clinical signs and feeding patterns were recorded. Blood and tissue samples were collected at intervals. Haematological parameters including platelet, red blood cell (RBC), white blood cell (WBC), packed cell volume (PCV), serum biochemistry including serum creatinine, serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) were determined. Organs for possible histopathological changes were examined. Results: Neither group exhibited alteration of behavior or reduction in food and water intake. Similarly, no significant changes in SGOT, SGPT and serum creatinine levels were detected in the test group. Histopathological organ changes were not observed in either group of mice except in three liver samples of the test group which had a mild focal necrosis. The platelet count (11.33±0.35)í105/µL (P=0.000 04) and the RBC count (7.97±0.61)í106/µL (P=0.000 03) were significantly increased in the test group compared to that of the controls. However, WBC count and PCV (%) values were not changed significantly in the test group. The platelet count in the test group started to increase significantly from Day 3 (3.4±0.18í105/µL), reaching almost a fourfold higher at Day 21 (11.3í105/µL), while it was 3.8í105/µL and 5.5í105/µL at Day 3 and Day 21 respectively in the control. Likewise, the RBC count in the test group increased from 6í106/µL to 9í106/ µL at Day 21 while it remained near constant in the control group (6í106/µL). Conclusions: Fresh C. papaya leaf extract significantly increased the platelet and RBC counts in the test group as compared to controls. Therefore, it is very

  9. Genetic structure of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides sensu lato isolates infecting papaya inferred by multilocus ISSR markers.

    Rampersad, Sephra N

    2013-02-01

    Colletotrichum gloeosporioides sensu lato is widely distributed throughout temperate and tropical regions and causes anthracnose disease in numerous plant species. Development of effective disease management strategies is dependent on, among other factors, an understanding of pathogen genetic diversity and population stratification at the intraspecific level. For 132 isolates of C. gloeosporioides sensu lato collected from papaya in Trinidad, inter-simple-sequence repeat-polymerase chain reaction (ISSR-PCR) generated 121 polymorphic loci from five ISSR primers selected from an initial screen of 22 ISSR primers. The mean percentage of polymorphic loci was 99.18%. Bayesian cluster analysis inferred three genetic subpopulations, where group 1 consisted exclusively of isolates collected in the southern part of Trinidad whereas groups 2 and 3, although genetically distinct, were mixtures of isolates collected from both the northern and southern parts of Trinidad. Principal coordinates analysis and unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean phylogeny were concordant with Bayesian cluster analysis and supported subdivision into the three subpopulations. Overall, the total mean gene diversity was 0.279, the mean within-population gene diversity was 0.2161, and genetic differentiation for the Trinidad population was 0.225. Regionally, northern isolates had a lower gene diversity compared with southern isolates. Nei's gene diversity was highest for group 1 (h = 0.231), followed by group 2 (h = 0.215) and group 3 (h = 0.202). Genotypic diversity was at or near maximum for all three subpopulations after clone correction. Pairwise estimates of differentiation indicated high and significant genetic differentiation among the inferred subpopulations (Weir's θ of 0.212 to 0.325). Pairwise comparisons among subpopulations suggested restricted gene flow between groups 1 and 2 and groups 1 and 3 but not between groups 2 and 3. The null hypothesis of random mating was rejected

  10. Construction of physical maps for the sex-specific regions of papaya sex chromosomes

    Na Jong-Kuk

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Papaya is a major fruit crop in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. It is trioecious with three sex forms: male, female, and hermaphrodite. Sex determination is controlled by a pair of nascent sex chromosomes with two slightly different Y chromosomes, Y for male and Yh for hermaphrodite. The sex chromosome genotypes are XY (male, XYh (hermaphrodite, and XX (female. The papaya hermaphrodite-specific Yh chromosome region (HSY is pericentromeric and heterochromatic. Physical mapping of HSY and its X counterpart is essential for sequencing these regions and uncovering the early events of sex chromosome evolution and to identify the sex determination genes for crop improvement. Results A reiterate chromosome walking strategy was applied to construct the two physical maps with three bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC libraries. The HSY physical map consists of 68 overlapped BACs on the minimum tiling path, and covers all four HSY-specific Knobs. One gap remained in the region of Knob 1, the only knob structure shared between HSY and X, due to the lack of HSY-specific sequences. This gap was filled on the physical map of the HSY corresponding region in the X chromosome. The X physical map consists of 44 BACs on the minimum tiling path with one gap remaining in the middle, due to the nature of highly repetitive sequences. This gap was filled on the HSY physical map. The borders of the non-recombining HSY were defined genetically by fine mapping using 1460 F2 individuals. The genetically defined HSY spanned approximately 8.5 Mb, whereas its X counterpart extended about 5.4 Mb including a 900 Kb region containing the Knob 1 shared by the HSY and X. The 8.5 Mb HSY corresponds to 4.5 Mb of its X counterpart, showing 4 Mb (89% DNA sequence expansion. Conclusion The 89% increase of DNA sequence in HSY indicates rapid expansion of the Yh chromosome after genetic recombination was suppressed 2–3 million years ago. The

  11. Effects of ozone exposure on `Golden' papaya fruit by photoacoustic phase-resolved method: Physiological changes associated with carbon dioxide and ethylene emission rates during ripening

    Corrêa, Savio Figueira; Mota, Leonardo; Paiva, Luisa Brito; Couto, Flávio Mota do; Silva, Marcelo Gomes da; Oliveira, Jurandi Gonçalves de; Sthel, Marcelo Silva; Vargas, Helion; Miklós, András

    2011-06-01

    This work addresses the effects of ozone activity on the physiology of `Golden' papaya fruit. Depth profile analysis of double-layer biological samples was accomplished using the phase-resolved photoacoustic spectroscopy. The feasibility of the method was demonstrated by singling out the spectra of the cuticle and the pigment layers of papaya fruit. The same approach was used to monitor changes occurring on the fruit during ripening when exposed to ozone. In addition, one has performed real time studies of fluorescence parameters and the emission rates of carbon dioxide and ethylene. Finally, the amount of pigments and the changes in waxy cuticle have been monitored. Results indicate that a fruit deliberately subjected to ozone at a level of 6 ppmv underwent ripening sooner (at least 24-48 h) than a fruit stored at ambient conditions. Moreover, ozone caused a reduction in the maximum quantum yield of photosynthetic apparatus located within the skin of papaya fruit.

  12. Effects of ozone exposure on 'Golden' papaya fruit by photoacoustic phase-resolved method: Physiological changes associated with carbon dioxide and ethylene emission rates during ripening

    This work addresses the effects of ozone activity on the physiology of 'Golden' papaya fruit. Depth profile analysis of double-layer biological samples was accomplished using the phase-resolved photoacoustic spectroscopy. The feasibility of the method was demonstrated by singling out the spectra of the cuticle and the pigment layers of papaya fruit. The same approach was used to monitor changes occurring on the fruit during ripening when exposed to ozone. In addition, one has performed real time studies of fluorescence parameters and the emission rates of carbon dioxide and ethylene. Finally, the amount of pigments and the changes in waxy cuticle have been monitored. Results indicate that a fruit deliberately subjected to ozone at a level of 6 ppmv underwent ripening sooner (at least 24-48 h) than a fruit stored at ambient conditions. Moreover, ozone caused a reduction in the maximum quantum yield of photosynthetic apparatus located within the skin of papaya fruit.

  13. EL INGRESO DE LA MUJER CHILENA A LA UNIVERSIDAD Y LOS CAMBIOS EN LA COSTUMBRE POR MEDIO DE LA LEY 1872-1877

    KARIN SÁNCHEZ MANRÍQUEZ

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo reconstruye el proceso que llevó a la firma del llamado "Decreto Amunátegui", que permitió el ingreso de la mujer chilena a la universidad, y estudia la polémica que causó esta medida en la opinión pública. Para ello, se da cuenta de los intentos de dos directoras de colegios secundarios femeninos, Antonia Tarragó e Isabel Le Brun (en 1872 y 1876, respectivamente, porque sus alumnas dieran exámenes válidos para entrar a la Universidad de Chile. Los comentarios de sus infructuosos intentos en la prensa crearon el ambiente necesario para que el Ministro de Instrucción Pública, Miguel Luis Amunátegui, firmara, en febrero de 1877, el decreto que facilitaba a las mujeres el ingreso a la educación superior. Se estudia el significado de esta medida en el contexto de la secularización que experimentaba la sociedad chilena, lo cual se aprecia en la polémica desatada entre la prensa católica y la prensa liberal luego de la firma del mencionado decreto. Se concluye que esta medida refleja la tensión modernidad / tradición que caracteriza a la segunda mitad del siglo XIX chilenoThis article reconstructs the process that culminated in the "Decreto Amunátegui", which allowed Chilean women the application to university studies. It analyzes the polemics which took place in the country's public opinion, starting with the initiative by Antonia Tarragó and Isabel Le Brun (1872 and 1876 respectively for the recognition of high school exams as valid to apply to the Universidad de Chile. Press commentaries on their unsuccessful efforts contributed to building up the political environment for the signature, in February, 1877, by Miguel Luis Amunátegui, Minister of Education, of the decree facilitating the admittance of women to higher education. This article reflects on the significance of this decree in the context of the underlying secularization process, by paying special attention to the conflict expressed in the positions

  14. Novel concepts on functional foods and nutrigenomics in healthy aging and chronic diseases: a review of fermented papaya preparation research progress

    Francesco Marotta

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstractFunctional foods are an emerging research field corresponding with genomical, epidemiological and clinical studies integrated with the food industry in accordance with the consumer demands. Consequently, the features of the functional foods are being discussed by various researchers and related institutions, and a common view has been pointed out about the availability and the nature of the components of functional foods. Recently, the outcomes of functional foods are being assessed by the help of all the available scientific tools. Genomic medicine is one of the most promising areas of research to reveal the benefits of functional foods and the bioactive ingredients. Nutrigenomics aims at studying the genetic and epigenetic interactions with a nutrient or the functional component in order to lead to a phenotype change and therefore to the cell metabolism, differentiation or even apoptosis. Papaya and its fermentation product arespecific products derived from the technologically advanced and controlled environmentalfriendly bio-fermentation process. Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2012, 2(5:120-136 It has been well known for a long time that the natural anti-oxidant properties of papaya, mainly depending on vitamins A and C in addition to certain amino acids, were consistent both in the fruit and derived from the papain enzyme which is no longer present in the fermented product. In this article, functional foods in genomic medicine are discussed in review of the fermented papaya preparation research progress. Clinical evidences about fermented papaya as a functional food are reported as supported by various research protocols and experimental models. The benefits of fermented papaya preparation are also discussed in nutrigenomic basis and it is reported to have an important antioxidant and transcriptomic potential which deserves further investigation. As a conclusion, fermented papaya preparation represents a Functional Food

  15. Modelos de demanda por manzanas frescas chilenas en países de la Unión Europea Equações de demanda para maçãs frescas, chilenas, em países da União Européia

    Germán Lobos Andrade

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Se usó la técnica de regresión de mínimos cuadrados ordinarios para estimar la demanda por importaciones de manzanas frescas exportadas por Chile en cinco países de la Unión Europea. Para las estimaciones se utilizaron observaciones anuales del periodo 1984 a 2003. Los resultados demuestran que (1 la demanda por importaciones de manzanas frescas chilenas depende de las tradicionales variables ingreso o gasto en consumo per cápita, (2 los precios relativos y la variación del tipo de cambio real juegan un papel destacado en la explicación de la demanda por importaciones, y (3 la demanda responde de manera diferente frente a los cambios en las variables explicativas en cada mercado.Foi usada a técnica de regressão de mínimos quadrados ordinários para estimar a demanda das importações de maçãs frescas exportadas pelo cinco países da União Européia. Para fazer as estimações foram utilizadas observações anuais do período 1984 a 2003. Os resultados demostram que (1 a demanda por importações de maçãs frescas chilenas depende das tradicionais variáveis ingresso ou gasto em consumo per cápita, (2 os preços relativos e a variação do tipo de câmbio real tem una importante participação na explicação da demanda por importações, e (3 a demanda responde de forma diferente com relação às mudanças nas variáveis explicativas em cada mercado.

  16. Analysis of the full-length genome sequence of papaya lethal yellowing virus (PLYV), determined by deep sequencing, confirms its classification in the genus Sobemovirus.

    Pereira, Alvaro J; Alfenas-Zerbini, Poliane; Cascardo, Renan S; Andrade, Eduardo C; Murilo Zerbini, F

    2012-10-01

    Papaya lethal yellowing virus (PLYV) causes an economically important disease in papayas in northeastern Brazil. Based on biological and molecular properties, PLYV has been tentatively assigned to the genus Sobemovirus. We report the sequence of the full-length genome of a PLYV isolate from Brazil, determined by deep sequencing. The PLYV genome is 4,145 nt long and contains four ORFs, with an arrangement identical to that of sobemoviruses. The polyprotein and CP display significant sequence identity with the corresponding proteins of other sobemoviruses. Pairwise comparisons and phylogenetic analysis based on complete nucleotide sequences confirm the classification of PLYV in the genus Sobemovirus. PMID:22743825

  17. Imobilisasi Crude Enzim Papain Yang Diisolasi Dari Getah Buah Pepaya (Carica papaya L) Dengan Menggunakan Kappa Karagenan Dan Kitosan Serta Pengujian Aktivitas Dan Stabilitasnya

    Wibisono, Eko

    2011-01-01

    Crude papain enzyme has been isolated from papaya fruit latex (Carica papaya L) with Balls and Lineweaver method, where the crude papain enzyme was immobilized by entrapping the lattice type by using the kappa carrageenan and chitosan, and then tested its activity with the Murachi method. The activity of free crude papain enzyme 82.493 μg/ml at a temperature of 55oC and pH 7, the immobilized crude enzyme papain with kappa carrageenan 78.706 μg/ml at a temperature of 60oC and pH 6.5, and the i...

  18. Sorologia e sobrevivência do vírus do amarelo letal do mamoeiro Serology and surviving characteristics of Papaya lethal yellowing virus

    Ana Lúcia Lopes do Nascimento; José Albersio de Araujo Lima; Aline Kelly Queiroz do Nascimento; Maria de Fátima Barros Gonçalves

    2010-01-01

    O vírus do amarelo letal do mamoeiro (Papaya lethal yellowing virus, PLYV) é responsável por uma das principais doenças do mamoeiro (Carica papaya) no Nordeste brasileiro. O PLYV pode ser transmitido através do solo, água, instrumento de corte e mãos contaminadas. A presente pesquisa teve como objetivo estudar as características biológicas, sorológicas e físicas de um isolado do vírus e avaliar sua sobrevivência em tecido seco infetado. O PLYV foi detectado por "Enzyme linked immunosorbent as...

  19. Photoacoustic study of the influence of the cooling temperature on the CO2 emission rate by Carica papaya L. in modified atmosphere

    Schramm, D. U.; Sthel, M. S.; da Silva, M. G.; Carneiro, L. O.; Silva, H. R. F.; Martins, M. L. L.; Resende, E. D.; Vitorazi, L.; Vargas, H.

    2005-06-01

    The monitoring of trace gas emitted by papaya fruits and assessments of its mass loss can contribute to improve the conditions for their storage and transport. The C02 emission rate by the papaya fruits, monitored by a commercial infrared-based gas analyzer, was influenced by the temperature and storage time. The fruits stored at temperature of 13 °C accumulated more CO2 inside the PEBD bags than those fruits stored at 6 °C. The loss of mass of the fruits progressively increased with storage time for both temperatures until the saturation of the moisture inside the PEBD bag, been more pronounced at 13 ºC.

  20. Improved Function of Diabetic Wound-Site Macrophages and Accelerated Wound Closure in Response to Oral Supplementation of a Fermented Papaya Preparation

    Collard, Eric; Roy, Sashwati

    2010-01-01

    Carica papaya Linn is widely known as a medicinal fruit. We sought to study a standardized fermented papaya preparation (FPP) for its effects on wound healing in adult obese diabetic (db/db) mice. FPP blunted the gain in blood glucose and improved the lipid profile after 8 weeks of oral supplementation. However, FPP did not influence weight gain during the supplementation period. FPP (0.2 g/kg body weight) supplementation for 8 weeks before wounding was effective in correcting wound closure. ...

  1. Correct names for some of the closest relatives of Carica papaya: A review of the Mexican/Guatemalan genera Jarilla and Horovitzia

    Fernanda de Carvalho; Susanne Renner

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Using molecular data, we recently showed that Carica papaya L. is sister to a Mexican/Guatemalan clade of two genera, Jarilla Rusby with three species and Horovitzia V.M. Badillo with one. These species are herbs or thin-stemmed trees and may be of interest for future genomics-enabled papaya breeding. Here we clarify the correct names of Jarilla heterophylla (Cerv. ex La Llave) Rusby and Jarilla caudata (Brandegee) Standl., which were confused in a recent systematic treatment of Jari...

  2. Testers for combining ability and selection of papaya hybrids resistant to fungal diseases

    Carlos Eduardo Pessanha da Silva Terra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic resistance represents a sustainable alternative to disease control in papaya crop. The purpose of this studywas to evaluate the use of testers to estimate combining ability and select hybrids resistant to black spot, phoma spot and chocolatespot. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design with two replications and 20 plants per plot. The severity ofphoma spot and black spot on leaves and the lesion area of black spot and chocolate spot on fruits were evaluated in twoseasons. The combining ability of the following crosses is negative for all traits: tester ‘JS 12’ with ‘Sunrise Solo’ and ‘Kaphoro SoloPV’; tester ‘Americano’ with ‘Caliman M5’, ‘Sunrise Solo’, ’Baixinho de Santa Amália’ and ‘Waimanalo’; and tester ‘Maradol’with ‘Caliman G’, ‘Caliman AM’ and ‘Sunrise Solo PT’. These results may be useful in breeding for disease resistance byhybridization.

  3. Radiations and biodegradation techniques for detoxifying Carica papaya seed oil for effective dietary and industrial use.

    Afolabi, Israel Sunmola; Bisi-Adeniyi, Tolulope Dorcas; Adedoyin, Toluwalase Ronke; Rotimi, Solomon Oladapo

    2015-10-01

    Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) is toxic in high concentration. The capacity of Aspergillus niger, microwave and ultraviolet radiations to reduce the BITC levels in Carica papaya Linn seed oil were assessed in vitro. BITC at different concentrations were periodically exposed to microwave and ultraviolet radiations for 30 min and 10 h, respectively; and to identify Aspergillus niger for 4 days. Microwave radiation significantly reduced (p < 0.05) BITC levels (0.0272, 0.0544, and 0.0816 μmol) to 12.19, 8.99 and 27.5 % respectively within 15 min. Ultraviolet radiation significantly reduced (p < 0.05) BITC levels at all the concentrations. A. niger significantly increased (p < 0.05) BITC degradation on days 2 and 4 at 0.816, 1.36 and 2.72 nmol. Glutathione activity was significantly increased (p < 0.05) while glutathione S-transferase activity significantly reduced (p < 0.05) at all concentrations on days 3 and 4 respectively. The three techniques are possible models for improving the dietary consumption of the oil. PMID:26396392

  4. Protective Action of Carica papaya on β-Cells in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    Miranda-Osorio, Pedro H; Castell-Rodríguez, Andrés E; Vargas-Mancilla, Juan; Tovilla-Zárate, Carlos A; Ble-Castillo, Jorge L; Aguilar-Domínguez, Dora E; Juárez-Rojop, Isela E; Díaz-Zagoya, Juan C

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of C. papaya L. leaf extract (CPLE) on pancreatic islets in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats, as well as on cultured normal pancreatic cells with STZ in the medium. CPLE (3-125 mg/Kg) was administered orally for 20 days, while a group of diabetic rats received 5 IU/Kg/day of insulin. At the end of the treatment the rats were sacrificed. Blood was obtained to assess glucose and insulin levels. The pancreas was dissected to evaluate β cells by immunohistochemistry. In addition, normal pancreatic cells were cultured in a medium that included CPLE (3-12 mg). One half of the cultured cells received simultaneously CPLE and STZ (6 mg), while the other half received CPLE and five days later the STZ. After three days of incubation, insulin was assayed in the incubation medium. The CPLE administered to diabetic rats improved the fasting glycemia and preserved the number and structure of pancreatic islets. However, when CPLE was added to pancreatic cells in culture along with STZ, the insulin concentration was higher in comparison with the cells that only received STZ. In conclusion, the CPLE preserves the integrity of pancreatic islets, improves the basal insulin secretion and protects cultured cells from the adverse effects of STZ. PMID:27128930

  5. Glycyl endopeptidase from papaya latex: partial purification and use for production of fish gelatin hydrolysate.

    Karnjanapratum, Supatra; Benjakul, Soottawat

    2014-12-15

    An aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) in combination with ammonium sulphate ((NH4)2SO4) precipitation was applied to fractionate glycyl endopeptidase from the papaya latex of Red Lady and Khack Dum cultivars. ATPS containing polyethylene glycol (PEG 2000 and 6000) and salts ((NH4)2SO4 and MgSO4) at different concentrations were used. Glycyl endopeptidase with high purification fold (PF) and yield was found in the salt-rich bottom phase of ATPS with 10%PEG 6000-10% (NH4)2SO4. When ATPS fraction from Red Lady cultivar was further precipitated with 40-60% saturation of (NH4)2SO4, PF of 2.1-fold with 80.23% yield was obtained. Almost all offensive odorous compounds, particularly benzyl isothiocyanate, were removed from partially purified glycyl endopeptidase (PPGE). The fish gelatin hydrolysates prepared using PPGE showed higher ABTS radical scavenging activity and less odour, compared with those of crude extract (CE). Thus antioxidative gelatin hydrolysate with negligible undesirable odour could be prepared with the aid of PPGE. PMID:25038693

  6. Zucchini shoestring virus: a distinct potyvirus in the papaya ringspot virus cluster.

    Ibaba, J D; Laing, M D; Gubba, A

    2016-08-01

    Zucchini shoestring virus (ZSSV) has been proposed to be a putative potyvirus in the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) cluster, based on the sequence similarity of its coat protein to those of related potyviruses. ZSSV has been associated with the outbreak of a damaging disease of baby marrow (Cucurbita pepo L.) that had been observed throughout the province of KwaZulu-Natal, in the Republic of South Africa (RSA). We report the genome sequence of ZSSV, determined by next-generation sequencing of total RNA extracted from an infected baby marrow (Cucurbita pepo L.). The ZSSV genome is 10,295 nucleotides long excluding the poly(A) tail and displays a typical potyvirus organization. Algerian watermelon mosaic virus (AWMV; EU410442.1) was identified as the closest relative of ZSSV, sharing the highest nucleotide sequence identity of 65.68%. The nucleotide and amino acid sequence identity values for each protein support the differentiation of ZSSV as a member of a distinct species in the genus Potyvirus. This taxonomic position was also confirmed using the Pairwise Sequence Comparison online tool from the National Center for Biotechnology Information. Phylogenetic analysis of the polyprotein coding sequence of ZSSV grouped ZSSV together with AWMV and Moroccan watermelon mosaic virus, but in different clusters. ZSSV is the second cucurbit-infecting virus in the PRSV cluster present in RSA. PMID:27216927

  7. In situ Carica papaya stem matrix and Fusarium oxysporum (NCBT-156) mediated bioremediation of chromium.

    Amatussalam, A; Abubacker, M N; Rajendran, R Babu

    2011-12-01

    Removal of heavy metal chromium was carried out using the fungus Fusarium oxysporum NCBT-156 strain isolated from soil of leather tanning effluent in in situ condition using potassium dichromate solution with 10 per cent Czapek-dox liquid medium. Biosorbent matrix was developed using Carica papaya plant dry stem to colonize the fungal strain to facilitate bioabsorption process. Bioabsorption of chromium was by metabolically mediated intracellular accumulation process. Maximum efficiency of chromium removal by biosorption upto 90 per cent was achieved at the end of 5th day of incubation (120 h of contact time) for 100 and 200 ppm concentration, upto 80 per cent for 300 and 400 ppm, and upto 65 per cent for 500 ppm to 1000 ppm concentrations with pH ranging from 5.8, 5.6, 5.5, 5.4 and 5.2, respectively for 100, 200, 300, 400, 500-1000 ppm concentration. SDS-PAGE protein profile showed significant difference in 34 kDa protein band after chromium absorption by the fungus. FTIR spectroscopic analysis revealed that the main functional groups involved in the uptake of chromium by F. oxysporium strain were carbonyl, carboxyl, amino and hydroxyl groups. PMID:22403866

  8. Immobilization of papaya laccase in chitosan led to improved multipronged stability and dye discoloration.

    Jaiswal, Nivedita; Pandey, Veda P; Dwivedi, Upendra N

    2016-05-01

    A purified papaya laccase was immobilized in chitosan beads using entrapment approach and its physico-chemical properties were investigated and compared with that of free enzyme. Increase in properties of the laccase such as optimum temperature (by 10°C), thermostability (by 3-folds) and optimum pH (from 8.0 to 10.0) was observed after immobilization. Immobilization led to increased tolerance of enzyme to a number of metal ions (including heavy metals) and organic solvents namely, ethanol, isopropanol, methanol, benzene and DMF. The catalytic efficiency (Kcat/Km) of the immobilized enzyme was found to increase more than ten folds, in comparison to that of the free enzyme, with hydroquinone as substrate. Immobilization of laccase also led to improvement in dye decolorization such that the synthetic dye indigo carmine (50μg/ml) was completely decolorized within 8h of incubation as compared to that of the free laccase which decolorized the same dye to only 56% under similar conditions. Thus, immobilization of laccase into chitosan beads led to tremendous improvement in various useful attributes of this enzyme thereby making it more versatile for its industrial exploitation. PMID:26812115

  9. Characterization and occurence of eairly softening disorder in 'golden' papaya fruits

    Angelo Pedro Jacomino

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of green skin and soft pulp in 'Golden' papaya fruit during certain seasons has been reported by farmers in the northern of the state of Espirito Santo, Brazil. The objective of this study was to characterize and determine the occurrence of this disorder, which was referred as "early softening disorder". Fruits were harvested weekly for 11 months (from September to July. The fruits were stored at 10°C, and then fruit flesh firmness and skin color were analyzed. The results of the firmness test were submitted to regression analysis assuming a linear trendline. The slope of the curve was called the 'softening index' (SI. Fruits with early softening are characterized by a loss of firmness in less than 10 days, even when stored under refrigeration. Although softened, the skin of the fruit remains partially green. Fruits with the disorder occurred more frequently from mid-summer to mid-autumn (February to May. It is not possible to distinguish early softening disorder fruits from those without the disorder by skin color and flesh firmness analysis at the time of the harvest.

  10. Propagación in vitro de Carica papaya var. PTM-331 a partir de meristemos apicales In vitro propagation of Carica papaya var. PTM-331 from apical meristem

    Reynaldo Solis L.; Julio Olivera S.; Rafael S. La Rosa L.

    2012-01-01

    El trabajo consistió en desarrollar un protocolo de propagación in vitro de la variedad de papaya PTM-331 a partir de meristemos apicales, con la finalidad de obtener plántulas vigorosas y libres de enfermedades, empleando la técnica del cultivo de tejidos. Las yemas apicales empleadas fueron obtenidas de plantas cultivadas en invernadero, los cuales fueron usados como explantes para la extracción de meristemos. La mejor diferenciación de meristemos se logró en el medio basal MS suplementado ...

  11. La oposición a la dictadura de Miguel Primo de Rivera a través de la prensa mercurial chilena (1923-1930

    Mario Valdés Urrutia

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo examina algunos aspectos del accionar opositor al gobierno de Miguel Primo de Rivera desde una mirada sudamericana: el diario El Mercurio, influyente periódico en la sociedad chilena. Las reacciones frente al alzamiento primorriverista de 1923; la crítica política junto a algunos intentos de defenestrar la Dictadura;  y el  rechazo al proyecto de institucionalización autoritaria y antiliberal, son los temas abordados.Palabras claves: Primo de Rivera – Dictadura – Oposición – Visión de El Mercurio.___________________________Abstract:This article examines certain aspects of the opposition to the dictatorshipof Miguel Primo de Rivera from a South American point of view: that of El  Mercurio, an influential Chilean newspaper. The reaction to the coup d'etat of Primo de Rivera in 1923, political criticism together with certain attempts to unseat the dictator, and the rejection of the authoritarian and antiliberal political project are all considered. KeyWords: Primo de Rivera, Dictatorship, Opposition, Viewpoint of El Mercurio

  12. Evolución de la industria chilena de fondos mutuos. Análisis de su performance (2000-2005

    Benito Umaña Hermosilla

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio, los autores desarrollan un análisis riguroso de la evolución de la Industria Chilena de Fondos Mutuos. Se aplican para ello las medidas tradicionales de performance,  correspondientes a los autores Sharpe, Treynor y Jensen, poniendo para ello de manifiesto, que su funcionamiento correcto depende de una serie de circunstancias, que no siempre se cumplen en los mercados financieros. En estos casos se aplican  medidas alternativas de medición de la performance, las cuales eliminan las incoherencias detectadas. Estas medidas fueron desarrolladas por los profesores Ferruz y Sarto (1997. El presente estudio comprende el periodo 2000- 2005. Se analizan rentabilidades mensuales correspondientes a 196 fondos mutuos de renta variable. Los índices alternativos no hicieron más que ratificar el resultado de los índices originales. Se concluye además que las gestoras con mayor patrimonio administrado no poseen los mejores índices de performance, similar  situación ocurre con aquellas gestoras pertenecientes a la industria bancaria.

  13. Evolución de la industria chilena de fondos mutuos: análisis de su performance (2000-2005

    Benito Umaña Hermosilla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio, los autores desarrollan un análisis riguroso de la evolución de la Industria Chilena de Fondos Mutuos. Se aplican para ello las medidas tradicionales de performance, correspondientes a los autores Sharpe, Treynor y Jensen, poniendo para ello de manifiesto, que su funcionamiento correcto depende de una serie de circunstancias, que no siempre se cumplen en los mercados financieros. En estos casos se aplican medidas alternativas de medición de la performance, las cuales eliminan las incoherencias detectadas. Estas medidas fueron desarrolladas por los profesores Ferruz y Sarto (1997. El presente estudio comprende el periodo 2000- 2005. Se analizan rentabilidades mensuales correspondientes a 196 fondos mutuos de renta variable. Los índices alternativos no hicieron más que ratificar el resultado de los índices originales. Se concluye además que las gestoras con mayor patrimonio administrado no poseen los mejores índices de performance, similar situación ocurre con aquellas gestoras pertenecientes a la industria bancaria.

  14. LA ESCENA DEL CRIMEN: CIUDAD Y POESÍA EN LA TRANSICIÓN CHILENA The Crime Scene: City and poetry in Chilean Transition

    Luis Valenzuela Prado

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Un constante fluir de cauces heterogéneos convergen en las ideas de blanqueamiento y consenso en la transición chilena. Uno de estos cauces es el proceso por el cual el Estado intenta recuperar y dar confianza a la ciudadanía: la seguridad ciudadana que otorga la función de velar y de vigilar. No obstante, la presencia de un sujeto anónimo, criminal, cuyo tratamiento es presentado en el poemario Criminal (2003 de Jaime Pinos, hace mella en esta función. Así, la escenificación poética de este sujeto representa el desorden del consenso y la mancha del blanqueo.A permanent flow of heterogeneous stream converge into lightening and consent of Chilean transition. The Government represents one of the streams, as regards to recover and increase the citizenship confidence; citizenship security, that grants the look after.Nevertheless, the presence of an unknown subject, Criminal (2003, who’s treatment is presented in Jaime Pinos, collection of poems, makes an impression of this function. The poetic dramatization of this subject represents the chaos of the consensus and the spot in the white.

  15. Abordajes Frente al Terremoto y Tsunami del 27 de Febrero del 2010: Experiencia de la Sociedad Chilena de Psicología Clínica (SCPC

    Jade Ortiz Barrera

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se describe de forma sintética las actividades realizadas por la Sociedad Chilena de Psicología Clínica posteriormente al terremoto y tsunami del 27 de Febrero del 2010, en la zona sur y centro de Chile. Dentro de éstas se presenta la coordinación de capacitaciones a psicólogos y equipos de salud que trabajaron en terreno, preparación de material escrito que fue entregado a la población en la ciudad de Santiago y el trabajo conjunto con la Policía de Investigaciones en la difusión de información al público en la zona cero de Talcahuano. Finalmente se reflexiona acerca de la necesidad de encontrarnos preparados para actuar frente a situaciones de desastre natural, especialmente dada la constitución geográfica de nuestro país. Se hace evidente desde allí incorporar en las mallas curriculares de las diversas escuelas de psicologías, cursos o al menos unidades centradas en estrés post traumático, sus abordajes y tratamientos, así como situaciones de emergencias, catástrofes y acciones orientadas a su afrontamiento.

  16. Chistes par(ra reordenar el canon: Roberto Bolaño, Nicanor Parra y la poesía chilena

    Benjamin Loy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available “Todo se lo debo a Parra” – con estas y semejantes palabras de elogio Roberto Bolaño le asignó un lugar central al antipoeta chileno dentro de su amplio canon personal. No obstante, la amplia crítica bolañiana hasta el momento no pareciera haber estudiado a fondo las múltiples dimensiones de esta relación entre los dos autores chilenos. El presente estudio pretende analizar, por lo tanto, de qué manera los postulados ético-estéticos de Parra y de su antipoesía le sirven a Bolaño como punto de referencia clave para reordenar el canon de la literatura chilena contemporánea. Además, se discutirá el papel clave que desempeña Bolaño en el renovado interés de la crítica en la obra de Nicanor Parra durante los últimos años.

  17. Un amor estratificado: narrativas, prácticas y la infraestructura del amor de tres mujeres chilenas de diferentes estratos sociales

    Amanda Rutllant

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo es un estudio exploratorio que busca incorporar la variable estratificación a la actual discusión académica en torno a lastransformaciones en la intimidad y lasformas de vivir el amor en la modernidad tardía producto de los proceso de individuación. Asimismo se hace hincapié en la conceptualización material del amor, considerando las prácticas y objetos de consumo amoroso como factores determinantes de la vivencia del amor. A través de un estudio exploratorio/comparativo basado en el análisis de historias de vida de tres mujeres chilenas de diferentes estratossocio-económicos se busca problematizar las categorías conceptuales que hoy se utilizan en el debate sociológico en torno al amor. Como se verá, el factor estratificación demuestra que el amor se vive de formas diferentes dependiendo del estrato social así como también de las materialidades.

  18. Contra-tradición: prácticas críticas y desestabilizadoras de escritoras chilenas de principios de siglo XX

    Marina d. A. Alvarado Cornejo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the writing of critical speeches of the Chilean poets and storytellers Gabriela Mistral (1889-1957, Teresa Wilms Montt (1893-1921, Maria Monvel (1899-1936, Maria Luisa Bombal (1910-1980 and Maria Carolina Geel (1913-1996, who appropriated this genre as a strategy to reassert networks between women and, at the same time, be inserted inside the complex chilean and latinamerican cultural and literary field. Este artículo revisa la escritura de discursos críticos de las poetas y narradoras chilenas Gabriela Mistral (1889-1957, Teresa Wilms Montt (1893- 921, María Monvel (1899-1936, María Luisa Bombal (1910-1980 y María Carolina Geel (1913-1996, quienes se apropian de este género a modo de estrategia para reafirmar las redes entre mujeres y, a su vez, insertarse dentro del complejo campo cultural y literario chileno y latinoamericano.

  19. Poder, Ideología y el Consenso de Washington: Desarrollo y Expansión de la Política Chilena de Vivienda.

    Alan Gilbert

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Es bien sabido que a menudo la realidad supera la ficción. Esto ciertamente se aplica en el caso del modelo de subsidio habitacional en Chile. Desarrollado por los chilenos con ayuda de la ideología neo-liberal inventada en Chicago, las poderosas instituciones de Washington DC aparecen como actores menores en la escena chilena. Inicialmente, Chile necesitaba el apoyo y financiamiento del Banco Mundial pero una vez conseguidos, Chile siguió su propia agenda. El Banco de Desarrollo Interamericano y USAID no lograron mucho más. Chile era el amo y señor en su propia casa. ¿Fue ésta una victoria para la autonomía nacional por sobre el poder del financiamiento internacional?. Ciertamente no, porque el nuevo modelo que se estaba aplicando en Chile fue el precursor de mucho de lo que se estaba implementando desde Washington en los días de ajuste estructural. Chile “ganó” porque aceptó las reglas del nuevo juego establecido por instituciones muchísimo más poderosas que los bancos de desarrollo multilaterales. Washington del Desarrollo aprendió mucho de Chile y luego aplicó lo aprendido a los países más endeudados, más pequeños y menos sofisticados.

  20. Biological control of toxigenic citrus and papaya-rotting fungi by Streptomyces violascens MT7 and its extracellular metabolites.

    Choudhary, Bharti; Nagpure, Anand; Gupta, Rajinder K

    2015-12-01

    An Indian indigenous, Loktak Lake soil isolate Streptomyces violascens MT7 was assessed for its biocontrol potential both in vitro and in vivo against toxigenic fruit-rotting fungi. Strain MT7 exhibited broad-spectrum antifungal activity against various pathogenic postharvest fungi of citrus and papaya. In shake-flask fermentation, antagonist S. violascens MT7 highly produced extracellular antifungal metabolites in early stationary growth phase in glucose-yeast extract-malt extract (M93) broth. Both extracellular culture fluid (ECF) and its n-butanol extract showed significant broad-spectrum fungal mycelial inhibition of several tested fruit-rotting fungi. Antifungal metabolite was found to be heat stable, nonpeptidic, and polyene type antibiotic. The lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of n-butanol extract against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides MTCC 9664 and Aspergillus niger MTCC 281 was 0.0312 and 0.0625 mg/ml, respectively. Purification of n-butanol extract through silica gel chromatography resulted in partial purification of bioactive metabolite and the TLC autobiography revealed the presence of single antifungal metabolite with Rf value of 0.755. In vivo bioassays demonstrated the biocontrol potential of tested biocontrol agents on fruit-rotting fungi. Use of cell suspension of S. violascens MT7, extracellular metabolite(s), and n-butanol extract significantly (p < 0.05) reduced sour-rot development on Citrus reticulata Blanco (oranges) and soft-rot development on papaya fruits. Therefore, these results strongly suggest a high potential for application of S. violascens MT7 and its extracellular metabolites as an effective eco-friendly alternative to synthetic fungicides for controlling toxigenic citrus and papaya-rotting fungi. PMID:26214840