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Obtención, regeneración y evaluación de híbridos intergenéricos entre Carica papaya Y Vasconcellea cauliflora  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese O resgate de híbridos provenientes de cruzamentos intergenéricos entre mamão (Carica papaya L.) e outras espécies de vasconcelleas (antes conhecidas como caricas) possibilita a tranferência de genes das espécies selvagens para a cultivada. O objectivo do presente trabalho foi a obtenção e avaliação [...] de plantas híbridas mediante o resgate e regeneração de embriões ou óvulos resultantes do cruzamento entre C. papaya e Vasconcellea cauliflora. Dos cruzamentos efectuados, 0 a 76% formaram frutos, de acordo com o tipo de papaya usado. As sementes presentes nos frutos foram vás, inmaduras o possuiam embriões zigóticos. Na maioria dessas sementes ocorreu poliembrionia zigótica in vivo, embora também foram formado alguns híbridos individuais. Conseguiu-se o desenvolvimento, germinação, multiplicação de embriões híbridos e regeneração de plantas in vitro. As plantas establecidas em campo produziram flores andróicas y andromonóicas. Abstract in spanish El rescate de híbridos de cruces intergenéricos entre la lechosa (Carica papaya L.) y otras especies de vasconcelleas (antes conocidas como caricas) posibilita la transferencia de genes desde las especies silvestres hacia la cultivada. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue la obtención y evaluación d [...] e plantas híbridas mediante el rescate y regeneración de embriones u óvulos después del cruce entre C. papaya y Vasconcellea cauliflora. Se obtuvo un porcentaje de fructificación entre 0 y 76%, de acuerdo al tipo de lechosa usada en el cruce. En los frutos, las semillas fueron vanas, inmaduras o contenían embriones cigóticos. En la mayoría de ellas ocurrió la poliembrionía cigótica in vivo, aún cuando también se produjeron híbridos individuales. Se logró el desarrollo, germinación y multiplicación de embriones híbridos, y la regeneración de plantas in vitro. Las plantas sembradas en campo produjeron flores andróicas y andromonóicas. Abstract in english The rescue of hybrids from intergeneric crosses between papaya (Carica papaya L.) and other vasconcelleas species (known before as caricas) can make possible gene transfer from a wild species to a cultivated one. The object of this research was to obtain and evaluate hybrid plants after rescue and r [...] egeneration of embryos or ovules, from the crosses made between C. papaya and Vasconcellea cauliflora. After cross pollination, 0 to 76% fructification was attained, according to the papaya type used. In the fruits, seeds were vain, immature or contained zygotic embryos. In most of them occurred in vivo zygotic polyembryony, although some individual hybrids were also formed. Development, germination, multiplication of embryo hybrids and plant regeneration in vitro were achieved. In the field, plants produced androic and andromonoic flowers.

Ariadne, Vegas; Gustavo, Trujillo; Yanet, Sandrea.

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Phylogenetic analysis of the highland papayas ( Vasconcellea) and allied genera (Caricaceae) using PCR-RFLP.  

Science.gov (United States)

The chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA diversity of 61 genotypes belonging to 18 Vasconcellea species, the so-called highland papayas, was studied by PCR-RFLP analysis of two non-coding cpDNA regions ( trnM- rbcL and trnK1- trnK2) and one non-coding mtDNA region ( nad4/1- nad4/2). This sample set was supplemented with six genotypes belonging to three other Caricaceae genera: the monotypic genus Carica, including only the cultivated papaya, and the genera Jacaratia and Cylicomorpha. Moringa ovalifolia was added as an outgroup species. The PCR-amplified cpDNA regions were digested with 18 restriction endonucleases, the mtDNA region with 11. A total of 22 point mutations and four insertion/deletions were scored in the sample. A higher level of interspecific variation was detected in the two cpDNA regions in comparison to the analysis of the mtDNA. Wagner parsimony and Neighbor-Joining analysis resulted in dendrograms with similar topologies. PCR-RFLP analysis supported the monophyly of Caricaceae, but among the 26 mutations scored, an insufficient number of markers discriminated between the different Caricaceae genera included in this study. Hence the inference of the intergeneric relationships within Caricaceae was impossible. However, some conclusions can be noted at a lower taxonomic level. The Caricaceae species were divided into two lineages. One group included only Vasconcellea spp., whereas the second included the remaining Vasconcellea spp., together with the papaya genotypes and those from the other Caricaceae genera. This may indicate a higher level of inter-fertility for the Vasconcellea species from the latter clade in interspecific crossings with papaya. The putative progenitors of the natural sterile hybrid V. x heilbornii, i.e. V. stipulata and V. cundinamarcensis, were only distantly related to V. x heilbornii. This indicates that probably none of these species was involved as the maternal progenitor in the origin of V. x heilbornii. Surprisingly, V. x heilbornii had organellar genome patterns identical with V. weberbaueri, suggesting a possible involvement of this species in the origin of V. x heilbornii. On the basis of discrepancy between morphological traits and the cpDNA profiles of some pairs of Vasconcellea species, we believe that besides V. x heilbornii, some other species have originated through interspecific hybridization. A reticulate evolution for Vasconcellea has therefore been suggested. Finally, intraspecific cpDNA variation was detected in V. microcarpa, thus providing molecular evidence for the high diversity previously indicated by morphological observations. PMID:14752605

Van Droogenbroeck, B; Kyndt, T; Maertens, I; Romeijn-Peeters, E; Scheldeman, X; Romero-Motochi, J P; Van Damme, P; Goetghebeur, P; Gheysen, G

2004-05-01

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COMPORTAMIENTO DE MATERIALES DE LOS GÉNEROS Carica Y Vasconcellea FRENTE A Erwinia papayae, Meloidogyne incognita Y Rotylenchulus reniformis / REACTION OF THE GENERA Carica AND Vasconcellea MATERIALS TO Erwinia papayae, Meloidogyne incognita AND Rotylenchulus reniformis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La bacteriosis del cancro y el ataque de los nematodos constituyen graves obstáculos en la extensión del cultivo de la papaya (Carica papaya L.). El objetivo principal de este trabajo fue la selección de genotipos tanto comerciales como silvestres resistentes a los patógenos mencionados. Para la eva [...] luación del comportamiento ante la bacteria del cancro causada por Erwinia papayae, se seleccionaron once accesiones de C. papaya, Vasconcellea goudotiana y V. cauliflora y se inocularon 10 plantas de cada genotipo con una suspensión bacteriana de concentración de 10(8) UFC.mL-1. La inoculación se realizó produciendo heridas en los tallos de las plantas sanas. Los testigos se trataron de igual forma con agua destilada estéril. Para la evaluación de la resistencia a nematodos se realizaron dos experimentos; en el primero se utilizaron materiales de C. papaya y V. goudotiana, los cuales se inocularon con una población mixta de Meloidogyne incognita raza 1 y Rotylenchulus reniformis con 2000 huevos+juveniles.1000 cm-3 en suelo-arena estéril. Para el segundo experimento se usaron, además de los materiales mencionados, V. cauliflora, V. cundinamarcensis, V. microcarpa var. microcarpa, V. microcarpa var. pilifera, inoculados sólo con M. incognita raza 1 con 2500 huevos+juveniles.1000 cm-3. A las 12 semanas se calculó la población final y se midieron las siguientes variables: peso aéreo y radical fresco y seco. Los resultados del comportamiento de los genotipos frente a la bacteria determinó que V. goudotiana y V. cauliflora no se enfermaron, no así el género Carica, donde todas las plantas resultaron susceptibles, coincidiendo con la evaluación de nematodos, donde todas las accesiones de C. papaya y V. goudotiana fueron susceptibles y no tolerante al ataque de la población mixta de M. incognita raza 1 y R. reniformis, por afectarse las variables agronómicas evaluadas; mientras que la mayoría de los materiales de V. cundinamarcencis y V. microcarpa resultaron resistentes al ataque de M. incognita raza 1. Estos resultados permiten la obtención de genes de resistencias en los materiales silvestres, los cuales podrían ser incorporados a los genotipos mejorados o comerciales, y permitiría un mejor manejo de los patógenos mencionados, que resultan limitantes severos en el cultivo de papaya en Venezuela. Abstract in english The bacterial canker and the attack of nematodes are serious obstacles to the extension of Carica papaya L. crop. The main objective of this work was the selection of both commercial and wild genotypes resistant to the above mentioned pathogens. To assess the response to the bacterial canker caused [...] by Erwinia papayae, eleven accesions of C. papaya, Vasconcellea goudotiana y V. cauliflora were selected and ten plants of each genotype were inoculated with a bacterial suspension with a concentration of 10(8) CFU.mL-1 . The plants were inoculated by wounds on the stems of the healthy plants. The controls were similarly treated but with sterile distilled water. Two trials were carried out to evaluate the resistance to nematodes. In the first trial, materials of C. papaya and V. goudotiana were inoculated with a mixed population of Meloidogyne incognita race 1 and Rotylenchulus reniformis, with 2000 eggs+juveniles. 1000 cm-3 in sterile soil-sand. In the second trial, V. cauliflora, V. cundinamarcensis, V. microcarpa var. microcarpa and V. microcarpa var. pilifera, in addition to the genotypes previously used, were inoculated only with M. incognita race 1, with 2500 eggs+juvenils.1000 cm-3. After 12 weeks, the final population was calculated and the fresh and dried weights of the aerial parts and roots were determined. The results of the reaction of the genotypes towards the bacterium determined that V. goudotiana and V. cauliflora did not get the disease, what differed from the Carica genus, where all the plants resulted susceptible, a result that was similar to the evaluation to nematodes, where all the genotypes

Anna, Maselli; Ligia Carolina, Rosales; Yolanda, Guevara; Zoraida, Suárez H.

2010-12-01

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COMPORTAMIENTO DE MATERIALES DE LOS GÉNEROS Carica Y Vasconcellea FRENTE A Erwinia papayae, Meloidogyne incognita Y Rotylenchulus reniformis / REACTION OF THE GENERA Carica AND Vasconcellea MATERIALS TO Erwinia papayae, Meloidogyne incognita AND Rotylenchulus reniformis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La bacteriosis del cancro y el ataque de los nematodos constituyen graves obstáculos en la extensión del cultivo de la papaya (Carica papaya L.). El objetivo principal de este trabajo fue la selección de genotipos tanto comerciales como silvestres resistentes a los patógenos mencionados. Para la eva [...] luación del comportamiento ante la bacteria del cancro causada por Erwinia papayae, se seleccionaron once accesiones de C. papaya, Vasconcellea goudotiana y V. cauliflora y se inocularon 10 plantas de cada genotipo con una suspensión bacteriana de concentración de 10(8) UFC.mL-1. La inoculación se realizó produciendo heridas en los tallos de las plantas sanas. Los testigos se trataron de igual forma con agua destilada estéril. Para la evaluación de la resistencia a nematodos se realizaron dos experimentos; en el primero se utilizaron materiales de C. papaya y V. goudotiana, los cuales se inocularon con una población mixta de Meloidogyne incognita raza 1 y Rotylenchulus reniformis con 2000 huevos+juveniles.1000 cm-3 en suelo-arena estéril. Para el segundo experimento se usaron, además de los materiales mencionados, V. cauliflora, V. cundinamarcensis, V. microcarpa var. microcarpa, V. microcarpa var. pilifera, inoculados sólo con M. incognita raza 1 con 2500 huevos+juveniles.1000 cm-3. A las 12 semanas se calculó la población final y se midieron las siguientes variables: peso aéreo y radical fresco y seco. Los resultados del comportamiento de los genotipos frente a la bacteria determinó que V. goudotiana y V. cauliflora no se enfermaron, no así el género Carica, donde todas las plantas resultaron susceptibles, coincidiendo con la evaluación de nematodos, donde todas las accesiones de C. papaya y V. goudotiana fueron susceptibles y no tolerante al ataque de la población mixta de M. incognita raza 1 y R. reniformis, por afectarse las variables agronómicas evaluadas; mientras que la mayoría de los materiales de V. cundinamarcencis y V. microcarpa resultaron resistentes al ataque de M. incognita raza 1. Estos resultados permiten la obtención de genes de resistencias en los materiales silvestres, los cuales podrían ser incorporados a los genotipos mejorados o comerciales, y permitiría un mejor manejo de los patógenos mencionados, que resultan limitantes severos en el cultivo de papaya en Venezuela. Abstract in english The bacterial canker and the attack of nematodes are serious obstacles to the extension of Carica papaya L. crop. The main objective of this work was the selection of both commercial and wild genotypes resistant to the above mentioned pathogens. To assess the response to the bacterial canker caused [...] by Erwinia papayae, eleven accesions of C. papaya, Vasconcellea goudotiana y V. cauliflora were selected and ten plants of each genotype were inoculated with a bacterial suspension with a concentration of 10(8) CFU.mL-1 . The plants were inoculated by wounds on the stems of the healthy plants. The controls were similarly treated but with sterile distilled water. Two trials were carried out to evaluate the resistance to nematodes. In the first trial, materials of C. papaya and V. goudotiana were inoculated with a mixed population of Meloidogyne incognita race 1 and Rotylenchulus reniformis, with 2000 eggs+juveniles. 1000 cm-3 in sterile soil-sand. In the second trial, V. cauliflora, V. cundinamarcensis, V. microcarpa var. microcarpa and V. microcarpa var. pilifera, in addition to the genotypes previously used, were inoculated only with M. incognita race 1, with 2500 eggs+juvenils.1000 cm-3. After 12 weeks, the final population was calculated and the fresh and dried weights of the aerial parts and roots were determined. The results of the reaction of the genotypes towards the bacterium determined that V. goudotiana and V. cauliflora did not get the disease, what differed from the Carica genus, where all the plants resulted susceptible, a result that was similar to the evaluation to nematodes, where all the genotypes

Anna, Maselli; Ligia Carolina, Rosales; Yolanda, Guevara; Zoraida, Suárez H.

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Moisture sorption isotherms and isosteric heat determination in Chilean papaya (Vasconcellea pubescens)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The moisture sorption isotherms of Chilean papaya were determined at 5, 20, and 45 ºC, over a relative humidity range of 10-95%. The GAB, BET, Oswin, Halsey, Henderson, Smith, Caurie and Iglesias-Chirife models were applied to the sorption experimental data. The goodness of fit of the mathematical m [...] odels was statistically evaluated by means of the determination coefficient, mean relative percentage deviation, sum square error, root-mean-square error, and chi-square values. The GAB, Oswin and Halsey models were found to be the most suitable for the description of the sorption data. The sorption heats calculated using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation were 57.35 and 59.98 kJ·mol-1, for adsorption and desorption isotherms, respectively.

Antonio, Vega-Gálvez; Marlene, Palacios; Roberto, Lemus-Mondaca; Catarina, Passaro.

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Moisture sorption isotherms and isosteric heat determination in Chilean papaya (Vasconcellea pubescens)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The moisture sorption isotherms of Chilean papaya were determined at 5, 20, and 45 ºC, over a relative humidity range of 10-95%. The GAB, BET, Oswin, Halsey, Henderson, Smith, Caurie and Iglesias-Chirife models were applied to the sorption experimental data. The goodness of fit of the mathematical m [...] odels was statistically evaluated by means of the determination coefficient, mean relative percentage deviation, sum square error, root-mean-square error, and chi-square values. The GAB, Oswin and Halsey models were found to be the most suitable for the description of the sorption data. The sorption heats calculated using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation were 57.35 and 59.98 kJ·mol-1, for adsorption and desorption isotherms, respectively.

Antonio, Vega-Gálvez; Marlene, Palacios; Roberto, Lemus-Mondaca; Catarina, Passaro.

1417-14-01

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Moisture sorption isotherms and isosteric heat determination in Chilean papaya (Vasconcellea pubescens  

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Full Text Available The moisture sorption isotherms of Chilean papaya were determined at 5, 20, and 45 ºC, over a relative humidity range of 10-95%. The GAB, BET, Oswin, Halsey, Henderson, Smith, Caurie and Iglesias-Chirife models were applied to the sorption experimental data. The goodness of fit of the mathematical models was statistically evaluated by means of the determination coefficient, mean relative percentage deviation, sum square error, root-mean-square error, and chi-square values. The GAB, Oswin and Halsey models were found to be the most suitable for the description of the sorption data. The sorption heats calculated using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation were 57.35 and 59.98 kJ·mol-1, for adsorption and desorption isotherms, respectively.

Antonio Vega-Gálvez

2008-01-01

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Citogenética de especies de Vasconcellea (Caricaceae) / Cytogenetic of Vasconcellea species (Caricaceae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Conocer aspectos básicos de la citogenética de las papayas de montaña o papayuelas, especies del género Vasconcellea (Caricaceae) originarias de Ecuador y Colombia, fue el objetivo del trabajo. Botones florales se fijaron en etanol-acético 3:1 por 24h, luego se transfirieron a nueva solución y se al [...] macenaron en frío. Los microsporocitos y los granos de polen se tiñieron con acetocarmín (1%). Se evaluaron las fases de meiosis y la viabilidad de polen para describir el comportamiento cromosómico. Se encontró que: 1) todas las seis especies estudiadas fueron diploides (2n=2x=18); 2) se describió el número cromosómico para V. sphaerocarpa, V. longiflora y V. palandensis (2n=18); 3) el grado de asimetría de los complementos cromosómicos indicó un proceso de evolución; 4) la presencia de numerosos NOR en V. sphaerocarpa está relacionada con los micronucleolos y corroboró el posible origen híbrido; y 5) V. cauliflora (42.98%) y V. cundinamarcensis (47.93%) presentaron la más baja viabilidad polínica. Abstract in english This work aims to know basic aspects of cytogenetics of mountain papayas' or 'papayuelas', Vasconcellea species (Caricaceae), originated from Ecuador and Colombia. Flower buds were fixed in 3:1 acetic-alcohol solution for 24 hr, transferred to new solution and stored al low temperature. Both microsp [...] orocytes and pollen grains were stained with 1% acetic carmine. Meiosis phases and pollen viability were evaluated to describe chromosome behavior. We found that: 1) all tested species were diploid (2n=2x=18); 2) chromosome number of V. sphaerocarpa, V. longiflora and V. palandensis (2n=18) were by first time reported; 3) asymmetry level of chromosome complements indicated a evolution process in these species; 4) presence of numerous NOR in V. sphaerocarpa associated to micronucleoli corroborated its possible hybrid origin; and 5) V. cauliflora (42.98%) and V. cundinamarcensis (47.93%) presented the low percentage of pollen viability.

Creucí Maria, Caetano; Túlio César, Lagos Burbano; Claudia Lorena, Sandoval Sierra; César Augusto, Posada Tique; Diego Geraldo, Caetano Nunes.

2008-12-01

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A dated phylogeny of the papaya family (Caricaceae) reveals the crop's closest relatives and the family's biogeographic history.  

Science.gov (United States)

Papaya (Carica papaya) is a crop of great economic importance, and the species was among the first plants to have its genome sequenced. However, there has never been a complete species-level phylogeny for the Caricaceae, and the crop's closest relatives are therefore unknown. We investigated the evolution of the Caricaceae based on sequences from all species and genera, the monospecific Carica, African Cylicomorpha with two species, South American Jacaratia and Vasconcellea with together c. 28 species, and Mexican/Guatemalan Jarilla and Horovitzia with four species. Most Caricaceae are trees or shrubs; the species of Jarilla, however, are herbaceous. We generated a matrix of 4711 nuclear and plastid DNA characters and used maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian analysis to infer species relationships, rooting trees on the Moringaceae. Divergence times were estimated under relaxed and strict molecular clocks, using different subsets of the data. Ancestral area reconstruction relied on a ML approach. The deepest split in the Caricaceae occurred during the Late Eocene, when the ancestor of the Neotropical clade arrived from Africa. In South America, major diversification events coincide with the Miocene northern Andean uplift and the initial phase of the tectonic collision between South America and Panama resulting in the Panamanian land bridge. Carica papaya is sister to Jarilla/Horovitzia, and all three diverged from South American Caricaceae in the Oligocene, 27 (22-33) Ma ago, coincident with the early stages of the formation of the Panamanian Isthmus. The discovery that C. papaya is closest to a clade of herbaceous or thin-stemmed species has implications for plant breeders who have so far tried to cross papaya only with woody highland papayas (Vasconcellea). PMID:22659516

Carvalho, Fernanda Antunes; Renner, Susanne S

2012-10-01

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NOTE - ISSR markers for genetic relationships in Caricaceae and sex differentiation in papaya  

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Full Text Available ISSR markers are polymorphic and their results easily reproducible. They are therefore intensely used in phylogeneticstudies and sex differentiation of some economically interesting plant species. The objectives of this study were to analyze the geneticdiversity in Caricaceae using ISSR markers, to identify a specific ISSR band that could distinguish female from hermaphroditepapaya genotypes and to verify whether this marker could be used for early sex differentiation. The ISSR-PCR was performed withnine primers and they could distinguish all species. It was observed that Jacaratia spinosa was closer to Vasconcellea than toCarica. The species C. papaya was only distantly related to both genera. A 500 bp ISSR marker was found in 25 % of the papayagenotypes studied. Specifically in these cases this marker could be used for early sex differentiation in papaya.

Telma Nair Santana Pereira

2011-01-01

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Biochemical characterization of VQ-VII, a cysteine peptidase with broad specificity, isolated from Vasconcellea quercifolia latex.  

Science.gov (United States)

The latex from Vasconcellea quercifolia ("oak leaved papaya"), a member of the Caricaceae family, contains at least seven cysteine endopeptidases with high proteolytic activity, which helps to protect these plants against injury. In this study, we isolated and characterized the most basic of these cysteine endopeptidases, named VQ-VII. This new purified enzyme was homogeneous by bidimensional electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, and exhibited a molecular mass of 23,984 Da and an isoelectric point >11. The enzymatic activity of VQ-VII was completely inhibited by E-64 and iodoacetic acid, confirming that it belongs to the catalytic group of cysteine endopeptidases. By investigating the cleavage of the oxidized insulin B-chain to establish the hydrolytic specificity of VQ-VII, we found 13 cleavage sites on the substrate, revealing that it is a broad-specificity peptidase. The pH profiles toward p-Glu-Phe-Leu-p-nitroanilide (PFLNA) and casein showed that the optimum pH is about 6.8 for both substrates, and that in casein, it is active over a wide pH range (activity higher than 80 % between pH 6 and 9.5). Kinetic enzymatic assays were performed with the thiol peptidase substrate PFLNA (K m = 0.454 ± 0.046 mM, k cat = 1.57 ± 0.07 s(-1), k cat/K m = 3.46 × 10(3) ± 14 s(-1) M(-1)). The N-terminal sequence (21 amino acids) of VQ-VII showed an identity >70 % with 11 plant cysteine peptidases and the presence of highly conserved residues and motifs shared with the "papain-like" family of peptidases. VQ-VII proved to be a new latex enzyme of broad specificity, which can degrade extensively proteins of different nature in a wide pH range. PMID:23568402

Torres, María José; Trejo, Sebastián Alejandro; Natalucci, Claudia Luisa; López, Laura María Isabel

2013-06-01

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Áreas potenciales para colectas del Género Vasconcellea Badillo en Venezuela Potential areas for collecting the Vasconcellea Badillo genus in Venezuela  

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Full Text Available En Venezuela, dentro de la familia Caricaceae, se han reportado las especies silvestres Vasconcellea. cundinamarcensis Badillo, V. cauliflora (Jacq. A. DC, V. microcarpa subsp microcarpa (Jacq. A DC. y V. microcarpa subsp pilifera (V. M. Badillo V. M. Badillo (endémica de los andes en los estados Mérida y Lara. La especie V. cundinamarcensis representa un material promisorio de importancia comercial local en los estados andinos y V. cauliflora está señalada como un material resistente a virus, con gran potencial para usos en mejoramiento. El presente trabajo fue elaborado para determinar las áreas geográficas potenciales para colectas de las especies de este género. Con datos recopilados tanto de herbarios como de nuevos puntos de colectas realizadas en el país se elaboró una base de datos que posteriormente fue analizada utilizando el programa FloraMap v 1.1, 2001. Los resultados permitieron observar que las especies V. cauliflora y V. microcarpa tienen probablemente una amplia distribución en el país, mientras que la especie V. cundinamarcensis estaría limitada a la región alta andina.In Venezuela the following wild species of Caricaceae have been reported: V. cundinamarcensis Badillo, V. cauliflora (Jacq. A. DC., V. microcarpa subsp microcarpa (Jacq. A. DC and V. microcarpa subsp pilifera (V.M. Badillo V.M. Badillo (endemic of the Andean of Mérida and Lara States. V. cundinamarcensis represents a promissory material with local commercial importance in the Andean states while V. cauliflora has been indicated as a resistant to virus material, with great potential for plant breeding. The objective of this paper was to determine potential areas for collects of these species. With information compiled from herbarium and from new collects realized in the country, a database was elaborated, and later they were analyzed using the software FloraMap v. 1.1 2001. The results showed that the species V. cauliflora and V. microcarpa probably have a wide distribution in the country, whereas V. cundinamarcensis would be limited to the high Andean region.

Dilia Rodríguez

2005-01-01

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ISSR markers for genetic relationships in Caricaceae and sex differentiation in papaya / Marcadores ISSR nas relações genéticas em Cariaceae e na identificação sexual do mamoeiro  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Os marcadores ISSR apresentam amplo polimorfismo e alta reprodutibilidade de resultados, o que tem intensificado seu uso em estudos filogenéticos e na diferenciação sexual de algumas espécies de interesse econômico. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram analisar a divergência genética em Caricaceae util [...] izando-se marcadores ISSR, identificar uma marca capaz de diferenciar plantas hermafroditas e femininas em mamoeiro e verificar se este marcador pode ser utilizado na sexagem precoce de diferentes genótipos da espécie. O estudo foi conduzido com nove primers, os quais foram capazes de distinguir todas as espécies. Observou-se que Jacaratia spinosa ficou mais próxima de Vasconcellea do que de Carica. A espécie C. papaya mostrou-se geneticamente distante de ambos os gêneros. Verificou-se ainda a presença de um fragmento ISSR de 500 pb em 25 % dos genótipos de mamoeiro estudados, podendo ser usado para auxiliar a sexagem precoce do mamoeiro especificamente nesses casos. Abstract in english ISSR markers are polymorphic and their results easily reproducible. They are therefore intensely used in phylogenetic studies and sex differentiation of some economically interesting plant species. The objectives of this study were to analyze the genetic diversity in Caricaceae using ISSR markers, t [...] o identify a specific ISSR band that could distinguish female from hermaphrodite papaya genotypes and to verify whether this marker could be used for early sex differentiation. The ISSR-PCR was performed with nine primers and they could distinguish all species. It was observed that Jacaratia spinosa was closer to Vasconcellea than to Carica. The species C. papaya was only distantly related to both genera. A 500 bp ISSR marker was found in 25 % of the papaya genotypes studied. Specifically in these cases this marker could be used for early sex differentiation in papaya.

Fabiane Rabelo da, Costa; Telma Nair Santana, Pereira; Ana Paula Candido, Gabriel; Messias Gonzaga, Pereira.

2011-12-01

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Post-irradiation identification of papaya ( Carica papaya L.) fruit  

Science.gov (United States)

Impact of radiation processing on the volatile essential oil profile of papaya ( Carica papaya) was investigated. Gamma-radiation processing resulted in the appearance of a new peak in the GLC profile that was identified as phenol. The observed dose dependent increase in phenol content suggested possible use of this compound as a marker for radiation processed papaya.

Chatterjee, Suchandra; Variyar, Prasad S.; Sharma, Arun

2012-03-01

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Post-irradiation identification of papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Impact of radiation processing on the volatile essential oil profile of papaya (Carica papaya) was investigated. Gamma-radiation processing resulted in the appearance of a new peak in the GLC profile that was identified as phenol. The observed dose dependent increase in phenol content suggested possible use of this compound as a marker for radiation processed papaya. - Highlights: ? Effect of ?-irradiation on the essential oil profile of papaya is demonstrated. ? ?-Irradiation resulted in a dose dependent increase in a new peak, phenol. ? Phenol formed in the volatile oil is proposed as a new marker of irradiated food. ? Content of phenol remained unchanged during the entire storage period.

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Identification and detection of genetically modified papaya resistant to papaya ringspot virus strains in Thailand.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many lines of genetically modified (GM) papaya (Carica papaya Linnaeus) have been developed worldwide to resist infection from various strains of papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). We found an unidentified and unauthorized GM papaya in imported processed papaya food. Transgenic vector construct that provides resistance to the PRSV strains isolated in Thailand was detected. An original and specific real-time polymerase chain reaction method was generated to qualitatively detect the PRSV-Thailand-resistant GM papaya. PMID:24172062

Nakamura, Kosuke; Kondo, Kazunari; Kobayashi, Tomoko; Noguchi, Akio; Ohmori, Kiyomi; Takabatake, Reona; Kitta, Kazumi; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Nishimaki-Mogami, Tomoko

2014-01-01

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La izquierda chilena contemparánea  

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Full Text Available En este artículo, el autor examina las particularidades de la izquierda chilena para entender su papel en los gobiernos democráticos desde los años 70. El autor parte de la premisa de la existencia, durante los años 90, de dos izquierdas: una, el socialismo dentro de la coalición; la otra, el comunismo fuera de ella. En el trabajo se sostiene que la izquierda socialista ha sido el principal motor de la coalición y su papel específico se ha concentrado en los temas socio-económicos ligados a la igualdad, a la justicia, a los derechos humanos y a las propuestas culturales de tipo progresista. Asimismo, se analizan las particularidades esenciales de los gobiernos democráticos chilenos y se examinan los temas y las tareas pendientes. El artículo concluye con un balance del papel de la izquierda y de los retos que aún tiene por delante.

Manuel Antonio Garret\\u00F3n

2006-01-01

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frutos de papaya  

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Full Text Available En este estudio se determinaron los principales cambios en la composición de la pared celular y la degradación de pectinas solubles en agua relacionados con el ablandamiento postcosecha de frutos de papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. ?Maradol?. Se estudiaron frutos en estado de madurez 1/2 (50-75 % de coloración amarillo-naranja en la cáscara, los cuales se retrasaron en la maduración con 300 nL L-1 de 1-metilciclopropeno (1-MCP o se adelantaron con 2.5 g L-1 de ácido 2-cloroetil fosfónico (etefón. Posterior a los tratamientos, los frutos se almacenaron en condiciones de simulación de mercadeo (20 ± 2 °C y HR 85 % durante 6 d. Se evaluaron los cambios en firmeza, composición de la pared celular y despolimerización de las pectinas solubles en agua. La aplicación de 1-MCP inhibió totalmente el ablandamiento de los frutos. Los frutos testigo perdieron 69 % de la firmeza a los 3 d de almacenamiento y los frutos con etefón perdieron 84 % en el mismo periodo. El ablandamiento en los frutos testigo y etefón se acompañó de la solubilización de ácidos urónicos y azúcares totales de las fracciones CDTA, Na2CO3, KOH 4% y KOH 24 %. La despolimerización extensiva de pectinas solubles en agua y la acumulación de oligómeros derivados de pectinas sólo fue detectada en los tratamientos testigo y etefón, lo que muestra una relación con el ablandamiento de los frutos y sugire la posible acción de la poligalacturonasa.

J. Adriana Sa\\u00F1udo Barajas

2008-01-01

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Physical-chemical analyses of irradiated papayas (Carica papaya L.)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Papaya is cultivated in Espirito Santo State/Brazil and as it stands up to irradiation, it is important to validate this technology, since it is already being applied in some countries. Penetration energy, ratio (relation between soluble solids and titrable acidity) and skin color were evaluated to verify the influence of four different doses of irradiation (0.0, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.00 kGy) on papayas, during 21 days. As a result for the skin color and the penetration energy, it was found that in the first days after irradiation, these variables increased with increase in radiation dose; however, after a time lapse, the tendency inverted and the irradiated fruits had a slower ripening process. For the ratio, a very important variable that it is responsible for the fruit taste, no difference was found between irradiated and the control fruit. Color and texture measurements are dependent on the storage temperature

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Physical-chemical analyses of irradiated papayas ( Carica papaya L.)  

Science.gov (United States)

Papaya is cultivated in Espírito Santo State/Brazil and as it stands up to irradiation, it is important to validate this technology, since it is already being applied in some countries. Penetration energy, ratio (relation between soluble solids and titrable acidity) and skin color were evaluated to verify the influence of four different doses of irradiation (0.0, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.00 kGy) on papayas, during 21 days. As a result for the skin color and the penetration energy, it was found that in the first days after irradiation, these variables increased with increase in radiation dose; however, after a time lapse, the tendency inverted and the irradiated fruits had a slower ripening process. For the ratio, a very important variable that it is responsible for the fruit taste, no difference was found between irradiated and the control fruit. Color and texture measurements are dependent on the storage temperature.

Camargo, R. J.; Tadini, C. C.; Sabato, S. F.

2007-11-01

 
 
 
 
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Physical-chemical analyses of irradiated papayas (Carica papaya L.)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Papaya is cultivated in Espirito Santo State/Brazil and as it stands up to irradiation, it is important to validate this technology, since it is already being applied in some countries. Penetration energy, ratio (relation between soluble solids and titrable acidity) and skin color were evaluated to verify the influence of four different doses of irradiation (0.0, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.00 kGy) on papayas, during 21 days. As a result for the skin color and the penetration energy, it was found that in the first days after irradiation, these variables increased with increase in radiation dose; however, after a time lapse, the tendency inverted and the irradiated fruits had a slower ripening process. For the ratio, a very important variable that it is responsible for the fruit taste, no difference was found between irradiated and the control fruit. Color and texture measurements are dependent on the storage temperature.

Camargo, R.J. [Radiation Technology Center, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Lineu Prestes, 2242, 05508-900, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Tadini, C.C. [Chemical Engineering Department, Escola Politecnica, Sao Paulo University, P.O. Box 61548, 05424-970, SP (Brazil); Sabato, S.F. [Radiation Technology Center, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Lineu Prestes, 2242, 05508-900, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: sfsabato@ipen.br

2007-11-15

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Somatic embryogenesis of Carica Papaya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the somatic embryogenesis of Carica papaya. Culture medium used was1/2 strength MS basal medium supplemented with 6% sucrose, 0.27 % agar, glutamine and various concentrations of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). After 8 weeks in culture, the best concentration of 2,4-D to induce somatic embryo is at 45.2 ?M. (Author)

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HIGH SPEED CENTRIFUGAL COUNTERCURRENT CHROMATOGRAPHY (HSCCC) ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION BY LC-MSn ANALYSIS OF THE POLAR PHENOLICS FROM VASCONCELLEA QUERCIFOLIA  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english High speed centrifugal countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) was successfully applied to preparative isolation of the main polar phenolics from the Peruvian Caricaceae Vasconcellea quercifolia A. St.-Hil. High-performance liquid chromatography with diode array (HPLC-DAD) and electrospray ionisation [...] mass spectrometric detection (ESI-MS) was used to carry out a comprehensive characterisation of phenolic compounds from fruits and leaves of this plant. The main phenolics were the quercetin diglycoside rutin and the triglycoside manghaslin. Nine minor flavonoids were tentatively identified as kaempferol, quercetin, isorhamnetin and methoxymyricetin glycosides. HSCCC combined with other chromatographic methods allowed the isolation of the main phenolics from the plant. HPLC-DAD-MS analysis shows that the main phenolic compounds in V. quercifolia are similar to those described for V. pubescens but differs in the identity of the minor constituents.

CRISTINA, QUISPE; EZEQUIEL, VIVEROS-VALDEZ; JOSÉ A, YARLEQUE; MARCO R, ARONES; JUAN C, PANIAGUA; GUILLERMO, SCHMEDA-HIRSCHMANN.

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HIGH SPEED CENTRIFUGAL COUNTERCURRENT CHROMATOGRAPHY (HSCCC) ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION BY LC-MSn ANALYSIS OF THE POLAR PHENOLICS FROM VASCONCELLEA QUERCIFOLIA  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english High speed centrifugal countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) was successfully applied to preparative isolation of the main polar phenolics from the Peruvian Caricaceae Vasconcellea quercifolia A. St.-Hil. High-performance liquid chromatography with diode array (HPLC-DAD) and electrospray ionisation [...] mass spectrometric detection (ESI-MS) was used to carry out a comprehensive characterisation of phenolic compounds from fruits and leaves of this plant. The main phenolics were the quercetin diglycoside rutin and the triglycoside manghaslin. Nine minor flavonoids were tentatively identified as kaempferol, quercetin, isorhamnetin and methoxymyricetin glycosides. HSCCC combined with other chromatographic methods allowed the isolation of the main phenolics from the plant. HPLC-DAD-MS analysis shows that the main phenolic compounds in V. quercifolia are similar to those described for V. pubescens but differs in the identity of the minor constituents.

CRISTINA, QUISPE; EZEQUIEL, VIVEROS-VALDEZ; JOSÉ A, YARLEQUE; MARCO R, ARONES; JUAN C, PANIAGUA; GUILLERMO, SCHMEDA-HIRSCHMANN.

1830-18-01

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Genetic diversity studies of Papaya meleira virus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Papaya (Carica papaya) is a fruit crop of great economic and social importance for Brazil and other papaya-producing countries. Brazil is the second largest producer in the world. The papaya sticky disease, caused by Papaya meleira virus (PMeV), has caused great losses in the major Brazilian papaya- [...] producing states. In order to estimate the genetic diversity of PMeV, latex samples were collected from papaya plants in the states of Bahia, Espírito Santo, Pernambuco, Ceará and Rio Grande do Norte, and total RNA was extracted. Specific primer for the replicase region allowed the amplification, by RT-PCR, of a fragment of approximately 560 bp from 31 isolates. The sequence analysis indicated a level of conservation greater than 88% among isolates. Furthermore, comparative analyzes indicated that PMeV has similarity with mycoviruses of the family Totiviridae. This phylogenetic relationship was reinforced by the presence of conserved motifs within in the RdRp regions from mycoviruses.

Cleidiane B., Daltro; Emanuel Felipe Medeiros, Abreu; Francisco Jose Lima, Aragão; Eduardo C., Andrade.

2014-02-01

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Marcadores RAPD para la identificación del sexo en papaya (Carica papaya L.) en Colombia / RAPD markers for sex identification in papaya (Carica papaya L.) in Colombia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La determinación del sexo en plantas de papaya es considerado un sistema intrigante, debido a que esta especie presenta tres sexos (macho, hembra y hermafrodita) determinados por un locus multialélico. Además, esta especie no presenta cromosomas sexuales morfológicamente diferenciables. Los marcador [...] es moleculares pueden asociarse a características de interés, como en el presente caso, al sexo en plántulas de papaya. Con el objetivo de identificar marcadores moleculares que permitan una rápida identificación del sexo en genotipos colombianos de plántulas de papaya, se aplicó la técnica de RAPD (amplificación aleatoria de polimorfismos del ADN). El estudio encontró tres marcadores RAPD polimórficos, los cuales permitieron diferenciar los sexos de la papaya. Dos marcadores fueron específicos para plantas macho y hermafrodita, y un tercero para plantas hembra. Estos nuevos marcadores moleculares podrán ser beneficiosos en la determinación del sexo en genotipos colombianos de papaya. Abstract in english Sex definition in papaya is considered an intriguing system, due to the fact that the plant presents three different sexes (male, female and hermaphrodite), which are determined on a multiallelic locus. Moreover, the plant does not have morphologically differentiated sexual chromosomes. Provided tha [...] t molecular markers can be associated to traits of interest, in the present study they were applied to rapid sex identification in seedlings of Colombian papaya genotypes. With the aim of finding such markers, an RAPD technique (Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA) was applied. The study allowed identifying three polymorphic RAPD markers apt for differentiating the sexes in papaya. Two of them are specific for male and hermaphrodite plants, and one for female plants. These novel molecular markers will be valuable for sex determination in Colombian genotypes of papaya.

Giovanni, Chaves-Bedoya; Mauricio, Pulido; Erika, Sánchez-Betancourt; Víctor, Núñez.

2009-08-01

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Marcadores RAPD para la identificación del sexo en papaya (Carica papaya L.) en Colombia / RAPD markers for sex identification in papaya (Carica papaya L.) in Colombia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La determinación del sexo en plantas de papaya es considerado un sistema intrigante, debido a que esta especie presenta tres sexos (macho, hembra y hermafrodita) determinados por un locus multialélico. Además, esta especie no presenta cromosomas sexuales morfológicamente diferenciables. Los marcador [...] es moleculares pueden asociarse a características de interés, como en el presente caso, al sexo en plántulas de papaya. Con el objetivo de identificar marcadores moleculares que permitan una rápida identificación del sexo en genotipos colombianos de plántulas de papaya, se aplicó la técnica de RAPD (amplificación aleatoria de polimorfismos del ADN). El estudio encontró tres marcadores RAPD polimórficos, los cuales permitieron diferenciar los sexos de la papaya. Dos marcadores fueron específicos para plantas macho y hermafrodita, y un tercero para plantas hembra. Estos nuevos marcadores moleculares podrán ser beneficiosos en la determinación del sexo en genotipos colombianos de papaya. Abstract in english Sex definition in papaya is considered an intriguing system, due to the fact that the plant presents three different sexes (male, female and hermaphrodite), which are determined on a multiallelic locus. Moreover, the plant does not have morphologically differentiated sexual chromosomes. Provided tha [...] t molecular markers can be associated to traits of interest, in the present study they were applied to rapid sex identification in seedlings of Colombian papaya genotypes. With the aim of finding such markers, an RAPD technique (Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA) was applied. The study allowed identifying three polymorphic RAPD markers apt for differentiating the sexes in papaya. Two of them are specific for male and hermaphrodite plants, and one for female plants. These novel molecular markers will be valuable for sex determination in Colombian genotypes of papaya.

Giovanni, Chaves-Bedoya; Mauricio, Pulido; Erika, Sánchez-Betancourt; Víctor, Núñez.

28

chilena  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chile es el único país latinoamericano donde las políticas económicas neoliberales han tenido éxito. Esto podría deberse tanto a la cultura nacional como a la cultura organizacional del país, que están estrechamente relacionadas. Ambas están llenas de contradicciones. El trabajo identifica algunas características más estables en el largo plazo de ambas culturas, así como también dramáticos cambios culturales ocurridos desde mediados de los años ochenta. Éstos últimos coexistieron con rápido crecimiento de la economía. Debido a ambigüedades, inconsistencias y contradicciones en la gestión organizacional, particularmente en lo relativo a recursos humanos, muchos empleados pueden haber sido forzados a adoptar patrones culturales y de comportamiento frecuentemente asociados a la caricatura Condorito

David E. Hojman

2005-01-01

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EFFECT OF UNRIPE CARICA PAPAYA ON UTERUS  

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Full Text Available The present study was under taken to establish the uterine stimulant activity of aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya. The effect of the aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya was studied on isolated rat uterus and embryo. Uterine stimulant activity was compared with clinically available drug oxytocin and the effect on embryo was compared with misoprostol. In the in vitro model, Carica papaya showed contractile effect on the isolated uterus in diestrus stage and when administered orally in dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg to pregnant rats, resulted in gradual decrease in body weight indicating embryonic resorption. The present study confirms the uterine stimulant activity of aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya fruit.

Meera Sumanth

2013-06-01

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DESHIDRATACIÓN OSMÓTICA DE FRUTOS DE PAPAYA HAWAIANA (Carica papaya L.) EN CUATRO AGENTES EDULCORANTES OSMOTIC DEHYDRATION OF HAWAIIAN PAPAYA FRUITS (Carica papaya L.) USING FOUR SWEETENER AGENTS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Trozos de papaya hawaiiana (Carica papaya L.) fueron sometidos a un proceso de osmo-deshidratación usando cuatro agentes edulcorantes: miel de abejas, miel de caña, crema de miel de abejas y sacarosa en medio acuoso a 79 grados Brix, temperatura de 20 ºC y 23 horas de inmersión. Los resultados estadísticos mostraron que el agente de mayor capacidad deshidratante fue la miel de abejas y el menor la sacarosa. Además, los análisis cinéticos indicaron que la máxima transferencia de masa ...

Margarita Maria Ríos Pérez; Carlos Julio Márquez Cardozo; Héctor José Ciro Velásquez

2005-01-01

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Improving Tenderness of Spent Layer Hens Meat Using Papaya Leaves (Carica papaya  

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Full Text Available Two experiments were performed to study the use of papaya leaves as a meat tenderizer. The first experiment was to evaluate the effect of papaya dry leaves added to hen’s diet before slaughter. Spent hens (n=48 were used, half of them were fed a concentrate ration containing10% dried papaya leaves powder (DPLP while others received layer ration (Control, for 10 days. The second experiment involved a comparison between papaya leaves juice (PLJ, fresh papaya leaves (FPL and vinegar solution (VS as marinades applied to meat for one or two hours before cooking. Spent layer hens (n=42 were used for tenderness evaluation method. After slaughtering and preparing the chickens two methods of cooking were used (oven and moist cooking. The cooked parts (breast, thigh and drumstick were subjected to a panel test evaluation according to a designed questionnaire. Addition of dried papaya leaves powder to spent layer hens ration significantly (P?0.05 increased the level of meat tenderness. Moist cooking had significantly (P?0.05 improved meat tenderization compared to oven cooking. Meat treated with fresh papaya leaves had significantly (P?0.05 improved tenderness. It was concluded that wrapping the tough meat of spent layer hens with fresh papaya leaves for one hour and moist cooking improve tenderness of meat.

H. O. Abdalla, N. N. A. Ali, F. S. Siddig and S. A. M. Ali*

2013-01-01

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Casa Chilena 1: Rancagua, Chile  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los nogales crecidos a los cuales se les ha dejado en paz, la negación del exterior gracias a una tapia perimetral pintada a la cal, un patio interior con posibilidades de ser cubierto por una sombra simple de membrana agrícola anclada a sus muros, un estar familiar austero con síntomas de exterior [...] desplegado a todo lo largo del patio, un cielo de madera en bruto pintada y los dormitorios de colores fuertes, recuerdan de una u otra manera, las casas de inquilinos del campo chileno. En la Casa Chilena 2, se acentúa la negación del exterior y el patio interior se parte en dos generando exteriores matizados. Abstract in english The grown walnut trees left in peace, the negation of the exterior thanks to a whitewashed perimeter wall, an interior patio with the possibility of being covered by the simple shade of an agricultural screen anchored to its walls, an austere, family living room with exterior characteristics unfoldi [...] ng along the patio, a rough, painted wood ceiling and bedrooms in strong colors, remind one of the Inquilino houses of the Chilean countryside. In the Chilean House 2, the negation of the exterior is accentuated and the interior patio divides in two to generate blended exteriors.

Smiljan, Radic.

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Erwinia mallotivora sp., a New Pathogen of Papaya (Carica papaya in Peninsular Malaysia  

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Full Text Available Erwinia mallotivora was isolated from papaya infected with dieback disease showing the typical symptoms of greasy, water-soaked lesions and spots on leaves. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain belonged to the genus Erwinia and was united in a monophyletic group with E. mallotivora DSM 4565 (AJ233414. Earlier studies had indicated that the causal agent for this disease was E. papayae. However, our current studies, through Koch’s postulate, have confirmed that papaya dieback disease is caused by E. mallotivora. To our knowledge, this is the first new discovery of E. mallotivora as a causal agent of papaya dieback disease in Peninsular Malaysia. Previous reports have suggested that E. mallotivora causes leaf spot in Mallotus japonicus. However, this research confirms it also to be pathogenic to Carica papaya.

Noriha Mat Amin

2010-12-01

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ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF PAPAYA LEAF EXTRACTS AGAINST PATHOGENIC BACTERIA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It was reported that the extracts of papaya leaves could inhibit the growth of Rhizopus stolonifer. Antibacterial activity of Carica papaya leaf extracts on pathogenic bacteria was observed in this study. Papaya leaves were extracted by using maceration method and three kinds of solvents: ethanol, ethyl acetate, and hexane. Papaya leaf extracts were tested against Bacillus stearothermophilus, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas sp., and Escherichia coli by agar diffusion method. The objective...

Adolf Jan Nexson Parhusip; Jessica Karina; Elisa Friska Romasi

2011-01-01

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DESHIDRATACIÓN OSMÓTICA DE FRUTOS DE PAPAYA HAWAIANA (Carica papaya L. EN CUATRO AGENTES EDULCORANTES OSMOTIC DEHYDRATION OF HAWAIIAN PAPAYA FRUITS (Carica papaya L. USING FOUR SWEETENER AGENTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Trozos de papaya hawaiiana (Carica papaya L. fueron sometidos a un proceso de osmo-deshidratación usando cuatro agentes edulcorantes: miel de abejas, miel de caña, crema de miel de abejas y sacarosa en medio acuoso a 79 grados Brix, temperatura de 20 ºC y 23 horas de inmersión. Los resultados estadísticos mostraron que el agente de mayor capacidad deshidratante fue la miel de abejas y el menor la sacarosa. Además, los análisis cinéticos indicaron que la máxima transferencia de masa ocurre en las primeras cuatro horas del proceso y la máxima pérdida de masa del producto que puede ser alcanzada fue de 32 % con un contenido de humedad final en los frutos de papaya osmodeshidratada de 41,3 % b.h.Pieces of Hawaiian papaya (Carica papaya L. were subjected to osmotic dehydration using four sweetener agents: honey, molasses, honey cream and sucrose in aqueous solution to 79 degrees Brix, 20 ºC temperature and 23 hours of immersion. The statistical results showed that honey was the sweetener agent with highest osmotic capacity while sucrose had the lowest. The kinetic analysis also showed that the maximum mass transfer occurs during the first four hours of the process and the maximum mass loss of the product that can be attained was 32 % with a final moisture content of 41,3 % w.b.

Margarita Maria Ríos Pérez

2005-12-01

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Evaluación de híbridos de papaya (carica papaya l. en pococí, limón, Costa Rica  

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Full Text Available Evaluación de híbridos de papaya (Carica papaya L. en Pococí, Limón, Costa Rica. Se estableció un experimento con nueve híbridos de papaya con el objetivo de determinar sus potenciales agronómicos y comerciales en una región de alta pluviosidad (cantón de Pococí, provincia de Limón. Las características evaluadas fueron tamaño de fruta, productividad total, brix de la pulpa y susceptibilidad a la antracnosis de la fruta causado por Colletotrichum gloesporioides. Se determinó que solo uno de los materiales mostró características similares al testigo comercial como fruta para consumo en fresco. Otro de los híbridos tuvo potencial para uso con fines agroindustriales.

Eric Mora

2004-01-01

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Correlation between ethylene emission and skin colour changes during papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit ripening  

Science.gov (United States)

The skin colour changes and ethylene emission rates were monitored during papaya (C. papaya L.) fruit ripening. Two groups of papaya (‘Formosa’ and ‘Solo’) were applied in this study. The total colour difference was used as measured parameter and the corresponding half time of its saturation was used as correlation parameter. A high correlation factor between the saturation half time and corresponding climacteric peak time was found. It was concluded that high ethylene emission rate in ‘Solo’ fruit promotes a quick change of the total colour difference.

da Silva, M. G.; Oliveira, J. G.; Vitoria, A. P.; Corrêa, S. F.; Pereira, M. G.; Campostrini, E.; Santos, E. O.; Cavalli, A.; Vargas, H.

2005-06-01

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Effect of gamma irradiation in papaya (Carica papaya L.) harvested in three degrees of maturation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The papaya is a fragile tropical fruit with thin skin, susceptible to post harvest diseases and mechanical injuries. Furthermore, it is sensible to low temperatures and at normal conditions it ripens rapidly, increasing the difficulties with storage. The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of gamma irradiation in papayas harvested in three degrees of maturation, in order to increase shelf life. To accomplish that, papayas were harvested in perfect quality conditions, washed, submitted to carnauba wax and selected by skin coloration into three distinct degrees of maturation: Mat 0, or beginning of yellow coloration; Mat 1, yellow stripes more developed, and Mat 2, one third yellow. Half of them were submitted to irradiation with 0, 75 kGy, while the others became control treatment. They were analyzed in four different periods of conservation, which were 1 day after irradiation (DAI) refrigerated (11 +- 1 deg C), 14 DAI refrigerated, 14 DAI refrigerated + 3 at room temperature (RT = 24 deg +- 2 deg C) and 14 DAI refrigerated + 6 at RT. The effect of irradiation was not influenced by the maturation degree at harvest. Irradiation promoted firmness maintenance of papaya and, therefore, delayed ripening; modified the green color of papaya to a lighter tone, which determined more homogeneity in the skin yellow color development (greater values of L* and b*), and turned the papaya flesh color lighter (rower values of b*). There was no effect of irradiation in papaya weight loss, in the occurrence of diseases, in the development of surface yellow color, in the parameter a* of papaya skin color, in the parameters L*, a* and chroma of flesh color, p H and total soluble solids content. Visual and organoleptic sensorial tests were accomplished with papayas from a new delivery in the conservation period of 14 DAI refrigerated + 3 at RT. In the visual test was evaluated the appearance of papaya in the following treatments: Mat O control, Mat O irradiated, Mat 1 control, Mat 1 irradiated, Mat 2 control e Mat 2 irradiated, in which the first one received lower scores due to the occurrence of ratting on one of the papayas. In the organoleptic test, the parameters firmness, sweetness and acceptance were evaluated for the following treatments: control, Mat O irradiated, Mat 1 irradiated e Mat 2 irradiated. There was no difference between treatments for the sweetness parameter. The irradiated treatments received better scores for firmness as well as papayas irradiated at Mat 1 and 2 for acceptance (author)

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Free radical scavenging activity of papaya juice  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Papaya juice is an efficient scavenger of highly reactive hydroxyl radicals (OH radical) formed during /sup 60/Co irradiation of water. The OH anion radicals were detected by the electron spin resonance (ESR) technique of spin trapping using DMPO (5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide) or by a colorimetric assay in which salicylate is converted into polyhydroxybenzoic acids. Papaya juice is also able to quench the ESR signal of a stable free radical (TEMPOL) and the ESR signal of the DMPO-OH adduct. The active substance(s) in papaya juice are heat-stable, dialyzable, and soluble in water but not in lipid solvents. The active agents do not appear to be ascorbate, tocopherol, or carotenoids.

Webman, E.J.; Mower, H.F.; Edlin, Gordon

1989-03-01

40

Free radical scavenging activity of papaya juice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Papaya juice is an efficient scavenger of highly reactive hydroxyl radicals (OH radical) formed during 60Co irradiation of water. The OH anion radicals were detected by the electron spin resonance (ESR) technique of spin trapping using DMPO (5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide) or by a colorimetric assay in which salicylate is converted into polyhydroxybenzoic acids. Papaya juice is also able to quench the ESR signal of a stable free radical (TEMPOL) and the ESR signal of the DMPO-OH adduct. The active substance(s) in papaya juice are heat-stable, dialyzable, and soluble in water but not in lipid solvents. The active agents do not appear to be ascorbate, tocopherol, or carotenoids. (author)

 
 
 
 
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Caracterización de accesiones de papaya (Carica papaya L.) a través de marcadores AFLP en Cuba / Characterising Cuban papaya accessions (Carica papaya L.) by AFLP markers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los marcadores moleculares son herramientas valiosas en los estudios genéticos en plantas, y están siendo empleados exitosamente en programas de mejoramiento principalmente en la elección de progenitores y en la selección. El polimorfismo observado mediante la técnica molecular AFLP (Amplified Fragm [...] ent Length Polymorphism) ha sido de utilidad para estudios de diversidad genética en frutales. En el presente trabajo se realizó la caracterización molecular de 12 accesiones de papaya (Carica papaya L.) del banco de germoplasma del Instituto de Investigaciones en Fruticultura Tropical (IIFT), empleando la técnica AFLP. Se evaluaron seis combinaciones de iniciadores para la amplificación selectiva, las cuales amplificaron un total de 431 bandas con 73,3% de polimorfismo. El número total de patrones de bandas identificados fue igual en todas las combinaciones utilizadas, con un porcentaje de identificación alto, lo que sugiere que dichas combinaciones pudieran ser empleadas para estudios de variabilidad genética en papaya. En general, los resultados presentados demuestran que existe diversidad genética entre las accesiones evaluadas, lo cual constituye un reflejo del origen que presentan los genotipos analizados a partir de la introducción de materiales foráneos y la polinización abierta de un grupo de materiales selectos. Por tanto, se recomienda retomar la prospección y selección de accesiones locales, así como la introducción de nuevos genotipos foráneos, como dos vías fundamentales para aumentar la diversidad genética presente en el banco de germoplasma de papaya de Cuba. Abstract in english Molecular markers are valuable tools for genetic studies in plants and they are often used successfully in genetic breeding, mainly for choosing progenitors and selection. Polymorphism observed by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) has been useful for genetic diversity studies in fruit tr [...] ees. Twelve papaya accessions from the Tropical Fruit Crop Research Institute germplasm bank were molecularly characterised by AFLP. 431 bands having 73.3% polymorphism were obtained using 6 primer combinations. The total number of band patterns identified was the same in all combinations assayed with a high percentage of identification, suggesting that such primer combinations could be used for genetic variability studies in papaya. The results demonstrated genetic diversity among the papaya accessions evaluated, indicating the origin of the analysed genotypes from exogenous material and open pollination of a selected group of material. It is thus recommended that local accessions and their selection be monitored as well as the introduction of new foreign genotypes as two ways of increasing the genetic diversity of the Cuban papaya germplasm bank.

Maruchi Alonso, Esquivel; Martín, Bautista Alor; Matilde, Ortiz García; Adriana, Quiroz Moreno; Wolfgang, Rohde; Lorenzo Felipe, Sánchez Teyer.

2009-06-01

42

Caracterización de accesiones de papaya (Carica papaya L.) a través de marcadores AFLP en Cuba / Characterising Cuban papaya accessions (Carica papaya L.) by AFLP markers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los marcadores moleculares son herramientas valiosas en los estudios genéticos en plantas, y están siendo empleados exitosamente en programas de mejoramiento principalmente en la elección de progenitores y en la selección. El polimorfismo observado mediante la técnica molecular AFLP (Amplified Fragm [...] ent Length Polymorphism) ha sido de utilidad para estudios de diversidad genética en frutales. En el presente trabajo se realizó la caracterización molecular de 12 accesiones de papaya (Carica papaya L.) del banco de germoplasma del Instituto de Investigaciones en Fruticultura Tropical (IIFT), empleando la técnica AFLP. Se evaluaron seis combinaciones de iniciadores para la amplificación selectiva, las cuales amplificaron un total de 431 bandas con 73,3% de polimorfismo. El número total de patrones de bandas identificados fue igual en todas las combinaciones utilizadas, con un porcentaje de identificación alto, lo que sugiere que dichas combinaciones pudieran ser empleadas para estudios de variabilidad genética en papaya. En general, los resultados presentados demuestran que existe diversidad genética entre las accesiones evaluadas, lo cual constituye un reflejo del origen que presentan los genotipos analizados a partir de la introducción de materiales foráneos y la polinización abierta de un grupo de materiales selectos. Por tanto, se recomienda retomar la prospección y selección de accesiones locales, así como la introducción de nuevos genotipos foráneos, como dos vías fundamentales para aumentar la diversidad genética presente en el banco de germoplasma de papaya de Cuba. Abstract in english Molecular markers are valuable tools for genetic studies in plants and they are often used successfully in genetic breeding, mainly for choosing progenitors and selection. Polymorphism observed by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) has been useful for genetic diversity studies in fruit tr [...] ees. Twelve papaya accessions from the Tropical Fruit Crop Research Institute germplasm bank were molecularly characterised by AFLP. 431 bands having 73.3% polymorphism were obtained using 6 primer combinations. The total number of band patterns identified was the same in all combinations assayed with a high percentage of identification, suggesting that such primer combinations could be used for genetic variability studies in papaya. The results demonstrated genetic diversity among the papaya accessions evaluated, indicating the origin of the analysed genotypes from exogenous material and open pollination of a selected group of material. It is thus recommended that local accessions and their selection be monitored as well as the introduction of new foreign genotypes as two ways of increasing the genetic diversity of the Cuban papaya germplasm bank.

Maruchi Alonso, Esquivel; Martín, Bautista Alor; Matilde, Ortiz García; Adriana, Quiroz Moreno; Wolfgang, Rohde; Lorenzo Felipe, Sánchez Teyer.

43

Quantification of the antiplasmodial alkaloid carpaine in papaya (Carica papaya) leaves.  

Science.gov (United States)

Daily consumption of papaya (Carica papaya) leaves as greens and an herbal infusion is common in some parts of Indonesia as a means for preventing malaria. Antiplasmodial activity of the leaf extracts and of the main alkaloid carpaine were recently confirmed. A quantitative assay for determination of carpaine in papaya leaves was developed and validated. The assay involved pressurized liquid extraction and quantification with the aid of ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy. Extraction conditions were optimized with respect to solvent, temperature, and number of extraction cycles. The ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy assay was validated over a range of 20-5000 ng/mL (R(2) of 0.9908). A total of 29 papaya leaf samples were analyzed, and carpaine concentration in dry leaves was found to range from 0.02 to 0.31%. No obvious dependence on geographic origin and leaf maturity was observed. PMID:25153096

Julianti, Tasqiah; Oufir, Mouhssin; Hamburger, Matthias

2014-08-01

44

7 CFR 319.56-25 - Papayas from Central America and Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Papayas from Central America and Brazil. 319...Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-25 Papayas from Central America and Brazil. The Solo type of papaya may be imported into the...

2010-01-01

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Uptake of 32P labelled superphosphate by endomycorrhizal papaya (Carica papaya cv. Coorg honey dew)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In papaya (Carica papaya cv. Coorg honey dew), there was an increase in 32P uptake and total phosphorus in plants inoculated with mycorrhizal fungi Glomus mossae and G. fasciculatum. Phosphorus derived from fertilizer (Pdff) was lower in mycorrhizal plants while soil derived P, utilisation of P and A values were higher showing thereby that mycorrhizal plants had utilised forms of phosphorus not available to non-mycorrhizal plants. (author). 13 refs., 1 tab

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Incidencia y severidad de la antracnosis en líneas e híbridos de papaya (Carica papaya)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Incidencia y severidad de la antracnosis en líneas e híbridos de papaya (Carica papaya). El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la incidencia y severidad de la antracnosis (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides), en frutas de papaya. El experimento se realizó en Guápiles, Limón, Costa Rica, entre los a [...] ños 2010 y 2011. Se sembraron cinco líneas y cuatro híbridos bajo un diseño de bloques completos al azar con tres repeticiones. Se evaluó la incidencia y severidad de la antracnosis, así como la firmeza y los sólidos solubles (grados Brix) de la fruta. Los híbridos presentaron características intermedias a los padres para las características evaluadas. En la antracnosis de fruta, la resistencia tiende a ser dominante para el material evaluado. Abstract in english Incidence and severity of anthracnose in breeding lines and crosses of papaya (Carica papaya). The objective of this study was to determine the incidence and severity of papaya fruit anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides). The experiment was carried out in Guápiles, Limón, Costa Rica, between [...] the years 2010 and 2011. Five lines and four crosses were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Evaluated traits were incidence and severity of anthracnose, fruit firmness and total soluble solids content of the pulp. Results suggest that the crosses have intermediate characteristics to those of their parent lines for these traits. In the specific case of anthracnose, evidence also suggests that the resistance to this disease tends to be inherited in a dominant manner.

Antonio, Bogantes-Arias; Eric, Mora-Newcomer.

2013-12-01

47

Incidencia y severidad de la antracnosis en líneas e híbridos de papaya (Carica papaya)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Incidencia y severidad de la antracnosis en líneas e híbridos de papaya (Carica papaya). El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la incidencia y severidad de la antracnosis (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides), en frutas de papaya. El experimento se realizó en Guápiles, Limón, Costa Rica, entre los a [...] ños 2010 y 2011. Se sembraron cinco líneas y cuatro híbridos bajo un diseño de bloques completos al azar con tres repeticiones. Se evaluó la incidencia y severidad de la antracnosis, así como la firmeza y los sólidos solubles (grados Brix) de la fruta. Los híbridos presentaron características intermedias a los padres para las características evaluadas. En la antracnosis de fruta, la resistencia tiende a ser dominante para el material evaluado. Abstract in english Incidence and severity of anthracnose in breeding lines and crosses of papaya (Carica papaya). The objective of this study was to determine the incidence and severity of papaya fruit anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides). The experiment was carried out in Guápiles, Limón, Costa Rica, between [...] the years 2010 and 2011. Five lines and four crosses were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Evaluated traits were incidence and severity of anthracnose, fruit firmness and total soluble solids content of the pulp. Results suggest that the crosses have intermediate characteristics to those of their parent lines for these traits. In the specific case of anthracnose, evidence also suggests that the resistance to this disease tends to be inherited in a dominant manner.

Antonio, Bogantes-Arias; Eric, Mora-Newcomer.

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Gene technology for papaya ringspot virus disease management.  

Science.gov (United States)

Papaya (Carica papaya) is severely damaged by the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). This review focuses on the development of PRSV resistant transgenic papaya through gene technology. The genetic diversity of PRSV depends upon geographical distribution and the influence of PRSV disease management on a sequence of PRSV isolates. The concept of pathogen-derived resistance has been employed for the development of transgenic papaya, using a coat protein-mediated, RNA-silencing mechanism and replicase gene-mediated transformation for effective PRSV disease management. The development of PRSV-resistant papaya via post-transcriptional gene silencing is a promising technology for PRSV disease management. PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya is environmentally safe and has no harmful effects on human health. Recent studies have revealed that the success of adoption of transgenic papaya depends upon the application, it being a commercially viable product, bio-safety regulatory issues, trade regulations, and the wider social acceptance of the technology. This review discusses the genome and the genetic diversity of PRSV, host range determinants, molecular diagnosis, disease management strategies, the development of transgenic papaya, environmental issues, issues in the adoption of transgenic papaya, and future directions for research. PMID:24757435

Azad, Md Abul Kalam; Amin, Latifah; Sidik, Nik Marzuki

2014-01-01

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Nematodos fitoparásitos asociados al cultivo de papaya (Carica papaya L.) en Colima, México / Phytoparasitic nematodes associated with the cultivation of papaya (Carica papaya L.) in Colima, Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este estudio tuvo como objetivo detectar e identificar los géneros de nematodos fitoparásitos asociados al cultivo de papaya (Caricapapaya L.) en los municipios de Tecomán y Colima, Colima. Se seleccionaron diez huertos, de siete ranchos en los que se colectaron muestras de raíces y suelo rizosféric [...] o; en cada muestra se cuantificó e identificaron las poblaciones de los fitonematodos. Para la identificación específica de Meloidogyne, se analizaron cortes perineales de las hembras y se confirmó por reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR). Los géneros de fitonematodos detectados e identificados fueron: Aphelenchus, Ditylenchus, Helicotylenchus, Paratylenchus, Pratylenchus, Rotylenchulus, Rotylenchus, Trophurus, Tylenchorrhynchus, Tylenchus, y Meloidogyne, con la especie M. incognita. Los resultados permiten el reporte por primera vez de M. incognita, asociado al cultivo de papaya en Colima, México. Abstract in english This study aimed to detect and identify phytoparasitic nematodes associated with the cultivation of papaya (Caricapapaya L.) in the municipalities of Tecomán and Colima, Colima. We selected ten orchards, seven ranches in which samples were collected roots and rhizosphere soil, in each sample was qua [...] ntified and identified populations of phytoparasitic nematodes. For specific identification of Meloidogyne, perineal cuts were analyzed and confirmed females by chain reaction (PCR). The genera of phytoparasitic nematodes were detected and identified: Aphelenchus, Ditylenchus, Helicotylenchus, Paratylenchus, Pratylenchus, Rotylenchulus, Rotylenchus, Trophurus, Tylenchorrhynchus, Tylenchus, and Meloidogyne, with the species M. incognita. The results allow the first report of M incognita associated with papaya in Colima, Mexico.

José Ángel, Martínez Gallardo; Tomás, Díaz Valdés; Raúl, Allende Molar; José Alfonso, Ortiz Meza; Raymundo Saúl, García Estrada; José Armando, Carrillo Fasio.

50

Nematodos fitoparásitos asociados al cultivo de papaya (Carica papaya L.) en Colima, México / Phytoparasitic nematodes associated with the cultivation of papaya (Carica papaya L.) in Colima, Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este estudio tuvo como objetivo detectar e identificar los géneros de nematodos fitoparásitos asociados al cultivo de papaya (Caricapapaya L.) en los municipios de Tecomán y Colima, Colima. Se seleccionaron diez huertos, de siete ranchos en los que se colectaron muestras de raíces y suelo rizosféric [...] o; en cada muestra se cuantificó e identificaron las poblaciones de los fitonematodos. Para la identificación específica de Meloidogyne, se analizaron cortes perineales de las hembras y se confirmó por reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR). Los géneros de fitonematodos detectados e identificados fueron: Aphelenchus, Ditylenchus, Helicotylenchus, Paratylenchus, Pratylenchus, Rotylenchulus, Rotylenchus, Trophurus, Tylenchorrhynchus, Tylenchus, y Meloidogyne, con la especie M. incognita. Los resultados permiten el reporte por primera vez de M. incognita, asociado al cultivo de papaya en Colima, México. Abstract in english This study aimed to detect and identify phytoparasitic nematodes associated with the cultivation of papaya (Caricapapaya L.) in the municipalities of Tecomán and Colima, Colima. We selected ten orchards, seven ranches in which samples were collected roots and rhizosphere soil, in each sample was qua [...] ntified and identified populations of phytoparasitic nematodes. For specific identification of Meloidogyne, perineal cuts were analyzed and confirmed females by chain reaction (PCR). The genera of phytoparasitic nematodes were detected and identified: Aphelenchus, Ditylenchus, Helicotylenchus, Paratylenchus, Pratylenchus, Rotylenchulus, Rotylenchus, Trophurus, Tylenchorrhynchus, Tylenchus, and Meloidogyne, with the species M. incognita. The results allow the first report of M incognita associated with papaya in Colima, Mexico.

José Ángel, Martínez Gallardo; Tomás, Díaz Valdés; Raúl, Allende Molar; José Alfonso, Ortiz Meza; Raymundo Saúl, García Estrada; José Armando, Carrillo Fasio.

2014-03-01

51

Efecto positivo de aplicaciones de ácido salicílico en la productividad de papaya (Carica papaya) / Positive effect of salicylic acid application on productivity of papaya (Carica papaya)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Durante dos años se realizó un experimento con papaya (Carica papaya) cv. Maradol en condiciones de campo en Yucatán en el que se estudio el efecto de aspersiones de bajas concentraciones de ácido salicílico (AS), en la productividad del frutal. El AS a concentraciones de 0.01 ?M incremento el porce [...] ntaje de plantas hermafroditas en 20% sobre el control e incremento significativamente la altura y grosor de la planta. Esta misma concentración incremento 19.7% el número de frutos por planta, en 2% el peso de los frutos y en 21.9% el rendimiento por hectárea. El AS a todas las concentraciones probadas incremento significativamente la variable de productividad analizada. Abstract in english For two years, was conducted an experiment with papaya (Carica papaya) cv. Maradol under field conditions in Yucatan in which was studied the effect of spraying low concentrations of salicylic acid (SA), in the productivity of fruit. The SA to concentrations of 0.01 (?M increased the percentage of h [...] ermaphroditic plants in 20% over the control and significantly increased the height and thickness of plants. This same concentration increased 19.7% the number of fruits per plant, in 2% of the fruit weight and 21.9% the yield per hectare. The SA at all concentrations tested, significantly increased the productivity variable analyzed.

Rodolfo, Martin-Mex; Ángel, Nexticapan-Garcéz; Rubí, Herrera-Tuz; Silvia, Vergara-Yoisura; Alfonso, Larqué-Saavedra.

2012-12-01

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CARICA PAPAYA: A COMPLETE PACKAGE OF NUTRITIONALAND MEDICINAL BENEFITS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Papaya (Carica papaya Linn. is well known for its exceptional nutritional and medicinal properties throughout the world. From the times immemorial, the whole Carica papaya plant including its leaves, seeds, ripe and unripe fruits and their juice is used as traditional medicine. The fruit has a large oval shape, yellowish -green skin and yellow flesh. Now a day, Carica papaya is considered as nutraceutical fruit due to its multi faceted medicinal and nutritional properties. The prominent medicinal properties of Carica papaya include anti-fertility, uterotonic, and diuretic, anti-hypertensive, wound healing, anti bacterial activities. Nutritionally the whole plant contains enzymes, vitamin A, vitamin C, B-complex vitamins and potassium. The present article reviews the nutritional and medicinal uses of Carica papaya.

Karabhari Rekha Bhaskar

2014-07-01

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Papaya seed represents a rich source of biologically active isothiocyanate.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study, papaya (Carica papaya) seed and edible pulp were carefully separated and then the contents of benzyl isothiocyanate and the corresponding glucosinolate (benzyl glucosinolate, glucotropaeolin) quantified in each part. The papaya seed with myrosinase inactivation contained >1 mmol of benzyl glucosinolate in 100 g of fresh seed. This content is equivalent to that of Karami daikon (the hottest Japanese white radish) or that of cress. The papaya seed extract also showed a very high activity of myrosinase and, without myrosinase inactivation, produced 460 micromol of benzyl isothiocyanate in 100 g of seed. In contrast, papaya pulp contained an undetectable amount of benzyl glucosinolate and showed no significant myrosinase activity. The n-hexane extract of the papaya seed homogenate was highly effective in inhibiting superoxide generation and apoptosis induction in HL-60 cells, the activities of which are comparable to those of authentic benzyl isothiocyanate. PMID:17469845

Nakamura, Yoshimasa; Yoshimoto, Motoko; Murata, Yoshiyuki; Shimoishi, Yasuaki; Asai, Yumi; Park, Eun Young; Sato, Kenji; Nakamura, Yasushi

2007-05-30

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COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON ANTHELMINTIC POTENTIAL OF CUCURBITA MAXIMA (PUMPKIN SEEDS AND CARICA PAPAYA (PAPAYA SEEDS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The crude extract of Carica papaya (papaya seeds (CP and Cucurbita maxima (Pumpkin seeds (CM were assayed against adult earthworms (Pheretima posthuma for the evaluation of anthelmintic activity. Various concentrations of both extracts were tested and results were expressed in terms of time for paralysis (P and time for death (D of worms. Albendazole was used as a reference standard. The result showed that in both of the extracts (i.e. CP and CM dose of 60 mg / ml possesses more wormicidal activity. The time of paralysis was 1.88 ± 0.52 minute and 1.93 ± 0.57 minute whereas the time of death was 3.45 ± 0.17 minute and 4.90 ± 0.18 minute in the case of Carica papaya and Cucurbita maxima respectively. In conclusion, the use of seeds of Carica papaya (CP and Cucurbita maxima (CM for anthelmintic activity have been confirmed and further studies are suggested to isolate the active principles responsible for the activity. Both the extracts showed significant anthelmintic activity, but the comparative study showed that out of these two, Carica papaya proves to be a better anthelmintic remedy.

Sengupta Rupa

2013-08-01

55

THE YIELDING CHARACTERISTIC OF SENTUL CHICKENS FED DIET CONTAINING PAPAYA LEAVES MEAL (Carica papaya L. Less  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sentul chicken is one of the local chicken come from Ciamis, West Java-Indonesia, and a dual-purpose type that can utilized for eggs and meat production. In other way, this bird is very good for chicken meat species, because has a compact body and white skin color. One of alternative to improve the sentul chicken quality is by giving the ration which has papaya leaf meal; rich of high crude protein, contained carotene, vitamin C and high of minerals. The research aimed to find out how far the treatment on the yielding characteristics. The research used 75 day old chick and then divided into twenty five cages. The experiment conducted with Completely Randomized Design, five papaya leaves meal levels in the ration, namely: 0% (R0, 2.5% (R1 ,5% ( R2, 7.5% ( R3, and 10% (R4, repeated five times, where each replication consist of three sentul chickens. Final body weight, carcass percentage and abdominal fat percentage were parameters observed. The results showed that by using papaya leaf meal up until 7.5% gave no significant effect (P >0.05 on final body weight, carcass percentage and abdominal fat percentage. But by giving 10% papaya leaf meal gave decreased effect on final body weight, carcass percentage and abdominal fat percentage (P<0.05. The real conclusion of this experiment that by giving 7.5% papaya leaf meal gave the best of carcass quality

T. Widjastuti

2012-01-01

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The draft genome of the transgenic tropical fruit tree papaya (Carica papaya Linnaeus).  

Science.gov (United States)

Papaya, a fruit crop cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions, is known for its nutritional benefits and medicinal applications. Here we report a 3x draft genome sequence of 'SunUp' papaya, the first commercial virus-resistant transgenic fruit tree to be sequenced. The papaya genome is three times the size of the Arabidopsis genome, but contains fewer genes, including significantly fewer disease-resistance gene analogues. Comparison of the five sequenced genomes suggests a minimal angiosperm gene set of 13,311. A lack of recent genome duplication, atypical of other angiosperm genomes sequenced so far, may account for the smaller papaya gene number in most functional groups. Nonetheless, striking amplifications in gene number within particular functional groups suggest roles in the evolution of tree-like habit, deposition and remobilization of starch reserves, attraction of seed dispersal agents, and adaptation to tropical daylengths. Transgenesis at three locations is closely associated with chloroplast insertions into the nuclear genome, and with topoisomerase I recognition sites. Papaya offers numerous advantages as a system for fruit-tree functional genomics, and this draft genome sequence provides the foundation for revealing the basis of Carica's distinguishing morpho-physiological, medicinal and nutritional properties. PMID:18432245

Ming, Ray; Hou, Shaobin; Feng, Yun; Yu, Qingyi; Dionne-Laporte, Alexandre; Saw, Jimmy H; Senin, Pavel; Wang, Wei; Ly, Benjamin V; Lewis, Kanako L T; Salzberg, Steven L; Feng, Lu; Jones, Meghan R; Skelton, Rachel L; Murray, Jan E; Chen, Cuixia; Qian, Wubin; Shen, Junguo; Du, Peng; Eustice, Moriah; Tong, Eric; Tang, Haibao; Lyons, Eric; Paull, Robert E; Michael, Todd P; Wall, Kerr; Rice, Danny W; Albert, Henrik; Wang, Ming-Li; Zhu, Yun J; Schatz, Michael; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Acob, Ricelle A; Guan, Peizhu; Blas, Andrea; Wai, Ching Man; Ackerman, Christine M; Ren, Yan; Liu, Chao; Wang, Jianmei; Wang, Jianping; Na, Jong-Kuk; Shakirov, Eugene V; Haas, Brian; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Nelson, David; Wang, Xiyin; Bowers, John E; Gschwend, Andrea R; Delcher, Arthur L; Singh, Ratnesh; Suzuki, Jon Y; Tripathi, Savarni; Neupane, Kabi; Wei, Hairong; Irikura, Beth; Paidi, Maya; Jiang, Ning; Zhang, Wenli; Presting, Gernot; Windsor, Aaron; Navajas-Pérez, Rafael; Torres, Manuel J; Feltus, F Alex; Porter, Brad; Li, Yingjun; Burroughs, A Max; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Liu, Lei; Christopher, David A; Mount, Stephen M; Moore, Paul H; Sugimura, Tak; Jiang, Jiming; Schuler, Mary A; Friedman, Vikki; Mitchell-Olds, Thomas; Shippen, Dorothy E; dePamphilis, Claude W; Palmer, Jeffrey D; Freeling, Michael; Paterson, Andrew H; Gonsalves, Dennis; Wang, Lei; Alam, Maqsudul

2008-04-24

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Influence of ripening stages on antioxidant properties of papaya fruit (Carica papaya L.)  

Science.gov (United States)

Papaya (Carica papaya L. cv Eksotika) is one of the most commonly consumed tropical fruits by humans, especially Malaysians. The objective of this study was to determine the phenolic compounds and antioxidants activity in different ripening stages of papaya fruit. The fruits were harvested at five different, stages RS1, RS2, RS3, RS4, and RS5 corresponding to 12, 14, 16, 18, and 20 weeks after anthesis, respectively. Papayas fruit at five different stage of ripening were obtained from farms at Pusat Flora Cheras, JabatanPertanian and Hulu Langat Semenyih, Selangor, Malaysia. The antioxidants activity were analyzed using the total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), ferric reducing antioxidant Power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The analyses were conducted in triplicate and the data were subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS. The results showed significant differences (PDPPH values increased significantly (P<0.05) with the ripening process. The results showed the important role of the ripening stage in increasing the antioxidant content of papaya fruits.

Addai, Zuhair Radhi; Abdullah, Aminah; Mutalib, Sahilah Abd.

2013-11-01

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Fusarium species associated with fruit rot of banana (Musa spp.), papaya (Carica papaya) and guava (Psidium guajava)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A total of 60 isolates of Fusarium were isolated from fruit rot of banana (Musa spp.), papaya (Carica papaya) and guava(Psidium guajava). The most common species recovered from the fruit rot of the three fruit crops were F. semitectum(40 %), F. solani (38.3 %), F. verticillioides (11.7 %) and F. oxysporum (10 %). Fusarium semitectum was isolated from fruit rot of banana, papaya and guava; F. oxysporum from banana and papaya; F. solani from banana and guava and F.verticillioides from banana. F...

Zakaria, L.; Mazzura, W. C.; Kong, W. H.; Baharuddin, S.

2012-01-01

59

Selection and estimation of the genetic gain in segregating generations of papaya (Carica papaya L.  

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Full Text Available In Brazil, papaya is sustained by a narrow genetic basis, with few genetically distinct cultivars for planting.Therefore, this study aimed to select and estimate the direct and combined genetic gains for commercial fruit yield (Yld Plt-1in segregating generations of papaya. Six traits were simultaneously targeted in combined selection and were attributedweights associated to agronomic values. Direct selection however was based on Yld Plt-1 only. Results indicated geneticvariability in the segregating generations for the evaluated traits and although combined selection achieved a lower geneticgain in Yld Plt-1, it offers greater chances of success in the following generations since favorable and unfavorable agronomictraits of papaya are considered. These results motivated the recommendation to advance generations with 30 plants, selectedfrom a total of 345 plants, considering all segregating treatments.

Francisco Filho da Silva

2008-01-01

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Extraction and characteristics of seed oil from Papaya (Carica papaya in Congo-Brazzaville  

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Full Text Available Papaya seeds were collected and dried. This study was carried out on papaya seed to clarify their proximate composition and the characteristics of the extracted oil including unsaponifiable matter and fatty acid composition. The seed is a rich source of protein (26.78% and crude fiber (21.4%. Palmitic acid was the main saturated fatty acid (15.22%, while linoleic acid was the major unsaturated fatty acid (76.38% in all lipid classes. The physical properties of the oil extracts showed the state to be liquid at room temperature. Carica papaya seeds have ash content of 3.2% (with the presence of following minerals: K, Na, Ca, P and Mg. However, Ca and P occur in appreciable quantities (1821±2.12 mg/100 g dry matter and 1156±1.8 mg/100 g dry mater, respectively.

G. Bouanga-Kalou

2011-03-01

 
 
 
 
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Evaluación de la calidad y el rendimiento en papaya silvestre (Carica papaya L.) de Cuba / Evaluation of quality and yield in papaya wild (Carica papaya L.) from Cuba  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La papaya (Carica papaya L.) de la familia Caricaceae, es nativa del trópico americano y la especie más importante del género Carica por su alto valor nutritivo e industrial. En sus áreas de origen existen parientes silvestres que proporcionan alimento a las comunidades que las mantienen y de ser ap [...] rovechadas, podrían constituir una importante fuente de ingresos debido a que poseen genes útiles para elevar el rendimiento y calidad nutricional de sus frutos. Existe referencia de las poblaciones de papaya silvestres en nuestro país. Sin embargo, aún no se han caracterizado o evaluado con profundidad, de modo que se desconoce el rendimiento y la calidad de sus frutos. El presente estudio se llevó a cabo con el propósito de evaluar genotipos de papaya silvestre, prospectados en las alturas del nacimiento de las Cuencas Almendares-Vento y Noreste de la Habana, a través de indicadores físicos, químicos y el rendimiento, que permitan valorar su aceptación en el mercado. Los resultados mostraron alto rendimiento y frutos con características que les permiten ser de gran aceptación en el mercado para consumo en fresco por su masa, forma, dimensiones, sólidos solubles totales y color de la cáscara y la pulpa. Además, las características apreciadas favorecen su empleo para futuros programas de mejoramiento genético en Cuba, con el propósito de obtener cultivares con alto número de frutos de mediano a pequeño tamaño por planta Abstract in english The papaya (Carica papaya L.), family Caricaceae, is native from American tropic and the most important in the gender Carica for its nutritious and industrial high value. In their origin areas wild relatives exist, that provide food to the communities that maintain them, could constitute an importan [...] t source of revenues, because they possess useful genes to elevate the yield and nutritional quality of their fruits. The wild papaya populations’ reference exists in our country. However, they have not still been characterized or evaluated with depth, so one ignores the yield and the quality of their fruits. The present study was carried out with the purpose of evaluating genotypes of wild papaya, prospected in the heights of the birth of the Basins Almendares-Vento and Northeast of Havana, through physical, chemical indicators and the yield, that allow to value their acceptance in the market. The results showed high yield and fruits with characteristics that allow them to be of great acceptance in the market for consumption in fresh for their mass, it forms, dimensions, soluble total solids and color of the shell and the pulp. Also, the appreciated characteristics favor their employment for futures programs of genetic improvement in Cuba, with the purpose of obtaining cultivares with high number of fruits of medium to small size for plant

Jesús, Rodríguez Cabello; Yusnier, Díaz Hernández; Aymara, Pérez González; Zulma, Natali Cruz; Pedro, Rodríguez Hernández.

2014-09-01

62

Evaluación de la calidad y el rendimiento en papaya silvestre (Carica papaya L.) de Cuba / Evaluation of quality and yield in papaya wild (Carica papaya L.) from Cuba  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La papaya (Carica papaya L.) de la familia Caricaceae, es nativa del trópico americano y la especie más importante del género Carica por su alto valor nutritivo e industrial. En sus áreas de origen existen parientes silvestres que proporcionan alimento a las comunidades que las mantienen y de ser ap [...] rovechadas, podrían constituir una importante fuente de ingresos debido a que poseen genes útiles para elevar el rendimiento y calidad nutricional de sus frutos. Existe referencia de las poblaciones de papaya silvestres en nuestro país. Sin embargo, aún no se han caracterizado o evaluado con profundidad, de modo que se desconoce el rendimiento y la calidad de sus frutos. El presente estudio se llevó a cabo con el propósito de evaluar genotipos de papaya silvestre, prospectados en las alturas del nacimiento de las Cuencas Almendares-Vento y Noreste de la Habana, a través de indicadores físicos, químicos y el rendimiento, que permitan valorar su aceptación en el mercado. Los resultados mostraron alto rendimiento y frutos con características que les permiten ser de gran aceptación en el mercado para consumo en fresco por su masa, forma, dimensiones, sólidos solubles totales y color de la cáscara y la pulpa. Además, las características apreciadas favorecen su empleo para futuros programas de mejoramiento genético en Cuba, con el propósito de obtener cultivares con alto número de frutos de mediano a pequeño tamaño por planta Abstract in english The papaya (Carica papaya L.), family Caricaceae, is native from American tropic and the most important in the gender Carica for its nutritious and industrial high value. In their origin areas wild relatives exist, that provide food to the communities that maintain them, could constitute an importan [...] t source of revenues, because they possess useful genes to elevate the yield and nutritional quality of their fruits. The wild papaya populations’ reference exists in our country. However, they have not still been characterized or evaluated with depth, so one ignores the yield and the quality of their fruits. The present study was carried out with the purpose of evaluating genotypes of wild papaya, prospected in the heights of the birth of the Basins Almendares-Vento and Northeast of Havana, through physical, chemical indicators and the yield, that allow to value their acceptance in the market. The results showed high yield and fruits with characteristics that allow them to be of great acceptance in the market for consumption in fresh for their mass, it forms, dimensions, soluble total solids and color of the shell and the pulp. Also, the appreciated characteristics favor their employment for futures programs of genetic improvement in Cuba, with the purpose of obtaining cultivares with high number of fruits of medium to small size for plant

Jesús, Rodríguez Cabello; Yusnier, Díaz Hernández; Aymara, Pérez González; Zulma, Natali Cruz; Pedro, Rodríguez Hernández.

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Antioxidant Activity and Physicochemical Properties of Mature Papaya Fruit (Carica papaya L. cv. Eksotika  

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Full Text Available Papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Eksotika is one of the most commonly consumed tropical fruits by humans, especially Malaysians. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the maturity stage (12, 14, 16, 18 and 20 weeks after anthesis of papaya fruit on its physicochemical properties, antioxidant capacity and sensory characteristics. Papaya fruits were selected and classified based on their visual maturity, i.e., stages 1 to 5. The activities of several antioxidants were tested, including the Total Phenolic Content (TPC, Total Flavonoid Content (TFC, Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS. The physicochemical changes were measured in terms of the pH, Titratable Acidity (TA, moisture, Total Soluble Solids (TSS and pulp color of the papaya fruits at the five ripening stages. Significant differences (p<0.05 were found in different degrees of ripening. The pH of the fruit decreased significantly (p<0.05, whereas the TA, moisture and TSS all increased significantly (p<0.05 with maturity. The redness (a* and yellowness (b* values of the fruit color both increased significantly, whereas the lightness (L* of the color fluctuated. The TPC, TFC, FRAP, DPPH and ABTS values also increased significantly (p<0.05 with ripening. Sensory evaluation based on the color, sweetness, sourness, flavor and overall acceptance for the last three maturity stages was also performed. Stage 5 had a better score than stages 3 or 4. The results showed the important role of the ripening stage in increasing the antioxidant content of papaya fruits.

Zuhair Radhi Addai

2013-07-01

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Oxidative processes during 'Golden' papaya fruit ripening  

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Full Text Available 'Golden' papayas at maturity stage 1 (15% yellow skin were chosen to study selected oxidative processes, the activity of antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation in storage at 22°C, during the ripening of the fruit. An increase in ethylene production was observed on the second day of storage and it was followed by an increase in respiration. An increased activity of catalase, glutathione reductase and ascorbate peroxidase was observed concurrently or soon after this increase in ethylene production and respiration. The increased activity of these enzymes near the peaks of ethylene production and respiration is related to the production of oxidants accompanying the onset of ripening. On the fourth day of storage, there was an increased lipid peroxidation and decreased activities of catalase, glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase. Lipid peroxidation induces the increase of antioxidant enzymes, which can be verified by further increases in the activities of catalase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase. Unlike the other antioxidant enzymes, the ascorbate peroxidase activity in the pulp increased continuously during ripening, suggesting its important role in combating reactive oxygen species during papaya ripening. With regard to physical-chemical characteristics, the soluble solids did not vary significantly, the acidity and ascorbic acid contents increased, and hue angle and firmness decreased during storage. The results revealed that there was variation in the activity of antioxidant enzymes, with peaks of lipid peroxidation during the ripening of 'Golden' papaya. These results provide a basis for future research, especially with regard to the relationships among the climacteric stage, the activation of antioxidant enzymes and the role of ascorbate peroxidase in papaya ripening.

Evellyn Couto Oliveira Resende

2012-06-01

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Antioxidant Activity of Papaya Seed Extracts  

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The antioxidant activities of the ethanol, petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water extract fractions from the seeds of papaya were evaluated in this study. The ethyl acetate fraction showed the strongest DPPH and hydroxyl free radical-scavenging activities, and its activities were stronger than those of ascorbic acid and sodium benzoate, respectively. The n-butanol fraction demonstrated the greatest ABTS+ radicals scavenging activity. The ethyl acetate fraction and the n-butanol f...

Haofu Dai; Wenli Mei; Xiaona Li; Ying Luo; Hui (Wendy) Wang; Kaibing Zhou

2011-01-01

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Oxidative processes during 'Golden' papaya fruit ripening  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english 'Golden' papayas at maturity stage 1 (15% yellow skin) were chosen to study selected oxidative processes, the activity of antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation in storage at 22°C, during the ripening of the fruit. An increase in ethylene production was observed on the second day of storage and [...] it was followed by an increase in respiration. An increased activity of catalase, glutathione reductase and ascorbate peroxidase was observed concurrently or soon after this increase in ethylene production and respiration. The increased activity of these enzymes near the peaks of ethylene production and respiration is related to the production of oxidants accompanying the onset of ripening. On the fourth day of storage, there was an increased lipid peroxidation and decreased activities of catalase, glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase. Lipid peroxidation induces the increase of antioxidant enzymes, which can be verified by further increases in the activities of catalase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase. Unlike the other antioxidant enzymes, the ascorbate peroxidase activity in the pulp increased continuously during ripening, suggesting its important role in combating reactive oxygen species during papaya ripening. With regard to physical-chemical characteristics, the soluble solids did not vary significantly, the acidity and ascorbic acid contents increased, and hue angle and firmness decreased during storage. The results revealed that there was variation in the activity of antioxidant enzymes, with peaks of lipid peroxidation during the ripening of 'Golden' papaya. These results provide a basis for future research, especially with regard to the relationships among the climacteric stage, the activation of antioxidant enzymes and the role of ascorbate peroxidase in papaya ripening.

Evellyn Couto Oliveira, Resende; Paula Fabiane, Martins; Ricardo Antunes de, Azevedo; Angelo Pedro, Jacomino; Ilana Urbano, Bron.

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Carica papaya microRNAs are responsive to Papaya meleira virus infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

MicroRNAs are implicated in the response to biotic stresses. Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) is the causal agent of sticky disease, a commercially important pathology in papaya for which there are currently no resistant varieties. PMeV has a number of unusual features, such as residence in the laticifers of infected plants, and the response of the papaya to PMeV infection is not well understood. The protein levels of 20S proteasome subunits increase during PMeV infection, suggesting that proteolysis could be an important aspect of the plant defense response mechanism. To date, 10,598 plant microRNAs have been identified in the Plant miRNAs Database, but only two, miR162 and miR403, are from papaya. In this study, known plant microRNA sequences were used to search for potential microRNAs in the papaya genome. A total of 462 microRNAs, representing 72 microRNA families, were identified. The expression of 11 microRNAs, whose targets are involved in 20S and 26S proteasomal degradation and in other stress response pathways, was compared by real-time PCR in healthy and infected papaya leaf tissue. We found that the expression of miRNAs involved in proteasomal degradation increased in response to very low levels of PMeV titre and decreased as the viral titre increased. In contrast, miRNAs implicated in the plant response to biotic stress decreased their expression at very low level of PMeV and increased at high PMeV levels. Corroborating with this results, analysed target genes for this miRNAs had their expression modulated in a dependent manner. This study represents a comprehensive identification of conserved miRNAs inpapaya. The data presented here might help to complement the available molecular and genomic tools for the study of papaya. The differential expression of some miRNAs and identifying their target genes will be helpful for understanding the regulation and interaction of PMeV and papaya. PMID:25072834

Abreu, Paolla M V; Gaspar, Clicia G; Buss, David S; Ventura, José A; Ferreira, Paulo C G; Fernandes, Patricia M B

2014-01-01

68

Carica papaya MicroRNAs Are Responsive to Papaya meleira virus Infection  

Science.gov (United States)

MicroRNAs are implicated in the response to biotic stresses. Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) is the causal agent of sticky disease, a commercially important pathology in papaya for which there are currently no resistant varieties. PMeV has a number of unusual features, such as residence in the laticifers of infected plants, and the response of the papaya to PMeV infection is not well understood. The protein levels of 20S proteasome subunits increase during PMeV infection, suggesting that proteolysis could be an important aspect of the plant defense response mechanism. To date, 10,598 plant microRNAs have been identified in the Plant miRNAs Database, but only two, miR162 and miR403, are from papaya. In this study, known plant microRNA sequences were used to search for potential microRNAs in the papaya genome. A total of 462 microRNAs, representing 72 microRNA families, were identified. The expression of 11 microRNAs, whose targets are involved in 20S and 26S proteasomal degradation and in other stress response pathways, was compared by real-time PCR in healthy and infected papaya leaf tissue. We found that the expression of miRNAs involved in proteasomal degradation increased in response to very low levels of PMeV titre and decreased as the viral titre increased. In contrast, miRNAs implicated in the plant response to biotic stress decreased their expression at very low level of PMeV and increased at high PMeV levels. Corroborating with this results, analysed target genes for this miRNAs had their expression modulated in a dependent manner. This study represents a comprehensive identification of conserved miRNAs inpapaya. The data presented here might help to complement the available molecular and genomic tools for the study of papaya. The differential expression of some miRNAs and identifying their target genes will be helpful for understanding the regulation and interaction of PMeV and papaya. PMID:25072834

Abreu, Paolla M. V.; Gaspar, Clicia G.; Buss, David S.; Ventura, Jose A.; Ferreira, Paulo C. G.; Fernandes, Patricia M. B.

2014-01-01

69

Dwarf mutant of papaya (Carica papaya L.) induced by gamma rays  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Treating the seeds of papaya with 15 Krad of gamma rays, three plants were isolated from the M3 population. Repeated full sibmating among the progenies of these dwarf mutants helped in establishing a homozygous population of dwarf papaya in M6 generation. Though the per plant yield in mutant is less, nevertheless its importance is envisaged in the fact that it is likely to incur less damage by wind and storm, can be better managed and more number of plants can be accomodated per unit area, thus giving increased yield per hectare. (author)

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Gamma radiation in papaya harvested at three stages of maturation  

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Full Text Available Papaya is a fragile, perishable fruit, highly accepted worldwide. To keep the quality of papaya from harvest to the consumers, conservation techniques are often used; among them is the application of gamma irradiation. The objective of this work was to evaluate gamma irradiation in papayas harvested at three degrees of maturation, in order to increase shelf life. Papayas were harvested in perfect quality conditions and selected by skin coloration into three distinct degrees of maturation: maturation 0, or beginning of yellow coloration; maturation 1, yellow stripes more developed, and maturation 2, one third yellow. Half of them were irradiated with 0.75 kGy, while the other half became control treatment. They were analyzed in four periods of conservation, which were 1 DAI (days after irradiation refrigerated at 11 ± 1°C, 14 DAI, 14 DAI + 3 DRT (room temperature at 24° ± 2°C and 14 DAI + 6 DRT. The papaya maturation degree at harvest did not influence the radiation effect. Irradiation maintained firmness of papaya and, therefore, delayed ripening; modified the green color of papaya to a lighter, more intense tone, which determined more homogeneity in the development of the skin's yellow color (greater values of L* and croma. There was no effect of irradiation in papaya weight loss, occurrence of diseases, croma of flesh color, pH and total soluble solids contents.

Pimentel Rodrigo Meirelles de Azevedo

2004-01-01

71

Gamma radiation in papaya harvested at three stages of maturation  

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Papaya is a fragile, perishable fruit, highly accepted worldwide. To keep the quality of papaya from harvest to the consumers, conservation techniques are often used; among them is the application of gamma irradiation. The objective of this work was to evaluate gamma irradiation in papayas harvested at three degrees of maturation, in order to increase shelf life. Papayas were harvested in perfect quality conditions and selected by skin coloration into three distinct degrees of maturation: maturation 0, or beginning of yellow coloration; maturation 1, yellow stripes more developed, and maturation 2, one third yellow. Half of them were irradiated with 0.75 kGy, while the other half became control treatment. They were analyzed in four periods of conservation, which were 1 DAI (days after irradiation refrigerated at 11 {+-} 1 deg C), 14 DAI, 14 DAI + 3 DRT (room temperature at 24 deg C {+-} 2 deg C) and 14 DAI + 6 DRT. The papaya maturation degree at harvest did not influence the radiation effect. Irradiation maintained firmness of papaya and, therefore, delayed ripening; modified the green color of papaya to a lighter, more intense tone, which determined more homogeneity in the development of the skin's yellow color (greater values of L{sup *} and chroma). There was no effect of irradiation in papaya weight loss, occurrence of diseases, chroma of flesh color, p H and total soluble solids contents. (author)

Pimentel, Rodrigo Meirelles de Azevedo; Walder, Julio Marcos Melges [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Irradiacao de Alimentos]. E-mail: jmwalder@cena.usp.br

2004-04-01

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Factibilidad técnica de la utilización de cobertura vegetal en papaya (Carica papaya L. mediante la aplicación localizada de herbicidas  

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Full Text Available Factibilidad técnica de la utilización de cobertura vegetal en papaya (Carica papaya L. mediante la aplicación localizada de herbicidas. Se estudió la factibilidad de utilizar cobertura vegetal en papaya (Carica papaya L. bajo un sistema de siembra sobre lomillos. El objetivo fue establecer un área libre de malezas sobre el lomillo para permitir la colocación del fertilizante cerca del sistema radical de la papaya. Se evaluó el control de malezas de cuatro herbicidas (gifosato, oxifluorfen, pendimetalina y acetaclor sobre especies de hoja ancha, poáceas y ciperáceas, así como el posible daño de los herbicidas al cultivo y su efecto sobre el crecimiento y rendimiento de las plantas de papaya. El herbicida glifosato fue eficiente en el control de poáceas pero no contra hojas anchas. Se obtuvo muy buen control general de malezas hasta los 90 después de la aplicación con los tratamientos preemergentes oxifluorfen+pendimetalina y acetaclor. Los dos primeros herbicidas afectaron levemente las plantas de papaya cuando se aplicaron a los 10 días después de la siembra. El acetaclor no causó daño en las plantas de papaya en ninguna de las aplicaciones. No hubo diferencias entre los tratamientos con respecto a las variables de crecimiento y rendimiento del cultivo.

Antonio Bogantes

2004-01-01

73

Marcadores RAPD para la identificación del sexo en papaya (Carica papaya L. en Colombia  

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Full Text Available

La determinación del sexo en plantas de papaya es considerado un sistema intrigante, debido a que esta especie presenta tres sexos (macho, hembra y hermafrodita determinados por un locus multialélico. Además, esta especie no presenta cromosomas sexuales morfológicamente diferenciables. Los marcadores moleculares pueden asociarse a características de interés, como en el presente caso, al sexo en plántulas de papaya. Con el objetivo de identificar marcadores moleculares que permitan una rápida identificación del sexo en genotipos colombianos de plántulas de papaya, se aplicó la técnica RAPD (ampliación aleatoria de polimorfismos del ADN. El estudio encontró tres marcadores RAPD polimórficos, los cuales permitieron diferenciar los sexos de la papaya. Dos marcadores fueron específicos para plantas macho y hermafrodita, y un tercero para plantas hembra. Estos nuevos marcadores moleculares podrán ser beneficiosos en la determinación del sexo en genotipos colombianos de papaya.

Chaves-Bedoya Giovanni

2009-08-01

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Effects of chloroformic extracts from washed and unwashed papaya seeds (Carica papaya) on the sperm concentration of dogs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Papaya seeds (Carica papaya Linn) have been found to have a significant effect on sperm characteristics in some mammals, including humans, but no studies have investigated the effects on dogs. In the present study, a significant decrease in sperm concentration was observed in a group of dogs treated with extracts from washed papaya seeds, but no decrease was observed in the group of dogs treated with non-washed seeds. An important effect of extract components from washed seeds such as fatty acids is probably involved in the reduction of sperm production because of Sertoli cell damage, as has been suggested for langur monkeys. Dilution of the active components in the non-washed papaya seeds or interference with some of the components may reduce the expected effect on spermatogenesis. This first report on the effects of a chloroformic extract of papaya seeds in dogs suggests that an increased dose is necessary to achieve azoospermia. PMID:19650877

Ortega-Pacheco, A; Jiménez-Coello, M; Gutiérrez-Blanco, E; Acosta-Viana, K Y; Guzmán-Marín, E; Zavala-Sánchez, M A; Montalvo-Beltrán, N E; Pérez-Gutiérrez, M S

2010-12-01

75

Effects of heat, irradiation and their combination on the keeping quality of papaya (carica papaya linn.)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An experimental work has been done to determine the effect of gamma irradiation either alone or in combination with hot water dipping on the shelf life of fresh papaya. Mature green papayas of 'semangka paris' variety were treated under 3 different conditions, i.e. dipped in hot water at 50 Celsius degrees for 10 minutes; irradiated in air with a dose of 0.5 kGy; treated with combination of hot water dipping at 50 Celsius degrees for 10 minutes and irradiation with a dose of 0.5 kGy, and stored at ambient conditions. Quality evaluation was done subjectively during storage on the colour, texture, and taste. Besides, weight loss was also observed. Chemical characteristics, namely the contents of vitamin C, ?-carotene, total soluble pectin, and reducing sugar were also determined as objective parameters. The results revealed that ripening of mature green papaya could be delayed by irradiation with the dose of 0.5 kGy. Best result was obtained from the combination treatment. The treated papayas were still acceptable up to 8 days of storage, whereas the untreated ones were acceptable only up to 5 days of storage. (author)

76

Compostos fenólicos inibidores da germinação em sementes de mamão (Carica papaya Phenolic compound inhibitors in papaya seeds (Carica papaya L.  

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Full Text Available Sementes de mamão germinam lenta e irregularmente, o que tem sido atribuído à presença da sarcotesta. O trabalho teve como objetivos avaliar o efeito inibitório de extratos de sarcotesta na germinação de sementes de alface e quantificar compostos fenólicos em sementes de mamão. Foram utilizados frutos de mamão do grupo Formosa, híbrido Tainung 01, colhidos em Maio e Setembro/2005, obtendo-se sementes com e sem sarcotesta que foram avaliadas quanto à germinação aos 15 e 30 dias após a semeadura. Realizou-se um bioensaio com sementes de alface, que foram colocadas para germinar em substrato umedecido com água e com soluções obtidas a partir de extrato da sarcotesta de sementes de mamão. Determinou-se, também, o conteúdo de compostos fenólicos nas diferentes estruturas destas (sarcotesta, esclerotesta, endosperma e embrião, utilizando-se o ácido tânico como padrão e para reação de coloração, o reagente Folin-Ciacalteau, com leitura em espectrofotômetro a 765 nm. Verificou-se que o extrato de sarcotesta inibe a germinação e o crescimento da raiz primária das plântulas de alface, devido à presença de compostos fenólicos. Maior quantidade destes compostos foi observada na esclerotesta das sementes de mamão, seguida da sarcotesta, sendo praticamente nula a presença de tais compostos no embrião e no endosperma. Sementes oriundas da colheita de Maio/2005 exibiram dormência, apresentando maior conteúdo de fenóis na sarcotesta quando comparadas às sementes obtidas de frutos colhidos em Setembro/2005, as quais não apresentaram dormência.The slow and erratic germination of papaya seeds has been attributed to inhibitors present in the sarcotesta. This study was undertaken to evaluate the inhibition effect of sarcotesta extract on lettuce seed germination and to quantify phenolic compounds in papaya seeds. Papaya fruits of the Formosa group, hybrid Tainung 01, were harvested in May and September/2005. At each harvest time, seeds with and without sarcotesta were obtained and the germination percentage was evaluated at 15 and 30 days after seeding. A bioassay was performed with lettuce seeds, which germinated in substratum moistened with water (control and with solutions obtained from papaya sarcotesta extract. The phenolic compounds were quantified in different structures of papaya seeds (sarcotesta, esclerotesta, endosperm and embryo, using tannic acid as standard and the color reaction with Folin-Ciacalteau reagent measured at 765 nm by spectrophotometry. The bioassay indicated that sarcotesta extract inhibits the germination and growth of the lettuce seedling primary roots due to the presence of inhibitory substances (phenols. A high amount of these substances was found in the papaya seed esclerotesta, followed by the sarcotesta, but there was practically no concentration of these compounds in the embryo and endosperm. Seeds extracted from fruits harvested in May 2005 had dormancy and higher phenolic content compared to seeds harvested in September 2005, which did not exhibit dormancy.

Daí Tokuhisa

2007-01-01

77

Postharvest ripening and maturity indices for maradol papaya / Amadurecimento Pos Colheita E Índices De Maturação De Papaya Maradol / Maduración postcosecha e índices de madurez de papaya maradol  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: English Abstract in portuguese As variedades de papaya mostram uma ampla variação no amadurecimento do fruto em termos de amolecimento, mudança da cor da casca e vida nas gôndolas. A maioria dos estudos sobre amadurecimento de papaya tem sido relatado na variedade ‘Solo’. Não tem se desenvolvido índices de amadurecimento objetivo [...] s para a variedade Maradol, os estudos que descrevem a mudança de cor no amadurecimento do fruto abrangem somente aos estados de amadurecimento inicial e final. Avaliaram-se as mudanças nos principais atributos de qualidade de papaya Maradol durante o amadurecimento para identificar estados de amadurecimento e definir índices de amadurecimento objetivos que possam ser sugeridos como índices de colheita e estándares de qualidade. A cor da casca pode ser considerada como um índice de maturação apropriado, os valores de b* são bons indicadores para os estágios recentes de maturação, enquanto que os valores de a* são melhores para os últimos estágios. Abstract in spanish Las variedades de papaya muestran una amplia variación en la maduración del fruto en términos de ablandamiento, cambios del color de la cáscara y vida de anaquel. La mayoría de los estudios sobre maduración de papaya se han reportado en variedades ‘Solo’. No se han desarrollado índices de maduración [...] objetivos para la variedad Maradol, los estudios que describen el cambio de color en la maduración del fruto cubren sólo a los estados de maduración inicial y final. Se evaluaron los cambios en los principales atributos de calidad de papaya Maradol durante la maduración para identificar estados de maduración y definir índices de maduración objetivos que puedan ser sugeridos como índices de cosecha y estándares de calidad. El color de la cáscara puede ser considerado como un índice de madurez apropiado, los valores de b* son buenos indicadores para los estados tempranos de madurez, mientras que los valores de a* son mejores para los últimos estados. Abstract in english Fruit ripening in papaya Carica papaya cultivars varies widely in terms of skin color changes, pulp firmness and shelf life. Most papaya ripening studies have been done using ‘Solo’ varieties. No objective maturity indices have been developed for Maradol papaya, and studies describing color changes [...] during fruit ripening only cover the initial and final maturity stages. Changes in the main quality attributes of Maradol papaya were documented during the ripening process to identify maturity stages and define objective maturity indices to be applied as harvest indices and quality standards. Six maturity stages were identified and quality attribute value ranges proposed as quality standards. Skin color can be considered an appropriate maturity index, b* values are good indicators for early maturity stages, while a* value are better for late stages.

Felipe, Santamaría Basulto; Enrique, Sauri Duch; Francisco, Espadas y Gil; Raúl, Díaz Plaza; Alfonso, Larqué Saavedra; Jorge M, Santamaría.

2009-08-01

78

Postharvest ripening and maturity indices for maradol papaya / Amadurecimento Pos Colheita E Índices De Maturação De Papaya Maradol / Maduración postcosecha e índices de madurez de papaya maradol  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: English Abstract in portuguese As variedades de papaya mostram uma ampla variação no amadurecimento do fruto em termos de amolecimento, mudança da cor da casca e vida nas gôndolas. A maioria dos estudos sobre amadurecimento de papaya tem sido relatado na variedade ‘Solo’. Não tem se desenvolvido índices de amadurecimento objetivo [...] s para a variedade Maradol, os estudos que descrevem a mudança de cor no amadurecimento do fruto abrangem somente aos estados de amadurecimento inicial e final. Avaliaram-se as mudanças nos principais atributos de qualidade de papaya Maradol durante o amadurecimento para identificar estados de amadurecimento e definir índices de amadurecimento objetivos que possam ser sugeridos como índices de colheita e estándares de qualidade. A cor da casca pode ser considerada como um índice de maturação apropriado, os valores de b* são bons indicadores para os estágios recentes de maturação, enquanto que os valores de a* são melhores para os últimos estágios. Abstract in spanish Las variedades de papaya muestran una amplia variación en la maduración del fruto en términos de ablandamiento, cambios del color de la cáscara y vida de anaquel. La mayoría de los estudios sobre maduración de papaya se han reportado en variedades ‘Solo’. No se han desarrollado índices de maduración [...] objetivos para la variedad Maradol, los estudios que describen el cambio de color en la maduración del fruto cubren sólo a los estados de maduración inicial y final. Se evaluaron los cambios en los principales atributos de calidad de papaya Maradol durante la maduración para identificar estados de maduración y definir índices de maduración objetivos que puedan ser sugeridos como índices de cosecha y estándares de calidad. El color de la cáscara puede ser considerado como un índice de madurez apropiado, los valores de b* son buenos indicadores para los estados tempranos de madurez, mientras que los valores de a* son mejores para los últimos estados. Abstract in english Fruit ripening in papaya Carica papaya cultivars varies widely in terms of skin color changes, pulp firmness and shelf life. Most papaya ripening studies have been done using ‘Solo’ varieties. No objective maturity indices have been developed for Maradol papaya, and studies describing color changes [...] during fruit ripening only cover the initial and final maturity stages. Changes in the main quality attributes of Maradol papaya were documented during the ripening process to identify maturity stages and define objective maturity indices to be applied as harvest indices and quality standards. Six maturity stages were identified and quality attribute value ranges proposed as quality standards. Skin color can be considered an appropriate maturity index, b* values are good indicators for early maturity stages, while a* value are better for late stages.

Felipe, Santamaría Basulto; Enrique, Sauri Duch; Francisco, Espadas y Gil; Raúl, Díaz Plaza; Alfonso, Larqué Saavedra; Jorge M, Santamaría.

79

Effect of Biopreservatives on Storage Life of Papaya (Carica papaya L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE In this experiment the effect on post-harvest preservation of papaya (Carica papaya L. fruit coated with either Aloe gel (AG; 100% or papaya leaf extract with Aloe gel (PLEAG; 1:1 was studied. To evaluate the role of coating on ripening behavior and quality of papaya the uncoated and coated fruits were stored and ripened at room temperature (25 °C-29 °C and 82-84% relative humidity. Physico-chemical properties were analyzed at 4 day intervals during the storage period. The incidence of disease attack was also visually observed. The overall results showed the superiority of AG and PLEAG coating in lengthening the shelf-life of papaya fruit compared to controls which showed significant decay from 6th day onward and complete decay within 12 days of storage. The AG and PLEAG coated fruits maintained their shelf life for 12 days and decayed at 16th day. The coated fruits also maintained their color, flavor and firmness up to 12 days of storage. An increase in ascorbic acid content (120.2 mg/100 g was also found in coated fruits in contrast to the control (59 mg/100 g. Only 27% disease incidence was observed in AG and 13% in PLEAG coated fruits as compared to control (100% during the storage period. The results of this study show that both AG and PLEAG coatings have excellent potential to be used on fresh produce to maintain quality and extend shelf-life.

Fatema H. Brishti

2013-04-01

80

40 CFR 174.515 - Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement...CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED...Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement...Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus are exempt from the...

2010-07-01

 
 
 
 
81

77 FR 31294 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Papaya...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Information Collection; Importation of Papaya From Colombia and Ecuador AGENCY: Animal...importation of commercial shipments of fresh papaya from Colombia and Ecuador into the continental...importation of commercial shipments of fresh papaya from Colombia and Ecuador, contact...

2012-05-25

82

Development of Transgenic Papaya through Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Transgenic papaya plants were regenerated from hypocotyls and immature zygotic embryo after cocultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA-4404 carrying a binary plasmid vector system containing neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII) gene as the selectable marker and ?-glucuronidase (GUS) as the reporter gene. The explants were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens on regeneration medium containing 500?mg/L carbenicillin?+?200?mg/L cefotaxime for one week. The cocultivated explants were transferred into the final selection medium containing 500?mg/L carbenicillin?+?200?mg/L cefotaxime?+?50?mg/L kanamycin for callus induction as well as plant regeneration. The callus derived from the hypocotyls of Carica papaya cv. Shahi showed the highest positive GUS activities compared to Carica papaya cv. Ranchi. The transformed callus grew vigorously and formed embryos followed by transgenic plantlets successfully. The result of this study showed that the hypocotyls of C. papaya cv. Shahi and C. papaya cv. Ranchi are better explants for genetic transformation compared to immature embryos. The transformed C. papaya cv. Shahi also showed the maximum number of plant regeneration compared to that of C. papaya cv. Ranchi. PMID:24066284

Azad, Md Abul Kalam; Rabbani, Md Golam; Amin, Latifah; Sidik, Nik Marzuki

2013-01-01

83

Discurso militar e identidad nacional chilena  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este artículo estudia el discurso militar sobre la identidad nacio- nal chilena. Se plantea que la identidad nacional resulta de un proceso permanente y abierto de formación que no es evidente en todas sus aristas. Por ello, el estudio de la identidad no sólo requiere revelar sus prácticas y contenidos discursivos manifiestos, sino que también debe examinar sus contenidos latentes para identifi- car los variados mecanismos que confluyen en su formación. Para lograrlo se pro- pone la complementariedad del análisis cualitativo de contenido, el análisis estruc- tural del discurso y el análisis de la morfología del discurso. La conclusión plantea que a pesar de importantes cambios, el discurso militar sobre la identidad nacional ha mantenido su rasgo conservador basado en una ontología social esencialista.

Hern\\u00E1n Cuevas Valenzuela

2014-01-01

84

Antioxidant Activity of Papaya Seed Extracts  

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Full Text Available The antioxidant activities of the ethanol, petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water extract fractions from the seeds of papaya were evaluated in this study. The ethyl acetate fraction showed the strongest DPPH and hydroxyl free radical-scavenging activities, and its activities were stronger than those of ascorbic acid and sodium benzoate, respectively. The n-butanol fraction demonstrated the greatest ABTS+ radicals scavenging activity. The ethyl acetate fraction and the n-butanol fraction not only showed higher antioxidant activities than the petroleum ether fraction, water fraction and ethanol fraction, but also showed higher superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide radicals scavenging activities than those of the other extract fractions. The high amount of total phenolics and total flavonoids in the ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions contributed to their antioxidant activities. The ethyl acetate fraction was subjected to column chromatography, to yield two phenolic compounds, p-hydroxybenzoic acid (1 and vanillic acid (2, which possessed significant antioxidant activities. Therefore, the seeds of papaya and these compounds might be used as natural antioxidants.

Haofu Dai

2011-07-01

85

Antioxidant activity of papaya seed extracts.  

Science.gov (United States)

The antioxidant activities of the ethanol, petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water extract fractions from the seeds of papaya were evaluated in this study. The ethyl acetate fraction showed the strongest DPPH and hydroxyl free radical-scavenging activities, and its activities were stronger than those of ascorbic acid and sodium benzoate, respectively. The n-butanol fraction demonstrated the greatest ABTS? radicals scavenging activity. The ethyl acetate fraction and the n-butanol fraction not only showed higher antioxidant activities than the petroleum ether fraction, water fraction and ethanol fraction, but also showed higher superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide radicals scavenging activities than those of the other extract fractions. The high amount of total phenolics and total flavonoids in the ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions contributed to their antioxidant activities. The ethyl acetate fraction was subjected to column chromatography, to yield two phenolic compounds, p-hydroxybenzoic acid and vanillic acid, which possessed significant antioxidant activities. Therefore, the seeds of papaya and these compounds might be used as natural antioxidants. PMID:21788927

Zhou, Kaibing; Wang, Hui; Mei, Wenli; Li, Xiaona; Luo, Ying; Dai, Haofu

2011-01-01

86

New approach for papaya latex storage without virus degradation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) is the causal agent of papaya (Carica papaya L.) sticky disease, which has been detected through analysis of its double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) genome from plant latex. In this work we demonstrate that PMeV dsRNA is protected during 25 days when latex is diluted in citrate buffer pH 5.0 (1:1 v/v) and maintained at -20ºC. At the same temperature, some protection was observed for pure latex or latex diluted in ultra-pure water. Conversely, the dsRNA was almost completely degraded after 25 days when maintained at 25ºC, indicating the need for freezing. The proper procedures to collect and store papaya latex described here will contribute to efficient and large scale use of molecular diagnosis of PMeV. PMID:24031329

Rodrigues, Silas P; Andrade, Josemar S; Ventura, José A; Fernandes, Patricia M B

2009-01-01

87

Combined Selection in Backcross Population of Papaya (Carica papaya L. by the Mixed Model Methodology  

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Full Text Available The selection of superior genotypes based on the simultaneous response to several characteristics of agronomic importance is a key strategy to overcome the scarcity of available varieties of papaya. This study aimed to apply the combined selection by using distinct selection indexes based on both the genetic values obtained by the REML/BLUP methodology and the real measured values to select agronomically superior genotypes of papaya within backcross progenies. The combined selection was carried out based on genetic and phenotypic values, original and standardized, multiplied by the agronomic weights. The results of the analysis of genetic parameters indicate that the evaluated progenies have expressive genetic variability for the considered traits, and that there are real possibilities of genetic progress with the selection. Among the analyzed indexes, the one based on standardized genetic value presented greater consistency in the ranking of genetic material, demonstrating the advantage of data standardization. Five progenies belonging to the BC1 generation, and five to the BC3 generation were selected using this index. A total of 27 plants ag-ronomically superior were selected within the top five progenies and recommended for generation advance, 23 being selected by combined selection and 4 using the direct selection for the four mainly characters in papaya breeding program: production, pulp and fruit firmness and soluble solids. Beyond the selection of superior genotypes for the development of future inbred lines, this study also allowed defining the best strategy to apply the combined selection in papaya using pre-dicted breeding values obtained by BLUP. This strategy may allow higher accuracy in the selection process, thus increasing the chances of success of the breeding programs.

Helaine Christine Cancela Ramos

2014-09-01

88

Agronomic, economic and ecological aspects of the papaya (Carica papaya) production in Tabasco, Mexico  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The cultivation of papaya is important in the tropic because it provides source of income to the farmer within a short time. Statistical data were obtained from farmers located in the Chontalpa, Rios and Centro-Sierra regions; the size of the survey was 67 farmers. The study shows the results of the farmers’ problem in a drastic reduction of their productivity because of the virosis and low prices in commercialization. The farmers were classified into three levels of technology, “low”, ...

Guzma?n-ramo?n, E.; Go?mez-alvarez, R.; Pat-ferna?ndez, J. M.; Pohlan, H. A. J.; A?lvarez-rivero, J. C.; Geissen, V.

2010-01-01

89

ESR detection procedure of irradiated papaya containing high water content  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ESR signals were recorded from irradiated papaya at liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K), and freeze-dried irradiated papaya at room temperature (295 K). Two side peaks from the flesh at the liquid nitrogen temperature indicated a linear dose response for 3-14 days after the ?-irradiation. The line shapes recorded from the freeze-dried specimens were sharper than those at liquid nitrogen temperature.

90

ESR detection procedure of irradiated papaya containing high water content  

Science.gov (United States)

ESR signals were recorded from irradiated papaya at liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K), and freeze-dried irradiated papaya at room temperature (295 K). Two side peaks from the flesh at the liquid nitrogen temperature indicated a linear dose response for 3-14 days after the ?-irradiation. The line shapes recorded from the freeze-dried specimens were sharper than those at liquid nitrogen temperature.

Kikuchi, Masahiro; Shimoyama, Yuhei; Ukai, Mitsuko; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko

2011-05-01

91

ESR detection procedure of irradiated papaya containing high water content  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

ESR signals were recorded from irradiated papaya at liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K), and freeze-dried irradiated papaya at room temperature (295 K). Two side peaks from the flesh at the liquid nitrogen temperature indicated a linear dose response for 3-14 days after the {gamma}-irradiation. The line shapes recorded from the freeze-dried specimens were sharper than those at liquid nitrogen temperature.

Kikuchi, Masahiro, E-mail: kikuchi.masahiro@jaea.go.j [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki-machi, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Shimoyama, Yuhei [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki-machi, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Ukai, Mitsuko [Hokkaido University of Education, 1-2 Hachiman-cho, Hakodate, Hokkaido 040-8567 (Japan); Kobayashi, Yasuhiko [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki-machi, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)

2011-05-15

92

Sex determination in flowering plants: papaya as a model system.  

Science.gov (United States)

Unisexuality in flowering plants evolved from a hermaphrodite ancestor. Transition from hermaphrodite to unisexual flowers has occurred multiple times across the different lineages of the angiosperms. Sexuality in plants is regulated by genetic, epigenetic and physiological mechanisms. The most specialized mechanism of sex determination is sex chromosomes. The sex chromosomes ensure the stable segregation of sexual phenotypes by preventing the recombination of sex determining genes. Despite continuous efforts, sex determining genes of dioecious plants have not yet been cloned. Concerted efforts with various model systems are necessary to understand the complex mechanism of sex determination in plants. Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a tropical fruit tree with three sex forms, male, hermaphrodite, and female. Sexuality in papaya is determined by an XY chromosome system that is in an early evolutionary stage. The male and hermaphrodite of papaya are controlled by two different types of Y chromosomes: Y and Y(h). Large amounts of information in the area of genetics, genomics, and epigenetics of papaya have been accumulated over the last few decades. Relatively short lifecycle, small genome size, and readily available genetic and genomic resources render papaya an excellent model system to study sex determination and sex chromosomes in flowering plants. PMID:24467896

Aryal, Rishi; Ming, Ray

2014-03-01

93

Una frontera de producción para la banca chilena  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El presente estudio tiene por objeto analizar la eficiencia técnica de la banca chilena, mediante fronteras estocásticas de producción. De los resultados obtenidos para el periodo 1991-2000, se puede mencionar que los bancos chilenos son altamente eficientes, tanto en costos (alrededor de un 80% de eficiencia en promedio como en producción (alcanza el 90% de eficiencia. En lo que respecta a los productos e insumos utilizados en la función de producción de la banca chilena, es posible concluir que se caracteriza por ser utilizadora de mano de obra y capital financiero. En cuanto a la producción se observa la no existencia de economías de escala, lo cual puede explicarse por el hecho que los bancos han encontrado el tamaño óptimo que la regulación chilena les permite.

Medardo Aguirre G.

2004-01-01

94

Effects of Different Concentrations and Applications of Calcium on Storage Life and Physicochemical Characteristics of Papaya (Carica Papaya L.  

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Full Text Available Papaya (Carica Papaya L. fruits index 2 were treated with 1.5, 2.5 and 3.5% solutions of calcium chloride by dipping and vacuum infiltration (-33 Kpa or untreated (0% as control. Effects of these treatments were evaluated on storage life and postharvest quality characteristics of papaya. After 21 days of storage at 13±1°C, the fruits were removed from storage for physicochemical analysis. Following additional five days holding in the storage condition for fruits used for evaluation of the rate of disease incidence and storage life. Postharvest dip treatments at different concentrations of calcium prolonged storage life, slowed down the ripening processes and maintained the quality of papaya. Whereas, it was effectively greater with calcium infiltration treatments than that for dip treatments. Calcium infiltration extended the storage life and retained the quality as calcium concentrations increased up to 2.5% and then declined. The desired effect was obtained at 2.5% infiltration compared with other treatments. The least disease incidence was found in those fruits infiltrated with 2.5% calcium. Hence, it can be concluded that postharvest infiltration of calcium at 2.5% has the potential to control disease incidence, prolong the storage life and preserve valuable attributes of postharvest papaya, presumably because of its effects on inhibition of ripening and senescence process and loss of the fruit firmness of papaya.

T. M. M. Mahmud

2008-01-01

95

Rapid sex identification of papaya (Carica papaya) using multiplex loop-mediated isothermal amplification (mLAMP).  

Science.gov (United States)

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is established as a cash crop throughout the tropical and subtropical regions due to its easy adaptation to diverse agricultural conditions, high yields, and prompt returns. The sex types of papaya plants are hermaphrodite, male, and female. Among them, hermaphroditic plants are the major type in papaya production, because the fruit has commercial advantages over that of the other sexes. Sex inheritance in papaya is determined by the M and M(h) dominant alleles in males and hermaphrodites, respectively, and a recessive m allele in females. Currently, all hermaphrodite seeds are not available due to the lethality of dominant homozygosity. Therefore, in this study, six male-hermaphrodite-specific markers were developed for a rapid sex identification using multiplex loop-mediated isothermal amplification (mLAMP) to efficiently and precisely select hermaphroditic individuals in the seedling or early growth stage. The LM1-LAMP assay consisted of two sex-LAMP reactions for amplifying two male-specific markers (T12 and Cpsm90) in one reaction, and showed several advantages in terms of a rapid reaction time (papaya production. PMID:22706662

Hsu, Te-Hua; Gwo, Jin-Chywan; Lin, Kuan-Hung

2012-10-01

96

Manejo de epifitias del Virus de la mancha anular de la papaya utilizando barreras de Zea mays L. en Carica papaya L. / Epiphyte management of Papaya ringspot virus using Zea mays L. barriers in Carica papaya L.  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar el efecto de barreras de maíz (Zea mays L.) intercaladas en plantaciones de papaya (Carica papaya L.) var. Maradol roja en el progreso de epifitias del Virus de la mancha anular de la papaya (PRSV). Con este propósito, se realizaron evaluaciones de plant [...] as sintomáticas cada 15 días, durante 240 días después del trasplante. Los tratamientos fueron dos: el manejo integral de la papaya mediante la protección de viveros, barreras perimetrales de sorgo forrajero y maíz intercalado (MIP-Maíz), y manejo con las prácticas descritas en el tratamiento anterior, sin incluir el maíz intercalado (MIP). En el MIP-Maíz se observó disminución del área bajo la curva del progreso de la enfermedad (abcpe) en relación al MIP. Las barreras intercaladas de maíz tuvieron un efecto en la reducción de epifitias y disminuyeron la incidencia y severidad final del PRSV en 25 y 17% respectivamente, comparado con el MIP. Se demostró que la adición de barreras de maíz intercaladas en plantaciones de papaya reducen las afectaciones producidas por el PRSV en zonas con endemismo de esta enfermedad viral. Abstract in english The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of corn (Zea mays L.) barriers intercropped in plantations of papaya (Carica papaya L.) var. Maradol roja on the progress of Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) epiphytes. For this purpose, evaluations of symptomatic plants were developed every 15 d [...] ays during 240 days after transplanting. Two treatments were used: the inclusion or not of intercropped corn (MIP-Corn) in the integrated management of papaya with nursery protection and edge barriers of forage sorghum. In the MIP-Corn, a reduction in the area under the disease progress curve (audpc) was observed in comparison with MIP. The intercropped maize barriers had a reducing effect on epiphytes and decreased the incidence and final severity of PRSV in 25 and 17% respectively, compared with MIP. It was demonstrated that the addition of intercropped corn barriers in papaya plantations reduced the damages caused by PRSV in endemic areas of this viral disease.

Dariel, Cabrera Mederos; Dahert, García Hernández; José Efraín, González; Orelvis, Portal.

2013-08-01

97

Manejo de epifitias del Virus de la mancha anular de la papaya utilizando barreras de Zea mays L. en Carica papaya L. / Epiphyte management of Papaya ringspot virus using Zea mays L. barriers in Carica papaya L.  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar el efecto de barreras de maíz (Zea mays L.) intercaladas en plantaciones de papaya (Carica papaya L.) var. Maradol roja en el progreso de epifitias del Virus de la mancha anular de la papaya (PRSV). Con este propósito, se realizaron evaluaciones de plant [...] as sintomáticas cada 15 días, durante 240 días después del trasplante. Los tratamientos fueron dos: el manejo integral de la papaya mediante la protección de viveros, barreras perimetrales de sorgo forrajero y maíz intercalado (MIP-Maíz), y manejo con las prácticas descritas en el tratamiento anterior, sin incluir el maíz intercalado (MIP). En el MIP-Maíz se observó disminución del área bajo la curva del progreso de la enfermedad (abcpe) en relación al MIP. Las barreras intercaladas de maíz tuvieron un efecto en la reducción de epifitias y disminuyeron la incidencia y severidad final del PRSV en 25 y 17% respectivamente, comparado con el MIP. Se demostró que la adición de barreras de maíz intercaladas en plantaciones de papaya reducen las afectaciones producidas por el PRSV en zonas con endemismo de esta enfermedad viral. Abstract in english The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of corn (Zea mays L.) barriers intercropped in plantations of papaya (Carica papaya L.) var. Maradol roja on the progress of Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) epiphytes. For this purpose, evaluations of symptomatic plants were developed every 15 d [...] ays during 240 days after transplanting. Two treatments were used: the inclusion or not of intercropped corn (MIP-Corn) in the integrated management of papaya with nursery protection and edge barriers of forage sorghum. In the MIP-Corn, a reduction in the area under the disease progress curve (audpc) was observed in comparison with MIP. The intercropped maize barriers had a reducing effect on epiphytes and decreased the incidence and final severity of PRSV in 25 and 17% respectively, compared with MIP. It was demonstrated that the addition of intercropped corn barriers in papaya plantations reduced the damages caused by PRSV in endemic areas of this viral disease.

Dariel, Cabrera Mederos; Dahert, García Hernández; José Efraín, González; Orelvis, Portal.

98

7 CFR 319.56-25 - Papayas from Central America and Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Papayas from Central America and Brazil. 319.56-25 Section 319.56-25...56-25 Papayas from Central America and Brazil. The Solo type of papaya may be...one of the following locations: (1) Brazil: State of Espirito...

2010-01-01

99

7 CFR 319.56-25 - Papayas from Central America and Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Papayas from Central America and Brazil. 319.56-25 Section 319.56-25...Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-25 Papayas from Central America and Brazil. The Solo type of papaya may...

2010-01-01

100

Una taxonomía de las universidades chilenas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se propone una taxonomía de las universidades chilenas mediante análisis factorial, que resulta distinta a las tipologías de Brunner (2005, 2009), Parada (2010), Torres y Zenteno (2011) y Rosso y Reyes (2012), y supera las objeciones de Bernasconi (2006). Evita, además, distinciones binarias del tip [...] o tradicional/privada, investigación/docencia, metropolitana/regional, católica/laica, etc. Tampoco establece rankings ni utiliza condiciones históricas, legales u otras alejadas de los modos de operación efectivos de las universidades. La siguiente taxonomía las agrupa según un pool de variables relevantes (investigación, tamaño, composición, acreditación, etc.) que da pie a cinco tipos de universidades: investigación, masivas, de acreditación, elitistas y no elitistas. Se espera aportar en la comprensión de las universidades y contribuir a las políticas públicas con herramientas conceptuales para abordar la diversidad universitaria. Abstract in english We propose a taxonomy of Chilean universities through a factor analysis with different results from those produced by typologies of Brunner (2005, 2009), Parada (2010), Torres and Zenteno (2011) and Rosso and Reyes (2012), overcoming Bernasconi’s objections (2006). It avoids binary distinctions like [...] traditional/private, metropolitan/regional, catholic/secular, etc. It does not establish rankings nor use historical, legal or other distinctions not referred to the effective universities’ operational characteristics. Universities are grouped according to a pool of relevant variables (research, size, composition, accreditation, etc.). Five types of universities are generated: Research, Massive, Accreditation, Elite and Non-Elite. This research intends to contribute to the understanding of universities in Chile and to public policies with conceptual tools for addressing the diversity of universities.

Miguel, Muñoz; Christian, Blanco.

 
 
 
 
101

Herbicidas para el control de Spermacoce tenuior L en papaya (Carica papaya)  

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Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Herbicidas para el control de Spermacoce tenuior L. en papaya (Carica papaya). Con el objetivo de determinar la eficacia de varios herbicidas en el control de Spermacoce tenuior y otras arvenses en papa ya, se realizó un ensayo en el 2007, en una plantación de papa ya "Pococí" ubicada en Guápiles, e [...] n el Caribe de Costa Rica. La primera etapa consistió en la evaluación de seis tratamientos posemergentes (1. Glifosato 24 SL, 2. Glifosato 68 SG , 3. Glifosato 24 SL + carfentrazone 24 EC , 4. Glifosato 68 SG + carfentrazone 24 EC , 5. Glifosato 24 SL + metsulfurón metil 60 WG, 6. Glifosato 24 SL + oxifluorfen 24 EC). En la segunda etapa se evaluaron tres preemergentes (1. Orizalina 75 WP, 2. Oxifluorfen 12 EC, 3. Acetaclor 90 EC); distribuidos en bloques al azar. Se evaluó la cobertura de especie s antes y después de la aplicación, daño al cultivo, altura y grosor de plantas de papa ya. El tratamiento posemergente glifosato (0,94 kg i.a./ ha) + metsulfurón (16 g i.a./ha) en aplicación dirigida, mostró el mejor control de malezas a partir de la segunda y hasta la sexta semana después de la aplicación (SDA), sin observarse daño en el cultivo. El herbicida preemergente orizalina (3 kg i.a./ha) mostró el mejor control de Spermacoce tenuior hasta las 14 SDA tanto en el lomillo como en la rodaja. No se observó fitotoxidad en el cultivo. Abstract in english Herbicide perfomance for Spermacoce tenuior L. control in papaya (Carica papaya). In order to assess the effectiveness of pre and post-emergence herbicides for the control of Spermacoce tenuior and other weeds in papaya, a field test was conducted in 2007, in a commercial field of the "Pococí" hybri [...] d, located in Guápiles, Limón, Costa Rica. A first phase of the study consisted of six post-emergent treatments (1. Glyphosate 24 SL, 2. Glyphosate 68 SG , 3. Glip hosate 24 SL + carfentrazone 24 EC , 4. Glyphosate 68 SG + carfentrazone 24 EC , 5. Glip hosate 24 SL + metsulfuron methyl 60 WG, 6. Gliphosate 24 SL + oxyfluorfen 24 EC). A second phase consisted of three pre-emergent treatments (1. Oryzalin 75 WP, 2. Oxyfluorfen 12 EC, 3. Acetoclor 90 EC) distributed in a randomized complete block design in both phases. The percentage of weed ground cover, height and stem thickness of papaya plants were measured before and after herbicide app lication. Post-emergence applications of glyphosate (0.94 kg i.a./ha) + metsulfuron (16 g i.a./ha) showed the best weed control from the second until the sixth week after application (WAA ) without affecting the crop. Oryzalin applied as a preemergent (3 kg i.a./ha) showed the best control of Spermacoce tenuior until 14 WAA under the planting row and around the plants. No phytotoxicity was observed.

Antonio, Bogantes-Arias; Moisés, Hernández-Cháves; Eric, Mora-Newcomer.

2010-06-01

102

Escarificación química de semilla de papaya / Chemical scarification of papaya seed  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La germinación tardía y errática de semilla de papaya es afectada por la presencia de la sarcotesta, membrana que contiene compuestos fenólicos inductores de latencia, misma que inhibe el intercambio de líquidos y gases, prolongar el período de secado y facilitar la colonización de fitopatógenos. La [...] s técnicas utilizadas en el beneficio de semilla de papaya para eliminar la sarcotesta son limitadas, por tanto, el objetivo del presente estudio fue obtener tecnología útil en éste aspecto, para lo cual se comparó tratamientos a base de hidróxido de sodio, ácido sulfúrico y clorhídrico, y evaluó su efecto en la calidad física, sanitaria y fisiológica de la semilla. La investigación se realizó en el Laboratorio de Análisis de Semillas del Colegio de Postgraduados, Campus Montecillo, Estado de México, en 2011. El NaOH al 25 % y 15 min de inmersión, eliminó 98% de sarcotesta, presentó sólo 2% de incidencia de micoflora, incremento y homogeneizó la germinación. El H2SO4 eliminó al 100% la sarcotesta, inhibió la colonización de hongos con sólo 6%, cuando se empleó en forma concentrada, pero afecto negativamente la germinación. El HCl fue ineficiente en eliminar la sarcotesta (9.6%), presentó la más alta colonización de hongos (97% de incidencia) y el menor porcentaje de germinación (7%). Los efectos positivos del uso de NaOH en el beneficio de semilla de papaya, simula la degradación natural de la sarcotesta y mejora la condición de la semilla por lo que resulta una alternativa viable para su empleo en el acondicionamiento de semilla. Abstract in english Late germinating and erratic seed from papaya is affected by the presence of sarcotesta, membrane containing phenolic compounds inducing latency same which inhibits the exchange of liquids and gases, prolongs the drying period and facilitates colonization of pathogens. The techniques used in benefit [...] of the papaya seed to eliminate the sarcotesta are limited, therefore the aim of this study was to obtain useful technology in this aspect, which was compared to other treatments with sodium hydroxide, sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid and assessed its effect on the physical, health and physiological quality of the seed. The research was conducted at the Seed Testing Laboratory of the Graduate College, Campus Montecillo, State of Mexico, in 2011. NaOH to 25% and 15 min of immersion, removed 98% of sarcotesta, presented just 2% of incidence of micoflora, an increased and homogenized germination. H2SO4 to 100% removed the sarcotesta, inhibited fungal colonization with only 6% when used in concentrated form, but negatively affected the germination. The HCl was ineffective in eliminating sarcotesta (9.6%) had the highest fungal colonization (97% incidence) and the lowest germination percentage (7%). The positive effects of the use of NaOH in the benefit of papaya seed, is that simulates natural degradation of sarcotesta and improves the condition of the seed, so it is a viable alternative for use in conditioning seed.

Jorge Arturo, Romero Rodríguez; José Apolinar, Mejía Contreras; Aquiles, Carballo Carballo; Alfredo, López Jiménez; José Antonio, Rangel Lucio; Catarino, Ávila Reséndiz.

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Indução de brotos laterais de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L.) / Induction of lateral shoots of papaya tree (Carica papaya L.)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho teve por objetivo estudar o efeito da benzilaminopurina e do ácido giberélico, bem como a forma de aplicação destes, na produção de brotos laterais de mamoeiro. Foram utilizados mamoeiros 'Sunrise Solo' e os reguladores vegetais benzilaminopurina (BAP) e ácido giberélico (GA), na [...] concentração de 500 mg.L-1. As formas de aplicação de BAP + GA estudadas foram: pulverização; pasta de lanolina; injeção; completo, que consistiu na utilização de todas as formas de aplicação, e o controle, constituído pela ausência de aplicação de reguladores. Foram realizadas três aplicações semanais dos reguladores em cada forma de aplicação, sendo eliminado o meristema apical de todas as plantas após a última aplicação. O comprimento e o diâmetro dos brotos laterais foram avaliados aos 30; 55 e 86 dias após a retirada da gema apical. O uso de reguladores favoreceu a produção de brotos laterais. A pulverização apresentou os melhores resultados tanto em relação ao número de brotos obtidos quanto à conformação das estacas, seguida pela injeção e pasta de lanolina. Abstract in english The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and gibberellic acid (GA), as well as the form of application of these growth regulators in the plant, for the production of lateral shoots on papaya trees. Twelve months old 'Sunrise Solo' papaya trees were treated [...] with BAP and GA, in the concentration of 500 mg.L-1. BAP + GA were applied to the trees by means of spraying, lanolin paste, injection, and a combination of all three procedures (complete). Untreated plants were used as control. After three successive applications of the plant growth regulators in each form of application, at one week intervals, all plants were decapitated. The length and diameter of the lateral shoots were measured at 30, 55 and 86 days after decapitation. The use of plant growth regulators favored the production of lateral shoots. The highest proliferation of lateral shoots was obtained by spraying the canopy of the trees with BAP + GA, followed by injection and lanolin paste applications.

José Segundo, Giampan; Thales Sandoval, Cerqueira; Angelo Pedro, Jacomino; Jorge Alberto Marques, Rezende; Fabiana Fumi, Sasaki.

104

Indução de brotos laterais de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L. Induction of lateral shoots of papaya tree (Carica papaya L.  

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Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo estudar o efeito da benzilaminopurina e do ácido giberélico, bem como a forma de aplicação destes, na produção de brotos laterais de mamoeiro. Foram utilizados mamoeiros 'Sunrise Solo' e os reguladores vegetais benzilaminopurina (BAP e ácido giberélico (GA, na concentração de 500 mg.L-1. As formas de aplicação de BAP + GA estudadas foram: pulverização; pasta de lanolina; injeção; completo, que consistiu na utilização de todas as formas de aplicação, e o controle, constituído pela ausência de aplicação de reguladores. Foram realizadas três aplicações semanais dos reguladores em cada forma de aplicação, sendo eliminado o meristema apical de todas as plantas após a última aplicação. O comprimento e o diâmetro dos brotos laterais foram avaliados aos 30; 55 e 86 dias após a retirada da gema apical. O uso de reguladores favoreceu a produção de brotos laterais. A pulverização apresentou os melhores resultados tanto em relação ao número de brotos obtidos quanto à conformação das estacas, seguida pela injeção e pasta de lanolina.The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP and gibberellic acid (GA, as well as the form of application of these growth regulators in the plant, for the production of lateral shoots on papaya trees. Twelve months old 'Sunrise Solo' papaya trees were treated with BAP and GA, in the concentration of 500 mg.L-1. BAP + GA were applied to the trees by means of spraying, lanolin paste, injection, and a combination of all three procedures (complete. Untreated plants were used as control. After three successive applications of the plant growth regulators in each form of application, at one week intervals, all plants were decapitated. The length and diameter of the lateral shoots were measured at 30, 55 and 86 days after decapitation. The use of plant growth regulators favored the production of lateral shoots. The highest proliferation of lateral shoots was obtained by spraying the canopy of the trees with BAP + GA, followed by injection and lanolin paste applications.

José Segundo Giampan

2005-04-01

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Preparation and sensory evaluation of papaya milk shake  

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Full Text Available The present investigation was undertaken with the object of studying the standard procedure of preparation of milk shake from buffalo milk blended with papaya and studied for its acceptability. Milk shake was prepared from different proportions of buffalo milk and papaya pulp i.e. 100:0 (T0, 90:10 (T1, 85:15 (T2 and 80:20 (T3. The sensory score for overall acceptability of papaya milk shake of treatments T0, T1, T2 and T3 were 8.18, 8.56, 8.23 and 8.03, respectively. It was observed that the papaya milk shake prepared from 90 parts of buffalo milk and 10 parts of papaya pulp was most acceptable and ranked between like very much to like extremely. The addition of higher proportion of pulp in the blend scored towards lower side by a panel of judges. [Vet World 2010; 3(4.000: 185-187

S. T. Pakalwad

2010-08-01

106

ALTERNATIVA COMERCIAL PARA EXTENDER VIDA DE ANAQUEL DE PAPAYA 'MARADOL'  

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Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto del 1-Metilciclopropeno (1-MCP y etileno (solos o en combinación para manipular el proceso de maduración y extender vida de anaquel de papaya 'Maradol'. Durante el 2007 se realizaron tres ensayos: 1. Efecto del 1-MCP en papaya almacenada en condiciones de mercadeo y refrigeración más mercadeo; 2. Papaya tratada con 1-MCP y etileno y mezcla 1-MCP + etileno; 3. Evaluación comercial del 1-MCP y etileno en papaya. Se analizaron pérdida de peso, color externo, firmeza, color de pulpa y sólidos solubles totales. Se encontró que el 1-MCP a 100 nl·litro-1 retrasó el desarrollo de color externo y pulpa e inhibió el ablandamiento de los frutos. También se observó que el etileno a dosis de 100 ¿l·litro-1 aplicado después del 1-MCP no revirtió el efecto de éste, sin embargo, el 1-MCP aplicado después del etileno redujo la velocidad de ablandamiento y el desarrollo del color en cáscara y pulpa inducido por el etileno. Se concluye que el 1-MCP a 100 nl·litro-1 por 12 horas aplicado después del etileno puede ser una técnica viable para manipular el proceso de maduración y alargar vida de anaquel de papaya 'Maradol'.

J. A. Osuna-Garc\\u00EDa

2009-01-01

107

ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF PAPAYA LEAF EXTRACTS AGAINST PATHOGENIC BACTERIA  

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Full Text Available It was reported that the extracts of papaya leaves could inhibit the growth of Rhizopus stolonifer. Antibacterial activity of Carica papaya leaf extracts on pathogenic bacteria was observed in this study. Papaya leaves were extracted by using maceration method and three kinds of solvents: ethanol, ethyl acetate, and hexane. Papaya leaf extracts were tested against Bacillus stearothermophilus, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas sp., and Escherichia coli by agar diffusion method. The objectives of this study were to determine extract ability against pathogenic bacteria, to observe the influence of pH, NaCl, and heat on extracts ability, and to observe extract ability against B. stearothermophilus spores. The data showed that ethyl acetate extract could inhibit B. stearothermophilus, L. monocytogenes, Pseudomonas sp., and E. coli. The extract activity was influenced by pH, and it was more effective in low pH. The extract activity was influenced by NaCl against B. stearothermophillus and E. coli. However, it was not influenced by NaCl in bioassay against L. monocytogenes and Pseudomonas sp. The extract activity was influenced by heating process against all the bacteria tested. The extracts inhibited B. stearothermophilus spores as well. Papaya leaves are potential natural anti-bacteria, which might be used in certain kinds of food.

Adolf Jan Nexson Parhusip

2011-11-01

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EVALUACIÓN DE MARCADORES GENÉTICOS PARA DISCRIMINACIÓN ENTRE HEMBRAS Y HERMAFRODITAS DE PAPAYA (Carica papaya L. VARIEDAD ‘MARADOL’  

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Full Text Available La papaya ( Carica papaya L. presenta tres tipos sexuales: macho, hembra y hermafrodita, de los cuales solo el último posee valor comercial y calidad de exportación. Con base en su morfología, dichos tipos únicamente pueden ser identificados a partir de la floración. La segregación del sexo en esta especie se explica con un modelo de un locus multialélico, aunque tiene una base molecular más compleja ya que puede intervenir más de un gen. En la papaya ‘Maradol’ se presentan casi exclusivamente los tipos femenino y hermafrodita, por lo cual en esta variedad se busca solamente la distinción entre ambas formas sexuales. En este trabajo se probaron tres juegos de iniciadores para marcadores SCAR, previamente desarrollados para determinación del sexo en variedades hawaianas. Los tres marcadores se identifican como T1, T12 y W11. A partir de tejido de 17 plantas identificadas como hembras y 23 hermafroditas de papaya ‘Maradol’, se encontró que los marcadores T12 y W11 fueron específicos en 100 % para plantas hermafroditas, mientras que no se observó amplificación para las plantas hembra. el SCAR T1 amplificó ADN solamente en algunas plantas hermafroditas. Se concluye que los SCAR T12 y W11 pueden ser utilizados como parte de una técnica para identificación temprana del sexo de las plantas de papaya ‘Maradol’ con fines de plantación comercial, previa validación con otras poblaciones de la misma variedad.

Violeta Aspeitia-Echegaray

2014-01-01

109

Physico-chemical characteristics of papaya (Carica papaya L.) seed oil of the Hong Kong/Sekaki variety.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study was carried out to determine the physicochemical characteristics of the oil derived from papaya seeds of the Hong Kong/Sekaki variety. Proximate analysis showed that seeds of the Hong Kong/Sekaki variety contained considerable amount of oil (27.0%). The iodine value, saponification value, unsaponifiable matter and free fatty acid contents of freshly extracted papaya seed oil were 76.9 g I2/100g oil, 193.5 mg KOH/g oil, 1.52% and 0.91%, respectively. The oil had a Lovibond color index of 15.2Y + 5.2B. Papaya seed oil contained ten detectable fatty acids, of which 78.33% were unsaturated. Oleic (73.5%) acid was the dominant fatty acids followed by palmitic acid (15.8%). Based on the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis, seven species of triacylglycerols (TAGs) were detected. The predominant TAGs of papaya seed oil were OOO (40.4%), POO (29.1%) and SOO (9.9%) where O, P, and S denote oleic, palmitic and stearic acids, respectively. Thermal analysis by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed that papaya seed oil had its major melting and crystallization transitions at 12.4°C and -48.2°C, respectively. Analysis of the sample by Z-nose (electronic nose) instrument showed that the sample had a high level of volatile compounds. PMID:25174674

Yanty, Noorzianna Abdul Manaf; Marikkar, Jalaldeen Mohammed Nazrim; Nusantoro, Bangun Prajanto; Long, Kamariah; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd

2014-01-01

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Removal of hazardous pharmaceutical dyes by adsorption onto papaya seeds.  

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Papaya (Carica papaya L.) seeds were used as adsorbent to remove toxic pharmaceutical dyes (tartrazine and amaranth) from aqueous solutions, in order to extend application range. The effects of pH, initial dye concentration, contact time and temperature were investigated. The kinetic data were evaluated by the pseudo first-order, pseudo second-order and Elovich models. The equilibrium was evaluated by the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models. It was found that adsorption favored a pH of 2.5, temperature of 298 K and equilibrium was attained at 180-200 min. The adsorption kinetics followed the pseudo second-order model, and the equilibrium was well represented by the Langmuir model. The maximum adsorption capacities were 51.0 and 37.4 mg g(-1) for tartrazine and amaranth, respectively. These results revealed that papaya seeds can be used as an alternative adsorbent to remove pharmaceutical dyes from aqueous solutions. PMID:25026586

Weber, Caroline Trevisan; Collazzo, Gabriela Carvalho; Mazutti, Marcio Antonio; Foletto, Edson Luiz; Dotto, Guilherme Luiz

2014-01-01

111

INFLUENCE OF THICKNESS ON THE DRYING OF PAPAYA PUREE (Carica papaya L. THROUGH REFRACTANCE WINDOWTM TECHNOLOGY  

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Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la influencia del espesor de las muestras (2, 3 y 4 mm sobre las cinéticas de secado, actividad de agua (aw y color (?E de rodajas de puré de papaya procesadas por tecnología de ventana de refractanciaTM (RWTM. Adicionalmente se evaluó la difusividad del agua (Deff teniendo en cuenta el encogimiento. Los datos de humedad se ajustaron mediante los modelos de Newton y Midilli. Los resultados mostraron que a menor espesor el secado fue más rápido, los valores de aw fueron menores y los ?E superiores. Las muestras alcanzaron 0.0652, 0.1132 y 0.2624 g agua/ g sólido seco en 60 min para rodajas de 2, 3 y 4 mm, respectivamente. El Modelo de Midilli fue el más apropiado para predecir las curvas de secado de papaya por RWTM. Deff disminuyó a menor espesor y su orden de magnitud fue de 10-10 m2/s.

MAR\\u00CDA U. OCOR\\u00D3-ZAMORA

2013-01-01

112

Empleo de un Recubrimiento Formulado con Propóleos para el Manejo Poscosecha de Frutos de Papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Hawaiana Use of a Coating Formulated with Propolis for Postharvest Handling of Papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Hawaiian Fruits  

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Full Text Available Resumen. El fruto de papaya es reconocido por las propiedades nutricionales y sensoriales; no obstante, su tiempo de vida útil en poscosecha es muy corto. En los últimos años, para incrementar la vida de almacenamiento del fruto se ha implementado el uso de recubrimientos como vehículos de agentes antimicrobianos y antioxidantes, entre otros. En este trabajo se comparó el efecto de dos recubrimientos; cera comercial (control y cera comercial conteniendo un extracto etanólico de propóleos (5% p/v, sobre la vida en poscosecha de frutos de papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Hawaiana almacenados a temperatura ambiente (28 ± 2 ºC y humedad relativa entre 65 y 70%. El efecto de los recubrimientos se determinó mediante el índice de deterioro de los frutos y el recuento microbiano (mesófilos aerobios, mohos y levaduras. Adicionalmente, se evaluaron durante 12 días las propiedades fisicoquímicas de los frutos (cambio de color, textura, pH, acidez total titulable, pérdida de peso y sólidos solubles. Los resultados mostraron que las papayas tratadas con el recubrimiento formulado con el extracto de propóleos, presentó un menor deterioro en cuanto a su apariencia y mayor inhibición del crecimiento de microorganismos durante los primeros 6 días de evaluación en comparación con los frutos control; además, no se observaron diferencias, producto de los recubrimientos, en relación a las características fisicoquímicas de los frutos.Abstract. Papaya fruit is known for the nutritional and sensory properties; however, its postharvest shelf life is very short. In recent years, to extend the storage life of this fruit, the use of coatings as a carrier of antimicrobial agents and antioxidants, has been implemented. In this work, the effect of two coatings, commercial wax (control and commercial wax containing an ethanolic extract of propolis (5% w/v on the postharvest of papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Hawaiian was compared. The fruits were stored at room temperature (28 ± 2 ºC and a relative humidity between 65 and 70%. The effect of coatings was determined by the deterioration index of the fruit, and the microbial counts (aerobic mesophiles, molds and yeasts. Additionally, during 12 days were evaluated physicochemical properties of the fruits (color, texture, pH, titratable acidity, weight loss and soluble solids. The results showed that the papaya fruits treated with the coating containing the propolis extract presented less deterioration in their appearance and greater inhibition growth of microorganisms during the first 6 days compared with control fruits; moreover, no differences among the coatings in relation to the physicochemical characteristics of the fruit were observed.

Elizabeth Barrera Bello

2012-06-01

113

Empleo de un Recubrimiento Formulado con Propóleos para el Manejo Poscosecha de Frutos de Papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Hawaiana) / Use of a Coating Formulated with Propolis for Postharvest Handling of Papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Hawaiian) Fruits  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Resumen. El fruto de papaya es reconocido por las propiedades nutricionales y sensoriales; no obstante, su tiempo de vida útil en poscosecha es muy corto. En los últimos años, para incrementar la vida de almacenamiento del fruto se ha implementado el uso de recubrimientos como vehículos de agentes a [...] ntimicrobianos y antioxidantes, entre otros. En este trabajo se comparó el efecto de dos recubrimientos; cera comercial (control) y cera comercial conteniendo un extracto etanólico de propóleos (5% p/v), sobre la vida en poscosecha de frutos de papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Hawaiana) almacenados a temperatura ambiente (28 ± 2 ºC) y humedad relativa entre 65 y 70%. El efecto de los recubrimientos se determinó mediante el índice de deterioro de los frutos y el recuento microbiano (mesófilos aerobios, mohos y levaduras). Adicionalmente, se evaluaron durante 12 días las propiedades fisicoquímicas de los frutos (cambio de color, textura, pH, acidez total titulable, pérdida de peso y sólidos solubles). Los resultados mostraron que las papayas tratadas con el recubrimiento formulado con el extracto de propóleos, presentó un menor deterioro en cuanto a su apariencia y mayor inhibición del crecimiento de microorganismos durante los primeros 6 días de evaluación en comparación con los frutos control; además, no se observaron diferencias, producto de los recubrimientos, en relación a las características fisicoquímicas de los frutos. Abstract in english Abstract. Papaya fruit is known for the nutritional and sensory properties; however, its postharvest shelf life is very short. In recent years, to extend the storage life of this fruit, the use of coatings as a carrier of antimicrobial agents and antioxidants, has been implemented. In this work, the [...] effect of two coatings, commercial wax (control) and commercial wax containing an ethanolic extract of propolis (5% w/v) on the postharvest of papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Hawaiian) was compared. The fruits were stored at room temperature (28 ± 2 ºC) and a relative humidity between 65 and 70%. The effect of coatings was determined by the deterioration index of the fruit, and the microbial counts (aerobic mesophiles, molds and yeasts). Additionally, during 12 days were evaluated physicochemical properties of the fruits (color, texture, pH, titratable acidity, weight loss and soluble solids). The results showed that the papaya fruits treated with the coating containing the propolis extract presented less deterioration in their appearance and greater inhibition growth of microorganisms during the first 6 days compared with control fruits; moreover, no differences among the coatings in relation to the physicochemical characteristics of the fruit were observed.

Elizabeth, Barrera Bello; Marcela, Gil Loaiza; Carlos Mario, García Pajón; Diego Luis, Durango Restrepo; Jesús Humberto, Gil González.

114

Empleo de un Recubrimiento Formulado con Propóleos para el Manejo Poscosecha de Frutos de Papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Hawaiana) / Use of a Coating Formulated with Propolis for Postharvest Handling of Papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Hawaiian) Fruits  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Resumen. El fruto de papaya es reconocido por las propiedades nutricionales y sensoriales; no obstante, su tiempo de vida útil en poscosecha es muy corto. En los últimos años, para incrementar la vida de almacenamiento del fruto se ha implementado el uso de recubrimientos como vehículos de agentes a [...] ntimicrobianos y antioxidantes, entre otros. En este trabajo se comparó el efecto de dos recubrimientos; cera comercial (control) y cera comercial conteniendo un extracto etanólico de propóleos (5% p/v), sobre la vida en poscosecha de frutos de papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Hawaiana) almacenados a temperatura ambiente (28 ± 2 ºC) y humedad relativa entre 65 y 70%. El efecto de los recubrimientos se determinó mediante el índice de deterioro de los frutos y el recuento microbiano (mesófilos aerobios, mohos y levaduras). Adicionalmente, se evaluaron durante 12 días las propiedades fisicoquímicas de los frutos (cambio de color, textura, pH, acidez total titulable, pérdida de peso y sólidos solubles). Los resultados mostraron que las papayas tratadas con el recubrimiento formulado con el extracto de propóleos, presentó un menor deterioro en cuanto a su apariencia y mayor inhibición del crecimiento de microorganismos durante los primeros 6 días de evaluación en comparación con los frutos control; además, no se observaron diferencias, producto de los recubrimientos, en relación a las características fisicoquímicas de los frutos. Abstract in english Abstract. Papaya fruit is known for the nutritional and sensory properties; however, its postharvest shelf life is very short. In recent years, to extend the storage life of this fruit, the use of coatings as a carrier of antimicrobial agents and antioxidants, has been implemented. In this work, the [...] effect of two coatings, commercial wax (control) and commercial wax containing an ethanolic extract of propolis (5% w/v) on the postharvest of papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Hawaiian) was compared. The fruits were stored at room temperature (28 ± 2 ºC) and a relative humidity between 65 and 70%. The effect of coatings was determined by the deterioration index of the fruit, and the microbial counts (aerobic mesophiles, molds and yeasts). Additionally, during 12 days were evaluated physicochemical properties of the fruits (color, texture, pH, titratable acidity, weight loss and soluble solids). The results showed that the papaya fruits treated with the coating containing the propolis extract presented less deterioration in their appearance and greater inhibition growth of microorganisms during the first 6 days compared with control fruits; moreover, no differences among the coatings in relation to the physicochemical characteristics of the fruit were observed.

Elizabeth, Barrera Bello; Marcela, Gil Loaiza; Carlos Mario, García Pajón; Diego Luis, Durango Restrepo; Jesús Humberto, Gil González.

2012-06-01

115

Odour-active compounds in papaya fruit cv. Red Maradol.  

Science.gov (United States)

Application of solid-phase microextraction and simultaneous distillation-extraction combined with GC-FID, GC-MS, aroma extract dilution analysis, and odour activity value were used to analyse volatile compounds from papaya fruit cv. Red Maradol and to estimate the most odour-active compounds. The analyses led to the identification of 137 compounds; 118 of them were positively identified. Twenty-five odorants were considered as odour-active compounds and contribute to the typical papaya aroma, from which ethyl butanoate, benzyl isothiocyanate, 1-hexen-3-one, (E)-?-ionone, and methyl benzoate were the most odour-active compounds. PMID:24176322

Pino, Jorge A

2014-03-01

116

Consumer in-store response to irradiated papayas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, purchase behavior of California consumers in response to irradiated papayas is described. The papayas were shipped from Hawaii and irradiated in California under a permit by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service and approved by the California Department of Food and Agriculture. Results show that the superior appearance of the irradiated fruit appealed to consumers and that two-thirds or more of the people queried indicated that they would buy irradiated produce. It is noted that this marketing took place in a supportive environment with no protestors present. Informational material was available

117

Caracterización y evaluación de dos híbridos de papaya en Cuba / Characterization and evaluation of two papaya hybrids in Cuba  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La papaya (Carica papaya L.) es considerada como una de las frutas de mayor valor nutritivo y digestivo, siendo utilizada ampliamente en dietas alimenticias, así como gran aceptación a nivel nacional e internacional. Su cultivo puede constituir una gran alternativa para la diversificación agrícola e [...] n las regiones de Cuba, debido a la existencia de áreas con condiciones edafoclimáticas favorables para desarrollar este frutal. Actualmente, los problemas que afectan al cultivo de la papaya son el bajo número de variedades explotadas comercialmente y la susceptibilidad a plagas y enfermedades. Una alternativa viable para la solución de este problema es recurrir a la ampliación de la base genética del papayo mediante la obtención de híbridos con resistencia a plagas y enfermedades, lo que contribuirá de manera decisiva en el mejoramiento del cultivo. El objetivo de esta investigación fue realizar la caracterización fenológica y productiva de dos híbridos de papaya "HGxMA" y "HGxMR" perteneciente al banco de germoplasma de este frutal ubicado en la Unidad Científico-Tecnológica de Base (UCTB) Jagüey Grande, Matanzas del período enero 2005 a noviembre 2007. Los resultados corroboraron que los híbridos presentan características fenotípicas del grupo formosa, frutos con forma elongata en las plantas hermafroditas. El peso medio de los frutos fue de 1.80 kg ("HGxMR") y 2.7 kg ("HGxMA"), de pulpa color naranja-rojiza y amarilla, respectivamente, así como, con una productividad entre 63.4 y 99.8.5 kg planta-1, características que evidencian la posibilidad de utilizarlos en programas de mejoramiento genético del cultivo y en el uso directo por los productores. Actualmente, el mercado consumidor de frutas de papaya de gran tamaño a nivel mundial va creciendo de manera considerable. Por estas razones, estos cultivares de papaya pueden constituir una opción con mayores potencialidades para satisfacer la demanda de los consumidores del cultivo. Abstract in english Papaya is considered one of the fruits of greatest nutritional and digestive value. It is widely used in diets and it has a high acceptance at national and international level. Its culture can constitute a great alternative for agricultural diversification in Cuba regions, due to the existence of ar [...] eas with favorable edaphoclimatic conditions to develop this fruit tree. Nowadays the problems that affect papaya culture are the low number of commercially developed varieties and the susceptibility to pests and diseases. A viable alternative to solve this problem is to widen the genetic papaya base obtaining hybrids with resistance to pest and disease that will contribute decisively to the culture improvement. In this work, the phenology and productive characterization has been done of two papaya hybrids "HGxMA" and "HGxMR" belonging to the germoplasm bank of this fruit tree, located at the Unidad Cientifico-Tecnologica de Base (UCTB) Jagüey Grande, Matanzas. The results confirm that the hybrids present phenotypical characteristics of the Formosa Group, with elongated fruits in hermaphroditic plants. The fruit average weigtht is 1.80 kg ("HGxMR") and 2.7 kg ("HGxMA"), of range-reddish and yellow pulp, respectively and productivity between 63.4 and 99.8.5 kg planta-1, characteristic that show the possibility of use them in genetic improvement programs and the direct use by producers. At present, the markert of big papaya fruits is increasing considerably worldwide. For these reasons, these papaya cultivars can constitute an option with greater potentialities to satisfy consumers demand of the culture.

Maruchi, Alonso Esquivel; Yoel, Tornet Quintana; Roberto, Ramos Ramírez; Emilio, Farrés Armenteros; Maikel, Aranguren González; Douglas, Rodríguez Martínez.

2008-09-01

118

Herencia de la concentración de los sólidos soluble entre líneas parentales de papaya (carica papaya l. y sus híbridos  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Herencia de la concentración de los sólidos solubles entre líneas parentales de papaya (Carica papaya L. y sus híbridos. Se estableció un experimento con el objetivo de determinar el patrón de herencia de la concentración de sólidos solubles de frutas (medido como grados brix entre tres líneas de papaya y sus tres posibles híbridos. Se utilizaron como materiales parentales tres líneas genéticas con niveles de azúcares significativamente diferentes entre ellos. Se determinó que la característica de alto contenido de sólidos solubles se comportó de manera dominante sobre un bajo contenido de los mismos. Se concluyó que existe un gran potencial para explotar comercialmente este patrón dominante al posibilitar el uso de germoplasma de buenas características agronómicas pero deficientes en sus contenidos de azúcares en sus frutas. La posible naturaleza de los factores que intervienen en la característica estudiada se discuten.

Eric Mora

2004-01-01

119

Pembuatan Edible Film Dari Ekstrak Buah Pepaya (Carica papaya L.) Dengan Campuran Tepung Tapioka, Tepung Terigu Dan Gliserin  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Has done research on the manufactured of edible film from papaya’s extract (Carica papaya L.) with tapioca, wheat and glycerin mixture. The making of edible film-making begins with the first extract of papaya. Edible film made by mixing papaya’s extract, tapioca, wheat, and glycerin until homogeneous and poured it on the plastic plat then dried in an oven for 2 days with a temperature of 40oC. Edible films produced and then tested the characteristics that is thickness, tengsile strength, ...

Aulia, Arini

2013-01-01

120

75 FR 22207 - Importation of Papayas From Colombia and Ecuador  

Science.gov (United States)

...action and considers the effects on domestic papaya production...basis. No retroactive effect will be given to this...The Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service is...Subjects in 7 CFR Part 319 Coffee, Cotton, Fruits, Imports...once weekly by plant health officials of the...

2010-04-28

 
 
 
 
121

Administration Dependent Antioxidant Effect of Carica papaya Seeds Water Extract.  

Science.gov (United States)

Carica papaya is widely used in folk medicine as herbal remedy to prevent, protect against, and cure several diseases. These curative properties are based on the presence in different parts of the plant of phytochemical nutrients with antioxidant effect. Seeds are the less exploited part; thus this study is aimed at assessing the antioxidant activities of the C. papaya seeds water extract against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) oxidative stress in human skin Detroit 550 fibroblasts. C. papaya seeds water extract is not toxic and acts as a potent free radical scavenger, providing protection to Detroit 550 fibroblasts that underwent H2O2 oxidative stress. Data show that (i) the maximum protective effect is achieved by the simultaneous administration of the extract with 1?mM H2O2; (ii) the extract in presence of an oxidative stress does not increase catalase activity and prevents the release of cytochrome C and the inner mitochondrial transmembrane potential (?? m ) loss; (iii) the extract is more efficient than vitamin C to hamper the oxidative damage; (iv) the purified subfractions of the seeds water extract exert the same antioxidant effect of whole extract. In conclusion, C. papaya seeds water extract is potentially useful for protection against oxidative stress. PMID:24795765

Panzarini, Elisa; Dwikat, Majdi; Mariano, Stefania; Vergallo, Cristian; Dini, Luciana

2014-01-01

122

Antibacterial effects of Carica papaya fruit on common wound organisms.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the study was to investigate antibacterial activity of ripe and unripe Carica papaya on selected micro-organisms. Cultures of micro-organisms were routinely maintained in nutrient agar slants at 4 degrees C. Extracts of immature, mature and ripe Carica papaya fruit were obtained by separately grinding factions of the epicarp, endocarp and seeds and filtering them through gauze. Sensitivity tests were conducted by adding 0.06 ml of extract to agar wells (6 mm diameter) prepared from 20 ml agar seeded with 10(6) cells/ml suspension of one of the eight organisms per plate. The inoculated plates were allowed to equilibrate at 4 degrees C for 1 hour, incubated at 37 degrees C for 24 hours, and zones of inhibition measured in millimetres. Anti-bacterial activity was expressed in terms of the radius of zone of inhibition. Seed extracts from the fruit showed inhibition in the following order: B cereus > E coli > S faecalis > S aureus > P vulgaris > S flexneri. No significant difference was found in bacterial sensitivity between immature, mature and ripe fruits. No inhibition zone was produced by epicarp and endocarp extracts. Carica papaya seeds contain anti-bacterial activity that inhibits growth of gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. Observed activity was independent of stage of fruit maturity. Carica papaya has antibacterial effects that could be useful in treating chronic skin ulcers to promote healing. PMID:15040064

Dawkins, G; Hewitt, H; Wint, Y; Obiefuna, P C; Wint, B

2003-12-01

123

Morfología de la flor y de la semilla de papaya (Carica papaya L.): variedad Maradol e híbrido Tainung-1 / Floral and seed morphology of papaya (Carica papaya L.): Maradol variety and Tainung-1 hybrid  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Con el objetivo de analizar la morfología de la flor y de la semilla de papaya (Carica papaya L.) de la variedad 'Maradol' y el híbrido 'Tainung-1', se recolectó el material vegetal en dos plantaciones y se llevaron al laboratorio de Fisiología de Cultivos, Facultad de Agronomía, Universidad Naciona [...] l de Colombia, Bogotá, con el fin de realizar las descripciones correspondientes de los tres tipos de flores (femeninas, hermafroditas y estaminadas) y de la semilla, sus características externas (forma, tamaño, hilo, micrópilo, funículo, rafe y abierta seminal) e internas (cubierta seminal, endospermo y embrión). Se concluyó principalmente que a nivel morfológico las flores y semillas de los dos materiales evaluados mostraron características similares, por tanto, las descripciones dadas en este trabajo son generales para ambos. Abstract in english Vegetal material from papaya (Carica papaya L.) 'Maradol' variety and 'Tainung-1' hybrid were collected from two plantations and taken to the Plant Physiology laboratory to analyse their flower and seed morphology. Descriptions were made of the three types of flowers (female, hermaphrodite and stami [...] nate) and the seeds' external (shape, size, hilum, micropyle, funicle, raphe and testa) and internal characteristics (testa, endosperm and embryo). The main morphological conclusion was that the flowers and seeds from the two types evaluated showed similar characteristics; the descriptions given in this paper are thus general for them.

Arlette Ivonne, Gil; Diego, Miranda.

2005-07-01

124

Development of a Gene-Centered SSR Atlas as a Resource for Papaya (Carica papaya) Marker-Assisted Selection and Population Genetic Studies  

Science.gov (United States)

Carica papaya (papaya) is an economically important tropical fruit. Molecular marker-assisted selection is an inexpensive and reliable tool that has been widely used to improve fruit quality traits and resistance against diseases. In the present study we report the development and validation of an atlas of papaya simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. We integrated gene predictions and functional annotations to provide a gene-centered perspective for marker-assisted selection studies. Our atlas comprises 160,318 SSRs, from which 21,231 were located in genic regions (i.e. inside exons, exon-intron junctions or introns). A total of 116,453 (72.6%) of all identified repeats were successfully mapped to one of the nine papaya linkage groups. Primer pairs were designed for markers from 9,594 genes (34.5% of the papaya gene complement). Using papaya-tomato orthology assessments, we assembled a list of 300 genes (comprising 785 SSRs) potentially involved in fruit ripening. We validated our atlas by screening 73 SSR markers (including 25 fruit ripening genes), achieving 100% amplification rate and uncovering 26% polymorphism rate between the parental genotypes (Sekati and JS12). The SSR atlas presented here is the first comprehensive gene-centered collection of annotated and genome positioned papaya SSRs. These features combined with thousands of high-quality primer pairs make the atlas an important resource for the papaya research community. PMID:25393538

Vidal, Newton Medeiros; Grazziotin, Ana Laura; Ramos, Helaine Christine Cancela; Pereira, Messias Gonzaga; Venancio, Thiago Motta

2014-01-01

125

Ecophysiology of papaya: a review / Ecofisiologia do mamoeiro: uma revisão  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O mamoeiro (Carica papaya L.) é uma das principais culturas das regiões tropicais e subtropicais. O conhecimento das respostas dessa cultura aos fatores do ambiente pode fornecer bases científicas para traçarem-se estratégias de manejo que possam otimizar a produção e a qualidade dos frutos. Um melh [...] or entendimento das respostas dos genótipos aos fatores específicos do ambiente poderá contribuir para um eficiente zoneamento agrícola e para futuros programas de melhoramento da espécie. Objetivou-se apresentar o estado-da-arte do conhecimento relacionado aos efeitos e à interação dos fatores ambientes sobre o processo fotossintético e a fisiologia da planta inteira. Nesta revisão, demonstra-se que os fatores do ambiente, como luz, vento, característica físicas e químicas do solo, temperatura, água no solo, umidade relativa, além de fatores bióticos, como fungos micorrízicos e o genótipo, podem afetar intensamente a produtividade e a fisiologia do mamoeiro. Uma compreensão da ação dos fatores do ambiente e suas interações com o processo fisiológico dessa espécie são de grande importância para a sustentabilidade econômica da produção do mamoeiro, em condições de viveiro e de campo. A partir de um manejo da cultura baseado em resultados científicos, será possível otimizar a assimilação fotossintética do carbono e elevar a qualidade e produção de frutos do mamoeiro. Abstract in english Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a principal horticultural crop of tropical and subtropical regions. Knowledge of how papaya responds to environmental factors provides a scientific basis for the development of management strategies to optimize fruit yield and quality. A better understanding of genotypic [...] responses to specific environmental factors will contribute to efficient agricultural zoning and papaya breeding programs. The objective of this review is to present current research knowledge related to the effect of environmental factors and their interaction with the photosynthetic process and whole-plant physiology. This review demonstrates that environmental factors such as light, wind, soil chemical and physical characteristics, temperature, soil water, relative humidity, and biotic factors such as mycorrhizal fungi and genotype profoundly affect the productivity and physiology of papaya. An understanding of the environmental factors and their interaction with physiological processes is extremely important for economically sustainable production in the nursery or in the field. With improved, science-based management, growers will optimize photosynthetic carbon assimilation and increase papaya fruit productivity and quality.

Eliemar, Campostrini; David M., Glenn.

126

Ecophysiology of papaya: a review Ecofisiologia do mamoeiro: uma revisão  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Papaya (Carica papaya L. is a principal horticultural crop of tropical and subtropical regions. Knowledge of how papaya responds to environmental factors provides a scientific basis for the development of management strategies to optimize fruit yield and quality. A better understanding of genotypic responses to specific environmental factors will contribute to efficient agricultural zoning and papaya breeding programs. The objective of this review is to present current research knowledge related to the effect of environmental factors and their interaction with the photosynthetic process and whole-plant physiology. This review demonstrates that environmental factors such as light, wind, soil chemical and physical characteristics, temperature, soil water, relative humidity, and biotic factors such as mycorrhizal fungi and genotype profoundly affect the productivity and physiology of papaya. An understanding of the environmental factors and their interaction with physiological processes is extremely important for economically sustainable production in the nursery or in the field. With improved, science-based management, growers will optimize photosynthetic carbon assimilation and increase papaya fruit productivity and quality.O mamoeiro (Carica papaya L. é uma das principais culturas das regiões tropicais e subtropicais. O conhecimento das respostas dessa cultura aos fatores do ambiente pode fornecer bases científicas para traçarem-se estratégias de manejo que possam otimizar a produção e a qualidade dos frutos. Um melhor entendimento das respostas dos genótipos aos fatores específicos do ambiente poderá contribuir para um eficiente zoneamento agrícola e para futuros programas de melhoramento da espécie. Objetivou-se apresentar o estado-da-arte do conhecimento relacionado aos efeitos e à interação dos fatores ambientes sobre o processo fotossintético e a fisiologia da planta inteira. Nesta revisão, demonstra-se que os fatores do ambiente, como luz, vento, característica físicas e químicas do solo, temperatura, água no solo, umidade relativa, além de fatores bióticos, como fungos micorrízicos e o genótipo, podem afetar intensamente a produtividade e a fisiologia do mamoeiro. Uma compreensão da ação dos fatores do ambiente e suas interações com o processo fisiológico dessa espécie são de grande importância para a sustentabilidade econômica da produção do mamoeiro, em condições de viveiro e de campo. A partir de um manejo da cultura baseado em resultados científicos, será possível otimizar a assimilação fotossintética do carbono e elevar a qualidade e produção de frutos do mamoeiro.

Eliemar Campostrini

2007-12-01

127

Verbo de concordancia en la lengua de señas chilena  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

El presente trabajo trata sobre una clase verbo de la lengua de señas chilena, el verbo de concordancia. A través de su descripción se da cuenta de los diversos mecanismos utilizados por el sistema de la lengua de señas para establecer la concordancia entre el sujeto y el objeto, que funcionan en la oración mediante el proceso de inflexión gramatical. Una característica relevante de la LSCh consiste en la utilización del espacio para producir modificaciones gramaticales regulares, ent...

Dora Adamo Quintela; Irene Cabrera Ramírez; Pamela Lattapiat Navarro; Ximena Acuña Robertson

1999-01-01

128

IDENTIFICACIÓN MEDIANTE PCR DEL SEXO DE LA PAPAYA (Carica papaya L., HÍBRIDO "POCOCÍ"  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

con dos metodologías de extracción, CTAB y lisis alcalina (NaOH. La amplificación por PCR del ADN extraído de muestras foliares de papaya híbrido "Pococí", con ambos métodos de extracción, produjo los fragmentos del tamaño esperado. La determinación del sexo de 1.500 plántulas en almácigo mostró un 46 % de plántulas hermafroditas y un 54 % de plantas femeninas. La proporción observada de plantas femeninas: hemafroditas no varió de la esperada (1:1 según la prueba de chi-cuadrado (p= 0,4237. Las plantas hermafroditas fueron llevadas al campo y al momento de la floración se determinó su sexo. La correspondencia entre el sexado por PCR y la expresión sexual en campo fue de un 98 %.

Ericka Saalau-Rojas

2009-01-01

129

NORMALIZACIÓN DE LA FILOSOFÍA CHILENA: UN CAMINO DE CLAUSURA DISCIPLINAR  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El artículo pretende iluminar y resaltar el proceso de institucionalización, profesionalización y administración de las prácticas de la filosofía chilena a través del concepto de “normalidad filosófica” propuesto por el argentino Francisco Romero para describir las situación de la filosofía latinoamericana de los años 50. A través de este ejercicio, la constitución disciplinar de la filosofía chilena se mostrará “clausurada” con respecto a otros espacios o discursos alternativos al discurso académico. De ahí que se hable de una “clausura disciplinar” de la filosofía chilena.The article tries to illuminate and to stand out the process of institutionalization, professionalization, and administration of the practices of Chilean philosophy through the concept of “philosophical normality” proposed by the Argentinian Francisco Romero to decribe the situation of the latin american philosophy in the fifties. Through this exercise, the disciplinary constitution of Chilean philosophy would be showed “closed” regarding other spaces or alternative speeches to academic speech. This is why it speaks about a “disciplinary closure” of Chilean philosophy.

Matías Silva Rojas

2009-01-01

130

Sensitivity of papaya seeds to gamma-irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The major problems faced by the papaya industry in Malaysia are the papaya ringspot virus disease and the short shelf-life of the fruit. Efforts have been made to address these problems and they include conventional breeding and selection and biotechnological tools for development of transgenic papayas with PRSV resistance and delayed fruit ripening characteristics. Irradiation-induced changes in papaya for selection of improved varieties could offer another approach to resolve these problems. As the first step, the radio-sensitivity of papaya seed must be established before mass irradiation of the materials to generate the desired variability for evaluation and selection later. For the first approximation dosage, the seeds of two local. varieties, Sekaki and Eksotika were irradiated as either dry seeds or as pre-germinated seeds (soaked overnight in water and surface-dried). The dosage ranged from 0 to 300 Gy. Wet pre-germinated seeds were all killed at 100 Gy while dry seeds did not show loss of viability even at 300 Gy. The dosage for dry seeds was raised to 1000 Gy in the following experiment and the LD 50 (or half-kill) was estimated to be 650 Gy. However, at this dosage, seedling growth was markedly reduced and this dosage may not be suitable for mass irradiation. From the growth data, it was estimated that 525 Gy was the dosage that reduced 50% of growth in height and this dosage was recommended for mass irradiation of dry seeds. For wet, pre-germinated seeds, results from the third experiment indicated that 42.5 Gy was the optimal dosage for mass irradiation. At this dosage, both seed germination and seedling growth was reduced by 50%. (Author)

131

Structural characterization of two papaya chitinases, a family GH19 of glycosyl hydrolases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two chitinases, able to use tetra-N-acetylglucosamine, chitin and chitosan as substrates, were characterized after purification from Carica papaya latex. The complete amino acid sequence of the major form and about 40% of the minor one were determined through proteolytic digestions and mass spectroscopy analysis. Sequencing demonstrated that both papaya chitinases are members of the family 19 of glycosyl hydrolases (GH19). Based on the known 3-D structures of other members of family GH19, it was expected that papaya chitinases would adopt all-alpha structures. However, circular dichroism and infrared spectroscopy indicated, for the papaya chitinases, a content of 15-20% of extended structures besides the expected 40% of alpha helices. Since the fully sequenced papaya chitinase contains a large number of proline residues the possibility that papaya chitinase contains polyproline II stretches was examined in the context of their resistance against proteolytic degradation. PMID:17115118

Huet, J; Wyckmans, J; Wintjens, R; Boussard, P; Raussens, V; Vandenbussche, G; Ruysschaert, J M; Azarkan, M; Looze, Y

2006-12-01

132

Evaluation of schistosomicidal and leishmanicidal activities from Carica papaya (Linn.) stem and phytochemical composition  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Carica papaya Linn., is a member of the small family Caricaceae. Each part of papaya tree possesses economic value and is considered as a valuable nutraceutical fruit plant. C. papaya has a wide range of purported medicinal properties including antiseptic, antiparasitic, anti inflammatory, antidiabetic and contraceptive activity. While there are only limited data to support most of these uses, there are some evidences for their use in healing decubitus ulcers and other wounds and in treating ...

Khaled Nabih Rashed; Michele Garcia da Cruz; Geovana Pereira Guirra Vieira; Lizandra Guidi Magalhaes; Cunha, Wilson R.

2013-01-01

133

Reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid detection of Papaya ringspot virus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) and Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV), which causes disease symptoms similar to PRSV, threaten commercial production of both non-transgenic-papaya and PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya in China. A reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay to detect PLDMV was developed previously. In this study, the development of another RT-LAMP assay to distinguish among transgenic, PRSV-infected and PLDMV-infected papaya by detection of PRSV is reported. A set of four RT-LAMP primers was designed based on the highly conserved region of the P3 gene of PRSV. The RT-LAMP method was specific and sensitive in detecting PRSV, with a detection limit of 1.15×10(-6)?g of total RNA per reaction. Indeed, the reaction was 10 times more sensitive than one-step RT-PCR. Field application of the RT-LAMP assay demonstrated that samples positive for PRSV were detected only in non-transgenic papaya, whereas samples positive for PLDMV were detected only in commercialized PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya. This suggests that PRSV remains the major limiting factor for non-transgenic-papaya production, and the emergence of PLDMV threatens the commercial transgenic cultivar in China. However, this study, combined with the earlier development of an RT-LAMP assay for PLDMV, will provide a rapid, sensitive and cost-effective diagnostic power to distinguish virus infections in papaya. PMID:24769198

Shen, Wentao; Tuo, Decai; Yan, Pu; Yang, Yong; Li, Xiaoying; Zhou, Peng

2014-08-01

134

Nematodos agalladores asociados al cultivo de papaya (Carica papaya L.) en el departamento de Córdoba, Colombia / Root knot nematodes associated with papaya crop (Carica papaya L.) in department of Córdoba, Colombia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este trabajo fue identificar los nematodos agalladores asociados al cultivo de papaya (Carica papaya L.) en los municipios de Tierralta, Valencia, Lorica, Montería y Montelíbano que constituyen el área productora de papaya en Córdoba. Se evaluaron variables morfológicas y morfométrica [...] s en hembras, machos y juveniles de segundo estadío (J2). En las muestras de suelo se determinó pH, contenido de materia orgánica (MO), conductividad eléctrica (CE) y textura, a fin de correlacionarlas con la presencia de especies nematodas. Se encontraron Meloidogyne javanica, M. incognita y M. arenaria, siendo M. incognita la especie más frecuente. Las tres especies se encontraron mezcladas en 37,5% de los individuos; M. incognita y M. arenaria en 50%, mientras que M. incognita y M. javanica no se encontraron mezcladas. Las especies se encontraron en pH de 4,9 a 6,4; CE de 0,1 a 0,45 dS· m-1; MO de 1,2 % a 2,5 % y la textura fue arenosa, franca y franco arenosa. El pH, el contenido de arena y la CE correlacionan de manera positiva con la presencia de los nematodos, mientras a MO mostró correlación negativa. Se reporta por primera vez la ocurrencia de M. javanica, M. incognita, M. arenaria, así como la mezcla de M. incognita y M. arenaria, en papayas de Colombia. Abstract in english Nematode species associated with papaya crop (Carica papaya L) were characterized in Cordoba, Colombia by using morphological and morphometric parameters of their females, males, and infective second-stage juveniles (J2). Soil samples were taken from papaya plantations in order to evaluate soil text [...] ure, organic matter (OM), pH, electric conductivity (EC), and, finally, presence of root knot nematodes in the soil. Correlation analysis was performed to correlate soil variables with the presence of Meloidogyne species. Meloidogyne incognita, M. arenaria and M. javanica were found, whereas M. incognita was the most frequent specie. These three species were found together in 37.5% of the soils of papaya plantation; M. incognita and M. arenaria were mixed in 50%, while M. javanica and M. incognita were not mixed. Conducive soils to Meloidogyne species had pH 4.9 to 6.4, EC 0.1 to 0.45 dS· m-1, OM 1.2 to 2.5 %, and sandy to sandy-loam soil texture. The pH, percentages sand and CE were positively correlated with an abundance of Meloidogyne species, whereas OM was negatively correlated. This is the first report of M. javanica, M. incognita and M. arenaria, and the mixture of M. incognita and M. arenaria in papaya plantations of Colombia.

Juan de Dios, Jaraba; Zaida, Lozano; Manuel, Espinosa.

2007-06-01

135

Effect of gamma irradiation in papaya (Carica papaya L.) harvested in three degrees of maturation.; Efeito da irradiacao gama em mamao papaia (Carica papaya L.) colhido em tres pontos de maturacao  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The papaya is a fragile tropical fruit with thin skin, susceptible to post harvest diseases and mechanical injuries. Furthermore, it is sensible to low temperatures and at normal conditions it ripens rapidly, increasing the difficulties with storage. The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of gamma irradiation in papayas harvested in three degrees of maturation, in order to increase shelf life. To accomplish that, papayas were harvested in perfect quality conditions, washed, submitted to carnauba wax and selected by skin coloration into three distinct degrees of maturation: Mat 0, or beginning of yellow coloration; Mat 1, yellow stripes more developed, and Mat 2, one third yellow. Half of them were submitted to irradiation with 0, 75 kGy, while the others became control treatment. They were analyzed in four different periods of conservation, which were 1 day after irradiation (DAI) refrigerated (11 +- 1 deg C), 14 DAI refrigerated, 14 DAI refrigerated + 3 at room temperature (RT = 24 deg +- 2 deg C) and 14 DAI refrigerated + 6 at RT. The effect of irradiation was not influenced by the maturation degree at harvest. Irradiation promoted firmness maintenance of papaya and, therefore, delayed ripening; modified the green color of papaya to a lighter tone, which determined more homogeneity in the skin yellow color development (greater values of L* and b*), and turned the papaya flesh color lighter (rower values of b*). There was no effect of irradiation in papaya weight loss, in the occurrence of diseases, in the development of surface yellow color, in the parameter a* of papaya skin color, in the parameters L*, a* and chroma of flesh color, p H and total soluble solids content. Visual and organoleptic sensorial tests were accomplished with papayas from a new delivery in the conservation period of 14 DAI refrigerated + 3 at RT. In the visual test was evaluated the appearance of papaya in the following treatments: Mat O control, Mat O irradiated, Mat 1 control, Mat 1 irradiated, Mat 2 control e Mat 2 irradiated, in which the first one received lower scores due to the occurrence of ratting on one of the papayas. In the organoleptic test, the parameters firmness, sweetness and acceptance were evaluated for the following treatments: control, Mat O irradiated, Mat 1 irradiated e Mat 2 irradiated. There was no difference between treatments for the sweetness parameter. The irradiated treatments received better scores for firmness as well as papayas irradiated at Mat 1 and 2 for acceptance (author)

Pimentel, Rodrigo Meirelles de Azevedo

2001-07-01

136

Hurdle technology to preserve the 'Golden' papaya post harvest quality  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the purpose of evaluating a combination of post harvest techniques on papaya Golden storage, the following treatments were investigated: carton boxes packaging (CP); CP + plastic bag of PEBD - low density polyethylene film, with 0.05mm of thickness (PE); CP + PEBD with 0.025mm of thickness impregnated with mineral ethylene scavenger (PEAbs); gamma-irradiation (0.4 kGy and 0.7 kGy); and refrigerated storage at 10 deg C e 90% of relative humidity for 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 days plus five days under environmental conditions to allow ripening and to simulate the product marketing. To evaluate the effects on fruit quality the following measurements were taken: - first experiment, disease incidence, skin color and loss of turgidity (as visual variables); skin and flesh color, weight loss, flesh firmness, total soluble solids, total titratable acidity, pH, lycopene and beta-carotene composition; - second experiment, sensorial analysis on samples submitted to the treatments with better results from the first experiment. Post harvest diseases were the main factor responsible for discarding fruits. Percentage of weight loss was higher on papayas stored without plastic packaging. Time affected the flesh firmness (F = 95%). However, there wasn't influence of the treatments on that parameter. A significant effect on skin color was observed with interaction between irradiation (0.4 and 0.7 kGy) and storage period. Once reached the edible stage, irradiated papayas pres the edible stage, irradiated papayas presented more uniformity on skin color. For beta-carotene and Lycopene, the mean values were 1.27 to 1.79 and 19.16 to 23.90 mug/ml of flesh, respectively. But those substances weren't affected by the combined methods or the time. The same behavior were observed for total soluble solids, total titratable acidity and pH (mean values of 11.53 to 12.20 deg Brix, 0.117 to 0.136 g of citric acid/100g of flesh and 4.91 to 5.04, respectively). On sensory evaluation, the judges didn't get to detect significant differences among papayas submitted to different treatments. A synergism was verified on the techniques combination, with the best results obtained from the association of CP + PEabs + gamma-irradiation at 0.4 kGy, which reached a total storage period of 35 days. Thus, that is the post harvest hurdle technology recommend for exporting 'Golden' papayas to markets with quarantine restrictions to fruit-flies (author)

137

Cyanogenesis in glucosinolate-producing plants: Carica papaya and Carica quercifolia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Carica papaya, Carica quercifolia, Carica hastata, Caricaceae, Passifloraceae, Biosynthesis, Glucosinolates, Cyanohydrin glycosides, Cyanogenic glycosides, Prunasin, Tetraphyllin B, Cyclopentenylglycine

Olafsdottir, E.S.; JØrgensen, Lise Bolt

2002-01-01

138

Pembuatan Edible Film Dari Campuran Ekstrak Pepaya(Carica papaya L.), Kanji Dan Gliserin Sebagai Bahan Pengemas.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Has done research on the making of edible films from extracts of papaya (Carica papaya l.), starch and glycerin as packaging materials. Processing of edible filmmaking begins with the first extract of papaya. Edible films made by mixing papaya extract, starch and glycerin until homogeneous and then dried in an oven for 2 days with a temperature of 30oC. Edible films produced and then tested the characteristics and nutrient levels. Survey results revealed that the characteristic...

Ulpa, Dwi Raafiah

2011-01-01

139

76 FR 49725 - Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Fresh Papaya Fruit From Malaysia into the...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Importation of Fresh Papaya Fruit From Malaysia into the Continental United States AGENCY...United States of fresh papaya fruit from Malaysia. Based on the findings of a pest risk...importation of fresh papaya fruit from Malaysia. DATES: Effective Date: August...

2011-08-11

140

40 CFR 174.515 - Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement...Exemptions § 174.515 Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement...tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus are exempt from the...

2010-07-01

 
 
 
 
141

Evaluación de accesiones cubanas de papaya (Carica papaya L.) ante la mancha anular / Assessment of Cuban papaya (Carica papaya L.) accessions against ringspot / Avaliação de acessos cubanos de mamão papaya (carica papaya L.) à mancha anelar  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese Os acessos de mamão Tallo morado de Nava, Amarilla de Duaba, Amarilla de Nava e Sapote de Pilón foram coletados em diferentes regiões de Cuba e plantados em condições de campo em Jagüey Grande, Matanzas - Cuba. Nestas plantas foram avaliadas a presença e intensidade dos sintomas de mancha anelar, us [...] ando uma escala graduada de 1-5. Os resultados mostraram um aumento, com o tempo, na proporção de plantas afetadas em todos os acessos. O acesso Amarilla de Duaba apresentou sintomas dois meses após a primeira avaliação (MDPE), enquanto para os restantes foram observados sintomas após cinco MDPE, contudo em proporções diferentes entre eles. Aos sete MDPE os acessos Amarilla de Duaba e Amarilla de Nava, apresentaram proporções iguais de plantas doentes, enquanto Tallo morado de Nava e Sapote de Pilon apresentaram menores proporções. O aumento da intensidade dos sintomas foi diferente nos órgãos da planta na seguinte ordem: caule (1,7-2,66), pecíolos (2,21-3,03) e folhagens (3,44-4,03). Nos frutos a intensidade dos sintomas observados foi inferior a 2,5, considerada leve em função da sua intensidade e distribuição. Estes são os primeiros resultados sobre a susceptibilidade a mancha anelar destes acessos, sendo muito úteis para os produtores, bem como para os programas de melhoramento do país. Abstract in spanish Se colectaron en diferentes regiones de Cuba semillas de las accesiones de papayo Tallo Morado de Nava, Amarilla de Duaba, Amarilla de Nava y Sapote de Pilón. Estas se plantaron en condiciones de campo en Jagüey Grande, Matanzas - Cuba, donde se evaluó la presencia e intensidad de síntomas de mancha [...] anular, siguiendo una escala graduada del 1 al 5. Los resultados mostraron un incremento temporal de la proporción de plantas afectadas en todas las accesiones. La accesión Amarilla de Duaba mostró los síntomas a los dos meses después de la primera evaluación (MDPE), mientras que el resto lo hizo a los cinco MDPE, aunque con proporciones que variaron entre ellas. A los siete MDPE las accesiones Amarilla de Duaba y Amarilla de Nava mostraron proporciones idénticas de plantas enfermas, mientras que Tallo morado de Nava y Sapote de Pilón mostraron proporciones inferiores. La intensidad de los síntomas se incrementó en los diferentes órganos siguiendo el siguiente orden: tallo (1,7 a 2,66), pecíolos (2,21 a 3,03) y follaje (3,44-4,03). En los frutos la intensidad de los síntomas observados fue inferior a 2,5, considerados como leves de acuerdo a su intensidad y distribución. Se ofrecen los primeros resultados sobre la susceptibilidad a la mancha anular de estas accesiones, siendo de gran utilidad para los productores, así como para los programas de mejoramiento genético en el país. Abstract in english The papaya accessions "Tallo morado de Nava", "Amarilla de Duaba", "Amarilla de Nava" and "Sapote de Pilón" were collected from different regions of Cuba and planted under field conditions in Jagüey Grande, Matanzas - Cuba. These plants were assessed for the presence and intensity of ringspot sympto [...] ms, using a graduated scale of 1-5. Results showed an increase, with time, in the proportion of affected plants for all accessions. The accession "Amarilla de Duaba" had symptoms two months after the first assessment (MAFA), while for the remaining accessions, symptoms were noted after only five MAFA but at proportions that differed among them. At seven MAFA, the accessions "Amarilla de Duaba" and "Amarilla de Nava" had proportions equal to those of diseased plants, while "Tallo morado de Nava" and "Sapote de Pilon" showed lower proportions. The increase in symptom intensity was different for the plant organs in the following order: stem (1.7-2.66), petioles (2.21-3.03) and leaves (3.44-4.03). For fruits, the intensity of the observed symptoms was inferior to 2.5, considered light based on their intensity and distributions. These are the first results about ringspot susceptibility for these a

Douglas, Rodríguez; Maruchy, Alonso; Yoel, Tornet; Lázaro, Valero; Emi Rainildes, Lorenzetti; Romualdo, Pérez.

2013-03-01

142

Enzymatic difference between laticifers and cultured cells of papaya.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cell suspension cultures of Carica papaya were found to produce a papain-like enzyme showing an amidase activity similar to papain. Experiments suggested that the enzyme was an SH-enzyme, but an immunological test indicated the absence of papain in cultured cells. The isoelectric point (4.3) of the enzyme of cultured cells was the same as that of the leaf extract, but was different from that of papain or other amidases in the latex of the fruit. PMID:24248244

Yamamoto, H; Tanaka, S; Fukui, H; Tabata, M

1986-08-01

143

Índices fisiológicos e crescimento inicial de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L.) em casa de vegetação / Physiological indexes and initial growth of papaya plants (Carica papaya L.) under greenhouse conditions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese No Brasil, a cultura do mamoeiro (Carica papaya L.) é amplamente difundida, destacando-se o sul da Bahia e o norte do Espírito Santo onde se concentra a maior parte dos plantios comerciais. Por ser uma cultura que necessita de renovação dos pomares de quatro em quatro anos, no máximo, há uma necessi [...] dade constante de renovação deles, fazendo com que a demanda por novas tecnologias e melhoria na qualidade das mudas cresça, forçando o desenvolvimento de pesquisas na área. A análise de crescimento tem sido usada por pesquisadores, na tentativa de explicar diferenças no crescimento, de ordem genética ou resultante de modificações do ambiente e constitui uma ferramenta eficiente para a identificação de materiais promissores, além de identificar características que, no crescimento inicial, indiquem possibilidade de aumento no rendimento da planta adulta, favorecendo os trabalhos de melhoramento na busca de materiais mais produtivos. Por isso, objetivou-se avaliar o crescimento inicial de plantas de mamoeiro em casa de vegetação, por meio de índices fisiológicos, como parâmetros indicativos do rendimento. Assim, instalou-se um experimento no delineamento inteiramente casualizado, utilizando a cultivar Golden e outro com o híbrido Tainung Nº1. Concluiu-se que os índices fisiológicos; taxa de crescimento absoluto, taxa de crescimento relativo, taxa assimilatória líquida e razão de área foliar são ferramentas eficientes para identificar e comparar diferentes materiais genéticos, durante o crescimento inicial de plantas de mamoeiro da cultivar Golden e do híbrido Tainung Nº1, em casa de vegetação. Abstract in english In Brazil, the papaya crop (Carica papaya L.) is well diffused, specially in the Southern Region of the State of Bahia and the Northern Region of the State of Espírito Santo, where most of the commercial plantations are concentrated. Papaya is a crop that needs renovation of the orchards every four [...] years, at the most, demanding the development of new technologies and improvement in the quality of the plantlets, also demanding the development of research in this area. Growth analysis has been used by researchers in order to explain growth differences of genetic or environmental causes. This is a very efficient tool for the identification of promising materials and characteristics that possibly increase the yield of abolt plant during the initial growth, favoring the works of breeding. This is valmble infermatian for plant breeding army productive. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the initial growth of papaya plants growing under greenhouse conditions using physiological indexes as yield indicative parameters. Therefore, a complete randomized block experiment was carried out using the Golden cultivar and the Tainung Nº1 hybrid. It was concluded that the physiological indexes: absolute growth ratio, relative growth ratio, accurate assimilation ratio and leaf area ratio are efficient tools to identity and compare different genetic materials during the initial growth of papaya plants growing under greenhouse conditions.

Juliana Firmino de, Lima; Clóvis Pereira, Peixoto; Carlos Alberto da Silva, Ledo.

1358-13-01

144

Índices fisiológicos e crescimento inicial de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L. em casa de vegetação Physiological indexes and initial growth of papaya plants (Carica papaya L. under greenhouse conditions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available No Brasil, a cultura do mamoeiro (Carica papaya L. é amplamente difundida, destacando-se o sul da Bahia e o norte do Espírito Santo onde se concentra a maior parte dos plantios comerciais. Por ser uma cultura que necessita de renovação dos pomares de quatro em quatro anos, no máximo, há uma necessidade constante de renovação deles, fazendo com que a demanda por novas tecnologias e melhoria na qualidade das mudas cresça, forçando o desenvolvimento de pesquisas na área. A análise de crescimento tem sido usada por pesquisadores, na tentativa de explicar diferenças no crescimento, de ordem genética ou resultante de modificações do ambiente e constitui uma ferramenta eficiente para a identificação de materiais promissores, além de identificar características que, no crescimento inicial, indiquem possibilidade de aumento no rendimento da planta adulta, favorecendo os trabalhos de melhoramento na busca de materiais mais produtivos. Por isso, objetivou-se avaliar o crescimento inicial de plantas de mamoeiro em casa de vegetação, por meio de índices fisiológicos, como parâmetros indicativos do rendimento. Assim, instalou-se um experimento no delineamento inteiramente casualizado, utilizando a cultivar Golden e outro com o híbrido Tainung Nº1. Concluiu-se que os índices fisiológicos; taxa de crescimento absoluto, taxa de crescimento relativo, taxa assimilatória líquida e razão de área foliar são ferramentas eficientes para identificar e comparar diferentes materiais genéticos, durante o crescimento inicial de plantas de mamoeiro da cultivar Golden e do híbrido Tainung Nº1, em casa de vegetação.In Brazil, the papaya crop (Carica papaya L. is well diffused, specially in the Southern Region of the State of Bahia and the Northern Region of the State of Espírito Santo, where most of the commercial plantations are concentrated. Papaya is a crop that needs renovation of the orchards every four years, at the most, demanding the development of new technologies and improvement in the quality of the plantlets, also demanding the development of research in this area. Growth analysis has been used by researchers in order to explain growth differences of genetic or environmental causes. This is a very efficient tool for the identification of promising materials and characteristics that possibly increase the yield of abolt plant during the initial growth, favoring the works of breeding. This is valmble infermatian for plant breeding army productive. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the initial growth of papaya plants growing under greenhouse conditions using physiological indexes as yield indicative parameters. Therefore, a complete randomized block experiment was carried out using the Golden cultivar and the Tainung Nº1 hybrid. It was concluded that the physiological indexes: absolute growth ratio, relative growth ratio, accurate assimilation ratio and leaf area ratio are efficient tools to identity and compare different genetic materials during the initial growth of papaya plants growing under greenhouse conditions.

Juliana Firmino de Lima

2007-10-01

145

Pichia cecembensis sp. nov. isolated from a papaya fruit (Carica papaya L., Caricaceae).  

Science.gov (United States)

The ascogenous yeast YS16T was isolated from a decaying papaya fruit. Phenotypic traits such as multilateral budding, spheroidal or elongate shape, pseudohyphae formation, asci with one or more ascospores, ability to ferment d-glucose, inability to assimilate nitrate and the presence of Q7 ubiquinone suggest its affiliation to the genus Pichia. The nearest phylogenetic neighbor, based on D1/D2 domain sequence of the 26S rRNA gene and ITS region sequence, was identified as Issatchenkia orientalis (NRRL Y-5396T, a synonym of Pichia kudriavzevii) with similarities of 98.2% and 97% respectively. In addition to the difference in the D1/D2 and ITS region sequence, YS16T differs from I. orientalis with respect to a number of phenotypic traits. However, in the phylogenetic analysis, YS16T showed close relatedness to the P. membranifaciens clade. Thus, it is proposed to assign the status of a new species to YS16T, for which the name P. cecembensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of P. cecembensis sp. nov. is YS16T (=NRRL Y-27985T=JCM 13873T=CBS 10445T). PMID:17316366

Bhadra, Bhaskar; Sreenivas Rao, R; Naveen Kumar, N; Chaturvedi, Preeti; Sarkar, Partha K; Shivaji, S

2007-06-01

146

Reguladores vegetais na quebra da dominância apical de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L. Plant growth regulators on breaking apical dominance in papaya plants (Carica papaya L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O trabalho avaliou os efeitos de reguladores vegetais sobre a quebra da dominância apical de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L. cv. Improved Sunrise Solo. A aplicação dos reguladores vegetais foi iniciada quando as plantas tinham seis meses de idade, totalizando três aplicações, a intervalos de sete dias, constando dos seguintes tratamentos: T1- água (testemunha; T2- GA3 250 mg L-1; T3- GA3 500 mg L-1; T4- benziladenina (BA 250 mg L-1; T5- BA 500 mg L-1; T6- GA3 125 mg L-1 + BA 125 mg L-1; T7- GA3 250 mg L-1 + BA 250 mg L-1. Esses tratamentos foram acompanhados da remoção ou não da gema apical. Os resultados mostraram que plantas tratadas com GA3 + BA a 125 e 250 mg L-1, com e sem a remoção da gema apical, apresentaram maior número de brotações que a testemunha, a qual não apresentou nenhuma brotação das gemas laterais.The objective of this work was to study the effects of gibberelin and cytokinin on breaking apical dominance and axillary buds growth of the Carica papaya L. Papaya plants sprayed three times within a period of 7 days, with the following treatments: T1- water (control, T2- GA3 250 mg L-1, T3- GA3 500 mg L-1, T4- benzyladenine (BA 250 mg L-1, T5- BA 500 mg L-1, T6- GA3 125 mg L-1 + BA 125 mg L-1, T7- GA3 250 mg L-1 + BA 250 mg L-1. The treatments were carried out with or without removal of the apical buds. After 36 days of the last plant growth regulators application was observed lateral bud numbers, lateral buds length and lateral buds diameter. The results showed that there were a higher number of shoots in plants treated with GA3 at 125 mg L-1 + BA at 125 mg L-1 and GA3 at 250mg L-1 + BA at 250 mg L-1. The removal of the apical bud helped the sprouting of the papaya plants.

Elizabeth Orika Ono

2004-08-01

147

Characterization of a high oleic oil extracted from papaya (Carica papaya L.) seeds / Caracterização de um óleo alto oleico extraído de sementes de mamão (Carica papaya L.)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese As características físico-químicas e as composições de ácidos graxos, tocoferóis e carotenoides do óleo bruto extraído de sementes de mamão (Carica papaya L.), variedade formosa, foram investigadas. O rendimento em óleo das sementes foi de 29,16%. Os dados obtidos para os índices analíticos comparam [...] -se bem com os de outros óleos comestíveis. O óleo apresentou elevada resistência à oxidação (77,97 horas). Os principais ácidos graxos quantificados foram o oleico (71,30%), seguido pelo palmítico (16,16%), linoleico (6,06%) e esteárico (4,73%). O ? e ?-tocoferol foram os tocoferóis predominantes com 51,85 e18,9 mg.kg-1, respectivamente. A ?-criptoxantina (4,29 mg.kg-1) e o ?-caroteno (2,76 mg.kg-1) foram os carotenóides quantificados e o conteúdo de compostos fenólicos totais foi de 957,60 mg.kg-1. Assim, a potencial utilização das sementes de mamão para a produção de óleo parece ser favorável. Entretanto, estudos toxicológicos são ainda necessários antes de o óleo ser indicado para utilização em alimentos. Abstract in english The physicochemical characteristics, fatty acid, tocopherol, and carotenoid composition of a crude oil extracted from papaya (Carica papaya L.) seeds, formosa variety, were investigated. The oil yield from the seeds was 29.16%. The data obtained for the analytical indexes were in agreement with thos [...] e of other edible oils. The oil obtained had high oxidation resistance (77.97 hours). The major fatty acids in total lipid were oleic (71.30%), palmitic (16.16%), linoleic (6.06%), and stearic (4.73%) acid. The ? and ?-tocopherol were the predominant tocopherols with 51.85 and 18.89 mg.kg-1, respectivelly. The ?-cryptoxanthin (4.29 mg.kg-1) and ?-carotene (2.76 mg.kg-1) were the carotenoids quantified, and the content of total phenolic compounds was 957.60 mg.kg-1. Therefore, the potential utilization of the papaya seeds for oil production seems favorable. However, toxicological studies need to be carried out before the oil is appropriate for food applications.

Cassia Roberta, Malacrida; Mieko, Kimura; Neuza, Jorge.

2011-12-01

148

Characterization of a high oleic oil extracted from papaya (Carica papaya L.) seeds / Caracterização de um óleo alto oleico extraído de sementes de mamão (Carica papaya L.)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese As características físico-químicas e as composições de ácidos graxos, tocoferóis e carotenoides do óleo bruto extraído de sementes de mamão (Carica papaya L.), variedade formosa, foram investigadas. O rendimento em óleo das sementes foi de 29,16%. Os dados obtidos para os índices analíticos comparam [...] -se bem com os de outros óleos comestíveis. O óleo apresentou elevada resistência à oxidação (77,97 horas). Os principais ácidos graxos quantificados foram o oleico (71,30%), seguido pelo palmítico (16,16%), linoleico (6,06%) e esteárico (4,73%). O ? e ?-tocoferol foram os tocoferóis predominantes com 51,85 e18,9 mg.kg-1, respectivamente. A ?-criptoxantina (4,29 mg.kg-1) e o ?-caroteno (2,76 mg.kg-1) foram os carotenóides quantificados e o conteúdo de compostos fenólicos totais foi de 957,60 mg.kg-1. Assim, a potencial utilização das sementes de mamão para a produção de óleo parece ser favorável. Entretanto, estudos toxicológicos são ainda necessários antes de o óleo ser indicado para utilização em alimentos. Abstract in english The physicochemical characteristics, fatty acid, tocopherol, and carotenoid composition of a crude oil extracted from papaya (Carica papaya L.) seeds, formosa variety, were investigated. The oil yield from the seeds was 29.16%. The data obtained for the analytical indexes were in agreement with thos [...] e of other edible oils. The oil obtained had high oxidation resistance (77.97 hours). The major fatty acids in total lipid were oleic (71.30%), palmitic (16.16%), linoleic (6.06%), and stearic (4.73%) acid. The ? and ?-tocopherol were the predominant tocopherols with 51.85 and 18.89 mg.kg-1, respectivelly. The ?-cryptoxanthin (4.29 mg.kg-1) and ?-carotene (2.76 mg.kg-1) were the carotenoids quantified, and the content of total phenolic compounds was 957.60 mg.kg-1. Therefore, the potential utilization of the papaya seeds for oil production seems favorable. However, toxicological studies need to be carried out before the oil is appropriate for food applications.

Cassia Roberta, Malacrida; Mieko, Kimura; Neuza, Jorge.

149

Characterization of a high oleic oil extracted from papaya (Carica papaya L. seeds Caracterização de um óleo alto oleico extraído de sementes de mamão (Carica papaya L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The physicochemical characteristics, fatty acid, tocopherol, and carotenoid composition of a crude oil extracted from papaya (Carica papaya L. seeds, formosa variety, were investigated. The oil yield from the seeds was 29.16%. The data obtained for the analytical indexes were in agreement with those of other edible oils. The oil obtained had high oxidation resistance (77.97 hours. The major fatty acids in total lipid were oleic (71.30%, palmitic (16.16%, linoleic (6.06%, and stearic (4.73% acid. The ? and ?-tocopherol were the predominant tocopherols with 51.85 and 18.89 mg.kg-1, respectivelly. The ?-cryptoxanthin (4.29 mg.kg-1 and ?-carotene (2.76 mg.kg-1 were the carotenoids quantified, and the content of total phenolic compounds was 957.60 mg.kg-1. Therefore, the potential utilization of the papaya seeds for oil production seems favorable. However, toxicological studies need to be carried out before the oil is appropriate for food applications.As características físico-químicas e as composições de ácidos graxos, tocoferóis e carotenoides do óleo bruto extraído de sementes de mamão (Carica papaya L., variedade formosa, foram investigadas. O rendimento em óleo das sementes foi de 29,16%. Os dados obtidos para os índices analíticos comparam-se bem com os de outros óleos comestíveis. O óleo apresentou elevada resistência à oxidação (77,97 horas. Os principais ácidos graxos quantificados foram o oleico (71,30%, seguido pelo palmítico (16,16%, linoleico (6,06% e esteárico (4,73%. O ? e ?-tocoferol foram os tocoferóis predominantes com 51,85 e18,9 mg.kg-1, respectivamente. A ?-criptoxantina (4,29 mg.kg-1 e o ?-caroteno (2,76 mg.kg-1 foram os carotenóides quantificados e o conteúdo de compostos fenólicos totais foi de 957,60 mg.kg-1. Assim, a potencial utilização das sementes de mamão para a produção de óleo parece ser favorável. Entretanto, estudos toxicológicos são ainda necessários antes de o óleo ser indicado para utilização em alimentos.

Cassia Roberta Malacrida

2011-12-01

150

Reguladores vegetais na quebra da dominância apical de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L.) / Plant growth regulators on breaking apical dominance in papaya plants (Carica papaya L.)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O trabalho avaliou os efeitos de reguladores vegetais sobre a quebra da dominância apical de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L. cv. Improved Sunrise Solo). A aplicação dos reguladores vegetais foi iniciada quando as plantas tinham seis meses de idade, totalizando três aplicações, a intervalos de sete dias, [...] constando dos seguintes tratamentos: T1- água (testemunha); T2- GA3 250 mg L-1; T3- GA3 500 mg L-1; T4- benziladenina (BA) 250 mg L-1; T5- BA 500 mg L-1; T6- GA3 125 mg L-1 + BA 125 mg L-1; T7- GA3 250 mg L-1 + BA 250 mg L-1. Esses tratamentos foram acompanhados da remoção ou não da gema apical. Os resultados mostraram que plantas tratadas com GA3 + BA a 125 e 250 mg L-1, com e sem a remoção da gema apical, apresentaram maior número de brotações que a testemunha, a qual não apresentou nenhuma brotação das gemas laterais. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to study the effects of gibberelin and cytokinin on breaking apical dominance and axillary buds growth of the Carica papaya L. Papaya plants sprayed three times within a period of 7 days, with the following treatments: T1- water (control), T2- GA3 250 mg L-1, T3- GA3 5 [...] 00 mg L-1, T4- benzyladenine (BA) 250 mg L-1, T5- BA 500 mg L-1, T6- GA3 125 mg L-1 + BA 125 mg L-1, T7- GA3 250 mg L-1 + BA 250 mg L-1. The treatments were carried out with or without removal of the apical buds. After 36 days of the last plant growth regulators application was observed lateral bud numbers, lateral buds length and lateral buds diameter. The results showed that there were a higher number of shoots in plants treated with GA3 at 125 mg L-1 + BA at 125 mg L-1 and GA3 at 250mg L-1 + BA at 250 mg L-1. The removal of the apical bud helped the sprouting of the papaya plants.

Elizabeth Orika, Ono; José Francisco, Grana Júnior; João Domingos, Rodrigues.

151

Draft Genome Sequence of Erwinia mallotivora BT-MARDI, Causative Agent of Papaya Dieback Disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Erwinia mallotivora was isolated from papaya trees infected with dieback disease, which were planted at the Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI), Malaysia. Here, we report a draft genome sequence of E. mallotivora BT-MARDI, which offers an important source of information for understanding pathogen and host interaction during papaya dieback development. PMID:24812220

Redzuan, R Ahmad; Abu Bakar, N; Rozano, L; Badrun, R; Mat Amin, N; Mohd Raih, M F

2014-01-01

152

Radiacao gama como um processo quarentenario para Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) e Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied., 1830) (Diptera: tephritidae) em mamao papaya (Carica papaya L.) cultivar sunrise solo. (Gamma radiation use as a quarantine treatment for Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) and Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied., 1830) in papaya fruits (Carica papaya, Linnaeus), cultivar sunrise solo).  

Science.gov (United States)

The gamma irradiation as treatment for control of the immature stages of fruit flies, C. capitata and A. fraterculus in papaya fruits, cultivar Sunrise Solo is studied. The gamma rays attenuation was observed by one and two papaya fruits placed between so...

J. T. Faria

1989-01-01

153

7 CFR 319.56-25 - Papayas from Central America and Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Papayas from Central America and Brazil. The Solo type of papaya...following locations: (1) Brazil: State of Espirito...were held for 20 minutes in hot water at 48 °C (118.4 °F...the State of Espirito Santo, Brazil, if the average McPhail...

2010-01-01

154

Effect of heat treatment on ethylene and CO2 emissions rates during papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit ripening  

Science.gov (United States)

Ripening studies of nontreated and treated papaya (papaya L) are accomplished by monitoring the ethylene and CO2 emission rates of that climacteric fruit, to evaluate its shelf life. The treatments simulate the commercial Phitosanitarian process used to avoid the fly infestation. Ethylene emission was measured using a commercial CO2 laser driven photoacoustic setup and CO2, using a commercial gas analysis also based on the photothermal effect. The results show a marked change in ethylene and CO2 emission rate pattern for treated fruits when compared to the ones obtained for nontreated fruits and a displacement of the climacteric pick shown that the treatment causes a decrease of shelf life of fruit.

da Silva, M. G.; Santos, E. O.; Sthel, M. S.; Cardoso, S. L.; Cavalli, A.; Monteiro, A. R.; de Oliveira, J. G.; Pereira, M. G.; Vargas, H.

2003-01-01

155

Label-free quantitative proteomics reveals differentially regulated proteins in the latex of sticky diseased Carica papaya L. plants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) is so far the only described laticifer-infecting virus, the causal agent of papaya (Carica papaya L.) sticky disease. The effects of PMeV on the laticifers’ regulatory network were addressed here through the proteomic analysis of papaya latex. Using both 1-DE- and 1D-LC-ESI-MS/MS, 160 unique papaya latex proteins were identified, representing 122 new proteins in the latex of this plant. Quantitative analysis by normalized spectral counting revealed 10 down-regula...

Rodrigues, Silas P.; Ventura, Jose? A.; Aguilar, Clemente; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Choi, Hyungwon; Sobreira, Tiago J. P.; Nohara, Lilian L.; Wermelinger, Luciana S.; Almeida, Igor C.; Zingali, Russolina B.; Fernandes, Patricia M. B.

2012-01-01

156

Tolerance induction to saline stress in papaya seeds treated with potassium nitrate and sildenafil citrate  

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Full Text Available Papaya fruit (Carica papaya is a species of great commercial agriculture importance. Although has a saline stress sensitivity. Potassium nitrate (KNO3 and nitric oxide are substances that inducing saline stress tolerance. The aim of this study was evaluate the effects of sildenafil citrate (SC and KNO3 on the papaya seeds germination of under saline stress. Papaya seeds of hybrids Calimosa and JS12x Waimanalo were immersed in distilled water or KNO3 solutions and SC and followed germinated in distilled water or NaCl solution –0.3 MPa. Seeds of the hybrid JS12x Waimanalo had higher percentages of germination and normal seedlings. The controls of the two hybrids did not show saline stress tolerance during germination. Seeds of the hybrid JS12x Waimanalo, when treated with KNO3 or SC showed stress tolerance. The growth regulators tested were important in the induction of saline tolerance in papaya seeds.

Rafael Fonsêca Zanotti

2013-12-01

157

Heat shock and gamma radiation in the quarantine process of Papaya CV. Solo(Carica papaya L.)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: To export, it is not only necessary to achieve quality standards, but also, quarantine standards. The main function of irradiation is quarantine control of fruit flies, therefore it is necessary to combine with treatments which focus at keeping fruit quality. The objective of this work was the evaluation of the quality of papaya submitted to heat treatment followed by irradiation at quarantine doses. Papayas were selected green and separated in treatments: a) control; irradiation at doses; b) 250, c) 500 Gy; d) hot water at 60 deg C for 30 seconds; and combined to doses e) 250, f) 500 Gy. The papayas were stored at 21 (± 1 deg C) with relative humidity of 85 - 90%, and then after 8 days, they were evaluated by their soluble solid content, pH, titratable acidity, firmness, decay index and internal color. The analysis of mass loss and external color were executed at 0, 2, 4 and 7 days after irradiation. It was observed that in fruits submitted to hot water (d, e, f) there were less decay and in combined treatments (e, f) it was verified higher firmness. In the second day, irradiated treatments (b, c, e, f) were more yellow than the others. As to the other parameters evaluated, there were no differences between treatments (author)

158

Heat shock and gamma radiation in the quarantine process of Papaya CV. Solo(Carica papaya L.)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Full text: To export, it is not only necessary to achieve quality standards, but also, quarantine standards. The main function of irradiation is quarantine control of fruit flies, therefore it is necessary to combine with treatments which focus at keeping fruit quality. The objective of this work was the evaluation of the quality of papaya submitted to heat treatment followed by irradiation at quarantine doses. Papayas were selected green and separated in treatments: a) control; irradiation at doses; b) 250, c) 500 Gy; d) hot water at 60 deg C for 30 seconds; and combined to doses e) 250, f) 500 Gy. The papayas were stored at 21 ({+-} 1 deg C) with relative humidity of 85 - 90%, and then after 8 days, they were evaluated by their soluble solid content, pH, titratable acidity, firmness, decay index and internal color. The analysis of mass loss and external color were executed at 0, 2, 4 and 7 days after irradiation. It was observed that in fruits submitted to hot water (d, e, f) there were less decay and in combined treatments (e, f) it was verified higher firmness. In the second day, irradiated treatments (b, c, e, f) were more yellow than the others. As to the other parameters evaluated, there were no differences between treatments (author)

Pimentel, Rodrigo M.A.; Walder, Julio M.M. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: rmapiment@cena.usp.br; jmwalder@cena.usp.br; Marcondes, Yvens E.M. [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: yvensmar@unimep.br

2007-07-01

159

Estudio de la conservación de la papaya (Carica papaya L. asociado a la aplicación de películas comestibles  

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Full Text Available Brasil es un importante productor de papaya, pero sólo una pequeña parte se exporta. Esta fruta es altamente perecedera, por lo que el control de la maduración es esencial para aumentar la vida útil, tanto para el mercado interno como para la exportación. Una alternativa que ha cobrado impulso en el mercado es el uso de películas comestibles biodegradables, entre ellas la película producida a partir de almidón de yuca. En este estudio se evaluó el efecto de una película de almidón de yuca (2 % sobre la papaya almacenadas a temperatura ambiental (25 ± 2 ºC y a 8 °C, y 82 % de humedad relativa durante 6 días de almacenamiento. Se realizaron análisis de pérdida de peso, color, pH, acidez, carotenoides totales, vitamina C y sólidos solubles totales, cada tres días de almacenamiento. La película comestible de almidón de yuca resultó ser una buena alternativa para la preservación de la papaya durante seis días de almacenamiento, en relación a los parámetros pH, grados Brix, acidez y carotenoides.

Alessandra Almeida Castro

2011-01-01

160

Ramón Díaz Eterovic como representante de la novela negra chilena  

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Full Text Available En la nueva narrativa chilena escrita entre los 80 y los 90, tal como en la Argentina, existe una fuerte tendencia a utilizar la forma detectivesca para enfrentar la realidad en ambos países durante los gobiernos autoritarios. Se realiza el análisis de dos novelas de Díaz Eterovic con dicha temática y se muestra, utilizando los planteamientos teóricos bajtianos que, en el caso de las novelas chilenas analizadas, se usa al concepto de "estilización" de los modelos norteamericanos (por ejemplo, Chandler, Hammett y MacDonald, que también se presenta en la experiencia argentina (en Osvaldo Soriano, por ejemplo.In the new Chilean narrative of the 80's and 90's, just like in the Argentinian narrative, a strong tendency to use the detective format to get the reality of both countries during its authoritaric governments can be found. Based, above all, on the literary analysis of this two best detective novels ("Nobody knows more than the deads" (1993 and "Angels and lonesomes" (1996, I will show, using the bajtinian theoretical approach, that in the case of the detective novels of our chilean author we speak of a "estilization of Northamerican 'models'" (e.g. Chandler, Hammett and MacDonald, that, also, takes notice of the Argentinian experience (cf. e.g. Osvaldo Soriano.

Clemens A. Franken Kurzen

2000-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Optical and ultrastructural study of the pollen grain development in hermaphrodite papaya tree (Carica papaya L.)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Esta pesquisa descreve os estádios de formação do gameta masculino (grão de pólen) em mamoeiro. Para isto foram coletados botões florais em diferentes etapas de desenvolvimento e as anteras foram tratadas quimicamente para serem observadas ao microscópio óptico e eletrônico de transmissão. O desenvo [...] lvimento do grão de pólen seguiu o padrão normal para Angiospermas. Foram descritos os estádios de desenvolvimento do grão de pólen desde meiócitos ou células mães de micrósporos até o grão de pólen binucleado. Na microesporogênese, as células esporogênicas sofreram meiose dando origem as tétrades, com posterior liberação dos micrósporos da tétrade. A microgametogênese caracterizou-se, principalmente, pela divisão mitótica assimétrica de cada micrósporo originando grãos de pólen binucleados. Estruturas semelhantes a plastídios foram encontradas no citoplasma da célula generativa e agregados próximos ao núcleo da célula generativa. Observou-se degeneração gradativa das células do tapete no decorrer da formação do gameta. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to describe the pollen grain development in hermaphrodite papaya tree. The flower buds were collected at different stages of the development and the anthers were treated chemically for observation under optical and electronic transmission microscopes. The pollen grain [...] development followed the normal pattern described for the Angiosperms. The pollen grain development was described from meiocyte to the mature pollen grain. In the microsporogenesis, the microspore mother cells or the meiocytes underwent meiosis giving rise to the tetrads that were enclosed by the calose. Later, the tetrads were released by the dissolution of the calose by calase activity and microspores underwent mitosis. Microgametogenesis was characterized by asymmetrical mitotic division of each microspore giving rise to bi-nucleate pollen grains. The structures similar to the plastids were found in the cytoplasm and close to the nucleus of the generative cell. Gradual degeneration was observed in the tapetum during the male gamete development.

Lídia Márcia Silva, Santos; Telma Nair Santana, Pereira; Margarete Magalhães de, Souza; Pedro Correa, Damasceno Junior; Fabiane Rabelo da, Costa; Beatriz Ferreira, Ribeiro; Noil Gomes de, Freitas; Messias Gonzaga, Pereira.

2008-06-01

162

Optical and ultrastructural study of the pollen grain development in hermaphrodite papaya tree (Carica papaya L.)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Esta pesquisa descreve os estádios de formação do gameta masculino (grão de pólen) em mamoeiro. Para isto foram coletados botões florais em diferentes etapas de desenvolvimento e as anteras foram tratadas quimicamente para serem observadas ao microscópio óptico e eletrônico de transmissão. O desenvo [...] lvimento do grão de pólen seguiu o padrão normal para Angiospermas. Foram descritos os estádios de desenvolvimento do grão de pólen desde meiócitos ou células mães de micrósporos até o grão de pólen binucleado. Na microesporogênese, as células esporogênicas sofreram meiose dando origem as tétrades, com posterior liberação dos micrósporos da tétrade. A microgametogênese caracterizou-se, principalmente, pela divisão mitótica assimétrica de cada micrósporo originando grãos de pólen binucleados. Estruturas semelhantes a plastídios foram encontradas no citoplasma da célula generativa e agregados próximos ao núcleo da célula generativa. Observou-se degeneração gradativa das células do tapete no decorrer da formação do gameta. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to describe the pollen grain development in hermaphrodite papaya tree. The flower buds were collected at different stages of the development and the anthers were treated chemically for observation under optical and electronic transmission microscopes. The pollen grain [...] development followed the normal pattern described for the Angiosperms. The pollen grain development was described from meiocyte to the mature pollen grain. In the microsporogenesis, the microspore mother cells or the meiocytes underwent meiosis giving rise to the tetrads that were enclosed by the calose. Later, the tetrads were released by the dissolution of the calose by calase activity and microspores underwent mitosis. Microgametogenesis was characterized by asymmetrical mitotic division of each microspore giving rise to bi-nucleate pollen grains. The structures similar to the plastids were found in the cytoplasm and close to the nucleus of the generative cell. Gradual degeneration was observed in the tapetum during the male gamete development.

Lídia Márcia Silva, Santos; Telma Nair Santana, Pereira; Margarete Magalhães de, Souza; Pedro Correa, Damasceno Junior; Fabiane Rabelo da, Costa; Beatriz Ferreira, Ribeiro; Noil Gomes de, Freitas; Messias Gonzaga, Pereira.

163

Comportamiento mecánico de frutos de papaya bajo compresión axial / Mechanical behavior of papaya fruits under axial compression  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los frutos de papaya (Caricapapaya L.) son muy susceptibles a los daños mecánicos, lo que repercute en fuertes pérdidas en poscosecha. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar el comportamiento mecánico de frutos de papaya en poscosecha, para lo cual se realizaron dos experimentos en el Campo Ex [...] perimental Las Huastecas, INIFAP durante los años 2011 y 2012. Las variables evaluadas fueron la fuerza y la deformación requeridas por los frutos para alcanzar el límite elástico, el punto de biocedencia y el punto de ruptura. La compresión se realizó con un Instron Universal 4460. En el primer experimento se evaluaron frutos en madurez de consumo tratados en pre-cosecha con cinco combinaciones de fertilización; los tratamiento N-P-K-Cu-Zn, N-P-K-Ca-Zn, N-P-K y N-P-K-Fe-Zn registraron mayor resistencia a la fuerza de compresión y resultaron diferentes al tratamiento N-P-K-Mn-Zn (Tukey, p? 0.05). En el segundo experimento se evaluaron tres cultivares en dos estados de madurez; los frutos en madurez fisiológica fueron más resistentes para alcanzar el límite elástico (414 N), con relación a los frutos en madurez de consumo (67 N), con diferencias estadísticas (Tukey, p? 0.05). Los frutos del híbrido PK 02 requirieron mayor fuerza para alcanzar el límite elástico (298 N), con relación a los frutos de la variedad Maradol roja (250 N) y del híbrido PK 03 (173 N), con diferencias (Tukey, p? 0.05). Se concluye que los frutos de papaya tuvieron un comportamiento mecánico diferente, en función del manejo nutricional, del tipo de cultivar y del estado de madurez. Abstract in english The fruits of papaya (Carica papaya L.) are very susceptible to mechanical damage, which results in heavy losses in post-harvest. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanical behavior of papaya fruits in post-harvest, for which two experiments were conducted in the Experimental Field The Hua [...] steca, INIFAP during the years 2011 and 2012. The variables evaluated were the strength and deformation required for the fruit to reach the elastic limit, biocedence and the breaking point. The compression was performed with a Instron Universal 4460. In the first experiment for ripening fruit treated with pre-harvest five combinations of fertilization, the treatment N-P-K-Cu-Zn, N-P-K-Ca-Zn, N-P-K-Fe-Zn reported increased resistance to force compression and was different to the treatment N-P-K-Mn-Zn (Tukey, p? .05). In the second experiment three cultivars were evaluated in two states of maturity, the fruits at physiological maturity were more resistant to attain the elastic limit (414 N) in relation to ripening (67 N), with statistical differences (Tukey, p? .05). The fruits of the hybrid PK 02 required more force to achieve the yield strength (298 N) with respect to the fruits of the variety Maradol roja (250 N) and the hybrid PK 03 (173 N), with differences (Tukey, p? .05). It is concluded that papaya fruits had different mechanical behavior depending on the nutritional management, the type of cultivar and maturity.

Enrique, Vázquez García; Horacio, Mata Vázquez; Rafael, Ariza Flores; Felipe, Santamaría Basulto; Irán, Alia Tejacal.

1223-12-01

164

Comportamiento mecánico de frutos de papaya bajo compresión axial / Mechanical behavior of papaya fruits under axial compression  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los frutos de papaya (Caricapapaya L.) son muy susceptibles a los daños mecánicos, lo que repercute en fuertes pérdidas en poscosecha. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar el comportamiento mecánico de frutos de papaya en poscosecha, para lo cual se realizaron dos experimentos en el Campo Ex [...] perimental Las Huastecas, INIFAP durante los años 2011 y 2012. Las variables evaluadas fueron la fuerza y la deformación requeridas por los frutos para alcanzar el límite elástico, el punto de biocedencia y el punto de ruptura. La compresión se realizó con un Instron Universal 4460. En el primer experimento se evaluaron frutos en madurez de consumo tratados en pre-cosecha con cinco combinaciones de fertilización; los tratamiento N-P-K-Cu-Zn, N-P-K-Ca-Zn, N-P-K y N-P-K-Fe-Zn registraron mayor resistencia a la fuerza de compresión y resultaron diferentes al tratamiento N-P-K-Mn-Zn (Tukey, p? 0.05). En el segundo experimento se evaluaron tres cultivares en dos estados de madurez; los frutos en madurez fisiológica fueron más resistentes para alcanzar el límite elástico (414 N), con relación a los frutos en madurez de consumo (67 N), con diferencias estadísticas (Tukey, p? 0.05). Los frutos del híbrido PK 02 requirieron mayor fuerza para alcanzar el límite elástico (298 N), con relación a los frutos de la variedad Maradol roja (250 N) y del híbrido PK 03 (173 N), con diferencias (Tukey, p? 0.05). Se concluye que los frutos de papaya tuvieron un comportamiento mecánico diferente, en función del manejo nutricional, del tipo de cultivar y del estado de madurez. Abstract in english The fruits of papaya (Carica papaya L.) are very susceptible to mechanical damage, which results in heavy losses in post-harvest. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanical behavior of papaya fruits in post-harvest, for which two experiments were conducted in the Experimental Field The Hua [...] steca, INIFAP during the years 2011 and 2012. The variables evaluated were the strength and deformation required for the fruit to reach the elastic limit, biocedence and the breaking point. The compression was performed with a Instron Universal 4460. In the first experiment for ripening fruit treated with pre-harvest five combinations of fertilization, the treatment N-P-K-Cu-Zn, N-P-K-Ca-Zn, N-P-K-Fe-Zn reported increased resistance to force compression and was different to the treatment N-P-K-Mn-Zn (Tukey, p? .05). In the second experiment three cultivars were evaluated in two states of maturity, the fruits at physiological maturity were more resistant to attain the elastic limit (414 N) in relation to ripening (67 N), with statistical differences (Tukey, p? .05). The fruits of the hybrid PK 02 required more force to achieve the yield strength (298 N) with respect to the fruits of the variety Maradol roja (250 N) and the hybrid PK 03 (173 N), with differences (Tukey, p? .05). It is concluded that papaya fruits had different mechanical behavior depending on the nutritional management, the type of cultivar and maturity.

Enrique, Vázquez García; Horacio, Mata Vázquez; Rafael, Ariza Flores; Felipe, Santamaría Basulto; Irán, Alia Tejacal.

165

Poetas mapuches en la literatura chilena Mapuche poets in Chilean literature  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

En este trabajo se estudia el modo en que las tradiciones textuales etnoliterarias de los mapuches y literarias de los españoles, se han imbricado en la literatura chilena a través del tiempo, y los aportes que ha dejado la incorporación de poetas de cultura mapuche en la poesía chilena contemporánea. En particular, se establece que autores como Sebastián Queupul, Pedro Alonzo, Elicura Chihuailaf y Leonel Lienlaf han participado en la conformación de la poesía etnocultural, dentro de ...

Iván Carrasco M.

2000-01-01

166

Molluscicidal activity of Carica papaya and Areca catechu against the freshwater snail Lymnaea acuminata.  

Science.gov (United States)

The molluscicidal activity of seed and lyophilized latex powder of Carica papaya and seed powder of Areca catechu against the vector snail Lymnaea acuminata was studied. The toxicity of these plant products was time and dose dependent. The toxicity of C. papaya lyophilized latex powder (LC(50) at 96 h: 8.38 mg/l) was more pronounced than that of A. catechu seed powder (LC(50) at 96 h: 12.32 mg/l) and C. papaya seed powder (LC(50) at 96 h: 61.56 mg/l). Ethanolic extracts of C. papaya seed and A. catechu seed were more toxic than their other extracts. The ethanolic extract of A. catechu seed (LC(50) at 24h: 17.21 mg/l) was more effective than the ethanolic extract of C. papaya seed (LC(50) at 24h: 53.38 mg/l). The LC(50) of column-purified fraction of A. catechu seed at 96 h was 3.99 mg/l, whereas that of C. papaya seed was 7.06 mg/l. C. papaya and A. catechu may be used as potent molluscicides since the concentrations used to kill the snails were not toxic for the fish Colisa fasciatus which shares the same habitat with the snail L. acuminata. PMID:18280663

Jaiswal, Preetee; Singh, D K

2008-04-15

167

Wound-healing potential of an ethanol extract of Carica papaya (Caricaceae) seeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Carica papaya L. (Linn) (Caricaceae) is traditionally used to treat various skin disorders, including wounds. It is widely used in developing countries as an effective and readily available treatment for various wounds, particularly burns. This study evaluated the wound-healing and antimicrobial activity of C. papaya seed extract. Ethanol extract of C. papaya seed (50 mg/kg/day) was evaluated for its wound-healing activity in Sprague-Dawley rats using excision wound model. Animals were randomly divided into four groups of six each (group 1 served as control, group 2 treated with papaya seed extract, group 3 treated with a standard drug mupirocin and papaya seed extract (1:1 ratio) and group 4 treated with a mupirocin ointment. Rate of wound contraction and hydroxyproline content were determined to assess the wound-healing activity of the seed extract. The group 2 animals showed a significant decrease in wound area of 89% over 13 days when compared with groups 1 (82%), 3 (86%) and 4 (84%) respectively. The hydroxyproline content was significantly higher with the granulation tissue obtained from group 2 animals which were treated with C. papaya seed extract. Histological analysis of granulation tissue of the group 2 animals showed the deposition of well-organized collagen. The extract exhibited antimicrobial activity against Salmonella choleraesuis and Staphylococcus aureus. Our results suggest that C. papaya promotes significant wound healing in rats and further evaluation for this activity in humans is suggested. PMID:22296524

Nayak, Bijoor Shivananda; Ramdeen, Ria; Adogwa, Andrew; Ramsubhag, Adash; Marshall, Julien Rhodney

2012-12-01

168

Anatomia foliar de plantas transgênicas e não transgênicas de Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae) / Leaf anatomy of genetically modified and wild-type Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O mamoeiro, Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae) é uma espécie americana, cujos frutos são largamente consumidos em todo mundo. Devido às perdas de produção provocadas por viroses e a dificuldade em controlá-las por métodos convencionais, a espécie tem sido alvo de pesquisas de melhoramento genético envolv [...] endo transgenia para resistência a vírus. O presente trabalho descreve a anatomia foliar de plantas de mamoeiro convencional e transgênico resistente ao vírus da mancha anelar-Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) com inserção da capa protéica viral. As duas cultivares apresentam pecíolo com endoderme e fibras pericíclicas. As folhas são hipoestomáticas e dorsiventrais, com laticíferos acompanhando os feixes vasculares e grande concentração de idioblastos com drusas de oxalato de cálcio. A epiderme é glabra, possuindo estômatos anomocíticos e anisocíticos, com células de paredes anticlinais retas na face adaxial e levemente sinuosas na face abaxial. O presente trabalho concluiu que o processo de transformação genética não alterou as características anatômicas das folhas de C. papaya, servindo de subsídio para avaliação da conformidade anatômica da cultivar transgênica. Abstract in english Papaya, Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae), is an American species, consumed worldwide. A major limitation to papaya production is attack by viruses, like the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). Papaya has been genetically modified to increase its resistance to PRSV. The aim of this research was to compare the [...] leaf anatomy of wild-type and genetically modified (GM) C. papaya plants to evaluate the influence of genetic modification on leaf anatomy. Wild-type and GM plants showed petiole with endodermis and pericycle fibers. The leaves are hypostomatic and dorsiventral, with laticifers along vascular system and abundant druses of calcium oxalate. The epidermis was glabrous and presented anomocytic and anisocytic stomata, straight anticlinal walls on the adaxial face and sinuous on the abaxial face. Anatomical differences between wild-type and GM C. papaya leaves were not observed. These data contribute to risk assessments regarding the anatomical conformity of GM plants.

Marcos Vinicius, Leal-Costa; Márcia, Munhoz; Paulo Ernesto, Meissner Filho; Fernanda, Reinert; Eliana Schwartz, Tavares.

2010-06-01

169

Alternativa comercial para extender vida de anaquel de papaya 'Maradol' / A commercial alternative to extend shelf-life of 'Maradol' papaya  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto del 1-Metilciclopropeno (1-MCP) y etileno (solos o en combinación) para manipular el proceso de maduración y extender vida de anaquel de papaya 'Maradol'. Durante el 2007 se realizaron tres ensayos: 1. Efecto del 1-MCP en papaya almacenada en condici [...] ones de mercadeo y refrigeración más mercadeo; 2. Papaya tratada con 1-MCP y etileno y mezcla 1-MCP + etileno; 3. Evaluación comercial del 1-MCP y etileno en papaya. Se analizaron pérdida de peso, color externo, firmeza, color de pulpa y sólidos solubles totales. Se encontró que el 1-MCP a 100 nl·litro-1 retrasó el desarrollo de color externo y pulpa e inhibió el ablandamiento de los frutos. También se observó que el etileno a dosis de 100 µl·litro-1 aplicado después del 1-MCP no revirtió el efecto de éste, sin embargo, el 1-MCP aplicado después del etileno redujo la velocidad de ablandamiento y el desarrollo del color en cáscara y pulpa inducido por el etileno. Se concluye que el 1-MCP a 100 nl·litro-1 por 12 horas aplicado después del etileno puede ser una técnica viable para manipular el proceso de maduración y alargar vida de anaquel de papaya 'Maradol'. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) and ethylene (alone or combined) to handle the ripening process and to extend the shelf-life of 'Maradol' papaya. During 2007 three assays were conducted: 1. Effect of 1-MCP in papaya stored under marketing simula [...] tion and refrigeration plus marketing simulatio; 2. Papaya treated with 1-MCP and ethylene and the mixture of 1-MCP plus ethylene; 3. Commercial evaluation of 1-MCP and ethylene on papaya. Weight loss, external color, firmness, pulp color and total soluble solids were evaluated. It was found that 1-MCP at 100 nl·liter-1 delayed the development of external and pulp color, and inhibited the fruit softening. Also it was observed that ethylene at 100 µl·liter-1 applied after 1-MCP was unable to reverse the 1-MCP effect. However, 1-MCP applied after ethylene delayed fruit softening and the development of skin and pulp color induced by the ethylene application. It was concluded that 1-MCP at 100 nl·liter-1 for 12 hours applied after ethylene may be a viable technique to manipulate the ripening process and to extend the shelf-life of 'Maradol' papaya.

J. A., Osuna-García; M. H., Pérez-Barraza; V., Vázquez-Valdivia; M. A., Urías-López.

170

Alternativa comercial para extender vida de anaquel de papaya 'Maradol' / A commercial alternative to extend shelf-life of 'Maradol' papaya  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto del 1-Metilciclopropeno (1-MCP) y etileno (solos o en combinación) para manipular el proceso de maduración y extender vida de anaquel de papaya 'Maradol'. Durante el 2007 se realizaron tres ensayos: 1. Efecto del 1-MCP en papaya almacenada en condici [...] ones de mercadeo y refrigeración más mercadeo; 2. Papaya tratada con 1-MCP y etileno y mezcla 1-MCP + etileno; 3. Evaluación comercial del 1-MCP y etileno en papaya. Se analizaron pérdida de peso, color externo, firmeza, color de pulpa y sólidos solubles totales. Se encontró que el 1-MCP a 100 nl·litro-1 retrasó el desarrollo de color externo y pulpa e inhibió el ablandamiento de los frutos. También se observó que el etileno a dosis de 100 µl·litro-1 aplicado después del 1-MCP no revirtió el efecto de éste, sin embargo, el 1-MCP aplicado después del etileno redujo la velocidad de ablandamiento y el desarrollo del color en cáscara y pulpa inducido por el etileno. Se concluye que el 1-MCP a 100 nl·litro-1 por 12 horas aplicado después del etileno puede ser una técnica viable para manipular el proceso de maduración y alargar vida de anaquel de papaya 'Maradol'. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) and ethylene (alone or combined) to handle the ripening process and to extend the shelf-life of 'Maradol' papaya. During 2007 three assays were conducted: 1. Effect of 1-MCP in papaya stored under marketing simula [...] tion and refrigeration plus marketing simulatio; 2. Papaya treated with 1-MCP and ethylene and the mixture of 1-MCP plus ethylene; 3. Commercial evaluation of 1-MCP and ethylene on papaya. Weight loss, external color, firmness, pulp color and total soluble solids were evaluated. It was found that 1-MCP at 100 nl·liter-1 delayed the development of external and pulp color, and inhibited the fruit softening. Also it was observed that ethylene at 100 µl·liter-1 applied after 1-MCP was unable to reverse the 1-MCP effect. However, 1-MCP applied after ethylene delayed fruit softening and the development of skin and pulp color induced by the ethylene application. It was concluded that 1-MCP at 100 nl·liter-1 for 12 hours applied after ethylene may be a viable technique to manipulate the ripening process and to extend the shelf-life of 'Maradol' papaya.

J. A., Osuna-García; M. H., Pérez-Barraza; V., Vázquez-Valdivia; M. A., Urías-López.

2009-08-01

171

Preferential reproduction mode of hermaphrodite papaya plant (Carica papaya L; Caricaceae) / Modo de reprodução preferencial de plantas hermafroditas de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L; Caricaceae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Esta pesquisa teve o objetivo de estudar o sistema reprodutivo preferencial de plantas hermafroditas de mamoeiro, com base na natureza histoquímica dos grãos de pólen, receptividade do estigma, teste de germinação in vivo do grão de pólen e razão pólen : óvulo. Na análise histoquímica dos grãos de p [...] ólen, foram utilizados os corantes Sudan IV e solução de I2KI; a receptividade do estigma foi avaliada com a solução de acetato de alfa-naftil em flores abertas e fechadas. A germinação e o crescimento do tubo polínico in vivo foram avaliados em flores fechadas, utilizando solução de azul de anilina a 0,1%. Para estimar a razão pólen:óvulo, anteras de cada flor foram dissecadas, e os grãos de pólen foram contados; ovários foram dissecados, e os óvulos foram contados sob estereomicroscópio. Os resultados indicaram que os grãos de pólen do mamoeiro são de natureza lipídica; os estigmas estavam receptivos antes da abertura e até 48 h após a abertura; os grãos de pólen germinaram e emitiram tubo polínico antes da abertura floral, e a relação pólen:óvulo, indicou predominância do sistema reprodutivo autógamo. Esses resultados indicaram que o modo de reprodução preferencial do mamoeiro hermafrodita é autógamo facultativo com cleistogamia. Abstract in english This research was done to study the reproductive system of papaya hermaphrodite plant based on the histochemical nature of pollen grain, stigma receptivity, in vivo pollen grain germination and pollen:ovule ratio. In the histochemical analysis, pollen grains were stained by using Sudan IV and I2KI s [...] olution ; the stigma receptivity was assessed by alpha-naphthtyl acetate solution in closed and opened flowers. Pollen germination and pollen tube growing were examined in flower buds near anthesis with 0.1% aniline blue. To estimate the pollen:ovule ratio , anthers from each flower bud were dissected and all pollen grains were counted; ovules were dissected from ovaries and were counted under stereomicroscope. The results indicated that papaya pollen grains are of lipidic nature; the stigmas were receptive before the opening and until 48 hours after opening; the pollen grains germinated and emitted polinic tube before flower opening and the pollen:ovule ratio indicated the predominance of autogamous reproductive system. These results indicate that hermaphrodite papaya trees is preferentially of optional autogamous with cleistogamy.

Pedro Corrêa, Damasceno junior; Telma Nair Santana, Pereira; Messias Gonzaga, Pereira; Francisco Filho da, Silva; Margarete de Magalhães, Souza; Rodrigo Gualandi, Nicoli.

2009-03-01

172

Estudo e modelagem da cinética de desidratação osmótica do mamão formosa (Carica papaya L.) / Kinetics and modeling on osmotic dehydration of papaya (Carica papaya L.)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho teve como objetivo o estudo da cinética e modelagem do processo de desidratação osmótica de cubos de mamão Formosa (Carica papaya L.), assim como da qualidade do produto final. O tratamento osmótico foi conduzido a 30ºC, com agitação de 110rpm, utilizando-se dois tipos de soluçõe [...] s de sacarose 70ºBrix: a primeira contendo lactato de sódio 2,4% p/p e ácido láctico 0,1M e a segunda com lactato de sódio 2,4% p/p e ácido cítrico 0,1M. O estudo da cinética de desidratação osmótica mostrou que a solução contendo ácido cítrico apresentou valor de perda de água (WL), ao final de 48 horas de processo, ligeiramente superior ao encontrado para a solução contendo ácido láctico. Comportamento contrário ocorreu para o ganho de sólidos (SG). O ajuste dos dados experimentais foi realizado através do modelo difusional para geometria cúbica, sem considerar encolhimento durante o processo e um modelo empírico de dois parâmetros. Os coeficientes de difusividade efetiva de água (Def) variaram de 1,27 a 5,03 x 10-10 m²/s. A qualidade da fruta após processamento foi avaliada através de análises de vitamina C, carotenóides totais, acidez e pH. Abstract in english The present work had as objective the study of kinetics and mathematical modeling of osmotic dehydration process of papaya cubes (Carica papaya L.), as well as the quality of the final product. The osmotic treatment was carried out for 30ºC, with agitation 110rpm, with two types of 70ºBrix sucrose s [...] olutions: solution containing sodium lactate 2,4% w/w and lactic acid 0,1M and another one with sodium lactate 2,4% w/w and citric acid 0,1M. The study of kinetics of osmotic dehydration showed the solution containing citric acid had a water loss (WL) value, at the end of 48 hours of process, lightly superior to the found for the solution containing lactic acid. Opposite behavior happened for the solid gain (SG). Modeling of experimental data was accomplished through the difusional model for cubic geometry, considering no shrinkage during the process and an empirical two parameters one. The coefficients of effective difusivity of water (Def) varied from 1,27 to 5,03 x 10-10 m²/s. Quality of fruit after processing was evaluated through vitamin C, total carotenoid, acidity and pH analyses.

Ânoar Abbas, El-Aquar; Fernanda E. Xidieh, Murr.

173

Preferential reproduction mode of hermaphrodite papaya plant (Carica papaya L; Caricaceae) / Modo de reprodução preferencial de plantas hermafroditas de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L; Caricaceae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Esta pesquisa teve o objetivo de estudar o sistema reprodutivo preferencial de plantas hermafroditas de mamoeiro, com base na natureza histoquímica dos grãos de pólen, receptividade do estigma, teste de germinação in vivo do grão de pólen e razão pólen : óvulo. Na análise histoquímica dos grãos de p [...] ólen, foram utilizados os corantes Sudan IV e solução de I2KI; a receptividade do estigma foi avaliada com a solução de acetato de alfa-naftil em flores abertas e fechadas. A germinação e o crescimento do tubo polínico in vivo foram avaliados em flores fechadas, utilizando solução de azul de anilina a 0,1%. Para estimar a razão pólen:óvulo, anteras de cada flor foram dissecadas, e os grãos de pólen foram contados; ovários foram dissecados, e os óvulos foram contados sob estereomicroscópio. Os resultados indicaram que os grãos de pólen do mamoeiro são de natureza lipídica; os estigmas estavam receptivos antes da abertura e até 48 h após a abertura; os grãos de pólen germinaram e emitiram tubo polínico antes da abertura floral, e a relação pólen:óvulo, indicou predominância do sistema reprodutivo autógamo. Esses resultados indicaram que o modo de reprodução preferencial do mamoeiro hermafrodita é autógamo facultativo com cleistogamia. Abstract in english This research was done to study the reproductive system of papaya hermaphrodite plant based on the histochemical nature of pollen grain, stigma receptivity, in vivo pollen grain germination and pollen:ovule ratio. In the histochemical analysis, pollen grains were stained by using Sudan IV and I2KI s [...] olution ; the stigma receptivity was assessed by alpha-naphthtyl acetate solution in closed and opened flowers. Pollen germination and pollen tube growing were examined in flower buds near anthesis with 0.1% aniline blue. To estimate the pollen:ovule ratio , anthers from each flower bud were dissected and all pollen grains were counted; ovules were dissected from ovaries and were counted under stereomicroscope. The results indicated that papaya pollen grains are of lipidic nature; the stigmas were receptive before the opening and until 48 hours after opening; the pollen grains germinated and emitted polinic tube before flower opening and the pollen:ovule ratio indicated the predominance of autogamous reproductive system. These results indicate that hermaphrodite papaya trees is preferentially of optional autogamous with cleistogamy.

Pedro Corrêa, Damasceno junior; Telma Nair Santana, Pereira; Messias Gonzaga, Pereira; Francisco Filho da, Silva; Margarete de Magalhães, Souza; Rodrigo Gualandi, Nicoli.

174

Presença dos vírus da mancha anelar e do amarelo letal em frutos de mamoeiro comercializados The presence of Papaya ringspot virus and Papaya lethal yellowing virus in commercialized papaya fruits  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Considerando os índices elevados de incidência de vírus que infetam o mamoeiro (Carica papaya em condições de campo e seus sintomas típicos nos frutos, foi efetuado um levantamento na Central de Comercialização do Estado do Ceará (CEASA de frutos infetados com o vírus da mancha anelar do mamoeiro (Papaya ringspot virus, PRSV e o vírus do amarelo letal do mamoeiro (Papaya lethal yellowing virus, PLYV. Os principais Centros de comercialização de frutos são as CEASAs e os produtos comercializados nos supermercados são, em grande parte, adquiridos nesses Centros. Os frutos coletados aleatoriamente nas bancas de comercialização da CEASA foram levados ao Laboratório de Virologia Vegetal, da Universidade Federal do Ceará (UFC para análises sintomatológicas e testes de "enzyme linked immunosorent assay" (ELISA indireto, com anti-soros específicos para o PRSV e PLYV. De acordo com os resultados das análises sintomatológicas, confirmadas por sorologia, dentre os 8.400 frutos analisados, 5,5% estavam infetados por PRSV e 1,2% por PLYV, demonstrando a necessidade de implementar um programa rigoroso de controle, envolvendo erradicação de fontes de vírus no campo, representados por plantas infetadas nos pomares, áreas abandonadas e inclusive cultivos de fundo de quintal.Considering the high incidence of virus in papaya (Carica papaya orchards and their typical symptoms in the fruits, a survey was carried out in the Central Market in the State of Ceará (CEASA for the presence of papaya fruits infected with Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV and Papaya lethal yellowing virus (PLYV. CEASAs are the most important fruit commercial centers, and a great number of plant products sold in supermarkets are obtained in CEASA. Fruits were randomly collected from CEASA stalls and brought to the Plant Virus Laboratory at the Federal University of Ceará (UFC to be analyzed for typical virus symptoms and tested by indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA against antisera specific to PRSV and PLYV. According to the results obtained by symptom analysis, which were confirmed by serology, among the 8,400 fruits analyzed 5.5% were infected with PRSV and 1.2% with PLYV, showing the need to implement a control program involving eradication of virus sources in the field, represented by infected plants in papaya orchards, abandoned orchards and infected plants identified in backyards.

Najara F. Ramos

2008-12-01

175

Presença dos vírus da mancha anelar e do amarelo letal em frutos de mamoeiro comercializados / The presence of Papaya ringspot virus and Papaya lethal yellowing virus in commercialized papaya fruits  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Considerando os índices elevados de incidência de vírus que infetam o mamoeiro (Carica papaya) em condições de campo e seus sintomas típicos nos frutos, foi efetuado um levantamento na Central de Comercialização do Estado do Ceará (CEASA) de frutos infetados com o vírus da mancha anelar do mamoeiro [...] (Papaya ringspot virus, PRSV) e o vírus do amarelo letal do mamoeiro (Papaya lethal yellowing virus, PLYV). Os principais Centros de comercialização de frutos são as CEASAs e os produtos comercializados nos supermercados são, em grande parte, adquiridos nesses Centros. Os frutos coletados aleatoriamente nas bancas de comercialização da CEASA foram levados ao Laboratório de Virologia Vegetal, da Universidade Federal do Ceará (UFC) para análises sintomatológicas e testes de "enzyme linked immunosorent assay" (ELISA) indireto, com anti-soros específicos para o PRSV e PLYV. De acordo com os resultados das análises sintomatológicas, confirmadas por sorologia, dentre os 8.400 frutos analisados, 5,5% estavam infetados por PRSV e 1,2% por PLYV, demonstrando a necessidade de implementar um programa rigoroso de controle, envolvendo erradicação de fontes de vírus no campo, representados por plantas infetadas nos pomares, áreas abandonadas e inclusive cultivos de fundo de quintal. Abstract in english Considering the high incidence of virus in papaya (Carica papaya) orchards and their typical symptoms in the fruits, a survey was carried out in the Central Market in the State of Ceará (CEASA) for the presence of papaya fruits infected with Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) and Papaya lethal yellowing v [...] irus (PLYV). CEASAs are the most important fruit commercial centers, and a great number of plant products sold in supermarkets are obtained in CEASA. Fruits were randomly collected from CEASA stalls and brought to the Plant Virus Laboratory at the Federal University of Ceará (UFC) to be analyzed for typical virus symptoms and tested by indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) against antisera specific to PRSV and PLYV. According to the results obtained by symptom analysis, which were confirmed by serology, among the 8,400 fruits analyzed 5.5% were infected with PRSV and 1.2% with PLYV, showing the need to implement a control program involving eradication of virus sources in the field, represented by infected plants in papaya orchards, abandoned orchards and infected plants identified in backyards.

Najara F., Ramos; Aline K.Q., Nascimento; Maria Fátima B., Gonçalves; José Albérsio A., Lima.

2008-12-01

176

INFLUENCE OF THICKNESS ON THE DRYING OF PAPAYA PUREE (Carica papaya L.) THROUGH REFRACTANCE WINDOWTM TECHNOLOGY / INFLUENCIA DEL ESPESOR EN SECADO DE PURÉ DE PAPAYA (Carica Papaya L.) POR TECNOLOGÍA DE VENTANA DE REFRACTANCIA®  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la influencia del espesor de las muestras (2, 3 y 4 mm) sobre las cinéticas de secado, actividad de agua (a w) y color (deltaE) de rodajas de puré de papaya procesadas por tecnología de ventana de refractanciaTM (RW™). Adicionalmente se evaluó la difusividad d [...] el agua (Deff) teniendo en cuenta el encogimiento. Los datos de humedad se ajustaron mediante los modelos de Newton y Midilli. Los resultados mostraron que a menor espesor el secado fue más rápido, los valores de a w fueron menores y los deltaE superiores. Las muestras alcanzaron 0.0652, 0.1132 y 0.2624 g agua/ g sólido seco en 60 min para rodajas de 2, 3 y 4 mm, respectivamente. El Modelo de Midilli fue el más apropiado para predecir las curvas de secado de papaya por RW™. Deff disminuyó a menor espesor y su orden de magnitud fue de 10-10 m²/s. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of sample thickness (2, 3 and 4 mm) on the drying kinetics, water activity (a w) and color (deltaE) of papaya puree slices processed through Refractance WindowTM technology (RW™). Additionally, the water diffusion coefficient (Deff) was evaluated t [...] aking into account the shrinkage effect. The experimental values of moisture were fitted using Newton's and Midilli's models. The results showed that the lower the thickness, the faster the drying, the lower the values of a w and the higher the deltaE. The samples reached 0.0652, 0.1132 and 0.2624 g water/ g dry solid in 60 min for 2, 3 and 4 mm slices, respectively. Midilli's model was the most appropriate to predict the experimental curves of papaya drying through RW™. Deff decreased at a lower thickness and its order of magnitude was of 10-10 m²/s.

MARÍA U., OCORÓ-ZAMORA; ALFREDO A., AYALA-APONTE.

2013-12-01

177

Relaxation phenomena of radicals induced in irradiated fresh papayas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electron spin resonance spectrometry of the ?-irradiated fresh papayas followed by freeze-drying and powderization was performed. We found a strong single peak in the flesh was observed at g=2.004 and attributed to organic free radicals. Using the method of Lund et al., relaxation times of the peak from 0 to 14 days-stored samples after ?-irradiation were calculated. T2 showed a dose response, while T1 kept almost constant by the increment of doses. The ?-radiation-induced radicals showing progressive saturation behaviors can be caused through a different pathway from indirect effects by the low LET radiations. (author)

178

Empleo del método de secado convectivo combinado para la deshidratación de papaya (Carica papaya L.), variedad Maradol roja / Use of convective dry method combined for dehydration of papaya fruit (Carica papaya L.), variety Maradol roja  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La presente investigación tiene como objetivo evaluar el método de secado convectivo de papaya (Carica papaya L.) variedad Maradol roja, combinado con la aplicación de pretratamientos de osmosis (DOSC) y escaldado simple (ESSC), mediante el efecto de los factores tecnológicos del secador: temperatur [...] a (40 y 60 ºC) y velocidad del flujo de aire (2,5 y 1,5 m/s) sobre el comportamiento de las propiedades de calidad de la fruta deshidratada y la cinética del proceso. El pretratamiento de escaldado simple se realizó en agua destilada caliente a 70°C durante 15 minutos y la deshidratación osmótica u osmosis a 60 °C por 4 horas a frutas cortadas en cubos de 1,5± 0,2 cm de largo por 1,0±0,01 cm de espesor, utilizando una solución de sacarosa comercial a 50°Brix. Como diseño experimental se empleó un Diseño Factorial Completo 2² y para el procesamiento estadístico de los datos el software STATGRAPHICS Plus 5.1. Como principales resultados se obtuvo que en ambos procesos el aumento de la temperatura a 60 ºC y la reducción de la velocidad del flujo de aire a 1,5 m/s disminuyó el tiempo de secado con valores de R² >0,95 y ? Abstract in english This research aim is to evaluate the convective dry method of papaya fruit (Carica papaya L.), variety Maradol roja, combined with simply blanching (ESSC) and Osmosis (DOSC) pre-treatments by the effect of technological factors of dryer: temperature (40 y 60 ºC) and air flow speed (2,5 y 1,5 m/s) ab [...] ove the behavior of quality properties in dehydrated fruit and the process´s kinetic. The simple blanching was realized using hot water 70 °C per 15 min and the osmotic dehydration 60 °C per 4 h to the cubes with 1,5±0,2 cm length per 1,0 ± 0,01 cm de thickness, using a sucrose osmotic solution at 50 °Brix concentration. As experimental design was used a Full Factorial 2² Design and the STATGRAPHICS Plus 5.1 software. As principal results was obtained that in both process the higher temperature to 60 ºC and lower air flow speed to 1,5 m/s provokes a reduction on drying time with value of R² >0,95 y ?

Sahylin, Muñiz Becerá; Antihus, Hernández Gómez; Annia, García Pereira; Lilia, Méndez Lagunas.

179

Phenol induced by irradiation does not impair sensory quality of fenugreek and papaya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of radiation processing on the sensory quality of fenugreek and papaya exposed to doses in the range of 2.5–10 kGy and 100 Gy–2.5 kGy respectively was investigated. Despite an increase in the content of phenol in the volatile oil of these food products overall sensory quality of the irradiated and control samples was not significantly affected by radiation processing. - Highlights: • Sensory quality of fenugreek and papaya is not significantly affected by radiation processing. • Irradiation did not adversely affect the overall acceptability of the processed samples. • Radiation processing was thus successfully applied to the preservation of fenugreek and papaya

180

Pengaruh getah pepaya (Carica papaya terhadap sintasan tokolan udang windu (Panaeus monodon pada kepadatan yang berbeda selama pengangkutan  

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Full Text Available The objective of present study was to evaluate the possibility of papaya’s latex (Carica papaya as anti stress or larvaside for tiger shrimp (Panaeus monodon post larvae Pl 14-30 during transportation. The tiger shrimp post larvae was collected from BBAP Ujung Batee, Aceh Besar on September, 2012. Reseach method used the completely random design with two factors, density of post larvae with three treatments (1000; 1500 dan 2000 ind/l and concentration of papaya’s latex with four treatments (0; 100; 200 dan 300 ppm and three replications for each treatments. The effect of papaya’s latex on tiger shrimp post larvae was observed by calculating the percentage of post larvae’s survival rate. The calculation was only done after twelve hours of transportation, due to the everage of survival rate percentage of post larvae on all levels of density was less than 50%. The ANOVA test showed that the density and the concentration factors gave significance effect on survival rate of tiger shrimp post larvae (P<0,05. The results showed that survival rate of tiger shrimp post larvae (PL 14-30 were decreased with increasing of larvae density and concentration of papaya’s latex. However, Duncan’s test showed that the highest survival rate was obtained at 1.000 ind/l and 0 ppm of papaya’s latex. Hence, the effect of papaya’s latex concentration treatments in this study was larvaside on tiger shrimp post larvae.

Sofyatuddin Karina

2013-04-01

 
 
 
 
181

Dormancia en semillas de papaya cv maradol roja durante el almacenamiento / Dormancy of papaya seeds cv Maradol Roja during storage  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Dormancia en semillas de papaya cv Maradol Roja durante el almacenamiento. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar el efecto de la humedad de la semilla cultivar Maradol Roja y la temperatura durante el almacenamiento, en la dormancia de la papaya. Este trabajo fue desarrollado en el Laborat [...] orio Nacional de Semillas de la Empresa Productora y Comercializadora de Semillas, provincia La Habana, Cuba, en el período noviembre 2006 a enero 2008. Fueron extraídas las semillas de frutos de papaya cv Maradol Roja, y se secaron a tres contenidos de humedad (12%, 10,56% y 9,26%), y acondicionadas en bolsas de polietileno y almacenadas a 15ºC y 4ºC. El porcentaje de germinación, altura y peso fresco de la planta fueron realizadas al inicio y después de tres, seis, nueve y doce meses de almacenamiento. Hubo tendencia a la disminución de la germinación en los primeros seis meses del almacenamiento, alcanzándose los valores más bajos del porcentaje de germinación (55,6%). A partir de los nueve y doce meses fue detectado un aumento significativo en la germinación, independiente del contenido de humedad de la semilla. El ambiente de 15ºC favoreció mayor germinación en períodos mayores de almacenamiento en relación a las mantenidas a 4ºC, que exhibieron mejores porcentajes de germinación en un período menor (tres meses de almacenamiento). La dormancia finalizó en los periodos de almacenamiento a los nueve y doce meses, independientemente del contenido de humedad. Abstract in english Dormancy of papaya seeds cv Maradol Roja during storage. The objective of this work was to determine the effect of humidity content of papaya cv Maradol Roja and storage temperatura on dormany. The work was conducted at the Laboratorio Nacional de Semillas, Empresa Productora y Comercializadora de S [...] emillas, La Habana, Cuba, from November 2006 to January 2008. Seeds were extracted from papaya fruits cv Maradol Roja and dried to three humidiy contents (12%, 10,56% y 9,26%), and aconditioned in polyiethylene bags and stored at 15ºC and 4ºC. Percentaje of seed germination, heigth and fresh weight of the seedlings were measured at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months in storage. There was a trend towards reduced seed germination during the first 6 months in storage (55,6%). After 9 and 12 months a significant incresase in germination was observed, independent of seed water content. Seeds stored in environment at 15ºC favored germination after longer sotrage compared to seeds kept in storage for shorter periods (3 months). Seed dormany concluded between 9 and 12 months in storage irrespective of seed water content.

Maruchi, Alonso-Esquivel; Yoleinis, Ortiz-López; Roberto, Ramos-Ramírez; Hugo, Oliva-Diaz; Maricela, Capote-del Sol.

182

Dormancia en semillas de papaya cv maradol roja durante el almacenamiento / Dormancy of papaya seeds cv Maradol Roja during storage  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Dormancia en semillas de papaya cv Maradol Roja durante el almacenamiento. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar el efecto de la humedad de la semilla cultivar Maradol Roja y la temperatura durante el almacenamiento, en la dormancia de la papaya. Este trabajo fue desarrollado en el Laborat [...] orio Nacional de Semillas de la Empresa Productora y Comercializadora de Semillas, provincia La Habana, Cuba, en el período noviembre 2006 a enero 2008. Fueron extraídas las semillas de frutos de papaya cv Maradol Roja, y se secaron a tres contenidos de humedad (12%, 10,56% y 9,26%), y acondicionadas en bolsas de polietileno y almacenadas a 15ºC y 4ºC. El porcentaje de germinación, altura y peso fresco de la planta fueron realizadas al inicio y después de tres, seis, nueve y doce meses de almacenamiento. Hubo tendencia a la disminución de la germinación en los primeros seis meses del almacenamiento, alcanzándose los valores más bajos del porcentaje de germinación (55,6%). A partir de los nueve y doce meses fue detectado un aumento significativo en la germinación, independiente del contenido de humedad de la semilla. El ambiente de 15ºC favoreció mayor germinación en períodos mayores de almacenamiento en relación a las mantenidas a 4ºC, que exhibieron mejores porcentajes de germinación en un período menor (tres meses de almacenamiento). La dormancia finalizó en los periodos de almacenamiento a los nueve y doce meses, independientemente del contenido de humedad. Abstract in english Dormancy of papaya seeds cv Maradol Roja during storage. The objective of this work was to determine the effect of humidity content of papaya cv Maradol Roja and storage temperatura on dormany. The work was conducted at the Laboratorio Nacional de Semillas, Empresa Productora y Comercializadora de S [...] emillas, La Habana, Cuba, from November 2006 to January 2008. Seeds were extracted from papaya fruits cv Maradol Roja and dried to three humidiy contents (12%, 10,56% y 9,26%), and aconditioned in polyiethylene bags and stored at 15ºC and 4ºC. Percentaje of seed germination, heigth and fresh weight of the seedlings were measured at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months in storage. There was a trend towards reduced seed germination during the first 6 months in storage (55,6%). After 9 and 12 months a significant incresase in germination was observed, independent of seed water content. Seeds stored in environment at 15ºC favored germination after longer sotrage compared to seeds kept in storage for shorter periods (3 months). Seed dormany concluded between 9 and 12 months in storage irrespective of seed water content.

Maruchi, Alonso-Esquivel; Yoleinis, Ortiz-López; Roberto, Ramos-Ramírez; Hugo, Oliva-Diaz; Maricela, Capote-del Sol.

2011-12-01

183

Posfolklore: Raíces y globalización en la música popular chilena  

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Full Text Available This article discusses the development of the concept of folk roots, introduced by Chilean singer-songwriters in the mid-seventies, as a strategy to legitimize their divergent practice from the norm of folklore in times of military rule. The institutionalization of this concept with the return of democracy in the early nineties and its continued tightening from a third generation of Chilean singersongwriters and bands derivatives from theater companies, allow us to discuss the problem of folk roots in times of globalization. We propose the concepts of posfolklore and hydroponic roots, attached to the trend of Chilean listeners and musicians to incorporate world music to their artistic practices and consumption. These concepts would facilitate the discussion of the mixing of influences in Chilean music and the consequent proliferation of intermediate rather than hegemonic identities in contemporary Chilean culture.

Este artículo aborda el desarrollo del concepto de raíz folklórica, introducido por cantautores chilenos a mediados de los años setenta, como estrategia para legitimar corrientes divergentes del folklore de la norma imperante en tiempos del régimen militar. La institucionalización de este concepto con el retorno a la democracia y su continuo tensionamiento desde una tercera generación de cantautores nacionales y desde los nuevos grupos musicales derivados de compañías teatrales, permite reflexionar sobre el problema de las raíces en tiempos de globalización. Se proponen los conceptos de posfolklore y de raíces hidropónicas, adscritos a la permanente tendencia del músico y del auditor chileno a incorporar músicas del mundo a su práctica y consumo musical. Estos conceptos permiten discutir las mezclas en la música chilena y la consiguiente multiplicación de identidades intermedias más que hegemónicas en la cultura chilena contemporánea.

González, Juan Pablo

2011-10-01

184

Desenvolvimento de genótipos de mamoeiro tolerantes à mancha fisiológica / Development of papaya genotypes (Carica papaya L.) tolerant to skin freckles  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O mamoeiro é uma das fruteiras tropicais de grande impacto na fruticultura brasileira. Os principais entraves à expansão da cultura são a baixa variabilidade genética e a ocorrência de doenças que encarecem a produção. Neste contexto, realizou-se um cruzamento entre os genótipos 'JS12' e 'Golden' na [...] expectativa de se transferir a característica coloração verde-clara da casca dos frutos (característica Golden), associada à tolerância da mancha fisiológica do mamoeiro, do genitor 'Golden' para o genitor 'JS12'. A variação genética entre e dentro das progênies segregantes obtidas foi avaliada na população RC1S1. Três indivíduos possuidores da característica Golden (38RC1S1-11, 30RC1S1-10 e 31RC1S1-10) foram selecionados pela análise de agrupamento. Estas progênies aliam maior proporção genômica do genitor recorrente (JS12) e bons atributos morfoagronômicos, sendo os mais indicados para o avanço das autofecundações e retrocruzamentos em mamoeiro. Abstract in english Papaya is a tropical fruit of high impact in Brazilian fruit crop. The main barriers to the expansion of the crop are reduced genetic variability and disease occurrence that results in the more expensive production. In this context it was made a cross between the genotypes ' JS12' and 'Golden' in th [...] e expectation of transferring the trait pale green peel of the fruit (Golden trait), associated as tolerant papaya skin freckles from the 'Golden' genitor to the 'JS12' genitor. The population BC1S1 was evaluated for its genetic variation between and within segregating progenies. Three individuals possessing the Golden characteristics (38BC1S1-11, 31BC1S1-10 and 30BC1S1-10-10) were selected. These progenies combine greater genomic proportion of the recurrent parent and good morphoagronomic attributes being the most suitable for the advancement of self pollination and backcrossing in papaya.

Fernanda de Oliveira, Pinto; Helaine Christine Cancela, Ramos; Deisy Lúcia, Cardoso; Lucas Nunes da, Luz; Messias Gonzaga, Pereira.

1101-11-01

185

Viabilidade polínica de Carica papaya L.: uma comparação metodológica / Pollen viability of Carica papaya L.: a methodological comparison  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A viabilidade polínica do mamoeiro cultivar 'Sunrise Solo' (Carica papaya L.) foi estudada utilizando germinação in vitro e testes colorimétricos, assim como a validade dos testes colorimétricos como estimativa de viabilidade comparada àquela do teste germinativo. Os dois meios de cultura, descritos [...] na literatura como meios eficientes para germinação da espécie, diferem basicamente pela presença de nutrientes essenciais e concentração de ágar. O meio de cultura sem elementos essenciais e com maior concentração de ágar forneceu o melhor índice de germinação polínica (65%). Os cinco corantes testados foram: 2,3,5-cloreto de trifeniltetrazólio (TTC), Alexander, carmim acético, lugol e Sudan IV. O teste de coloração com TTC forneceu estimativa de viabilidade (67,5%) equivalente ao teste de germinação in vitro e, portanto, confiável de viabilidade polínica. Os demais corantes testados superestimaram a viabilidade polínica (> 90%), porém são eficientes na determinação de constituintes celulares e da integridade do grão de pólen. Abstract in english Pollen viability of Carica papaya L. 'Sunrise Solo' cultivar was estimated using in vitro germination and pollen stain tests. Two culture media described in the literature as efficient for pollen in vitro germination of C. papaya were used. Germination was higher in the media without essential eleme [...] nts but with a higher concentration of agar (65% compared with 51.5%). These results were compared with viability estimates based on staining pollen. The five stains used to test for pollen viability were: 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride - TTC, Alexander's stain, acetocarmine, iodine-potassium iodide and Sudan IV. Pollen viability estimated with TTC was 67.5% and similar to germination results providing a reliable estimate of in vitro germination. The four other stains overestimated pollen viability (> 90%), and their use should be restricted to determining cell constituents, and pollen grain integrity.

Márcia, Munhoz; Cynthia Fernandes Pinto da, Luz; Paulo Ernesto, Meissner Filho; Orthud Monika, Barth; Fernanda, Reinert.

186

Detection of three wound-induced proteins in papaya latex.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of routine mechanical wounding for latex collection from unripe fruits of the tropical Carica papaya tree were investigated. For that purpose, the protein composition of three different latexes was analyzed. The first one, commercially available, was provided in the form of a spray-dried powder, the second one was harvested from fully grown but unripe papaya fruits that are regularly tapped for latex production and the last one, was obtained from similar fruits wounded for the first time. Repeated mechanical wounding was found to profoundly affect the protein content of the latex inducing, among others, activation of papain. Regularly tapped latexes also accumulated several low molecular weight proteins not yet identified, as well as three proteins identified as a trypsin inhibitor, a class-II chitinase and a glutaminyl cyclase on the basis of their enzymatic or inhibitory activities and chromatographic elution profiles. This latter was found here, for the first time, to be a wound-induced protein. The roles of these proteins in the plant defense mechanism are discussed. PMID:15003415

Azarkan, Mohamed; Wintjens, René; Looze, Yvan; Baeyens-Volant, Danielle

2004-03-01

187

Development of virus resistant transgenic papayas expressing the coat protein gene from a Brazilian isolate of Papaya ringspot virus Desenvolvimento de mamoeiros transgênicos resistentes a vírus expressando o gene da capa protéica de um isolado brasileiro de Papaya ringspot virus  

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Full Text Available Translatable and nontranslatable versions of the coat protein (cp gene of a Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV isolate collected in the state of Bahia, Brazil, were engineered for expression in Sunrise and Sunset Solo varieties of papaya (Carica papaya. The biolistic system was used to transform secondary somatic embryo cultures derived from immature zygotic embryos. Fifty-four transgenic lines, 26 translatable and 28 nontranslatable gene versions, were regenerated, with a transformation efficiency of 2.7%. Inoculation of cloned R0 plants with PRSV BR, PRSV HA or PRSV TH, Brazilian, Hawaiian and Thai isolates, respectively, revealed lines with mono-, double-, and triple-resistance. After molecular analysis and a preliminary agronomic evaluation, 13 R1 and R2 populations were incorporated into the papaya-breeding program at Embrapa Cassava and Tropical Fruits, in Cruz das Almas, Bahia, Brazil.Versões traduzíveis e não traduzíveis do gene da capa protéica (cp de um isolado de Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV coletado no Estado da Bahia, Brasil, foram produzidas para expressão nas variedades Sunrise e Sunset Solo de mamoeiro (Carica papaya. O sistema de biobalística foi utilizado para transformar embriões somáticos secundários derivados de embriões zigóticos imaturos. Cinqüenta e quatro linhas transgênicas, sendo 26 contendo versões traduzíveis e 28 contendo versões não traduzíveis do gene cp foram regeneradas, o que resultou em 2,7% de eficiência de transformação, quando considerado o número de linhas transgênicas obtidas por embrião zigótico imaturo excisado. Desafios de plantas R0 com PRSV BR, PRSV HA ou PRSV TH, respectivamente isolado brasileiro, havaiano e tailandês, revelaram linhas com resistência a um, dois e três isolados de PRSV. Após análises moleculares e avaliação agronômica preliminar, 13 populações R1 e R2 de mamoeiros transgênicos foram incorporadas ao programa de melhoramento genético da Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura, em Cruz das Almas, Bahia, Brasil.

Manoel T. Souza Júnior

2005-08-01

188

Immobilization of mycoplana sp. MVMB2 isolated from petroleum contaminated soil onto papaya stem (carica papaya l.) and its application on degradation of phenanthrene  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study presents the degradation of phenanthrene using immobilized Mycoplana sp. MVMB2 isolated from contaminated soil. Papaya stem pretreated by two stage processes, treating with acid or alkali and drying, was used for the immobilization of Mycoplana sp. Alkali pretreated papaya stem was found to be most effective in cell uptake compared to acid treated one. The maximum immobilization capacity at various physiochemical conditions for the alkali pretreated papaya stem was found to be at 320 min time, pH 6.5, 30 C temperature, and 18.6 x 106 cells/mL initial concentrations. The adsorption mechanism of Mycoplana sp. MVMB2 on pretreated papaya stem was assessed using various kinetic and isotherm models. The immobilization of Mycoplana sp. MVMB2 on to pretreated papaya stem was corroborated by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transformed IR spectroscopy analysis. The performance of immobilized cells in batch reactor showed more than 95% phenanthrene degradation within 72 h, whereas, free cells were found to require 120 h. The immobilized cells also showed better degradation performance in the packed column study. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

189

Immobilization of mycoplana sp. MVMB2 isolated from petroleum contaminated soil onto papaya stem (carica papaya l.) and its application on degradation of phenanthrene  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study presents the degradation of phenanthrene using immobilized Mycoplana sp. MVMB2 isolated from contaminated soil. Papaya stem pretreated by two stage processes, treating with acid or alkali and drying, was used for the immobilization of Mycoplana sp. Alkali pretreated papaya stem was found to be most effective in cell uptake compared to acid treated one. The maximum immobilization capacity at various physiochemical conditions for the alkali pretreated papaya stem was found to be at 320 min time, pH 6.5, 30 C temperature, and 18.6 x 10{sup 6} cells/mL initial concentrations. The adsorption mechanism of Mycoplana sp. MVMB2 on pretreated papaya stem was assessed using various kinetic and isotherm models. The immobilization of Mycoplana sp. MVMB2 on to pretreated papaya stem was corroborated by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transformed IR spectroscopy analysis. The performance of immobilized cells in batch reactor showed more than 95% phenanthrene degradation within 72 h, whereas, free cells were found to require 120 h. The immobilized cells also showed better degradation performance in the packed column study. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

Brinda Lakshmi, Mahalingam; Muthukumar, Karuppan; Velan, Manickam [Environmental Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, A.C. College of Technology, Anna University, Chennai (India)

2012-08-15

190

Efficacy of Essential Oils on the Conidial Germination, Growth of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz. Penz. and Sacc and Control of Postharvest Diseases in Papaya (Carica papaya L.  

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Full Text Available The efficacy of nine essential oils were investigated in vitro on conidial germination and mycelial growth inhibition of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides isolate from papaya (Carica papaya L.. In general, better antifungal effect was observed with Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Syzygium aromaticum oils which had strong inhibition of conidial germination of C. gloeosporioides at 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 ?g mL-1 and a dose dependent inhibition mycelial growth was caused by these oils. Teloxys ambrosioides, Mentha piperita and Ruta chalepensis oils exhibited a moderate action at 150, 200 and 250 ?g mL-1 on conidial germination and mycelial growth inhibition. Allium sativum, Citrus aurantifolia and Eucalyptus globulus oils had no antifungal activity at different concentration. Taking into account the in vitro results, C. zeylanicum and S. aromaticum oils were evaluated on papaya fruit during storage at ambient temperature and 14°C. The lowest infection percentage were for papaya fruits treated with S. aromaticum at 50 ?g mL-1 at both temperature tested, nevertheless did not overcome the activity of synthetic fungicide. After storage at both temperature, values of Soluble Solids Content (SSC was not significantly different. S. aromaticum oils may be a possibility to control C. gloeosporioides of papaya fruit.

Laura Leticia Barrera-Necha

2008-01-01

191

Analysis of papaya cell wall-related genes during fruit ripening indicates a central role of polygalacturonases during pulp softening.  

Science.gov (United States)

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a climacteric fleshy fruit that undergoes dramatic changes during ripening, most noticeably a severe pulp softening. However, little is known regarding the genetics of the cell wall metabolism in papayas. The present work describes the identification and characterization of genes related to pulp softening. We used gene expression profiling to analyze the correlations and co-expression networks of cell wall-related genes, and the results suggest that papaya pulp softening is accomplished by the interactions of multiple glycoside hydrolases. The polygalacturonase cpPG1 appeared to play a central role in the network and was further studied. The transient expression of cpPG1 in papaya results in pulp softening and leaf necrosis in the absence of ethylene action and confirms its role in papaya fruit ripening. PMID:25162506

Fabi, João Paulo; Broetto, Sabrina Garcia; da Silva, Sarah Lígia Garcia Leme; Zhong, Silin; Lajolo, Franco Maria; do Nascimento, João Roberto Oliveira

2014-01-01

192

Analysis of Papaya Cell Wall-Related Genes during Fruit Ripening Indicates a Central Role of Polygalacturonases during Pulp Softening  

Science.gov (United States)

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a climacteric fleshy fruit that undergoes dramatic changes during ripening, most noticeably a severe pulp softening. However, little is known regarding the genetics of the cell wall metabolism in papayas. The present work describes the identification and characterization of genes related to pulp softening. We used gene expression profiling to analyze the correlations and co-expression networks of cell wall-related genes, and the results suggest that papaya pulp softening is accomplished by the interactions of multiple glycoside hydrolases. The polygalacturonase cpPG1 appeared to play a central role in the network and was further studied. The transient expression of cpPG1 in papaya results in pulp softening and leaf necrosis in the absence of ethylene action and confirms its role in papaya fruit ripening. PMID:25162506

Fabi, Joao Paulo; Broetto, Sabrina Garcia; da Silva, Sarah Ligia Garcia Leme; Zhong, Silin; Lajolo, Franco Maria; do Nascimento, Joao Roberto Oliveira

2014-01-01

193

Bandeo de cromosomas humanos con extracto crudo de frutas u hojas de papaya  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Preparaciones de una semana de cromosomas humanos fueron tratadas con filtrados de una hoja de papaya (Carica papaya licuada (53 g en 100 ml de agua destilada, y tenidas con 1.5 % Giemsa (pH 6.8. Se obtuvo buen bandeo de cromosomas luego de 2 min de tratamiento. Soluciones que han sido congeladas por años son efectivas y el método es más barato y fácil que otrosOne week old human chromosome preparations were treated with filtrate from one liquefied leaf (53 g of papaya (Carica papaya in 100 ml of distilled water, and stained with 1.5 % Giemsa (pH 6.8. Good chromosome banding was obtained after 2 min of treatment. Solutions that have been frozen even for years are effective and the method is cheaper and easier than others

María Virginia Solís

2001-12-01

194

Bandeo de cromosomas humanos con extracto crudo de frutas u hojas de papaya  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Preparaciones de una semana de cromosomas humanos fueron tratadas con filtrados de una hoja de papaya (Carica papaya) licuada (53 g) en 100 ml de agua destilada, y tenidas con 1.5 % Giemsa (pH 6.8). Se obtuvo buen bandeo de cromosomas luego de 2 min de tratamiento. Soluciones que han sido congeladas [...] por años son efectivas y el método es más barato y fácil que otros Abstract in english One week old human chromosome preparations were treated with filtrate from one liquefied leaf (53 g) of papaya (Carica papaya) in 100 ml of distilled water, and stained with 1.5 % Giemsa (pH 6.8). Good chromosome banding was obtained after 2 min of treatment. Solutions that have been frozen even for [...] years are effective and the method is cheaper and easier than others

María Virginia, Solís.

195

Influence of gamma radiation on carbohydrates metabolism of ripening papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Solo); Metabolismo de carboidratos durante o amadurecimento do mamao (Carica papaya L. Cv. Solo): influencia da radiacao gama  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Food irradiation is one of the most promising treatments that can be utilized for fruits disinfestation and extension of shelf life. The authors studied the influence of 0,5 kGy of Gamma irradiation on the soluble carbohydrates composition of papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Solo) fruit, and on sucrose metabolizing enzymes: sucrose synthase (SS), sucrose-phosphate synthase, acid and neutral invertases activities, during ripening. The results demonstrated that ethylene production, total soluble sugars, sucrose content, and sucrose-phosphate synthase and invertases activities were affected by irradiation, but not respiration, glucose and fructose content, and SS activity. (author)

Gomez, M.L.P.A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FCF/USP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas; Lajolo, F.M.; Cordenunsi, B.R. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FCF/USP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Dept. de Alimentos e Nutricao Experimental

1999-05-15

196

Protective effect of dried fruits of Carica papaya on hepatotoxicity in rat  

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Full Text Available Aqueous and ethanol extracts of Carica papaya has been evaluated for its hepatoprotective activity in rat. The aqueous and ethanol extracts of Carica papaya showed significant hepatoprotection against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity. The protective activity was evaluated by using biochemical parameters such as serum bilirubin, serum alanine amino transferase (ALT, aspartate amino transferase (AST and alkaline phosphatase. The histopathological changes of liver were compared with control.

Md. Zafor Sadeque, Zinnat Ara Begum

2010-06-01

197

First records of two mealybug species in Brazil and new potential pests of papaya and coffee  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Five mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) plant pest species: Dysmicoccus grassii (Leonardi), Ferrisia malvastra (McDaniel), Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell), Phenacoccus tucumanus Granara de Willink, and Pseudococcus elisae Borchsenius are recorded for the first time in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. These are the first records of D. grassii in Brazil, from papaya (Carica papaya, Caricaceae), and from coffee (Coffea canephora, Rubiaceae). Ferrisia malvastra is also newly recorded in Brazi...

Culik, Mark P.; Dos Santos Martins, David; Gullan, Penny J.

2006-01-01

198

Isolation of natural inhibitors of papain obtained from Carica papaya latex  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Studies were carried out to natural papain inhibitor from papaya latex. Fresh latex from green fruits of Carica papaya was collected and immediately transported in ice bath to the lab, from which three fractions with inhibitor effect of esterase papain activity were isolated by latex dialysis, Sephadex G-25 gel filtration and ionic exchange chromatography in SP-Sephadex C-25. The isolated fractions, identified as inhibitors I and II, showed a negative reaction with ninhydrin; however, the fra...

Rubens Monti; Jonas Contiero; Antonio José Goulart

2004-01-01

199

Antifungal Activity in Ethanolic Extracts of Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol Leaves and Seeds  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Bioactive compounds from vegetal sources are a potential source of natural antifungic. An ethanol extraction was used to obtain bioactive compounds from Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol leaves and seeds of discarded ripe and unripe fruit. Both, extraction time and the papaya tissue flour:organic solvent ratio significantly affected yield, with the longest time and highest flour:solvent ratio producing the highest yield. The effect of time on extraction efficiency was confirmed by qualitative iden...

Cha?vez-quintal, Pedro; Gonza?lez-flores, Tania; Rodri?guez-buenfil, Ingrid; Gallegos-tintore?, Santiago

2011-01-01

200

Comparisons of Production Costs and Profit of Three Different Technology Levels of Papaya Production in Tabasco, Mexico  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The survey was carried out from September 2006 to January 2007 in three papaya production sites located in main papaya production zones in Tabasco; SE Mexico. There are differences in size of the cultivated area, in the yield of the papaya as well as in production costs and profit, according to the different technology levels in the farming systems: low, medium and high technology cultivation level. The financial evaluations were carried out in three sites with different productive technologi...

Guzma?n-ramo?n, E.; Go?mez-a?lvarez, R.; Ju?rgen Pohlan, H. A.; Alvarez-rivero, J. C.; Pat-ferna?ndez, J.; Geissen, V.

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Efectos de la fertilización con nitrógeno en la producción de papaya (Carica papaya L. y en la incidencia de virosis.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En un suelo Vertic Aplustoll arcilloso sobre franco esmetítico, isohipertérmico, del Centro de Producción Agropecuaria ACotové@, ubicado en el municipio de Santafé de Antioquia, en la zona de vida bosque seco Tropical (bs-T, se realizó un trabajo para determinar la respuesta de la variedad de papaya AU.N. Cotové@ (Carica papaya L. a la fertilización con N en dosis de 0, 183 y 366 kg/ha, equivalentes a dosis individuales de 5, 5, 10, 15, 25, 25, 25 y 10,10, 20, 30, 50, 50, 50 g de N/planta, respectivamente, fertilizando cada mes durante los primeros 4 meses después del transplante y cada 2 meses posteriormente, durante un período de 9 meses. Se suministraron además dosis constantes de P, K, S, Fe, Mn, Zn, y B. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques al azar con cuatro repeticiones y 10 plantas por unidad experimental, con distancias entre plantas de 2 m y entre surcos de 3m.

Vallejo G. Gladys

1999-06-01

202

Degradación cinética de carotenoides obtenidos de frutos de Carica papaya L Kinetic degradation of carotenoids from Carica papaya L. fruits  

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Full Text Available Se evaluó la degradación de carotenoides extraídos de frutos de lechosa (Carica papaya L.. Los pigmentos previamente separados y liofilizados fueron almacenados en la oscuridad. Se midió su absorbancia a 440 nm, cada 15 días. Se determinó el orden de reacción, tiempo de vida media (t1/2 y constante de velocidad de degradación (k. La degradación de los carotenoides siguio una cinética de primer orden. El producto liofilizado presento t1/2: 43,3 días y k: 0,0160 días-1. Bajo estas condiciones experimentales los carotenoides tardaran 250 días en degradarse por completo.Degradation of carotenoids from Carica papaya L. fruits was evaluated. Pigments previously extracted from the fruit, were lyophilized, stored in the dark and monitored spectrophotometrically by absorbance at 440 nm, over intervals of 15 days. Reaction order, half-life (t1/2 and constant degradation rate (k were determined. Reactions followed a first order kinetic model. The lyophilized product presented t1/2: 43.3 days and k: 0.0160 days-1. Under these experimental conditions the carotenoid concentrations will be zero at 250 days.

M. J. Moreno Alvarez

2003-04-01

203

Degradación cinética de carotenoides obtenidos de frutos de Carica papaya L / Kinetic degradation of carotenoids from Carica papaya L. fruits  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se evaluó la degradación de carotenoides extraídos de frutos de lechosa (Carica papaya L.). Los pigmentos previamente separados y liofilizados fueron almacenados en la oscuridad. Se midió su absorbancia a 440 nm, cada 15 días. Se determinó el orden de reacción, tiempo de vida media (t1/2) y constant [...] e de velocidad de degradación (k). La degradación de los carotenoides siguio una cinética de primer orden. El producto liofilizado presento t1/2: 43,3 días y k: 0,0160 días-1. Bajo estas condiciones experimentales los carotenoides tardaran 250 días en degradarse por completo. Abstract in english Degradation of carotenoids from Carica papaya L. fruits was evaluated. Pigments previously extracted from the fruit, were lyophilized, stored in the dark and monitored spectrophotometrically by absorbance at 440 nm, over intervals of 15 days. Reaction order, half-life (t1/2) and constant degradation [...] rate (k) were determined. Reactions followed a first order kinetic model. The lyophilized product presented t1/2: 43.3 days and k: 0.0160 days-1. Under these experimental conditions the carotenoid concentrations will be zero at 250 days.

M. J., Moreno Alvarez; D. R., Belén Camacho; V, Torrez.

204

Oral dosing with papaya latex is an effective anthelmintic treatment for sheep infected with Haemonchus contortus  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The cysteine proteinases in papaya latex have been shown to have potent anthelmintic properties in monogastric hosts such as rodents, pigs and humans, but this has not been demonstrated in ruminants. Methods In two experiments, sheep were infected concurrently with 5,000 infective larvae of Haemonchus contortus and 10,000 infective larvae of Trichostrongylus colubriformis and were then treated with the supernatant from a suspension of papaya latex from day 28 to day 32 post-infection. Faecal egg counts were monitored from a week before treatment until the end of the experiment and worm burdens were assessed on day 35 post-infection. Results We found that the soluble fraction of papaya latex had a potent in vivo effect on the abomasal nematode H. contortus, but not on the small intestinal nematode T. colubriformis. This effect was dose-dependent and at tolerated levels of gavage with papaya latex (117 ?mol of active papaya latex supernatant for 4 days, the H. contortus worm burdens were reduced by 98%. Repeated treatment, daily for 4 days, was more effective than a single dose, but efficacy was not enhanced by concurrent treatment with the antacid cimetidine. Conclusions Our results provide support for the idea that cysteine proteinases derived from papaya latex may be developed into novel anthelmintics for the treatment of lumenal stages of gastro-intestinal nematode infections in sheep, particularly those parasitizing the abomasum.

Donnan Alison A

2011-03-01

205

Inhibition of Ethylene Evolution in Papaya Pulp Tissue by Benzyl Isothiocyanate 1  

Science.gov (United States)

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) pulp tissue disks in an incubation medium composed of 0.4 m sucrose evolve ethylene at an optimum pH of 5.25 at 30 C. Disks of young preclimacteric fruit evolve the gas linearly with fruit age until fruit age reaches 4 months. Disks from 5-month-old postclimacteric fruit produce approximately 5-fold more ethylene than disks from 4-month-old fruit. Ethylene evolution by unaged papaya disks is inhibited potently by benzyl isothiocyanate. The compound inhibits production of ethylene by approximately 60% at a concentration of 0.046 mm. However, in aged papaya disks benzyl isothiocyanate causes no inhibition of ethylene production indicating that the compound inhibits the induction of the ethylene-producing system rather than the evolution of the gas per se. Even at a 2-fold higher concentration benzyl isothiocyanate has no effect on respiration of unaged papaya disks. It is proposed that benzyl isothiocyanate may act as an endogenous regulator of ethylene evolution in papaya fruit. PMID:16658747

Patil, Suresh S.; Tang, Chung-Shih

1974-01-01

206

Inhibition of ethylene evolution in papaya pulp tissue by benzyl isothiocyanate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) pulp tissue disks in an incubation medium composed of 0.4 m sucrose evolve ethylene at an optimum pH of 5.25 at 30 C. Disks of young preclimacteric fruit evolve the gas linearly with fruit age until fruit age reaches 4 months. Disks from 5-month-old postclimacteric fruit produce approximately 5-fold more ethylene than disks from 4-month-old fruit. Ethylene evolution by unaged papaya disks is inhibited potently by benzyl isothiocyanate. The compound inhibits production of ethylene by approximately 60% at a concentration of 0.046 mm. However, in aged papaya disks benzyl isothiocyanate causes no inhibition of ethylene production indicating that the compound inhibits the induction of the ethylene-producing system rather than the evolution of the gas per se. Even at a 2-fold higher concentration benzyl isothiocyanate has no effect on respiration of unaged papaya disks. It is proposed that benzyl isothiocyanate may act as an endogenous regulator of ethylene evolution in papaya fruit. PMID:16658747

Patil, S S; Tang, C S

1974-04-01

207

Gamma radiation use as a quarantine treatment for Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) and Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied., 1830) in papaya fruits (Carica papaya, Linnaeus), cultivar sunrise solo  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The gamma irradiation as treatment for control of the immature stages of fruit flies, C. capitata and A. fraterculus in papaya fruits, cultivar Sunrise Solo is studied. The gamma rays attenuation was observed by one and two papaya fruits placed between source and infested fruit, and this changed the radiation doses required to obtain mortality in eggs and larvae of the Medfly. The efficacy of irradiation was higher when the infested papayas were packed in paper box. The radiation dose determined using the Probit 9 concept, for immature stages mortality of C. capitata was 107,74 Gy and for A. fraterculus was 50,82 Gy. The sterilizing doses for adults of C. capitata and D. fraterculus, irradiated as pupae, was 60 Gy and 40 Gy, respectively. (author)

208

Genótipos melhorados de mamão (Carica papaya L.): avaliação tecnológica dos frutos na forma de sorvete / Improved genotypes of papaya (Carica papaya L.): technological evaluation as ice-cream  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho teve como objetivo a avaliação tecnológica na forma de sorvete, de frutos de cinco genótipos selecionados de mamão (CMF012, CMF020, CMF023, CMF031, CMF047), provenientes do Banco Ativo de Germoplasma da Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura, Cruz das Almas, Bahia. Estes genótipos foram [...] identificados em estudos anteriores por apresentarem cor atraente, sabor agradável e valores elevados de sólidos solúveis (ºBrix). As amostras de sorvete foram submetidas à avaliação sensorial para os atributos aparência, cor, aroma, sabor e textura, através de testes afetivos, utilizando-se escala hedônica estruturada de nove pontos. Realizou-se determinações de pH, acidez total titulável, sólidos solúveis (ºBrix), "ratio", ácido ascórbico, sólidos totais, cinzas, proteínas, lipídeos, açúcares totais, redutores e não-redutores. Os resultados das avaliações sensoriais e físico-químicas foram analisados através de ANOVA e teste de Tukey. Os sorvetes demonstraram elevada aceitação, obtendo médias correspondentes ao conceito "gostei moderadamente" para todos os atributos avaliados. Os genótipos CMF020 e CMF031 destacaram-se alcançando média correspondente ao termo da escala hedônica "gostei muito" para o atributo sabor. Os provadores não indicaram prevalência entre os produtos quanto à aparência, cor e textura; portanto, os genótipos pouco atraentes como fruto de mesa, poderão ser aproveitados na indústria para elaboração de sorvete. Além disso, podem ser considerados como uma sobremesa valiosa e nutritiva, pois apresentaram níveis satisfatórios de carboidratos e razoáveis de vitamina C e proteínas. O estudo demonstrou que o sorvete de mamão é uma excelente alternativa para o aproveitamento da fruta. Abstract in english The objective of the present work was to evaluate as an alternative of consumption the ice-cream of five selective papaya genotypes (CMF012, CMF020, CMF023, CMF031, CMF047) obtained from the Active Germplasm Bank for Papaya at Embrapa Cassava and Fruit Crops, located in Cruz das Almas, Bahia State, [...] Brazil. These genotypes were identified at before studies because they showed atractive colour, good flavour and highter soluble solid (ºBrix). Sensory analyses of the ice-creams were carried out using affective tests (9 point hedonic scale) for the attributes of overall appearance, colour, odour, flavour and texture. The following physico-chemical determinations were carried out: pH, total titrable acidity, soluble solid (ºBrix), ratio, vitamin C, total solid, ash, protein, lipid, total sugars, reducing and non-reducing sugars.The sensory and physico-chemical data were submitted to an analysis of variation, followed the Tukey test. The ice creams showed higher scores for all of attributes. The genotypes CMF020 and CMF031 were preferred in terms of flavour. The judges didn!t indicate preference among the products in terms of overall appearance, colour and texture, so the less atractive genotypes for the fresh fruit market, could be utilized for the industry to make ice cream. They are a nutritive dessert, because they showed enough carbohydrates, vitamin C and protein contents. This study showed that the papaya ice cream is an excellent alternative of consumption.

Ligia R.R., Santana; Fernando C.A.U., Matsuura; Ricardo L., Cardoso.

2003-12-01

209

Genótipos melhorados de mamão (Carica papaya L.: avaliação tecnológica dos frutos na forma de sorvete Improved genotypes of papaya (Carica papaya L.: technological evaluation as ice-cream  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo a avaliação tecnológica na forma de sorvete, de frutos de cinco genótipos selecionados de mamão (CMF012, CMF020, CMF023, CMF031, CMF047, provenientes do Banco Ativo de Germoplasma da Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura, Cruz das Almas, Bahia. Estes genótipos foram identificados em estudos anteriores por apresentarem cor atraente, sabor agradável e valores elevados de sólidos solúveis (ºBrix. As amostras de sorvete foram submetidas à avaliação sensorial para os atributos aparência, cor, aroma, sabor e textura, através de testes afetivos, utilizando-se escala hedônica estruturada de nove pontos. Realizou-se determinações de pH, acidez total titulável, sólidos solúveis (ºBrix, "ratio", ácido ascórbico, sólidos totais, cinzas, proteínas, lipídeos, açúcares totais, redutores e não-redutores. Os resultados das avaliações sensoriais e físico-químicas foram analisados através de ANOVA e teste de Tukey. Os sorvetes demonstraram elevada aceitação, obtendo médias correspondentes ao conceito "gostei moderadamente" para todos os atributos avaliados. Os genótipos CMF020 e CMF031 destacaram-se alcançando média correspondente ao termo da escala hedônica "gostei muito" para o atributo sabor. Os provadores não indicaram prevalência entre os produtos quanto à aparência, cor e textura; portanto, os genótipos pouco atraentes como fruto de mesa, poderão ser aproveitados na indústria para elaboração de sorvete. Além disso, podem ser considerados como uma sobremesa valiosa e nutritiva, pois apresentaram níveis satisfatórios de carboidratos e razoáveis de vitamina C e proteínas. O estudo demonstrou que o sorvete de mamão é uma excelente alternativa para o aproveitamento da fruta.The objective of the present work was to evaluate as an alternative of consumption the ice-cream of five selective papaya genotypes (CMF012, CMF020, CMF023, CMF031, CMF047 obtained from the Active Germplasm Bank for Papaya at Embrapa Cassava and Fruit Crops, located in Cruz das Almas, Bahia State, Brazil. These genotypes were identified at before studies because they showed atractive colour, good flavour and highter soluble solid (ºBrix. Sensory analyses of the ice-creams were carried out using affective tests (9 point hedonic scale for the attributes of overall appearance, colour, odour, flavour and texture. The following physico-chemical determinations were carried out: pH, total titrable acidity, soluble solid (ºBrix, ratio, vitamin C, total solid, ash, protein, lipid, total sugars, reducing and non-reducing sugars.The sensory and physico-chemical data were submitted to an analysis of variation, followed the Tukey test. The ice creams showed higher scores for all of attributes. The genotypes CMF020 and CMF031 were preferred in terms of flavour. The judges didn!t indicate preference among the products in terms of overall appearance, colour and texture, so the less atractive genotypes for the fresh fruit market, could be utilized for the industry to make ice cream. They are a nutritive dessert, because they showed enough carbohydrates, vitamin C and protein contents. This study showed that the papaya ice cream is an excellent alternative of consumption.

Ligia R.R. Santana

2003-12-01

210

Emergência e matéria seca de plantas daninhas na cultura do mamoeiro (Carica papaya Emergence and dry matter of weeds in papaya crop (Carica papaya  

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Full Text Available O objetivo deste experimento foi avaliar o "banco" de sementes de plantas daninhas através do método da emergência de plântulas, na cultura do mamoeiro, em que se empregaram diferentes sistemas de manejo. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com três repetições e seis tratamentos: capina em área total; herbicida nas linhas + grade nas entrelinhas; subsolagem cruzada antes do plantio + capina em área total; subsolagem cruzada antes do plantio + herbicida nas linhas e feijão de porco nas entrelinhas; subsolagem cruzada antes do plantio + herbicida nas linhas e crotalária nas entrelinhas; e herbicida nas linhas + vegetação nativa nas entrelinhas da cultura, roçada quando necessário. A avaliação do banco de sementes foi feita aos 30, 60, 90 e 120 dias após a implantação de um bioensaio em casa de vegetação, com amostras retiradas no campo nas épocas chuvosa e seca, na profundidade de 0-15 cm. A matéria seca das plantas daninhas foi obtida utilizando-se um quadrado de 0,5 x 0,5 m, jogado a lanço quatro vezes nas parcelas. Os sistemas de manejo de capina em área total e de herbicida na linha + grade nas entrelinhas de plantio de mamoeiros, com feijão-de-porco e crotalária, reduzem o banco de sementes no solo. Dos adubos verdes, crotalária e feijão-de-porco, o primeiro altera a dinâmica do "banco" de sementes de forma mais significativa.The objective of this work was to evaluate the seed bank of weeds through the seedling emergence method in papaya crop, using different tillage systems. A randomized complete block design was used, with three replications and six treatments: weeding in total area, herbicide in the rows + disc in the interrows, crossed sub soiling before planting + weeding in total area, crossed sub soiling before planting + herbicide in the rows and pig bean in the interrows, crossed sub soiling before planting + herbicide in the row + crotalaria in the interrows and crossed sub soiling before planting + herbicide in the rows + native vegetation in the interrows, cleared when necessary. Seed bank evaluation was performed at 30, 60, 90 and 120 days after implantation of the experiment in the greenhouse with samples collected in the field in the rainy and dry seasons at 0-15 cm in depth. Weed dry matter was obtained by using a square of 0.5 x 0.5 m sorted four times in the plots. The weeding management systems in total area and herbicide in the row + disc in the papaya crop interrows with pig bean and crotalaria reduce seed bank in the soil. Among the green fertilizers, crotalaria alters more significantly the dynamics of the seed bank than pig bean.

I.S. Santana

2005-12-01

211

Época de colheita dos frutos e ocorrência de dormência em sementes de mamão (Carica papaya L.) / Fruit harvest season and dormancy occurrency in papaya seeds (Carica papaya L.)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O trabalho teve como objetivo relacionar a época de colheita dos frutos com a ocorrência de dormência nas sementes de mamão. Foram utilizados frutos de mamão do grupo Formosa, híbrido Tainung 01, colhidos no estádio 1 de maturação (até 15% da superfície externa com coloração amarela) em cinco difere [...] ntes épocas do ano: Julho e Novembro/2004 e Fevereiro, Maio e Setembro/2005. Os frutos permaneceram armazenados em ambiente de laboratório até atingirem o estádio 5 de maturação (mais de 75% da superfície externa com coloração amarela). Em cada época, foram obtidas sementes com e sem sarcotesta, que foram submetidas ao teste de germinação, conduzido em germinador sob temperatura alternada de 20-30°C (16h/8h, respectivamente), avaliando-se a porcentagem de plântulas normais aos 15 e 30 dias após a semeadura. Verificou-se que a presença da sarcotesta na semente diminui a velocidade e a porcentagem de germinação. Houve efeito da época de colheita do fruto na germinação das sementes, sendo que as sementes extraídas de frutos colhidos em Julho/2004 e Maio/2005 apresentaram dormência pós-colheita, o que não ocorreu com as sementes obtidas de frutos que amadureceram em épocas de temperaturas mais altas. Abstract in english This study was carried out in order to relate the fruit harvest season and dormancy occurrence in papaya seeds. Papaya fruits of the Formosa group, Tainung 01 hybrid, were harvested at maturation stage 1 (15% external color yellow), at five different times: July and November/2004 and February, May a [...] nd September/2005. The fruits were stored at room temperature until they reached maturation stage 5 (more than 75% external color yellow). Seeds with and without sarcotesta were obtained at each harvest time. Standard germination of these seeds was performed in a germinator at 20/30 º C (8/16 hours, respectively) and normal seedlings percentage was evaluated at 15 and 30 days. Seeds with sarcotesta had lower germination speed and percentage. There was an effect of fruit harvest time on seed germination. Seeds extracted from fruits harvested in July/2004 and May/2005 had post-harvest dormancy, which did not occur in seeds from fruits harvested in the high temperature periods.

Daí, Tokuhisa; Denise Cunha Fernandes dos Santos, Dias; Eveline Mantovani, Alvarenga; Luiz Antônio dos, Santos Dias; Sérgio Lúcio David, Marin.

212

Época de colheita dos frutos e ocorrência de dormência em sementes de mamão (Carica papaya L. Fruit harvest season and dormancy occurrency in papaya seeds (Carica papaya L.  

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Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo relacionar a época de colheita dos frutos com a ocorrência de dormência nas sementes de mamão. Foram utilizados frutos de mamão do grupo Formosa, híbrido Tainung 01, colhidos no estádio 1 de maturação (até 15% da superfície externa com coloração amarela em cinco diferentes épocas do ano: Julho e Novembro/2004 e Fevereiro, Maio e Setembro/2005. Os frutos permaneceram armazenados em ambiente de laboratório até atingirem o estádio 5 de maturação (mais de 75% da superfície externa com coloração amarela. Em cada época, foram obtidas sementes com e sem sarcotesta, que foram submetidas ao teste de germinação, conduzido em germinador sob temperatura alternada de 20-30°C (16h/8h, respectivamente, avaliando-se a porcentagem de plântulas normais aos 15 e 30 dias após a semeadura. Verificou-se que a presença da sarcotesta na semente diminui a velocidade e a porcentagem de germinação. Houve efeito da época de colheita do fruto na germinação das sementes, sendo que as sementes extraídas de frutos colhidos em Julho/2004 e Maio/2005 apresentaram dormência pós-colheita, o que não ocorreu com as sementes obtidas de frutos que amadureceram em épocas de temperaturas mais altas.This study was carried out in order to relate the fruit harvest season and dormancy occurrence in papaya seeds. Papaya fruits of the Formosa group, Tainung 01 hybrid, were harvested at maturation stage 1 (15% external color yellow, at five different times: July and November/2004 and February, May and September/2005. The fruits were stored at room temperature until they reached maturation stage 5 (more than 75% external color yellow. Seeds with and without sarcotesta were obtained at each harvest time. Standard germination of these seeds was performed in a germinator at 20/30 º C (8/16 hours, respectively and normal seedlings percentage was evaluated at 15 and 30 days. Seeds with sarcotesta had lower germination speed and percentage. There was an effect of fruit harvest time on seed germination. Seeds extracted from fruits harvested in July/2004 and May/2005 had post-harvest dormancy, which did not occur in seeds from fruits harvested in the high temperature periods.

Daí Tokuhisa

2008-01-01

213

Heat treatment and gamma radiation on the control of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Penz. et Sacc., causal agent of the papaya fruits (Carica papaya L.) anthracnose  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For controlling papaya anthracnose on stored fruits the effect of heat treatment and gamma radiation on Colletotrichum gloeosporioides was studied in vitro and in vivo. Some physiological studies with four isolades of C. gloeosporioides from papaya fruits concerning the best conditions for mycelial growth and sporulation were also performed. The results showed that the best conditions for isolates development in BDA were: temperature between 25 and 270 C for mycelium radial growth; between 27 and 300 C under 12 hours alternating periods of fluorescent). (author). 131 refs., 9 figs., 33 tabs

214

Associação de moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae) com a "meleira do mamoeiro" (Carica papaya L.) / Association of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) with the sticky disease of papaya (Carica papaya L.)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english Since 1988, the medfly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) was described infesting papaya (Carica papaya) cv. Sunrise Solo in North of the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Two experiments were carried out to determine the infestation of C. capitata and Anastrepha obliqua (Macq.) in papaya fruit, healthy [...] and infected by sticky disease. In the 1st experiment (forced infestation), no infestation of C. capitata in the healthy fruits was observed, and 60.6 pupae/fruit were obtained in the infected fruit. For A. obliqua, the infestation index was 10.3 and 72.4 pupae/fruit for healthy and infected fruit respectively. In the 2nd experiment (inoculated eggs), the infestation index for C. capitata was 4.0 and 6.3 pupae/fruit and for A. obliqua 10.1 and 10.4 pupae/fruit, for healthy and infected fruit respectively. The high suscetibility of green fruit of papaya infected by sticky disease for C. capitata and A. obliqua was discussed

Antonio S., Nascimento; Walter J., R. Matrangolo; Cristiane J., Barbosa; Oton M., Marques; Tuffi C., Habibe.

215

Anatomy of somatic embryogenesis in Carica papaya L.  

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Full Text Available Mature zygotic embryos of Carica papaya L. ?Sunrise Solo? were used as explants for embryogenesis induction. The explants were inoculated on Murashige and Skoog culture medium supplemented with 2 mg.L-1 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and incubated in darkness at 25+2°C. Histological analysis of callogenesis and somatic embryogenesis indicated occurrence of direct and indirect somatic embryogenesis development. Direct somatic embryo formation was observed from hypocotyledonary epidermic cells only from explant 18 days after inoculation. Somatic embryos formed indirectly were originated from embryogenic superficial cells of pre-embryonic complexes located on peripherical and on internal cell layers of callus 49 days after inoculation. Diverse morphological differences including disformed embryos were observed among the somatic embryos.

Fernando Juliana A.

2001-01-01

216

Identification of gamma-irradiated papaya, melon and watermelon  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ionizing radiation can be used to control spoilage microorganisms and to increase the shelf life of fresh fruits and vegetables in replacement for the treatment with chemical fumigants. In order to enforce labelling regulations, methods for detecting the irradiation treatment directly in the produce are required. Recently, a number of detection methods for irradiated food have been adopted by the Codex Comission. A rapid screening method for qualitative detection of irradiation is the DNA Comet Assay. The applicability of the DNA Comet Assay for distinguishing irradiated papaya, melon, and watermelon was evaluated. The samples were treated in a {sup 60}Co facility at dose levels of 0.0, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 kGy. The irradiated samples showed typical DNA fragmentation whereas cells from non-irradiated ones appeared intact. In addition to the DNA Comet Assay also the half-embryo test was applied in melon and watermelon to detect the irradiation treatment.

Marin-Huachaca, N.S.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge E-mail: jmancini@usp.br; Delincee, Henry E-mail: henry.delincee@bfe.uni-karlsruhe.de; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H. E-mail: villavic@net.ipen.br

2004-10-01

217

Identification of gamma-irradiated papaya, melon and watermelon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ionizing radiation can be used to control spoilage microorganisms and to increase the shelf life of fresh fruits and vegetables in replacement for the treatment with chemical fumigants. In order to enforce labelling regulations, methods for detecting the irradiation treatment directly in the produce are required. Recently, a number of detection methods for irradiated food have been adopted by the Codex Comission. A rapid screening method for qualitative detection of irradiation is the DNA Comet Assay. The applicability of the DNA Comet Assay for distinguishing irradiated papaya, melon, and watermelon was evaluated. The samples were treated in a 60Co facility at dose levels of 0.0, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 kGy. The irradiated samples showed typical DNA fragmentation whereas cells from non-irradiated ones appeared intact. In addition to the DNA Comet Assay also the half-embryo test was applied in melon and watermelon to detect the irradiation treatment

218

Identification of gamma-irradiated papaya, melon and watermelon  

Science.gov (United States)

Ionizing radiation can be used to control spoilage microorganisms and to increase the shelf life of fresh fruits and vegetables in replacement for the treatment with chemical fumigants. In order to enforce labelling regulations, methods for detecting the irradiation treatment directly in the produce are required. Recently, a number of detection methods for irradiated food have been adopted by the Codex Comission. A rapid screening method for qualitative detection of irradiation is the DNA Comet Assay. The applicability of the DNA Comet Assay for distinguishing irradiated papaya, melon, and watermelon was evaluated. The samples were treated in a 60Co facility at dose levels of 0.0, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0kGy. The irradiated samples showed typical DNA fragmentation whereas cells from non-irradiated ones appeared intact. In addition to the DNA Comet Assay also the half-embryo test was applied in melon and watermelon to detect the irradiation treatment.

Marín-Huachaca, Nélida S.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; Delincée, Henry; Villavicencio, Anna Lúcia C. H.

2004-09-01

219

Purification of papain from fresh latex of Carica papaya  

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Full Text Available In the present study we wish to report a method of crystallizing papain from fresh papaya latex which gave higher yields than previously reported. This method does not involve the use of sulphydryl reagents. The papain thus obtained is practically pure and shows a single band when submitted to electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gel, and is identical to the papain obtained by other methods. In routine enzymatic assays, specific activity was measured using Z-gly-pNP and BAEE as substrates. Papain crystallized by this method, without the use of high concentrations of salts or thiol-containing substances such as cysteine and dithiothreitol, is obtained in the form of a complex with natural inhibitors existent in latex which can be removed by dialysis.

Monti Rubens

2000-01-01

220

Estereotipos de género en la publicidad: un análisis de contenido de las revistas chilenas  

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Full Text Available Cuando los valores masculinos tienen influencia dominante en una cultura, aquélla se ve reflejada en los estereotipos de género en la publicidad. Recíprocamente, estos estereotipos tienen un efecto sobre la socialización de los grupos y el posicionamiento de las marcas. En culturas con un bajo índice de masculinidad (Hofstede, 2001 como la cultura chilena, se esperaría una baja o nula estereotipación de género en la publicidad (An y Kim, 2007; Milner y Collins, 1998. Usando análisis de contenido, este estudio examina los estereotipos de género en la publicidad gráfica chilena. Específicamente, se analizan diez indicadores de estereotipación de género en la publicidad. Los resultados de este estudio revelan la existencia de estereotipos de género en la publicidad chilena en seis de los diez indicadores empleados.

Rodrigo Uribe

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Morphological analysis and photosynthetic performance of improved papaya genotypes  

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Full Text Available Brazil is the largest world producer of papaya and the third largest exporter despite of only 1.5 to 2.0% of its production is exported. Such an underexplored exportation potential highlight the necessity for physiological studies on new cultivars and hybrids to verify their agronomic and commercial viability. Two Brazilian states, Bahia and Espirito Santo, are responsible for 80% of national production. Papaya can also be an agricultural alternative to north / northeast of Rio de Janeiro, because the region is close to consumer centers and have similar environmental conditions of the most productive regions. Nevertheless, it is worth to develop cultivars that can express the highest yield potential in this region. The aim of this work was to characterize physiologically two hybrids developed for the north/northeast of Rio de Janeiro (UENF/Caliman 01 and JS12 in comparison with three top commercial genotypes (Golden, Sunrise Solo 7212 and Tainung of Caricapapaya L. The cv. Golden presented the lowest shoot and root growth, the lowest height, shrunk diameter, specific leaf weight, less efficiency in electrons transport per sample area and show the lowest ability to synthesized total chlorophylls in comparison with the others genotypes. At noon, this genotype showed higher stomatal conductance, related to the leaf-air vapor pressure deficit, which lead to higher transpiration rate and intrinsic water use efficiency. No differences were detected in the photosynthetic rates among the five genotypes suggesting that the UENF`s hybrids are endowed with similar photosynthetic capacity and morphological characteristics to the top commercial genotypes. The relevance of this characterization to drive future successful genetic improvement programs will be discussed.

Alena Torres Netto

2009-01-01

222

Morphological analysis and photosynthetic performance of improved papaya genotypes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Brazil is the largest world producer of papaya and the third largest exporter despite of only 1.5 to 2.0% of its production is exported. Such an underexplored exportation potential highlight the necessity for physiological studies on new cultivars and hybrids to verify their agronomic and commercial [...] viability. Two Brazilian states, Bahia and Espirito Santo, are responsible for 80% of national production. Papaya can also be an agricultural alternative to north / northeast of Rio de Janeiro, because the region is close to consumer centers and have similar environmental conditions of the most productive regions. Nevertheless, it is worth to develop cultivars that can express the highest yield potential in this region. The aim of this work was to characterize physiologically two hybrids developed for the north/northeast of Rio de Janeiro (UENF/Caliman 01 and JS12) in comparison with three top commercial genotypes (Golden, Sunrise Solo 7212 and Tainung) of Caricapapaya L. The cv. Golden presented the lowest shoot and root growth, the lowest height, shrunk diameter, specific leaf weight, less efficiency in electrons transport per sample area and show the lowest ability to synthesized total chlorophylls in comparison with the others genotypes. At noon, this genotype showed higher stomatal conductance, related to the leaf-air vapor pressure deficit, which lead to higher transpiration rate and intrinsic water use efficiency. No differences were detected in the photosynthetic rates among the five genotypes suggesting that the UENF`s hybrids are endowed with similar photosynthetic capacity and morphological characteristics to the top commercial genotypes. The relevance of this characterization to drive future successful genetic improvement programs will be discussed.

Alena, Torres Netto; Eliemar, Campostrini; Letícia C., Azevedo; Marcelo A., Souza; José C., Ramalho; Manuela M., Chaves.

223

Anatomy of somatic embryogenesis in Carica papaya L.  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Embriões zigóticos maduros de Carica papaya L. ‘Sunrise Solo’ foram utilizados como explantes para indução da embriogênese. Estes explantes foram inoculados em meio de cultura de Murashige & Skoog suplementado com 2,0 mg.L-1 de 2,4 ácido diclorofenoxiacético (2,4-D) e mantidos no escuro em câmara de [...] crescimento à temperatura de 21°C por período de tempo variável. Através da análise histológica foi possível verificar que os primeiros embriões somáticos formaram-se diretamente a partir de células únicas da epiderme hipocotiledonar do explante após o 18º dia de cultura. Porém, os demais embriões somáticos originaram-se indiretamente a partir de células superficiais de complexos pré-embriônicos presentes nas camadas periféricas e internas do calo após o 49º dia de cultura. Foram detectadas algumas diferenças morfológicas entre os embriões somáticos obtidos. Abstract in english Mature zygotic embryos of Carica papaya L. ‘Sunrise Solo’ were used as explants for embryogenesis induction. The explants were inoculated on Murashige and Skoog culture medium supplemented with 2 mg.L-1 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and incubated in darkness at 25+2°C. Histological analysis of call [...] ogenesis and somatic embryogenesis indicated occurrence of direct and indirect somatic embryogenesis development. Direct somatic embryo formation was observed from hypocotyledonary epidermic cells only from explant 18 days after inoculation. Somatic embryos formed indirectly were originated from embryogenic superficial cells of pre-embryonic complexes located on peripherical and on internal cell layers of callus 49 days after inoculation. Diverse morphological differences including disformed embryos were observed among the somatic embryos.

Juliana A., Fernando; Murilo, Melo; Marli K. M., Soares; Beatriz, Appezzato-da-Glória.

224

La revitalización de la historiografía política chilena / The revitalization of chilean political historiography / A revitalização da historiografia política chilena  

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Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese Abordamos o processo de revitalização experimentada pelahistoriografia política crítica chilena. Analisamos as principais fontes de inspiração: a) o contexto histórico político nacional b ) a crítica da «Nova História Social», c)o surgimento de escolas historiográficas europeias sobre temas relacion [...] ados. Postulamos que: a partir desta relação multidimensional foi uma síntese crítica particular, «revisionista» e renovada para abordar o recente desenvolvimento políticohistórico do Chile, que reposicionou os estudos políticos no início do século, gradualmente enchendo um «vazio « historiográfica deixado por essas variantesdisciplinares do século passado. Este processo desenvolveu suas próprias características de pesquisa, que alguns historiadores acompanharam com novos esforçosteóricos para justificar epistemologicamente seu trabalho. Destacarmos as questõeslevantadas de diferentes ângulos por Cristina Moyano, Luis Corvalan e Juan Carlos Gomez . A metodologia é essencialmente qualitativa, incluindo as técnicas dehistória oral se for caso disso . Abstract in spanish Abordamos el proceso de revitalización experimentado por la historiografía política crítica chilena. Para ello, analizamos sus principales fuentes de inspiración: a) el contexto histórico político nacional; b) la crítica de la Nueva Historia Social; c) la aparición de escuelas historiográficas europ [...] eas sobre temas afines. Postulamos que: a partir de esta multidimensional relación resultó una particular síntesis crítica, revisionista y renovada para abordar el devenir histórico político reciente de Chile, lo que reposicionó los estudios sobre lo político hacia inicios del siglo XXI, llenando paulatinamente un vacío historiográfico dejado por las diversas variantes disciplinarias del siglo pasado. Al andar desarrolló sus propias características investigativas, que algunos historiadores acompañaron con novedosos esfuerzos teóricos para fundamentar epistemológicamente su quehacer. Entre ellos ha destacado lo planteado desde distintas ópticas por Cristina Moyano, Luis Corvalán y Juan Carlos Gómez. La metodología usada es principalmente cualitativa, incluyendo técnicas de historia oral en los casos pertinentes. Abstract in english We approach the revitalization that has experienced the chilean critical and political historiography. To do this, we analyze their main sources ofinspiration: a) the historical and political chilean context, b) the review of the«New Social History»; c) the emergence of european historiographical sc [...] hools of related topics. We postulate that: from this multidimensional relationship resulted a particularly critical synthesis, «revisionist» and renewed to approach the recent historical and political Chilean processes, which repositioned the political studies at the beginning of XXI century, filling a historiographical void left by the different disciplinary variants of the last century. In doing this it developed its own investigative characteristics, that some historians accompanied with novel theoretical efforts to substantiate epistemologically their work. Among them havehighlighted the issues raised from different viewpoints of Cristina Moyano, LuisCorvalán and Juan Carlos Gómez. The methodology used is primarily qualitative,including oral history techniques where appropriate.

José Ignacio, Ponce López; Aníbal, Pérez Contreras.

225

Boletín de la Academia Chilena de la Historia  

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Full Text Available Juan José Fernández Valdés, “El límite marítimo chileno-peruano” Luego de entregar los antecedentes desde el Tratado de Ancón, la doctrina de las 200 millas marítimas de 1947, primero por Chile y poco más de un mes después por Perú, que señaló expresamente que serían medidas “siguiendo la línea de los paralelos geográficos”, continúa analizando todas las acciones en torno al tema, no solo de estos dos países, sino los posteriores de Ecuador, Colombia, tanto decretos supremos, convenios, declaraciones, como sus ratificaciones por los respectivos estados. También repasa los puntos internacionales, como la Convención de las Naciones Unidas sobre el Derecho del Mar, signada en 1982, cuyo artículo 12 alude al método de la línea media o equidistancia para la delimitación marítima entre dos estados, exceptuando los casos en que por derechos históricos hubiera otra situación, a pesar de lo cual la posición peruana es la de adaptarse a dicho punto 12, de cuyas manifestaciones en diferentes años da cuenta este artículo, como de las consiguientes reacciones por parte de la cancillería chilena.

JUAN GUILLERMO MUÑOZ CORREA

2011-10-01

226

Interacciones tempranas y género infantil en familias monoparentales chilenas  

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Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio transversal de las interacciones madre-hijo(a en familias monoparentales chilenas de bajo ingresos, considerando las diferencias según el género infantil. Participan 80 díadas, con 39 niñas y 41 niños entre los 4 y 15 meses y se evalúa la calidad de las interacciones con el instrumento CARE-Index. Se observan altos puntajes en depresión y estrés materno, así como un promedio en la calidad de la interacción que indica necesidad de intervención, mostrando lo anterior vulnerabilidad en las díadas del estudio. Las díadas con infantes de género masculino muestran interacciones significativamente más difíciles con sus madres que las de género femenino, quienes a su vez muestran interacciones significativamente más pasivas que los infantes de género masculino. Los tamaños de efecto observados en las diferencias son medianos en ambos casos. Se observa también complementariedad en las conductas de madres e hijos(as, obteniéndose correlaciones positivas y significativas entre sensibilidad materna y cooperatividad infantil, control materno y las conductas difíciles de los infantes, así como entre la conducta no responsiva de las madres y la actitud pasiva en los niños(as. Se discuten los hallazgos a partir de las teorías existentes en relación a género infantil e interacciones tempranas, en el contexto de familias monoparentales a cargo de la madre.

Marcia Olhaberry Huber

2012-01-01

227

La convergencia de las regiones chilenas, 1960-2009  

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Full Text Available En el presente artículo se analizan cincuenta años de convergencia económica para las regiones de Chile, en un contexto de cambios políticos radicales asociados a profundas transformaciones económicas. Para el análisis de convergencia del PIB per cápita se consideraron los sub períodos 1960-1973, 1973-1989 y 1989-2009, mientras que para la variable productividad se consideraron los sub períodos 1976-1989 y 1989-2009. El análisis se llevó a cabo empleando las definiciones de convergencia ? absoluta y ? usando corte transversal y datos panel. Las estimaciones de panel concluyen un proceso de convergencia ? para todo el período 1960-2009 de 55 años para reducir la mitad de la brecha. Sin embargo, para el análisis de convergencia ? muestra una reducción de la dispersión en los cincuenta años, pero desacelerándose a partir de 1990. Adicionalmente, fueron estimadas las funciones de distribución de las variables PIB y productividad anuales usando kernels, evidenciándose una persistente desigualdad regional, especialmente desde 1985 en adelante, al observarse la formación del fenómeno de la bimodalidad, es decir, emerge una brecha entre ciertas regiones con mayores niveles de renta y otras con menores niveles. Los antecedentes cuantificados nos indican un lento ajuste a los cambios de las economías regionales y una escasa efectividad del mercado a la hora de solucionar las disparidades regionales. En consecuencia, la convergencia de las regiones chilenas es una asignatura pendiente en las políticas públicas de Chile

Alejandro Corvalán

2012-06-01

228

Verbo de concordancia en la lengua de señas chilena  

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Full Text Available El presente trabajo trata sobre una clase verbo de la lengua de señas chilena, el verbo de concordancia. A través de su descripción se da cuenta de los diversos mecanismos utilizados por el sistema de la lengua de señas para establecer la concordancia entre el sujeto y el objeto, que funcionan en la oración mediante el proceso de inflexión gramatical. Una característica relevante de la LSCh consiste en la utilización del espacio para producir modificaciones gramaticales regulares, entendidas como procesos de inflexión, a través de la co-ocurrencia de parámetros gestual-visuales, que permiten una comunicación eficiente entre sus usuarios. (This article focuses on a particular type of verb used in Chilean Sign Language: the verb of agreement. Through its description, different mechanisms used to show subject-object accord operating through inflection are presented. A relevant feature of Chilean Sign Language (LSCh, is to use space to mark regular grammatical modifications, understood as processes of inflection through the co-occurrence of visual-kinetic parameters that allow its user an efficient communication.

Dora Adamo Quintela

1999-09-01

229

Study about papaya (Carica papaya L.) conservation submitted to a combined treatment of irradiation and an edible film of quitosan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this research, on a first stage the effect of two treatments were studied: thermal, and a chitosan edible coating, combined with four different irradiation doses: 0,00 kGy, 0,50 kGy, 0,75 kGy and 1,00 kGy for effects in the ripening of papaya (Carica Papaya) cv. Golden. To evaluate the influence of these two factors in the physical-chemical characteristics of the fruit during ripening, analysis on color, both skin and pulp, firmness, soluble solids, pH and titrable acidity were performed. The incidence of fungi in fruit skin was also analyzed. The fruits were first maintained at 10 deg C chamber for fifteen days to simulate maritime transportation to the importer country and then transferred to a 25 deg C chamber aiming simulation of the commercialization conditions. From this first step, the conclusion was that chitosan in the concentration of 2% was not able to contain the fungi development and that it also influenced in a significant form the variable pH. A more expressive result was obtained for irradiation doses of 0,75 kGy and 1,00 kGy, as it was observed in the beginning the acceleration in ripening through the variables skin color and penetration energy of the fruit pulp. When storage temperature was changed to 25 deg C this situation inverted for these same variables and a two day delay was observed on the development of yellow color on the fruit skin and loss of pulp firmness. The variables titrable acidity, soluble solids and pulp color were not influenced by treatment or by irradiation. On a second stage, the fruits, in the same condition of the previous stage, were analyzed in relation of their mass and ripening stage using a ripening scale provided by the producer of the fruits for this experiment, as to evaluate the gradual development of fruit ripening according to the various treatments (chitosan 3%, thermal or control) and irradiation dose (0,00 kGy and 0,75 kGy). Confirming the results obtained in the first stage, the irradiation was able to delay ripening in one day and a half approximately. The chitosan in these new conditions of test propitiated fungi development and the fruits coated with chitosan did not ripe in the way it was seen to come. A last stage was done to verify consumer behavior in respect to an irradiated papaya. By three different sensorial tests it was verified if provers were able to perceive significant difference between irradiated and non irradiated samples, what was the acceptance of a irradiated sample and the intention of purchase of a irradiated and a non irradiated papaya. Conclusion from these tests was that the difference established in the triangular test was not enough to establish significant difference between the acceptances of the two samples in the four parameters tested: appearance, texture, aroma and flavor. For the purchase intention it was verified that the irradiation is not a barrier for the consumer. (author)

230

Empleo del método de secado convectivo combinado para la deshidratación de papaya (Carica papaya L., variedad Maradol roja  

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Full Text Available La presente investigación tiene como objetivo evaluar el método de secado convectivo de papaya (Carica papaya L. variedad Maradol roja, combinado con la aplicación de pretratamientos de osmosis (DOSC y escaldado simple (ESSC, mediante el efecto de los factores tecnológi- cos del secador: temperatura (40 y 60oC y velocidad del flujo de aire (2,5 y 1,5 m/s sobre el comportamiento de las propiedades de calidad de la fruta deshidratada y la cinética del proceso. El pretratamiento de escaldado simple se realizó en agua destilada caliente a 70oC durante 15 minutos y la deshidratación osmótica u osmosis a 60oC por 4 horas a frutas cortadas en cubos de 1,5± 0,2 cm de largo por 1,0±0,01 cm de espesor, utilizando una solución de sacarosa comercial a 50oBrix. Como diseño experimental se empleó un Diseño Factorial Completo 22 y para el procesamiento estadístico de los datos el software STATGRAPHICS Plus 5.1. Como principales resultados se obtuvo que en ambos procesos el aumento de la temperatura a 60oC y la reducción de la velocidad del flujo de aire a 1,5 m/s disminuyó el tiempo de secado con valores de R 2 >0,95 y ?<0,01. Mediante el secado a 40oC con 1,5 m/s se preserva el color y se minimiza la pérdida de peso en la fruta deshidratada con R 2 superior al 90% (?<0,01.

Sahylin Mu\\u00F1iz Becer\\u00E1

2013-01-01

231

Molecular diagnosis of Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) from leaf samples of Carica papaya L. using conventional and real-time RT-PCR.  

Science.gov (United States)

Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) is the causal agent of papaya sticky disease. This study describes two methods for molecular diagnosis of PMeV using conventional and real-time PCR. These methods were shown to be more efficient than current methods of viral detection using extraction of PMeV dsRNA and observation of symptoms in the field. The methods described here were used to evaluate the effect of inoculation of papaya plants with purified PMeV dsRNA on the progress of PMeV infection. A single inoculation with PMeV dsRNA was observed to delay the progress of the virus infection by several weeks. The possibility of vertical transmission of PMeV was also investigated. No evidence was found for PMeV transmission through seeds collected from diseased fruit. The implications of these results for the epidemiology of PMeV and the management of papaya sticky disease are discussed. PMID:22193169

Abreu, Paolla M V; Piccin, João G; Rodrigues, Silas P; Buss, David S; Ventura, José A; Fernandes, Patricia M B

2012-03-01

232

Estimación de las necesidades hídricas de la papaya utilizando la aproximación de los coeficientes culturales duales / Papaya estimation of water requirements using the dual crop coefficient  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Considerando el incremento de la actividad de riego en el cultivo de la papaya durante los últimos años, resulta de interés el conocimiento de los elementos técnicos y agronomicos necesarios para una adecuada programación del riego a partir de la estimación de las necesidades hidrícas del cultivo. P [...] ara esto se utilizo el modelo SIMDualKc el cual efectua el calculo de la evapotranspiración del cultivo (ETc) y la programación del riego a partir de la metodología de los coeficientes culturales duales (Kc=Kcb+Ke). La investigación fue realizada en la Estación Experimental de Riego y Drenaje, situada en Alquízar, provincia La Habana, Cuba. Los experimentos fueron desarrollados entre el período marzo-noviembre 1997. Se utilizó la Papaya var. "Maradol roja". La calibración consistió en la búsqueda de los coeficientes culturales basales para las diferentes etapas de desarrollo del cultivo reduciendo al mínimo las diferencias entre los valores simulados y observados del contenido de humedad del suelo. Fue evaluada la bondad de ajuste de las predicciones del modelo, realizándose una serie de análisis estadísticos. Se puede concluir que el modelo puede ser utilizado para la generación de calendarios alternativos de riego destinados a mejorar el ahorro de agua y la productividad de la papaya en estas condiciones edafoclimáticas. Abstract in english Considering the increased activity of irrigation in the cultivation of papaya in recent years, interest is knowledge of the technical and agronomic necessary for proper irrigation scheduling based on the estimation of crop water requirements. For this we used the model SIMDualKc, which make the calc [...] ulation of crop evapotranspiration (ETc) and irrigation scheduling based on the methodology of the dual crop coefficient (Kc = Kcb + Ke). The research was conducted at the Experimental Station of Irrigation and Drainage, located in Alquízar, Havana, Cuba. The experiments were carried out between the periods march to november 1997. We used the Papaya (Carica papaya L) var. "Maradol red." The calibration consisted in the search for cultural factors at baseline for the different stages of crop development by minimizing the differences between the simulated and observed soil moisture content. Was evaluated for goodness of fit of the model's predictions SIMDualKc, realizandoce a series of statistical analysis. It can be concluded that the model can be used to generate alternative schedules irrigation to improve water conservation and productivity of papaya in these soil and climatic conditions.

Yoima, Chaterlán; Ricardo, Rosa; Geisy, Herández; Teresa, López; Luis S, Pereira.

2012-09-01

233

Estimación de las necesidades hídricas de la papaya utilizando la aproximación de los coeficientes culturales duales / Papaya estimation of water requirements using the dual crop coefficient  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Considerando el incremento de la actividad de riego en el cultivo de la papaya durante los últimos años, resulta de interés el conocimiento de los elementos técnicos y agronomicos necesarios para una adecuada programación del riego a partir de la estimación de las necesidades hidrícas del cultivo. P [...] ara esto se utilizo el modelo SIMDualKc el cual efectua el calculo de la evapotranspiración del cultivo (ETc) y la programación del riego a partir de la metodología de los coeficientes culturales duales (Kc=Kcb+Ke). La investigación fue realizada en la Estación Experimental de Riego y Drenaje, situada en Alquízar, provincia La Habana, Cuba. Los experimentos fueron desarrollados entre el período marzo-noviembre 1997. Se utilizó la Papaya var. "Maradol roja". La calibración consistió en la búsqueda de los coeficientes culturales basales para las diferentes etapas de desarrollo del cultivo reduciendo al mínimo las diferencias entre los valores simulados y observados del contenido de humedad del suelo. Fue evaluada la bondad de ajuste de las predicciones del modelo, realizándose una serie de análisis estadísticos. Se puede concluir que el modelo puede ser utilizado para la generación de calendarios alternativos de riego destinados a mejorar el ahorro de agua y la productividad de la papaya en estas condiciones edafoclimáticas. Abstract in english Considering the increased activity of irrigation in the cultivation of papaya in recent years, interest is knowledge of the technical and agronomic necessary for proper irrigation scheduling based on the estimation of crop water requirements. For this we used the model SIMDualKc, which make the calc [...] ulation of crop evapotranspiration (ETc) and irrigation scheduling based on the methodology of the dual crop coefficient (Kc = Kcb + Ke). The research was conducted at the Experimental Station of Irrigation and Drainage, located in Alquízar, Havana, Cuba. The experiments were carried out between the periods march to november 1997. We used the Papaya (Carica papaya L) var. "Maradol red." The calibration consisted in the search for cultural factors at baseline for the different stages of crop development by minimizing the differences between the simulated and observed soil moisture content. Was evaluated for goodness of fit of the model's predictions SIMDualKc, realizandoce a series of statistical analysis. It can be concluded that the model can be used to generate alternative schedules irrigation to improve water conservation and productivity of papaya in these soil and climatic conditions.

Yoima, Chaterlán; Ricardo, Rosa; Geisy, Herández; Teresa, López; Luis S, Pereira.

234

Phytochemical screening and hypoglycemic activity of Carica papaya leaf in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The extraction of plant constituents is essential to isolate biologically active compounds, aimed to understand their role on the treatment of diabetes. This study was designed to explore the preliminary phytochemical and physicochemical analysis of Carica papaya L., Caricaceae, leaf, and further ev [...] aluation of its hypoglycemic effect on diabetic rats. C. papaya leaves were extracted using chloroform, n-hexane or ethanol. For each extract a phytochemical screening was performed. The tests were conducted in triplicate and the qualitative and quantitative determination of the various metabolites was done using analytical standards proposed by Mexican Herbal Pharmacopoeia. The chloroform extract, containing steroids and quinones as major components, was chosen to study C. papaya biological effects. The chloroform extract was evaporated to dryness, and doses 0, 31, 62, 125 mg/kg were orally administered in 300 µl polyethylene glycol to diabetic rats; and 0 and 62 mg/kg to non-diabetic rats. After a 20-day treatment with the chloroform extract, the animals were sacrificed and blood was obtained for biochemical studies. The main effect observed was a decrease in serum glucose, triglycerides and transaminases in diabetic rats after the administration of C. papaya chloroform extract. These results confirm the potential beneficial action of C. papaya to treat the symptoms of diabetic patients.

Isela E., Juárez-Rojop; Carlos, A.Tovilla-Zárate; Dora E., Aguilar-Domínguez; Luis F. Roa-de la, Fuente; Carlos E., Lobato-García; Jorge L., Blé-Castillo; Leonor, López-Meraz; Juan C., Díaz-Zagoya; Deysi Y., Bermúdez-Ocaña.

2014-06-01

235

Eradication of Bactrocera papayae (Diptera: Tephritidae) by male annihilation and protein baiting in Queensland, Australia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An established population of Bactrocera papayae Drew and Hancock (Asian papaya fruit fly) was detected on the Australian mainland near Cairns, north Queensland, on 16 October 1995 (Fay et al. 1997). Coincidentally, the first flies were bred from green papaya, a host not normally utilised in the unripe state by indigenous fruit fly species. B. papayae is a member of the Oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis) complex (Drew and Hancock 1994) and has more than 190 known hosts in Southeast Asia, where it is a major pest species. Consequently, the threat to Australian horticulture posed by the incursion was recognised immediately. By 26 October 1995, breeding populations were confirmed around Cairns, Mossman and Mareeba and a Pest Quarantine Area (PQA) was legislated. By 1 November 1995, following detections south of Innisfail, the PQA boundaries were set at 144 deg. 15'E, 19 deg. 00'S, covering nearly 78,000 km2. B. papayae was ultimately trapped over some 20,000 km2. A national eradication campaign began in November 1995, undertaken by the Queensland Department of Primary Industries

236

Phytochemical screening and hypoglycemic activity of Carica papaya leaf in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The extraction of plant constituents is essential to isolate biologically active compounds, aimed to understand their role on the treatment of diabetes. This study was designed to explore the preliminary phytochemical and physicochemical analysis of Carica papaya L., Caricaceae, leaf, and further ev [...] aluation of its hypoglycemic effect on diabetic rats. C. papaya leaves were extracted using chloroform, n-hexane or ethanol. For each extract a phytochemical screening was performed. The tests were conducted in triplicate and the qualitative and quantitative determination of the various metabolites was done using analytical standards proposed by Mexican Herbal Pharmacopoeia. The chloroform extract, containing steroids and quinones as major components, was chosen to study C. papaya biological effects. The chloroform extract was evaporated to dryness, and doses 0, 31, 62, 125 mg/kg were orally administered in 300 µl polyethylene glycol to diabetic rats; and 0 and 62 mg/kg to non-diabetic rats. After a 20-day treatment with the chloroform extract, the animals were sacrificed and blood was obtained for biochemical studies. The main effect observed was a decrease in serum glucose, triglycerides and transaminases in diabetic rats after the administration of C. papaya chloroform extract. These results confirm the potential beneficial action of C. papaya to treat the symptoms of diabetic patients.

Isela E., Juárez-Rojop; Carlos, A.Tovilla-Zárate; Dora E., Aguilar-Domínguez; Luis F. Roa-de la, Fuente; Carlos E., Lobato-García; Jorge L., Blé-Castillo; Leonor, López-Meraz; Juan C., Díaz-Zagoya; Deysi Y., Bermúdez-Ocaña.

237

Modulation of jejunal contractions by extract of Carica papaya L. seeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Carica papaya L. (papaya) seed preparations are used in traditional medicine to expel intestinal worms in human and ruminants. In the present study, an ethanol extract of papaya seeds (EEPS; 0.1-6.4 mg/mL) caused concentration-dependent inhibition of jejunal contractions in contrast to corresponding concentrations of DMSO (solvent control). The inhibitory effect of EEPS on jejunal contractions was significantly irreversible. Previous studies have indicated that benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) is the main bioactive compound responsible for the anthelmintic activity of papaya seeds. In the present study, standard BITC (0.01-0.64 mmol/L) also caused significant irreversible inhibition of jejunal contractions. Recovery of jejunal contractions after BITC-induced inhibition was weaker than recovery after EEPS-induced inhibition (BITC versus EEPS: 19 +/- 7% vs 38 +/- 13%). Cryosections of the jejunum showed marked morphological damage of the segments treated with BITC in contrast to DMSO-treated segments. EEPS-induced jejunal damage was, however, less marked. These results indicate that papaya seed extract and BITC, its principal bioactive constituent are capable of weakening the contractile capability of rabbit isolated jejunum. It is thus envisaged that at the toxic level that will be needed to kill and expel intestinal worms in vivo, BITC may also cause impairment of intestinal functions. PMID:16161026

Adebiyi, Adebowale; Adaikan, P Ganesan

2005-07-01

238

A histochemical method using a substrate of beta-glucuronidase for detection of genetically modified papaya.  

Science.gov (United States)

A histochemical assay for detecting genetically modified (GM) papaya (derived from Line 55-1) is described. GM papaya, currently undergoing a safety assessment in Japan, was developed using a construct that included a beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene linked to a virus coat protein (CP) gene. Histochemical assay was used to visualize the blue GUS reaction product from transgenic seed embryos. Twelve embryos per fruit were extracted from the papaya seeds using a surgical knife. The embryos were incubated with the substrate 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-beta-D-glucuronide (X-Gluc) in a 96-well microtiter plate for 10-15 hours at 37 degrees C. Seventy-five percent of GM papaya embryos should turn blue theoretically. The histochemical assay results were completely consistent with those from a qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method developed by this laboratory. Furthermore, the method was validated in a five-laboratory study. The method for detection of GM papaya is rapid and simple, and does not require use of specialized equipment. PMID:15168556

Wakui, Chiseko; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Takahiro; Fitch, Maureen M; Uchikawa, Seiji; Ki, Masami; Takahashi, Kunihiko; Chiba, Ryoko; Fujii, Akemi; Hino, Akihiro; Maitani, Tamio

2004-02-01

239

Effectiveness of dried Carica papaya seeds against human intestinal parasitosis: a pilot study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The tropical fruit Carica papaya and its seeds have proven antihelminthic and anti-amoebic activities. To determine the effectiveness of air-dried C. papaya seeds on human intestinal parasitosis, 60 asymptomatic Nigerian children with stool microscopic evidence of intestinal parasites received immediate doses (20 mL) of either an elixir composed with air-dried C. papaya seeds and honey (CPH) or honey alone (placebo) in two randomized treatment groups. Repeat stool microscopic examinations were conducted 7 days postintervention for intestinal parasites. Significantly more subjects given CPH elixir than those given honey had their stools cleared of parasites [23 of 30 (76.7%) vs. five of 30 (16.7%); z = 4.40, P = .0000109]. There were no harmful effects. The stool clearance rate for the various types of parasites encountered was between 71.4% and 100% following CPH elixir treatment compared with 0-15.4% with honey. Thus, air-dried C. papaya seeds are efficacious in treating human intestinal parasites and without significant side effects. Their consumption offers a cheap, natural, harmless, readily available monotherapy and preventive strategy against intestinal parasitosis, especially in tropical communities. Further and large-scale intervention studies to compare C. papaya with standard antiparasitic preparation are desirous. PMID:17472487

Okeniyi, John A O; Ogunlesi, Tinuade A; Oyelami, Oyeku A; Adeyemi, Lateef A

2007-03-01

240

Para una entrada en la imaginación poética alimentaria chilena  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las comidas y las bebidas recreadas en la poesía chilena ofrecen un espacio alternativo para reflexionar sobre la etnia, la clase social, el género y la violencia política. Cada uno de estos nudos define una ruta alimenticia donde las historias diferenciales se toman la palabra. Este artículo propon [...] e una cartografía de las imágenes alimentarias poéticas, caracterizando cuatro grandes rutas: aquellas donde la escritura privilegia la construcción de comunidades indígenas alrededor de la comida y aquellas donde los proyectos estéticos elaboran un patrimonio provinciano y/o rural alrededor de las comidas como defensa frente a las legitimidades centristas. Más aquellos itinerarios cuyas simbolizaciones erigen o deconstruyen los deseos caníbales entre diversas subjetividades y; aquellas donde los linajes lingüísticos hacen del hambre un motivo de descontento político, ya sea imaginando la abundancia a través del tópico de la tierra de Jauja o elaborando el hambre de los dioses que piden sacrificios humanos. Abstract in english Food and drink recreated in the Chile an poetry offer an alternative space to reflect upon ethnic matters, social class, gender and political violence. Every topoi defines a food route where stories have their say. In this way, we find four main routes: those in which writing priviledges the constru [...] ction of native communities around food preparation; those in which aesthetical projects elaborate their rural patrimony around food to defend themselves from centralized domination; those whose symbols construct and deconstruct cannibalistic desires among different intersubjectivities and those whose linguistic ancestry make hunger a motif of political discontent either by imagining abundance in the land of milk and honey or by elaborating the hunger of gods who demand human sacrifices.

Magda, Sepúlveda.

2014-04-01

 
 
 
 
241

Para una entrada en la imaginación poética alimentaria chilena  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las comidas y las bebidas recreadas en la poesía chilena ofrecen un espacio alternativo para reflexionar sobre la etnia, la clase social, el género y la violencia política. Cada uno de estos nudos define una ruta alimenticia donde las historias diferenciales se toman la palabra. Este artículo propon [...] e una cartografía de las imágenes alimentarias poéticas, caracterizando cuatro grandes rutas: aquellas donde la escritura privilegia la construcción de comunidades indígenas alrededor de la comida y aquellas donde los proyectos estéticos elaboran un patrimonio provinciano y/o rural alrededor de las comidas como defensa frente a las legitimidades centristas. Más aquellos itinerarios cuyas simbolizaciones erigen o deconstruyen los deseos caníbales entre diversas subjetividades y; aquellas donde los linajes lingüísticos hacen del hambre un motivo de descontento político, ya sea imaginando la abundancia a través del tópico de la tierra de Jauja o elaborando el hambre de los dioses que piden sacrificios humanos. Abstract in english Food and drink recreated in the Chile an poetry offer an alternative space to reflect upon ethnic matters, social class, gender and political violence. Every topoi defines a food route where stories have their say. In this way, we find four main routes: those in which writing priviledges the constru [...] ction of native communities around food preparation; those in which aesthetical projects elaborate their rural patrimony around food to defend themselves from centralized domination; those whose symbols construct and deconstruct cannibalistic desires among different intersubjectivities and those whose linguistic ancestry make hunger a motif of political discontent either by imagining abundance in the land of milk and honey or by elaborating the hunger of gods who demand human sacrifices.

Magda, Sepúlveda.

242

ANÁLISIS DE CONSULTAS A UN BUSCADOR DE LA WEB CHILENA  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los buscadores de páginas Web son herramientas indispensables de orientación para sus usuarios, lo cual refleja la gran cantidad de personas que los utilizan diariamente. Las bitácoras (logs) que registran el uso de un buscador son una valiosa fuente de información: nos hablan de las expectativas, p [...] referencias y necesidades de las personas, es decir, qué esperan ellas encontrar en la Web. El resultado del análisis de logs de uso tiene un importante valor comercial, en particular para el comercio electrónico y la publicidad en Internet. El objetivo de este estudio es encontrar relaciones entre las consultas de los usuarios de la Web Chilena (.cl) y las diversas áreas de clasificación de sus diferentes sitios. También se esperan encontrar relaciones entre los tipos de búsqueda realizados y los sitios visitados, para así conocer la necesidad que los lleva a formular sus consultas. La información obtenida está basada en los logs del buscador chileno TodoCL [1] entre febrero y marzo de 2004. Abstract in english Web page search engines are essential tools on users’ orientation, which is reflected by the big amount of people who are using them every day. The logs, reflecting the Web search engine uses, are a valuable source of information: they give us information about the users’ expectations, preferences a [...] nd needs, which is everything that they expect to find on the Web. The results from the logs usage analysis have an important commercial value, in particular, for e-commerce and Internet publicity. The purpose of this study is to find relations between Chilean Web (.cl) users’ queries and the different classification areas for its web sites. Also we expect to find relations between the search types made and the web sites visited, trying to get the need behind the query . The data used for this study was gotten from the Chilean search engine TodoCL, between February and March 2004.

Ricardo, Baeza-Yates; Carolina, Galleguillos.

2005-04-01

243

Combined Treatment of UV and Gamma Radiation of Papaya for Decay Control  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An exploratory study was made to determine if combining u.v. and gamma radiation treatment at selective doses would decrease the fungal decay incidence in papaya (Carica papaya L. var. Solo), and thereby increase the marketable life of the fruit. Also studied was the effect of the combined treatment on the spores of Aschochyta spp., Colletotrichium spp. and Phytophthora spp., which are commonly found on papaya grown in Hawaii. This was to test the postulate that the combined treatment would prevent photoreactivation of the disrupted nuclei in microorganisms and lead to eventual death. Experimental results did not indicate a conclusive trend to effectiveness but suggested a number of problems to be resolved before the treatment can become useful in fungal decay control of fruits. (author)

244

Combined treatment of UV and gamma radiation of papaya for decay control  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An exploratory study was made to determine if combining u.v. and gamma radiation treatment at selective doses would decrease the fungal decay incidence in papaya (Carica papaya L. var. Solo), and thereby increase the marketable life of the fruit. Also studied was the effect of the combined treatment on the spores of Aschochyta spp., Colletotrichium spp. and Phytophthora spp., which are commonly found on papaya grown in Hawaii. This was to test the postulate that the combined treatment would prevent photoreactivation of the disrupted nuclei in microorganisms and lead to eventual death. Experimental results did not indicate a conclusive trend to effectiveness but suggested a number of problems to be resolved before the treatment can become useful in fungal decay control of fruits. (author)

245

Genetics Transformation of Carica papaya by Infecting Mature Zygotic Embryos with Agrobacterium tumefaciens Strains LBA-4404  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Transient expression of the GUS gene has been demonstrated in somatic callus of the two varieties of Carica papaya cv. Shahi and Ranchi after co-cultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA-4404 carrying a binary plastid vector system containing neomycin phosphotransferase gene as the selectable marker and -glucuronidase (GUS as reporter gene. The mature embryonal axes were used as explants. The co-cultivated explants were ?transferred into final selection medium containing 500 mg L 1 carbenicillin + 200 mg L 1 cefotaxime + 50 mg L 1 kanamycin. The callus of C. papaya cv. Shahi showed highest GUS activity compared to C. papaya cv. Ranchi. The anatomical section of callus showed the positive GUS activity. All transformed callus grew vigorously in this medium and formed embryos followed by plantlets.

M.A.K. Azad

2005-01-01

246

Dynamic transposable element accumulation in the nascent sex chromosomes of papaya.  

Science.gov (United States)

From their inception, Y chromosomes in plants and animals are subjected to the powerful effects of Müller's ratchet, a process spurred by suppression of recombination that results in a rapid accumulation of mutations and repetitive elements. These mutations eventually lead to gene loss and degeneration of the Y chromosome. Y chromosomes in mammals are ancient, whereas most sex chromosomes in plants and many in insects and fish evolved recently. Sex type in papaya is controlled by a pair of nascent sex chromosomes that evolved around 7 million years ago. The papaya X and Y(h) were recently sequenced, providing valuable insight into the early stages of sex chromosome evolution. Here we discuss the fruits of this work with a focus on the repeat accumulation, gene trafficking and promiscuous DNA sequences found in the slowly degenerating Y(h) chromosome of papaya. PMID:23734293

Vanburen, Robert; Ming, Ray

2013-01-01

247

Abortifacient properties of aqueous extract of Carica papaya (Linn) seeds on female Sprague-Dawley rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Experiments were conducted to investigate the abortifacient potential of aqueous extract of Carica papaya (Linn) seeds in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Oral doses of 100 and 800 mg/kg body weight were administered once a day on days 1-10 post-coitum. No significant differences in total body weight were found in foetuses exposed to these regimes. However, in the group treated with 100 mg/kg body weight, there was a significant increase (p papaya (Linn) seeds does not adversely affect prenatal development. The altered toxicological profile indicates that the abortifacient property is a high dose side effect. The results indicate that Carica papaya toxicity can adversely affect the foetus. PMID:12163882

Oderinde, O; Noronha, C; Oremosu, A; Kusemiju, T; Okanlawon, O A

2002-06-01

248

Using gamma radiation to induce papaya varieties for mosaic disease tolerance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Seeds of eight papaya varieties were irradiated with gamma radiation at doses of 0, 100, 150 and 200 Gray, then planted at Sisaket Horticultural Research Center. Plants with no symptom of mosaic disease and those with rarely to moderately mosaic disease symptom and good yield were selected and five fruits of them were collected. Seeds from them (M2 seed) were planted and inoculated the seedlings with Papaya Ringspot Virus(PRV) that caused mosaic disease. Seedlings that showed no symptom were transplanted to the field. It was found that irradiated papaya variety Kokokandam showed some characters different from non-irradiated one. The irradiated plants were shorter in height and internode, smaller in bush and leaf size and better tolerant to mosaic disease. The characteristic of other varieties are being observed including yield and disease tolerance

249

Optimization of process parameters for foam-mat drying of papaya pulp.  

Science.gov (United States)

Experiments were carried out to optimize the process parameters for production of papaya powder using foam-mat drying. Papaya pulp was foamed by incorporating methyl cellulose (0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1 %, w/w), glycerol-mono-stearate (1, 2, 3 and 4 %, w/w) and egg white (5, 10, 15 and 20 %, w/w) as foaming agents. The maximum stable foam formation was 72, 90 and 125% at 0.75 % methyl cellulose, 3 % glycerol-mono-stearate and 15 % egg white respectively with 9°Brix pulp and whipping time of 20 min. The foamed pulp was dried at air temperature of 60, 65 and 70 °C with foam thickness of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 mm in a batch type cabinet dryer. The drying time required for foamed papaya pulp was lower than non-foamed pulp at all selected temperatures. Biochemical analysis results showed a significant reduction in ascorbic acid, ?-carotene and total sugars in the foamed papaya dried product at higher foam thickness (6, 8 and 10 mm) and temperature (65 and 70 °C due to destruction at higher drying temperature and increasing time. There was no significant change in other biochemical constituents such as pH and acidity. The organoleptic and sensory evaluation of the quality attributes of papaya powder obtained from the pulp of 9°Brix added with 3 % glycerol-mono-stearate, whipped for 20 min and dried with a foam thickness of 4 mm at a temperature of 60 °C was found to be optimum to produce the foam-mat dried papaya powder. PMID:25328192

Kandasamy, Palani; Varadharaju, N; Kalemullah, S; Maladhi, D

2014-10-01

250

Effects of papaya seed extract and benzyl isothiocyanate on vascular contraction.  

Science.gov (United States)

To investigate their potentially toxic effects on mammalian vascular smooth muscle, pentane extracts of papaya seeds and the chief active ingredient in the extracts, benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC), were tested for their effects on the contraction of strips of dog carotid artery. BITC and the papaya seed extract caused relaxation when added to tissue strips that had been pre-contracted with phenylephrine (PE). Incubation of the tissue with papaya seed extract or BITC caused inhibition of contraction when the strips were subsequently contracted with KCl or PE. This relaxation and inhibition of contraction did not appear to be endothelium-dependent, as endothelium-denuded rings showed the same degree of relaxation or inhibition of contraction in response to the preparations/drugs as those with the endothelium intact. The effects of both BITC and the extract were irreversible, i.e., the tissue did not recover to normal contractile ability after extensive washing. Exposure of the tissue to the papaya seed extract caused slower relaxation of the tissue, compared to controls, both after contraction with PE and subsequent addition of carbachol (CCh), and after contraction with KCl and then washing. Calcium imaging studies using cultured endothelial cells showed strong influxes of Ca2+ into the cells in response to addition of the papaya seed extract. We conclude that these extracts, when present in high concentration, are cytotoxic by increasing the membrane permeability to Ca2+, and that the vascular effects of papaya seed extracts are consistent with the notion that BITC is the chief bio-active ingredient. PMID:12052434

Wilson, Ruth K; Kwan, Tony K; Kwan, Chiu-Yin; Sorger, George J

2002-06-21

251

Effect of Maturity Stage of Papaya Maradol on Physiological and Biochemical Parameters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Nowadays, the worldwide increase in diseases has motivated consumers to increase the intake of fruits and vegetables, in response to various research reports indicating that fruits and vegetables can help prevent certain types of illnesses, due to their potentially high antioxidant properties. We evaluated the effect of the stage of ripeness of papaya fruit (Carica papaya L. on the contents of bioactive components and their relation with antioxidant capacity. Approach: Whole papaya fruit were selected based on their visual ripeness, classifying them in four stages of ripeness (R1, R2, R3 and R4. Physiological and physical-chemical analysis performed included respiration, production of ethylene, firmness, pH, titratable acidity and total soluble solids, color (L*, a*, b*, °Hue, C; Polygalacturonase (PG and Pectin Methyl Esterase (PME activity, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity (measured using DPPH, TEAC and ORAC assays. Results: The antioxidant capacity decreased approximately 27% in the RS4 when using DPPH and TEAC and increased when using ORAC (60.9%. PG activity increased from 8.14 (in RS1-22.48 U gFW-1 (in RS4 as the stage of ripeness of papaya fruit increased. PME was affected in a similar manner with an activity of 0.5562 U gFW-1, at the end of the ripening storage. A high correlation between PG activity and softening of ripen papayas was observed. Conclusion/Recommendations: It was observed that papaya fruit experienced changes in firmness, which is correlated with activity from two of the main enzymes: PG and PME and with the increase of respiration and production of ethylene. The various stages of ripeness showed very good antioxidant capacity, being higher in RS1, which is correlated with the higher content of phenolic contents found in this ripening stage.

Laura E. Gayosso-García Sancho

2010-01-01

252

L-ascorbic acid, ?-carotene and lycopene content in papaya fruits (Carica papaya with or without physiological skin freckles Conteúdo de ácido l-ascórbico, ?-caroteno e licopeno em frutos de mamão (Carica papaya com e sem mancha fisiológica  

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Full Text Available The Skin Freckles is a papaya skin disorder that depreciates de fruit appearance and hampers its commercialization, although not lowering its nutritive value. Being the papaya a good source of ascorbic acid, ?-carotene and licopene this research aimed at determining L-ascorbic acid, ?-carotene and licopene content in papaya fruits, from 'Formosa' and 'Solo' group varieties, with and without apparent physiological skin disease (skin freckles. Fruits were harvested in the Southeast Region of Brazil. L-ascorbic acid content was determined by titration technique. ?-carotene and licopene contents were determined by high performance liquid chromatography technique (HPLC. L-ascorbic acid content in papaya fruits ranged from (59.9 ± 3.4 mg 100 g-1 to (112.4 ± 12.6 mg 100 g-1 in fresh papaya pulp. ?-carotene content ranged from (0.19 ± 0.07 mg 100 g-1 to (0.56 ± 0.09 mg 100 g-1 and that of licopene ranged from (1.44 ± 0.28 mg 100 g-1 to (3.39 ± 0.32 mg 100 g-1 in fresh papaya pulp. L-ascorbic acid contents of papaya fruits with skin disease averaged 7.0 mg 100 g-1 to 10.0 mg 100 g-1 higher than those of papaya fruits without skin freckles (P A Mancha Fisiológica do Mamão (MFM é uma desordem da casca do mamão, que deprecia a aparência do fruto e prejudica a sua comercialização, embora não prejudique o seu valor nutritivo. Considerando ser o mamão, uma boa fonte de ácido L-ascórbico, b-caroteno e licopeno, esta pesquisa visou determinar o índice destes componentes em frutas de mamão, das variedades do grupo 'Formosa' e 'Solo', com e sem Mancha Fisiológica do Mamão (MFM aparente na pele. As frutas foram colhidas na região do sudeste de Brasil. O teor de ácido L-ascórbico foi determinado pela técnica de titulação. Os índices do b-caroteno e do licopeno foram determinados pela técnica de cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (HPLC. O teor de ácido L-ascórbico variou de (59,9 ± 3,4 mg 100 g-1 a (112,4 ± 12,6 mg 100 g-1 de polpa fresca de mamão. O teor de b-caroteno variou de (0,19 ± 0,07 mg 100 g-1 a (0,56 ± 0,09 mg 100 g-1 e o do licopeno variou de (1,44 ± 0,28 mg 100 g-1 a (3,39 ± 0,32 mg 100 g-1 de polpa fresca de mamão. Os índices de ácidos L-ascórbico na polpa dos frutos de mamão com MFM variaram de 7,0 mg 100 g-1 a 10,0 mg 100 g-1 a mais do que os teores encontrados na polpa dos frutos de mamão sem a MFM (P < 0,05.

Leandro Marelli de Souza

2008-01-01

253

Conocimientos y autoeficacia asociados a la prevención del VIH y SIDA en mujeres chilenas Conhecimentos e autoeficacia sócios à prevenção do HIV e AIDS em mulheres chilenas Knowledge and self efficacy associated to HIV and AIDS prevention in Chilean women  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objetivo. Evaluar la relación existente entre conocimientos y autoeficacia asociados al VIH/SIDA en mujeres chilenas en desventaja social. Metodología. Estudio correlacional, que utiliza la medición basal del estudio "Testeando una intervención en VIH y SIDA en mujeres chilenas", realizada entre 2006 y 2008, que tiene una muestra de 496 mujeres entre 18 y 49 años residentes en dos comunas de Santiago de Chile. Las participantes respondieron un cuestionario estructurado aplicado por entre...

Natalia Villegas Rodríguez; Lilian Marcela Ferrer Lagunas; Rosina Cianelli Acosta; Sarah Miner; Loreto Lara Campos; Nilda Peragallo

2011-01-01

254

Phytochemistry and Heamatological Potential of Ethanol Seed Leaf and Pulp Extracts of Carica papaya (Linn.  

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Full Text Available This study was aimed at qualitative evaluation of the ethanol seed, leaf and pulp extracts of C. papaya for bioactive compounds and also to investigate their effect on the haematology in male albino rats. A 3x4 factorial experimental layout using randomized complete design was adopted. Results show that the phytochemicals found in seed, leaf and pulp were almost the same but however, in varying proportions. Present result also revealed that there were significant effects (pC. papaya extracts could be used to enhance the production of selected blood parameters, taking issue of dosage into consideration.

O. Udensi

2011-01-01

255

Effect of ionizing radiation on the activity of pectinesterase in papaya (cultivar solo)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Papaya fruits (Carica papaya L.) were exposed to ionizing radiation gamma type ( sup(60)Co), using a dose of 0.7kGy, and then stored in a cold room at 10C with a relative humidity of 85% for a period of 25 days. The pectinesterase activity of the irradiated fruits was found to be similar to that of the non-irradiated fruits during the storage period. The radiation dose maintained the texture and enzyme activity of the irradiated fruits the same as that of the non-irradiated fruits. (author)

256

CHARACTERIZATION OF PAPAYA FRUIT MEDIATED SILVER NANOPARTICLES AND EVALUATION OF ITS ANTIMICROBIAL AND WOUND HEALING ACTIVITY  

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Full Text Available The field of Nanotechnology is the most active area of research in modern material science. Though there are many chemical as well as physical methods, green synthesis of nanomaterial is the most emerging method of synthesis. We report the synthesis of antibacterial silver nanoparticles using Papaya. The synthesized AgNPs have been characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy and SEM microscopy. The silver nanoparticles stabilized by Papaya fruit extract were found to have enhanced antimicrobial activity against well-known pathogenic strains Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris and E. coli.

EnamalaNarmadha

2013-07-01

257

Ethanol Extract of Carica papaya Seeds Induces Reversible Contraception in Adult Male Wistar Rats  

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The quest for the development of an ideal male contraceptive has led to the discovery of the antifertility property of some species of C. papaya seed extracts. This study investigates the antifertility activity and reversibility of ethanol extract of C. papaya seeds in sexually matured male Wistar rats. 30 adult males and 60 female Wistar rats weighing between 180 and 220 g were used for the study. The male rats were randomly divided into 3 groups of 10 each. Group I which served as control w...

Hamman, Wilson O.; Musa, Sunday A.; Ikyembe, Daniel T.; Umana, Uduak E.; Adelaiye, Alexander B.; Nok, Andrew J.; Ojo, Samuel A.

2011-01-01

258

Phytochemistry and heamatological potential of ethanol seed leaf and pulp extracts of Carica papaya (Linn.).  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was aimed at qualitative evaluation of the ethanol seed, leaf and pulp extracts of C. papaya for bioactive compounds and also to investigate their effect on the haematology in male albino rats. A 3 x 4 factorial experimental layout using randomized complete design was adopted. Results show that the phytochemicals found in seed, leaf and pulp were almost the same but however, in varying proportions. Present result also revealed that there were significant effects (p papaya extracts could be used to enhance the production of selected blood parameters, taking issue of dosage into consideration. PMID:21902066

Ikpeme, E V; Ekaluo, U B; Kooffreh, M E; Udensi, O

2011-03-15

259

Effect of 60Co ? irradiation and GA3 treatment on mutation of Carica papaya L  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The seeds of Carica papaya L. were irradiated by 60Co ?-rays of 10-40 Gy and treated by GA3 of 10-50 mg/L after irradiation. The results showed that small nuclear cell percentage, chromosome variation percentage and leaf variability of papaya seedling increased with increase of irradiation dose, the pollen fertility and fruit quality decreased. GA3 of 10-50 mg/L treatment after irradiation could alleviate the irradiation harm, and the effect of lower concentration of GA3 was better than higher concentration with lower dose irradiation, however, the effect of higher concentration of GA3 was better with higher dose irradiation

260

Papaya extract to treat dengue: a novel therapeutic option?  

Science.gov (United States)

Dengue is a viral disease that today affects a vast number of people in over 125 countries and is responsible for a sizable number of deaths. In the absence of an effective antiviral drug to treat the disease, various treatments are being investigated. Studies have indicated that the juice of the leaves of the Carica papaya plant from the family Caricaceae could help to increase the platelet levels in these patients. This review describes some of the published studies on this topic. The search was done independently by the two authors using PubMed, Google and the library database and included relevant articles of the last 10 years. A total of 7 studies were included in this review, which were one animal study, one case report, three case series and two randomized controlled trials. Although many of the studies and case reports published in literature lack adequate information, some of the studies do raise the possibility that this treatment could be an important option in the future. Further large-scale studies could establish the usefulness or ineffectiveness of this natural product in the treatment of dengue. PMID:24971201

Sarala, N; Paknikar, Ss

2014-05-01

 
 
 
 
261

A microsatellite library for Carica papaya L. cv. Sunrise solo  

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Full Text Available In experimental areas of the Education and Researches Ilha Solteira and Jaboticabal UNESP/Campus farms were selected and tagged 20 hermaphrodite plants and 20 feminine of cultivar Sunrise Solo, Improved Sunrise Solo cv.72/12 and Baixinho of Santa Amália.The seeds origined of the selected fruits were cropped to be analysed the self-pollination efficiency and frequency of the sex in the progenies. After that, samples of the young leaf of the matrix plants were colected for the extration of the DNA. It was built five library enriched of microsatellite sequencies, using probes (TCA10, (TC13, (GATA4, (CAC10 e (TGAG8.It was possible the development of the primers only in the library that has utilized the probe (TCA10. This probe allowed the design of 32 primer pairs. From these, 31 presented pattern of unique band in agarose Metaphor and in acrilamide. For primer S36 were observed 2 bands, but with no polymorphism to differentiation in the sexual form at papaya tree culture. However, these primers can be tested, in the futures, in the investigation of the others features in segregated populations of this specie and the related species, germoplasm analysis, cultivars identification, parent evolution and molecular markers for the assisted plant breeding programs.

Santos Silvia Correa

2003-01-01

262

Bioactivity of Carica papaya (Caricaceae against Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae  

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Full Text Available The composition of a chloroform seed extract of C. papaya was determined by GC-MS. Nineteen compounds were identified, with oleic (45.97%, palmitic (24.1% and stearic (8.52% acids being the main components. The insecticidal and insectistatic activities of the extract and the three main constituents were tested. Larval duration increased by 3.4 d and 2.5 d when the extract was used at 16,000 and 9,600 ppm, respectively, whereas the pupal period increased by 2.2 d and 1.1 d at the same concentrations. Larval viability values were 0%, 29.2%, and 50% when the extract was applied at 24,000, 16,000, and 9,600 ppm, respectively; pupal viability was 42.9% and 66.7% at 16,000 and 9,600 ppm; and pupal weight decreased by 25.4% and 11.5% at 16,000 and 9,600 ppm. The larval viability of the main compounds was 33.3%, 48.5%, and 62.5% when exposed to 1,600 ppm of palmitic acid, oleic acid, or stearic acid, respectively.

Norma Cecilia Cárdenas-Ortega

2011-09-01

263

Bioactivity of Carica papaya (Caricaceae) against Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

The composition of a chloroform seed extract of C. papaya was determined by GC-MS. Nineteen compounds were identified, with oleic (45.97%), palmitic (24.1%) and stearic (8.52%) acids being the main components. The insecticidal and insectistatic activities of the extract and the three main constituents were tested. Larval duration increased by 3.4 d and 2.5 d when the extract was used at 16,000 and 9,600 ppm, respectively, whereas the pupal period increased by 2.2 d and 1.1 d at the same concentrations. Larval viability values were 0%, 29.2%, and 50% when the extract was applied at 24,000, 16,000, and 9,600 ppm, respectively; pupal viability was 42.9% and 66.7% at 16,000 and 9,600 ppm; and pupal weight decreased by 25.4% and 11.5% at 16,000 and 9,600 ppm. The larval viability of the main compounds was 33.3%, 48.5%, and 62.5% when exposed to 1,600 ppm of palmitic acid, oleic acid, or stearic acid, respectively. PMID:21892128

Pérez-Gutiérrez, Salud; Zavala-Sánchez, Miguel Angel; González-Chávez, Marco Martín; Cárdenas-Ortega, Norma Cecilia; Ramos-López, Miguel Angel

2011-01-01

264

Possible immunomodulatory actions of Carica papaya seed extract.  

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Carica papaya seed extract is currently being marketed as a nutritional supplement with purported ability "to rejuvenate the body condition and to increase energy". The product claims to improve immunity against common infection and body functioning. The present study was initiated to analyze the chemical constituents of the Carica Seed Extract and determine the potential immunomodulatory properties of the different bioactive fractions. These immunomodulatory activities of crude Carica Seed Extract and its bioactive fractions were examined in vitro using lymphocyte proliferation assays and complement-mediated hemolytic assay. Three major observations were made in this study: (1) the crude Carica Seed Extract and two other bioactive fractions significantly enhanced the phytohemagglutinin responsiveness of lymphocytes; (2) none of the Carica Seed Extract (at the concentrations used in this study) was able to protect the lymphocytes from the toxic effects of chromium; and (3) some of the bioactive fractions of Carica Seed Extract were able to significantly inhibit the classical complement-mediated hemolytic pathway. These findings provide evidence for immunostimulatory and anti-inflammatory actions of Carica Seed Extract. No single compound is likely responsible for these activities. Further purification, isolation and characterization of the active components are needed. PMID:14724345

Mojica-Henshaw, Mariluz P; Francisco, Angelica D; De Guzman, Florecita; Tigno, Xenia T

2003-01-01

265

Estudo do processo de extração de papaína a partir do látex do fruto de mamão (Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol Study of the extraction process of papain from the latex of the fruit of papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol  

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Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi estudado o processo de extração da papaína presente no látex de frutos de mamão (Carica papaya L. cultivar Maradol. As variáveis estudadas na extração da papaína foram proporção de látex:álcool (1:2.1 e 1:3 e tipo de secagem (à vácuo e por refractance window. As respostas obtidas foram atividade enzimática da enzima e rendimento do processo de extração. O melhor resultado em termos de atividade enzimática e rendimento foi obtido nas condições de secagem à vácuo e proporção látex:álcool de 1:3. A enzima obtida foi caracterizada por testes físico-químicos, microbiológicos e de atividade enzimática e comparada com uma amostra comercial usada como padrão.In this work, we studied the Papain extraction process, from the latex of papaya fruit (Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol. The variables studied in the extraction of papain were: the proportion of latex:alcohol (1:2.1 and 1:3 and type of drying( vacuum and refractance window and the responses obtained in terms of enzymatic activity of the enzyme papain and yield of the extraction process. The best result in terms of enzyme activity and yield was the procedure used to vacuum drying and the proportion latex:alcohol 1:3. The enzyme obtained was characterized by physico-chemical, microbiological and enzymatic activity when compared with a commercial sample used as standard.

Margarita M Andrade-Mahecha

2011-07-01

266

/ Study of the extraction process of papain from the latex of the fruit of papaya (Carica papaya L.) cv. Maradol / Estudo do processo de extração de papaína a partir do látex do fruto de mamão (Carica papaya L.) cv. Maradol  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho foi estudado o processo de extração da papaína presente no látex de frutos de mamão (Carica papaya L.) cultivar Maradol. As variáveis estudadas na extração da papaína foram proporção de látex:álcool (1:2.1 e 1:3) e tipo de secagem (à vácuo e por refractance window). As respostas obtid [...] as foram atividade enzimática da enzima e rendimento do processo de extração. O melhor resultado em termos de atividade enzimática e rendimento foi obtido nas condições de secagem à vácuo e proporção látex:álcool de 1:3. A enzima obtida foi caracterizada por testes físico-químicos, microbiológicos e de atividade enzimática e comparada com uma amostra comercial usada como padrão. Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english In this work, we studied the Papain extraction process, from the latex of papaya fruit (Carica papaya L.) cv. Maradol. The variables studied in the extraction of papain were: the proportion of latex:alcohol (1:2.1 and 1:3) and type of drying( vacuum and refractance window) and the responses obtained [...] in terms of enzymatic activity of the enzyme papain and yield of the extraction process. The best result in terms of enzyme activity and yield was the procedure used to vacuum drying and the proportion latex:alcohol 1:3. The enzyme obtained was characterized by physico-chemical, microbiological and enzymatic activity when compared with a commercial sample used as standard.

Margarita M, Andrade-Mahecha; Olga, Morales-Rodríguez; Hugo A, Martínez-Correa.

2011-07-01

267

/ Study of the extraction process of papain from the latex of the fruit of papaya (Carica papaya L.) cv. Maradol / Estudo do processo de extração de papaína a partir do látex do fruto de mamão (Carica papaya L.) cv. Maradol  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho foi estudado o processo de extração da papaína presente no látex de frutos de mamão (Carica papaya L.) cultivar Maradol. As variáveis estudadas na extração da papaína foram proporção de látex:álcool (1:2.1 e 1:3) e tipo de secagem (à vácuo e por refractance window). As respostas obtid [...] as foram atividade enzimática da enzima e rendimento do processo de extração. O melhor resultado em termos de atividade enzimática e rendimento foi obtido nas condições de secagem à vácuo e proporção látex:álcool de 1:3. A enzima obtida foi caracterizada por testes físico-químicos, microbiológicos e de atividade enzimática e comparada com uma amostra comercial usada como padrão. Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english In this work, we studied the Papain extraction process, from the latex of papaya fruit (Carica papaya L.) cv. Maradol. The variables studied in the extraction of papain were: the proportion of latex:alcohol (1:2.1 and 1:3) and type of drying( vacuum and refractance window) and the responses obtained [...] in terms of enzymatic activity of the enzyme papain and yield of the extraction process. The best result in terms of enzyme activity and yield was the procedure used to vacuum drying and the proportion latex:alcohol 1:3. The enzyme obtained was characterized by physico-chemical, microbiological and enzymatic activity when compared with a commercial sample used as standard.

Margarita M, Andrade-Mahecha; Olga, Morales-Rodríguez; Hugo A, Martínez-Correa.

268

Label-free quantitative proteomics reveals differentially regulated proteins in the latex of sticky diseased Carica papaya L. plants  

Science.gov (United States)

Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) is so far the only described laticifer-infecting virus, the causal agent of papaya (Carica papaya L.) sticky disease. The effects of PMeV on the laticifers’ regulatory network were addressed here through the proteomic analysis of papaya latex. Using both 1-DE- and 1D-LC-ESI-MS/MS, 160 unique papaya latex proteins were identified, representing 122 new proteins in the latex of this plant. Quantitative analysis by normalized spectral counting revealed 10 down-regulated proteins in the latex of diseased plants, 9 cysteine proteases (chymopapain) and 1 latex serine proteinase inhibitor. A repression of papaya latex proteolytic activity during PMeV infection was hypothesized. This was further confirmed by enzymatic assays that showed a reduction of cysteine-protease-associated proteolytic activity in the diseased papaya latex. These findings are discussed in the context of plant responses against pathogens and may greatly contribute to understand the roles of laticifers in plant stress responses. PMID:22465191

Rodrigues, Silas P.; Ventura, Jose A.; Aguilar, Clemente; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Choi, HyungWon; Sobreira, Tiago J. P.; Nohara, Lilian L.; Wermelinger, Luciana S.; Almeida, Igor C.; Zingali, Russolina B.; Fernandes, Patricia M. B.

2012-01-01

269

Collaborative ring trial of the papaya endogenous reference gene and its polymerase chain reaction assays for genetically modified organism analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The papaya (Carica papaya L.) Chymopapain (CHY) gene has been reported as a suitable endogenous reference gene for genetically modified (GM) papaya detection in previous studies. Herein, we further validated the use of the CHY gene and its qualitative and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays through an interlaboratory collaborative ring trial. A total of 12 laboratories working on detection of genetically modified organisms participated in the ring trial and returned test results. Statistical analysis of the returned results confirmed the species specificity, low heterogeneity, and single-copy number of the CHY gene among different papaya varieties. The limit of detection of the CHY qualitative PCR assay was 0.1%, while the limit of quantification of the quantitative PCR assay was ?25 copies of haploid papaya genome with acceptable PCR efficiency and linearity. The differences between the tested and true values of papaya content in 10 blind samples ranged from 0.84 to 6.58%. These results indicated that the CHY gene was suitable as an endogenous reference gene for the identification and quantification of GM papaya. PMID:24206192

Wei, Jiaojun; Li, Feiwu; Guo, Jinchao; Li, Xiang; Xu, Junfeng; Wu, Gang; Zhang, Dabing; Yang, Litao

2013-11-27

270

Carotenoids are more bioavailable from papaya than from tomato and carrot in humans: a randomised cross-over study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Carrot, tomato and papaya represent important dietary sources of ?-carotene and lycopene. The main objective of the present study was to compare the bioavailability of carotenoids from these food sources in healthy human subjects. A total of sixteen participants were recruited for a randomised cross-over study. Test meals containing raw carrots, tomatoes and papayas were adjusted to deliver an equal amount of ?-carotene and lycopene. For the evaluation of bioavailability, TAG-rich lipoprotein (TRL) fractions containing newly absorbed carotenoids were analysed over 9·5 h after test meal consumption. The bioavailability of ?-carotene from papayas was approximately three times higher than that from carrots and tomatoes, whereas differences in the bioavailability of ?-carotene from carrots and tomatoes were insignificant. Retinyl esters appeared in the TRL fractions at a significantly higher concentration after the consumption of the papaya test meal. Similarly, lycopene was approximately 2·6 times more bioavailable from papayas than from tomatoes. Furthermore, the bioavailability of ?-cryptoxanthin from papayas was shown to be 2·9 and 2·3 times higher than that of the other papaya carotenoids ?-carotene and lycopene, respectively. The morphology of chromoplasts and the physical deposition form of carotenoids were hypothesised to play a major role in the differences observed in the bioavailability of carotenoids from the foods investigated. Particularly, the liquid-crystalline deposition of ?-carotene and the storage of lycopene in very small crystalloids in papayas were found to be associated with their high bioavailability. In conclusion, papaya was shown to provide highly bioavailable ?-carotene, ?-cryptoxanthin and lycopene and may represent a readily available dietary source of provitamin A for reducing the incidence of vitamin A deficiencies in many subtropical and tropical developing countries. PMID:23931131

Schweiggert, Ralf M; Kopec, Rachel E; Villalobos-Gutierrez, Maria G; Högel, Josef; Quesada, Silvia; Esquivel, Patricia; Schwartz, Steven J; Carle, Reinhold

2014-02-01

271

Antioxidant potentials of Iranian Carica papaya juice in vitro and in vivo are comparable to alpha-tocopherol.  

Science.gov (United States)

Carica papaya is widely cultivated throughout the world and is used as a food and also as a traditional medicine, particularly as an antiseptic and contraceptive. The present study was designed to explore the toxicological and antioxidant potential of dried C. papaya juice in vitro and in vivo. The oral LD(50) of the juice of C. papaya was determined, and the antioxidant potentials determined by DPPH and FRAP tests. In vivo examination was performed after oral administration of dried papaya juice to rats for 2 weeks at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg. Blood TBARS and FRAP assays were used to determine the potential of the juice to act against oxidative stress. The acute toxicity test (LD(50)) demonstrated that papaya juice is not lethal up to a dose of 1500 mg/kg after oral administration and thus is considered nontoxic. In treated groups, no sign of toxicity was observed. In vitro evaluation of the antioxidant effects of papaya showed that the highest antioxidant activity (80%) was observed with a concentration of 17.6 mg/mL. Blood lipid peroxidation levels decreased significantly after administration of all doses of papaya juice (100, 200, 400 mg/kg/day) to 35.5%, 39.5% and 40.86% of the control, respectively, compared with a value of 28.8% for vitamin E. The blood total antioxidant power was increased significantly by all doses of papaya juice (100, 200, 400 mg/kg/day) to 11.11%, 23.58% and 23.14% of the control, respectively. The value for vitamin E was 18.44%. This preliminary study indicates the safety and antioxidative stress potential of the juice of C. papaya, which was found to be comparable to the standard antioxidant compound alpha-tocopherol. PMID:16691628

Mehdipour, Sanaz; Yasa, Narges; Dehghan, Gholamreza; Khorasani, Reza; Mohammadirad, Azadeh; Rahimi, Roja; Abdollahi, Mohammad

2006-07-01

272

Comparative seed ecophysiology of wild and cultivated Carica papaya trees from a tropical rain forest region in Mexico.  

Science.gov (United States)

To ascertain the effects of centuries of cultivation practices on seed behavior and dormancy mechanisms, we compared seed size and germination characteristics of wild and cultivated (domesticated) populations of Carica papaya L. Germination experiments were carried out under various conditions of temperature, light, seed soaking and gibberellic acid treatments. Wild papaya seeds showed responses to treatment that are characteristic of seeds of many rain forest pioneer trees. Seeds were small and light sensitive, whereas cultivated papaya seeds were 33% larger and their light responses as well as other physiological traits indicated that cultivation had resulted in a lessening in the importance of specific environmental conditions for dormancy breaking and germination. PMID:12651383

Paz, Leoncio; Vázquez-Yanes, Carlos

1998-04-01

273

Parámetros poblacionales de Tetranychus merganser Boudreaux (Acari: Tetranychidae) en papayo (Carica papaya L.) a diferentes temperaturas / Population parameters of Tetranychus merganser Boudreaux (Acari: Tetranychidae) in papaya (Carica papaya L.) at different temperatures  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El ácaro Tetranychus merganser es una de las especies que causa mayor daño económico en la zona productora de papayo (Carica papaya) del estado de Veracruz, México. Por tanto, se requiere conocer aspectos de su biología para tomar mejores decisiones de su manejo. Se obtuvo una colonia de ácaros a pa [...] rtir de una hembra recolectada en el municipio de Manlio F. Altamirano, y se incrementó la población en invernadero sobre hojas de frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris). El objetivo fue evaluar la influencia de la temperatura en los parámetros poblacionales de esta especie y sobre la duración de sus fases de desarrollo. Para ello se iniciaron cohortes desde huevecillos y expuestas a las siguientes condiciones: temperaturas constantes (19, 23, 27, 31, 33 y 35 °C); 60±2 % de humedad relativa; fotoperiodo de 14:10 h luz:oscuridad y alimentación en discos de hojas de papaya. La duración del ciclo de vida de T. merganser disminuyó de 52.3 hasta 12.9 d con el aumento de la temperatura. La tasa neta reproductiva (Ro) fue 37.40, 62.38, 43.98, 10.47 y 2.32 para 19, 23, 27, 31 y 33° C; a 35 °C la cohorte no fue viable. La tasa intrínseca de crecimiento poblacional (r m) fue 0.08, 0.19, 0.21, 0.18 y 0.12 a las temperaturas anotadas. El desarrollo óptimo ocurrió entre 23 y 27 °C. Aunque el papayo no es su mejor hospedero comparado con parámetros poblacionales más favorables obtenidos por otros autores en frijol, T. merganser puede comportarse como plaga en papayo en las condiciones ambientales predominantes en la zona. Abstract in english Tetranychus merganser is a mite species that causes greater economic damage in the papaya (Carica papaya) production area in the state of Veracruz, Mexico. Therefore, it was necessary to study their biology in order to make better decisions in their management. We obtained a colony of mites from a f [...] emale collected in the municipality of Manlio F. Altamirano, and expanded their population on bean leaves (Phaseolus vulgaris) under greenhouse conditions. The objective was to evaluate the influence of temperature on the population parameters of this species and the duration of their developmental stages. For this purpose, we established cohorts starting with eggs, and exposed them to the following conditions: constant temperatures (19, 23, 27, 31, 33 and 35 °C); 60±2 % relative humidity, photoperiod of 14:10 h light:dark, and fed with papaya leaf discs. The duration of the life cycle of T. merganser decreased from 52.3 to 12.9 d with the increase of temperature. The net reproductive rate (R) was 37.40, 62.38, 43.98, 10.47 and 2.32 for 19, 23, 27, 31 and 33 °C; at 35 °C, the cohort was not viable. The intrinsic rate of population increase (r m) was 0.08, 0.19, 0.21, 0.18 and 0.12 at the temperatures recorded. Optimal development occurred between 23 and 27 C. Although papaya is not its best host compared to more favorable population parameters obtained by other authors in beans, T. merganser can behave like a pest in papaya under the environmental conditions prevailing in the area.

Noel, Reyes-Pérez; Juan A., Villanueva-Jiménez; Mónica, de la Cruz Vargas-Mendoza; Héctor, Cabrera-Mireles; Gabriel, Otero-Colina.

2013-03-01

274

Avaliação do efeito de fosfitos na redução da varíola (Asperisporium caricae) do mamoeiro (Carica papaya) / Evaluation of phosphite applications for severity of papaya black spot (Asperisporium caricae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O controle da varíola do mamoeiro é necessário; portanto, propôs-se, neste estudo, avaliar o efeito de aplicações foliares de fosfitos (K, Ca, Mg e Cu) sobre a doença. Dois fosfitos e o fungicida Fosetyl-Al foram testados em condições de campo, com plantas naturalmente infectadas pelo patógeno. Dez [...] fosfitos e o fungicida Fosetyl-Al foram testados sob telado também com plantas naturalmente infectadas por A. caricae. Tanto no experimento de campo quanto sob telado, os tratamentos contendo fosfito reduziram a severidade da doença. Abstract in english The control of black spot of papaya is necessary, therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of foliar applications of phosphites (K, Ca, Mg and Cu) on papaya black spot. Two phosphites and the fungicide Fosetyl-Al were tested on a field trial with papaya plants naturally infe [...] cted by the pathogen. Ten phosphites and the fungicide Fosetyl-Al were tested in a greenhouse trial, also with plants naturally infected by A. caricae. In both, field and greenhouse trials, the phosphite treatments reduced black spot severity.

Alexei de Campos, Dianese; Luiz Eduardo Bassay, Blum; Jaqueline Barbosa, Dutra; Leonardo Ferreira, Lopes; Mariana Coelho, Sena; Leandro Ferreira de, Freitas.

2008-09-01

275

Avaliação do efeito de fosfitos na redução da varíola (Asperisporium caricae) do mamoeiro (Carica papaya) / Evaluation of phosphite applications for severity of papaya black spot (Asperisporium caricae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O controle da varíola do mamoeiro é necessário; portanto, propôs-se, neste estudo, avaliar o efeito de aplicações foliares de fosfitos (K, Ca, Mg e Cu) sobre a doença. Dois fosfitos e o fungicida Fosetyl-Al foram testados em condições de campo, com plantas naturalmente infectadas pelo patógeno. Dez [...] fosfitos e o fungicida Fosetyl-Al foram testados sob telado também com plantas naturalmente infectadas por A. caricae. Tanto no experimento de campo quanto sob telado, os tratamentos contendo fosfito reduziram a severidade da doença. Abstract in english The control of black spot of papaya is necessary, therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of foliar applications of phosphites (K, Ca, Mg and Cu) on papaya black spot. Two phosphites and the fungicide Fosetyl-Al were tested on a field trial with papaya plants naturally infe [...] cted by the pathogen. Ten phosphites and the fungicide Fosetyl-Al were tested in a greenhouse trial, also with plants naturally infected by A. caricae. In both, field and greenhouse trials, the phosphite treatments reduced black spot severity.

Alexei de Campos, Dianese; Luiz Eduardo Bassay, Blum; Jaqueline Barbosa, Dutra; Leonardo Ferreira, Lopes; Mariana Coelho, Sena; Leandro Ferreira de, Freitas.

276

Avaliação do efeito de fosfitos na redução da varíola (Asperisporium caricae do mamoeiro (Carica papaya Evaluation of phosphite applications for severity of papaya black spot (Asperisporium caricae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O controle da varíola do mamoeiro é necessário; portanto, propôs-se, neste estudo, avaliar o efeito de aplicações foliares de fosfitos (K, Ca, Mg e Cu sobre a doença. Dois fosfitos e o fungicida Fosetyl-Al foram testados em condições de campo, com plantas naturalmente infectadas pelo patógeno. Dez fosfitos e o fungicida Fosetyl-Al foram testados sob telado também com plantas naturalmente infectadas por A. caricae. Tanto no experimento de campo quanto sob telado, os tratamentos contendo fosfito reduziram a severidade da doença.The control of black spot of papaya is necessary, therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of foliar applications of phosphites (K, Ca, Mg and Cu on papaya black spot. Two phosphites and the fungicide Fosetyl-Al were tested on a field trial with papaya plants naturally infected by the pathogen. Ten phosphites and the fungicide Fosetyl-Al were tested in a greenhouse trial, also with plants naturally infected by A. caricae. In both, field and greenhouse trials, the phosphite treatments reduced black spot severity.

Alexei de Campos Dianese

2008-09-01

277

Complete nucleotide sequence of a monopartite Begomovirus and associated satellites infecting Carica papaya in Nepal.  

Science.gov (United States)

Carica papaya (papaya) is a fruit crop that is cultivated mostly in kitchen gardens throughout Nepal. Leaf samples of C. papaya plants with leaf curling, vein darkening, vein thickening, and a reduction in leaf size were collected from a garden in Darai village, Rampur, Nepal in 2010. Full-length clones of a monopartite Begomovirus, a betasatellite and an alphasatellite were isolated. The complete nucleotide sequence of the Begomovirus showed the arrangement of genes typical of Old World begomoviruses with the highest nucleotide sequence identity (>99 %) to an isolate of Ageratum yellow vein virus (AYVV), confirming it as an isolate of AYVV. The complete nucleotide sequence of betasatellite showed greater than 89 % nucleotide sequence identity to an isolate of Tomato leaf curl Java betasatellite originating from Indonesian. The sequence of the alphasatellite displayed 92 % nucleotide sequence identity to Sida yellow vein China alphasatellite. This is the first identification of these components in Nepal and the first time they have been identified in papaya. PMID:23397078

Shahid, M S; Yoshida, S; Khatri-Chhetri, G B; Briddon, R W; Natsuaki, K T

2013-06-01

278

Molecular and Clinical Effects of Green Tea and Fermented Papaya Preparation on Diabetes and Cardiovascular Diseases  

Science.gov (United States)

Assess the Effect of Green Tea on Diabetes; Assess the Effect of Fermented Papaya Pretration on Diabetes; Effects of Green Tea and FPP on C-reactive Proteins; Effects of Green Tea and FPP of Lipid Profiles in Diabetes; Effect of Green Tea and FPP on Atheroma Formation

2010-11-24

279

PHYSICO-CHEMICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL EVALUATION OF CARICA PAPAYA LINN. UNRIPE FRUITS  

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Full Text Available Present study was performed for the development of quality standards of Carica papaya Linn. commonly known as Papita belonging to family Caricaceae is well known for its exceptional nutritional and medicinal properties. The study comprises of physico-chemical and phytochemical evaluation to confirm purity and authenticity of Carica papaya L. unripe fruit using WHO guidelines. Microscopy of the fruit showed presence thick cuticle, parenchyma, epicarp, mesocarp endocarp, calcium oxalate crystals, laticifers, etc. Successive extractive value and hot extractive value was found highest in alcoholic extract 48.34 % and 44.90 % respectively (on dry weight basis. Mean ash values (% are 8.63 (total, 0.79 (acid insoluble ash, and 5.30 (water soluble ash and moisture content was found to be 9.41 % and the phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of carbohydrates, terpenoids, flavonoids, phenolic compounds in different extracts of Carica papaya L. fruit. TLC fingerprinting profile of different extracts were also developed and quantification of ?-carotene was also done by using nhexane:acetone (8.5:1.5 as a mobile phase at 415 nm and found to be higher in pet ether Carica papaya L. fruit extract 1.55 % w/w.

Anjum Varisha

2013-08-01

280

Changes in protein profile during coagulation of latex from Carica papaya  

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Full Text Available We describe the changes in peptide composition by SDS-PAGE analysis of latex from Carica papaya collected at various times after incision of the unripe fruit. The data show that during latex coagulation several peptides are processed in an orderly fashion.

Silva L.G.

1997-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Assessment of the anti-protozoal activity of crude Carica papaya seed extract against Trypanosoma cruzi.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to determine the in vivo activity against the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, two doses (50 and 75 mg/kg) of a chloroform extract of Carica papaya seeds were evaluated compared with a control group of allopurinol. The activity of a mixture of the three main compounds (oleic, palmitic and stearic acids in a proportion of 45.9% of oleic acid, 24.1% of palmitic and 8.52% of stearic acid previously identified in the crude extract of C. papaya was evaluated at doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg. Both doses of the extracts were orally administered for 28 days. A significant reduction (p papaya extract in comparison with the positive control group (allopurinol 8.5 mg/kg). Parasitemia in animals treated with the fatty acids mixture was also significantly reduced (p seed extracts of C. papaya (from ripe fruit) are able to reduce the number of parasites from both parasite stages, blood trypomastigote and amastigote (intracellular stage). PMID:24126379

Jiménez-Coello, Matilde; Guzman-Marín, Eugenia; Ortega-Pacheco, Antonio; Perez-Gutiérrez, Salud; Acosta-Viana, Karla Y

2013-01-01

282

Benzyl isothiocyanate is the chief or sole anthelmintic in papaya seed extracts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Papaya (Carica papaya) seeds were extracted in an aqueous buffer or in organic solvents, fractionated by chromatography on silica and aliquots tested for anthelmintic activity by viability assays using Caenorhabditis elegans. For all preparations and fractions tested, anthelmintic activity and benzyl isothiocyanate content correlated positively. Aqueous extracts prepared from heat-treated seeds had no anthelmintic activity or benzyl isothiocyanate content although both appeared when these extracts were incubated with a myrosinase-containing fraction prepared from papaya seeds. A 10 h incubation of crude seed extracts at room temperature led to a decrease in anthelmintic activity and fractionated samples showed a lower benzyl isothiocyanate content relative to non-incubated controls. Benzyl thiocyanate, benzyl cyanide, and benzonitrile were not detected in any preparations and cyanogenic glucosides. which were present, could not account for the anthelmintic activity detected. Thus, our results are best explained if benzyl isothiocyanate is the predominant or sole anthelmintic agent in papaya seed extracts regardless of how seeds are extracted. PMID:11393524

Kermanshai, R; McCarry, B E; Rosenfeld, J; Summers, P S; Weretilnyk, E A; Sorger, G J

2001-06-01

283

Wound-healing effect of papaya-based preparation in experimental thermal trauma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Treatment with the phytopreparation from papaya accelerated wound healing and reduced the severity of local inflammation in rats with burn wounds. The effect of this phytopreparation can be related to an increase in the effectiveness of intracellular bacterial killing by tissue phagocytes due to the inhibition of bacterial catalase. Antioxidant activity of the preparation decreases the risk of oxidative damage to tissues. PMID:15455084

Mikhal'chik, E V; Ivanova, A V; Anurov, M V; Titkova, S M; Pen'kov, L Yu; Kharaeva, Z F; Korkina, L G

2004-06-01

284

Polyethylene glycol effects on somatic embryogenesis of papaya hybrid UENF/CALIMAN 01 seeds  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Among commercial fruits, papaya (Carica papaya L.) is notably one of the most common ones around the world. The aim of the current study was to establish a somatic embryogenesis protocol for the hybrid UENF/CALIMAN 01, elucidating the effects of sucrose and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) on [...] the induction of embryogenic cultures and the effect of polyethylene glycol (PEG) on somatic embryo maturation. Immature zygotic embryos of C. papaya hybrid UENF/CALIMAN 01 were cultured in MS culture medium supplemented with different concentrations of sucrose (30 and 60 g L-1) and 2,4-D (0, 20, 40 and 80 ?M). The combination of 30 g L-1 sucrose and 20 ?M 2,4-D resulted in the highest induction rates and the largest callus diameters. Furthermore, this combination was associated with the greatest potential to form somatic embryos. To promote maturation, cultures were inoculated in MS medium and exposed to different concentrations of PEG (0, 30 and 60 g L-1). The 60 g L-1 PEG treatment group had the highest average for the number, maturation and conversion of somatic embryos that resulted in plantlets at the end of the process. The addition of PEG to MS medium led to increased protein synthesis. These results are unprecedented for C. papaya hybrid UENF/CALIMAN 01 as the current study demonstrates the development of somatic embryogenesis in this high quality hybrid.

Angelo Schuabb, Heringer; Ellen Moura, Vale; Tatiana, Barroso; Claudete, Santa-Catarina; Vanildo, Silveira.

285

Anthelmintic activity of papaya seeds on Hymenolepis diminuta infections in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study is to see the anthelmintic activity potential of papaya seeds against Hymenolepis diminuta in rats. The objectives of this study were: (1) to determine the effectiveness of papaya seeds on helminths especially H. diminuta in rats and (2) to determine the effective dose level on helminths in rats. Thirty six male rats from strain Sprague-Dawley were chosen as samples in this experiment. Two types of dose level were used for papaya seeds treatments such as 0.6 g kg-1 and 1.2 g kg-1. The geometric mean (GEM) was used to calculate mean for eggs per gram (EPG) before and after the treatment to be included in the reduction percentage calculation. After 21 days post treatment, necropsies were done to get the worm count and the GEM was used to calculate the efficacy percentage for the treatment. Results from this study showed that the reduction percentages in EPG for papaya seeds treatment for both doses level were very high which is 96.8% for 0.6g kg-1 dose level and 96.2% for 1.2 g kg-1 dose level. Whereas the efficacy percentage based on the worm counts for both doses level were also very high that was 90.77% for 0.6 g kg-1 dose level and 93.85% for 1.2 g kg-1. PMID:23202594

Sapaat, A; Satrija, F; Mahsol, H H; Ahmad, A H

2012-12-01

286

Processamento mínimo de mamão 'formosa' / Fresh cut of 'formosa' papaya  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho foi conduzido para verificar o efeito do tamanho do corte, 2,5 x 2,5cm (corte 1) e 2,5 x 5,0cm (corte 2), e da temperatura de armazenamento (3, 6 e 9ºC), na velocidade da modificação da atmosfera ambiente e nas características químicas de mamões do grupo `Formosa' minimamente processad [...] os e embalados em copos plásticos (500ml). A concentração de CO2 no interior destes copos aumentou 2 a 3 vezes, durante as primeiras 6 horas após o corte, para depois diminuir e se estabilizar. Esta concentração aumentou com o aumento da temperatura de armazenamento. A umidade dos pedaços diminuiu consideravelmente nos dois primeiros dias, e a temperatura que melhor conservou a umidade foi a de 6ºC. A acidez total titulável foi menor no corte 2, com as maiores reduções a 6 e 9oC. Os teores de sólidos solúveis totais não variaram entre os tratamentos, e os cuidados higiênicos adotados durante o processamento permitiram a obtenção de produtos com baixa contagem microbiana, 10³UFC.g-1 nos pedaços armazenados a 9ºC após sete dias, e com boa manutenção da qualidade sensorial das mesmas. Estes resultados permitem indicar o mamão `Formosa' para a produção de produtos minimamente processados, na forma de pedaços, com conservação refrigerada (3 e 6ºC ) por um período de 7 dias. Abstract in english This work was undertaken to verify the effect of cutting size, 2.5 x 2.5cm (chunk 1), 2.5 x 5.0cm (chunk 2), and storage temperatures (3, 6 and 9ºC), on atmosphere modification rate and chemical characteristics of `Formosa' fresh-cut papaya packed in plastic cups (500 ml). The CO2 concentration into [...] theses cups increased fron two to three fold during first 6 hours after cutting, then it decreased and stabilized. This concentration increased with the storage temperature increasing. The chunks's moisture remarkably decreased in the first 2 days, and the temperature which best sustained the moisture was 6ºC. The titratable total acidity was lower in chunk 2, with the highest reductions at 6 and 9ºC. The total soluble solids content did not vary between treatments, and hygienic care adopted during processing allowed to obtain low microbial counting products, 10³ CFU.g-1 in chunks stored at 9ºC after seven days and with good maintenance of its sensorial quality. These results allow to indicate `Formosa' papaya for fresh-cuts production, in chunk form, with refrigerated conservation (3 e 6ºC ) for 7 day periods.

Gustavo Henrique de Almeida, TEIXEIRA; José Fernando, DURIGAN; Ben-Hur, MATTIUZ; Oswaldo Durival, ROSSI JÚNIOR.

287

Efecto de la cocción y del grado de maduración de frutas de mamón (Carica papaya L.) sobre la calidad del mamón en almíbar / Effect of cooking and fruit ripening of papaya (Carica papaya L.) on quality of papaya in syrup  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo estudiar el efecto del grado de maduración de la fruta y la cocción sobre la retención de calcio y la firmeza del mamón en almíbar. Para los ensayos se emplearon frutas en dos grados de maduración distintos. La elaboración de frutas en almíbar se realizó con u [...] n tratamiento previo. El pre-tratamiento consistió en impregnar la fruta en soluciones isotónicas de lactato de calcio y la cocción se realizó en solución de sacarosa. Además se realizaron ensayos de elaboración del producto por cocción de frutas verdes frescas, sin pre-tratamiento, en almíbar con adición de 1,5% de lactato de calcio y en almíbar sin adición de calcio. Se midió el contenido de calcio y la firmeza en la fruta fresca, pre-tratada y pos-cocción. Los resultados experimentales indicaron que durante el pre-tratamiento las frutas verde y madura ganan 84,1 y 103,2 mg Ca/100g fruta fresca, respectivamente. Durante la cocción se retiene un 52,8% y 65,6% del calcio ganado, en fruta verde y madura respectivamente. El proceso de cocción de fruta verde en almíbar con lactato de calcio generó un producto con una ganancia de calcio de 78,6 mg Ca/100 g de fruta fresca y la cocción en almíbar (sin calcio) mantuvo los valores del contenido de calcio de la fruta fresca. El pre-tratamiento con calcio incrementa la firmeza de la fruta; la posterior cocción en almíbar favorece la firmeza en el caso de la fruta madura pero disminuye marcadamente la firmeza de la fruta verde. Abstract in english In this study the effect of fruit ripeness on the calcium retention and the firmness of papaya in syrup were investigated. The fruits in syrup were developed from pretreated papaya samples. The pretreatment consisted in an impregnation stage using isotonic solutions of calcium lactate, and the subse [...] quent cooking of the samples in sucrose syrup. In addition, green fruit without pretreatment was processed as a control. It was cooked in syrup with addition of 1.5% of calcium lactate and without calcium. Calcium content, color and firmness were measured in fresh fruit, pre-treated and processed samples.. Experimental results showed that during the pretreatment, green and ripe fruits increased their calcium content in 84.1 and 103.2 mg Ca/100g fresh fruit, respectively. During cooking, green and ripe fruits retained 52.8% and 65.6%, respectively, of the calcium content previously gained. Processed green fruits with calcium in syrup gained 78.6 mg Ca/100g fresh fruit, while those processed without mineral addition maintained the initial values of calcium content. The pretreatment with calcium increased the firmness of the fresh fruit, for both green and mature samples. After cooking, the ripe fruit firmness increased, as opposed to that of the green fruit, which decreased notoriously.

Nancy N, Lovera; Laura, Ramallo; Viviana O, Salvadori.

2013-12-01

288

Efecto de la cocción y del grado de maduración de frutas de mamón (Carica papaya L.) sobre la calidad del mamón en almíbar / Effect of cooking and fruit ripening of papaya (Carica papaya L.) on quality of papaya in syrup  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo estudiar el efecto del grado de maduración de la fruta y la cocción sobre la retención de calcio y la firmeza del mamón en almíbar. Para los ensayos se emplearon frutas en dos grados de maduración distintos. La elaboración de frutas en almíbar se realizó con u [...] n tratamiento previo. El pre-tratamiento consistió en impregnar la fruta en soluciones isotónicas de lactato de calcio y la cocción se realizó en solución de sacarosa. Además se realizaron ensayos de elaboración del producto por cocción de frutas verdes frescas, sin pre-tratamiento, en almíbar con adición de 1,5% de lactato de calcio y en almíbar sin adición de calcio. Se midió el contenido de calcio y la firmeza en la fruta fresca, pre-tratada y pos-cocción. Los resultados experimentales indicaron que durante el pre-tratamiento las frutas verde y madura ganan 84,1 y 103,2 mg Ca/100g fruta fresca, respectivamente. Durante la cocción se retiene un 52,8% y 65,6% del calcio ganado, en fruta verde y madura respectivamente. El proceso de cocción de fruta verde en almíbar con lactato de calcio generó un producto con una ganancia de calcio de 78,6 mg Ca/100 g de fruta fresca y la cocción en almíbar (sin calcio) mantuvo los valores del contenido de calcio de la fruta fresca. El pre-tratamiento con calcio incrementa la firmeza de la fruta; la posterior cocción en almíbar favorece la firmeza en el caso de la fruta madura pero disminuye marcadamente la firmeza de la fruta verde. Abstract in english In this study the effect of fruit ripeness on the calcium retention and the firmness of papaya in syrup were investigated. The fruits in syrup were developed from pretreated papaya samples. The pretreatment consisted in an impregnation stage using isotonic solutions of calcium lactate, and the subse [...] quent cooking of the samples in sucrose syrup. In addition, green fruit without pretreatment was processed as a control. It was cooked in syrup with addition of 1.5% of calcium lactate and without calcium. Calcium content, color and firmness were measured in fresh fruit, pre-treated and processed samples.. Experimental results showed that during the pretreatment, green and ripe fruits increased their calcium content in 84.1 and 103.2 mg Ca/100g fresh fruit, respectively. During cooking, green and ripe fruits retained 52.8% and 65.6%, respectively, of the calcium content previously gained. Processed green fruits with calcium in syrup gained 78.6 mg Ca/100g fresh fruit, while those processed without mineral addition maintained the initial values of calcium content. The pretreatment with calcium increased the firmness of the fresh fruit, for both green and mature samples. After cooking, the ripe fruit firmness increased, as opposed to that of the green fruit, which decreased notoriously.

Nancy N, Lovera; Laura, Ramallo; Viviana O, Salvadori.

289

Transmission efficiency of Papaya ringspot virus by three aphid species.  

Science.gov (United States)

The transmission efficiency of Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) by three aphid vectors (i.e., Aphis gossypii, A. craccivora, and Myzus persicae) was studied. Efficiency was measured by single-aphid inoculation, group inoculation (using five aphids), duration of virus retention, and the number of plants following a single acquisition access period (AAP) to which the aphids could successfully transmit the virus. Single-aphid inoculation studies indicated that M. persicae (56%) and A. gossypii (53%) were significantly more efficient in transmitting PRSV than A. craccivora (38%). Further, in the former two species, the time required for initiation of the first probe on the inoculation test plant was significantly shorter compared to A. craccivora. PRSV transmission efficiency was 100% in all three species when a group of five aphids were used per plant. There was a perceptible decline in transmission efficiency as the sequestration period increased, although M. persicae successfully transmitted PRSV after 30 min of sequestration. A simple leaf-disk assay technique was employed for evaluating the transmission efficiency of three species of aphids. The results of leaf-disk assays also indicated that A. gossypii (48%) and M. persicae (56%) were more efficient PRSV vectors than A. craccivora. Using leaf-disk assays, the ability of individual aphids to inoculate PRSV serially to a number of plants was studied. Following a single AAP on an infected leaf, M. persicae was more efficient than the other two species with 52.5% transmission after the first inoculation access period (IAP). However, its inoculation efficiency significantly decreased with the second and subsequent IAPs. A. gossypii was able to transmit PRSV sequentially up to four successive leaf disks, but with significantly declining efficiency. Since A. gossypii is reported to be the numerically dominant vector in south India in addition to being a more efficient vector capable of inoculating PRSV to multiple plants, it should be the target vector for control strategies. PMID:18943221

Kalleshwaraswamy, C M; Kumar, N K Krishna

2008-05-01

290

Preservation of papaya by gamma radiation of cobalt 60  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The preservation of papaya cultivar Solo was submit to the irradiation at a dose of 80 krad and storage in room temperature to 250 C and with refrigeration to 100 C and the mean relative humidity of the air was 85% and 92% respectively, was studied. First the fruits was submit to the fungi control, with hot water, 470 C to 20 min. After the packaging in carton box the fruits was immediately irradiated by EMBRARAD S.A. and after that storage. Fruits were storage at room temperature was ripened after 9 days. Any difference was observed inside and outside colour of the irradiated and the control fruits. The only difference was the texture. In the radiated ripped fruit was 1,95 kg/cm2 and by the control samples 0,80 kg/cm2. Respiration of irradiated fruit was more active in comparison with the control samples, but don't enter into senescence. Storage at 100 C was the best results being obtained for 30 days such the control sample with the irradiated. But the irradiated fruit was more yellow and uniform in relation to the control samples. Also the texture was more consistent in mean of 2,12 kg/cm2 and 1,36 kg/cm2, respectively. In that temperature the respiration of irradiated fruits was minor in comparison with the control samples. During the storage don't have difference in the weight losses, between the irradiated and the control samples fruits. (author)

291

Efficacy of Essential Oils on the Conidial Germination, Growth of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Penz. and Sacc and Control of Postharvest Diseases in Papaya (Carica papaya L.)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The efficacy of nine essential oils were investigated in vitro on conidial germination and mycelial growth inhibition of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides isolate from papaya (Carica papaya L.). In general, better antifungal effect was observed with Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Syzygium aromaticum oils which had strong inhibition of conidial germination of C. gloeosporioides at 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 ?g mL-1 and a dose dep...

Laura Leticia Barrera-Necha; Silvia Bautista-Banos; Hilda Elizabeth Flores-Moctezuma; Abel Rojas Estudillo

2008-01-01

292

Injúria pelo frio em frutos de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L. cv 'Golden' Chilling injury in papaya fruits (Carica papaya L. cv 'Golden'  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Os sintomas da injúria pelo frio em frutos de mamoeiro cv 'Golden' foram investigados neste trabalho.Os frutos apresentando de 10% a 15% de coloração amarela na casca, foram classificados na linha de operação de embalagem da Caliman Agrícola S.A (Linhares-ES e após receberam tratamentos térmicos e químicos. Os frutos foram embalados com filmes plásticos e estocados a 6ºC e 13ºC (85-95% UR em uma incubadora (BOD por 30 dias. Em intervalos de tempo definidos, seis frutos foram analisados quanto à firmeza, mudança de cor e aparência. A firmeza foi analisada tanto na região mais externa quanto na região mais interna do mesocarpo. De acordo com os resultados encontrados, os frutos estocados a 6ºC apresentaram os sintomas de escurecimento da casca entre o sexto e o décimo segundo dia de estocagem e também não perderam a cor verde após trinta dias de estocagem, conforme identificado pelos parâmetros de Hunter L (luminosidade, Hunter a (degradação da clorofila e Hunter b (amarelecimento. A firmeza foi drasticamente reduzida nos seis primeiros dias de estocagem nas duas temperaturas. Contudo, ela permaneceu mais elevada na parte externa do mesocarpo durante todo o período de estocagem à 13ºC. Os frutos estocados à 6ºC mostraram um aumento na firmeza, nas duas partes do mesocarpo, entre o sexto e o décimo oitavo dia de armazenamento devido à incidência da injúria pelo frio.The symptoms of chilling injury in papaya fruit cv -Golden' were investigated in this work. Fruits presenting 10% to 15% of fruit skin yellowing were sorted in the packaging line of the Caliman Agrícola S.A (Linhares-ES, after received chemical and heat treatments. The fruits were wrapped in a plastic film and stored at temperatures of 6ºC and 13ºC (85-95% RH in an incubator (BOD for 30 days. At defined time intervals, six fruits were evaluated regarding to firmness, appearance and color change. The fruit firmness was evaluated as in the outer as in the inner mesocarp halves. According to the results found, the fruits stored at 6ºC presented skin scald symptoms between six and twelve days of storage and failure to ripen after thirty days, as identified by the Hunter L (luminosity, Hunter a (loss of chlorophyll and Hunter b (yellowing. The firmness showed a high decrease in the six days of storage in both storage temperatures. However, it stayed higher in the outer mesocarp during all the storage period at 13ºC. Fruits stored at 6ºC showed an increment in firmness in both mesocarp halves between six and eighteen days of storage due to the chilling injury incidence.

Robson Ferreira de Almeida

2005-04-01

293

Injúria pelo frio em frutos de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L.) cv 'Golden' / Chilling injury in papaya fruits (Carica papaya L.) cv 'Golden'  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os sintomas da injúria pelo frio em frutos de mamoeiro cv 'Golden' foram investigados neste trabalho.Os frutos apresentando de 10% a 15% de coloração amarela na casca, foram classificados na linha de operação de embalagem da Caliman Agrícola S.A (Linhares-ES) e após receberam tratamentos térmicos e [...] químicos. Os frutos foram embalados com filmes plásticos e estocados a 6ºC e 13ºC (85-95% UR) em uma incubadora (BOD) por 30 dias. Em intervalos de tempo definidos, seis frutos foram analisados quanto à firmeza, mudança de cor e aparência. A firmeza foi analisada tanto na região mais externa quanto na região mais interna do mesocarpo. De acordo com os resultados encontrados, os frutos estocados a 6ºC apresentaram os sintomas de escurecimento da casca entre o sexto e o décimo segundo dia de estocagem e também não perderam a cor verde após trinta dias de estocagem, conforme identificado pelos parâmetros de Hunter L (luminosidade), Hunter a (degradação da clorofila) e Hunter b (amarelecimento). A firmeza foi drasticamente reduzida nos seis primeiros dias de estocagem nas duas temperaturas. Contudo, ela permaneceu mais elevada na parte externa do mesocarpo durante todo o período de estocagem à 13ºC. Os frutos estocados à 6ºC mostraram um aumento na firmeza, nas duas partes do mesocarpo, entre o sexto e o décimo oitavo dia de armazenamento devido à incidência da injúria pelo frio. Abstract in english The symptoms of chilling injury in papaya fruit cv -Golden' were investigated in this work. Fruits presenting 10% to 15% of fruit skin yellowing were sorted in the packaging line of the Caliman Agrícola S.A (Linhares-ES), after received chemical and heat treatments. The fruits were wrapped in a plas [...] tic film and stored at temperatures of 6ºC and 13ºC (85-95% RH) in an incubator (BOD) for 30 days. At defined time intervals, six fruits were evaluated regarding to firmness, appearance and color change. The fruit firmness was evaluated as in the outer as in the inner mesocarp halves. According to the results found, the fruits stored at 6ºC presented skin scald symptoms between six and twelve days of storage and failure to ripen after thirty days, as identified by the Hunter L (luminosity), Hunter a (loss of chlorophyll) and Hunter b (yellowing). The firmness showed a high decrease in the six days of storage in both storage temperatures. However, it stayed higher in the outer mesocarp during all the storage period at 13ºC. Fruits stored at 6ºC showed an increment in firmness in both mesocarp halves between six and eighteen days of storage due to the chilling injury incidence.

Robson Ferreira de, Almeida; Eder Dutra de, Resende; Letícia, Vitorazi; Lanamar de Almeida, Carlos; Luciana Konda de Azevedo, Pinto; Hugo Rafael Fonseca da, Silva; Meire Lelis Leal, Martins.

294

Propiedades Psicométricas del Inventario de Orientación Temporal de Zimbardo en una muestra Chilena  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La percepción del tiempo es una capacidad esencial para la adaptación del ser humano al ambiente. Un as - pecto de su estudio, la orientación temporal, caracteriza la actitud de las personas hacia el presente, pasado y futuro. e l Z tp I ha sido adaptado en múltiples países, y se han descrito aplicaciones en psicología clínica y de la salud. Este estudio busca adaptar y describir las propiedades del instrumento en una muestra chilena. Se reclutaron 604 participantes, entre 18 y 70 años. Las propiedades de los ítems y el análisis factorial explora - torio, señalan que es posible mantener la estructura original del instrumento con cinco factores. Reubicando 6 ítems el Alpha de Cronbach va desde .59 para Pasado Positivo a .80 para Pasado Negativo y Futuro. Son discutidas diferencias de género y edad. Siendo necesario otros estudios de validación, se establece como test útil para investigar la orientación temporal en población chilena.

Cristi\\u00E1n Oyanadel

2014-01-01

295

Influencia del tamaño empresarial sobre los resultados: un estudio comparativo entre empresas chilenas y españolas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Con la finalidad de contribuir en la importancia que tiene el tamaño empresarial en el resultado que alcanzan las organizaciones, la presente investigación persigue dos objetivos. En primer lugar, realizar una revisión bibliográfica del tamaño de las empresas y su relación con los resultados empresariales, y en segundo lugar, contrastar los planteamientos anteriores para aportar evidencia empírica al respecto, a través de un análisis comparativo entre empresas chilenas y españolas. El contraste se realiza sobre un panel completo de empresas industriales chilenas y españolas, para el periodo 1999-2005 y se emplea un modelo de efectos aleatorios. Utilizando técnicas para datos de panel se descubre que existe una relación entre el tamaño y los resultados empresariales, y además que el tamaño es una variable que influye significativamente en los resultados de las empresas. En conclusión, las empresas que deseen alcanzar mejores resultados deben considerar la dimensión empresarial o su tamaño como una variable relevante para dicho propósito.

Patricia Huerta

2010-01-01

296

Características de calidad de frutos de papaya maradol en la madurez de consumo / Quality characteristics in maradol papaya fruits at the comsumption ripeness stage  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El color de la cáscara es la característica más utilizada para evaluar la maduración de los frutos de papaya; las recomendaciones para la cosecha, comercialización y consumo se basan en la aparición de porcentajes de color verde, amarillo y naranja. Esas escalas subjetivas son ambiguas y crean dific [...] ultades en la interpretación del observador. Por lo anterior, el objetivo fue evaluar los principales cambios de apariencia, firmeza y sólidos solubles totales de papaya 'maradol' durante su maduración poscosecha para proponer índices objetivos que describan el estado de madurez de consumo. En noviembre de 2005 se definieron seis estados de maduración en frutos obtenidos en Yucatán y se evaluó el color del fruto, contenido de clorofilas y carotenoides, firmeza de la pulpa, azúcares y contenido de sólidos solubles totales. En marzo de 2006 se obtuvieron las características de los frutos en la madurez de consumo en dos localidades y se compararon con los resultados anteriores. La madurez de consumo de papaya maradol se alcanza entre los 13 y 15 días después de la cosecha en condiciones de almacenamiento de 23 ± 1°C y 75% de humedad relativa. El ángulo del tono de la cáscara entre 70 y 80°, el contenido de sólidos solubles totales entre 10 y 11.5 °Brix, y la firmeza de la pulpa de 4.7 a 6.9 newtons permitieron diferenciar dos estados de madurez de consumo. Abstract in english Skin fruit color is the main characteristic to evaluate papaya fruit ripening; recommendations for harvest, commercialization and consumption, are based in green, yellow and orange color percentages. These subjective scales are difficult for interpretation. The purpose of the present work was to eva [...] luate the main changes in appearance, firmness and total soluble solids occurring during postharvest ripening of maradol papaya fruits in order to define fruit characteristics that can be suggested as quality standards for consumption maturity. In November 2005, six maturity stages were identified and parameters such as fruit color, skin chlorophyll and carotenoids content, pulp firmness, sugars and total soluble solids were measured along them. In March 2006, fruit characteristics in consumption maturity of fruits harvested from two locations were obtained and compared with previous results. It was found that the consumption maturity stage is reached between 13 and 15 days after harvest when fruits were stored at 23±1°C and 75% of relative humidity. Skin°HUE values between 70 and 80, total soluble solids content between 10 and 11.5 °Brix and pulp firmness between 4.7 to 6.9 newtons allowed the differentiation of two consumption maturity stages.

Felipe, Santamaría Basulto; Raúl, Díaz Plaza; Enrique, Sauri Duch; Francisco, Espadas y Gil; Jorge Manuel, Santamaría Fernández; Alfonso, Larqué Saavedra.

297

Effects of nitric oxide treatment on the cell wall softening related enzymes and several hormones of papaya fruit during storage.  

Science.gov (United States)

Papaya fruits (Carica papaya L. cv 'Sui you 2') harvested with papaya fruits treated with nitric oxide had a significantly lower rate of ethylene production and a lesser loss of firmness during storage. A decrease in polygalacturonase, pectin methyl esterase, pectate lyase and cellulase activities was observed in nitric oxide treated fruit. In addition, the contents of indole acetic acid, abscisic acid and zeatin riboside were reduced in nitric oxide treated fruit, but no significant reduction in the level of gibberellin was found. These results indicate that nitric oxide treatment can effectively delay the softening and ripening of papaya fruit, likely via the regulation of cell wall softening related enzymes and certain hormones. PMID:23744122

Guo, Qin; Wu, Bin; Chen, Weixin; Zhang, Yuli; Wang, Jide; Li, Xueping

2014-06-01

298

Evaluation of the Combination of Vitamin D3 and Papaya Leaf on Muscle Antioxidant Activity of Spent Chicken  

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Full Text Available Eighty spent chickens were employed in this study to assay the effect of combination of vitamin D3 and papaya leaf on antioxidant activity of meat in spent layer hens. Diets were a corn-soybean meal based diet for finisher layer with and without vitamin D3 which was supplemented with different levels of 0, 0.5, 1 and 2% for papaya leaf meal. Experiment lasted for 21 days. At day 0, 7, 14 and 21, the birds were scarified and breast muscle was obtained to determine antioxidant activity. Antioxidant activity was measured using 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-Picrylhydrazyl (DPPH. Result obtained from this study demonstrated that antioxidant activity of meat showed remarkable improvement between dietary treatments fed mix of vitamin D3 and papaya leaf and control group. In conclusion, vitamin D3 and papaya leaf when combined indicated an improvement in antioxidant activity of the spent meat.

A.Q. Sazili

2011-01-01

299

Propiedades psicométricas del cuestionario multidimensional de memoria en población chilena adulta  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

El estudio presenta los datos de confiabilidad, validez convergente, de contenido y validez factorial del Multifactorial Memory Questionnaire [MMQ] en una muestra de 740 participantes correspondientes a población chilena normal, sin problemas de salud, en rangos de edad de 20 a 81 años. El MMQ posee 56 ítems tipo likert, correspondientes a tres dimensiones referidas a confianza en la memoria, capacidad y estrategias o ayudas usadas diariamente para recordar información. A partir del anál...

Bernardo Riffo; Fernando Reyes; Liz Vos, Mu F. Nica Vu E.

2013-01-01

300

Cuando la memoria reconstruye la historia. El ?género negro? en la literatura chilena contemporánea  

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Full Text Available Este artículo analiza el papel que ha jugado el ?género negro? en la nueva narrativa chilena, como una forma alusiva y tangencial de desenmascarar lo sucedido durante los últimos años de la historia de ese país. El texto se detiene, en especial, en el enfoque crítico implícito en el relato de serie negra y en la reconstrucción, a partir de una temática criminológica, de los conflictos políticos y sociales del Chile dictatorial y postdictatorial.

Gilda Waldman M.

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Green synthesis and antibacterial activity screening of silver nanoparticles reduced by papaya (Carica papaya L.) leaves extract  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The field of nano technology is the most active area of research in modern material sciences. Though there are many chemical, as well as physical methods, green synthesis is the most emerging method of synthesis. This study aimed to describe a cost effective and environment friendly technique for green synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The synthesis of silver nanoparticles was prepared by adding Carica papaya L. leaves extract to 1mM silver nitrate solution. The color change in reaction mixture (pale yellow to dark brown color was observed during the incubation period , due to excitation of surface plasmon vibrations in silver nanoparticles. Nanoparticles were characterized using UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) pattern, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy-Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDX) analysis. Absorption spectra of silver nanoparticles formed in the reaction media has absorbance peak at 280 nm, broadening of peak indicates that the particles are poly dispersed. SEM analysis described the morphology and the size of the particles. XRD confirmed the crystalline structure of the nanoparticles. The presence of the elemental silver was observed in the graph obtained from EDX analysis, which also supports the XRD results. The biomass of plants produces their nano materials by a process called bio mineralization. The tests cultures included in the study were Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Salmonella. Results showed that the maximum inhibitory effect using 1mM silver nitrates against the microbes were obtained. The approach of plant-mediated synthesis appears to be cost efficient, eco-friendly and easy alternative to conventional methods of silver nanoparticles synthesis (author)

302

Efecto del cloruro de sodio sobre el crecimiento y estado nutricional de plantas de papaya / Effect of sodium chloride on growth and mineral content of papaya plant  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La limitada disponibilidad de agua de calidad para la agricultura de las zonas áridas y semiáridas ha propiciado el uso de agua de moderada a alta salinidad. La papaya (Carica papaya L.), aunque se reporta con diferentes sensibilidades al estrés salino, es una especie de gran potencial frutícola par [...] a ser cultivada económicamente en las regiones semiáridas del estado Lara, Venezuela. El objetivo de este ensayo fue evaluar el efecto de la salinidad ocasionada por el NaCl sobre el crecimiento vegetativo y el estado nutricional de la papaya ‘Maradol’ desarrollada bajo una estructura de techo transparente. Como fuente salina se utilizó cloruro de sodio grado analítico, el cual se adicionó a través del agua de riego en cuatro tratamientos (0,001; 2,0; 4,0 y 8,0 dS·m-1) bajo un diseño completamente aleatorizado con cuatro repeticiones, hasta finalizar la fase juvenil del desarrollo. Se evaluó la longitud del tallo, biomasa seca aérea y radical, área foliar, área de sección del tallo, contenido relativo de clorofila (SPAD) y el contenido de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn, Cu, Fe y Na a nivel foliar. Los tratamientos afectaron el crecimiento vegetativo de las plantas durante toda la fase juvenil del desarrollo. Se observó, además, reducción del contenido de clorofila con el estrés por NaCl. Los tenores N y Na incrementaron, mientras que, los de K, Zn, Cu y Fe disminuyeron. Los niveles de P, Ca, Mg y Mn, no se afectaron. En base a los resultados obtenidos la papaya ‘Maradol’ puede ser considerada como un cultivar de moderada tolerancia al NaCl. Abstract in english Due to limited availability of low-salinity water in arid and semi-arid regions, water use of moderate to high salinity in agriculture of those regions is unavoidable. Papaya, although exhibits different sensitivities to salinity, has great potential to be cultivated in semi-arid regions of Lara Sta [...] te, Venezuela. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of irrigation with water containing different levels of NaCl on growth and nutrient content of papaya ‘Maradol’. The experiment was carried out under a structure with transparent ceiling until the end of the plant juvenile phase. NaCl treatments were applied to irrigation water to obtain 0.001, 2.0, 4.0 and 8.0 dS·m-1 electrical conductivity under a completely randomized design with four replications. Shoot length, shoot and root dry mater, leaf area, stem-cross-sectional area, relative chlorophyll content (SPAD), and leaf N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn, Cu, Fe and Na concentration were evaluated The presence of NaCl in the irrigation water caused inhibition of growth in young plants. Significant reduction in contents of chlorophyll was also detected. Tissue concentration of N and Na increased with increasing levels of NaCl, while K, Zn, Cu and Fe decreased. Ca, Mg, P and Mn, were not affected. On the basis of data obtained, papaya ‘Maradol’ can be considered as a moderately NaCl tolerant cultivar.

Jorge, Parés; Carmen, Basso.

303

Efecto del cloruro de sodio sobre el crecimiento y estado nutricional de plantas de papaya / Effect of sodium chloride on growth and mineral content of papaya plant  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La limitada disponibilidad de agua de calidad para la agricultura de las zonas áridas y semiáridas ha propiciado el uso de agua de moderada a alta salinidad. La papaya (Carica papaya L.), aunque se reporta con diferentes sensibilidades al estrés salino, es una especie de gran potencial frutícola par [...] a ser cultivada económicamente en las regiones semiáridas del estado Lara, Venezuela. El objetivo de este ensayo fue evaluar el efecto de la salinidad ocasionada por el NaCl sobre el crecimiento vegetativo y el estado nutricional de la papaya ‘Maradol’ desarrollada bajo una estructura de techo transparente. Como fuente salina se utilizó cloruro de sodio grado analítico, el cual se adicionó a través del agua de riego en cuatro tratamientos (0,001; 2,0; 4,0 y 8,0 dS·m-1) bajo un diseño completamente aleatorizado con cuatro repeticiones, hasta finalizar la fase juvenil del desarrollo. Se evaluó la longitud del tallo, biomasa seca aérea y radical, área foliar, área de sección del tallo, contenido relativo de clorofila (SPAD) y el contenido de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn, Cu, Fe y Na a nivel foliar. Los tratamientos afectaron el crecimiento vegetativo de las plantas durante toda la fase juvenil del desarrollo. Se observó, además, reducción del contenido de clorofila con el estrés por NaCl. Los tenores N y Na incrementaron, mientras que, los de K, Zn, Cu y Fe disminuyeron. Los niveles de P, Ca, Mg y Mn, no se afectaron. En base a los resultados obtenidos la papaya ‘Maradol’ puede ser considerada como un cultivar de moderada tolerancia al NaCl. Abstract in english Due to limited availability of low-salinity water in arid and semi-arid regions, water use of moderate to high salinity in agriculture of those regions is unavoidable. Papaya, although exhibits different sensitivities to salinity, has great potential to be cultivated in semi-arid regions of Lara Sta [...] te, Venezuela. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of irrigation with water containing different levels of NaCl on growth and nutrient content of papaya ‘Maradol’. The experiment was carried out under a structure with transparent ceiling until the end of the plant juvenile phase. NaCl treatments were applied to irrigation water to obtain 0.001, 2.0, 4.0 and 8.0 dS·m-1 electrical conductivity under a completely randomized design with four replications. Shoot length, shoot and root dry mater, leaf area, stem-cross-sectional area, relative chlorophyll content (SPAD), and leaf N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn, Cu, Fe and Na concentration were evaluated The presence of NaCl in the irrigation water caused inhibition of growth in young plants. Significant reduction in contents of chlorophyll was also detected. Tissue concentration of N and Na increased with increasing levels of NaCl, while K, Zn, Cu and Fe decreased. Ca, Mg, P and Mn, were not affected. On the basis of data obtained, papaya ‘Maradol’ can be considered as a moderately NaCl tolerant cultivar.

Jorge, Parés; Carmen, Basso.

2013-08-01

304

Poetas mapuches en la literatura chilena / Mapuche poets in Chilean literature  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este trabajo se estudia el modo en que las tradiciones textuales etnoliterarias de los mapuches y literarias de los españoles, se han imbricado en la literatura chilena a través del tiempo, y los aportes que ha dejado la incorporación de poetas de cultura mapuche en la poesía chilena contemporáne [...] a. En particular, se establece que autores como Sebastián Queupul, Pedro Alonzo, Elicura Chihuailaf y Leonel Lienlaf han participado en la conformación de la poesía etnocultural, dentro de la cual han propuesto una visión intercultural que sobrepasa los límites de la etnoliteratura mapuche y la literatura chilena tradicional, y un conjunto de estrategias textuales compartidas con otros poetas (enunciación sincrética, intertextualidad transliteraria y codificación plural, en la cual han creado una variedad propia, el doble registro). Abstract in english This paper studies the way in which mapuche textual ethnoliterary traditions and Spanish literary traditions have mixed in the Chilean literature through time, and the contribution of Mapuche poets to contemporary Chilean poetry, particularly, authors such as Sebastián Queupul, Pedro Alonzo, Elicura [...] Chihuailaf and Leonel Lienlaf, where they have created an intercultural view that goes beyond the limits of the mapuche ethnoliterature and Chilean traditional literature, together with a bunch of text strategies shared with others poets (syncretic enunciation, transliterary intertext and plural codification, where they have created their own variety, the double register).

Iván, Carrasco M.

305

Poetas mapuches en la literatura chilena Mapuche poets in Chilean literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En este trabajo se estudia el modo en que las tradiciones textuales etnoliterarias de los mapuches y literarias de los españoles, se han imbricado en la literatura chilena a través del tiempo, y los aportes que ha dejado la incorporación de poetas de cultura mapuche en la poesía chilena contemporánea. En particular, se establece que autores como Sebastián Queupul, Pedro Alonzo, Elicura Chihuailaf y Leonel Lienlaf han participado en la conformación de la poesía etnocultural, dentro de la cual han propuesto una visión intercultural que sobrepasa los límites de la etnoliteratura mapuche y la literatura chilena tradicional, y un conjunto de estrategias textuales compartidas con otros poetas (enunciación sincrética, intertextualidad transliteraria y codificación plural, en la cual han creado una variedad propia, el doble registro.This paper studies the way in which mapuche textual ethnoliterary traditions and Spanish literary traditions have mixed in the Chilean literature through time, and the contribution of Mapuche poets to contemporary Chilean poetry, particularly, authors such as Sebastián Queupul, Pedro Alonzo, Elicura Chihuailaf and Leonel Lienlaf, where they have created an intercultural view that goes beyond the limits of the mapuche ethnoliterature and Chilean traditional literature, together with a bunch of text strategies shared with others poets (syncretic enunciation, transliterary intertext and plural codification, where they have created their own variety, the double register.

Iván Carrasco M

2000-01-01

306

n vitro study of antiamoebic effect of methanol extract of mature seeds of Carica papaya on trophozoites of Entamoeba histolytica  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Antiamoebic activity of methanol extract of mature seeds of Carica papaya was tested in vitro on axenic culture of Entamoeba histolytica using metronidazole as a reference amoebicidal agent. The MIC of seed extract was > 62.5 µg/mL as compared to < 0.8 µg/mL for metronidazole. The present study suggests that the mature seeds of C. papaya have antiamoebic effect but less pronounced than metronidazole.

Sujit Kumar Sarker, Nilufar Begum, Dinesh Mondal, Md. Abdullah Siddique, Mohammad A. Rashid

2010-06-01

307

Starch edible coating of papaya: effect on sensory characteristics Revestimento de mamão papaia por películas de amido: efeito nas características sensoriais  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The coating of papayas with Cassava Starch (CS) and carboxymethyl starch (CMS) is an alternative to extend the shelf life of these fruits. This study evaluated the effect of the three different levels of CS and CMS (1, 3, and 5%) on sensory characteristics of papayas during storage. Nine selected and trained assessors evaluated 13 sensory attributes using the Multiple Comparison Test. The appearance and flavor attributes of the papayas treated with CS and CMS were compared to the control or r...

Ariane Castricini; Regina Celi Cavestré Coneglian; Rosires Deliza

2012-01-01

308

Estudos morfo-anatômicos de sementes de dois genótipos de mamão(Carica papaya L.) / Morphological and anatomical studies of seeds of two genotypes of papaya Carica papaya L.  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A propagação do mamoeiro Carica papaya L. é realizada por meio de mudas oriundas das sementes. Apesar da importância da semente do mamoeiro para a formação dos pomares comerciais, estudos morfológicos e anatômicos neste sentido são raros. O presente trabalho descreve aspectos morfológicos e anatômic [...] os das estruturas que constituem as sementes de dois genótipos do mamoeiro, Sunrise Solo 783 e Formosa Roxo 45. Sunrise Solo 783 e Formosa Roxo 45 pertencem aos dois grandes grupos 'Solo' e 'Formosa' respectivamente. Os referidos genótipos foram oriundos do banco de germoplasma da Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (UENF) em parceria com Empresa Caliman Agrícola S.A. A pesquisa foi conduzida no Laboratório de Microscopia Eletrônica da Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), Lavras, MG.Para a caracterização morfológica procedeu-se a dissecação e observação das estruturas utilizando bisturi, pinças e sexploradora sob microscópio estereoscópio. Para a caracterização anatômica utilizou-se a microscopia eletrônica de varredura. As amostras foram preparadas de acordo com a metodologia de rotina do Laboratório de Microscopia Eletrônica da UFLA e observadas a alto vácuo em diversos aumentos no microscópio Leo Evo 40, à distância de trabalho de 10 mm. As medições foram realizadas usando-se o Software Leo User Interface (versão Leo 3.2). Os estudos morfológicos permitiram identificar as estruturas que compõem a semente do mamoeiro e os estudos anatômicos permitiram observar a existência de diferenças estruturais e dimensionais entre as células dos dois genótipos estudados. Abstract in english The papaya (Carica papaya L.) propagation is made by seedlings produced from true seeds. Although the use of seeds in the implementation of commercial papaya orchards is well documented in literature, studies on the anatomy and morphology of these structures are in small number. In present work morp [...] hological and anatomical aspects of the seeds from two papaya genotypes Sunrise Solo 783 and Formosa Roxo 45,belonging to two grand groups ´Solo` and ´Formosa` are described. These genotypes were obtained of Gemoplasm Bank of the Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (UENF) in cooperation with the company Caliman Agricola S.A. The work was carried out at the Eletronic Microscopy and Ultra-strutural Analisys Laboratory of the Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA). To make the morphological characterization, the seeds were dissected carefully by hand and observed in the stereomicroscope. For the anatomic studies, seeds were prepared according to the routine protocol of the LME and observed in scanning electronic microscope Leo Evo 40, at work distance of 10 mm under high vacuum conditions. Measurements were made using the Software Leo User Interface (Version Leo 3.2). The results of the morphological studies provide adequate conditions to observe the different structures of the papaya seeds and from anatomic studies it was possible to verify structural and dimensional differences among the cells of the two genotypes under investigation.

Sônia Aparecida dos, Santos; Roberto Ferreira da, Silva; Messias Gonzaga, Pereira; Eduardo, Alves; José da Cruz, Machado; Flávio Meira, Borém; Renato Mendes, Guimarães; Elizabeth Rosemeire, Marques.

309

Estudos morfo-anatômicos de sementes de dois genótipos de mamão(Carica papaya L. Morphological and anatomical studies of seeds of two genotypes of papaya Carica papaya L.  

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Full Text Available A propagação do mamoeiro Carica papaya L. é realizada por meio de mudas oriundas das sementes. Apesar da importância da semente do mamoeiro para a formação dos pomares comerciais, estudos morfológicos e anatômicos neste sentido são raros. O presente trabalho descreve aspectos morfológicos e anatômicos das estruturas que constituem as sementes de dois genótipos do mamoeiro, Sunrise Solo 783 e Formosa Roxo 45. Sunrise Solo 783 e Formosa Roxo 45 pertencem aos dois grandes grupos 'Solo' e 'Formosa' respectivamente. Os referidos genótipos foram oriundos do banco de germoplasma da Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (UENF em parceria com Empresa Caliman Agrícola S.A. A pesquisa foi conduzida no Laboratório de Microscopia Eletrônica da Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA, Lavras, MG.Para a caracterização morfológica procedeu-se a dissecação e observação das estruturas utilizando bisturi, pinças e sexploradora sob microscópio estereoscópio. Para a caracterização anatômica utilizou-se a microscopia eletrônica de varredura. As amostras foram preparadas de acordo com a metodologia de rotina do Laboratório de Microscopia Eletrônica da UFLA e observadas a alto vácuo em diversos aumentos no microscópio Leo Evo 40, à distância de trabalho de 10 mm. As medições foram realizadas usando-se o Software Leo User Interface (versão Leo 3.2. Os estudos morfológicos permitiram identificar as estruturas que compõem a semente do mamoeiro e os estudos anatômicos permitiram observar a existência de diferenças estruturais e dimensionais entre as células dos dois genótipos estudados.The papaya (Carica papaya L. propagation is made by seedlings produced from true seeds. Although the use of seeds in the implementation of commercial papaya orchards is well documented in literature, studies on the anatomy and morphology of these structures are in small number. In present work morphological and anatomical aspects of the seeds from two papaya genotypes Sunrise Solo 783 and Formosa Roxo 45,belonging to two grand groups ´Solo` and ´Formosa` are described. These genotypes were obtained of Gemoplasm Bank of the Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (UENF in cooperation with the company Caliman Agricola S.A. The work was carried out at the Eletronic Microscopy and Ultra-strutural Analisys Laboratory of the Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA. To make the morphological characterization, the seeds were dissected carefully by hand and observed in the stereomicroscope. For the anatomic studies, seeds were prepared according to the routine protocol of the LME and observed in scanning electronic microscope Leo Evo 40, at work distance of 10 mm under high vacuum conditions. Measurements were made using the Software Leo User Interface (Version Leo 3.2. The results of the morphological studies provide adequate conditions to observe the different structures of the papaya seeds and from anatomic studies it was possible to verify structural and dimensional differences among the cells of the two genotypes under investigation.

Sônia Aparecida dos Santos

2009-01-01

310

Comparisons of Production Costs and Profit of Three Different Technology Levels of Papaya Production in Tabasco, Mexico  

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Full Text Available The survey was carried out from September 2006 to January 2007 in three papaya production sites located in main papaya production zones in Tabasco; SE Mexico. There are differences in size of the cultivated area, in the yield of the papaya as well as in production costs and profit, according to the different technology levels in the farming systems: low, medium and high technology cultivation level. The financial evaluations were carried out in three sites with different productive technologies. The comparison of the agronomic and economic traits results for low technology level in: V AN of 2359.00 USD, BCR in 1.9 and an equilibrium point of 3750.00 USD, TIR of 0.25. In order to avoid loses, a quantity of 10714 kg papaya should be sold. In medium technology VAN is 1605.10 USD, BCR is 1.7, TIR 0.20 and the equilibrium point is 12800.00 USD. 36571 kg of papaya should be yearly sold. In high technology level VAN is 11749.40, BCR is 2.73, TIR 0.43 and the equilibrium point is 12187.50 USD, 34821 kg papaya should be sold yearly. The indicators showed that all three levels are profitable and economically viable.

E. Guzmán-Ramón

2008-04-01

311

Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction (UAE and Solvent Extraction of Papaya Seed Oil: Yield, Fatty Acid Composition and Triacylglycerol Profile  

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Full Text Available The main objective of the current work was to evaluate the suitability of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE for the recovery of oil from papaya seed as compared to conventional extraction techniques (i.e., Soxhlet extraction (SXE and solvent extraction (SE. In the present study, the recovery yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil obtained from different extraction methods and conditions were compared. Results indicated that both solvent extraction (SE, 12 h/25 °C and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE methods recovered relatively high yields (79.1% and 76.1% of total oil content, respectively. Analysis of fatty acid composition revealed that the predominant fatty acids in papaya seed oil were oleic (18:1, 70.5%–74.7%, palmitic (16:0, 14.9%–17.9%, stearic (18:0, 4.50%–5.25%, and linoleic acid (18:2, 3.63%–4.6%. Moreover, the most abundant triacylglycerols of papaya seed oil were triolein (OOO, palmitoyl diolein (POO and stearoyl oleoyl linolein (SOL. In this study, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE significantly (p < 0.05 influenced the triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil, but no significant differences were observed in the fatty acid composition of papaya seed oil extracted by different extraction methods (SXE, SE and UAE and conditions.

Hasanah Mohd Ghazali

2013-10-01

312

Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and solvent extraction of papaya seed oil: yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile.  

Science.gov (United States)

The main objective of the current work was to evaluate the suitability of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) for the recovery of oil from papaya seed as compared to conventional extraction techniques (i.e., Soxhlet extraction (SXE) and solvent extraction (SE)). In the present study, the recovery yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil obtained from different extraction methods and conditions were compared. Results indicated that both solvent extraction (SE, 12 h/25 °C) and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) methods recovered relatively high yields (79.1% and 76.1% of total oil content, respectively). Analysis of fatty acid composition revealed that the predominant fatty acids in papaya seed oil were oleic (18:1, 70.5%-74.7%), palmitic (16:0, 14.9%-17.9%), stearic (18:0, 4.50%-5.25%), and linoleic acid (18:2, 3.63%-4.6%). Moreover, the most abundant triacylglycerols of papaya seed oil were triolein (OOO), palmitoyl diolein (POO) and stearoyl oleoyl linolein (SOL). In this study, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) significantly (p papaya seed oil, but no significant differences were observed in the fatty acid composition of papaya seed oil extracted by different extraction methods (SXE, SE and UAE) and conditions. PMID:24152670

Samaram, Shadi; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Tan, Chin Ping; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd

2013-01-01

313

Metabolismo de carboidratos durante o amadurecimento do mamão (Carica papaya L. Cv. Solo): influência da radiação gama / Influence of gamma radiation on carbohydrates metabolism of ripening papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Solo)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A irradiação de alimentos é um tratamento pós-colheita bastante promissor, capaz de atuar tanto na desinfestação como no aumento da vida útil de frutos. O mamão é um fruto com curta vida pós-colheita, levando de 6 a 12 dias para atingir a senescência. Além disto, a infestação por larvas de mosca dim [...] inui sensivelmente o seu potencial de exportação. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a ação de uma dose de 0,5 kGy de irradiação gama, normalmente utilizada para desinfestação e aumento de vida útil dos frutos, sobre o comportamento dos carboidratos solúveis durante o amadurecimento do mamão (Carica papaya L. cv. Solo), e sobre as enzimas relacionadas ao metabolismo da sacarose: sacarose sintase (SS), sacarose-fosfato sintase (SPS) e invertases ácida e neutra. Os resultados demonstraram que a irradiação não exerce efeito sobre o teor de glicose e frutose, ou sobre a respiração e atividade da SS. Entretanto, a composição dos açúcares solúveis totais e da sacarose, e a atividade da SPS e das invertases foram afetados. Abstract in english Food irradiation is one of the most promising treatments that can be utilized for fruits desinfestation and extension of shelf life. The authors studied the influence of 0,5 kGy of Gamma irradiation on the soluble carbohydrates composition of papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Solo) fruit, and on sucrose [...] metabolizing enzymes: sucrose synthase (SS), sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS), acid and neutral invertases activities, during ripening. The results demonstred that ethylene production, total soluble sugars, sucrose content, and sucrose-phosphate synthase and invertases activities were affected by irradiation, but not respiration, glucose and fructose content, and SS activity.

M. L. P. A., GOMEZ; F. M., LAJOLO; B. R., CORDENUNSI.

1999-05-01

314

Asymmetric purine-pyrimidine distribution in cellular small RNA population of papaya  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The small RNAs (sRNA are a regulatory class of RNA mainly represented by the 21 and 24-nucleotide size classes. The cellular sRNAs are processed by RNase III family enzyme dicer (Dicer like in plant from a self-complementary hairpin loop or other type of RNA duplexes. The papaya genome has been sequenced, but its microRNAs and other regulatory RNAs are yet to be analyzed. Results We analyzed the genomic features of the papaya sRNA population from three sRNA deep sequencing libraries made from leaves, flowers, and leaves infected with Papaya Ringspot Virus (PRSV. We also used the deep sequencing data to annotate the micro RNA (miRNA in papaya. We identified 60 miRNAs, 24 of which were conserved in other species, and 36 of which were novel miRNAs specific to papaya. In contrast to the Chargaff’s purine-pyrimidine equilibrium, cellular sRNA was significantly biased towards a purine rich population. Of the two purine bases, higher frequency of adenine was present in 23nt or longer sRNAs, while 22nt or shorter sRNAs were over represented by guanine bases. However, this bias was not observed in the annotated miRNAs in plants. The 21nt species were expressed from fewer loci but expressed at higher levels relative to the 24nt species. The highly expressed 21nt species were clustered in a few isolated locations of the genome. The PRSV infected leaves showed higher accumulation of 21 and 22nt sRNA compared to uninfected leaves. We observed higher accumulation of miRNA* of seven annotated miRNAs in virus-infected tissue, indicating the potential function of miRNA* under stressed conditions. Conclusions We have identified 60 miRNAs in papaya. Our study revealed the asymmetric purine-pyrimidine distribution in cellular sRNA population. The 21nt species of sRNAs have higher expression levels than 24nt sRNA. The miRNA* of some miRNAs shows higher accumulation in PRSV infected tissues, suggesting that these strands are not totally functionally redundant. The findings open a new avenue for further investigation of the sRNA silencing pathway in plants.

Aryal Rishi

2012-12-01

315

Herb-drug Pharmacokinetic Interaction between Carica Papaya Extract and Amiodarone in Rats.  

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Purpose - Carica papaya has been traditionally used worldwide in folk medicine to treat a wide range of ailments in humans, including the management of obesity and digestive disorders. However, scientific information about its potential to interact with conventional drugs is lacking. Thus, this work aimed to investigate the interference of a standardized C. papaya extract (GMP certificate) on the systemic exposure to amiodarone (a narrow therapeutic index drug) in rats. Methods - In the first pharmacokinetic study, rats were simultaneously co-administered with a single-dose of C. papaya (1230 mg/kg, p.o.) and amiodarone (50 mg/kg, p.o.); in the second study, rats were pre-treated for 14 days with C. papaya (1230 mg/kg/day, p.o.) and received amiodarone (50 mg/kg, p.o.) on the 15th day. Rats of the control groups received the herbal extract vehicle. Blood samples were collected before dosing and at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 12 h following amiodarone administration; in addition, at 24 h post-dose, blood and tissues (heart, liver, kidneys and lungs) were also harvested. Thereafter, the concentrations of amiodarone and its major metabolite (mono-N-desethylamiodarone) were determined in plasma and tissue samples employing a high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection method previously developed and validated. Results - In both studies was observed a delay in attaining the maximum plasma concentrations of amiodarone (tmax) in the rats treated with the extract. Nevertheless, it must be highlighted the marked increase (60-70%) of the extent of amiodarone systemic exposure (as assessed by AUC0-t and AUC0-?) in the rats pre-treated with C. papaya comparatively with the control (vehicle) group. Conclusions - The results herein found suggest an herb-drug interaction between C. papaya extract and amiodarone, which clearly increase the drug bioavailability. To reliably assess the clinical impact of these findings appropriate human studies should be conducted.This article is open to POST-PUBLICATION REVIEW. Registered readers (see "For Readers") may comment by clicking on ABSTRACT on the issue's contents page. PMID:25224345

Rodrigues, Márcio; Alves, Gilberto; Francisco, Joana; Fortuna, Ana; Falcão, Amílcar

2014-01-01

316

Efecto del etileno sobre el ACC y ACC oxidasa en la maduración de papaya 'maradol' / Ethylene effect on ACC content and ACC oxidase during ripening of 'maradol' papaya  

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Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Frutos de papaya 'Maradol' (Carica papaya L.) fueron tratados con etileno en aire sintético (0, 100, 300 y 500 µL L-1) en contenedores de fibra de vidrio a diferentes tiempos de exposición (8, 16 y 24 h). Después del tratamiento, los frutos fueron transferidos para su maduración a temperatura ambien [...] te (25 °C). Los análisis efectuados en cada tratamiento fueron: firmeza, azúcares reductores, sólidos solubles, acidez titulable, color de cascara y pulpa (Hue), velocidad de producción de etileno (VPE), contenido de ácido 1-aminociclopropano-1-carboxílico (ACC) y actividad de la enzima formadora de etileno (ACC oxidasa). Los resultados indicaron que el primer cambio notable fue el color en la cascara (amarillo) y en la pulpa (naranja), típicos en un fruto listo para el consumo. Los frutos expuestos a 500 µL L-1 de etileno por 16 y 24 h mostraron un pico climatérico un día después del tratamiento, mientras que los frutos expuestos por solamente 8 h mostraron su pico climatérico 2 d después de la exposición al etileno. Las papayas expuestas a 500 µL L-1 de etileno por 16 y 24 h produjeron bajos valores de Hue en menos tiempo que el testigo, y su contenido de ACC aumentó a 2.7 nmol g-1 h-1, la actividad de la ACC oxidasa a 3 nL g-1 h-1, y la velocidad de producción de etileno (VPE) a 24 nL g-1 h-1. Estas condiciones permitieron que se alcanzaran valores de firmeza de 5.2 kgf cm-2 y 12 % de sólidos solubles a los 6 d a 25 °C. El contenido de azúcares reductores, valores de pH y la acidez no mostraron diferencias significativas (P > 0.05) entre tratamientos. Los frutos testigo alcanzaron valores similares después de 8 d de maduración directa. Los resultados sugieren que es posible acelerar la maduración de papaya 'Maradol' de 8 a 3 d por exposición a atmósferas con etileno. Abstract in english 'Maradol' papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruits were subjected to atmospheres containing certified mixtures of synthetic air and ethylene (0, 100, 300 and 500 µL L-1) in fiberglass containers for different periods (8, 16 and 24 h). After exposure, fruits were transferred to ambient conditions (25 °C) for [...] ripening. The analyses performed on each treatment were: firmness, soluble solids content, reducing sugars content, titratable acidity, peel and flesh color (Hue), ethylene production rate (EPR), 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) content and ethylene-forming enzyme (ACC oxidadese) activity. Results showed that the first noticeable change in fruits was the yellow and red color turning in peel and flesh respectively, both typical of a fully ripe and ready-to-eat-papaya fruit. Fruits exposed to 500 µL L-1 of ethylene for 16 and 24 h showed a climacteric peak one day after treatment, while fruits exposed for only 8 h displayed their climacteric peak 2 d after ethy-lene exposure. Papayas treated for 16 and 24 h developed very low Hue values in a shorter time then the control, and their ACC content increased to 2.7 nmol g-1 h-1. ACC oxidase activity also increased to 3 nL g-1 h-1, and EPR reached 24 nL g-1 h-1. This set of conditions allowed fruits to reach firmness values of 5.2 kgf cm-2 and 12 % of soluble solids after 6 d at 25 °C. Reducing sugars content and percent age of titratable acidity were not different (P > 0.05) between treatments. Similar values were found in control fruits after 8 d at normal ripening conditions. Results suggest that it is possible to shorten ripening of 'Maradol' papaya fruit from 8 to 3 d after application of exogenous ethylene.

Javier De la, Cruz; Gilber, Vela; Lidia, Dorantes; Hugo S., García.

2010-06-01

317

Studies on physiologically active root distribution and appropriate method of fertilizer application using isotopic techniques in two varieties of papaya (Carica papaya) during pre-bearing stage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Coorg Honey Dew and Surya varieties of papaya aged 10 weeks, the abundance of active roots at 10 cm depth decreased during 20 to 100 days after injection of carrier-free 32P from 77% to 62% in the former and from 89% to 47% in the latter. Bulk of the active roots (85-65%) resided between 10 to 50 cm radial distance. While the phosphorus derived from fertilizer (Pdff) 32P-labelled superphosphate varied from 0.72 to 10.27%, placement between 10 and 40 cm radial distance was appropriate. (author)

318

Efecto del etileno sobre el ACC y ACC oxidasa en la maduración de papaya 'maradol' / Ethylene effect on ACC content and ACC oxidase during ripening of 'maradol' papaya  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Frutos de papaya 'Maradol' (Carica papaya L.) fueron tratados con etileno en aire sintético (0, 100, 300 y 500 µL L-1) en contenedores de fibra de vidrio a diferentes tiempos de exposición (8, 16 y 24 h). Después del tratamiento, los frutos fueron transferidos para su maduración a temperatura ambien [...] te (25 °C). Los análisis efectuados en cada tratamiento fueron: firmeza, azúcares reductores, sólidos solubles, acidez titulable, color de cascara y pulpa (Hue), velocidad de producción de etileno (VPE), contenido de ácido 1-aminociclopropano-1-carboxílico (ACC) y actividad de la enzima formadora de etileno (ACC oxidasa). Los resultados indicaron que el primer cambio notable fue el color en la cascara (amarillo) y en la pulpa (naranja), típicos en un fruto listo para el consumo. Los frutos expuestos a 500 µL L-1 de etileno por 16 y 24 h mostraron un pico climatérico un día después del tratamiento, mientras que los frutos expuestos por solamente 8 h mostraron su pico climatérico 2 d después de la exposición al etileno. Las papayas expuestas a 500 µL L-1 de etileno por 16 y 24 h produjeron bajos valores de Hue en menos tiempo que el testigo, y su contenido de ACC aumentó a 2.7 nmol g-1 h-1, la actividad de la ACC oxidasa a 3 nL g-1 h-1, y la velocidad de producción de etileno (VPE) a 24 nL g-1 h-1. Estas condiciones permitieron que se alcanzaran valores de firmeza de 5.2 kgf cm-2 y 12 % de sólidos solubles a los 6 d a 25 °C. El contenido de azúcares reductores, valores de pH y la acidez no mostraron diferencias significativas (P > 0.05) entre tratamientos. Los frutos testigo alcanzaron valores similares después de 8 d de maduración directa. Los resultados sugieren que es posible acelerar la maduración de papaya 'Maradol' de 8 a 3 d por exposición a atmósferas con etileno. Abstract in english 'Maradol' papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruits were subjected to atmospheres containing certified mixtures of synthetic air and ethylene (0, 100, 300 and 500 µL L-1) in fiberglass containers for different periods (8, 16 and 24 h). After exposure, fruits were transferred to ambient conditions (25 °C) for [...] ripening. The analyses performed on each treatment were: firmness, soluble solids content, reducing sugars content, titratable acidity, peel and flesh color (Hue), ethylene production rate (EPR), 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) content and ethylene-forming enzyme (ACC oxidadese) activity. Results showed that the first noticeable change in fruits was the yellow and red color turning in peel and flesh respectively, both typical of a fully ripe and ready-to-eat-papaya fruit. Fruits exposed to 500 µL L-1 of ethylene for 16 and 24 h showed a climacteric peak one day after treatment, while fruits exposed for only 8 h displayed their climacteric peak 2 d after ethy-lene exposure. Papayas treated for 16 and 24 h developed very low Hue values in a shorter time then the control, and their ACC content increased to 2.7 nmol g-1 h-1. ACC oxidase activity also increased to 3 nL g-1 h-1, and EPR reached 24 nL g-1 h-1. This set of conditions allowed fruits to reach firmness values of 5.2 kgf cm-2 and 12 % of soluble solids after 6 d at 25 °C. Reducing sugars content and percent age of titratable acidity were not different (P > 0.05) between treatments. Similar values were found in control fruits after 8 d at normal ripening conditions. Results suggest that it is possible to shorten ripening of 'Maradol' papaya fruit from 8 to 3 d after application of exogenous ethylene.

Javier De la, Cruz; Gilber, Vela; Lidia, Dorantes; Hugo S., García.

319

Enzymatic wound debridement; role of papaya in the management of post cesarean gaped wounds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background: Enzymatic wound debridement is an emerging concept in facilitating the wound healing process. Papaya has de-sloughing, antibacterial and wound healing properties. It has been used in African countries since centuries for different medicinal pur-poses. Apart from anecdotal reports and few studies on chronic ulcers and burns, no planned studies are available to support its action in postoperative wound infection.Objectives: To compare efficacy and safety of papaya dressing with conventional wound dressing with povidone iodine in post cesarean section gaped wounds. Setting: Gynecology Unit 3, Sir Ganga Ram Hospital Lahore - Pakistan, over a period of six months(June 2012 to Nov 2012). Study Design: Randomized, quasi experimental stu-dy. Materials and Methods: The study sample included 60 patients with post cesarean section gaped wounds. The sample was divided into two groups; thirty patients as Group A or the study group received Papaya dressing and rest of thirty patients as Group B or the control group received Povidone iodine dressing. Wounds were thoroughly washed with saline and then mashed unripe papaya was spread over the whole area of wound in the study group and povidone iodine in the control group. Wounds were covered with sterile bandage for at least 48 hours in study group and 24 hours in the control group. The process was repeated till a clean base of wound with healthy granulation tis-sue was achieved suitable for secondary suture. The efficacy parameters studied were the duration of time needed to develop healthy granulation tissue and total duration of hospital stay which were compared bet-ween the two groups. Safety factors studied were the adverse effects of medications used in the study. Results: Out of 1200 cesarean sections done during study period, sixty (5%) were gaped in the post-operative period. Out of 60, 55 (90%) were emergency and only 5 (10%) were elective cesarean sections. All the sixty patients with postoperative gaped wounds were included in the study, of which 30 patients received Papaya and 30 received Povidone iodine dressing. Time required to induce healthy granulation tissue was significantly shorter in the papaya group as compared to povidone iodine group (3.4 +- 0.4 days versus 7.2 +- 0.2 days).Similarly the duration of hospital stay was also short in the study as compared to control group i.e. 11.6 +- 1.2 days and 16.8 +- 1.4 days respectively. The side effects of medications used in study (papaya and povidone iodine) like local irritation and hyper-sensitivity reactions were minor and not significally different in both groups. Conclusion: Papaya dressing is effective, safe, widely available and cost effective for wound healing in post-operative infected gaped wounds. (author)

320

AMELIORATION OF GENOTOXICITY BY PAPAYA EXTRACT INDUCED BY ARSENIC CONTAMINATED DRINKING WATER  

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Full Text Available Arsenic is an established genotoxic carcinogen in human. Arsenic trioxide (0.04mg/animal when administeredorally daily to albino swiss mice for 15 continuous days, increased the incidence of abnormalities to 30.6% inmeiotic metaphase chromosome, 5.88% in the gross morphology of sperm head and decreased the sperm countper unit volume of caput epididymal suspension to 64.16 in comparison to the control. The concurrent treatmentof papaya fruit extract and arsenic trioxide significantly decreased the abnormalities to19.6% in meioticchromosome, 4.16% in the sperm head morphology and increased the mean count of sperm to 82.28. Theincrease in abnormality of meiotic chromosome as well as abnormality in gross morphology of the sperm headand decrease in sperm count, as observed upon arsenic trioxide treatment, were ameliorated by the aqueouspapaya fruit extract. Therefore, it is suggested that the papaya fruit extract may reduce the risk of arsenic-inducedgenotoxicity.

DHARMSHILA KUMARI

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Effect of the potassium permanganate during papaya fruit ripening: Ethylene production  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of potassium permanganate (KMnO4) on the ripening process of papaya fruits by monitoring the ethylene emission rates is reported. The ethylene emission was monitored by a photoacoustic spectrometer. Two experimental conditions were applied, being one of them just putting the fruit alone inside the sampling chamber and the second, modifying the atmosphere by the presence of KMnO4. The use of the ethylene absorber reduces the autocatalytic process of ethylene during papaya fruit ripening. For 20 g of KMnO4 the maximal intensity of the ethylene emission decreases by a factor two. Using the same amount of KMnO4, a reduction of about 2.2% in the concentration of ethylene for a mixture of 1ppmv of ethylene in synthetic air was observed.

Corrêa, S. F.; Filho, M. B.; da Silva, M. G.; Oliveira, J. G.; Aroucha, E. M. M.; Silva, R. F.; Pereira, M. G.; Vargas, H.

2005-06-01

322

Effects of irradiation on the organoleptic quality and ripening process of papaya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Papaya variety Eksotika harvested at stage 2 of maturity (green skin with a tinge of yellow) were cleaned, air dried and exposed to irradiation at lower doses i.e. 250, 500, 750, 1000 Gray and then were kept at 20 deg. C for up to 9 days or until ripe. Sensory evaluation was carried out the storage period in order to determine effects of radiation on organoleptic quality and ripening process. About 15-24 experienced panelists were involved in the sensory evaluation. It was found that effect on the organoleptic quality of fruit irradiated with dose at 1000 Gray was unacceptable. Nevertheless, the quality was very much less affected by irradiation at 750 Gray or lower. In general the irradiated papaya ripened earlier than the control where the skin colour change by turning from green to 100% yellow but gives harder texture. Freckles on skin surface during ripening were reduced by irradiation

323

Induction of functional sterility in male rats by low dose Carica papaya seed extract treatment.  

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The result revealed that a short term administration of an aqueous extract of Carica papaya seed manifested an androgen deprived effect on the target organs and thereby caused antifertility effect in adult male albino rats. The complete loss of fertility is attributed to decline in sperm motility and alteration in their morphology as well as to reduced contractile response of the vas deferens. The androgen deprived effect of the extract led to slight alteration in the histoarchitecture and weight of the reproductive organs, mainly cauda and distal vas deferens which has been related to their greater androgen sensitivity in comparison to the other target organs and or their greatly diminished target organ response to testosterone or its metabolites. The data revealed that functional sterility could be induced in male rats by papaya extract treatment, which promises to be a potential male contraceptive. PMID:6675389

Chinoy, N J; George, S M

1983-01-01

324

Antifertility investigations on the crude chloroform extract of Carica papaya Linn. seeds in male albino rats.  

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Crude chloroform extract of C. papaya seeds (5 mg/animal/day, po, for 20, 40 and 60 days) was investigated for contraceptive efficacy and related side effects in male albino rats. The crude extract reduced fertility to zero per cent by 40 to 60 days of treatment. Suppression of cauda epididymal sperm motility was the most pronounced effect of the drug administration. Scanning electron microscopic observations revealed treatment induced abnormalities in sperms. Cauda epididymal and testicular sperm counts decreased following treatment. Clinical parameters did not show any alterations. Results suggest that the contraceptive effects of chloroform extract of papaya seeds are mainly post-testicular in nature without influencing toxicological profile and libido of the animals. PMID:1293029

Lohiya, N K; Goyal, R B

1992-11-01

325

Effects of crude aqueous extract of Carica papaya seeds in male albino mice.  

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The effect of an aqueous extract of Carica papaya seeds (5 mg/kg body/day im and 20 mg/kg body wt/day oral) were investigated in male mice treated for 60 days. Reversibility studies were also carried out to elucidate if any induced effects were transient. The aqueous extract did not manifest any estrogenic effects in male mice, and LD50 studies indicated its nontoxic nature. The body weight or the weights of reproductive organs, kidney, and adrenal were not affected, indicating that the extract did not promote body weight gain through obesity or water retention. The serum SGOT, SGPT, protein, and cholesterol levels were also within the normal range in the extract-treated mice, suggesting that the extract does not influence liver function or cholesterol and protein metabolism. These data suggest that the aqueous extracts of papaya seeds is safe and could serve as an effective male contraceptive in rodents. PMID:8186628

Chinoy, N J; D'Souza, J M; Padman, P

1994-01-01

326

Use of papaya seeds as a biosorbent of methylene blue from aqueous solution.  

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In this study papaya seeds were used to remove methylene blue dye from aqueous solution. Papaya seeds were characterized as possessing a macro/mesoporous texture and large pore size. Studies were carried out in batches to evaluate the effect of contact time and pH (2-12) on the removal of dye. It was observed that the adsorption of dye was better in the basic region (pH 12). The equilibrium data were analyzed using Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Raduschkevich, Tempkin, Jovanovich, Redlich-Peterson, Sips, Toth and Radke-Prausnitz isotherms. The equilibrium data were best described by the Langmuir isotherm with a maximum adsorption capacity of 637.29 mg g(-1). Adsorption kinetic data were fitted using the pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order model. The adsorption kinetic is very fast and was best described by the pseudo-second-order model. PMID:23863440

Paz, Diego S; Baiotto, Alexandre; Schwaab, Marcio; Mazutti, Marcio A; Bassaco, Mariana M; Bertuol, Daniel A; Foletto, Edson L; Meili, Lucas

2013-01-01

327

Papaya glutamine cyclase, a plant enzyme highly resistant to proteolysis, adopts an all-beta conformation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glutamine cyclases catalyse the conversion of L-glutaminyl-peptides into 5-oxoprolyl-peptides with the concomitant liberation of ammonia. We report here biophysical characterisation of the glutamine cyclase present in the laticiferous cells of the plant Carica papaya. After purification to near homogeneity, this enzyme was subjected to limited proteolysis and found to exhibit a high resistance to degradation and nicking. The structural reasons for this property were examined using circular dichroism and infrared spectroscopies. By combining the analyses of the infrared and CD spectra of papaya glutamine cyclase, its susceptibility to proteolysis, and its hydrogen-deuterium exchange characteristics, we conclude that this protein contains extensive beta-sheet structure and is likely to have only short immobile loops connecting its beta-strands. PMID:9851712

Oberg, K A; Ruysschaert, J M; Azarkan, M; Smolders, N; Zerhouni, S; Wintjens, R; Amrani, A; Looze, Y

1998-11-15

328

Structural characterization of the papaya cysteine proteinases at low pH.  

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Current control of gastrointestinal nematodes relies primarily on the use of synthetic drugs and encounters serious problems of resistance. Oral administration of plant cysteine proteinases, known to be capable of damaging nematode cuticles, has recently been recommended to overcome these problems. This prompted us to examine if plant cysteine proteinases like the four papaya proteinases papain, caricain, chymopapain, and glycine endopeptidase that have been investigated here can survive acidic pH conditions and pepsin degradation. The four papaya proteinases have been found to undergo, at low pH, a conformational transition that instantaneously converts their native forms into molten globules that are quite unstable and rapidly degraded by pepsin. As shown by activity measurements, the denatured state of these proteinases which finally results from acid treatment is completely irreversible. It is concluded that cysteine proteinases from plant origin may require to be protected against both acid denaturation and proteolysis to be effective in the gut after oral administration. PMID:16434027

Huet, Joëlle; Looze, Yvan; Bartik, Kristin; Raussens, Vincent; Wintjens, René; Boussard, Paule

2006-03-10

329

Beverages of lemon juice and exotic noni and papaya with potential for anticholinergic effects.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f.) juice beverages enriched either with noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) (LN) or papaya (Carica papaya L.) (LP), were characterized by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS(n), the antioxidant capacity was evaluated by (DPPH), superoxide (O2(-)), hydroxyl radicals (OH) and hypochlorous acid (HOCl) assays, and their potential as acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) inhibitors was also assessed. The fruits are rich in a wide range of bioactive phenolics. Regarding DPPH, OH and HOCl assays, the LP displayed strong activity, and LN was the most active against O2(-). Concerning cholinesterases, LP was the most active, mainly due to lemon juice contribution. The effect on the cholinesterases was not as strong as in previous reports on purified extracts, but the bioactive-rich beverages offer the possibility of dietary coadjutants for daily consumption of health-promoting substances by adults with aging-related cognitive or physical disorders. PMID:25306312

Gironés-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B; Ferreres, Federico; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina

2015-03-01

330

Quality of Guava and Papaya Fruit Pulp as Influenced by Blending Ratio and Storage Period  

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Full Text Available Guava and papaya are the most widely grown commercial fruits of central India. Both the fruits are nutritive and may be used for processing. The analysis of organoleptic characters (i.e., colour, flavour, texture, taste and overall acceptability and qualitative characters (i.e., TSS, pH, acidity, ascorbic acid content of guava and papaya fruits was conducted on fresh fruit, prepared pulp and mixed pulp. During the storage of fruit pulp at low temperature (6±1°C, the decrease in overall acceptability of both the pulp was observed with increase in storage period. However, blending of both the pulp in different ratios influenced the organoleptic characters as well as the qualitative characters of the blended pulp.

Prabhat K. Nema

2011-01-01

331

Uso de esterco associado à adubação mineral na produção de mudas de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L. The use of manure associated with mineral fertilization in papaya (Carica papaya L. seedling production  

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Full Text Available Na composição do substrato para produção de mudas de mamoeiro, recomenda-se o uso de adubação orgânica, que traz como vantagens a melhoria das características físicas, químicas e biológicas do solo, criando um ambiente favorável ao desenvolvimento inicial das mudas, bem como boa resposta do mamoeiro. Os materiais orgânicos desempenham ainda um importante papel na nutrição das plantas como fornecedores de nutrientes. Contudo, observa-se que existe uma grande variação nas recomendações e quase sempre a adubação orgânica está associada à adubação mineral. Neste contexto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi o de verificar os efeitos do uso de esterco de curral associado ou não à adubação mineral no substrato sobre a formação de mudas de mamoeiro. O Experimento foi conduzido na FEP/UNESP/Câmpus de Ilha Solteira-SP. O delineamento utilizado foi em blocos, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas, sendo parcelas as cultivares e subparcelas os substratos. Cada parcela com 5 repetições e 10 plantas úteis por subparcela. Para a comparação das médias, utilizou-se o teste de Tukey. Com base nos resultados obtidos, pode-se concluir que: a Na formação das mudas de mamoeiro, o esterco de curral pode ser utilizado sem a necessidade de adubação mineral com o superfosfato simples e o cloreto de potássio; b O esterco de curral foi capaz de fornecer às mudas de mamoeiro os nutrientes N, P, K, Ca, Mg e Cu, necessários para seu desenvolvimento até o transplantio para o campo.The use of organic fertilization is recommended to be added to the substrate for papaya seedling production, as it enhances the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the soil, creating a favorable environment for the initial development of the plants, which results in better plant growth. The organic matter has also the important role of providing nutrients to the plants. However, there is great variation in the recommendations, and in most cases organic fertilization is associated with mineral supplementation. The objective of this research was to verify the effects of the use of corral manure, associated or not with mineral fertilization, added to the papaya seedling substrate. The experiment was deployed at the Teaching and Research Farm of the College of Engineering of Ilha Solteira, UNESP, in Ilha Solteira, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The design was set in blocks, in split plots, where papaya cultivars were the whole unit and substrates the subunit treatments. Each unit with 5 replications and the subunit composed of 10 plants each. Means were separated by Tukey test. Results indicated that: a papaya seedling production the corral manure can be used without supplementation of simple superphosphate and potassium chloride, b corral manure alone supplied nutrients N, P, K, Ca, Mg and Cu to the papaya seedlings until transplanted to the field.

Regina Célia Faria Simão Canesin

2006-12-01

332

Fitotoxicidade de fungicidas, acaricidas e inseticidas sobre o mamoeiro (Carica papaya L.) cultivar sunrise solo improved line 72/12 / Toxic effects of pesticides products on papaya plant (Carica papaya L.) cv. sunrise solo improved line 72/12  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Estudaram-se os efeitos fitotóxicos de fungicidas, acaricidas e inseticidas e algumas associações entre eles, em plantas de mamoeiros (Carica papaya L.) cv. Sunrise Solo Improved Line 72/12, em condições de verão, no município de São Mateus - ES, localizado na região produtora do Estado. O experimen [...] to foi arranjado em delineamento de blocos casualizados, com 4 repetições e 03 plantas úteis por parcela experimental. Foram utilizados os seguintes produtos, com as respectivas doses, para cada 100 l de água: abamectin (Vertimec 18 CE - 50 ml); dicofol + tetradiphon (Carbax - 200 ml), fenbutatin oxide (Torque 500 SC - 60 ml); mancozeb (Dithane PM - 200g); oxicloreto de cobre (Reconil - 400g) e thiabendazole (Tecto 450 - 100ml). Analisou-se a fitotoxicidade dos produtos em relação à altura da planta, nº de folhas, número de flores e frutos ; diâmetro do caule e queimaduras ou injúrias foliares. As medições e contagens foram feitas um dia antes das pulverizações, 15 e 30 dias após. Constatou-se que o Vertimec 18 CE, associado ao Reconil ou ao Tecto 450, ocasionou leves injúrias foliares, detectadas aos 15 dias após as pulverizações, que se tornaram praticamente imperceptíveis, aos 30 dias após as pulverizações; e que Dithane PM, Reconil, Tecto 450, Carbax, Torque 500 SC, Dithane PM + Carbax, Dithane PM + Torque 500 SC, Dithane PM + Vertimec 18 CE, Reconil + Carbax, Reconil + Torque 500 SC, Tecto 450 + Carbax e, Tecto 450 + + Torque 500 SC não interferiram nos parâmetros de desenvolvimento e de produção estudados, bem como não causaram injúrias ou queimaduras nas folhas dos mamoeiros. Abstract in english In this work was studied the phytotoxic effect of inseticides, acaricides and fungicides alone and in combination, on papaya plants (Carica papaya L.); cv. Sunrise Solo Improved Line 72/12, under field conditions. The experiment were conducted in a farm, located at São Mateus county, the most import [...] ant papaya region in the State of Espírito Santo.The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with four replications, with three plants by plot. The products with their respective dose in a volume of 100 l H2O were: abamectin (Vertimec 18 CE - 50 ml); dicofol + tetradifon (Carbax - 200 ml); fenbutatin oxide (Torque 500 SC - 60 ml); mancozeb (Dithane PM - 200g).; cuprix oxychloride (Reconil 400g) and thiabendazole (Tecto 450 - 100ml). Plants were evaluated for plant high, number of leaves, flowers and fruits, and extension of leaf injury, one day before, 15 and 30 days after spray. Vertimec 18 CE in combination with Reconil or Tecto 450, caused light leaf injuries, observed only15 days after spraying. These plants recovered from leaf injury and 30 days later, no leaf lesion was observed. Dithane PM, Reconil, Tecto 450, Carbax, Torque 500 SC, Dithane PM + Carbax , Dithane PM + Torque 500 SC, Dithane PM + Vertimec 18 CE, Reconil + Carbax, Reconil + Torque 500 SC, Tecto 450 + Carbax and Tecto 450 + Torque 500 SC, did not affected plant growth and yield studied. No leaf burns injury were caused in papaya plants.

Alcílio, Vieira; Carlos, Ruggiero; Sérgio Lucio David, Marin.

333

Development and validation of a multiplex reverse transcription PCR assay for simultaneous detection of three papaya viruses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV), and Papaya mosaic virus (PapMV) produce similar symptoms in papaya. Each threatens commercial production of papaya on Hainan Island, China. In this study, a multiplex reverse transcription PCR assay was developed to detect simultaneously these three viruses by screening combinations of mixed primer pairs and optimizing the multiplex RT-PCR reaction conditions. A mixture of three specific primer pairs was used to amplify three distinct fragments of 613 bp from the P3 gene of PRSV, 355 bp from the CP gene of PLDMV, and 205 bp from the CP gene of PapMV, demonstrating the assay's specificity. The sensitivity of the multiplex RT-PCR was evaluated by showing plasmids containing each of the viral target genes with 1.44 × 103, 1.79 × 103, and 1.91 × 102 copies for the three viruses could be detected successfully. The multiplex RT-PCR was applied successfully for detection of three viruses from 341 field samples collected from 18 counties of Hainan Island, China. Rates of single infections were 186/341 (54.5%), 93/341 (27.3%), and 3/341 (0.9%), for PRSV, PLDMV, and PapMV, respectively; 59/341 (17.3%) of the samples were co-infected with PRSV and PLDMV, which is the first time being reported in Hainan Island. This multiplex RT-PCR assay is a simple, rapid, sensitive, and cost-effective method for detecting multiple viruses in papaya and can be used for routine molecular diagnosis and epidemiological studies in papaya. PMID:25337891

Tuo, Decai; Shen, Wentao; Yang, Yong; Yan, Pu; Li, Xiaoying; Zhou, Peng

2014-01-01

334

Development and Validation of a Multiplex Reverse Transcription PCR Assay for Simultaneous Detection of Three Papaya Viruses  

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Full Text Available Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV, Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV, and Papaya mosaic virus (PapMV produce similar symptoms in papaya. Each threatens commercial production of papaya on Hainan Island, China. In this study, a multiplex reverse transcription PCR assay was developed to detect simultaneously these three viruses by screening combinations of mixed primer pairs and optimizing the multiplex RT-PCR reaction conditions. A mixture of three specific primer pairs was used to amplify three distinct fragments of 613 bp from the P3 gene of PRSV, 355 bp from the CP gene of PLDMV, and 205 bp from the CP gene of PapMV, demonstrating the assay’s specificity. The sensitivity of the multiplex RT-PCR was evaluated by showing plasmids containing each of the viral target genes with 1.44 × 103, 1.79 × 103, and 1.91 × 102 copies for the three viruses could be detected successfully. The multiplex RT-PCR was applied successfully for detection of three viruses from 341 field samples collected from 18 counties of Hainan Island, China. Rates of single infections were 186/341 (54.5%, 93/341 (27.3%, and 3/341 (0.9%, for PRSV, PLDMV, and PapMV, respectively; 59/341 (17.3% of the samples were co-infected with PRSV and PLDMV, which is the first time being reported in Hainan Island. This multiplex RT-PCR assay is a simple, rapid, sensitive, and cost-effective method for detecting multiple viruses in papaya and can be used for routine molecular diagnosis and epidemiological studies in papaya.

Decai Tuo

2014-10-01

335

Caracterização anatômica de órgãos vegetativos do mamoeiro Anatomical characterization of vegetative organs of papaya plants  

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Full Text Available O mamoeiro (Carica papaya L. é uma planta cuja importância econômica cresceu bastante nos últimos anos, bem como os trabalhos científicos relacionados ao seu crescimento e à sua fisiologia. Infelizmente, foram realizados poucos trabalhos em relação à sua anatomia. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho é caracterizar anatomicamente plantas do mamoeiro em estádios iniciais do crescimento. Esses estudos são importantes porque podem ser utilizados, principalmente, para correlações com o crescimento e a fisiologia dessa planta. Após coletadas, amostras frescas de raiz, caule e folha foram seccionadas transversalmente à mão livre, e os cortes submetidos ao processo de coloração com safranina e azul de astra. Observou-se que a raiz apresenta estrutura hexarca e caracteriza-se como sendo não axial. A estrutura anatômica do caule, nas regiões mais maduras, assemelha-se à estrutura do pecíolo. A lâmina foliar apresenta epiderme uniestratificada com mesofilo dorsiventral, e os estômatos anomocíticos são observados na face abaxial.Papaya (Carica papaya L. is a plant whose economic importance and scientific studies related to its growth and its physiology have greatly increased in recent years. Unfortunately, few researches in relation to its anatomy were performed. Thus, it was aimed to characterize the anatomically papaya plants in the early stages of growth. These studies are important because they can be used, mainly, for correlations with the growth and the physiology of this plant. After collected, the anatomical cuts of fresh root, stem and leaf were manually performed and their visualization were made through a coloration process using safranine and astra blue. The root structure is hexarc and is characterized as non-axial. The anatomical structure of the stem is similar to petiole in the mature parts. Leaf blade showed an uniestratified epidermis with dorsiventral mesophyll and anomocytic stomata were observed in the leaf abaxial surface.

Cláudia Elena Carneiro

2009-06-01

336

Efek Ekstrak Air Buah Pepaya (Carica papaya L. Muda terhadap Gambaran Histologi Kelenjar Mamma Mencit Laktasi  

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Full Text Available Breast milk is the best food for infants. Household Health Survey in 2005 showed exclusive breastfeeding were 4–12% in urban and 4–5% in rural areas. Objective of the study was to examine the effect of unripe papaya aqueous extract (Carica papaya L. on lactating mammary glands histological appearance. The experiment was held on July–September 2009 at Padjadjaran University Clinical Pharmacology Laboratory and Health Research Unit of Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital in July–September 2009. A laboratorium experimental study conducted to 21 lactating Swiss Webster mice with 10 babies each. They were divided randomly into 3 groups (n=7. Group I was negative control. Group II: luteotropin 6 mg/30 g BW/day (per oral and group III: unripe papaya aqueous extract 20 mg/30 g BW/day (per oral. Increased milk production was measured by average lactating mammary glands alveolar amounts and diameter count. Experiment started at 4th–16th lactation day. The result was analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by Tukey test. The average of alveolar amounts of group I, II and III, were 310.57±30.16, 464.42±25.83, and 465.14±72.41, respectively. The average lactating mamary glands alveolar diameter of group I: 296.50±21.27 ?, group II: 394.57±53.97 ? and group III: 384.29±40.40 ?. Research showed that unripe papaya aqueous extract has better than negative control and equivalent effect with luteotropin on lactating mammary glands histological appearance

Yuktiana Kharisma

2011-12-01

337

Estudo da comercialização do mamão em Brasília-DF / Papaya commercialization study in Brasília-DF  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Estudaram-se os principais fatores envolvidos na comercialização do mamão em 10 supermercados e 9 varejões de Brasília-DF, em janeiro de 1999. O levantamento dos dados foi realizado através da aplicação de questionários aos responsáveis pelos estabelecimentos. Os atacadistas da CEASA-DF, foram os pr [...] incipais fornecedores dos estabelecimentos analisados. O grau de perda dos frutos foi considerado muito alto apenas pelos varejões. A má qualidade do fruto, demora entre compra e venda, transporte precário e condições climáticas foram as principais causas de perdas segundo os varejões. Nos supermercados, foram: falta de armazenamento apropriado, má qualidade do fruto, condições climáticas e manuseio do cliente. Na maioria dos estabelecimentos, o mamão é entregue pelo fornecedor em caixas de madeira. Os mamões ficam expostos para venda em prateleiras na maioria dos estabelecimentos analisados. Abstract in english The main factors involved in the commercialization of papaya in 10 supermarkets and 9 retail shops of Brasília-DF was studied in January of 1999. The data was colleted using questionnaire answered by the manager of the establishment. It was observed that the wholesalers of Federal District Wholesale [...] Market (CEASA-DF) are the main supplier of papaya in all establishment analyzed. The fruit loss was considered very high only in the retail shops. The poor quality of fruit, the delay between purchasing and selling, precarious transport system and climatic condition were the main reasons of losses attributed by the retail shops. In the supermarkets the lack of appropriate storage, poor quality of purchased fruit, climatic conditions and manipulation by clients were considered as the main causes for the losses. The supplier delivers the papaya in wood boxes in almost all establishments. Papaya fruits for selling were displayed in racks in most of the establishments analyzed.

GENI RODRIGUES, FAGUNDES; OSVALDO KIYOSHI, YAMANISHI.

2002-04-01

338

Caracterização anatômica de órgãos vegetativos do mamoeiro / Anatomical characterization of vegetative organs of papaya plants  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O mamoeiro (Carica papaya L.) é uma planta cuja importância econômica cresceu bastante nos últimos anos, bem como os trabalhos científicos relacionados ao seu crescimento e à sua fisiologia. Infelizmente, foram realizados poucos trabalhos em relação à sua anatomia. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho é [...] caracterizar anatomicamente plantas do mamoeiro em estádios iniciais do crescimento. Esses estudos são importantes porque podem ser utilizados, principalmente, para correlações com o crescimento e a fisiologia dessa planta. Após coletadas, amostras frescas de raiz, caule e folha