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Modelado de la Cinética de Secado de la Papaya Chilena (Vasconcellea pubescens) / Modeling of Drying Kinetic of Chilean Papaya (Vasconcellea pubescens)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se ha estudiado y modelado la cinética de secado por aire caliente de papaya chilena (Vasconcellea pubescens) a diferentes temperaturas (40, 50, 60, 70 y 80º C) con velocidad de aire de 2.0 ± 0.2 m·s-1. Durante las experiencias se observaron los periodos de inducción, velocidad constante y decrecien [...] te. Los modelos matemáticos aplicados fueron el modelo de Newton, Henderson-Pabis y Page. Además se evaluó la calidad de ajuste de estos modelos por medio del coeficiente de regresión lineal, suma de errores cuadrados, raíz media de los errores cuadrados y Chi-cuadrado. Los parámetros cinéticos de cada modelo presentaron la dependencia usual con la temperatura, y fueron evaluadas con la ecuación de Arrhenius. Al comparar los valores experimentales con los calculados, se demostró que el modelo de Page obtuvo la mejor calidad de ajuste en cada curva de secado, representando una excelente herramienta para estimar el tiempo de secado de este producto. Abstract in english The kinetics of hot air drying of chilean papaya (Vasconcellea pubescens) was studied and modeled at different temperatures (40, 50, 60, 70 & 80º C) and air velocity of 2.0 ± 0.2 m·s-1. The induction, constant, and fallingrate periods were observed during the experimentation. The mathematical models [...] of Newton, Henderson-Pabis and Page were applied. Also evaluated were the quality of fit to the models using the coefficient of linear regression, the sum square error, the root mean square error and the Chisquare test. The kinetic parameters of each model showed the usual dependence on temperature, and were evaluated using the Arrhenius equation. In comparing experimental data with calculated values, it was demonstrated that the Page model attained the best fit for every drying curve, representing an excellent tool for the estimation of the drying time of this product.

Antonio A, Vega; Roberto A, Lemus.

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Deshidratación osmótica de la papaya chilena (Vasconcellea pubescens) e influencia de la temperatura y concentración de la solución sobre la cinética de transferencia de materia Desidratação osmótica do mamão chileno (Vasconcellea pubescens) e influência da temperatura e concentração da solução sobre a cinética de transferência de matéria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar la cinética de deshidratación osmótica de la papaya chilena (Vasconcellea pubescens), utilizando dos variables experimentales: la temperatura (30, 40, 50 °C) y concentración (40, 50 y 60%) de la solución osmótica. Se determinó la variación de masa total, masa de agua y masa de sólidos solubles y se modeló con las ecuaciones difusionales, además en esta investigación se consideró y utilizó una modificación de la ecuación propuesta por B...

Antonio Vega-Gálvez; Marlene Palacios; Francisca Boglio; Catarina Pássaro; Catalina Jeréz; Roberto Lemus-Mondaca

2007-01-01

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Deshidratación osmótica de la papaya chilena (Vasconcellea pubescens e influencia de la temperatura y concentración de la solución sobre la cinética de transferencia de materia Desidratação osmótica do mamão chileno (Vasconcellea pubescens e influência da temperatura e concentração da solução sobre a cinética de transferência de matéria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar la cinética de deshidratación osmótica de la papaya chilena (Vasconcellea pubescens, utilizando dos variables experimentales: la temperatura (30, 40, 50 °C y concentración (40, 50 y 60% de la solución osmótica. Se determinó la variación de masa total, masa de agua y masa de sólidos solubles y se modeló con las ecuaciones difusionales, además en esta investigación se consideró y utilizó una modificación de la ecuación propuesta por Biswal-Bozorgmehr. Estos modelos fueron evaluados por medio del coeficiente de regresión lineal, suma de errores cuadrados, raíz media de los errores cuadrados y Chi-cuadrado. Al comparar los valores experimentales con los calculados, se demostró que el modelo Biswal-Bozorgmehr modificado obtuvo mejor ajuste sobre la variación de masa de agua y sólidos solubles. Mediante la ecuación de Arrhenius se analizó el efecto de la temperatura sobre los parámetros cinéticos (Kw y Kss y difusividad efectiva de agua (Dwe y sólidos solubles (Dsse. De acuerdo al diseño factorial, se observó que la temperatura no influyó sobre la difusividad efectiva de agua y de sólidos, pero sí la concentración de la solución osmótica. La mejor condición de salida de agua y ganancia de sólidos solubles durante la deshidratación osmótica de la papaya chilena fue a 30 °C con una concentración del 60%.O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a cinética de desidratação osmótica do mamão chileno (Vasconcellea pubescens utilizando duas variáveis experimentais: temperatura (30, 40 e 50 °C e concentração (40, 50 e 60% da solução osmótica. Para este estudo, determinou-se a variação de massa total, de massa de água, de massa de sólidos solúveis, modeladas com as equações difusionais. Nesta investigação, também se considera e se usa uma modificação da equação proposta por Biswal-Bozorgmehr. Estes modelos foram avaliados através do coeficiente de regressão linear, da somatória de erros quadrados, da raiz média de erros quadrados e do Qui-quadrado. Comparando os valores experimentais com os valores calculados, demonstrou-se que o modelo Biswal-Bozorgmehr modificado apresenta um melhor ajuste sobre a variação da massa de água e de sólidos solúveis. Com a equação de Arrhenius, analisou-se o efeito da temperatura sobre os parâmetros cinéticos (Kw e Kss e a difusividade efetiva de água (Dwe e de sólidos solúveis (Dsse. De acordo com o desenho fatorial, observou-se que a temperatura não teve influência sobre a difusividade efetiva da água e dos sólidos solúveis, mas sim sobre a concentração da solução osmótica. A melhor condição de saída de água e ganho de sólidos durante a desidratação osmótica do mamão chileno foi a 30 °C com uma concentração de 60%.

Antonio Vega-Gálvez

2007-09-01

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Deshidratación osmótica de la papaya chilena (Vasconcellea pubescens) e influencia de la temperatura y concentración de la solución sobre la cinética de transferencia de materia / Desidratação osmótica do mamão chileno (Vasconcellea pubescens) e influência da temperatura e concentração da solução sobre a cinética de transferência de matéria  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a cinética de desidratação osmótica do mamão chileno (Vasconcellea pubescens) utilizando duas variáveis experimentais: temperatura (30, 40 e 50 °C) e concentração (40, 50 e 60%) da solução osmótica. Para este estudo, determinou-se a variação de massa total, de m [...] assa de água, de massa de sólidos solúveis, modeladas com as equações difusionais. Nesta investigação, também se considera e se usa uma modificação da equação proposta por Biswal-Bozorgmehr. Estes modelos foram avaliados através do coeficiente de regressão linear, da somatória de erros quadrados, da raiz média de erros quadrados e do Qui-quadrado. Comparando os valores experimentais com os valores calculados, demonstrou-se que o modelo Biswal-Bozorgmehr modificado apresenta um melhor ajuste sobre a variação da massa de água e de sólidos solúveis. Com a equação de Arrhenius, analisou-se o efeito da temperatura sobre os parâmetros cinéticos (Kw e Kss) e a difusividade efetiva de água (Dwe) e de sólidos solúveis (Dsse). De acordo com o desenho fatorial, observou-se que a temperatura não teve influência sobre a difusividade efetiva da água e dos sólidos solúveis, mas sim sobre a concentração da solução osmótica. A melhor condição de saída de água e ganho de sólidos durante a desidratação osmótica do mamão chileno foi a 30 °C com uma concentração de 60%. Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar la cinética de deshidratación osmótica de la papaya chilena (Vasconcellea pubescens), utilizando dos variables experimentales: la temperatura (30, 40, 50 °C) y concentración (40, 50 y 60%) de la solución osmótica. Se determinó la variación de masa total, masa [...] de agua y masa de sólidos solubles y se modeló con las ecuaciones difusionales, además en esta investigación se consideró y utilizó una modificación de la ecuación propuesta por Biswal-Bozorgmehr. Estos modelos fueron evaluados por medio del coeficiente de regresión lineal, suma de errores cuadrados, raíz media de los errores cuadrados y Chi-cuadrado. Al comparar los valores experimentales con los calculados, se demostró que el modelo Biswal-Bozorgmehr modificado obtuvo mejor ajuste sobre la variación de masa de agua y sólidos solubles. Mediante la ecuación de Arrhenius se analizó el efecto de la temperatura sobre los parámetros cinéticos (Kw y Kss) y difusividad efectiva de agua (Dwe) y sólidos solubles (Dsse). De acuerdo al diseño factorial, se observó que la temperatura no influyó sobre la difusividad efectiva de agua y de sólidos, pero sí la concentración de la solución osmótica. La mejor condición de salida de agua y ganancia de sólidos solubles durante la deshidratación osmótica de la papaya chilena fue a 30 °C con una concentración del 60%.

Antonio, Vega-Gálvez; Marlene, Palacios; Francisca, Boglio; Catarina, Pássaro; Catalina, Jeréz; Roberto, Lemus-Mondaca.

2007-09-01

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Susceptibilidad de Vasconcellea cauliflora al virus de la mancha anillada de la lechosa / Susceptibility of Vasconcellea cauliflora to Papaya ringspot virus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Esta investigación demostró la susceptibilidad de Vasconcellea cauliflora, especie que ha sido considerada como resistente al virus de la mancha anillada de la lechosa (PRSV-P). La transmisión de la enfermedad se logró mediante la inoculación mecánica de una cepa severa del PRSV-P en plantas de 60 d [...] ías de edad. Estas evidenciaron síntomas de necrosis del cogollo en 8,3% bajo condiciones de invernadero a 25,15ºC y 78,68% HR promedio. Bajo condiciones de campo en la Facultad de Agronomía (UCV), Maracay (440 msnm), se contabilizó el 8,6% de plantas inoculadas con síntomas típicos de la enfermedad a los siete días del trasplante. Posteriormente se realizó un ensayo bajo condiciones controladas en cámara de crecimiento. Las plantas inoculadas fueron expuestas a tres tratamientos de temperatura e intensidad lumínica: T1= 29ºC y 6300 lux; T2= 27ºC y 5500 lux y T3= 25ºC y 4200 lux; con fotoperiodo de 16 horas de luz y 75,5% HR promedio. Los resultados demostraron la transmisión del PRSV-P en 82, 86 y 47% respectivamente; la sintomatología viral se corroboró mediante el uso de ELISA. Estos resultados cuestionan el uso de esta especie como fuente de genes de resistencia al PRSV-P en los programas de mejoramiento de lechosa. Abstract in english This work demonstrated the susceptibility of Vasconcellea cauliflora, a species considered as virus resistant to Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV-P). Disease transmission by mechanical inoculation of PRSV-P severe strain on 60 days old plants was corroborated. Under greenhouse conditions with average val [...] ues of 25.15ºC and 78.68% RH, 8.3% of plants inoculated with the severe strain showed apical necrosis. At the Facultad de Agronomía (UCV), Maracay (440 msnm) under field conditions, 8.6% of inoculated plants showed typical symptoms of the disease seven days after beings transplanted. Subsequently, an inoculation test was done in three growth chamber conditions: T1=29ºC and 6300 lux; T2= 27ºC and 5500 lux and T3= 25ºC and 4200 lux; the daily time was fixed at 16 h, and the relative humidity was about 75.5% on average. Systemic symptoms were observed in 82, 86 and 47% of plants in treatments T1, T2 y T3 respectively. These results were consistent with the ELISA test. The susceptibility of V. cauliflora to the local severe strain of PRSV-P was influenced by temperature and light intensity conditions. This questions the role of this species in search for PRSV-P resistance genes in papaya breeding programs.

A, Gonzalez; G, Trujillo.

2005-07-01

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Estudios de germinación y remoción de latencia en semillas de papayuelas Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis y Vasconcellea goudotiana / Highland papayas Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis and Vasconcellea goudotiana seed germination and dormancy release studies  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se estudió la germinación y latencia de las semillas de Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis y V. goudotiana, para desarrollar procedimientos promotores de emergencia de los embriones. La categorización de las semillas viables no germinables se realizó con el empleo del tetrazolio. La fermentación prolonga [...] da de las semillas, para remover la sarcotesta, afectó la viabilidad de éstas, en especial las de V. cundinamarcensis. Aplicaciones de KNO3 y AG3 promovieron una germinación significativamente mayor, en comparación con el testigo, en semillas fermentadas previamente durante 15 días de V. goudotiana, lo cual no ocurrió en las de V. cundinamarcensis. La aplicación de Saccharomyces cerevisiae durante 36 horas, para fermentación y liberación de la sarcotesta, indujo germinación en las dos especies, con una respuesta significativamente superior en V. goudotiana. La adición de AG3 y KNO3, luego del tratamiento anterior, promovió mayor emergencia en ambos taxa, en especial en V. goudotiana. La fermentación de las semillas con Saccharomyces cerevisiae, en combinación con AG3 y KNO3 produjo germinación en las dos especies, con énfasis en V. goudotiana al aplicar 1000 ppm de AG3 + KNO3 al 2,5% y en V. cundinamarcensis, al utilizar 600 ppm de AG3 + AG3 al 2,5%, sin diferencia significativa con la aplicación de 1000 ppm de AG3 + KNO3 al 1,5%; se logró mayor germinación en V. goudotiana en el tratamiento precitado, con el cual se obtuvo con confiabilidad estadística la máxima brotación de plántulas, en relación con el resto de tratamientos evaluados con la propia especie y en V. cundinamarcensis. Abstract in english Seed germination and dormancy of Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis and V. goudotiana were studied in order to develop procedures for seed embryo emergency. Characterization of viable dormant seeds was done with the tetrazolium test. Long periods of seed fermentation, for sarcotestal removal, affected th [...] e seed viability, mainly in V. cundinamarcensis. AG3 and KNO3 application promoted a significantly higher germination, in V. goudotiana, but not in V. cundinamarcensis, in relation to control seeds, fermented during 15 days. AG3 and KNO3 application promoted a significantly higher germination in V. goudotiana, but not in V. cundinamarcensis, in relation to control 15 days fermented seeds. Seed fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae during 36 hours for sarcotest removal, promoted a significant higher germination than that of the control, fermented without enzyme application, mainly in V. goudotiana. Seed fermentation with S. cerevisiae during 36 hours application, for sarcotest removal, promoted a significant higher germination than that of the control, fermented without enzyme application, mainly in V. goudotiana. Seed germination, after S. cerevisiae fermentation and application of AG3 and KNO3, occurred in both species, being obtained the best germination in V. goudotiana, with application of 1000 ppm of GA3 + 2.5% KNO3, with statistical differences, related to the other germination applied treatments. The best germination results, without significant differences, in V. cundinamarcensis were obtained with the application of 600 ppm of GA3 + 2.5% KNO3 or 1000 ppm of GA3 + 1.5% KNO3, after the fermentation procedure with S. cerevisiae.

Sandra Patricia, Benítez; Lobo, Mario; Oscar Arturo, Delgado; Clara Inés, Medina.

2013-12-01

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Palynology of Carica and Vasconcellea (Caricaceae) Palinología de Carica y Vasconcellea (Caricaceae)  

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Palynology of Carica and Vasconcellea (Caricaceae). The pollen of C. papaya and agreements of Vasconcellea cauliflora, V. cundinamarcensis, V. crassipetala, V. goudotiana, V. x heilbornii var. chrysopetala, V. longiflora and

Lagos Túlio César; Chávez-Servia José Luis; Caetano Creucí María; Sandoval Sierra Claudia Lorena

2006-01-01

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Citogenética de especies de Vasconcellea (Caricaceae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Conocer aspectos básicos de la citogenética de las papayas de montaña o papayuelas, especies del género Vasconcellea (Caricaceae originarias de Ecuador y Colombia, fue el objetivo del trabajo. Botones florales se fijaron en etanol-acético 3:1 por 24h, luego se transfirieron a nueva solución y se almacenaron en frío. Los microsporocitos y los granos de polen se tiñieron con acetocarmín (1%. Se evaluaron las fases de meiosis y la viabilidad de polen para describir el comportamiento cromosómico. Se encontró que: 1 todas las seis especies estudiadas fueron diploides (2n=2x=18; 2 se describió el número cromosómico para V. sphaerocarpa, V. longiflora y V. palandensis (2n=18; 3 el grado de asimetría de los complementos cromosómicos indicó un proceso de evolución; 4 la presencia de numerosos NOR en V. sphaerocarpa está relacionada con los micronucleolos y corroboró el posible origen híbrido; y 5 V. cauliflora (42.98% y V. cundinamarcensis (47.93% presentaron la más baja viabilidad polínica.

Caetano Creucí María

2008-12-01

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Purification and characterization of a cysteine endopeptidase from Vasconcellea quercifolia A. St.-Hil. latex displaying high substrate specificity.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new proteolytic preparation from Vasconcellea quercifolia ("oak leaved papaya") latex containing several cysteine endopeptidases with high proteolytic activity has been obtained. The specific activity of the new enzymatic preparation (VQ) was higher than that of Carica papaya latex. VQ was able to coagulate milk and to hydrolyze caseins and then could be used to produce cheeses and/or casein hydrolysates. Ion exchange chromatography of VQ allowed the isolation of a new protease, named quercifoliain I, homogeneous when analyzed by SDS-PAGE, IEF and MALDI-TOF-MS. Molecular mass was 24195 Da, and its isoelectric point was >9.3. The N-terminal sequence was determined (YPESVDWRQ). Insulin B-chain cleavage showed higher specificity than that of papain and was restricted to glycyl and alanyl residues at P1' position. The tryptic peptide mass fingerprint of quercifoliain I analyzed with the MASCOT search tool did not find a match with papain or any other plant cysteine proteases. PMID:20873836

Torres, M José; Trejo, Sebastián A; Martin, M Inés; Natalucci, Claudia L; Avilés, Francesc X; López, Laura M I

2010-10-27

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Development of a codominant CAPS marker linked to PRSV-P resistance in highland papaya.  

Science.gov (United States)

Development of resistant papaya varieties is widely considered the best strategy for long-term control of the papaya ringspot virus type P (PRSV-P). Several species of "highland papaya" from the related genus Vasconcellea exhibit complete resistance to PRSV-P, and present a valuable source of resistance genes with potential for application in Carica papaya. The objectives of this study were two fold; to identify molecular markers linked to a previously characterised PRSV-P resistance gene in V. cundinamarcensis (psrv-1), and to develop codominant marker based strategies for reliable selection of PRSV-P resistant genotypes. Using a bulked segregant analysis approach, dominant randomly amplified DNA fingerprint (RAF) markers linked to prsv-1 were revealed in the resistant DNA bulk, which comprised F2 progeny from a V. parviflora (susceptible) x V. cundinamarcensis (resistant) interspecific cross. One marker, Opk4_1r, mapped adjacent to the prsv-1 locus at 5.4 cM, while a second, Opa11_5r, collocated with it. Sequence characterisation of the Opk4_1r marker permitted its conversion into a codominant CAPS marker (PsiIk4), diagnostic for the resistant genotype based on digestion with the restriction endonuclease PsiI. This marker mapped within 2 cM of the prsv-1 locus. Psilk4 was shown to correctly identify resistant genotypes 99% of the time when applied to interspecific F2 progeny segregating for the resistant character, and has potential for application in breeding programs aimed to deliver the PRSV-P resistance gene from V. cundinamarcensis into C. papaya. PMID:16932884

Dillon, S; Ramage, C; Ashmore, S; Drew, R A

2006-10-01

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In vitro morphogenic responses of Vasconcellea chilensis Planch. ex A. DC (Caricaceae) / Respuestas morfogenéticas in vitro de Vasconcellea chilensis Planch. ex A. DC (Caricaceae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish La formación de brotes múltiples bajo condiciones in vitro pudo ser inducida en secciones nodales de plantas adultas de "palo gordo" Vasconcellea chilensis ex Carica chilensis, mediante el uso de altos niveles de tidiazuron (TDZ), ácido indolacético (AIA) y en presencia de addenda orgánica (hidroliz [...] ado enzimático de caseína, sulfato de adenina y cisteína) incluidas en el medio nutritivo "WPM". Dichos brotes se iniciaron sincrónicamente, en forma de agregados compactos y/o en hileras, sobre la superficie del explante. En subcultivo, los brotes evidenciaron elongación tornando a color verde, con iniciación de nuevos brotes desde la base y, a pesar de la presencia de ácido indolbutírico (AIB) como única hormona, no desarrollaron raíces. Otros explantes ensayados, tales como pecíolos, no evidenciaron respuesta. Solo secciones de hojas iniciaron la formación de una estructura compacta o callo a nivel de la nervadura principal transcurridas 4-5 semanas, tornándose pardo luego y con posterior muerte tisular Abstract in english Multiple shoot formation was induced in vitro on nodal sections excised from adult "palo gordo" plants of Vasconcellea chilensis ex Carica chilensis, in the presence of relatively high levels of thidiazuron (TDZ), indole-3- acetic acid (IAA) and organic addenda included in the WPM formulation includ [...] ing casein hydrolysate, adenine sulfate and cystein. Multiple shoots appeared simultaneously in strands or clusters on the surface of the explants; usually two or more clusters with new shoots were initiated, all showing synchronous growth. In subculture, in the presence of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) as single hormone, root formation did not take place; the shoots turned green instead, evidenced elongation and development of new shoots at the base of the explants. Other explants, such as petioles and leaf sections exhibited callus initiation upon the vascular system after 4-5 weeks; however, this tissue turned brown later on and died

Miguel, Jordan Z.

2011-12-01

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Características Físico-Químicas del Látex de Papayuelo (Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis Badillo, Caricaceae) / Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Papayuelo Latex (Vasconcellea Cundinamarcensis Badillo, Caricaceae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se determinó el rendimiento y la actividad enzimática de la papaína presente en el látex de papayuelo (Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis), cultivado en Cobquecura, VIII región del Bío-Bío, Chile, durante un año. Entre enero y diciembre, las plantas, frutos y látex, obtenidos de frutos inmaduros, fueron [...] caracterizados con el propósito de conocer el comportamiento del cultivo a través de las estaciones del año, y comprender las posibles relaciones entre los parámetros estudiados. El diseño experimental fue completamente aleatorio y los datos se procesaron mediante un ANDEVA y prueba de rangos múltiples de Duncan. Se encontró diferencia estadística significativa entre estaciones en cuanto al desarrollo de la planta y sus características. Los mayores rendimientos de látex se obtuvieron en la estación de primavera, mientras que la actividad enzimática se mantuvo constante durante el año de estudio. Abstract in english A study to determine the yield and enzymatic activity of papain present in the latex obtained from papayuelo fruit (Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis ) cultivated in Cobquecura, VIII Bío-Bío Region in Chile, during one year was done. Between January and December the papayuelo plants, fruits and latex ob [...] tained from unripe fruits were characterized. The objective of the study was to know the species behavior through the seasons and the relation between the parameters studied. The experimental design was completely random, and the data were processed through ANOVA and Duncan’s multiple range test. A significant statistical difference in plant growth and plan characteristics between seasons was found. The higher latex yields were obtained in spring, whereas the enzymatic activity was constant through the year.

Leslie V, Vidal; Víctor L, Finot; Karina del C, Mora; Fernando A, Venegas.

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Papaya: environment and crop physiology  

Science.gov (United States)

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a principal horticultural crop of tropical and subtropical regions. Knowledge of how papaya responds to environmental factors provides a scientific basis for the development of management strategies to optimize fruit yield and quality. A better understanding of genotyp...

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Functional Genomics Tools for Papaya  

Science.gov (United States)

With the genome of papaya (Carica papaya L.) sequenced, the study of gene function is becoming an increasing priority. Our research is to develop an RNA-induced gene silencing tool for the study of functional genomics in papaya. We employed agrobacterium leaf infiltration to induce PTGS in '-glucuro...

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Papaya ringspot virus (Potyviridae)  

Science.gov (United States)

Papaya ringspot virus, a member of the family Potyviridae, is single stranded RNA plant virus with a monocistronic genome of about 10,326 nucleotides that is expressed via a large polyprotein subsequently cleaved into functional proteins. It causes severe damage on cucurbit crops such as squash and...

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en una comuna chilena  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Los procesos globalizadores encuentran en el Estado chileno un campo propicio para desarrollarse después de que la brutal represión de la dictadura militar eliminara la posibilidad de un gobierno socialista llegado al poder por vía electoral. Los contenidos ideológicos de la globalización, así como las políticas económicas concretas que se llevan a la práctica en su nombre, transforman las subjetividades de los sujetos. La clase trabajadora chilena de ideología y tradición mayoritariamente de izquierda queda marginada de la vida política dentro de su propia realidad. Nuestro análisis indaga acerca de los alcances y límites de la supresión de la vida política dentro de dicha clase y la posible construcción de una contrahegemonía que ésta pueda realizar.

Mirtha Lischetti

2006-01-01

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La izquierda chilena contemparánea  

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Full Text Available En este artículo, el autor examina las particularidades de la izquierda chilena para entender su papel en los gobiernos democráticos desde los años 70. El autor parte de la premisa de la existencia, durante los años 90, de dos izquierdas: una, el socialismo dentro de la coalición; la otra, el comunismo fuera de ella. En el trabajo se sostiene que la izquierda socialista ha sido el principal motor de la coalición y su papel específico se ha concentrado en los temas socio-económicos ligados a la igualdad, a la justicia, a los derechos humanos y a las propuestas culturales de tipo progresista. Asimismo, se analizan las particularidades esenciales de los gobiernos democráticos chilenos y se examinan los temas y las tareas pendientes. El artículo concluye con un balance del papel de la izquierda y de los retos que aún tiene por delante.

Manuel Antonio Garret\\u00F3n

2006-01-01

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In vitro morphogenic responses of Vasconcellea chilensis Planch. ex A. DC (Caricaceae  

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Full Text Available

Multiple shoot formation was induced in vitro on nodal sections excised from adult “palo gordo” plants of Vasconcellea chilensis ex Carica chilensis, in the presence of relatively high levels of thidiazuron (TDZ, indole-3- acetic acid (IAA and organic addenda included in the WPM formulation including casein hydrolysate, adenine sulfate and cystein. Multiple shoots appeared simultaneously in strands or clusters on the surface of the explants; usually two or more clusters with new shoots were initiated, all showing synchronous growth. In subculture, in the presence of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA as single hormone, root formation did not take place; the shoots turned green instead, evidenced elongation and development of new shoots at the base of the explants. Other explants, such as petioles and leaf sections exhibited callus initiation upon the vascular system after 4-5 weeks; however, this tissue turned brown later on and died.

Jordan Z. Miguel

2011-12-01

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Digital Transcriptome Analysis of Putative Sex-Determination Genes in Papaya (Carica papaya)  

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Papaya (Carica papaya) is a trioecious plant species that has male, female and hermaphrodite flowers on different plants. The primitive sex chromosomes genetically determine the sex of the papaya. Although draft sequences of the papaya genome are already available, the genes for sex determination have not been identified, likely due to the complicated structure of its sex-chromosome sequences. To identify the candidate genes for sex determination, we conducted a transcriptome analysis of flow...

Urasaki, Naoya; Tarora, Kazuhiko; Shudo, Ayano; Ueno, Hiroki; Tamaki, Moritoshi; Miyagi, Norimichi; Adaniya, Shinichi; Matsumura, Hideo

2012-01-01

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Danielone, a phytoalexin from papaya fruit.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new phytoalexin was induced and isolated from papaya fruit slices treated with copper salts; its structure was established as 3',5'-dimethoxy-4'-hydroxy-(2-hydroxy)acetophenone. This compound showed high antifungal activity against Colletotrichum gloesporioides, a pathogenic fungus of papaya. PMID:9004541

Echeverri, F; Torres, F; Quiñones, W; Cardona, G; Archbold, R; Roldan, J; Brito, I; Luis, J G; Lahlou, E H

1997-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Evaluación de híbridos de papaya (carica papaya l.) en pococí, limón, Costa Rica  

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Evaluación de híbridos de papaya (Carica papaya L.) en Pococí, Limón, Costa Rica. Se estableció un experimento con nueve híbridos de papaya con el objetivo de determinar sus potenciales agronómicos y comerciales en una región de alta pluviosidad (cantón de Pococí, provincia de Limón). Las características evaluadas fueron tamaño de fruta, productividad total, brix de la pulpa y susceptibilidad a la antracnosis de la fruta causado por Colletotrichum gloesporioi...

Eric Mora; Antonio Bogantes

2004-01-01

22

Casa Chilena 1: Rancagua, Chile  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los nogales crecidos a los cuales se les ha dejado en paz, la negación del exterior gracias a una tapia perimetral pintada a la cal, un patio interior con posibilidades de ser cubierto por una sombra simple de membrana agrícola anclada a sus muros, un estar familiar austero con síntomas de exterior [...] desplegado a todo lo largo del patio, un cielo de madera en bruto pintada y los dormitorios de colores fuertes, recuerdan de una u otra manera, las casas de inquilinos del campo chileno. En la Casa Chilena 2, se acentúa la negación del exterior y el patio interior se parte en dos generando exteriores matizados. Abstract in english The grown walnut trees left in peace, the negation of the exterior thanks to a whitewashed perimeter wall, an interior patio with the possibility of being covered by the simple shade of an agricultural screen anchored to its walls, an austere, family living room with exterior characteristics unfoldi [...] ng along the patio, a rough, painted wood ceiling and bedrooms in strong colors, remind one of the Inquilino houses of the Chilean countryside. In the Chilean House 2, the negation of the exterior is accentuated and the interior patio divides in two to generate blended exteriors.

Smiljan, Radic.

2010-08-01

23

Casa Chilena 1: Rancagua, Chile  

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Full Text Available Los nogales crecidos a los cuales se les ha dejado en paz, la negación del exterior gracias a una tapia perimetral pintada a la cal, un patio interior con posibilidades de ser cubierto por una sombra simple de membrana agrícola anclada a sus muros, un estar familiar austero con síntomas de exterior desplegado a todo lo largo del patio, un cielo de madera en bruto pintada y los dormitorios de colores fuertes, recuerdan de una u otra manera, las casas de inquilinos del campo chileno. En la Casa Chilena 2, se acentúa la negación del exterior y el patio interior se parte en dos generando exteriores matizados.The grown walnut trees left in peace, the negation of the exterior thanks to a whitewashed perimeter wall, an interior patio with the possibility of being covered by the simple shade of an agricultural screen anchored to its walls, an austere, family living room with exterior characteristics unfolding along the patio, a rough, painted wood ceiling and bedrooms in strong colors, remind one of the Inquilino houses of the Chilean countryside. In the Chilean House 2, the negation of the exterior is accentuated and the interior patio divides in two to generate blended exteriors.

Smiljan Radic

2010-08-01

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DESHIDRATACIÓN OSMÓTICA DE FRUTOS DE PAPAYA HAWAIANA (Carica papaya L.) EN CUATRO AGENTES EDULCORANTES OSMOTIC DEHYDRATION OF HAWAIIAN PAPAYA FRUITS (Carica papaya L.) USING FOUR SWEETENER AGENTS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Trozos de papaya hawaiiana (Carica papaya L.) fueron sometidos a un proceso de osmo-deshidratación usando cuatro agentes edulcorantes: miel de abejas, miel de caña, crema de miel de abejas y sacarosa en medio acuoso a 79 grados Brix, temperatura de 20 ºC y 23 horas de inmersión. Los resultados estadísticos mostraron que el agente de mayor capacidad deshidratante fue la miel de abejas y el menor la sacarosa. Además, los análisis cinéticos indicaron que la máxima transferencia de masa ...

Margarita Maria Ríos Pérez; Carlos Julio Márquez Cardozo; Héctor José Ciro Velásquez

2005-01-01

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Nutritional Analysis of two Local Varieties of Papaya (Carica papaya L. at Different Maturation Stages  

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Full Text Available Two varieties, Local-1 and Local-2 of papaya (Carica papaya L. were analyzed at four maturity stages (green, mature, ripen and rotten to obtain a comparative information on their nutritional parameters such as pH, moisture, ash, TTA protein, lipid, carbohydrate, free sugar, reducing sugar, carotene, riboflavin, thiamin, ascorbic acid, calcium, sodium, magnesium, potassium, iron and phosphorus content. The nutrient composition of papaya flesh was found to vary at different maturation stage. The pH, moisture content increases gradually with advancement of maturity in healthy papaya but decreases at rotten stage. The ash, TTA and fiber content was found to be maximum in mature stages and gradually deceases from ripen stage to rotten stage. The results on carbohydrate shown that ripe papaya is a good source of carbohydrate (23.5±0.04 g % but the content decreases in rotten stage. The concentration of protein, lipid, riboflavin and thiamine are extremely low in ripe papaya. The free sugar, reducing sugar and starch content gradually increases up to ripen stage but decreases at rotten stage. Ripe papaya is a very rich source of vitamin A and vitamin C but their concentrations decrease abruptly at rotten stage. The minerals such as calcium, sodium, magnesium, potassium and phosphorus content of papaya flesh gradually increases with the advancement of maturity whereas the increasing level of iron declines at ripen stages.

Luthfunnesa Bari

2006-01-01

26

Improving Tenderness of Spent Layer Hens Meat Using Papaya Leaves (Carica papaya  

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Full Text Available Two experiments were performed to study the use of papaya leaves as a meat tenderizer. The first experiment was to evaluate the effect of papaya dry leaves added to hen’s diet before slaughter. Spent hens (n=48 were used, half of them were fed a concentrate ration containing10% dried papaya leaves powder (DPLP while others received layer ration (Control, for 10 days. The second experiment involved a comparison between papaya leaves juice (PLJ, fresh papaya leaves (FPL and vinegar solution (VS as marinades applied to meat for one or two hours before cooking. Spent layer hens (n=42 were used for tenderness evaluation method. After slaughtering and preparing the chickens two methods of cooking were used (oven and moist cooking. The cooked parts (breast, thigh and drumstick were subjected to a panel test evaluation according to a designed questionnaire. Addition of dried papaya leaves powder to spent layer hens ration significantly (P?0.05 increased the level of meat tenderness. Moist cooking had significantly (P?0.05 improved meat tenderization compared to oven cooking. Meat treated with fresh papaya leaves had significantly (P?0.05 improved tenderness. It was concluded that wrapping the tough meat of spent layer hens with fresh papaya leaves for one hour and moist cooking improve tenderness of meat.

H. O. Abdalla, N. N. A. Ali, F. S. Siddig and S. A. M. Ali*

2013-01-01

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Transplantation of carica (Vasconcellea pubescens at various altitudes of Mount Lawu, Central Java with treatment of shade and different types of fertilizers  

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Full Text Available Permatasari A, Sugiyarto, Marsusi, Hailu WH. 2015. Transplantation of carica (Vasconcellea pubescens at various altitudes of Mount Lawu, Central Java with treatment of shade and different types of fertilizers. Nusantara Bioscience 7: 6-14. Ex-situ conservation efforts to increase crop production can be done by means of transplantation. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of altitude, shade and type of fertilizer and their interactions to the performance of carica (Vasconcellea pubescens vegetative plants transplanted to Mount Lawu, Central Java, Indonesia. The research was conducted in divided plot design at three altitudes (± 1400, 1600 and 1800 m asl. with shade treatment as main plots and fertilizer (manure, Zwavelzuur ammonium/ZA fertilizer, combination of manure with Ammonium fertilizer, and control as subplots. Parameters of vegetative variability were observed. The results of the performance of carica vegetative plant were analyzed using ANOVA followed by Duncan's test at 5% standard test. It was observed that an increase in altitude caused slower growth of carica vegetative parts, but better vegetative growth performance in the presence of shade. For the fertilizers, the best growth parameters were obtained in the treatment of manure with ZA fertilizer. Interaction between altitude, shade and type of fertilizer significantly influenced the performance of carica vegetative parameters. The best growth parameters are at an altitude of 1400 m above sea level with shade treatment and manure combined with ZA fertilizer.

ALFATIKA PERMATASARI

2015-05-01

28

Ecophysiology of papaya: a review Ecofisiologia do mamoeiro: uma revisão  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a principal horticultural crop of tropical and subtropical regions. Knowledge of how papaya responds to environmental factors provides a scientific basis for the development of management strategies to optimize fruit yield and quality. A better understanding of genotypic responses to specific environmental factors will contribute to efficient agricultural zoning and papaya breeding programs. The objective of this review is to present current research knowledge rel...

Eliemar Campostrini; Glenn, David M.

2007-01-01

29

DESHIDRATACIÓN OSMÓTICA DE FRUTOS DE PAPAYA HAWAIANA (Carica papaya L. EN CUATRO AGENTES EDULCORANTES OSMOTIC DEHYDRATION OF HAWAIIAN PAPAYA FRUITS (Carica papaya L. USING FOUR SWEETENER AGENTS  

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Full Text Available Trozos de papaya hawaiiana (Carica papaya L. fueron sometidos a un proceso de osmo-deshidratación usando cuatro agentes edulcorantes: miel de abejas, miel de caña, crema de miel de abejas y sacarosa en medio acuoso a 79 grados Brix, temperatura de 20 ºC y 23 horas de inmersión. Los resultados estadísticos mostraron que el agente de mayor capacidad deshidratante fue la miel de abejas y el menor la sacarosa. Además, los análisis cinéticos indicaron que la máxima transferencia de masa ocurre en las primeras cuatro horas del proceso y la máxima pérdida de masa del producto que puede ser alcanzada fue de 32 % con un contenido de humedad final en los frutos de papaya osmodeshidratada de 41,3 % b.h.Pieces of Hawaiian papaya (Carica papaya L. were subjected to osmotic dehydration using four sweetener agents: honey, molasses, honey cream and sucrose in aqueous solution to 79 degrees Brix, 20 ºC temperature and 23 hours of immersion. The statistical results showed that honey was the sweetener agent with highest osmotic capacity while sucrose had the lowest. The kinetic analysis also showed that the maximum mass transfer occurs during the first four hours of the process and the maximum mass loss of the product that can be attained was 32 % with a final moisture content of 41,3 % w.b.

Margarita Maria Ríos Pérez

2005-12-01

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DESHIDRATACIÓN OSMÓTICA DE FRUTOS DE PAPAYA HAWAIANA (Carica papaya L.) EN CUATRO AGENTES EDULCORANTES / OSMOTIC DEHYDRATION OF HAWAIIAN PAPAYA FRUITS (Carica papaya L.) USING FOUR SWEETENER AGENTS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Trozos de papaya hawaiiana (Carica papaya L.) fueron sometidos a un proceso de osmo-deshidratación usando cuatro agentes edulcorantes: miel de abejas, miel de caña, crema de miel de abejas y sacarosa en medio acuoso a 79 grados Brix, temperatura de 20 ºC y 23 horas de inmersión. Los resultados estad [...] ísticos mostraron que el agente de mayor capacidad deshidratante fue la miel de abejas y el menor la sacarosa. Además, los análisis cinéticos indicaron que la máxima transferencia de masa ocurre en las primeras cuatro horas del proceso y la máxima pérdida de masa del producto que puede ser alcanzada fue de 32 % con un contenido de humedad final en los frutos de papaya osmodeshidratada de 41,3 % b.h. Abstract in english Pieces of Hawaiian papaya (Carica papaya L.) were subjected to osmotic dehydration using four sweetener agents: honey, molasses, honey cream and sucrose in aqueous solution to 79 degrees Brix, 20 ºC temperature and 23 hours of immersion. The statistical results showed that honey was the sweetener ag [...] ent with highest osmotic capacity while sucrose had the lowest. The kinetic analysis also showed that the maximum mass transfer occurs during the first four hours of the process and the maximum mass loss of the product that can be attained was 32 % with a final moisture content of 41,3 % w.b.

Margarita Maria, Ríos Pérez; Carlos Julio, Márquez Cardozo; Héctor José, Ciro Velásquez.

2998-30-01

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Evaluación de híbridos de papaya (carica papaya l. en pococí, limón, Costa Rica  

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Full Text Available Evaluación de híbridos de papaya (Carica papaya L. en Pococí, Limón, Costa Rica. Se estableció un experimento con nueve híbridos de papaya con el objetivo de determinar sus potenciales agronómicos y comerciales en una región de alta pluviosidad (cantón de Pococí, provincia de Limón. Las características evaluadas fueron tamaño de fruta, productividad total, brix de la pulpa y susceptibilidad a la antracnosis de la fruta causado por Colletotrichum gloesporioides. Se determinó que solo uno de los materiales mostró características similares al testigo comercial como fruta para consumo en fresco. Otro de los híbridos tuvo potencial para uso con fines agroindustriales.

Eric Mora

2004-01-01

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Fusarium species associated with fruit rot of banana (Musa spp., papaya (Carica papaya and guava (Psidium guajava  

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Full Text Available A total of 60 isolates of Fusarium were isolated from fruit rot of banana (Musa spp., papaya (Carica papaya and guava(Psidium guajava. The most common species recovered from the fruit rot of the three fruit crops were F. semitectum(40 %, F. solani (38.3 %, F. verticillioides (11.7 % and F. oxysporum (10 %. Fusarium semitectum was isolated from fruit rot of banana, papaya and guava; F. oxysporum from banana and papaya; F. solani from banana and guava and F.verticillioides from banana. From pathogenicity tests, F. solani and F. semitectum were pathogenic to both banana and papaya and F. verticillioides to banana. F. oxysporum was not pathogenic to banana and papaya and F. semitectum was not pathogenic to guava. The results of the present study showed the presence of several Fusarium spp. on fruit rot of banana, papaya and guava and several species are found to be pathogenic causing fruit rot on their hosts.

Zakaria, L.

2012-06-01

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NEMATODOS FITOPARASITOS ASOCIADOS AL CULTIVO DE PAPAYA (Carica papaya L.) EN CÓRDOBA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo identificar los nematodos fitoparasitos asociados al cultivo de papaya ( Carica papaya L) en el departamento de Córdoba y correlacionar las características edafológicas con la presencia de los mismos. Se tomaron muestras de raíces y suelo rizosférico en los municipios de Tierralta, Valencia, Montelíbano, Montería y Lorica, de las que se obtuvieron los diferentes estadíos. De las muestras de suelo se evaluaron el pH, CE, MO y textura. Se evaluaron...

Espinosa, Manuel R.; Fuentes, Ketty C.; Jaraba, Juan D.; Lozano, Zayda E.

2004-01-01

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Substratum use fertilizer with potassium in the production of papaya (carica papaya) changes.  

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The variation exists in the recommendations of employed materials in the composition of the substrata for production of papaya seedlings and usually, the organic fertilization is associated with the mineral fertilization. In this context, the objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different substrata composed associated with the potassium fertilization on the growth of Carica papaya seedlings in. The Experiment was lead in the Center of Agrarians Science of the Federal Universit...

José Lucínio de Oliveira Freire; José Felix de Brito Neto; Diógenes de Souza Costa; Thiago Jardelino Dias; Walter Esfrain Pereira; José Soares de Lacerda

2009-01-01

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Nematodos agalladores asociados al cultivo de papaya (Carica papaya L.) en el departamento de Córdoba, Colombia  

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El objetivo de este trabajo fue identificar los nematodos agalladores asociados al cultivo de papaya (Carica papaya L.) en los municipios de Tierralta, Valencia, Lorica, Montería y Montelíbano que constituyen el área productora de papaya en Córdoba. Se evaluaron variables morfológicas y morfométricas en hembras, machos y juveniles de segundo estadío (J2). En las muestras de suelo se determinó pH, contenido de materia orgánica (MO), conducti...

Jaraba Juan de Dios; Lozano Zaida; Espinosa Manuel

2007-01-01

36

THE YIELDING CHARACTERISTIC OF SENTUL CHICKENS FED DIET CONTAINING PAPAYA LEAVES MEAL (Carica papaya L. Less  

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Full Text Available Sentul chicken is one of the local chicken come from Ciamis, West Java-Indonesia, and a dual-purpose type that can utilized for eggs and meat production. In other way, this bird is very good for chicken meat species, because has a compact body and white skin color. One of alternative to improve the sentul chicken quality is by giving the ration which has papaya leaf meal; rich of high crude protein, contained carotene, vitamin C and high of minerals. The research aimed to find out how far the treatment on the yielding characteristics. The research used 75 day old chick and then divided into twenty five cages. The experiment conducted with Completely Randomized Design, five papaya leaves meal levels in the ration, namely: 0% (R0, 2.5% (R1 ,5% ( R2, 7.5% ( R3, and 10% (R4, repeated five times, where each replication consist of three sentul chickens. Final body weight, carcass percentage and abdominal fat percentage were parameters observed. The results showed that by using papaya leaf meal up until 7.5% gave no significant effect (P >0.05 on final body weight, carcass percentage and abdominal fat percentage. But by giving 10% papaya leaf meal gave decreased effect on final body weight, carcass percentage and abdominal fat percentage (P<0.05. The real conclusion of this experiment that by giving 7.5% papaya leaf meal gave the best of carcass quality

T. Widjastuti

2012-01-01

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Fusarium species associated with fruit rot of banana (Musa spp.), papaya (Carica papaya) and guava (Psidium guajava)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A total of 60 isolates of Fusarium were isolated from fruit rot of banana (Musa spp.), papaya (Carica papaya) and guava(Psidium guajava). The most common species recovered from the fruit rot of the three fruit crops were F. semitectum(40 %), F. solani (38.3 %), F. verticillioides (11.7 %) and F. oxysporum (10 %). Fusarium semitectum was isolated from fruit rot of banana, papaya and guava; F. oxysporum from banana and papaya; F. solani from banana and guava and F.verticillioides from banana. F...

Zakaria, L.; Mazzura, W. C.; Kong, W. H.; Baharuddin, S.

2012-01-01

38

Molecular detection of Papaya meleira virus in the latex of Carica papaya by RT-PCR  

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A RT-PCR assay was developed for early and accurate detection of Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) in the latex from infected papayas. The meleira disease is characterized by an excessive exudation of more fluidic latex from fruits, leaves and stems. This latex oxidises and gives the fruit a ¿sticky¿ texture. In the field, disease symptoms are seen almost exclusively on fruit. However, infected plants can be a source of virus for dissemination by insects. Primers specific for PMeV were designed b...

Araujo, M. M. M.; Tavares, E. T.; Silva, F. R.; Marinho, V. L. D.; Souza, M. T.

2007-01-01

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Gamma radiation in papaya harvested at three stages of maturation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Papaya is a fragile, perishable fruit, highly accepted worldwide. To keep the quality of papaya from harvest to the consumers, conservation techniques are often used; among them is the application of gamma irradiation. The objective of this work was to evaluate gamma irradiation in papayas harvested at three degrees of maturation, in order to increase shelf life. Papayas were harvested in perfect quality conditions and selected by skin coloration into three distinct degrees of maturation: maturation 0, or beginning of yellow coloration; maturation 1, yellow stripes more developed, and maturation 2, one third yellow. Half of them were irradiated with 0.75 kGy, while the other half became control treatment. They were analyzed in four periods of conservation, which were 1 DAI (days after irradiation refrigerated at 11 {+-} 1 deg C), 14 DAI, 14 DAI + 3 DRT (room temperature at 24 deg C {+-} 2 deg C) and 14 DAI + 6 DRT. The papaya maturation degree at harvest did not influence the radiation effect. Irradiation maintained firmness of papaya and, therefore, delayed ripening; modified the green color of papaya to a lighter, more intense tone, which determined more homogeneity in the development of the skin's yellow color (greater values of L{sup *} and chroma). There was no effect of irradiation in papaya weight loss, occurrence of diseases, chroma of flesh color, p H and total soluble solids contents. (author)

Pimentel, Rodrigo Meirelles de Azevedo; Walder, Julio Marcos Melges [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Irradiacao de Alimentos]. E-mail: jmwalder@cena.usp.br

2004-04-01

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Papaya Ringspot Virus: Characteristics, Pathogenicity, Sequence Variability and Control  

Science.gov (United States)

Taxonomy: Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is an aphid-transmitted plant virus belonging to the genus Potyvirus of the family Potyviridae with a positive sense RNA genome. PRSV isolates belong to either one of two major strains, P-type or W-type. The P-type infects both papaya and cucurbits whereas th...

 
 
 
 
41

ASCORBIC ACID, PROVITAMIN A, AND MINERAL COMPOSITION OF BANANA (MUSA SP.) AND PAPAYA (CARICA PAPAYA) CULTIVARS GROWN IN HAWAII.  

Science.gov (United States)

Banana (Musa sp.) and papaya (Carica papaya) cultivars were harvested from different locations throughout Hawaii and analyzed for vitamin C (ascorbic acid), provitamin A ( ß-carotene, alpha-carotene, ß-cryptoxanthin), and mineral composition. Dwarf Brazilian ('apple') bananas had almost three times ...

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Compostos fenólicos inibidores da germinação em sementes de mamão (Carica papaya Phenolic compound inhibitors in papaya seeds (Carica papaya L.  

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Full Text Available Sementes de mamão germinam lenta e irregularmente, o que tem sido atribuído à presença da sarcotesta. O trabalho teve como objetivos avaliar o efeito inibitório de extratos de sarcotesta na germinação de sementes de alface e quantificar compostos fenólicos em sementes de mamão. Foram utilizados frutos de mamão do grupo Formosa, híbrido Tainung 01, colhidos em Maio e Setembro/2005, obtendo-se sementes com e sem sarcotesta que foram avaliadas quanto à germinação aos 15 e 30 dias após a semeadura. Realizou-se um bioensaio com sementes de alface, que foram colocadas para germinar em substrato umedecido com água e com soluções obtidas a partir de extrato da sarcotesta de sementes de mamão. Determinou-se, também, o conteúdo de compostos fenólicos nas diferentes estruturas destas (sarcotesta, esclerotesta, endosperma e embrião, utilizando-se o ácido tânico como padrão e para reação de coloração, o reagente Folin-Ciacalteau, com leitura em espectrofotômetro a 765 nm. Verificou-se que o extrato de sarcotesta inibe a germinação e o crescimento da raiz primária das plântulas de alface, devido à presença de compostos fenólicos. Maior quantidade destes compostos foi observada na esclerotesta das sementes de mamão, seguida da sarcotesta, sendo praticamente nula a presença de tais compostos no embrião e no endosperma. Sementes oriundas da colheita de Maio/2005 exibiram dormência, apresentando maior conteúdo de fenóis na sarcotesta quando comparadas às sementes obtidas de frutos colhidos em Setembro/2005, as quais não apresentaram dormência.The slow and erratic germination of papaya seeds has been attributed to inhibitors present in the sarcotesta. This study was undertaken to evaluate the inhibition effect of sarcotesta extract on lettuce seed germination and to quantify phenolic compounds in papaya seeds. Papaya fruits of the Formosa group, hybrid Tainung 01, were harvested in May and September/2005. At each harvest time, seeds with and without sarcotesta were obtained and the germination percentage was evaluated at 15 and 30 days after seeding. A bioassay was performed with lettuce seeds, which germinated in substratum moistened with water (control and with solutions obtained from papaya sarcotesta extract. The phenolic compounds were quantified in different structures of papaya seeds (sarcotesta, esclerotesta, endosperm and embryo, using tannic acid as standard and the color reaction with Folin-Ciacalteau reagent measured at 765 nm by spectrophotometry. The bioassay indicated that sarcotesta extract inhibits the germination and growth of the lettuce seedling primary roots due to the presence of inhibitory substances (phenols. A high amount of these substances was found in the papaya seed esclerotesta, followed by the sarcotesta, but there was practically no concentration of these compounds in the embryo and endosperm. Seeds extracted from fruits harvested in May 2005 had dormancy and higher phenolic content compared to seeds harvested in September 2005, which did not exhibit dormancy.

Daí Tokuhisa

2007-01-01

43

Effect of Biopreservatives on Storage Life of Papaya (Carica papaya L.  

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Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE In this experiment the effect on post-harvest preservation of papaya (Carica papaya L. fruit coated with either Aloe gel (AG; 100% or papaya leaf extract with Aloe gel (PLEAG; 1:1 was studied. To evaluate the role of coating on ripening behavior and quality of papaya the uncoated and coated fruits were stored and ripened at room temperature (25 °C-29 °C and 82-84% relative humidity. Physico-chemical properties were analyzed at 4 day intervals during the storage period. The incidence of disease attack was also visually observed. The overall results showed the superiority of AG and PLEAG coating in lengthening the shelf-life of papaya fruit compared to controls which showed significant decay from 6th day onward and complete decay within 12 days of storage. The AG and PLEAG coated fruits maintained their shelf life for 12 days and decayed at 16th day. The coated fruits also maintained their color, flavor and firmness up to 12 days of storage. An increase in ascorbic acid content (120.2 mg/100 g was also found in coated fruits in contrast to the control (59 mg/100 g. Only 27% disease incidence was observed in AG and 13% in PLEAG coated fruits as compared to control (100% during the storage period. The results of this study show that both AG and PLEAG coatings have excellent potential to be used on fresh produce to maintain quality and extend shelf-life.

Fatema H. Brishti

2013-04-01

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Compositional changes during papaya fruit ripening  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this study was to investigate compositional changes during ripening of Baladi, Ekostika I and Ekostika II papaya fruit cultivars at 20±1°C and 85% -90% relative humidity. The fruits of the three cultivars exhibited a typical climacteric pattern of respiration with peak of respiration of 82,92 and 98 mg CO2/ kg-hr, reached after 10 days in the three cultivars, respectively. Weight loss, total soluble solids (TSS), total sugars and ascorbic acid content progressively increased during ripening of the three papaya cultivars. More increase in TSS and total sugars was observed after the climacteric peak of respiration. Fruit tissue firmness and total phenolic compounds decreased continuously during ripening in the three cultivars. Reducing sugars, total protein and titratable acidity steadily increased to reach a peak, which coincided with climacteric peak of respiration, and subsequently decreased afterwards. The local Baladi cultivar had a lower respiration rate, more firm and less weight loss during ripening, which may indicate a longer shelf life than the other two introduced cultivars. On the other hand, the introduced cultivars were higher in TSS, total and reducing sugars and ascorbic acid content and lower in titratable acidity and phenolic compounds, which may reflect a better eating quality.(Author)

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La productividad de la ciencia jurídico-penal chilena  

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A partir de los datos aparecidos en un reciente informe que pone de relieve el explosivo aumento de la productividad científica de la ciencia jurídico-penal chilena, el autor ofrece algunas conjeturas acerca de los factores que han posiblemente incidido en este aumento.Su razonamiento se orienta hacia la idea de que este aumento bien puede ser considerado un paradigma en el panorama de la ciencia jurídica chilena. Para ello se detiene en algunos de los datos relevantes que son ofrecidos en...

Patricio Lazo

2007-01-01

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IDENTIFICACIÓN MEDIANTE PCR DEL SEXO DE LA PAPAYA (Carica papaya L.), HÍBRIDO "POCOCÍ"  

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El objetivo de la presente investigación fue identificar plantas hermafroditas del híbrido de papaya "Pococí". Para la identificación del sexo de las plantas del híbrido "Pococí", se utilizó el protocolo descrito por Deputy et al. (2002), con algunas modificaciones. Esta metodología emplea un PCR múltip le que permite la amplificación simultánea de dos fragmentos (1.300 y 800 pb respectivamente) para plantas hermafroditas y de un solo fragmento (1.300 pb) para plantas femeninas. El...

Ericka Saalau-Rojas; Eda, Walter Barrantes-santamar U.; Carlos Luis Lor\\u00EDa-Quir\\u00F3s; Arturo Brenes-Angulo; Edzar, Luis G. U. F. Mez-alp U.

2009-01-01

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Agronomic, economic and ecological aspects of the papaya (Carica papaya) production in Tabasco, Mexico  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The cultivation of papaya is important in the tropic because it provides source of income to the farmer within a short time. Statistical data were obtained from farmers located in the Chontalpa, Rios and Centro-Sierra regions; the size of the survey was 67 farmers. The study shows the results of the farmers’ problem in a drastic reduction of their productivity because of the virosis and low prices in commercialization. The farmers were classified into three levels of technology, “low”, ...

Guzma?n-ramo?n, E.; Go?mez-alvarez, R.; Pat-ferna?ndez, J. M.; Pohlan, H. A. J.; A?lvarez-rivero, J. C.; Geissen, V.

2010-01-01

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Consideraciones sobre la utilización de diferentes densidades en el cultivo de papaya (Carica papaya, L.) "Baixinho de Santa Amalia" en islas canarias Different plantation densities for papaya (Carica papaya, L) cv. "Baixinho de Santa Amalia" culture in the canary islands  

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El cultivo de papaya en Islas Canarias se ha extendido en los últimos años bajo condiciones de invernadero. La utilización de cultivares de papaya tipo "Baixinho de Santa Amalia" (mutante natural del cultivar "Sunrise") de porte bajo, emisión de la flor a corta altura y precocidad en la floración, resultan de gran interés sobre todo en esta clase de medios. Estas características fenológicas hacen posible el manejo del cultivo a mayores densidades que las empleadas con otros cultivares...

Mª, Cristina Rodriguez Pastor

2002-01-01

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Genetic-molecular characterization of backcross generations for sexual conversion in papaya (Carica papaya L.).  

Science.gov (United States)

The low number of improved cultivars limits the expansion of the papaya crop, particularly because of the time required for the development of new varieties using classical procedures. Molecular techniques associated with conventional procedures accelerate this process and allow targeted improvements. Thus, we used microsatellite markers to perform genetic-molecular characterization of papaya genotypes obtained from 3 backcross generations to monitor the inbreeding level and parental genome proportion in the evaluated genotypes. Based on the analysis of 20 microsatellite loci, 77 genotypes were evaluated, 25 of each generation of the backcross program as well as the parental genotypes. The markers analyzed were identified in 11 of the 12 linkage groups established for papaya, ranging from 1 to 4 per linkage group. The average values for the inbreeding coefficient were 0.88 (BC1S4), 0.47 (BC2S3), and 0.63 (BC3S2). Genomic analysis revealed average values of the recurrent parent genome of 82.7% in BC3S2, 64.4% in BC1S4, and 63.9% in BC2S3. Neither the inbreeding level nor the genomic proportions completely followed the expected average values. This demonstrates the significance of molecular analysis when examining different genotype values, given the importance of such information for selection processes in breeding programs. PMID:25501249

Ramos, H C C; Pereira, M G; Pereira, T N S; Barros, G B A; Ferreguetti, G A

2014-01-01

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Sex determination in flowering plants: papaya as a model system.  

Science.gov (United States)

Unisexuality in flowering plants evolved from a hermaphrodite ancestor. Transition from hermaphrodite to unisexual flowers has occurred multiple times across the different lineages of the angiosperms. Sexuality in plants is regulated by genetic, epigenetic and physiological mechanisms. The most specialized mechanism of sex determination is sex chromosomes. The sex chromosomes ensure the stable segregation of sexual phenotypes by preventing the recombination of sex determining genes. Despite continuous efforts, sex determining genes of dioecious plants have not yet been cloned. Concerted efforts with various model systems are necessary to understand the complex mechanism of sex determination in plants. Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a tropical fruit tree with three sex forms, male, hermaphrodite, and female. Sexuality in papaya is determined by an XY chromosome system that is in an early evolutionary stage. The male and hermaphrodite of papaya are controlled by two different types of Y chromosomes: Y and Y(h). Large amounts of information in the area of genetics, genomics, and epigenetics of papaya have been accumulated over the last few decades. Relatively short lifecycle, small genome size, and readily available genetic and genomic resources render papaya an excellent model system to study sex determination and sex chromosomes in flowering plants. PMID:24467896

Aryal, Rishi; Ming, Ray

2014-03-01

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Effects of Different Concentrations and Applications of Calcium on Storage Life and Physicochemical Characteristics of Papaya (Carica Papaya L.  

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Full Text Available Papaya (Carica Papaya L. fruits index 2 were treated with 1.5, 2.5 and 3.5% solutions of calcium chloride by dipping and vacuum infiltration (-33 Kpa or untreated (0% as control. Effects of these treatments were evaluated on storage life and postharvest quality characteristics of papaya. After 21 days of storage at 13±1°C, the fruits were removed from storage for physicochemical analysis. Following additional five days holding in the storage condition for fruits used for evaluation of the rate of disease incidence and storage life. Postharvest dip treatments at different concentrations of calcium prolonged storage life, slowed down the ripening processes and maintained the quality of papaya. Whereas, it was effectively greater with calcium infiltration treatments than that for dip treatments. Calcium infiltration extended the storage life and retained the quality as calcium concentrations increased up to 2.5% and then declined. The desired effect was obtained at 2.5% infiltration compared with other treatments. The least disease incidence was found in those fruits infiltrated with 2.5% calcium. Hence, it can be concluded that postharvest infiltration of calcium at 2.5% has the potential to control disease incidence, prolong the storage life and preserve valuable attributes of postharvest papaya, presumably because of its effects on inhibition of ripening and senescence process and loss of the fruit firmness of papaya.

T. M. M. Mahmud

2008-01-01

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Rapid sex identification of papaya (Carica papaya) using multiplex loop-mediated isothermal amplification (mLAMP).  

Science.gov (United States)

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is established as a cash crop throughout the tropical and subtropical regions due to its easy adaptation to diverse agricultural conditions, high yields, and prompt returns. The sex types of papaya plants are hermaphrodite, male, and female. Among them, hermaphroditic plants are the major type in papaya production, because the fruit has commercial advantages over that of the other sexes. Sex inheritance in papaya is determined by the M and M(h) dominant alleles in males and hermaphrodites, respectively, and a recessive m allele in females. Currently, all hermaphrodite seeds are not available due to the lethality of dominant homozygosity. Therefore, in this study, six male-hermaphrodite-specific markers were developed for a rapid sex identification using multiplex loop-mediated isothermal amplification (mLAMP) to efficiently and precisely select hermaphroditic individuals in the seedling or early growth stage. The LM1-LAMP assay consisted of two sex-LAMP reactions for amplifying two male-specific markers (T12 and Cpsm90) in one reaction, and showed several advantages in terms of a rapid reaction time (hermaphroditic individuals in papaya production. PMID:22706662

Hsu, Te-Hua; Gwo, Jin-Chywan; Lin, Kuan-Hung

2012-10-01

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Tolerance induction to saline stress in papaya seeds treated with potassium nitrate and sildenafil citrate  

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Papaya fruit (Carica papaya) is a species of great commercial agriculture importance. Although has a saline stress sensitivity. Potassium nitrate (KNO3) and nitric oxide are substances that inducing saline stress tolerance. The aim of this study was evaluate the effects of sildenafil citrate (SC) and KNO3 on the papaya seeds germination of under saline stress. Papaya seeds of hybrids Calimosa and JS12x Waimanalo were immersed in distilled water or KNO3 solutions and SC and followed germinated...

Rafael Fonsêca Zanotti; José Carlos Lopes; Ludymila Brandão Motta; Allan Rocha Freitas; Liana Hilda Golin Mengarda

2013-01-01

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Histopathological changes in Wistar albino rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya  

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Background: Exposure of animals to xenobiotics may or may not trigger adverse response at cellular levels. Aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya is consumed by sickle cell patients as antisickling agent in Western Nigeria. Aim: This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of Carica papaya on certain organs in Wister albino rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya. Materials and Methods: Different doses of aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya were administered orall...

Taofeeq Oduola; Ibrahim Bello; Thomas Idowu; Godwin Avwioro; Luqman Olatubosun; Ganiyu Adeosun

2010-01-01

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ENGINEERING RESISTANCE AGAINST PAPAYA RINGSPOT VIRUS BY NATIVE, CHIMERIC AND SYNTHETIC TRANSGENES  

Science.gov (United States)

The transgenic Rainbow papaya is hemizygous for the coat protein gene of a papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) isolate from Hawaii. Rainbow shows excellent resistance to PRSV isolates in Hawaii, but is susceptible to PRSV isolates from many parts of the world. In order to obtain transgenic papaya which m...

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Characterization of a high oleic oil extracted from papaya (Carica papaya L.) seeds Caracterização de um óleo alto oleico extraído de sementes de mamão (Carica papaya L.)  

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The physicochemical characteristics, fatty acid, tocopherol, and carotenoid composition of a crude oil extracted from papaya (Carica papaya L.) seeds, formosa variety, were investigated. The oil yield from the seeds was 29.16%. The data obtained for the analytical indexes were in agreement with those of other edible oils. The oil obtained had high oxidation resistance (77.97 hours). The major fatty acids in total lipid were oleic (71.30%), palmitic (16.16%), linoleic (6.06%), and stearic (4.7...

Cassia Roberta Malacrida; Mieko Kimura; Neuza Jorge

2011-01-01

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L-ascorbic acid, ?-carotene and lycopene content in papaya fruits (Carica papaya) with or without physiological skin freckles Conteúdo de ácido l-ascórbico, ?-caroteno e licopeno em frutos de mamão (Carica papaya) com e sem mancha fisiológica  

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The Skin Freckles is a papaya skin disorder that depreciates de fruit appearance and hampers its commercialization, although not lowering its nutritive value. Being the papaya a good source of ascorbic acid, ?-carotene and licopene this research aimed at determining L-ascorbic acid, ?-carotene and licopene content in papaya fruits, from 'Formosa' and 'Solo' group varieties, with and without apparent physiological skin disease (skin freckles). Fruits were harvested in the Southeast R...

Leandro Marelli de Souza; Karla Silva Ferreira; José Benício Paes Chaves; Sílvio Lopes Teixeira

2008-01-01

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Escarificación química de semilla de papaya / Chemical scarification of papaya seed  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La germinación tardía y errática de semilla de papaya es afectada por la presencia de la sarcotesta, membrana que contiene compuestos fenólicos inductores de latencia, misma que inhibe el intercambio de líquidos y gases, prolongar el período de secado y facilitar la colonización de fitopatógenos. La [...] s técnicas utilizadas en el beneficio de semilla de papaya para eliminar la sarcotesta son limitadas, por tanto, el objetivo del presente estudio fue obtener tecnología útil en éste aspecto, para lo cual se comparó tratamientos a base de hidróxido de sodio, ácido sulfúrico y clorhídrico, y evaluó su efecto en la calidad física, sanitaria y fisiológica de la semilla. La investigación se realizó en el Laboratorio de Análisis de Semillas del Colegio de Postgraduados, Campus Montecillo, Estado de México, en 2011. El NaOH al 25 % y 15 min de inmersión, eliminó 98% de sarcotesta, presentó sólo 2% de incidencia de micoflora, incremento y homogeneizó la germinación. El H2SO4 eliminó al 100% la sarcotesta, inhibió la colonización de hongos con sólo 6%, cuando se empleó en forma concentrada, pero afecto negativamente la germinación. El HCl fue ineficiente en eliminar la sarcotesta (9.6%), presentó la más alta colonización de hongos (97% de incidencia) y el menor porcentaje de germinación (7%). Los efectos positivos del uso de NaOH en el beneficio de semilla de papaya, simula la degradación natural de la sarcotesta y mejora la condición de la semilla por lo que resulta una alternativa viable para su empleo en el acondicionamiento de semilla. Abstract in english Late germinating and erratic seed from papaya is affected by the presence of sarcotesta, membrane containing phenolic compounds inducing latency same which inhibits the exchange of liquids and gases, prolongs the drying period and facilitates colonization of pathogens. The techniques used in benefit [...] of the papaya seed to eliminate the sarcotesta are limited, therefore the aim of this study was to obtain useful technology in this aspect, which was compared to other treatments with sodium hydroxide, sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid and assessed its effect on the physical, health and physiological quality of the seed. The research was conducted at the Seed Testing Laboratory of the Graduate College, Campus Montecillo, State of Mexico, in 2011. NaOH to 25% and 15 min of immersion, removed 98% of sarcotesta, presented just 2% of incidence of micoflora, an increased and homogenized germination. H2SO4 to 100% removed the sarcotesta, inhibited fungal colonization with only 6% when used in concentrated form, but negatively affected the germination. The HCl was ineffective in eliminating sarcotesta (9.6%) had the highest fungal colonization (97% incidence) and the lowest germination percentage (7%). The positive effects of the use of NaOH in the benefit of papaya seed, is that simulates natural degradation of sarcotesta and improves the condition of the seed, so it is a viable alternative for use in conditioning seed.

Jorge Arturo, Romero Rodríguez; José Apolinar, Mejía Contreras; Aquiles, Carballo Carballo; Alfredo, López Jiménez; José Antonio, Rangel Lucio; Catarino, Ávila Reséndiz.

2013-09-01

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NEMATODOS FITOPARASITOS ASOCIADOS AL CULTIVO DE PAPAYA (Carica papaya L. EN CÓRDOBA  

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Full Text Available El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo identificar los nematodos fitoparasitos asociados al cultivo de papaya ( Carica papaya L en el departamento de Córdoba y correlacionar las características edafológicas con la presencia de los mismos. Se tomaron muestras de raíces y suelo rizosférico en los municipios de Tierralta, Valencia, Montelíbano, Montería y Lorica, de las que se obtuvieron los diferentes estadíos. De las muestras de suelo se evaluaron el pH, CE, MO y textura. Se evaluaron variables morfológicas y morfométricas para determinar los géneros y las especies. Se encontraron los géneros Paratylenchus , Xiphinema, Helicotylenchus, Pratylenchus, Tylenchus, Ditylenchus, Trophurus, Aphelenchus, Psilenchus, Tylenchorhynchus, Criconemella, Hoplolaimus y Meloidogyne , con las especies; Meloidogyne javanica , M. incognita y M. arenaria. El pH de los suelos varió de 4.86 a 6.9; la CE de 0.097 a 1.4 dS m- 1; la MO de 1.2 a 3.1% y la textura del suelo fue arenosa, franca y franco arenosa. Las arenas oscilan del 45 al 86%, arcilla del 3 al 22% y limo del 10.9 al 47%. El análisis de correlación mostró que el contenido de arena esta correlacionado positivamente; mientras que el pH, la CE y la MO están correlacionados negativamente con la riqueza y el número de individuos de los nematodos fitoparasitos en el departamento de Córdoba. Los resultados permiten el reporte por primera vez de M. incognita, M javanica y M. arenaria afectando conjuntamente el cultivo de papaya en la Costa Caribe Colombiana.

Manuel R. Espinosa

2004-01-01

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Optimization of process parameters for osmotic dehydration of papaya cubes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Process temperature (30, 40 and 50 °C), syrup concentration (50, 60 and 70(o) Brix) and process time (4, 5 and 6 h) for osmotic dehydration of papaya (Carica papaya) cubes were optimized for the maximum water loss and optimum sugar gain by using response surface methodology. The peeled and pre-processed papaya cubes of 1 cm size were immersed in sugar syrup at constant temperature water bath having syrup to papaya cubes ratio of 4:1 (w/w). The cubes were removed from bath at pre-decided time, rinsed with water and weighed. Initial moisture content of papaya samples were 87.5-88.5% (wb), which was reduced to 67.6-81.1% after osmotic dehydration in various experiments showing mass reduction, water loss and sugar gain in the range of 20.6-36.4, 23.2-44.5 and 2.5-8.1%, respectively. The weight reduction, water loss and sugar gain data were statistically analyzed and regression equation of second order were found the best fit for all the experimental data. Maximum water loss of 28% with optimum sugar gain of 4% was predicted for the 60(o)Brix syrup concentration at 37 °C for syrup to fruit ratio as 4:1 in 4.25 h of osmotic dehydration. PMID:23572736

Jain, S K; Verma, R C; Murdia, L K; Jain, H K; Sharma, G P

2011-04-01

 
 
 
 
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OBTAINING ACTIVATED CARBON FROM PAPAYA SEEDS FOR ENERGY STORAGE DEVICES  

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Full Text Available Preparation of carbon from papaya (Carica papaya L. seeds activated with ZnCl2 @ 300°C is presented. Characterization of the powder is carried out by elemental analysis, N2 sorption studies, powder x-ray diffractometry, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge studies. Specific capacitance from cyclic voltammetric studies on the carbon is 472 F g-1 in 1M H2SO4 electrolyte when run between -0.1 and 1.0V Vs SCE at 10 mV s-1 scan rate. The proposed carbon sample posses an N2 adsorption isotherm characteristic of mesopore structures. The presence of various surface functional groups like carbonyl and hydroxyl groups coupled with desired physical features of the carbon are presumed to be responsible for fast faradic reactions to offer pseudocapacitive characteristics to the papaya derived carbon. Capacity as well as the cycling stability of the electrode prepared with papaya seed based activated carbon in acid electrolyte seems to be impressive as observed from charge-discharge studies. Thus papaya seed biomass represents a promising new green source of carbon for electrochemical capacitor electrodes and gives a new and valuable dimension to domestic wastes.

Ariharaputhiran Anitha

2015-01-01

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ALTERNATIVA COMERCIAL PARA EXTENDER VIDA DE ANAQUEL DE PAPAYA 'MARADOL'  

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Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto del 1-Metilciclopropeno (1-MCP y etileno (solos o en combinación para manipular el proceso de maduración y extender vida de anaquel de papaya 'Maradol'. Durante el 2007 se realizaron tres ensayos: 1. Efecto del 1-MCP en papaya almacenada en condiciones de mercadeo y refrigeración más mercadeo; 2. Papaya tratada con 1-MCP y etileno y mezcla 1-MCP + etileno; 3. Evaluación comercial del 1-MCP y etileno en papaya. Se analizaron pérdida de peso, color externo, firmeza, color de pulpa y sólidos solubles totales. Se encontró que el 1-MCP a 100 nl·litro-1 retrasó el desarrollo de color externo y pulpa e inhibió el ablandamiento de los frutos. También se observó que el etileno a dosis de 100 ¿l·litro-1 aplicado después del 1-MCP no revirtió el efecto de éste, sin embargo, el 1-MCP aplicado después del etileno redujo la velocidad de ablandamiento y el desarrollo del color en cáscara y pulpa inducido por el etileno. Se concluye que el 1-MCP a 100 nl·litro-1 por 12 horas aplicado después del etileno puede ser una técnica viable para manipular el proceso de maduración y alargar vida de anaquel de papaya 'Maradol'.

J. A. Osuna-Garc\\u00EDa

2009-01-01

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THE YIELDING CHARACTERISTIC OF SENTUL CHICKENS FED DIET CONTAINING PAPAYA LEAVES MEAL (Carica papaya L. Less)  

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Sentul chicken is one of the local chicken come from Ciamis, West Java-Indonesia, and a dual-purpose type that can utilized for eggs and meat production. In other way, this bird is very good for chicken meat species, because has a compact body and white skin color. One of alternative to improve the sentul chicken quality is by giving the ration which has papaya leaf meal; rich of high crude protein, contained carotene, vitamin C and high of minerals. The research aimed to find out how far the...

Widjastuti, T.; Sujana, E.; Darana, S.

2012-01-01

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Analysis of ripening-related gene expression in papaya using an Arabidopsis-based microarray  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Papaya (Carica papaya L. is a commercially important crop that produces climacteric fruits with a soft and sweet pulp that contain a wide range of health promoting phytochemicals. Despite its importance, little is known about transcriptional modifications during papaya fruit ripening and their control. In this study we report the analysis of ripe papaya transcriptome by using a cross-species (XSpecies microarray technique based on the phylogenetic proximity between papaya and Arabidopsis thaliana. Results Papaya transcriptome analyses resulted in the identification of 414 ripening-related genes with some having their expression validated by qPCR. The transcription profile was compared with that from ripening tomato and grape. There were many similarities between papaya and tomato especially with respect to the expression of genes encoding proteins involved in primary metabolism, regulation of transcription, biotic and abiotic stress and cell wall metabolism. XSpecies microarray data indicated that transcription factors (TFs of the MADS-box, NAC and AP2/ERF gene families were involved in the control of papaya ripening and revealed that cell wall-related gene expression in papaya had similarities to the expression profiles seen in Arabidopsis during hypocotyl development. Conclusion The cross-species array experiment identified a ripening-related set of genes in papaya allowing the comparison of transcription control between papaya and other fruit bearing taxa during the ripening process.

Fabi João Paulo

2012-12-01

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Removal of hazardous pharmaceutical dyes by adsorption onto papaya seeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) seeds were used as adsorbent to remove toxic pharmaceutical dyes (tartrazine and amaranth) from aqueous solutions, in order to extend application range. The effects of pH, initial dye concentration, contact time and temperature were investigated. The kinetic data were evaluated by the pseudo first-order, pseudo second-order and Elovich models. The equilibrium was evaluated by the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models. It was found that adsorption favored a pH of 2.5, temperature of 298 K and equilibrium was attained at 180-200 min. The adsorption kinetics followed the pseudo second-order model, and the equilibrium was well represented by the Langmuir model. The maximum adsorption capacities were 51.0 and 37.4 mg g(-1) for tartrazine and amaranth, respectively. These results revealed that papaya seeds can be used as an alternative adsorbent to remove pharmaceutical dyes from aqueous solutions. PMID:25026586

Weber, Caroline Trevisan; Collazzo, Gabriela Carvalho; Mazutti, Marcio Antonio; Foletto, Edson Luiz; Dotto, Guilherme Luiz

2014-01-01

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INFLUENCE OF THICKNESS ON THE DRYING OF PAPAYA PUREE (Carica papaya L. THROUGH REFRACTANCE WINDOWTM TECHNOLOGY  

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Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la influencia del espesor de las muestras (2, 3 y 4 mm sobre las cinéticas de secado, actividad de agua (aw y color (?E de rodajas de puré de papaya procesadas por tecnología de ventana de refractanciaTM (RWTM. Adicionalmente se evaluó la difusividad del agua (Deff teniendo en cuenta el encogimiento. Los datos de humedad se ajustaron mediante los modelos de Newton y Midilli. Los resultados mostraron que a menor espesor el secado fue más rápido, los valores de aw fueron menores y los ?E superiores. Las muestras alcanzaron 0.0652, 0.1132 y 0.2624 g agua/ g sólido seco en 60 min para rodajas de 2, 3 y 4 mm, respectivamente. El Modelo de Midilli fue el más apropiado para predecir las curvas de secado de papaya por RWTM. Deff disminuyó a menor espesor y su orden de magnitud fue de 10-10 m2/s.

MAR\\u00CDA U. OCOR\\u00D3-ZAMORA

2013-01-01

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Purification of a thermostable alkaline laccase from papaya (Carica papaya) using affinity chromatography.  

Science.gov (United States)

A laccase from papaya leaves was purified to homogeneity by a two step procedure namely, heat treatment (at 70°C) and Con-A affinity chromatography. The procedure resulted in 1386.7-fold purification of laccase with a specific activity of 41.3unitsmg(-1) and an overall yield of 61.5%. The native purified laccase was found to be a hexameric protein of ?260kDa. The purified enzyme exhibited acidic and alkaline pH optima of 6.0 and 8.0 with the non-phenolic substrate (ABTS) and phenolic substrate (catechol), respectively. The purified laccase was found to be thermostable up to 70°C such that it retained ?80% activity upon 30min incubation at 70°C. The Arrhenius energy of activation for purified laccase was found to be 7.7kJmol(-1). The enzyme oxidized various phenolic and non-phenolic substrates having catalytic efficiency (Kcat/Km) in the order of 7.25>0.67>0.27mM(-1)min(-1) for ABTS, catechol and hydroquinone, respectively. The purified laccase was found to be activated by Mn(2+), Cd(2+), Ca(2+), Na(+), Fe(2+), Co(2+) and Cu(2+) while weakly inhibited by Hg(2+). The properties such as thermostability, alkaline pH optima and metal tolerance exhibited by the papaya laccase make it a promising candidate enzyme for industrial exploitation. PMID:25192855

Jaiswal, Nivedita; Pandey, Veda P; Dwivedi, Upendra N

2015-01-01

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Empleo de un Recubrimiento Formulado con Propóleos para el Manejo Poscosecha de Frutos de Papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Hawaiana) / Use of a Coating Formulated with Propolis for Postharvest Handling of Papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Hawaiian) Fruits  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Resumen. El fruto de papaya es reconocido por las propiedades nutricionales y sensoriales; no obstante, su tiempo de vida útil en poscosecha es muy corto. En los últimos años, para incrementar la vida de almacenamiento del fruto se ha implementado el uso de recubrimientos como vehículos de agentes a [...] ntimicrobianos y antioxidantes, entre otros. En este trabajo se comparó el efecto de dos recubrimientos; cera comercial (control) y cera comercial conteniendo un extracto etanólico de propóleos (5% p/v), sobre la vida en poscosecha de frutos de papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Hawaiana) almacenados a temperatura ambiente (28 ± 2 ºC) y humedad relativa entre 65 y 70%. El efecto de los recubrimientos se determinó mediante el índice de deterioro de los frutos y el recuento microbiano (mesófilos aerobios, mohos y levaduras). Adicionalmente, se evaluaron durante 12 días las propiedades fisicoquímicas de los frutos (cambio de color, textura, pH, acidez total titulable, pérdida de peso y sólidos solubles). Los resultados mostraron que las papayas tratadas con el recubrimiento formulado con el extracto de propóleos, presentó un menor deterioro en cuanto a su apariencia y mayor inhibición del crecimiento de microorganismos durante los primeros 6 días de evaluación en comparación con los frutos control; además, no se observaron diferencias, producto de los recubrimientos, en relación a las características fisicoquímicas de los frutos. Abstract in english Abstract. Papaya fruit is known for the nutritional and sensory properties; however, its postharvest shelf life is very short. In recent years, to extend the storage life of this fruit, the use of coatings as a carrier of antimicrobial agents and antioxidants, has been implemented. In this work, the [...] effect of two coatings, commercial wax (control) and commercial wax containing an ethanolic extract of propolis (5% w/v) on the postharvest of papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Hawaiian) was compared. The fruits were stored at room temperature (28 ± 2 ºC) and a relative humidity between 65 and 70%. The effect of coatings was determined by the deterioration index of the fruit, and the microbial counts (aerobic mesophiles, molds and yeasts). Additionally, during 12 days were evaluated physicochemical properties of the fruits (color, texture, pH, titratable acidity, weight loss and soluble solids). The results showed that the papaya fruits treated with the coating containing the propolis extract presented less deterioration in their appearance and greater inhibition growth of microorganisms during the first 6 days compared with control fruits; moreover, no differences among the coatings in relation to the physicochemical characteristics of the fruit were observed.

Elizabeth, Barrera Bello; Marcela, Gil Loaiza; Carlos Mario, García Pajón; Diego Luis, Durango Restrepo; Jesús Humberto, Gil González.

2012-06-01

69

Odour-active compounds in papaya fruit cv. Red Maradol.  

Science.gov (United States)

Application of solid-phase microextraction and simultaneous distillation-extraction combined with GC-FID, GC-MS, aroma extract dilution analysis, and odour activity value were used to analyse volatile compounds from papaya fruit cv. Red Maradol and to estimate the most odour-active compounds. The analyses led to the identification of 137 compounds; 118 of them were positively identified. Twenty-five odorants were considered as odour-active compounds and contribute to the typical papaya aroma, from which ethyl butanoate, benzyl isothiocyanate, 1-hexen-3-one, (E)-?-ionone, and methyl benzoate were the most odour-active compounds. PMID:24176322

Pino, Jorge A

2014-03-01

70

Empleo de un Recubrimiento Formulado con Propóleos para el Manejo Poscosecha de Frutos de Papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Hawaiana Use of a Coating Formulated with Propolis for Postharvest Handling of Papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Hawaiian Fruits  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Resumen. El fruto de papaya es reconocido por las propiedades nutricionales y sensoriales; no obstante, su tiempo de vida útil en poscosecha es muy corto. En los últimos años, para incrementar la vida de almacenamiento del fruto se ha implementado el uso de recubrimientos como vehículos de agentes antimicrobianos y antioxidantes, entre otros. En este trabajo se comparó el efecto de dos recubrimientos; cera comercial (control y cera comercial conteniendo un extracto etanólico de propóleos (5% p/v, sobre la vida en poscosecha de frutos de papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Hawaiana almacenados a temperatura ambiente (28 ± 2 ºC y humedad relativa entre 65 y 70%. El efecto de los recubrimientos se determinó mediante el índice de deterioro de los frutos y el recuento microbiano (mesófilos aerobios, mohos y levaduras. Adicionalmente, se evaluaron durante 12 días las propiedades fisicoquímicas de los frutos (cambio de color, textura, pH, acidez total titulable, pérdida de peso y sólidos solubles. Los resultados mostraron que las papayas tratadas con el recubrimiento formulado con el extracto de propóleos, presentó un menor deterioro en cuanto a su apariencia y mayor inhibición del crecimiento de microorganismos durante los primeros 6 días de evaluación en comparación con los frutos control; además, no se observaron diferencias, producto de los recubrimientos, en relación a las características fisicoquímicas de los frutos.Abstract. Papaya fruit is known for the nutritional and sensory properties; however, its postharvest shelf life is very short. In recent years, to extend the storage life of this fruit, the use of coatings as a carrier of antimicrobial agents and antioxidants, has been implemented. In this work, the effect of two coatings, commercial wax (control and commercial wax containing an ethanolic extract of propolis (5% w/v on the postharvest of papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Hawaiian was compared. The fruits were stored at room temperature (28 ± 2 ºC and a relative humidity between 65 and 70%. The effect of coatings was determined by the deterioration index of the fruit, and the microbial counts (aerobic mesophiles, molds and yeasts. Additionally, during 12 days were evaluated physicochemical properties of the fruits (color, texture, pH, titratable acidity, weight loss and soluble solids. The results showed that the papaya fruits treated with the coating containing the propolis extract presented less deterioration in their appearance and greater inhibition growth of microorganisms during the first 6 days compared with control fruits; moreover, no differences among the coatings in relation to the physicochemical characteristics of the fruit were observed.

Elizabeth Barrera Bello

2012-06-01

71

Chile: bibliotecas chilenas con documentos musicales y audiovisuales  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Tras las visitas realizadas a las bibliotecas chilenas con fondos musicales y audiovisuales se presentó el siguiente plan de trabajo en el que se fijaron los siguientes objetivos: a)Establecimiento del nivel de desarrollo de las colecciones de música en Chile y su origen. b)Política de desarrollo y conservación que se han seguido. c)Estudio de una posible vinculación y cooperación con otros organismos, especialmente con la Biblioteca Nacional de España. ...

Gallego Cuadrado, Mª Del Pilar

1995-01-01

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Effect of maleic hydrazide and waxing on quality and shelf life of papaya (carica papaya L.) fruits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of post harvest treatment of maleic hydrazide (MH) with and with out waxing on the quality and shelf-life of Baladi and Ekostika I papaya fruits at 18 ±1°C and 85%-90% relative humidity was evaluated. Maleic hydrazide at 250 and 500 ppm significantly delayed fruit ripening by two and three days in both papaya cultivars, respectively, compared with untreated fruits. The higher the concentration, the more was the delay in fruit ripening. The results also showed that waxing addition to MH resulted in a delay of two more days in fruit ripening that treatment with MH alone. The effect of MH and waxing treatments in delaying papaya fruits ripening was manifested in retarded respiratory climacteric, reduced weight loss and delayed fruit softening and increase in total soluble solids and ascorbic acid content.(Author)

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Papaya fruit quality management during the postharvest supply chain  

Science.gov (United States)

Papayas are popular in tropical and subtropical regions and are being exported in large volumes to Europe, the U.S. and Japan. The fruit has excellent taste, exotic flavor and nutritional properties, being rich in vitamins A, C, and antioxidants. However, due to its highly perishable nature it has n...

74

75 FR 22207 - Importation of Papayas From Colombia and Ecuador  

Science.gov (United States)

...and Ecuador, the pest risk assessments (PRAs) that accompanied the proposed rule summarized...Brazil. Based on the findings of these PRAs, a risk management document (RMD) was...identified as quarantine pests in the PRAs. As stated in the RMD, papayas that...

2010-04-28

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Development of a Gene-Centered SSR Atlas as a Resource for Papaya (Carica papaya) Marker-Assisted Selection and Population Genetic Studies  

Science.gov (United States)

Carica papaya (papaya) is an economically important tropical fruit. Molecular marker-assisted selection is an inexpensive and reliable tool that has been widely used to improve fruit quality traits and resistance against diseases. In the present study we report the development and validation of an atlas of papaya simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. We integrated gene predictions and functional annotations to provide a gene-centered perspective for marker-assisted selection studies. Our atlas comprises 160,318 SSRs, from which 21,231 were located in genic regions (i.e. inside exons, exon-intron junctions or introns). A total of 116,453 (72.6%) of all identified repeats were successfully mapped to one of the nine papaya linkage groups. Primer pairs were designed for markers from 9,594 genes (34.5% of the papaya gene complement). Using papaya-tomato orthology assessments, we assembled a list of 300 genes (comprising 785 SSRs) potentially involved in fruit ripening. We validated our atlas by screening 73 SSR markers (including 25 fruit ripening genes), achieving 100% amplification rate and uncovering 26% polymorphism rate between the parental genotypes (Sekati and JS12). The SSR atlas presented here is the first comprehensive gene-centered collection of annotated and genome positioned papaya SSRs. These features combined with thousands of high-quality primer pairs make the atlas an important resource for the papaya research community. PMID:25393538

Vidal, Newton Medeiros; Grazziotin, Ana Laura; Ramos, Helaine Christine Cancela; Pereira, Messias Gonzaga; Venancio, Thiago Motta

2014-01-01

76

Ecophysiology of papaya: a review / Ecofisiologia do mamoeiro: uma revisão  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O mamoeiro (Carica papaya L.) é uma das principais culturas das regiões tropicais e subtropicais. O conhecimento das respostas dessa cultura aos fatores do ambiente pode fornecer bases científicas para traçarem-se estratégias de manejo que possam otimizar a produção e a qualidade dos frutos. Um melh [...] or entendimento das respostas dos genótipos aos fatores específicos do ambiente poderá contribuir para um eficiente zoneamento agrícola e para futuros programas de melhoramento da espécie. Objetivou-se apresentar o estado-da-arte do conhecimento relacionado aos efeitos e à interação dos fatores ambientes sobre o processo fotossintético e a fisiologia da planta inteira. Nesta revisão, demonstra-se que os fatores do ambiente, como luz, vento, característica físicas e químicas do solo, temperatura, água no solo, umidade relativa, além de fatores bióticos, como fungos micorrízicos e o genótipo, podem afetar intensamente a produtividade e a fisiologia do mamoeiro. Uma compreensão da ação dos fatores do ambiente e suas interações com o processo fisiológico dessa espécie são de grande importância para a sustentabilidade econômica da produção do mamoeiro, em condições de viveiro e de campo. A partir de um manejo da cultura baseado em resultados científicos, será possível otimizar a assimilação fotossintética do carbono e elevar a qualidade e produção de frutos do mamoeiro. Abstract in english Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a principal horticultural crop of tropical and subtropical regions. Knowledge of how papaya responds to environmental factors provides a scientific basis for the development of management strategies to optimize fruit yield and quality. A better understanding of genotypic [...] responses to specific environmental factors will contribute to efficient agricultural zoning and papaya breeding programs. The objective of this review is to present current research knowledge related to the effect of environmental factors and their interaction with the photosynthetic process and whole-plant physiology. This review demonstrates that environmental factors such as light, wind, soil chemical and physical characteristics, temperature, soil water, relative humidity, and biotic factors such as mycorrhizal fungi and genotype profoundly affect the productivity and physiology of papaya. An understanding of the environmental factors and their interaction with physiological processes is extremely important for economically sustainable production in the nursery or in the field. With improved, science-based management, growers will optimize photosynthetic carbon assimilation and increase papaya fruit productivity and quality.

Eliemar, Campostrini; David M., Glenn.

2007-12-01

77

Preferential reproduction mode of hermaphrodite papaya plant (Carica papaya L; Caricaceae) Modo de reprodução preferencial de plantas hermafroditas de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L; Caricaceae)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This research was done to study the reproductive system of papaya hermaphrodite plant based on the histochemical nature of pollen grain, stigma receptivity, in vivo pollen grain germination and pollen:ovule ratio. In the histochemical analysis, pollen grains were stained by using Sudan IV and I2KI solution ; the stigma receptivity was assessed by alpha-naphthtyl acetate solution in closed and opened flowers. Pollen germination and pollen tube growing were examined in flower buds near anthesis...

Pedro Corrêa Damasceno junior; Telma Nair Santana Pereira; Messias Gonzaga Pereira; Francisco Filho da Silva; Margarete Magalhães Souza; Rodrigo Gualandi Nicoli

2009-01-01

78

Sensitivity of papaya seeds to gamma-irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The major problems faced by the papaya industry in Malaysia are the papaya ringspot virus disease and the short shelf-life of the fruit. Efforts have been made to address these problems and they include conventional breeding and selection and biotechnological tools for development of transgenic papayas with PRSV resistance and delayed fruit ripening characteristics. Irradiation-induced changes in papaya for selection of improved varieties could offer another approach to resolve these problems. As the first step, the radio-sensitivity of papaya seed must be established before mass irradiation of the materials to generate the desired variability for evaluation and selection later. For the first approximation dosage, the seeds of two local. varieties, Sekaki and Eksotika were irradiated as either dry seeds or as pre-germinated seeds (soaked overnight in water and surface-dried). The dosage ranged from 0 to 300 Gy. Wet pre-germinated seeds were all killed at 100 Gy while dry seeds did not show loss of viability even at 300 Gy. The dosage for dry seeds was raised to 1000 Gy in the following experiment and the LD 50 (or half-kill) was estimated to be 650 Gy. However, at this dosage, seedling growth was markedly reduced and this dosage may not be suitable for mass irradiation. From the growth data, it was estimated that 525 Gy was the dosage that reduced 50% of growth in height and this dosage was recommended for mass irradiation of dry seeds. For wet, pre-germinated seeds, dry seeds. For wet, pre-germinated seeds, results from the third experiment indicated that 42.5 Gy was the optimal dosage for mass irradiation. At this dosage, both seed germination and seedling growth was reduced by 50%. (Author)

79

Antiplasmodial Properties and Bioassay-Guided Fractionation of Ethyl Acetate Extracts from Carica papaya Leaves  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We investigated the antiplasmodial properties of crude extracts from Carica papaya leaves to trace the activity through bioassay-guided fractionation. The greatest antiplasmodial activity was observed in the ethyl acetate crude extract. C. papaya showed a high selectivity for P. falciparum against CHO cells with a selectivity index of 249.25 and 185.37 in the chloroquine-sensitive D10 and chloroquine-resistant DD2 strains, respectively. Carica papaya ethyl acetate extract was subjected to bio...

Peter Smith,; Paschal Etusim; Paula Melariri; William Campbell

2011-01-01

80

Nematodos agalladores asociados al cultivo de papaya (Carica papaya L.) en el departamento de Córdoba, Colombia / Root knot nematodes associated with papaya crop (Carica papaya L.) in department of Córdoba, Colombia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este trabajo fue identificar los nematodos agalladores asociados al cultivo de papaya (Carica papaya L.) en los municipios de Tierralta, Valencia, Lorica, Montería y Montelíbano que constituyen el área productora de papaya en Córdoba. Se evaluaron variables morfológicas y morfométrica [...] s en hembras, machos y juveniles de segundo estadío (J2). En las muestras de suelo se determinó pH, contenido de materia orgánica (MO), conductividad eléctrica (CE) y textura, a fin de correlacionarlas con la presencia de especies nematodas. Se encontraron Meloidogyne javanica, M. incognita y M. arenaria, siendo M. incognita la especie más frecuente. Las tres especies se encontraron mezcladas en 37,5% de los individuos; M. incognita y M. arenaria en 50%, mientras que M. incognita y M. javanica no se encontraron mezcladas. Las especies se encontraron en pH de 4,9 a 6,4; CE de 0,1 a 0,45 dS· m-1; MO de 1,2 % a 2,5 % y la textura fue arenosa, franca y franco arenosa. El pH, el contenido de arena y la CE correlacionan de manera positiva con la presencia de los nematodos, mientras a MO mostró correlación negativa. Se reporta por primera vez la ocurrencia de M. javanica, M. incognita, M. arenaria, así como la mezcla de M. incognita y M. arenaria, en papayas de Colombia. Abstract in english Nematode species associated with papaya crop (Carica papaya L) were characterized in Cordoba, Colombia by using morphological and morphometric parameters of their females, males, and infective second-stage juveniles (J2). Soil samples were taken from papaya plantations in order to evaluate soil text [...] ure, organic matter (OM), pH, electric conductivity (EC), and, finally, presence of root knot nematodes in the soil. Correlation analysis was performed to correlate soil variables with the presence of Meloidogyne species. Meloidogyne incognita, M. arenaria and M. javanica were found, whereas M. incognita was the most frequent specie. These three species were found together in 37.5% of the soils of papaya plantation; M. incognita and M. arenaria were mixed in 50%, while M. javanica and M. incognita were not mixed. Conducive soils to Meloidogyne species had pH 4.9 to 6.4, EC 0.1 to 0.45 dS· m-1, OM 1.2 to 2.5 %, and sandy to sandy-loam soil texture. The pH, percentages sand and CE were positively correlated with an abundance of Meloidogyne species, whereas OM was negatively correlated. This is the first report of M. javanica, M. incognita and M. arenaria, and the mixture of M. incognita and M. arenaria in papaya plantations of Colombia.

Juan de Dios, Jaraba; Zaida, Lozano; Manuel, Espinosa.

2007-06-01

 
 
 
 
81

Hurdle technology to preserve the 'Golden' papaya post harvest quality  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the purpose of evaluating a combination of post harvest techniques on papaya Golden storage, the following treatments were investigated: carton boxes packaging (CP); CP + plastic bag of PEBD - low density polyethylene film, with 0.05mm of thickness (PE); CP + PEBD with 0.025mm of thickness impregnated with mineral ethylene scavenger (PEAbs); gamma-irradiation (0.4 kGy and 0.7 kGy); and refrigerated storage at 10 deg C e 90% of relative humidity for 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 days plus five days under environmental conditions to allow ripening and to simulate the product marketing. To evaluate the effects on fruit quality the following measurements were taken: - first experiment, disease incidence, skin color and loss of turgidity (as visual variables); skin and flesh color, weight loss, flesh firmness, total soluble solids, total titratable acidity, pH, lycopene and beta-carotene composition; - second experiment, sensorial analysis on samples submitted to the treatments with better results from the first experiment. Post harvest diseases were the main factor responsible for discarding fruits. Percentage of weight loss was higher on papayas stored without plastic packaging. Time affected the flesh firmness (F = 95%). However, there wasn't influence of the treatments on that parameter. A significant effect on skin color was observed with interaction between irradiation (0.4 and 0.7 kGy) and storage period. Once reached the edible stage, irradiated papayas pres the edible stage, irradiated papayas presented more uniformity on skin color. For beta-carotene and Lycopene, the mean values were 1.27 to 1.79 and 19.16 to 23.90 mug/ml of flesh, respectively. But those substances weren't affected by the combined methods or the time. The same behavior were observed for total soluble solids, total titratable acidity and pH (mean values of 11.53 to 12.20 deg Brix, 0.117 to 0.136 g of citric acid/100g of flesh and 4.91 to 5.04, respectively). On sensory evaluation, the judges didn't get to detect significant differences among papayas submitted to different treatments. A synergism was verified on the techniques combination, with the best results obtained from the association of CP + PEabs + gamma-irradiation at 0.4 kGy, which reached a total storage period of 35 days. Thus, that is the post harvest hurdle technology recommend for exporting 'Golden' papayas to markets with quarantine restrictions to fruit-flies (author)

82

Analysis of ripening-related gene expression in papaya using an Arabidopsis-based microarray  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a commercially important crop that produces climacteric fruits with a soft and sweet pulp that contain a wide range of health promoting phytochemicals. Despite its importance, little is known about transcriptional modifications during papaya fruit ripening and their control. In this study we report the analysis of ripe papaya transcriptome by using a cross-species (XSpecies) microarray technique based on the phylogenet...

Fabi João Paulo; Seymour Graham B; Graham Neil S; Broadley Martin R; May Sean T; Lajolo Franco Maria; Cordenunsi Beatriz Rosana; Oliveira do Nascimento João Roberto

2012-01-01

83

Uji Antimuagenik Ekstrak Etanol Bunga Jantan Pepaya (Carica papaya L.) pada Mencit Jantan yang Diinduksi dengan Siklofosfamid  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a plant that spread almost over Indonesia. Male flowers (Caricae flos) of this plant are often consumed by the public as a vegetable. People already use the leaves and sap of this plant to treat malaria and elimininate the warts. This study aims to perform characterization of simplicia male papaya flower, phytochemical screening of simplicia and antimutagenic testing of ethanol exctract male papaya flower in mice of which induced by cyclophosphamide. Simplicia ...

Sitorus, Wahyudin

2012-01-01

84

Evaluación de accesiones cubanas de papaya (Carica papaya L. ante la mancha anular Avaliação de acessos cubanos de mamão papaya (carica papaya L. à mancha anelar Assessment of Cuban papaya (Carica papaya L. accessions against ringspot  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se colectaron en diferentes regiones de Cuba semillas de las accesiones de papayo Tallo Morado de Nava, Amarilla de Duaba, Amarilla de Nava y Sapote de Pilón. Estas se plantaron en condiciones de campo en Jagüey Grande, Matanzas - Cuba, donde se evaluó la presencia e intensidad de síntomas de mancha anular, siguiendo una escala graduada del 1 al 5. Los resultados mostraron un incremento temporal de la proporción de plantas afectadas en todas las accesiones. La accesión Amarilla de Duaba mostró los síntomas a los dos meses después de la primera evaluación (MDPE, mientras que el resto lo hizo a los cinco MDPE, aunque con proporciones que variaron entre ellas. A los siete MDPE las accesiones Amarilla de Duaba y Amarilla de Nava mostraron proporciones idénticas de plantas enfermas, mientras que Tallo morado de Nava y Sapote de Pilón mostraron proporciones inferiores. La intensidad de los síntomas se incrementó en los diferentes órganos siguiendo el siguiente orden: tallo (1,7 a 2,66, pecíolos (2,21 a 3,03 y follaje (3,44-4,03. En los frutos la intensidad de los síntomas observados fue inferior a 2,5, considerados como leves de acuerdo a su intensidad y distribución. Se ofrecen los primeros resultados sobre la susceptibilidad a la mancha anular de estas accesiones, siendo de gran utilidad para los productores, así como para los programas de mejoramiento genético en el país.Os acessos de mamão Tallo morado de Nava, Amarilla de Duaba, Amarilla de Nava e Sapote de Pilón foram coletados em diferentes regiões de Cuba e plantados em condições de campo em Jagüey Grande, Matanzas - Cuba. Nestas plantas foram avaliadas a presença e intensidade dos sintomas de mancha anelar, usando uma escala graduada de 1-5. Os resultados mostraram um aumento, com o tempo, na proporção de plantas afetadas em todos os acessos. O acesso Amarilla de Duaba apresentou sintomas dois meses após a primeira avaliação (MDPE, enquanto para os restantes foram observados sintomas após cinco MDPE, contudo em proporções diferentes entre eles. Aos sete MDPE os acessos Amarilla de Duaba e Amarilla de Nava, apresentaram proporções iguais de plantas doentes, enquanto Tallo morado de Nava e Sapote de Pilon apresentaram menores proporções. O aumento da intensidade dos sintomas foi diferente nos órgãos da planta na seguinte ordem: caule (1,7-2,66, pecíolos (2,21-3,03 e folhagens (3,44-4,03. Nos frutos a intensidade dos sintomas observados foi inferior a 2,5, considerada leve em função da sua intensidade e distribuição. Estes são os primeiros resultados sobre a susceptibilidade a mancha anelar destes acessos, sendo muito úteis para os produtores, bem como para os programas de melhoramento do país.The papaya accessions "Tallo morado de Nava", "Amarilla de Duaba", "Amarilla de Nava" and "Sapote de Pilón" were collected from different regions of Cuba and planted under field conditions in Jagüey Grande, Matanzas - Cuba. These plants were assessed for the presence and intensity of ringspot symptoms, using a graduated scale of 1-5. Results showed an increase, with time, in the proportion of affected plants for all accessions. The accession "Amarilla de Duaba" had symptoms two months after the first assessment (MAFA, while for the remaining accessions, symptoms were noted after only five MAFA but at proportions that differed among them. At seven MAFA, the accessions "Amarilla de Duaba" and "Amarilla de Nava" had proportions equal to those of diseased plants, while "Tallo morado de Nava" and "Sapote de Pilon" showed lower proportions. The increase in symptom intensity was different for the plant organs in the following order: stem (1.7-2.66, petioles (2.21-3.03 and leaves (3.44-4.03. For fruits, the intensity of the observed symptoms was inferior to 2.5, considered light based on their intensity and distributions. These are the first results about ringspot susceptibility for these accessions, which are highly useful for farmers, as well as for breeding programs in the country.

Douglas Rodríguez

2013-03-01

85

Índices fisiológicos e crescimento inicial de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L. em casa de vegetação Physiological indexes and initial growth of papaya plants (Carica papaya L. under greenhouse conditions  

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Full Text Available No Brasil, a cultura do mamoeiro (Carica papaya L. é amplamente difundida, destacando-se o sul da Bahia e o norte do Espírito Santo onde se concentra a maior parte dos plantios comerciais. Por ser uma cultura que necessita de renovação dos pomares de quatro em quatro anos, no máximo, há uma necessidade constante de renovação deles, fazendo com que a demanda por novas tecnologias e melhoria na qualidade das mudas cresça, forçando o desenvolvimento de pesquisas na área. A análise de crescimento tem sido usada por pesquisadores, na tentativa de explicar diferenças no crescimento, de ordem genética ou resultante de modificações do ambiente e constitui uma ferramenta eficiente para a identificação de materiais promissores, além de identificar características que, no crescimento inicial, indiquem possibilidade de aumento no rendimento da planta adulta, favorecendo os trabalhos de melhoramento na busca de materiais mais produtivos. Por isso, objetivou-se avaliar o crescimento inicial de plantas de mamoeiro em casa de vegetação, por meio de índices fisiológicos, como parâmetros indicativos do rendimento. Assim, instalou-se um experimento no delineamento inteiramente casualizado, utilizando a cultivar Golden e outro com o híbrido Tainung Nº1. Concluiu-se que os índices fisiológicos; taxa de crescimento absoluto, taxa de crescimento relativo, taxa assimilatória líquida e razão de área foliar são ferramentas eficientes para identificar e comparar diferentes materiais genéticos, durante o crescimento inicial de plantas de mamoeiro da cultivar Golden e do híbrido Tainung Nº1, em casa de vegetação.In Brazil, the papaya crop (Carica papaya L. is well diffused, specially in the Southern Region of the State of Bahia and the Northern Region of the State of Espírito Santo, where most of the commercial plantations are concentrated. Papaya is a crop that needs renovation of the orchards every four years, at the most, demanding the development of new technologies and improvement in the quality of the plantlets, also demanding the development of research in this area. Growth analysis has been used by researchers in order to explain growth differences of genetic or environmental causes. This is a very efficient tool for the identification of promising materials and characteristics that possibly increase the yield of abolt plant during the initial growth, favoring the works of breeding. This is valmble infermatian for plant breeding army productive. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the initial growth of papaya plants growing under greenhouse conditions using physiological indexes as yield indicative parameters. Therefore, a complete randomized block experiment was carried out using the Golden cultivar and the Tainung Nº1 hybrid. It was concluded that the physiological indexes: absolute growth ratio, relative growth ratio, accurate assimilation ratio and leaf area ratio are efficient tools to identity and compare different genetic materials during the initial growth of papaya plants growing under greenhouse conditions.

Juliana Firmino de Lima

2007-10-01

86

Índices fisiológicos e crescimento inicial de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L.) em casa de vegetação / Physiological indexes and initial growth of papaya plants (Carica papaya L.) under greenhouse conditions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese No Brasil, a cultura do mamoeiro (Carica papaya L.) é amplamente difundida, destacando-se o sul da Bahia e o norte do Espírito Santo onde se concentra a maior parte dos plantios comerciais. Por ser uma cultura que necessita de renovação dos pomares de quatro em quatro anos, no máximo, há uma necessi [...] dade constante de renovação deles, fazendo com que a demanda por novas tecnologias e melhoria na qualidade das mudas cresça, forçando o desenvolvimento de pesquisas na área. A análise de crescimento tem sido usada por pesquisadores, na tentativa de explicar diferenças no crescimento, de ordem genética ou resultante de modificações do ambiente e constitui uma ferramenta eficiente para a identificação de materiais promissores, além de identificar características que, no crescimento inicial, indiquem possibilidade de aumento no rendimento da planta adulta, favorecendo os trabalhos de melhoramento na busca de materiais mais produtivos. Por isso, objetivou-se avaliar o crescimento inicial de plantas de mamoeiro em casa de vegetação, por meio de índices fisiológicos, como parâmetros indicativos do rendimento. Assim, instalou-se um experimento no delineamento inteiramente casualizado, utilizando a cultivar Golden e outro com o híbrido Tainung Nº1. Concluiu-se que os índices fisiológicos; taxa de crescimento absoluto, taxa de crescimento relativo, taxa assimilatória líquida e razão de área foliar são ferramentas eficientes para identificar e comparar diferentes materiais genéticos, durante o crescimento inicial de plantas de mamoeiro da cultivar Golden e do híbrido Tainung Nº1, em casa de vegetação. Abstract in english In Brazil, the papaya crop (Carica papaya L.) is well diffused, specially in the Southern Region of the State of Bahia and the Northern Region of the State of Espírito Santo, where most of the commercial plantations are concentrated. Papaya is a crop that needs renovation of the orchards every four [...] years, at the most, demanding the development of new technologies and improvement in the quality of the plantlets, also demanding the development of research in this area. Growth analysis has been used by researchers in order to explain growth differences of genetic or environmental causes. This is a very efficient tool for the identification of promising materials and characteristics that possibly increase the yield of abolt plant during the initial growth, favoring the works of breeding. This is valmble infermatian for plant breeding army productive. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the initial growth of papaya plants growing under greenhouse conditions using physiological indexes as yield indicative parameters. Therefore, a complete randomized block experiment was carried out using the Golden cultivar and the Tainung Nº1 hybrid. It was concluded that the physiological indexes: absolute growth ratio, relative growth ratio, accurate assimilation ratio and leaf area ratio are efficient tools to identity and compare different genetic materials during the initial growth of papaya plants growing under greenhouse conditions.

Juliana Firmino de, Lima; Clóvis Pereira, Peixoto; Carlos Alberto da Silva, Ledo.

1358-13-01

87

Molecular characterization of two distinct begomoviruses from Papaya in China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Six papaya samples showing downward leaf curling were collected in Guangdong and Guangxi provinces, China. The result of TAS-ELISA showed they were all infected by geminiviruses. Comparison of partial DNA-A sequences reveals that these virus isolates can be classified into two groups. Group I includes isolates G2, G4, G5, G28 and G29 from Guangxi province, while isolate GD2 from Guangdong province belongs to Group II. The complete DNA-A sequence of G2 and GD2 were characterized. Sequence comparisons showed that the DNA-A of G2 and GD2 were most closely related to that of Ageratum yellow vein China virus- [Hn2] and Ageratum yellow vein virus , respectively, with 83.4 and 75.2% nucleotide sequence identity, while DNA-A sequence between G2 and GD2 had only 73.4% sequence identity. The molecular data suggests that G2 and GD2 are two distinct begomoviruses, for which the name Papaya leaf curl China virus (PaLCuCNV) for G2 and Papaya leaf curl Guangdong virus (PaLCuGDV) for GD2 are proposed. Comparison of individual encoded proteins showed the coat protein of G2 and GD2 shared highest amino acid sequence identity (97.7 and 94.2%, respectively) with that of Pepper leaf curl virus -[Malaysia] (PepLCV-[MY]), suggesting the CP of these viruses may have identical ancestor. PMID:15550769

Wang, Xiangyang; Xie, Yan; Zhou, Xueping

2004-12-01

88

Características fenotípicas y agronómicas de seis genotipos de papaya (Carica papaya L. de Tuxpan, Guerrero, México  

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Full Text Available En México la producción de papayo (Carica papaya L. es afectada por factores genéticos, ambientales y bióticos. Destacan los daños provocados por el virus de la mancha anular, el cual reduce considerablemente la cantidad y calidad de la fruta; por eso es muy importante, conocer la productividad de los genotipos en un ambiente determinado. La presente investigación se realizó con el objetivo de evaluar el desarrollo y las características agronómicas de seis genotipos de papayo. El estudio se llevó a cabo en la localidad de Tuxpan, Guerrero, donde se cultivaron los genotipos: R4M3, Maradol, Criolla, Red Lady, Zapote y R5M2. Como diseño experimental se utilizó el de bloques completos al azar, con cuatro repeticiones. Las variables evaluadas fueron: altura al primer fruto, diámetro del cuello, altura de la planta, número de días a la cosecha, rendimiento de frutos (t/ha, número, diámetro y longitud de frutos, concentración de azúcares (grados Brix, textura, color de la pulpa y epicarpio de frutos maduros. Los datos de las variables se sometieron a análisis de varianza y prueba de comparación de medias de Tukey. En relación a la adaptación de los genotipos: todos los genotipos se desarrollaron y produjeron frutos en las condiciones de trópico seco. La variedad Maradol fue la más sobresaliente, presentando un porte menor, mayor precocidad y productividad, textura dura de pulpa, alta concentración de azúcares, buen tamaño y color.

José Ángel Alcántara Jiménez

2010-07-01

89

Characterization of a high oleic oil extracted from papaya (Carica papaya L.) seeds / Caracterização de um óleo alto oleico extraído de sementes de mamão (Carica papaya L.)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese As características físico-químicas e as composições de ácidos graxos, tocoferóis e carotenoides do óleo bruto extraído de sementes de mamão (Carica papaya L.), variedade formosa, foram investigadas. O rendimento em óleo das sementes foi de 29,16%. Os dados obtidos para os índices analíticos comparam [...] -se bem com os de outros óleos comestíveis. O óleo apresentou elevada resistência à oxidação (77,97 horas). Os principais ácidos graxos quantificados foram o oleico (71,30%), seguido pelo palmítico (16,16%), linoleico (6,06%) e esteárico (4,73%). O ? e ?-tocoferol foram os tocoferóis predominantes com 51,85 e18,9 mg.kg-1, respectivamente. A ?-criptoxantina (4,29 mg.kg-1) e o ?-caroteno (2,76 mg.kg-1) foram os carotenóides quantificados e o conteúdo de compostos fenólicos totais foi de 957,60 mg.kg-1. Assim, a potencial utilização das sementes de mamão para a produção de óleo parece ser favorável. Entretanto, estudos toxicológicos são ainda necessários antes de o óleo ser indicado para utilização em alimentos. Abstract in english The physicochemical characteristics, fatty acid, tocopherol, and carotenoid composition of a crude oil extracted from papaya (Carica papaya L.) seeds, formosa variety, were investigated. The oil yield from the seeds was 29.16%. The data obtained for the analytical indexes were in agreement with thos [...] e of other edible oils. The oil obtained had high oxidation resistance (77.97 hours). The major fatty acids in total lipid were oleic (71.30%), palmitic (16.16%), linoleic (6.06%), and stearic (4.73%) acid. The ? and ?-tocopherol were the predominant tocopherols with 51.85 and 18.89 mg.kg-1, respectivelly. The ?-cryptoxanthin (4.29 mg.kg-1) and ?-carotene (2.76 mg.kg-1) were the carotenoids quantified, and the content of total phenolic compounds was 957.60 mg.kg-1. Therefore, the potential utilization of the papaya seeds for oil production seems favorable. However, toxicological studies need to be carried out before the oil is appropriate for food applications.

Cassia Roberta, Malacrida; Mieko, Kimura; Neuza, Jorge.

2011-12-01

90

Irradiation-derived sex reversal mutants for cloning sex determination genes in papaya  

Science.gov (United States)

Unlike most animals, most flowering plants are hermaphrodites possessing both male and female organs. Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is one of the few plant species that produce male, female, and hermaphrodite flowers on separate individuals. These variations have distinctive morphologies and sexual func...

91

IRRADIATION-DERIVED SEX REVERSAL MUTANTS FOR CLONING SEX DETERMINATION GENES IN PAPAYA  

Science.gov (United States)

Unlike most animals, most flowering plants are hermaphrodites possessing both male and female organs. Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is one of the few plant species that produce male, female, and hermaphrodite flowers on separate individuals. These variations have distinctive morphologies and sexual func...

92

Estudio de la conservación de la papaya (Carica papaya L.) asociado a la aplicación de películas comestibles  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Brasil es un importante productor de papaya, pero sólo una pequeña parte se exporta. Esta fruta es altamente perecedera, por lo que el control de la maduración es esencial para aumentar la vida útil, tanto para el mercado interno como para la exportación. Una alternativa que ha cobrado impulso en el mercado es el uso de películas comestibles biodegradables, entre ellas la película producida a partir de almidón de yuca. En este estudio se evaluó el efecto de una película de almid?...

Alessandra Almeida Castro; Jane Delane Reis Pimentel; Danilo Santos Souza; Thaciana Vieira de Oliveira; Mariana da Costa Oliveira

2011-01-01

93

CARACTERIZACIÓN DE COMPOST A BASE DE ESPINILLO EN RELACIÓN A LA NORMA CHILENA No2880  

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Caracterización de compost a base de espinillo en relación a la Norma Chilena No2880. El objetivo de este estudio fue caracterizar el compost a base de espinillo (Ulex europaeus L.) y contrastar sus características físico-químicas con las de la Norma Chilena de compost (NCh 2880). El ensayo se montó en el Centro Experimental Pillanlelbún, Temuco, Chile, entre diciembre 2010 y abril de 2011. Se empleó un diseño factorial de 2×2, los factores fueron: mezcla y acelerador de compo...

Ricardo Tighe-Neira; Gina Leonelli-Cantergiani; Montalba-navarro, Ren U. E.; Carolina Cavieres-Acu\\u00F1a; Daniza Morales-Ulloa

2014-01-01

94

Histopathological changes in Wistar albino rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Exposure of animals to xenobiotics may or may not trigger adverse response at cellular levels. Aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya is consumed by sickle cell patients as antisickling agent in Western Nigeria. Aim: This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of Carica papaya on certain organs in Wister albino rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya. Materials and Methods: Different doses of aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya were administered orally daily for 42 days to six groups of rats. At the end of exposure, the animals were sacrificed and tissue sections were prepared from livers, kidneys, hearts and small intestines using standard techniques. Results: Histopathological results showed that no pathological changes were observed in tissue sections of experimental animals when compared with tissue sections of the same organs in control animals. Conclusion: No pathological changes were elicited in the organs of rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya. PMID:22574295

Oduola, Taofeeq; Bello, Ibrahim; Idowu, Thomas; Avwioro, Godwin; Adeosun, Ganiyu; Olatubosun, Luqman

2010-01-01

95

Sales de calcio mejoran vida de anaquel y aceptabilidad general de papaya (Carica papaya L. var. Maradol fresca cortada  

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Full Text Available Las tendencias actuales de los consumidores por alimentos sanos y de conveniencia promueven un mayor consumo de frutas y hortalizas, donde destacan productos frescos cortados. Sin embargo, por su naturaleza estos productos pueden ser muy susceptibles a diferentes alteraciones que afectan su calidad. El uso de aditivos como sales de calcio representa una alternativa tecnológica para mantener, o incluso mejorar, la calidad durante su vida de anaquel. Por lo anterior el objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar el efecto de sales de calcio en papaya fresca cortada sobre la calidad física, química, microbiológica, nutracéutica y sensorial. Cubos de papaya, variedad Maradol (2 cm de arista fueron tratados con lactato y cloruro de calcio al 1,0 y 3,0 %, bajo condiciones de inmersión por 2 min a 40 °C. Las muestras tratadas fueron colocadas en vasos de polietileno tereftalato (PET de 500 mL con tapa, y almacenadas por 8 días a 5 °C. En comparación con los frutos testigo, los tratamientos a base de calcio demostraron mejorar la firmeza (~ 8 N, principalmente los frutos tratados con cloruro de calcio al 3,0 %. Por otra parte, la calidad nutracéutica (fenólicos totales no se vio afectada por el uso de sales de calcio, mientras que las evaluaciones microbiológicas demuestran condiciones de inocuidad conforme a normatividad. Se sugiere el uso de cloruro de calcio para fines de comercializar papaya fresca cortada.

Nayely Leyva López

2011-01-01

96

Physico-chemical and sensory quality of fresh cut papaya (Carica papaya) packaged in micro-perforated polyvinyl chloride containers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Papaya cubes at maturity stages, 5-45 % yellow (more green than yellow) and 55-80 % yellow (more yellow than green) were washed with 5 % H2O2, drained and packaged in PVC trays having five, seven and ten micro-perforations and stored for 19 days. PVC trays with 3 mm diameter punch holes were used as the control. Based on physico-chemical properties, optimum maturity for papaya and micro-perforation level of PVC trays were determined. Effectiveness of citric acid in prevention of browning was also tested. Firmness and TSS changed significantly, on day 19. O2, CO2 and C2H4 concentration changed 2.4 to 4.2 %, 23.4 to 5.9 %, and 0 to 0.13 % respectively, from day 3 to 19. pH and titratable acidity did not change significantly throughout the storage. Pretreated papaya cubes, packaged in PVC trays with ten micro-perforations, kept under 4 °C had storage lives of 19 days. PMID:25477661

Jayathunge, K G L R; Gunawardhana, D K S N; Illeperuma, D C K; Chandrajith, U G; Thilakarathne, B M K S; Fernando, M D; Palipane, K B

2014-12-01

97

Estudio de la conservación de la papaya (Carica papaya L. asociado a la aplicación de películas comestibles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Brasil es un importante productor de papaya, pero sólo una pequeña parte se exporta. Esta fruta es altamente perecedera, por lo que el control de la maduración es esencial para aumentar la vida útil, tanto para el mercado interno como para la exportación. Una alternativa que ha cobrado impulso en el mercado es el uso de películas comestibles biodegradables, entre ellas la película producida a partir de almidón de yuca. En este estudio se evaluó el efecto de una película de almidón de yuca (2 % sobre la papaya almacenadas a temperatura ambiental (25 ± 2 ºC y a 8 °C, y 82 % de humedad relativa durante 6 días de almacenamiento. Se realizaron análisis de pérdida de peso, color, pH, acidez, carotenoides totales, vitamina C y sólidos solubles totales, cada tres días de almacenamiento. La película comestible de almidón de yuca resultó ser una buena alternativa para la preservación de la papaya durante seis días de almacenamiento, en relación a los parámetros pH, grados Brix, acidez y carotenoides.

Alessandra Almeida Castro

2011-01-01

98

Control de dos especies de Colletotrichum causantes de antracnosis en frutos de papaya Maradol Control of two species of Colletotrichum causing anthracnose in Maradol papaya fruits  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

La antracnosis es una limitante de la vida útil de los frutos de papaya, es causada principalmente por Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, aunque es posible encontrar otras especies de Colletotrichum causando enfermedades en un mismo cultivo. Para el control de la antracnosis en Yucatán se recomiendan varios fungicidas, pero no todos están permitidos por la agencia de protección al ambiente (EPA) de los Estados Unidos de América, principal país al cual se exporta la papaya yucateca. El pres...

Felipe Santamaría Basulto; Raúl Díaz Plaza; Omar Gutiérrez Alonso; Jorge Santamaría Fernández; Alfonso Larqué Saavedra

2011-01-01

99

Consideraciones sobre la utilización de diferentes densidades en el cultivo de papaya (Carica papaya, L.) "Baixinho de Santa Amalia" en islas canarias  

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El cultivo de papaya en Islas Canarias se ha extendido en los últimos años bajo condiciones de invernadero. La utilización de cultivares de papaya tipo "Baixinho de Santa Amalia" (mutante natural del cultivar "Sunrise") de porte bajo, emisión de la flor a corta altura y precocidad en la floración, resultan de gran interés sobre todo en esta clase de medios. Estas características fenológicas hacen posible el manejo del cultivo a mayores densidades que las empleadas con otros cultivares...

Mª, Pastor Cristina Rodriguez

2002-01-01

100

Optical and ultrastructural study of the pollen grain development in hermaphrodite papaya tree (Carica papaya L.)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Esta pesquisa descreve os estádios de formação do gameta masculino (grão de pólen) em mamoeiro. Para isto foram coletados botões florais em diferentes etapas de desenvolvimento e as anteras foram tratadas quimicamente para serem observadas ao microscópio óptico e eletrônico de transmissão. O desenvo [...] lvimento do grão de pólen seguiu o padrão normal para Angiospermas. Foram descritos os estádios de desenvolvimento do grão de pólen desde meiócitos ou células mães de micrósporos até o grão de pólen binucleado. Na microesporogênese, as células esporogênicas sofreram meiose dando origem as tétrades, com posterior liberação dos micrósporos da tétrade. A microgametogênese caracterizou-se, principalmente, pela divisão mitótica assimétrica de cada micrósporo originando grãos de pólen binucleados. Estruturas semelhantes a plastídios foram encontradas no citoplasma da célula generativa e agregados próximos ao núcleo da célula generativa. Observou-se degeneração gradativa das células do tapete no decorrer da formação do gameta. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to describe the pollen grain development in hermaphrodite papaya tree. The flower buds were collected at different stages of the development and the anthers were treated chemically for observation under optical and electronic transmission microscopes. The pollen grain [...] development followed the normal pattern described for the Angiosperms. The pollen grain development was described from meiocyte to the mature pollen grain. In the microsporogenesis, the microspore mother cells or the meiocytes underwent meiosis giving rise to the tetrads that were enclosed by the calose. Later, the tetrads were released by the dissolution of the calose by calase activity and microspores underwent mitosis. Microgametogenesis was characterized by asymmetrical mitotic division of each microspore giving rise to bi-nucleate pollen grains. The structures similar to the plastids were found in the cytoplasm and close to the nucleus of the generative cell. Gradual degeneration was observed in the tapetum during the male gamete development.

Lídia Márcia Silva, Santos; Telma Nair Santana, Pereira; Margarete Magalhães de, Souza; Pedro Correa, Damasceno Junior; Fabiane Rabelo da, Costa; Beatriz Ferreira, Ribeiro; Noil Gomes de, Freitas; Messias Gonzaga, Pereira.

2008-06-01

 
 
 
 
101

Comportamiento mecánico de frutos de papaya bajo compresión axial / Mechanical behavior of papaya fruits under axial compression  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los frutos de papaya (Caricapapaya L.) son muy susceptibles a los daños mecánicos, lo que repercute en fuertes pérdidas en poscosecha. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar el comportamiento mecánico de frutos de papaya en poscosecha, para lo cual se realizaron dos experimentos en el Campo Ex [...] perimental Las Huastecas, INIFAP durante los años 2011 y 2012. Las variables evaluadas fueron la fuerza y la deformación requeridas por los frutos para alcanzar el límite elástico, el punto de biocedencia y el punto de ruptura. La compresión se realizó con un Instron Universal 4460. En el primer experimento se evaluaron frutos en madurez de consumo tratados en pre-cosecha con cinco combinaciones de fertilización; los tratamiento N-P-K-Cu-Zn, N-P-K-Ca-Zn, N-P-K y N-P-K-Fe-Zn registraron mayor resistencia a la fuerza de compresión y resultaron diferentes al tratamiento N-P-K-Mn-Zn (Tukey, p? 0.05). En el segundo experimento se evaluaron tres cultivares en dos estados de madurez; los frutos en madurez fisiológica fueron más resistentes para alcanzar el límite elástico (414 N), con relación a los frutos en madurez de consumo (67 N), con diferencias estadísticas (Tukey, p? 0.05). Los frutos del híbrido PK 02 requirieron mayor fuerza para alcanzar el límite elástico (298 N), con relación a los frutos de la variedad Maradol roja (250 N) y del híbrido PK 03 (173 N), con diferencias (Tukey, p? 0.05). Se concluye que los frutos de papaya tuvieron un comportamiento mecánico diferente, en función del manejo nutricional, del tipo de cultivar y del estado de madurez. Abstract in english The fruits of papaya (Carica papaya L.) are very susceptible to mechanical damage, which results in heavy losses in post-harvest. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanical behavior of papaya fruits in post-harvest, for which two experiments were conducted in the Experimental Field The Hua [...] steca, INIFAP during the years 2011 and 2012. The variables evaluated were the strength and deformation required for the fruit to reach the elastic limit, biocedence and the breaking point. The compression was performed with a Instron Universal 4460. In the first experiment for ripening fruit treated with pre-harvest five combinations of fertilization, the treatment N-P-K-Cu-Zn, N-P-K-Ca-Zn, N-P-K-Fe-Zn reported increased resistance to force compression and was different to the treatment N-P-K-Mn-Zn (Tukey, p? .05). In the second experiment three cultivars were evaluated in two states of maturity, the fruits at physiological maturity were more resistant to attain the elastic limit (414 N) in relation to ripening (67 N), with statistical differences (Tukey, p? .05). The fruits of the hybrid PK 02 required more force to achieve the yield strength (298 N) with respect to the fruits of the variety Maradol roja (250 N) and the hybrid PK 03 (173 N), with differences (Tukey, p? .05). It is concluded that papaya fruits had different mechanical behavior depending on the nutritional management, the type of cultivar and maturity.

Enrique, Vázquez García; Horacio, Mata Vázquez; Rafael, Ariza Flores; Felipe, Santamaría Basulto; Irán, Alia Tejacal.

1223-12-01

102

Sequences of the coat protein gene from brazilian isolates of Papaya ringspot virus  

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Full Text Available Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV is the causal agent of the main papaya (Carica papaya disease in the world. Brazil is currently the world's main papaya grower, responsible for about 40% of the worldwide production. Resistance to PRSV on transgenic plants expressing the PRSV coat protein (cp gene was shown to be dependent on the sequence homology between the cp transgene expressed in the plant genome and the cp gene from the incoming virus, in an isolate-specific fashion. Therefore, knowledge of the degree of homology among the cp genes from distinct PRSV isolates which are present in a given area is important to guide the development of transgenic papaya for the control of PRSV in that area. The objective of the present study was to assess the degree of homology among the PRSV cp genes of several Brazilian isolates of this virus. Papaya and PRSV are present in many different ecosystems within Brazil. Twelve PRSV isolates, collected in eight different states from four different geographic regions, were used in this study. The sequences of the cp gene from these isolates were compared among themselves and to the gene used to generate transgenic papaya for Brazil. An average degree of homology of 97.3% at the nucleotide sequence was found among the Brazilian isolates. When compared to 27 isolates from outside Brazil in a homology tree, the Brazilian isolates were clustered with Australian, Hawaiian, and Central and North American isolates, with an average degree of homology of 90.7% among them.

LIMA ROBERTO C. A.

2002-01-01

103

Effects of Edible Micronized Chitosan Coating on Quality and Shelf Life of Sliced Papaya  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Papaya pulp is very perishable and has a short shelf life. Manually sliced papayas were treated with 0%, 0.25%, 0.5%, and 1% chitosan (non-micronized and micronized aqueous solutions; placed into plastic trays, and over-wrapped with PVDC film and then stored at 4°C. Color, soluble solid content, water loss, and total plate count of samples were evaluated. Chitosan coating had the ability to maintain the lightness of the sliced papayas. The a* values of the micronized chitosan-coated sliced papayas were significantly lower than those of the-coated. The sliced papayas that had been treated with 1% MC had a higher total soluble solid content and lower b* value after four days of storage. Also, the chitosan coating on the sliced papaya effectively retarded water loss and inhibited the growth of microorganisms. The results reveal that applying a chitosan coating effectively maintained the quality attributes and prolonged the shelf life of the sliced papayas.

Min-Sheng Su

2013-08-01

104

Anatomia foliar de plantas transgênicas e não transgênicas de Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae) / Leaf anatomy of genetically modified and wild-type Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O mamoeiro, Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae) é uma espécie americana, cujos frutos são largamente consumidos em todo mundo. Devido às perdas de produção provocadas por viroses e a dificuldade em controlá-las por métodos convencionais, a espécie tem sido alvo de pesquisas de melhoramento genético envolv [...] endo transgenia para resistência a vírus. O presente trabalho descreve a anatomia foliar de plantas de mamoeiro convencional e transgênico resistente ao vírus da mancha anelar-Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) com inserção da capa protéica viral. As duas cultivares apresentam pecíolo com endoderme e fibras pericíclicas. As folhas são hipoestomáticas e dorsiventrais, com laticíferos acompanhando os feixes vasculares e grande concentração de idioblastos com drusas de oxalato de cálcio. A epiderme é glabra, possuindo estômatos anomocíticos e anisocíticos, com células de paredes anticlinais retas na face adaxial e levemente sinuosas na face abaxial. O presente trabalho concluiu que o processo de transformação genética não alterou as características anatômicas das folhas de C. papaya, servindo de subsídio para avaliação da conformidade anatômica da cultivar transgênica. Abstract in english Papaya, Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae), is an American species, consumed worldwide. A major limitation to papaya production is attack by viruses, like the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). Papaya has been genetically modified to increase its resistance to PRSV. The aim of this research was to compare the [...] leaf anatomy of wild-type and genetically modified (GM) C. papaya plants to evaluate the influence of genetic modification on leaf anatomy. Wild-type and GM plants showed petiole with endodermis and pericycle fibers. The leaves are hypostomatic and dorsiventral, with laticifers along vascular system and abundant druses of calcium oxalate. The epidermis was glabrous and presented anomocytic and anisocytic stomata, straight anticlinal walls on the adaxial face and sinuous on the abaxial face. Anatomical differences between wild-type and GM C. papaya leaves were not observed. These data contribute to risk assessments regarding the anatomical conformity of GM plants.

Marcos Vinicius, Leal-Costa; Márcia, Munhoz; Paulo Ernesto, Meissner Filho; Fernanda, Reinert; Eliana Schwartz, Tavares.

2010-06-01

105

Estudo e modelagem da cinética de desidratação osmótica do mamão formosa (Carica papaya L.) / Kinetics and modeling on osmotic dehydration of papaya (Carica papaya L.)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho teve como objetivo o estudo da cinética e modelagem do processo de desidratação osmótica de cubos de mamão Formosa (Carica papaya L.), assim como da qualidade do produto final. O tratamento osmótico foi conduzido a 30ºC, com agitação de 110rpm, utilizando-se dois tipos de soluçõe [...] s de sacarose 70ºBrix: a primeira contendo lactato de sódio 2,4% p/p e ácido láctico 0,1M e a segunda com lactato de sódio 2,4% p/p e ácido cítrico 0,1M. O estudo da cinética de desidratação osmótica mostrou que a solução contendo ácido cítrico apresentou valor de perda de água (WL), ao final de 48 horas de processo, ligeiramente superior ao encontrado para a solução contendo ácido láctico. Comportamento contrário ocorreu para o ganho de sólidos (SG). O ajuste dos dados experimentais foi realizado através do modelo difusional para geometria cúbica, sem considerar encolhimento durante o processo e um modelo empírico de dois parâmetros. Os coeficientes de difusividade efetiva de água (Def) variaram de 1,27 a 5,03 x 10-10 m²/s. A qualidade da fruta após processamento foi avaliada através de análises de vitamina C, carotenóides totais, acidez e pH. Abstract in english The present work had as objective the study of kinetics and mathematical modeling of osmotic dehydration process of papaya cubes (Carica papaya L.), as well as the quality of the final product. The osmotic treatment was carried out for 30ºC, with agitation 110rpm, with two types of 70ºBrix sucrose s [...] olutions: solution containing sodium lactate 2,4% w/w and lactic acid 0,1M and another one with sodium lactate 2,4% w/w and citric acid 0,1M. The study of kinetics of osmotic dehydration showed the solution containing citric acid had a water loss (WL) value, at the end of 48 hours of process, lightly superior to the found for the solution containing lactic acid. Opposite behavior happened for the solid gain (SG). Modeling of experimental data was accomplished through the difusional model for cubic geometry, considering no shrinkage during the process and an empirical two parameters one. The coefficients of effective difusivity of water (Def) varied from 1,27 to 5,03 x 10-10 m²/s. Quality of fruit after processing was evaluated through vitamin C, total carotenoid, acidity and pH analyses.

Ânoar Abbas, El-Aquar; Fernanda E. Xidieh, Murr.

2003-04-01

106

Preferential reproduction mode of hermaphrodite papaya plant (Carica papaya L; Caricaceae) / Modo de reprodução preferencial de plantas hermafroditas de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L; Caricaceae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Esta pesquisa teve o objetivo de estudar o sistema reprodutivo preferencial de plantas hermafroditas de mamoeiro, com base na natureza histoquímica dos grãos de pólen, receptividade do estigma, teste de germinação in vivo do grão de pólen e razão pólen : óvulo. Na análise histoquímica dos grãos de p [...] ólen, foram utilizados os corantes Sudan IV e solução de I2KI; a receptividade do estigma foi avaliada com a solução de acetato de alfa-naftil em flores abertas e fechadas. A germinação e o crescimento do tubo polínico in vivo foram avaliados em flores fechadas, utilizando solução de azul de anilina a 0,1%. Para estimar a razão pólen:óvulo, anteras de cada flor foram dissecadas, e os grãos de pólen foram contados; ovários foram dissecados, e os óvulos foram contados sob estereomicroscópio. Os resultados indicaram que os grãos de pólen do mamoeiro são de natureza lipídica; os estigmas estavam receptivos antes da abertura e até 48 h após a abertura; os grãos de pólen germinaram e emitiram tubo polínico antes da abertura floral, e a relação pólen:óvulo, indicou predominância do sistema reprodutivo autógamo. Esses resultados indicaram que o modo de reprodução preferencial do mamoeiro hermafrodita é autógamo facultativo com cleistogamia. Abstract in english This research was done to study the reproductive system of papaya hermaphrodite plant based on the histochemical nature of pollen grain, stigma receptivity, in vivo pollen grain germination and pollen:ovule ratio. In the histochemical analysis, pollen grains were stained by using Sudan IV and I2KI s [...] olution ; the stigma receptivity was assessed by alpha-naphthtyl acetate solution in closed and opened flowers. Pollen germination and pollen tube growing were examined in flower buds near anthesis with 0.1% aniline blue. To estimate the pollen:ovule ratio , anthers from each flower bud were dissected and all pollen grains were counted; ovules were dissected from ovaries and were counted under stereomicroscope. The results indicated that papaya pollen grains are of lipidic nature; the stigmas were receptive before the opening and until 48 hours after opening; the pollen grains germinated and emitted polinic tube before flower opening and the pollen:ovule ratio indicated the predominance of autogamous reproductive system. These results indicate that hermaphrodite papaya trees is preferentially of optional autogamous with cleistogamy.

Pedro Corrêa, Damasceno junior; Telma Nair Santana, Pereira; Messias Gonzaga, Pereira; Francisco Filho da, Silva; Margarete de Magalhães, Souza; Rodrigo Gualandi, Nicoli.

2009-03-01

107

Consideraciones sobre la utilización de diferentes densidades en el cultivo de papaya (Carica papaya, L. "Baixinho de Santa Amalia" en islas canarias Different plantation densities for papaya (Carica papaya, L cv. "Baixinho de Santa Amalia" culture in the canary islands  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El cultivo de papaya en Islas Canarias se ha extendido en los últimos años bajo condiciones de invernadero. La utilización de cultivares de papaya tipo "Baixinho de Santa Amalia" (mutante natural del cultivar "Sunrise" de porte bajo, emisión de la flor a corta altura y precocidad en la floración, resultan de gran interés sobre todo en esta clase de medios. Estas características fenológicas hacen posible el manejo del cultivo a mayores densidades que las empleadas con otros cultivares. Por lo tanto, se ha planteado este trabajo cuyo objetivo principal es determinar cual es el marco de plantación óptimo, que permita obtener mayores rendimientos sin depreciar la calidad del fruto. Para ello, se ha evaluado la producción tanto de las plantas hermafroditas como de las plantas femeninas durante dos ciclos de cultivo, así como las características organolépticas, grado de carpeloidía y deformación de los frutos. Los resultados indican que la densidad mayor, proporciona mejor comportamiento de las plantas así como mayor producción de frutos y menor porcentaje de fruta desechable.The growth of papaya plants under greenhouse conditions has recently become the norm in the Canary Islands. The use of "Baixinho de Santa Amalia" (a natural mutant of the "Sunrise" cultivar, which is a dwarf cultivar flowering early and not high up the plant, is the great interest, above all under these conditions. These phenological characteristic make possible the planting at higher densities than for other cultivars. This study has been carried out to determine the optimal planting density to permit greater production without reducing fruit quality. To this aim the yield, both of hermaphrodite and female plants, has been evaluated through two crop cycles, as well as studying the organoleptic characteristics, degree of carpellody and deformation of the fruits. The results suggest that the highest density provides better plant perfomance as well as higher fruit production and lower percentage of rejected fruit.

Mª Cristina Rodriguez Pastor

2002-12-01

108

Consideraciones sobre la utilización de diferentes densidades en el cultivo de papaya (Carica papaya, L.) "Baixinho de Santa Amalia" en islas canarias / Different plantation densities for papaya (Carica papaya, L) cv. "Baixinho de Santa Amalia" culture in the canary islands  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El cultivo de papaya en Islas Canarias se ha extendido en los últimos años bajo condiciones de invernadero. La utilización de cultivares de papaya tipo "Baixinho de Santa Amalia" (mutante natural del cultivar "Sunrise") de porte bajo, emisión de la flor a corta altura y precocidad en la floración, r [...] esultan de gran interés sobre todo en esta clase de medios. Estas características fenológicas hacen posible el manejo del cultivo a mayores densidades que las empleadas con otros cultivares. Por lo tanto, se ha planteado este trabajo cuyo objetivo principal es determinar cual es el marco de plantación óptimo, que permita obtener mayores rendimientos sin depreciar la calidad del fruto. Para ello, se ha evaluado la producción tanto de las plantas hermafroditas como de las plantas femeninas durante dos ciclos de cultivo, así como las características organolépticas, grado de carpeloidía y deformación de los frutos. Los resultados indican que la densidad mayor, proporciona mejor comportamiento de las plantas así como mayor producción de frutos y menor porcentaje de fruta desechable. Abstract in english The growth of papaya plants under greenhouse conditions has recently become the norm in the Canary Islands. The use of "Baixinho de Santa Amalia" (a natural mutant of the "Sunrise" cultivar), which is a dwarf cultivar flowering early and not high up the plant, is the great interest, above all under [...] these conditions. These phenological characteristic make possible the planting at higher densities than for other cultivars. This study has been carried out to determine the optimal planting density to permit greater production without reducing fruit quality. To this aim the yield, both of hermaphrodite and female plants, has been evaluated through two crop cycles, as well as studying the organoleptic characteristics, degree of carpellody and deformation of the fruits. The results suggest that the highest density provides better plant perfomance as well as higher fruit production and lower percentage of rejected fruit.

Mª Cristina Rodriguez, Pastor.

2002-12-01

109

Presença dos vírus da mancha anelar e do amarelo letal em frutos de mamoeiro comercializados / The presence of Papaya ringspot virus and Papaya lethal yellowing virus in commercialized papaya fruits  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Considerando os índices elevados de incidência de vírus que infetam o mamoeiro (Carica papaya) em condições de campo e seus sintomas típicos nos frutos, foi efetuado um levantamento na Central de Comercialização do Estado do Ceará (CEASA) de frutos infetados com o vírus da mancha anelar do mamoeiro [...] (Papaya ringspot virus, PRSV) e o vírus do amarelo letal do mamoeiro (Papaya lethal yellowing virus, PLYV). Os principais Centros de comercialização de frutos são as CEASAs e os produtos comercializados nos supermercados são, em grande parte, adquiridos nesses Centros. Os frutos coletados aleatoriamente nas bancas de comercialização da CEASA foram levados ao Laboratório de Virologia Vegetal, da Universidade Federal do Ceará (UFC) para análises sintomatológicas e testes de "enzyme linked immunosorent assay" (ELISA) indireto, com anti-soros específicos para o PRSV e PLYV. De acordo com os resultados das análises sintomatológicas, confirmadas por sorologia, dentre os 8.400 frutos analisados, 5,5% estavam infetados por PRSV e 1,2% por PLYV, demonstrando a necessidade de implementar um programa rigoroso de controle, envolvendo erradicação de fontes de vírus no campo, representados por plantas infetadas nos pomares, áreas abandonadas e inclusive cultivos de fundo de quintal. Abstract in english Considering the high incidence of virus in papaya (Carica papaya) orchards and their typical symptoms in the fruits, a survey was carried out in the Central Market in the State of Ceará (CEASA) for the presence of papaya fruits infected with Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) and Papaya lethal yellowing v [...] irus (PLYV). CEASAs are the most important fruit commercial centers, and a great number of plant products sold in supermarkets are obtained in CEASA. Fruits were randomly collected from CEASA stalls and brought to the Plant Virus Laboratory at the Federal University of Ceará (UFC) to be analyzed for typical virus symptoms and tested by indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) against antisera specific to PRSV and PLYV. According to the results obtained by symptom analysis, which were confirmed by serology, among the 8,400 fruits analyzed 5.5% were infected with PRSV and 1.2% with PLYV, showing the need to implement a control program involving eradication of virus sources in the field, represented by infected plants in papaya orchards, abandoned orchards and infected plants identified in backyards.

Najara F., Ramos; Aline K.Q., Nascimento; Maria Fátima B., Gonçalves; José Albérsio A., Lima.

2008-12-01

110

INFLUENCE OF THICKNESS ON THE DRYING OF PAPAYA PUREE (Carica papaya L.) THROUGH REFRACTANCE WINDOWTM TECHNOLOGY / INFLUENCIA DEL ESPESOR EN SECADO DE PURÉ DE PAPAYA (Carica Papaya L.) POR TECNOLOGÍA DE VENTANA DE REFRACTANCIA®  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la influencia del espesor de las muestras (2, 3 y 4 mm) sobre las cinéticas de secado, actividad de agua (a w) y color (deltaE) de rodajas de puré de papaya procesadas por tecnología de ventana de refractanciaTM (RW™). Adicionalmente se evaluó la difusividad d [...] el agua (Deff) teniendo en cuenta el encogimiento. Los datos de humedad se ajustaron mediante los modelos de Newton y Midilli. Los resultados mostraron que a menor espesor el secado fue más rápido, los valores de a w fueron menores y los deltaE superiores. Las muestras alcanzaron 0.0652, 0.1132 y 0.2624 g agua/ g sólido seco en 60 min para rodajas de 2, 3 y 4 mm, respectivamente. El Modelo de Midilli fue el más apropiado para predecir las curvas de secado de papaya por RW™. Deff disminuyó a menor espesor y su orden de magnitud fue de 10-10 m²/s. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of sample thickness (2, 3 and 4 mm) on the drying kinetics, water activity (a w) and color (deltaE) of papaya puree slices processed through Refractance WindowTM technology (RW™). Additionally, the water diffusion coefficient (Deff) was evaluated t [...] aking into account the shrinkage effect. The experimental values of moisture were fitted using Newton's and Midilli's models. The results showed that the lower the thickness, the faster the drying, the lower the values of a w and the higher the deltaE. The samples reached 0.0652, 0.1132 and 0.2624 g water/ g dry solid in 60 min for 2, 3 and 4 mm slices, respectively. Midilli's model was the most appropriate to predict the experimental curves of papaya drying through RW™. Deff decreased at a lower thickness and its order of magnitude was of 10-10 m²/s.

MARÍA U., OCORÓ-ZAMORA; ALFREDO A., AYALA-APONTE.

2013-12-01

111

Empleo del método de secado convectivo combinado para la deshidratación de papaya (Carica papaya L.), variedad Maradol roja / Use of convective dry method combined for dehydration of papaya fruit (Carica papaya L.), variety Maradol roja  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La presente investigación tiene como objetivo evaluar el método de secado convectivo de papaya (Carica papaya L.) variedad Maradol roja, combinado con la aplicación de pretratamientos de osmosis (DOSC) y escaldado simple (ESSC), mediante el efecto de los factores tecnológicos del secador: temperatur [...] a (40 y 60 ºC) y velocidad del flujo de aire (2,5 y 1,5 m/s) sobre el comportamiento de las propiedades de calidad de la fruta deshidratada y la cinética del proceso. El pretratamiento de escaldado simple se realizó en agua destilada caliente a 70°C durante 15 minutos y la deshidratación osmótica u osmosis a 60 °C por 4 horas a frutas cortadas en cubos de 1,5± 0,2 cm de largo por 1,0±0,01 cm de espesor, utilizando una solución de sacarosa comercial a 50°Brix. Como diseño experimental se empleó un Diseño Factorial Completo 2² y para el procesamiento estadístico de los datos el software STATGRAPHICS Plus 5.1. Como principales resultados se obtuvo que en ambos procesos el aumento de la temperatura a 60 ºC y la reducción de la velocidad del flujo de aire a 1,5 m/s disminuyó el tiempo de secado con valores de R² >0,95 y ? Abstract in english This research aim is to evaluate the convective dry method of papaya fruit (Carica papaya L.), variety Maradol roja, combined with simply blanching (ESSC) and Osmosis (DOSC) pre-treatments by the effect of technological factors of dryer: temperature (40 y 60 ºC) and air flow speed (2,5 y 1,5 m/s) ab [...] ove the behavior of quality properties in dehydrated fruit and the process´s kinetic. The simple blanching was realized using hot water 70 °C per 15 min and the osmotic dehydration 60 °C per 4 h to the cubes with 1,5±0,2 cm length per 1,0 ± 0,01 cm de thickness, using a sucrose osmotic solution at 50 °Brix concentration. As experimental design was used a Full Factorial 2² Design and the STATGRAPHICS Plus 5.1 software. As principal results was obtained that in both process the higher temperature to 60 ºC and lower air flow speed to 1,5 m/s provokes a reduction on drying time with value of R² >0,95 y ?

Sahylin, Muñiz Becerá; Antihus, Hernández Gómez; Annia, García Pereira; Lilia, Méndez Lagunas.

112

Effects of Edible Micronized Chitosan Coating on Quality and Shelf Life of Sliced Papaya  

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Papaya pulp is very perishable and has a short shelf life. Manually sliced papayas were treated with 0%, 0.25%, 0.5%, and 1% chitosan (non-micronized and micronized) aqueous solutions; placed into plastic trays, and over-wrapped with PVDC film and then stored at 4°C. Color, soluble solid content, water loss, and total plate count of samples were evaluated. Chitosan coating had the ability to maintain the lightness of the sliced papayas. The a* values of the micronized chi...

Min-Sheng Su; Hung-Ren Lin; Po-Jung Chien

2013-01-01

113

Phenol induced by irradiation does not impair sensory quality of fenugreek and papaya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of radiation processing on the sensory quality of fenugreek and papaya exposed to doses in the range of 2.5–10 kGy and 100 Gy–2.5 kGy respectively was investigated. Despite an increase in the content of phenol in the volatile oil of these food products overall sensory quality of the irradiated and control samples was not significantly affected by radiation processing. - Highlights: • Sensory quality of fenugreek and papaya is not significantly affected by radiation processing. • Irradiation did not adversely affect the overall acceptability of the processed samples. • Radiation processing was thus successfully applied to the preservation of fenugreek and papaya

114

Pengaruh getah pepaya (Carica papaya terhadap sintasan tokolan udang windu (Panaeus monodon pada kepadatan yang berbeda selama pengangkutan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of present study was to evaluate the possibility of papaya’s latex (Carica papaya as anti stress or larvaside for tiger shrimp (Panaeus monodon post larvae Pl 14-30 during transportation. The tiger shrimp post larvae was collected from BBAP Ujung Batee, Aceh Besar on September, 2012. Reseach method used the completely random design with two factors, density of post larvae with three treatments (1000; 1500 dan 2000 ind/l and concentration of papaya’s latex with four treatments (0; 100; 200 dan 300 ppm and three replications for each treatments. The effect of papaya’s latex on tiger shrimp post larvae was observed by calculating the percentage of post larvae’s survival rate. The calculation was only done after twelve hours of transportation, due to the everage of survival rate percentage of post larvae on all levels of density was less than 50%. The ANOVA test showed that the density and the concentration factors gave significance effect on survival rate of tiger shrimp post larvae (P<0,05. The results showed that survival rate of tiger shrimp post larvae (PL 14-30 were decreased with increasing of larvae density and concentration of papaya’s latex. However, Duncan’s test showed that the highest survival rate was obtained at 1.000 ind/l and 0 ppm of papaya’s latex. Hence, the effect of papaya’s latex concentration treatments in this study was larvaside on tiger shrimp post larvae.

Sofyatuddin Karina

2013-04-01

115

Dormancia en semillas de papaya cv maradol roja durante el almacenamiento / Dormancy of papaya seeds cv Maradol Roja during storage  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Dormancia en semillas de papaya cv Maradol Roja durante el almacenamiento. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar el efecto de la humedad de la semilla cultivar Maradol Roja y la temperatura durante el almacenamiento, en la dormancia de la papaya. Este trabajo fue desarrollado en el Laborat [...] orio Nacional de Semillas de la Empresa Productora y Comercializadora de Semillas, provincia La Habana, Cuba, en el período noviembre 2006 a enero 2008. Fueron extraídas las semillas de frutos de papaya cv Maradol Roja, y se secaron a tres contenidos de humedad (12%, 10,56% y 9,26%), y acondicionadas en bolsas de polietileno y almacenadas a 15ºC y 4ºC. El porcentaje de germinación, altura y peso fresco de la planta fueron realizadas al inicio y después de tres, seis, nueve y doce meses de almacenamiento. Hubo tendencia a la disminución de la germinación en los primeros seis meses del almacenamiento, alcanzándose los valores más bajos del porcentaje de germinación (55,6%). A partir de los nueve y doce meses fue detectado un aumento significativo en la germinación, independiente del contenido de humedad de la semilla. El ambiente de 15ºC favoreció mayor germinación en períodos mayores de almacenamiento en relación a las mantenidas a 4ºC, que exhibieron mejores porcentajes de germinación en un período menor (tres meses de almacenamiento). La dormancia finalizó en los periodos de almacenamiento a los nueve y doce meses, independientemente del contenido de humedad. Abstract in english Dormancy of papaya seeds cv Maradol Roja during storage. The objective of this work was to determine the effect of humidity content of papaya cv Maradol Roja and storage temperatura on dormany. The work was conducted at the Laboratorio Nacional de Semillas, Empresa Productora y Comercializadora de S [...] emillas, La Habana, Cuba, from November 2006 to January 2008. Seeds were extracted from papaya fruits cv Maradol Roja and dried to three humidiy contents (12%, 10,56% y 9,26%), and aconditioned in polyiethylene bags and stored at 15ºC and 4ºC. Percentaje of seed germination, heigth and fresh weight of the seedlings were measured at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months in storage. There was a trend towards reduced seed germination during the first 6 months in storage (55,6%). After 9 and 12 months a significant incresase in germination was observed, independent of seed water content. Seeds stored in environment at 15ºC favored germination after longer sotrage compared to seeds kept in storage for shorter periods (3 months). Seed dormany concluded between 9 and 12 months in storage irrespective of seed water content.

Maruchi, Alonso-Esquivel; Yoleinis, Ortiz-López; Roberto, Ramos-Ramírez; Hugo, Oliva-Diaz; Maricela, Capote-del Sol.

2011-12-01

116

La familia Hemiaulaceae (Bacillariophyceae) de las aguas marinas chilenas The family Hemiaulaceae (Bacillariophyceae) from marine Chilean waters  

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La familia Hemiaulaceae comprende cuatro géneros, señalados previamente para las aguas chilenas con las siguientes especies: Cerataulina pelagica (Cleve) Hendey, Hemiaulus sinensis Greville, H. membranaceus Cleve, Climacodium biconcavum Cleve, Eucampia antarctica (Castracane) Mangin, E. cornuta (Cleve) Grunow y E. zodiacus Ehrenberg. Sin embargo, el análisis con microscopía fotónica y electrónica de muestras recolectadas en aguas marinas chilenas que contenían representantes de esta fa...

PATRICIO RIVERA; SERGIO AVARIA; FABIOLA CRUCES

2003-01-01

117

Viabilidade polínica de Carica papaya L.: uma comparação metodológica / Pollen viability of Carica papaya L.: a methodological comparison  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A viabilidade polínica do mamoeiro cultivar 'Sunrise Solo' (Carica papaya L.) foi estudada utilizando germinação in vitro e testes colorimétricos, assim como a validade dos testes colorimétricos como estimativa de viabilidade comparada àquela do teste germinativo. Os dois meios de cultura, descritos [...] na literatura como meios eficientes para germinação da espécie, diferem basicamente pela presença de nutrientes essenciais e concentração de ágar. O meio de cultura sem elementos essenciais e com maior concentração de ágar forneceu o melhor índice de germinação polínica (65%). Os cinco corantes testados foram: 2,3,5-cloreto de trifeniltetrazólio (TTC), Alexander, carmim acético, lugol e Sudan IV. O teste de coloração com TTC forneceu estimativa de viabilidade (67,5%) equivalente ao teste de germinação in vitro e, portanto, confiável de viabilidade polínica. Os demais corantes testados superestimaram a viabilidade polínica (> 90%), porém são eficientes na determinação de constituintes celulares e da integridade do grão de pólen. Abstract in english Pollen viability of Carica papaya L. 'Sunrise Solo' cultivar was estimated using in vitro germination and pollen stain tests. Two culture media described in the literature as efficient for pollen in vitro germination of C. papaya were used. Germination was higher in the media without essential eleme [...] nts but with a higher concentration of agar (65% compared with 51.5%). These results were compared with viability estimates based on staining pollen. The five stains used to test for pollen viability were: 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride - TTC, Alexander's stain, acetocarmine, iodine-potassium iodide and Sudan IV. Pollen viability estimated with TTC was 67.5% and similar to germination results providing a reliable estimate of in vitro germination. The four other stains overestimated pollen viability (> 90%), and their use should be restricted to determining cell constituents, and pollen grain integrity.

Márcia, Munhoz; Cynthia Fernandes Pinto da, Luz; Paulo Ernesto, Meissner Filho; Orthud Monika, Barth; Fernanda, Reinert.

2008-06-01

118

Viabilidade polínica de Carica papaya L.: uma comparação metodológica Pollen viability of Carica papaya L.: a methodological comparison  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A viabilidade polínica do mamoeiro cultivar 'Sunrise Solo' (Carica papaya L. foi estudada utilizando germinação in vitro e testes colorimétricos, assim como a validade dos testes colorimétricos como estimativa de viabilidade comparada àquela do teste germinativo. Os dois meios de cultura, descritos na literatura como meios eficientes para germinação da espécie, diferem basicamente pela presença de nutrientes essenciais e concentração de ágar. O meio de cultura sem elementos essenciais e com maior concentração de ágar forneceu o melhor índice de germinação polínica (65%. Os cinco corantes testados foram: 2,3,5-cloreto de trifeniltetrazólio (TTC, Alexander, carmim acético, lugol e Sudan IV. O teste de coloração com TTC forneceu estimativa de viabilidade (67,5% equivalente ao teste de germinação in vitro e, portanto, confiável de viabilidade polínica. Os demais corantes testados superestimaram a viabilidade polínica (> 90%, porém são eficientes na determinação de constituintes celulares e da integridade do grão de pólen.Pollen viability of Carica papaya L. 'Sunrise Solo' cultivar was estimated using in vitro germination and pollen stain tests. Two culture media described in the literature as efficient for pollen in vitro germination of C. papaya were used. Germination was higher in the media without essential elements but with a higher concentration of agar (65% compared with 51.5%. These results were compared with viability estimates based on staining pollen. The five stains used to test for pollen viability were: 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride - TTC, Alexander's stain, acetocarmine, iodine-potassium iodide and Sudan IV. Pollen viability estimated with TTC was 67.5% and similar to germination results providing a reliable estimate of in vitro germination. The four other stains overestimated pollen viability (> 90%, and their use should be restricted to determining cell constituents, and pollen grain integrity.

Márcia Munhoz

2008-06-01

119

Development of virus resistant transgenic papayas expressing the coat protein gene from a Brazilian isolate of Papaya ringspot virus Desenvolvimento de mamoeiros transgênicos resistentes a vírus expressando o gene da capa protéica de um isolado brasileiro de Papaya ringspot virus  

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Full Text Available Translatable and nontranslatable versions of the coat protein (cp gene of a Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV isolate collected in the state of Bahia, Brazil, were engineered for expression in Sunrise and Sunset Solo varieties of papaya (Carica papaya. The biolistic system was used to transform secondary somatic embryo cultures derived from immature zygotic embryos. Fifty-four transgenic lines, 26 translatable and 28 nontranslatable gene versions, were regenerated, with a transformation efficiency of 2.7%. Inoculation of cloned R0 plants with PRSV BR, PRSV HA or PRSV TH, Brazilian, Hawaiian and Thai isolates, respectively, revealed lines with mono-, double-, and triple-resistance. After molecular analysis and a preliminary agronomic evaluation, 13 R1 and R2 populations were incorporated into the papaya-breeding program at Embrapa Cassava and Tropical Fruits, in Cruz das Almas, Bahia, Brazil.Versões traduzíveis e não traduzíveis do gene da capa protéica (cp de um isolado de Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV coletado no Estado da Bahia, Brasil, foram produzidas para expressão nas variedades Sunrise e Sunset Solo de mamoeiro (Carica papaya. O sistema de biobalística foi utilizado para transformar embriões somáticos secundários derivados de embriões zigóticos imaturos. Cinqüenta e quatro linhas transgênicas, sendo 26 contendo versões traduzíveis e 28 contendo versões não traduzíveis do gene cp foram regeneradas, o que resultou em 2,7% de eficiência de transformação, quando considerado o número de linhas transgênicas obtidas por embrião zigótico imaturo excisado. Desafios de plantas R0 com PRSV BR, PRSV HA ou PRSV TH, respectivamente isolado brasileiro, havaiano e tailandês, revelaram linhas com resistência a um, dois e três isolados de PRSV. Após análises moleculares e avaliação agronômica preliminar, 13 populações R1 e R2 de mamoeiros transgênicos foram incorporadas ao programa de melhoramento genético da Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura, em Cruz das Almas, Bahia, Brasil.

Manoel T. Souza Júnior

2005-08-01

120

Development of virus resistant transgenic papayas expressing the coat protein gene from a Brazilian isolate of Papaya ringspot virus / Desenvolvimento de mamoeiros transgênicos resistentes a vírus expressando o gene da capa protéica de um isolado brasileiro de Papaya ringspot virus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Versões traduzíveis e não traduzíveis do gene da capa protéica (cp) de um isolado de Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) coletado no Estado da Bahia, Brasil, foram produzidas para expressão nas variedades Sunrise e Sunset Solo de mamoeiro (Carica papaya). O sistema de biobalística foi utilizado para transf [...] ormar embriões somáticos secundários derivados de embriões zigóticos imaturos. Cinqüenta e quatro linhas transgênicas, sendo 26 contendo versões traduzíveis e 28 contendo versões não traduzíveis do gene cp foram regeneradas, o que resultou em 2,7% de eficiência de transformação, quando considerado o número de linhas transgênicas obtidas por embrião zigótico imaturo excisado. Desafios de plantas R0 com PRSV BR, PRSV HA ou PRSV TH, respectivamente isolado brasileiro, havaiano e tailandês, revelaram linhas com resistência a um, dois e três isolados de PRSV. Após análises moleculares e avaliação agronômica preliminar, 13 populações R1 e R2 de mamoeiros transgênicos foram incorporadas ao programa de melhoramento genético da Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura, em Cruz das Almas, Bahia, Brasil. Abstract in english Translatable and nontranslatable versions of the coat protein (cp) gene of a Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) isolate collected in the state of Bahia, Brazil, were engineered for expression in Sunrise and Sunset Solo varieties of papaya (Carica papaya). The biolistic system was used to transform seconda [...] ry somatic embryo cultures derived from immature zygotic embryos. Fifty-four transgenic lines, 26 translatable and 28 nontranslatable gene versions, were regenerated, with a transformation efficiency of 2.7%. Inoculation of cloned R0 plants with PRSV BR, PRSV HA or PRSV TH, Brazilian, Hawaiian and Thai isolates, respectively, revealed lines with mono-, double-, and triple-resistance. After molecular analysis and a preliminary agronomic evaluation, 13 R1 and R2 populations were incorporated into the papaya-breeding program at Embrapa Cassava and Tropical Fruits, in Cruz das Almas, Bahia, Brazil.

Manoel T., Souza Júnior; Osmar, Nickel; Dennis, Gonsalves.

2005-08-01

 
 
 
 
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Analysis of Papaya Cell Wall-Related Genes during Fruit Ripening Indicates a Central Role of Polygalacturonases during Pulp Softening  

Science.gov (United States)

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a climacteric fleshy fruit that undergoes dramatic changes during ripening, most noticeably a severe pulp softening. However, little is known regarding the genetics of the cell wall metabolism in papayas. The present work describes the identification and characterization of genes related to pulp softening. We used gene expression profiling to analyze the correlations and co-expression networks of cell wall-related genes, and the results suggest that papaya pulp softening is accomplished by the interactions of multiple glycoside hydrolases. The polygalacturonase cpPG1 appeared to play a central role in the network and was further studied. The transient expression of cpPG1 in papaya results in pulp softening and leaf necrosis in the absence of ethylene action and confirms its role in papaya fruit ripening. PMID:25162506

Fabi, João Paulo; Broetto, Sabrina Garcia; da Silva, Sarah Lígia Garcia Leme; Zhong, Silin; Lajolo, Franco Maria; do Nascimento, João Roberto Oliveira

2014-01-01

122

First records of two mealybug species in Brazil and new potential pests of papaya and coffee  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Five mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) plant pest species: Dysmicoccus grassii (Leonardi), Ferrisia malvastra (McDaniel), Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell), Phenacoccus tucumanus Granara de Willink, and Pseudococcus elisae Borchsenius are recorded for the first time in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. These are the first records of D. grassii in Brazil, from papaya (Carica papaya, Caricaceae), and from coffee (Coffea canephora, Rubiaceae). Ferrisia malvastra is also newly recorded in Brazi...

Culik, Mark P.; Dos Santos Martins, David; Gullan, Penny J.

2006-01-01

123

CHARACTERIZATION OF PAPAYA FRUIT MEDIATED SILVER NANOPARTICLES AND EVALUATION OF ITS ANTIMICROBIAL AND WOUND HEALING ACTIVITY  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The field of Nanotechnology is the most active area of research in modern material science. Though there are many chemical as well as physical methods, green synthesis of nanomaterial is the most emerging method of synthesis. We report the synthesis of antibacterial silver nanoparticles using Papaya. The synthesized AgNPs have been characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy and SEM microscopy. The silver nanoparticles stabilized by Papaya fruit extract were found to have enhanced antimicrobial acti...

EnamalaNarmadha; Hemashenpagam. N; SathiyaVimal S.; VasanthaRaj S

2013-01-01

124

Efek Ekstrak Air Buah Pepaya (Carica papaya L.) Muda terhadap Gambaran Histologi Kelenjar Mamma Mencit Laktasi  

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Breast milk is the best food for infants. Household Health Survey in 2005 showed exclusive breastfeeding were 4–12% in urban and 4–5% in rural areas. Objective of the study was to examine the effect of unripe papaya aqueous extract (Carica papaya L.) on lactating mammary glands histological appearance. The experiment was held on July–September 2009 at Padjadjaran University Clinical Pharmacology Laboratory and Health Research Unit of Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital in July–September 2009. ...

Yuktiana Kharisma; Armaya Ariyoga; Sastramihardja, Herri S.

2011-01-01

125

Screening of Antagonistic Bacteria for Biocontrol Activities on Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in Papaya  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Of the 27 antagonistic bacteria isolated from the fructosphere of papaya and screened by dual and concomitant test, four isolates of bacteria (B23, B19, B04 and B15) had high antagonistic activities against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides of papaya. Using the Biolog system, isolates B23 and B19 were identified as Burkholderia cepacia and B04 and B15 as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Both B. cepacia and P. aeruginosa strongly inhibited the fungal growth by an average...

Rahman, M. A.; Kadir, J.; Mahmud, T. M. M.; Abdul Rahman, R.; Begum, M. M.

2007-01-01

126

Dormancia en semillas de papaya cv Maradol Roja durante el almacenamiento  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar el efecto de la humedad de la semilla cultivar Maradol Roja y la temperatura durante el almacenamiento, en la dormancia de la papaya. Este trabajo fue desarrollado en el Laboratorio Nacional de Semillas de la Empresa Productora y Comercializadora de Semillas, provincia La Habana, Cuba, en el período noviembre 2006 a enero 2008. Fueron extraídas las semillas de frutos de papaya cv Maradol Roja, y se secaron a tres contenidos de humedad (12%, 1...

Maruchi Alonso-Esquivel; Pez, Yoleinis Ortiz-l U. F.; Edrez, Roberto Ramos-ram U.; Hugo Oliva-Diaz; Maricela Capote-del Sol

2011-01-01

127

Physiological and enzymatic alterations in papaya seed during storage Alterações fisiológicas e enzimáticas em sementes de mamão durante o armazenamento  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study was done to evaluate the physiological and enzymatic alterations in papaya (Carica papaya L.) seeds during storage period. Seeds were extracted from mature fruits of Formosa group papaya hybrid Tainung 01. The sarcotesta was removed by rubbing the seeds on a wire screen under running water and then dried to the moisture content (MC) of 5, 8 or 11% The seeds were packed in multilayer paper bags, polyethylene bags, aluminum foil pouch and metallic canisters and stored for 15 months u...

Denise Cunha Fernandes Dos Santos Dias; Wagner Tompson Estanislau; Fernando Luiz Finger; Eveline Mantovani Alvarenga; Luiz Antônio Dos Santos Dias

2010-01-01

128

Pengaruh Pemeraman, Pengeringan, dan Keadaan Kulit Biji Terhadap Perkecambahan Benih Pepaya (Carica papaya L.) Varietas Red Lady  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ripening of papaya leads to increase the rate of maturity and seed viability. Papaya seeds require light for germination. The light requirement could be supplied with drying before the seeds were planted. There is a phenolic compound in sarcotesta surrounding the papaya seed which act as a germination inhibitor. This experiment was conducted in the Seed Technology Laboratory, Agriculture Faculty, University of Sumatera Utara during Juli-September 2013, using a factorial randomized block desi...

Sebayang, Amelia

2014-01-01

129

Efectos de la fertilización con nitrógeno en la producción de papaya (Carica papaya L. y en la incidencia de virosis.  

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Full Text Available En un suelo Vertic Aplustoll arcilloso sobre franco esmetítico, isohipertérmico, del Centro de Producción Agropecuaria ACotové@, ubicado en el municipio de Santafé de Antioquia, en la zona de vida bosque seco Tropical (bs-T, se realizó un trabajo para determinar la respuesta de la variedad de papaya AU.N. Cotové@ (Carica papaya L. a la fertilización con N en dosis de 0, 183 y 366 kg/ha, equivalentes a dosis individuales de 5, 5, 10, 15, 25, 25, 25 y 10,10, 20, 30, 50, 50, 50 g de N/planta, respectivamente, fertilizando cada mes durante los primeros 4 meses después del transplante y cada 2 meses posteriormente, durante un período de 9 meses. Se suministraron además dosis constantes de P, K, S, Fe, Mn, Zn, y B. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques al azar con cuatro repeticiones y 10 plantas por unidad experimental, con distancias entre plantas de 2 m y entre surcos de 3m.

Vallejo G. Gladys

1999-06-01

130

La revitalización de la historiografía política chilena / The revitalization of chilean political historiography / A revitalização da historiografia política chilena  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese Abordamos o processo de revitalização experimentada pelahistoriografia política crítica chilena. Analisamos as principais fontes de inspiração: a) o contexto histórico político nacional b ) a crítica da «Nova História Social», c)o surgimento de escolas historiográficas europeias sobre temas relacion [...] ados. Postulamos que: a partir desta relação multidimensional foi uma síntese crítica particular, «revisionista» e renovada para abordar o recente desenvolvimento políticohistórico do Chile, que reposicionou os estudos políticos no início do século, gradualmente enchendo um «vazio « historiográfica deixado por essas variantesdisciplinares do século passado. Este processo desenvolveu suas próprias características de pesquisa, que alguns historiadores acompanharam com novos esforçosteóricos para justificar epistemologicamente seu trabalho. Destacarmos as questõeslevantadas de diferentes ângulos por Cristina Moyano, Luis Corvalan e Juan Carlos Gomez . A metodologia é essencialmente qualitativa, incluindo as técnicas dehistória oral se for caso disso . Abstract in spanish Abordamos el proceso de revitalización experimentado por la historiografía política crítica chilena. Para ello, analizamos sus principales fuentes de inspiración: a) el contexto histórico político nacional; b) la crítica de la Nueva Historia Social; c) la aparición de escuelas historiográficas europ [...] eas sobre temas afines. Postulamos que: a partir de esta multidimensional relación resultó una particular síntesis crítica, revisionista y renovada para abordar el devenir histórico político reciente de Chile, lo que reposicionó los estudios sobre lo político hacia inicios del siglo XXI, llenando paulatinamente un vacío historiográfico dejado por las diversas variantes disciplinarias del siglo pasado. Al andar desarrolló sus propias características investigativas, que algunos historiadores acompañaron con novedosos esfuerzos teóricos para fundamentar epistemológicamente su quehacer. Entre ellos ha destacado lo planteado desde distintas ópticas por Cristina Moyano, Luis Corvalán y Juan Carlos Gómez. La metodología usada es principalmente cualitativa, incluyendo técnicas de historia oral en los casos pertinentes. Abstract in english We approach the revitalization that has experienced the chilean critical and political historiography. To do this, we analyze their main sources ofinspiration: a) the historical and political chilean context, b) the review of the«New Social History»; c) the emergence of european historiographical sc [...] hools of related topics. We postulate that: from this multidimensional relationship resulted a particularly critical synthesis, «revisionist» and renewed to approach the recent historical and political Chilean processes, which repositioned the political studies at the beginning of XXI century, filling a historiographical void left by the different disciplinary variants of the last century. In doing this it developed its own investigative characteristics, that some historians accompanied with novel theoretical efforts to substantiate epistemologically their work. Among them havehighlighted the issues raised from different viewpoints of Cristina Moyano, LuisCorvalán and Juan Carlos Gómez. The methodology used is primarily qualitative,including oral history techniques where appropriate.

José Ignacio, Ponce López; Aníbal, Pérez Contreras.

2013-12-01

131

Discurso militar e identidad nacional chilena / Military speech and chilean national identity / Discurso militar e identidade nacional chilena  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese Este artigo estuda o discurso militar sobre a identidade nacional chilena. Ele argumenta que a identidade nacional é o resultado de um processo contínuo e aberto de formação que não é evidente em todas suas bordas. Portanto, o estudo da identidade requer não só revelar suas práticas e o conteúdo dis [...] cursivo manifesto, mas também deve examinar o seu conteúdo latente para identificar os vários mecanismos que moldam sua formação. Para alcançar este objetivo, propõe-se a complementaridade da análise qualitativa de conteúdo, a análise estrutural do discurso e a análise da morfologia do discurso. A conclusão sugere que, apesar das significativas mudanças, o discurso militar sobre a identidade nacional tem mantido um traço conservador baseado numa ontologia social essencialista. Abstract in spanish Este artículo estudia el discurso militar sobre la identidad nacional chilena. Se plantea que la identidad nacional resulta de un proceso permanente y abierto de formación que no es evidente en todas sus aristas. Por ello, el estudio de la identidad no sólo requiere revelar sus prácticas y contenido [...] s discursivos manifiestos, sino que también debe examinar sus contenidos latentes para identificar los variados mecanismos que confluyen en su formación. Para lograrlo se propone la complementariedad del análisis cualitativo de contenido, el análisis estructural del discurso y el análisis de la morfología del discurso. La conclusión plantea que a pesar de importantes cambios, el discurso militar sobre la identidad nacional ha mantenido su rasgo conservador basado en una ontología social esencialista. Abstract in english This article studies the military discourse on chilean national identity. The article states that national identity is a permanent and open-ended process of social construction that is not evident in all its aspects. For this reason, the study of identity requires not only to reveal discourse’s prac [...] tices and manifest contents, but it must also examine its latent content to identify the various mechanisms that come together in its production. For this, it proposes the complementarity of qualitative content analysis, structural analysis of discourse and analysis of the morphology of discourse. The conclusion is that despite important changes, the military discourse on national identity has maintained its conservative trait based on an essentialist social ontology.

Hernán, Cuevas Valenzuela.

2014-08-01

132

Promover la salud mental con mujeres chilenas en desventaja social  

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Full Text Available Se descrive una parte de la experiencia del proyecto Chileno/Canadiense: ?Promover la salud mental de las mujeres chilenas en desventaja social: Los Secretos de Maruja?. Se describen los objetivos, las etapas del proceso, de intervención y los resultados de las evaluaciones preliminares. Con la participación de las mujeres usuárias de los centros de salud, profesionales y autoridades de la comuna de La Pintana, se construyó, aplicó y evaluó un proyecto de intervención para apoyar a las mujeres en la toma de decisiones que favorezcan su salud mental personal, familiar y social. La intervención contempló el diseño, producción, distribución y evaluación de 12 folletos educativos tipo calendarios, cada uno respecto a tres temas de salud mental identificados por las mismas mujeres: Identidad y autoestima, Vínculo y Comunicación y Autocuidado. Además se involucró a las enfermeras que trabajan en los Centros de Salud, quienes incorporaron esta estrategia a la atención de salud habitual y evaluaron su impacto en la identidad, autonomía profesional y en la mejoría de la calidad del cuidado

M Soledad Rivera

2004-01-01

133

Oral dosing with papaya latex is an effective anthelmintic treatment for sheep infected with Haemonchus contortus  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The cysteine proteinases in papaya latex have been shown to have potent anthelmintic properties in monogastric hosts such as rodents, pigs and humans, but this has not been demonstrated in ruminants. Methods In two experiments, sheep were infected concurrently with 5,000 infective larvae of Haemonchus contortus and 10,000 infective larvae of Trichostrongylus colubriformis and were then treated with the supernatant from a suspension of papaya latex from day 28 to day 32 post-infection. Faecal egg counts were monitored from a week before treatment until the end of the experiment and worm burdens were assessed on day 35 post-infection. Results We found that the soluble fraction of papaya latex had a potent in vivo effect on the abomasal nematode H. contortus, but not on the small intestinal nematode T. colubriformis. This effect was dose-dependent and at tolerated levels of gavage with papaya latex (117 ?mol of active papaya latex supernatant for 4 days, the H. contortus worm burdens were reduced by 98%. Repeated treatment, daily for 4 days, was more effective than a single dose, but efficacy was not enhanced by concurrent treatment with the antacid cimetidine. Conclusions Our results provide support for the idea that cysteine proteinases derived from papaya latex may be developed into novel anthelmintics for the treatment of lumenal stages of gastro-intestinal nematode infections in sheep, particularly those parasitizing the abomasum.

Donnan Alison A

2011-03-01

134

Gamma radiation use as a quarantine treatment for Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) and Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied., 1830) in papaya fruits (Carica papaya, Linnaeus), cultivar sunrise solo  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The gamma irradiation as treatment for control of the immature stages of fruit flies, C. capitata and A. fraterculus in papaya fruits, cultivar Sunrise Solo is studied. The gamma rays attenuation was observed by one and two papaya fruits placed between source and infested fruit, and this changed the radiation doses required to obtain mortality in eggs and larvae of the Medfly. The efficacy of irradiation was higher when the infested papayas were packed in paper box. The radiation dose determined using the Probit 9 concept, for immature stages mortality of C. capitata was 107,74 Gy and for A. fraterculus was 50,82 Gy. The sterilizing doses for adults of C. capitata and D. fraterculus, irradiated as pupae, was 60 Gy and 40 Gy, respectively. (author)

135

Emergência e matéria seca de plantas daninhas na cultura do mamoeiro (Carica papaya Emergence and dry matter of weeds in papaya crop (Carica papaya  

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Full Text Available O objetivo deste experimento foi avaliar o "banco" de sementes de plantas daninhas através do método da emergência de plântulas, na cultura do mamoeiro, em que se empregaram diferentes sistemas de manejo. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com três repetições e seis tratamentos: capina em área total; herbicida nas linhas + grade nas entrelinhas; subsolagem cruzada antes do plantio + capina em área total; subsolagem cruzada antes do plantio + herbicida nas linhas e feijão de porco nas entrelinhas; subsolagem cruzada antes do plantio + herbicida nas linhas e crotalária nas entrelinhas; e herbicida nas linhas + vegetação nativa nas entrelinhas da cultura, roçada quando necessário. A avaliação do banco de sementes foi feita aos 30, 60, 90 e 120 dias após a implantação de um bioensaio em casa de vegetação, com amostras retiradas no campo nas épocas chuvosa e seca, na profundidade de 0-15 cm. A matéria seca das plantas daninhas foi obtida utilizando-se um quadrado de 0,5 x 0,5 m, jogado a lanço quatro vezes nas parcelas. Os sistemas de manejo de capina em área total e de herbicida na linha + grade nas entrelinhas de plantio de mamoeiros, com feijão-de-porco e crotalária, reduzem o banco de sementes no solo. Dos adubos verdes, crotalária e feijão-de-porco, o primeiro altera a dinâmica do "banco" de sementes de forma mais significativa.The objective of this work was to evaluate the seed bank of weeds through the seedling emergence method in papaya crop, using different tillage systems. A randomized complete block design was used, with three replications and six treatments: weeding in total area, herbicide in the rows + disc in the interrows, crossed sub soiling before planting + weeding in total area, crossed sub soiling before planting + herbicide in the rows and pig bean in the interrows, crossed sub soiling before planting + herbicide in the row + crotalaria in the interrows and crossed sub soiling before planting + herbicide in the rows + native vegetation in the interrows, cleared when necessary. Seed bank evaluation was performed at 30, 60, 90 and 120 days after implantation of the experiment in the greenhouse with samples collected in the field in the rainy and dry seasons at 0-15 cm in depth. Weed dry matter was obtained by using a square of 0.5 x 0.5 m sorted four times in the plots. The weeding management systems in total area and herbicide in the row + disc in the papaya crop interrows with pig bean and crotalaria reduce seed bank in the soil. Among the green fertilizers, crotalaria alters more significantly the dynamics of the seed bank than pig bean.

I.S. Santana

2005-12-01

136

Associação de moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae) com a "meleira do mamoeiro" (Carica papaya L.) / Association of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) with the sticky disease of papaya (Carica papaya L.)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english Since 1988, the medfly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) was described infesting papaya (Carica papaya) cv. Sunrise Solo in North of the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Two experiments were carried out to determine the infestation of C. capitata and Anastrepha obliqua (Macq.) in papaya fruit, healthy [...] and infected by sticky disease. In the 1st experiment (forced infestation), no infestation of C. capitata in the healthy fruits was observed, and 60.6 pupae/fruit were obtained in the infected fruit. For A. obliqua, the infestation index was 10.3 and 72.4 pupae/fruit for healthy and infected fruit respectively. In the 2nd experiment (inoculated eggs), the infestation index for C. capitata was 4.0 and 6.3 pupae/fruit and for A. obliqua 10.1 and 10.4 pupae/fruit, for healthy and infected fruit respectively. The high suscetibility of green fruit of papaya infected by sticky disease for C. capitata and A. obliqua was discussed

Antonio S., Nascimento; Walter J., R. Matrangolo; Cristiane J., Barbosa; Oton M., Marques; Tuffi C., Habibe.

2000-12-01

137

Identification of gamma-irradiated papaya, melon and watermelon  

Science.gov (United States)

Ionizing radiation can be used to control spoilage microorganisms and to increase the shelf life of fresh fruits and vegetables in replacement for the treatment with chemical fumigants. In order to enforce labelling regulations, methods for detecting the irradiation treatment directly in the produce are required. Recently, a number of detection methods for irradiated food have been adopted by the Codex Comission. A rapid screening method for qualitative detection of irradiation is the DNA Comet Assay. The applicability of the DNA Comet Assay for distinguishing irradiated papaya, melon, and watermelon was evaluated. The samples were treated in a 60Co facility at dose levels of 0.0, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0kGy. The irradiated samples showed typical DNA fragmentation whereas cells from non-irradiated ones appeared intact. In addition to the DNA Comet Assay also the half-embryo test was applied in melon and watermelon to detect the irradiation treatment.

Marín-Huachaca, Nélida S.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; Delincée, Henry; Villavicencio, Anna Lúcia C. H.

2004-09-01

138

Identification of gamma-irradiated papaya, melon and watermelon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ionizing radiation can be used to control spoilage microorganisms and to increase the shelf life of fresh fruits and vegetables in replacement for the treatment with chemical fumigants. In order to enforce labelling regulations, methods for detecting the irradiation treatment directly in the produce are required. Recently, a number of detection methods for irradiated food have been adopted by the Codex Comission. A rapid screening method for qualitative detection of irradiation is the DNA Comet Assay. The applicability of the DNA Comet Assay for distinguishing irradiated papaya, melon, and watermelon was evaluated. The samples were treated in a 60Co facility at dose levels of 0.0, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 kGy. The irradiated samples showed typical DNA fragmentation whereas cells from non-irradiated ones appeared intact. In addition to the DNA Comet Assay also the half-embryo test was applied in melon and watermelon to detect the irradiation treatment

139

Identification of gamma-irradiated papaya, melon and watermelon  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ionizing radiation can be used to control spoilage microorganisms and to increase the shelf life of fresh fruits and vegetables in replacement for the treatment with chemical fumigants. In order to enforce labelling regulations, methods for detecting the irradiation treatment directly in the produce are required. Recently, a number of detection methods for irradiated food have been adopted by the Codex Comission. A rapid screening method for qualitative detection of irradiation is the DNA Comet Assay. The applicability of the DNA Comet Assay for distinguishing irradiated papaya, melon, and watermelon was evaluated. The samples were treated in a {sup 60}Co facility at dose levels of 0.0, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 kGy. The irradiated samples showed typical DNA fragmentation whereas cells from non-irradiated ones appeared intact. In addition to the DNA Comet Assay also the half-embryo test was applied in melon and watermelon to detect the irradiation treatment.

Marin-Huachaca, N.S.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge E-mail: jmancini@usp.br; Delincee, Henry E-mail: henry.delincee@bfe.uni-karlsruhe.de; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H. E-mail: villavic@net.ipen.br

2004-10-01

140

Antiulcerogenic activity of Carica papaya seed in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the gastroprotective and healing effects of the methanolic extract of the seed of the papaya Carica papaya L. (MECP) in rats. Models of acute gastric ulcer induction by ethanol and indomethacin and of chronic ulcer by acetic acid were used. The gastric juice and mucus parameters were evaluated using the pylorus ligation model, and the involvement of sulfhydryl compounds (GSH) and nitric oxide in the gastroprotective effect was analyzed using the ethanol model. The toxicity was assessed through toxicity tests. No signs of toxicity were observed when the rats received a single dose of 2000 mg/kg of extract. The MECP in doses of 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg significantly reduced the gastric lesion with 56, 76, and 82 % inhibition, respectively, and a dose of 30 mg/kg lansoprazole showed 79 % inhibition in the ethanol model. MECP (125, 250, 500 mg/kg) and cimetidine (200 mg/kg) reduced the gastric lesion in the indomethacin model, with 62, 67, 81, and 85 % inhibition, respectively. The MECP (500 mg/kg) and cimetidine (200 mg/kg) treatments showed a reduction in ulcerative symptoms induced by acetic acid by 84 and 73 %, respectively. The antiulcerogenic activity seems to involve GSH because the inhibition dropped from 72 to 13 % in the presence of a GSH inhibitor. Moreover, the MECP showed systemic action, increasing the mucus production and decreasing gastric acidity. Treatments with MECP induce gastroprotection without signs of toxicity. This effect seems to involve sulfhydryl compounds, increased mucus, and reduced gastric acidity. PMID:25418890

Pinto, Lorraine Aparecida; Cordeiro, Kátia Wolff; Carrasco, Viviane; Carollo, Carlos Alexandre; Cardoso, Cláudia Andréa Lima; Argadoña, Eliana Janet Sanjinez; Freitas, Karine de Cássia

2014-11-25

 
 
 
 
141

Anatomy of somatic embryogenesis in Carica papaya L.  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Embriões zigóticos maduros de Carica papaya L. ‘Sunrise Solo’ foram utilizados como explantes para indução da embriogênese. Estes explantes foram inoculados em meio de cultura de Murashige & Skoog suplementado com 2,0 mg.L-1 de 2,4 ácido diclorofenoxiacético (2,4-D) e mantidos no escuro em câmara de [...] crescimento à temperatura de 21°C por período de tempo variável. Através da análise histológica foi possível verificar que os primeiros embriões somáticos formaram-se diretamente a partir de células únicas da epiderme hipocotiledonar do explante após o 18º dia de cultura. Porém, os demais embriões somáticos originaram-se indiretamente a partir de células superficiais de complexos pré-embriônicos presentes nas camadas periféricas e internas do calo após o 49º dia de cultura. Foram detectadas algumas diferenças morfológicas entre os embriões somáticos obtidos. Abstract in english Mature zygotic embryos of Carica papaya L. ‘Sunrise Solo’ were used as explants for embryogenesis induction. The explants were inoculated on Murashige and Skoog culture medium supplemented with 2 mg.L-1 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and incubated in darkness at 25+2°C. Histological analysis of call [...] ogenesis and somatic embryogenesis indicated occurrence of direct and indirect somatic embryogenesis development. Direct somatic embryo formation was observed from hypocotyledonary epidermic cells only from explant 18 days after inoculation. Somatic embryos formed indirectly were originated from embryogenic superficial cells of pre-embryonic complexes located on peripherical and on internal cell layers of callus 49 days after inoculation. Diverse morphological differences including disformed embryos were observed among the somatic embryos.

Juliana A., Fernando; Murilo, Melo; Marli K. M., Soares; Beatriz, Appezzato-da-Glória.

2001-09-01

142

Morphological analysis and photosynthetic performance of improved papaya genotypes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Brazil is the largest world producer of papaya and the third largest exporter despite of only 1.5 to 2.0% of its production is exported. Such an underexplored exportation potential highlight the necessity for physiological studies on new cultivars and hybrids to verify their agronomic and commercial [...] viability. Two Brazilian states, Bahia and Espirito Santo, are responsible for 80% of national production. Papaya can also be an agricultural alternative to north / northeast of Rio de Janeiro, because the region is close to consumer centers and have similar environmental conditions of the most productive regions. Nevertheless, it is worth to develop cultivars that can express the highest yield potential in this region. The aim of this work was to characterize physiologically two hybrids developed for the north/northeast of Rio de Janeiro (UENF/Caliman 01 and JS12) in comparison with three top commercial genotypes (Golden, Sunrise Solo 7212 and Tainung) of Caricapapaya L. The cv. Golden presented the lowest shoot and root growth, the lowest height, shrunk diameter, specific leaf weight, less efficiency in electrons transport per sample area and show the lowest ability to synthesized total chlorophylls in comparison with the others genotypes. At noon, this genotype showed higher stomatal conductance, related to the leaf-air vapor pressure deficit, which lead to higher transpiration rate and intrinsic water use efficiency. No differences were detected in the photosynthetic rates among the five genotypes suggesting that the UENF`s hybrids are endowed with similar photosynthetic capacity and morphological characteristics to the top commercial genotypes. The relevance of this characterization to drive future successful genetic improvement programs will be discussed.

Alena, Torres Netto; Eliemar, Campostrini; Letícia C., Azevedo; Marcelo A., Souza; José C., Ramalho; Manuela M., Chaves.

143

Para una entrada en la imaginación poética alimentaria chilena  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las comidas y las bebidas recreadas en la poesía chilena ofrecen un espacio alternativo para reflexionar sobre la etnia, la clase social, el género y la violencia política. Cada uno de estos nudos define una ruta alimenticia donde las historias diferenciales se toman la palabra. Este artículo propon [...] e una cartografía de las imágenes alimentarias poéticas, caracterizando cuatro grandes rutas: aquellas donde la escritura privilegia la construcción de comunidades indígenas alrededor de la comida y aquellas donde los proyectos estéticos elaboran un patrimonio provinciano y/o rural alrededor de las comidas como defensa frente a las legitimidades centristas. Más aquellos itinerarios cuyas simbolizaciones erigen o deconstruyen los deseos caníbales entre diversas subjetividades y; aquellas donde los linajes lingüísticos hacen del hambre un motivo de descontento político, ya sea imaginando la abundancia a través del tópico de la tierra de Jauja o elaborando el hambre de los dioses que piden sacrificios humanos. Abstract in english Food and drink recreated in the Chile an poetry offer an alternative space to reflect upon ethnic matters, social class, gender and political violence. Every topoi defines a food route where stories have their say. In this way, we find four main routes: those in which writing priviledges the constru [...] ction of native communities around food preparation; those in which aesthetical projects elaborate their rural patrimony around food to defend themselves from centralized domination; those whose symbols construct and deconstruct cannibalistic desires among different intersubjectivities and those whose linguistic ancestry make hunger a motif of political discontent either by imagining abundance in the land of milk and honey or by elaborating the hunger of gods who demand human sacrifices.

Magda, Sepúlveda.

2014-04-01

144

ANÁLISIS DE CONSULTAS A UN BUSCADOR DE LA WEB CHILENA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Los buscadores de páginas Web son herramientas indispensables de orientación para sus usuarios, lo cual refleja la gran cantidad de personas que los utilizan diariamente. Las bitácoras (logs que registran el uso de un buscador son una valiosa fuente de información: nos hablan de las expectativas, preferencias y necesidades de las personas, es decir, qué esperan ellas encontrar en la Web. El resultado del análisis de logs de uso tiene un importante valor comercial, en particular para el comercio electrónico y la publicidad en Internet. El objetivo de este estudio es encontrar relaciones entre las consultas de los usuarios de la Web Chilena (.cl y las diversas áreas de clasificación de sus diferentes sitios. También se esperan encontrar relaciones entre los tipos de búsqueda realizados y los sitios visitados, para así conocer la necesidad que los lleva a formular sus consultas. La información obtenida está basada en los logs del buscador chileno TodoCL [1] entre febrero y marzo de 2004.Web page search engines are essential tools on users’ orientation, which is reflected by the big amount of people who are using them every day. The logs, reflecting the Web search engine uses, are a valuable source of information: they give us information about the users’ expectations, preferences and needs, which is everything that they expect to find on the Web. The results from the logs usage analysis have an important commercial value, in particular, for e-commerce and Internet publicity. The purpose of this study is to find relations between Chilean Web (.cl users’ queries and the different classification areas for its web sites. Also we expect to find relations between the search types made and the web sites visited, trying to get the need behind the query . The data used for this study was gotten from the Chilean search engine TodoCL, between February and March 2004.

Ricardo Baeza-Yates

2005-04-01

145

ANÁLISIS DE CONSULTAS A UN BUSCADOR DE LA WEB CHILENA  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los buscadores de páginas Web son herramientas indispensables de orientación para sus usuarios, lo cual refleja la gran cantidad de personas que los utilizan diariamente. Las bitácoras (logs) que registran el uso de un buscador son una valiosa fuente de información: nos hablan de las expectativas, p [...] referencias y necesidades de las personas, es decir, qué esperan ellas encontrar en la Web. El resultado del análisis de logs de uso tiene un importante valor comercial, en particular para el comercio electrónico y la publicidad en Internet. El objetivo de este estudio es encontrar relaciones entre las consultas de los usuarios de la Web Chilena (.cl) y las diversas áreas de clasificación de sus diferentes sitios. También se esperan encontrar relaciones entre los tipos de búsqueda realizados y los sitios visitados, para así conocer la necesidad que los lleva a formular sus consultas. La información obtenida está basada en los logs del buscador chileno TodoCL [1] entre febrero y marzo de 2004. Abstract in english Web page search engines are essential tools on users’ orientation, which is reflected by the big amount of people who are using them every day. The logs, reflecting the Web search engine uses, are a valuable source of information: they give us information about the users’ expectations, preferences a [...] nd needs, which is everything that they expect to find on the Web. The results from the logs usage analysis have an important commercial value, in particular, for e-commerce and Internet publicity. The purpose of this study is to find relations between Chilean Web (.cl) users’ queries and the different classification areas for its web sites. Also we expect to find relations between the search types made and the web sites visited, trying to get the need behind the query . The data used for this study was gotten from the Chilean search engine TodoCL, between February and March 2004.

Ricardo, Baeza-Yates; Carolina, Galleguillos.

2005-04-01

146

Estética, política y vida cotidiana. El caso de la pintura callejera chilena  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este artículo trata de compartir una reflexión académica con respecto al fenómeno de la pintura callejera chilena, entendiéndola como un hecho estético total, que lo es menos por sus producciones y resultados que por los usos y percepciones que lo entretejen, conforman y desparraman por la ciudad.

Patricio Rodriguez-Plaza

2005-06-01

147

Empleo del método de secado convectivo combinado para la deshidratación de papaya (Carica papaya L., variedad Maradol roja  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La presente investigación tiene como objetivo evaluar el método de secado convectivo de papaya (Carica papaya L. variedad Maradol roja, combinado con la aplicación de pretratamientos de osmosis (DOSC y escaldado simple (ESSC, mediante el efecto de los factores tecnológi- cos del secador: temperatura (40 y 60oC y velocidad del flujo de aire (2,5 y 1,5 m/s sobre el comportamiento de las propiedades de calidad de la fruta deshidratada y la cinética del proceso. El pretratamiento de escaldado simple se realizó en agua destilada caliente a 70oC durante 15 minutos y la deshidratación osmótica u osmosis a 60oC por 4 horas a frutas cortadas en cubos de 1,5± 0,2 cm de largo por 1,0±0,01 cm de espesor, utilizando una solución de sacarosa comercial a 50oBrix. Como diseño experimental se empleó un Diseño Factorial Completo 22 y para el procesamiento estadístico de los datos el software STATGRAPHICS Plus 5.1. Como principales resultados se obtuvo que en ambos procesos el aumento de la temperatura a 60oC y la reducción de la velocidad del flujo de aire a 1,5 m/s disminuyó el tiempo de secado con valores de R 2 >0,95 y ?<0,01. Mediante el secado a 40oC con 1,5 m/s se preserva el color y se minimiza la pérdida de peso en la fruta deshidratada con R 2 superior al 90% (?<0,01.

Sahylin Mu\\u00F1iz Becer\\u00E1

2013-01-01

148

INFLUENCE OF COAT PROTEIN TRANSGENE COPY NUMBER ON RESISTANCE IN TRANSGENIC LINE 63-1 AGAINST PAPAYA RINGSPOT VIRUS ISOLATES  

Science.gov (United States)

Line 63-1 is a ‘Sunset’-derived transgenic papaya expressing the coat protein (CP) gene from a mild mutant of a Hawaiian isolate of Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). Previous work showed that line 63-1 R1 plants exhibited a range of resistance to severe PRSV isolates from Hawaii (HA), Jamaica (JA), Thai...

149

Phytochemical screening and hypoglycemic activity of Carica papaya leaf in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The extraction of plant constituents is essential to isolate biologically active compounds, aimed to understand their role on the treatment of diabetes. This study was designed to explore the preliminary phytochemical and physicochemical analysis of Carica papaya L., Caricaceae, leaf, and further ev [...] aluation of its hypoglycemic effect on diabetic rats. C. papaya leaves were extracted using chloroform, n-hexane or ethanol. For each extract a phytochemical screening was performed. The tests were conducted in triplicate and the qualitative and quantitative determination of the various metabolites was done using analytical standards proposed by Mexican Herbal Pharmacopoeia. The chloroform extract, containing steroids and quinones as major components, was chosen to study C. papaya biological effects. The chloroform extract was evaporated to dryness, and doses 0, 31, 62, 125 mg/kg were orally administered in 300 µl polyethylene glycol to diabetic rats; and 0 and 62 mg/kg to non-diabetic rats. After a 20-day treatment with the chloroform extract, the animals were sacrificed and blood was obtained for biochemical studies. The main effect observed was a decrease in serum glucose, triglycerides and transaminases in diabetic rats after the administration of C. papaya chloroform extract. These results confirm the potential beneficial action of C. papaya to treat the symptoms of diabetic patients.

Isela E., Juárez-Rojop; Carlos, A.Tovilla-Zárate; Dora E., Aguilar-Domínguez; Luis F. Roa-de la, Fuente; Carlos E., Lobato-García; Jorge L., Blé-Castillo; Leonor, López-Meraz; Juan C., Díaz-Zagoya; Deysi Y., Bermúdez-Ocaña.

2014-06-01

150

Eradication of Bactrocera papayae (Diptera: Tephritidae) by male annihilation and protein baiting in Queensland, Australia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An established population of Bactrocera papayae Drew and Hancock (Asian papaya fruit fly) was detected on the Australian mainland near Cairns, north Queensland, on 16 October 1995 (Fay et al. 1997). Coincidentally, the first flies were bred from green papaya, a host not normally utilised in the unripe state by indigenous fruit fly species. B. papayae is a member of the Oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis) complex (Drew and Hancock 1994) and has more than 190 known hosts in Southeast Asia, where it is a major pest species. Consequently, the threat to Australian horticulture posed by the incursion was recognised immediately. By 26 October 1995, breeding populations were confirmed around Cairns, Mossman and Mareeba and a Pest Quarantine Area (PQA) was legislated. By 1 November 1995, following detections south of Innisfail, the PQA boundaries were set at 144 deg. 15'E, 19 deg. 00'S, covering nearly 78,000 km2. B. papayae was ultimately trapped over some 20,000 km2. A national eradication campaign began in November 1995, undertaken by the Queensland Department of Primary Industries

151

Emergência e matéria seca de plantas daninhas na cultura do mamoeiro (Carica papaya) / Emergence and dry matter of weeds in papaya crop (Carica papaya)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste experimento foi avaliar o "banco" de sementes de plantas daninhas através do método da emergência de plântulas, na cultura do mamoeiro, em que se empregaram diferentes sistemas de manejo. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com três repetições e seis tratamentos: [...] capina em área total; herbicida nas linhas + grade nas entrelinhas; subsolagem cruzada antes do plantio + capina em área total; subsolagem cruzada antes do plantio + herbicida nas linhas e feijão de porco nas entrelinhas; subsolagem cruzada antes do plantio + herbicida nas linhas e crotalária nas entrelinhas; e herbicida nas linhas + vegetação nativa nas entrelinhas da cultura, roçada quando necessário. A avaliação do banco de sementes foi feita aos 30, 60, 90 e 120 dias após a implantação de um bioensaio em casa de vegetação, com amostras retiradas no campo nas épocas chuvosa e seca, na profundidade de 0-15 cm. A matéria seca das plantas daninhas foi obtida utilizando-se um quadrado de 0,5 x 0,5 m, jogado a lanço quatro vezes nas parcelas. Os sistemas de manejo de capina em área total e de herbicida na linha + grade nas entrelinhas de plantio de mamoeiros, com feijão-de-porco e crotalária, reduzem o banco de sementes no solo. Dos adubos verdes, crotalária e feijão-de-porco, o primeiro altera a dinâmica do "banco" de sementes de forma mais significativa. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the seed bank of weeds through the seedling emergence method in papaya crop, using different tillage systems. A randomized complete block design was used, with three replications and six treatments: weeding in total area, herbicide in the rows + disc in the [...] interrows, crossed sub soiling before planting + weeding in total area, crossed sub soiling before planting + herbicide in the rows and pig bean in the interrows, crossed sub soiling before planting + herbicide in the row + crotalaria in the interrows and crossed sub soiling before planting + herbicide in the rows + native vegetation in the interrows, cleared when necessary. Seed bank evaluation was performed at 30, 60, 90 and 120 days after implantation of the experiment in the greenhouse with samples collected in the field in the rainy and dry seasons at 0-15 cm in depth. Weed dry matter was obtained by using a square of 0.5 x 0.5 m sorted four times in the plots. The weeding management systems in total area and herbicide in the row + disc in the papaya crop interrows with pig bean and crotalaria reduce seed bank in the soil. Among the green fertilizers, crotalaria alters more significantly the dynamics of the seed bank than pig bean.

I.S., Santana; M.F.S.P., Peixoto; J.E.B., Carvalho; L.S.V., Sampaio; C.A.S., Ledo; C.P., Peixoto.

2005-12-01

152

Processamento mínimo de mamão 'formosa' Fresh cut of 'formosa' papaya  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido para verificar o efeito do tamanho do corte, 2,5 x 2,5cm (corte 1 e 2,5 x 5,0cm (corte 2, e da temperatura de armazenamento (3, 6 e 9ºC, na velocidade da modificação da atmosfera ambiente e nas características químicas de mamões do grupo `Formosa' minimamente processados e embalados em copos plásticos (500ml. A concentração de CO2 no interior destes copos aumentou 2 a 3 vezes, durante as primeiras 6 horas após o corte, para depois diminuir e se estabilizar. Esta concentração aumentou com o aumento da temperatura de armazenamento. A umidade dos pedaços diminuiu consideravelmente nos dois primeiros dias, e a temperatura que melhor conservou a umidade foi a de 6ºC. A acidez total titulável foi menor no corte 2, com as maiores reduções a 6 e 9oC. Os teores de sólidos solúveis totais não variaram entre os tratamentos, e os cuidados higiênicos adotados durante o processamento permitiram a obtenção de produtos com baixa contagem microbiana, 10³UFC.g-1 nos pedaços armazenados a 9ºC após sete dias, e com boa manutenção da qualidade sensorial das mesmas. Estes resultados permitem indicar o mamão `Formosa' para a produção de produtos minimamente processados, na forma de pedaços, com conservação refrigerada (3 e 6ºC por um período de 7 dias.This work was undertaken to verify the effect of cutting size, 2.5 x 2.5cm (chunk 1, 2.5 x 5.0cm (chunk 2, and storage temperatures (3, 6 and 9ºC, on atmosphere modification rate and chemical characteristics of `Formosa' fresh-cut papaya packed in plastic cups (500 ml. The CO2 concentration into theses cups increased fron two to three fold during first 6 hours after cutting, then it decreased and stabilized. This concentration increased with the storage temperature increasing. The chunks's moisture remarkably decreased in the first 2 days, and the temperature which best sustained the moisture was 6ºC. The titratable total acidity was lower in chunk 2, with the highest reductions at 6 and 9ºC. The total soluble solids content did not vary between treatments, and hygienic care adopted during processing allowed to obtain low microbial counting products, 10³ CFU.g-1 in chunks stored at 9ºC after seven days and with good maintenance of its sensorial quality. These results allow to indicate `Formosa' papaya for fresh-cuts production, in chunk form, with refrigerated conservation (3 e 6ºC for 7 day periods.

Gustavo Henrique de Almeida TEIXEIRA

2001-01-01

153

Sequences of the coat protein gene from brazilian isolates of Papaya ringspot virus / Seqüência do gene da proteína capsidial de isolados brasileiros de Papaya ringspot virus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) é o agente causal da mancha anelar, principal doença do mamoeiro (Carica papaya) no mundo. O Brasil é o maior produtor desta fruteira, sendo responsável por aproximadamente 40% da produção mundial. A resistência a este vírus, obtida em mamoeiros transgênicos expressand [...] o o gene da proteína capsidial (cp) do PRSV, mostrou-se dependente do grau de homologia entre a seqüência do transgene expresso pela planta e o gene cp do vírus invasor, de forma isolado-específico. Dessa forma, quando se objetiva produzir mamoeiros transgênicos com amplo espectro de resistência ao PRSV, é importante o conhecimento do grau de homologia deste gene entre os diversos isolados presentes em uma área geográfica específica onde o mamoeiro será cultivado. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o grau de homologia entre o gene cp de diversos isolados brasileiros de PRSV. O mamoeiro e o PRSV encontram-se presentes em diversos ecossistemas brasileiros. Doze isolados de PRSV, coletados em oito estados de quatro regiões geográficas, foram utilizados neste estudo. As seqüências do gene cp destes isolados foram comparadas entre si e com o gene utilizado para gerar mamoeiros transgênicos para o Brasil. Um grau de homologia médio de 97,3% para as seqüências de nucleotídeos foi observado entre os isolados brasileiros. Quando comparado com 27 isolados de outras regiões, em uma árvore de homologia, os isolados brasileiros foram agrupados com os isolados australianos, havaianos, e os da América Central e do Norte. Um grau de homologia médio de 90,7% foi observado entre os 40 isolados analisados. Abstract in english Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is the causal agent of the main papaya (Carica papaya) disease in the world. Brazil is currently the world's main papaya grower, responsible for about 40% of the worldwide production. Resistance to PRSV on transgenic plants expressing the PRSV coat protein (cp) gene was [...] shown to be dependent on the sequence homology between the cp transgene expressed in the plant genome and the cp gene from the incoming virus, in an isolate-specific fashion. Therefore, knowledge of the degree of homology among the cp genes from distinct PRSV isolates which are present in a given area is important to guide the development of transgenic papaya for the control of PRSV in that area. The objective of the present study was to assess the degree of homology among the PRSV cp genes of several Brazilian isolates of this virus. Papaya and PRSV are present in many different ecosystems within Brazil. Twelve PRSV isolates, collected in eight different states from four different geographic regions, were used in this study. The sequences of the cp gene from these isolates were compared among themselves and to the gene used to generate transgenic papaya for Brazil. An average degree of homology of 97.3% at the nucleotide sequence was found among the Brazilian isolates. When compared to 27 isolates from outside Brazil in a homology tree, the Brazilian isolates were clustered with Australian, Hawaiian, and Central and North American isolates, with an average degree of homology of 90.7% among them.

ROBERTO C. A., LIMA; MANOEL T., SOUZA JR.; GILVAN, PIO-RIBEIRO; J. ALBERSIO A., LIMA.

2002-04-01

154

Optimization of process parameters for foam-mat drying of papaya pulp.  

Science.gov (United States)

Experiments were carried out to optimize the process parameters for production of papaya powder using foam-mat drying. Papaya pulp was foamed by incorporating methyl cellulose (0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1 %, w/w), glycerol-mono-stearate (1, 2, 3 and 4 %, w/w) and egg white (5, 10, 15 and 20 %, w/w) as foaming agents. The maximum stable foam formation was 72, 90 and 125% at 0.75 % methyl cellulose, 3 % glycerol-mono-stearate and 15 % egg white respectively with 9°Brix pulp and whipping time of 20 min. The foamed pulp was dried at air temperature of 60, 65 and 70 °C with foam thickness of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 mm in a batch type cabinet dryer. The drying time required for foamed papaya pulp was lower than non-foamed pulp at all selected temperatures. Biochemical analysis results showed a significant reduction in ascorbic acid, ?-carotene and total sugars in the foamed papaya dried product at higher foam thickness (6, 8 and 10 mm) and temperature (65 and 70 °C due to destruction at higher drying temperature and increasing time. There was no significant change in other biochemical constituents such as pH and acidity. The organoleptic and sensory evaluation of the quality attributes of papaya powder obtained from the pulp of 9°Brix added with 3 % glycerol-mono-stearate, whipped for 20 min and dried with a foam thickness of 4 mm at a temperature of 60 °C was found to be optimum to produce the foam-mat dried papaya powder. PMID:25328192

Kandasamy, Palani; Varadharaju, N; Kalemullah, S; Maladhi, D

2014-10-01

155

L-ascorbic acid, ?-carotene and lycopene content in papaya fruits (Carica papaya) with or without physiological skin freckles / Conteúdo de ácido l-ascórbico, ?-caroteno e licopeno em frutos de mamão (Carica papaya) com e sem mancha fisiológica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A Mancha Fisiológica do Mamão (MFM) é uma desordem da casca do mamão, que deprecia a aparência do fruto e prejudica a sua comercialização, embora não prejudique o seu valor nutritivo. Considerando ser o mamão, uma boa fonte de ácido L-ascórbico, b-caroteno e licopeno, esta pesquisa visou determinar [...] o índice destes componentes em frutas de mamão, das variedades do grupo 'Formosa' e 'Solo', com e sem Mancha Fisiológica do Mamão (MFM) aparente na pele. As frutas foram colhidas na região do sudeste de Brasil. O teor de ácido L-ascórbico foi determinado pela técnica de titulação. Os índices do b-caroteno e do licopeno foram determinados pela técnica de cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (HPLC). O teor de ácido L-ascórbico variou de (59,9 ± 3,4) mg 100 g-1 a (112,4 ± 12,6) mg 100 g-1 de polpa fresca de mamão. O teor de b-caroteno variou de (0,19 ± 0,07) mg 100 g-1 a (0,56 ± 0,09) mg 100 g-1 e o do licopeno variou de (1,44 ± 0,28) mg 100 g-1 a (3,39 ± 0,32) mg 100 g-1 de polpa fresca de mamão. Os índices de ácidos L-ascórbico na polpa dos frutos de mamão com MFM variaram de 7,0 mg 100 g-1 a 10,0 mg 100 g-1 a mais do que os teores encontrados na polpa dos frutos de mamão sem a MFM (P Abstract in english The Skin Freckles is a papaya skin disorder that depreciates de fruit appearance and hampers its commercialization, although not lowering its nutritive value. Being the papaya a good source of ascorbic acid, ?-carotene and licopene this research aimed at determining L-ascorbic acid, ?-carotene and l [...] icopene content in papaya fruits, from 'Formosa' and 'Solo' group varieties, with and without apparent physiological skin disease (skin freckles). Fruits were harvested in the Southeast Region of Brazil. L-ascorbic acid content was determined by titration technique. ?-carotene and licopene contents were determined by high performance liquid chromatography technique (HPLC). L-ascorbic acid content in papaya fruits ranged from (59.9 ± 3.4) mg 100 g-1 to (112.4 ± 12.6) mg 100 g-1 in fresh papaya pulp. ?-carotene content ranged from (0.19 ± 0.07) mg 100 g-1 to (0.56 ± 0.09) mg 100 g-1 and that of licopene ranged from (1.44 ± 0.28) mg 100 g-1 to (3.39 ± 0.32) mg 100 g-1 in fresh papaya pulp. L-ascorbic acid contents of papaya fruits with skin disease averaged 7.0 mg 100 g-1 to 10.0 mg 100 g-1 higher than those of papaya fruits without skin freckles (P

Leandro Marelli de, Souza; Karla Silva, Ferreira; José Benício Paes, Chaves; Sílvio Lopes, Teixeira.

156

L-ascorbic acid, ?-carotene and lycopene content in papaya fruits (Carica papaya with or without physiological skin freckles Conteúdo de ácido l-ascórbico, ?-caroteno e licopeno em frutos de mamão (Carica papaya com e sem mancha fisiológica  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Skin Freckles is a papaya skin disorder that depreciates de fruit appearance and hampers its commercialization, although not lowering its nutritive value. Being the papaya a good source of ascorbic acid, ?-carotene and licopene this research aimed at determining L-ascorbic acid, ?-carotene and licopene content in papaya fruits, from 'Formosa' and 'Solo' group varieties, with and without apparent physiological skin disease (skin freckles. Fruits were harvested in the Southeast Region of Brazil. L-ascorbic acid content was determined by titration technique. ?-carotene and licopene contents were determined by high performance liquid chromatography technique (HPLC. L-ascorbic acid content in papaya fruits ranged from (59.9 ± 3.4 mg 100 g-1 to (112.4 ± 12.6 mg 100 g-1 in fresh papaya pulp. ?-carotene content ranged from (0.19 ± 0.07 mg 100 g-1 to (0.56 ± 0.09 mg 100 g-1 and that of licopene ranged from (1.44 ± 0.28 mg 100 g-1 to (3.39 ± 0.32 mg 100 g-1 in fresh papaya pulp. L-ascorbic acid contents of papaya fruits with skin disease averaged 7.0 mg 100 g-1 to 10.0 mg 100 g-1 higher than those of papaya fruits without skin freckles (P A Mancha Fisiológica do Mamão (MFM é uma desordem da casca do mamão, que deprecia a aparência do fruto e prejudica a sua comercialização, embora não prejudique o seu valor nutritivo. Considerando ser o mamão, uma boa fonte de ácido L-ascórbico, b-caroteno e licopeno, esta pesquisa visou determinar o índice destes componentes em frutas de mamão, das variedades do grupo 'Formosa' e 'Solo', com e sem Mancha Fisiológica do Mamão (MFM aparente na pele. As frutas foram colhidas na região do sudeste de Brasil. O teor de ácido L-ascórbico foi determinado pela técnica de titulação. Os índices do b-caroteno e do licopeno foram determinados pela técnica de cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (HPLC. O teor de ácido L-ascórbico variou de (59,9 ± 3,4 mg 100 g-1 a (112,4 ± 12,6 mg 100 g-1 de polpa fresca de mamão. O teor de b-caroteno variou de (0,19 ± 0,07 mg 100 g-1 a (0,56 ± 0,09 mg 100 g-1 e o do licopeno variou de (1,44 ± 0,28 mg 100 g-1 a (3,39 ± 0,32 mg 100 g-1 de polpa fresca de mamão. Os índices de ácidos L-ascórbico na polpa dos frutos de mamão com MFM variaram de 7,0 mg 100 g-1 a 10,0 mg 100 g-1 a mais do que os teores encontrados na polpa dos frutos de mamão sem a MFM (P < 0,05.

Leandro Marelli de Souza

2008-01-01

157

CHARACTERIZATION OF PAPAYA FRUIT MEDIATED SILVER NANOPARTICLES AND EVALUATION OF ITS ANTIMICROBIAL AND WOUND HEALING ACTIVITY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The field of Nanotechnology is the most active area of research in modern material science. Though there are many chemical as well as physical methods, green synthesis of nanomaterial is the most emerging method of synthesis. We report the synthesis of antibacterial silver nanoparticles using Papaya. The synthesized AgNPs have been characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy and SEM microscopy. The silver nanoparticles stabilized by Papaya fruit extract were found to have enhanced antimicrobial activity against well-known pathogenic strains Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris and E. coli.

EnamalaNarmadha

2013-07-01

158

Ethanol Extract of Carica papaya Seeds Induces Reversible Contraception in Adult Male Wistar Rats  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The quest for the development of an ideal male contraceptive has led to the discovery of the antifertility property of some species of C. papaya seed extracts. This study investigates the antifertility activity and reversibility of ethanol extract of C. papaya seeds in sexually matured male Wistar rats. 30 adult males and 60 female Wistar rats weighing between 180 and 220 g were used for the study. The male rats were randomly divided into 3 groups of 10 each. Group I which served as control w...

Hamman, Wilson O.; Musa, Sunday A.; Ikyembe, Daniel T.; Umana, Uduak E.; Adelaiye, Alexander B.; Nok, Andrew J.; Ojo, Samuel A.

2011-01-01

159

Quality of Guava and Papaya Fruit Pulp as Influenced by Blending Ratio and Storage Period  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Guava and papaya are the most widely grown commercial fruits of central India. Both the fruits are nutritive and may be used for processing. The analysis of organoleptic characters (i.e., colour, flavour, texture, taste and overall acceptability) and qualitative characters (i.e., TSS, pH, acidity, ascorbic acid content) of guava and papaya fruits was conducted on fresh fruit, prepared pulp and mixed pulp. During the storage of fruit pulp at low temperature (6±1°C), the decrease in overall a...

Nema, Prabhat K.; Priyanka Jain; Jain, P. K.

2011-01-01

160

Molecular characterization and infectivity of Papaya leaf curl China virus infecting tomato in China*  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Papaya leaf curl China virus (PaLCuCNV) was previously reported as a distinct begomovirus infecting papaya in southern China. Based on molecular diagnostic survey, 13 PaLCuCNV isolates were obtained from tomato plants showing leaf curl symptoms in Henan and Guangxi Provinces of China. Complete nucleotide sequences of 5 representative isolates (AJ558116, AJ558117, AJ704604, FN256260, and FN297834) were determined to be 2738–2751 nucleotides, which share 91.7%–97.9% sequence identities with...

Zhang, Hui; Ma, Xin-ying; Qian, Ya-juan; Zhou, Xue-ping

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Semen study of papaya workers exposed to ethylene dibromide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A cross sectional semen and cytogenetic study was performed on male workers exposed to ethylene-dibromide (EDB) in the papaya fumigation industry in Hawaii. Semen analyses were conducted on 46 men in six fumigation facilities with an average length of employment of 5 years and airborne exposures to EDB ranging from 16 to 213 parts per billion. Statistically significant decreases in sperm count per ejaculate and the percentage of viable and motile sperm and increases in the proportion of specific morphological abnormalities were observed among exposed men when compared with controls. Semen volume and sperm concentration were also lower in the exposed group. No effect of exposure to EDB on sperm velocity, the overall proportion of sperm with normal morphology or YFF bodies was noted. The authors conclude that based on the decreases in sperm count, viability and motility and increases in certain types of morphological abnormalities among workers exposed to EDB, EDB may increase the risk of reproductive impairment in workers at exposure levels near the NIOSH recommended limit of 45 parts per billion and far below the current OSHA standard of 20 parts per million.

Ratcliffe, J.M.; Schrader, S.M.; Steenland, K.; Clapp, D.; Turner, T.

1984-01-01

162

Purification of papain from fresh latex of Carica papaya  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese No presente trabalho apresenta-se um método de cristalização da papaína oriunda do látex fresco de mamão, o qual apresenta uma alta produtividade em relação aos métodos previamente descritos. A metodologia aqui descrita não envolve o uso de reagentes sulfidrílicos, a papaína foi obtida de forma prat [...] icamente pura, apresentando uma simples banda quando submetida a eletroforese, e com propriedades idênticas àquelas obtidas por outros métodos. A atividade específica foi determinada utilizando Z-gly-pNP e BAEE como substrato. A papaína obtida por essa metodologia, sem uso de substâncias tais como cisteína e ditiotreitol, apresenta-se na forma de um complexo com inibidores naturais, os quais podem ser removidos por diálise. Abstract in english In the present study we wish to report a method of crystallizing papain from fresh papaya latex which gave higher yields than previously reported. This method does not involve the use of sulphydryl reagents. The papain thus obtained is practically pure and shows a single band when submitted to elect [...] rophoresis on polyacrylamide gel, and is identical to the papain obtained by other methods. In routine enzymatic assays, specific activity was measured using Z-gly-pNP and BAEE as substrates. Papain crystallized by this method, without the use of high concentrations of salts or thiol-containing substances such as cysteine and dithiothreitol, is obtained in the form of a complex with natural inhibitors existent in latex which can be removed by dialysis.

Rubens, Monti; Carmelita A., Basilio; Henrique C., Trevisan; Jonas, Contiero.

163

Patrones de crecimiento urbano en la Patagonia chilena: el caso de la ciudad de Coyhaique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Las políticas de Estado junto con la importante oferta/demanda de productos inmobiliarios para población de mayor ingreso han orientado el desarrollo reciente de varias ciudades chilenas, originando nuevas formas urbanas. Si bien estos procesos han sido descritos y analizados para varias ciudades y áreas metropolitanas de Chile central, no existen suficientes antecedentes empíricos que den cuenta de la realidad del desarrollo urbano de las ciudades más australes del país, como el caso de Coyhaique en la Patagonia chilena. Este trabajo pretende identificar y analizar los patrones de urbanización de esta ciudad, en un contexto territorial caracterizado, entre otros aspectos, por la fragmentación geográfica, el aislamiento, dispersión de los centros poblados y concentración de la población en la capital regional. Se analiza la evolución y factores explicativos que dan cuenta de su rápido proceso de urbanización y, sobre la base de documentos técnicos, históricos y geográficos, se presentan estimaciones futuras del crecimiento de la ciudad.

Gerardo Az\\u00F3car Garc\\u00EDa

2010-01-01

164

Acidez de la corteza de algunas especies nativas chilenas Bark acidity of some Chilean native species  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Se determinó la cantidad de extraíbles y la acidez en corteza de cuatro especies nativas chilenas (arrayán, coigüe, canelo, tepa). Los resultados muestran que el valor de pH varía en forma importante dependiendo de la especie. Diferencias similares se registraron para la capacidad tampón alcalina, el contenido de ácidos volátiles y el número de Stiasny. También se pudo verificar que el efecto de un tratamiento térmico es variable dependiendo de la especie.The amount of extracts...

HERNAN POBLETE; EDMONE ROFFAEL

2004-01-01

165

Origen, consolidación y vigencia de la Nueva Dogmática Chilena (ca. 1955?1970)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

El artículo describe la evolución de tres generaciones de profesores de Derecho penal chilenos, desde 1925 hasta 1970. Se indican las fuentes e influencias que reciben cada una de ellas y cómo influyen en las sucesivas generaciones, respectivamente. Se establecen las condiciones que incidieron en la eclosión de una gran cantidad de nuevos especialistas en Derecho penal en la generación de 1955-1970, denominada Nueva Dogmática Chilena, y su participación en la disputa entre el “sistem...

Matus, Jean Pierre

2011-01-01

166

Panorámica de los eventos bibliotecológicos en la prensa electrónica chilena 1999-2005  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Resumen ¿Qué aspectos de la Bibliotecología han sido noticias en Chile los últimos seis años? El presente trabajo da cuenta de una propuesta metodológica, la cual permite visualizar el panorama de la actividad bibliotecológica en Chile desde 1999 hasta el 2005. El estudio presenta un breve panorama histórico de los diarios electrónicos en Chile y desarrolla un análisis de la prensa electrónica chilena, puntualmente de las noticias contenidas en 568 artículos publicados po...

Canifru? Candia, Georgina

2007-01-01

167

Construction of Papaya Male and Female BAC Libraries and Application in Physical Mapping of the Sex Chromosomes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Papaya is a major fruit crop in the tropics and has recently evolved sex chromosomes. Towards sequencing the papaya sex chromosomes, two bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries were constructed from papaya male and female genomic DNA. The female BAC library was constructed using restriction enzyme BstY I and consists of 36,864 clones with an average insert size of 104?kb, providing 10.3x genome equivalents. The male BAC library was constructed using restriction enzyme EcoR I and con...

Gschwend, Andrea R.; Qingyi Yu; Paul Moore; Christopher Saski; Cuixia Chen; Jianping Wang; Jong-Kuk Na; Ray Ming

2011-01-01

168

Conocimientos y autoeficacia asociados a la prevención del VIH y SIDA en mujeres chilenas  

Science.gov (United States)

Resumen Objetivo Evaluar la relación existente entre conocimientos y autoeficacia asociados al VIH/SIDA en mujeres chilenas en desventaja social. Metodología Estudio correlacional, que utiliza la medición basal del estudio “Testeando una intervención en VIH y SIDA en mujeres chilenas”, realizada entre 2006 y 2008, que tiene una muestra de 496 mujeres entre 18 y 49 años residentes en dos comunas de Santiago de Chile. Las participantes respondieron un cuestionario estructurado aplicado por entrevistadoras entrenadas. Este cuestionario incluyó preguntas sobre datos sociodemográficos, escala de conocimientos de conductas de riesgo y autoeficacia, entre otros. Resultados Edad promedio de 32.3±9.1 años, 72.2% vive con su pareja y 42.7% poseen educación media completa. La puntuación media de los conocimientos de la infección por el VIH fue de 8.9±2.5, mientras que para las tres escalas empleadas para medir autoeficacia fueron: “Normas de los pares” =9.8±3.6, “Intención de reducir conductas de riesgo” =12.2±3.6 y “Self Efficacy Form”=20.2±4.7. Los conocimientos tuvieron una correlación positiva débil con la “intención de reducir conductas de riesgo” (r=0.19; pautoeficacia en mujeres chilenas en desventaja social. PMID:25284914

Villegas Rodríguez, Natalia; Ferrer Lagunas, Lilian Marcela; Cianelli Acosta, Rosina; Miner, Sarah; Lara Campos, Loreto; Peragallo, Nilda

2014-01-01

169

Avaliação de genótipos de melancia para resistência ao Papaya ringspot vírus, estirpe melancia Evaluation of watermelon genotypes for resistance to Papaya ringspot virus, type watermelon  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Verificou-se a eficiência de duas metodologias de avaliação em nove genótipos de melancia da resistência a três isolados de Papaya ringspot virus, estirpe melancia (PRSV-W), de três regiões brasileiras. O delineamento do experimento foi em blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. Cada parcela foi composta de um vaso com 5 kg de substrato com cinco plantas de melancia por vaso. Aos 10 e 13 dias após a semeadura, três isolados do PRSV-W coletados nos estados de Goiás, Pernambuco ...

Vieira, Jairo V.; Antonio Carlos de Ávila; Giovani Olegário da Silva

2010-01-01

170

Propagación in vitro de Carica papaya var. PTM-331 a partir de meristemos apicales In vitro propagation of Carica papaya var. PTM-331 from apical meristem  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

El trabajo consistió en desarrollar un protocolo de propagación in vitro de la variedad de papaya PTM-331 a partir de meristemos apicales, con la finalidad de obtener plántulas vigorosas y libres de enfermedades, empleando la técnica del cultivo de tejidos. Las yemas apicales empleadas fueron obtenidas de plantas cultivadas en invernadero, los cuales fueron usados como explantes para la extracción de meristemos. La mejor diferenciación de meristemos se logró en el medio basal MS suplem...

Reynaldo Solis L.; Julio Olivera S.; Rafael S. La Rosa L.

2012-01-01

171

Low-dose gamma irradiation following hot Water immersion of Papaya (Carica Papaya linn.) fruits provides additional control of postharvest fungal infection to extend shelf life.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Low-dose gamma irradiation (0.08 kGy over 10 min), a level significantly below that required to satisfy the majority of international quarantine regulations, has been employed to provide a significant reduction in visible fungal infection on papaya fruit surfaces. This is appropriate for local and national markets in producer countries where levels of commercial acceptability can be retained despite surface lesions due to fungal infection. Irradiation alone and in combination with hot-water immersion (50 °C for 10 min) has been applied to papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruits at both the mature green and 1/3 yellow stages of maturity. The incidence and severity of surface fungal infections, including anthracnose, were significantly reduced by the combined treatment compared to irradiation or hot water treatment alone, extending storage at 11 °C by 13 days and retaining commercial acceptability. The combined treatment had no significant, negative impact on ripening, with quality characteristics such as surface and internal colour change, firmness, soluble solids, acidity and vitamin C maintained at acceptable levels.

Rashid, M. H. A.; Grout, Brian William Wilson

2015-01-01

172

Assessment of the Anti-Protozoal Activity of Crude Carica papaya Seed Extract against Trypanosoma cruzi  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to determine the in vivo activity against the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, two doses (50 and 75 mg/kg of a chloroform extract of Carica papaya seeds were evaluated compared with a control group of allopurinol. The activity of a mixture of the three main compounds (oleic, palmitic and stearic acids in a proportion of 45.9% of oleic acid, 24.1% of palmitic and 8.52% of stearic acid previously identified in the crude extract of C. papaya was evaluated at doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg. Both doses of the extracts were orally administered for 28 days. A significant reduction (p < 0.05 in the number of blood trypomastigotes was observed in animals treated with the evaluated doses of the C. papaya extract in comparison with the positive control group (allopurinol 8.5 mg/kg. Parasitemia in animals treated with the fatty acids mixture was also significantly reduced (p < 0.05, compared to negative control animals. These results demonstrate that the fatty acids identified in the seed extracts of C. papaya (from ripe fruit are able to reduce the number of parasites from both parasite stages, blood trypomastigote and amastigote (intracellular stage.

Karla Y. Acosta-Viana

2013-10-01

173

Efforts to deregulate Rainbow papaya in Japan: Molecular Characterization of Transgene and Vector Inserts  

Science.gov (United States)

Transformation plasmid-derived insert number and insert site sequence in 55-1 line papaya derivatives Rainbow and SunUp was determined as part of a larger petition to allow its import into Japan (Suzuki, et al., 2007, 2008). Three insertions were detected by Southern analysis and their correspondin...

174

IMPROVED CARICA PAPAYA TOLERANCE TO THE CARMINE SPIDER MITE BY EXPRESSION OF MANDUCA SEXTA CHITINASE TRANSGENE.  

Science.gov (United States)

Papaya plants producing the tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta) chitinase protein were obtained following microprojectile bombardment of embryogenic calli derived from the hypocotyls of the cultivar Kapoho. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot hybridization of reverse-transcriptase (RT)-PC...

175

Antiplasmodial Properties and Bioassay-Guided Fractionation of Ethyl Acetate Extracts from Carica papaya Leaves.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the antiplasmodial properties of crude extracts from Carica papaya leaves to trace the activity through bioassay-guided fractionation. The greatest antiplasmodial activity was observed in the ethyl acetate crude extract. C. papaya showed a high selectivity for P. falciparum against CHO cells with a selectivity index of 249.25 and 185.37 in the chloroquine-sensitive D10 and chloroquine-resistant DD2 strains, respectively. Carica papaya ethyl acetate extract was subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation to ascertain the most active fraction, which was purified and identified using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and GC-MS (Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry) methods. Linoleic and linolenic acids identified from the ethyl acetate fraction showed IC(50) of 6.88??g/ml and 3.58??g/ml, respectively. The study demonstrated greater antiplasmodial activity of the crude ethyl acetate extract of Carica papaya leaves with an IC(50) of 2.96 ± 0.14??g/ml when compared to the activity of the fractions and isolated compounds. PMID:22174990

Melariri, Paula; Campbell, William; Etusim, Paschal; Smith, Peter

2011-01-01

176

Fermented papaya preparation halts the progression of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in rats  

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Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) can progress to cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. Oxidative stress is implicated in NASH progression. Fermented papaya preparation (FPP) has oxygen radical scavenging activity and is effective in oxidative stress-related diseases. We investigated the effects of FPP on NASH progression using a rat NASH model. Plasma biochemical parameters and lipid peroxidation in the liver were elevated in NASH ...

Mitsuko Imao; Akitane Mori; Toru Egashira; Fusako Takayama; Shinki Murakami

2013-01-01

177

Processamento mínimo de mamão 'formosa' / Fresh cut of 'formosa' papaya  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho foi conduzido para verificar o efeito do tamanho do corte, 2,5 x 2,5cm (corte 1) e 2,5 x 5,0cm (corte 2), e da temperatura de armazenamento (3, 6 e 9ºC), na velocidade da modificação da atmosfera ambiente e nas características químicas de mamões do grupo `Formosa' minimamente processad [...] os e embalados em copos plásticos (500ml). A concentração de CO2 no interior destes copos aumentou 2 a 3 vezes, durante as primeiras 6 horas após o corte, para depois diminuir e se estabilizar. Esta concentração aumentou com o aumento da temperatura de armazenamento. A umidade dos pedaços diminuiu consideravelmente nos dois primeiros dias, e a temperatura que melhor conservou a umidade foi a de 6ºC. A acidez total titulável foi menor no corte 2, com as maiores reduções a 6 e 9oC. Os teores de sólidos solúveis totais não variaram entre os tratamentos, e os cuidados higiênicos adotados durante o processamento permitiram a obtenção de produtos com baixa contagem microbiana, 10³UFC.g-1 nos pedaços armazenados a 9ºC após sete dias, e com boa manutenção da qualidade sensorial das mesmas. Estes resultados permitem indicar o mamão `Formosa' para a produção de produtos minimamente processados, na forma de pedaços, com conservação refrigerada (3 e 6ºC ) por um período de 7 dias. Abstract in english This work was undertaken to verify the effect of cutting size, 2.5 x 2.5cm (chunk 1), 2.5 x 5.0cm (chunk 2), and storage temperatures (3, 6 and 9ºC), on atmosphere modification rate and chemical characteristics of `Formosa' fresh-cut papaya packed in plastic cups (500 ml). The CO2 concentration into [...] theses cups increased fron two to three fold during first 6 hours after cutting, then it decreased and stabilized. This concentration increased with the storage temperature increasing. The chunks's moisture remarkably decreased in the first 2 days, and the temperature which best sustained the moisture was 6ºC. The titratable total acidity was lower in chunk 2, with the highest reductions at 6 and 9ºC. The total soluble solids content did not vary between treatments, and hygienic care adopted during processing allowed to obtain low microbial counting products, 10³ CFU.g-1 in chunks stored at 9ºC after seven days and with good maintenance of its sensorial quality. These results allow to indicate `Formosa' papaya for fresh-cuts production, in chunk form, with refrigerated conservation (3 e 6ºC ) for 7 day periods.

Gustavo Henrique de Almeida, TEIXEIRA; José Fernando, DURIGAN; Ben-Hur, MATTIUZ; Oswaldo Durival, ROSSI JÚNIOR.

2001-01-01

178

Efecto de la cocción y del grado de maduración de frutas de mamón (Carica papaya L.) sobre la calidad del mamón en almíbar / Effect of cooking and fruit ripening of papaya (Carica papaya L.) on quality of papaya in syrup  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo estudiar el efecto del grado de maduración de la fruta y la cocción sobre la retención de calcio y la firmeza del mamón en almíbar. Para los ensayos se emplearon frutas en dos grados de maduración distintos. La elaboración de frutas en almíbar se realizó con u [...] n tratamiento previo. El pre-tratamiento consistió en impregnar la fruta en soluciones isotónicas de lactato de calcio y la cocción se realizó en solución de sacarosa. Además se realizaron ensayos de elaboración del producto por cocción de frutas verdes frescas, sin pre-tratamiento, en almíbar con adición de 1,5% de lactato de calcio y en almíbar sin adición de calcio. Se midió el contenido de calcio y la firmeza en la fruta fresca, pre-tratada y pos-cocción. Los resultados experimentales indicaron que durante el pre-tratamiento las frutas verde y madura ganan 84,1 y 103,2 mg Ca/100g fruta fresca, respectivamente. Durante la cocción se retiene un 52,8% y 65,6% del calcio ganado, en fruta verde y madura respectivamente. El proceso de cocción de fruta verde en almíbar con lactato de calcio generó un producto con una ganancia de calcio de 78,6 mg Ca/100 g de fruta fresca y la cocción en almíbar (sin calcio) mantuvo los valores del contenido de calcio de la fruta fresca. El pre-tratamiento con calcio incrementa la firmeza de la fruta; la posterior cocción en almíbar favorece la firmeza en el caso de la fruta madura pero disminuye marcadamente la firmeza de la fruta verde. Abstract in english In this study the effect of fruit ripeness on the calcium retention and the firmness of papaya in syrup were investigated. The fruits in syrup were developed from pretreated papaya samples. The pretreatment consisted in an impregnation stage using isotonic solutions of calcium lactate, and the subse [...] quent cooking of the samples in sucrose syrup. In addition, green fruit without pretreatment was processed as a control. It was cooked in syrup with addition of 1.5% of calcium lactate and without calcium. Calcium content, color and firmness were measured in fresh fruit, pre-treated and processed samples.. Experimental results showed that during the pretreatment, green and ripe fruits increased their calcium content in 84.1 and 103.2 mg Ca/100g fresh fruit, respectively. During cooking, green and ripe fruits retained 52.8% and 65.6%, respectively, of the calcium content previously gained. Processed green fruits with calcium in syrup gained 78.6 mg Ca/100g fresh fruit, while those processed without mineral addition maintained the initial values of calcium content. The pretreatment with calcium increased the firmness of the fresh fruit, for both green and mature samples. After cooking, the ripe fruit firmness increased, as opposed to that of the green fruit, which decreased notoriously.

Nancy N, Lovera; Laura, Ramallo; Viviana O, Salvadori.

2013-12-01

179

Effect of green and ripe Carica papaya epicarp extracts on wound healing and during pregnancy.  

Science.gov (United States)

The traditional use of papaya to treat many diseases, especially skin conditions and its prohibition for consumption during pregnancy has prompted us to determine whether papaya extracts both from green and ripe fruits improve wound healing and also produce foetal toxicity. Aqueous extracts of green papaya epicarp (GPE) and ripe papaya epicarp (RPE) were applied on induced wounds on mice. GPE treatment induced complete healing in shorter periods (13 days) than that required while using RPE (17 days), sterile water (18 days) and Solcoseryl ointment (21 days). Extracts were administered orally (1 mg/g body weight/day) to pregnant mice from day 10 and onwards after conception. 3 (n=7) mice and 1 (n=6) mice given RPE and misoprostol, an abortive drug, respectively experienced embryonic resorption while this effect was observed in none of the mice given GPE (n=5) and water (n=5). The average body weight of live pups delivered by mice given GPE (1.12+/-0.04 g) was significantly lower than those delivered by mice given water (1.38+/-0.02 g). In SDS-PAGE, proteins were distributed in three bands (Mr range approximately 8-29 kDa). Band intensity at Mr approximately 28-29 kDa was higher in GPE than in RPE. In contrast, band intensity at low Mr (approximately 8 kDa) was found to be higher in RPE than in GPE. Notably, the band corresponding to Mr approximately 23-25 kDa was absent in RPE. These differences in composition may have contributed to the different wound healing and abortive effects of green and ripe papaya. PMID:18468758

Anuar, Nor Suhada; Zahari, Shafiyyah Solehah; Taib, Ibrahim Adham; Rahman, Mohammad Tariqur

2008-07-01

180

Características de calidad de frutos de papaya maradol en la madurez de consumo / Quality characteristics in maradol papaya fruits at the comsumption ripeness stage  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El color de la cáscara es la característica más utilizada para evaluar la maduración de los frutos de papaya; las recomendaciones para la cosecha, comercialización y consumo se basan en la aparición de porcentajes de color verde, amarillo y naranja. Esas escalas subjetivas son ambiguas y crean dific [...] ultades en la interpretación del observador. Por lo anterior, el objetivo fue evaluar los principales cambios de apariencia, firmeza y sólidos solubles totales de papaya 'maradol' durante su maduración poscosecha para proponer índices objetivos que describan el estado de madurez de consumo. En noviembre de 2005 se definieron seis estados de maduración en frutos obtenidos en Yucatán y se evaluó el color del fruto, contenido de clorofilas y carotenoides, firmeza de la pulpa, azúcares y contenido de sólidos solubles totales. En marzo de 2006 se obtuvieron las características de los frutos en la madurez de consumo en dos localidades y se compararon con los resultados anteriores. La madurez de consumo de papaya maradol se alcanza entre los 13 y 15 días después de la cosecha en condiciones de almacenamiento de 23 ± 1°C y 75% de humedad relativa. El ángulo del tono de la cáscara entre 70 y 80°, el contenido de sólidos solubles totales entre 10 y 11.5 °Brix, y la firmeza de la pulpa de 4.7 a 6.9 newtons permitieron diferenciar dos estados de madurez de consumo. Abstract in english Skin fruit color is the main characteristic to evaluate papaya fruit ripening; recommendations for harvest, commercialization and consumption, are based in green, yellow and orange color percentages. These subjective scales are difficult for interpretation. The purpose of the present work was to eva [...] luate the main changes in appearance, firmness and total soluble solids occurring during postharvest ripening of maradol papaya fruits in order to define fruit characteristics that can be suggested as quality standards for consumption maturity. In November 2005, six maturity stages were identified and parameters such as fruit color, skin chlorophyll and carotenoids content, pulp firmness, sugars and total soluble solids were measured along them. In March 2006, fruit characteristics in consumption maturity of fruits harvested from two locations were obtained and compared with previous results. It was found that the consumption maturity stage is reached between 13 and 15 days after harvest when fruits were stored at 23±1°C and 75% of relative humidity. Skin°HUE values between 70 and 80, total soluble solids content between 10 and 11.5 °Brix and pulp firmness between 4.7 to 6.9 newtons allowed the differentiation of two consumption maturity stages.

Felipe, Santamaría Basulto; Raúl, Díaz Plaza; Enrique, Sauri Duch; Francisco, Espadas y Gil; Jorge Manuel, Santamaría Fernández; Alfonso, Larqué Saavedra.

2009-09-01

 
 
 
 
181

Evaluation of the Combination of Vitamin D3 and Papaya Leaf on Muscle Antioxidant Activity of Spent Chicken  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Eighty spent chickens were employed in this study to assay the effect of combination of vitamin D3 and papaya leaf on antioxidant activity of meat in spent layer hens. Diets were a corn-soybean meal based diet for finisher layer with and without vitamin D3 which was supplemented with different levels of 0, 0.5, 1 and 2% for papaya leaf meal. Experiment lasted for 21 days. At day 0, 7, 14 and 21, the birds were scarified and breast muscle was obtained to determine antioxidant activity. Antioxidant activity was measured using 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-Picrylhydrazyl (DPPH. Result obtained from this study demonstrated that antioxidant activity of meat showed remarkable improvement between dietary treatments fed mix of vitamin D3 and papaya leaf and control group. In conclusion, vitamin D3 and papaya leaf when combined indicated an improvement in antioxidant activity of the spent meat.

A.Q. Sazili

2011-01-01

182

Green synthesis and antibacterial activity screening of silver nanoparticles reduced by papaya (Carica papaya L.) leaves extract  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The field of nano technology is the most active area of research in modern material sciences. Though there are many chemical, as well as physical methods, green synthesis is the most emerging method of synthesis. This study aimed to describe a cost effective and environment friendly technique for green synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The synthesis of silver nanoparticles was prepared by adding Carica papaya L. leaves extract to 1mM silver nitrate solution. The color change in reaction mixture (pale yellow to dark brown color was observed during the incubation period , due to excitation of surface plasmon vibrations in silver nanoparticles. Nanoparticles were characterized using UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) pattern, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy-Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDX) analysis. Absorption spectra of silver nanoparticles formed in the reaction media has absorbance peak at 280 nm, broadening of peak indicates that the particles are poly dispersed. SEM analysis described the morphology and the size of the particles. XRD confirmed the crystalline structure of the nanoparticles. The presence of the elemental silver was observed in the graph obtained from EDX analysis, which also supports the XRD results. The biomass of plants produces their nano materials by a process called bio mineralization. The tests cultures included in the study were Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Salmonella. Results showed that the maximum inhibitory effect using 1mM silver nitrates against the microbes were obtained. The approach of plant-mediated synthesis appears to be cost efficient, eco-friendly and easy alternative to conventional methods of silver nanoparticles synthesis (author)

183

Efecto del cloruro de sodio sobre el crecimiento y estado nutricional de plantas de papaya / Effect of sodium chloride on growth and mineral content of papaya plant  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La limitada disponibilidad de agua de calidad para la agricultura de las zonas áridas y semiáridas ha propiciado el uso de agua de moderada a alta salinidad. La papaya (Carica papaya L.), aunque se reporta con diferentes sensibilidades al estrés salino, es una especie de gran potencial frutícola par [...] a ser cultivada económicamente en las regiones semiáridas del estado Lara, Venezuela. El objetivo de este ensayo fue evaluar el efecto de la salinidad ocasionada por el NaCl sobre el crecimiento vegetativo y el estado nutricional de la papaya ‘Maradol’ desarrollada bajo una estructura de techo transparente. Como fuente salina se utilizó cloruro de sodio grado analítico, el cual se adicionó a través del agua de riego en cuatro tratamientos (0,001; 2,0; 4,0 y 8,0 dS·m-1) bajo un diseño completamente aleatorizado con cuatro repeticiones, hasta finalizar la fase juvenil del desarrollo. Se evaluó la longitud del tallo, biomasa seca aérea y radical, área foliar, área de sección del tallo, contenido relativo de clorofila (SPAD) y el contenido de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn, Cu, Fe y Na a nivel foliar. Los tratamientos afectaron el crecimiento vegetativo de las plantas durante toda la fase juvenil del desarrollo. Se observó, además, reducción del contenido de clorofila con el estrés por NaCl. Los tenores N y Na incrementaron, mientras que, los de K, Zn, Cu y Fe disminuyeron. Los niveles de P, Ca, Mg y Mn, no se afectaron. En base a los resultados obtenidos la papaya ‘Maradol’ puede ser considerada como un cultivar de moderada tolerancia al NaCl. Abstract in english Due to limited availability of low-salinity water in arid and semi-arid regions, water use of moderate to high salinity in agriculture of those regions is unavoidable. Papaya, although exhibits different sensitivities to salinity, has great potential to be cultivated in semi-arid regions of Lara Sta [...] te, Venezuela. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of irrigation with water containing different levels of NaCl on growth and nutrient content of papaya ‘Maradol’. The experiment was carried out under a structure with transparent ceiling until the end of the plant juvenile phase. NaCl treatments were applied to irrigation water to obtain 0.001, 2.0, 4.0 and 8.0 dS·m-1 electrical conductivity under a completely randomized design with four replications. Shoot length, shoot and root dry mater, leaf area, stem-cross-sectional area, relative chlorophyll content (SPAD), and leaf N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn, Cu, Fe and Na concentration were evaluated The presence of NaCl in the irrigation water caused inhibition of growth in young plants. Significant reduction in contents of chlorophyll was also detected. Tissue concentration of N and Na increased with increasing levels of NaCl, while K, Zn, Cu and Fe decreased. Ca, Mg, P and Mn, were not affected. On the basis of data obtained, papaya ‘Maradol’ can be considered as a moderately NaCl tolerant cultivar.

Jorge, Parés; Carmen, Basso.

2013-08-01

184

Efecto de la biofertilización y los biorreguladores en la germinación y el crecimiento de Carica papaya L.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Título en inglés: Effect of biofertilization and bioregulators on germination and growth of Carica papaya L. Resumen Con el objetivo de incrementar y acelerar el proceso de germinación de las semillas y obtener una alta producción y homogeneidad de plántulas de Carica papaya variedad Maradol en vivero, se evaluó el efecto de tres biofertilizantes aplicados solos o en combinación (Azotobacter chroococcum, Azospirillum brasilense y Glomus intraradices), y un biorregulador del cre...

Maricela Constantino; Regino Gómez-Álvarez; David Álvarez-Solís; Juan Manuel Pat-Fernández; Elda Guadalupe Espín

2011-01-01

185

n vitro study of antiamoebic effect of methanol extract of mature seeds of Carica papaya on trophozoites of Entamoeba histolytica  

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Antiamoebic activity of methanol extract of mature seeds of Carica papaya was tested in vitro on axenic culture of Entamoeba histolytica using metronidazole as a reference amoebicidal agent. The MIC of seed extract was > 62.5 µg/mL as compared to < 0.8 µg/mL for metronidazole. The present study suggests that the mature seeds of C. papaya have antiamoebic effect but less pronounced than metronidazole.

Sujit Kumar Sarker, Nilufar Begum

2010-01-01

186

Analysis of Carica papaya Telomeres and Telomere-Associated Proteins: Insights into the Evolution of Telomere Maintenance in Brassicales  

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Telomeres are terminal regions of linear eukaryotic chromosomes that are critical for genome stability and continued cell proliferation. The draft assembly of the papaya genome provides an opportunity to analyze and compare the evolution of telomeric DNA sequence composition and telomere maintenance machinery in this and other organisms of the Brassicales Order, which includes Arabidopsis. Here we investigate telomere size and sequence variation at papaya chromosome ends. As with most other p...

Shakirov, E. V.; Salzberg, S. L.; Alam, M.; Shippen, D. E.

2008-01-01

187

Gambaran Histologis Testis Mencit (Mus musculus L.) Yang Mendapat Kombinasi Ekstrak Air Biji Pepaya (Carica papaya L.) Dan Testosteron Undekanoat (TU)  

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Many traditional use of medicinal plants to treat different sort of disease, including fertility has done. This research observed the influence of papaya seed (Carica papaya L.) extract and Testosterone Undekanoat (TU) combination in testicle histology of mice (Mus musculus L.) which designed in complete random design (RAL) that divide to 5 control groups and 5 treatment groups. The papaya seed extract (30mg/day) gived orally from 0 week until 24 weeks. The time interval for intramuscular inj...

Hikmatullah, Desy

2012-01-01

188

Evaluasi Kesesuaian Lahan di Kebun Bekala Kecamatan Pancur Batu Kabupaten Deli Serdang untuk Tanaman Pepaya ( Carica papaya L. ) dan Pisang ( Musa acuminata COLLA )  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This research was conducted at Kebun Bekala, Pancur Batu subdistrict, Deli Serdang district, from February until September 2008. The research was purposed to evaluate land suitability classes for papaya (Carica papaya L.) and banana (Musa acuminata COLLA) in Kebun Bekala. This research was conducted by using land survey method with grid system. Analysis of land suitability was done by using matching between land requerment for papaya and banana with land charactheristics in Kebun Bekala. Samp...

Girsang, Ricky Andi Putra

2011-01-01

189

Metabolismo de carboidratos durante o amadurecimento do mamão (Carica papaya L. Cv. Solo: influência da radiação gama Influence of gamma radiation on carbohydrates metabolism of ripening papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Solo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A irradiação de alimentos é um tratamento pós-colheita bastante promissor, capaz de atuar tanto na desinfestação como no aumento da vida útil de frutos. O mamão é um fruto com curta vida pós-colheita, levando de 6 a 12 dias para atingir a senescência. Além disto, a infestação por larvas de mosca diminui sensivelmente o seu potencial de exportação. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a ação de uma dose de 0,5 kGy de irradiação gama, normalmente utilizada para desinfestação e aumento de vida útil dos frutos, sobre o comportamento dos carboidratos solúveis durante o amadurecimento do mamão (Carica papaya L. cv. Solo, e sobre as enzimas relacionadas ao metabolismo da sacarose: sacarose sintase (SS, sacarose-fosfato sintase (SPS e invertases ácida e neutra. Os resultados demonstraram que a irradiação não exerce efeito sobre o teor de glicose e frutose, ou sobre a respiração e atividade da SS. Entretanto, a composição dos açúcares solúveis totais e da sacarose, e a atividade da SPS e das invertases foram afetados.Food irradiation is one of the most promising treatments that can be utilized for fruits desinfestation and extension of shelf life. The authors studied the influence of 0,5 kGy of Gamma irradiation on the soluble carbohydrates composition of papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Solo fruit, and on sucrose metabolizing enzymes: sucrose synthase (SS, sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS, acid and neutral invertases activities, during ripening. The results demonstred that ethylene production, total soluble sugars, sucrose content, and sucrose-phosphate synthase and invertases activities were affected by irradiation, but not respiration, glucose and fructose content, and SS activity.

M. L. P. A. GOMEZ

1999-05-01

190

INVENTARIO DE GASES CON EFECTO INVERNADERO EMITIDOS POR LA ACTIVIDAD AGROPECUARIA CHILENA Inventory of greenhouse gas emissions by Chilean agriculture  

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Se realizó una estimación de los gases con efecto invernadero emitidos por la agricultura chilena. Los resultados indican que el año 1994, la agricultura chilena emitió 321,92 Gg de metano, 21,80 Gg de N2O; 2,96 Gg de NOx y 51,97 Gg de CO. Además, se estimó que las emisiones de COVNM llegan a 2,59 Gg año-1. Estas cifras expresadas como porcentaje de las emisiones del sector no energía chileno llegan a un 74,3 % para el metano, un 5,1 % para el CO; un 93,8 % para el N2O; un 9,8 % para ...

Rafael Novoa S. A.; Sergio González M.; Rosemary Novoa J.; Rosa Rojas

2000-01-01

191

Asymmetric purine-pyrimidine distribution in cellular small RNA population of papaya  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The small RNAs (sRNA are a regulatory class of RNA mainly represented by the 21 and 24-nucleotide size classes. The cellular sRNAs are processed by RNase III family enzyme dicer (Dicer like in plant from a self-complementary hairpin loop or other type of RNA duplexes. The papaya genome has been sequenced, but its microRNAs and other regulatory RNAs are yet to be analyzed. Results We analyzed the genomic features of the papaya sRNA population from three sRNA deep sequencing libraries made from leaves, flowers, and leaves infected with Papaya Ringspot Virus (PRSV. We also used the deep sequencing data to annotate the micro RNA (miRNA in papaya. We identified 60 miRNAs, 24 of which were conserved in other species, and 36 of which were novel miRNAs specific to papaya. In contrast to the Chargaff’s purine-pyrimidine equilibrium, cellular sRNA was significantly biased towards a purine rich population. Of the two purine bases, higher frequency of adenine was present in 23nt or longer sRNAs, while 22nt or shorter sRNAs were over represented by guanine bases. However, this bias was not observed in the annotated miRNAs in plants. The 21nt species were expressed from fewer loci but expressed at higher levels relative to the 24nt species. The highly expressed 21nt species were clustered in a few isolated locations of the genome. The PRSV infected leaves showed higher accumulation of 21 and 22nt sRNA compared to uninfected leaves. We observed higher accumulation of miRNA* of seven annotated miRNAs in virus-infected tissue, indicating the potential function of miRNA* under stressed conditions. Conclusions We have identified 60 miRNAs in papaya. Our study revealed the asymmetric purine-pyrimidine distribution in cellular sRNA population. The 21nt species of sRNAs have higher expression levels than 24nt sRNA. The miRNA* of some miRNAs shows higher accumulation in PRSV infected tissues, suggesting that these strands are not totally functionally redundant. The findings open a new avenue for further investigation of the sRNA silencing pathway in plants.

Aryal Rishi

2012-12-01

192

Sex and aggregation pheromone transport after methyl eugenol consumption in male Bactrocera papayae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Amongst at least 52 sibling species complexes in the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae), B. papayae (formerly Mal B) Drew and Hancock (Drew and Hancock 1994) is beginning to emerge as an economically important insect pest which poses a severe threat to the fruit cultivation in both subtropical and tropical countries. In Malaysia, B. papayae is one of the most damaging pests which infests many commercially grown fruits (Tan and Lee 1982). Like the Oriental fruit fly and its sibling species complex, B. carambolae Drew and Hancock, B. papayae is also strongly attracted to, and compulsively feeds on, methyl eugenol (ME) (Tan 1993). Chemical analyses revealed that in B. papayae males, ME is converted to phenylpropanoids which are then selectively accumulated in the rectal gland. Of the three major volatile substances, 2-allyl-4,5-dimethoyphenol (allyl-DMP) was detected in higher quantities relative to the trans-coniferyl alcohol (4-(3-hydroxy-E-propenyl)-2-methoxyphenol) (CF) and cis-3,4-dimethoxycinnamyl alcohol (cis-DMC) (Nishida et al. 1988a, 1988b). Behavioural studies have also shown that allyl-DMP and CF function as male sex and aggregation pheromone in B. papayae (Tan and Nishida 1996, Hee and Tan 1998). Allyl-DMP was found to be the most attractive compound and cis-DMC the least attractive to the males (Tan 1996). Consumption of ME enhances the mating competitiveness of males. This is demonstrated by the strong attraction of femalnstrated by the strong attraction of females to conspecific ME-fed males in wind tunnel experiments (Hee and Tan 1998). In male-male mating competition for virgin females, males that fed on ME performed significantly better (Shelly and Dewire 1994, Tan and Nishida 1996). Thus it appears that ME-fed males produced signals that were more attractive. However, the characterisation and understanding of the functions of these phenylpropanoids have not been accompanied by studies of their physiological mode of transport in male flies. The current paper describes the sex and aggregation pheromone transport after methyl eugenol consumption in male B. papayae. Here, we investigate the presence of the pheromones and their precursor ME in the male digestive and circulatory system

193

Análisis comparativo y perfil de publicaciones en la Revista Chilena de Pediatría 2001-2006 / Comparative analysis and publication profile in Revista Chilena de Pediatría 2001-2006  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La Revista Chilena de Pediatría (Rev Chil Pediatr), publicación oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría está indexada en SciELO pero no en la Librería Médica de EEUU (NLM). Objetivos: a) determinar el perfil de los artículos publicados y visitados en la Rev Chil Pediatr, compararlo con el de Jor [...] nal de Pediatría de Brasil (J Ped Br) y el de Journal of Pediatrics (J Ped) de Estados Unidos; b) evaluar la visibilidad de Rev Chil Pediatr y compararla con la Revista Médica de Chile. Métodos: Se evaluaron los ejemplares en línea de las revistas mencionadas a través de la base de datos SciELO y PubMed entre 2001 a 2006. Se tomó una muestra representativa y aleatoria de los artículos publicados en ese período para cada revista. Adicionalmente se evaluaron los artículos más visitados de la Rev Chil Pediatr y se clasificaron como originales (investigación clínica y básica) y no originales (editorial, caso clínico, revisión y otros). Todos los artículos fueron catalogados según su contenido en una de las 25 especialidades médicas definidas. Además se comparó el número de visitas anuales y globales a la Rev Chil Pediatr y a la Revista Médica de Chile y se analizaron las citaciones más frecuentes otorgadas y recibidas por la Rev Chil Pediatr en ese período. Resultados: De 512 artículos en la Rev Chil Pediatr, se analizaron 220; 35% fueron originales y 65% no originales, publicando un porcentaje significativamente menor de artículos originales que el J Ped Br y que el J Ped (p Abstract in english Background: The Revista Chilena de Pediatría (Rev Chil Pediatr), official journal of Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría is index in SciELO, but not in the National Library of Medicine (NLM) of USA. Objectives: a) Determine the profile of published and visited articles of Rev Chil Ped, in order to compare [...] them with the Jornal de Pediatria from Brazil (J Ped Br) and the Journal of Pediatrics (J Ped) from USA. b) Evaluate the visibility of Rev Chil Pediatr compared to Revista Medica de Chile (Rev Med Chil). Method: On line issues from the above mentioned journal were evaluated through SciELO database and PubMed database from 2001 - 2006. A random and representative subset of published articles was obtained from each one of the 3 journals during the referred period. The most visited articles from Rev Chil Pediatr were analyzed and classified as originals (clinical and basic research) and non originals (editorial, clinical case, reviews and others). The articles were classified according to thematic content in 25 medical specialties. In addition, the number of annual visits to Rev Chil Pediatr and Rev Med Chil were analyzed, including the most frequent citations given and received in that period of time. Results: Out of 512 articles in Rev Chil Pediatr, 220 were analyzed; 35% were originals and 65% non originals, with a significant lower percentage of original articles compared to J Ped Br and J Ped (p

PAUL R, HARRIS D; JOSÉ LUIS, LIEBBE G; JONATHAN, SOTOMAYOR A; FRANCISCA, UGARTE P; FRANCISCO, CANO SCH.

2007-06-01

194

Fate of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. on fresh and frozen cut mangoes and papayas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella infections have been associated with consumption of a number of fruits and vegetables. Although the fate of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella on many of these products is well studied, little is known about their behavior on cut mango and papaya. Mangoes and papayas have been associated with four and two documented outbreaks of salmonellosis, respectively. The objective of this study was to evaluate the fate of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella on fresh (4 degrees C, 12 degrees C and 23 degrees C) and frozen (-20 degrees C) cut mangoes and papayas. Cut mangoes and papayas were spot inoculated with either a four-strain or five-strain cocktail of E. coli O157:H7 or Salmonella, respectively. Inoculated samples were air dried, placed in containers and stored at 4+/-2, 12+/-2, 23+/-2 and -20+/-2 degrees C. Samples were enumerated following stomaching on nonselective and selective media at days 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, 21 and 28 (4+/-2 and 12+/-2 degrees C); 0, 1, 3, 5 and 7 (23+/-2 degrees C); and 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 (-20+/-2 degrees C). Population levels (log CFU/g) of fruit were calculated. E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella have the potential to grow on temperature-abused fresh cut mangoes and papayas held at 23 degrees C. At 12 degrees C, Salmonella populations can grow on cut mangoes and papayas, however E. coli O157:H7 populations only grew on papayas. E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella survived for 28 days, at 4 degrees C, on refrigerated mangoes and papayas. E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella can survive on frozen cut mangoes and papayas for at least 180 days. Fresh and frozen cut mangoes and papayas are potential vectors for E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella transmission. PMID:20022397

Strawn, Laura K; Danyluk, Michelle D

2010-03-31

195

Canto para una semilla: Luis Advis, Violeta Parra y la modernización de la música popular chilena  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El objetivo del presente artículo es aportar algunas reflexiones sobre la obra Canto para una semilla del compositor chileno Luis Advis (1972, fundamentalmente a partir de sus dimensiones culturales e históricas. El significado de esta obra es observado en relación con los debates y cuestionamientos a los que se ve enfrentado el compositor en la sociedad chilena durante las décadas de 1960 y 1970, los cuales se constituyen como expresión de las transformaciones provocadas por la modernización en nuestro país. Esta experiencia concreta de la modernidad se ve reflejada en el contenido poético de las décimas de Violeta Parra, que constituyen el soporte dramático de la obra de Luis Advis, así como también en las vinculaciones entre música culta y música popular, que darán origen posteriormente a la Nueva Canción Chilena y, con ello, redefinirán también el lugar que la música popular posee en nuestra sociedadThis article is a study of the piece Canto para una semilla (Song for a Seed by the Chilean composer Luis Advis (1972, primarily in its cultural and historical dimensions. The meaning of the work is sought in its interrelations with the problems and debates within the Chilean society of the 1960s and 1970s, which were related to the transformations brought about by modernization in Chile. This is mirrored in the poetic content of the décimas written by Violeta Parra, which constitute the dramatic support for Luis Advis's work. This is further related to the connections between art music and popular music which will later originate the Nueva Canción Chilena (New Chilean Song this redefining the place of popular music in our society

avier Osorio Fernández

2006-06-01

196

Canto para una semilla: Luis Advis, Violeta Parra y la modernización de la música popular chilena  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo del presente artículo es aportar algunas reflexiones sobre la obra Canto para una semilla del compositor chileno Luis Advis (1972), fundamentalmente a partir de sus dimensiones culturales e históricas. El significado de esta obra es observado en relación con los debates y cuestionamiento [...] s a los que se ve enfrentado el compositor en la sociedad chilena durante las décadas de 1960 y 1970, los cuales se constituyen como expresión de las transformaciones provocadas por la modernización en nuestro país. Esta experiencia concreta de la modernidad se ve reflejada en el contenido poético de las décimas de Violeta Parra, que constituyen el soporte dramático de la obra de Luis Advis, así como también en las vinculaciones entre música culta y música popular, que darán origen posteriormente a la Nueva Canción Chilena y, con ello, redefinirán también el lugar que la música popular posee en nuestra sociedad Abstract in english This article is a study of the piece Canto para una semilla (Song for a Seed) by the Chilean composer Luis Advis (1972), primarily in its cultural and historical dimensions. The meaning of the work is sought in its interrelations with the problems and debates within the Chilean society of the 1960s [...] and 1970s, which were related to the transformations brought about by modernization in Chile. This is mirrored in the poetic content of the décimas written by Violeta Parra, which constitute the dramatic support for Luis Advis's work. This is further related to the connections between art music and popular music which will later originate the Nueva Canción Chilena (New Chilean Song) this redefining the place of popular music in our society

avier, Osorio Fernández.

2006-06-01

197

Historias, recepciones y tradiciones: Notas sobre Filosofía chilena. La tradición analítica / Histories, Receptions and Traditions: Notes on Filosofía chilena. La tradición analítica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El libro de Alex Ibarra, Filosofía chilena. La tradición analítica en el periodo de la institucionalización de la filosofía, plantea la discusión sobre las líneas filosóficas, demostrando la existencia de cierta tradición analítica en Chile. A partir de allí, reflexionamos en torno a los procesos de [...] constitución del campo de la filosofía en Chile como una historia atravesada por la necesidad de préstamos y cruces que impiden una delimitación clara de sus límites, lo que tornaría necesaria la atención a ciertas políticas de la lectura que el libro soslaya. La productividad de la filosofía producida en Chile surgiría gracias -y no pese- a su inscripción en sus tiempos y espacios, a partir de recepciones cuya ausencia de retraso no impide el gesto de cierto re-trazo de lo leído. Abstract in english Alex Ibarra's exposition in his book Filosofía chilena. La tradición analítica en el periodo de la institucionalización de la filosofía, places the discussion on the philosophical traditions, showing the existence of a certain kind of analytical tradition in Chile. From there, we expose the processe [...] s of constitution of the field in Chile as a history crossed by the need of importations and intersections that contest the clear delimitation of its boundaries, what makes necessary the attention of the politics of readings that the book avoid. The productivity of the philosophic production in Chile, arises thanks to -but not in spite of- its inscription in its age/times and spaces, coming from its receptions and its differences.

Alejandro, Fielbaum.

2012-06-01

198

Control de dos especies de Colletotrichum causantes de antracnosis en frutos de papaya Maradol Control of two species of Colletotrichum causing anthracnose in Maradol papaya fruits  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La antracnosis es una limitante de la vida útil de los frutos de papaya, es causada principalmente por Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, aunque es posible encontrar otras especies de Colletotrichum causando enfermedades en un mismo cultivo. Para el control de la antracnosis en Yucatán se recomiendan varios fungicidas, pero no todos están permitidos por la agencia de protección al ambiente (EPA de los Estados Unidos de América, principal país al cual se exporta la papaya yucateca. El presente estudio tuvo como objetivos identificar el agente causal de la antracnosis de papaya en Yucatán, evaluar el efecto de fungicidas que cuentan con registro de EPA sobre las especies que causan antracnosis y explorar el efecto de inductores a resistencia en el control de esta enfermedad. Durante marzo y mayo de 2006 se obtuvieron nueve aislamientos de Colletotrichum en frutos de tres regiones productoras de Yucatán, los cuales se identificaron mediante claves taxonómicas. La evaluación de los productos se hizo mediante bioensayos de sensibilidad in vitro y la efectividad en frutos inoculados, posteriormente en agosto de 2007, noviembre de 2007 y febrero de 2008, se evaluó el efecto de la aplicación poscosecha de los fungicidas e inductores de resistencia sobre la antracnosis en frutos infectados naturalmente desde campo. En las tres localidades se encontraron dos especies que causan antracnosis identificadas como C. gloeosporioides y C. dematium. En condiciones in vitro el desarrollo de C. gloeosporioides fue inhibido por prochloraz, ferbam, azoxystrobin, tryfloxystrobin y clorotalonil; el desarrollo de C. dematium fue inhibido sólo por prochloraz, ferbam y clorotalonil. En frutos inoculados prochloraz tuvo 100% de efectividad para las dos especies, mientras que azoxystrobin tuvo 87.5% de efectividad para C. gloeosporioides y 3.3% para C. dematium.Anthracnose is a limitation of papaya fruits' life, mainly caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, although it is possible to find other Colletotrichum species causing diseases in the same crop. In order to control anthracnose in Yucatán, several fungicides are recommended, but not all of them are allowed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA of the United States, the main country to which Yucatan's papaya is exported. This study aimed to identify the causal agent of anthracnose of papaya in Yucatan, to evaluate the effect of fungicides that have EPA registration on species that cause anthracnose and to explore the effect of resistance inducers in controlling this disease. During March and May 2006, nine isolates of Colletotrichum were obtained from fruits of three producing regions of Yucatán, which were identifed using taxonomic keys. The product evaluation was done by sensitivity in vitro bioassays and the effectiveness in inoculated fruits, ensuing in August 2007, November 2007 and February 2008, the effect of postharvest application of fungicides and resistance inducers on anthracnose on naturally infected fruits from the field were evaluated. In the three sites, two species that cause anthracnose were found and identified as C. gloeosporioides and C. dematium. Under in vitro conditions, C. gloeosporioides development was inhibited by prochloraz, ferbam, azoxystrobin, tryfloxystrobin and chlorothalonil; C. dematium development was inhibited only by prochloraz, ferbam and chlorothalonil. In inoculated fruits, prochloraz was 100% effective for both species, while azoxystrobin was 87.5% effective in C. gloeosporioides and 3.3% in C. dematium.

Felipe Santamaría Basulto

2011-10-01

199

Control de dos especies de Colletotrichum causantes de antracnosis en frutos de papaya Maradol / Control of two species of Colletotrichum causing anthracnose in Maradol papaya fruits  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La antracnosis es una limitante de la vida útil de los frutos de papaya, es causada principalmente por Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, aunque es posible encontrar otras especies de Colletotrichum causando enfermedades en un mismo cultivo. Para el control de la antracnosis en Yucatán se recomiendan v [...] arios fungicidas, pero no todos están permitidos por la agencia de protección al ambiente (EPA) de los Estados Unidos de América, principal país al cual se exporta la papaya yucateca. El presente estudio tuvo como objetivos identificar el agente causal de la antracnosis de papaya en Yucatán, evaluar el efecto de fungicidas que cuentan con registro de EPA sobre las especies que causan antracnosis y explorar el efecto de inductores a resistencia en el control de esta enfermedad. Durante marzo y mayo de 2006 se obtuvieron nueve aislamientos de Colletotrichum en frutos de tres regiones productoras de Yucatán, los cuales se identificaron mediante claves taxonómicas. La evaluación de los productos se hizo mediante bioensayos de sensibilidad in vitro y la efectividad en frutos inoculados, posteriormente en agosto de 2007, noviembre de 2007 y febrero de 2008, se evaluó el efecto de la aplicación poscosecha de los fungicidas e inductores de resistencia sobre la antracnosis en frutos infectados naturalmente desde campo. En las tres localidades se encontraron dos especies que causan antracnosis identificadas como C. gloeosporioides y C. dematium. En condiciones in vitro el desarrollo de C. gloeosporioides fue inhibido por prochloraz, ferbam, azoxystrobin, tryfloxystrobin y clorotalonil; el desarrollo de C. dematium fue inhibido sólo por prochloraz, ferbam y clorotalonil. En frutos inoculados prochloraz tuvo 100% de efectividad para las dos especies, mientras que azoxystrobin tuvo 87.5% de efectividad para C. gloeosporioides y 3.3% para C. dematium. Abstract in english Anthracnose is a limitation of papaya fruits' life, mainly caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, although it is possible to find other Colletotrichum species causing diseases in the same crop. In order to control anthracnose in Yucatán, several fungicides are recommended, but not all of them are [...] allowed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of the United States, the main country to which Yucatan's papaya is exported. This study aimed to identify the causal agent of anthracnose of papaya in Yucatan, to evaluate the effect of fungicides that have EPA registration on species that cause anthracnose and to explore the effect of resistance inducers in controlling this disease. During March and May 2006, nine isolates of Colletotrichum were obtained from fruits of three producing regions of Yucatán, which were identifed using taxonomic keys. The product evaluation was done by sensitivity in vitro bioassays and the effectiveness in inoculated fruits, ensuing in August 2007, November 2007 and February 2008, the effect of postharvest application of fungicides and resistance inducers on anthracnose on naturally infected fruits from the field were evaluated. In the three sites, two species that cause anthracnose were found and identified as C. gloeosporioides and C. dematium. Under in vitro conditions, C. gloeosporioides development was inhibited by prochloraz, ferbam, azoxystrobin, tryfloxystrobin and chlorothalonil; C. dematium development was inhibited only by prochloraz, ferbam and chlorothalonil. In inoculated fruits, prochloraz was 100% effective for both species, while azoxystrobin was 87.5% effective in C. gloeosporioides and 3.3% in C. dematium.

Felipe, Santamaría Basulto; Raúl, Díaz Plaza; Omar, Gutiérrez Alonso; Jorge, Santamaría Fernández; Alfonso, Larqué Saavedra.

2011-10-01

200

Origen, consolidación y vigencia de la Nueva Dogmática Chilena (ca. 1955?1970  

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Full Text Available El artículo describe la evolución de tres generaciones de profesores de Derecho penal chilenos, desde 1925 hasta 1970. Se indican las fuentes e influencias que reciben cada una de ellas y cómo influyen en las sucesivas generaciones, respectivamente. Se establecen las condiciones que incidieron en la eclosión de una gran cantidad de nuevos especialistas en Derecho penal en la generación de 1955-1970, denominada Nueva Dogmática Chilena, y su participación en la disputa entre el “sistema neoclásico” y la "teoría de la acción final". Se concluye con el análisis de la vigencia de sus aportes y de los efectos del Golpe de Estado de 1973 en su desarrollo posterior.

MATUS, Jean Pierre

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Seleção de linhagens de melancia resistentes ao Watermelon mosaic virus e ao Papaya ringspot virus Selection of resistant watermelon lines to Watermelon mosaic virus and Papaya ringspot virus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Foram avaliadas 20 linhagens de melancia, provenientes do cruzamento da cultivar comercial suscetível Crimson Sweet e da introdução PI 595201 resistente ao Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) e Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV-W). As linhagens, e os parentais foram inoculados com o WMV ou com o PRSV-W em casa-de-vegetação distintas. Aos 35 e 49 dias após a primeira inoculação (DAI), as plantas foram avaliadas por meio de uma escala de notas, em que 1 (ausência de sintomas) a 5 (intenso mosaico ...

José Evando Aguiar Beserra Júnior; Antonia dos Reis Figueira; Wilson Roberto Maluf

2007-01-01

202

First records of two mealybug species in Brazil and new potential pests of papaya and coffee.  

Science.gov (United States)

Five mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) plant pest species: Dysmicoccus grassii (Leonardi), Ferrisia malvastra (McDaniel), Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell), Phenacoccus tucumanus Granara de Willink, and Pseudococcus elisae Borchsenius are recorded for the first time in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. These are the first records of D. grassii in Brazil, from papaya (Carica papaya, Caricaceae), and from coffee (Coffea canephora, Rubiaceae). Ferrisia malvastra is also newly recorded in Brazil, where it was found on Bidens pilosa (Asteraceae). Ferrisia virgata was collected from an unidentified weed and Phenacoccus tucumanus from Citrus sp. (Rutaceae). Plotococcus capixaba Kondo was found on pitanga ( Eugenia cf. pitanga, Myrtaceae) and Pseudococcus elisae on Coffea canephora , which are new host records for these mealybugs. PMID:19537975

Culik, Mark P; Martins, David dos Santos; Gullan, Penny J

2006-01-01

203

The effect of gamma radiation on the peroxides activity, colour and ascorbic acid content of papaya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The activity of peroxidase enzyme increases during ripening with external colour used as a maturity index. An experiment indicated that 200 Krad dose level was most effective in inhibiting any increase in peroxidase activity when papaya was stored at room temperature. The doses of 25, 50 and 100 Krad level at least double the shelf life of fruit with 100 Krad was the most effective when kept in the cold. The development of yellow colour and synthesis of vitamin C is not effected. So, this preliminary study indicates that gamma radiation prolongs the shelf life of papaya when stored at cold or room temperature due to the inhibiting of the ripening process. It is also suggested that treatment of fungicides combined with gamma radiation might have an additive effect on shelf life

204

Effects of irradiation on the organoleptic quality and ripening process of papaya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Papaya variety Eksotika harvested at stage 2 of maturity (green skin with a tinge of yellow) were cleaned, air dried and exposed to irradiation at lower doses i.e. 250, 500, 750, 1000 Gray and then were kept at 20 deg. C for up to 9 days or until ripe. Sensory evaluation was carried out the storage period in order to determine effects of radiation on organoleptic quality and ripening process. About 15-24 experienced panelists were involved in the sensory evaluation. It was found that effect on the organoleptic quality of fruit irradiated with dose at 1000 Gray was unacceptable. Nevertheless, the quality was very much less affected by irradiation at 750 Gray or lower. In general the irradiated papaya ripened earlier than the control where the skin colour change by turning from green to 100% yellow but gives harder texture. Freckles on skin surface during ripening were reduced by irradiation

205

Studies on Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (Am. Fungi on Mineral Nutrition of Carica papaya L.  

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Full Text Available Experiment was conducted to study the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on mineral nutrition of Carica papaya var. Surya. The experiment comprised of un-inoculated seedlings, seedlings inoculated with Glomus intraradices Schenck & Smith, seedlings inoculated with Glomus mosseae [(Nicol. & Gerd. Gerd. & Trappe] and seedlings inoculated with mixed inoculum [Glomus intraradices (Schenck & Smith + Glomus mosseae (Nicol. & Gerd. Gerd. & Trappe]. Studies revealed that total potassium and total phosphorus content of mycorrhizal leaf petiole was higher in inoculated plants as compared to controls and varied significantly within the treatments. Glomus mosseae was the most effective species of AM fungi, in influencing mineral nutrition of papaya followed by mixed inoculum (GI +GM and Glomus intraradices respectively.

Bernard Felinov RODRIGUES

2009-06-01

206

Quality of Guava and Papaya Fruit Pulp as Influenced by Blending Ratio and Storage Period  

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Full Text Available Guava and papaya are the most widely grown commercial fruits of central India. Both the fruits are nutritive and may be used for processing. The analysis of organoleptic characters (i.e., colour, flavour, texture, taste and overall acceptability and qualitative characters (i.e., TSS, pH, acidity, ascorbic acid content of guava and papaya fruits was conducted on fresh fruit, prepared pulp and mixed pulp. During the storage of fruit pulp at low temperature (6±1°C, the decrease in overall acceptability of both the pulp was observed with increase in storage period. However, blending of both the pulp in different ratios influenced the organoleptic characters as well as the qualitative characters of the blended pulp.

Prabhat K. Nema

2011-01-01

207

AMELIORATION OF GENOTOXICITY BY PAPAYA EXTRACT INDUCED BY ARSENIC CONTAMINATED DRINKING WATER  

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Full Text Available Arsenic is an established genotoxic carcinogen in human. Arsenic trioxide (0.04mg/animal when administeredorally daily to albino swiss mice for 15 continuous days, increased the incidence of abnormalities to 30.6% inmeiotic metaphase chromosome, 5.88% in the gross morphology of sperm head and decreased the sperm countper unit volume of caput epididymal suspension to 64.16 in comparison to the control. The concurrent treatmentof papaya fruit extract and arsenic trioxide significantly decreased the abnormalities to19.6% in meioticchromosome, 4.16% in the sperm head morphology and increased the mean count of sperm to 82.28. Theincrease in abnormality of meiotic chromosome as well as abnormality in gross morphology of the sperm headand decrease in sperm count, as observed upon arsenic trioxide treatment, were ameliorated by the aqueouspapaya fruit extract. Therefore, it is suggested that the papaya fruit extract may reduce the risk of arsenic-inducedgenotoxicity.

DHARMSHILA KUMARI

2013-01-01

208

Fitotoxicidade de fungicidas, acaricidas e inseticidas sobre o mamoeiro (Carica papaya L.) cultivar sunrise solo improved line 72/12 / Toxic effects of pesticides products on papaya plant (Carica papaya L.) cv. sunrise solo improved line 72/12  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Estudaram-se os efeitos fitotóxicos de fungicidas, acaricidas e inseticidas e algumas associações entre eles, em plantas de mamoeiros (Carica papaya L.) cv. Sunrise Solo Improved Line 72/12, em condições de verão, no município de São Mateus - ES, localizado na região produtora do Estado. O experimen [...] to foi arranjado em delineamento de blocos casualizados, com 4 repetições e 03 plantas úteis por parcela experimental. Foram utilizados os seguintes produtos, com as respectivas doses, para cada 100 l de água: abamectin (Vertimec 18 CE - 50 ml); dicofol + tetradiphon (Carbax - 200 ml), fenbutatin oxide (Torque 500 SC - 60 ml); mancozeb (Dithane PM - 200g); oxicloreto de cobre (Reconil - 400g) e thiabendazole (Tecto 450 - 100ml). Analisou-se a fitotoxicidade dos produtos em relação à altura da planta, nº de folhas, número de flores e frutos ; diâmetro do caule e queimaduras ou injúrias foliares. As medições e contagens foram feitas um dia antes das pulverizações, 15 e 30 dias após. Constatou-se que o Vertimec 18 CE, associado ao Reconil ou ao Tecto 450, ocasionou leves injúrias foliares, detectadas aos 15 dias após as pulverizações, que se tornaram praticamente imperceptíveis, aos 30 dias após as pulverizações; e que Dithane PM, Reconil, Tecto 450, Carbax, Torque 500 SC, Dithane PM + Carbax, Dithane PM + Torque 500 SC, Dithane PM + Vertimec 18 CE, Reconil + Carbax, Reconil + Torque 500 SC, Tecto 450 + Carbax e, Tecto 450 + + Torque 500 SC não interferiram nos parâmetros de desenvolvimento e de produção estudados, bem como não causaram injúrias ou queimaduras nas folhas dos mamoeiros. Abstract in english In this work was studied the phytotoxic effect of inseticides, acaricides and fungicides alone and in combination, on papaya plants (Carica papaya L.); cv. Sunrise Solo Improved Line 72/12, under field conditions. The experiment were conducted in a farm, located at São Mateus county, the most import [...] ant papaya region in the State of Espírito Santo.The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with four replications, with three plants by plot. The products with their respective dose in a volume of 100 l H2O were: abamectin (Vertimec 18 CE - 50 ml); dicofol + tetradifon (Carbax - 200 ml); fenbutatin oxide (Torque 500 SC - 60 ml); mancozeb (Dithane PM - 200g).; cuprix oxychloride (Reconil 400g) and thiabendazole (Tecto 450 - 100ml). Plants were evaluated for plant high, number of leaves, flowers and fruits, and extension of leaf injury, one day before, 15 and 30 days after spray. Vertimec 18 CE in combination with Reconil or Tecto 450, caused light leaf injuries, observed only15 days after spraying. These plants recovered from leaf injury and 30 days later, no leaf lesion was observed. Dithane PM, Reconil, Tecto 450, Carbax, Torque 500 SC, Dithane PM + Carbax , Dithane PM + Torque 500 SC, Dithane PM + Vertimec 18 CE, Reconil + Carbax, Reconil + Torque 500 SC, Tecto 450 + Carbax and Tecto 450 + Torque 500 SC, did not affected plant growth and yield studied. No leaf burns injury were caused in papaya plants.

Alcílio, Vieira; Carlos, Ruggiero; Sérgio Lucio David, Marin.

2003-04-01

209

Uso de esterco associado à adubação mineral na produção de mudas de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L. The use of manure associated with mineral fertilization in papaya (Carica papaya L. seedling production  

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Full Text Available Na composição do substrato para produção de mudas de mamoeiro, recomenda-se o uso de adubação orgânica, que traz como vantagens a melhoria das características físicas, químicas e biológicas do solo, criando um ambiente favorável ao desenvolvimento inicial das mudas, bem como boa resposta do mamoeiro. Os materiais orgânicos desempenham ainda um importante papel na nutrição das plantas como fornecedores de nutrientes. Contudo, observa-se que existe uma grande variação nas recomendações e quase sempre a adubação orgânica está associada à adubação mineral. Neste contexto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi o de verificar os efeitos do uso de esterco de curral associado ou não à adubação mineral no substrato sobre a formação de mudas de mamoeiro. O Experimento foi conduzido na FEP/UNESP/Câmpus de Ilha Solteira-SP. O delineamento utilizado foi em blocos, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas, sendo parcelas as cultivares e subparcelas os substratos. Cada parcela com 5 repetições e 10 plantas úteis por subparcela. Para a comparação das médias, utilizou-se o teste de Tukey. Com base nos resultados obtidos, pode-se concluir que: a Na formação das mudas de mamoeiro, o esterco de curral pode ser utilizado sem a necessidade de adubação mineral com o superfosfato simples e o cloreto de potássio; b O esterco de curral foi capaz de fornecer às mudas de mamoeiro os nutrientes N, P, K, Ca, Mg e Cu, necessários para seu desenvolvimento até o transplantio para o campo.The use of organic fertilization is recommended to be added to the substrate for papaya seedling production, as it enhances the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the soil, creating a favorable environment for the initial development of the plants, which results in better plant growth. The organic matter has also the important role of providing nutrients to the plants. However, there is great variation in the recommendations, and in most cases organic fertilization is associated with mineral supplementation. The objective of this research was to verify the effects of the use of corral manure, associated or not with mineral fertilization, added to the papaya seedling substrate. The experiment was deployed at the Teaching and Research Farm of the College of Engineering of Ilha Solteira, UNESP, in Ilha Solteira, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The design was set in blocks, in split plots, where papaya cultivars were the whole unit and substrates the subunit treatments. Each unit with 5 replications and the subunit composed of 10 plants each. Means were separated by Tukey test. Results indicated that: a papaya seedling production the corral manure can be used without supplementation of simple superphosphate and potassium chloride, b corral manure alone supplied nutrients N, P, K, Ca, Mg and Cu to the papaya seedlings until transplanted to the field.

Regina Célia Faria Simão Canesin

2006-12-01

210

Fitotoxicidade de fungicidas, acaricidas e inseticidas sobre o mamoeiro (Carica papaya L. cultivar sunrise solo improved line 72/12 Toxic effects of pesticides products on papaya plant (Carica papaya L. cv. sunrise solo improved line 72/12  

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Full Text Available Estudaram-se os efeitos fitotóxicos de fungicidas, acaricidas e inseticidas e algumas associações entre eles, em plantas de mamoeiros (Carica papaya L. cv. Sunrise Solo Improved Line 72/12, em condições de verão, no município de São Mateus - ES, localizado na região produtora do Estado. O experimento foi arranjado em delineamento de blocos casualizados, com 4 repetições e 03 plantas úteis por parcela experimental. Foram utilizados os seguintes produtos, com as respectivas doses, para cada 100 l de água: abamectin (Vertimec 18 CE - 50 ml; dicofol + tetradiphon (Carbax - 200 ml, fenbutatin oxide (Torque 500 SC - 60 ml; mancozeb (Dithane PM - 200g; oxicloreto de cobre (Reconil - 400g e thiabendazole (Tecto 450 - 100ml. Analisou-se a fitotoxicidade dos produtos em relação à altura da planta, nº de folhas, número de flores e frutos ; diâmetro do caule e queimaduras ou injúrias foliares. As medições e contagens foram feitas um dia antes das pulverizações, 15 e 30 dias após. Constatou-se que o Vertimec 18 CE, associado ao Reconil ou ao Tecto 450, ocasionou leves injúrias foliares, detectadas aos 15 dias após as pulverizações, que se tornaram praticamente imperceptíveis, aos 30 dias após as pulverizações; e que Dithane PM, Reconil, Tecto 450, Carbax, Torque 500 SC, Dithane PM + Carbax, Dithane PM + Torque 500 SC, Dithane PM + Vertimec 18 CE, Reconil + Carbax, Reconil + Torque 500 SC, Tecto 450 + Carbax e, Tecto 450 + + Torque 500 SC não interferiram nos parâmetros de desenvolvimento e de produção estudados, bem como não causaram injúrias ou queimaduras nas folhas dos mamoeiros.In this work was studied the phytotoxic effect of inseticides, acaricides and fungicides alone and in combination, on papaya plants (Carica papaya L.; cv. Sunrise Solo Improved Line 72/12, under field conditions. The experiment were conducted in a farm, located at São Mateus county, the most important papaya region in the State of Espírito Santo.The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with four replications, with three plants by plot. The products with their respective dose in a volume of 100 l H2O were: abamectin (Vertimec 18 CE - 50 ml; dicofol + tetradifon (Carbax - 200 ml; fenbutatin oxide (Torque 500 SC - 60 ml; mancozeb (Dithane PM - 200g.; cuprix oxychloride (Reconil 400g and thiabendazole (Tecto 450 - 100ml. Plants were evaluated for plant high, number of leaves, flowers and fruits, and extension of leaf injury, one day before, 15 and 30 days after spray. Vertimec 18 CE in combination with Reconil or Tecto 450, caused light leaf injuries, observed only15 days after spraying. These plants recovered from leaf injury and 30 days later, no leaf lesion was observed. Dithane PM, Reconil, Tecto 450, Carbax, Torque 500 SC, Dithane PM + Carbax , Dithane PM + Torque 500 SC, Dithane PM + Vertimec 18 CE, Reconil + Carbax, Reconil + Torque 500 SC, Tecto 450 + Carbax and Tecto 450 + Torque 500 SC, did not affected plant growth and yield studied. No leaf burns injury were caused in papaya plants.

Alcílio Vieira

2003-04-01

211

Prospects and problems of irradiating papaya. A case study in Hawaii  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The United States Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) ban of ethylene dibromide (EDB) as a fruit fumigant has forced Hawaii's papaya industry to search for alternative treatments. Among various alternatives considered, irradiation process is the most efficacious because fruits can be sorted, packaged, chilled and conveyed to an irradiator for low-dose treatments (0.26 kGy for disinfestation) before shipment to export markets. The papaya industry in Hawaii, however, has not assigned a high priority to the irradiation process. Instead, the industry opted for the double-dip hot water treatment which was rushed to become an USDA-approved procedure shortly before 1 September 1984. Three major concerns expressed by the papaya industry about the irradiation process as a replacement for chemical fumigation are: (1) Capital investment; (2) Logistics of irradiation processing and fruit transport; and (3) Consumer acceptance. The outlook for radiation disinfestation of Hawaii-grown papaya is quite good in spite of these concerns expressed by the industry. Some packers are beginning to feel that there are more advantages and benefits in adopting this process than the disadvantage of negative publicity about nuclear technology. With the availability of irradiation, the fruit and vegetable industry in Hawaii could be expanded by increased production and sales of new or existing crops. A worthwhile task ahead would be for the food industry, government agencies and researchers stry, government agencies and researchers to join forces in conducting an effective consumer education programme by assuring the public that irradiated foods are safe. Concurrently, certain segments of the food industry should consider and prepare for the processing and marketing of irradiated foods. (author)

212

Semen quality in papaya workers with long term exposure to ethylene dibromide.  

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To examine whether long term occupational exposure to ethylene dibromide (EDB) affects semen quality a cross sectional study of semen quality was conducted among 46 men employed in the papaya fumigation industry in Hawaii, with an average duration of exposure of five years and a geometric mean breathing zone exposure to airborne EDB of 88 ppb (eight hour time weighted average) and peak exposures of up to 262 ppb. The comparison group consisted of 43 unexposed men from a nearby sugar refinery....

Ratcliffe, J. M.; Schrader, S. M.; Steenland, K.; Clapp, D. E.; Turner, T.; Hornung, R. W.

1987-01-01

213

Protective effect of fermented papaya preparation on stress-induced acute gastric mucosal lesion  

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Stress ulceration is single or multiple mucosal defects with/without bleeding from the gastric mucosa during the physiologic stress. Oxidative stress (OS) is a key pathogenic factor in psychogenic stress-induced acute gastric mucosal lesion (AGML). Fermented papaya preparation (FPP) is reported to have oxygen radical scavenging activity and is effective in OS-related diseases. Here, we investigated the protective effects and the mechanism of action of FPP on stress-induced AGML in rats, induc...

Shinki Murakami; Fusako Takayama; Toru Egashira; Mitsuko Imao; Akitane Mori

2012-01-01

214

Estudo da comercialização do mamão em Brasília-DF Papaya commercialization study in Brasília-DF  

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Full Text Available Estudaram-se os principais fatores envolvidos na comercialização do mamão em 10 supermercados e 9 varejões de Brasília-DF, em janeiro de 1999. O levantamento dos dados foi realizado através da aplicação de questionários aos responsáveis pelos estabelecimentos. Os atacadistas da CEASA-DF, foram os principais fornecedores dos estabelecimentos analisados. O grau de perda dos frutos foi considerado muito alto apenas pelos varejões. A má qualidade do fruto, demora entre compra e venda, transporte precário e condições climáticas foram as principais causas de perdas segundo os varejões. Nos supermercados, foram: falta de armazenamento apropriado, má qualidade do fruto, condições climáticas e manuseio do cliente. Na maioria dos estabelecimentos, o mamão é entregue pelo fornecedor em caixas de madeira. Os mamões ficam expostos para venda em prateleiras na maioria dos estabelecimentos analisados.The main factors involved in the commercialization of papaya in 10 supermarkets and 9 retail shops of Brasília-DF was studied in January of 1999. The data was colleted using questionnaire answered by the manager of the establishment. It was observed that the wholesalers of Federal District Wholesale Market (CEASA-DF are the main supplier of papaya in all establishment analyzed. The fruit loss was considered very high only in the retail shops. The poor quality of fruit, the delay between purchasing and selling, precarious transport system and climatic condition were the main reasons of losses attributed by the retail shops. In the supermarkets the lack of appropriate storage, poor quality of purchased fruit, climatic conditions and manipulation by clients were considered as the main causes for the losses. The supplier delivers the papaya in wood boxes in almost all establishments. Papaya fruits for selling were displayed in racks in most of the establishments analyzed.

GENI RODRIGUES FAGUNDES

2002-04-01

215

Estudo da comercialização do mamão em Brasília-DF / Papaya commercialization study in Brasília-DF  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Estudaram-se os principais fatores envolvidos na comercialização do mamão em 10 supermercados e 9 varejões de Brasília-DF, em janeiro de 1999. O levantamento dos dados foi realizado através da aplicação de questionários aos responsáveis pelos estabelecimentos. Os atacadistas da CEASA-DF, foram os pr [...] incipais fornecedores dos estabelecimentos analisados. O grau de perda dos frutos foi considerado muito alto apenas pelos varejões. A má qualidade do fruto, demora entre compra e venda, transporte precário e condições climáticas foram as principais causas de perdas segundo os varejões. Nos supermercados, foram: falta de armazenamento apropriado, má qualidade do fruto, condições climáticas e manuseio do cliente. Na maioria dos estabelecimentos, o mamão é entregue pelo fornecedor em caixas de madeira. Os mamões ficam expostos para venda em prateleiras na maioria dos estabelecimentos analisados. Abstract in english The main factors involved in the commercialization of papaya in 10 supermarkets and 9 retail shops of Brasília-DF was studied in January of 1999. The data was colleted using questionnaire answered by the manager of the establishment. It was observed that the wholesalers of Federal District Wholesale [...] Market (CEASA-DF) are the main supplier of papaya in all establishment analyzed. The fruit loss was considered very high only in the retail shops. The poor quality of fruit, the delay between purchasing and selling, precarious transport system and climatic condition were the main reasons of losses attributed by the retail shops. In the supermarkets the lack of appropriate storage, poor quality of purchased fruit, climatic conditions and manipulation by clients were considered as the main causes for the losses. The supplier delivers the papaya in wood boxes in almost all establishments. Papaya fruits for selling were displayed in racks in most of the establishments analyzed.

GENI RODRIGUES, FAGUNDES; OSVALDO KIYOSHI, YAMANISHI.

2002-04-01

216

Sensory acceptance of mixed nectar of papaya, passion fruit and acerola  

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Full Text Available Nectars are beverages formulated with the juice or pulp of one or more fruits, plus water and sugar in concentrations resulting in a "ready-to-drink" product. Recently, the market for such products has greatly expanded. Fruit mixtures present a series of advantages, such as the combination of different aromas and flavors and the sum of their nutritional components. The objective of this work was to develop a nectar based on papaya pulp and passion fruit juice, enriched with the vitamin C present in acerola pulp, optimizing the formulation using sensory consumer tests and a response surface statistical methodology. Eleven formulations were prepared using different concentrations of papaya pulp and passion fruit juice and sucrose, and maintaining the concentration of acerola pulp constant. The sensory tests were carried out with 22 non-trained panelists using a structured 9-point hedonic scale to evaluate overall acceptance. The acceptance means were submitted to regression analysis, by first calculating a polynomial quadratic equation. A predictive model was adjusted considering only those parameters where P < 0.05, and a response surface was generated. The overall acceptance of nectars of different formulations varied from 5 ("neither liked nor disliked" to more than 7 ("liked moderately", showing that some products can be considered adequate to consumers, like the nectar produced with 37.5% papaya pulp, 7.5% passion fruit juice, and 5.0% acerola pulp, added of 15% sucrose. A quadratic predictive overall acceptance model, with a regression coefficient of 0.97 was obtained. The sensory acceptance of nectars was positively affected by increases in the concentrations of papaya pulp and of sucrose. Thus, some products presented good sensory acceptance suggesting commercial potential.

Matsuura Fernando César Akira Urbano

2004-01-01

217

Antioxidant Effect of Carica papaya on Ethanol Induced Gastric Lesion in Adult Male Wistar Rats  

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This study was performed to elucidate the role of some important constituents of antioxidant defence such as Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx), Thiobarbituric Acid Reaction (TBAR), the activity of the enzyme Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH) of Carica papaya on ethanol induced gastric lesion in adult male wistar rats. Twenty-four male adult Wistar rats weighing 180- 220 g were used in this study. Animals were divided into three groups (n = 8 per group). The control group A received phosp...

Okesina, A. A.; Mesole, S. B.; Olusakin, J.; Mohammed, Y. G.; Mohammed, A. A.; Buhari, M. O.; Ashaolu, J. O.; Ezekiel, I.; Goji, A. D. T.; Caxton-martins, E. A.

2012-01-01

218

Comparative ecological risks of pesticides used in plantation production of papaya: application of the SYNOPS indicator.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pesticides are used intensively for crop protection in tropical fruit plantations. Assessments of the relative risks posed by pesticides are needed to assist in the development of management plans that minimize ecological impacts. In this study, the risk indicator SYNOPS_2 was used to compare risks to aquatic ecosystems by pesticides commonly used in papaya plantations. Plant interception and spray drift were measured during six applications of three pesticides (chlorothalonil, chloropyrifos, and malathion) using a turbo fan driven sprayer. Plant interception was estimated to be higher (42.6+/-12.7%; p=0.04) in late (8-14 months old) than in early (4 months old) trees (20.1+/-25.3%). Chlorothalonil concentrations of up to 11.0 microg L(-1) were found in water from an adjacent ditch after field application. Concentrations of this pesticide (7.4+/-4.1 microg L(-1)) in runoff water were also significantly (p<0.01) higher than those of malathion (2.4+/-1.9 microg L(-1)) and chlorpyrifos (0.8+/-0.5 microg L(-1)). Good correlation between measured and predicted values (r2=0.56-0.85, p<0.01) showed that SYNOPS_2 is able to describe trends in runoff pollution in papaya plantations. Linear equations were obtained in order to correct numerical disagreement between measured and calculated runoff concentrations. An independent test showed a reasonable agreement between measured chlorothalonil concentrations and the predicted values using the proposed equations. Fifteen pesticides used in papaya cultivation were ranked according to their calculated chronic biological risk index. Pesticides with the highest risk index for non-target organisms were: chlorothalonil for algae, lambda cyahalotrin for Daphnia and fish, and malathion for earthworms. Chlorothalonil was the pesticide with the highest exposure level in water and therefore represents a high risk for aquatic life. Results show that SYNOPS_2 can be used as a pesticide risk indicator on papaya and possibly other tropical fruit plantations. PMID:17482661

Hernández-Hernández, Carlos N A; Valle-Mora, Javier; Santiesteban-Hernández, Antonio; Bello-Mendoza, Ricardo

2007-08-01

219

Dynamic transposable element accumulation in the nascent sex chromosomes of papaya  

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From their inception, Y chromosomes in plants and animals are subjected to the powerful effects of Müller’s ratchet, a process spurred by suppression of recombination that results in a rapid accumulation of mutations and repetitive elements. These mutations eventually lead to gene loss and degeneration of the Y chromosome. Y chromosomes in mammals are ancient, whereas most sex chromosomes in plants and many in insects and fish evolved recently. Sex type in papaya is controlled by a pair of...

Vanburen, Robert; Ming, Ray

2013-01-01

220

Problemas na premunização de melancia para o controle do mosaico causado pelo Papaya ringspot virus  

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Neste trabalho estudou-se a proteção de melancia (Citrullus lanatus) com estirpes fracas do Papaya ringspot virus, estirpe melancia, em condições de casa de vegetação e em campo. Os resultados mostraram que a proteção foi eficiente em ambos os testes. Nos testes em campo porém, as plantas protegidas da cultivar Crimson Sweet tiveram uma redução no peso médio de frutos por planta de, aproximadamente, 50% e 10,8%, em comparação às plantas não protegidas que estavam sadias, no pr...

Dias Paulo, R. P.; Rezende Jorge, A. M.

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Control of papaya fruits anthracnose by essential oil of Ricinus communis  

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The aim of this work was to investigate the potential of castor oil for the control of papaya diseases caused by the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and the bacterium Pseudomonas caricapapayae. The treatment with 1% castor oil did not significantly affect the fungal growth. The effectiveness of castor oil for the control of anthracnose was shown when 5% and 10% (v/v) were used in the assays resulting in reduced mycelial growth. Fungal sporulation was strongly inhibited at 10% (v/v) conc...

César Luis Siqueira Júnior; Maria das Graças Machado Freire; Antônio Sérgio Nascimento Moreira; Maria Ligia Rodrigues Macedo

2012-01-01

222

Propagación in vitro de Carica papaya var. PTM-331 a partir de meristemos apicales  

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El trabajo consistió en desarrollar un protocolo de propagación in vitro de la variedad de papaya PTM-331 a partir de meristemos apicales, con la finalidad de obtener plántulas vigorosas y libres de enfermedades, empleando la técnica del cultivo de tejidos. Las yemas apicales empleadas fueron obtenidas de plantas cultivadas en invernadero, los cuales fueron usados como explantes para la extracción de meristemos. La mejor diferenciación de meristemos se logró en el medio basal MS suplem...

Reynaldo Solis L.; Julio Olivera S.; Rafael S. La Rosa L.

2012-01-01

223

Spatial and temporal diversity of begomoviral complexes in papayas with leaf curl disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Old World, monopartite begomoviruses associated with satellite DNA ? were observed in papaya showing symptoms of leaf curl disease sampled randomly over five years from within a radius of 250 km in north-central India. Three groups of DNA A sequences were evident. One group resembled chili leaf curl virus infecting tomatoes (ChiLCuV). Another group resembled tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCuNDV). The third group was novel (tentatively named papaya leaf crumple virus, PaLCrV), with less than 89% identity to known begomovirus sequences in the GenBank database. At least seven DNA A sequences were putative recombinants. The AC4-encoding regions exhibited highest numbers of non-synonymous substitutions. Most DNA ? sequences resembled tomato leaf curl virus-associated DNA ?s. A few DNA ? sequences were similar to that of croton yellow vein mosaic virus-associated DNA ? (CroYVMV?). One DNA ? sequence was novel and showed papayas grown in plantations, kitchen gardens and feral patches in the region are vulnerable to disease outbreak. No geographic or temporal patterns were discernable in the distribution of these viruses. PMID:22437254

Singh-Pant, P; Pant, P; Mukherjee, S K; Mazumdar-Leighton, S

2012-07-01

224

Chemical characterization of the flour of peel and seed from two papaya cultivars  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Papaya is among the currently most important tropical fruits grown in Brazil and in the world. The fruit is mainly consumed fresh although it offers many industrial products. The processing of this fruit, as well as its fresh consumption, results in large amounts of waste, such as peels and seeds. P [...] apaya consumption is one of the causes of significant loss of food value; therefore, new aspects on the use of its waste as by-products, or in the production of food additives, or even the incorporation of its flour in food have aroused great interest because these are products of high nutritional value, and their use may be economically viable. The objective of this study was to produce and characterize peel and seed flours from two papaya cultivars (Havai and Calimosa) for their chemical constituents focusing on possible use in foods. The proximate and mineral composition, titratable acidity, soluble solids, pH, contents of vitamin C, and phenolic compounds were determined. According to the results obtained, the papaya peel and seed flours had high contents of protein and fiber and therefore can be used as alternative sources of nutrients and can also be added in foods avoiding waste and adding value to the fruit.

Cláudia Mendes dos, Santos; Celeste Maria Patto de, Abreu; Juliana Mesquita, Freire; Estela de Rezende, Queiroz; Marcelle Mendes, Mendonça.

2014-06-01

225

Screening of Antagonistic Bacteria for Biocontrol Activities on Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in Papaya  

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Full Text Available Of the 27 antagonistic bacteria isolated from the fructosphere of papaya and screened by dual and concomitant test, four isolates of bacteria (B23, B19, B04 and B15 had high antagonistic activities against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides of papaya. Using the Biolog system, isolates B23 and B19 were identified as Burkholderia cepacia and B04 and B15 as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Both B. cepacia and P. aeruginosa strongly inhibited the fungal growth by an average of 74.13 and 68.45%, respectively during in vitro screening on PDA medium. The bacteria also produced volatile as well as diffusible substances. Malformation of hyphae occurred in the presence of both bacteria. Hyphae were thickened, vacuolar and many swellings occurred in them or at the tips of hyphal strand. However, B. cepacia was found most efficacious biocontrol agent in this study. Total inhibition (100% in spore germination was noted in presence of B. cepacia at 24 h after treatment. Filter sterilized culture filtrate of B. cepacia also significantly inhibited the mycelial growth (59.2% and spore germination (100% of the test fungus, thus suggesting that an antibiotic substance (s may be produced by the bacterium. Therefore, in vitro activities of the B. cepacia against C. gloeosporioides of papaya in this study suggested that the bacterium can be an effective biological control agent.

M.A. Rahman

2007-01-01

226

Antifungal Activity in Ethanolic Extracts of Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol Leaves and Seeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bioactive compounds from vegetal sources are a potential source of natural antifungic. An ethanol extraction was used to obtain bioactive compounds from Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol leaves and seeds of discarded ripe and unripe fruit. Both, extraction time and the papaya tissue flour:organic solvent ratio significantly affected yield, with the longest time and highest flour:solvent ratio producing the highest yield. The effect of time on extraction efficiency was confirmed by qualitative identification of the compounds present in the lowest and highest yield extracts. Analysis of the leaf extract with phytochemical tests showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenes. Antifungal effectiveness was determined by challenging the extracts (LE, SRE, SUE) from the best extraction treatment against three phytopathogenic fungi: Rhizopus stolonifer, Fusarium spp. and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. The leaf extract exhibited the broadest action spectrum. The MIC(50) for the leaf extract was 0.625 mg ml(-1) for Fusarium spp. and >10 mg ml(-1) for C. gloeosporioides, both equal to approximately 20% mycelial growth inhibition. Ethanolic extracts from Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol leaves are a potential source of secondary metabolites with antifungal properties. PMID:22282629

Chávez-Quintal, Pedro; González-Flores, Tania; Rodríguez-Buenfil, Ingrid; Gallegos-Tintoré, Santiago

2011-01-01

227

Estimación de las necesidades hídricas de la papaya utilizando la aproximación de los coeficientes culturales duales  

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Full Text Available Considerando el incremento de la actividad de riego en el cultivo de la papaya durante los últimos años, resulta de interés el conocimiento de los elementos técnicos y agronomicos necesarios para una adecuada programación del riego a partir de la estimación de las necesidades hidrícas del cultivo. Para esto se utilizo el modelo SIMDualKc el cual efectua el calculo de la evapotranspiración del cultivo (ETc y la programación del riego a partir de la metodología de los coeficientes culturales duales (Kc=Kcb+Ke. La investigación fue realizada en la Estación Experimental de Riego y Drenaje, situada en Alquízar, provincia La Habana, Cuba. Los experimentos fueron desarrollados entre el período marzo-noviembre 1997. Se utilizó la Papaya var. "Maradol roja". La calibración consistió en la búsqueda de los coeficientes culturales basales para las diferentes etapas de desarrollo del cultivo reduciendo al mínimo las diferencias entre los valores simulados y observados del contenido de humedad del suelo. Fue evaluada la bondad de ajuste de las predicciones del modelo, realizándose una serie de análisis estadísticos. Se puede concluir que el modelo puede ser utilizado para la generación de calendarios alternativos de riego destinados a mejorar el ahorro de agua y la productividad de la papaya en estas condiciones edafoclimáticas.

Yoima Chaterl\\u00E1n

2012-01-01

228

New records of Discomycetes (Pezizales) for the Chilean mycobiota / Nuevos registros de Discomycetes (Pezizales) para la micobiota chilena  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se adicionan a la micobiota chilena tres especies de Pezizales, Byssonectria terrestris (Alb. & Schwein.) Pfister, Pseudoplectania nigrella (Pers.) Fuckel y Pseudoplectania sphagnophila (Pers.) Kreisel, Se describen e ilustran los caracteres diagnósticos y se realizan comentarios acerca de las espec [...] ies. Abstract in english [...

PABLO, SANDOVAL.

229

DEL MALTRATO AL UXORICIDIO. LA VIOLENCIA «PUERTAS ADENTRO» EN LA ALDEA CHILENA TRADICIONAL (Siglo XIX  

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Full Text Available Este artículo pone de manifiesto el contexto en el cual las mujeres chilenas de las aldeas del siglo XIX son víctimas de diversos tipos de agresiones físicas, directas e indirectas, y psicológicas. Las conductas violentas de los agresores son explicadas en el marco de una comunidad que las reconoce como un componente habitual de la vida cotidiana. Así, se delimitan espacios específicos en los que se desenvuelven las relaciones de la gente, tales como el mundo urbano de la aldea y el mundo doméstico de la casa. En ambos, las personas construyen redes colectivas de solidaridad y fraternidad; pero, al mismo tiempo, desarrollan relaciones de competencia que son generadoras de roces y agresiones que ilustran la sociabilidad y el parentesco. Por otra parte, las mujeres agredidas confundieron a menudo la agresión con la aceptación de la autoridad masculina que permitía suponer la existencia de un matrimonio socialmente aceptado y cotidianamente bien llevado. La actitud de rebeldía femenina chocaba con el rechazo social y el ejercicio de un poder marital que se expresaba en conductas agresivas. Así, las relaciones en la pareja no fueron entre iguales, sino jerárquicas, imponiendo a las mujeres un rol subordinado y dependiente frente a los hombres, los que, a su vez, ostentaban la autoridad suficiente para controlarlas y castigarlas. Con la ayuda documental de un abundante número de expedientes judiciales se intenta comprender y explicar las conductas que asumen hombres y mujeres en la relación familiar desarrollada en las aldeas chilenas del siglo XIX.

René Salinas Meza

2011-10-01

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CALIDAD DE VIDA RELACIONADA CON EL CLIMATERIO EN UNA POBLACIÓN CHILENA DE MUJERES SALUDABLES  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Aplicar una versión chilena de la escala MRS para evaluar calidad de vida de mujeres climatéricas. Métodos: Aplicación de la versión chilena de la escala MRS a mujeres de 45-64 años inscritas en el SSMO: Grupo 1, concurrentes a controles preventivos de salud (n=844) y Grupo 2, concurrentes [...] a ginecólogo (n=360). Resultados: El adecuado comportamiento del instrumento fue confirmado porque el análisis de confiabilidad interna, que presentó un alfa de Crombach >0,86; la confiabilidad externa mostró una correlación en re-encuesta del Grupo 1 y 2 con coeficiente de Pearson p Abstract in english Objective: To apply a chilean version of the MRS scale to evaluate quality of life in climacteric women. Methods: Application of chilean version of the MRS scale in 45-64 year-old women registered at Metropolitan Health Service (MHS) of Chile. Group 1, women attending programmed health preventive co [...] ntrols (n=844); and Group 2, women who require attention by gynecologist (n=360). Results: The suitable behavior of the used instrument was confirmed because the analysis of internal reliability showed Crombach's alpha >0.8; external reliability showed correlation in re-test of both group with Pearson's coefficient p

Sócrates, Aedo M; Arnaldo, Porcile J; Cristina, Irribarra A.

231

Razonando sobre la idea de diferencia en las políticas educativas chilenas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este artículo se analiza cómo las políticas educativas entendidas como prácticas discursivas, producen problemáticas relacionadas con la noción de diferencia. Primero, se indican los planteamientos metodológicos utilizados, luego se examina críticamente el neoliberalismo como supuesto que organiz [...] a y enmarca las políticas educativas chilenas. A continuación se presenta cómo se produce la idea de diferencia y cómo se genera un sistema de razonamiento sobre esta idea. Finalmente, se concluye mostrando la producción y circulación de subjetividades en las políticas educativas chilenas. Abstract in english This article presents educational policies as discursive practices that not only construct systems to reason difference but also they create particular problems to be solved through specific strategies. First, we show the methodological approach to study educational policies in Chile. Second, we pro [...] blematize the effects of neoliberal logics in organizing and framing educational policies. Third, we present the analyses with an emphasis on the production, reproduction, and circulation of discourses that essentialize difference. The article concludes with the troubling of those subjectivities produced in the documents examined.

Marta, Infante Jaras; Claudia, Matus Cánovas; Ruby, Vizcarra Rebolledo.

232

Predacious mites in papaya (Carica papaya L.) orchards: in search of a biological control agent of phytophagous mite pests / Ácaros predadores em pomares de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L.): em busca de um agente de controle biológico de ácaros fitófagos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Com o objetivo de selecionar ácaros predadores com potencial de controle de ácaros fitófagos do mamão, foram realizadas, de janeiro de 1999 a fevereiro de 2000, amostragens bimensais de ácaros em dois pomares, um orgânico (Silva Jardim, RJ) e outro com controle químico de pragas, doenças e invasoras [...] (Linhares, ES). Todas as espécies presentes nas brotações laterais, folhas novas, folhas velhas e botões florais dos mamoeiros e nas folhas das plantas invasoras foram quantificadas e identificadas ao menos até família. Apesar da relativamente diversa fauna de ácaros, somente representantes de uma família de predadores, Phytoseiidae, foram encontrados. Dentre estes, Neoseiulus idaeus Denmark & Muma destacou-se por sua abundância e freqüência nas diferentes épocas do ano no pomar de Linhares, coincidindo principalmente com as flutuações na abundância dos tetraniquídeos. Tal ocorrência em um sistema de produção com grande emprego de acaricidas, aliada às características biológicas favoráveis dessa espécie, recomendam-na como candidata a agente de controle biológico de ácaros pragas do mamão, em especial Tetranychus urticae Koch. Abstract in english This study was conducted to search for potential mite predators to control phytophagous mites in papaya orchards. Bimonthly surveys, from January 1999 to February 2000, were carried out in two orchards, one in Silva Jardim (RJ), where pests are naturally controlled, and one at Linhares (ES), where p [...] ests are chemically controlled. All mite species collected from buds, new leaves, old leaves, and floral buttons of papaya trees and from weed leaves were quantified and identified to at least family level. Despite the relatively diverse mite fauna, we found representatives of only one family of predacious mites, i.e. Phytoseiidae. Among these, Neoseiulus idaeus Denmark & Muma was the most abundant and frequent during all seasons in the Linhares orchard, coinciding mainly with the fluctuations in abundance of tetranychid mites. Such occurrence in a production system with large use of acaricides, together with its favorable biological traits reported in the literature, lead us to recommend this species as a good candidate for biological control of papaya mite pests, especially Tetranychus urticae Koch.

Karin F.S., Collier; Jose O.G. de, Lima; Gilberto S., Albuquerque.

2004-12-01

233

Efeito do cultivo do mamoeiro (Carica papaya L.) em ambiente protegido sobre a ocorrência de ácaros fitófagos e moscas-brancas / Effect of papaya (Carica papaya L.) cultivated in a protected environment on the occurrence of phytophagous mites and whiteflies  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O efeito do cultivo do mamoeiro em ambiente protegido foi estudado em três condições: sem cobertura e em dois telados construídos com tela de propileno branca, com malhas de 2 x 2 mm e 2 x 1 mm. Nessa área foram feitas avaliações na cultivar Baixinho de Santa Amália, contando-se o número de plantas [...] com sintomas de ataque recente, para o ácaro branco Polyphagotarsonemus latus, com sintomas e presença de ácaros, para o ácaro rajado Tetranychus urticae e com presença de adultos ou ninfas nas folhas, no caso das moscas-brancas Trialeurodes sp., Bemisia tabaci biótipo B e uma terceira espécie não identificada. Para moscas-brancas, também foram realizadas contagens de ninfas e exúvias em laboratório. O cultivo em ambiente protegido favoreceu a sobrevivência e o desenvolvimento populacional das espécies estudadas, sendo que algumas possíveis causas são discutidas no texto. Considerando-se que o cultivo protegido pode ser uma boa alternativa para o controle de viroses, como o mosaico do mamoeiro, problema limitante para a cultura, estratégias de manejo de pragas nesses ambientes devem ser desenvolvidas, para viabilizar o seu uso. Abstract in english It was measured the effect of cultivating papaya cultivar "Baixinho de Santa Amália" in a protected environment and in three situations: without shade, and under screen shades of white polyethylene mesh sizes 2 x 2 mm or 2 x 1 mm. It was registered the number of plants with symptoms of recent attack [...] s of the broad mite (Polyphagotarsonemus latus), symptoms and presence of the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) and the presence on leaves of adults or nymphs of whiteflies (Trialeurodes sp., Bemisia tabaci biotype B and a third unidentified species). Whitefly nymph and exuviae numbers were also counted in the laboratory. Cultivation in a protected environment favored the survival and development of the species under study, and some possible reasons for these are discussed along the text. Since cultivating papaya in protected environment can be a good alternative for "papaya ringspot virus" control, which is a restrictive factor for the crop, the development of strategies to control the pests in this condition is necessary for correct recommendation of such measure.

Marineide Rosa, Vieira; Luiz de Souza, Correa; Tatiane Marie Martins Gomes de, Castro; Laura Fernanda Simões da, Silva; Maria de Souza, Monteverde.

2004-12-01

234

Una recepción diferente: La arquitectura moderna brasileña y la cultura arquitectónica chilena A Diferent Reception: Modern Brazilian Architecture and Chilean Architectonic Culture  

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La difusión de la arquitectura brasileña hacia fines de los cuarenta construyó un discurso que, preferentemente, se detenía en la exuberancia y la libertad formales; las publicaciones chilenas de la época miraban, sin embargo, en otra dirección.

Horacio Torrent

2011-01-01

235

CADÁVER TUERTO, DE EDUARDO LABARCA EN EL MARCO DE LA "NOVELA HISTÓRICA CHILENA RECIENTE" Corpse, de Eduardo Labarca under The "Historical Novel Recent Chilean  

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Cadáver tuerto (2005) anticipa las variaciones del género novelesco en la literatura chilena, privilegiando y contemplando el proceso de la escritura. Labarca parodia en esta novela los cruces entre la ficción, la realidad y la historia, entre la vida y la autobiografía, entre el discurso televisivo, radial y del periodismo escrito, de modo tal que da un notorio giro discursivo a la narrativa chilena de filiación histórica.Cadáver tuerto (2005) anticipates the variations of the nov...

Eduardo Barraza J

2010-01-01

236

DISEÑO Y CONSTRUCCIÓN DE UN LIOFILIZADOR PARA CONSERVAR PAPAYA A TEMPERATURA AMBIENTE, COMO FUENTE DE PAPAÍNA A BAJO COSTO  

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Full Text Available La obtención de papaína a partir de látex de los frutos de Papaya (Carica papaya L., implica un procedimiento costoso ya que los frutos maduran con mucha rapidez y su almacenamiento podría conducir a pérdidas, debido a diversos agentes como roedores, insectos, hongos, bacterias e incluso originarse por la acción de agentes físicos, como ocurre cuando las condiciones de humedad, temperatura, luz y aireación no son las adecuadas. Por tal motivo se diseñó y construyó a escala laboratorio, un liofilizador para conservar papaya en buenas condiciones por largo tiempo y a temperatura ambiente. Dicho procedimiento permite la obtención de papaína para su uso en el laboratorio, a bajo costo y sin modificación de su actividad enzimática.

Stella M. Bertoluzzo

2007-01-01

237

Control of egg hatch ability and adult emergence of three fruit fly species in papayas by gamma irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of gamma radiation on the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera Dorsalis (Hendel), melon fly, Bactrocera Cucurbitae (Coquilett), and Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis Capitata (Weidemann) were studied. Melon fly was determined to be the most susceptible of the three species. A dosage of 550 Gy rendered the eggs 100% sterile when irradiated in papayas at 4-6 hours before hatching. Oriental and mediterranean fruit flies were found to be more resistant, requiring doses of 750 and 850 Gy, respectively. A dose of only 100 Gy was needed to inhibit adult eclosion when the three species were treated at third instar larvae. Warm water treatment at 490C for 20 minutes was found sufficient in preventing the hatching of any egg in the infested papaya fruits. However, since eggs may hatch before the warm-water treatment can be applied, a combination of irradiation treatment using 100 Gy is recommended for disinfestation of papaya fruits. (author). 17 refs.; 3 tabs

238

Comparative evaluation of volatiles, phenolics, sugars, organic acids and antioxidant properties of Sel-42 and Tainung papaya varieties.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study was designed to determine the phenolic compounds, organic acids, sugars, aroma profiles and antioxidant properties of Sel-42 and Tainung papayas grown in Turkey. High-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) method was used for the phenolic compounds analysis. Twelve phenolic compounds were identified and quantified in the samples. The total phenolic content of Sel-42 was clearly higher than that of Tainung. Protocatechuic acid-hexoside, gallic acid-deoxyhexoside, ferulic acid and chlorogenic acids were the most abundant phenolics in both cultivars. Aroma composition of papaya was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 46 and 42 aroma compounds, including esters, alcohols, terpenes, lactones, acids, carbonyl compounds, and volatile phenols were identified in the Sel-42 and Tainung, respectively. The significant linear correlation was confirmed between the values for the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of papaya extracts. PMID:25466106

Kelebek, Hasim; Selli, Serkan; Gubbuk, Hamide; Gunes, Esma

2015-04-15

239

Nutrição mineral do mamoeiro (Carica papaya L.): II - deficiência de boro em condições de campo e casa de vegetação / Mineral nutrition of papaya tree (Carica papaya L.): II - boron deficiency under field and greenhouse conditions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Com o objetivo de caracterizar a deficiência de boro no mamoeiro (Carica papaya L.) em condições de casa de vegetação e correlacionar com o problema que ocorre em condições de campo, conhecido como "careca do mamoeiro" ou "queda do chapéu", foram instalados dois ensaios. O primeiro foi conduzido em [...] condições de campo no município de Botucatu, SP., em um solo pertencente ao grande grupo Terra Roxa Estruturada e de clima Cf.b.. O segundo ensaio foi conduzido em condições de casa de vegetação e soluções nutritivas. Os autores descrevem os sintomas de deficiência de boro em mamoeiro e correlacionam o problema conhecido como "careca do mamoeiro", com a deficiência de boro. Abstract in english The purpose of the present research was to characterize boron deficiency on papaya trees growing on nutrient solution, of which boron was excluded, as well as, to correlate it a field occuring problem called "Careca". Plants growing on nutrient solution were cultivated under greenhouse conditions. T [...] he field experiment was set out in Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil, with a climate classified as Cf.b. and Paleudalf soil type. Boron deficiency was characterized by the emergence of small leaves with narrow deformed and hard leaf blades, necrosed margins and prominent veins. As an advanced boron deficiency symptom, plant stunting occurred. Boron concentration in the leaves and stems of plants growing on nutrient solution, of which boron was excluded, was 20 ppm and 17 ppm respectively. They were smaller when compared with the check plants, with boron concentration of 136 ppm and 35 ppm on leaves and stems respectively. Is is concluded that field occurring problem called "careca" is correlated with boron deficiency.

Rubens José Pietsch, Cunha; Henrique Paulo, Haag.

240

Etiologia e estratégias de controle de viroses do mamoeiro no brasil / Etiology and control strategies of papaya virus diseases in Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese As viroses constituem o principal grupo de doenças do mamoeiro (Carica papaya), ocasionando grandes perdas na produção, podendo chegar à destruição total das plantações afetadas. Embora mais de dez vírus tenham sido constatados infetando naturalmente o mamoeiro, em todo o mundo, no Brasil, até o pre [...] sente, foram assinaladas apenas as ocorrências do vírus da mancha anelar do mamoeiro (Papaya ringspot virus, PRSV), do vírus do amarelo letal do mamoeiro (Papaya lethal yellowing virus, PLYV) e do vírus da meleira que se encontra em fase de caracterização. A mancha anelar causada pelo PRSV é, inquestionavelmente, o mais importante problema sanitário do mamoeiro. O controle do PRSV mostra-se imprescindível, apesar de bastante difícil, em razão da sua forma de disseminação rápida e eficiente por diversas espécies de afídeos e ausência de resistência genética em C. papaya. Na tentativa de controlar o PRSV, várias medidas já foram testadas, não existindo, até o momento, nenhuma estratégia eficiente e duradoura para seu controle no Brasil. O desenvolvimento de plantas transgênicas de mamoeiro expressando o gene da capa protéica (cp) do PRSV, imunes ao mesmo, abriu nova possibilidade para solução do problema. Abstract in english The major disease problems affecting papaya (Carica papaya) throughout the world are caused by viruses. These diseases cause serious reductions in fruit production, even totally destroying affected orchards. Although more than ten different viruses have been registered in papaya world-wide, only thr [...] ee have been identified to date that naturally infect papaya in Brazil: Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), Papaya lethal yellowing virus (PLYV) and the "meleira" steak disease virus that is being characterized. Ringspot caused by PRSV is unquestionably the most important disease affecting papaya in the world. Control of PRSV in Brazil is necessary but not easy, because it is efficiently transmitted by different aphid species and the absence of resistance in C. papaya. Several measures to control PRSV have been tested in Brazil without great sucess. There is no efficient and durable strategic control available. The development of transgenic papaya plants expressing the PRSV coat protein gene (cp), immune to the virus, has opened up a new efficient and probably, more durable control measure.

ROBERTO C. A., LIMA; J. ALBERSIO A., LIMA; MANOEL T., SOUZA JR.; GILVAN, PIO-RIBEIRO; GENIRA P., ANDRADE.

2001-12-01

 
 
 
 
241

Etiologia e estratégias de controle de viroses do mamoeiro no brasil Etiology and control strategies of papaya virus diseases in Brazil  

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Full Text Available As viroses constituem o principal grupo de doenças do mamoeiro (Carica papaya, ocasionando grandes perdas na produção, podendo chegar à destruição total das plantações afetadas. Embora mais de dez vírus tenham sido constatados infetando naturalmente o mamoeiro, em todo o mundo, no Brasil, até o presente, foram assinaladas apenas as ocorrências do vírus da mancha anelar do mamoeiro (Papaya ringspot virus, PRSV, do vírus do amarelo letal do mamoeiro (Papaya lethal yellowing virus, PLYV e do vírus da meleira que se encontra em fase de caracterização. A mancha anelar causada pelo PRSV é, inquestionavelmente, o mais importante problema sanitário do mamoeiro. O controle do PRSV mostra-se imprescindível, apesar de bastante difícil, em razão da sua forma de disseminação rápida e eficiente por diversas espécies de afídeos e ausência de resistência genética em C. papaya. Na tentativa de controlar o PRSV, várias medidas já foram testadas, não existindo, até o momento, nenhuma estratégia eficiente e duradoura para seu controle no Brasil. O desenvolvimento de plantas transgênicas de mamoeiro expressando o gene da capa protéica (cp do PRSV, imunes ao mesmo, abriu nova possibilidade para solução do problema.The major disease problems affecting papaya (Carica papaya throughout the world are caused by viruses. These diseases cause serious reductions in fruit production, even totally destroying affected orchards. Although more than ten different viruses have been registered in papaya world-wide, only three have been identified to date that naturally infect papaya in Brazil: Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV, Papaya lethal yellowing virus (PLYV and the "meleira" steak disease virus that is being characterized. Ringspot caused by PRSV is unquestionably the most important disease affecting papaya in the world. Control of PRSV in Brazil is necessary but not easy, because it is efficiently transmitted by different aphid species and the absence of resistance in C. papaya. Several measures to control PRSV have been tested in Brazil without great sucess. There is no efficient and durable strategic control available. The development of transgenic papaya plants expressing the PRSV coat protein gene (cp, immune to the virus, has opened up a new efficient and probably, more durable control measure.

ROBERTO C. A. LIMA

2001-12-01

242

PENGGUNAAN GETAH PEPAYA DALAM SINTESIS ESTER XILITOL ASAM LEMAK (EXAL [The Use of Papaya Exudates for Fatty Acid Xilitol Synthesis  

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Full Text Available Fatty acid xylitol-ester (FAXILE are xylitol esters of fatty acids with one to five DE (degree of esterification value. FAXILE with DE value of 3 or higher can be used as low calorie fat replacer since they have low digestive property; while the xylitol ester with DE of less than 3 can be used as emulsifier. The FAXILE synthesis experiments were carried out by esterification of xylitol with palm oil¡¦s fatty acid (POFA using papaya exudates as a lipase source. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the potential of papaya exuadates for the synthesis of FAXILE. In this first experiment, test were carried out to determine hydrolytic activity of lipases obtained from different part of papaya plant. The test, were performed with the presence of CaO and under different pH value. The papaya exudates were used for FAXILE synthesis under an optimum condition obtained from the first experiment. Samples were drawn during incubation at 40„aC for 1,2,3, and 4 days and hydroxyl number was analyzed to confirm the ester formation. The results showed that the most active exudate was from papaya leaves, followed by exudates from fruit with hydrolytic activity of 653 and 296 ƒÝmol/g. minutes, respectively. The hydrolytic activity of the fruit exudate was optimum at pH 6.0, at 45-50„aC, with the addition of CaO 4% dry exudates. The FAXILE synthesis with acid of papaya exudates was optimum at pH 6.0, at 45„aC with molar ratio of xylitol: fatty acids was 1 to 6,3 days incubation. At this condition the conversion rate xylitol to FAXILE was 79%.

Suhardi

2003-12-01

243

Cytogenetics of Chilean angiosperms: Advances and prospects / Citogenética de angiospermas chilenas: Avances y proyecciones  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Los datos citogenéticos sobre angiospermas chilenas han sido reportados desde al menos ocho décadas atrás; sin embargo, mucha de esta información está dispersa en diversas fuentes y no está disponible como un documento completo que permita tener una visión general sobre los avances y vacíos en esta [...] materia. El objetivo de este trabajo es resumir los avances y proyecciones sobre los estudios citogenéticos disponibles para angiospermas chilenas, basado en publicaciones recopiladas desde 1929 hasta el 2010. Nosotros encontramos 78 publicaciones aportadas por cuatro grupos de investigadores chilenos y por algunos especialistas extranjeros. Datos citogenéticos han sido reportados para 139 especies de angiospermas chilenas (2.8 % del total), las cuales pertenecen a 58 géneros y 34 familias. Durante los años 2001-2010, existió un incremento en el número de publicaciones estando disponibles 40 reportes que incluyen 95 especies adicionales. Basados en estos datos, esperamos que esta tendencia pueda ser mantenida en la siguiente década si los actuales grupos de investigación y especialistas jóvenes siguen interesados en estudiar plantas nativas. Abstract in english Cytogenetic data on Chilean angiosperms have been reported since at least eight decades ago; however, much of this information is disperse in diverse sources and is not readily available as a comprehensive document that allows having a general vision on advances and gaps in this matter. The goal of [...] this paper is to summarize the advances and prospets on cytogenetic studies of the Chilean angiosperms based on compiled publications from 1929 to 2010. We found 78 publications supplied by four groups of Chilean researchers and some foreign specialists. Cytogenetic data have been reported for 139 Chilean angiosperm species (2.8 % of the total), which belong to 58 genera and 34 families. During 2001-2010 there was an increase in the number of publications, being available 40 reports including 95 additional species. Based on these data, we hope that such a trend can be maintained in the next decade if the current research groups and young specialists continue to be interested in the study of native plants.

PEDRO, JARA-SEGUEL; JONATHAN, URRUTIA.

2012-03-01

244

BIOPROSPECTING: A TOOL TO CONSERVE CHILEAN BRYOPHYTES / BIOPROSPECCIÓN: UNA HERRAMIENTA PARA LA CONSERVACIÓN DE BRIÓFITAS CHILENAS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Esta revisión presenta el estado actual del conocimiento de la diversidad de las briófitas chilenas (musgos, hepáticas y antocerotas), de los metabolitos secundarios de estas plantas y de la actividad biológica de extractos obtenidos a partir de especies de poblaciones chilenas. Nuestro objetivo es [...] determinar el potencial de estas plantas como fuente de moléculas útiles para las industrias farmacéutica y agroalimentaria, y promover su conservación. Sólo de un 3,7% de las briófitas chilenas (55 spp.) han sido analizados químicamente sus extractos (metanol, éter, etanol, diclorometano, acetona y hexano). Se ha evaluado la actividad biológica sólo de cuatro especies de poblaciones chileno-argentinas (Porella chilensis (Lehm. & Lindenb.) Trevi., Riccardia polyclada (Mitt. ex Thurn) Hässel, Balantiopsis cancellata (Nees) Stephani, y Sphagnum magellanicum Brid.). La mayor parte de los estudios se ha concentrado en hepáticas de amplia distribución en el Hemisferio Austral y en los bosques templados de Chile y Argentina. Se discuten brevemente aspectos relacionados a la bioprospección como herramienta para la conservación, y al cultivo in vitro de briófitas con fines productivos y de conservación. Abstract in english Here, we present the current state of knowledge on the diversity of Chilean bryophytes (mosses, liverworts, and hornworts), the secondary metabolites present in these plants, and the biological activity of extracts from populations of Chilean species. Our goal is to establish the potential of these [...] plants as a source of useful molecules for pharmaceutical and agricultural industries, thus promoting their conservation. Only 3,7% of Chilean bryophytes (55 spp.) have been analyzed using chemical characterization of their extracts (methanol, ether, ethanol, dichloromethane, acetone and hexane). Only four species from Chilean and Argentinian populations (Porella chilensis (Lehm. & Lindenb.) Trevi., Riccardiapolyclada (Mitt. ex Thurn) Hässel, Balantiopsis cancellata (Nees) Stephani, and Sphagnum magellanicum Brid.) have been evaluated for biological activity. The majority of these studies have concentrated on liverworts widely distributed in the Southern Hemisphere and in the temperate forests of the southern half of Chile and adjacent Argentina. We briefly discuss aspects related to the use of bioprospecting as a conservation tool as well as the maintenance of in vitro bryophyte cultures with the goal of conservation and production.

Jorge, Cuvertino-Santoni; Gloria, Montenegro.

245

Creencias sobre Papanicolaou y cáncer cérvicouterino en un grupo de mujeres chilenas  

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Full Text Available Antecedentes: Son variadas las descripciones en relación a las creencias y como estas se relacionan con las conductas preventivas en cáncer cérvicouterino. Objetivo: Describir las creencias que tienen un grupo de mujeres chilenas pertenecientes al sistema público de atención acerca del Papanicolaou y cáncer cérvicouterino. Método: Estudio analítico de corte transversal realizado en 333 mujeres chilenas. Se estudiaron las creencias sobre el Papanicolaou y el cáncer cérvicouterino con un instrumento desarrollado y validado en población chilena (CPC-28. Resultados: El 96% de las mujeres refiere tener un Papanicolaou en los últimos 3 años. El antecedente familiar es reportado por el 49,8% como causa de cáncer cérvicouterino. La barrera principal para adherir al Papanicolaou es la falta de conocimiento en cuanto a la edad requerida. La principal señal de acción que impulsa a que la mujer adhiera al tamizaje es la indicación entregada por el doctor. El beneficio mas importante es el cuidado de la salud. El 14,1% señala la presencia de relaciones sexuales como necesaria para adherir al tamizaje. El 17,4% de las mujeres se percibe fuera de riesgo de desarrollar un cáncer cérvicouterino. Las 6 dimensiones estudiadas se correlacionan entre si. Conclusión: Las creencias deben ser consideradas al momento de intervenir una población, empezando por valorarlas y comprenderlas para posteriormente poder modificarlas.Background: Many reasons has been described about relation between beliefs and cervical cancer behaviors. Objective: To describe the beliefs about cervical cancer and Pap test in a group of chilean women. Method: Cross sectional and analytic study was done with 333 chilean women. Beliefs about cervical cancer and Pap test was studied with the CPC-28 questionnaire, developed and validated in Chilean population. Results: 96% have had a Pap test in the last 3 years. Family history about cervical cancer was reported by 49.8% as a cause of cervical cancer. The principal barrier to Pap test was lack of knowledge about the age. The principal cue to action was the doctor recommendation. The benefit was the care of health. The sexual intercourse was reported by 14.1% as necessary to take a Pap test. The risk to develop cervical cancer is reported by 17.4%. The six dimensions studied were correlated between them. Conclusion: The beliefs must be considered to education programs, firstly understanding and then modifying them.

María Teresa Urrutia S

2012-01-01

246

Effect of irradiation on the biochemical and organoleptic changes during the ripening of papaya and mango fruits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Papaya and mango rot caused by fungi is a major problem during storage and marketing. Gamma irradiation treatment was used to determine its effect on the quality of papayas and mangoes irradiated at 0,5 to 0,95 kGy. The level of respiration, soluble solids, texture, vitamin C and the sensorial evaluation were effectuated. The results indicate that irradiation treatment reduces significantly (p?0,001) weakens the texture of mangoes. The content of soluble solids and vitamin C are not significantly affected by the irradiation. The sensory evaluation indicates that up to 0,95 kGy the sensorial quality is not changed. (author)

247

Análisis comparativo y perfil de publicaciones en la Revista Chilena de Pediatría 2001-2006 Comparative analysis and publication profile in Revista Chilena de Pediatría 2001-2006  

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Full Text Available La Revista Chilena de Pediatría (Rev Chil Pediatr, publicación oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría está indexada en SciELO pero no en la Librería Médica de EEUU (NLM. Objetivos: a determinar el perfil de los artículos publicados y visitados en la Rev Chil Pediatr, compararlo con el de Jornal de Pediatría de Brasil (J Ped Br y el de Journal of Pediatrics (J Ped de Estados Unidos; b evaluar la visibilidad de Rev Chil Pediatr y compararla con la Revista Médica de Chile. Métodos: Se evaluaron los ejemplares en línea de las revistas mencionadas a través de la base de datos SciELO y PubMed entre 2001 a 2006. Se tomó una muestra representativa y aleatoria de los artículos publicados en ese período para cada revista. Adicionalmente se evaluaron los artículos más visitados de la Rev Chil Pediatr y se clasificaron como originales (investigación clínica y básica y no originales (editorial, caso clínico, revisión y otros. Todos los artículos fueron catalogados según su contenido en una de las 25 especialidades médicas definidas. Además se comparó el número de visitas anuales y globales a la Rev Chil Pediatr y a la Revista Médica de Chile y se analizaron las citaciones más frecuentes otorgadas y recibidas por la Rev Chil Pediatr en ese período. Resultados: De 512 artículos en la Rev Chil Pediatr, se analizaron 220; 35% fueron originales y 65% no originales, publicando un porcentaje significativamente menor de artículos originales que el J Ped Br y que el J Ped (p Background: The Revista Chilena de Pediatría (Rev Chil Pediatr, official journal of Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría is index in SciELO, but not in the National Library of Medicine (NLM of USA. Objectives: a Determine the profile of published and visited articles of Rev Chil Ped, in order to compare them with the Jornal de Pediatria from Brazil (J Ped Br and the Journal of Pediatrics (J Ped from USA. b Evaluate the visibility of Rev Chil Pediatr compared to Revista Medica de Chile (Rev Med Chil. Method: On line issues from the above mentioned journal were evaluated through SciELO database and PubMed database from 2001 - 2006. A random and representative subset of published articles was obtained from each one of the 3 journals during the referred period. The most visited articles from Rev Chil Pediatr were analyzed and classified as originals (clinical and basic research and non originals (editorial, clinical case, reviews and others. The articles were classified according to thematic content in 25 medical specialties. In addition, the number of annual visits to Rev Chil Pediatr and Rev Med Chil were analyzed, including the most frequent citations given and received in that period of time. Results: Out of 512 articles in Rev Chil Pediatr, 220 were analyzed; 35% were originals and 65% non originals, with a significant lower percentage of original articles compared to J Ped Br and J Ped (p < 0.05. The thematic areas with more articles were respiratory disease, infectious diseases and nutrition with 9.1, 7.7 and 7.7%, respectively. Rev Chil Pediatr published twice as many nutrition articles and five times more public health articles compared to J Ped (p < 0.05. The most visited articles on line were of nutrition, infectious diseases, respiratory diseases and neonatology. Among the 10 most visited articles from Rev Chil Pediatr, 7 were review articles. Since 2005, an explosive growth is detected in the number of visits to articles from Rev Chil Pediatr in SciELO. When the number of visits was adjusted to the number of physicians belonging to the corresponding society, there was a higher number of visits to Rev Chil Pediatr from 2005 compared to Rev Med Chile. Conclusion: The thematic content of Rev Chil Pediatr is similar to regional journals, but different to international ones. There is an appropriate correlation between published and visited articles. SciELO has been an important tool that contributes to the diffusion of research published in Rev Chil Pediatr

PAUL R HARRIS D

2007-06-01

248

Análisis de la política de pago de dividendos en empresas chilenas  

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Full Text Available Este artículo analiza la tasa de pago de dividendos de las empresas chilenas, considerando aspectos como el pago de dividendos obligatorios, la fuerte concentración de la propiedad, las oportunidades de crecimiento y la presencia de inversionistas institucionales. La investigación se realizó para el período 2001 a 2007, a través de regresiones lineales múltiples, con selección de variables mediante el criterio de stepwise y estimación de parámetros a través de máxima verosimilitud, en donde se encontró evidencia de la utilización de la tasa de pago de dividendos para entregar información sobre los proyectos futuros de la empresa y el tratamiento justo de los accionistas. También se destaca el control ejercido por los inversionistas institucionales.

MAURICIO GUTI\\u00C9RREZ URZ\\u00DAA

2012-01-01

249

La antropología rural chilena en las dos últimas décadas: situación y perspectivas  

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Full Text Available El presente trabajo proporciona una revisión analítica y proyectiva del desarrollo de la antropología rural en Chile durante las dos últimas décadas. La investigación se ha basado en un análisis de los estudios de antropología rural chilena realizados durante los últimos veinte años, centrados especialmente sobre los cambios ocurridos en la sociedad rural. Se identificó un tratamiento particular y descriptivo de los fenómenos rurales, pero sólo algunos intentos de producir elementos teórico-conceptuales que permitan comprender e interpretar los procesos socioculturales que se han producido en el sector rural chileno. Como consecuencia de esta situación, los autores ofrecen algunas propuestas para la próxima década, con el fin de ofrecer un desarrollo disciplinario consecuente con los retos impuestos por la nueva ruralidad.

Roberto Hernández

2009-05-01

250

Actividad antioxidante y antimicrobiana de mieles monoflorales de plantas nativas chilenas  

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Full Text Available Chile presenta una gran diversidad de especies vegetales endémicas y nativas que pueden dar origen a mieles producidas por Apis mellifera. En base a la diversidad de mieles poliflorales y monoflorales que han sido identificadas anteriormente en Chile, se propuso estudiar la actividad antioxidante y biológica para controlar el crecimiento de microorganismos patógenos. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el contenido de fenoles totales, actividad antioxidante (Métodos de FRAP y DPPH y la actividad antibacteriana de mieles monoflorales de plantas nativas chilenas. Se utilizaron 59 mieles de diferente origen geográfico para determinar su origen botánico, mediante análisis melisopalinológico. La actividad antibactariana se evaluó contra Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus y Streptococcus pyogenes, determinando la concentración mínima bactericida (CMB. Los resultados indicaron que las mieles nativas de Chile muestran diferencias significativas tanto en la actividad antioxidante como en la actividad contra patógenos, la que depende del origen botánico y geográfico, pudiendo estar asociada al contenido de polifenoles.

Gloria MONTENEGRO

2013-01-01

251

El delito de estafa en la jurisprudencia chilena The swindle crime in the jurisprudence of Chile  

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Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se expone la interpretación que estimamos han asumido los tribunales chilenos sobre el delito de estafa, valorando si se trata de un juicio coherente con la técnica chilena de tipificación, idiosincrasia, y que responda de mejor manera a las necesidades político-criminales del presente, durante el período de tiempo comprendido entre 1841 y 2010.The present work exposes the interpretation that we considered has assumed the Chilean courts about the swindle crime, valuing if it is a coherent judgment with the Chilean standardization's technique of felonies, idiosyncrasy, and if it responds the better way to our present's criminal policy, during the period of time between 1841 and 2010.

Gustavo Balmaceda Hoyos

2011-07-01

252

Equilibrio trabajo-familia: corresponsabilidad familiar y autoeficacia parental en trabajadores de una empresa chilena  

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Full Text Available En el artículo se analizan las diferencias entre equilibrio trabajo-familia, corresponsabilidad y autoeficacia parental en trabajadores de una empresa chilena. A 224 trabajadores les fueron aplicados tres instrumentos: el cuestionario de interacción trabajofamilia, el cuestionario de participación en el trabajo familiar y la escala de autoeficacia parental. Se observa que no existe diferencia en el nivel de equilibrio trabajo-familia entre hombres y mujeres (t [222] = -0,83, p > 0,05. En corresponsabilidad se evidencian diferencias estadísticamente significativas (t [220,28] = -7,27, p < 0,05, indicando que las mujeres realizan más tareas en el hogar, a pesar de su jornada laboral. En relación con la autoeficacia parental existen diferencias entre hombres y mujeres (t [215] = -8,76, p <0,05, indicando que las mujeres se perciben a sí mismas como mejores madres.

Alejandra Ortega Far\\u00EDas

2013-01-01

253

Acidez de la corteza de algunas especies nativas chilenas Bark acidity of some Chilean native species  

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Full Text Available Se determinó la cantidad de extraíbles y la acidez en corteza de cuatro especies nativas chilenas (arrayán, coigüe, canelo, tepa. Los resultados muestran que el valor de pH varía en forma importante dependiendo de la especie. Diferencias similares se registraron para la capacidad tampón alcalina, el contenido de ácidos volátiles y el número de Stiasny. También se pudo verificar que el efecto de un tratamiento térmico es variable dependiendo de la especie.The amount of extracts and bark acidity from four different Chilean hardwoods (arrayán, coigüe, canelo and tepa was measured and results revealed that the pH of the bark differed depending on the species. This is also valid for the buffering capacity of the extracts, the amount of volatile acids and the Stiasny value. The influence of a thermal treatment differed depending on the species.

HERNAN POBLETE

2004-12-01

254

De Atenea a Afrodita: La risa y el amor en la cultura chilena  

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Full Text Available La risa es la expresión gestual primera del amor como afirmación de la vida. En estesentido es el principio de la cultura chilena. Para encontrar su sentido histórico se haceimprescindible traspasar los límites y las limitaciones coloniales de Occidente. Se vuelvenecesario examinar los gestos amorosos que provienen tanto del mundo indígena comodel mundo ibérico. Estos son los fundamentos de nuestra vida cultural. Estos mundosfueron ensombrecidos con la construcción del pequeño Estado nacional burgués du-rante los siglos XIX y XX. Ese pequeño Estado estuvo inspirado en Atenea, la diosa de larazón y de la fuerza, del bien y de la verdad. Ahí no existió risa ni comicidad verdaderas.Sólo recuperando la imagen de Afrodita, representación de la diosa del amor que ríe,podemos reencontrarnos con la inmensa alegría y la enorme belleza de nuestra legítimaconvivencia social.

Maximiliano Salinas Campos

2007-01-01

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AKTIVITAS ANTIBAKTERI GETAH PEPAYA KERING TERHADAP Staphylococcus aureus PADA DANGKE [Antibacterial Activity of Dried Papaya Latex toward Staphylococcus aureus in Dangke  

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Full Text Available Dangke is a traditional milk curd product, made by coagulation of milk using fresh papaya latex. This product is usually kept at room temperature (27-30ºC until consumption. Dried papaya latex was used in this study to produce dangke, and its effect to S. aureus was determined by direct contact in TSB and dangke. Fresh papaya latex was dried using vacuum oven at 50-55ºC for 22 hours. Dried papaya latex at a concentration of 2.7x10-3 g/100 mL could reduce S. aureus approximately 1 log CFU/mL in TSB after 24 hours. Dried papaya latex and papain could maintain the S. aureus number in dangke within 24 hours storage at room temperature. The antibacterial activity of non-proteolytic compound of papaya latex, i.e ethanolic extract of papaya latex was determined by macrodilution method, resulted an the MIC90 of 8 mg/mL. The cell membrane leakage after exposure was detected by measuring the optical density of bacterial supernatant at 260 nm. The result showed that exposure to increasing antibacterial concentration resulted in increasing of optical density of S. aureus supernatant, indicating that the antibacterial caused the S. aureus membrane leakage. Fluorescence microscopy imaging showed that S. aureus exposure to antibacterial caused membrane leakage thus gave Propidium Iodide (PI chance to penetrate into the cell, as indicated by changing of fluorescence color from green to red.

Rifah Hestyani Arum

2014-06-01

256

Mutación discursiva en las Ciencias Sociales chilenas: Lecturas de un texto de Francisco Gallardo  

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Full Text Available En este artículo daremos cuenta del surgimiento en los últimos 25 años en Chile de un tipo textual original bastante desconocido para los circuitos académicos que representa un desafío desde el punto de vista de su clasificación y análisis; denominamos al conjunto de estos textos como «antropología poética». Nuestro intento de ubicar nuestra interrogante tipológica en el tema puntual del «género» en el cual sería posible ubicar a estas obras. La hipótesis del presente artículo consistirá en afirmar que el conjunto de obras compuesto por la «antropología poética chilena» consiste básicamente en un tipo distinto de producción textual, iniciadora de un nuevo género discursivo. Con este fin se analiza una obra representativa de esta corriente, el libro del chileno Francisco Gallardo "Antropología. Cruzando a través de", obra que expresa de manera especialmente nítida la originalidad de la Antropología Poética Chilena.In this article we will inform about the sprouting in the last 25 years in Chile of an original textual type rather unknown for the academic circuits which represents a challenge from the point of view of its classification and analysis, we call this set of texts poetical anthropology. Our attempt to locate our tipological question in the precise subject of the genre, in which it would be possible to locate to these works, the hypothesis of the this article will consist in affirming that the work assembly made up of Chilean poetical anthropology consists basically in a different type of textual production, introducer of a new text genre. It is for that reason that we will analyze the book of the Francisco Gallado titled "Antropología. Cruzando a través" like example of this new hybrid genre

Miguel Alvarado Borgoño

2002-01-01

257

CARACTERIZACIÓN DE COMPOST A BASE DE ESPINILLO EN RELACIÓN A LA NORMA CHILENA No2880  

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Full Text Available Caracterización de compost a base de espinillo en relación a la Norma Chilena No2880. El objetivo de este estudio fue caracterizar el compost a base de espinillo (Ulex europaeus L. y contrastar sus características físico-químicas con las de la Norma Chilena de compost (NCh 2880. El ensayo se montó en el Centro Experimental Pillanlelbún, Temuco, Chile, entre diciembre 2010 y abril de 2011. Se empleó un diseño factorial de 2×2, los factores fueron: mezcla y acelerador de compostaje (AC, ambos en dos niveles. Cuatro tratamientos: T1 U. europaeus (100% sin AC, T2 U. europaeus (78% + estiércol de bovino (22% sin AC, T3 U. europaeus (100% con AC y T4 U. europaeus (78% + estiércol de bovino (22% con AC. Se evaluó el contenido de materia orgánica (MO%, C orgánico total (%, relación C:N, N total (%, humedad (Ho%, tamaño partículas (TP%, toxicidad (% germinación de Raphanus sativus L., pH, densidad aparente (DAP kg/m3, conductividad eléctrica (CE dS/m y germinación de malezas (No de propágulos. Los tratamientos U. europaeus (100% sin AC y con AC presentaron mayor %MO, %N total y relación C:N que T2 y T4. A la vez, U. europaeus (100% sin AC, presentó un menor %C y T2 menor pH en comparación al resto de los tratamientos. Las demás variables evaluadas no presentaron diferencias significativas. Todas cumplieron con la NCh 2880, excepto toxicidad en el tratamiento con solo U. europaeus, y la CE en todos los tratamientos. Se debe reducir la CE para poder optar a su certificación por la NCh 2880.

Ricardo Tighe-Neira

2014-01-01

258

Toponimia chilena: "la lejana posesión" / Chilean toponymy: the far-away possession  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La toponimia de la Isla de Pascua está casi totalmente dominada por vocablos pascuenses. Este predominio ha aumentado a pesar de las expediciones holandesas, españolas e inglesas durante el siglo XVIII, las misiones religiosas francesas, las asonadas esclavistas desde Perú y la toma de posesión y ad [...] ministración chilenas durante el siglo siguiente. Estas visitas, muy especialmente la de la expedición española de 1770, deberían haber extinguido los topónimos rapa nui, como ha sucedido con otras lenguas autóctonas en Chile. Muy por el contrario, muchos nombres pascuenses ya se habían establecido a mediados del siglo XIX y con la administración chilena se ha producido un aumento en la toponimia vernácula, hasta el punto de que ella es dominante en la actualidad. La supervivencia del rapa nui como lengua viva es solamente uno de los factores que explican este predominio. Abstract in english The toponymy of Easter Island is almost completely dominated by names in Rapa Nui, the native language. This dominance has increased in spite of the Dutch, Spanish and English expeditions during the eighteenth century as well as the French religious missions, the slave raids from Peru , and the Chil [...] ean administration of the island during the following century. All of these, particularly the Spanish expedition of 1770, should have resulted in the extinction of the Rapa Nui toponymy, as has happened with other native languages in Chile. Quite the contrary, many native place names were already established by the middle of the nineteenth century; under Chilean administration there has been an increase in the vernacular place names, to such an extent that the latter are dominant at present. The survival of Rapa Nui as a living language is just one of the factors accounting for this dominance.

Guillermo, Latorre.

259

Patrones de crecimiento urbano en la Patagonia chilena: el caso de la ciudad de Coyhaique  

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Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las políticas de Estado junto con la importante oferta/demanda de productos inmobiliarios para población de mayor ingreso han orientado el desarrollo reciente de varias ciudades chilenas, originando nuevas formas urbanas. Si bien estos procesos han sido descritos y analizados para varias ciudades y [...] áreas metropolitanas de Chile central, no existen suficientes antecedentes empíricos que den cuenta de la realidad del desarrollo urbano de las ciudades más australes del país, como el caso de Coyhaique en la Patagonia chilena. Este trabajo pretende identificar y analizar los patrones de urbanización de esta ciudad, en un contexto territorial caracterizado, entre otros aspectos, por la fragmentación geográfica, el aislamiento, dispersión de los centros poblados y concentración de la población en la capital regional. Se analiza la evolución y factores explicativos que dan cuenta de su rápido proceso de urbanización y, sobre la base de documentos técnicos, históricos y geográficos, se presentan estimaciones futuras del crecimiento de la ciudad. Abstract in english State policies and real estate market destined to people with more economic power, have orientated the recent development of many Chilean cities, reinforcing old urban patterns and creating new ones. Even though these processes have been described and analyzed for many cities and metropolitan areas [...] of Central Chile, there hasn't been enough evidence about the urban development in Southern Chilean cities; such is the case of Coyhaique, located in Chilean Patagonia. From this perspective this work aims to identify and analyze the urban growth patterns in the city, in a territorial context characterized, besides other aspects, for geographical fragmentation, isolation, dispersion of towns and concentration of population, services and facilities inside the regional capital. The urban growth pattern was analyzed using historical reviews about the evolution since the foundation in 1929. The methods used were GIS and photo interpretation of satellite images of different periods. Finally, urban growth estimation was made based on technical studies.

Gerardo, Azócar García; Mauricio, Aguayo Arias; Cristian, Henríquez Ruiz; Claudia, Vega Montero; Rodrigo, Sanhueza Contreras.

2010-09-01

260

CALIDAD DE VIDA RELACIONADA CON EL CLIMATERIO EN UNA POBLACIÓN CHILENA DE MUJERES SALUDABLES  

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Full Text Available Objetivo: Aplicar una versión chilena de la escala MRS para evaluar calidad de vida de mujeres climatéricas. Métodos: Aplicación de la versión chilena de la escala MRS a mujeres de 45-64 años inscritas en el SSMO: Grupo 1, concurrentes a controles preventivos de salud (n=844 y Grupo 2, concurrentes a ginecólogo (n=360. Resultados: El adecuado comportamiento del instrumento fue confirmado porque el análisis de confiabilidad interna, que presentó un alfa de Crombach >0,86; la confiabilidad externa mostró una correlación en re-encuesta del Grupo 1 y 2 con coeficiente de Pearson pObjective: To apply a chilean version of the MRS scale to evaluate quality of life in climacteric women. Methods: Application of chilean version of the MRS scale in 45-64 year-old women registered at Metropolitan Health Service (MHS of Chile. Group 1, women attending programmed health preventive controls (n=844; and Group 2, women who require attention by gynecologist (n=360. Results: The suitable behavior of the used instrument was confirmed because the analysis of internal reliability showed Crombach's alpha >0.8; external reliability showed correlation in re-test of both group with Pearson's coefficient p<0.01 for the 11 items under study and for the somatic, psychological and urogenital domains; the validity of content was confirmed because in the 2 groups in study 3 domains in the contents could be found (psychological, somatic and urogenital as seen in other countries; and the discriminative validity of the chilean version of the MRS scale demonstrated that both group of informed scores orient to a deterioration of quality of life in relation to the climacteric, being significantly greater the deterioration into the group 2. Conclusion: The Chilean version of the MRS scale is comparable methodologically to the original version of Heinemann and it allowed to evaluate as the quality of life in relation to the climacteric in a Chilean population is affected

Sócrates Aedo M

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Literatura chilena de exilio, un vacío epistemológico / Chilean literature of exile, an epistemological emptiness  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este artículo se presenta como una reflexión acerca del desinterés actual que supone, dentro del panorama literario en Chile, el estudio de la literatura creada por autores y autoras chilenas durante el exilio chileno ocurrido entre 1973 y 1989. Una reflexión que espero sirva como referente para aqu [...] ellos investigadores que se interesen por estudiar y dar a conocer los diversos corpus literarios vinculados al exilio chileno vivido en diferentes países del mundo. Una producción literaria aún por desvelar y que agrupa un conjunto de corpus literarios que nos hablan del pasado reciente de Chile y sus habitantes, una literatura chilena de exilio en la cual las experiencias de dolor y desarraigo dan paso a la apertura al otro y al encuentro con diversas memorias culturales. Abstract in english This paper presents a reflection on the current lack of interest within the literary scene of Chile related to the study of literature created by Chilean authors during their exile abroad between 1973 and 1989. A reflection that I hope will serve as a reference for those researchers who are interest [...] ed in studying and publicizing the different literary corpus that came up during the Chilean exile in different countries all over the world. A literature which is still to reveal and that groups together a wide range of literary corpus telling the story of the recent past suffered by Chile and its people, a Chilean literature of exile in which the experiences of pain and uprooting paved the way for an opening to each other as well as for the meeting and the interaction of various cultural memories.

Sol Marina, Garay C.

2013-06-01

262

Determinação de isotiocianato de benzila em Carica papaya utilizando cromatografia gasosa com detectores seletivos / Determination of benzyl isothiocyanate in Carica papaya using gas chromatography with selectives detectors  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english In the present work, a method was developed and validated for the quantification of benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) in the fruits of Carica papaya. The quantification of this compound was carried out by gas chromatography (GC) with selective detectors - nitrogen phosphorus detector (NPD) and flame phot [...] ometric detector (FPD). The performance of these detectors showed a higher sensitivity of the NPD with a broader linear range of detection. The LOD/LOQ were 0.038/0.100 µg/mL for NPD and 5.78/19.29 µg/mL for FPD. The recovery of the method for BITC was 90,64%. An average value of BITC concentration in all the analyzed samples was 16,23 µg BITC/g.

Izabela Miranda de, Castro; Marianna Ramos dos, Anjos; Elba dos Santos de, Oliveira.

1953-19-01

263

Manejo de plantas daninhas na cultura do mamoeiro / Weed control in papaya  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Apesar de o controle de plantas daninhas na cultura do mamoeiro representar um dos componentes de grande importância do custo de produção, no mundo e no Brasil, a disponibilidade de informações sobre esse tema é escassa, o que reflete a pouca importância que tem sido dada ao assunto nas últimas déca [...] das. Neste texto são discutidos alguns avanços no manejo integrado de plantas daninhas que têm sido alcançados em vários países, particularmente no tocante à manutenção da vegetação natural ou à introdução de leguminosas na entrelinha de cultivo. Não obstante, várias espécies de plantas daninhas foram identificadas como hospedeiras de vetores de importantes viroses à cultura, com destaque para Commelina benghalensis e Solanum americanum. Isso se reveste de grande importância para o manejo (seletivo) das plantas daninhas, sobretudo na produção integrada de mamão. Também são discutidos, em especial para a região norte do Estado do Espírito Santo, a seletividade de herbicidas, os períodos de controle e as principais características e aspectos práticos sobre o manejo de plantas daninhas na cultura do mamoeiro. Abstract in english Despite the fact that weed control entails high costs to crop production, the availability of national and international papers regarding papaya weed control is scarce, showing that little importance has been given to this subject in the last decades. Some integrated weed management advances attamed [...] in several countries are discussed, particularly in the use of both natural groundcover or leguminous plants in the crop interrows. However, several weed species have been identified as host plants of major virus vectors to the crop, such as C. benghalensis and S. americanum. Such information is of major importance for selective weed control, particularly in the integrated system of papaya production. The present review also examined herbicide selectivity, weedy periods as well as the main characteristics and practical aspects of weed control in papaya, focusing on the production areas of the northern Espírito Santo State.

C.P., Ronchi; A.A., Silva; L.A.L., Serrano; L.F., Cattaneo; E.N., Santana; G.A., Ferreguetti.

264

Manejo de plantas daninhas na cultura do mamoeiro Weed control in papaya  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Apesar de o controle de plantas daninhas na cultura do mamoeiro representar um dos componentes de grande importância do custo de produção, no mundo e no Brasil, a disponibilidade de informações sobre esse tema é escassa, o que reflete a pouca importância que tem sido dada ao assunto nas últimas décadas. Neste texto são discutidos alguns avanços no manejo integrado de plantas daninhas que têm sido alcançados em vários países, particularmente no tocante à manutenção da vegetação natural ou à introdução de leguminosas na entrelinha de cultivo. Não obstante, várias espécies de plantas daninhas foram identificadas como hospedeiras de vetores de importantes viroses à cultura, com destaque para Commelina benghalensis e Solanum americanum. Isso se reveste de grande importância para o manejo (seletivo das plantas daninhas, sobretudo na produção integrada de mamão. Também são discutidos, em especial para a região norte do Estado do Espírito Santo, a seletividade de herbicidas, os períodos de controle e as principais características e aspectos práticos sobre o manejo de plantas daninhas na cultura do mamoeiro.Despite the fact that weed control entails high costs to crop production, the availability of national and international papers regarding papaya weed control is scarce, showing that little importance has been given to this subject in the last decades. Some integrated weed management advances attamed in several countries are discussed, particularly in the use of both natural groundcover or leguminous plants in the crop interrows. However, several weed species have been identified as host plants of major virus vectors to the crop, such as C. benghalensis and S. americanum. Such information is of major importance for selective weed control, particularly in the integrated system of papaya production. The present review also examined herbicide selectivity, weedy periods as well as the main characteristics and practical aspects of weed control in papaya, focusing on the production areas of the northern Espírito Santo State.

C.P. Ronchi

2008-01-01

265

Effect of papaya latex extract on gravid and non-gravid rat uterine preparations in vitro.  

Science.gov (United States)

In search of uterotonic principles, papaya (Carica papaya, Caricaceae) latex extract (PLE) was tested on rat uterine preparations in vitro at various stages of the estrous cycle and gestation periods. Rat uterine contractile activity was remarkably increased by different doses of PLE in proestrus and estrus stages compared to metestrus and diestrus stages of the estrous cycles. The maximum contractile activity of the uterus was observed at the later stages of pregnancy which correspond with the peak level of estrogen in the plasma. A direct dose-dependent spasmodic action with increased frequency and amplitude was observed with PLE in all non-gravid uterine preparations. Pretreatment of the tissue with phenoxybenzamine (PB) non-competitively blocked the effect of PLE. Blocking of the 5-HT receptors with methysergide partially blocked the excitatory response to PLE. Pretreating the tissue with Indomethacin, a cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, had no effect on the response to PLE. The release of PLE induced mast cell degranulation and subsequent release of heparin, biogenic amines or prostaglandins (PGs) was ruled out by pretreating the tissue with sodium cromoglycate, a mast cell stabilizer. Pure papain induced uterine contractions were not sustained for a longer period and at higher concentrations the receptor proteins were affected by the enzymatic action of papain. From this study it is evident that the crude papaya latex contain a uterotonic principle which might be a combination of enzymes, alkaloids and other substances which can evoke sustained contraction of the uterus acting mainly on the alpha adrenergic receptor population of the uterus at different stages. PMID:10837984

Cherian, T

2000-06-01

266

Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of unripe papaya extract in an excision wound model.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Context: Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae) fruit was shown to exhibit wound healing properties. Objectives: We investigated anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potential of papaya fruit phosphate-buffered saline extract (PE) during wound healing and enhancement of the potentials due to trace ions addition. Materials and methods: Rat excision wounds were topically treated twice/day with 20?µL of PE (5?mg extract/mL), 0.5?µg Se(2+) added PE (PES), or 100?µM Zn(2+) added PE (PEZ). Control groups were treated with deionized water (negative) and deproteinized calf blood extract ointment (Solcoseryl®, positive). Lipid peroxidation (LPX), antioxidant, proinflammatory, and arginine metabolic enzymes were estimated in the wound excised on days 4 and 10 post wounding. Results: PE (5?mg/mL; 9.80?±?0.33?d) and PES (PE?+?0.5?µg Se(2+); 8.90?±?0.23?d) significantly (p?papaya extract, especially with the addition of selenium for 10?d, reduced inflammation associated oxidative damage apparently via cyclooxygenase specific inhibition, arginine metabolism, and up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes. PMID:25431122

Nafiu, Abdulrazaq Bidemi; Rahman, Mohammad Tariqur

2014-11-28

267

Foliar Spray of Humic Substances on Seedling Production of Papaya (Pawpaw)  

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The objective of this research was to study the effect of humic substances on seedling production of papaya cv. Formosa. A completed randomized blocks design with five treatments (humic acid doses) was adopted, with five repetitions of 10 seedlings each, with a total of 250 seedlings. The following humic substances doses studied were 0 (unsprayed), 7.5, 15, 22.5 and 30 mL m2 (0, 0.40, 0.80, 1.19 and 1.59 mL seedling-1), were sprayed at 15, 25 and 35 days after sowing. At...

Albano, F. G.; Da Silva, R. R. S.; Cavalcante, I. H. L.; Lima, F. N.; Marques, A. S.

2011-01-01

268

Controle químico do oídio do mamoeiro Chemical control of papaya powdery mildew  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Realizaram-se três experimentos, em Linhares-ES, de controle do oídio (Ovulariopsis sp.) do mamoeiro (Carica papaya). A severidade da doença foi estimada usando escala de notas de 0 a 4. Em casa de vegetação, utilizaram-se mudas de 'Improved Sunrise Solo Line 72/12', em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com seis tratamentos e cinco repetições. Foram feitas três pulverizações de triflumizole (150, 225 e 300 mg.l-1 i.a.), enxofre (1560 mg.l-1 i.a.) e tiofanato metílico (700 mg.l-...

Tatagiba, Joseli S.; Liberato, Jose? R.; LAÉRCIO ZAMBOLIM; HÉLCIO COSTA; Ventura, Jose? A.

2002-01-01

269

EFECTO DEL ETILENO SOBRE EL ACC Y ACC OXIDASA EN LA MADURACION DE PAPAYA 'MARADOL'  

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Full Text Available Frutos de papaya 'Maradol' (Carica papaya L. fueron tratados con etileno en aire sintético (0, 100, 300 y 500 uL L-1 en contenedores de fibra de vidrio a diferentes tiempos de exposición (8, 16 y 24 h. Después del tratamiento, los frutos fueron transferidos para su maduración a temperatura ambiente (25 °C. Los análisis efectuados en cada tratamiento fueron: firmeza, azúcares reducto-res, sólidos solubles, acidez titulable, color de cáscara y pulpa (Hue, velocidad de producción de etileno (VPE, contenido de ácido 1-aminociclopropano-1-carboxílico (ACC y actividad de la enzima formadora de etileno (ACC oxidasa. Los resultados indicaron que el primer cambio notable fue el color en la cáscara (amarillo y en la pulpa (naranja, típicos en un fruto listo para el consumo. Los frutos expuestos a 500 uL L-1 de etileno por 16 y 24 h mostraron un pico climatérico un día después del tratamiento, mientras que los frutos expuestos por solamente 8 h mostraron su pico climatérico 2 d después de la exposición al etileno. Las papayas expuestas a 500 uL L-1 de etileno por 16 y 24 h produjeron bajos valores de Hue en menos tiempo que el testigo, y su contenido de ACC aumentó a 2.7 nmol g-1 h-1, la actividad de la ACC oxidasa a 3 nL g-1 h-1, y la velocidad de producción de etileno (VPE a 24 nL g-1 h-1. Estas condiciones permitieron que se alcanzaran valores de firmeza de 5.2 kgf cm-2 y 12 % de sólidos solubles a los 6 d a 25 °C. El contenido de azúcares reductores, valores de pH y la acidez no mostraron diferen-cias significativas (P > 0.05 entre tratamientos. Los frutos testigo alcanzaron valores similares después de 8 d de maduración directa. Los resultados sugieren que es posible acelerar la maduración de papaya 'Maradol' de 8 a 3 d por exposición a atmósferas con etileno.

Javier De la Cruz

2010-01-01

270

Validación Chilena del Cuestionario de Evaluación del Apego Romántico Experiences in Close Relationships (ECR: Análisis de la Validez de Criterio  

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Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue analizar la validez de criterio del cuestionario de apego romántico Ex - periences in Close Relationships (ECR, Brennan, Clark y Shaver, 1998 para la población chilena de adultos. Este cuestionario evalúa las dos dimensiones del apego romántico adulto: la evitación (de la intimidad y la ansiedad (acerca de las relaciones. Los participantes fueron 549 adultos, quienes completaron el cuestionario ECR y el cuestionario de apego adulto CaMir. Se evaluó las propiedades psicométricas del cuestionario, mostrando que es un instrumento con una adecuada validez de criterio y con una estructura factorial que representa las dos dimensiones teóricas propuestas por los autores originales. Se concluye que la versión chilena del ECR es válida para examinar el apego romántico en la adultez.

Rosario Spencer

2013-01-01

271

Occurrence of the green leafhopper of papaya, Solanasca bordia (Langlitz) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), in Brazil / Ocorrência de Solanasca bordia (Langlitz) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), cigarrinha verde do mamoeiro, no Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Neste artigo é relatada no mamoeiro a espécie de cigarrinha verde do mamoeiro, Solanasca bordia (Langlitz) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), resultado de um levantamento realizado em lavouras comerciais de mamão em seis localidades do Espírito Santo, em 2001/2002 (Linhares, Jaguaré, Sooretama, Pinheiros, V [...] itória e Serra). Abstract in english This article reports the presence of the green leafhopper of papaya, Solanasca bordia (Langlitz) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) on papaya, based on a survey of commercial papaya orchards in Espírito Santo, in six municipalities, in 2001/2002 (Linhares, Jaguaré, Sooretama, Pinheiros, Vitória e Serra). [...

David dos S., Martins; Mark P., Culik.

2005-02-01

272

Sequence similarity between the cp gene and the transgene in transgenic papayas = Similaridade de seqüência entre o gene cp do vírus e do transgene presente em mamoeiros transgênicos  

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The Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) coat protein transgene present in 'Rainbow' and 'SunUp' papayas disclose high sequence similarity (>89%) to the cp gene from PRSV BR and TH. Despite this, both isolates are able to break down the resistance in 'Rainbow', while only the latter is able to do so in 'SunUp'. The objective of this work was to evaluate the degree of sequence similarity between the cp gene in the challenge isolate and the cp transgene in transgenic papayas resistant to PRSV. The prod...

Souza, M. T.; Teixeira, M.; Gonsalves, D.

2005-01-01

273

Effect of Temperature on the Development and Survival of Immature Stages of the Carambola Fruit Fly, Bactrocera carambolae, and the Asian Papaya Fruit Fly, Bactrocera papayae, Reared On Guava Diet  

Science.gov (United States)

Members of the Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae) complex constitute wellrecognized destructive pests of fruits in peninsular Thailand. The development and survival of immature stages of the carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock, and the Asian papaya fruit fly, Bactrocera papayae Drew & Hancock, were compared at six constant temperatures of 15, 20, 25, 27, 30, and 35°C, 70 ± 5% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 12:12 (L:D). The objectives were to determine the effect of temperature on the developmental stages for optimizing rearing and to understand the geographical pattern of occurrence of these fruit fly species. A strong and positive linear relationship was observed between temperature and developmental rate of immature stages of B. carambolae. Similarly, a strong and positive linear relationship was observed between temperature and developmental rate of B. papayae. A temperature summation model was used to estimate the lower threshold temperature and the thermal constant. Bactrocera papayae was significantly faster in development and higher in survival and appeared to be better adapted to low temperatures than B. carambolae, as it exhibited the lowest threshold temperatures at all immature stages. The observed differences in response to various temperatures revealed to some extent the impact of temperature on these species' distribution in peninsular Thailand and other parts of the world. PMID:25368070

Danjuma, Solomon; Thaochan, Narit; Permkam, Surakrai; Satasook, Chutamas

2014-01-01

274

Influencia del Estado de Madurez sobre las Propiedades Viscoelásticas de Frutas Tropicales (Mango, Papaya y Plátano) / Influence of Maturity States on Viscoelastic Properties of Tropical Fruits (Mango, Papaya y Plantain)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En esta investigación se determinó la relación del estado de madurez con la viscoelasticidad, en mango de las variedades puerco y corazón , papaya de la variedad hawaiana y plátano. El estado de madurez se determinó por el color de la fruta visualmente, de acuerdo a una escala de maduración, y las p [...] ropiedades viscoelásticas se determinaron por prueba de relajación y compresión del esfuerzo en un texturómetro. Dos modelos comunes, Maxwell generalizado y Peleg, se ajustaron a los datos experimentales. El modelo de Maxwell describió mejor el comportamiento viscoelástico de las frutas estudiadas. Los mangos de ambas variedades presentaron el mismo comportamiento viscoelástico en los diferentes estados de madurez, mientras que para papaya y plátano, el comportamiento elástico disminuyó con el estado de madurez. Abstract in english In this investigation the relation of maturity states with viscoelasticity in two mango varieties ( puerco and corazón ), hawaiian papaya and plantain, were determined. Maturity state was determined by visually examining the color of the fruit, according to a maturation scale. Viscoelastic propertie [...] s were determined by stress compression–relaxation tests using a texturometer. Two common models, generalized Maxwell and Peleg, were fitted to the experimental data. For all fruits, Maxwell model better described the viscoelastic behavior of the fruits. The two mango varieties showed the same viscoelastic behavior at different maturity states, while for papaya and banana, the elastic behavior decreased with maturity state.

Ramiro, Torres; Everaldo J, Montes; Omar A, Pérez; Ricardo D, Andrade.

275

Influencia del Estado de Madurez sobre las Propiedades Viscoelásticas de Frutas Tropicales (Mango, Papaya y Plátano Influence of Maturity States on Viscoelastic Properties of Tropical Fruits (Mango, Papaya y Plantain  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En esta investigación se determinó la relación del estado de madurez con la viscoelasticidad, en mango de las variedades puerco y corazón , papaya de la variedad hawaiana y plátano. El estado de madurez se determinó por el color de la fruta visualmente, de acuerdo a una escala de maduración, y las propiedades viscoelásticas se determinaron por prueba de relajación y compresión del esfuerzo en un texturómetro. Dos modelos comunes, Maxwell generalizado y Peleg, se ajustaron a los datos experimentales. El modelo de Maxwell describió mejor el comportamiento viscoelástico de las frutas estudiadas. Los mangos de ambas variedades presentaron el mismo comportamiento viscoelástico en los diferentes estados de madurez, mientras que para papaya y plátano, el comportamiento elástico disminuyó con el estado de madurez.In this investigation the relation of maturity states with viscoelasticity in two mango varieties ( puerco and corazón , hawaiian papaya and plantain, were determined. Maturity state was determined by visually examining the color of the fruit, according to a maturation scale. Viscoelastic properties were determined by stress compression–relaxation tests using a texturometer. Two common models, generalized Maxwell and Peleg, were fitted to the experimental data. For all fruits, Maxwell model better described the viscoelastic behavior of the fruits. The two mango varieties showed the same viscoelastic behavior at different maturity states, while for papaya and banana, the elastic behavior decreased with maturity state.

Ramiro Torres

2012-01-01

276

Effect of temperature on the development and survival of immature stages of the carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae, and the Asian papaya fruit fly, Bactrocera papayae, reared on guava diet.  

Science.gov (United States)

Members of the Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae) complex constitute well-recognized destructive pests of fruits in peninsular Thailand. The development and survival of immature stages of the carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock, and the Asian papaya fruit fly, Bactrocera papayae Drew & Hancock, were compared at six constant temperatures of 15, 20, 25, 27, 30, and 35°C, 70 ± 5% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 12:12 (L:D). The objectives were to determine the effect of temperature on the developmental stages for optimizing rearing and to understand the geographical pattern of occurrence of these fruit fly species. A strong and positive linear relationship was observed between temperature and developmental rate of immature stages of B. carambolae. Similarly, a strong and positive linear relationship was observed between temperature and developmental rate of B. papayae. A temperature summation model was used to estimate the lower threshold temperature and the thermal constant. Bactrocera papayae was significantly faster in development and higher in survival and appeared to be better adapted to low temperatures than B. carambolae, as it exhibited the lowest threshold temperatures at all immature stages. The observed differences in response to various temperatures revealed to some extent the impact of temperature on these species' distribution in peninsular Thailand and other parts of the world. PMID:25368070

Danjuma, Solomon; Thaochan, Narit; Permkam, Surakrai; Satasook, Chutamas

2014-01-01

277

ODONTODACTYLUS HAWAIIENSIS MANNING,1967 (STAMATOPODA, GONODACTYLIDAE) EN AGUAS CHILENAS / ODONTODACTYLUS HAWAIIENSIS MANNING,1967 (STOMATOPODA, GONODACTYLIDAE) IN CHILEAN WATERS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish RESUMEN Se identifica y registra, por primera vez, la especie Odontodactylus hawaiiensis Manning, 1967 en aguas oceánicas chilenas, extendiéndose su distribución geográfica desde el Archipiélago Hawaiiano (islas Maui, Molokai y Hawaii) hasta los alrededores de la isla Salas y Gómez [...] Abstract in english ABSTRACT An species of Stomatopod is identified from Chilean oceanic waters Odontodactylus hawaiiensis Manning, 1967; it is reported from waters around Salas and Gómez island [...

Marco A., Retamal.

278

ODONTODACTYLUS HAWAIIENSIS MANNING,1967 (STAMATOPODA, GONODACTYLIDAE EN AGUAS CHILENAS ODONTODACTYLUS HAWAIIENSIS MANNING,1967 (STOMATOPODA, GONODACTYLIDAE IN CHILEAN WATERS  

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Full Text Available RESUMEN Se identifica y registra, por primera vez, la especie Odontodactylus hawaiiensis Manning, 1967 en aguas oceánicas chilenas, extendiéndose su distribución geográfica desde el Archipiélago Hawaiiano (islas Maui, Molokai y Hawaii hasta los alrededores de la isla Salas y GómezABSTRACT An species of Stomatopod is identified from Chilean oceanic waters Odontodactylus hawaiiensis Manning, 1967; it is reported from waters around Salas and Gómez island

Marco A. Retamal

2002-01-01

279

An Efficient Seed Germination and Seedling Establishment Protocol for Hybrid Carica papaya Linn. With Application of Plant Growth Regulator  

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Full Text Available In vitro germination of hybrid seeds of papaya (Carica papaya Linn. was attempted in the present investigation. Hybrid papaya seeds were subjected to three kinds of treatments. First on semisolid medium Murashige and Skoog (1962, secondly on only inorganic salt solution of the same medium but without organic nutrients and with various combinations of plant growth regulators on coco-peat as support material and in the third set of experiment, the seeds without seed-coat with 6-benzyl adenine having coco-peat as support material. Results showed that the germination rate of the papaya seeds was inhibited by the seed coat. Therefore, the best 90% in vitro germination was observed when the seeds without seed-coat were subjected to 0.5 mg L-1 6-benzyl adenine in coco-peat containing vessels. The seedlings were subjected to in vitro hardening. After three months of transfer to greenhouse and subsequently in nursery, the young seedlings showed 90% survival.

Ravishankar Chauhan

2014-01-01

280

VARYING GENETIC DIVERSITY OF PAPAYA RINGSPOT VIRUS ISOLATES FROM TWO TIME-SEPARATED OUTBREAKS IN JAMAICA AND VENEZUELA  

Science.gov (United States)

The coat protein (CP) genes of eleven Jamaican Papaya ringspot virus type-p (PRSV) isolates that were collected in 1999 were cloned and sequenced. The nucleotide and amino acid sequences of these isolates were compared to each other, with a sequence of another Jamaican isolate collected after the f...

 
 
 
 
281

Effects of chitosan-based coatings containing peppermint essential oil on the quality of post-harvest papaya fruit  

Science.gov (United States)

Edible coatings comprised of antimicrobial polymers based on chitosan are promising technologies to preserve post-harvest fruit quality. In this study, we investigated the potential utility of a coating made from chitosan modified by N-acylation with fatty acid to preserve post-harvest papaya qualit...

282

Supplementing lactating women with puréed papaya and grated carrots improved vitamin A status in a placebo-controlled trial.  

Science.gov (United States)

Doubts have been raised about the effectiveness of carotene-containing foods in improving the vitamin A status of populations at risk. We investigated the effect of papaya and carrots on the vitamin A status of lactating women with 2- to 12-mo-old infants in ZIMBABWE: The women were randomly assigned to three supplementation groups and a placebo group, and received 6 mg of beta-carotene capsules, 650 g puréed papaya, 100 g grated carrots or a placebo, daily for 60 d. All groups were given a meal containing 10 g of vegetable oil daily. Serum retinol, relative dose response, serum ferritin, hemoglobin and C-reactive protein were measured before and after the supplementation period. Mean serum retinol increased significantly after supplementation in the beta-carotene group (P 0.05). The relative dose response decreased significantly (P 0.05). There was an increase in mean serum ferritin in all groups but the increase did not differ among groups. The hemoglobin increases in the beta-carotene and papaya groups were greater than that in the placebo group. We conclude that puréed papaya and grated carrots can improve the vitamin A and iron nutriture of lactating women. These findings reinforce the importance of plant food-based approaches in the control of vitamin A deficiency in low income countries. PMID:11340106

Ncube, T N; Greiner, T; Malaba, L C; Gebre-Medhin, M

2001-05-01

283

Construction of papaya male and female BAC libraries and application in physical mapping of the sex chromosomes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Papaya is a major fruit crop in the tropics and has recently evolved sex chromosomes. Towards sequencing the papaya sex chromosomes, two bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries were constructed from papaya male and female genomic DNA. The female BAC library was constructed using restriction enzyme BstY I and consists of 36,864 clones with an average insert size of 104?kb, providing 10.3x genome equivalents. The male BAC library was constructed using restriction enzyme EcoR I and consists of 55,296 clones with an average insert size of 101?kb, providing 15.0x genome equivalents. The male BAC library was used in constructing the physical map of the male-specific region of the male Y chromosome (MSY) and in filling gaps and extending the physical map of the hermaphrodite-specific region of the Y(h) chromosome (HSY) and the X chromosome physical map. The female BAC library was used to extend the X physical map gap. The MSY, HSY, and X physical maps offer a unique opportunity to study chromosomal rearrangements, Y chromosome degeneration, and dosage compensation of the papaya nascent sex chromosomes. PMID:21765640

Gschwend, Andrea R; Yu, Qingyi; Moore, Paul; Saski, Christopher; Chen, Cuixia; Wang, Jianping; Na, Jong-Kuk; Ming, Ray

2011-01-01

284

Managing oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae), with spinosad-based protein bait sprays and sanitation in papaya orchards in Hawaii.  

Science.gov (United States)

The efficacy of GF-120 NF Naturalyte Fruit Fly Bait in combination with field sanitation was assessed as a control for female oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), in papaya (Carica papaya L.) orchards in Hawaii. Three different bait spray regimes were evaluated: every row (high use of the bait), every fifth row (moderate use), and every 10th row (low use). Orchard plots in which no bait was applied served as controls. For five of the seven biweekly periods that followed the first bait spray, trapping data revealed significantly fewer female B. dorsalis captured in plots subject to high and moderate bait use than in control plots. Differences in incidence of infestation among treatments were detected only by the third (12 wk after first spray) fruit sampling with significantly fewer infested one-fourth to one-half ripe papaya fruit in plots subject to high and moderate bait use than in control plots. Parasitism rates by Fopius arisanus (Sonan) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) were not negatively affected by bait application. Results indicate that foliar applications of GF-120 NF Naturalyte Fruit Fly Bait either to all rows (every other tree), or to every fifth row (every tree) in combination with good sanitation can effectively reduce infestation by B. dorsalis in papaya orchards in Hawaii. PMID:19610428

Piñero, Jaime C; Mau, Ronald F L; Vargas, Roger I

2009-06-01

285

ESTIMATIVA DO COEFICIENTE DE DETERMINAÇÃO GENOTÍPICA EM MAMOEIROS (Carica papaya L.) INOCULADOS COM FUNGO MICORRÍZICO ARBUSCULAR / ESTIMATIVE OF THE GENOTYPIC DETERMINATION COEFFICIENT IN PAPAYA (Carica papaya L.) IN RESPONSE TO INOCULATION OF ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGUS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O trabalho objetivou determinar o coeficiente de determinação genotípica (b) do mamoeiro (Carica papaya L.) quanto à capacidade de se associar e responder ao fungo micorrízico arbuscular (FMA) Gigaspora margarita. O experimento foi instalado em casa de vegetação da Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura, u [...] sando solo com uma dose única de fósforo (20 mg dm-3). Os tratamentos foram representados por quatro genótipos de cada um dos grupos 'Solo' e 'Formosa', mais as variedades 'Improved Sunrise Solo Line 72/12' e 'Tainung Nº 1', submetidas ou não à inoculação do fungo Gigaspora margarita. Foi utilizado um delineamento de blocos casualizados, com 4 repetições. Após a coleta dos dados, estimou-se o coeficiente "b" para os seguintes caracteres: parte aérea, comprimento de raiz, altura de planta, eficiência micorrízica e colonização. Os genótipos testados responderam à inoculação do fungo MA; os genótipos do grupo Formosa apresentaram menor comprimento de raiz; a eficiência micorrízica e a colonização radicular média para os dois grupos de plantas foram similares, situando-se em 60% e 50%, respectivamente; a inoculação aumentou a absorção de P, K e Cu, sendo esse efeito maior na variedade representante de cada grupo; o coeficiente "b" demonstrou que o melhoramento de plantas pode modular a produção de parte aérea, comprimento de raízes, altura de plantas e a eficiência micorrízica do grupo Formosa; para o grupo Solo este efeito mostrou-se mais provável para colonização radicular e menos provável para produção de parte aérea, eficiência micorrízica, comprimento de raízes e altura de plantas. Abstract in english An experiment was conducted at the Embrapa -- Cassava and Tropical Fruit Crops with the aim of estimating the genotypic determination coefficient (b) of papaya for its capacity of associate and response to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Four genotypes and one variety of both "Solo"and "Formosa" [...] groups were tested, inoculated or not with Gigaspora margarita in a soil which received 30 mg dm-3 of phosphorus. Data of shoot dry weight (SDW), mycorrhizal efficiency and colonization were statistically analized to generate the coefficient. All genotypes responded significantly to AMF but plants from "Formosa" group showed lower root length; mycorrhiza efficiency and colonization were similar for both groups, but there was no correlation between these characteristics; inoculation increased P, K and Cu absorption with higher values for the variety of each group. Coefficient "b" showed that for "Formosa" group, plant breeding may modulate shoot plant production, root length, plant heigth and mycorrhizal effeciency; for "Solo"group this effect showed to be more probable for root colonization than to mycorrhizal efficiency.

ALDO VILAR, TRINDADE; JORGE LUIZ LOYOLA, DANTAS; FLORÍCIO PINTO DE, ALMEIDA; ISABEL CRISTINA SILVA, MAIA.

2001-12-01

286

Pressão hidrostática nos atributos sensoriais do néctar de mamão / Hydrostatic high pressure in sensory attributes of papaya nectar  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A indústria de alimentos utiliza a análise sensorial como ferramenta essencial no desenvolvimento, otimização, controle de qualidade e análise do potencial mercadológico de novos produtos. A alta pressão hidrostática (APH) é uma tecnologia inovadora que permite manter a qualidade dos alimentos em te [...] rmos nutricionais e sensoriais, bem como o frescor natural e aumentar a sua vida útil. A APH não afeta ligações covalentes, portanto são mínimos os efeitos nos constituintes químicos responsáveis pela cor, sabor e conteúdo nutricional. Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar o efeito da APH aplicada à polpa de mamão nos atributos sensoriais do néctar. Para tal, polpa controle (sem tratamento), pasteurizada (92°C 40s-1) e pressurizada (300MPa 5min-1 25°C-1) e quatro marcas comerciais de polpa de mamão congeladas foram utilizadas para preparar os sete respectivos néctares. Estudos iniciais foram realizados para determinação da quantidade de água e açúcar “ideal” a serem adicionadas à polpa para o preparo do néctar, de acordo com a resposta dos consumidores. As sete amostras foram analisadas por 12 provadores selecionados e treinados, utilizando a Análise Descritiva Quantitativa (ADQ). Os resultados mostraram que os néctares das amostras controle e pressurizada foram similares quanto aos atributos sensoriais, tendo sido caracterizadas pela presença de grumos, sabor característico de mamão, consistência e aroma característico de mamão. Abstract in english The food industry uses the sensory evaluation as an essential tool in the development, optimization, quality control and the analysis of new product potential market. High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) is an innovative technology that allows retaining the nutritional and sensory food quality, as well a [...] s the natural freshness, and extends product shelf life. The HHP does not affect covalent bonds; therefore, it has little effect on chemical constituents responsible for the color, flavor and nutritional content. This study aimed at evaluating the effect of HHP applied to the papaya pulp on sensory attributes of papaya nectar. Control (without treatment), pasteurized (92°C 40s-1) and pressurized papaya purée (300MPa 5min-1 25°C-1) and four commercial papaya frozen purées available in the market were used to prepare the seven respective papaya nectars. Preliminary studies were carried out to determine the amount of water and sugar to be added to the purée, according to the consumer preference. The seven samples were evaluated by 12 selected and trained panelists using the Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA). The results showed that the nectars of control and pressurized samples were similar regarding sensory attributes having been characterized by the presence of lumps, characteristic flavor of papaya, consistency and characteristic aroma of papaya.

Fernanda Branco, Shinagawa; Rosires, Deliza; Amauri, Rosenthal; Maria Alice, Zarur.

1898-19-01

287

Molecular characterization and infectivity of Papaya leaf curl China virus infecting tomato in China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Papaya leaf curl China virus (PaLCuCNV) was previously reported as a distinct begomovirus infecting papaya in southern China. Based on molecular diagnostic survey, 13 PaLCuCNV isolates were obtained from tomato plants showing leaf curl symptoms in Henan and Guangxi Provinces of China. Complete nucleotide sequences of 5 representative isolates (AJ558116, AJ558117, AJ704604, FN256260, and FN297834) were determined to be 2738-2751 nucleotides, which share 91.7%-97.9% sequence identities with PaLCuCNV isolate G2 (AJ558123). DNA-beta was not found to be associated with PaLCuCNV isolates. To investigate the infectivity of PaLCuCNV, an infectious clone of PaLCuCNV-[CN:HeNZM1] was constructed and agro-inoculated into Nicotiana benthamiana, N. tabacum Samsun, N. glutinosa, Solanum lycopersicum and Petunia hybrida plants, which induced severe leaf curling and crinkling symptoms in these plants. Southern blot analysis and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) indicated a systemic infection of test plants by the agro-infectious clone. PMID:20104645

Zhang, Hui; Ma, Xin-ying; Qian, Ya-juan; Zhou, Xue-ping

2010-02-01

288

Molecular characterization and infectivity of Papaya leaf curl China virus infecting tomato in China*  

Science.gov (United States)

Papaya leaf curl China virus (PaLCuCNV) was previously reported as a distinct begomovirus infecting papaya in southern China. Based on molecular diagnostic survey, 13 PaLCuCNV isolates were obtained from tomato plants showing leaf curl symptoms in Henan and Guangxi Provinces of China. Complete nucleotide sequences of 5 representative isolates (AJ558116, AJ558117, AJ704604, FN256260, and FN297834) were determined to be 2738–2751 nucleotides, which share 91.7%–97.9% sequence identities with PaLCuCNV isolate G2 (AJ558123). DNA-? was not found to be associated with PaLCuCNV isolates. To investigate the infectivity of PaLCuCNV, an infectious clone of PaLCuCNV-[CN:HeNZM1] was constructed and agro-inoculated into Nicotiana benthamiana, N. tabacum Samsun, N. glutinosa, Solanum lycopersicum and Petunia hybrida plants, which induced severe leaf curling and crinkling symptoms in these plants. Southern blot analysis and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) indicated a systemic infection of test plants by the agro-infectious clone. PMID:20104645

Zhang, Hui; Ma, Xin-ying; Qian, Ya-juan; Zhou, Xue-ping

2010-01-01

289

Production and Shelf-Life of Low Sucrose Lime Juice Papaya Jam  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Consumers are becoming more aware of the deleterious effects of a high-sucrose diet. This research developed low sucrose jam from ripe papaya meat and green lime juice. The shelf-life was studied: (A in a refrigerator, (B at room temperature with preservatives added and (C at room temperature with steaming after filling. The developed jam was composed of 32% papaya, 8% lime juice, 0.55% low ester pectin, 0.5% konjac flour, 9% glucose syrup, 0.03% salt and 0.01% calcium lactate and consisted of 52.10% moisture, 45.61% total carbohydrate, 0% fat and 1.52% dietary fiber with only 7.71x105 J/100 g. It contained 36.46% sucrose, 46°B total soluble solids and had a pH of 3.22. The average sensory evaluation score was moderate preference and 79.31% of consumers liked it. The shelf-life of jam from A and B methods was more than six months but the C method was only five months.

Chowladda Teangpook

2013-01-01

290

Plant selection in F 2 segregating populations of papaya from commercial hybrids  

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Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to estimate the genetic parameters and additive genetic values in segregating populations of papaya using the mixed model methodology. Two F2 populations from Tainung and Calimosa hybrids were evaluated. The experimental design was an augmented block with four replicates, and Golden and Calimosa cultivars were the common treatment. Estimates of individual heritability were high for fruit length (FL and weight (FW, moderate for fruit diameter (FD, and low for total soluble solids (TSS and fruit firmness (FF. Considering FF and TSS as main traits for selection, genotypes of Calimosa-F2 population showed better performance to FF, but worse concerning TSS. It was selected 18.3% and 24.6% of plants from Tainung-F2 andCalimosa-F2 populations, respectively. Negative correlation between TSS and FF was not able to reduce the genetic gains. The segregating populations from Calimosa hybrid are more promising for the selection of papaya lines.

Eder Jorge Oliveira

2012-09-01

291

Control of papaya fruits anthracnose by essential oil of Ricinus communis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of this work was to investigate the potential of castor oil for the control of papaya diseases caused by the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and the bacterium Pseudomonas caricapapayae. The treatment with 1% castor oil did not significantly affect the fungal growth. The effectiveness o [...] f castor oil for the control of anthracnose was shown when 5% and 10% (v/v) were used in the assays resulting in reduced mycelial growth. Fungal sporulation was strongly inhibited at 10% (v/v) concentration of essential oil. The studies with the fresh fruits treated with 5% (v/v) castor oil in aqueous emulsions resulted in effective reduction of pathogen spread in these fruits. No lesion was found in the fruits treated with oil, when compared to the control fruits. Castor oil showed no effect against the P. caricapapayae when tested in vitro. These results suggested the potential use of the castor bean essential oil and its fatty acids constituents for the control of anthracnose in papaya fruits.

César Luis, Siqueira Júnior; Maria das Graças Machado, Freire; Antônio Sérgio Nascimento, Moreira; Maria Ligia Rodrigues, Macedo.

2012-02-01

292

Control of papaya fruits anthracnose by essential oil of Ricinus communis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the potential of castor oil for the control of papaya diseases caused by the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and the bacterium Pseudomonas caricapapayae. The treatment with 1% castor oil did not significantly affect the fungal growth. The effectiveness of castor oil for the control of anthracnose was shown when 5% and 10% (v/v were used in the assays resulting in reduced mycelial growth. Fungal sporulation was strongly inhibited at 10% (v/v concentration of essential oil. The studies with the fresh fruits treated with 5% (v/v castor oil in aqueous emulsions resulted in effective reduction of pathogen spread in these fruits. No lesion was found in the fruits treated with oil, when compared to the control fruits. Castor oil showed no effect against the P. caricapapayae when tested in vitro. These results suggested the potential use of the castor bean essential oil and its fatty acids constituents for the control of anthracnose in papaya fruits.

César Luis Siqueira Júnior

2012-02-01

293

Heterosis in papaya: inter and intragroup analysis / Heterose no mamão: analise inter e intra-grupo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O mamão (Carica papaya L.) é uma cultura típica de áreas tropicais e o Brasil é um dos principais produtores mundiais. Nas últimas décadas, a cultura de mamão se expandiu para diferentes regiões do país, mas o número de cultivares disponíveis ainda é limitado. No presente trabalho, um cruzamento dia [...] lélico completo foi realizado com oito acessos de mamão do banco de germoplasma da UENF/Caliman. Quatro genótipos pertencem ao grupo heterótico Formosa e quatro, ao grupo Solo. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a ocorrência e viabilidade de explorar a heterose em híbridos heteróticos intra-grupo. Cinquenta e seis progénies híbridas foram geradas e avaliadas. Entre os híbridos intra-grupo Formosa, duas combinações híbridas (MR x J4 e MR x SK) apresentaram heterose para todas as características, bem como uma boa produção média total de frutos. Entre os híbridos intra-grupo Solo, três combinações híbridas (WM x GG, WM x SS e WM x SM) destacam-se pela produção de frutas e alto teor de sólidos solúveis. Em Formosa x híbridos de solo, todas as combinações híbridas com o progenitor JS (JS x WM, JS x GG, JS x SS e JS x SM) apresentaram frutos de alta qualidade e boa média para produção de frutos. O perfil de heterose dos híbridos testados permitiu a identificação de híbridos promissores dentro dos grupos heteróticos Formosa e Solo. A análise das variáveis canónicas também possibilitou a visualização de grupos distintos de híbridos, de acordo com a proveniência dos progenitores. Abstract in english Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a typical crop of tropical areas, and Brazil is one of the leading world producers. In recent decades, papaya culture has expanded to different regions of the country, but the number of cultivars available is still limited. In the present study, a complete diallel cross [...] was carried out using eight accessions of papaya from the UENF/Caliman germplasm bank. Four genotypes belong to the Formosa heterotic group and four, to the Solo group. This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence and viability of exploring heterosis in heterotic intragroup hybrids. Fifty-six hybrid progenies were generated and evaluated. Among the Formosa intragroup hybrids, two hybrid combinations (MR x J4 and MR x SK) showed heterosis for all traits, as well as good average total fruit production. Among the Solo intragroup hybrids, three hybrid combinations (WM x GG, WM x SS and WM x SM) stand out for fruit production and high content of soluble solids. In Formosa x Solo hybrids, all hybrid combinations with the parent JS (JS x WM, JS x GG, JS x SS and JS x SM) showed high fruit quality and good average for fruit production. The heterotic profile of the hybrids tested allowed the identification of promising hybrids within Formosa and Solo heterotic groups. The analysis of the canonical variables also allowed the visualization of distinct groups of hybrids, depending on the provenance of the parents.

Deisy Lúcia, Cardoso; Lucas Nunes da, Luz; Celia Maria Peixoto de, Macêdo; Leandro Gonçalves Simões, Azeredo; Messias Gonzaga, Pereira.

2014-09-01

294

Efecto de la madurez, geometría y presión sobre la cinética de transferencia de masa en la deshidratación osmótica de papaya (Carica papaya L., var. Maradol) / Efeito da maturidade, geometría e pressão sobre a cinética de transferência de massa na desidratação osmótica de papaya  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese Os mamões papaya obtidos no "raleo" (mamões papaya menos desenvolvidos entresacadas (desbastados) das árvores, para beneficiar o crescimento dos outros) geralmente se descartam. Alternativamente, estes mamões papaya podem secar-se por um processo de desidratação osmótica e secado térmico convenciona [...] l, para usá-los como snacks ou como ingrediente para outros produtos. Comparou-se a cinética de transferência de massa na desidratação osmótica de mamões papaya de"raleo" frente a mamões papaya desenvolvidos, com diferente grau de maturidade, considerando o efeito da geometria da mostra e da pressão do processo. A desidratação osmótica se efetuou numa solução agitada de sacarose a 50°Brix, a 25 °C. Consideraram-se três níveis de maturidade, "raleo", verde e pintona; três geometrias, lâmina, cilindro e anel; e dois níveis de pressão, atmosférica e vazio. Estudaram-se como variáveis cinéticas: a variação de peso (WR), perda de água (WL) e ganho de sólidos (SG) entre 10 e 180 min. A maturidade teve efeito significativo sobre as três respostas a 30 min e sobre SG a 180 min; a geometria teve efeito sobre WR e SG a 30 min e sobre os três parâmetros cinéticos a 180 min; e a pressão somente teve efeito sobre WL e SG a 30 min. A maior perda de água (65%) obteve-se a 30 min para a combinação: "raleo" /cilindro/vazio; enquanto o maior ganho de sólidos foi de 31% para o tratamento verde/lâmina/vazio a 180 min. Abstract in spanish Las papayas obtenidas en el raleo (papayas menos desarrolladas entresacadas de los árboles para beneficiar el crecimiento de las otras) generalmente se descartan. Alternativamente, estas papayas pueden secarse por un proceso de deshidratación osmótica y secado térmico convencional para usarlas como [...] snacks o como ingrediente para otros productos. Se comparó la cinética de transferencia de masa en la deshidratación osmótica de papayas de raleo frente a papayas desarrolladas con diferente grado de madurez, considerando el efecto de la geometría de la muestra y de la presión del proceso. La deshidratación osmótica se efectuó en una solución agitada de sacarosa a 50 °Brix, a 25 °C. Se consideraron tres niveles de madurez: raleo, verde y pintona, tres geometrías: lámina, cilindro y anillo y dos niveles de presión: atmosférica y vacío. Se estudiaron como variables cinéticas la variación de peso (WR), pérdida de agua (WL) y ganancia de sólidos (SG) entre 10 y 180 min. La madurez tuvo efecto significativo sobre las tres respuestas de la cinética a 30 min y sobre SG a 180 min; la geometría tuvo efecto sobre WR y SG a 30 min y sobre los tres parámetros cinéticos a 180 min y la presión solamente tuvo efecto sobre WL y SG a 30 min. La mayor pérdida de agua (65%) se obtuvo a 30 min para la combinación raleo/cilindro/vacío; mientras que la mayor ganancia de sólidos fue 31% para el tratamiento verde/lámina/vacío a 180 min.

Lina Marcela, Chavarro-Castrillón; Claudia Isabel, Ochoa-Martínez; Alfredo, Ayala-Aponte.

2006-09-01

295

Determination of thermal diffusivity in papaya pulp as a function of maturation stage Determinação da difusividade térmica da polpa de mamão em função do estádio de maturação  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In order to determine the penetration of the thermal wave in the papaya fruit pulp (Carica papaya L.), cv. Golden, thermal diffusivity of the pulp was obtained measuring temperature at four different depths. Measurements were carried out initially with the fruit on the first stage of maturity. The changes of the thermal diffusivity were expressed as a function of ripening. A temporal decrease of the thermal diffusivity was observed. Chemical (pH, soluble solids and total titratable acidity) a...

Savio Figueira Corrêa; Maximiliano Silva de Souza; Talita Pereira; Gustavo Verçosa de Lima Alves; Jurandi Gonçalves de Oliveira; Marcelo Gomes da Silva; Helion Vargas

2008-01-01

296

Differential Gene Expression in Response to Papaya ringspot virus Infection in Cucumis metuliferus Using cDNA- Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A better understanding of virus resistance mechanisms can offer more effective strategies to control virus diseases. Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), Potyviridae, causes severe economical losses in papaya and cucurbit production worldwide. However, no resistance gene against PRSV has been identified to date. This study aimed to identify candidate PRSV resistance genes using cDNA-AFLP analysis and offered an open architecture and transcriptomic method to study those transcripts differentially exp...

Lin, Yu-tsung; Jan, Fuh-jyh; Lin, Chia-wei; Chung, Chien-hung; Chen, Jo-chu; Yeh, Shy-dong; Ku, Hsin-mei

2013-01-01

297

Papaya pulp gelling: is it premature ripening or problems of water accumulation in the apoplast? Geleificação da polpa de mamão: amadurecimento prematuro ou problemas no acúmulo de água no apoplasto?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Gelled aspect in papaya fruit is typically confused with premature ripening. This research reports the characterization of this physiological disorder in the pulp of papaya fruit by measuring electrolyte leakage, Pi content, lipid peroxidation, pulp firmness, mineral contents (Ca, Mg and K - in pulp and seed tissues), and histological analysis of pulp tissue. The results showed that the gelled aspect of the papaya fruit pulp is not associated with tissue premature ripening. Data indicate a re...

Jurandi Gonçalves de Oliveira; Ricardo Enrique Bressan-Smith; Eliemar Campostrini; Maura Da Cunha; Ernani Santos Costa; Alena Torres Netto; Kelly da Silva Coutinho; Silva, Marcelo Gomes Da; Angela Pierre Vitória

2010-01-01

298

La Generación Messenger: Relevancia de la mensajería instantánea en la adolescencia chilena  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese Em meio às mudanças que geraram a chamada Era da Informação, o fenômeno da Comunicação Mediada por Computador (cmc) ganha importância. Isto diz respeito ao crescente acesso da sociedade chilena à internet, o que a posiciona como líder na América Latina. Considerando a familiaridade dos jovens com as [...] novas tecnologias, este grupo etéreo é o que se apropria com maior intensidade desta nova ferramenta comunicativa. A mensagem instantânea passa a ser uma importante ferramenta para os processos de socialização dos jovens, ocupando o lugar que em décadas passadas era do telefone. Diferente de outras tecnologias, a mensagem instantânea constitui um dos poucos elementos comuns que atravessa os segmentos sociais e as diversas tribos urbanas, pela qual os jovens chilenos vivem seus processos de construção de identidade. Abstract in spanish En medio de los cambios que ha generado la llamada Era de la Información, adquiere importancia el fenómeno de la Comunicación Mediada por Computador (CMC). Esto se relaciona con el creciente acceso de la sociedad chilena hacia la internet, que lo posiciona como líder en Latinoamérica en el tema. Dad [...] a la cercanía que los jóvenes tienen con las nuevas tecnologías, este grupo etáreo es el que se apropia con mayor intensidad de esta nueva herramienta comunicativa. La mensajería instantánea pasa a ser una importante herramienta para los procesos de socialización de los jóvenes, ocupando el lugar que en décadas pasadas tuvo el teléfono. A diferencia de otras tecnologías, la mensajería se convierte en uno de los pocos elementos comunes que cruza los segmentos sociales y las variadas tribus urbanas en las cuales los jóvenes chilenos viven sus procesos de construcción de la identidad. Abstract in english In the middle of changes has generated by Age of Information called, acquired importance the phenomenon of Computer Mediated Communication (cmc). This is related to the increasing access that the Chilean society towards the internet, that positions it like leader in Latin America in the subject. By [...] the proximity that the young people have with new technologies, this age group has been has itself appropriate with greater intensity of this new communicative tool. The instant messaging has become an important tool by he socialization processes of the young people, having occupied the place that in last decades use the telephone. Compared to other technologies the mail has become one of the few common elements that it crosses the social segments and the varied urban tribes in who the Chilean young people live their processes on construction of the identity.

Luis, Cárcamo Ulloa; Felipe, Nesbet Montecinos.

2008-08-01

299

Propagación in vitro de Carica papaya var. PTM-331 a partir de meristemos apicales / In vitro propagation of Carica papaya var. PTM-331 from apical meristem  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El trabajo consistió en desarrollar un protocolo de propagación in vitro de la variedad de papaya PTM-331 a partir de meristemos apicales, con la finalidad de obtener plántulas vigorosas y libres de enfermedades, empleando la técnica del cultivo de tejidos. Las yemas apicales empleadas fueron obteni [...] das de plantas cultivadas en invernadero, los cuales fueron usados como explantes para la extracción de meristemos. La mejor diferenciación de meristemos se logró en el medio basal MS suplementado con 0,5 mg.L-1 de BAP, 0,5 mg.L-1 de AIA y 10 mg.L-1 de adenina. La mejor multiplicación se logró con el medio MS suplementado con 0,5 mg.L-1 de BAP, 0,5 mg.L-1 deAIA y 0,3 mg.L-1 de AG3, con un coeficiente de multiplicación de 3,42; mientras que el mejor medio para el enraizamiento fue la combinación del medio MS, 3 mg.L-1 de AIB y 5 mg.L-1 de adenina, donde se obtuvo 83,33% de plantas enraizadas. Abstract in english An in vitro protocol was develop to propagate variety of papaya PTM-331 from apical meristems, with the objective of obtaining vigorous and disease-free seedlings, using tissue culture techniques. Apical buds were obtained from seedlings cultivated in greenhouse and used as explants for meristem dis [...] section. Meristems were cultured on MS basal medium supplemented with 0,5 mg.L-1 of BAP, 0,5 mg.L-1 of AIA and 10 mg.L-1 of adenine for their differentiation. The best multiplication of explants was achieved with the combination of MS medium supplemented with 0,5 mg.L-1 of BAP, 0,5 mg.L-1 ofAIA and 0,3 mg.L-1 of AG3, where largest seedlings, with more shoots were obtained. The best medium for rooting was the combination of MS, 3 mg.L-1 of AIB and 5 mg.L-1 of adenine, where 83,33% of rooted plants were obtained.

Reynaldo, Solis L.; Julio, Olivera S.; Rafael S., La Rosa L..

2011-12-01

300

Propagación in vitro de Carica papaya var. PTM-331 a partir de meristemos apicales In vitro propagation of Carica papaya var. PTM-331 from apical meristem  

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Full Text Available El trabajo consistió en desarrollar un protocolo de propagación in vitro de la variedad de papaya PTM-331 a partir de meristemos apicales, con la finalidad de obtener plántulas vigorosas y libres de enfermedades, empleando la técnica del cultivo de tejidos. Las yemas apicales empleadas fueron obtenidas de plantas cultivadas en invernadero, los cuales fueron usados como explantes para la extracción de meristemos. La mejor diferenciación de meristemos se logró en el medio basal MS suplementado con 0,5 mg.L-1 de BAP, 0,5 mg.L-1 de AIA y 10 mg.L-1 de adenina. La mejor multiplicación se logró con el medio MS suplementado con 0,5 mg.L-1 de BAP, 0,5 mg.L-1 de AIA y 0,3 mg.L-1 de AG3, con un coeficiente de multiplicación de 3,42; mientras que el mejor medio para el enraizamiento fue la combinación del medio MS, 3 mg.L-1 de AIB y 5 mg.L-1 de adenina, donde se obtuvo 83,33% de plantas enraizadas.An in vitro protocol was develop to propagate variety of papaya PTM-331 from apical meristems, with the objective of obtaining vigorous and disease-free seedlings, using tissue culture techniques. Apical buds were obtained from seedlings cultivated in greenhouse and used as explants for meristem dissection. Meristems were cultured on MS basal medium supplemented with 0,5 mg.L-1 of BAP, 0,5 mg.L-1 of AIA and 10 mg.L-1 of adenine for their differentiation. The best multiplication of explants was achieved with the combination of MS medium supplemented with 0,5 mg.L-1 of BAP, 0,5 mg.L-1 of AIA and 0,3 mg.L-1 of AG3, where largest seedlings, with more shoots were obtained. The best medium for rooting was the combination of MS, 3 mg.L-1 of AIB and 5 mg.L-1 of adenine, where 83,33% of rooted plants were obtained.

Reynaldo Solis L.

2012-02-01

 
 
 
 
301

Effect of irradiation on color of minimally processed melon and papaya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The access to nutritious food is an essential dimension of food meal. High potential for fresh-cut industry exists and ready-to-eat fruit market has grown rapidly in recent years due to the health benefits associated. Although there is many concerns to food safety other parameters like texture, taste, color and sensory acceptance are fundamental principles of acceptance to any food. Actually the use of instrumental measurements has proven to be a major predictor of sensory responses. According to many authors, the addition of different techniques should always be considered to provide additional information of the sensory aspects. Therefore the objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of irradiation on color of minimally processed melon and papaya. The fruits were purchased in a market of Sao Paulo, at the same point of ripeness and sent to the IPEN/CNEN-SP. The fruits were sanitized and manually cut into cubes of approximately 2 x 2 cm with the aid of stainless steel knives and packed in polyethylene bags. Melons and papaya were irradiated in a Multipurpose Gamma Source (IPEN - Sao Paulo - Brazil) and were divided in six groups for color analysis: Control; 0.5 kGy; 1.0 kGy, 1.5kGy, 2.0 kGy and 3.0kGy. After the treatment, the MP fruits were kept in a refrigerator at 4 deg C ± 1 deg C until the end of the analysis. The color of the samples was determined using a Minolta colorimeter CR-400 Chromameter. The parameters L*, a* and b* were evaluated. The results were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance One-Dimensional Analysis of Variance (One-Way-ANOVA) followed by Tukey test. All statistical analysis was performed using the program Graph Pad Prism 5 and adopting a significance level of 5 % (p* parameter of any dose despite the tendency to darkening observed for the group of 3.0 kGy. This fact also occurred for the chromatographic coordinates a* and b* which remained in the same tonality for all treatments (p<0.05). Current results indicate that gamma radiation can be used for keeping the color. Doses up to 3kGy were efficient for that. Future studies should consider pretreatments to minimize the darkening effects on fruits. Therefore, the results from this study suggest the use of gamma radiation as a quality alternative for keep the color of minimally processed melon and papaya. (author)

302

Estudiantes de sectores rurales en las universidades chilenas: problemas y desafíos  

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Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Si bien no existen estudios específicos acerca de los estudiantes provenientes de sectores rurales que ingresan a la educación superior en Chile ni de sus trayectorias académicas, se puede afirmar, a partir de otros estudios, que ha habido un fuerte aumento de este tipo de estudiantes en las distint [...] as universidades chilenas en la última década. Pese a esa expansión, su futuro académico y laboral resulta incierto en razón de las altas tasas de reprobación y abandonos tempranos, situación que obliga al diseño de una política de retención y apoyo académico-humano específica. Abstract in english Though specific studies do not exist about students from rural sectors who join the higher education institutions in Chile nor their academic paths, it is possible to affirm, from other studies, that there has been a strong increase of this type of students in the different Chilean universities in t [...] he last decade. In spite of this expansion, their academic and labor future turns out to be uncertain in reason of the high rates of failure and early abandons, situation that needs the design of retention politics, and human-academic funding.

Juan, Cornejo Espejo.

2013-12-01

303

MONOPSONISTIC BEHAVIOR IN CHILEAN MANUFACTURING / COMPORTAMIENTO MONOPSONICO EN LA MANUFACTURA CHILENA  

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Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Este trabajo utiliza una metodología firma-específica desarrollada por Brummund (2012) para medir poder monopsónico en el mercado de trabajo usando datos de plantas manufactureras chilenas para el período 2001-2006. Los resultados muestran una alta heterogeneidad en poder de mercado laboral entre la [...] s plantas y que cerca de un 25% de las plantas tienen un nivel alto de poder monopsónico. Se encuentra también que las características individuales de las plantas tienen un mayor poder explicativo del comportamiento monopsónico de las plantas que las características agregadas del mercado laboral en el que se desempeñan. La implicancia de política de estos resultados es que un salario mínimo restrictivo podría tener efectos ambiguos sobre el bienestar. Abstract in english This paper uses a firm-specific method for measuring monopsonistic behavior developed by Brummund (2012) using data for Chilean manufacturing plants for the period 2001-2006. We find that there is significant heterogeneity in labor market power across plants and that nearly a quarter of the plants h [...] ave a significant level of labor market power. It is also shown that individual plant characteristics explain more of the variation in monopsonistic behavior than do the characteristics of the accompanying labor market. These results are relevant for labor market policy since and suggest that a binding minimum wage could have ambiguous effects on welfare.

DAVID, MACKINSON; LUCAS, NAVARRO.

2013-10-01

304

Construcción Social de la Vejez y Expectativas ante la Jubilación en Mujeres Chilenas  

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Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este artículo es una aproximación al conocimiento de las expectativas y valoraciones de trabajadoras mayores ante la jubilación y vejez en Chile. Los cambios observados en el desarrollo y vida de las mujeres trabajadoras, se los ha comprendido y dimensionado en el contexto de transformación que ha e [...] xperimentado la sociedad chilena en el último tiempo. La posición y relación de las mujeres trabajadoras con el mundo social, doméstico y familiar ha ido cambiando. Lo cual genera, a su vez cambios en las formas tradicionales de experiencia de la jubilación y construcción de la vejez por parte de estas mujeres Abstract in english This paper is an approximation to the expectations and valuations by older female workers about their own retirement and old age in Chile. We study and measure the changes observed in the occupational career and life of women workers in the context of transformation that the Chilean society has expe [...] rienced in the last time. The position in and the relationship of the hard-working women with the social, domestic and family world has been evolving towards new forms of experience of the retirement and construction of the old age

Paulina, Osorio P.

305

Construcción Social de la Vejez y Expectativas ante la Jubilación en Mujeres Chilenas  

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Full Text Available Este artículo es una aproximación al conocimiento de las expectativas y valoraciones de trabajadoras mayores ante la jubilación y vejez en Chile. Los cambios observados en el desarrollo y vida de las mujeres trabajadoras, se los ha comprendido y dimensionado en el contexto de transformación que ha experimentado la sociedad chilena en el último tiempo. La posición y relación de las mujeres trabajadoras con el mundo social, doméstico y familiar ha ido cambiando. Lo cual genera, a su vez cambios en las formas tradicionales de experiencia de la jubilación y construcción de la vejez por parte de estas mujeresThis paper is an approximation to the expectations and valuations by older female workers about their own retirement and old age in Chile. We study and measure the changes observed in the occupational career and life of women workers in the context of transformation that the Chilean society has experienced in the last time. The position in and the relationship of the hard-working women with the social, domestic and family world has been evolving towards new forms of experience of the retirement and construction of the old age

Paulina Osorio P

2007-01-01

306

Notas sobre ecocrítica y poesía chilena / Notes on ecocriticism and Chilean poetry  

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Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se examinan algunas prácticas poéticas chilenas, caracterizadas por presentar visiones profundas de los sujetos humanos y la naturaleza. Se indaga en ellos tanto las relaciones de los sujetos con su medio y la presencia de una conciencia ecológica activa, como la plasmación discursiva de un imaginar [...] io vinculado a esa conciencia relacional: la plas-mación de vivencias de profunda integración del ser humano con el cosmos. Se indaga tanto los referentes ambientales como la articulación de elementos de la naturaleza en tanto expresión de los sujetos textuales. Abstract in english Certain Chilean poetics practices are examined, which present profound visions of human subjects and of nature. The inquiry focuses on both the subjects' relations with their environment, and the presence of an active ecological awareness, as well as the literary concretion of an imagery linked to t [...] hat relational awareness: the concretion of experiences of a profound integration of the human being with the cosmos. Environ-mental referents and the articulation of natural elements as expression of textual subjects are approached within the frame of globalization processes and the defense of regional cultural values.

Mauricio, Ostria González.

307

La Asociación Chilena de Editores de Revistas Biomédicas The Chilean Association of Biomedical Journal Editors  

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Full Text Available On September 29th, 2000, The Chilean Association of Biomedical Journal Editors was founded, sponsored by the "Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (CONICYT" (the Governmental Agency promoting and funding scientific research and technological development in Chile and the "Sociedad Médica de Santiago" (Chilean Society of Internal Medicine. The Association adopted the goals of the World Association of Medical Editors (WAME and therefore it will foster "cooperation and communication among Editors of Chilean biomedical journals; to improve editorial standards, to promote professionalism in medical editing through education, self-criticism and self-regulation; and to encourage research on the principles and practice of medical editing". Twenty nine journals covering a closely similar number of different biomedical sciences, medical specialties, veterinary, dentistry and nursing, became Founding Members of the Association. A Governing Board was elected: President: Humberto Reyes, M.D. (Editor, Revista Médica de Chile; Vice-President: Mariano del Sol, M.D. (Editor, Revista Chilena de Anatomía; Secretary: Anna María Prat (CONICYT; Councilors: Manuel Krauskopff, Ph.D. (Editor, Biological Research and Maritza Rahal, M.D. (Editor, Revista de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. The Association will organize a Symposium on Biomedical Journal Editing and will spread information stimulating Chilean biomedical journals to become indexed in international databases and in SciELO-Chile, the main Chilean scientific website (www.scielo.cl (Rev Méd Chile 2001;129: 95-98

Humberto Reyes B

2001-01-01

308

La Asociación Chilena de Editores de Revistas Biomédicas / The Chilean Association of Biomedical Journal Editors  

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Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english On September 29th, 2000, The Chilean Association of Biomedical Journal Editors was founded, sponsored by the "Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (CONICYT)" (the Governmental Agency promoting and funding scientific research and technological development in Chile) and the "Soc [...] iedad Médica de Santiago" (Chilean Society of Internal Medicine). The Association adopted the goals of the World Association of Medical Editors (WAME) and therefore it will foster "cooperation and communication among Editors of Chilean biomedical journals; to improve editorial standards, to promote professionalism in medical editing through education, self-criticism and self-regulation; and to encourage research on the principles and practice of medical editing". Twenty nine journals covering a closely similar number of different biomedical sciences, medical specialties, veterinary, dentistry and nursing, became Founding Members of the Association. A Governing Board was elected: President: Humberto Reyes, M.D. (Editor, Revista Médica de Chile); Vice-President: Mariano del Sol, M.D. (Editor, Revista Chilena de Anatomía); Secretary: Anna María Prat (CONICYT); Councilors: Manuel Krauskopff, Ph.D. (Editor, Biological Research) and Maritza Rahal, M.D. (Editor, Revista de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello). The Association will organize a Symposium on Biomedical Journal Editing and will spread information stimulating Chilean biomedical journals to become indexed in international databases and in SciELO-Chile, the main Chilean scientific website (www.scielo.cl) (Rev Méd Chile 2001;129: 95-98)

Humberto, Reyes B.

2001-01-01

309

Autoritarismo, enajenación y locura en la poesía chilena de fines del siglo XX. Zurita, Maquieira, Cuevas.  

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Full Text Available RESUMEN: El ensayo analiza la figura del sujeto en tres poetas claves de la poesía chilena de fines del siglo XX: Raúl Zurita, Diego Maquieira y José Ángel Cuevas, con el propósito de dar cuenta del proceso de enajenación vivido por diversos tipos de subjetividades en crisis. Este complejo proceso de metaforización de la censura y la represión social se traduce en una multiplicidad de voces que interactúan en el espacio del texto, dando lugar a voces desquiciadas, en los márgenes entre la razón y la locura, que complejizan las relaciones entre escritura y vida. Así la ambigüedad sexual, el disfraz, la escisión del sujeto, son rasgos de una escritura de una fuerte carga testimonial y crítica.ABSTRACT: The essay analyzes the figure of the subject in three of the most important Chilean poets at the end twentieth century, Raúl Zurita, Diego Maquieira and José Ángel Cuevas, in orden to show the process of alienation lived by different types of subject in situations of crisis. The complex processes of censorship and social repression converted to metaphors appears in the form of multiple voices interacting in the textual space, deranged voices on the frontiers of reason and madness which complicate the relation between writing and life. Sexual ambiguity, the mask, and the fragmentation of the subject are characteristics of this highly testimonial and critical literature.

Óscar GALINDO VILLARROEL

2009-11-01

310

Prevalencia de vaginosis bacteriana en trabajadoras sexuales chilenas / Prevalence of bacterial vaginosis in Chilean sex workers  

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Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Determinar la prevalencia de vaginosis bacteriana (VB) en trabajadoras sexuales chilenas y relacionar los hallazgos con variables sociodemográficas, sexuales y clínicas. MÉTODO: Se estudió una muestra de 379 trabajadoras sexuales que asistían para control a Unidades de Atención y Control d [...] e Salud Sexual de Chile. A todas se las entrevistó para obtener antecedentes sociodemográficos y sexuales, se les realizó evaluación clínica que incluyó características del flujo vaginal, pH y prueba de aminas, y se les tomó una muestra vaginal para tinción de Gram. Para el diagnóstico de VB se empleó el criterio de Nugent. Los datos fueron analizados con EPI-INFO 3.4.1 y BioStat, utilizándose un grado de significación de P Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (BV) in Chilean sex workers and relate the findings to sociodemographic, sexual, and clinical variables. METHODS: A sample of 379 sex workers seen in Chilean Sexual Health Monitoring and Care Units for check-ups was studied. All of them w [...] ere interviewed to obtain their sociodemographic and sexual history. A clinical examination was performed that included the characteristics of vaginal discharge, pH, and amine test. A vaginal sample was taken for Gram stain. The Nugent criteria were used for the diagnosis of BV. The data was analyzed with EPI-INFO 3.4.1 and BioStat, using a degree of significance of P

Gloria, Venegas; Gioconda, Boggiano; Erica, Castro.

2011-07-01

311

Origen, consolidación y vigencia de la Nueva Dogmática Chilena (ca. 1955?1970)  

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Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El artículo describe la evolución de tres generaciones de profesores de Derecho penal chilenos, desde 1925 hasta 1970. Se indican las fuentes e influencias que reciben cada una de ellas y cómo influyen en las sucesivas generaciones, respectivamente. Se establecen las condiciones que incidieron en la [...] eclosión de una gran cantidad de nuevos especialistas en Derecho penal en la generación de 1955-1970, denominada Nueva Dogmática Chilena, y su participación en la disputa entre el “sistema neoclásico” y la "teoría de la acción final". Se concluye con el análisis de la vigencia de sus aportes y de los efectos del Golpe de Estado de 1973 en su desarrollo posterior. Abstract in english The following article describes the evolution of three generations of Chilean criminal law professors, from 1925 to1970. The sources and influences of each generation, and how they influence subsequent generations, are explained. Then, the conditions that influenced the emergence of a large number o [...] f new criminal law scholars of the 1955-1970 generation, known as the New Chilean Dogmatic, and their participation in the dispute between the "neoclassical system" and the "theory of final action”, are established. The article concludes by examining the current relevance of the New Chilean Dogmatic’s contributions and the effects of the 1973 coup in its further development.

Jean Pierre, Matus A.

2011-07-01

312

UN GRAN VAR BAYESIANO PARA LA ECONOMIA CHILENA / LARGE BAYESIAN VAR FOR THE CHILEAN ECONOMY  

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Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este artículo desarrolla un gran VAR bayesiano con más de cien variables para la economía chilena, en el mismo sentido que Banbura, Giannone y Reichlin (2010) se muestra que cuando el grado de contracción del ajuste de los priors son fijados en relación a la dimensión del corte transversal de la mue [...] stra (bayesian shrinkage), la capacidad predictiva de un VAR puede ser mejorado agregando variables macroeconómicas e información sectorial. Los resultados muestran que la predicción del gran VAR bayesiano se compara favorablemente con relación a algunos modelos univariados. Se examinan adicionalmente los impulsos respuesta a un shock monetario, así como también de algunos shocks sectoriales. Abstract in english This article develops a Large Bayesian VAR with more than 100 variables for the Chilean economy, as Banbura, Giannone and Reichlin (2010) shows that, when the degree of shrinkage is set in relation to the cross-sectional dimension of the sample (bayesian shrinkage), the forecasting performance of a [...] VAR can be improved by adding macroeconomic variables and sectoral information. The results show that the large bayesian VAR compares favorably with some univariate models. It further examines the impulse response functions to a monetary shock, as well as some sectoral shocks.

WILDO, GONZALEZ P.

2012-10-01

313

Regiones fronterizas y flujos culturales: La peruanidad en una región chilena  

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Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El artículo discute las dinámicas culturales que articulan la zona fronteriza del norte de Chile (Arica) y sur peruano (Tacna). El argumento central es que se observa un creciente proceso de influencia de la cultura peruana en la ciudad de Arica, fenómeno que denominamos "la peruanidad de una región [...] chilena". Los factores que influyen tienen que ver con el impacto regional de la globalización; la prolongada crisis económica de Arica; el acelerado crecimiento económico del sur de Perú; el agotamiento del clásico enfoque de la geo-política, y la influencia de los nuevos programas educacionales. Abstract in english This article discusses the cultural dynamics that shape the border area in Northern Chile (Arica) and Southern Peru (Tacna). The main argument is the emergence of a growing influence of Peruvian culture in the city of Arica, which we label as ¨Peruvinization of a Chilean Region¨. The factors that in [...] fluence this process have to do with the regional impact of globalization, the prolonged economic crisis in Arica, the accelerated economic growth of Southern Peru, the outdating of the classical geopolitical approach, and the influence of new educational programs.

Juan, Podestá Arzubiaga.

314

Regiones fronterizas y flujos culturales: La peruanidad en una región chilena  

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Full Text Available El artículo discute las dinámicas culturales que articulan la zona fronteriza del norte de Chile (Arica y sur peruano (Tacna. El argumento central es que se observa un creciente proceso de influencia de la cultura peruana en la ciudad de Arica, fenómeno que denominamos "la peruanidad de una región chilena". Los factores que influyen tienen que ver con el impacto regional de la globalización; la prolongada crisis económica de Arica; el acelerado crecimiento económico del sur de Perú; el agotamiento del clásico enfoque de la geo-política, y la influencia de los nuevos programas educacionales.This article discusses the cultural dynamics that shape the border area in Northern Chile (Arica and Southern Peru (Tacna. The main argument is the emergence of a growing influence of Peruvian culture in the city of Arica, which we label as ¨Peruvinization of a Chilean Region¨. The factors that influence this process have to do with the regional impact of globalization, the prolonged economic crisis in Arica, the accelerated economic growth of Southern Peru, the outdating of the classical geopolitical approach, and the influence of new educational programs.

Juan Podestá Arzubiaga

2011-01-01

315

RNA Interference of 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic Acid Oxidase (ACO1 and ACO2 Genes Expression Prolongs the Shelf Life of Eksotika (Carica papaya L. Papaya Fruit  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of using RNA interference in down regulating the expression of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase gene in Eksotika papaya. One-month old embryogenic calli were separately transformed with Agrobacterium strain LBA 4404 harbouring the three different RNAi pOpOff2 constructs bearing the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase gene. A total of 176 putative transformed lines were produced from 15,000 calli transformed, selected, then regenerated on medium supplemented with kanamycin. Integration and expression of the targeted gene in putatively transformed lines were verified by PCR and real-time RT-PCR. Confined field evaluation of a total of 31 putative transgenic lines planted showed a knockdown expression of the targeted ACO1 and ACO2 genes in 13 lines, which required more than 8 days to achieve the full yellow colour (Index 6. Fruits harvested from lines pRNAiACO2 L2-9 and pRNAiACO1 L2 exhibited about 20 and 14 days extended post-harvest shelf life to reach Index 6, respectively. The total soluble solids contents of the fruits ranged from 11 to 14° Brix, a range similar to fruits from non-transformed, wild type seed-derived plants.

Rogayah Sekeli

2014-06-01

316

Physico-Chemical Properties of Seed Oil from Papaya (Carica papaya and the Kinetics of Degradation of the Oil During Heating  

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Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the physico-chemical properies and the kinetics of degradation of papaya seed oil during heating. The seed is a good source of oil (32%. The physical properties of the oil extracts showed the state to be liquid at room temperature and indicated that the oil had refractive index, 1.4680; the peroxide value, 0.05 (meq O2/kg oil; free fatty acid, 1.2%; iodine value, 72.78 and saponification value, 198.5. Gas liquid chromatography technique has been developed for identification and quantitative determination of total unsaturated and saturated fatty acids shows that the crude oil had 80.44 and 19.56%, respectively. DSC indicates the presence of two components in oil extracted. The first peak at low melting point appears at -21.53°C (Hf = +1.81 J/g and the second peak appears to -9.77°C ( Hf = +41.53 J/g. The degradation kinetic of the oil was also investigated. The thermal oxidation of the double bonds of the oil showed a first-order thermal oxidation kinetic and the Arrhenius plot yielded a straight line with a slope equivalent to activation energy of 7.752 KJ/mol.There is the possibility of considering the seed as feed supplement and its oil for industrial application.

G. Bouanga-Kalou

2011-02-01

317

CADÁVER TUERTO, DE EDUARDO LABARCA EN EL MARCO DE LA "NOVELA HISTÓRICA CHILENA RECIENTE" Corpse, de Eduardo Labarca under The "Historical Novel Recent Chilean  

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Full Text Available Cadáver tuerto (2005 anticipa las variaciones del género novelesco en la literatura chilena, privilegiando y contemplando el proceso de la escritura. Labarca parodia en esta novela los cruces entre la ficción, la realidad y la historia, entre la vida y la autobiografía, entre el discurso televisivo, radial y del periodismo escrito, de modo tal que da un notorio giro discursivo a la narrativa chilena de filiación histórica.Cadáver tuerto (2005 anticipates the variations of the novel genre in Chilean literatura, priviledging and contemplating the writing process. Labarca parodies, in this novel, the crossings among fiction and reality, between life and autobiography, between television, radio and written newsprint discourse.

Eduardo Barraza J

2010-07-01

318

Study on the Optimal Crude Papaya Latex Content of Growing Rabbit Diet under Summer Conditions: Effects on Growth Performance and Immune Status  

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Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate the effect of latex of Carica papaya as feed additive and enzymes complex on performance growing rabbits. A control diet was formulated with an estimated proportion of 18% crude protein and 14% crude fibre. Another three diets were formulated supplementing control diet with 0.1, 0.5 or 0.7% papaya latex. One hundred weaned New Zealand White (NZW rabbits aged 35 days with an average initial weight of 570 ± 8.30 g (mean ± std. error were used in the present work (25/diet. Daily weight gain and daily feed intake were recorded from weaning up to 91 d of age (fattening period. At this time seven rabbits from each group were slaughtered and immediately lymphoid organs were taken and weighted. Also, blood samples were collected of seven rabbits from each group. Besides, at the end of the experimental period cell mediated immunity was recorded. In the whole fattening period, final body weight at 91 d and feed efficiency values of growing NZW increased linearly by 296.3 ± 49.5 g (P = 0.001 and 0.052 ± 0.007 g/g (P = 0.001, respectively per each increment of 1 unit of papaya latex inclusion. Daily weight gain during the whole fattening period from 35-91 d increased linearly and quadratically (P < 0.031 as dietary concentrations of papaya latex increased obtaining the highest values by using up to 0.16 papaya latex. Spleen and thymus indexes increased linearly by 0.023 ± 0.006 (P = 0.002 and 0.161 ± 0.025 (P = 0.001, respectively per each increment of 1 unit of papaya latex inclusion. The values of WBCs; lymphocytes and total protein increased linearly by 0.95 ± 0.324 (P = 0.007; 8.83 ± 2.03 (P = 0.002 and 2.11 ± 0.338 (P = 0.001, respectively per each increment of 1 unit of papaya latex inclusion. Cell mediated immunity increased linearly and quadratically (P < 0.002 as papaya latex inclusion, being optimized for 0.54% papaya latex inclusion. In conclusion, the addition of 0.7% latex of Carica papaya to the growing NZW rabbit diets, improved growth and immunity capabilities during summer heat stress.

K.H. El-Kholy

2008-01-01

319

Nitrogen fertilization sources and insecticidal activity of aqueous seeds extract of Carica papaya against Spodoptera frugiperda in maize / Fuentes nitrogenadas de fertilización y actividad insecticida del extracto acuoso de semilla de Carica papaya contra Spodoptera frugiperda en maíz  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish R. Figueroa-Brito, P. Villa-Ayala, J.F. López-Olguín, A. Huerta-de la Peña, J.R. Pacheco-Aguilar y M.A. Ramos-López. 2013. Fuentes nitrogenadas de fertilización y actividad insecticida del extracto acuoso de semilla de Carica papaya contra Spodoptera frugiperda en maíz. Cien. Inv. Agr. 40(3): 567-57 [...] 7. Se estimó el daño causado por el gusano cogollero del maíz Spodoptera frugiperda Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) durante la etapa vegetativa de maíz cultivado con fertilizantes nitrogenados químicos, vermicomposta, y extracto acuoso de semillas de Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae). Cada brote se infestó con una larva de primer instar de S. frugiperda. Las variables evaluadas incluyen el porcentaje de germinación. Las variables respuesta fueron el porcentaje de emergencia, longitud de la segunda y quinta hoja, diámetro de tallo y altura de la planta; así como la estimación de daño causado por larvas de S. frugiperda al maíz. Los resultados indicaron que la vermicomposta ayudó a la emergencia de la semilla, en una relación 3:1 de suelo con vermicomposta alcanzó 100% de emergencia, mientras que solo con suelo, la emergencia fue de 80%; el sulfato de amonio incrementó el tamaño de la segunda hoja y quinta hoja 89,6 y 160,4% respectivamente, aumentó el diámetro de tallo y la altura de la planta 290,2 y 13,3%, respecto al tratamiento donde solo se aplicó agua. Las fuentes de nitrógeno estimularon que S. frugiperda ocasionara más daño a la planta, el tratamiento con urea presentó 70% de daño, con fosfonitrato 62,3%, con sulfato de amonio fue de 51,8% sin extracto acuoso de semillas de C. papaya. El tratamiento con sulfato de amonio + extracto acuoso de semillas de C. papaya registró el menor daño del insecto al maíz con 29,6%. Abstract in english R. Figueroa-Brito, P. Villa-Ayala, J.F. López-Olguín, A. Huerta-de la Pena, J.R. Pacheco-Aguilar, and M.A. Ramos-López. 2013. Nitrogen fertilization sources and insecticidal activity of aqueous seeds extract of Carica papaya against Spodoptera frugiperda in maize. Cien. Inv. Agr. 40(3): 567-577. The [...] damage caused by the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to vegetative-stage maize cultivated with chemical nitrogen fertilizers, vermicompost, and Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae) seed extract was estimated. Each shoot was infested with one first instar larva of S. frugiperda. The variables measured included the percentage of germination, length of the second and fifth leaves, stem diameter and plant height, and the estimation of damage caused by S. frugiperda larvae on maize. The results indicated that vermicompost helped seed germination on a relation 3:1 from black soil and vermicompost, the emergence was 100%, while the emergence with black soil was 80%. The ammonium sulfate increased the length of the second and fifth leaves 89.6% and 160.4% respectively, augmented the stem diameter and the plant height 290.2% and 13.3% respectively, respect to water treatment. The exogenous nitrogen sources stimulate S. frugiperda to cause more damage to the plant, the treatment urea showed 70% of damage, with phosphonitrate 62.3% and with ammonium sulfate 51.8%, when were evaluated without aqueous seed extract of C. papaya. Ammonium sulfate + aqueous extract of C. papaya seeds showed the lowest insect damage to maize with 29.6%.

Rodolfo, Figueroa-Brito; Patricia, Villa-Ayala; Jesús F, López-Olguín; Arturo, Huerta-de la Peña; Juan R, Pacheco-Aguilar; Miguel A, Ramos-López.

2013-12-01

320

Inducción in vitro de raíces de Carica papaya mediante Agrobacterium rhizogenes y ácido 3-indolbutírico / In vitro induction of Carica papaya roots through Agrobacterium rhizogenes and 3-indolebutyric acid  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El enraizamiento de plántulas in vitro es una de las etapas más importantes en el proceso de micropropagación y en C. papaya ha sido una de las principales limitantes, obteniéndose porcentajes de sobrevivencia inferiores al 50%. El presente trabajo de investigación se realizó en el laboratorio de Bi [...] otecnología de la Universidad de Colima en 2009. Con el propósito de inducir un sistema radicular eficiente, se evaluaron brotes de papaya var. "Maradol" de aproximadamente 3 cm de longitud que fueron inoculados con A. rhizogenes a concentraciones de 1x10(7), 1x10(8) y 1x10(9) células mL-1 y establecidos en medio MS con acetosiringona (100 mM) y floroglucinol (25 mg/L). Para el experimento con la auxina, los brotes se subcultivaron en medio líquido MS con 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 y 5 ?M de AIB; se incubaron en oscuridad durante 126 h, seguido del subcultivo en sustrato BM2+sales minerales del MS. Ninguno de los brotes inoculados con las concentraciones bacterianas formó raíces; en contraste, 100% de los brotes tratados con AIB a una concentración de 3 ?M formaron raíces. Con lo anterior se demuestra que las plántulas de C. papaya posiblemente no son susceptibles a la cepa A4 de A. rhizogenes, mientras que el empleo de AIB resultó ser la opción más viable y efectiva para la inducción in vitro de raíces en brotes de papaya. Abstract in english In vitro rooting of seedlings is one of the most important steps in the process o f micropropagatio n and in C. Papaya has been one of the major limiting, having survival percentages below 50%. The present research was conducted in the laboratory of Biotechnology of the University of Colima in 2009. [...] In order to induce an efficient root system, evaluated papaya shoots var. "Maradol" of approximately 3 cm length, inoculated with A. rhizogenes at concentrations of 1x10(7), 1x10(8) and 1x10(9) cells ml-1 and established on MS medium with acetosyringone (1 00 mM) and phloroglucinol (25 mg / L). For the experiment with auxin shoots were subcultured in MS liquid medium containing 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 ?M IBA; incubated in the dark for 126 h, followed by subculture in substrate BM2 + MS mineral salts. None of the inoculated shoots with bacterial concentrations formed roots; in contrast, 100% of the treated shoots with IBA to a concentration of 3 ?M formed roots. With the above demonstrates that seedlings of C. papaya may not be susceptible to strain A4 A. rhizogenes, while the use of IBA proved to be the most viable and effective option for in vitro root induction in shoots of papaya.

Manuel de Jesús, Bermúdez Guzmán; Pedro, Valadez Ramírez; Marco Tulio, Buenrostro Nava; Gilberto, Manzo Sánchez; Salvador, Guzmán González.

1055-10-01

 
 
 
 
321

Controle químico do oídio do mamoeiro / Chemical control of papaya powdery mildew  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Realizaram-se três experimentos, em Linhares-ES, de controle do oídio (Ovulariopsis sp.) do mamoeiro (Carica papaya). A severidade da doença foi estimada usando escala de notas de 0 a 4. Em casa de vegetação, utilizaram-se mudas de 'Improved Sunrise Solo Line 72/12', em delineamento inteiramente cas [...] ualizado com seis tratamentos e cinco repetições. Foram feitas três pulverizações de triflumizole (150, 225 e 300 mg.l-1 i.a.), enxofre (1560 mg.l-1 i.a.) e tiofanato metílico (700 mg.l-1 i.a) e quatro avaliações da severidade da doença a intervalos semanais. Em campo, realizaram-se dois experimentos com o 'Baixinho de Santa Amália', tendo delineamento em blocos casualizados e quatro repetições. Foram feitas cinco pulverizações, a intervalos bissemanais e cinco avaliações da severidade da doença, sendo uma previamente e as demais aos 21, 35, 49 e 63 dias após a primeira pulverização. Em casa de vegetação, todos os produtos reduziram a área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença (AACPD). Triflumizole foi mais eficiente, não tendo diferenças entre suas doses. No primeiro experimento de campo, enxofre (1560 mg.l-1 i.a.) e bicarbonato de sódio (2000 mg.l-1) foram os produtos mais eficientes na redução da AACPD, seguidos por triflumizole, que não apresentou diferenças entre as doses aplicadas (150, 225 e 300 mg.l-1 i.a.). Tiofanato metílico (700 mg.l-1 i.a.) não diferiu da testemunha. No segundo experimento, azoxystrobin (20 a 100 mg.l-1 i.a.) aplicado a cada 14 ou 28 dias, com ou sem adjuvante-molhante, e enxofre (1560 mg.l-1 i.a.) não reduziram a AACPD. Este trabalho mostrou a possibilidade de utilização de enxofre e de bicarbonato de sódio no controle do oídio do mamoeiro. Abstract in english Three trials were conducted in Linhares county to study the chemical control of papaya (Carica papaya) powdery mildew (Ovulariopsis sp.). In all trials disease severity was visually estimated using a scale from 0 to 4. In the greenhouse, a trial was arranged in a completely randomised design with fi [...] ve replications using 'Improved Sunrise Solo Line 72/12'. Three sprays of triflumizole (150, 225, and 300 mg.l-1 a.i.), sulphur (1560 mg.l-1 a.i.) and methyl thiophanate (700 mg.l-1 a.i.) were evaluated at seven-day intervals during four weeks. The other two trials were carried out in an orchard of cv. Baixinho de Santa Amália, using a completely randomised block design with four replications. In each trial, five biweekly sprays and five evaluations were done: one before the first spray and the others 21, 35, 49, and 63 days after the first spray. In the greenhouse, all treatments differed from the control in relation to the area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC). Triflumizole was the most efficient fungicide. In the first field trial the most efficient fungicides in reducing the AUDPC were sodium bicarbonate (2000 mg.l-1 a.i.) and sulphur (1560 mg.l-1 a.i.) followed by triflumizole (150 to 300 mg.l-1 a.i.). Methyl tiophanate (700 mg.l-1 i.a.) did not differ from the control treatment. In the second field trial, azoxystrobin (20 to 100 mg.l-1 a.i.) applied at 14 or 28-day intervals, with or without adjuvant, and sulphur (1560 mg.l-1 a.i.) did not decrease the AUDPC. The results revealed the possibility of using sulphur and sodium bicarbonate to control papaya powdery mildew in the field.

JOSELI S., TATAGIBA; JOSÉ R., LIBERATO; LAÉRCIO, ZAMBOLIM; HÉLCIO, COSTA; JOSÉ A., VENTURA.

2002-04-01

322

Process variables influence on microwave assisted extraction of pectin from waste Carcia papaya L. peel.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objectives of the present study were to evaluate and optimize the influence of process variables such as microwave power, pH, time and solid-liquid ratio on the extraction of pectin from waste Carcia papaya L peel. The experiments were carried out based on a four factors three level Box-Behnken response surface design. A quadratic model was developed from the experimental data in order to predict the pectin yield. The optimal condition was found to be: microwave power of 512w, pH of 1.8, time of 140s and solid-liquid ratio of 1:15g/ml with maximum pectin yield (25.41%). PMID:25445679

Maran, J Prakash; Prakash, K Arun

2015-02-01

323

Dependência micorrízica de variedades comerciais de mamoeiro / Mycorrhizal dependency of papaya commercial varieties  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O genótipo da planta é fator preponderante na resposta à micorriza. Avaliou-se, neste trabalho, a resposta a fósforo e o grau de dependência micorrízica de variedades de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L.). O experimento foi realizado em casa de vegetação da Embrapa-Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Mandioca e [...] Fruticultura, com quatro variedades, testando-se seis doses de P: 0, 20, 40, 80, 140, 280 mg dm-3 e três tratamentos fúngicos (um controle não-micorrizado e a inoculação de Glomus clarum ou Gigaspora margarita). Foram estimados os seguintes parâmetros: dose de P para máxima eficiência micorrízica; valor T'; benefício da aplicação do P; benefício micorrízico; eficiência simbiótica, e dependência micorrízica. Plantas não-micorrizadas apresentaram resposta quadrática ao P aplicado e as inoculadas seguiram modelo raiz-quadrático, com grande incremento de matéria seca da parte aérea nas doses baixas; o benefício de P foi maior nas variedades Sunrise Solo e Improved Sunrise Solo - Line 72/12, enquanto as variedades Baixinho de Santa Amália e Tainung nº 1 apresentaram benefício micorrízico proporcionalmente maior, resultando em maior eficiência simbiótica. As variedades de mamoeiro apresentaram a seguinte classificação quanto à dependência micorrízica: Baixinho de Santa Amália = Tainung nº 1 > Sunrise Solo = Improved Sunrise Solo - Line 72/12. A maior ou menor dependência relacionou-se com a capacidade da variedade em produzir raízes. Abstract in english Plant genome is an important factor in plant response to arbuscular fungi. This work was designed to evaluate the degree of response to P application and mycorrhizal dependence of different varieties of papaya (Carica papaya L.). The experiment was performed under greenhouse conditions at Embrapa-Ce [...] ntro Nacional de Pesquisa de Mandioca e Fruticultura, Cruz das Almas, BA, Brazil, using seedlings of four varieties, six rates of P: 0, 20, 40, 80, 140 and 280 mg dm-3, and three fungi treatments (one control uninoculated and inoculation with Glomus clarum or Gigaspora margarita). The following parameters were estimated: rate of P for maximum mycorrhizal efficiency; T' value; P benefit, mycorrhizal benefit, symbiotic efficiency, and mycorrhizal dependence. Control plants had a quadratic response to applied P, while those inoculated had a root-quadratic response with a great increment in growth at lower rates; phosphorus benefit was higher in Sunrise Solo and Improved Sunrise Solo - Line 72/12 varieties, while the other two varieties showed a higher mycorrhizal benefit, resulting in a higher symbiotic efficiency. Papaya varieties showed the following classification of mycorrhizal dependency: Baixinho de Santa Amália = Tainung nº 1 > Sunrise Solo = Improved Sunrise Solo - Line 72/12. Mycorrhizal dependence related with the capability of the variety to produce roots.

Aldo Vilar, Trindade; José Oswaldo, Siqueira; Florício Pinto de, Almeida.

1485-14-01

324

Artificial neural network analysis of genetic diversity in Carica papaya L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study of genetic diversity is fundamental in the preliminary selection of accessions with superior characteristicsand for a successful use of these genotypes in breeding programs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate, as a strategy for geneticdiversity analysis, the bioinformatics approach called artificial neural network. Based on the average of three growing seasons,eight quantitative traits and thirty-seven papaya accessions were evaluated in a randomized complete block design, with tworeplications. By Anderson’s discriminant analysis, 91.90 % of the accessions were correctly classified in the groups previouslydefined by artificial neural network. It was concluded that the technique of artificial neural network is feasible to classify theaccessions. The presence of significant genetic diversity among accessions was observed.

Cibelle Degel Barbosa

2011-01-01

325

Fermented papaya preparation halts the progression of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH can progress to cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. Oxidative stress is implicated in NASH progression. Fermented papaya preparation (FPP has oxygen radical scavenging activity and is effective in oxidative stress-related diseases. We investigated the effects of FPP on NASH progression using a rat NASH model. Plasma biochemical parameters and lipid peroxidation in the liver were elevated in NASH rats. Histologically, the liver of NASH rats showed liver fibrosis, mitochondrial dysfunction and over-expression of microsomal CYP2E1. Myeloperoxidase activity and nuclear factor-kappaB activation were also markedly increased in NASH. Oral administration of FPP ameliorated these changes in NASH rats. These results suggest that FPP halts NASH progression through its anti-oxidative and antiinflammatory properties.

Mitsuko Imao

2013-05-01

326

Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. III. Tropical fruits: bananas, mangoes, and papayas.  

Science.gov (United States)

The current status of research on the use of ionizing radiation for shelf life improvement and disinfestation of fresh tropical fruits like bananas, mangoes, and papayas are reviewed. The aspects covered are influence of maturity and physiological state of the fruits on delayed ripening and tolerance to radiation; varietal responses; changes in chemical constituents, volatiles, respiration, and ethylene evolution; biochemical mechanisms of delayed ripening and browning of irradiated fruits; and organoleptic quality. The efficacy of the combination of hot water dip and radiation treatments for control of postharvest fungal diseases are considered. The immediate potential of radiation as a quarantine treatment, in place of the currently used chemical fumigants, for disinfestation of fruit flies and mango seed weevil are discussed. Future prospects for irradiation of tropical fruits are discussed in the light of experience gained from studies conducted in different countries. PMID:3082598

Thomas, P

1986-01-01

327

Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. III. Tropical fruits: bananas, mangoes, and papayas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The current status of research on the use of ionizing radiation for shelf life improvement and disinfestation of fresh tropical fruits like bananas, mangoes, and papayas are reviewed. The aspects covered are influence of maturity and physiological state of the fruits on delayed ripening and tolerance to radiation; varietal responses; changes in chemical constituents, volatiles, respiration, and ethylene evolution; biochemical mechanisms of delayed ripening and browning of irradiated fruits; and organoleptic quality. The efficacy of the combination of hot water dip and radiation treatments for control of postharvest fungal diseases are considered. The immediate potential of radiation as a quarantine treatment, in place of the currently used chemical fumigants, for disinfestation of fruit flies and mango seed weevil are discussed. Future prospects for irradiation of tropical fruits are discussed in the light of experience gained from studies conducted in different countries.146 references

328

Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. III. Tropical fruits: bananas, mangoes, and papayas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The current status of research on the use of ionizing radiation for shelf life improvement and disinfestation of fresh tropical fruits like bananas, mangoes, and papayas are reviewed. The aspects covered are influence of maturity and physiological state of the fruits on delayed ripening and tolerance to radiation; varietal responses; changes in chemical constituents, volatiles, respiration, and ethylene evolution; biochemical mechanisms of delayed ripening and browning of irradiated fruits; and organoleptic quality. The efficacy of the combination of hot water dip and radiation treatments for control of postharvest fungal diseases are considered. The immediate potential of radiation as a quarantine treatment, in place of the currently used chemical fumigants, for disinfestation of fruit flies and mango seed weevil are discussed. Future prospects for irradiation of tropical fruits are discussed in the light of experience gained from studies conducted in different countries.146 references.

Thomas, P.

1986-01-01

329

116 años de la Revista Chilena de Historia Natural: Breve relato de dos antes y un después / 116 years of Revista Chilena de Historia Natural: A brief story of two befores and an after  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El año 2013 marcará el cierre de una etapa importante para la Revista Chilena de Historia Natural (RCHN), ya que a partir de 2014 comenzará a publicarse a través de la plataforma SpringerOpen, incluyendo algunos cambios relevantes en su diseño, manejo editorial, e idioma, entre otros. Por lo tanto e [...] n este artículo sintetizo algunos aspectos clave en la evolución de RCHN desde su fundación a fines del siglo 19, a través de dos períodos históricos: (a) 1897-1963, donde destaca la figura de su creador Carlos E. Porter y el rol de la Sociedad Chilena de Historia Natural, y (b) 1983-2013, su etapa reciente ligada a la Sociedad de Biología de Chile. Adicionalmente presento un breve análisis de la situación y el impacto de RCHN en su etapa moderna, incluyendo información inédita que muestra la preferencia (vía citación) por distintos aspectos de sus contenidos (categoría de artículo, área disciplinaria, tipo de ambiente), y un ranking de los artículos más citados vs. aquellos más consultados online, que revela dos caras distintas del impacto de la revista. Abstract in english The year 2013 will mark the end of an important period for Revista Chilena de Historia Natural (RCHN), as from 2014 it will start to be published through the SpringerOpen platform, including some conspicuous changes in design, editorial management and language, among others. Therefore in this articl [...] e I summarize some key aspects in the evolution of RCHN since its foundation in the late 19th century, through two historical periods: (a) 1897-1963, which highlights the figure of its creator Carlos E. Porter and the role of the Sociedad Chilena de Historia Natural (Chilean Society of Natural History), and (b) 1983-2013, its recent period linked to the Sociedad de Biología de Chile (Biology Society of Chile). Additionally, I present a brief analysis of the situation and the impact of RCHN in its modern period, including unpublished information showing the preference (via citation) for different aspects of its contents (article category, disciplinary area, environment type), and a ranking of the most cited articles vs. those most consulted online, which reveals two different faces of the journal's impact.

PATRICIO A, CAMUS.

2013-12-01

330

EFEITOS DE DIFERENTES LÂMINAS E FREQÜÊNCIAS DE IRRIGAÇÃO SOBRE A PRODUTIVIDADE DO MAMOEIRO (Carica papaya L. EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT WATER DEPTHS AND IRRIGATION FREQUENCIES ON THE YIELDING OF PAPAYA TREE (Carica papaya L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi conduzido na Fazenda Experimental de Sooretama do Instituto Capixaba de Pesquisa, Assistência Técnica e Extensão Rural - INCAPER, no município de Sooretama-ES, no período de 22 de novembro de 1996 a 15 de janeiro de 1998. O solo da área é um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico, com horizonte A moderado. Objetivou-se estudar os efeitos da interação entre lâmina de água aplicada e freqüências de aplicação, sobre a produção comercial e componentes de produção do mamoeiro. Obteve-se um crescimento linear da produtividade com o aumento da lâmina de água aplicada. Verificou-se, porém, que a maior produtividade foi obtida para intervalos variando entre três e cinco dias entre irrigações. Observou-se, ainda, que o peso médio dos frutos praticamente não foi afetado pelo intervalo entre irrigações, mas este efeito foi observado para o número de frutos comerciais por planta, embora ambos tenham crescido com o aumento da quantidade de água aplicada.The present work was carried out at the Fazenda Experimental de Sooretama of the Instituto Capixaba de Pesquisa, Assistência Técnica e Extensão Rural - INCAPER, in Sooretama county, ES, over the period from November 22, 1996 to January 15, 1998. The soil of the area is a distrophic Yellow Red Latosol with a moderate A horizon. The objective was to study the effects of the interaction between the applied water depth and application frequencies upon the commercial production and production components of the papaya tree. A lineal growth of productivity was obtained with the increment in the applied water depth. However, it was verified that the largest productivity was obtained for irrigation frequency varying between three and five days. It was still observed that the average weight of the fruits was practically not affected by the interval among irrigations, but this effect was observed for the number of commercial fruits for plant, although both have grown with the increase of the applied water amount.

JOSÉ GERALDO FERREIRA DA SILVA

2001-12-01

331

Origin and evolution of female plant from an identical male plant, in carica papaya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A field study was carried during January 2011 to March, 2013, to confirm the origin and evolution of female plant from an identical male plant in, a dioecious plant, the Carica papaya L. The plants were grown from the seeds of a normal female plant fruit. The grown, plants were identified as XX, XY and XYh (in March - April, 2012) on the basis of male and female flower bearing. The identical male plants, which usually bear only male (unisexual) flowers having calyx, corrolla and androecium, were observed also to bear bisexual flower, having calyx, corrolla, and gynoecium (ovary fused with androecium ). The fruits were set having the bisexual flowers in the identical male (hermaphrodite) plant. These fruits were kept under observation from setting to ripening stage. The ripened fruits were harvested from the identical male plants and 90-95% fruits from these plants were found with the seeds. Plants grown from these male fruit seeds produced all three type of plants i.e., male, female and hermaphrodite. This study indicated that an identical male (XYh) plant produced the female (XX) plant naturally, because of the XXY= XYh condition, which can contribute basic genetic material to male and female plants i.e an identical male (XYh = XXY= 2N +1 = 18+1= 19) produced all three type of plants, the pure male, the hermaphrodite and the female plant, originated from a single source of an identical male, as shown here. XYh = XXY g XY + XX + XXY. The propagation of all three sexes of Carica papaya from a single source of an identical male plant seeds is the first report in the world. (author)

332

Problemas na premunização de melancia para o controle do mosaico causado pelo Papaya ringspot virus Problems associated with cross protection of watermelon for the control of Papaya ringspot virus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Neste trabalho estudou-se a proteção de melancia (Citrullus lanatus) com estirpes fracas do Papaya ringspot virus, estirpe melancia, em condições de casa de vegetação e em campo. Os resultados mostraram que a proteção foi eficiente em ambos os testes. Nos testes em campo porém, as plantas protegidas da cultivar Crimson Sweet tiveram uma redução no peso médio de frutos por planta de, aproximadamente, 50% e 10,8%, em comparação às plantas não protegidas que estavam sadias, no pr...

Dias, Paulo R. P.; Rezende, Jorge A. M.

2001-01-01

333

Biomass, virus concentration, and symptomatology of cucurbits infected by mild and severe strains of Papaya ringspot virus Biomassa, concentração viral e sintomatologia de cucurbitáceas infectaspor estirpes fracas e severa do Papaya ringspot virus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pre-immunization with mild strains of Papaya ringspot virus - type W (PRWV-W) has allowed the mosaic disease to be controlled in different cucurbit species, with increases in marketable fruit yield. The objective of this study was to compare virus concentration, biomass and symptomatology of 'Caserta' zucchini squash, 'Menina Brasileira' long-neck squash and 'Crimson Sweet' watermelon plants infected by three mild strains and one severe strain of PRSV-W. Plants were inoculated at the cotyledo...

Davi Andrade Pacheco; Jorge Alberto Marques Rezende; Sônia Maria de Stefano Piedade

2003-01-01

334

Nucleotide sequence and intergeminiviral homologies of the DNA-A of papaya leaf curl geminivirus from India.  

Science.gov (United States)

Coat protein gene, rep protein gene and intergenic region of the genome of a whitefly transmitted geminivirus (WTG) causing severe leaf curl in papaya plants were PCR amplified, cloned and sequenced. Comparison of the amino acid sequence of the putative coat protein product of papaya leaf curl virus (PLCV) with some other mono and bipartite WTGs revealed a maximum of 89.8% homology with Indian cassava mosaic virus. The genomic organization of PLCV-India is similar to other WTGs with bipartite genomes. Comparison of the coat protein N-terminal 70 amino acid sequence (and other biological features) of PLCV with other geminiviruses shows that PLCV is a distinct geminivirus from India and is related to WTGs from the old world. PMID:9635134

Saxena, S; Hallan, V; Singh, B P; Sane, P V

1998-06-01

335

Designing of putative siRNA against geminiviral suppressors of RNAi to develop geminivirus-resistant papaya crop.  

Science.gov (United States)

Geminiviruses are single-stranded circular DNA viruses causing leaf curl disease in papaya crop. Post-Transcriptional Gene Silencing (PTGS), also known as RNAi, acts as a natural antiviral defence mechanism and plays a role in genome maintenance and development in plants. PTGS suppression by viruses makes the plant RNA silencing machinery inefficient. Three geminiviral genes namely AV2, AC2 and AC4 are found to play the role in suppression of RNA silencing. siRNA degrades the target mRNA in a homology-dependent manner. In-silico designing of siRNA against these three genes of geminiviruses infecting Carica papaya was done using bioinformatics tools. This strategy may provide PTGS by specifically targeting the viral genes involved in suppression of plant RNA silencing machinery. PMID:23207994

Saxena, Sangeeta; Kesharwani, Rupesh K; Singh, Vinayak; Singh, Sarita

2013-01-01

336

Binary Combination of Carica papaya, Areca catechu and Myristica fragrans with Piperonyl Butoxide / MGK-264 against Freshwater Snail Lymnaea acuminata.  

Science.gov (United States)

Piperonyl butoxide (PB) and MGK-264 were used to enhance the toxicity of the active components papain, arecoline and myristicin from the plants Carica papaya, Areca catechu and Myristica fragrans, respectively, against the vector snail Lymnaea acuminata. A time- and dose-dependent relationship was observed for the toxicity of these combinations. The toxic effects of these plant-derived molluscicides in combination with the synergists PB and MGK-264 were several times higher than the effect of the individual treatments. The highest degree of synergism was observed when MGK-264 was used in combination with C. papaya latex (10.47-fold increase) and PB was used with papain (8.35-fold increase). PMID:24575245

Hanif, Farhat; Singh, Dinesh Kumar

2013-12-01

337

QUALITATIVE PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF CARICA PAPAYA LEAF EXTRACT AGAINST HUMAN AND PLANT PATHOGENIC FUNGI  

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Full Text Available Plants have been explored extensively all over the globe in quest of a novel bioactive compound that could a good therapeutic candidate treating infectious diseases especially against drug resistant microbes. Qualitative phytochemical analyses of Carica papaya leaf extract reveal that except steroids and tannins all the possible phytochemical constituents including carbohydrates, proteins, anthraquinones, flavonoids, saponins, cardiac glycosides and alkaloids were present. Two ways of Carica papaya leaf extract preparations i.e crushed and boiled were tested for their antifungal activity against 6 saprophytic fungi Penicillium sp, Aspergilus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium sp, Rhizopus and Helminthosporum, 5 dermatophytic fungi Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton tonsurans and 6 yeasts including Candida albicans, Candida albicans ATCC 0383, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida galbrata, Candida tropicalis, Candida kruzei. The activity was found against majority of fungi but was much better in case of crushed leaf extract.

Sikandar Khan Sherwani

2013-07-01

338

La familia Hemiaulaceae (Bacillariophyceae) de las aguas marinas chilenas / The family Hemiaulaceae (Bacillariophyceae) from marine Chilean waters  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La familia Hemiaulaceae comprende cuatro géneros, señalados previamente para las aguas chilenas con las siguientes especies: Cerataulina pelagica (Cleve) Hendey, Hemiaulus sinensis Greville, H. membranaceus Cleve, Climacodium biconcavum Cleve, Eucampia antarctica (Castracane) Mangin, E. cornuta (Cle [...] ve) Grunow y E. zodiacus Ehrenberg. Sin embargo, el análisis con microscopía fotónica y electrónica de muestras recolectadas en aguas marinas chilenas que contenían representantes de esta familia (incluyendo la mayoría de aquellas estudiadas anteriormente por otros investigadores nacionales) reveló que (1) el género Cerataulina está representado por C. pelagica, distribuida a lo largo de la costa chilena entre Arica por el norte y el Estrecho de Magallanes por el sur, (2) el género Eucampia está representado por cuatro taxa: E. zodiacus f. cylindrocornis Syvertsen (señalada en trabajos anteriores como E. zodiacus f. zodiacus), E. zodiacus f. recta Rivera. Avaria & Cruces f. nov. (descrita aquí), E. cornuta y E. antarctica. Los primeros tres taxa se distribuyen en la zona central y norte de Chile, mientras que E. antarctica es propia de las aguas antárticas desde el Estrecho de Magallanes al sur, (3) las citas anteriores de Hemiaulus sinensis, H. membranaceus y Climacodium biconcavum para las aguas chilenas corresponden a determinaciones erróneas de Eucampia zodiacus f. recta, f. nov. Se entregan descripciones de los taxa encontrados y fotografías obtenidas con los microscopios fotónico y electrónicos que ilustran sus principales características morfológicas Abstract in english The Family Hemiaulaceae comprises four genera, all of which have been previously reported for coastal waters off Chile, and represented by the following taxa: Cerataulina pelagica (Cleve) Hendey, Hemiaulus sinensis Greville, H. membranaceus Cleve, Climacodium biconcavum Cleve, Eucampia antarctica (C [...] astracane) Mangin, E. cornuta (Cleve) Grunow and E. zodiacus Ehrenberg. However, examination with light and electron microscopy of marine samples from along the Chilean coast and the Antarctic Peninsula (including those used in earlier publications) revealed that (1) the genus Cerataulina is represented by C. pelagica, and is distributed along the Chilean coast between Arica in the north and the Magellan Strait in the south, (2) the genus Eucampia comprises four taxa: E. zodiacus f. cylindrocornis Syvertsen (previously reported for Chile as E. zodiacus f. zodiacus), E. zodiacus f. recta Rivera, Avaria & Cruces (described here), E. cornuta and E. antarctica. The former three taxa occur in the central and northern coast of Chile, while E. antarctica lives in Antarctic waters south of the Magellan Strait, (3) earlier records of Hemialus membranaceus, H. sinensis and Climacodium biconcavum in Chilean waters are misidentifications of Eucampia zodiacus f. recta Rivera & Avaria f. nov. A short description is included for each taxon, and photographs provide information about the main morphological characteristics

PATRICIO, RIVERA; SERGIO, AVARIA; FABIOLA, CRUCES.

2003-12-01

339

Operación y movilización. Formas de acción colectiva pre elíticas en la Falange Nacional chilena (1935-1957  

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Full Text Available El presente texto desarrolla el concepto de operación como una forma específica de acción colectiva, se la considera como una movilización organizada de recursos acotados a objetivos y tiempos determinados. En el análisis de la Falange Nacional chilena es posible distinguir, entre los periodos temprano y tardío de su vida como organización, la manera como van funcionando y produciendo efectos, por lo menos dos tipos de operaciones, caracterizadas una como doctrinaria y la otra como pragmática. Los principales efectos de la performance de estos tipos se ubican en la concepción e implementación del modelo orgánico del partido y la figura vincular del agente político o adscriptor asociado a dicho modelo.

Jorge Vergara Vidal

2012-01-01

340

La familia Hemiaulaceae (Bacillariophyceae de las aguas marinas chilenas The family Hemiaulaceae (Bacillariophyceae from marine Chilean waters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La familia Hemiaulaceae comprende cuatro géneros, señalados previamente para las aguas chilenas con las siguientes especies: Cerataulina pelagica (Cleve Hendey, Hemiaulus sinensis Greville, H. membranaceus Cleve, Climacodium biconcavum Cleve, Eucampia antarctica (Castracane Mangin, E. cornuta (Cleve Grunow y E. zodiacus Ehrenberg. Sin embargo, el análisis con microscopía fotónica y electrónica de muestras recolectadas en aguas marinas chilenas que contenían representantes de esta familia (incluyendo la mayoría de aquellas estudiadas anteriormente por otros investigadores nacionales reveló que (1 el género Cerataulina está representado por C. pelagica, distribuida a lo largo de la costa chilena entre Arica por el norte y el Estrecho de Magallanes por el sur, (2 el género Eucampia está representado por cuatro taxa: E. zodiacus f. cylindrocornis Syvertsen (señalada en trabajos anteriores como E. zodiacus f. zodiacus, E. zodiacus f. recta Rivera. Avaria & Cruces f. nov. (descrita aquí, E. cornuta y E. antarctica. Los primeros tres taxa se distribuyen en la zona central y norte de Chile, mientras que E. antarctica es propia de las aguas antárticas desde el Estrecho de Magallanes al sur, (3 las citas anteriores de Hemiaulus sinensis, H. membranaceus y Climacodium biconcavum para las aguas chilenas corresponden a determinaciones erróneas de Eucampia zodiacus f. recta, f. nov. Se entregan descripciones de los taxa encontrados y fotografías obtenidas con los microscopios fotónico y electrónicos que ilustran sus principales características morfológicasThe Family Hemiaulaceae comprises four genera, all of which have been previously reported for coastal waters off Chile, and represented by the following taxa: Cerataulina pelagica (Cleve Hendey, Hemiaulus sinensis Greville, H. membranaceus Cleve, Climacodium biconcavum Cleve, Eucampia antarctica (Castracane Mangin, E. cornuta (Cleve Grunow and E. zodiacus Ehrenberg. However, examination with light and electron microscopy of marine samples from along the Chilean coast and the Antarctic Peninsula (including those used in earlier publications revealed that (1 the genus Cerataulina is represented by C. pelagica, and is distributed along the Chilean coast between Arica in the north and the Magellan Strait in the south, (2 the genus Eucampia comprises four taxa: E. zodiacus f. cylindrocornis Syvertsen (previously reported for Chile as E. zodiacus f. zodiacus, E. zodiacus f. recta Rivera, Avaria & Cruces (described here, E. cornuta and E. antarctica. The former three taxa occur in the central and northern coast of Chile, while E. antarctica lives in Antarctic waters south of the Magellan Strait, (3 earlier records of Hemialus membranaceus, H. sinensis and Climacodium biconcavum in Chilean waters are misidentifications of Eucampia zodiacus f. recta Rivera & Avaria f. nov. A short description is included for each taxon, and photographs provide information about the main morphological characteristics

PATRICIO RIVERA

2003-12-01

 
 
 
 
341

Acute and Chronic Hepatotoxicity Study of Orally Administered Ethanol Extract of Carica papaya Seeds in Adult Wistar Rats  

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Full Text Available Carica papaya seed extracts have shown great promise in the quest for the development of natural plant based male contraceptive. This study investigates the acute and chronic hepatotoxicity of ethanol extract of C. papaya seeds in adult Wistar rats. The OECD up-and-down method was used in the acute oral toxicity test using 5 nulliparous, nonpregnant female wistar rats weighing between 180 and 200 g and observed for 14 days. The chronic hepatotoxicity study involved the use of 15 male wistar rats which were divided into 3 groups of 5 each. Group I which served as control were orally administered distilled water while groups II and III received 100 and 250 mg/kg/day of ethanol extract of C. papaya seeds respectively for a period of 90 days. Histological investigation of the liver and serum levels of AST, ALT and ALP were carried out at the end of the administration. Result obtained for the acute oral toxicity showed no mortality or morbidity. There was no significant loss of fur and skin lesions, nose and eyes appeared clear and normal. There was no diarrhea, convulsion, salivation, tremors, lethargy, sleep or coma and animals did not show any sign of aggression or unusual behavior during handling. For the chronic hepatotoxicity study, the histology of the liver, hematological indices and serum levels of AST, ALT and ALP showed no significant difference between the control and experimental groups. The study thus concludes that ethanol extract of C. papaya seeds is non-toxic and safe.

Wilson O. Hamman

342

Staphylococcal enterotoxin A gene-carrying Staphylococcus aureus isolated from foods and its control by crude alkaloid from papaya leaves.  

Science.gov (United States)

Staphylococcus aureus is a known pathogen causing intoxication by producing enterotoxins in food. Staphylococcal enterotoxin A is one of the enterotoxins commonly implicated in staphylococcal food poisoning. The ability of crude alkaloid extract from papaya leaves to inhibit the growth of S. aureus and staphylococcal enterotoxin A synthesis was investigated. Staphylococcal enterotoxin A gene-carrying S. aureus was isolated from raw milk and ready-to-eat foods. Crude alkaloid was extracted from ground, dried papaya leaves using ultrasonic-assisted extraction, and a MIC of the alkaloid was determined by the broth macrodilution method. Furthermore, S. aureus isolate was exposed to the crude alkaloid extract at one- and twofold MIC, and the expression of sea was subsequently analyzed using a quantitative reverse transcription real-time PCR. Ten isolates of S. aureus were obtained, and nine of those isolates were sea carriers. The yield of crude alkaloid extract was 0.48 to 1.82% per dry weight of papaya leaves. A MIC of crude alkaloid to S. aureus was 0.25 mg/ml. After exposure to the alkaloid at 0.25 and 0.5 mg/ml for 2 h, a significant increase in cycle threshold values of sea was observed. The sea was expressed 29 and 41 times less when S. aureus was exposed to crude alkaloid at one- and twofold MIC, respectively. This study revealed that crude alkaloid of papaya leaves could control staphylococcal enterotoxin A gene-carrying S. aureus by suppressing the expression of sea, in addition to the ability to inhibit the growth of S. aureus. The expression of sea was successfully quantified. PMID:25364936

Handayani, Lita; Faridah, Didah Nur; Kusumaningrum, Harsi D

2014-11-01

343

Biomass, virus concentration, and symptomatology of cucurbits infected by mild and severe strains of Papaya ringspot virus  

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Pre-immunization with mild strains of Papaya ringspot virus - type W (PRWV-W) has allowed the mosaic disease to be controlled in different cucurbit species, with increases in marketable fruit yield. The objective of this study was to compare virus concentration, biomass and symptomatology of 'Caserta' zucchini squash, 'Menina Brasileira' long-neck squash and 'Crimson Sweet' watermelon plants infected by three mild strains and one severe strain of PRSV-W. Plants were inoculated at the cotyledo...

Pacheco Davi Andrade; Rezende Jorge Alberto Marques; Piedade Sônia Maria Stefano

2003-01-01

344

Comunicación y Cultura: análisis de la realidad de las Relaciones Públicas en organizaciones chilenas y brasileñas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese O presente texto examina a prática das relações públicas e do papel que desempenham os profissionais que administram a área em organizações chilenas e brasileiras. Aborda conceitos de comunicação e relações públicas para compreender que a legitimidade das áreas está associada a fatores políticos, ec [...] onômicos, sociais e culturais locais. De acordo com os resultados da pesquisa, A influência dos valores organizacionais na determinação da prática e do papel dos profissionais de relações públicas: estudo comparativo entre organizações do Brasil e do Chile (Ferrari, 2000) boa parte das organizações, tanto no Chile como no Brasil, encontra-se na transição de uma cultura autoritária para participativa, uma evolução que está associada com o fenômeno da globalização dos mercados, dos novos modelos de gestão, da abertura econômica, da estabilidade política e de uma maior participação dos cidadãos na vida empresarial. Apesar do desenvolvimento alcançado na última década pelas as organizações no Chile e no Brasil, os resultados apresentados seguem válidos, como demonstra um estudo em andamento realizado por Ferrari (2010). Abstract in spanish El presente texto examina la práctica de las relaciones públicas y el rol que desempeñan los profesionales que administran el área en organizaciones chilenas y brasileñas, según los resultados de la investigación Influencia de los valores organizacionales en la práctica y el papel de los profesional [...] es de las relaciones públicas: Estudio Comparativo entre organizaciones de Brasil y Chile realizada por Ferrari (2000). Aborda conceptos de comunicación y relaciones públicas que llevan a entender que la legitimidad de las dos áreas está asociada a factores políticos, económicos, sociales y culturales locales. Los resultados arrojados por el estudio apuntan que gran parte de las organizaciones, sea en Chile o en Brasil, se encuentra en transición de una cultura autoritaria para una cultura participativa, una evolución asociada a factores como el fenómeno de la globalización de los mercados, los nuevos modelos de gestión, la apertura económica, la estabilidad política y una mayor participación de los ciudadanos en la vida empresarial. A pesar del desarrollo que las organizaciones en Chile y Brasil han alcanzado en laúltima década, los resultados arrojados siguen válidos, según demuestra estudio en marcha por Ferrari (2010). Abstract in english The article examines the roles and the practices of Public Relations professionals in Brazilian and Chilean organizations. Through an analysis of the principal concepts of Public Relations and Communications, it is shown that the legitimacy of these areas is linked to local political, economic, soci [...] al and cultural factors. The results of the analysis named Influence of organizational values in practice and the role of public relations professionals: Comparative Study between organizations in Brazil and Chile by Ferrari (2000) reveal that both Chilean and Brazilian organizations are making a transition from authoritarian to participative cultures, which is associated to the phenomena of market globalization, new management styles, the opening of the economy, political stability and greater participation of the population in the life of an organization. Despite the evolution registered by organizations in Chile and Brazil in the last decade, the research results continue to be relevant, as confirmed by a new investigation project by Ferrari (2010) in course.

María Aparecida, Ferrari.

2012-06-01

345

Zoogeography of Chilean inland water crustaceans / Zoogeografía de crustáceos de aguas continentales chilenas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Los crustáceos de aguas continentales chilenas se caracterizan por una combinación de especies endémicas y cosmopolitas, algunas se encuentran a lo largo del territorio de Chile continental, mientras que otras están restringidas a regiones latitudinales específicas. El presente estudio examinó los p [...] atrones zoogeográficos exhibidos por crustáceos de aguas continentales chilenas. Se consideraron seis regiones: Norte de Chile (18°-27°S), Norte-Central de Chile (27°-30°S), Chile Central (30°-38°S), Norte de la Patagonia (38°-41°S), Patagonia Central (41°-51°S), y Sur de la Patagonia (51°-55°S), identificadas sobre la base de registros de la literatura de crustáceos de aguas continentales. Los análisis de clasificación generaron dendrogramas para las siguientes agrupaciones consideradas en estas categorías: todas las especies de crustáceos de aguas continentales (Branchiopoda, Copepoda y Malacostraca), crustáceos zooplanctónicos (Branchiopoda y Copepoda), sólo Malacostraca, y cada grupo por separado. El análisis de todos los grupos y de los grupos zooplanctónicos reveló la existencia de un gran grupo con las tres regiones de la Patagonia más Chile central, diferente al de la zona norte y norte-central de Chile. De manera similar el análisis de datos de malacostracos reveló la existencia de dos grandes grupos, uno con las tres zonas de la Patagonia y Chile central, contrastado con un segundo grupo conformado por la zona norte y norte-central. Estos resultados concuerdan con estudios panbiogeográficos de crustáceos e insectos sudamericanos. Como posibles factores responsables podrían ser la dispersión y potencial colonización de crustáceos zooplanctónicos y el marcado endemismo de los malacostracos. Abstract in english The Chilean inland water crustaceans are characterized by a combination of endemic and cosmopolitan species: some occur throughout the territory of continental Chile, while others are restricted to specific latitudinal regions. This study examined the zoogeographical patterns exhibited by Chilean in [...] land water crustaceans. We considered six regions: Northern Chile (18°-27°S), North-Central Chile (27°-30°S), Central Chile (30°-38°S), Northern Patagonia (38°-41°S), Central Patagonia (41°-51°S), and Southern Patagonia (51°-55°S), and these were identified based on literature records of inland water crustaceans. The classification analysis generated dendrograms for the following groups considered in this categories: all inland water crustaceans (Branchiopoda, Copepoda and Malacostraca), the zooplanktonic crustaceans (Branchiopoda and Copepoda), the Malacostraca alone, and each group separately. Analysis of total data and of the zooplankton group taxa alone revealed the existence of a main grouping consisting of the three Patagonian zones plus Central Chile, that is distinct from that of Northern Chile and North-Central Chile. Similarly, analysis of the malacostracan data revealed the existence of two main groups, one comprising the three Patagonian zones plus Central Chile, contrasted with a second group of Northern and North-Central Chile combined. Our results are in agreement with other panbiogeographical studies of South American crustaceans and insects. Possible factors responsible for generating this pattern are the dispersal and colonization potential of zooplanktonic crustaceans and the marked endemism of the malacostracans.

Patricio De los, Ríos-Escalante; Jaime, Meruane; María Cristina, Morales; Erich, Rudolph; Carmen, Fuentealba; Geoff, Boxshall.

2013-11-01

346

MORTALIDAD POR CÁNCER EN LA MUJER CHILENA: ANÁLISIS COMPARATIVO ENTRE LOS AÑOS 1997 y 2003  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Antecedentes: El cáncer es la segunda causa de muerte en los países desarrollados y presenta un continuo descenso para la mayoría de ellos, independiente del sexo o raza. Objetivos: Comparar entre los años 1997 y 2003 la mortalidad por cáncer en la mujer chilena y establecer las localizaciones más f [...] recuentemente asociadas a mortalidad. Material y Método: Las tasas de mortalidad se calcularon con el número de muertes por cáncer y la población estimada de mujeres obtenidas de los anuarios de Estadísticas Vitales de 1997 y 2003. Resultados: En el período hubo aumento significativo de la tasa general de mortalidad por cáncer en la mujer. En ambos años los 5 sitios más frecuentes de muerte por cáncer fueron: mama, estómago, vesícula biliar, broncopulmonar y cérvico uterino; solo la mortalidad por cáncer de mama aumentó significativamente, mientras que la por cáncer cérvico uterino presentó reducción significativa, los otros 3 no presentaron cambios significativos. Hubo aumento significativo de las muertes por cáncer de colon, páncreas, ovario, linfoma no Hodgkin, mieloma, encéfalo, vejiga urinaria y leucemia linfoide. Conclusiones: Con excepción del cáncer cérvico uterino, hubo un aumento significativo de la mortalidad oncológica en la mujer chilena. Esta tendencia obliga a revisar la forma de registro de eventos y los programas ya existentes, como también establecer nuevas estrategias que permitan mejorar la prevención, acceso y calidad de tratamiento del cáncer a fin de revertir esta situación. Se espera que la introducción de nuevas políticas de salud como las incorporadas en la Ley 19.996 tenga el impacto deseado Abstract in english Background: Cancer is the second cause of death in developed countries and shows a continuous reduction in rate independently of sex and race. Objectives: To compare the cancer mortality rate observed among Chilean women and establishing the main localizations causing death in that group in 1997 and [...] 2003. Material and Methods: The cancer mortality rate was calculated using the total number of cancer deaths and the estimated women population obtained from the vital statistical reports of 1997 and 2003. Results: Between 1997 and 2003, it was a significant increase in overall cancer mortality rate among women. In both years, the five more frequent causes of cancer death were: breast, stomach, gallbladder, lung, and cervical cancer; among them, breast cancer increased and cervical cancer decreased, both significantly; the others did not experience significant rate changes. There were significant increases in other less frequent cancers such as: colon, pancreas, ovarian, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, myeloma, brain, bladder, and lymphatic leukemia. Conclusions: Overall, there has been an increase in oncologycal mortality rate in Chilean women. With the exception of cervical cancer, the majority of the more frequent cancers have increased their mortality rate. This increasing mortality trend enforces to review the quality of the data registration, the existing health programs, and designing new strategies which will lead us to improve prevention, access, and quality of treatment, and finally to decrease cancer mortality. New strategies such that incorporated in Law 19,996 are called to change current outcomes

Enrique, Donoso S; Mauricio, Cuello F.

347

Anglicismos y aculturación en la sociedad chilena (English loanwords: acculturation in chilean society  

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Full Text Available La implementación del modelo económico neoliberal estadounidense enChile hace cuatro décadas y la participación del país en la globalización han provocado cambios fundamentales en la sociedad. De hecho, los efectos de la adopción de dicho paradigma se reflejan en diversos ámbitos, incluido el del uso de la lengua. Por esta razón, resulta de interés para lingüistas y traductores indagar acerca de la influencia del idioma inglés y de la cultura estadounidense en la sociedad chilena. De allí que los objetivos de este estudio fueron constatar la presencia de préstamos del inglés en la prensa escrita, para describirlos, determinar su frecuencia de uso e inferir las causas de su adopción. Para lograr estos objetivos se clasificaron de forma manual y semiautomática préstamos del inglés extraídos de periódicos entre enero de 2003 y diciembre de 2009. Se analizó las unidades recopiladas según sus características formales, frecuencia de aparición y áreas del saber a las que pertenecían. Se determinó que los préstamos del inglés se adoptan más que adaptan y que tienen una fuerte presencia en la redacción periodística actual, específicamente en economía, computación, deportes y cultura. Además, se pudo establecer que su uso estaría determinado por cuatro factores: vacío denominativo, prestigio social, economía lingüística y preferencia de los usuarios. Finalmente, se concluyó que la lengua inglesa y la cultura estadounidense tienen una presencia significativa en la prensa chilena. (The implementation of the US-inspired neoliberal economic model in Chile four decades ago and the country’s participation in the globalization process have led to fundamental societal changes. In fact, the effect of the adoption of this paradigm is reflected in several areas, including that of the use of the language. For this reason, it is interesting for linguists and translators to find out the influence of the English language and American culture on Chilean society. Hence, the objectives of this study were to determine the presence of English loanwords in the press in order to describe them, determine their frequency of use and infer the causes of their adoption. To achieve these objectives, English borrowings collected from newspapers between January 2003 and December 2009 were classified both manually and semi-automatically. Then these Anglicisms were analyzed from the perspective of their formal characteristics, their frequency of use and the areas of knowledge to which they belonged. English loanwords were found to be adopted rather than adapted; it was also established that they have a strong presence in today’s journalistic writing, specifically in economics, computer science, sports and culture. Furthermore, their use is thought to be determined by four main factors: the lack of a counterpart in Spanish, social prestige, linguistic economy and user preference. Finally, it was concluded that the English language and American culture have a significant presence in the Chilean press.

Constanza Gerding Salas

2012-06-01

348

Efeito de fungicidas no controle in vitro de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, agente etiológico da antracnose do mamoeiro (Carica papaya l.) Effects of fungicides on the in vitro control of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, the anthracnosis etiologic agent of the Papaya tree (Carica papaya L.)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Com o objetivo de avaliar a eficiência de alguns fungicidas sobre Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, agente etiológico da antracnose do mamoeiro (Carica papaya L.), testes in vitro foram conduzidos no Laboratório de Epidemiologia/UFLA. Para tanto, utilizou-se o método de incorporação do fungicida ao meio de cultura BDA para avaliação da inibição do crescimento micelial e lâmina escavada contendo água com fungicida para germinação de conídios. Os fungicidas testados foram: azoxystr...

Giltembergue Macedo Tavares; Paulo Estevão Souza

2005-01-01

349

FITOTOXICIDADE DE FUNGICIDAS, ACARICIDAS E INSETICIDAS, SOBRE O MAMOEIRO (Carica papaya L.) CULTIVAR SUNRISE SOLO IMPROVED LINE 72/12 EM CONDIÇÕES DE CAMPO TOXIC EFFECTS OF FUNGICIDES, ACARICIDES AND INSECTICIDES, ON PAPAYA PLANT (Carica papaya L.) cv. SUNRISE SOLO IMPROVED LINE 72/12, UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A presente pesquisa teve como objetivo estudar os efeitos fitotóxicos de fungicidas, acaricidas e inseticidas e algumas associações entre eles, em plantas de mamoeiros (Carica papaya L.) cv. Sunrise Solo Improved Line 72/12, em condições de campo, no município de São Mateus -- ES, pertencente à maior região produtora do Estado. O experimento foi arranjado em delineamento de blocos casualizados, com 4 repetições e 03 plantas úteis por parcela. Foram utilizados os seguintes produtos...

ALCÍLIO VIEIRA; CARLOS RUGGIERO; SÉRGIO LUCIO DAVID MARIN

2001-01-01

350

DE ARMARIOS Y BIBLIOTECAS: MASCULINIDAD Y TRADICIÓN LITERARIA CHILENA EN LA NARRATIVA DE ALBERTO FUGUET  

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Full Text Available La tesis de este ensayo postula que la narrativa de Alberto Fuguet puede ser leída como un proyecto escriturario que propone una (nueva estrategia retórica por la cual representar los desvíos del género sexual. Según este modus operandi, en las narraciones de Fuguet, tanto el acto de reprimir como el de explicitar los desvíos de la masculinidad, se ejecutan a través de un juego de citas a la tradición literaria chilena. En los textos de José Donoso, Jorge Edwards y Alfredo Gómez Morel, entre otros, los narradores personajes de Fuguet encuentran un conjunto de figuras retóricas que les permite decir su desvío, pero de manera oblicua; es decir, cifrando la voluptuosidad de sus deseos en la lengua culturalmente prestigiosa del Canon de las Letras de Chile. Dentro de este contexto, este ensayo pesquisa las citas que los primeros trabajos de Fuguet (Sobredosis y Mala onda hacen de Casa de campo y El jardín de al lado, de José Donoso, y El río, de Alfredo Gómez Morel.This essay proposes that Alberto Fuguet s narrative may be read as a writing project with a (new rhetorical strategy by which various sexual deviances may be represented By this modus operandi, in Fuguet's stories, both manifestation and repression of male deviance are made explicit by way of a 'quotation game' in the field of Chilean literary tradition. The narrators in his texts find in the narrative of José Donoso, Jorge Edwards and Alfredo Gómez Morel, among others, a corpus of rhetorical figures which allow them to make their deviance explicit in an oblique way; that is, to condense their voluptous desire in the prestigious language of the Chilean Literary Canon. Within this context, this essay explores the quotations of Donoso 's Casa de Campo and El Jardin de al lado, and those quotations of Alfredo Garcia Morel's El río present in Alberto Fuguet's first works (Sobredosis y Mala Onda.

Cristian Opazo

2009-04-01

351

Introducción a la antropología poética chilena Introduction to Chilean anthropology poetry  

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Full Text Available En este artículo daremos cuenta del surgimiento en los últimos 25 años en Chile de un tipo textual original bastante desconocido para los circuitos académicos, que representa un desafío desde el punto de vista de su clasificación y análisis; denominamos al conjunto de estos textos como "antropología poética". El intento es ubicar nuestra interrogante tipológica en el tema puntual del "género" en el cual es posible ubicar a estas obras. La hipótesis del presente artículo consistirá en afirmar que el conjunto de obras compuesto por la "antropología poética chilena" consiste básicamente en un tipo distinto de producción textual, iniciadora de un nuevo género discursivo. Este género es poseedor de un carácter híbrido, y sus fuentes se encuentran en el artículo científico antropológico y en la literatura, particularmente en la dimensión poética y novelística de esta última, relacionándose en el ámbito de su contexto con el movimiento postmoderno.In this article we will inform about the appearance in the last 25 years in Chile of an original textual type rather unknown in the academic circles which represents a challenge from the point of view of its classification and analysis; we call this set of texts anthropology poetry. Our attempt to locate our typological question in the precise subject of the genre, in which it would be possible to locate these works, the hypothesis of the this article sustains that the work assembly made up of Chilean anthropological poetry consists basically in a different type of textual production, a new text genre. This genre is a hybrid character and its sources are in the anthropological scientific articles and literature, particularly in the poetic and novelistic dimension of literature, and connect with the postmodernity in its context.

Miguel Alvarado Borgoño

2002-01-01

352

¿Ilegalidad justificada?: clientelismo controlado en la administración chilena / Justified Ilegality?: Controlled clientelism by the Chilean administration  

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Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La administración pública chilena es considerada una de las más eficientes de Latinoamérica. Sin embargo, diversos estudios dan cuenta de las instituciones informales que operan entre el Poder Legislativo y la burocracia a la hora de reclutar funcionarios. Aunque muchas de estas prácticas clientelar [...] es van en contra de lo estipulado por la ley, han sido defendidas desde ámbitos políticos y científicos. La cultura de la legalidad no es un valor importante si ciertos índices responden positivamente. Analizar cómo la corrupción y el clientelismo han sido obviados, u ocultados, tanto en los análisis políticos como en los diagnósticos técnicos sobre el accionar de la burocracia, permite entender por qué tras veinte años de reformas administrativas hay prácticas nocivas para la democracia que no logran erradicarse. Abstract in english The Chilean civil service is considered one of the most efficient in Latin America. However, different studies describe the informal institutions that operate between the Legislative Power and the bureaucracy to fill positions in the public administration. Although some of these clientelistic practi [...] ces are against the law, they have been accepted and defended in both the political and scientific spheres. Legality is not considered an important value if certain indexes have a positive development. In this context, it is important to study how corruption and clientelism have been ignored, or hidden, through political discourses and technical reports about the situation of bureaucracy. All of this allows a better understanding of why after 20 years of administrative reforms there are damaging practices which negatively affect democracy that have not been eradicated.

Marcelo, Moriconi Bezerra.

2011-12-01

353

Integración metodológica para el estudio del texto de las sentencias penales chilenas  

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Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Proponemos una metodología para describir la estructura y el funcionamiento del texto "sentencia penal chilena" y evaluar la calidad de su argumentación. La importancia de estos procesos radica en que la sentencia es un caso paradigmático del modo en que las sociedades construyen lo bueno y lo malo. [...] En virtud de la especificidad del género y del registro lingüístico del texto en estudio, integramos elementos de pragma-dialéctica, de lingüística sistémico funcional y de Modified Wigmorean Analysis para suplir las desventajas individuales de cada metodología y optimizar sus ventajas. Se revisa someramente el aparato crítico que sustenta cada una de las estrategias de análisis, luego, a través del estudio de un fragmento de una sentencia real, demostramos la factibilidad de la integración y concluimos revisando la posibilidad de usar esta propuesta en comparaciones intertextuales e interdiscursivas. Abstract in english We propose a methodology to describe the structure and operation of the text "Chilean criminal sentence" and to evaluate the quality of its argumentation. The relevance of these procedures lies in the sentence is a paradigmatic case of the way in which societies build good and bad things. By virtue [...] of genre specificity and linguistic register of text study, we incorporate pragma-dialectic, Systematic Functional Linguistics and Modified Wigmorean Analysis elements, in order to supply individual disadvantages of every methodology and to optimize its advantages. This paper superficially reviews the critical system which supports every single of the strategies analysis and later, by means of the study of a fragment of a real sentence, it proves the alignment of methodologies' feasibility and comes to an end analyzing the possibility of using this integration in order to make inter-textual and inter-discursive comparisons.

Claudio Antonio, Agüero San Juan; Juan Pablo, Zambrano Tiznado.

2010-12-01

354

La nueva gestión pública y las reformas en la Administración Pública Chilena  

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Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El presente artículo sistematiza, brevemente, algunos de los principales aportes en la construcción del enfoque de la Nueva Gestión Pública (Hood, Barzelay, Olías de Lima, CLAD y OCDE). Desde allí se hace un breve recorrido por las reformas vividas en la Administración Pública Chilena bajo los gobie [...] rnos democráticos, desde 1990 a la fecha, con especial énfasis en sus componentes estratégicos y en las transformaciones de alto valor público y consecuentemente de esperado alto impacto. A partir de una propuesta metodológica ad hoc, que considera pautas de comparación, se revisan las influencias que las orientaciones de la Nueva Gestión Pública, han tenido en el sector público chileno. Finalmente, a modo de conclusión, se hace un repaso por algunos elementos del contexto sociopolítico chileno que empujan a encontrar fórmulas diferentes y se establecen algunas conclusiones respecto de la validez global del modelo. Abstract in english This present article briefly systematizes some of the principal contributions about the construction from the of the New Public Management approach (Hood, Barzelay, You Were Smelling of Lima, CLAD and OECD). Based upon this brief review, this study looks at the reforms on the Public Chilean Administ [...] ration which were undertaken over the democratic governments, beginning in 1990 until now, making special emphasis on those transformations with strategic components, high public value and expected high impact. Having established an ad hoc methodological proposal, which considers two evaluation approaches, the influence of the New Public Management on the Chilean Public Sector is then revised. Finally, as a conclusion, some elements of the Chilean sociopolitical context which contribute to find different solutions are revised and some conclusion are presented regarding the applicability of this model.

Eduardo, Araya M.; Andrés, Cerpa.

2009-06-01

355

‘Buscamos una voz que nos reciba’. Narrativa chilena reciente: lecturas cómplices  

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Full Text Available This research explores certain suggested ways of reading recent Chilean narratives, focusing particularly on a corpus of works by four authors: Alvaro Bisama, Alejandra Costamagna, María José Viera-Gallo and Alejandro Zambra. It is proposed that from reception it is possible to specify certain ways of reading that manifest themselves in the degree of complicity achieved between the reader and the works, where this is defined by the reader’s cooperation or participation in the act of reading. The reader is drawn into the work by following the signs given in it, shifting from a critical to emotional reading by updating the stories through a close link between writer, the work and the reader. Thus the works are always read in a complicit way, but from different viewpoints and on different levels. Taking these nuances into account we aim to revise three ways of complicit reading: a through appropriation of the past, b politically and c dynamically.Esta investigación centra su estudio en algunas propuestas de lectura para la narrativa chilena reciente, especialmente un corpus compuesto por un conjunto de obras de cuatro autores: Álvaro Bisama, Alejandra Costamagna, María José Viera-Gallo y Alejandro Zambra. Se propone que desde la recepción es posible precisar algunas formas de lectura que se concretan pensando en el grado de complicidad que logra el lector con estas obras, determinada por su relación de colaboración o participación en el acto de leer. El lector se acercará más o menos a la obra siguiendo las señas propuestas en ella, así las formas de leer irán desde lo crítico hasta lo afectivo, actualizando los relatos a partir de un estrecho vínculo entre escritor, obra y lector. De esta forma la lectura siempre será cómplice, pero desde diferentes aspectos y en distintos grados. Teniendo en cuenta estos matices revisaremos tres formas de lectura cómplice: a de apropiación del pasado, b política y c dinámica.

Daza D., Paulina

2014-10-01

356

Descripción multidimensional de la población carcelaria chilena / A multi-dimensional description of Chilean inmates  

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Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish A pesar que el conocimiento de las características de los penados es un insumo relevante para planificar servicios de salud en el ámbito carcelario, no se contaba en Chile con información representativa. En este estudio de corte transversal se describe población penada chilena en sus dimensiones soc [...] iodemográficas, criminológicas y clínicas. Se evaluaron 209 sujetos alojados en el Centro de Cumplimiento Penal de la V Región, Chile, utilizando datos de múltiples fuentes, entrevistas video-registradas y los instrumentos Hare Psychopaty Checklist - Revised y la Guía de Evaluación de Riesgo de Reincidencia Violenta: HCR-20. La prevalencia de trastorno de personalidad antisocial fue del 67% y la de psicopatía, del 13%. Entre los factores históricos de riesgo de violencia, sobresalieron la historia de violencia previa y el abuso de sustancias. Entre los factores clínicos de riesgo de violencia, se destacó la impulsividad. Abstract in english The knowledge of the characteristics of the Chilean convict population is of main importance in order to devise Health services in this area, nevertheless there was no representative information on the subject in Chile. This transversal design study describes convicted population in its socio-demogr [...] aphic, criminological, and clinical dimensions. We evaluated two hundred and nine subjects who were inmates in a jail of the 5th Region of Chile, using multiple data sources, video-recoded interviews and the instruments Hare Psychopaty Checklist - Revised and the HCR-20. Findings show that the prevalence of anti-social personality disorders was 67% and that the psychopathic disorder prevalence was 13%.Tthe existence of criminal and drug abuse records were among historical violence risk factors. Impulsiveness was among the clinical risk factors leading to violence

Elizabeth, León-Mayer; María Soledad, Cortés; Jorge, Folino.

2014-01-01

357

Diferencias entre la composición sectorial y ocupacional de las principales ciudades chilenas  

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Full Text Available La planifcación regional y urbana ha tendido a fjarse exclusivamente en la composición sectorial de las economías locales, asumiendo en forma implícita que la estructura de ocupaciones por actividad es similar a lo largo de un país. Si bien este supuesto parece ser cierto para el conjunto del tejido productivo, se encuentran diferencias signifcativas cuando se analizan ocupaciones específcas. Entre ellas destacan aquellas intensivas en conocimiento, las cuales tienden a estar sobrerrepresen-tadas en las principales ciudades. Se propone una metodología para el análisis de la relación existente entre la estructura de ocupaciones y la estructura sectorial y se aplica al estudio de las principales ciudades chilenas en 2002 a partir de la información del Censo de población, con el objetivo de estimar en qué medida estas estructuras divergen y si existen concentraciones relativas de ocupaciones, observándose que aquellas relacionadas con el conocimiento y la toma de decisiones empresariales tienen una presencia mayor que la esperada en el área metropolitana de Santiago.Regional and urban planning have tended to be exclusively focused on the industrial mix of local economies, implicitly assuming that the occupational mix of economic activities is similar throughout a country. Tis assumption seems to be right fom the perspective of the productive system as a whole, however signifcant diferences arise when analyzing certain occupations. Among them, knowledge-intensive occupations stand out and tend to be overrepresented in the main urban areas. A methodolog y is proposed to analyze the relationship between the occupational and industrial structures. Tis methodology is applied to the case of the principal Chilean cities in 2002 using data fom the population Census in order to estimate the extent to which these structures diverge and whether or not there are relative concentrations of occupations. Results show that the presence of managerial and knowledge-intensive occupations in the metropolitan area of Santiago is higher than expected.

Marcelo Lufín Varas

2010-08-01

358

Conocimientos y autoeficacia asociados a la prevención del VIH y SIDA en mujeres chilenas Conhecimentos e autoeficacia sócios à prevenção do HIV e AIDS em mulheres chilenas Knowledge and self efficacy associated to HIV and AIDS prevention in Chilean women  

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Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar la relación existente entre conocimientos y autoeficacia asociados al VIH/SIDA en mujeres chilenas en desventaja social. Metodología. Estudio correlacional, que utiliza la medición basal del estudio "Testeando una intervención en VIH y SIDA en mujeres chilenas", realizada entre 2006 y 2008, que tiene una muestra de 496 mujeres entre 18 y 49 años residentes en dos comunas de Santiago de Chile. Las participantes respondieron un cuestionario estructurado aplicado por entrevistadoras entrenadas. Este cuestionario incluyó preguntas sobre datos sociodemográficos, escala de conocimientos de conductas de riesgo y autoeficacia, entre otros. Resultados. Edad promedio de 32.3+9.1 años, 72.2% vive con su pareja y 42.7% poseen educación media completa. La puntuación media de los conocimientos de la infección por el VIH fue de 8.9+2.5, mientras que para las tres escalas empleadas para medir autoeficacia fueron: "Normas de