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Sample records for papaya chilena vasconcellea

  1. Modelado de la Cinética de Secado de la Papaya Chilena (Vasconcellea pubescens) / Modeling of Drying Kinetic of Chilean Papaya (Vasconcellea pubescens)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antonio A, Vega; Roberto A, Lemus.

    Full Text Available Se ha estudiado y modelado la cinética de secado por aire caliente de papaya chilena (Vasconcellea pubescens) a diferentes temperaturas (40, 50, 60, 70 y 80º C) con velocidad de aire de 2.0 ± 0.2 m·s-1. Durante las experiencias se observaron los periodos de inducción, velocidad constante y decrecien [...] te. Los modelos matemáticos aplicados fueron el modelo de Newton, Henderson-Pabis y Page. Además se evaluó la calidad de ajuste de estos modelos por medio del coeficiente de regresión lineal, suma de errores cuadrados, raíz media de los errores cuadrados y Chi-cuadrado. Los parámetros cinéticos de cada modelo presentaron la dependencia usual con la temperatura, y fueron evaluadas con la ecuación de Arrhenius. Al comparar los valores experimentales con los calculados, se demostró que el modelo de Page obtuvo la mejor calidad de ajuste en cada curva de secado, representando una excelente herramienta para estimar el tiempo de secado de este producto. Abstract in english The kinetics of hot air drying of chilean papaya (Vasconcellea pubescens) was studied and modeled at different temperatures (40, 50, 60, 70 & 80º C) and air velocity of 2.0 ± 0.2 m·s-1. The induction, constant, and fallingrate periods were observed during the experimentation. The mathematical models [...] of Newton, Henderson-Pabis and Page were applied. Also evaluated were the quality of fit to the models using the coefficient of linear regression, the sum square error, the root mean square error and the Chisquare test. The kinetic parameters of each model showed the usual dependence on temperature, and were evaluated using the Arrhenius equation. In comparing experimental data with calculated values, it was demonstrated that the Page model attained the best fit for every drying curve, representing an excellent tool for the estimation of the drying time of this product.

  2. Deshidratación osmótica de la papaya chilena (Vasconcellea pubescens) e influencia de la temperatura y concentración de la solución sobre la cinética de transferencia de materia Desidratação osmótica do mamão chileno (Vasconcellea pubescens) e influência da temperatura e concentração da solução sobre a cinética de transferência de matéria

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Vega-Gálvez; Marlene Palacios; Francisca Boglio; Catarina Pássaro; Catalina Jeréz; Roberto Lemus-Mondaca

    2007-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar la cinética de deshidratación osmótica de la papaya chilena (Vasconcellea pubescens), utilizando dos variables experimentales: la temperatura (30, 40, 50 °C) y concentración (40, 50 y 60%) de la solución osmótica. Se determinó la variación de masa total, masa de agua y masa de sólidos solubles y se modeló con las ecuaciones difusionales, además en esta investigación se consideró y utilizó una modificación de la ecuación propuesta por B...

  3. Obtención, regeneración y evaluación de híbridos intergenéricos entre Carica papaya Y Vasconcellea cauliflora

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ariadne, Vegas; Gustavo, Trujillo; Yanet, Sandrea.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O resgate de híbridos provenientes de cruzamentos intergenéricos entre mamão (Carica papaya L.) e outras espécies de vasconcelleas (antes conhecidas como caricas) possibilita a tranferência de genes das espécies selvagens para a cultivada. O objectivo do presente trabalho foi a obtenção e avaliação [...] de plantas híbridas mediante o resgate e regeneração de embriões ou óvulos resultantes do cruzamento entre C. papaya e Vasconcellea cauliflora. Dos cruzamentos efectuados, 0 a 76% formaram frutos, de acordo com o tipo de papaya usado. As sementes presentes nos frutos foram vás, inmaduras o possuiam embriões zigóticos. Na maioria dessas sementes ocorreu poliembrionia zigótica in vivo, embora também foram formado alguns híbridos individuais. Conseguiu-se o desenvolvimento, germinação, multiplicação de embriões híbridos e regeneração de plantas in vitro. As plantas establecidas em campo produziram flores andróicas y andromonóicas. Abstract in spanish El rescate de híbridos de cruces intergenéricos entre la lechosa (Carica papaya L.) y otras especies de vasconcelleas (antes conocidas como caricas) posibilita la transferencia de genes desde las especies silvestres hacia la cultivada. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue la obtención y evaluación d [...] e plantas híbridas mediante el rescate y regeneración de embriones u óvulos después del cruce entre C. papaya y Vasconcellea cauliflora. Se obtuvo un porcentaje de fructificación entre 0 y 76%, de acuerdo al tipo de lechosa usada en el cruce. En los frutos, las semillas fueron vanas, inmaduras o contenían embriones cigóticos. En la mayoría de ellas ocurrió la poliembrionía cigótica in vivo, aún cuando también se produjeron híbridos individuales. Se logró el desarrollo, germinación y multiplicación de embriones híbridos, y la regeneración de plantas in vitro. Las plantas sembradas en campo produjeron flores andróicas y andromonóicas. Abstract in english The rescue of hybrids from intergeneric crosses between papaya (Carica papaya L.) and other vasconcelleas species (known before as caricas) can make possible gene transfer from a wild species to a cultivated one. The object of this research was to obtain and evaluate hybrid plants after rescue and r [...] egeneration of embryos or ovules, from the crosses made between C. papaya and Vasconcellea cauliflora. After cross pollination, 0 to 76% fructification was attained, according to the papaya type used. In the fruits, seeds were vain, immature or contained zygotic embryos. In most of them occurred in vivo zygotic polyembryony, although some individual hybrids were also formed. Development, germination, multiplication of embryo hybrids and plant regeneration in vitro were achieved. In the field, plants produced androic and andromonoic flowers.

  4. Estudios de germinación y remoción de latencia en semillas de papayuelas Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis y Vasconcellea goudotiana / Highland papayas Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis and Vasconcellea goudotiana seed germination and dormancy release studies

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sandra Patricia, Benítez; Lobo, Mario; Oscar Arturo, Delgado; Clara Inés, Medina.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la germinación y latencia de las semillas de Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis y V. goudotiana, para desarrollar procedimientos promotores de emergencia de los embriones. La categorización de las semillas viables no germinables se realizó con el empleo del tetrazolio. La fermentación prolonga [...] da de las semillas, para remover la sarcotesta, afectó la viabilidad de éstas, en especial las de V. cundinamarcensis. Aplicaciones de KNO3 y AG3 promovieron una germinación significativamente mayor, en comparación con el testigo, en semillas fermentadas previamente durante 15 días de V. goudotiana, lo cual no ocurrió en las de V. cundinamarcensis. La aplicación de Saccharomyces cerevisiae durante 36 horas, para fermentación y liberación de la sarcotesta, indujo germinación en las dos especies, con una respuesta significativamente superior en V. goudotiana. La adición de AG3 y KNO3, luego del tratamiento anterior, promovió mayor emergencia en ambos taxa, en especial en V. goudotiana. La fermentación de las semillas con Saccharomyces cerevisiae, en combinación con AG3 y KNO3 produjo germinación en las dos especies, con énfasis en V. goudotiana al aplicar 1000 ppm de AG3 + KNO3 al 2,5% y en V. cundinamarcensis, al utilizar 600 ppm de AG3 + AG3 al 2,5%, sin diferencia significativa con la aplicación de 1000 ppm de AG3 + KNO3 al 1,5%; se logró mayor germinación en V. goudotiana en el tratamiento precitado, con el cual se obtuvo con confiabilidad estadística la máxima brotación de plántulas, en relación con el resto de tratamientos evaluados con la propia especie y en V. cundinamarcensis. Abstract in english Seed germination and dormancy of Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis and V. goudotiana were studied in order to develop procedures for seed embryo emergency. Characterization of viable dormant seeds was done with the tetrazolium test. Long periods of seed fermentation, for sarcotestal removal, affected th [...] e seed viability, mainly in V. cundinamarcensis. AG3 and KNO3 application promoted a significantly higher germination, in V. goudotiana, but not in V. cundinamarcensis, in relation to control seeds, fermented during 15 days. AG3 and KNO3 application promoted a significantly higher germination in V. goudotiana, but not in V. cundinamarcensis, in relation to control 15 days fermented seeds. Seed fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae during 36 hours for sarcotest removal, promoted a significant higher germination than that of the control, fermented without enzyme application, mainly in V. goudotiana. Seed fermentation with S. cerevisiae during 36 hours application, for sarcotest removal, promoted a significant higher germination than that of the control, fermented without enzyme application, mainly in V. goudotiana. Seed germination, after S. cerevisiae fermentation and application of AG3 and KNO3, occurred in both species, being obtained the best germination in V. goudotiana, with application of 1000 ppm of GA3 + 2.5% KNO3, with statistical differences, related to the other germination applied treatments. The best germination results, without significant differences, in V. cundinamarcensis were obtained with the application of 600 ppm of GA3 + 2.5% KNO3 or 1000 ppm of GA3 + 1.5% KNO3, after the fermentation procedure with S. cerevisiae.

  5. Susceptibilidad de Vasconcellea cauliflora al virus de la mancha anillada de la lechosa Susceptibility of Vasconcellea cauliflora to Papaya ringspot virus

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, A.; Trujillo, G.

    2005-01-01

    Esta investigación demostró la susceptibilidad de Vasconcellea cauliflora, especie que ha sido considerada como resistente al virus de la mancha anillada de la lechosa (PRSV-P). La transmisión de la enfermedad se logró mediante la inoculación mecánica de una cepa severa del PRSV-P en plantas de 60 días de edad. Estas evidenciaron síntomas de necrosis del cogollo en 8,3% bajo condiciones de invernadero a 25,15ºC y 78,68% HR promedio. Bajo condiciones de campo en la Facultad de Agronom...

  6. Moisture sorption isotherms and isosteric heat determination in Chilean papaya (Vasconcellea pubescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Vega-Gálvez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The moisture sorption isotherms of Chilean papaya were determined at 5, 20, and 45 ºC, over a relative humidity range of 10-95%. The GAB, BET, Oswin, Halsey, Henderson, Smith, Caurie and Iglesias-Chirife models were applied to the sorption experimental data. The goodness of fit of the mathematical models was statistically evaluated by means of the determination coefficient, mean relative percentage deviation, sum square error, root-mean-square error, and chi-square values. The GAB, Oswin and Halsey models were found to be the most suitable for the description of the sorption data. The sorption heats calculated using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation were 57.35 and 59.98 kJ·mol-1, for adsorption and desorption isotherms, respectively.

  7. Papaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaya is a tropical crop that is widely grown in household gardens and also commercially in plantations. However, papaya production has been severely limited by papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), the most widespread and damaging virus that affects papaya. In Hawaii, PRSV had been present since the 194...

  8. Citogenética de especies de Vasconcellea (Caricaceae) / Cytogenetic of Vasconcellea species (Caricaceae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Creucí Maria, Caetano; Túlio César, Lagos Burbano; Claudia Lorena, Sandoval Sierra; César Augusto, Posada Tique; Diego Geraldo, Caetano Nunes.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Conocer aspectos básicos de la citogenética de las papayas de montaña o papayuelas, especies del género Vasconcellea (Caricaceae) originarias de Ecuador y Colombia, fue el objetivo del trabajo. Botones florales se fijaron en etanol-acético 3:1 por 24h, luego se transfirieron a nueva solución y se al [...] macenaron en frío. Los microsporocitos y los granos de polen se tiñieron con acetocarmín (1%). Se evaluaron las fases de meiosis y la viabilidad de polen para describir el comportamiento cromosómico. Se encontró que: 1) todas las seis especies estudiadas fueron diploides (2n=2x=18); 2) se describió el número cromosómico para V. sphaerocarpa, V. longiflora y V. palandensis (2n=18); 3) el grado de asimetría de los complementos cromosómicos indicó un proceso de evolución; 4) la presencia de numerosos NOR en V. sphaerocarpa está relacionada con los micronucleolos y corroboró el posible origen híbrido; y 5) V. cauliflora (42.98%) y V. cundinamarcensis (47.93%) presentaron la más baja viabilidad polínica. Abstract in english This work aims to know basic aspects of cytogenetics of mountain papayas' or 'papayuelas', Vasconcellea species (Caricaceae), originated from Ecuador and Colombia. Flower buds were fixed in 3:1 acetic-alcohol solution for 24 hr, transferred to new solution and stored al low temperature. Both microsp [...] orocytes and pollen grains were stained with 1% acetic carmine. Meiosis phases and pollen viability were evaluated to describe chromosome behavior. We found that: 1) all tested species were diploid (2n=2x=18); 2) chromosome number of V. sphaerocarpa, V. longiflora and V. palandensis (2n=18) were by first time reported; 3) asymmetry level of chromosome complements indicated a evolution process in these species; 4) presence of numerous NOR in V. sphaerocarpa associated to micronucleoli corroborated its possible hybrid origin; and 5) V. cauliflora (42.98%) and V. cundinamarcensis (47.93%) presented the low percentage of pollen viability.

  9. Palynology of Carica and Vasconcellea (Caricaceae Palinología de Carica y Vasconcellea (Caricaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lagos Túlio César

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Palynology of Carica and Vasconcellea (Caricaceae. The pollen of C. papaya and agreements of Vasconcellea cauliflora, V. cundinamarcensis, V. crassipetala, V. goudotiana, V. x heilbornii var. chrysopetala, V. longiflora and V. sphaerocarpa collected in the Colombian Coffee Growing Zone, using the technique of acetolisis for optic microscopy and the fixation procedure with glutaraldehide, dehydration and ionization with gold-palade, for scanning electronic microscopy was described. The pollen grains were characterized using descriptors, which include the characters of taxonomic value for pollen identification, genetically determined. The most important are the number, position and character of the aperture (NPC and exine ornamentation and stratification. The pollen is of medium size for both genera, tricolporate, zonoaperturate, prolate-spheroid to subprolate, isopolar radial symmetry, tectate, dug, foveolate, with columelas. These characters have demonstrated a great contribution to the taxonomy of Caricaceae because the cluster analysis allowed distinguish very well the two genera.

    Se describe el polen de C. papaya y accesiones de Vasconcellea cauliflora, V. cundinamarcensis, V. crassipetala, V. goudotiana, V. x heilbornii var. chrysopetala, V. longiflora y V. sphaerocarpa recolectadas en la Zona Cafetera de Colombia, empleando la técnica de acetólisis para microscopía óptica y el procedimiento de fijación con glutaraldehído, deshidratación e ionización con oro paladio, para microscopía electrónica de barrido (MEB. Se caracterizaron los granos de polen por medio de una lista de descriptores que incluyeron los caracteres de valor taxonómico para identificación del polen, genéticamente determinados, siendo los más importantes el número, posición y carácter de la abertura (NPC y la ornamentación y estratificación de la exina. Para los dos géneros el polen es mediano, tricolporado, zonoaperturado, prolato–esferoidal a subprolato, de simetría radial isopolar, tectado, cavado, foveolado, con columelas. Estos caracteres han demostrado gran aporte a la taxonomía de Caricaceae, ya que el análisis de agrupamiento permitió diferenciar bien a los dos géneros.

  10. Citogenética de especies de Vasconcellea (Caricaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caetano Creucí María

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Conocer aspectos básicos de la citogenética de las papayas de montaña o papayuelas, especies del género Vasconcellea (Caricaceae originarias de Ecuador y Colombia, fue el objetivo del trabajo. Botones florales se fijaron en etanol-acético 3:1 por 24h, luego se transfirieron a nueva solución y se almacenaron en frío. Los microsporocitos y los granos de polen se tiñieron con acetocarmín (1%. Se evaluaron las fases de meiosis y la viabilidad de polen para describir el comportamiento cromosómico. Se encontró que: 1 todas las seis especies estudiadas fueron diploides (2n=2x=18; 2 se describió el número cromosómico para V. sphaerocarpa, V. longiflora y V. palandensis (2n=18; 3 el grado de asimetría de los complementos cromosómicos indicó un proceso de evolución; 4 la presencia de numerosos NOR en V. sphaerocarpa está relacionada con los micronucleolos y corroboró el posible origen híbrido; y 5 V. cauliflora (42.98% y V. cundinamarcensis (47.93% presentaron la más baja viabilidad polínica.

  11. Papaya Ringspot Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The term papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) was coined by Jensen in 1949, to describe a papaya disease in Hawaii. Later work showed that diseases such as papaya mosaic and watermelon mosaic virus-1 were caused by PRSV. The primary host range of PRSV is papaya and cucurbits, with Chenopium amaranticolor ...

  12. Características Físico-Químicas del Látex de Papayuelo (Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis Badillo, Caricaceae) / Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Papayuelo Latex (Vasconcellea Cundinamarcensis Badillo, Caricaceae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leslie V, Vidal; Víctor L, Finot; Karina del C, Mora; Fernando A, Venegas.

    Full Text Available Se determinó el rendimiento y la actividad enzimática de la papaína presente en el látex de papayuelo (Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis), cultivado en Cobquecura, VIII región del Bío-Bío, Chile, durante un año. Entre enero y diciembre, las plantas, frutos y látex, obtenidos de frutos inmaduros, fueron [...] caracterizados con el propósito de conocer el comportamiento del cultivo a través de las estaciones del año, y comprender las posibles relaciones entre los parámetros estudiados. El diseño experimental fue completamente aleatorio y los datos se procesaron mediante un ANDEVA y prueba de rangos múltiples de Duncan. Se encontró diferencia estadística significativa entre estaciones en cuanto al desarrollo de la planta y sus características. Los mayores rendimientos de látex se obtuvieron en la estación de primavera, mientras que la actividad enzimática se mantuvo constante durante el año de estudio. Abstract in english A study to determine the yield and enzymatic activity of papain present in the latex obtained from papayuelo fruit (Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis ) cultivated in Cobquecura, VIII Bío-Bío Region in Chile, during one year was done. Between January and December the papayuelo plants, fruits and latex ob [...] tained from unripe fruits were characterized. The objective of the study was to know the species behavior through the seasons and the relation between the parameters studied. The experimental design was completely random, and the data were processed through ANOVA and Duncan’s multiple range test. A significant statistical difference in plant growth and plan characteristics between seasons was found. The higher latex yields were obtained in spring, whereas the enzymatic activity was constant through the year.

  13. Características Físico-Químicas del Látex de Papayuelo (Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis Badillo, Caricaceae Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Papayuelo Latex (Vasconcellea Cundinamarcensis Badillo, Caricaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie V Vidal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó el rendimiento y la actividad enzimática de la papaína presente en el látex de papayuelo (Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis, cultivado en Cobquecura, VIII región del Bío-Bío, Chile, durante un año. Entre enero y diciembre, las plantas, frutos y látex, obtenidos de frutos inmaduros, fueron caracterizados con el propósito de conocer el comportamiento del cultivo a través de las estaciones del año, y comprender las posibles relaciones entre los parámetros estudiados. El diseño experimental fue completamente aleatorio y los datos se procesaron mediante un ANDEVA y prueba de rangos múltiples de Duncan. Se encontró diferencia estadística significativa entre estaciones en cuanto al desarrollo de la planta y sus características. Los mayores rendimientos de látex se obtuvieron en la estación de primavera, mientras que la actividad enzimática se mantuvo constante durante el año de estudio.A study to determine the yield and enzymatic activity of papain present in the latex obtained from papayuelo fruit (Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis cultivated in Cobquecura, VIII Bío-Bío Region in Chile, during one year was done. Between January and December the papayuelo plants, fruits and latex obtained from unripe fruits were characterized. The objective of the study was to know the species behavior through the seasons and the relation between the parameters studied. The experimental design was completely random, and the data were processed through ANOVA and Duncan’s multiple range test. A significant statistical difference in plant growth and plan characteristics between seasons was found. The higher latex yields were obtained in spring, whereas the enzymatic activity was constant through the year.

  14. In vitro morphogenic responses of Vasconcellea chilensis Planch. ex A. DC (Caricaceae) / Respuestas morfogenéticas in vitro de Vasconcellea chilensis Planch. ex A. DC (Caricaceae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Miguel, Jordan Z.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La formación de brotes múltiples bajo condiciones in vitro pudo ser inducida en secciones nodales de plantas adultas de "palo gordo" Vasconcellea chilensis ex Carica chilensis, mediante el uso de altos niveles de tidiazuron (TDZ), ácido indolacético (AIA) y en presencia de addenda orgánica (hidroliz [...] ado enzimático de caseína, sulfato de adenina y cisteína) incluidas en el medio nutritivo "WPM". Dichos brotes se iniciaron sincrónicamente, en forma de agregados compactos y/o en hileras, sobre la superficie del explante. En subcultivo, los brotes evidenciaron elongación tornando a color verde, con iniciación de nuevos brotes desde la base y, a pesar de la presencia de ácido indolbutírico (AIB) como única hormona, no desarrollaron raíces. Otros explantes ensayados, tales como pecíolos, no evidenciaron respuesta. Solo secciones de hojas iniciaron la formación de una estructura compacta o callo a nivel de la nervadura principal transcurridas 4-5 semanas, tornándose pardo luego y con posterior muerte tisular Abstract in english Multiple shoot formation was induced in vitro on nodal sections excised from adult "palo gordo" plants of Vasconcellea chilensis ex Carica chilensis, in the presence of relatively high levels of thidiazuron (TDZ), indole-3- acetic acid (IAA) and organic addenda included in the WPM formulation includ [...] ing casein hydrolysate, adenine sulfate and cystein. Multiple shoots appeared simultaneously in strands or clusters on the surface of the explants; usually two or more clusters with new shoots were initiated, all showing synchronous growth. In subculture, in the presence of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) as single hormone, root formation did not take place; the shoots turned green instead, evidenced elongation and development of new shoots at the base of the explants. Other explants, such as petioles and leaf sections exhibited callus initiation upon the vascular system after 4-5 weeks; however, this tissue turned brown later on and died

  15. Sex Determination in Papaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sex determination is an intriguing system in trioecious papaya. Over the past seven decades various hypotheses, based on the knowledge and information available at the time, have been proposed to explain the genetics of the papaya's sex determination. These include a single gene with three alleles...

  16. Post-irradiation identification of papaya ( Carica papaya L.) fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Suchandra; Variyar, Prasad S.; Sharma, Arun

    2012-03-01

    Impact of radiation processing on the volatile essential oil profile of papaya ( Carica papaya) was investigated. Gamma-radiation processing resulted in the appearance of a new peak in the GLC profile that was identified as phenol. The observed dose dependent increase in phenol content suggested possible use of this compound as a marker for radiation processed papaya.

  17. Ecophysiology of papaya Carica papaya L.: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a principal horticultural crop of tropical and subtropical regions. Knowledge of how papaya responds to environmental factors provides a scientific basis to develop management strategies to optimize fruit yield and quality. A better understanding of genotypic responses t...

  18. Functional Genomics Tools for Papaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the genome of papaya (Carica papaya L.) sequenced, the study of gene function is becoming an increasing priority. Our research is to develop an RNA-induced gene silencing tool for the study of functional genomics in papaya. We employed agrobacterium leaf infiltration to induce PTGS in '-glucuro...

  19. Papaya: environment and crop physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a principal horticultural crop of tropical and subtropical regions. Knowledge of how papaya responds to environmental factors provides a scientific basis for the development of management strategies to optimize fruit yield and quality. A better understanding of genotyp...

  20. Papaya ringspot virus (Potyviridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaya ringspot virus, a member of the family Potyviridae, is single stranded RNA plant virus with a monocistronic genome of about 10,326 nucleotides that is expressed via a large polyprotein subsequently cleaved into functional proteins. It causes severe damage on cucurbit crops such as squash and...

  1. Post-irradiation identification of papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Impact of radiation processing on the volatile essential oil profile of papaya (Carica papaya) was investigated. Gamma-radiation processing resulted in the appearance of a new peak in the GLC profile that was identified as phenol. The observed dose dependent increase in phenol content suggested possible use of this compound as a marker for radiation processed papaya. - Highlights: ? Effect of ?-irradiation on the essential oil profile of papaya is demonstrated. ? ?-Irradiation resulted in a dose dependent increase in a new peak, phenol. ? Phenol formed in the volatile oil is proposed as a new marker of irradiated food. ? Content of phenol remained unchanged during the entire storage period.

  2. In vitro morphogenic responses of Vasconcellea chilensis Planch. ex A. DC (Caricaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Z. Miguel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Multiple shoot formation was induced in vitro on nodal sections excised from adult “palo gordo” plants of Vasconcellea chilensis ex Carica chilensis, in the presence of relatively high levels of thidiazuron (TDZ, indole-3- acetic acid (IAA and organic addenda included in the WPM formulation including casein hydrolysate, adenine sulfate and cystein. Multiple shoots appeared simultaneously in strands or clusters on the surface of the explants; usually two or more clusters with new shoots were initiated, all showing synchronous growth. In subculture, in the presence of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA as single hormone, root formation did not take place; the shoots turned green instead, evidenced elongation and development of new shoots at the base of the explants. Other explants, such as petioles and leaf sections exhibited callus initiation upon the vascular system after 4-5 weeks; however, this tissue turned brown later on and died.

  3. Spiders associated with papaya, Carica papaya L., in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    The main objective of this work was to study the species composition and population dynamics of spiders associated with papaya plantings in three papaya production areas: Corozal, Isabela, and Lajas, Puerto Rico. Nineteen species representing seven families and 15 genera were identified. Members of ...

  4. DEREGULATION OF TRANSGENIC PAPAYA FOR JAPAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    The transgenic SunUp and Rainbow papaya developed for Hawaii was commercialized in 1998 and virtually saved Hawaii’s papaya industry from further damage being caused by papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). Since Japan makes up a significant part (about 35% in 1992) in Hawaii’s papaya export market, effort...

  5. La izquierda chilena contemparánea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Antonio Garret\\u00F3n

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo, el autor examina las particularidades de la izquierda chilena para entender su papel en los gobiernos democráticos desde los años 70. El autor parte de la premisa de la existencia, durante los años 90, de dos izquierdas: una, el socialismo dentro de la coalición; la otra, el comunismo fuera de ella. En el trabajo se sostiene que la izquierda socialista ha sido el principal motor de la coalición y su papel específico se ha concentrado en los temas socio-económicos ligados a la igualdad, a la justicia, a los derechos humanos y a las propuestas culturales de tipo progresista. Asimismo, se analizan las particularidades esenciales de los gobiernos democráticos chilenos y se examinan los temas y las tareas pendientes. El artículo concluye con un balance del papel de la izquierda y de los retos que aún tiene por delante.

  6. frutos de papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Adriana Sa\\u00F1udo Barajas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se determinaron los principales cambios en la composición de la pared celular y la degradación de pectinas solubles en agua relacionados con el ablandamiento postcosecha de frutos de papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. ?Maradol?. Se estudiaron frutos en estado de madurez 1/2 (50-75 % de coloración amarillo-naranja en la cáscara, los cuales se retrasaron en la maduración con 300 nL L-1 de 1-metilciclopropeno (1-MCP o se adelantaron con 2.5 g L-1 de ácido 2-cloroetil fosfónico (etefón. Posterior a los tratamientos, los frutos se almacenaron en condiciones de simulación de mercadeo (20 ± 2 °C y HR 85 % durante 6 d. Se evaluaron los cambios en firmeza, composición de la pared celular y despolimerización de las pectinas solubles en agua. La aplicación de 1-MCP inhibió totalmente el ablandamiento de los frutos. Los frutos testigo perdieron 69 % de la firmeza a los 3 d de almacenamiento y los frutos con etefón perdieron 84 % en el mismo periodo. El ablandamiento en los frutos testigo y etefón se acompañó de la solubilización de ácidos urónicos y azúcares totales de las fracciones CDTA, Na2CO3, KOH 4% y KOH 24 %. La despolimerización extensiva de pectinas solubles en agua y la acumulación de oligómeros derivados de pectinas sólo fue detectada en los tratamientos testigo y etefón, lo que muestra una relación con el ablandamiento de los frutos y sugire la posible acción de la poligalacturonasa.

  7. THE EVOLUTION OF SEX CHROMOSOMES IN PAPAYA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is one of plant species with male, female, and hermaphrodite plants. Sex determination in papaya is controlled by a primitive Y chromosome that contains a male-specific region with severe recombination suppression and DNA sequence degeneration. Our recent results showed tha...

  8. Ocorrência de Ovulariopsis papayae Bijl em folhas de mamoeiro Occurrence of Ovulariopsis papayae Bijl in papaya leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan José Antunes Ribeiro

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available É citada pela primeira vez, em nossas condições, a ocorrência de oídio causado por Ovulariopsis papayae Bijl em folhas de mamoeiro (Cacica papaya L.. São descritas a sintomatologia, as características morfológicas do patógeno e o teste de patogenicidade.The occurrence causing powdery mildew in papaya leaves was observed for the first time in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The symptomatology and the morphological characteristics of the pathogen were described and the pathogenicity was comproved.

  9. Managing papaya ringspot virus: Impact of grass barriers on alate aphid immigration into papaya orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaya ringspot virus, transmitted by alate aphids, is the most limiting factor of papaya production in the Caribbean region. Although there are transgenic papaya varieties that provide protection from this virus, these varieties are effective only in certain regions against certain strains of the v...

  10. Physical-chemical analyses of irradiated papayas (Carica papaya L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papaya is cultivated in Espirito Santo State/Brazil and as it stands up to irradiation, it is important to validate this technology, since it is already being applied in some countries. Penetration energy, ratio (relation between soluble solids and titrable acidity) and skin color were evaluated to verify the influence of four different doses of irradiation (0.0, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.00 kGy) on papayas, during 21 days. As a result for the skin color and the penetration energy, it was found that in the first days after irradiation, these variables increased with increase in radiation dose; however, after a time lapse, the tendency inverted and the irradiated fruits had a slower ripening process. For the ratio, a very important variable that it is responsible for the fruit taste, no difference was found between irradiated and the control fruit. Color and texture measurements are dependent on the storage temperature

  11. Physical-chemical analyses of irradiated papayas ( Carica papaya L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, R. J.; Tadini, C. C.; Sabato, S. F.

    2007-11-01

    Papaya is cultivated in Espírito Santo State/Brazil and as it stands up to irradiation, it is important to validate this technology, since it is already being applied in some countries. Penetration energy, ratio (relation between soluble solids and titrable acidity) and skin color were evaluated to verify the influence of four different doses of irradiation (0.0, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.00 kGy) on papayas, during 21 days. As a result for the skin color and the penetration energy, it was found that in the first days after irradiation, these variables increased with increase in radiation dose; however, after a time lapse, the tendency inverted and the irradiated fruits had a slower ripening process. For the ratio, a very important variable that it is responsible for the fruit taste, no difference was found between irradiated and the control fruit. Color and texture measurements are dependent on the storage temperature.

  12. Somatic embryogenesis of Carica Papaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the somatic embryogenesis of Carica papaya. Culture medium used was1/2 strength MS basal medium supplemented with 6% sucrose, 0.27 % agar, glutamine and various concentrations of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). After 8 weeks in culture, the best concentration of 2,4-D to induce somatic embryo is at 45.2 ?M. (Author)

  13. Transplantation of carica (Vasconcellea pubescens at various altitudes of Mount Lawu, Central Java with treatment of shade and different types of fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALFATIKA PERMATASARI

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Permatasari A, Sugiyarto, Marsusi, Hailu WH. 2015. Transplantation of carica (Vasconcellea pubescens at various altitudes of Mount Lawu, Central Java with treatment of shade and different types of fertilizers. Nusantara Bioscience 7: 6-14. Ex-situ conservation efforts to increase crop production can be done by means of transplantation. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of altitude, shade and type of fertilizer and their interactions to the performance of carica (Vasconcellea pubescens vegetative plants transplanted to Mount Lawu, Central Java, Indonesia. The research was conducted in divided plot design at three altitudes (± 1400, 1600 and 1800 m asl. with shade treatment as main plots and fertilizer (manure, Zwavelzuur ammonium/ZA fertilizer, combination of manure with Ammonium fertilizer, and control as subplots. Parameters of vegetative variability were observed. The results of the performance of carica vegetative plant were analyzed using ANOVA followed by Duncan's test at 5% standard test. It was observed that an increase in altitude caused slower growth of carica vegetative parts, but better vegetative growth performance in the presence of shade. For the fertilizers, the best growth parameters were obtained in the treatment of manure with ZA fertilizer. Interaction between altitude, shade and type of fertilizer significantly influenced the performance of carica vegetative parameters. The best growth parameters are at an altitude of 1400 m above sea level with shade treatment and manure combined with ZA fertilizer.

  14. Genetic diversity studies of Papaya meleira virus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cleidiane B., Daltro; Emanuel Felipe Medeiros, Abreu; Francisco Jose Lima, Aragão; Eduardo C., Andrade.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Papaya (Carica papaya) is a fruit crop of great economic and social importance for Brazil and other papaya-producing countries. Brazil is the second largest producer in the world. The papaya sticky disease, caused by Papaya meleira virus (PMeV), has caused great losses in the major Brazilian papaya- [...] producing states. In order to estimate the genetic diversity of PMeV, latex samples were collected from papaya plants in the states of Bahia, Espírito Santo, Pernambuco, Ceará and Rio Grande do Norte, and total RNA was extracted. Specific primer for the replicase region allowed the amplification, by RT-PCR, of a fragment of approximately 560 bp from 31 isolates. The sequence analysis indicated a level of conservation greater than 88% among isolates. Furthermore, comparative analyzes indicated that PMeV has similarity with mycoviruses of the family Totiviridae. This phylogenetic relationship was reinforced by the presence of conserved motifs within in the RdRp regions from mycoviruses.

  15. Marcadores RAPD para la identificación del sexo en papaya (Carica papaya L.) en Colombia / RAPD markers for sex identification in papaya (Carica papaya L.) in Colombia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Giovanni, Chaves-Bedoya; Mauricio, Pulido; Erika, Sánchez-Betancourt; Víctor, Núñez.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available La determinación del sexo en plantas de papaya es considerado un sistema intrigante, debido a que esta especie presenta tres sexos (macho, hembra y hermafrodita) determinados por un locus multialélico. Además, esta especie no presenta cromosomas sexuales morfológicamente diferenciables. Los marcador [...] es moleculares pueden asociarse a características de interés, como en el presente caso, al sexo en plántulas de papaya. Con el objetivo de identificar marcadores moleculares que permitan una rápida identificación del sexo en genotipos colombianos de plántulas de papaya, se aplicó la técnica de RAPD (amplificación aleatoria de polimorfismos del ADN). El estudio encontró tres marcadores RAPD polimórficos, los cuales permitieron diferenciar los sexos de la papaya. Dos marcadores fueron específicos para plantas macho y hermafrodita, y un tercero para plantas hembra. Estos nuevos marcadores moleculares podrán ser beneficiosos en la determinación del sexo en genotipos colombianos de papaya. Abstract in english Sex definition in papaya is considered an intriguing system, due to the fact that the plant presents three different sexes (male, female and hermaphrodite), which are determined on a multiallelic locus. Moreover, the plant does not have morphologically differentiated sexual chromosomes. Provided tha [...] t molecular markers can be associated to traits of interest, in the present study they were applied to rapid sex identification in seedlings of Colombian papaya genotypes. With the aim of finding such markers, an RAPD technique (Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA) was applied. The study allowed identifying three polymorphic RAPD markers apt for differentiating the sexes in papaya. Two of them are specific for male and hermaphrodite plants, and one for female plants. These novel molecular markers will be valuable for sex determination in Colombian genotypes of papaya.

  16. chilena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. Hojman

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Chile es el único país latinoamericano donde las políticas económicas neoliberales han tenido éxito. Esto podría deberse tanto a la cultura nacional como a la cultura organizacional del país, que están estrechamente relacionadas. Ambas están llenas de contradicciones. El trabajo identifica algunas características más estables en el largo plazo de ambas culturas, así como también dramáticos cambios culturales ocurridos desde mediados de los años ochenta. Éstos últimos coexistieron con rápido crecimiento de la economía. Debido a ambigüedades, inconsistencias y contradicciones en la gestión organizacional, particularmente en lo relativo a recursos humanos, muchos empleados pueden haber sido forzados a adoptar patrones culturales y de comportamiento frecuentemente asociados a la caricatura Condorito

  17. EFFECT OF UNRIPE CARICA PAPAYA ON UTERUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meera Sumanth

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was under taken to establish the uterine stimulant activity of aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya. The effect of the aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya was studied on isolated rat uterus and embryo. Uterine stimulant activity was compared with clinically available drug oxytocin and the effect on embryo was compared with misoprostol. In the in vitro model, Carica papaya showed contractile effect on the isolated uterus in diestrus stage and when administered orally in dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg to pregnant rats, resulted in gradual decrease in body weight indicating embryonic resorption. The present study confirms the uterine stimulant activity of aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya fruit.

  18. HIGH SPEED CENTRIFUGAL COUNTERCURRENT CHROMATOGRAPHY (HSCCC) ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION BY LC-MSn ANALYSIS OF THE POLAR PHENOLICS FROM VASCONCELLEA QUERCIFOLIA

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    CRISTINA, QUISPE; EZEQUIEL, VIVEROS-VALDEZ; JOSÉ A, YARLEQUE; MARCO R, ARONES; JUAN C, PANIAGUA; GUILLERMO, SCHMEDA-HIRSCHMANN.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available High speed centrifugal countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) was successfully applied to preparative isolation of the main polar phenolics from the Peruvian Caricaceae Vasconcellea quercifolia A. St.-Hil. High-performance liquid chromatography with diode array (HPLC-DAD) and electrospray ionisation [...] mass spectrometric detection (ESI-MS) was used to carry out a comprehensive characterisation of phenolic compounds from fruits and leaves of this plant. The main phenolics were the quercetin diglycoside rutin and the triglycoside manghaslin. Nine minor flavonoids were tentatively identified as kaempferol, quercetin, isorhamnetin and methoxymyricetin glycosides. HSCCC combined with other chromatographic methods allowed the isolation of the main phenolics from the plant. HPLC-DAD-MS analysis shows that the main phenolic compounds in V. quercifolia are similar to those described for V. pubescens but differs in the identity of the minor constituents.

  19. Casa Chilena 1: Rancagua, Chile

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Smiljan, Radic.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Los nogales crecidos a los cuales se les ha dejado en paz, la negación del exterior gracias a una tapia perimetral pintada a la cal, un patio interior con posibilidades de ser cubierto por una sombra simple de membrana agrícola anclada a sus muros, un estar familiar austero con síntomas de exterior [...] desplegado a todo lo largo del patio, un cielo de madera en bruto pintada y los dormitorios de colores fuertes, recuerdan de una u otra manera, las casas de inquilinos del campo chileno. En la Casa Chilena 2, se acentúa la negación del exterior y el patio interior se parte en dos generando exteriores matizados. Abstract in english The grown walnut trees left in peace, the negation of the exterior thanks to a whitewashed perimeter wall, an interior patio with the possibility of being covered by the simple shade of an agricultural screen anchored to its walls, an austere, family living room with exterior characteristics unfoldi [...] ng along the patio, a rough, painted wood ceiling and bedrooms in strong colors, remind one of the Inquilino houses of the Chilean countryside. In the Chilean House 2, the negation of the exterior is accentuated and the interior patio divides in two to generate blended exteriors.

  20. DESHIDRATACIÓN OSMÓTICA DE FRUTOS DE PAPAYA HAWAIANA (Carica papaya L. EN CUATRO AGENTES EDULCORANTES OSMOTIC DEHYDRATION OF HAWAIIAN PAPAYA FRUITS (Carica papaya L. USING FOUR SWEETENER AGENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Maria Ríos Pérez

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Trozos de papaya hawaiiana (Carica papaya L. fueron sometidos a un proceso de osmo-deshidratación usando cuatro agentes edulcorantes: miel de abejas, miel de caña, crema de miel de abejas y sacarosa en medio acuoso a 79 grados Brix, temperatura de 20 ºC y 23 horas de inmersión. Los resultados estadísticos mostraron que el agente de mayor capacidad deshidratante fue la miel de abejas y el menor la sacarosa. Además, los análisis cinéticos indicaron que la máxima transferencia de masa ocurre en las primeras cuatro horas del proceso y la máxima pérdida de masa del producto que puede ser alcanzada fue de 32 % con un contenido de humedad final en los frutos de papaya osmodeshidratada de 41,3 % b.h.Pieces of Hawaiian papaya (Carica papaya L. were subjected to osmotic dehydration using four sweetener agents: honey, molasses, honey cream and sucrose in aqueous solution to 79 degrees Brix, 20 ºC temperature and 23 hours of immersion. The statistical results showed that honey was the sweetener agent with highest osmotic capacity while sucrose had the lowest. The kinetic analysis also showed that the maximum mass transfer occurs during the first four hours of the process and the maximum mass loss of the product that can be attained was 32 % with a final moisture content of 41,3 % w.b.

  1. DESHIDRATACIÓN OSMÓTICA DE FRUTOS DE PAPAYA HAWAIANA (Carica papaya L.) EN CUATRO AGENTES EDULCORANTES / OSMOTIC DEHYDRATION OF HAWAIIAN PAPAYA FRUITS (Carica papaya L.) USING FOUR SWEETENER AGENTS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Margarita Maria, Ríos Pérez; Carlos Julio, Márquez Cardozo; Héctor José, Ciro Velásquez.

    2998-30-01

    Full Text Available Trozos de papaya hawaiiana (Carica papaya L.) fueron sometidos a un proceso de osmo-deshidratación usando cuatro agentes edulcorantes: miel de abejas, miel de caña, crema de miel de abejas y sacarosa en medio acuoso a 79 grados Brix, temperatura de 20 ºC y 23 horas de inmersión. Los resultados estad [...] ísticos mostraron que el agente de mayor capacidad deshidratante fue la miel de abejas y el menor la sacarosa. Además, los análisis cinéticos indicaron que la máxima transferencia de masa ocurre en las primeras cuatro horas del proceso y la máxima pérdida de masa del producto que puede ser alcanzada fue de 32 % con un contenido de humedad final en los frutos de papaya osmodeshidratada de 41,3 % b.h. Abstract in english Pieces of Hawaiian papaya (Carica papaya L.) were subjected to osmotic dehydration using four sweetener agents: honey, molasses, honey cream and sucrose in aqueous solution to 79 degrees Brix, 20 ºC temperature and 23 hours of immersion. The statistical results showed that honey was the sweetener ag [...] ent with highest osmotic capacity while sucrose had the lowest. The kinetic analysis also showed that the maximum mass transfer occurs during the first four hours of the process and the maximum mass loss of the product that can be attained was 32 % with a final moisture content of 41,3 % w.b.

  2. Effect of gamma irradiation in papaya (Carica papaya L.) harvested in three degrees of maturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The papaya is a fragile tropical fruit with thin skin, susceptible to post harvest diseases and mechanical injuries. Furthermore, it is sensible to low temperatures and at normal conditions it ripens rapidly, increasing the difficulties with storage. The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of gamma irradiation in papayas harvested in three degrees of maturation, in order to increase shelf life. To accomplish that, papayas were harvested in perfect quality conditions, washed, submitted to carnauba wax and selected by skin coloration into three distinct degrees of maturation: Mat 0, or beginning of yellow coloration; Mat 1, yellow stripes more developed, and Mat 2, one third yellow. Half of them were submitted to irradiation with 0, 75 kGy, while the others became control treatment. They were analyzed in four different periods of conservation, which were 1 day after irradiation (DAI) refrigerated (11 +- 1 deg C), 14 DAI refrigerated, 14 DAI refrigerated + 3 at room temperature (RT = 24 deg +- 2 deg C) and 14 DAI refrigerated + 6 at RT. The effect of irradiation was not influenced by the maturation degree at harvest. Irradiation promoted firmness maintenance of papaya and, therefore, delayed ripening; modified the green color of papaya to a lighter tone, which determined more homogeneity in the skin yellow color development (greater values of L* and b*), and turned the papaya flesh color lighter (rower values of b*). There was no effect of irradiation in papaya weight loss, in the occurrence of diseases, in the development of surface yellow color, in the parameter a* of papaya skin color, in the parameters L*, a* and chroma of flesh color, p H and total soluble solids content. Visual and organoleptic sensorial tests were accomplished with papayas from a new delivery in the conservation period of 14 DAI refrigerated + 3 at RT. In the visual test was evaluated the appearance of papaya in the following treatments: Mat O control, Mat O irradiated, Mat 1 control, Mat 1 irradiated, Mat 2 control e Mat 2 irradiated, in which the first one received lower scores due to the occurrence of ratting on one of the papayas. In the organoleptic test, the parameters firmness, sweetness and acceptance were evaluated for the following treatments: control, Mat O irradiated, Mat 1 irradiated e Mat 2 irradiated. There was no difference between treatments for the sweetness parameter. The irradiated treatments received better scores for firmness as well as papayas irradiated at Mat 1 and 2 for acceptance (author)

  3. Free radical scavenging activity of papaya juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papaya juice is an efficient scavenger of highly reactive hydroxyl radicals (OH radical) formed during 60Co irradiation of water. The OH anion radicals were detected by the electron spin resonance (ESR) technique of spin trapping using DMPO (5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide) or by a colorimetric assay in which salicylate is converted into polyhydroxybenzoic acids. Papaya juice is also able to quench the ESR signal of a stable free radical (TEMPOL) and the ESR signal of the DMPO-OH adduct. The active substance(s) in papaya juice are heat-stable, dialyzable, and soluble in water but not in lipid solvents. The active agents do not appear to be ascorbate, tocopherol, or carotenoids. (author)

  4. Caracterización de accesiones de papaya (Carica papaya L.) a través de marcadores AFLP en Cuba / Characterising Cuban papaya accessions (Carica papaya L.) by AFLP markers

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maruchi Alonso, Esquivel; Martín, Bautista Alor; Matilde, Ortiz García; Adriana, Quiroz Moreno; Wolfgang, Rohde; Lorenzo Felipe, Sánchez Teyer.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Los marcadores moleculares son herramientas valiosas en los estudios genéticos en plantas, y están siendo empleados exitosamente en programas de mejoramiento principalmente en la elección de progenitores y en la selección. El polimorfismo observado mediante la técnica molecular AFLP (Amplified Fragm [...] ent Length Polymorphism) ha sido de utilidad para estudios de diversidad genética en frutales. En el presente trabajo se realizó la caracterización molecular de 12 accesiones de papaya (Carica papaya L.) del banco de germoplasma del Instituto de Investigaciones en Fruticultura Tropical (IIFT), empleando la técnica AFLP. Se evaluaron seis combinaciones de iniciadores para la amplificación selectiva, las cuales amplificaron un total de 431 bandas con 73,3% de polimorfismo. El número total de patrones de bandas identificados fue igual en todas las combinaciones utilizadas, con un porcentaje de identificación alto, lo que sugiere que dichas combinaciones pudieran ser empleadas para estudios de variabilidad genética en papaya. En general, los resultados presentados demuestran que existe diversidad genética entre las accesiones evaluadas, lo cual constituye un reflejo del origen que presentan los genotipos analizados a partir de la introducción de materiales foráneos y la polinización abierta de un grupo de materiales selectos. Por tanto, se recomienda retomar la prospección y selección de accesiones locales, así como la introducción de nuevos genotipos foráneos, como dos vías fundamentales para aumentar la diversidad genética presente en el banco de germoplasma de papaya de Cuba. Abstract in english Molecular markers are valuable tools for genetic studies in plants and they are often used successfully in genetic breeding, mainly for choosing progenitors and selection. Polymorphism observed by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) has been useful for genetic diversity studies in fruit tr [...] ees. Twelve papaya accessions from the Tropical Fruit Crop Research Institute germplasm bank were molecularly characterised by AFLP. 431 bands having 73.3% polymorphism were obtained using 6 primer combinations. The total number of band patterns identified was the same in all combinations assayed with a high percentage of identification, suggesting that such primer combinations could be used for genetic variability studies in papaya. The results demonstrated genetic diversity among the papaya accessions evaluated, indicating the origin of the analysed genotypes from exogenous material and open pollination of a selected group of material. It is thus recommended that local accessions and their selection be monitored as well as the introduction of new foreign genotypes as two ways of increasing the genetic diversity of the Cuban papaya germplasm bank.

  5. Uptake of 32P labelled superphosphate by endomycorrhizal papaya (Carica papaya cv. Coorg honey dew)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In papaya (Carica papaya cv. Coorg honey dew), there was an increase in 32P uptake and total phosphorus in plants inoculated with mycorrhizal fungi Glomus mossae and G. fasciculatum. Phosphorus derived from fertilizer (Pdff) was lower in mycorrhizal plants while soil derived P, utilisation of P and A values were higher showing thereby that mycorrhizal plants had utilised forms of phosphorus not available to non-mycorrhizal plants. (author). 13 refs., 1 tab

  6. COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON ANTHELMINTIC POTENTIAL OF CUCURBITA MAXIMA (PUMPKIN) SEEDS AND CARICA PAPAYA (PAPAYA) SEEDS

    OpenAIRE

    Sengupta Rupa; Banik Jayanta

    2013-01-01

    The crude extract of Carica papaya (papaya) seeds (CP) and Cucurbita maxima (Pumpkin) seeds (CM) were assayed against adult earthworms (Pheretima posthuma) for the evaluation of anthelmintic activity. Various concentrations of both extracts were tested and results were expressed in terms of time for paralysis (P) and time for death (D) of worms. Albendazole was used as a reference standard. The result showed that in both of the extracts (i.e. CP and CM) dose of 60 mg / ml possesses more wormi...

  7. Incidencia y severidad de la antracnosis en líneas e híbridos de papaya (Carica papaya)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antonio, Bogantes-Arias; Eric, Mora-Newcomer.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Incidencia y severidad de la antracnosis en líneas e híbridos de papaya (Carica papaya). El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la incidencia y severidad de la antracnosis (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides), en frutas de papaya. El experimento se realizó en Guápiles, Limón, Costa Rica, entre los a [...] ños 2010 y 2011. Se sembraron cinco líneas y cuatro híbridos bajo un diseño de bloques completos al azar con tres repeticiones. Se evaluó la incidencia y severidad de la antracnosis, así como la firmeza y los sólidos solubles (grados Brix) de la fruta. Los híbridos presentaron características intermedias a los padres para las características evaluadas. En la antracnosis de fruta, la resistencia tiende a ser dominante para el material evaluado. Abstract in english Incidence and severity of anthracnose in breeding lines and crosses of papaya (Carica papaya). The objective of this study was to determine the incidence and severity of papaya fruit anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides). The experiment was carried out in Guápiles, Limón, Costa Rica, between [...] the years 2010 and 2011. Five lines and four crosses were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Evaluated traits were incidence and severity of anthracnose, fruit firmness and total soluble solids content of the pulp. Results suggest that the crosses have intermediate characteristics to those of their parent lines for these traits. In the specific case of anthracnose, evidence also suggests that the resistance to this disease tends to be inherited in a dominant manner.

  8. Gene Technology for Papaya Ringspot Virus Disease Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Md. Abul Kalam; Sidik, Nik Marzuki

    2014-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya) is severely damaged by the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). This review focuses on the development of PRSV resistant transgenic papaya through gene technology. The genetic diversity of PRSV depends upon geographical distribution and the influence of PRSV disease management on a sequence of PRSV isolates. The concept of pathogen-derived resistance has been employed for the development of transgenic papaya, using a coat protein-mediated, RNA-silencing mechanism and replicase gene-mediated transformation for effective PRSV disease management. The development of PRSV-resistant papaya via post-transcriptional gene silencing is a promising technology for PRSV disease management. PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya is environmentally safe and has no harmful effects on human health. Recent studies have revealed that the success of adoption of transgenic papaya depends upon the application, it being a commercially viable product, bio-safety regulatory issues, trade regulations, and the wider social acceptance of the technology. This review discusses the genome and the genetic diversity of PRSV, host range determinants, molecular diagnosis, disease management strategies, the development of transgenic papaya, environmental issues, issues in the adoption of transgenic papaya, and future directions for research. PMID:24757435

  9. Update on the development of virus-resistant papaya: Virus-resistant transgenic papaya for people in rural communities of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is one of the most important and preferred crops in rural communities in Thailand. Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is a serious disease of papaya throughout Thailand. Efforts to control the virus by various methods either have not been successful or have not resulted in sustai...

  10. Nematodos fitoparásitos asociados al cultivo de papaya (Carica papaya L.) en Colima, México / Phytoparasitic nematodes associated with the cultivation of papaya (Carica papaya L.) in Colima, Mexico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Ángel, Martínez Gallardo; Tomás, Díaz Valdés; Raúl, Allende Molar; José Alfonso, Ortiz Meza; Raymundo Saúl, García Estrada; José Armando, Carrillo Fasio.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio tuvo como objetivo detectar e identificar los géneros de nematodos fitoparásitos asociados al cultivo de papaya (Caricapapaya L.) en los municipios de Tecomán y Colima, Colima. Se seleccionaron diez huertos, de siete ranchos en los que se colectaron muestras de raíces y suelo rizosféric [...] o; en cada muestra se cuantificó e identificaron las poblaciones de los fitonematodos. Para la identificación específica de Meloidogyne, se analizaron cortes perineales de las hembras y se confirmó por reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR). Los géneros de fitonematodos detectados e identificados fueron: Aphelenchus, Ditylenchus, Helicotylenchus, Paratylenchus, Pratylenchus, Rotylenchulus, Rotylenchus, Trophurus, Tylenchorrhynchus, Tylenchus, y Meloidogyne, con la especie M. incognita. Los resultados permiten el reporte por primera vez de M. incognita, asociado al cultivo de papaya en Colima, México. Abstract in english This study aimed to detect and identify phytoparasitic nematodes associated with the cultivation of papaya (Caricapapaya L.) in the municipalities of Tecomán and Colima, Colima. We selected ten orchards, seven ranches in which samples were collected roots and rhizosphere soil, in each sample was qua [...] ntified and identified populations of phytoparasitic nematodes. For specific identification of Meloidogyne, perineal cuts were analyzed and confirmed females by chain reaction (PCR). The genera of phytoparasitic nematodes were detected and identified: Aphelenchus, Ditylenchus, Helicotylenchus, Paratylenchus, Pratylenchus, Rotylenchulus, Rotylenchus, Trophurus, Tylenchorrhynchus, Tylenchus, and Meloidogyne, with the species M. incognita. The results allow the first report of M incognita associated with papaya in Colima, Mexico.

  11. The evolution of sex chromosomes in papaya.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yu, Qingyi; Moore, Paul H.; Alam, Maqsudul; Jiang, Jiming; Paterson, Andrew H.; Vyskot, Boris; Ming, Ray

    San Diego, 2006. W340-W340. [Plant & Animal Genomes XIV Conference. 14.01.2006-18.01.2006, San Diego] R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GA521/06/0056; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507 Keywords : evolution * sex chromosomes * papaya Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  12. Efecto positivo de aplicaciones de ácido salicílico en la productividad de papaya (Carica papaya) / Positive effect of salicylic acid application on productivity of papaya (Carica papaya)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rodolfo, Martin-Mex; Ángel, Nexticapan-Garcéz; Rubí, Herrera-Tuz; Silvia, Vergara-Yoisura; Alfonso, Larqué-Saavedra.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Durante dos años se realizó un experimento con papaya (Carica papaya) cv. Maradol en condiciones de campo en Yucatán en el que se estudio el efecto de aspersiones de bajas concentraciones de ácido salicílico (AS), en la productividad del frutal. El AS a concentraciones de 0.01 ?M incremento el porce [...] ntaje de plantas hermafroditas en 20% sobre el control e incremento significativamente la altura y grosor de la planta. Esta misma concentración incremento 19.7% el número de frutos por planta, en 2% el peso de los frutos y en 21.9% el rendimiento por hectárea. El AS a todas las concentraciones probadas incremento significativamente la variable de productividad analizada. Abstract in english For two years, was conducted an experiment with papaya (Carica papaya) cv. Maradol under field conditions in Yucatan in which was studied the effect of spraying low concentrations of salicylic acid (SA), in the productivity of fruit. The SA to concentrations of 0.01 (?M increased the percentage of h [...] ermaphroditic plants in 20% over the control and significantly increased the height and thickness of plants. This same concentration increased 19.7% the number of fruits per plant, in 2% of the fruit weight and 21.9% the yield per hectare. The SA at all concentrations tested, significantly increased the productivity variable analyzed.

  13. Optimization of process parameters for osmotic dehydration of papaya cubes

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, S. K.; Verma, R. C.; Murdia, L. K.; Jain, H. K.; Sharma, G. P.

    2010-01-01

    Process temperature (30, 40 and 50 °C), syrup concentration (50, 60 and 70o Brix) and process time (4, 5 and 6 h) for osmotic dehydration of papaya (Carica papaya) cubes were optimized for the maximum water loss and optimum sugar gain by using response surface methodology. The peeled and pre-processed papaya cubes of 1 cm size were immersed in sugar syrup at constant temperature water bath having syrup to papaya cubes ratio of 4:1 (w/w). The cubes were removed from bath at pre-decided tim...

  14. COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON ANTHELMINTIC POTENTIAL OF CUCURBITA MAXIMA (PUMPKIN SEEDS AND CARICA PAPAYA (PAPAYA SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sengupta Rupa

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The crude extract of Carica papaya (papaya seeds (CP and Cucurbita maxima (Pumpkin seeds (CM were assayed against adult earthworms (Pheretima posthuma for the evaluation of anthelmintic activity. Various concentrations of both extracts were tested and results were expressed in terms of time for paralysis (P and time for death (D of worms. Albendazole was used as a reference standard. The result showed that in both of the extracts (i.e. CP and CM dose of 60 mg / ml possesses more wormicidal activity. The time of paralysis was 1.88 ± 0.52 minute and 1.93 ± 0.57 minute whereas the time of death was 3.45 ± 0.17 minute and 4.90 ± 0.18 minute in the case of Carica papaya and Cucurbita maxima respectively. In conclusion, the use of seeds of Carica papaya (CP and Cucurbita maxima (CM for anthelmintic activity have been confirmed and further studies are suggested to isolate the active principles responsible for the activity. Both the extracts showed significant anthelmintic activity, but the comparative study showed that out of these two, Carica papaya proves to be a better anthelmintic remedy.

  15. The draft genome of the transgenic tropical fruit tree papaya (Carica papaya Linnaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Ray; Hou, Shaobin; Feng, Yun; Yu, Qingyi; Dionne-Laporte, Alexandre; Saw, Jimmy H; Senin, Pavel; Wang, Wei; Ly, Benjamin V; Lewis, Kanako L T; Salzberg, Steven L; Feng, Lu; Jones, Meghan R; Skelton, Rachel L; Murray, Jan E; Chen, Cuixia; Qian, Wubin; Shen, Junguo; Du, Peng; Eustice, Moriah; Tong, Eric; Tang, Haibao; Lyons, Eric; Paull, Robert E; Michael, Todd P; Wall, Kerr; Rice, Danny W; Albert, Henrik; Wang, Ming-Li; Zhu, Yun J; Schatz, Michael; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Acob, Ricelle A; Guan, Peizhu; Blas, Andrea; Wai, Ching Man; Ackerman, Christine M; Ren, Yan; Liu, Chao; Wang, Jianmei; Wang, Jianping; Na, Jong-Kuk; Shakirov, Eugene V; Haas, Brian; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Nelson, David; Wang, Xiyin; Bowers, John E; Gschwend, Andrea R; Delcher, Arthur L; Singh, Ratnesh; Suzuki, Jon Y; Tripathi, Savarni; Neupane, Kabi; Wei, Hairong; Irikura, Beth; Paidi, Maya; Jiang, Ning; Zhang, Wenli; Presting, Gernot; Windsor, Aaron; Navajas-Pérez, Rafael; Torres, Manuel J; Feltus, F Alex; Porter, Brad; Li, Yingjun; Burroughs, A Max; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Liu, Lei; Christopher, David A; Mount, Stephen M; Moore, Paul H; Sugimura, Tak; Jiang, Jiming; Schuler, Mary A; Friedman, Vikki; Mitchell-Olds, Thomas; Shippen, Dorothy E; dePamphilis, Claude W; Palmer, Jeffrey D; Freeling, Michael; Paterson, Andrew H; Gonsalves, Dennis; Wang, Lei; Alam, Maqsudul

    2008-04-24

    Papaya, a fruit crop cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions, is known for its nutritional benefits and medicinal applications. Here we report a 3x draft genome sequence of 'SunUp' papaya, the first commercial virus-resistant transgenic fruit tree to be sequenced. The papaya genome is three times the size of the Arabidopsis genome, but contains fewer genes, including significantly fewer disease-resistance gene analogues. Comparison of the five sequenced genomes suggests a minimal angiosperm gene set of 13,311. A lack of recent genome duplication, atypical of other angiosperm genomes sequenced so far, may account for the smaller papaya gene number in most functional groups. Nonetheless, striking amplifications in gene number within particular functional groups suggest roles in the evolution of tree-like habit, deposition and remobilization of starch reserves, attraction of seed dispersal agents, and adaptation to tropical daylengths. Transgenesis at three locations is closely associated with chloroplast insertions into the nuclear genome, and with topoisomerase I recognition sites. Papaya offers numerous advantages as a system for fruit-tree functional genomics, and this draft genome sequence provides the foundation for revealing the basis of Carica's distinguishing morpho-physiological, medicinal and nutritional properties. PMID:18432245

  16. Influence of ripening stages on antioxidant properties of papaya fruit (Carica papaya L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addai, Zuhair Radhi; Abdullah, Aminah; Mutalib, Sahilah Abd.

    2013-11-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L. cv Eksotika) is one of the most commonly consumed tropical fruits by humans, especially Malaysians. The objective of this study was to determine the phenolic compounds and antioxidants activity in different ripening stages of papaya fruit. The fruits were harvested at five different, stages RS1, RS2, RS3, RS4, and RS5 corresponding to 12, 14, 16, 18, and 20 weeks after anthesis, respectively. Papayas fruit at five different stage of ripening were obtained from farms at Pusat Flora Cheras, JabatanPertanian and Hulu Langat Semenyih, Selangor, Malaysia. The antioxidants activity were analyzed using the total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), ferric reducing antioxidant Power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The analyses were conducted in triplicate and the data were subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS. The results showed significant differences (P< 0.05) were found at different stages of ripening. The total phenol content TPC, TFC, FRAP and DPPH values increased significantly (P<0.05) with the ripening process. The results showed the important role of the ripening stage in increasing the antioxidant content of papaya fruits.

  17. Fusarium species associated with fruit rot of banana (Musa spp.), papaya (Carica papaya) and guava (Psidium guajava)

    OpenAIRE

    Zakaria, L.; Mazzura, W. C.; Kong, W. H.; Baharuddin, S.

    2012-01-01

    A total of 60 isolates of Fusarium were isolated from fruit rot of banana (Musa spp.), papaya (Carica papaya) and guava(Psidium guajava). The most common species recovered from the fruit rot of the three fruit crops were F. semitectum(40 %), F. solani (38.3 %), F. verticillioides (11.7 %) and F. oxysporum (10 %). Fusarium semitectum was isolated from fruit rot of banana, papaya and guava; F. oxysporum from banana and papaya; F. solani from banana and guava and F.verticillioides from banana. F...

  18. Whole-photosynthesis and transpiration in field-grown papaya plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a principal horticultural crop of tropical and subtropical regions. Knowledge of papaya response to environmental factors provides a scientific basis to develop management strategies to optimize fruit yield and quality. In papaya, the photosynthetic capacity also influ...

  19. Evaluación de la calidad y el rendimiento en papaya silvestre (Carica papaya L.) de Cuba / Evaluation of quality and yield in papaya wild (Carica papaya L.) from Cuba

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jesús, Rodríguez Cabello; Yusnier, Díaz Hernández; Aymara, Pérez González; Zulma, Natali Cruz; Pedro, Rodríguez Hernández.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available La papaya (Carica papaya L.) de la familia Caricaceae, es nativa del trópico americano y la especie más importante del género Carica por su alto valor nutritivo e industrial. En sus áreas de origen existen parientes silvestres que proporcionan alimento a las comunidades que las mantienen y de ser ap [...] rovechadas, podrían constituir una importante fuente de ingresos debido a que poseen genes útiles para elevar el rendimiento y calidad nutricional de sus frutos. Existe referencia de las poblaciones de papaya silvestres en nuestro país. Sin embargo, aún no se han caracterizado o evaluado con profundidad, de modo que se desconoce el rendimiento y la calidad de sus frutos. El presente estudio se llevó a cabo con el propósito de evaluar genotipos de papaya silvestre, prospectados en las alturas del nacimiento de las Cuencas Almendares-Vento y Noreste de la Habana, a través de indicadores físicos, químicos y el rendimiento, que permitan valorar su aceptación en el mercado. Los resultados mostraron alto rendimiento y frutos con características que les permiten ser de gran aceptación en el mercado para consumo en fresco por su masa, forma, dimensiones, sólidos solubles totales y color de la cáscara y la pulpa. Además, las características apreciadas favorecen su empleo para futuros programas de mejoramiento genético en Cuba, con el propósito de obtener cultivares con alto número de frutos de mediano a pequeño tamaño por planta Abstract in english The papaya (Carica papaya L.), family Caricaceae, is native from American tropic and the most important in the gender Carica for its nutritious and industrial high value. In their origin areas wild relatives exist, that provide food to the communities that maintain them, could constitute an importan [...] t source of revenues, because they possess useful genes to elevate the yield and nutritional quality of their fruits. The wild papaya populations’ reference exists in our country. However, they have not still been characterized or evaluated with depth, so one ignores the yield and the quality of their fruits. The present study was carried out with the purpose of evaluating genotypes of wild papaya, prospected in the heights of the birth of the Basins Almendares-Vento and Northeast of Havana, through physical, chemical indicators and the yield, that allow to value their acceptance in the market. The results showed high yield and fruits with characteristics that allow them to be of great acceptance in the market for consumption in fresh for their mass, it forms, dimensions, soluble total solids and color of the shell and the pulp. Also, the appreciated characteristics favor their employment for futures programs of genetic improvement in Cuba, with the purpose of obtaining cultivares with high number of fruits of medium to small size for plant

  20. Antioxidant Activity and Physicochemical Properties of Mature Papaya Fruit (Carica papaya L. cv. Eksotika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhair Radhi Addai

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Eksotika is one of the most commonly consumed tropical fruits by humans, especially Malaysians. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the maturity stage (12, 14, 16, 18 and 20 weeks after anthesis of papaya fruit on its physicochemical properties, antioxidant capacity and sensory characteristics. Papaya fruits were selected and classified based on their visual maturity, i.e., stages 1 to 5. The activities of several antioxidants were tested, including the Total Phenolic Content (TPC, Total Flavonoid Content (TFC, Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS. The physicochemical changes were measured in terms of the pH, Titratable Acidity (TA, moisture, Total Soluble Solids (TSS and pulp color of the papaya fruits at the five ripening stages. Significant differences (p<0.05 were found in different degrees of ripening. The pH of the fruit decreased significantly (p<0.05, whereas the TA, moisture and TSS all increased significantly (p<0.05 with maturity. The redness (a* and yellowness (b* values of the fruit color both increased significantly, whereas the lightness (L* of the color fluctuated. The TPC, TFC, FRAP, DPPH and ABTS values also increased significantly (p<0.05 with ripening. Sensory evaluation based on the color, sweetness, sourness, flavor and overall acceptance for the last three maturity stages was also performed. Stage 5 had a better score than stages 3 or 4. The results showed the important role of the ripening stage in increasing the antioxidant content of papaya fruits.

  1. Influence of gamma radiation on carbohydrates metabolism of ripening papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Solo)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food irradiation is one of the most promising treatments that can be utilized for fruits disinfestation and extension of shelf life. The authors studied the influence of 0,5 kGy of Gamma irradiation on the soluble carbohydrates composition of papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Solo) fruit, and on sucrose metabolizing enzymes: sucrose synthase (SS), sucrose-phosphate synthase, acid and neutral invertases activities, during ripening. The results demonstrated that ethylene production, total soluble sugars, sucrose content, and sucrose-phosphate synthase and invertases activities were affected by irradiation, but not respiration, glucose and fructose content, and SS activity. (author)

  2. Dwarf mutant of papaya (Carica papaya L.) induced by gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treating the seeds of papaya with 15 Krad of gamma rays, three plants were isolated from the M3 population. Repeated full sibmating among the progenies of these dwarf mutants helped in establishing a homozygous population of dwarf papaya in M6 generation. Though the per plant yield in mutant is less, nevertheless its importance is envisaged in the fact that it is likely to incur less damage by wind and storm, can be better managed and more number of plants can be accomodated per unit area, thus giving increased yield per hectare. (author)

  3. Quality during storage of fresh-cut papaya (carica papaya L.) in various shapes

    OpenAIRE

    Morais, Alcina Maria M. B.; Argañosa, Aurea Carla S. J.

    2010-01-01

    This research work was conducted to study the effect of the cut type (cube, rectangular parallelepiped, cylinder and sphere) on the quality and shelf life of fresh-cut papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Sunrise Solo) stored at 10 °C. Physico-chemical analyses were carried out during 10 d of storage; the color, firmness, pH, titratable acidity, total soluble solids, weight loss and ascorbic acid content of the fresh-cut fruits were determined. Microbiological analysis was also performed. The most f...

  4. Gamma radiation in papaya harvested at three stages of maturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papaya is a fragile, perishable fruit, highly accepted worldwide. To keep the quality of papaya from harvest to the consumers, conservation techniques are often used; among them is the application of gamma irradiation. The objective of this work was to evaluate gamma irradiation in papayas harvested at three degrees of maturation, in order to increase shelf life. Papayas were harvested in perfect quality conditions and selected by skin coloration into three distinct degrees of maturation: maturation 0, or beginning of yellow coloration; maturation 1, yellow stripes more developed, and maturation 2, one third yellow. Half of them were irradiated with 0.75 kGy, while the other half became control treatment. They were analyzed in four periods of conservation, which were 1 DAI (days after irradiation refrigerated at 11 ± 1 deg C), 14 DAI, 14 DAI + 3 DRT (room temperature at 24 deg C ± 2 deg C) and 14 DAI + 6 DRT. The papaya maturation degree at harvest did not influence the radiation effect. Irradiation maintained firmness of papaya and, therefore, delayed ripening; modified the green color of papaya to a lighter, more intense tone, which determined more homogeneity in the development of the skin's yellow color (greater values of L* and chroma). There was no effect of irradiation in papaya weight loss, occurrence of diseases, chroma of flesh color, p H and total soluble solids contents. (author)

  5. 78 FR 48628 - Importation of Papayas From Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ...papayas from Central America, Brazil, Colombia, and Ecuador...imported from Central America, Brazil, Colombia, and Ecuador for...is adopted, State and local laws and regulations regarding papayas...commerce until sold to the ultimate consumer. The question of when...

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF VIRUS RESISTANT TRANSGENIC PAPAYAS EXPRESSING THE COAT PROTEIN FROM A BRAZILIAN ISOLATE OF PAPAYA RINGSPOT VIRUS (PRSV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Translatable and untranslatable versions of the coat protein (cp) gene of a Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) isolate collected in the State of Bahia, Brazil, were engineered for expression in Sunrise and Sunset Solo varieties of Carica papaya L. The biolistic system was used to transform secondary soma...

  7. Factibilidad técnica de la utilización de cobertura vegetal en papaya (Carica papaya L. mediante la aplicación localizada de herbicidas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Bogantes

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Factibilidad técnica de la utilización de cobertura vegetal en papaya (Carica papaya L. mediante la aplicación localizada de herbicidas. Se estudió la factibilidad de utilizar cobertura vegetal en papaya (Carica papaya L. bajo un sistema de siembra sobre lomillos. El objetivo fue establecer un área libre de malezas sobre el lomillo para permitir la colocación del fertilizante cerca del sistema radical de la papaya. Se evaluó el control de malezas de cuatro herbicidas (gifosato, oxifluorfen, pendimetalina y acetaclor sobre especies de hoja ancha, poáceas y ciperáceas, así como el posible daño de los herbicidas al cultivo y su efecto sobre el crecimiento y rendimiento de las plantas de papaya. El herbicida glifosato fue eficiente en el control de poáceas pero no contra hojas anchas. Se obtuvo muy buen control general de malezas hasta los 90 después de la aplicación con los tratamientos preemergentes oxifluorfen+pendimetalina y acetaclor. Los dos primeros herbicidas afectaron levemente las plantas de papaya cuando se aplicaron a los 10 días después de la siembra. El acetaclor no causó daño en las plantas de papaya en ninguna de las aplicaciones. No hubo diferencias entre los tratamientos con respecto a las variables de crecimiento y rendimiento del cultivo.

  8. Post-transcriptional gene silencing is involved in resistance of transgenic papayas to Papaya Ringspot Virus.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ruanjan, P.; Kertbundit, Sunee; Ju?í?ek, Miloslav

    2007-01-01

    Ro?. 51, ?. 3 (2007), s. 517-520. ISSN 0006-3134 Grant ostatní: BIOTEC, NASDA(TH) BT-B-06-PG-14-4503 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : Carica papaya * reverse transcription PCR * COAT PROTEIN GENE Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.259, year: 2007

  9. Effects of heat, irradiation and their combination on the keeping quality of papaya (carica papaya linn.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental work has been done to determine the effect of gamma irradiation either alone or in combination with hot water dipping on the shelf life of fresh papaya. Mature green papayas of 'semangka paris' variety were treated under 3 different conditions, i.e. dipped in hot water at 50 Celsius degrees for 10 minutes; irradiated in air with a dose of 0.5 kGy; treated with combination of hot water dipping at 50 Celsius degrees for 10 minutes and irradiation with a dose of 0.5 kGy, and stored at ambient conditions. Quality evaluation was done subjectively during storage on the colour, texture, and taste. Besides, weight loss was also observed. Chemical characteristics, namely the contents of vitamin C, ?-carotene, total soluble pectin, and reducing sugar were also determined as objective parameters. The results revealed that ripening of mature green papaya could be delayed by irradiation with the dose of 0.5 kGy. Best result was obtained from the combination treatment. The treated papayas were still acceptable up to 8 days of storage, whereas the untreated ones were acceptable only up to 5 days of storage. (author)

  10. Caracterización de accesiones de papaya (Carica papaya L. a través de marcadores AFLP en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruchi Alonso Esquivel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Los marcadores moleculares son herramientas valiosas en los estudios genéticos en plantas, y están siendo empleados exitosamente en programas de mejoramiento principalmente en la elección de progenitores y en la selección. El polimorfismo observado mediante la técnica molecular AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism ha sido de utilidad para estudios de diversidad genética en frutales. En el presente trabajo se realizó la caracterización molecular de 12 accesiones de papaya (Carica papaya L. del banco de germoplasma del Instituto de Investigaciones en Fruticultura Tropical (IIFT, empleando la técnica AFLP. Se evaluaron seis combinaciones de iniciadores para la amplificación selectiva, las cuales amplificaron un total de 431 bandas con 73,3% de polimorfismo. El número total de patrones de bandas identificados fue igual en todas las combinaciones utilizadas, con un porcentaje de identificación alto, lo que sugiere que dichas combinaciones pudieran ser empleadas para estudios de variabilidad genética en papaya. En general, los resultados presentados demuestran que existe diversidad genética entre las accesiones evaluadas, lo cual constituye un reflejo del origen que presentan los genotipos analizados a partir de la introducción de materiales foráneos y la polinización abierta de un grupo de materiales selectos. Por tanto, se recomienda retomar la prospección y selección de accesiones locales, así como la introducción de nuevos genotipos foráneos, como dos vías fundamentales para aumentar la diversidad genética presente en el banco de germoplasma de papaya de Cuba. Palabras clave: marcadores moleculares, polimorfismo, diversidad genética.

  11. Compostos fenólicos inibidores da germinação em sementes de mamão (Carica papaya Phenolic compound inhibitors in papaya seeds (Carica papaya L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daí Tokuhisa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Sementes de mamão germinam lenta e irregularmente, o que tem sido atribuído à presença da sarcotesta. O trabalho teve como objetivos avaliar o efeito inibitório de extratos de sarcotesta na germinação de sementes de alface e quantificar compostos fenólicos em sementes de mamão. Foram utilizados frutos de mamão do grupo Formosa, híbrido Tainung 01, colhidos em Maio e Setembro/2005, obtendo-se sementes com e sem sarcotesta que foram avaliadas quanto à germinação aos 15 e 30 dias após a semeadura. Realizou-se um bioensaio com sementes de alface, que foram colocadas para germinar em substrato umedecido com água e com soluções obtidas a partir de extrato da sarcotesta de sementes de mamão. Determinou-se, também, o conteúdo de compostos fenólicos nas diferentes estruturas destas (sarcotesta, esclerotesta, endosperma e embrião, utilizando-se o ácido tânico como padrão e para reação de coloração, o reagente Folin-Ciacalteau, com leitura em espectrofotômetro a 765 nm. Verificou-se que o extrato de sarcotesta inibe a germinação e o crescimento da raiz primária das plântulas de alface, devido à presença de compostos fenólicos. Maior quantidade destes compostos foi observada na esclerotesta das sementes de mamão, seguida da sarcotesta, sendo praticamente nula a presença de tais compostos no embrião e no endosperma. Sementes oriundas da colheita de Maio/2005 exibiram dormência, apresentando maior conteúdo de fenóis na sarcotesta quando comparadas às sementes obtidas de frutos colhidos em Setembro/2005, as quais não apresentaram dormência.The slow and erratic germination of papaya seeds has been attributed to inhibitors present in the sarcotesta. This study was undertaken to evaluate the inhibition effect of sarcotesta extract on lettuce seed germination and to quantify phenolic compounds in papaya seeds. Papaya fruits of the Formosa group, hybrid Tainung 01, were harvested in May and September/2005. At each harvest time, seeds with and without sarcotesta were obtained and the germination percentage was evaluated at 15 and 30 days after seeding. A bioassay was performed with lettuce seeds, which germinated in substratum moistened with water (control and with solutions obtained from papaya sarcotesta extract. The phenolic compounds were quantified in different structures of papaya seeds (sarcotesta, esclerotesta, endosperm and embryo, using tannic acid as standard and the color reaction with Folin-Ciacalteau reagent measured at 765 nm by spectrophotometry. The bioassay indicated that sarcotesta extract inhibits the germination and growth of the lettuce seedling primary roots due to the presence of inhibitory substances (phenols. A high amount of these substances was found in the papaya seed esclerotesta, followed by the sarcotesta, but there was practically no concentration of these compounds in the embryo and endosperm. Seeds extracted from fruits harvested in May 2005 had dormancy and higher phenolic content compared to seeds harvested in September 2005, which did not exhibit dormancy.

  12. Compostos fenólicos inibidores da germinação em sementes de mamão (Carica papaya) / Phenolic compound inhibitors in papaya seeds (Carica papaya L.)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Daí, Tokuhisa; Denise Cunha Fernandes dos Santos, Dias; Eveline Mantovani, Alvarenga; Paulo Cèsar, Hilst; Antônio Jacinto, Demuner.

    Full Text Available Sementes de mamão germinam lenta e irregularmente, o que tem sido atribuído à presença da sarcotesta. O trabalho teve como objetivos avaliar o efeito inibitório de extratos de sarcotesta na germinação de sementes de alface e quantificar compostos fenólicos em sementes de mamão. Foram utilizados frut [...] os de mamão do grupo Formosa, híbrido Tainung 01, colhidos em Maio e Setembro/2005, obtendo-se sementes com e sem sarcotesta que foram avaliadas quanto à germinação aos 15 e 30 dias após a semeadura. Realizou-se um bioensaio com sementes de alface, que foram colocadas para germinar em substrato umedecido com água e com soluções obtidas a partir de extrato da sarcotesta de sementes de mamão. Determinou-se, também, o conteúdo de compostos fenólicos nas diferentes estruturas destas (sarcotesta, esclerotesta, endosperma e embrião), utilizando-se o ácido tânico como padrão e para reação de coloração, o reagente Folin-Ciacalteau, com leitura em espectrofotômetro a 765 nm. Verificou-se que o extrato de sarcotesta inibe a germinação e o crescimento da raiz primária das plântulas de alface, devido à presença de compostos fenólicos. Maior quantidade destes compostos foi observada na esclerotesta das sementes de mamão, seguida da sarcotesta, sendo praticamente nula a presença de tais compostos no embrião e no endosperma. Sementes oriundas da colheita de Maio/2005 exibiram dormência, apresentando maior conteúdo de fenóis na sarcotesta quando comparadas às sementes obtidas de frutos colhidos em Setembro/2005, as quais não apresentaram dormência. Abstract in english The slow and erratic germination of papaya seeds has been attributed to inhibitors present in the sarcotesta. This study was undertaken to evaluate the inhibition effect of sarcotesta extract on lettuce seed germination and to quantify phenolic compounds in papaya seeds. Papaya fruits of the Formosa [...] group, hybrid Tainung 01, were harvested in May and September/2005. At each harvest time, seeds with and without sarcotesta were obtained and the germination percentage was evaluated at 15 and 30 days after seeding. A bioassay was performed with lettuce seeds, which germinated in substratum moistened with water (control) and with solutions obtained from papaya sarcotesta extract. The phenolic compounds were quantified in different structures of papaya seeds (sarcotesta, esclerotesta, endosperm and embryo), using tannic acid as standard and the color reaction with Folin-Ciacalteau reagent measured at 765 nm by spectrophotometry. The bioassay indicated that sarcotesta extract inhibits the germination and growth of the lettuce seedling primary roots due to the presence of inhibitory substances (phenols). A high amount of these substances was found in the papaya seed esclerotesta, followed by the sarcotesta, but there was practically no concentration of these compounds in the embryo and endosperm. Seeds extracted from fruits harvested in May 2005 had dormancy and higher phenolic content compared to seeds harvested in September 2005, which did not exhibit dormancy.

  13. Effect of Biopreservatives on Storage Life of Papaya (Carica papaya L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatema H. Brishti

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE In this experiment the effect on post-harvest preservation of papaya (Carica papaya L. fruit coated with either Aloe gel (AG; 100% or papaya leaf extract with Aloe gel (PLEAG; 1:1 was studied. To evaluate the role of coating on ripening behavior and quality of papaya the uncoated and coated fruits were stored and ripened at room temperature (25 °C-29 °C and 82-84% relative humidity. Physico-chemical properties were analyzed at 4 day intervals during the storage period. The incidence of disease attack was also visually observed. The overall results showed the superiority of AG and PLEAG coating in lengthening the shelf-life of papaya fruit compared to controls which showed significant decay from 6th day onward and complete decay within 12 days of storage. The AG and PLEAG coated fruits maintained their shelf life for 12 days and decayed at 16th day. The coated fruits also maintained their color, flavor and firmness up to 12 days of storage. An increase in ascorbic acid content (120.2 mg/100 g was also found in coated fruits in contrast to the control (59 mg/100 g. Only 27% disease incidence was observed in AG and 13% in PLEAG coated fruits as compared to control (100% during the storage period. The results of this study show that both AG and PLEAG coatings have excellent potential to be used on fresh produce to maintain quality and extend shelf-life.

  14. 77 FR 31294 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Papaya...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ...Information Collection; Importation of Papaya From Colombia and Ecuador AGENCY: Animal...importation of commercial shipments of fresh papaya from Colombia and Ecuador into the continental...importation of commercial shipments of fresh papaya from Colombia and Ecuador, contact...

  15. Development of Transgenic Papaya through Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Md. Abul Kalam; Rabbani, Md. Golam; Amin, Latifah; Sidik, Nik Marzuki

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic papaya plants were regenerated from hypocotyls and immature zygotic embryo after cocultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA-4404 carrying a binary plasmid vector system containing neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII) gene as the selectable marker and ?-glucuronidase (GUS) as the reporter gene. The explants were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens on regeneration medium containing 500?mg/L carbenicillin?+?200?mg/L cefotaxime for one week. The cocultivated explants were transferred into the final selection medium containing 500?mg/L carbenicillin?+?200?mg/L cefotaxime?+?50?mg/L kanamycin for callus induction as well as plant regeneration. The callus derived from the hypocotyls of Carica papaya cv. Shahi showed the highest positive GUS activities compared to Carica papaya cv. Ranchi. The transformed callus grew vigorously and formed embryos followed by transgenic plantlets successfully. The result of this study showed that the hypocotyls of C. papaya cv. Shahi and C. papaya cv. Ranchi are better explants for genetic transformation compared to immature embryos. The transformed C. papaya cv. Shahi also showed the maximum number of plant regeneration compared to that of C. papaya cv. Ranchi. PMID:24066284

  16. Development of Transgenic Papaya through Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Md Abul Kalam; Rabbani, Md Golam; Amin, Latifah; Sidik, Nik Marzuki

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic papaya plants were regenerated from hypocotyls and immature zygotic embryo after cocultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA-4404 carrying a binary plasmid vector system containing neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII) gene as the selectable marker and ?-glucuronidase (GUS) as the reporter gene. The explants were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens on regeneration medium containing 500?mg/L carbenicillin?+?200?mg/L cefotaxime for one week. The cocultivated explants were transferred into the final selection medium containing 500?mg/L carbenicillin?+?200?mg/L cefotaxime?+?50?mg/L kanamycin for callus induction as well as plant regeneration. The callus derived from the hypocotyls of Carica papaya cv. Shahi showed the highest positive GUS activities compared to Carica papaya cv. Ranchi. The transformed callus grew vigorously and formed embryos followed by transgenic plantlets successfully. The result of this study showed that the hypocotyls of C. papaya cv. Shahi and C. papaya cv. Ranchi are better explants for genetic transformation compared to immature embryos. The transformed C. papaya cv. Shahi also showed the maximum number of plant regeneration compared to that of C. papaya cv. Ranchi. PMID:24066284

  17. Poesía popular chilena: Imaginarios y mestizajes culturales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Facuse M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo busca analizar los imaginarios que circulan en la poesía popular chilena a la luz del concepto de mestizaje cultural propuesto por François Laplantine y Alexis Nouss. Considerando las múltiples herencias de este arte practicado en América Latina desde la época colonial, así como las sucesivas reapropiaciones de las cuales ha sido objeto, se profundizará en el imaginario puesto en escena por los poetas populares en el presente. A partir de un trabajo de observación directa de diversos encuentros de payadores en Chile, se tendrán en cuenta distintas dimensiones para el análisis: imaginario sonoro (voz, instrumentos musicales, teatralidad (tipos de escenificación, lugares de espectáculo, relación con el público, textualidad (contenidos, personajes, situaciones evocadas, a fin de aprehender la complejidad de este fenómeno artístico, asumiéndolo como un "hecho social total".

  18. Radiation-induced mutation breeding of papaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation-induced mutation breeding of papaya commenced at the Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI) in August, 2000. This research was initiated under a Coordinated Research Project (CRP - D23023) with assistance from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). In the preliminary dosimetry study, seeds from two local papaya varieties, Sekaki and Eksotika were irradiated, either as dry seeds or as pre-soaked seeds (soaked overnight in water and surface-dried) with radiation doses ranging from 0 to 300 Gy. 100 Gy dose was lethal for all wet presoaked seeds while dry seed did not show loss of viability, even at 300 Gy. From the growth data it was estimated that dose of 525 Gy reduced shoot elongation by 50%, and this dose was recommended for mass irradiation of dry seeds. For wet, pre-soaked seeds results indicated that 42.5 Gy was the optimal dose for mass irradiation. At this dose, both seeds germination and seedlings growth were reduced by 50%. In a massive irradiation experiment 2,000 Eksotika seeds were irradiated at 42.5 Gy (pre-soaked) and another 2,000 at 525 Gy (dry). In the M2 population, numerous physiological defects were observed, including stem splitting, leaf variegation and puckering, and crinkled dwarfs. In the M3 population, a wide variability was recorded for a number of traits. M3 seedlings derived from presoaked seeds irradiated a low 42.5 Gy dose presented a high number of plants that were shorter and more vigorous in leaf development compared to those irradiated at 525 Gy and to non-irradiated control seedlings. The distribution patterns of M3 progenies for nine quantitative field characters showed great variation, often exceeding the limits of the control population. There appears to be good prospects in improving Eksotika papaya especially in the development of dwarf trees with lower fruit bearing stature, higher total soluble solids in fruits and larger fruit size. Several M2 and M3 putative mutants also showed very good resistance to malformed top disease. However, no resistance to papaya ringspot virus disease was found in the 1920 M2 seedlings that were inoculated. (author)

  19. Compositional changes during papaya fruit ripening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to investigate compositional changes during ripening of Baladi, Ekostika I and Ekostika II papaya fruit cultivars at 20±1°C and 85% -90% relative humidity. The fruits of the three cultivars exhibited a typical climacteric pattern of respiration with peak of respiration of 82,92 and 98 mg CO2/ kg-hr, reached after 10 days in the three cultivars, respectively. Weight loss, total soluble solids (TSS), total sugars and ascorbic acid content progressively increased during ripening of the three papaya cultivars. More increase in TSS and total sugars was observed after the climacteric peak of respiration. Fruit tissue firmness and total phenolic compounds decreased continuously during ripening in the three cultivars. Reducing sugars, total protein and titratable acidity steadily increased to reach a peak, which coincided with climacteric peak of respiration, and subsequently decreased afterwards. The local Baladi cultivar had a lower respiration rate, more firm and less weight loss during ripening, which may indicate a longer shelf life than the other two introduced cultivars. On the other hand, the introduced cultivars were higher in TSS, total and reducing sugars and ascorbic acid content and lower in titratable acidity and phenolic compounds, which may reflect a better eating quality.(Author)

  20. Antioxidant Activity of Papaya Seed Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haofu Dai

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activities of the ethanol, petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water extract fractions from the seeds of papaya were evaluated in this study. The ethyl acetate fraction showed the strongest DPPH and hydroxyl free radical-scavenging activities, and its activities were stronger than those of ascorbic acid and sodium benzoate, respectively. The n-butanol fraction demonstrated the greatest ABTS+ radicals scavenging activity. The ethyl acetate fraction and the n-butanol fraction not only showed higher antioxidant activities than the petroleum ether fraction, water fraction and ethanol fraction, but also showed higher superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide radicals scavenging activities than those of the other extract fractions. The high amount of total phenolics and total flavonoids in the ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions contributed to their antioxidant activities. The ethyl acetate fraction was subjected to column chromatography, to yield two phenolic compounds, p-hydroxybenzoic acid (1 and vanillic acid (2, which possessed significant antioxidant activities. Therefore, the seeds of papaya and these compounds might be used as natural antioxidants.

  1. Radiation disinfestation as a quarantine treatment for solo papaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solo papaya is subject to infestation by the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). Since ethylene dibromide has been banned for use as a fumigant for fruits, gamma radiation was investigated as an alternative quarantine disinfestation treatment for solo papaya. Results of small-scale laboratory tests showed that 150 Gy completely prevented the emergence of B. dorsalis. For egg-infested solo papaya, pupal recovered decreased with increasing dose while insect survival was not associated with fruit maturity. For larvae-infested ones, insect survival, in general, was highest in the full-ripe stage and lowest in the one-fourth-ripe stage of the fruit. Confirmatory tests of the proposed treatment using more than 100,000 test insects revealed that 150 Gy radiation dose is sufficient to provide Probit 9 quarantine security for solo papaya. (author). 10 refs.; 1 fig.; 4 tabs

  2. Optical and ultrastructural study of the pollen grain development in hermaphrodite papaya tree (Carica papaya L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Lídia Márcia Silva Santos; Telma Nair Santana Pereira; Margarete Magalhães de Souza; Pedro Correa Damasceno Junior; Fabiane Rabelo da Costa; Beatriz Ferreira Ribeiro; Noil Gomes de Freitas; Messias Gonzaga Pereira

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the pollen grain development in hermaphrodite papaya tree. The flower buds were collected at different stages of the development and the anthers were treated chemically for observation under optical and electronic transmission microscopes. The pollen grain development followed the normal pattern described for the Angiosperms. The pollen grain development was described from meiocyte to the mature pollen grain. In the microsporogenesis, the microspore...

  3. ESR detection procedure of irradiated papaya containing high water content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ESR signals were recorded from irradiated papaya at liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K), and freeze-dried irradiated papaya at room temperature (295 K). Two side peaks from the flesh at the liquid nitrogen temperature indicated a linear dose response for 3-14 days after the ?-irradiation. The line shapes recorded from the freeze-dried specimens were sharper than those at liquid nitrogen temperature.

  4. ESR detection procedure of irradiated papaya containing high water content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Masahiro; Shimoyama, Yuhei; Ukai, Mitsuko; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko

    2011-05-01

    ESR signals were recorded from irradiated papaya at liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K), and freeze-dried irradiated papaya at room temperature (295 K). Two side peaks from the flesh at the liquid nitrogen temperature indicated a linear dose response for 3-14 days after the ?-irradiation. The line shapes recorded from the freeze-dried specimens were sharper than those at liquid nitrogen temperature.

  5. Morphological analysis and photosynthetic performance of improved papaya genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Alena Torres Netto; Eliemar Campostrini; Azevedo, Leti?cia C.; Souza, Marcelo A.; Ramalho, Jose? C.; Chaves, Manuela M.

    2009-01-01

    Brazil is the largest world producer of papaya and the third largest exporter despite of only 1.5 to 2.0% of its production is exported. Such an underexplored exportation potential highlight the necessity for physiological studies on new cultivars and hybrids to verify their agronomic and commercial viability. Two Brazilian states, Bahia and Espirito Santo, are responsible for 80% of national production. Papaya can also be an agricultural alternative to north / northeast of Rio de Janeiro, be...

  6. Genetic-molecular characterization of backcross generations for sexual conversion in papaya (Carica papaya L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, H C C; Pereira, M G; Pereira, T N S; Barros, G B A; Ferreguetti, G A

    2014-01-01

    The low number of improved cultivars limits the expansion of the papaya crop, particularly because of the time required for the development of new varieties using classical procedures. Molecular techniques associated with conventional procedures accelerate this process and allow targeted improvements. Thus, we used microsatellite markers to perform genetic-molecular characterization of papaya genotypes obtained from 3 backcross generations to monitor the inbreeding level and parental genome proportion in the evaluated genotypes. Based on the analysis of 20 microsatellite loci, 77 genotypes were evaluated, 25 of each generation of the backcross program as well as the parental genotypes. The markers analyzed were identified in 11 of the 12 linkage groups established for papaya, ranging from 1 to 4 per linkage group. The average values for the inbreeding coefficient were 0.88 (BC1S4), 0.47 (BC2S3), and 0.63 (BC3S2). Genomic analysis revealed average values of the recurrent parent genome of 82.7% in BC3S2, 64.4% in BC1S4, and 63.9% in BC2S3. Neither the inbreeding level nor the genomic proportions completely followed the expected average values. This demonstrates the significance of molecular analysis when examining different genotype values, given the importance of such information for selection processes in breeding programs. PMID:25501249

  7. The Extraction and Properties of Carica papaya Seed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.M. Li

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the suitability of Ultrasound-Microwave synergistic Extraction (UMAE for the recovery of papaya seed oil as compared to Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction (UAE. The efficiency of these two methods was assessed by comparing the physicochemical properties and oxidative stability of papaya seed oil. The analytic tests were color, unsaponifiable matters, iodine value, acid value and peroxide value. The fatty acid components were analyzed by GC. Results indicated that the Ultrasound-Microwave synergistic Extraction (UMAE considerably impact on the physicochemical properties of the extracted papaya seed oil, UMAE provided papaya seed oil with obviously lighter color, lower unsaponifiable matters (2.53% and higher oxidative stability (PV, 0.98 m mol/kg than that of UAE. Analysis of fatty acid composition revealed that 13 kinds of components are identified and the total amount of fatty acids accounted for 93.13% of papaya seed oil, the predominant fatty acids in papaya seed oil were oleic (18:1, 72.60%, palmitic (16:0, 18.00%, linoleic acid (18:2, 5.80% and stearic (18:0, 3.60%.

  8. Efficacy of four plant extracts on nematodes associated with papaya in Sindh, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    This investigation examines the effect of ethanol extracts of four plant species--Azadirachta indica (neem), Withania somnifera (ashwagandha), Tagetes erecta (marigold) and Eucalyptus citriodora (eucalyptus)--against nematodes associated with papaya (Carica papaya), and it assesses their influence o...

  9. Combined Selection in Backcross Population of Papaya (Carica papaya L.) by the Mixed Model Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Helaine Christine Cancela Ramos; Messias Gonzaga Pereira; Alexandre Pio Viana; Lucas Nunes da Luz; Deisy Lúcia Cardoso; Geraldo Antônio Ferreguetti

    2014-01-01

    The selection of superior genotypes based on the simultaneous response to several characteristics of agronomic importance is a key strategy to overcome the scarcity of available varieties of papaya. This study aimed to apply the combined selection by using distinct selection indexes based on both the genetic values obtained by the REML/BLUP methodology and the real measured values to select agronomically superior genotypes of papaya within backcross progenies. The combined selection was carri...

  10. Effects of Different Concentrations and Applications of Calcium on Storage Life and Physicochemical Characteristics of Papaya (Carica Papaya L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. M. Mahmud

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Papaya (Carica Papaya L. fruits index 2 were treated with 1.5, 2.5 and 3.5% solutions of calcium chloride by dipping and vacuum infiltration (-33 Kpa or untreated (0% as control. Effects of these treatments were evaluated on storage life and postharvest quality characteristics of papaya. After 21 days of storage at 13±1°C, the fruits were removed from storage for physicochemical analysis. Following additional five days holding in the storage condition for fruits used for evaluation of the rate of disease incidence and storage life. Postharvest dip treatments at different concentrations of calcium prolonged storage life, slowed down the ripening processes and maintained the quality of papaya. Whereas, it was effectively greater with calcium infiltration treatments than that for dip treatments. Calcium infiltration extended the storage life and retained the quality as calcium concentrations increased up to 2.5% and then declined. The desired effect was obtained at 2.5% infiltration compared with other treatments. The least disease incidence was found in those fruits infiltrated with 2.5% calcium. Hence, it can be concluded that postharvest infiltration of calcium at 2.5% has the potential to control disease incidence, prolong the storage life and preserve valuable attributes of postharvest papaya, presumably because of its effects on inhibition of ripening and senescence process and loss of the fruit firmness of papaya.

  11. Manejo de epifitias del Virus de la mancha anular de la papaya utilizando barreras de Zea mays L. en Carica papaya L. / Epiphyte management of Papaya ringspot virus using Zea mays L. barriers in Carica papaya L.

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Dariel, Cabrera Mederos; Dahert, García Hernández; José Efraín, González; Orelvis, Portal.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar el efecto de barreras de maíz (Zea mays L.) intercaladas en plantaciones de papaya (Carica papaya L.) var. Maradol roja en el progreso de epifitias del Virus de la mancha anular de la papaya (PRSV). Con este propósito, se realizaron evaluaciones de plant [...] as sintomáticas cada 15 días, durante 240 días después del trasplante. Los tratamientos fueron dos: el manejo integral de la papaya mediante la protección de viveros, barreras perimetrales de sorgo forrajero y maíz intercalado (MIP-Maíz), y manejo con las prácticas descritas en el tratamiento anterior, sin incluir el maíz intercalado (MIP). En el MIP-Maíz se observó disminución del área bajo la curva del progreso de la enfermedad (abcpe) en relación al MIP. Las barreras intercaladas de maíz tuvieron un efecto en la reducción de epifitias y disminuyeron la incidencia y severidad final del PRSV en 25 y 17% respectivamente, comparado con el MIP. Se demostró que la adición de barreras de maíz intercaladas en plantaciones de papaya reducen las afectaciones producidas por el PRSV en zonas con endemismo de esta enfermedad viral. Abstract in english The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of corn (Zea mays L.) barriers intercropped in plantations of papaya (Carica papaya L.) var. Maradol roja on the progress of Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) epiphytes. For this purpose, evaluations of symptomatic plants were developed every 15 d [...] ays during 240 days after transplanting. Two treatments were used: the inclusion or not of intercropped corn (MIP-Corn) in the integrated management of papaya with nursery protection and edge barriers of forage sorghum. In the MIP-Corn, a reduction in the area under the disease progress curve (audpc) was observed in comparison with MIP. The intercropped maize barriers had a reducing effect on epiphytes and decreased the incidence and final severity of PRSV in 25 and 17% respectively, compared with MIP. It was demonstrated that the addition of intercropped corn barriers in papaya plantations reduced the damages caused by PRSV in endemic areas of this viral disease.

  12. PARACOCCUS MARGINATUS WILLIAMS AND GRANARA DE WILLINK (HOMOPTERA: PSEUDOCOCCIDAE) AFFECTING PAPAYA IN PUERTO RICO

    Science.gov (United States)

    The papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus was detected January 10, 2001 infesting papaya plantings in Isabela, Puerto Rico (18°28'23 N; 66°52’18W; 145.4 meters above sea level). This insect is recognized as a pest of papaya, cassava, hibiscus, eggplant, avocado, annona, and sweetpotato. P. margina...

  13. Analysis Of Papaya BAC End Sequences: Insights Into The Organization Of A Tree Fruit Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a major tree fruit crop of tropical and subtropical regions with an estimated genome size of 372 Mbp. We present the analysis of 4.7% of the papaya genome based on BAC end sequences (BESs) representing 17 million high-quality bases. Microsatellites discovered in 5,452 BE...

  14. ENGINEERING RESISTANCE AGAINST PAPAYA RINGSPOT VIRUS BY NATIVE, CHIMERIC AND SYNTHETIC TRANSGENES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The transgenic Rainbow papaya is hemizygous for the coat protein gene of a papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) isolate from Hawaii. Rainbow shows excellent resistance to PRSV isolates in Hawaii, but is susceptible to PRSV isolates from many parts of the world. In order to obtain transgenic papaya which m...

  15. ESTIMACIÓN DEL ÁREA FOLIAR DE PAPAYA (Carica papaya L.) BASADA EN MUESTREO NO DESTRUCTIVO / ESTIMATION OF PAPAYA (Carica papaya L.) LEAF AREA BASED ON NON-DESTRUCTIVE SAMPLING

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos, Cardona Ayala; Hermes, Araméndiz Tatis; Carlos, Barrera Causil.

    2009-06-30

    Full Text Available El cultivo de papaya (Carica papaya L.) es muy importante en la fruticultura del departamento de Córdoba, por la buena calidad de la fruta producida. La investigación, se realizó en Montería, a 13msnm, temperatura media de 27.4°C, precipitación anual de 1346,1mm, humedad relativa de 84% y brillo sol [...] ar anual de 2180,2 horas, con el fin de obtener un modelo que permita estimar el área foliar de la planta, a partir de muestreo no destructivo. Mediante muestreo aleatorio simple, se seleccionaron hojas sanas de plantas adultas, de diferentes tamaños y distintas etapas de desarrollo, de los doseles superior, medio e inferior, de la variedad Maradol roja. Se tomaron medidas longitudinales: largo y ancho máximo de la hoja, ancho de la hoja a un medio, un tercio, un cuarto, un quinto y dos tercios de su largo, ancho máximo de lóbulos y longitud de nervadura de los mismos, con la finalidad de determinar las medidas altamente relacionadas con el área fotosintética de la hoja. El área foliar (Y), se midió por el método de relación peso: área, sobre una muestra de 30 hojas por dosel. Se construyeron modelos de regresión simple y múltiple, para luego seleccionar el de mejor ajuste. Se seleccionó un modelo de regresión simple, cuya variable explicativa corresponde a la longitud de la nervadura central del lóbulo izquierdo, contiguo al adyacente lóbulo medio (X). El modelo ajustado resultó ser: o = -303,0742 + 31,2028X, R² = 0,9335. Abstract in english The papaya (Carica papaya L) is a very important crop in the Cordoba state, especially for the good fruit quality. This research was carried out at Montería at 13masl, 27.4°C, annual rainfall of 1346.1mm, 84% relative humidity and 2180.2 hours annual sunlight, in order to obtain a model to estimate [...] the plants leaf area, based on non-destructive sampling. A probability sampling procedure was used to select different size leaves and developmental stages from the upper, middle and lower canopy of adult plants of the red Maradol variety. Maximum leaf length and width, width of the middle third, fourth, fifth and two-thirds of leaf length, lobe width and midrib length of every lobe were registered with the purpose of identifying measures highly related to photosynthetic leaf area. The leaf area (Y) was measured based on the weight:area relation, from 30 leaves per canopy sample. Simple linear regression models and multiple linear regression were adjusted. A simple linear regression model was selected which independent variable representing the length of the midrib, next to the left next lobe and adjacent to the middle lobe (X). The adjusted model was: or = -303,0742 + 31,2028X, R² = 0,9335.

  16. ESTIMACIÓN DEL ÁREA FOLIAR DE PAPAYA (Carica papaya L. BASADA EN MUESTREO NO DESTRUCTIVO ESTIMATION OF PAPAYA (Carica papaya L. LEAF AREA BASED ON NON-DESTRUCTIVE SAMPLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Cardona Ayala

    Full Text Available El cultivo de papaya (Carica papaya L. es muy importante en la fruticultura del departamento de Córdoba, por la buena calidad de la fruta producida. La investigación, se realizó en Montería, a 13msnm, temperatura media de 27.4°C, precipitación anual de 1346,1mm, humedad relativa de 84% y brillo solar anual de 2180,2 horas, con el fin de obtener un modelo que permita estimar el área foliar de la planta, a partir de muestreo no destructivo. Mediante muestreo aleatorio simple, se seleccionaron hojas sanas de plantas adultas, de diferentes tamaños y distintas etapas de desarrollo, de los doseles superior, medio e inferior, de la variedad Maradol roja. Se tomaron medidas longitudinales: largo y ancho máximo de la hoja, ancho de la hoja a un medio, un tercio, un cuarto, un quinto y dos tercios de su largo, ancho máximo de lóbulos y longitud de nervadura de los mismos, con la finalidad de determinar las medidas altamente relacionadas con el área fotosintética de la hoja. El área foliar (Y, se midió por el método de relación peso: área, sobre una muestra de 30 hojas por dosel. Se construyeron modelos de regresión simple y múltiple, para luego seleccionar el de mejor ajuste. Se seleccionó un modelo de regresión simple, cuya variable explicativa corresponde a la longitud de la nervadura central del lóbulo izquierdo, contiguo al adyacente lóbulo medio (X. El modelo ajustado resultó ser: o = -303,0742 + 31,2028X, R² = 0,9335.The papaya (Carica papaya L is a very important crop in the Cordoba state, especially for the good fruit quality. This research was carried out at Montería at 13masl, 27.4°C, annual rainfall of 1346.1mm, 84% relative humidity and 2180.2 hours annual sunlight, in order to obtain a model to estimate the plants leaf area, based on non-destructive sampling. A probability sampling procedure was used to select different size leaves and developmental stages from the upper, middle and lower canopy of adult plants of the red Maradol variety. Maximum leaf length and width, width of the middle third, fourth, fifth and two-thirds of leaf length, lobe width and midrib length of every lobe were registered with the purpose of identifying measures highly related to photosynthetic leaf area. The leaf area (Y was measured based on the weight:area relation, from 30 leaves per canopy sample. Simple linear regression models and multiple linear regression were adjusted. A simple linear regression model was selected which independent variable representing the length of the midrib, next to the left next lobe and adjacent to the middle lobe (X. The adjusted model was: or = -303,0742 + 31,2028X, R² = 0,9335.

  17. Origin and domestication of papaya Yh chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanBuren, Robert; Zeng, Fanchang; Chen, Cuixia; Zhang, Jisen; Wai, Ching Man; Han, Jennifer; Aryal, Rishi; Gschwend, Andrea R; Wang, Jianping; Na, Jong-Kuk; Huang, Lixian; Zhang, Lingmao; Miao, Wenjing; Gou, Jiqing; Arro, Jie; Guyot, Romain; Moore, Richard C; Wang, Ming-Li; Zee, Francis; Charlesworth, Deborah; Moore, Paul H; Yu, Qingyi; Ming, Ray

    2015-04-01

    Sex in papaya is controlled by a pair of nascent sex chromosomes. Females are XX, and two slightly different Y chromosomes distinguish males (XY) and hermaphrodites (XY(h)). The hermaphrodite-specific region of the Y(h) chromosome (HSY) and its X chromosome counterpart were sequenced and analyzed previously. We now report the sequence of the entire male-specific region of the Y (MSY). We used a BAC-by-BAC approach to sequence the MSY and resequence the Y regions of 24 wild males and the Y(h) regions of 12 cultivated hermaphrodites. The MSY and HSY regions have highly similar gene content and structure, and only 0.4% sequence divergence. The MSY sequences from wild males include three distinct haplotypes, associated with the populations' geographic locations, but gene flow is detected for other genomic regions. The Y(h) sequence is highly similar to one Y haplotype (MSY3) found only in wild dioecious populations from the north Pacific region of Costa Rica. The low MSY3-Y(h) divergence supports the hypothesis that hermaphrodite papaya is a product of human domestication. We estimate that Y(h) arose only ?4000 yr ago, well after crop plant domestication in Mesoamerica >6200 yr ago but coinciding with the rise of the Maya civilization. The Y(h) chromosome has lower nucleotide diversity than the Y, or the genome regions that are not fully sex-linked, consistent with a domestication bottleneck. The identification of the ancestral MSY3 haplotype will expedite investigation of the mutation leading to the domestication of the hermaphrodite Y(h) chromosome. In turn, this mutation should identify the gene that was affected by the carpel-suppressing mutation that was involved in the evolution of males. PMID:25762551

  18. Escarificación química de semilla de papaya / Chemical scarification of papaya seed

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jorge Arturo, Romero Rodríguez; José Apolinar, Mejía Contreras; Aquiles, Carballo Carballo; Alfredo, López Jiménez; José Antonio, Rangel Lucio; Catarino, Ávila Reséndiz.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available La germinación tardía y errática de semilla de papaya es afectada por la presencia de la sarcotesta, membrana que contiene compuestos fenólicos inductores de latencia, misma que inhibe el intercambio de líquidos y gases, prolongar el período de secado y facilitar la colonización de fitopatógenos. La [...] s técnicas utilizadas en el beneficio de semilla de papaya para eliminar la sarcotesta son limitadas, por tanto, el objetivo del presente estudio fue obtener tecnología útil en éste aspecto, para lo cual se comparó tratamientos a base de hidróxido de sodio, ácido sulfúrico y clorhídrico, y evaluó su efecto en la calidad física, sanitaria y fisiológica de la semilla. La investigación se realizó en el Laboratorio de Análisis de Semillas del Colegio de Postgraduados, Campus Montecillo, Estado de México, en 2011. El NaOH al 25 % y 15 min de inmersión, eliminó 98% de sarcotesta, presentó sólo 2% de incidencia de micoflora, incremento y homogeneizó la germinación. El H2SO4 eliminó al 100% la sarcotesta, inhibió la colonización de hongos con sólo 6%, cuando se empleó en forma concentrada, pero afecto negativamente la germinación. El HCl fue ineficiente en eliminar la sarcotesta (9.6%), presentó la más alta colonización de hongos (97% de incidencia) y el menor porcentaje de germinación (7%). Los efectos positivos del uso de NaOH en el beneficio de semilla de papaya, simula la degradación natural de la sarcotesta y mejora la condición de la semilla por lo que resulta una alternativa viable para su empleo en el acondicionamiento de semilla. Abstract in english Late germinating and erratic seed from papaya is affected by the presence of sarcotesta, membrane containing phenolic compounds inducing latency same which inhibits the exchange of liquids and gases, prolongs the drying period and facilitates colonization of pathogens. The techniques used in benefit [...] of the papaya seed to eliminate the sarcotesta are limited, therefore the aim of this study was to obtain useful technology in this aspect, which was compared to other treatments with sodium hydroxide, sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid and assessed its effect on the physical, health and physiological quality of the seed. The research was conducted at the Seed Testing Laboratory of the Graduate College, Campus Montecillo, State of Mexico, in 2011. NaOH to 25% and 15 min of immersion, removed 98% of sarcotesta, presented just 2% of incidence of micoflora, an increased and homogenized germination. H2SO4 to 100% removed the sarcotesta, inhibited fungal colonization with only 6% when used in concentrated form, but negatively affected the germination. The HCl was ineffective in eliminating sarcotesta (9.6%) had the highest fungal colonization (97% incidence) and the lowest germination percentage (7%). The positive effects of the use of NaOH in the benefit of papaya seed, is that simulates natural degradation of sarcotesta and improves the condition of the seed, so it is a viable alternative for use in conditioning seed.

  19. Herbicidas para el control de Spermacoce tenuior L en papaya (Carica papaya)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antonio, Bogantes-Arias; Moisés, Hernández-Cháves; Eric, Mora-Newcomer.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Herbicidas para el control de Spermacoce tenuior L. en papaya (Carica papaya). Con el objetivo de determinar la eficacia de varios herbicidas en el control de Spermacoce tenuior y otras arvenses en papa ya, se realizó un ensayo en el 2007, en una plantación de papa ya "Pococí" ubicada en Guápiles, e [...] n el Caribe de Costa Rica. La primera etapa consistió en la evaluación de seis tratamientos posemergentes (1. Glifosato 24 SL, 2. Glifosato 68 SG , 3. Glifosato 24 SL + carfentrazone 24 EC , 4. Glifosato 68 SG + carfentrazone 24 EC , 5. Glifosato 24 SL + metsulfurón metil 60 WG, 6. Glifosato 24 SL + oxifluorfen 24 EC). En la segunda etapa se evaluaron tres preemergentes (1. Orizalina 75 WP, 2. Oxifluorfen 12 EC, 3. Acetaclor 90 EC); distribuidos en bloques al azar. Se evaluó la cobertura de especie s antes y después de la aplicación, daño al cultivo, altura y grosor de plantas de papa ya. El tratamiento posemergente glifosato (0,94 kg i.a./ ha) + metsulfurón (16 g i.a./ha) en aplicación dirigida, mostró el mejor control de malezas a partir de la segunda y hasta la sexta semana después de la aplicación (SDA), sin observarse daño en el cultivo. El herbicida preemergente orizalina (3 kg i.a./ha) mostró el mejor control de Spermacoce tenuior hasta las 14 SDA tanto en el lomillo como en la rodaja. No se observó fitotoxidad en el cultivo. Abstract in english Herbicide perfomance for Spermacoce tenuior L. control in papaya (Carica papaya). In order to assess the effectiveness of pre and post-emergence herbicides for the control of Spermacoce tenuior and other weeds in papaya, a field test was conducted in 2007, in a commercial field of the "Pococí" hybri [...] d, located in Guápiles, Limón, Costa Rica. A first phase of the study consisted of six post-emergent treatments (1. Glyphosate 24 SL, 2. Glyphosate 68 SG , 3. Glip hosate 24 SL + carfentrazone 24 EC , 4. Glyphosate 68 SG + carfentrazone 24 EC , 5. Glip hosate 24 SL + metsulfuron methyl 60 WG, 6. Gliphosate 24 SL + oxyfluorfen 24 EC). A second phase consisted of three pre-emergent treatments (1. Oryzalin 75 WP, 2. Oxyfluorfen 12 EC, 3. Acetoclor 90 EC) distributed in a randomized complete block design in both phases. The percentage of weed ground cover, height and stem thickness of papaya plants were measured before and after herbicide app lication. Post-emergence applications of glyphosate (0.94 kg i.a./ha) + metsulfuron (16 g i.a./ha) showed the best weed control from the second until the sixth week after application (WAA ) without affecting the crop. Oryzalin applied as a preemergent (3 kg i.a./ha) showed the best control of Spermacoce tenuior until 14 WAA under the planting row and around the plants. No phytotoxicity was observed.

  20. Evaluación de marcadores genéticos para discriminación entre hembras y hermafroditas de papaya (Carica papaya L.) variedad 'Maradol' / Evaluation of genetic markers for discrimination between females and hermaphrodites of papaya (Carica papaya L.) CV. 'Maradol'

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Violeta, Aspeitia-Echegaray; Ma. Alejandra, Torres-Tapia; Dulce V., Mendoza-Rodríguez; M. Humberto, Reyes-Valdés.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available La papaya (Carica papaya L.) presenta tres tipos sexuales: macho, hembra y hermafrodita, de los cuales solo el último posee valor comercial y calidad de exportación. Con base en su morfología, dichos tipos únicamente pueden ser identificados a partir de la floración. La segregación del sexo en esta [...] especie se explica con un modelo de un locus multialélico, aunque tiene una base molecular más compleja ya que puede intervenir más de un gen. En la papaya 'Maradol' se presentan casi exclusivamente los tipos femenino y hermafrodita, por lo cual en esta variedad se busca solamente la distinción entre ambas formas sexuales. En este trabajo se probaron tres juegos de iniciadores para marcadores SCAR, previamente desarrollados para determinación del sexo en variedades hawaianas. Los tres marcadores se identifican como T1, T12 y W11. A partir de tejido de 17 plantas identificadas como hembras y 23 hermafroditas de papaya 'Maradol' se encontró que los marcadores T12 y W11 fueron específicos en 100 % para plantas hermafroditas, mientras que no se observó amplificación para las plantas hembra. el SCAR T1 amplificó ADN solamente en algunas plantas hermafroditas. Se concluye que los SCAR T12 y W11 pueden ser utilizados como parte de una técnica para identificación temprana del sexo de las plantas de papaya 'Maradol' con fines de plantación comercial, previa validación con otras poblaciones de la misma variedad. Abstract in english Papaya (Carica papaya L.) shows three sexual types: male, female and hermaphrodite, from which only the last one has commercial value and export quality. Morphologically, such types are only distinguishable starting at flowering stage. Sex segregation in this species is explained by a multiallelic l [...] ocus, even though it is more complex at the molecular level. In 'Maradol' papaya, the female and hermaphrodite types are almost the only present sexual forms, so that the distinction between these two forms is sought. In this work, three sets of SCAR primers, previously developed for Hawaiian varieties, were tested. The three markers are identified as T1, T12 and W11. From tissue of 17 female and 23 hermaphrodite plants, it was found that the markers T12 and W11 showed 100% specificity for hermaphrodite individuals, with null amplification for female plants. On the other hand, the T1 SCAR primers amplified DNA only in some hermaphrodite plants. It is concluded that T12 and W11 SCAR markers can be used as a part of a technique to identify plant sex in early stages of 'Maradol' papaya for commercial cultivation purpose, after validation with other populations of the same variety.

  1. Una taxonomía de las universidades chilenas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Miguel, Muñoz; Christian, Blanco.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Se propone una taxonomía de las universidades chilenas mediante análisis factorial, que resulta distinta a las tipologías de Brunner (2005, 2009), Parada (2010), Torres y Zenteno (2011) y Rosso y Reyes (2012), y supera las objeciones de Bernasconi (2006). Evita, además, distinciones binarias del tip [...] o tradicional/privada, investigación/docencia, metropolitana/regional, católica/laica, etc. Tampoco establece rankings ni utiliza condiciones históricas, legales u otras alejadas de los modos de operación efectivos de las universidades. La siguiente taxonomía las agrupa según un pool de variables relevantes (investigación, tamaño, composición, acreditación, etc.) que da pie a cinco tipos de universidades: investigación, masivas, de acreditación, elitistas y no elitistas. Se espera aportar en la comprensión de las universidades y contribuir a las políticas públicas con herramientas conceptuales para abordar la diversidad universitaria. Abstract in english We propose a taxonomy of Chilean universities through a factor analysis with different results from those produced by typologies of Brunner (2005, 2009), Parada (2010), Torres and Zenteno (2011) and Rosso and Reyes (2012), overcoming Bernasconi’s objections (2006). It avoids binary distinctions like [...] traditional/private, metropolitan/regional, catholic/secular, etc. It does not establish rankings nor use historical, legal or other distinctions not referred to the effective universities’ operational characteristics. Universities are grouped according to a pool of relevant variables (research, size, composition, accreditation, etc.). Five types of universities are generated: Research, Massive, Accreditation, Elite and Non-Elite. This research intends to contribute to the understanding of universities in Chile and to public policies with conceptual tools for addressing the diversity of universities.

  2. Indução de brotos laterais de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L. Induction of lateral shoots of papaya tree (Carica papaya L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Segundo Giampan

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo estudar o efeito da benzilaminopurina e do ácido giberélico, bem como a forma de aplicação destes, na produção de brotos laterais de mamoeiro. Foram utilizados mamoeiros 'Sunrise Solo' e os reguladores vegetais benzilaminopurina (BAP e ácido giberélico (GA, na concentração de 500 mg.L-1. As formas de aplicação de BAP + GA estudadas foram: pulverização; pasta de lanolina; injeção; completo, que consistiu na utilização de todas as formas de aplicação, e o controle, constituído pela ausência de aplicação de reguladores. Foram realizadas três aplicações semanais dos reguladores em cada forma de aplicação, sendo eliminado o meristema apical de todas as plantas após a última aplicação. O comprimento e o diâmetro dos brotos laterais foram avaliados aos 30; 55 e 86 dias após a retirada da gema apical. O uso de reguladores favoreceu a produção de brotos laterais. A pulverização apresentou os melhores resultados tanto em relação ao número de brotos obtidos quanto à conformação das estacas, seguida pela injeção e pasta de lanolina.The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP and gibberellic acid (GA, as well as the form of application of these growth regulators in the plant, for the production of lateral shoots on papaya trees. Twelve months old 'Sunrise Solo' papaya trees were treated with BAP and GA, in the concentration of 500 mg.L-1. BAP + GA were applied to the trees by means of spraying, lanolin paste, injection, and a combination of all three procedures (complete. Untreated plants were used as control. After three successive applications of the plant growth regulators in each form of application, at one week intervals, all plants were decapitated. The length and diameter of the lateral shoots were measured at 30, 55 and 86 days after decapitation. The use of plant growth regulators favored the production of lateral shoots. The highest proliferation of lateral shoots was obtained by spraying the canopy of the trees with BAP + GA, followed by injection and lanolin paste applications.

  3. Indução de brotos laterais de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L.) / Induction of lateral shoots of papaya tree (Carica papaya L.)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Segundo, Giampan; Thales Sandoval, Cerqueira; Angelo Pedro, Jacomino; Jorge Alberto Marques, Rezende; Fabiana Fumi, Sasaki.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo estudar o efeito da benzilaminopurina e do ácido giberélico, bem como a forma de aplicação destes, na produção de brotos laterais de mamoeiro. Foram utilizados mamoeiros 'Sunrise Solo' e os reguladores vegetais benzilaminopurina (BAP) e ácido giberélico (GA), na [...] concentração de 500 mg.L-1. As formas de aplicação de BAP + GA estudadas foram: pulverização; pasta de lanolina; injeção; completo, que consistiu na utilização de todas as formas de aplicação, e o controle, constituído pela ausência de aplicação de reguladores. Foram realizadas três aplicações semanais dos reguladores em cada forma de aplicação, sendo eliminado o meristema apical de todas as plantas após a última aplicação. O comprimento e o diâmetro dos brotos laterais foram avaliados aos 30; 55 e 86 dias após a retirada da gema apical. O uso de reguladores favoreceu a produção de brotos laterais. A pulverização apresentou os melhores resultados tanto em relação ao número de brotos obtidos quanto à conformação das estacas, seguida pela injeção e pasta de lanolina. Abstract in english The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and gibberellic acid (GA), as well as the form of application of these growth regulators in the plant, for the production of lateral shoots on papaya trees. Twelve months old 'Sunrise Solo' papaya trees were treated [...] with BAP and GA, in the concentration of 500 mg.L-1. BAP + GA were applied to the trees by means of spraying, lanolin paste, injection, and a combination of all three procedures (complete). Untreated plants were used as control. After three successive applications of the plant growth regulators in each form of application, at one week intervals, all plants were decapitated. The length and diameter of the lateral shoots were measured at 30, 55 and 86 days after decapitation. The use of plant growth regulators favored the production of lateral shoots. The highest proliferation of lateral shoots was obtained by spraying the canopy of the trees with BAP + GA, followed by injection and lanolin paste applications.

  4. ALTERNATIVA COMERCIAL PARA EXTENDER VIDA DE ANAQUEL DE PAPAYA 'MARADOL'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Osuna-Garc\\u00EDa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto del 1-Metilciclopropeno (1-MCP y etileno (solos o en combinación para manipular el proceso de maduración y extender vida de anaquel de papaya 'Maradol'. Durante el 2007 se realizaron tres ensayos: 1. Efecto del 1-MCP en papaya almacenada en condiciones de mercadeo y refrigeración más mercadeo; 2. Papaya tratada con 1-MCP y etileno y mezcla 1-MCP + etileno; 3. Evaluación comercial del 1-MCP y etileno en papaya. Se analizaron pérdida de peso, color externo, firmeza, color de pulpa y sólidos solubles totales. Se encontró que el 1-MCP a 100 nl·litro-1 retrasó el desarrollo de color externo y pulpa e inhibió el ablandamiento de los frutos. También se observó que el etileno a dosis de 100 ¿l·litro-1 aplicado después del 1-MCP no revirtió el efecto de éste, sin embargo, el 1-MCP aplicado después del etileno redujo la velocidad de ablandamiento y el desarrollo del color en cáscara y pulpa inducido por el etileno. Se concluye que el 1-MCP a 100 nl·litro-1 por 12 horas aplicado después del etileno puede ser una técnica viable para manipular el proceso de maduración y alargar vida de anaquel de papaya 'Maradol'.

  5. Effect of gamma-irradiation on ripening papaya pectin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papaya (Carica papaya, L., var. Sunset) at three initial ripeness stages were irradiated with 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0, or 1.5 kGy gamma-irradiation and pectin changes during ripening determined. A significant linear relationship was found between irradiation dose and firmness immediately after irradiation. Irradiation had no effect on fruit skin or flesh color of papaya fruit irradiated at the 5 to 30% yellow stage and allowed to ripen. Papaya irradiated when 5 to 30% yellow showed no significant changes in pectin methylesterase activity when ripe. Immediately after irradiation, the pectin in 10 to 30% yellow papaya showed depolymerization and demethoxylation, though no effect on pectin methylesterase activity was detected. There was an increase in water soluble pectin (WSP), while chelator soluble (CSP) and alkali soluble pectin (ASP) decreased, with a significant decline in the methanol content of the ASP fraction. After the 25 to 30% yellow ripeness stage, fruit irradiated at 0.50 to 1.0 kGy had less pectic depolymerization, and had a firmer texture than nonirradiated when ripe. A lower level of WSP and higher levels of CSP and ASP were found in ripe fruit that had been irradiated at 0.5 to 1.0 kGy when 25 to 30% yellow skin with a significant quadratic relationship between irradiation dose and the three pectin fractions. The firmness of these irradiated fruit were retained for two days longer than the nonirradiated control. (author)

  6. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF PAPAYA LEAF EXTRACTS AGAINST PATHOGENIC BACTERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolf Jan Nexson Parhusip

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available It was reported that the extracts of papaya leaves could inhibit the growth of Rhizopus stolonifer. Antibacterial activity of Carica papaya leaf extracts on pathogenic bacteria was observed in this study. Papaya leaves were extracted by using maceration method and three kinds of solvents: ethanol, ethyl acetate, and hexane. Papaya leaf extracts were tested against Bacillus stearothermophilus, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas sp., and Escherichia coli by agar diffusion method. The objectives of this study were to determine extract ability against pathogenic bacteria, to observe the influence of pH, NaCl, and heat on extracts ability, and to observe extract ability against B. stearothermophilus spores. The data showed that ethyl acetate extract could inhibit B. stearothermophilus, L. monocytogenes, Pseudomonas sp., and E. coli. The extract activity was influenced by pH, and it was more effective in low pH. The extract activity was influenced by NaCl against B. stearothermophillus and E. coli. However, it was not influenced by NaCl in bioassay against L. monocytogenes and Pseudomonas sp. The extract activity was influenced by heating process against all the bacteria tested. The extracts inhibited B. stearothermophilus spores as well. Papaya leaves are potential natural anti-bacteria, which might be used in certain kinds of food.

  7. An Analysis on DNA Fingerprints of Thirty Papaya Cultivars (Carica papaya L.), Grown in Thailand with the Use of Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Janthasri Ratchadaporn; Katengam Sureeporn; Khumcha, U.

    2007-01-01

    The experiment was carried out at the Department of Horticulture, Ubon Ratchathani University, Ubon Ratchathani province, Northeast Thailand during June 2002 to May 2003 aims to identify DNA fingerprints of thirty papaya cultivars with the use of Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLP) technique. Papaya cultivars were collected from six different research centers in Thailand. Papaya plants of each cultivar were grown under field conditions up to four months then leaf numbers 2 and 3 of...

  8. EVALUACIÓN DE MARCADORES GENÉTICOS PARA DISCRIMINACIÓN ENTRE HEMBRAS Y HERMAFRODITAS DE PAPAYA (Carica papaya L. VARIEDAD ‘MARADOL’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Aspeitia-Echegaray

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La papaya ( Carica papaya L. presenta tres tipos sexuales: macho, hembra y hermafrodita, de los cuales solo el último posee valor comercial y calidad de exportación. Con base en su morfología, dichos tipos únicamente pueden ser identificados a partir de la floración. La segregación del sexo en esta especie se explica con un modelo de un locus multialélico, aunque tiene una base molecular más compleja ya que puede intervenir más de un gen. En la papaya ‘Maradol’ se presentan casi exclusivamente los tipos femenino y hermafrodita, por lo cual en esta variedad se busca solamente la distinción entre ambas formas sexuales. En este trabajo se probaron tres juegos de iniciadores para marcadores SCAR, previamente desarrollados para determinación del sexo en variedades hawaianas. Los tres marcadores se identifican como T1, T12 y W11. A partir de tejido de 17 plantas identificadas como hembras y 23 hermafroditas de papaya ‘Maradol’, se encontró que los marcadores T12 y W11 fueron específicos en 100 % para plantas hermafroditas, mientras que no se observó amplificación para las plantas hembra. el SCAR T1 amplificó ADN solamente en algunas plantas hermafroditas. Se concluye que los SCAR T12 y W11 pueden ser utilizados como parte de una técnica para identificación temprana del sexo de las plantas de papaya ‘Maradol’ con fines de plantación comercial, previa validación con otras poblaciones de la misma variedad.

  9. INFLUENCIA DE LA OSMOCONGELACIÓN SOBRE ALGUNAS PROPIEDADES FÍSICAS DE PAPAYA (Carica papaya L.) / INFLUENCE OF OSMODEHYDROFREEZING ON SOME PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF PAPAYA (Carica papaya L.)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alfredo, Ayala Aponte; Martha, Sánchez; Hanny, Rodríguez.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available La osmo-congelación (OC) es el proceso combinado de aplicar la deshidratación osmótica (DO) seguido de la congelación en un alimento, para mejorar la calidad del producto congelado-descongelado. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la influencia de la aplicación de pretratamientos osmóticos sobre [...] la pérdida de fase líquida (PFL), volumen (V) y color, en términos de claridad (L*), tono (h°) y cambio total de color (?E), en muestras de papaya, almacenadas en congelación. Las muestras fueron deshidratadas osmóticamente hasta 30 y 90 min, alcanzando, respectivamente, contenidos de humedad, de 81,40±0,69% y 76,24±0,41%(b.h); para ello, se empleó una solución osmótica (SO) de sacarosa, con 65°Brix, a 26,0+0,2°C. Las muestras deshidratadas osmóticamente fueron congeladas a -40°C y, posteriormente, se almacenaron a -18°C, durante 10, 20, 30 y 40 días. Como tratamiento control, se utilizaron muestras no tratadas osmóticamente (MNT), durante el almacenamiento en congelación. Los resultados mostraron que, en todos los tratamientos, el tiempo de almacenamiento en congelación influyó significativamente (p Abstract in english The osmo-dehydro-freezing (OC) is the combined process of applying osmotic dehydration (OD) followed by freezing of a food product to improve the quality of frozen-thawed products. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the application of osmotic pretreatments on the loss of liquid p [...] hase (PFL), volume (V) and color in terms of lightness (L*), hue (h°), and color change (?E) of papaya frozen stores samples. The osmotically dehydrated samples were treated during 30 and 90 min, reaching moisture content of 81,40±0,69 and 76,24±0,41% (wb) respectively. For this, an osmotic solution of sucrose with 65°Brix at 26.0°C+0.2 was used. The treated samples were frozen at -40°C and subsequently stored at -18°C for 10, 20, 30 and 40 days. As control osmotically untreated samples (MNT) during frozen storage were used. The results showed that in all treatments the frozen storage time significantly influenced (p

  10. Purification of a thermostable alkaline laccase from papaya (Carica papaya) using affinity chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Nivedita; Pandey, Veda P; Dwivedi, Upendra N

    2015-01-01

    A laccase from papaya leaves was purified to homogeneity by a two step procedure namely, heat treatment (at 70 °C) and Con-A affinity chromatography. The procedure resulted in 1386.7-fold purification of laccase with a specific activity of 41.3 units mg(-1) and an overall yield of 61.5%. The native purified laccase was found to be a hexameric protein of ? 260 kDa. The purified enzyme exhibited acidic and alkaline pH optima of 6.0 and 8.0 with the non-phenolic substrate (ABTS) and phenolic substrate (catechol), respectively. The purified laccase was found to be thermostable up to 70 °C such that it retained ? 80% activity upon 30 min incubation at 70 °C. The Arrhenius energy of activation for purified laccase was found to be 7.7 kJ mol(-1). The enzyme oxidized various phenolic and non-phenolic substrates having catalytic efficiency (K(cat)/K(m)) in the order of 7.25>0.67>0.27 mM(-1) min(-1) for ABTS, catechol and hydroquinone, respectively. The purified laccase was found to be activated by Mn(2+), Cd(2+), Ca(2+), Na(+), Fe(2+), Co(2+) and Cu(2+) while weakly inhibited by Hg(2+). The properties such as thermostability, alkaline pH optima and metal tolerance exhibited by the papaya laccase make it a promising candidate enzyme for industrial exploitation. PMID:25192855

  11. Dengue fever treatment with Carica papaya leaves extracts

    OpenAIRE

    AHMAD, Nisar; Fazal, Hina; Ayaz, Muhammad; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Mohammad, Ijaz; Fazal, Lubna

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of the current study is to investigate the potential of Carica papaya leaves extracts against Dengue fever in 45 year old patient bitten by carrier mosquitoes. For the treatment of Dengue fever the extract was prepared in water. 25 mL of aqueous extract of C. papaya leaves was administered to patient infected with Dengue fever twice daily i.e. morning and evening for five consecutive days. Before the extract administration the blood samples from patient were analyzed. Plate...

  12. Empleo de un Recubrimiento Formulado con Propóleos para el Manejo Poscosecha de Frutos de Papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Hawaiana) / Use of a Coating Formulated with Propolis for Postharvest Handling of Papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Hawaiian) Fruits

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elizabeth, Barrera Bello; Marcela, Gil Loaiza; Carlos Mario, García Pajón; Diego Luis, Durango Restrepo; Jesús Humberto, Gil González.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. El fruto de papaya es reconocido por las propiedades nutricionales y sensoriales; no obstante, su tiempo de vida útil en poscosecha es muy corto. En los últimos años, para incrementar la vida de almacenamiento del fruto se ha implementado el uso de recubrimientos como vehículos de agentes a [...] ntimicrobianos y antioxidantes, entre otros. En este trabajo se comparó el efecto de dos recubrimientos; cera comercial (control) y cera comercial conteniendo un extracto etanólico de propóleos (5% p/v), sobre la vida en poscosecha de frutos de papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Hawaiana) almacenados a temperatura ambiente (28 ± 2 ºC) y humedad relativa entre 65 y 70%. El efecto de los recubrimientos se determinó mediante el índice de deterioro de los frutos y el recuento microbiano (mesófilos aerobios, mohos y levaduras). Adicionalmente, se evaluaron durante 12 días las propiedades fisicoquímicas de los frutos (cambio de color, textura, pH, acidez total titulable, pérdida de peso y sólidos solubles). Los resultados mostraron que las papayas tratadas con el recubrimiento formulado con el extracto de propóleos, presentó un menor deterioro en cuanto a su apariencia y mayor inhibición del crecimiento de microorganismos durante los primeros 6 días de evaluación en comparación con los frutos control; además, no se observaron diferencias, producto de los recubrimientos, en relación a las características fisicoquímicas de los frutos. Abstract in english Abstract. Papaya fruit is known for the nutritional and sensory properties; however, its postharvest shelf life is very short. In recent years, to extend the storage life of this fruit, the use of coatings as a carrier of antimicrobial agents and antioxidants, has been implemented. In this work, the [...] effect of two coatings, commercial wax (control) and commercial wax containing an ethanolic extract of propolis (5% w/v) on the postharvest of papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Hawaiian) was compared. The fruits were stored at room temperature (28 ± 2 ºC) and a relative humidity between 65 and 70%. The effect of coatings was determined by the deterioration index of the fruit, and the microbial counts (aerobic mesophiles, molds and yeasts). Additionally, during 12 days were evaluated physicochemical properties of the fruits (color, texture, pH, titratable acidity, weight loss and soluble solids). The results showed that the papaya fruits treated with the coating containing the propolis extract presented less deterioration in their appearance and greater inhibition growth of microorganisms during the first 6 days compared with control fruits; moreover, no differences among the coatings in relation to the physicochemical characteristics of the fruit were observed.

  13. Consumer in-store response to irradiated papayas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, purchase behavior of California consumers in response to irradiated papayas is described. The papayas were shipped from Hawaii and irradiated in California under a permit by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service and approved by the California Department of Food and Agriculture. Results show that the superior appearance of the irradiated fruit appealed to consumers and that two-thirds or more of the people queried indicated that they would buy irradiated produce. It is noted that this marketing took place in a supportive environment with no protestors present. Informational material was available

  14. Empleo de un Recubrimiento Formulado con Propóleos para el Manejo Poscosecha de Frutos de Papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Hawaiana Use of a Coating Formulated with Propolis for Postharvest Handling of Papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Hawaiian Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Barrera Bello

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. El fruto de papaya es reconocido por las propiedades nutricionales y sensoriales; no obstante, su tiempo de vida útil en poscosecha es muy corto. En los últimos años, para incrementar la vida de almacenamiento del fruto se ha implementado el uso de recubrimientos como vehículos de agentes antimicrobianos y antioxidantes, entre otros. En este trabajo se comparó el efecto de dos recubrimientos; cera comercial (control y cera comercial conteniendo un extracto etanólico de propóleos (5% p/v, sobre la vida en poscosecha de frutos de papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Hawaiana almacenados a temperatura ambiente (28 ± 2 ºC y humedad relativa entre 65 y 70%. El efecto de los recubrimientos se determinó mediante el índice de deterioro de los frutos y el recuento microbiano (mesófilos aerobios, mohos y levaduras. Adicionalmente, se evaluaron durante 12 días las propiedades fisicoquímicas de los frutos (cambio de color, textura, pH, acidez total titulable, pérdida de peso y sólidos solubles. Los resultados mostraron que las papayas tratadas con el recubrimiento formulado con el extracto de propóleos, presentó un menor deterioro en cuanto a su apariencia y mayor inhibición del crecimiento de microorganismos durante los primeros 6 días de evaluación en comparación con los frutos control; además, no se observaron diferencias, producto de los recubrimientos, en relación a las características fisicoquímicas de los frutos.Abstract. Papaya fruit is known for the nutritional and sensory properties; however, its postharvest shelf life is very short. In recent years, to extend the storage life of this fruit, the use of coatings as a carrier of antimicrobial agents and antioxidants, has been implemented. In this work, the effect of two coatings, commercial wax (control and commercial wax containing an ethanolic extract of propolis (5% w/v on the postharvest of papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Hawaiian was compared. The fruits were stored at room temperature (28 ± 2 ºC and a relative humidity between 65 and 70%. The effect of coatings was determined by the deterioration index of the fruit, and the microbial counts (aerobic mesophiles, molds and yeasts. Additionally, during 12 days were evaluated physicochemical properties of the fruits (color, texture, pH, titratable acidity, weight loss and soluble solids. The results showed that the papaya fruits treated with the coating containing the propolis extract presented less deterioration in their appearance and greater inhibition growth of microorganisms during the first 6 days compared with control fruits; moreover, no differences among the coatings in relation to the physicochemical characteristics of the fruit were observed.

  15. Caracterización y evaluación de dos híbridos de papaya en Cuba / Characterization and evaluation of two papaya hybrids in Cuba

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maruchi, Alonso Esquivel; Yoel, Tornet Quintana; Roberto, Ramos Ramírez; Emilio, Farrés Armenteros; Maikel, Aranguren González; Douglas, Rodríguez Martínez.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available La papaya (Carica papaya L.) es considerada como una de las frutas de mayor valor nutritivo y digestivo, siendo utilizada ampliamente en dietas alimenticias, así como gran aceptación a nivel nacional e internacional. Su cultivo puede constituir una gran alternativa para la diversificación agrícola e [...] n las regiones de Cuba, debido a la existencia de áreas con condiciones edafoclimáticas favorables para desarrollar este frutal. Actualmente, los problemas que afectan al cultivo de la papaya son el bajo número de variedades explotadas comercialmente y la susceptibilidad a plagas y enfermedades. Una alternativa viable para la solución de este problema es recurrir a la ampliación de la base genética del papayo mediante la obtención de híbridos con resistencia a plagas y enfermedades, lo que contribuirá de manera decisiva en el mejoramiento del cultivo. El objetivo de esta investigación fue realizar la caracterización fenológica y productiva de dos híbridos de papaya "HGxMA" y "HGxMR" perteneciente al banco de germoplasma de este frutal ubicado en la Unidad Científico-Tecnológica de Base (UCTB) Jagüey Grande, Matanzas del período enero 2005 a noviembre 2007. Los resultados corroboraron que los híbridos presentan características fenotípicas del grupo formosa, frutos con forma elongata en las plantas hermafroditas. El peso medio de los frutos fue de 1.80 kg ("HGxMR") y 2.7 kg ("HGxMA"), de pulpa color naranja-rojiza y amarilla, respectivamente, así como, con una productividad entre 63.4 y 99.8.5 kg planta-1, características que evidencian la posibilidad de utilizarlos en programas de mejoramiento genético del cultivo y en el uso directo por los productores. Actualmente, el mercado consumidor de frutas de papaya de gran tamaño a nivel mundial va creciendo de manera considerable. Por estas razones, estos cultivares de papaya pueden constituir una opción con mayores potencialidades para satisfacer la demanda de los consumidores del cultivo. Abstract in english Papaya is considered one of the fruits of greatest nutritional and digestive value. It is widely used in diets and it has a high acceptance at national and international level. Its culture can constitute a great alternative for agricultural diversification in Cuba regions, due to the existence of ar [...] eas with favorable edaphoclimatic conditions to develop this fruit tree. Nowadays the problems that affect papaya culture are the low number of commercially developed varieties and the susceptibility to pests and diseases. A viable alternative to solve this problem is to widen the genetic papaya base obtaining hybrids with resistance to pest and disease that will contribute decisively to the culture improvement. In this work, the phenology and productive characterization has been done of two papaya hybrids "HGxMA" and "HGxMR" belonging to the germoplasm bank of this fruit tree, located at the Unidad Cientifico-Tecnologica de Base (UCTB) Jagüey Grande, Matanzas. The results confirm that the hybrids present phenotypical characteristics of the Formosa Group, with elongated fruits in hermaphroditic plants. The fruit average weigtht is 1.80 kg ("HGxMR") and 2.7 kg ("HGxMA"), of range-reddish and yellow pulp, respectively and productivity between 63.4 and 99.8.5 kg planta-1, characteristic that show the possibility of use them in genetic improvement programs and the direct use by producers. At present, the markert of big papaya fruits is increasing considerably worldwide. For these reasons, these papaya cultivars can constitute an option with greater potentialities to satisfy consumers demand of the culture.

  16. Herencia de la concentración de los sólidos soluble entre líneas parentales de papaya (carica papaya l. y sus híbridos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Mora

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Herencia de la concentración de los sólidos solubles entre líneas parentales de papaya (Carica papaya L. y sus híbridos. Se estableció un experimento con el objetivo de determinar el patrón de herencia de la concentración de sólidos solubles de frutas (medido como grados brix entre tres líneas de papaya y sus tres posibles híbridos. Se utilizaron como materiales parentales tres líneas genéticas con niveles de azúcares significativamente diferentes entre ellos. Se determinó que la característica de alto contenido de sólidos solubles se comportó de manera dominante sobre un bajo contenido de los mismos. Se concluyó que existe un gran potencial para explotar comercialmente este patrón dominante al posibilitar el uso de germoplasma de buenas características agronómicas pero deficientes en sus contenidos de azúcares en sus frutas. La posible naturaleza de los factores que intervienen en la característica estudiada se discuten.

  17. Effect of maleic hydrazide and waxing on quality and shelf life of papaya (carica papaya L.) fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of post harvest treatment of maleic hydrazide (MH) with and with out waxing on the quality and shelf-life of Baladi and Ekostika I papaya fruits at 18 ±1°C and 85%-90% relative humidity was evaluated. Maleic hydrazide at 250 and 500 ppm significantly delayed fruit ripening by two and three days in both papaya cultivars, respectively, compared with untreated fruits. The higher the concentration, the more was the delay in fruit ripening. The results also showed that waxing addition to MH resulted in a delay of two more days in fruit ripening that treatment with MH alone. The effect of MH and waxing treatments in delaying papaya fruits ripening was manifested in retarded respiratory climacteric, reduced weight loss and delayed fruit softening and increase in total soluble solids and ascorbic acid content.(Author)

  18. Papaya fruit quality management during the postharvest supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papayas are popular in tropical and subtropical regions and are being exported in large volumes to Europe, the U.S. and Japan. The fruit has excellent taste, exotic flavor and nutritional properties, being rich in vitamins A, C, and antioxidants. However, due to its highly perishable nature it has n...

  19. An ultrasonic system for determining papaya physiological properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Sallehuddin; Ramli, Azlin; Yunus, Mohd Amri Md

    2015-05-01

    There is an increasing need for high quality fruit. As such it is important to have a fast, accurate and reliable method for measuring and monitoring the quality of fruit from the field to the consumer. This paper presents an investigation on the use of a non-destructive ultrasonic system which can be used to measure the quality of papaya.

  20. Genetic diversity of papaya ring spot virus in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Food and Agriculture Organization estimates that 20-40% of crop yield is lost due to pests and diseases. Viruses are agents that cause diseases which contribute greatly to the global yield loss. Because of this, food production is negatively affected, especially in the tropics. Carica papaya, co...

  1. Morfología de la flor y de la semilla de papaya (Carica papaya L.): variedad Maradol e híbrido Tainung-1 / Floral and seed morphology of papaya (Carica papaya L.): Maradol variety and Tainung-1 hybrid

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Arlette Ivonne, Gil; Diego, Miranda.

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de analizar la morfología de la flor y de la semilla de papaya (Carica papaya L.) de la variedad 'Maradol' y el híbrido 'Tainung-1', se recolectó el material vegetal en dos plantaciones y se llevaron al laboratorio de Fisiología de Cultivos, Facultad de Agronomía, Universidad Naciona [...] l de Colombia, Bogotá, con el fin de realizar las descripciones correspondientes de los tres tipos de flores (femeninas, hermafroditas y estaminadas) y de la semilla, sus características externas (forma, tamaño, hilo, micrópilo, funículo, rafe y abierta seminal) e internas (cubierta seminal, endospermo y embrión). Se concluyó principalmente que a nivel morfológico las flores y semillas de los dos materiales evaluados mostraron características similares, por tanto, las descripciones dadas en este trabajo son generales para ambos. Abstract in english Vegetal material from papaya (Carica papaya L.) 'Maradol' variety and 'Tainung-1' hybrid were collected from two plantations and taken to the Plant Physiology laboratory to analyse their flower and seed morphology. Descriptions were made of the three types of flowers (female, hermaphrodite and stami [...] nate) and the seeds' external (shape, size, hilum, micropyle, funicle, raphe and testa) and internal characteristics (testa, endosperm and embryo). The main morphological conclusion was that the flowers and seeds from the two types evaluated showed similar characteristics; the descriptions given in this paper are thus general for them.

  2. Estimation of papaya leaf area using the central vein length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campostrini Eliemar

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Four genotypes of papaya (Carica papaya L. two from the 'Solo' group (Sunrise Solo and Improved Sunrise Solo line 72/12 and two from the 'Formosa' group (Tainung 02 and Known-You 01, grown in Macaé, RJ, Brazil (lat. 22(0 24' S, long. 41(0 42' W, were used in this study. Twenty-five mature leaves from each genotype were sampled four and five months after seedling transplant to the field to determine the length of the leaf central vein (LLCV and the leaf area (LA. According to covariance analyses there were no significant differences in the slope and intercept of the mathematical models calculated for each genotype. Thus, a single mathematical model (Log LA = 0.315 + 1.85 Log LLCV, R²=0.898 was adjusted to estimate the LA using the length of LLCV for the four genotypes. An unique model can be applied to estimate the LA for the four papaya genotypes using LLCV in the range from 0.25 to 0.60 m, and for papaya trees 150 to 180 days after transplanting.

  3. IDENTIFICACIÓN MEDIANTE PCR DEL SEXO DE LA PAPAYA (Carica papaya L., HÍBRIDO "POCOCÍ"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ericka Saalau-Rojas

    2009-01-01

    con dos metodologías de extracción, CTAB y lisis alcalina (NaOH. La amplificación por PCR del ADN extraído de muestras foliares de papaya híbrido "Pococí", con ambos métodos de extracción, produjo los fragmentos del tamaño esperado. La determinación del sexo de 1.500 plántulas en almácigo mostró un 46 % de plántulas hermafroditas y un 54 % de plantas femeninas. La proporción observada de plantas femeninas: hemafroditas no varió de la esperada (1:1 según la prueba de chi-cuadrado (p= 0,4237. Las plantas hermafroditas fueron llevadas al campo y al momento de la floración se determinó su sexo. La correspondencia entre el sexado por PCR y la expresión sexual en campo fue de un 98 %.

  4. Callus induction in papaya (Carica papaya L. and synseed production for low temperature storage and cryopreservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira da Silva Jaime A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The mid- to long-term preservation of papaya (Carica papaya L. would allow for the safeguarding of important germplasm. In this study, soft friable callus (SFC and hard callus (HC were induced from the first two true leaves of 10-day-old seedlings containing a midrib derived from the germinated seed of two cultivars (‘Rainbow’ and ‘Sunrise Solo’. Following germination on a Murashige and Skoog (MS medium that contained 3% sucrose and was free of plant growth regulators (PGRs, sections of the first true leaves from 10-day-old seedlings were exposed to seven published callus or somatic embryogenesis protocols for zygotic embryos, leaves or hypocotyls. Optimal SFC and HC induction was carried out on a half-strength MS medium following the Fitch (1993 or the Ascêncio-Cabral et al. (2008 protocol, respectively. SFC formed shoots that could then convert to plants when transferred to a full-strength MS medium devoid of PGRs. Plantlets 10-cm tall were acclimatised in two steps: first by in vitro acclimatisation in aerated vessels, the Vitron, under CO2-enriched (3000 ppm CO2, then by the transfer of individually rooted plantlets in Rockwool® blocks to a substrate of soil: pine bark : perlite (1:1:1, v/v/v. SFC and HC were then encapsulated in alginate beads, which were exposed to low temperature storage (LTS at 10°C and 15°C, and also cryopreserved for 30 days. All encapsulated alginate beads that contained SFC, HC or leaf tissue that had been stored under LTS or cryopreserved were able to regenerate callus when placed on an optimal callus induction medium. Plants derived from the control, LTS and cryopreservation protocols, either from SFC or HC, were successfully acclimatised.

  5. Sensitivity of papaya seeds to gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major problems faced by the papaya industry in Malaysia are the papaya ringspot virus disease and the short shelf-life of the fruit. Efforts have been made to address these problems and they include conventional breeding and selection and biotechnological tools for development of transgenic papayas with PRSV resistance and delayed fruit ripening characteristics. Irradiation-induced changes in papaya for selection of improved varieties could offer another approach to resolve these problems. As the first step, the radio-sensitivity of papaya seed must be established before mass irradiation of the materials to generate the desired variability for evaluation and selection later. For the first approximation dosage, the seeds of two local. varieties, Sekaki and Eksotika were irradiated as either dry seeds or as pre-germinated seeds (soaked overnight in water and surface-dried). The dosage ranged from 0 to 300 Gy. Wet pre-germinated seeds were all killed at 100 Gy while dry seeds did not show loss of viability even at 300 Gy. The dosage for dry seeds was raised to 1000 Gy in the following experiment and the LD 50 (or half-kill) was estimated to be 650 Gy. However, at this dosage, seedling growth was markedly reduced and this dosage may not be suitable for mass irradiation. From the growth data, it was estimated that 525 Gy was the dosage that reduced 50% of growth in height and this dosage was recommended for mass irradiation of dry seeds. For wet, pre-germinated seeds, dry seeds. For wet, pre-germinated seeds, results from the third experiment indicated that 42.5 Gy was the optimal dosage for mass irradiation. At this dosage, both seed germination and seedling growth was reduced by 50%. (Author)

  6. Portable chlorophyll meter (PCM-502) values are related to total chlorophyll concentration and photosynthetic capacity in papaya (Carica papaya L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was carried out to verify the practical use of the portable chlorophyll meter-PCM502 (PCM) in two papaya cultivars with contrasting green coloring of the leaf blade (‘Golden’: yellowish-green; ‘Solo’: dark green). The relationship was studied between the photosynthetic process and leaf n...

  7. Anatomia foliar de plantas transgênicas e não transgênicas de Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae) / Leaf anatomy of genetically modified and wild-type Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcos Vinicius, Leal-Costa; Márcia, Munhoz; Paulo Ernesto, Meissner Filho; Fernanda, Reinert; Eliana Schwartz, Tavares.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O mamoeiro, Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae) é uma espécie americana, cujos frutos são largamente consumidos em todo mundo. Devido às perdas de produção provocadas por viroses e a dificuldade em controlá-las por métodos convencionais, a espécie tem sido alvo de pesquisas de melhoramento genético envolv [...] endo transgenia para resistência a vírus. O presente trabalho descreve a anatomia foliar de plantas de mamoeiro convencional e transgênico resistente ao vírus da mancha anelar-Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) com inserção da capa protéica viral. As duas cultivares apresentam pecíolo com endoderme e fibras pericíclicas. As folhas são hipoestomáticas e dorsiventrais, com laticíferos acompanhando os feixes vasculares e grande concentração de idioblastos com drusas de oxalato de cálcio. A epiderme é glabra, possuindo estômatos anomocíticos e anisocíticos, com células de paredes anticlinais retas na face adaxial e levemente sinuosas na face abaxial. O presente trabalho concluiu que o processo de transformação genética não alterou as características anatômicas das folhas de C. papaya, servindo de subsídio para avaliação da conformidade anatômica da cultivar transgênica. Abstract in english Papaya, Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae), is an American species, consumed worldwide. A major limitation to papaya production is attack by viruses, like the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). Papaya has been genetically modified to increase its resistance to PRSV. The aim of this research was to compare the [...] leaf anatomy of wild-type and genetically modified (GM) C. papaya plants to evaluate the influence of genetic modification on leaf anatomy. Wild-type and GM plants showed petiole with endodermis and pericycle fibers. The leaves are hypostomatic and dorsiventral, with laticifers along vascular system and abundant druses of calcium oxalate. The epidermis was glabrous and presented anomocytic and anisocytic stomata, straight anticlinal walls on the adaxial face and sinuous on the abaxial face. Anatomical differences between wild-type and GM C. papaya leaves were not observed. These data contribute to risk assessments regarding the anatomical conformity of GM plants.

  8. 76 FR 13972 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Fresh Papaya Fruit From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ...Importation of Fresh Papaya Fruit From Malaysia Into the Continental United States...Carica papaya) fruit from Malaysia into the continental United States...APHIS received a request from the Government of Malaysia to allow the importation of...

  9. Cyanogenesis in glucosinolate-producing plants: Carica papaya and Carica quercifolia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olafsdottir, E.S.; JØrgensen, Lise Bolt

    2002-01-01

    Carica papaya, Carica quercifolia, Carica hastata, Caricaceae, Passifloraceae, Biosynthesis, Glucosinolates, Cyanohydrin glycosides, Cyanogenic glycosides, Prunasin, Tetraphyllin B, Cyclopentenylglycine

  10. Hurdle technology to preserve the 'Golden' papaya post harvest quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the purpose of evaluating a combination of post harvest techniques on papaya Golden storage, the following treatments were investigated: carton boxes packaging (CP); CP + plastic bag of PEBD - low density polyethylene film, with 0.05mm of thickness (PE); CP + PEBD with 0.025mm of thickness impregnated with mineral ethylene scavenger (PEAbs); gamma-irradiation (0.4 kGy and 0.7 kGy); and refrigerated storage at 10 deg C e 90% of relative humidity for 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 days plus five days under environmental conditions to allow ripening and to simulate the product marketing. To evaluate the effects on fruit quality the following measurements were taken: - first experiment, disease incidence, skin color and loss of turgidity (as visual variables); skin and flesh color, weight loss, flesh firmness, total soluble solids, total titratable acidity, pH, lycopene and beta-carotene composition; - second experiment, sensorial analysis on samples submitted to the treatments with better results from the first experiment. Post harvest diseases were the main factor responsible for discarding fruits. Percentage of weight loss was higher on papayas stored without plastic packaging. Time affected the flesh firmness (F = 95%). However, there wasn't influence of the treatments on that parameter. A significant effect on skin color was observed with interaction between irradiation (0.4 and 0.7 kGy) and storage period. Once reached the edible stage, irradiated papayas pres the edible stage, irradiated papayas presented more uniformity on skin color. For beta-carotene and Lycopene, the mean values were 1.27 to 1.79 and 19.16 to 23.90 mug/ml of flesh, respectively. But those substances weren't affected by the combined methods or the time. The same behavior were observed for total soluble solids, total titratable acidity and pH (mean values of 11.53 to 12.20 deg Brix, 0.117 to 0.136 g of citric acid/100g of flesh and 4.91 to 5.04, respectively). On sensory evaluation, the judges didn't get to detect significant differences among papayas submitted to different treatments. A synergism was verified on the techniques combination, with the best results obtained from the association of CP + PEabs + gamma-irradiation at 0.4 kGy, which reached a total storage period of 35 days. Thus, that is the post harvest hurdle technology recommend for exporting 'Golden' papayas to markets with quarantine restrictions to fruit-flies (author)

  11. Situación actual y perspectivas tecnológicas para la papaya (Carica papaya L.) en el distrito de Veracruz, Veracruz / Current situation and technological prospects for papaya (Carica papaya L.) in the district of Veracruz, Veracruz

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rebeca, Granados Ramírez; Rafael, Salceda Lopez; María del Pilar, Longar Blanco.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available La papaya es la tercera fruta tropical más consumida en el mundo y por su dinamismo comercial es considerada una de las más importantes desde el punto de vista económico. México ocupa el sexto lugar como productor mundial con 712 917 t anuales, de las cuales una quinta parte se destina al mercado ex [...] terior. El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar las innovaciones tecnológicas utilizadas durante el proceso de producción de la Carica papaya L. en el DDR 007 Veracruz, e identificar las etapas vulnerables y sugerir estrategias. La metodología incluyó la evaluación del coeficiente de localización, análisis del proceso de producción con énfasis en la utilización de tecnologías de vanguardia, mediante la obtención de información en campo en las comunidades productoras. Se integró la matriz FODA donde se identificaron las fortalezas y factores críticos, oportunidades y amenazas de la actividad frutícola. Se destacaron las condiciones edafo-climáticas para la producción, elevada rentabilidad y rápido retorno de la inversión (fortalezas). De lo anterior, se puede inferir que asignar mayores superficies de tierra al cultivo de papaya en la zona, con certeza será una opción viable para la adquisición de mayores ingresos económicos para los productores locales; además de un creciente consumo y las grandes posibilidades de exportación (oportunidades). Se subraya la necesidad de adicionar biotecnología para retrasar el proceso de maduración, además obtener versatilidad del fruto para su consumo. Abstract in english Papaya is the third most consumed tropical fruit in the world and its commercial dynamism is considered one of the most important from the economic point of view. Mexico ranks sixth as a world producer with 712 917 t, of which one-fifth goes to foreign markets annually. The aim of this study was to [...] analyse the technological innovations used during production of Carica papaya L. in the DDR 007 Veracruz, and identify vulnerable stages and suggest strategies. The methodology included assessment of the location coefficient, analysis of the production process with emphasis on the use of advanced technologies, by obtaining information field producing communities. A SWOT matrix was integrated where the strengths and critical factors, opportunities and threats identified fruit activity. The leaf-climatic conditions were highlighted for the production of high profitability and rapid return on investment (strengths). From the foregoing is inferred that allocating more land areas with papaya crop in the area, for sure will be an option to acquire higher incomes for local producers; besides increasing consumption and large export possibilities (opportunities). The need to add biotechnology to delay the ripening process is emphasized and also getting versatile fruits for consumption.

  12. Assaying for pollen drift from transgenic Rainbow to nontransgenic Kapoho papaya under commercial and experimental field conditions in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 1992 papaya ringpsot virus (PRSV) was discovered in Puna district of Hawaii Island where 95% of the state of Hawaii’s papaya was being grown. By 1998 production in Puna had decreased 50% from 1998 levels. A PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya ‘Rainbow’ expressing the coat protein gene of PRSV was ...

  13. 40 CFR 174.515 - Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement...Exemptions § 174.515 Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement...tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus are exempt from the...

  14. 76 FR 49725 - Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Fresh Papaya Fruit From Malaysia into the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ...Importation of Fresh Papaya Fruit From Malaysia into the Continental United States AGENCY...United States of fresh papaya fruit from Malaysia. Based on the findings of a pest risk...importation of fresh papaya fruit from Malaysia. DATES: Effective Date: August...

  15. Dormancia en semillas de papaya cv maradol roja durante el almacenamiento / Dormancy of papaya seeds cv Maradol Roja during storage

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maruchi, Alonso-Esquivel; Yoleinis, Ortiz-López; Roberto, Ramos-Ramírez; Hugo, Oliva-Diaz; Maricela, Capote-del Sol.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Dormancia en semillas de papaya cv Maradol Roja durante el almacenamiento. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar el efecto de la humedad de la semilla cultivar Maradol Roja y la temperatura durante el almacenamiento, en la dormancia de la papaya. Este trabajo fue desarrollado en el Laborat [...] orio Nacional de Semillas de la Empresa Productora y Comercializadora de Semillas, provincia La Habana, Cuba, en el período noviembre 2006 a enero 2008. Fueron extraídas las semillas de frutos de papaya cv Maradol Roja, y se secaron a tres contenidos de humedad (12%, 10,56% y 9,26%), y acondicionadas en bolsas de polietileno y almacenadas a 15ºC y 4ºC. El porcentaje de germinación, altura y peso fresco de la planta fueron realizadas al inicio y después de tres, seis, nueve y doce meses de almacenamiento. Hubo tendencia a la disminución de la germinación en los primeros seis meses del almacenamiento, alcanzándose los valores más bajos del porcentaje de germinación (55,6%). A partir de los nueve y doce meses fue detectado un aumento significativo en la germinación, independiente del contenido de humedad de la semilla. El ambiente de 15ºC favoreció mayor germinación en períodos mayores de almacenamiento en relación a las mantenidas a 4ºC, que exhibieron mejores porcentajes de germinación en un período menor (tres meses de almacenamiento). La dormancia finalizó en los periodos de almacenamiento a los nueve y doce meses, independientemente del contenido de humedad. Abstract in english Dormancy of papaya seeds cv Maradol Roja during storage. The objective of this work was to determine the effect of humidity content of papaya cv Maradol Roja and storage temperatura on dormany. The work was conducted at the Laboratorio Nacional de Semillas, Empresa Productora y Comercializadora de S [...] emillas, La Habana, Cuba, from November 2006 to January 2008. Seeds were extracted from papaya fruits cv Maradol Roja and dried to three humidiy contents (12%, 10,56% y 9,26%), and aconditioned in polyiethylene bags and stored at 15ºC and 4ºC. Percentaje of seed germination, heigth and fresh weight of the seedlings were measured at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months in storage. There was a trend towards reduced seed germination during the first 6 months in storage (55,6%). After 9 and 12 months a significant incresase in germination was observed, independent of seed water content. Seeds stored in environment at 15ºC favored germination after longer sotrage compared to seeds kept in storage for shorter periods (3 months). Seed dormany concluded between 9 and 12 months in storage irrespective of seed water content.

  16. Effects of Different Concentrations and Applications of Calcium on Storage Life and Physicochemical Characteristics of Papaya (Carica Papaya L.)

    OpenAIRE

    T.M.M. Mahmud; A. Al Eryani-Raqeeb; S. R. SYED OMAR; A. R. Mohamed Zaki; Al E. Abdul-Rahman

    2008-01-01

    Papaya (Carica Papaya L.) fruits index 2 were treated with 1.5, 2.5 and 3.5% solutions of calcium chloride by dipping and vacuum infiltration (-33 Kpa) or untreated (0%) as control. Effects of these treatments were evaluated on storage life and postharvest quality characteristics of papaya. After 21 days of storage at 13±1°C, the fruits were removed from storage for physicochemical analysis. Following additional five days holding in the storage condition for fruits used for evaluation...

  17. Increasing the shelf- life of papaya through vacuum packing

    OpenAIRE

    Padmanaban, Geetha; Singaravelu, Kanchana; Annavi, Susheela Thirumaran

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to increase the shelf life of fruits through vacuum packing. Papaya fruits were pretreated with waxing, oil application, purafil packets, tissue paper wrapping given along with control and were packed in 150 gauge thickness polyethylene film bags under vacuum and another set of these samples under without vacuum. The fruits were then stored at room and refrigerated temperature and analyzed for chemical changes. Results showed that the shelf life of the fru...

  18. INFLUENCE OF THICKNESS ON THE DRYING OF PAPAYA PUREE (Carica papaya L.) THROUGH REFRACTANCE WINDOWTM TECHNOLOGY / INFLUENCIA DEL ESPESOR EN SECADO DE PURÉ DE PAPAYA (Carica Papaya L.) POR TECNOLOGÍA DE VENTANA DE REFRACTANCIA®

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    MARÍA U., OCORÓ-ZAMORA; ALFREDO A., AYALA-APONTE.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la influencia del espesor de las muestras (2, 3 y 4 mm) sobre las cinéticas de secado, actividad de agua (a w) y color (deltaE) de rodajas de puré de papaya procesadas por tecnología de ventana de refractanciaTM (RW™). Adicionalmente se evaluó la difusividad d [...] el agua (Deff) teniendo en cuenta el encogimiento. Los datos de humedad se ajustaron mediante los modelos de Newton y Midilli. Los resultados mostraron que a menor espesor el secado fue más rápido, los valores de a w fueron menores y los deltaE superiores. Las muestras alcanzaron 0.0652, 0.1132 y 0.2624 g agua/ g sólido seco en 60 min para rodajas de 2, 3 y 4 mm, respectivamente. El Modelo de Midilli fue el más apropiado para predecir las curvas de secado de papaya por RW™. Deff disminuyó a menor espesor y su orden de magnitud fue de 10-10 m²/s. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of sample thickness (2, 3 and 4 mm) on the drying kinetics, water activity (a w) and color (deltaE) of papaya puree slices processed through Refractance WindowTM technology (RW™). Additionally, the water diffusion coefficient (Deff) was evaluated t [...] aking into account the shrinkage effect. The experimental values of moisture were fitted using Newton's and Midilli's models. The results showed that the lower the thickness, the faster the drying, the lower the values of a w and the higher the deltaE. The samples reached 0.0652, 0.1132 and 0.2624 g water/ g dry solid in 60 min for 2, 3 and 4 mm slices, respectively. Midilli's model was the most appropriate to predict the experimental curves of papaya drying through RW™. Deff decreased at a lower thickness and its order of magnitude was of 10-10 m²/s.

  19. Evaluación de accesiones cubanas de papaya (Carica papaya L.) ante la mancha anular / Assessment of Cuban papaya (Carica papaya L.) accessions against ringspot / Avaliação de acessos cubanos de mamão papaya (carica papaya L.) à mancha anelar

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Douglas, Rodríguez; Maruchy, Alonso; Yoel, Tornet; Lázaro, Valero; Emi Rainildes, Lorenzetti; Romualdo, Pérez.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Os acessos de mamão Tallo morado de Nava, Amarilla de Duaba, Amarilla de Nava e Sapote de Pilón foram coletados em diferentes regiões de Cuba e plantados em condições de campo em Jagüey Grande, Matanzas - Cuba. Nestas plantas foram avaliadas a presença e intensidade dos sintomas de mancha anelar, us [...] ando uma escala graduada de 1-5. Os resultados mostraram um aumento, com o tempo, na proporção de plantas afetadas em todos os acessos. O acesso Amarilla de Duaba apresentou sintomas dois meses após a primeira avaliação (MDPE), enquanto para os restantes foram observados sintomas após cinco MDPE, contudo em proporções diferentes entre eles. Aos sete MDPE os acessos Amarilla de Duaba e Amarilla de Nava, apresentaram proporções iguais de plantas doentes, enquanto Tallo morado de Nava e Sapote de Pilon apresentaram menores proporções. O aumento da intensidade dos sintomas foi diferente nos órgãos da planta na seguinte ordem: caule (1,7-2,66), pecíolos (2,21-3,03) e folhagens (3,44-4,03). Nos frutos a intensidade dos sintomas observados foi inferior a 2,5, considerada leve em função da sua intensidade e distribuição. Estes são os primeiros resultados sobre a susceptibilidade a mancha anelar destes acessos, sendo muito úteis para os produtores, bem como para os programas de melhoramento do país. Abstract in spanish Se colectaron en diferentes regiones de Cuba semillas de las accesiones de papayo Tallo Morado de Nava, Amarilla de Duaba, Amarilla de Nava y Sapote de Pilón. Estas se plantaron en condiciones de campo en Jagüey Grande, Matanzas - Cuba, donde se evaluó la presencia e intensidad de síntomas de mancha [...] anular, siguiendo una escala graduada del 1 al 5. Los resultados mostraron un incremento temporal de la proporción de plantas afectadas en todas las accesiones. La accesión Amarilla de Duaba mostró los síntomas a los dos meses después de la primera evaluación (MDPE), mientras que el resto lo hizo a los cinco MDPE, aunque con proporciones que variaron entre ellas. A los siete MDPE las accesiones Amarilla de Duaba y Amarilla de Nava mostraron proporciones idénticas de plantas enfermas, mientras que Tallo morado de Nava y Sapote de Pilón mostraron proporciones inferiores. La intensidad de los síntomas se incrementó en los diferentes órganos siguiendo el siguiente orden: tallo (1,7 a 2,66), pecíolos (2,21 a 3,03) y follaje (3,44-4,03). En los frutos la intensidad de los síntomas observados fue inferior a 2,5, considerados como leves de acuerdo a su intensidad y distribución. Se ofrecen los primeros resultados sobre la susceptibilidad a la mancha anular de estas accesiones, siendo de gran utilidad para los productores, así como para los programas de mejoramiento genético en el país. Abstract in english The papaya accessions "Tallo morado de Nava", "Amarilla de Duaba", "Amarilla de Nava" and "Sapote de Pilón" were collected from different regions of Cuba and planted under field conditions in Jagüey Grande, Matanzas - Cuba. These plants were assessed for the presence and intensity of ringspot sympto [...] ms, using a graduated scale of 1-5. Results showed an increase, with time, in the proportion of affected plants for all accessions. The accession "Amarilla de Duaba" had symptoms two months after the first assessment (MAFA), while for the remaining accessions, symptoms were noted after only five MAFA but at proportions that differed among them. At seven MAFA, the accessions "Amarilla de Duaba" and "Amarilla de Nava" had proportions equal to those of diseased plants, while "Tallo morado de Nava" and "Sapote de Pilon" showed lower proportions. The increase in symptom intensity was different for the plant organs in the following order: stem (1.7-2.66), petioles (2.21-3.03) and leaves (3.44-4.03). For fruits, the intensity of the observed symptoms was inferior to 2.5, considered light based on their intensity and distributions. These are the first results about ringspot susceptibility for these accessions, which are highly useful for farmers, as well a

  20. A rapid detection for irradiated fresh papayas using ESR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The detections of radicals induced in irradiated both fresh and dried papayas were carried out at liquid nitrogen and room temperature using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. Fresh papayas irradiated by the ?-rays were separated into flesh and skin that subjected to the ESR detection. The ESR spectra of the specimen at liquid-nitrogen temperature were observed clearly at a week after the ?-irradiation. Those signals were consisted from main peak at g=2.000 and side peaks at g=2.018 and 1.982. They showed a linear response against the dose. Furthermore, the side peaks from freeze-dried papaya flesh stored at 4degC were observed clearly at two weeks after the ?-irradiation. Those signals also showed the linear dose-response. The detection scheme for irradiated fresh fruits can be done by two stages: 1) A screening test of ESR signals at liquid nitrogen temperature using fresh samples. 2) A room temperature ESR measurement using freeze-dry samples. (author)

  1. Características fenotípicas y agronómicas de seis genotipos de papaya (Carica papaya L. de Tuxpan, Guerrero, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ángel Alcántara Jiménez

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available En México la producción de papayo (Carica papaya L. es afectada por factores genéticos, ambientales y bióticos. Destacan los daños provocados por el virus de la mancha anular, el cual reduce considerablemente la cantidad y calidad de la fruta; por eso es muy importante, conocer la productividad de los genotipos en un ambiente determinado. La presente investigación se realizó con el objetivo de evaluar el desarrollo y las características agronómicas de seis genotipos de papayo. El estudio se llevó a cabo en la localidad de Tuxpan, Guerrero, donde se cultivaron los genotipos: R4M3, Maradol, Criolla, Red Lady, Zapote y R5M2. Como diseño experimental se utilizó el de bloques completos al azar, con cuatro repeticiones. Las variables evaluadas fueron: altura al primer fruto, diámetro del cuello, altura de la planta, número de días a la cosecha, rendimiento de frutos (t/ha, número, diámetro y longitud de frutos, concentración de azúcares (grados Brix, textura, color de la pulpa y epicarpio de frutos maduros. Los datos de las variables se sometieron a análisis de varianza y prueba de comparación de medias de Tukey. En relación a la adaptación de los genotipos: todos los genotipos se desarrollaron y produjeron frutos en las condiciones de trópico seco. La variedad Maradol fue la más sobresaliente, presentando un porte menor, mayor precocidad y productividad, textura dura de pulpa, alta concentración de azúcares, buen tamaño y color.

  2. Ripening behavior of papaya (Carica papaya L.) exposed to gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papaya fruit treated with 250 Gy of ?-irradiation frequently softened more uniformly than non-irradiated fruit. Fruit with less than 25% of their surface colored yellow placed immediately into storage at 10 °C after irradiation developed skin scald. This was prevented by delaying storage by 12 h. Fruit that were irradiated when 30% of the skin was yellowed softened at a slower rate than non-irradiated fruit. There was no difference in softening rate between irradiated and non-irradiated fruit at the mature green stage. Fruit stored for 14 days at 10 °C before returning to 25 °C had a slightly slower rate of softening than fruit allowed to ripen at 25 °C without storage. Premature flesh softening occurred occasionally in fruit that had between 8 and 18% of the skin yellow and 70–90% flesh coloring when irradiated. Premature softening occurred in the tests run on fruit that were harvested during the warmer months; fruit harvested during the cooler months did not show the condition. The conditions of growth that predispose fruit to more rapid softening following ?-irradiation were not determined

  3. Características fenotípicas y agronómicas de seis genotipos de papaya (Carica papaya L. de Tuxpan, Guerrero, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ángel Alcántara Jiménez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available En México la producción de papayo (Carica papaya L. es afectada por factores genéticos, ambientales y bióticos. Destacan los daños provocados por el virus de la mancha anular, el cual reduce considerablemente la cantidad y calidad de la fruta; por eso es muy importante, conocer la productividad de los genotipos en un ambiente determinado. La presente investigación se realizó con el objetivo de evaluar el desarrollo y las características agronómicas de seis genotipos de papayo. El estudio se llevó a cabo en la localidad de Tuxpan, Guerrero, donde se cultivaron los genotipos: R4M3, Maradol, Criolla, Red Lady, Zapote y R5M2. Como diseño experimental se utilizó el de bloques completos al azar, con cuatro repeticiones. Las variables evaluadas fueron: altura al primer fruto, diámetro del cuello, altura de la planta, número de días a la cosecha, rendimiento de frutos (t/ha, número, diámetro y longitud de frutos, concentración de azúcares (grados Brix, textura, color de la pulpa y epicarpio de frutos maduros. Los datos de las variables se sometieron a análisis de varianza y prueba de comparación de medias de Tukey. En relación a la adaptación de los genotipos: todos los genotipos se desarrollaron y produjeron frutos en las condiciones de trópico seco. La variedad Maradol fue la más sobresaliente, presentando un porte menor, mayor precocidad y productividad, textura dura de pulpa, alta concentración de azúcares, buen tamaño y color.

  4. A Current Overview of the Papaya meleira virus, an Unusual Plant Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolla M. V. Abreu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Papaya meleira virus (PMeV is the causal agent of papaya sticky disease, which is characterized by a spontaneous exudation of fluid and aqueous latex from the papaya fruit and leaves. The latex oxidizes after atmospheric exposure, resulting in a sticky feature on the fruit from which the name of the disease originates. PMeV is an isometric virus particle with a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA genome of approximately 12 Kb. Unusual for a plant virus, PMeV particles are localized on and linked to the polymers present in the latex. The ability of the PMeV to inhabit such a hostile environment demonstrates an intriguing interaction of the virus with the papaya. A hypersensitivity response is triggered against PMeV infection, and there is a reduction in the proteolytic activity of papaya latex during sticky disease. In papaya leaf tissues, stress responsive proteins, mostly calreticulin and proteasome-related proteins, are up regulated and proteins related to metabolism are down-regulated. Additionally, PMeV modifies the transcription of several miRNAs involved in the modulation of genes related to the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Until now, no PMeV resistant papaya genotype has been identified and roguing is the only viral control strategy available. However, a single inoculation of papaya plants with PMeV dsRNA delayed the progress of viral infection.

  5. Hypoglycemic effect of Carica papaya leaves in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juárez-Rojop Isela Esther

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditional plant treatment for diabetes has shown a surging interest in the last few decades. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the hypoglycemic effect of the aqueous extract of C. papaya leaves in diabetic rats. Several studies have reported that some parts of the C. papaya plant exert hypoglycemic effects in both animals and humans. Methods Diabetes was induced in rats by intraperitoneal administration of 60 mg/kg of streptozotocin (STZ. The aqueous extract of C. papaya was administered in three different doses (0.75, 1.5 and 3 g/100 mL as drinking water to both diabetic and non-diabetic animals during 4 weeks. Results The aqueous extract of Carica papaya (0.75 g and 1.5 g/100 mL significantly decreased blood glucose levels (pC. papaya could help islet regeneration manifested as preservation of cell size. In the liver of diabetic treated rats, C. papaya prevented hepatocyte disruption, as well as accumulation of glycogen and lipids. Finally, an antioxidant effect of C. papaya extract was also detected in diabetic rats. Conclusions This study showed that the aqueous extract of C. papaya exerted a hypoglycemic and antioxidant effect; it also improved the lipid profile in diabetic rats. In addition, the leaf extract positively affected integrity and function of both liver and pancreas.

  6. TISSUE DIFFERENTIAL EXPRESSION OF LYCOPENE BETA-CYCLASE GENE IN PAPAYA

    Science.gov (United States)

    To elucidate the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway in papaya, we took a candidate gene approach to clone the lycopene beta-cyclase genes, LCY-B. A papaya LCY-B ortholog, cpLCY-B, was successfully identified from both cDNA and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries and complete genomic sequenc...

  7. A current overview of the Papaya meleira virus, an unusual plant virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Paolla M V; Antunes, Tathiana F S; Magaña-Álvarez, Anuar; Pérez-Brito, Daisy; Tapia-Tussell, Raúl; Ventura, José A; Fernandes, Antonio A R; Fernandes, Patricia M B

    2015-04-01

    Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) is the causal agent of papaya sticky disease, which is characterized by a spontaneous exudation of fluid and aqueous latex from the papaya fruit and leaves. The latex oxidizes after atmospheric exposure, resulting in a sticky feature on the fruit from which the name of the disease originates. PMeV is an isometric virus particle with a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) genome of approximately 12 Kb. Unusual for a plant virus, PMeV particles are localized on and linked to the polymers present in the latex. The ability of the PMeV to inhabit such a hostile environment demonstrates an intriguing interaction of the virus with the papaya. A hypersensitivity response is triggered against PMeV infection, and there is a reduction in the proteolytic activity of papaya latex during sticky disease. In papaya leaf tissues, stress responsive proteins, mostly calreticulin and proteasome-related proteins, are up regulated and proteins related to metabolism are down-regulated. Additionally, PMeV modifies the transcription of several miRNAs involved in the modulation of genes related to the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Until now, no PMeV resistant papaya genotype has been identified and roguing is the only viral control strategy available. However, a single inoculation of papaya plants with PMeV dsRNA delayed the progress of viral infection. PMID:25856636

  8. Evaluating Hawaii-Grown Papaya for Resistance to Internal Yellowing Disease Caused by Enterobacter cloacae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) cultivars and breeding lines were evaluated for resistance to Enterobacter cloacae (Jordan) Hormaeche & Edwards, the bacterial causal agent of internal yellowing disease (IY), using a range of concentrations of the bacterium. Linear regression analysis was performed and IY ...

  9. Atypical internal yellowing of papaya fruit in Hawaii caused by Enterobacter sakazakii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Internal yellowing (IY), characterized by yellow discolored tissue around the papaya (Carica papaya) seed cavity, diffuse margins and the presence of a distinctly rotten odor, was first reported in 1987. These symptoms were associated with the causal agent Enterobacter cloacae. Here we report the fo...

  10. Papaya is not a host for Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The economic value of tomato production is threatened by tomato yellow leaf-curl virus TYLCV and its vector, the silverleaf whitefly Bemisia tabaci biotype B (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). Use of papaya Carica papaya L. as a banker plant for a whitefly parasitoid shows promise as a whitefly m...

  11. The Papaya Y Chromosome Evolved Recently and Shows Gene Paucity and DNA Sequence Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sex chromosomes in flowering plants, in contrast to those in animals, evolved relatively recently and only a few are heteromorphic. At cytological level, the sex chromosomes of papaya appear homomorphic, nevertheless, we are finding the papaya Y chromosome shows features of incipient sex chromosome ...

  12. IRRADIATION-DERIVED SEX REVERSAL MUTANTS FOR CLONING SEX DETERMINATION GENES IN PAPAYA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unlike most animals, most flowering plants are hermaphrodites possessing both male and female organs. Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is one of the few plant species that produce male, female, and hermaphrodite flowers on separate individuals. These variations have distinctive morphologies and sexual func...

  13. Characterization of a high oleic oil extracted from papaya (Carica papaya L.) seeds / Caracterização de um óleo alto oleico extraído de sementes de mamão (Carica papaya L.)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cassia Roberta, Malacrida; Mieko, Kimura; Neuza, Jorge.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available As características físico-químicas e as composições de ácidos graxos, tocoferóis e carotenoides do óleo bruto extraído de sementes de mamão (Carica papaya L.), variedade formosa, foram investigadas. O rendimento em óleo das sementes foi de 29,16%. Os dados obtidos para os índices analíticos comparam [...] -se bem com os de outros óleos comestíveis. O óleo apresentou elevada resistência à oxidação (77,97 horas). Os principais ácidos graxos quantificados foram o oleico (71,30%), seguido pelo palmítico (16,16%), linoleico (6,06%) e esteárico (4,73%). O ? e ?-tocoferol foram os tocoferóis predominantes com 51,85 e18,9 mg.kg-1, respectivamente. A ?-criptoxantina (4,29 mg.kg-1) e o ?-caroteno (2,76 mg.kg-1) foram os carotenóides quantificados e o conteúdo de compostos fenólicos totais foi de 957,60 mg.kg-1. Assim, a potencial utilização das sementes de mamão para a produção de óleo parece ser favorável. Entretanto, estudos toxicológicos são ainda necessários antes de o óleo ser indicado para utilização em alimentos. Abstract in english The physicochemical characteristics, fatty acid, tocopherol, and carotenoid composition of a crude oil extracted from papaya (Carica papaya L.) seeds, formosa variety, were investigated. The oil yield from the seeds was 29.16%. The data obtained for the analytical indexes were in agreement with thos [...] e of other edible oils. The oil obtained had high oxidation resistance (77.97 hours). The major fatty acids in total lipid were oleic (71.30%), palmitic (16.16%), linoleic (6.06%), and stearic (4.73%) acid. The ? and ?-tocopherol were the predominant tocopherols with 51.85 and 18.89 mg.kg-1, respectivelly. The ?-cryptoxanthin (4.29 mg.kg-1) and ?-carotene (2.76 mg.kg-1) were the carotenoids quantified, and the content of total phenolic compounds was 957.60 mg.kg-1. Therefore, the potential utilization of the papaya seeds for oil production seems favorable. However, toxicological studies need to be carried out before the oil is appropriate for food applications.

  14. Nematodos agalladores asociados al cultivo de papaya (Carica papaya L. en el departamento de Córdoba, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaraba Juan de Dios

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue identificar los nematodos agalladores asociados al cultivo de papaya (Carica papaya L. en los municipios de Tierralta, Valencia, Lorica, Montería y Montelíbano que constituyen el área productora de papaya en Córdoba. Se evaluaron variables morfológicas y morfométricas en hembras, machos y juveniles de segundo estadío (J2. En las muestras de suelo se determinó pH, contenido de materia orgánica (MO, conductividad eléctrica (CE y textura, a fin de correlacionarlas con la presencia de especies nematodas. Se encontraron Meloidogyne javanica,M. incognita y M. arenaria, siendo M. incognita la especie más frecuente. Las tres especies se encontraron mezcladas en 37,5% de los individuos;M. incognita y M. arenaria en 50%, mientras que M. incognita y M. javanica no se encontraron mezcladas. Las especies se encontraron en pH de 4,9 a 6,4; CE de 0,1 a 0,45 dS· m-1; MO de 1,2 % a 2,5 % y la textura fue arenosa, franca y franco arenosa. El pH, el contenido de arena y la CE correlacionan de manera positiva con la presencia de los nematodos, mientras la MO mostró correlación negativa. Se reporta por primera vez la ocurrencia de M. javanica, M. incognita, M. arenaria, así como la mezcla de M. incognita y M. arenaria, en papayas de Colombia.

  15. Feasibility of using papaya skin extract for digestion of swamp eel viscera for harvesting infective stage larva of Gnathostoma spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soogarun, Suphan; Lertlum, Thamaporn; Suwansaksri, Jamsai; Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2005-01-01

    In this study, we reported the feasibility of using papaya skin extract (Carica papaya L.) as an alternative to enzyme pepsin in harvesting Gnathostoma spinigerum third-stage larvae. From experimental digestion, we found that the different numbers of recovered larvae between papaya skin extract and pepsin were not statistically significant (p >0.05). When the derived larvae from pepsin and papaya skin extract digestion were cultivated in BME medium for 7 days, the survival rates were not significantly different either (p >0.05). Thus, papaya skin extract might be another choice for recovering Gnathostoma spinigerum third-stage larvae. PMID:16438187

  16. Histopathological changes in Wistar albino rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taofeeq Oduola

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exposure of animals to xenobiotics may or may not trigger adverse response at cellular levels. Aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya is consumed by sickle cell patients as antisickling agent in Western Nigeria. Aim: This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of Carica papaya on certain organs in Wister albino rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya. Materials and Methods: Different doses of aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya were administered orally daily for 42 days to six groups of rats. At the end of exposure, the animals were sacrificed and tissue sections were prepared from livers, kidneys, hearts and small intestines using standard techniques. Results: Histopathological results showed that no pathological changes were observed in tissue sections of experimental animals when compared with tissue sections of the same organs in control animals. Conclusion: No pathological changes were elicited in the organs of rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya.

  17. Physico-chemical and sensory quality of fresh cut papaya (Carica papaya) packaged in micro-perforated polyvinyl chloride containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayathunge, K G L R; Gunawardhana, D K S N; Illeperuma, D C K; Chandrajith, U G; Thilakarathne, B M K S; Fernando, M D; Palipane, K B

    2014-12-01

    Papaya cubes at maturity stages, 5-45 % yellow (more green than yellow) and 55-80 % yellow (more yellow than green) were washed with 5 % H2O2, drained and packaged in PVC trays having five, seven and ten micro-perforations and stored for 19 days. PVC trays with 3 mm diameter punch holes were used as the control. Based on physico-chemical properties, optimum maturity for papaya and micro-perforation level of PVC trays were determined. Effectiveness of citric acid in prevention of browning was also tested. Firmness and TSS changed significantly, on day 19. O2, CO2 and C2H4 concentration changed 2.4 to 4.2 %, 23.4 to 5.9 %, and 0 to 0.13 % respectively, from day 3 to 19. pH and titratable acidity did not change significantly throughout the storage. Pretreated papaya cubes, packaged in PVC trays with ten micro-perforations, kept under 4 °C had storage lives of 19 days. PMID:25477661

  18. Genome sequence comparison reveals a candidate gene involved in male-hermaphrodite differentiation in papaya (Carica papaya) trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Hiroki; Urasaki, Naoya; Natsume, Satoshi; Yoshida, Kentaro; Tarora, Kazuhiko; Shudo, Ayano; Terauchi, Ryohei; Matsumura, Hideo

    2015-04-01

    The sex type of papaya (Carica papaya) is determined by the pair of sex chromosomes (XX, female; XY, male; and XY(h), hermaphrodite), in which there is a non-recombining genomic region in the Y and Y(h) chromosomes. This region is presumed to be involved in determination of males and hermaphrodites; it is designated as the male-specific region in the Y chromosome (MSY) and the hermaphrodite-specific region in the Y(h) chromosome (HSY). Here, we identified the genes determining male and hermaphrodite sex types by comparing MSY and HSY genomic sequences. In the MSY and HSY genomic regions, we identified 14,528 nucleotide substitutions and 965 short indels with a large gap and two highly diverged regions. In the predicted genes expressed in flower buds, we found no nucleotide differences leading to amino acid changes between the MSY and HSY. However, we found an HSY-specific transposon insertion in a gene (SVP like) showing a similarity to the Short Vegetative Phase (SVP) gene. Study of SVP-like transcripts revealed that the MSY allele encoded an intact protein, while the HSY allele encoded a truncated protein. Our findings demonstrated that the SVP-like gene is a candidate gene for male-hermaphrodite determination in papaya. PMID:25416421

  19. Heat shock and gamma radiation in the quarantine process of Papaya CV. Solo(Carica papaya L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: To export, it is not only necessary to achieve quality standards, but also, quarantine standards. The main function of irradiation is quarantine control of fruit flies, therefore it is necessary to combine with treatments which focus at keeping fruit quality. The objective of this work was the evaluation of the quality of papaya submitted to heat treatment followed by irradiation at quarantine doses. Papayas were selected green and separated in treatments: a) control; irradiation at doses; b) 250, c) 500 Gy; d) hot water at 60 deg C for 30 seconds; and combined to doses e) 250, f) 500 Gy. The papayas were stored at 21 (± 1 deg C) with relative humidity of 85 - 90%, and then after 8 days, they were evaluated by their soluble solid content, pH, titratable acidity, firmness, decay index and internal color. The analysis of mass loss and external color were executed at 0, 2, 4 and 7 days after irradiation. It was observed that in fruits submitted to hot water (d, e, f) there were less decay and in combined treatments (e, f) it was verified higher firmness. In the second day, irradiated treatments (b, c, e, f) were more yellow than the others. As to the other parameters evaluated, there were no differences between treatments (author)

  20. Potencial antifúngico de extractos de cuatro especies vegetales sobre el crecimiento de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides en papaya (Carica papaya en poscosecha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Landero Valenzuela

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El manejo de antracnosis por Colletotrichum gloeosporioides es el problema más importante en poscosecha de frutos tropicales. La actividad antifúngica de diferentes extractos vegetales fue evaluada in vitro e in vivo para controlar la antracnosis poscosecha en papaya. Extractos de ajo (Allium sativum (10 y 15 % y canela (Cinnamomum zeylanicum (0,0050; 0,0100; 0,0150 % mostraron efecto fungicida en contra de C. gloeosporioides para supresión de crecimiento micelial (100 %, inhibición de germinación (100 % y esporulación del hongo (100 %, considerándose estos extractos como los más promisorios para inhibir el desarrollo del hongo in vitro. Estudios in vivo también revelaron que los extracto de ajo (11,74 % y canela a dosis de 0,0054 % aplicada antes y al mismo tiempo de la inoculación con C. gloeosporioides, fueron las dosis óptimas para el control (severidad de la antracnosis en frutos de papaya artificialmente inoculados, mientras que a mayores dosis la severidad aumentó. La variable fitotoxicidad arrojó resultados consistentes con lo anterior, comprobándose que al aumentar las dosis de extracto de canela se presentó cambio de color en los frutos. Los resultados sugieren la posibilidad de usar estos extractos a dosis adecuadas como biofungicidas para controlar antracnosis en papaya en poscosecha.

  1. Sales de calcio mejoran vida de anaquel y aceptabilidad general de papaya (Carica papaya L. var. Maradol fresca cortada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayely Leyva López

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Las tendencias actuales de los consumidores por alimentos sanos y de conveniencia promueven un mayor consumo de frutas y hortalizas, donde destacan productos frescos cortados. Sin embargo, por su naturaleza estos productos pueden ser muy susceptibles a diferentes alteraciones que afectan su calidad. El uso de aditivos como sales de calcio representa una alternativa tecnológica para mantener, o incluso mejorar, la calidad durante su vida de anaquel. Por lo anterior el objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar el efecto de sales de calcio en papaya fresca cortada sobre la calidad física, química, microbiológica, nutracéutica y sensorial. Cubos de papaya, variedad Maradol (2 cm de arista fueron tratados con lactato y cloruro de calcio al 1,0 y 3,0 %, bajo condiciones de inmersión por 2 min a 40 °C. Las muestras tratadas fueron colocadas en vasos de polietileno tereftalato (PET de 500 mL con tapa, y almacenadas por 8 días a 5 °C. En comparación con los frutos testigo, los tratamientos a base de calcio demostraron mejorar la firmeza (~ 8 N, principalmente los frutos tratados con cloruro de calcio al 3,0 %. Por otra parte, la calidad nutracéutica (fenólicos totales no se vio afectada por el uso de sales de calcio, mientras que las evaluaciones microbiológicas demuestran condiciones de inocuidad conforme a normatividad. Se sugiere el uso de cloruro de calcio para fines de comercializar papaya fresca cortada.

  2. Evaluation of Antimicrobial Properties of Edible Surface Coating Based on Carrageenan Conjugated with Silver Nanoparticles on Sekaki Papaya (Carica Papaya cv. Sekaki): A New Antimicrobial Edible Coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antibacterial properties of edible surface coating based on carrageenan incorporated with silver nanoparticles (SNPs), was investigated against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus to obtain optimum concentration of SNPs. Results obtained indicate that SNPs with concentration of 40 ml L-1 effectively inhibited the growth of both Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria. Sekaki papaya fruits were then coated with prepared edible coating formulation comprising of carrageenan (0.8 % w/v) and glycerol (1.0 % w/v) with and without SNPs (40 ppm) and stored at ambient conditions (26±2 degree Celsius and 60±10 % RH). Microbial analysis of coated and uncoated papaya samples during storage indicated that the edible coating comprising of carrageenan, glycerol and SNPs, strongly inhibited the growth of fungus that caused post harvest diseases of papaya as compared to uncoated and coated papaya fruits with edible coating without SNPs. (author)

  3. Ramón Díaz Eterovic como representante de la novela negra chilena

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Clemens A., Franken Kurzen.

    Full Text Available En la nueva narrativa chilena escrita entre los 80 y los 90, tal como en la Argentina, existe una fuerte tendencia a utilizar la forma detectivesca para enfrentar la realidad en ambos países durante los gobiernos autoritarios. Se realiza el análisis de dos novelas de Díaz Eterovic con dicha temática [...] y se muestra, utilizando los planteamientos teóricos bajtianos que, en el caso de las novelas chilenas analizadas, se usa al concepto de "estilización" de los modelos norteamericanos (por ejemplo, Chandler, Hammett y MacDonald), que también se presenta en la experiencia argentina (en Osvaldo Soriano, por ejemplo). Abstract in english In the new Chilean narrative of the 80's and 90's, just like in the Argentinian narrative, a strong tendency to use the detective format to get the reality of both countries during its authoritaric governments can be found. Based, above all, on the literary analysis of this two best detective novels [...] ("Nobody knows more than the deads" (1993) and "Angels and lonesomes" (1996), I will show, using the bajtinian theoretical approach, that in the case of the detective novels of our chilean author we speak of a "estilization of Northamerican 'models'" (e.g. Chandler, Hammett and MacDonald), that, also, takes notice of the Argentinian experience (cf. e.g. Osvaldo Soriano).

  4. Implementación del enfoque de derechos humanos: la reforma sanitaria chilena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Cunill-Grau

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available EI propósito de este trabajo es analizar la incidencia de la arquitectura institucional publica en la implementación de las políticas públicas con enfoque de derechos humanos. Se adopta como caso de estudio la reforma sanitaria chilena a partir del año 2005, que reconoce garantías exigibles de acceso, oportunidad, calidad y protección financiera para un conjunto de problemas de salud a la ciudadanía, independientemente de su adscripción al sistema público 0 privado. La metodología integró un análisis cualitativo de normas legales, instrumentos de gestión y entrevistas en profundidad principalmente a directivos de salud. Los resultados muestran que, no obstante los evidentes logros de la reforma chilena en pos de la equidad en salud, resultan limitados sus esfuerzos de dotar de gobernanza sistémica, accountability y espacio público a su arquitectura institucional, comprometiendo con ello su intención de instaurar un enfoque de derechos humanos. Se concluye que el patrón hegemónico de diseño institucional, organización y gestión de los servicios sociales requiere ser enfrentado para construirviabilidad a la implementación de este tipo de política y se sugiere la importancia de adoptar estrategias diferenciadas de accountabitily que consideren las asimetrías sociales en la apropiación y exigibilidad de los derechos.

  5. An Analysis on DNA Fingerprints of Thirty Papaya Cultivars (Carica papaya L., Grown in Thailand with the Use of Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janthasri Ratchadaporn

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out at the Department of Horticulture, Ubon Ratchathani University, Ubon Ratchathani province, Northeast Thailand during June 2002 to May 2003 aims to identify DNA fingerprints of thirty papaya cultivars with the use of Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLP technique. Papaya cultivars were collected from six different research centers in Thailand. Papaya plants of each cultivar were grown under field conditions up to four months then leaf numbers 2 and 3 of each cultivar (counted from top were chosen for DNA extraction and the samples were used for AFLP analysis. Out of 64 random primers being used, 55 pairs gave an increase in DNA bands but only 12 pairs of random primers were randomly chosen for the final analysis of the experiment. The results showed that AFLP markers gave Polymorphic Information Contents (PIC of three ranges i.e., AFLP markers of 235 lied on a PIC range of 0.003-0.05, 47 for a PIC range of 0.15-0.20 and 12 for a PIC range of 0.35-0.40. The results on dendrogram cluster analysis revealed that the thirty papaya cultivars were classified into six groups i.e., (1 Kaeg Dum and Malador (2 Kaeg Nuan (3 Pakchong and Solo (4 Taiwan (5 Co Coa Hai Nan and (6 Sitong. Nevertheless, in spite of the six papaya groups all papaya cultivars were genetically related to each other where diversity among the cultivars was not significantly found.

  6. Optical and ultrastructural study of the pollen grain development in hermaphrodite papaya tree (Carica papaya L.)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lídia Márcia Silva, Santos; Telma Nair Santana, Pereira; Margarete Magalhães de, Souza; Pedro Correa, Damasceno Junior; Fabiane Rabelo da, Costa; Beatriz Ferreira, Ribeiro; Noil Gomes de, Freitas; Messias Gonzaga, Pereira.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa descreve os estádios de formação do gameta masculino (grão de pólen) em mamoeiro. Para isto foram coletados botões florais em diferentes etapas de desenvolvimento e as anteras foram tratadas quimicamente para serem observadas ao microscópio óptico e eletrônico de transmissão. O desenvo [...] lvimento do grão de pólen seguiu o padrão normal para Angiospermas. Foram descritos os estádios de desenvolvimento do grão de pólen desde meiócitos ou células mães de micrósporos até o grão de pólen binucleado. Na microesporogênese, as células esporogênicas sofreram meiose dando origem as tétrades, com posterior liberação dos micrósporos da tétrade. A microgametogênese caracterizou-se, principalmente, pela divisão mitótica assimétrica de cada micrósporo originando grãos de pólen binucleados. Estruturas semelhantes a plastídios foram encontradas no citoplasma da célula generativa e agregados próximos ao núcleo da célula generativa. Observou-se degeneração gradativa das células do tapete no decorrer da formação do gameta. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to describe the pollen grain development in hermaphrodite papaya tree. The flower buds were collected at different stages of the development and the anthers were treated chemically for observation under optical and electronic transmission microscopes. The pollen grain [...] development followed the normal pattern described for the Angiosperms. The pollen grain development was described from meiocyte to the mature pollen grain. In the microsporogenesis, the microspore mother cells or the meiocytes underwent meiosis giving rise to the tetrads that were enclosed by the calose. Later, the tetrads were released by the dissolution of the calose by calase activity and microspores underwent mitosis. Microgametogenesis was characterized by asymmetrical mitotic division of each microspore giving rise to bi-nucleate pollen grains. The structures similar to the plastids were found in the cytoplasm and close to the nucleus of the generative cell. Gradual degeneration was observed in the tapetum during the male gamete development.

  7. Optical and ultrastructural study of the pollen grain development in hermaphrodite papaya tree (Carica papaya L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lídia Márcia Silva Santos

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to describe the pollen grain development in hermaphrodite papaya tree. The flower buds were collected at different stages of the development and the anthers were treated chemically for observation under optical and electronic transmission microscopes. The pollen grain development followed the normal pattern described for the Angiosperms. The pollen grain development was described from meiocyte to the mature pollen grain. In the microsporogenesis, the microspore mother cells or the meiocytes underwent meiosis giving rise to the tetrads that were enclosed by the calose. Later, the tetrads were released by the dissolution of the calose by calase activity and microspores underwent mitosis. Microgametogenesis was characterized by asymmetrical mitotic division of each microspore giving rise to bi-nucleate pollen grains. The structures similar to the plastids were found in the cytoplasm and close to the nucleus of the generative cell. Gradual degeneration was observed in the tapetum during the male gamete development.Esta pesquisa descreve os estádios de formação do gameta masculino (grão de pólen em mamoeiro. Para isto foram coletados botões florais em diferentes etapas de desenvolvimento e as anteras foram tratadas quimicamente para serem observadas ao microscópio óptico e eletrônico de transmissão. O desenvolvimento do grão de pólen seguiu o padrão normal para Angiospermas. Foram descritos os estádios de desenvolvimento do grão de pólen desde meiócitos ou células mães de micrósporos até o grão de pólen binucleado. Na microesporogênese, as células esporogênicas sofreram meiose dando origem as tétrades, com posterior liberação dos micrósporos da tétrade. A microgametogênese caracterizou-se, principalmente, pela divisão mitótica assimétrica de cada micrósporo originando grãos de pólen binucleados. Estruturas semelhantes a plastídios foram encontradas no citoplasma da célula generativa e agregados próximos ao núcleo da célula generativa. Observou-se degeneração gradativa das células do tapete no decorrer da formação do gameta.

  8. Comportamiento mecánico de frutos de papaya bajo compresión axial / Mechanical behavior of papaya fruits under axial compression

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Enrique, Vázquez García; Horacio, Mata Vázquez; Rafael, Ariza Flores; Felipe, Santamaría Basulto; Irán, Alia Tejacal.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Los frutos de papaya (Caricapapaya L.) son muy susceptibles a los daños mecánicos, lo que repercute en fuertes pérdidas en poscosecha. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar el comportamiento mecánico de frutos de papaya en poscosecha, para lo cual se realizaron dos experimentos en el Campo Ex [...] perimental Las Huastecas, INIFAP durante los años 2011 y 2012. Las variables evaluadas fueron la fuerza y la deformación requeridas por los frutos para alcanzar el límite elástico, el punto de biocedencia y el punto de ruptura. La compresión se realizó con un Instron Universal 4460. En el primer experimento se evaluaron frutos en madurez de consumo tratados en pre-cosecha con cinco combinaciones de fertilización; los tratamiento N-P-K-Cu-Zn, N-P-K-Ca-Zn, N-P-K y N-P-K-Fe-Zn registraron mayor resistencia a la fuerza de compresión y resultaron diferentes al tratamiento N-P-K-Mn-Zn (Tukey, p? 0.05). En el segundo experimento se evaluaron tres cultivares en dos estados de madurez; los frutos en madurez fisiológica fueron más resistentes para alcanzar el límite elástico (414 N), con relación a los frutos en madurez de consumo (67 N), con diferencias estadísticas (Tukey, p? 0.05). Los frutos del híbrido PK 02 requirieron mayor fuerza para alcanzar el límite elástico (298 N), con relación a los frutos de la variedad Maradol roja (250 N) y del híbrido PK 03 (173 N), con diferencias (Tukey, p? 0.05). Se concluye que los frutos de papaya tuvieron un comportamiento mecánico diferente, en función del manejo nutricional, del tipo de cultivar y del estado de madurez. Abstract in english The fruits of papaya (Carica papaya L.) are very susceptible to mechanical damage, which results in heavy losses in post-harvest. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanical behavior of papaya fruits in post-harvest, for which two experiments were conducted in the Experimental Field The Hua [...] steca, INIFAP during the years 2011 and 2012. The variables evaluated were the strength and deformation required for the fruit to reach the elastic limit, biocedence and the breaking point. The compression was performed with a Instron Universal 4460. In the first experiment for ripening fruit treated with pre-harvest five combinations of fertilization, the treatment N-P-K-Cu-Zn, N-P-K-Ca-Zn, N-P-K-Fe-Zn reported increased resistance to force compression and was different to the treatment N-P-K-Mn-Zn (Tukey, p? .05). In the second experiment three cultivars were evaluated in two states of maturity, the fruits at physiological maturity were more resistant to attain the elastic limit (414 N) in relation to ripening (67 N), with statistical differences (Tukey, p? .05). The fruits of the hybrid PK 02 required more force to achieve the yield strength (298 N) with respect to the fruits of the variety Maradol roja (250 N) and the hybrid PK 03 (173 N), with differences (Tukey, p? .05). It is concluded that papaya fruits had different mechanical behavior depending on the nutritional management, the type of cultivar and maturity.

  9. Alternativa comercial para extender vida de anaquel de papaya 'Maradol' / A commercial alternative to extend shelf-life of 'Maradol' papaya

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J. A., Osuna-García; M. H., Pérez-Barraza; V., Vázquez-Valdivia; M. A., Urías-López.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto del 1-Metilciclopropeno (1-MCP) y etileno (solos o en combinación) para manipular el proceso de maduración y extender vida de anaquel de papaya 'Maradol'. Durante el 2007 se realizaron tres ensayos: 1. Efecto del 1-MCP en papaya almacenada en condici [...] ones de mercadeo y refrigeración más mercadeo; 2. Papaya tratada con 1-MCP y etileno y mezcla 1-MCP + etileno; 3. Evaluación comercial del 1-MCP y etileno en papaya. Se analizaron pérdida de peso, color externo, firmeza, color de pulpa y sólidos solubles totales. Se encontró que el 1-MCP a 100 nl·litro-1 retrasó el desarrollo de color externo y pulpa e inhibió el ablandamiento de los frutos. También se observó que el etileno a dosis de 100 µl·litro-1 aplicado después del 1-MCP no revirtió el efecto de éste, sin embargo, el 1-MCP aplicado después del etileno redujo la velocidad de ablandamiento y el desarrollo del color en cáscara y pulpa inducido por el etileno. Se concluye que el 1-MCP a 100 nl·litro-1 por 12 horas aplicado después del etileno puede ser una técnica viable para manipular el proceso de maduración y alargar vida de anaquel de papaya 'Maradol'. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) and ethylene (alone or combined) to handle the ripening process and to extend the shelf-life of 'Maradol' papaya. During 2007 three assays were conducted: 1. Effect of 1-MCP in papaya stored under marketing simula [...] tion and refrigeration plus marketing simulatio; 2. Papaya treated with 1-MCP and ethylene and the mixture of 1-MCP plus ethylene; 3. Commercial evaluation of 1-MCP and ethylene on papaya. Weight loss, external color, firmness, pulp color and total soluble solids were evaluated. It was found that 1-MCP at 100 nl·liter-1 delayed the development of external and pulp color, and inhibited the fruit softening. Also it was observed that ethylene at 100 µl·liter-1 applied after 1-MCP was unable to reverse the 1-MCP effect. However, 1-MCP applied after ethylene delayed fruit softening and the development of skin and pulp color induced by the ethylene application. It was concluded that 1-MCP at 100 nl·liter-1 for 12 hours applied after ethylene may be a viable technique to manipulate the ripening process and to extend the shelf-life of 'Maradol' papaya.

  10. Estudo e modelagem da cinética de desidratação osmótica do mamão formosa (Carica papaya L.) / Kinetics and modeling on osmotic dehydration of papaya (Carica papaya L.)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ânoar Abbas, El-Aquar; Fernanda E. Xidieh, Murr.

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo o estudo da cinética e modelagem do processo de desidratação osmótica de cubos de mamão Formosa (Carica papaya L.), assim como da qualidade do produto final. O tratamento osmótico foi conduzido a 30ºC, com agitação de 110rpm, utilizando-se dois tipos de soluçõe [...] s de sacarose 70ºBrix: a primeira contendo lactato de sódio 2,4% p/p e ácido láctico 0,1M e a segunda com lactato de sódio 2,4% p/p e ácido cítrico 0,1M. O estudo da cinética de desidratação osmótica mostrou que a solução contendo ácido cítrico apresentou valor de perda de água (WL), ao final de 48 horas de processo, ligeiramente superior ao encontrado para a solução contendo ácido láctico. Comportamento contrário ocorreu para o ganho de sólidos (SG). O ajuste dos dados experimentais foi realizado através do modelo difusional para geometria cúbica, sem considerar encolhimento durante o processo e um modelo empírico de dois parâmetros. Os coeficientes de difusividade efetiva de água (Def) variaram de 1,27 a 5,03 x 10-10 m²/s. A qualidade da fruta após processamento foi avaliada através de análises de vitamina C, carotenóides totais, acidez e pH. Abstract in english The present work had as objective the study of kinetics and mathematical modeling of osmotic dehydration process of papaya cubes (Carica papaya L.), as well as the quality of the final product. The osmotic treatment was carried out for 30ºC, with agitation 110rpm, with two types of 70ºBrix sucrose s [...] olutions: solution containing sodium lactate 2,4% w/w and lactic acid 0,1M and another one with sodium lactate 2,4% w/w and citric acid 0,1M. The study of kinetics of osmotic dehydration showed the solution containing citric acid had a water loss (WL) value, at the end of 48 hours of process, lightly superior to the found for the solution containing lactic acid. Opposite behavior happened for the solid gain (SG). Modeling of experimental data was accomplished through the difusional model for cubic geometry, considering no shrinkage during the process and an empirical two parameters one. The coefficients of effective difusivity of water (Def) varied from 1,27 to 5,03 x 10-10 m²/s. Quality of fruit after processing was evaluated through vitamin C, total carotenoid, acidity and pH analyses.

  11. Preferential reproduction mode of hermaphrodite papaya plant (Carica papaya L; Caricaceae) / Modo de reprodução preferencial de plantas hermafroditas de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L; Caricaceae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Pedro Corrêa, Damasceno junior; Telma Nair Santana, Pereira; Messias Gonzaga, Pereira; Francisco Filho da, Silva; Margarete de Magalhães, Souza; Rodrigo Gualandi, Nicoli.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa teve o objetivo de estudar o sistema reprodutivo preferencial de plantas hermafroditas de mamoeiro, com base na natureza histoquímica dos grãos de pólen, receptividade do estigma, teste de germinação in vivo do grão de pólen e razão pólen : óvulo. Na análise histoquímica dos grãos de p [...] ólen, foram utilizados os corantes Sudan IV e solução de I2KI; a receptividade do estigma foi avaliada com a solução de acetato de alfa-naftil em flores abertas e fechadas. A germinação e o crescimento do tubo polínico in vivo foram avaliados em flores fechadas, utilizando solução de azul de anilina a 0,1%. Para estimar a razão pólen:óvulo, anteras de cada flor foram dissecadas, e os grãos de pólen foram contados; ovários foram dissecados, e os óvulos foram contados sob estereomicroscópio. Os resultados indicaram que os grãos de pólen do mamoeiro são de natureza lipídica; os estigmas estavam receptivos antes da abertura e até 48 h após a abertura; os grãos de pólen germinaram e emitiram tubo polínico antes da abertura floral, e a relação pólen:óvulo, indicou predominância do sistema reprodutivo autógamo. Esses resultados indicaram que o modo de reprodução preferencial do mamoeiro hermafrodita é autógamo facultativo com cleistogamia. Abstract in english This research was done to study the reproductive system of papaya hermaphrodite plant based on the histochemical nature of pollen grain, stigma receptivity, in vivo pollen grain germination and pollen:ovule ratio. In the histochemical analysis, pollen grains were stained by using Sudan IV and I2KI s [...] olution ; the stigma receptivity was assessed by alpha-naphthtyl acetate solution in closed and opened flowers. Pollen germination and pollen tube growing were examined in flower buds near anthesis with 0.1% aniline blue. To estimate the pollen:ovule ratio , anthers from each flower bud were dissected and all pollen grains were counted; ovules were dissected from ovaries and were counted under stereomicroscope. The results indicated that papaya pollen grains are of lipidic nature; the stigmas were receptive before the opening and until 48 hours after opening; the pollen grains germinated and emitted polinic tube before flower opening and the pollen:ovule ratio indicated the predominance of autogamous reproductive system. These results indicate that hermaphrodite papaya trees is preferentially of optional autogamous with cleistogamy.

  12. The Evolutionary Tempo of Sex Chromosome Degradation in Carica papaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meng; Moore, Richard C

    2015-06-01

    Genes on non-recombining heterogametic sex chromosomes may degrade over time through the irreversible accumulation of deleterious mutations. In papaya, the non-recombining male-specific region of the Y (MSY) consists of two evolutionary strata corresponding to chromosomal inversions occurring approximately 7.0 and 1.9 MYA. The step-wise recombination suppression between the papaya X and Y allows for a temporal examination of the degeneration progress of the young Y chromosome. Comparative evolutionary analyses of 55 X/Y gene pairs showed that Y-linked genes have more unfavorable substitutions than X-linked genes. However, this asymmetric evolutionary pattern is confined to the oldest stratum, and is only observed when recently evolved pseudogenes are included in the analysis, indicating a slow degeneration tempo of the papaya Y chromosome. Population genetic analyses of coding sequence variation of six Y-linked focal loci in the oldest evolutionary stratum detected an excess of nonsynonymous polymorphism and reduced codon bias relative to autosomal loci. However, this pattern was also observed for corresponding X-linked loci. Both the MSY and its corresponding X-specific region are pericentromeric where recombination has been shown to be greatly reduced. Like the MSY region, overall selective efficacy on the X-specific region may be reduced due to the interference of selective forces between highly linked loci, or the Hill-Robertson effect, that is accentuated in regions of low or suppressed recombination. Thus, a pattern of gene decay on the X-specific region may be explained by relaxed purifying selection and widespread genetic hitchhiking due to its pericentromeric location. PMID:25987354

  13. Presença dos vírus da mancha anelar e do amarelo letal em frutos de mamoeiro comercializados / The presence of Papaya ringspot virus and Papaya lethal yellowing virus in commercialized papaya fruits

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Najara F., Ramos; Aline K.Q., Nascimento; Maria Fátima B., Gonçalves; José Albérsio A., Lima.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Considerando os índices elevados de incidência de vírus que infetam o mamoeiro (Carica papaya) em condições de campo e seus sintomas típicos nos frutos, foi efetuado um levantamento na Central de Comercialização do Estado do Ceará (CEASA) de frutos infetados com o vírus da mancha anelar do mamoeiro [...] (Papaya ringspot virus, PRSV) e o vírus do amarelo letal do mamoeiro (Papaya lethal yellowing virus, PLYV). Os principais Centros de comercialização de frutos são as CEASAs e os produtos comercializados nos supermercados são, em grande parte, adquiridos nesses Centros. Os frutos coletados aleatoriamente nas bancas de comercialização da CEASA foram levados ao Laboratório de Virologia Vegetal, da Universidade Federal do Ceará (UFC) para análises sintomatológicas e testes de "enzyme linked immunosorent assay" (ELISA) indireto, com anti-soros específicos para o PRSV e PLYV. De acordo com os resultados das análises sintomatológicas, confirmadas por sorologia, dentre os 8.400 frutos analisados, 5,5% estavam infetados por PRSV e 1,2% por PLYV, demonstrando a necessidade de implementar um programa rigoroso de controle, envolvendo erradicação de fontes de vírus no campo, representados por plantas infetadas nos pomares, áreas abandonadas e inclusive cultivos de fundo de quintal. Abstract in english Considering the high incidence of virus in papaya (Carica papaya) orchards and their typical symptoms in the fruits, a survey was carried out in the Central Market in the State of Ceará (CEASA) for the presence of papaya fruits infected with Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) and Papaya lethal yellowing v [...] irus (PLYV). CEASAs are the most important fruit commercial centers, and a great number of plant products sold in supermarkets are obtained in CEASA. Fruits were randomly collected from CEASA stalls and brought to the Plant Virus Laboratory at the Federal University of Ceará (UFC) to be analyzed for typical virus symptoms and tested by indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) against antisera specific to PRSV and PLYV. According to the results obtained by symptom analysis, which were confirmed by serology, among the 8,400 fruits analyzed 5.5% were infected with PRSV and 1.2% with PLYV, showing the need to implement a control program involving eradication of virus sources in the field, represented by infected plants in papaya orchards, abandoned orchards and infected plants identified in backyards.

  14. Presença dos vírus da mancha anelar e do amarelo letal em frutos de mamoeiro comercializados The presence of Papaya ringspot virus and Papaya lethal yellowing virus in commercialized papaya fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najara F. Ramos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Considerando os índices elevados de incidência de vírus que infetam o mamoeiro (Carica papaya em condições de campo e seus sintomas típicos nos frutos, foi efetuado um levantamento na Central de Comercialização do Estado do Ceará (CEASA de frutos infetados com o vírus da mancha anelar do mamoeiro (Papaya ringspot virus, PRSV e o vírus do amarelo letal do mamoeiro (Papaya lethal yellowing virus, PLYV. Os principais Centros de comercialização de frutos são as CEASAs e os produtos comercializados nos supermercados são, em grande parte, adquiridos nesses Centros. Os frutos coletados aleatoriamente nas bancas de comercialização da CEASA foram levados ao Laboratório de Virologia Vegetal, da Universidade Federal do Ceará (UFC para análises sintomatológicas e testes de "enzyme linked immunosorent assay" (ELISA indireto, com anti-soros específicos para o PRSV e PLYV. De acordo com os resultados das análises sintomatológicas, confirmadas por sorologia, dentre os 8.400 frutos analisados, 5,5% estavam infetados por PRSV e 1,2% por PLYV, demonstrando a necessidade de implementar um programa rigoroso de controle, envolvendo erradicação de fontes de vírus no campo, representados por plantas infetadas nos pomares, áreas abandonadas e inclusive cultivos de fundo de quintal.Considering the high incidence of virus in papaya (Carica papaya orchards and their typical symptoms in the fruits, a survey was carried out in the Central Market in the State of Ceará (CEASA for the presence of papaya fruits infected with Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV and Papaya lethal yellowing virus (PLYV. CEASAs are the most important fruit commercial centers, and a great number of plant products sold in supermarkets are obtained in CEASA. Fruits were randomly collected from CEASA stalls and brought to the Plant Virus Laboratory at the Federal University of Ceará (UFC to be analyzed for typical virus symptoms and tested by indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA against antisera specific to PRSV and PLYV. According to the results obtained by symptom analysis, which were confirmed by serology, among the 8,400 fruits analyzed 5.5% were infected with PRSV and 1.2% with PLYV, showing the need to implement a control program involving eradication of virus sources in the field, represented by infected plants in papaya orchards, abandoned orchards and infected plants identified in backyards.

  15. Empleo del método de secado convectivo combinado para la deshidratación de papaya (Carica papaya L.), variedad Maradol roja / Use of convective dry method combined for dehydration of papaya fruit (Carica papaya L.), variety Maradol roja

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sahylin, Muñiz Becerá; Antihus, Hernández Gómez; Annia, García Pereira; Lilia, Méndez Lagunas.

    Full Text Available La presente investigación tiene como objetivo evaluar el método de secado convectivo de papaya (Carica papaya L.) variedad Maradol roja, combinado con la aplicación de pretratamientos de osmosis (DOSC) y escaldado simple (ESSC), mediante el efecto de los factores tecnológicos del secador: temperatur [...] a (40 y 60 ºC) y velocidad del flujo de aire (2,5 y 1,5 m/s) sobre el comportamiento de las propiedades de calidad de la fruta deshidratada y la cinética del proceso. El pretratamiento de escaldado simple se realizó en agua destilada caliente a 70°C durante 15 minutos y la deshidratación osmótica u osmosis a 60 °C por 4 horas a frutas cortadas en cubos de 1,5± 0,2 cm de largo por 1,0±0,01 cm de espesor, utilizando una solución de sacarosa comercial a 50°Brix. Como diseño experimental se empleó un Diseño Factorial Completo 2² y para el procesamiento estadístico de los datos el software STATGRAPHICS Plus 5.1. Como principales resultados se obtuvo que en ambos procesos el aumento de la temperatura a 60 ºC y la reducción de la velocidad del flujo de aire a 1,5 m/s disminuyó el tiempo de secado con valores de R² >0,95 y ? Abstract in english This research aim is to evaluate the convective dry method of papaya fruit (Carica papaya L.), variety Maradol roja, combined with simply blanching (ESSC) and Osmosis (DOSC) pre-treatments by the effect of technological factors of dryer: temperature (40 y 60 ºC) and air flow speed (2,5 y 1,5 m/s) ab [...] ove the behavior of quality properties in dehydrated fruit and the process´s kinetic. The simple blanching was realized using hot water 70 °C per 15 min and the osmotic dehydration 60 °C per 4 h to the cubes with 1,5±0,2 cm length per 1,0 ± 0,01 cm de thickness, using a sucrose osmotic solution at 50 °Brix concentration. As experimental design was used a Full Factorial 2² Design and the STATGRAPHICS Plus 5.1 software. As principal results was obtained that in both process the higher temperature to 60 ºC and lower air flow speed to 1,5 m/s provokes a reduction on drying time with value of R² >0,95 y ?

  16. Relaxation phenomena of radicals induced in irradiated fresh papayas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron spin resonance spectrometry of the ?-irradiated fresh papayas followed by freeze-drying and powderization was performed. We found a strong single peak in the flesh was observed at g=2.004 and attributed to organic free radicals. Using the method of Lund et al., relaxation times of the peak from 0 to 14 days-stored samples after ?-irradiation were calculated. T2 showed a dose response, while T1 kept almost constant by the increment of doses. The ?-radiation-induced radicals showing progressive saturation behaviors can be caused through a different pathway from indirect effects by the low LET radiations. (author)

  17. INTERACCIÓN DE HONGOS MICORRÍZICOS ARBUSCULARES Y FERTILIZACIÓN FOSFATADA EN PAPAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelina Esmeralda Qui\\u00F1ones-Aguilar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Los estudios realizados sobre la simbiosis que forman los hongos micorrízicos arbusculares (HMA con diversas plantas, han revelado la importancia de estos endófitos en distintos aspectos relacionados con su nutrición y protección. Así, para la producción de frutales cultivados en vivero, el uso de HMA es una alternativa para obtener plantas más sanas y vigorosas en menor tiempo para su establecimiento en campo. En los suelos, el fósforo (P no se encuentra fácilmente disponible para las plantas, por lo que éstas han desarrollado algunas estrategias para absorberlo, como: cambios morfológicos, bioquímicos y moleculares en la raíz, además de establecer asociaciones con HMA, los cuales por medio de sus hifas promueven la absorción y transporte del P. En la presente investigación se evaluó la respuesta de papaya (Carica papaya L. a la inoculación con la cepa de HMA Glomus sp. Zac-2 y con fertilización fosfatada. Se estableció un experimento trifactorial mixto (2 × 3 × 4. Los factores estudiados fueron: inoculación micorrízica, fuente y dosis de P. Se evaluaron las variables: altura de planta (AP, diámetro de tallo (DT, área foliar (AF, volumen radical (VR, peso seco radical (PSR, peso seco de follaje (PSF y porcentaje de colonización micorrízica (PCM. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron diferencias significativas (Tukey, P £ 0.05; las plantas inoculadas mostraron incrementos en crecimiento con respecto a las plantas sin inocular de 486.51% en AP; 594.31% en DT; 1084.61% en AF; 6962.35% en VR; 13591.43% en PSR y 4992.03% en PSF. La respuesta de las plantas a la fertilización fue variable y ésta dependió de la dosis y fuente de P y de la interacción de ambos factores con los HMA. Los resultados mostraron que las plantas de papaya responden positivamente a estos microorganismos, lo que les permite aprovechar mejor el P disponible del suelo y con ello favorecer su adaptación en campo. Esto sugiere que los HMA son benéficos, en condiciones de sustrato libre de otros microorganismos, durante la etapa de producción de plántulas de papaya en vivero.

  18. Phenol induced by irradiation does not impair sensory quality of fenugreek and papaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of radiation processing on the sensory quality of fenugreek and papaya exposed to doses in the range of 2.5–10 kGy and 100 Gy–2.5 kGy respectively was investigated. Despite an increase in the content of phenol in the volatile oil of these food products overall sensory quality of the irradiated and control samples was not significantly affected by radiation processing. - Highlights: • Sensory quality of fenugreek and papaya is not significantly affected by radiation processing. • Irradiation did not adversely affect the overall acceptability of the processed samples. • Radiation processing was thus successfully applied to the preservation of fenugreek and papaya

  19. Genótipos melhorados de mamão (Carica papaya L.): avaliação sensorial e físico-química dos frutos / Improved genotypes of papaya (Carica papaya L.): sensory and physico-chemical evaluation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ligia R. R., Santana; Fernando C.A.U., Matsuura; Ricardo L., Cardoso.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar genótipos promissores através da avaliação sensorial e físico-química de frutos de doze genótipos melhorados de mamão (CMF008, CMF012, CMF018, CMF019, CMF020, CMF021, CMF022, CMF023, CMF030, CMF031, CMF036, CMF047), provenientes do Banco Ativo de Germopl [...] asma da EMBRAPA Mandioca e Fruticultura, Cruz das Almas, Bahia, em dois anos consecutivos (1999 e 2000). As amostras dos doze genótipos foram submetidas à avaliação sensorial para os atributos aparência, cor, aroma, sabor e textura, através de testes afetivos utilizando-se escala hedônica estruturada de nove pontos. Realizou-se determinações de pH, acidez total titulável, sólidos solúveis (ºBrix), "ratio" e ácido ascórbico. Nas duas épocas de estudo, verificou-se que as maiores médias de aceitação para o atributo cor foram obtidas pelos frutos dos genótipos CMF008, CMF020, CMF021, CMF022, CMF023, CMF030, CMF031 e CMF036 que apresentaram coloração vermelho-alaranjada e os frutos dos genótipos CMF012, CMF022, CMF023, CMF031 e CMF047 obtiveram maior aceitação dos provadores alcançando médias elevadas para o atributo sabor. Constatou-se que as texturas mais firmes da polpa de mamão foram as mais aceitas, atingindo médias elevadas os frutos dos genótipos CMF008, CMF012, CMF022, CMF023, CMF030, CMF031, CMF036 e CMF047. Constatou-se, também, que os frutos dos genótipos CMF012, CMF020, CMF031 e CMF047 apresentaram os mais elevados valores de sólidos solúveis (12 a 14ºBrix) e os frutos dos genótipos CMF020 e CMF031 revelaram quantidades elevadas de ácido ascórbico, ao redor de 100mg%. O genótipo CMF031 foi o mais aceito pela equipe de provadores e apresentou os maiores valores de sólidos solúveis (ºBrix) e ácido ascórbico, podendo, então, ser considerado o mais promissor e com bom potencial para o mercado de fruta fresca e para industrialização. Abstract in english The objective of the present work was the sensory and physico-chemical evaluation offruits of twelve improved papaya genotypes (CMF008, CMF012, CMF018, CMF019, CMF020, CMF021, CMF022, CMF023, CMF030, CMF031, CMF036, CMF047) obtained two years running from the Active Germplasm Bank for Papaya at EMBR [...] APA Cassava and Fruit Crops, located in Cruz das Almas, Bahia State, Brazil. Sensory evaluation of the twelve papaya genotypes were carried out using affective tests (9 point hedonic scale) for the attributes of overall appearance, colour, odour, flavour and texture. The following physico-chemical determinations were carried out: pH, total titrable acidity, soluble solids (ºBrix), ratio and vitamin C. For both years, the fruits of genotypes CMF008, CMF020, CMF021, CMF022, CMF023, CMF030, CMF031 and CMF036 were preferred in terms of colour because they were orange-red and the fruits of genotypes CMF012, CMF022, CMF023, CMF031 and CMF047 were the most preferred in terms of flavour; the more solid papaya pulp were the most accepted, so the genotypes CMF008, CMF012, CMF022, CMF023, CMF030, CMF031, CMF036 and CMF047 reached highter scores in terms of texture. The fruits of genotypes CMF012, CMF020, CMF031 and CMF047 showed the highest soluble solids contents (12 - 14ºBrix) and the fruits of genotypes CMF020 and CMF031 showed higher ascorbic acid contents, about 100mg%. The results showed that the CMF031 genotype was the most accepted by the judges and it showed the highest soluble solids and ascorbic acid contents, then it could be considered as a promising genotype and has good potential for the fresh fruit market and for industrialization.

  20. Viabilidade polínica de Carica papaya L.: uma comparação metodológica Pollen viability of Carica papaya L.: a methodological comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Munhoz

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A viabilidade polínica do mamoeiro cultivar 'Sunrise Solo' (Carica papaya L. foi estudada utilizando germinação in vitro e testes colorimétricos, assim como a validade dos testes colorimétricos como estimativa de viabilidade comparada àquela do teste germinativo. Os dois meios de cultura, descritos na literatura como meios eficientes para germinação da espécie, diferem basicamente pela presença de nutrientes essenciais e concentração de ágar. O meio de cultura sem elementos essenciais e com maior concentração de ágar forneceu o melhor índice de germinação polínica (65%. Os cinco corantes testados foram: 2,3,5-cloreto de trifeniltetrazólio (TTC, Alexander, carmim acético, lugol e Sudan IV. O teste de coloração com TTC forneceu estimativa de viabilidade (67,5% equivalente ao teste de germinação in vitro e, portanto, confiável de viabilidade polínica. Os demais corantes testados superestimaram a viabilidade polínica (> 90%, porém são eficientes na determinação de constituintes celulares e da integridade do grão de pólen.Pollen viability of Carica papaya L. 'Sunrise Solo' cultivar was estimated using in vitro germination and pollen stain tests. Two culture media described in the literature as efficient for pollen in vitro germination of C. papaya were used. Germination was higher in the media without essential elements but with a higher concentration of agar (65% compared with 51.5%. These results were compared with viability estimates based on staining pollen. The five stains used to test for pollen viability were: 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride - TTC, Alexander's stain, acetocarmine, iodine-potassium iodide and Sudan IV. Pollen viability estimated with TTC was 67.5% and similar to germination results providing a reliable estimate of in vitro germination. The four other stains overestimated pollen viability (> 90%, and their use should be restricted to determining cell constituents, and pollen grain integrity.

  1. Desenvolvimento de genótipos de mamoeiro tolerantes à mancha fisiológica / Development of papaya genotypes (Carica papaya L.) tolerant to skin freckles

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fernanda de Oliveira, Pinto; Helaine Christine Cancela, Ramos; Deisy Lúcia, Cardoso; Lucas Nunes da, Luz; Messias Gonzaga, Pereira.

    1101-11-01

    Full Text Available O mamoeiro é uma das fruteiras tropicais de grande impacto na fruticultura brasileira. Os principais entraves à expansão da cultura são a baixa variabilidade genética e a ocorrência de doenças que encarecem a produção. Neste contexto, realizou-se um cruzamento entre os genótipos 'JS12' e 'Golden' na [...] expectativa de se transferir a característica coloração verde-clara da casca dos frutos (característica Golden), associada à tolerância da mancha fisiológica do mamoeiro, do genitor 'Golden' para o genitor 'JS12'. A variação genética entre e dentro das progênies segregantes obtidas foi avaliada na população RC1S1. Três indivíduos possuidores da característica Golden (38RC1S1-11, 30RC1S1-10 e 31RC1S1-10) foram selecionados pela análise de agrupamento. Estas progênies aliam maior proporção genômica do genitor recorrente (JS12) e bons atributos morfoagronômicos, sendo os mais indicados para o avanço das autofecundações e retrocruzamentos em mamoeiro. Abstract in english Papaya is a tropical fruit of high impact in Brazilian fruit crop. The main barriers to the expansion of the crop are reduced genetic variability and disease occurrence that results in the more expensive production. In this context it was made a cross between the genotypes ' JS12' and 'Golden' in th [...] e expectation of transferring the trait pale green peel of the fruit (Golden trait), associated as tolerant papaya skin freckles from the 'Golden' genitor to the 'JS12' genitor. The population BC1S1 was evaluated for its genetic variation between and within segregating progenies. Three individuals possessing the Golden characteristics (38BC1S1-11, 31BC1S1-10 and 30BC1S1-10-10) were selected. These progenies combine greater genomic proportion of the recurrent parent and good morphoagronomic attributes being the most suitable for the advancement of self pollination and backcrossing in papaya.

  2. Viabilidade polínica de Carica papaya L.: uma comparação metodológica / Pollen viability of Carica papaya L.: a methodological comparison

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Márcia, Munhoz; Cynthia Fernandes Pinto da, Luz; Paulo Ernesto, Meissner Filho; Orthud Monika, Barth; Fernanda, Reinert.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A viabilidade polínica do mamoeiro cultivar 'Sunrise Solo' (Carica papaya L.) foi estudada utilizando germinação in vitro e testes colorimétricos, assim como a validade dos testes colorimétricos como estimativa de viabilidade comparada àquela do teste germinativo. Os dois meios de cultura, descritos [...] na literatura como meios eficientes para germinação da espécie, diferem basicamente pela presença de nutrientes essenciais e concentração de ágar. O meio de cultura sem elementos essenciais e com maior concentração de ágar forneceu o melhor índice de germinação polínica (65%). Os cinco corantes testados foram: 2,3,5-cloreto de trifeniltetrazólio (TTC), Alexander, carmim acético, lugol e Sudan IV. O teste de coloração com TTC forneceu estimativa de viabilidade (67,5%) equivalente ao teste de germinação in vitro e, portanto, confiável de viabilidade polínica. Os demais corantes testados superestimaram a viabilidade polínica (> 90%), porém são eficientes na determinação de constituintes celulares e da integridade do grão de pólen. Abstract in english Pollen viability of Carica papaya L. 'Sunrise Solo' cultivar was estimated using in vitro germination and pollen stain tests. Two culture media described in the literature as efficient for pollen in vitro germination of C. papaya were used. Germination was higher in the media without essential eleme [...] nts but with a higher concentration of agar (65% compared with 51.5%). These results were compared with viability estimates based on staining pollen. The five stains used to test for pollen viability were: 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride - TTC, Alexander's stain, acetocarmine, iodine-potassium iodide and Sudan IV. Pollen viability estimated with TTC was 67.5% and similar to germination results providing a reliable estimate of in vitro germination. The four other stains overestimated pollen viability (> 90%), and their use should be restricted to determining cell constituents, and pollen grain integrity.

  3. Development of virus resistant transgenic papayas expressing the coat protein gene from a Brazilian isolate of Papaya ringspot virus / Desenvolvimento de mamoeiros transgênicos resistentes a vírus expressando o gene da capa protéica de um isolado brasileiro de Papaya ringspot virus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Manoel T., Souza Júnior; Osmar, Nickel; Dennis, Gonsalves.

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Versões traduzíveis e não traduzíveis do gene da capa protéica (cp) de um isolado de Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) coletado no Estado da Bahia, Brasil, foram produzidas para expressão nas variedades Sunrise e Sunset Solo de mamoeiro (Carica papaya). O sistema de biobalística foi utilizado para transf [...] ormar embriões somáticos secundários derivados de embriões zigóticos imaturos. Cinqüenta e quatro linhas transgênicas, sendo 26 contendo versões traduzíveis e 28 contendo versões não traduzíveis do gene cp foram regeneradas, o que resultou em 2,7% de eficiência de transformação, quando considerado o número de linhas transgênicas obtidas por embrião zigótico imaturo excisado. Desafios de plantas R0 com PRSV BR, PRSV HA ou PRSV TH, respectivamente isolado brasileiro, havaiano e tailandês, revelaram linhas com resistência a um, dois e três isolados de PRSV. Após análises moleculares e avaliação agronômica preliminar, 13 populações R1 e R2 de mamoeiros transgênicos foram incorporadas ao programa de melhoramento genético da Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura, em Cruz das Almas, Bahia, Brasil. Abstract in english Translatable and nontranslatable versions of the coat protein (cp) gene of a Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) isolate collected in the state of Bahia, Brazil, were engineered for expression in Sunrise and Sunset Solo varieties of papaya (Carica papaya). The biolistic system was used to transform seconda [...] ry somatic embryo cultures derived from immature zygotic embryos. Fifty-four transgenic lines, 26 translatable and 28 nontranslatable gene versions, were regenerated, with a transformation efficiency of 2.7%. Inoculation of cloned R0 plants with PRSV BR, PRSV HA or PRSV TH, Brazilian, Hawaiian and Thai isolates, respectively, revealed lines with mono-, double-, and triple-resistance. After molecular analysis and a preliminary agronomic evaluation, 13 R1 and R2 populations were incorporated into the papaya-breeding program at Embrapa Cassava and Tropical Fruits, in Cruz das Almas, Bahia, Brazil.

  4. Immobilization of mycoplana sp. MVMB2 isolated from petroleum contaminated soil onto papaya stem (carica papaya l.) and its application on degradation of phenanthrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study presents the degradation of phenanthrene using immobilized Mycoplana sp. MVMB2 isolated from contaminated soil. Papaya stem pretreated by two stage processes, treating with acid or alkali and drying, was used for the immobilization of Mycoplana sp. Alkali pretreated papaya stem was found to be most effective in cell uptake compared to acid treated one. The maximum immobilization capacity at various physiochemical conditions for the alkali pretreated papaya stem was found to be at 320 min time, pH 6.5, 30 C temperature, and 18.6 x 106 cells/mL initial concentrations. The adsorption mechanism of Mycoplana sp. MVMB2 on pretreated papaya stem was assessed using various kinetic and isotherm models. The immobilization of Mycoplana sp. MVMB2 on to pretreated papaya stem was corroborated by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transformed IR spectroscopy analysis. The performance of immobilized cells in batch reactor showed more than 95% phenanthrene degradation within 72 h, whereas, free cells were found to require 120 h. The immobilized cells also showed better degradation performance in the packed column study. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Efficacy of Essential Oils on the Conidial Germination, Growth of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz. Penz. and Sacc and Control of Postharvest Diseases in Papaya (Carica papaya L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Leticia Barrera-Necha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of nine essential oils were investigated in vitro on conidial germination and mycelial growth inhibition of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides isolate from papaya (Carica papaya L.. In general, better antifungal effect was observed with Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Syzygium aromaticum oils which had strong inhibition of conidial germination of C. gloeosporioides at 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 ?g mL-1 and a dose dependent inhibition mycelial growth was caused by these oils. Teloxys ambrosioides, Mentha piperita and Ruta chalepensis oils exhibited a moderate action at 150, 200 and 250 ?g mL-1 on conidial germination and mycelial growth inhibition. Allium sativum, Citrus aurantifolia and Eucalyptus globulus oils had no antifungal activity at different concentration. Taking into account the in vitro results, C. zeylanicum and S. aromaticum oils were evaluated on papaya fruit during storage at ambient temperature and 14°C. The lowest infection percentage were for papaya fruits treated with S. aromaticum at 50 ?g mL-1 at both temperature tested, nevertheless did not overcome the activity of synthetic fungicide. After storage at both temperature, values of Soluble Solids Content (SSC was not significantly different. S. aromaticum oils may be a possibility to control C. gloeosporioides of papaya fruit.

  6. Bandeo de cromosomas humanos con extracto crudo de frutas u hojas de papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Virginia Solís

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Preparaciones de una semana de cromosomas humanos fueron tratadas con filtrados de una hoja de papaya (Carica papaya licuada (53 g en 100 ml de agua destilada, y tenidas con 1.5 % Giemsa (pH 6.8. Se obtuvo buen bandeo de cromosomas luego de 2 min de tratamiento. Soluciones que han sido congeladas por años son efectivas y el método es más barato y fácil que otrosOne week old human chromosome preparations were treated with filtrate from one liquefied leaf (53 g of papaya (Carica papaya in 100 ml of distilled water, and stained with 1.5 % Giemsa (pH 6.8. Good chromosome banding was obtained after 2 min of treatment. Solutions that have been frozen even for years are effective and the method is cheaper and easier than others

  7. Screening of papaya accessions resistant to Papaya lethal yellowing virus and capacity of Tetranychus urticae to transmit the virus / Identificação de acessos de mamoeiro resistentes ao Papaya lethal yellowing virus e capacidade de Tetranychus urticae em transmitir o vírus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcos Fernando, Basso; Álvaro Júlio, Pereira; Hermano Monteiro de Barros, Pereira; Humberto Josué de Oliveira, Ramos; Jorge Luiz Loyola, Dantas; Elizabeth Pacheco Batista, Fontes; Eduardo Chumbinho de, Andrade; Francisco Murilo, Zerbini.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi produzir um antissoro policlonal contra a proteína capsidial (PC) do Papaya lethal yellowing virus (PLYV) e determinar sua especificidade e sensibilidade na diagnose do vírus, bem como avaliar a resistência genética de acessos de mamoeiro (Carica papaya) ao PLYV e inves [...] tigar a capacidade do ácaro rajado Tetranychus urticae em adquirir e transmitir o vírus às plantas. Foram avaliados 65 acessos de mamoeiro. Para cada acesso, dez plantas foram submetidas à inoculação mecânica com extratos de plantas infectadas com PLYV, e três plantas receberam inoculação apenas com tampão de fosfato e foram usadas como controle negativo. Noventa dias após a inoculação, novas folhas sistêmicas emergentes foram coletadas das plantas inoculadas, e a infecção viral foi diagnosticada por Elisa indireto, com uso de antissoro policlonal sensível à PC do PLYV expressa in vitro. A transmissão viral por T. urticae foi avaliada em casa de vegetação. Os experimentos foram repetidos duas vezes. O antissoro policlonal reconheceu a PC do PLYV especificamente e discriminou a infecção pelo PLYV de infecções causadas por outros vírus. Dos 65 acessos de mamoeiros avaliados, 15 foram considerados resistentes, 18 moderadamente resistentes e 32 suscetíveis. O ácaro rajado T. urticae foi capaz de adquirir o PLYV, mas não de transmiti-lo para o mamoeiro. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to produce a polyclonal antiserum against the coat protein (CP) of Papaya lethal yellowing virus (PLYV) and to determine its specificity and sensibility in the diagnosis of the virus, as well as to evaluate the genetic resistance to PLYV in papaya (Carica papaya) acces [...] sions and to investigate the capacity of the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae to acquire and transmit PLYV to the plants. Sixty-five papaya accessions were evaluated. For each accession, ten plants were mechanically inoculated using PLYV-infected plant extracts, and three plants were mock inoculated with phosphate buffer alone and used as negative controls. Ninety days after inoculation, newly-emerging systemic leaves were collected from the inoculated plants, and viral infection was diagnosed by indirect Elisa, using polyclonal antiserum sensible to the in vitro-expressed PLYV CP. Viral transmission by T. urticae was evaluated in greenhouse. The experiments were repeated twice. Polyclonal antiserum recognized the recombinant PLYV CP specifically and discriminated PLYV infection from infections caused by other plant viruses. Out of the 65 papaya accessions evaluated, 15 were considered resistant, 18 moderately resistant, and 32 susceptible. The two-spotted spider mite T. urticae was capable of acquiring PLYV, but not of transmitting it to papaya.

  8. Efek Ekstrak Air Buah Pepaya (Carica papaya L.) Muda terhadap Gambaran Histologi Kelenjar Mamma Mencit Laktasi

    OpenAIRE

    Yuktiana Kharisma; Armaya Ariyoga; SASTRAMIHARDJA, HERRI S.

    2011-01-01

    Breast milk is the best food for infants. Household Health Survey in 2005 showed exclusive breastfeeding were 4–12% in urban and 4–5% in rural areas. Objective of the study was to examine the effect of unripe papaya aqueous extract (Carica papaya L.) on lactating mammary glands histological appearance. The experiment was held on July–September 2009 at Padjadjaran University Clinical Pharmacology Laboratory and Health Research Unit of Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital in July–September 2009. ...

  9. Morfología de la flor y de la semilla de papaya (Carica papaya L.: variedad Maradol e híbrido Tainung-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Arlette Ivonne

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Con el objetivo de analizar la morfología de la flor y de la semilla de papaya (Carica papaya L. de la variedad ‘Maradol’ y el híbrido ‘Tainung-1’, se recolectó el material vegetal en dos plantaciones y se llevaron al laboratorio de Fisiología de Cultivos, Facultad de Agronomía, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, con el fin de realizar las descripciones correspondientes de los tres tipos de flores (femeninas, hermafroditas y estaminadas y de la semilla, sus características externas (forma, tamaño, hilo, micrópilo, funículo, rafe y cubierta seminal e internas (cubierta seminal, endospermo y embrión. Se concluyó principalmente que a nivel morfológico las flores y semillas de los dos materiales evaluados mostraron características similares, por tanto, las descripciones dadas en este trabajo son generales para ambos.

  10. Efectos de la fertilización con nitrógeno en la producción de papaya (Carica papaya L. y en la incidencia de virosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vallejo G. Gladys

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available En un suelo Vertic Aplustoll arcilloso sobre franco esmetítico, isohipertérmico, del Centro de Producción Agropecuaria ACotové@, ubicado en el municipio de Santafé de Antioquia, en la zona de vida bosque seco Tropical (bs-T, se realizó un trabajo para determinar la respuesta de la variedad de papaya AU.N. Cotové@ (Carica papaya L. a la fertilización con N en dosis de 0, 183 y 366 kg/ha, equivalentes a dosis individuales de 5, 5, 10, 15, 25, 25, 25 y 10,10, 20, 30, 50, 50, 50 g de N/planta, respectivamente, fertilizando cada mes durante los primeros 4 meses después del transplante y cada 2 meses posteriormente, durante un período de 9 meses. Se suministraron además dosis constantes de P, K, S, Fe, Mn, Zn, y B. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques al azar con cuatro repeticiones y 10 plantas por unidad experimental, con distancias entre plantas de 2 m y entre surcos de 3m.

  11. Oral dosing with papaya latex is an effective anthelmintic treatment for sheep infected with Haemonchus contortus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donnan Alison A

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cysteine proteinases in papaya latex have been shown to have potent anthelmintic properties in monogastric hosts such as rodents, pigs and humans, but this has not been demonstrated in ruminants. Methods In two experiments, sheep were infected concurrently with 5,000 infective larvae of Haemonchus contortus and 10,000 infective larvae of Trichostrongylus colubriformis and were then treated with the supernatant from a suspension of papaya latex from day 28 to day 32 post-infection. Faecal egg counts were monitored from a week before treatment until the end of the experiment and worm burdens were assessed on day 35 post-infection. Results We found that the soluble fraction of papaya latex had a potent in vivo effect on the abomasal nematode H. contortus, but not on the small intestinal nematode T. colubriformis. This effect was dose-dependent and at tolerated levels of gavage with papaya latex (117 ?mol of active papaya latex supernatant for 4 days, the H. contortus worm burdens were reduced by 98%. Repeated treatment, daily for 4 days, was more effective than a single dose, but efficacy was not enhanced by concurrent treatment with the antacid cimetidine. Conclusions Our results provide support for the idea that cysteine proteinases derived from papaya latex may be developed into novel anthelmintics for the treatment of lumenal stages of gastro-intestinal nematode infections in sheep, particularly those parasitizing the abomasum.

  12. Gamma radiation use as a quarantine treatment for Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) and Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied., 1830) in papaya fruits (Carica papaya, Linnaeus), cultivar sunrise solo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gamma irradiation as treatment for control of the immature stages of fruit flies, C. capitata and A. fraterculus in papaya fruits, cultivar Sunrise Solo is studied. The gamma rays attenuation was observed by one and two papaya fruits placed between source and infested fruit, and this changed the radiation doses required to obtain mortality in eggs and larvae of the Medfly. The efficacy of irradiation was higher when the infested papayas were packed in paper box. The radiation dose determined using the Probit 9 concept, for immature stages mortality of C. capitata was 107,74 Gy and for A. fraterculus was 50,82 Gy. The sterilizing doses for adults of C. capitata and D. fraterculus, irradiated as pupae, was 60 Gy and 40 Gy, respectively. (author)

  13. La familia Hemiaulaceae (Bacillariophyceae) de las aguas marinas chilenas The family Hemiaulaceae (Bacillariophyceae) from marine Chilean waters

    OpenAIRE

    PATRICIO RIVERA; SERGIO AVARIA; FABIOLA CRUCES

    2003-01-01

    La familia Hemiaulaceae comprende cuatro géneros, señalados previamente para las aguas chilenas con las siguientes especies: Cerataulina pelagica (Cleve) Hendey, Hemiaulus sinensis Greville, H. membranaceus Cleve, Climacodium biconcavum Cleve, Eucampia antarctica (Castracane) Mangin, E. cornuta (Cleve) Grunow y E. zodiacus Ehrenberg. Sin embargo, el análisis con microscopía fotónica y electrónica de muestras recolectadas en aguas marinas chilenas que contenían representantes de esta fa...

  14. Genótipos melhorados de mamão (Carica papaya L.): avaliação tecnológica dos frutos na forma de sorvete / Improved genotypes of papaya (Carica papaya L.): technological evaluation as ice-cream

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ligia R.R., Santana; Fernando C.A.U., Matsuura; Ricardo L., Cardoso.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo a avaliação tecnológica na forma de sorvete, de frutos de cinco genótipos selecionados de mamão (CMF012, CMF020, CMF023, CMF031, CMF047), provenientes do Banco Ativo de Germoplasma da Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura, Cruz das Almas, Bahia. Estes genótipos foram [...] identificados em estudos anteriores por apresentarem cor atraente, sabor agradável e valores elevados de sólidos solúveis (ºBrix). As amostras de sorvete foram submetidas à avaliação sensorial para os atributos aparência, cor, aroma, sabor e textura, através de testes afetivos, utilizando-se escala hedônica estruturada de nove pontos. Realizou-se determinações de pH, acidez total titulável, sólidos solúveis (ºBrix), "ratio", ácido ascórbico, sólidos totais, cinzas, proteínas, lipídeos, açúcares totais, redutores e não-redutores. Os resultados das avaliações sensoriais e físico-químicas foram analisados através de ANOVA e teste de Tukey. Os sorvetes demonstraram elevada aceitação, obtendo médias correspondentes ao conceito "gostei moderadamente" para todos os atributos avaliados. Os genótipos CMF020 e CMF031 destacaram-se alcançando média correspondente ao termo da escala hedônica "gostei muito" para o atributo sabor. Os provadores não indicaram prevalência entre os produtos quanto à aparência, cor e textura; portanto, os genótipos pouco atraentes como fruto de mesa, poderão ser aproveitados na indústria para elaboração de sorvete. Além disso, podem ser considerados como uma sobremesa valiosa e nutritiva, pois apresentaram níveis satisfatórios de carboidratos e razoáveis de vitamina C e proteínas. O estudo demonstrou que o sorvete de mamão é uma excelente alternativa para o aproveitamento da fruta. Abstract in english The objective of the present work was to evaluate as an alternative of consumption the ice-cream of five selective papaya genotypes (CMF012, CMF020, CMF023, CMF031, CMF047) obtained from the Active Germplasm Bank for Papaya at Embrapa Cassava and Fruit Crops, located in Cruz das Almas, Bahia State, [...] Brazil. These genotypes were identified at before studies because they showed atractive colour, good flavour and highter soluble solid (ºBrix). Sensory analyses of the ice-creams were carried out using affective tests (9 point hedonic scale) for the attributes of overall appearance, colour, odour, flavour and texture. The following physico-chemical determinations were carried out: pH, total titrable acidity, soluble solid (ºBrix), ratio, vitamin C, total solid, ash, protein, lipid, total sugars, reducing and non-reducing sugars.The sensory and physico-chemical data were submitted to an analysis of variation, followed the Tukey test. The ice creams showed higher scores for all of attributes. The genotypes CMF020 and CMF031 were preferred in terms of flavour. The judges didn!t indicate preference among the products in terms of overall appearance, colour and texture, so the less atractive genotypes for the fresh fruit market, could be utilized for the industry to make ice cream. They are a nutritive dessert, because they showed enough carbohydrates, vitamin C and protein contents. This study showed that the papaya ice cream is an excellent alternative of consumption.

  15. Genótipos melhorados de mamão (Carica papaya L.: avaliação tecnológica dos frutos na forma de sorvete Improved genotypes of papaya (Carica papaya L.: technological evaluation as ice-cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia R.R. Santana

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo a avaliação tecnológica na forma de sorvete, de frutos de cinco genótipos selecionados de mamão (CMF012, CMF020, CMF023, CMF031, CMF047, provenientes do Banco Ativo de Germoplasma da Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura, Cruz das Almas, Bahia. Estes genótipos foram identificados em estudos anteriores por apresentarem cor atraente, sabor agradável e valores elevados de sólidos solúveis (ºBrix. As amostras de sorvete foram submetidas à avaliação sensorial para os atributos aparência, cor, aroma, sabor e textura, através de testes afetivos, utilizando-se escala hedônica estruturada de nove pontos. Realizou-se determinações de pH, acidez total titulável, sólidos solúveis (ºBrix, "ratio", ácido ascórbico, sólidos totais, cinzas, proteínas, lipídeos, açúcares totais, redutores e não-redutores. Os resultados das avaliações sensoriais e físico-químicas foram analisados através de ANOVA e teste de Tukey. Os sorvetes demonstraram elevada aceitação, obtendo médias correspondentes ao conceito "gostei moderadamente" para todos os atributos avaliados. Os genótipos CMF020 e CMF031 destacaram-se alcançando média correspondente ao termo da escala hedônica "gostei muito" para o atributo sabor. Os provadores não indicaram prevalência entre os produtos quanto à aparência, cor e textura; portanto, os genótipos pouco atraentes como fruto de mesa, poderão ser aproveitados na indústria para elaboração de sorvete. Além disso, podem ser considerados como uma sobremesa valiosa e nutritiva, pois apresentaram níveis satisfatórios de carboidratos e razoáveis de vitamina C e proteínas. O estudo demonstrou que o sorvete de mamão é uma excelente alternativa para o aproveitamento da fruta.The objective of the present work was to evaluate as an alternative of consumption the ice-cream of five selective papaya genotypes (CMF012, CMF020, CMF023, CMF031, CMF047 obtained from the Active Germplasm Bank for Papaya at Embrapa Cassava and Fruit Crops, located in Cruz das Almas, Bahia State, Brazil. These genotypes were identified at before studies because they showed atractive colour, good flavour and highter soluble solid (ºBrix. Sensory analyses of the ice-creams were carried out using affective tests (9 point hedonic scale for the attributes of overall appearance, colour, odour, flavour and texture. The following physico-chemical determinations were carried out: pH, total titrable acidity, soluble solid (ºBrix, ratio, vitamin C, total solid, ash, protein, lipid, total sugars, reducing and non-reducing sugars.The sensory and physico-chemical data were submitted to an analysis of variation, followed the Tukey test. The ice creams showed higher scores for all of attributes. The genotypes CMF020 and CMF031 were preferred in terms of flavour. The judges didn!t indicate preference among the products in terms of overall appearance, colour and texture, so the less atractive genotypes for the fresh fruit market, could be utilized for the industry to make ice cream. They are a nutritive dessert, because they showed enough carbohydrates, vitamin C and protein contents. This study showed that the papaya ice cream is an excellent alternative of consumption.

  16. Nematodos fitoparásitos y su relación con factores edáficos de papaya en Colima, México / Plant parasitic nematodes and its relation to soil factors of papaya in Colima, Mexico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Ángel, Martínez Gallardo; Tomás, Díaz Valdés; Leopoldo, Partida Ruvalcaba; Raúl, Allende Molar; José Benigno, Valdez Torres; José Armando, Carrillo Fasio.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Dentro de este trabajo, en un artículo previo se presentó la identificación y cuantificación de las poblaciones de nematodos fitoparásitos presentes y asociados en cultivos de papaya (Carica papaya L.) en Colima, México. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar la relación entre factores edáf [...] icos (textura, contenido de materia orgánica, conductividad eléctrica y pH) y poblaciones de nematodos fitoparásitos presentes en el cultivo de papaya en Colima, México. Se colectaron muestras de raíz y suelo rizosférico en 10 predios de siete ranchos en los municipios de Colima y Tecomán, Colima, México cultivados con papaya ‘Maradol’, ‘Tainung’ y ‘Sensation’. Del suelo y raíz colectados se detectaron e identificaron las poblaciones de nematodos; asimismo, se determinaron las características edáficas en cada sitio de muestreo. Se realizó una prueba ji-cuadrada de Pearson para probar la asociación entre los géneros de fitonematodos y los distintos tipos de texturas edáficas. Así mismo, se realizó un análisis de regresión lineal múltiple entre la población de nematodos y factores edáficos. Las texturas de suelo identificadas fueron arenoso franca, franco arenosa, franco arcillo arenosa y arenosa. Existió correlación entre los géneros de fitonematodos y los tipos de textura del suelo, encontrándose a la textura arenosa franca como la más apta para el ciclo de vida de los nematodos fitoparásitos. Abstract in english Within this article, a previous article presented the identification and quantification of populations of plant parasitic nematodes associated with papaya (Carica papaya L.) in Colima, Mexico. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between soil factors (texture, organic matter conte [...] nt, electrical conductivity and pH) and populations of plant parasitic nematodes in papaya in Colima, Mexico. Root samples and soil from the rhizospherere were taken in 10 pieces of land in seven ranches from the municipalities of Colima and Tecomán, in Colima, Mexico; cultivated with papaya 'Maradol', 'Tainung' and 'Sensation'. From soil and roots collected, were detected and identified nematode populations; also soil characteristics were determined at each sampling site. A chi-square distribution or Pearson test was performed, to test the association between plant nematodes genus and different types of soil textures. Likewise, a multiple linear regression between nematode populations and soil factors was performed. Soil textures were loamy sand, sandy loam, sandy clay loam and sandy clay. There is a correlation between phytonematodes genus and types of soil texture, finding sandy loam texture as most suitable for the life cycle of plant parasitic nematodes.

  17. Heat treatment and gamma radiation on the control of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Penz. et Sacc., causal agent of the papaya fruits (Carica papaya L.) anthracnose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For controlling papaya anthracnose on stored fruits the effect of heat treatment and gamma radiation on Colletotrichum gloeosporioides was studied in vitro and in vivo. Some physiological studies with four isolades of C. gloeosporioides from papaya fruits concerning the best conditions for mycelial growth and sporulation were also performed. The results showed that the best conditions for isolates development in BDA were: temperature between 25 and 270 C for mycelium radial growth; between 27 and 300 C under 12 hours alternating periods of fluorescent). (author). 131 refs., 9 figs., 33 tabs

  18. Época de colheita dos frutos e ocorrência de dormência em sementes de mamão (Carica papaya L. Fruit harvest season and dormancy occurrency in papaya seeds (Carica papaya L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daí Tokuhisa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo relacionar a época de colheita dos frutos com a ocorrência de dormência nas sementes de mamão. Foram utilizados frutos de mamão do grupo Formosa, híbrido Tainung 01, colhidos no estádio 1 de maturação (até 15% da superfície externa com coloração amarela em cinco diferentes épocas do ano: Julho e Novembro/2004 e Fevereiro, Maio e Setembro/2005. Os frutos permaneceram armazenados em ambiente de laboratório até atingirem o estádio 5 de maturação (mais de 75% da superfície externa com coloração amarela. Em cada época, foram obtidas sementes com e sem sarcotesta, que foram submetidas ao teste de germinação, conduzido em germinador sob temperatura alternada de 20-30°C (16h/8h, respectivamente, avaliando-se a porcentagem de plântulas normais aos 15 e 30 dias após a semeadura. Verificou-se que a presença da sarcotesta na semente diminui a velocidade e a porcentagem de germinação. Houve efeito da época de colheita do fruto na germinação das sementes, sendo que as sementes extraídas de frutos colhidos em Julho/2004 e Maio/2005 apresentaram dormência pós-colheita, o que não ocorreu com as sementes obtidas de frutos que amadureceram em épocas de temperaturas mais altas.This study was carried out in order to relate the fruit harvest season and dormancy occurrence in papaya seeds. Papaya fruits of the Formosa group, Tainung 01 hybrid, were harvested at maturation stage 1 (15% external color yellow, at five different times: July and November/2004 and February, May and September/2005. The fruits were stored at room temperature until they reached maturation stage 5 (more than 75% external color yellow. Seeds with and without sarcotesta were obtained at each harvest time. Standard germination of these seeds was performed in a germinator at 20/30 º C (8/16 hours, respectively and normal seedlings percentage was evaluated at 15 and 30 days. Seeds with sarcotesta had lower germination speed and percentage. There was an effect of fruit harvest time on seed germination. Seeds extracted from fruits harvested in July/2004 and May/2005 had post-harvest dormancy, which did not occur in seeds from fruits harvested in the high temperature periods.

  19. Emergência e matéria seca de plantas daninhas na cultura do mamoeiro (Carica papaya Emergence and dry matter of weeds in papaya crop (Carica papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.S. Santana

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste experimento foi avaliar o "banco" de sementes de plantas daninhas através do método da emergência de plântulas, na cultura do mamoeiro, em que se empregaram diferentes sistemas de manejo. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com três repetições e seis tratamentos: capina em área total; herbicida nas linhas + grade nas entrelinhas; subsolagem cruzada antes do plantio + capina em área total; subsolagem cruzada antes do plantio + herbicida nas linhas e feijão de porco nas entrelinhas; subsolagem cruzada antes do plantio + herbicida nas linhas e crotalária nas entrelinhas; e herbicida nas linhas + vegetação nativa nas entrelinhas da cultura, roçada quando necessário. A avaliação do banco de sementes foi feita aos 30, 60, 90 e 120 dias após a implantação de um bioensaio em casa de vegetação, com amostras retiradas no campo nas épocas chuvosa e seca, na profundidade de 0-15 cm. A matéria seca das plantas daninhas foi obtida utilizando-se um quadrado de 0,5 x 0,5 m, jogado a lanço quatro vezes nas parcelas. Os sistemas de manejo de capina em área total e de herbicida na linha + grade nas entrelinhas de plantio de mamoeiros, com feijão-de-porco e crotalária, reduzem o banco de sementes no solo. Dos adubos verdes, crotalária e feijão-de-porco, o primeiro altera a dinâmica do "banco" de sementes de forma mais significativa.The objective of this work was to evaluate the seed bank of weeds through the seedling emergence method in papaya crop, using different tillage systems. A randomized complete block design was used, with three replications and six treatments: weeding in total area, herbicide in the rows + disc in the interrows, crossed sub soiling before planting + weeding in total area, crossed sub soiling before planting + herbicide in the rows and pig bean in the interrows, crossed sub soiling before planting + herbicide in the row + crotalaria in the interrows and crossed sub soiling before planting + herbicide in the rows + native vegetation in the interrows, cleared when necessary. Seed bank evaluation was performed at 30, 60, 90 and 120 days after implantation of the experiment in the greenhouse with samples collected in the field in the rainy and dry seasons at 0-15 cm in depth. Weed dry matter was obtained by using a square of 0.5 x 0.5 m sorted four times in the plots. The weeding management systems in total area and herbicide in the row + disc in the papaya crop interrows with pig bean and crotalaria reduce seed bank in the soil. Among the green fertilizers, crotalaria alters more significantly the dynamics of the seed bank than pig bean.

  20. Emergência e matéria seca de plantas daninhas na cultura do mamoeiro (Carica papaya) / Emergence and dry matter of weeds in papaya crop (Carica papaya)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    I.S., Santana; M.F.S.P., Peixoto; J.E.B., Carvalho; L.S.V., Sampaio; C.A.S., Ledo; C.P., Peixoto.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste experimento foi avaliar o "banco" de sementes de plantas daninhas através do método da emergência de plântulas, na cultura do mamoeiro, em que se empregaram diferentes sistemas de manejo. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com três repetições e seis tratamentos: [...] capina em área total; herbicida nas linhas + grade nas entrelinhas; subsolagem cruzada antes do plantio + capina em área total; subsolagem cruzada antes do plantio + herbicida nas linhas e feijão de porco nas entrelinhas; subsolagem cruzada antes do plantio + herbicida nas linhas e crotalária nas entrelinhas; e herbicida nas linhas + vegetação nativa nas entrelinhas da cultura, roçada quando necessário. A avaliação do banco de sementes foi feita aos 30, 60, 90 e 120 dias após a implantação de um bioensaio em casa de vegetação, com amostras retiradas no campo nas épocas chuvosa e seca, na profundidade de 0-15 cm. A matéria seca das plantas daninhas foi obtida utilizando-se um quadrado de 0,5 x 0,5 m, jogado a lanço quatro vezes nas parcelas. Os sistemas de manejo de capina em área total e de herbicida na linha + grade nas entrelinhas de plantio de mamoeiros, com feijão-de-porco e crotalária, reduzem o banco de sementes no solo. Dos adubos verdes, crotalária e feijão-de-porco, o primeiro altera a dinâmica do "banco" de sementes de forma mais significativa. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the seed bank of weeds through the seedling emergence method in papaya crop, using different tillage systems. A randomized complete block design was used, with three replications and six treatments: weeding in total area, herbicide in the rows + disc in the [...] interrows, crossed sub soiling before planting + weeding in total area, crossed sub soiling before planting + herbicide in the rows and pig bean in the interrows, crossed sub soiling before planting + herbicide in the row + crotalaria in the interrows and crossed sub soiling before planting + herbicide in the rows + native vegetation in the interrows, cleared when necessary. Seed bank evaluation was performed at 30, 60, 90 and 120 days after implantation of the experiment in the greenhouse with samples collected in the field in the rainy and dry seasons at 0-15 cm in depth. Weed dry matter was obtained by using a square of 0.5 x 0.5 m sorted four times in the plots. The weeding management systems in total area and herbicide in the row + disc in the papaya crop interrows with pig bean and crotalaria reduce seed bank in the soil. Among the green fertilizers, crotalaria alters more significantly the dynamics of the seed bank than pig bean.

  1. Associação de moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae) com a "meleira do mamoeiro" (Carica papaya L.) / Association of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) with the sticky disease of papaya (Carica papaya L.)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antonio S., Nascimento; Walter J., R. Matrangolo; Cristiane J., Barbosa; Oton M., Marques; Tuffi C., Habibe.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Since 1988, the medfly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) was described infesting papaya (Carica papaya) cv. Sunrise Solo in North of the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Two experiments were carried out to determine the infestation of C. capitata and Anastrepha obliqua (Macq.) in papaya fruit, healthy [...] and infected by sticky disease. In the 1st experiment (forced infestation), no infestation of C. capitata in the healthy fruits was observed, and 60.6 pupae/fruit were obtained in the infected fruit. For A. obliqua, the infestation index was 10.3 and 72.4 pupae/fruit for healthy and infected fruit respectively. In the 2nd experiment (inoculated eggs), the infestation index for C. capitata was 4.0 and 6.3 pupae/fruit and for A. obliqua 10.1 and 10.4 pupae/fruit, for healthy and infected fruit respectively. The high suscetibility of green fruit of papaya infected by sticky disease for C. capitata and A. obliqua was discussed

  2. Identification of gamma-irradiated papaya, melon and watermelon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiation can be used to control spoilage microorganisms and to increase the shelf life of fresh fruits and vegetables in replacement for the treatment with chemical fumigants. In order to enforce labelling regulations, methods for detecting the irradiation treatment directly in the produce are required. Recently, a number of detection methods for irradiated food have been adopted by the Codex Comission. A rapid screening method for qualitative detection of irradiation is the DNA Comet Assay. The applicability of the DNA Comet Assay for distinguishing irradiated papaya, melon, and watermelon was evaluated. The samples were treated in a 60Co facility at dose levels of 0.0, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 kGy. The irradiated samples showed typical DNA fragmentation whereas cells from non-irradiated ones appeared intact. In addition to the DNA Comet Assay also the half-embryo test was applied in melon and watermelon to detect the irradiation treatment

  3. Antiulcerogenic activity of Carica papaya seed in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Lorraine Aparecida; Cordeiro, Kátia Wolff; Carrasco, Viviane; Carollo, Carlos Alexandre; Cardoso, Cláudia Andréa Lima; Argadoña, Eliana Janet Sanjinez; Freitas, Karine de Cássia

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the gastroprotective and healing effects of the methanolic extract of the seed of the papaya Carica papaya L. (MECP) in rats. Models of acute gastric ulcer induction by ethanol and indomethacin and of chronic ulcer by acetic acid were used. The gastric juice and mucus parameters were evaluated using the pylorus ligation model, and the involvement of sulfhydryl compounds (GSH) and nitric oxide in the gastroprotective effect was analyzed using the ethanol model. The toxicity was assessed through toxicity tests. No signs of toxicity were observed when the rats received a single dose of 2000 mg/kg of extract. The MECP in doses of 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg significantly reduced the gastric lesion with 56, 76, and 82 % inhibition, respectively, and a dose of 30 mg/kg lansoprazole showed 79 % inhibition in the ethanol model. MECP (125, 250, 500 mg/kg) and cimetidine (200 mg/kg) reduced the gastric lesion in the indomethacin model, with 62, 67, 81, and 85 % inhibition, respectively. The MECP (500 mg/kg) and cimetidine (200 mg/kg) treatments showed a reduction in ulcerative symptoms induced by acetic acid by 84 and 73 %, respectively. The antiulcerogenic activity seems to involve GSH because the inhibition dropped from 72 to 13 % in the presence of a GSH inhibitor. Moreover, the MECP showed systemic action, increasing the mucus production and decreasing gastric acidity. Treatments with MECP induce gastroprotection without signs of toxicity. This effect seems to involve sulfhydryl compounds, increased mucus, and reduced gastric acidity. PMID:25418890

  4. Morphological analysis and photosynthetic performance of improved papaya genotypes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alena, Torres Netto; Eliemar, Campostrini; Letícia C., Azevedo; Marcelo A., Souza; José C., Ramalho; Manuela M., Chaves.

    Full Text Available Brazil is the largest world producer of papaya and the third largest exporter despite of only 1.5 to 2.0% of its production is exported. Such an underexplored exportation potential highlight the necessity for physiological studies on new cultivars and hybrids to verify their agronomic and commercial [...] viability. Two Brazilian states, Bahia and Espirito Santo, are responsible for 80% of national production. Papaya can also be an agricultural alternative to north / northeast of Rio de Janeiro, because the region is close to consumer centers and have similar environmental conditions of the most productive regions. Nevertheless, it is worth to develop cultivars that can express the highest yield potential in this region. The aim of this work was to characterize physiologically two hybrids developed for the north/northeast of Rio de Janeiro (UENF/Caliman 01 and JS12) in comparison with three top commercial genotypes (Golden, Sunrise Solo 7212 and Tainung) of Caricapapaya L. The cv. Golden presented the lowest shoot and root growth, the lowest height, shrunk diameter, specific leaf weight, less efficiency in electrons transport per sample area and show the lowest ability to synthesized total chlorophylls in comparison with the others genotypes. At noon, this genotype showed higher stomatal conductance, related to the leaf-air vapor pressure deficit, which lead to higher transpiration rate and intrinsic water use efficiency. No differences were detected in the photosynthetic rates among the five genotypes suggesting that the UENF`s hybrids are endowed with similar photosynthetic capacity and morphological characteristics to the top commercial genotypes. The relevance of this characterization to drive future successful genetic improvement programs will be discussed.

  5. Morphological analysis and photosynthetic performance of improved papaya genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Torres Netto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the largest world producer of papaya and the third largest exporter despite of only 1.5 to 2.0% of its production is exported. Such an underexplored exportation potential highlight the necessity for physiological studies on new cultivars and hybrids to verify their agronomic and commercial viability. Two Brazilian states, Bahia and Espirito Santo, are responsible for 80% of national production. Papaya can also be an agricultural alternative to north / northeast of Rio de Janeiro, because the region is close to consumer centers and have similar environmental conditions of the most productive regions. Nevertheless, it is worth to develop cultivars that can express the highest yield potential in this region. The aim of this work was to characterize physiologically two hybrids developed for the north/northeast of Rio de Janeiro (UENF/Caliman 01 and JS12 in comparison with three top commercial genotypes (Golden, Sunrise Solo 7212 and Tainung of Caricapapaya L. The cv. Golden presented the lowest shoot and root growth, the lowest height, shrunk diameter, specific leaf weight, less efficiency in electrons transport per sample area and show the lowest ability to synthesized total chlorophylls in comparison with the others genotypes. At noon, this genotype showed higher stomatal conductance, related to the leaf-air vapor pressure deficit, which lead to higher transpiration rate and intrinsic water use efficiency. No differences were detected in the photosynthetic rates among the five genotypes suggesting that the UENF`s hybrids are endowed with similar photosynthetic capacity and morphological characteristics to the top commercial genotypes. The relevance of this characterization to drive future successful genetic improvement programs will be discussed.

  6. Estereotipos de género en la publicidad: un análisis de contenido de las revistas chilenas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Uribe

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cuando los valores masculinos tienen influencia dominante en una cultura, aquélla se ve reflejada en los estereotipos de género en la publicidad. Recíprocamente, estos estereotipos tienen un efecto sobre la socialización de los grupos y el posicionamiento de las marcas. En culturas con un bajo índice de masculinidad (Hofstede, 2001 como la cultura chilena, se esperaría una baja o nula estereotipación de género en la publicidad (An y Kim, 2007; Milner y Collins, 1998. Usando análisis de contenido, este estudio examina los estereotipos de género en la publicidad gráfica chilena. Específicamente, se analizan diez indicadores de estereotipación de género en la publicidad. Los resultados de este estudio revelan la existencia de estereotipos de género en la publicidad chilena en seis de los diez indicadores empleados.

  7. Discurso militar e identidad nacional chilena / Military speech and chilean national identity / Discurso militar e identidade nacional chilena

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hernán, Cuevas Valenzuela.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo estuda o discurso militar sobre a identidade nacional chilena. Ele argumenta que a identidade nacional é o resultado de um processo contínuo e aberto de formação que não é evidente em todas suas bordas. Portanto, o estudo da identidade requer não só revelar suas práticas e o conteúdo dis [...] cursivo manifesto, mas também deve examinar o seu conteúdo latente para identificar os vários mecanismos que moldam sua formação. Para alcançar este objetivo, propõe-se a complementaridade da análise qualitativa de conteúdo, a análise estrutural do discurso e a análise da morfologia do discurso. A conclusão sugere que, apesar das significativas mudanças, o discurso militar sobre a identidade nacional tem mantido um traço conservador baseado numa ontologia social essencialista. Abstract in spanish Este artículo estudia el discurso militar sobre la identidad nacional chilena. Se plantea que la identidad nacional resulta de un proceso permanente y abierto de formación que no es evidente en todas sus aristas. Por ello, el estudio de la identidad no sólo requiere revelar sus prácticas y contenido [...] s discursivos manifiestos, sino que también debe examinar sus contenidos latentes para identificar los variados mecanismos que confluyen en su formación. Para lograrlo se propone la complementariedad del análisis cualitativo de contenido, el análisis estructural del discurso y el análisis de la morfología del discurso. La conclusión plantea que a pesar de importantes cambios, el discurso militar sobre la identidad nacional ha mantenido su rasgo conservador basado en una ontología social esencialista. Abstract in english This article studies the military discourse on chilean national identity. The article states that national identity is a permanent and open-ended process of social construction that is not evident in all its aspects. For this reason, the study of identity requires not only to reveal discourse’s prac [...] tices and manifest contents, but it must also examine its latent content to identify the various mechanisms that come together in its production. For this, it proposes the complementarity of qualitative content analysis, structural analysis of discourse and analysis of the morphology of discourse. The conclusion is that despite important changes, the military discourse on national identity has maintained its conservative trait based on an essentialist social ontology.

  8. Contrahegemonía y clase trabajadora en una comuna chilena

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mirtha, Lischetti.

    Full Text Available Los procesos globalizadores encuentran en el Estado chileno un campo propicio para desarrollarse después de que la brutal represión de la dictadura militar eliminara la posibilidad de un gobierno socialista llegado al poder por vía electoral. Los contenidos ideológicos de la globalización, así como [...] las políticas económicas concretas que se llevan a la práctica en su nombre, transforman las subjetividades de los sujetos. La clase trabajadora chilena de ideología y tradición mayoritariamente de izquierda queda marginada de la vida política dentro de su propia realidad. Nuestro análisis indaga acerca de los alcances y límites de la supresión de la vida política dentro de dicha clase y la posible construcción de una contrahegemonía que ésta pueda realizar. Abstract in english The Chilean State proved to be fertile ground for globalization processes to develop and unfold once that the brutal repression carried out by the military dictatorship wiped out the possibility for a Socialist government that had come to power through democratic elections. The ideological tenets of [...] globalization, as well as the concrete economic policies that were implemented under such term, transformed the subjectivities of individuals. Chile´s working class, whose ideology and heritage had been traditionally Communist, was left out of the political scene and developments within its own reality. Our analysis delves into the scope, reach, and limits of the suppression of political activities and developments within said class and the possible creation of a counterhegemony that the working class may carry out.

  9. Promover la salud mental con mujeres chilenas en desventaja social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Soledad Rivera

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Se descrive una parte de la experiencia del proyecto Chileno/Canadiense: ?Promover la salud mental de las mujeres chilenas en desventaja social: Los Secretos de Maruja?. Se describen los objetivos, las etapas del proceso, de intervención y los resultados de las evaluaciones preliminares. Con la participación de las mujeres usuárias de los centros de salud, profesionales y autoridades de la comuna de La Pintana, se construyó, aplicó y evaluó un proyecto de intervención para apoyar a las mujeres en la toma de decisiones que favorezcan su salud mental personal, familiar y social. La intervención contempló el diseño, producción, distribución y evaluación de 12 folletos educativos tipo calendarios, cada uno respecto a tres temas de salud mental identificados por las mismas mujeres: Identidad y autoestima, Vínculo y Comunicación y Autocuidado. Además se involucró a las enfermeras que trabajan en los Centros de Salud, quienes incorporaron esta estrategia a la atención de salud habitual y evaluaron su impacto en la identidad, autonomía profesional y en la mejoría de la calidad del cuidado

  10. Boletín de la Academia Chilena de la Historia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN GUILLERMO MUÑOZ CORREA

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Juan José Fernández Valdés, “El límite marítimo chileno-peruano” Luego de entregar los antecedentes desde el Tratado de Ancón, la doctrina de las 200 millas marítimas de 1947, primero por Chile y poco más de un mes después por Perú, que señaló expresamente que serían medidas “siguiendo la línea de los paralelos geográficos”, continúa analizando todas las acciones en torno al tema, no solo de estos dos países, sino los posteriores de Ecuador, Colombia, tanto decretos supremos, convenios, declaraciones, como sus ratificaciones por los respectivos estados. También repasa los puntos internacionales, como la Convención de las Naciones Unidas sobre el Derecho del Mar, signada en 1982, cuyo artículo 12 alude al método de la línea media o equidistancia para la delimitación marítima entre dos estados, exceptuando los casos en que por derechos históricos hubiera otra situación, a pesar de lo cual la posición peruana es la de adaptarse a dicho punto 12, de cuyas manifestaciones en diferentes años da cuenta este artículo, como de las consiguientes reacciones por parte de la cancillería chilena.

  11. Nuestro espejo de cartón: educación y posdictadura chilena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Tamara Salazar Vicencio

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Nos interesa definir cómo se constituye la propuesta educacional en torno a la problemática de la memoria y los derechos humanos en Chile, a partir del análisis del discurso articulado desde el Museo de la Memoria y los Derechos Humanos, obra cúlmine del último gobierno de la Concertación y versión oficial en torno a la memoria del pasado reciente en el país. Para estos efectos, revisaremos ciertos aspectos del espacio físico en donde se edifica el museo, leyendo los lugares a la luz de nociones teóricas en torno a la museificación y estetización de la memoria; sin embargo, el eje de la investigación consiste en la lectura crítica del material que se ofrece como alternativa a los docentes que preparan a sus alumnos para la visita guiada.La hipótesis tentativa es que existe una visión estatal que victimiza a los sujetos afectados directamente, limitando el espectro de impacto a un grupo minoritario de la población chilena; que igualmente apunta a despolitizar el conflicto mediante la instalación de una memoria parcial, estática y lineal en torno al pasado y que cristaliza parte de sus objetivos en una propuesta educacional ideologizante, que aborda consecuencias sin analizar procesos ni actores sociales.

  12. Verbo de concordancia en la lengua de señas chilena

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    Dora Adamo Quintela

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo trata sobre una clase verbo de la lengua de señas chilena, el verbo de concordancia. A través de su descripción se da cuenta de los diversos mecanismos utilizados por el sistema de la lengua de señas para establecer la concordancia entre el sujeto y el objeto, que funcionan en la oración mediante el proceso de inflexión gramatical. Una característica relevante de la LSCh consiste en la utilización del espacio para producir modificaciones gramaticales regulares, entendidas como procesos de inflexión, a través de la co-ocurrencia de parámetros gestual-visuales, que permiten una comunicación eficiente entre sus usuarios. (This article focuses on a particular type of verb used in Chilean Sign Language: the verb of agreement. Through its description, different mechanisms used to show subject-object accord operating through inflection are presented. A relevant feature of Chilean Sign Language (LSCh, is to use space to mark regular grammatical modifications, understood as processes of inflection through the co-occurrence of visual-kinetic parameters that allow its user an efficient communication.

  13. Evaluation of schistosomicidal and leishmanicidal activities from Carica papaya (Linn. stem and phytochemical composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Nabih Rashed

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Carica papaya Linn., is a member of the small family Caricaceae. Each part of papaya tree possesses economic value and is considered as a valuable nutraceutical fruit plant. C. papaya has a wide range of purported medicinal properties including antiseptic, antiparasitic, anti inflammatory, antidiabetic and contraceptive activity. While there are only limited data to support most of these uses, there are some evidences for their use in healing decubitus ulcers and other wounds and in treating intestinal worms in humans. It can be chosen as a source of papain for the development of various industrial and pharmaceutical products for various diseases. This present study was carried out to evaluate schistosomicidal and leishmanicidal activities and also to investigate the phytochemical composition of the C. papaya methanol extract. The extract was tested using Schistosoma mansoni and Leishmania amazonensis assays. The results showed that C. papaya methanol extract has a little or no activity against S. mansoni or L. amazonensis. Against S. mansoni, the extract showed no lethal effect, but a reduction in the motor activity at highest concentrations was observed. On the other hand, against L. amazonensis, the extract caused lysis of only 15.3±4.6 of parasites at the concentration of 400 µg/mL. Phytochemical analysis of 80% methanol extract of C. papaya stem showed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, carbohydrates and triterpenes. This is the first report about the schitosomicidal and leishmanicidal activities of C. papaya stems methanol extract and its chemical composition, particularly triterpenes which have shown significant schitosomicidal and leishmanicidal activities

  14. Antihypertensive effect of Carica papaya via a reduction in ACE activity and improved baroreflex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasil, Girlandia Alexandre; Ronchi, Silas Nascimento; do Nascimento, Andrews Marques; de Lima, Ewelyne Miranda; Romão, Wanderson; da Costa, Helber Barcellos; Scherer, Rodrigo; Ventura, José Aires; Lenz, Dominik; Bissoli, Nazaré Souza; Endringer, Denise Coutinho; de Andrade, Tadeu Uggere

    2014-11-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the antihypertensive effects of the standardised methanolic extract of Carica papaya, its angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory effects in vivo, its effect on the baroreflex and serum angiotensin converting enzyme activity, and its chemical composition. The chemical composition of the methanolic extract of C. papaya was evaluated by liquid chromatography-mass/mass and mass/mass spectrometry. The angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory effect was evaluated in vivo by Ang I administration. The antihypertensive assay was performed in spontaneously hypertensive rats and Wistar rats that were treated with enalapril (10 mg/kg), the methanolic extract of C. papaya (100 mg/kg; twice a day), or vehicle for 30 days. The baroreflex was evaluated through the use of sodium nitroprusside and phenylephrine. Angiotensin converting enzyme activity was measured by ELISA, and cardiac hypertrophy was evaluated by morphometric analysis. The methanolic extract of C. papaya was standardised in ferulic acid (203.41 ± 0.02 µg/g), caffeic acid (172.60 ± 0.02 µg/g), gallic acid (145.70 ± 0.02 µg/g), and quercetin (47.11 ± 0.03 µg/g). The flavonoids quercetin, rutin, nicotiflorin, clitorin, and manghaslin were identified in a fraction of the extract. The methanolic extract of C. papaya elicited angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory activity. The antihypertensive effects elicited by the methanolic extract of C. papaya were similar to those of enalapril, and the baroreflex sensitivity was normalised in treated spontaneously hypertensive rats. Plasma angiotensin converting enzyme activity and cardiac hypertrophy were also reduced to levels comparable to the enalapril-treated group. These results may be associated with the chemical composition of the methanolic extract of C. papaya, and are the first step into the development of a new phytotherapic product which could be used in the treatment of hypertension. PMID:25295669

  15. Study about papaya (Carica papaya L.) conservation submitted to a combined treatment of irradiation and an edible film of quitosan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this research, on a first stage the effect of two treatments were studied: thermal, and a chitosan edible coating, combined with four different irradiation doses: 0,00 kGy, 0,50 kGy, 0,75 kGy and 1,00 kGy for effects in the ripening of papaya (Carica Papaya) cv. Golden. To evaluate the influence of these two factors in the physical-chemical characteristics of the fruit during ripening, analysis on color, both skin and pulp, firmness, soluble solids, pH and titrable acidity were performed. The incidence of fungi in fruit skin was also analyzed. The fruits were first maintained at 10 deg C chamber for fifteen days to simulate maritime transportation to the importer country and then transferred to a 25 deg C chamber aiming simulation of the commercialization conditions. From this first step, the conclusion was that chitosan in the concentration of 2% was not able to contain the fungi development and that it also influenced in a significant form the variable pH. A more expressive result was obtained for irradiation doses of 0,75 kGy and 1,00 kGy, as it was observed in the beginning the acceleration in ripening through the variables skin color and penetration energy of the fruit pulp. When storage temperature was changed to 25 deg C this situation inverted for these same variables and a two day delay was observed on the development of yellow color on the fruit skin and loss of pulp firmness. The variables titrable acidity, soluble solids and pulp color were not influenced by treatment or by irradiation. On a second stage, the fruits, in the same condition of the previous stage, were analyzed in relation of their mass and ripening stage using a ripening scale provided by the producer of the fruits for this experiment, as to evaluate the gradual development of fruit ripening according to the various treatments (chitosan 3%, thermal or control) and irradiation dose (0,00 kGy and 0,75 kGy). Confirming the results obtained in the first stage, the irradiation was able to delay ripening in one day and a half approximately. The chitosan in these new conditions of test propitiated fungi development and the fruits coated with chitosan did not ripe in the way it was seen to come. A last stage was done to verify consumer behavior in respect to an irradiated papaya. By three different sensorial tests it was verified if provers were able to perceive significant difference between irradiated and non irradiated samples, what was the acceptance of a irradiated sample and the intention of purchase of a irradiated and a non irradiated papaya. Conclusion from these tests was that the difference established in the triangular test was not enough to establish significant difference between the acceptances of the two samples in the four parameters tested: appearance, texture, aroma and flavor. For the purchase intention it was verified that the irradiation is not a barrier for the consumer. (author)

  16. Empleo del método de secado convectivo combinado para la deshidratación de papaya (Carica papaya L., variedad Maradol roja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahylin Mu\\u00F1iz Becer\\u00E1

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación tiene como objetivo evaluar el método de secado convectivo de papaya (Carica papaya L. variedad Maradol roja, combinado con la aplicación de pretratamientos de osmosis (DOSC y escaldado simple (ESSC, mediante el efecto de los factores tecnológi- cos del secador: temperatura (40 y 60oC y velocidad del flujo de aire (2,5 y 1,5 m/s sobre el comportamiento de las propiedades de calidad de la fruta deshidratada y la cinética del proceso. El pretratamiento de escaldado simple se realizó en agua destilada caliente a 70oC durante 15 minutos y la deshidratación osmótica u osmosis a 60oC por 4 horas a frutas cortadas en cubos de 1,5± 0,2 cm de largo por 1,0±0,01 cm de espesor, utilizando una solución de sacarosa comercial a 50oBrix. Como diseño experimental se empleó un Diseño Factorial Completo 22 y para el procesamiento estadístico de los datos el software STATGRAPHICS Plus 5.1. Como principales resultados se obtuvo que en ambos procesos el aumento de la temperatura a 60oC y la reducción de la velocidad del flujo de aire a 1,5 m/s disminuyó el tiempo de secado con valores de R 2 >0,95 y ?<0,01. Mediante el secado a 40oC con 1,5 m/s se preserva el color y se minimiza la pérdida de peso en la fruta deshidratada con R 2 superior al 90% (?<0,01.

  17. NIa-Pro of Papaya ringspot virus interacts with Carica papaya eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit G (CpeIF3G).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Le; Tuo, Decai; Shen, Wentao; Yan, Pu; Li, Xiaoying; Zhou, Peng

    2015-02-01

    The interaction of papaya eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit G (CpeIF3G) with Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) NIa-Pro was validated using a bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay in papaya protoplasts based on the previous yeast two-hybrid assay results. The C-terminal (residues 133-239) fragment of PRSV NIa-Pro and the central domain (residues 59-167) of CpeIF3G were required for effective interaction between NIa-Pro and CpeIF3G as shown by a Sos recruitment yeast two-hybrid system with several deletion mutants of NIa-Pro and CpeIF3G. The central domain of CpeIF3G, which contains a C2HC-type zinc finger motif, is required to bind to other eIFs of the translational machinery. In addition, quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR assay confirmed that PRSV infection leads to a 2- to 4.5-fold up-regulation of CpeIF3G mRNA in papaya. Plant eIF3G is involved in various stress response by enhancing the translation of resistance-related proteins. It is proposed that the NIa-Pro-CpeIF3G interaction may impair translation preinitiation complex assembly of defense proteins and interfere with host defense. PMID:25416301

  18. Estimación de las necesidades hídricas de la papaya utilizando la aproximación de los coeficientes culturales duales / Papaya estimation of water requirements using the dual crop coefficient

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Yoima, Chaterlán; Ricardo, Rosa; Geisy, Herández; Teresa, López; Luis S, Pereira.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Considerando el incremento de la actividad de riego en el cultivo de la papaya durante los últimos años, resulta de interés el conocimiento de los elementos técnicos y agronomicos necesarios para una adecuada programación del riego a partir de la estimación de las necesidades hidrícas del cultivo. P [...] ara esto se utilizo el modelo SIMDualKc el cual efectua el calculo de la evapotranspiración del cultivo (ETc) y la programación del riego a partir de la metodología de los coeficientes culturales duales (Kc=Kcb+Ke). La investigación fue realizada en la Estación Experimental de Riego y Drenaje, situada en Alquízar, provincia La Habana, Cuba. Los experimentos fueron desarrollados entre el período marzo-noviembre 1997. Se utilizó la Papaya var. "Maradol roja". La calibración consistió en la búsqueda de los coeficientes culturales basales para las diferentes etapas de desarrollo del cultivo reduciendo al mínimo las diferencias entre los valores simulados y observados del contenido de humedad del suelo. Fue evaluada la bondad de ajuste de las predicciones del modelo, realizándose una serie de análisis estadísticos. Se puede concluir que el modelo puede ser utilizado para la generación de calendarios alternativos de riego destinados a mejorar el ahorro de agua y la productividad de la papaya en estas condiciones edafoclimáticas. Abstract in english Considering the increased activity of irrigation in the cultivation of papaya in recent years, interest is knowledge of the technical and agronomic necessary for proper irrigation scheduling based on the estimation of crop water requirements. For this we used the model SIMDualKc, which make the calc [...] ulation of crop evapotranspiration (ETc) and irrigation scheduling based on the methodology of the dual crop coefficient (Kc = Kcb + Ke). The research was conducted at the Experimental Station of Irrigation and Drainage, located in Alquízar, Havana, Cuba. The experiments were carried out between the periods march to november 1997. We used the Papaya (Carica papaya L) var. "Maradol red." The calibration consisted in the search for cultural factors at baseline for the different stages of crop development by minimizing the differences between the simulated and observed soil moisture content. Was evaluated for goodness of fit of the model's predictions SIMDualKc, realizandoce a series of statistical analysis. It can be concluded that the model can be used to generate alternative schedules irrigation to improve water conservation and productivity of papaya in these soil and climatic conditions.

  19. Carbon disulfide formation in papaya under conditions of dithiocarbamate residue analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abakerli, R B; Sparrapan, R; Sawaya, A C H F; Eberlin, M N; Jara, J L P; Rodrigues, N R; Fay, E F; Luiz, A J B; Galvão, T D L; Martins, D Dos S; Yamanishi, O K; Toledo, H H B

    2015-12-01

    Golden, Sunrise Solo and Tainung cultivars of papaya were found to release CS2 when submitted to experimental conditions of dithiocarbamate residue analysis. Three common analytical methods were used to quantitate CS2; one spectrophotometric method and two chromatographic methods. All three methods gave positive CS2 results for all three papaya varieties. Other endogenous compounds present in isooctane extracts of papaya fractions detected via gas chromatography (GC/ITD) using electron ionization (EI) were: carbonyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, 2-methylthiophene, 3-methylthiophene, 2-ethylthiophene, 3-ethylthiophene, benzylisothiocyanate, benzylthiocyanate and benzonitrile. Control samples were obtained from papaya plantations cultivated in experimental areas, in which no treatment with fungicides of the dithiocarbamate group was applied. Endogenous CS2 levels were compared with true dithiocarbamate residues measured in papaya samples from the field trials following applications of the mancozeb fungicide. Three days after application, true dithiocarbamate residues, measured by the procedure with isooctane partitioning and GC-ITD, were at the average level of 2mgkg(-1). PMID:26041166

  20. Eradication of Bactrocera papayae (Diptera: Tephritidae) by male annihilation and protein baiting in Queensland, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An established population of Bactrocera papayae Drew and Hancock (Asian papaya fruit fly) was detected on the Australian mainland near Cairns, north Queensland, on 16 October 1995 (Fay et al. 1997). Coincidentally, the first flies were bred from green papaya, a host not normally utilised in the unripe state by indigenous fruit fly species. B. papayae is a member of the Oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis) complex (Drew and Hancock 1994) and has more than 190 known hosts in Southeast Asia, where it is a major pest species. Consequently, the threat to Australian horticulture posed by the incursion was recognised immediately. By 26 October 1995, breeding populations were confirmed around Cairns, Mossman and Mareeba and a Pest Quarantine Area (PQA) was legislated. By 1 November 1995, following detections south of Innisfail, the PQA boundaries were set at 144 deg. 15'E, 19 deg. 00'S, covering nearly 78,000 km2. B. papayae was ultimately trapped over some 20,000 km2. A national eradication campaign began in November 1995, undertaken by the Queensland Department of Primary Industries

  1. Phytochemical screening and hypoglycemic activity of Carica papaya leaf in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Isela E., Juárez-Rojop; Carlos, A.Tovilla-Zárate; Dora E., Aguilar-Domínguez; Luis F. Roa-de la, Fuente; Carlos E., Lobato-García; Jorge L., Blé-Castillo; Leonor, López-Meraz; Juan C., Díaz-Zagoya; Deysi Y., Bermúdez-Ocaña.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of plant constituents is essential to isolate biologically active compounds, aimed to understand their role on the treatment of diabetes. This study was designed to explore the preliminary phytochemical and physicochemical analysis of Carica papaya L., Caricaceae, leaf, and further ev [...] aluation of its hypoglycemic effect on diabetic rats. C. papaya leaves were extracted using chloroform, n-hexane or ethanol. For each extract a phytochemical screening was performed. The tests were conducted in triplicate and the qualitative and quantitative determination of the various metabolites was done using analytical standards proposed by Mexican Herbal Pharmacopoeia. The chloroform extract, containing steroids and quinones as major components, was chosen to study C. papaya biological effects. The chloroform extract was evaporated to dryness, and doses 0, 31, 62, 125 mg/kg were orally administered in 300 µl polyethylene glycol to diabetic rats; and 0 and 62 mg/kg to non-diabetic rats. After a 20-day treatment with the chloroform extract, the animals were sacrificed and blood was obtained for biochemical studies. The main effect observed was a decrease in serum glucose, triglycerides and transaminases in diabetic rats after the administration of C. papaya chloroform extract. These results confirm the potential beneficial action of C. papaya to treat the symptoms of diabetic patients.

  2. Influence of chromoplast morphology on carotenoid bioaccessibility of carrot, mango, papaya, and tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweiggert, Ralf M; Mezger, Dominik; Schimpf, Franziska; Steingass, Christof B; Carle, Reinhold

    2012-12-15

    Based on the observation of outstanding dissimilarities of the morphology of pigment-containing chromoplasts in nutritionally important carotenoid sources, the bioaccessibility (BA) of carotenoids from edible portions of carrot, mango, papaya, and tomato was compared using an in vitro digestion model. While carrot and tomato contained large carotenoid crystals clearly visible by light microscopy, mango and papaya contained different types of carotenoid-bearing structures. Particularly, ?-carotene is deposited in globular and tubular elements in papaya and mango chromoplasts, where carotenoids accumulate in a lipid-dissolved and liquid-crystalline form, respectively. The highest BA of ?-carotene was found for mango (10.1%), followed by papaya (5.3%), tomato (3.1%), and carrot (0.5%). In our digestion model, differences between total lycopene BA from papaya and tomato were insignificant, possibly since both pigments occur in a solid crystalline deposition form in both fruits. Furthermore, the BA of lutein, ?-cryptoxanthin, and ?-cryptoxanthin esters was shown to be superior to that of the carotenes from the respective food sources. The effect of lipid addition to the different food sources was studied. Although BA was enhanced for most carotenoids, the above-mentioned ranking of BAs of ?-carotene remained unchanged after lipid addition. Consequently, the physical form of carotenoid deposition in plant chromoplasts is suggested to have major impact on their liberation efficiency from the food matrices. PMID:22980866

  3. ANÁLISIS DE CONSULTAS A UN BUSCADOR DE LA WEB CHILENA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Baeza-Yates

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Los buscadores de páginas Web son herramientas indispensables de orientación para sus usuarios, lo cual refleja la gran cantidad de personas que los utilizan diariamente. Las bitácoras (logs que registran el uso de un buscador son una valiosa fuente de información: nos hablan de las expectativas, preferencias y necesidades de las personas, es decir, qué esperan ellas encontrar en la Web. El resultado del análisis de logs de uso tiene un importante valor comercial, en particular para el comercio electrónico y la publicidad en Internet. El objetivo de este estudio es encontrar relaciones entre las consultas de los usuarios de la Web Chilena (.cl y las diversas áreas de clasificación de sus diferentes sitios. También se esperan encontrar relaciones entre los tipos de búsqueda realizados y los sitios visitados, para así conocer la necesidad que los lleva a formular sus consultas. La información obtenida está basada en los logs del buscador chileno TodoCL [1] entre febrero y marzo de 2004.Web page search engines are essential tools on users’ orientation, which is reflected by the big amount of people who are using them every day. The logs, reflecting the Web search engine uses, are a valuable source of information: they give us information about the users’ expectations, preferences and needs, which is everything that they expect to find on the Web. The results from the logs usage analysis have an important commercial value, in particular, for e-commerce and Internet publicity. The purpose of this study is to find relations between Chilean Web (.cl users’ queries and the different classification areas for its web sites. Also we expect to find relations between the search types made and the web sites visited, trying to get the need behind the query . The data used for this study was gotten from the Chilean search engine TodoCL, between February and March 2004.

  4. Para una entrada en la imaginación poética alimentaria chilena

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Magda, Sepúlveda.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Las comidas y las bebidas recreadas en la poesía chilena ofrecen un espacio alternativo para reflexionar sobre la etnia, la clase social, el género y la violencia política. Cada uno de estos nudos define una ruta alimenticia donde las historias diferenciales se toman la palabra. Este artículo propon [...] e una cartografía de las imágenes alimentarias poéticas, caracterizando cuatro grandes rutas: aquellas donde la escritura privilegia la construcción de comunidades indígenas alrededor de la comida y aquellas donde los proyectos estéticos elaboran un patrimonio provinciano y/o rural alrededor de las comidas como defensa frente a las legitimidades centristas. Más aquellos itinerarios cuyas simbolizaciones erigen o deconstruyen los deseos caníbales entre diversas subjetividades y; aquellas donde los linajes lingüísticos hacen del hambre un motivo de descontento político, ya sea imaginando la abundancia a través del tópico de la tierra de Jauja o elaborando el hambre de los dioses que piden sacrificios humanos. Abstract in english Food and drink recreated in the Chile an poetry offer an alternative space to reflect upon ethnic matters, social class, gender and political violence. Every topoi defines a food route where stories have their say. In this way, we find four main routes: those in which writing priviledges the constru [...] ction of native communities around food preparation; those in which aesthetical projects elaborate their rural patrimony around food to defend themselves from centralized domination; those whose symbols construct and deconstruct cannibalistic desires among different intersubjectivities and those whose linguistic ancestry make hunger a motif of political discontent either by imagining abundance in the land of milk and honey or by elaborating the hunger of gods who demand human sacrifices.

  5. ANÁLISIS DE CONSULTAS A UN BUSCADOR DE LA WEB CHILENA

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ricardo, Baeza-Yates; Carolina, Galleguillos.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Los buscadores de páginas Web son herramientas indispensables de orientación para sus usuarios, lo cual refleja la gran cantidad de personas que los utilizan diariamente. Las bitácoras (logs) que registran el uso de un buscador son una valiosa fuente de información: nos hablan de las expectativas, p [...] referencias y necesidades de las personas, es decir, qué esperan ellas encontrar en la Web. El resultado del análisis de logs de uso tiene un importante valor comercial, en particular para el comercio electrónico y la publicidad en Internet. El objetivo de este estudio es encontrar relaciones entre las consultas de los usuarios de la Web Chilena (.cl) y las diversas áreas de clasificación de sus diferentes sitios. También se esperan encontrar relaciones entre los tipos de búsqueda realizados y los sitios visitados, para así conocer la necesidad que los lleva a formular sus consultas. La información obtenida está basada en los logs del buscador chileno TodoCL [1] entre febrero y marzo de 2004. Abstract in english Web page search engines are essential tools on users’ orientation, which is reflected by the big amount of people who are using them every day. The logs, reflecting the Web search engine uses, are a valuable source of information: they give us information about the users’ expectations, preferences a [...] nd needs, which is everything that they expect to find on the Web. The results from the logs usage analysis have an important commercial value, in particular, for e-commerce and Internet publicity. The purpose of this study is to find relations between Chilean Web (.cl) users’ queries and the different classification areas for its web sites. Also we expect to find relations between the search types made and the web sites visited, trying to get the need behind the query . The data used for this study was gotten from the Chilean search engine TodoCL, between February and March 2004.

  6. Genetics Transformation of Carica papaya by Infecting Mature Zygotic Embryos with Agrobacterium tumefaciens Strains LBA-4404

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.K. Azad

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Transient expression of the GUS gene has been demonstrated in somatic callus of the two varieties of Carica papaya cv. Shahi and Ranchi after co-cultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA-4404 carrying a binary plastid vector system containing neomycin phosphotransferase gene as the selectable marker and -glucuronidase (GUS as reporter gene. The mature embryonal axes were used as explants. The co-cultivated explants were ?transferred into final selection medium containing 500 mg L 1 carbenicillin + 200 mg L 1 cefotaxime + 50 mg L 1 kanamycin. The callus of C. papaya cv. Shahi showed highest GUS activity compared to C. papaya cv. Ranchi. The anatomical section of callus showed the positive GUS activity. All transformed callus grew vigorously in this medium and formed embryos followed by plantlets.

  7. The effect of gamma radiation on the chemical content, texture and shelf life of papaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commercially matured papaya, Carica papaya var. Solo were gamma irradiated at doses of 0 kGy, 0.75 kGy, 1.0 KGy and 1.5 kGy. The production rate of ethylene, development of ripening colour, pectin substances and ascorbic acid content as well as the weight losses were studied during storage at room temperature. Ethylene production, development of ripening colour and softening were found to be retarded by irradiation. Irradiation also slowed down the reduction rate of alcohol insoluble substances and hydrochloric acid soluble pectin and the increment of water soluble pectin and hexamataphosphate soluble pectin. Doses of 1.0 kGy and 1.5 kGy effectively suppressed the synthesis of vitamin C although no effect on the existing ascorbic acid was detected. The weight losses of papaya were not affected by irradiation treatment

  8. Combined Treatment of UV and Gamma Radiation of Papaya for Decay Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An exploratory study was made to determine if combining u.v. and gamma radiation treatment at selective doses would decrease the fungal decay incidence in papaya (Carica papaya L. var. Solo), and thereby increase the marketable life of the fruit. Also studied was the effect of the combined treatment on the spores of Aschochyta spp., Colletotrichium spp. and Phytophthora spp., which are commonly found on papaya grown in Hawaii. This was to test the postulate that the combined treatment would prevent photoreactivation of the disrupted nuclei in microorganisms and lead to eventual death. Experimental results did not indicate a conclusive trend to effectiveness but suggested a number of problems to be resolved before the treatment can become useful in fungal decay control of fruits. (author)

  9. Combined treatment of UV and gamma radiation of papaya for decay control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An exploratory study was made to determine if combining u.v. and gamma radiation treatment at selective doses would decrease the fungal decay incidence in papaya (Carica papaya L. var. Solo), and thereby increase the marketable life of the fruit. Also studied was the effect of the combined treatment on the spores of Aschochyta spp., Colletotrichium spp. and Phytophthora spp., which are commonly found on papaya grown in Hawaii. This was to test the postulate that the combined treatment would prevent photoreactivation of the disrupted nuclei in microorganisms and lead to eventual death. Experimental results did not indicate a conclusive trend to effectiveness but suggested a number of problems to be resolved before the treatment can become useful in fungal decay control of fruits. (author)

  10. Dinámica del crecimiento de papaya por efecto de la inoculación micorrízica y fertilización con fósforo / Growth dynamics of papaya due to mycorrhizal inoculation and phosphorous fertilization

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Evangelina Esmeralda, Quiñones-Aguilar; Luis, López-Pérez; Gabriel, Rincón-Enríquez.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available En México, la papaya es un fruto importante de exportación; sin embargo, este mercado exige calidad bio, constituyendo un reto en la producción con el uso de tecnologías bio-ecológicas y sostenibles. Los hongos micorrízicos arbusculares (HMA) pueden contribuir significativamente en la nutrición vege [...] tal, en especial en la obtención de fósforo (P). El empleo de los HMA en papaya es alentador, pero falta definir aspectos sobre el manejo agronómico de productos a base de HMA. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el efecto del HMA Glomus sp. Zac-2 y la fertilización con P, sobre el crecimiento de papaya var. Cera, durante la etapa de vivero. Para ello, se realizó un experimento trifactorial 2 x 3 x 4 (inoculación HMA, fuente y dosis de P) en un diseño completamente al azar. Las variables evaluadas fueron altura de planta (AP) y diámetro de tallo (DT), cada 15 días; biomasa seca (BS) y densidad de esporas (DE), al final del experimento (90 días). A partir de la BS de plantas con y sin micorrizar, se calculó el índice relativo de dependencia micorrízica (IRDM). Las variables AP, DT y BS fueron diferentes (P ? 0.05) entre plantas con y sin HMA, independientemente de la dosis y fuente de P. A los 75 días, las plantas con HMA incrementaron su crecimiento más de 500 % con respecto a las no inoculadas; el IRDM fue 99 %. Estos resultados sugieren que la inoculación de HMA en papaya durante la fase de vivero puede beneficiar su crecimiento posterior en campo. Abstract in english Papaya is a major fruit export for Mexico; however, the international market is increasingly demanding bio quality, representing a significant production challenge due to the need for bio-ecological and sustainable technologies. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can contribute significantly to plan [...] t nutrition, particularly in phosphorous (P) uptake. The use of AMF in papaya is yielding encouraging results, but there is a need to define certain aspects regarding agronomic management of AMF-based products. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of AMF Glomus sp. Zac-2 and P fertilization on the growth of Cera var. papaya during the nursery stage. For this, a 2 x 3 x 4 tri-factorial experiment (AMF inoculation, P source and P dose) was conducted in a completely randomized design. The variables plant height (PH) and stem diameter (SD) were evaluated every 15 days; dry biomass (DB) and spore density (SD) were assessed at the end of the experiment (90 days). From the DB of plants with and without mycorrhizal inoculation, the relative mycorrhizal dependency index (RMDI) was calculated. Data analysis showed significant differences (P ? 0.05) between papaya plants with and without AMF for PH, SD and DB, regardless of the P dose and source. At 75 days, growth increases of more than 500 % were recorded in plants with AMF compared to the non-inoculated plants; the RMDI was 99 %. These results suggest that AMF inoculation in papaya during the nursery phase can benefit further growth in the field.

  11. Effect of Maturity Stage of Papaya Maradol on Physiological and Biochemical Parameters

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    Laura E. Gayosso-García Sancho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Nowadays, the worldwide increase in diseases has motivated consumers to increase the intake of fruits and vegetables, in response to various research reports indicating that fruits and vegetables can help prevent certain types of illnesses, due to their potentially high antioxidant properties. We evaluated the effect of the stage of ripeness of papaya fruit (Carica papaya L. on the contents of bioactive components and their relation with antioxidant capacity. Approach: Whole papaya fruit were selected based on their visual ripeness, classifying them in four stages of ripeness (R1, R2, R3 and R4. Physiological and physical-chemical analysis performed included respiration, production of ethylene, firmness, pH, titratable acidity and total soluble solids, color (L*, a*, b*, °Hue, C; Polygalacturonase (PG and Pectin Methyl Esterase (PME activity, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity (measured using DPPH, TEAC and ORAC assays. Results: The antioxidant capacity decreased approximately 27% in the RS4 when using DPPH and TEAC and increased when using ORAC (60.9%. PG activity increased from 8.14 (in RS1-22.48 U gFW-1 (in RS4 as the stage of ripeness of papaya fruit increased. PME was affected in a similar manner with an activity of 0.5562 U gFW-1, at the end of the ripening storage. A high correlation between PG activity and softening of ripen papayas was observed. Conclusion/Recommendations: It was observed that papaya fruit experienced changes in firmness, which is correlated with activity from two of the main enzymes: PG and PME and with the increase of respiration and production of ethylene. The various stages of ripeness showed very good antioxidant capacity, being higher in RS1, which is correlated with the higher content of phenolic contents found in this ripening stage.

  12. Optimization of process parameters for foam-mat drying of papaya pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Palani; Varadharaju, N; Kalemullah, S; Maladhi, D

    2014-10-01

    Experiments were carried out to optimize the process parameters for production of papaya powder using foam-mat drying. Papaya pulp was foamed by incorporating methyl cellulose (0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1 %, w/w), glycerol-mono-stearate (1, 2, 3 and 4 %, w/w) and egg white (5, 10, 15 and 20 %, w/w) as foaming agents. The maximum stable foam formation was 72, 90 and 125% at 0.75 % methyl cellulose, 3 % glycerol-mono-stearate and 15 % egg white respectively with 9°Brix pulp and whipping time of 20 min. The foamed pulp was dried at air temperature of 60, 65 and 70 °C with foam thickness of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 mm in a batch type cabinet dryer. The drying time required for foamed papaya pulp was lower than non-foamed pulp at all selected temperatures. Biochemical analysis results showed a significant reduction in ascorbic acid, ?-carotene and total sugars in the foamed papaya dried product at higher foam thickness (6, 8 and 10 mm) and temperature (65 and 70 °C due to destruction at higher drying temperature and increasing time. There was no significant change in other biochemical constituents such as pH and acidity. The organoleptic and sensory evaluation of the quality attributes of papaya powder obtained from the pulp of 9°Brix added with 3 % glycerol-mono-stearate, whipped for 20 min and dried with a foam thickness of 4 mm at a temperature of 60 °C was found to be optimum to produce the foam-mat dried papaya powder. PMID:25328192

  13. Stability and efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells based on papaya-leaf dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyitno, Suyitno; Saputra, Trisma Jaya; Supriyanto, Agus; Arifin, Zainal

    2015-09-01

    The present article reports on the enhancement of the performance and stability of natural dye-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Natural dyes extracted from papaya leaves (PL) were investigated as sensitizers in TiO2-based DSSCs and evaluated in comparison with N719 dye. The acidity of the papaya-leaf extract dyes was tuned by adding benzoic acid. The TiO2 film-coated fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrates were prepared using the doctor-blade method, followed by sintering at 450°C. The counter electrode was coated by chemically deposited catalytic platinum. The working electrodes were immersed in N719 dye and papaya dye solutions with concentrations of 8g/100mL. The absorbance spectra of the dyes were obtained by ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy. The energy levels of the dyes were measured by the method of cyclic voltammetry. In addition, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to determine the characteristic functionalities of the dye molecules. The DSSC based on the N719 dye displayed a highest efficiency of 0.87% whereas those based on papaya-leaf dye achieved 0.28% at pH 3.5. The observed improved efficiency of the latter was attributed to the increased current density value. Furthermore, the DSSCs based on papaya-leaf dye with pH 3.5-4 exhibited better stability than those based on N719 dye. However, further studies are required to improve the current density and stability of natural dye-based DSSCs, including the investigation of alternative dye extraction routes, such as isolating the pure chlorophyll from papaya leaves and stabilizing it. PMID:25875031

  14. CHARACTERIZATION OF PAPAYA FRUIT MEDIATED SILVER NANOPARTICLES AND EVALUATION OF ITS ANTIMICROBIAL AND WOUND HEALING ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EnamalaNarmadha

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The field of Nanotechnology is the most active area of research in modern material science. Though there are many chemical as well as physical methods, green synthesis of nanomaterial is the most emerging method of synthesis. We report the synthesis of antibacterial silver nanoparticles using Papaya. The synthesized AgNPs have been characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy and SEM microscopy. The silver nanoparticles stabilized by Papaya fruit extract were found to have enhanced antimicrobial activity against well-known pathogenic strains Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris and E. coli.

  15. Effect of ionizing radiation on the activity of pectinesterase in papaya (cultivar solo)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papaya fruits (Carica papaya L.) were exposed to ionizing radiation gamma type ( sup(60)Co), using a dose of 0.7kGy, and then stored in a cold room at 10C with a relative humidity of 85% for a period of 25 days. The pectinesterase activity of the irradiated fruits was found to be similar to that of the non-irradiated fruits during the storage period. The radiation dose maintained the texture and enzyme activity of the irradiated fruits the same as that of the non-irradiated fruits. (author)

  16. Effect of 60Co ? irradiation and GA3 treatment on mutation of Carica papaya L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The seeds of Carica papaya L. were irradiated by 60Co ?-rays of 10-40 Gy and treated by GA3 of 10-50 mg/L after irradiation. The results showed that small nuclear cell percentage, chromosome variation percentage and leaf variability of papaya seedling increased with increase of irradiation dose, the pollen fertility and fruit quality decreased. GA3 of 10-50 mg/L treatment after irradiation could alleviate the irradiation harm, and the effect of lower concentration of GA3 was better than higher concentration with lower dose irradiation, however, the effect of higher concentration of GA3 was better with higher dose irradiation

  17. Quality of Guava and Papaya Fruit Pulp as Influenced by Blending Ratio and Storage Period

    OpenAIRE

    Nema, Prabhat K.; Priyanka Jain; P.K. Jain

    2011-01-01

    Guava and papaya are the most widely grown commercial fruits of central India. Both the fruits are nutritive and may be used for processing. The analysis of organoleptic characters (i.e., colour, flavour, texture, taste and overall acceptability) and qualitative characters (i.e., TSS, pH, acidity, ascorbic acid content) of guava and papaya fruits was conducted on fresh fruit, prepared pulp and mixed pulp. During the storage of fruit pulp at low temperature (6±1°C), the decrease in overall acc...

  18. Purification of papain from fresh latex of Carica papaya

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rubens, Monti; Carmelita A., Basilio; Henrique C., Trevisan; Jonas, Contiero.

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho apresenta-se um método de cristalização da papaína oriunda do látex fresco de mamão, o qual apresenta uma alta produtividade em relação aos métodos previamente descritos. A metodologia aqui descrita não envolve o uso de reagentes sulfidrílicos, a papaína foi obtida de forma prat [...] icamente pura, apresentando uma simples banda quando submetida a eletroforese, e com propriedades idênticas àquelas obtidas por outros métodos. A atividade específica foi determinada utilizando Z-gly-pNP e BAEE como substrato. A papaína obtida por essa metodologia, sem uso de substâncias tais como cisteína e ditiotreitol, apresenta-se na forma de um complexo com inibidores naturais, os quais podem ser removidos por diálise. Abstract in english In the present study we wish to report a method of crystallizing papain from fresh papaya latex which gave higher yields than previously reported. This method does not involve the use of sulphydryl reagents. The papain thus obtained is practically pure and shows a single band when submitted to elect [...] rophoresis on polyacrylamide gel, and is identical to the papain obtained by other methods. In routine enzymatic assays, specific activity was measured using Z-gly-pNP and BAEE as substrates. Papain crystallized by this method, without the use of high concentrations of salts or thiol-containing substances such as cysteine and dithiothreitol, is obtained in the form of a complex with natural inhibitors existent in latex which can be removed by dialysis.

  19. Purification of papain from fresh latex of Carica papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Monti

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we wish to report a method of crystallizing papain from fresh papaya latex which gave higher yields than previously reported. This method does not involve the use of sulphydryl reagents. The papain thus obtained is practically pure and shows a single band when submitted to electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gel, and is identical to the papain obtained by other methods. In routine enzymatic assays, specific activity was measured using Z-gly-pNP and BAEE as substrates. Papain crystallized by this method, without the use of high concentrations of salts or thiol-containing substances such as cysteine and dithiothreitol, is obtained in the form of a complex with natural inhibitors existent in latex which can be removed by dialysis.No presente trabalho apresenta-se um método de cristalização da papaína oriunda do látex fresco de mamão, o qual apresenta uma alta produtividade em relação aos métodos previamente descritos. A metodologia aqui descrita não envolve o uso de reagentes sulfidrílicos, a papaína foi obtida de forma praticamente pura, apresentando uma simples banda quando submetida a eletroforese, e com propriedades idênticas àquelas obtidas por outros métodos. A atividade específica foi determinada utilizando Z-gly-pNP e BAEE como substrato. A papaína obtida por essa metodologia, sem uso de substâncias tais como cisteína e ditiotreitol, apresenta-se na forma de um complexo com inibidores naturais, os quais podem ser removidos por diálise.

  20. Estudo do processo de extração de papaína a partir do látex do fruto de mamão (Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol Study of the extraction process of papain from the latex of the fruit of papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita M Andrade-Mahecha

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi estudado o processo de extração da papaína presente no látex de frutos de mamão (Carica papaya L. cultivar Maradol. As variáveis estudadas na extração da papaína foram proporção de látex:álcool (1:2.1 e 1:3 e tipo de secagem (à vácuo e por refractance window. As respostas obtidas foram atividade enzimática da enzima e rendimento do processo de extração. O melhor resultado em termos de atividade enzimática e rendimento foi obtido nas condições de secagem à vácuo e proporção látex:álcool de 1:3. A enzima obtida foi caracterizada por testes físico-químicos, microbiológicos e de atividade enzimática e comparada com uma amostra comercial usada como padrão.In this work, we studied the Papain extraction process, from the latex of papaya fruit (Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol. The variables studied in the extraction of papain were: the proportion of latex:alcohol (1:2.1 and 1:3 and type of drying( vacuum and refractance window and the responses obtained in terms of enzymatic activity of the enzyme papain and yield of the extraction process. The best result in terms of enzyme activity and yield was the procedure used to vacuum drying and the proportion latex:alcohol 1:3. The enzyme obtained was characterized by physico-chemical, microbiological and enzymatic activity when compared with a commercial sample used as standard.

  1. / Study of the extraction process of papain from the latex of the fruit of papaya (Carica papaya L.) cv. Maradol / Estudo do processo de extração de papaína a partir do látex do fruto de mamão (Carica papaya L.) cv. Maradol

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Margarita M, Andrade-Mahecha; Olga, Morales-Rodríguez; Hugo A, Martínez-Correa.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi estudado o processo de extração da papaína presente no látex de frutos de mamão (Carica papaya L.) cultivar Maradol. As variáveis estudadas na extração da papaína foram proporção de látex:álcool (1:2.1 e 1:3) e tipo de secagem (à vácuo e por refractance window). As respostas obtid [...] as foram atividade enzimática da enzima e rendimento do processo de extração. O melhor resultado em termos de atividade enzimática e rendimento foi obtido nas condições de secagem à vácuo e proporção látex:álcool de 1:3. A enzima obtida foi caracterizada por testes físico-químicos, microbiológicos e de atividade enzimática e comparada com uma amostra comercial usada como padrão. Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english In this work, we studied the Papain extraction process, from the latex of papaya fruit (Carica papaya L.) cv. Maradol. The variables studied in the extraction of papain were: the proportion of latex:alcohol (1:2.1 and 1:3) and type of drying( vacuum and refractance window) and the responses obtained [...] in terms of enzymatic activity of the enzyme papain and yield of the extraction process. The best result in terms of enzyme activity and yield was the procedure used to vacuum drying and the proportion latex:alcohol 1:3. The enzyme obtained was characterized by physico-chemical, microbiological and enzymatic activity when compared with a commercial sample used as standard.

  2. SIGNIFICADO DE LA HISTERECTOMÍA PARA UN GRUPO DE MUJERES CHILENAS

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    María Teresa Urrutia S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: La histerectomía por patología benigna del útero, es una de las cirugías más frecuente después de la operación cesárea. Objetivo: Evaluar el significado que tiene la histerectomía para mujeres chilenas, beneficiarías de un hospital público de la Región Metropolitana de Santiago, Chile. Método: Estudio transversal descriptivo, de tipo cualitativo, sobre el significado que 120 mujeres histerectomizadas asigna a esa cirugía. Se describen 3 temas que reflejan el significado de la extracción del útero: pérdida, tristeza-dolor, y mejoría de una enfermedad. Resultados: El promedio de edad fue 56 ±11,9 años, y de escolaridad de 7,8 ± 4,3 años. El 63% de las mujeres fue histerectomizada por patología ginecológica benigna. El significado que la mujer atribuye a la extracción del útero se encuentra relacionado a una experiencia de pérdida, que si bien conlleva un alivio de la enfermedad, también implica dolor, tristeza y soledad. Conclusión: Sensibilizar a los profesionales de la salud, que trabajan con mujeres histerectomizadas, a comprender y respetar el significado que para ellas tiene la histerectomía y propiciar el ambiente adecuado para contenerlas y educarlas pre y pos cirugía.Background: Elective hysterectomy, after caesarian section, is one of the most frequent surgeries. Objective: To evaluate the significance that the hysterectomy has for Chilean women from a public hospital of the Metropolitan Region of Santiago, Chile. Method: Qualitative and cross-sectional design study of the significance of hysterectomy for 120 women. Three themes were derived from interviews: loss, sadness - sorrow, recovery from illness. Results: The mean of age was 56 ± 11.9 years; the educational level was 7.8 ± 4.3 years. A total of 63% of women had planned elective hysterectomy preformed. The significance that the women attribute to the hysterectomy is related to the experience of loss, and although it includes recovery from illness, it also signifies sorrow, sadness, and loneliness. Conclusion: The health care providers, who work with these women, need to be respectful and understanding of the significance that the women give to this surgery, and to give them the best setting for supporting and educating them before and after the surgery.

  3. Caracterización del aceite de coquito de palma chilena (Jubaea chilensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torija, M. Esperanza

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of the seeds from Chilean palm and the detailed composition of its fat are studied starting from 4 lots of seeds from the two regions being the major producers of Chilean palm seeds. From the proximate composition of the seeds a high content of fats is deduced with a mean value of 67.3%. The contents of proteins, carbohydrates and fibre were in the range of 7-11%. A detailed analysis of the fat indicates a high content of saturated fatty acids being capric, caprilic, lauric and miristic acids the major fatty acids. For this reason the presence of a high percentage of medium-chain triglycerides are detected in the triglyceride analysis. As for tocopherols, the fat contains low amounts of α-, γ- y δ-tocopherol with a total average of 84 mg/kg. Concerning phytosterols, the total content was around 1000 mg/kg being β-sitosterol and Î?7-estigmastenol the two major sterolsSe analizan las características generales del coquito de palma chilena y se estudia con detalle la composición de su aceite. Con este objetivo, se analizan 4 lotes de coquitos procedentes de las dos regiones de Chile donde existe mayor producción. La composición proximal del coquito indica un contenido muy mayoritario de grasa, con un promedio de 67,3% mientras los contenidos de proteínas, hidratos de carbono y fibra se encuentran entre el 7 y el 11%. Un análisis detallado de la grasa muestra un contenido elevado de ácidos grasos saturados (alrededor del 85% siendo los ácidos cáprico, caprílico, láurico y mirístico los que se encuentran en mayor concentración, lo que origina un elevado porcentaje de triglicéridos de cadena media. Respecto a los tocoferoles, el aceite contiene cantidades limitadas de α-, γ- y δ-tocoferol con un valor promedio total de 84 mg/kg, no detectándose la presencia de tocotrienoles. Respecto a los fitoesteroles, el contenido total es del orden de 1000 mg/kg siendo los esteroles mayoritarios el β-sitosterol y el Î?7-estigmastenol.

  4. Reação de germoplasma e híbridos de mamoeiro à mancha-de-phoma (Phoma caricae-papayae) em condições de campo / Reaction of germplasm and hybrid of papaya to phoma-spot (Phoma caricae-papayae) in field conditions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcelo, Vivas; Silvaldo Felipe da, Silveira; Carlos Eduardo Pessanha da Silva, Terra; Messias Gonzaga, Pereira.

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de se avaliar germoplasmas e híbridos de mamoeiro quanto à resistência a mancha-de-phoma em folhas, foram conduzidos três experimentos em blocos ao acaso com duas repetições na empresa Caliman Agrícola S/A, Linhares, Espírito Santo. Avaliou-se, em duas épocas, a incidência e a severid [...] ade da mancha-de-phoma em folhas de 50 genótipos e de 68 híbridos. Os genótipos que apresentaram menores severidades de doença foram 'Maradol', 'Maradol GL', 'Papaya 46', 'Tailândia' e 'SH 15-04' e os que apresentaram menores incidências foram 'Maradol', 'Maradol GL', 'Americano', 'Tailândia' e 'Baixinho de Santa Amália'. Os híbridos com menores incidências foram 'Americano x Waimanalo', 'Sekati x JS 12', 'Maradol x Taiwan et' e 'Maradol x Caliman G' enquanto que as menores severidades foram observadas em 'Calimosa x Tailândia', 'Calimosa x Maradol', 'Sekati x Caliman AM' e 'Sekati x JS 12'. Estes resultados orientarão o melhoramento voltado para a resistência à mancha-de-phoma na cultura do mamoeiro por meio de hibridizações, bem como auxiliarão na escolha de cultivares para o plantio, visando reduzir a necessidade de controle químico na cultura do mamoeiro. Abstract in english With the objective of evaluating germplasm and hybrids of papaya for their reaction to phoma-spot in leaves, three experiments were performed in a completely randomized block design with two replications at Agricultural Caliman S/A, in Linhares, Espírito Santo, Brazil. The incidence and severity of [...] phoma-spot were evaluated in leaves of 50 genotypes and 68 hybrids. The lowest levels of disease severity were observed in 'Maradol', 'Maradol GL', 'Papaya 46', 'Tailândia', and 'SH 15-04' whereas the lowest incidences were detected in 'Maradol', 'Maradol GL', 'Americano', 'Tailândia' and 'Baixinho de Santa Amália'. The hybrids 'Calimosa x Tailândia', 'Calimosa x Maradol', 'Sekati x Caliman AM' and 'Sekati x JS 12' presented the lowest levels of severity, whereas 'Americano x Waimanalo', 'Sekati x JS 12', 'Maradol x Taiwan et' and 'Maradol x Caliman G' had the lowest incidence of disease. These results should be useful as a guide in breeding for resistance to phoma-spot of the papaya crop through hybridization, as well as in the recommendation of cultivars, seeking to reduce the necessity of chemical control in papaya crops.

  5. Parámetros poblacionales de Tetranychus merganser Boudreaux (Acari: Tetranychidae) en papayo (Carica papaya L.) a diferentes temperaturas / Population parameters of Tetranychus merganser Boudreaux (Acari: Tetranychidae) in papaya (Carica papaya L.) at different temperatures

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Noel, Reyes-Pérez; Juan A., Villanueva-Jiménez; Mónica, de la Cruz Vargas-Mendoza; Héctor, Cabrera-Mireles; Gabriel, Otero-Colina.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available El ácaro Tetranychus merganser es una de las especies que causa mayor daño económico en la zona productora de papayo (Carica papaya) del estado de Veracruz, México. Por tanto, se requiere conocer aspectos de su biología para tomar mejores decisiones de su manejo. Se obtuvo una colonia de ácaros a pa [...] rtir de una hembra recolectada en el municipio de Manlio F. Altamirano, y se incrementó la población en invernadero sobre hojas de frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris). El objetivo fue evaluar la influencia de la temperatura en los parámetros poblacionales de esta especie y sobre la duración de sus fases de desarrollo. Para ello se iniciaron cohortes desde huevecillos y expuestas a las siguientes condiciones: temperaturas constantes (19, 23, 27, 31, 33 y 35 °C); 60±2 % de humedad relativa; fotoperiodo de 14:10 h luz:oscuridad y alimentación en discos de hojas de papaya. La duración del ciclo de vida de T. merganser disminuyó de 52.3 hasta 12.9 d con el aumento de la temperatura. La tasa neta reproductiva (Ro) fue 37.40, 62.38, 43.98, 10.47 y 2.32 para 19, 23, 27, 31 y 33° C; a 35 °C la cohorte no fue viable. La tasa intrínseca de crecimiento poblacional (r m) fue 0.08, 0.19, 0.21, 0.18 y 0.12 a las temperaturas anotadas. El desarrollo óptimo ocurrió entre 23 y 27 °C. Aunque el papayo no es su mejor hospedero comparado con parámetros poblacionales más favorables obtenidos por otros autores en frijol, T. merganser puede comportarse como plaga en papayo en las condiciones ambientales predominantes en la zona. Abstract in english Tetranychus merganser is a mite species that causes greater economic damage in the papaya (Carica papaya) production area in the state of Veracruz, Mexico. Therefore, it was necessary to study their biology in order to make better decisions in their management. We obtained a colony of mites from a f [...] emale collected in the municipality of Manlio F. Altamirano, and expanded their population on bean leaves (Phaseolus vulgaris) under greenhouse conditions. The objective was to evaluate the influence of temperature on the population parameters of this species and the duration of their developmental stages. For this purpose, we established cohorts starting with eggs, and exposed them to the following conditions: constant temperatures (19, 23, 27, 31, 33 and 35 °C); 60±2 % relative humidity, photoperiod of 14:10 h light:dark, and fed with papaya leaf discs. The duration of the life cycle of T. merganser decreased from 52.3 to 12.9 d with the increase of temperature. The net reproductive rate (R) was 37.40, 62.38, 43.98, 10.47 and 2.32 for 19, 23, 27, 31 and 33 °C; at 35 °C, the cohort was not viable. The intrinsic rate of population increase (r m) was 0.08, 0.19, 0.21, 0.18 and 0.12 at the temperatures recorded. Optimal development occurred between 23 and 27 C. Although papaya is not its best host compared to more favorable population parameters obtained by other authors in beans, T. merganser can behave like a pest in papaya under the environmental conditions prevailing in the area.

  6. RNA Interference of 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic Acid Oxidase (ACO1 and ACO2) Genes Expression Prolongs the Shelf Life of Eksotika (Carica papaya L.) Papaya Fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Rogayah Sekeli; Janna Ong Abdullah; Parameswari Namasivayam; Pauziah Muda; Umi Kalsom Abu Bakar; Wee Chien Yeong; Vilasini Pillai

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of using RNA interference in down regulating the expression of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase gene in Eksotika papaya. One-month old embryogenic calli were separately transformed with Agrobacterium strain LBA 4404 harbouring the three different RNAi pOpOff2 constructs bearing the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase gene. A total of 176 putative transformed lines were produced from 15,000 calli transformed, se...

  7. Avaliação de genótipos de melancia para resistência ao Papaya ringspot vírus, estirpe melancia Evaluation of watermelon genotypes for resistance to Papaya ringspot virus, type watermelon

    OpenAIRE

    Jairo V. Vieira; Antonio Carlos de Ávila; Giovani Olegário da Silva

    2010-01-01

    Verificou-se a eficiência de duas metodologias de avaliação em nove genótipos de melancia da resistência a três isolados de Papaya ringspot virus, estirpe melancia (PRSV-W), de três regiões brasileiras. O delineamento do experimento foi em blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. Cada parcela foi composta de um vaso com 5 kg de substrato com cinco plantas de melancia por vaso. Aos 10 e 13 dias após a semeadura, três isolados do PRSV-W coletados nos estados de Goiás, Pernambuco ...

  8. Resistance of non-transgenic papaya plants to papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) mediated by intron-containing hairpin dsRNAs expressed in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, W; Yang, G; Chen, Y; Yan, P; Tuo, D; Li, X; Zhou, P

    2014-01-01

    RNA-mediated virus resistance based on natural antiviral RNA silencing has been exploited as a powerful tool for engineering virus resistance in plants. In this study, a conserved 3'-region (positions 9839-10117, 279 nt) of the capsid protein (CP) gene of papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), designated CP279, was used to generate an intron-containing hairpin RNA (ihpRNA) construct by one-step, zero-background ligation-independent cloning (OZ-LIC). The RNaseIII-deficient Escherichia coli strain M-JM109lacY was identified as the best choice for producing large quantities of specific ihpRNA-CP279. Resistance analyses and ELISA data verified that most papaya plants mechanically co-inoculated with TRIzol-extracted ihpRNA-CP279 and PRSV were resistant to PRSV, and resistance was maintained throughout the test period (>2 months post-inoculation). In contrast, a 1-2 day interval between sequential inoculation of PRSV and ihpRNA-CP279 did not result in complete protection against PRSV infection, but delayed the appearance of viral symptoms by 3 to 4 days. These findings indicate that direct mechanical inoculation of papaya plants with bacterially-expressed ihpRNA-CP279 targeting the PRSV CP gene can interfere with virus infection. This work lays a foundation for developing a non-transgenic approach to control PRSV by directly spraying plants with ihpRNA or crude bacterial extract preparations. PMID:25283861

  9. Low-dose gamma irradiation following hot Water immersion of Papaya (Carica Papaya linn.) fruits provides additional control of postharvest fungal infection to extend shelf life.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rashid, M. H. A.; Grout, Brian William Wilson

    2015-01-01

    Low-dose gamma irradiation (0.08 kGy over 10 min), a level significantly below that required to satisfy the majority of international quarantine regulations, has been employed to provide a significant reduction in visible fungal infection on papaya fruit surfaces. This is appropriate for local and national markets in producer countries where levels of commercial acceptability can be retained despite surface lesions due to fungal infection. Irradiation alone and in combination with hot-water immersion (50 °C for 10 min) has been applied to papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruits at both the mature green and 1/3 yellow stages of maturity. The incidence and severity of surface fungal infections, including anthracnose, were significantly reduced by the combined treatment compared to irradiation or hot water treatment alone, extending storage at 11 °C by 13 days and retaining commercial acceptability. The combined treatment had no significant, negative impact on ripening, with quality characteristics such as surface and internal colour change, firmness, soluble solids, acidity and vitamin C maintained at acceptable levels.

  10. Low-dose gamma irradiation following hot water immersion of papaya (Carica papaya linn.) fruits provides additional control of postharvest fungal infection to extend shelf life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, M. H. A.; Grout, B. W. W.; Continella, A.; Mahmud, T. M. M.

    2015-05-01

    Low-dose gamma irradiation (0.08 kGy over 10 min), a level significantly below that required to satisfy the majority of international quarantine regulations, has been employed to provide a significant reduction in visible fungal infection on papaya fruit surfaces. This is appropriate for local and national markets in producer countries where levels of commercial acceptability can be retained despite surface lesions due to fungal infection. Irradiation alone and in combination with hot-water immersion (50 °C for 10 min) has been applied to papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruits at both the mature green and 1/3 yellow stages of maturity. The incidence and severity of surface fungal infections, including anthracnose, were significantly reduced by the combined treatment compared to irradiation or hot water treatment alone, extending storage at 11 °C by 13 days and retaining commercial acceptability. The combined treatment had no significant, negative impact on ripening, with quality characteristics such as surface and internal colour change, firmness, soluble solids, acidity and vitamin C maintained at acceptable levels.

  11. Avaliação do efeito de fosfitos na redução da varíola (Asperisporium caricae do mamoeiro (Carica papaya Evaluation of phosphite applications for severity of papaya black spot (Asperisporium caricae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei de Campos Dianese

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O controle da varíola do mamoeiro é necessário; portanto, propôs-se, neste estudo, avaliar o efeito de aplicações foliares de fosfitos (K, Ca, Mg e Cu sobre a doença. Dois fosfitos e o fungicida Fosetyl-Al foram testados em condições de campo, com plantas naturalmente infectadas pelo patógeno. Dez fosfitos e o fungicida Fosetyl-Al foram testados sob telado também com plantas naturalmente infectadas por A. caricae. Tanto no experimento de campo quanto sob telado, os tratamentos contendo fosfito reduziram a severidade da doença.The control of black spot of papaya is necessary, therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of foliar applications of phosphites (K, Ca, Mg and Cu on papaya black spot. Two phosphites and the fungicide Fosetyl-Al were tested on a field trial with papaya plants naturally infected by the pathogen. Ten phosphites and the fungicide Fosetyl-Al were tested in a greenhouse trial, also with plants naturally infected by A. caricae. In both, field and greenhouse trials, the phosphite treatments reduced black spot severity.

  12. Avaliação do efeito de fosfitos na redução da varíola (Asperisporium caricae) do mamoeiro (Carica papaya) / Evaluation of phosphite applications for severity of papaya black spot (Asperisporium caricae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alexei de Campos, Dianese; Luiz Eduardo Bassay, Blum; Jaqueline Barbosa, Dutra; Leonardo Ferreira, Lopes; Mariana Coelho, Sena; Leandro Ferreira de, Freitas.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O controle da varíola do mamoeiro é necessário; portanto, propôs-se, neste estudo, avaliar o efeito de aplicações foliares de fosfitos (K, Ca, Mg e Cu) sobre a doença. Dois fosfitos e o fungicida Fosetyl-Al foram testados em condições de campo, com plantas naturalmente infectadas pelo patógeno. Dez [...] fosfitos e o fungicida Fosetyl-Al foram testados sob telado também com plantas naturalmente infectadas por A. caricae. Tanto no experimento de campo quanto sob telado, os tratamentos contendo fosfito reduziram a severidade da doença. Abstract in english The control of black spot of papaya is necessary, therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of foliar applications of phosphites (K, Ca, Mg and Cu) on papaya black spot. Two phosphites and the fungicide Fosetyl-Al were tested on a field trial with papaya plants naturally infe [...] cted by the pathogen. Ten phosphites and the fungicide Fosetyl-Al were tested in a greenhouse trial, also with plants naturally infected by A. caricae. In both, field and greenhouse trials, the phosphite treatments reduced black spot severity.

  13. Induction of Resistance to Papaya Black Spot Elicited by Acibenzolar-S-Methyl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A.R. Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of acibenzolar-S-methyl tested at 5 concentrations (0, 1, 5, 25 and 100 ?M a.i. for its ability to protect papaya (Carica papaya cv. Rainbow from black spot (Asperisporium caricae following inoculation with the fungus. Effects of resistance induction treatment against black spot disease were evaluated by measuring the plant height and stem diameter. Disease symptoms were scored weekly by visually estimating disease severity of plants on the basis of a 5-class visual scale of 0 (no symptoms to 4 (extensive lesions on leaves. Accumulation of defence-related proteins in papaya leaves were also analysed and compared. Results revealed that the level of protection against A. caricae was dose-dependent. Maximum reduction of the disease in leaves was obtained with 25-100 ?M acibenzolar-S-methyl, with a time interval of 3 days between application of the activator and inoculation with the pathogen. The systemic resistance elicitation was characterized by an increase in 2 pathogenesis-related proteins, chitinase and ?-1, 3-glucanase. These results indicate that acibenzolar-S-methyl induces partial resistance in papaya against black spot disease which may provide the grower a new option for integrated management of the disease.

  14. How to become a tree without wood - biomechanical analysis of the stem of Carica papaya L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempe, A; Lautenschläger, T; Lange, A; Neinhuis, C

    2013-05-01

    Carica papaya L. does not contain wood, according to the botanical definition of wood as lignified secondary xylem. Despite its parenchymatous secondary xylem, these plants are able to grow up to 10-m high. This is surprising, as wooden structural elements are the ubiquitous strategy for supporting height growth in plants. Proposed possible alternative principles to explain the compensation for lack of wood in C. papaya are turgor pressure of the parenchyma, lignified phloem fibres in the bark, or a combination of the two. Interestingly, lignified tissue comprises only 5-8% of the entire stem mass. Furthermore, the phloem fibres do not form a compact tube enclosing the xylem, but instead form a mesh tubular structure. To investigate the mechanism of papaya's unusually high mechanical strength, a set of mechanical measurements were undertaken on whole stems and tissue sections of secondary phloem and xylem. The structural Young's modulus of mature stems reached 2.5 GPa. Since this is low compared to woody plants, the flexural rigidity of papaya stem construction may mainly be based on a higher second moment of inertia. Additionally, stem turgor pressure was determined indirectly by immersing specimens in sucrose solutions of different osmolalities, followed by mechanical tests; turgor pressure was between 0.82 and 1.25 MPa, indicating that turgor is essential for flexural rigidity of the entire stem. PMID:23656471

  15. Chromosomal location and gene paucity of the male specific region on papaya Y chromosome.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yu, Q.; Hou, S.; Hobza, Roman; Feltus, F.A.; Wang, X.; Jin, W.; Skelton, R.L.; Blas, A.; Lemke, C.; Saw, J.H.; Moore, P.H.; Alam, M.; Jiang, J.; Paterson, A.H.; Vyskot, Boris; Ming, R.

    2007-01-01

    Ro?. 278, ?. 2 (2007), s. 177-185. ISSN 1617-4615 R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GA521/06/0056 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : Carica papaya * repetitive sequences * sex chromosome Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.978, year: 2007

  16. Factors affecting the anthelmintic efficacy of papaya latex in vivo: host sex and intensity of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luoga, Wenceslaus; Mansur, Fadlul; Lowe, Ann; Duce, Ian R; Buttle, David J; Behnke, Jerzy M

    2015-07-01

    The development of plant-derived cysteine proteinases, such as those in papaya latex, as novel anthelmintics requires that the variables affecting efficacy be fully evaluated. Here, we conducted two experiments, the first to test for any effect of host sex and the second to determine whether the intensity of the worm burden carried by mice would influence efficacy. In both experiments, we used the standard C3H mouse reference strain in which papaya latex supernatant (PLS) consistently shows >80 % reduction in Heligmosomoides bakeri worm burdens, but to broaden the perspective, we also included for comparison mice of other strains that are known to respond more poorly to treatment with papaya latex. Our results confirmed that there is a strong genetic influence affecting efficacy of PLS in removing adult worm burdens. However, there was no effect of host sex on efficacy (C3H and NIH) and no effect of infection intensity (C3H and BALB/c). These results offer optimism that plant-derived cysteine proteinases (CPs), such as these from papaya latex, can function as effective anthelmintics, with neither host sex nor infection intensity presenting further hurdles to impede their development for future medicinal and veterinary usage. PMID:25855350

  17. Efforts to deregulate Rainbow papaya in Japan: Molecular Characterization of Transgene and Vector Inserts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transformation plasmid-derived insert number and insert site sequence in 55-1 line papaya derivatives Rainbow and SunUp was determined as part of a larger petition to allow its import into Japan (Suzuki, et al., 2007, 2008). Three insertions were detected by Southern analysis and their correspondin...

  18. Polyethylene glycol effects on somatic embryogenesis of papaya hybrid UENF/CALIMAN 01 seeds

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Angelo Schuabb, Heringer; Ellen Moura, Vale; Tatiana, Barroso; Claudete, Santa-Catarina; Vanildo, Silveira.

    Full Text Available Among commercial fruits, papaya (Carica papaya L.) is notably one of the most common ones around the world. The aim of the current study was to establish a somatic embryogenesis protocol for the hybrid UENF/CALIMAN 01, elucidating the effects of sucrose and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) on [...] the induction of embryogenic cultures and the effect of polyethylene glycol (PEG) on somatic embryo maturation. Immature zygotic embryos of C. papaya hybrid UENF/CALIMAN 01 were cultured in MS culture medium supplemented with different concentrations of sucrose (30 and 60 g L-1) and 2,4-D (0, 20, 40 and 80 ?M). The combination of 30 g L-1 sucrose and 20 ?M 2,4-D resulted in the highest induction rates and the largest callus diameters. Furthermore, this combination was associated with the greatest potential to form somatic embryos. To promote maturation, cultures were inoculated in MS medium and exposed to different concentrations of PEG (0, 30 and 60 g L-1). The 60 g L-1 PEG treatment group had the highest average for the number, maturation and conversion of somatic embryos that resulted in plantlets at the end of the process. The addition of PEG to MS medium led to increased protein synthesis. These results are unprecedented for C. papaya hybrid UENF/CALIMAN 01 as the current study demonstrates the development of somatic embryogenesis in this high quality hybrid.

  19. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of the glutaminyl cyclase from Carica papaya latex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The glutaminyl cyclase isolated from C. papaya latex has been crystallized using the hanging-drop method. Diffraction data have been collected at ESRF beamline BM14 and processed to 1.7 Å resolution. In living systems, the intramolecular cyclization of N-terminal glutamine residues is accomplished by glutaminyl cyclase enzymes (EC 2.3.2.5). While in mammals these enzymes are involved in the synthesis of hormonal and neurotransmitter peptides, the physiological role played by the corresponding plant enzymes still remains to be unravelled. Papaya glutaminyl cyclase (PQC), a 33 kDa enzyme found in the latex of the tropical tree Carica papaya, displays an exceptional resistance to chemical and thermal denaturation as well as to proteolysis. In order to elucidate its enzymatic mechanism and to gain insights into the structural determinants underlying its remarkable stability, PQC was isolated from papaya latex, purified and crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 62.82, b = 81.23, c = 108.17 Å and two molecules per asymmetric unit. Diffraction data have been collected at ESRF beamline BM14 and processed to a resolution of 1.7 Å

  20. Application of Transgenic Technologies to Papaya: Developments and Biosafety Assessments in Thailand.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kertbundit, Sunee; Ju?í?ek, Miloslav

    2010-01-01

    Ro?. 4, ?. 1 (2010), s. 52-57. ISSN 1749-0413 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : coat protein-mediated resistance * GMO * Papaya ringspot virus Subject RIV: EF - Botanics http://home.ueb.cas.cz/publikace/2010_Kertbundit_TransgenicPlantJournal_52.pdf

  1. 7 CFR 319.56-25 - Papayas from Central America and Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...yellow, surrounded by light green), and appeared to be free...the Medfly population in the production area. The NPPO kept records...importations of papayas from that production area must be halted until...fruit fly population in the production area. If the average...

  2. Molecular and Clinical Effects of Green Tea and Fermented Papaya Preparation on Diabetes and Cardiovascular Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-14

    Assess the Effect of Green Tea on Diabetes; Assess the Effect of Fermented Papaya Pretration on Diabetes; Effects of Green Tea and FPP on C-reactive Proteins; Effects of Green Tea and FPP of Lipid Profiles in Diabetes; Effect of Green Tea and FPP on Atheroma Formation

  3. Efecto de la cocción y del grado de maduración de frutas de mamón (Carica papaya L.) sobre la calidad del mamón en almíbar / Effect of cooking and fruit ripening of papaya (Carica papaya L.) on quality of papaya in syrup

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nancy N, Lovera; Laura, Ramallo; Viviana O, Salvadori.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo estudiar el efecto del grado de maduración de la fruta y la cocción sobre la retención de calcio y la firmeza del mamón en almíbar. Para los ensayos se emplearon frutas en dos grados de maduración distintos. La elaboración de frutas en almíbar se realizó con u [...] n tratamiento previo. El pre-tratamiento consistió en impregnar la fruta en soluciones isotónicas de lactato de calcio y la cocción se realizó en solución de sacarosa. Además se realizaron ensayos de elaboración del producto por cocción de frutas verdes frescas, sin pre-tratamiento, en almíbar con adición de 1,5% de lactato de calcio y en almíbar sin adición de calcio. Se midió el contenido de calcio y la firmeza en la fruta fresca, pre-tratada y pos-cocción. Los resultados experimentales indicaron que durante el pre-tratamiento las frutas verde y madura ganan 84,1 y 103,2 mg Ca/100g fruta fresca, respectivamente. Durante la cocción se retiene un 52,8% y 65,6% del calcio ganado, en fruta verde y madura respectivamente. El proceso de cocción de fruta verde en almíbar con lactato de calcio generó un producto con una ganancia de calcio de 78,6 mg Ca/100 g de fruta fresca y la cocción en almíbar (sin calcio) mantuvo los valores del contenido de calcio de la fruta fresca. El pre-tratamiento con calcio incrementa la firmeza de la fruta; la posterior cocción en almíbar favorece la firmeza en el caso de la fruta madura pero disminuye marcadamente la firmeza de la fruta verde. Abstract in english In this study the effect of fruit ripeness on the calcium retention and the firmness of papaya in syrup were investigated. The fruits in syrup were developed from pretreated papaya samples. The pretreatment consisted in an impregnation stage using isotonic solutions of calcium lactate, and the subse [...] quent cooking of the samples in sucrose syrup. In addition, green fruit without pretreatment was processed as a control. It was cooked in syrup with addition of 1.5% of calcium lactate and without calcium. Calcium content, color and firmness were measured in fresh fruit, pre-treated and processed samples.. Experimental results showed that during the pretreatment, green and ripe fruits increased their calcium content in 84.1 and 103.2 mg Ca/100g fresh fruit, respectively. During cooking, green and ripe fruits retained 52.8% and 65.6%, respectively, of the calcium content previously gained. Processed green fruits with calcium in syrup gained 78.6 mg Ca/100g fresh fruit, while those processed without mineral addition maintained the initial values of calcium content. The pretreatment with calcium increased the firmness of the fresh fruit, for both green and mature samples. After cooking, the ripe fruit firmness increased, as opposed to that of the green fruit, which decreased notoriously.

  4. Engineered Antibody Fragments for Immunodiagnosis of Papaya ringspot virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheshwari, Yogita; Verma, H N; Jain, R K; Mandal, Bikash

    2015-07-01

    The present study was undertaken to clone and express the genes encoding antibody to the recombinant coat protein (rCP) of Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) and to assess the engineered antibody for the detection of PRSV. A 33-kDa rCP of PRSV, which was produced in Escherichia coli, generated PRSV specific antibody in immunized mouse. The heavy and light chain variable domain genes (VH and VL) of 351 and 360 nucleotides, respectively, were cloned from the mRNA isolated from the spleen of the immunized mouse with rCP of PRSV. The VH and VL belong to the family IgG1 and kappa chain, respectively, and contained the framework regions and complementarity determining regions. The VH and VL genes were individually used to develop the expression constructs in pET28a (+) vector and 14-kDa proteins were obtained in E. coli. The amount of purified VH and VL proteins was 3-4 mg/l of bacterial culture. Both the antibody fragments recognized PRSV in the crude sap; however, the VL antibody fragment showed higher affinity to PRSV. The mixture of VH and VL detected PRSV as effectively as polyclonal antibody. The recombinant antibody fragments mixture detected PRSV in the field samples with 100 % accuracy in dot immunobinding assay (DIBA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The sensitivity of the detection of PRSV using antibody fragments was 1.0 and 10.0 ng in DIBA and ELISA, respectively. The results showed successful isolation of functional single-domain antibody encoding genes to PRSV directly from the immunized spleen cells of mouse. This study for the first time demonstrates application of bacterial expressed recombinant antibody fragments in immunodiagnosis of PRSV. PMID:25854961

  5. Preservation of papaya by gamma radiation of cobalt 60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preservation of papaya cultivar Solo was submit to the irradiation at a dose of 80 krad and storage in room temperature to 250 C and with refrigeration to 100 C and the mean relative humidity of the air was 85% and 92% respectively, was studied. First the fruits was submit to the fungi control, with hot water, 470 C to 20 min. After the packaging in carton box the fruits was immediately irradiated by EMBRARAD S.A. and after that storage. Fruits were storage at room temperature was ripened after 9 days. Any difference was observed inside and outside colour of the irradiated and the control fruits. The only difference was the texture. In the radiated ripped fruit was 1,95 kg/cm2 and by the control samples 0,80 kg/cm2. Respiration of irradiated fruit was more active in comparison with the control samples, but don't enter into senescence. Storage at 100 C was the best results being obtained for 30 days such the control sample with the irradiated. But the irradiated fruit was more yellow and uniform in relation to the control samples. Also the texture was more consistent in mean of 2,12 kg/cm2 and 1,36 kg/cm2, respectively. In that temperature the respiration of irradiated fruits was minor in comparison with the control samples. During the storage don't have difference in the weight losses, between the irradiated and the control samples fruits. (author)ts. (author)

  6. Detection of Papaya ringspot virus type W infecting the cucurbit weed Cucumis melo var. dudaim in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the first report of Papaya ringspot virus type W infecting Cucumis melo var. dudaim, a cucurbit weed, in Florida. It provides an overview of this virus reservoir for growers, extension workers, crop consultants and research and regulatory scientists....

  7. Características de calidad de frutos de papaya maradol en la madurez de consumo / Quality characteristics in maradol papaya fruits at the comsumption ripeness stage

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Felipe, Santamaría Basulto; Raúl, Díaz Plaza; Enrique, Sauri Duch; Francisco, Espadas y Gil; Jorge Manuel, Santamaría Fernández; Alfonso, Larqué Saavedra.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available El color de la cáscara es la característica más utilizada para evaluar la maduración de los frutos de papaya; las recomendaciones para la cosecha, comercialización y consumo se basan en la aparición de porcentajes de color verde, amarillo y naranja. Esas escalas subjetivas son ambiguas y crean dific [...] ultades en la interpretación del observador. Por lo anterior, el objetivo fue evaluar los principales cambios de apariencia, firmeza y sólidos solubles totales de papaya 'maradol' durante su maduración poscosecha para proponer índices objetivos que describan el estado de madurez de consumo. En noviembre de 2005 se definieron seis estados de maduración en frutos obtenidos en Yucatán y se evaluó el color del fruto, contenido de clorofilas y carotenoides, firmeza de la pulpa, azúcares y contenido de sólidos solubles totales. En marzo de 2006 se obtuvieron las características de los frutos en la madurez de consumo en dos localidades y se compararon con los resultados anteriores. La madurez de consumo de papaya maradol se alcanza entre los 13 y 15 días después de la cosecha en condiciones de almacenamiento de 23 ± 1°C y 75% de humedad relativa. El ángulo del tono de la cáscara entre 70 y 80°, el contenido de sólidos solubles totales entre 10 y 11.5 °Brix, y la firmeza de la pulpa de 4.7 a 6.9 newtons permitieron diferenciar dos estados de madurez de consumo. Abstract in english Skin fruit color is the main characteristic to evaluate papaya fruit ripening; recommendations for harvest, commercialization and consumption, are based in green, yellow and orange color percentages. These subjective scales are difficult for interpretation. The purpose of the present work was to eva [...] luate the main changes in appearance, firmness and total soluble solids occurring during postharvest ripening of maradol papaya fruits in order to define fruit characteristics that can be suggested as quality standards for consumption maturity. In November 2005, six maturity stages were identified and parameters such as fruit color, skin chlorophyll and carotenoids content, pulp firmness, sugars and total soluble solids were measured along them. In March 2006, fruit characteristics in consumption maturity of fruits harvested from two locations were obtained and compared with previous results. It was found that the consumption maturity stage is reached between 13 and 15 days after harvest when fruits were stored at 23±1°C and 75% of relative humidity. Skin°HUE values between 70 and 80, total soluble solids content between 10 and 11.5 °Brix and pulp firmness between 4.7 to 6.9 newtons allowed the differentiation of two consumption maturity stages.

  8. Patrones de crecimiento urbano en la Patagonia chilena: el caso de la ciudad de Coyhaique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Az\\u00F3car Garc\\u00EDa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Las políticas de Estado junto con la importante oferta/demanda de productos inmobiliarios para población de mayor ingreso han orientado el desarrollo reciente de varias ciudades chilenas, originando nuevas formas urbanas. Si bien estos procesos han sido descritos y analizados para varias ciudades y áreas metropolitanas de Chile central, no existen suficientes antecedentes empíricos que den cuenta de la realidad del desarrollo urbano de las ciudades más australes del país, como el caso de Coyhaique en la Patagonia chilena. Este trabajo pretende identificar y analizar los patrones de urbanización de esta ciudad, en un contexto territorial caracterizado, entre otros aspectos, por la fragmentación geográfica, el aislamiento, dispersión de los centros poblados y concentración de la población en la capital regional. Se analiza la evolución y factores explicativos que dan cuenta de su rápido proceso de urbanización y, sobre la base de documentos técnicos, históricos y geográficos, se presentan estimaciones futuras del crecimiento de la ciudad.

  9. Influencia del Color y Estados de Madurez sobre la Textura de Frutas Tropicales (Mango, Papaya y Plátano) / Influence of Color and Maturity Stages on the Texture of Tropical Fruits (Mango, Papaya and Plantain)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ramiro, Torres; Everaldo J, Montes; Omar A, Pérez; Ricardo D, Andrade.

    Full Text Available En este estudio se determinó la influencia del estado de madurez sobre las propiedades texturales de mango variedades Puerco y Corazón, de papaya variedad Hawaiana y de plátano. Se correlacionaron los parámetros texturales con el color medido en el espacio CIELAB, mediante un Análisis de Perfil de T [...] extura (dureza, gomosidad, adhesividad, elasticidad, cohesividad y masticabilidad), utilizando un texturómetro con plato de compresión de 50 mm y una velocidad de compresión de 1 mm/s. La dureza, gomosidad y masticabilidad pueden correlacionarse con una ecuación polinómica de segundo grado en °HUE, para el mango (Mangifera indica L) variedad Puerco y Corazón; la dureza y gomosidad para la papaya (Carica papaya L.) variedad Hawaiana y con la dureza para plátano (Mussa Cavendish). Abstract in english The influence of the stage of maturity on the textural properties of Mango varieties Pork and Heart, of papaya of Hawaiian variety and plantain were determined in this study. Texture Profile Analysis (hardness, gumminess, adhesiveness, springiness, cohesiveness and chewiness) was performed with a te [...] xturometer with a compression plate of 50 mm and a compression rate of 1 mm /s. Hardness, gumminess and chewiness are well correlated with a second degree polynomial in °HUE for mango (Mangifera indica L) variety Puerco and Corazón; hardness and gumminess for papaya (Carica papaya L.) variety Hawaiana y with hardness for plantain (Mussa Cavendish).

  10. Green synthesis and antibacterial activity screening of silver nanoparticles reduced by papaya (Carica papaya L.) leaves extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The field of nano technology is the most active area of research in modern material sciences. Though there are many chemical, as well as physical methods, green synthesis is the most emerging method of synthesis. This study aimed to describe a cost effective and environment friendly technique for green synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The synthesis of silver nanoparticles was prepared by adding Carica papaya L. leaves extract to 1mM silver nitrate solution. The color change in reaction mixture (pale yellow to dark brown color was observed during the incubation period , due to excitation of surface plasmon vibrations in silver nanoparticles. Nanoparticles were characterized using UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) pattern, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy-Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDX) analysis. Absorption spectra of silver nanoparticles formed in the reaction media has absorbance peak at 280 nm, broadening of peak indicates that the particles are poly dispersed. SEM analysis described the morphology and the size of the particles. XRD confirmed the crystalline structure of the nanoparticles. The presence of the elemental silver was observed in the graph obtained from EDX analysis, which also supports the XRD results. The biomass of plants produces their nano materials by a process called bio mineralization. The tests cultures included in the study were Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Salmonella. Results showed that the maximum inhibitory effect using 1mM silver nitrates against the microbes were obtained. The approach of plant-mediated synthesis appears to be cost efficient, eco-friendly and easy alternative to conventional methods of silver nanoparticles synthesis (author)

  11. Prevalencia de vaginosis bacteriana en trabajadoras sexuales chilenas Prevalence of bacterial vaginosis in Chilean sex workers

    OpenAIRE

    Gloria Venegas; Gioconda Boggiano; Erica Castro

    2011-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Determinar la prevalencia de vaginosis bacteriana (VB) en trabajadoras sexuales chilenas y relacionar los hallazgos con variables sociodemográficas, sexuales y clínicas. MÉTODO: Se estudió una muestra de 379 trabajadoras sexuales que asistían para control a Unidades de Atención y Control de Salud Sexual de Chile. A todas se las entrevistó para obtener antecedentes sociodemográficos y sexuales, se les realizó evaluación clínica que incluyó características del flujo vagin...

  12. Perfil Antropométrico de Jugadoras Chilenas de Fútbol Femenino Anthropometric Profile of Female Football - Soccer Chilean Players

    OpenAIRE

    Atilio Aldo Almagiá Flores; Fernando Rodríguez Rodríguez; Fernando Omar Barrraza Gómez; Pablo José Lizana Arce; Carlos Alberto Jorquera Aguilera

    2008-01-01

    Se evaluó un total de 43 jugadoras de fútbol, 26 seleccionadas chilenas sub 20 y 17 jugadoras del plantel campeón de fútbol universitario 2007 de la Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso (PUCV), todas ellas bajo su consentimiento informado. Se evaluó utilizando el protocolo de mareaje y medición de la International Society for the Avancement in Kineanthropometric (IS AK), en condiciones normales de temperatura, a primera hora de la mañana y después del vaciado urinario, por ...

  13. DISCURSO ACADÉMICO DE LANZAMIENTO DE LA REVISTA CHILENA DE DERECHO Y CIENCIA POLÍTICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio - Ignacio Carvajal

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Me complace enormemente la invitación que se me ha cursado para dirigir algunaspalabras en el lanzamiento de esta Revista Chilena de Derecho y Ciencia Política.Me honra el hecho de que me hayan tenido Uds. en consideración para este actoacadémico y, por supuesto, también que me hayan incorporado al elenco de especialistasde su Comité Científi co Externo. Por ello, comienzo por expresar mi sinceroagradecimiento.

  14. Efecto del cloruro de sodio sobre el crecimiento y estado nutricional de plantas de papaya / Effect of sodium chloride on growth and mineral content of papaya plant

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jorge, Parés; Carmen, Basso.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available La limitada disponibilidad de agua de calidad para la agricultura de las zonas áridas y semiáridas ha propiciado el uso de agua de moderada a alta salinidad. La papaya (Carica papaya L.), aunque se reporta con diferentes sensibilidades al estrés salino, es una especie de gran potencial frutícola par [...] a ser cultivada económicamente en las regiones semiáridas del estado Lara, Venezuela. El objetivo de este ensayo fue evaluar el efecto de la salinidad ocasionada por el NaCl sobre el crecimiento vegetativo y el estado nutricional de la papaya ‘Maradol’ desarrollada bajo una estructura de techo transparente. Como fuente salina se utilizó cloruro de sodio grado analítico, el cual se adicionó a través del agua de riego en cuatro tratamientos (0,001; 2,0; 4,0 y 8,0 dS·m-1) bajo un diseño completamente aleatorizado con cuatro repeticiones, hasta finalizar la fase juvenil del desarrollo. Se evaluó la longitud del tallo, biomasa seca aérea y radical, área foliar, área de sección del tallo, contenido relativo de clorofila (SPAD) y el contenido de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn, Cu, Fe y Na a nivel foliar. Los tratamientos afectaron el crecimiento vegetativo de las plantas durante toda la fase juvenil del desarrollo. Se observó, además, reducción del contenido de clorofila con el estrés por NaCl. Los tenores N y Na incrementaron, mientras que, los de K, Zn, Cu y Fe disminuyeron. Los niveles de P, Ca, Mg y Mn, no se afectaron. En base a los resultados obtenidos la papaya ‘Maradol’ puede ser considerada como un cultivar de moderada tolerancia al NaCl. Abstract in english Due to limited availability of low-salinity water in arid and semi-arid regions, water use of moderate to high salinity in agriculture of those regions is unavoidable. Papaya, although exhibits different sensitivities to salinity, has great potential to be cultivated in semi-arid regions of Lara Sta [...] te, Venezuela. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of irrigation with water containing different levels of NaCl on growth and nutrient content of papaya ‘Maradol’. The experiment was carried out under a structure with transparent ceiling until the end of the plant juvenile phase. NaCl treatments were applied to irrigation water to obtain 0.001, 2.0, 4.0 and 8.0 dS·m-1 electrical conductivity under a completely randomized design with four replications. Shoot length, shoot and root dry mater, leaf area, stem-cross-sectional area, relative chlorophyll content (SPAD), and leaf N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn, Cu, Fe and Na concentration were evaluated The presence of NaCl in the irrigation water caused inhibition of growth in young plants. Significant reduction in contents of chlorophyll was also detected. Tissue concentration of N and Na increased with increasing levels of NaCl, while K, Zn, Cu and Fe decreased. Ca, Mg, P and Mn, were not affected. On the basis of data obtained, papaya ‘Maradol’ can be considered as a moderately NaCl tolerant cultivar.

  15. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction (UAE) and Solvent Extraction of Papaya Seed Oil: Yield, Fatty Acid Composition and Triacylglycerol Profile

    OpenAIRE

    Hasanah Mohd Ghazali; Chin Ping Tan; Hamed Mirhosseini; Shadi Samaram

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of the current work was to evaluate the suitability of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) for the recovery of oil from papaya seed as compared to conventional extraction techniques (i.e., Soxhlet extraction (SXE) and solvent extraction (SE)). In the present study, the recovery yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil obtained from different extraction methods and conditions were compared. Results indicated that both solvent extraction (...

  16. Carotenoids are more bioavailable from papaya than from tomato and carrot in humans: a randomised cross-over study

    OpenAIRE

    Schweiggert, Ralf M.; KOPEC, RACHEL E.; Villalobos-Gutierrez, Maria G.; Högel, Josef; Quesada, Silvia; Esquivel, Patricia; Schwartz, Steven J.; Carle, Reinhold

    2013-01-01

    Carrot, tomato and papaya represent important dietary sources of ?-carotene and lycopene. The main objective of the present study was to compare the bioavailability of carotenoids from these food sources in healthy human subjects. A total of sixteen participants were recruited for a randomised cross-over study. Test meals containing raw carrots, tomatoes and papayas were adjusted to deliver an equal amount of ?-carotene and lycopene. For the evaluation of bioavailability, TAG-rich lipoprotein...

  17. Comparative Study of Quality Changes in Shea Butter Coated Pawpaw Carica papaya Fruit During Storage

    OpenAIRE

    F.O. Adetuyi; T.A. Ayileye; I.B.O. Dada

    2008-01-01

    The storage of shea butter coated pawpaw carica papaya fruit at different storage temperature was investigated as regard the nutrients, sugars and minerals. Freshly harvested just ripe fruit of pawpaw carica papaya was coated with shea butter and stored at room temperature (27°C ± 1°C), refrigeration temperature (10°C ± 1°C)and freezing temperature (-5°C ± 1°C) for 8 days. The proximate, sugar (glucose, fructose and galactose) and minerals (Ca, Mg, Fe and Zn) were subsequently determ...

  18. Poetas mapuches en la literatura chilena Mapuche poets in Chilean literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Carrasco M

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se estudia el modo en que las tradiciones textuales etnoliterarias de los mapuches y literarias de los españoles, se han imbricado en la literatura chilena a través del tiempo, y los aportes que ha dejado la incorporación de poetas de cultura mapuche en la poesía chilena contemporánea. En particular, se establece que autores como Sebastián Queupul, Pedro Alonzo, Elicura Chihuailaf y Leonel Lienlaf han participado en la conformación de la poesía etnocultural, dentro de la cual han propuesto una visión intercultural que sobrepasa los límites de la etnoliteratura mapuche y la literatura chilena tradicional, y un conjunto de estrategias textuales compartidas con otros poetas (enunciación sincrética, intertextualidad transliteraria y codificación plural, en la cual han creado una variedad propia, el doble registro.This paper studies the way in which mapuche textual ethnoliterary traditions and Spanish literary traditions have mixed in the Chilean literature through time, and the contribution of Mapuche poets to contemporary Chilean poetry, particularly, authors such as Sebastián Queupul, Pedro Alonzo, Elicura Chihuailaf and Leonel Lienlaf, where they have created an intercultural view that goes beyond the limits of the mapuche ethnoliterature and Chilean traditional literature, together with a bunch of text strategies shared with others poets (syncretic enunciation, transliterary intertext and plural codification, where they have created their own variety, the double register.

  19. JOAQUÍN EDWARDS BELLO: CRÓNICA Y CRÍTICA DE LA VIDA COTIDIANA CHILENA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leónidas Morales T

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Si bien el objeto central del artículo es la crítica a la vida cotidiana chilena en Joaquín Edwards Bello, en su primera parte se detiene en algunos aspectos importantes del género en que la crítica se da, la crónica urbana, asociados a su origen periodístico, a su estructura, a su lector y al estado de la modernidad chilena que su irrupción a comienzos del XX implica. En la segunda parte, y sobre la base de un breve corpus cronístico, el artículo intenta definir lo esencial de la crítica de Edwards como una crítica a un modo específico (no interrumpido desde la Colonia de ejercerse el poder en la sociedad chilena, uno de extrema polarización, y a los discursos ideológicos que le prestan la cobertura de su "naturalización".This article focuses on the criticism of Chilean everyday life in the writings of Joaquín Edwards Bello. The first part concentrates on important aspects of urban chronicle as a genre associated to its journalistic origin, structure, readership, and the conditions of Chilean modernity at the beginning of the 20th century. Supported by a brief corpus of chronicles, the second part of the article attempts to define one essential feature present in Edwards's criticism: namely a criticism of both a specific and uninterrupted mode in which power has been imposed on the Chilean society effecting extreme forms of polarization and the ideological discourses that "naturalize" its presence.

  20. JOAQUÍN EDWARDS BELLO: CRÓNICA Y CRÍTICA DE LA VIDA COTIDIANA CHILENA

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leónidas, Morales T.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Si bien el objeto central del artículo es la crítica a la vida cotidiana chilena en Joaquín Edwards Bello, en su primera parte se detiene en algunos aspectos importantes del género en que la crítica se da, la crónica urbana, asociados a su origen periodístico, a su estructura, a su lector y al estad [...] o de la modernidad chilena que su irrupción a comienzos del XX implica. En la segunda parte, y sobre la base de un breve corpus cronístico, el artículo intenta definir lo esencial de la crítica de Edwards como una crítica a un modo específico (no interrumpido desde la Colonia) de ejercerse el poder en la sociedad chilena, uno de extrema polarización, y a los discursos ideológicos que le prestan la cobertura de su "naturalización". Abstract in english This article focuses on the criticism of Chilean everyday life in the writings of Joaquín Edwards Bello. The first part concentrates on important aspects of urban chronicle as a genre associated to its journalistic origin, structure, readership, and the conditions of Chilean modernity at the beginni [...] ng of the 20th century. Supported by a brief corpus of chronicles, the second part of the article attempts to define one essential feature present in Edwards's criticism: namely a criticism of both a specific and uninterrupted mode in which power has been imposed on the Chilean society effecting extreme forms of polarization and the ideological discourses that "naturalize" its presence.

  1. Conocimientos y autoeficacia asociados a la prevención del VIH y SIDA en mujeres chilenas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas Rodríguez, Natalia; Ferrer Lagunas, Lilian Marcela; Cianelli Acosta, Rosina; Miner, Sarah; Lara Campos, Loreto; Peragallo, Nilda

    2014-01-01

    Resumen Objetivo Evaluar la relación existente entre conocimientos y autoeficacia asociados al VIH/SIDA en mujeres chilenas en desventaja social. Metodología Estudio correlacional, que utiliza la medición basal del estudio “Testeando una intervención en VIH y SIDA en mujeres chilenas”, realizada entre 2006 y 2008, que tiene una muestra de 496 mujeres entre 18 y 49 años residentes en dos comunas de Santiago de Chile. Las participantes respondieron un cuestionario estructurado aplicado por entrevistadoras entrenadas. Este cuestionario incluyó preguntas sobre datos sociodemográficos, escala de conocimientos de conductas de riesgo y autoeficacia, entre otros. Resultados Edad promedio de 32.3±9.1 años, 72.2% vive con su pareja y 42.7% poseen educación media completa. La puntuación media de los conocimientos de la infección por el VIH fue de 8.9±2.5, mientras que para las tres escalas empleadas para medir autoeficacia fueron: “Normas de los pares” =9.8±3.6, “Intención de reducir conductas de riesgo” =12.2±3.6 y “Self Efficacy Form”=20.2±4.7. Los conocimientos tuvieron una correlación positiva débil con la “intención de reducir conductas de riesgo” (r=0.19; pautoeficacia en mujeres chilenas en desventaja social. PMID:25284914

  2. Estudos morfo-anatômicos de sementes de dois genótipos de mamão(Carica papaya L.) / Morphological and anatomical studies of seeds of two genotypes of papaya Carica papaya L.

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sônia Aparecida dos, Santos; Roberto Ferreira da, Silva; Messias Gonzaga, Pereira; Eduardo, Alves; José da Cruz, Machado; Flávio Meira, Borém; Renato Mendes, Guimarães; Elizabeth Rosemeire, Marques.

    Full Text Available A propagação do mamoeiro Carica papaya L. é realizada por meio de mudas oriundas das sementes. Apesar da importância da semente do mamoeiro para a formação dos pomares comerciais, estudos morfológicos e anatômicos neste sentido são raros. O presente trabalho descreve aspectos morfológicos e anatômic [...] os das estruturas que constituem as sementes de dois genótipos do mamoeiro, Sunrise Solo 783 e Formosa Roxo 45. Sunrise Solo 783 e Formosa Roxo 45 pertencem aos dois grandes grupos 'Solo' e 'Formosa' respectivamente. Os referidos genótipos foram oriundos do banco de germoplasma da Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (UENF) em parceria com Empresa Caliman Agrícola S.A. A pesquisa foi conduzida no Laboratório de Microscopia Eletrônica da Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), Lavras, MG.Para a caracterização morfológica procedeu-se a dissecação e observação das estruturas utilizando bisturi, pinças e sexploradora sob microscópio estereoscópio. Para a caracterização anatômica utilizou-se a microscopia eletrônica de varredura. As amostras foram preparadas de acordo com a metodologia de rotina do Laboratório de Microscopia Eletrônica da UFLA e observadas a alto vácuo em diversos aumentos no microscópio Leo Evo 40, à distância de trabalho de 10 mm. As medições foram realizadas usando-se o Software Leo User Interface (versão Leo 3.2). Os estudos morfológicos permitiram identificar as estruturas que compõem a semente do mamoeiro e os estudos anatômicos permitiram observar a existência de diferenças estruturais e dimensionais entre as células dos dois genótipos estudados. Abstract in english The papaya (Carica papaya L.) propagation is made by seedlings produced from true seeds. Although the use of seeds in the implementation of commercial papaya orchards is well documented in literature, studies on the anatomy and morphology of these structures are in small number. In present work morp [...] hological and anatomical aspects of the seeds from two papaya genotypes Sunrise Solo 783 and Formosa Roxo 45,belonging to two grand groups ´Solo` and ´Formosa` are described. These genotypes were obtained of Gemoplasm Bank of the Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (UENF) in cooperation with the company Caliman Agricola S.A. The work was carried out at the Eletronic Microscopy and Ultra-strutural Analisys Laboratory of the Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA). To make the morphological characterization, the seeds were dissected carefully by hand and observed in the stereomicroscope. For the anatomic studies, seeds were prepared according to the routine protocol of the LME and observed in scanning electronic microscope Leo Evo 40, at work distance of 10 mm under high vacuum conditions. Measurements were made using the Software Leo User Interface (Version Leo 3.2). The results of the morphological studies provide adequate conditions to observe the different structures of the papaya seeds and from anatomic studies it was possible to verify structural and dimensional differences among the cells of the two genotypes under investigation.

  3. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction (UAE and Solvent Extraction of Papaya Seed Oil: Yield, Fatty Acid Composition and Triacylglycerol Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasanah Mohd Ghazali

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the current work was to evaluate the suitability of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE for the recovery of oil from papaya seed as compared to conventional extraction techniques (i.e., Soxhlet extraction (SXE and solvent extraction (SE. In the present study, the recovery yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil obtained from different extraction methods and conditions were compared. Results indicated that both solvent extraction (SE, 12 h/25 °C and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE methods recovered relatively high yields (79.1% and 76.1% of total oil content, respectively. Analysis of fatty acid composition revealed that the predominant fatty acids in papaya seed oil were oleic (18:1, 70.5%–74.7%, palmitic (16:0, 14.9%–17.9%, stearic (18:0, 4.50%–5.25%, and linoleic acid (18:2, 3.63%–4.6%. Moreover, the most abundant triacylglycerols of papaya seed oil were triolein (OOO, palmitoyl diolein (POO and stearoyl oleoyl linolein (SOL. In this study, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE significantly (p < 0.05 influenced the triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil, but no significant differences were observed in the fatty acid composition of papaya seed oil extracted by different extraction methods (SXE, SE and UAE and conditions.

  4. Efeitos quimiopreventivo e antimutagênico in vivo do extrato hidroetanólico de frutos de Carica papaya L. / Chemopreventive and antimutagenic potential in vivo of hydroethanolic fruit extract of Carica papaya L. / Efectos quimiopreventivos y antimutagénicos in vivo del extracto hidroetanólico de frutos de Carica papaya L.

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paula, Marchiori Mariani; Paula, Da Rós Freitas; Iêda, Carneiro Kalil; Girlandia, Alexandre Brasil; Silas, Nascimento Ronchi; Dominik, Lenz; José, Aires Ventura; Tadeu, Uggere De Andrade; Denise, Coutinho Endringer.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: os frutos de Carica papaya L. são amplamente consumidos em todo o mundo e no Brasil, porém pouco se sabe sobre seu efeito citotóxico, antimutagênico e quimioprotetor. Objetivos: avaliar o potencial antimutagênico e quimiprotetor de frutos de Carica papaya e quantificar as suas substância [...] s fenólicas. Métodos: a atividade antimutagênica foi avaliada pelo método de micronúcleo e as substâncias fenólicas foram analisadas pelo método de Folin-Ciacalteau (fenólicos totais), e pelo método colorimétrico cloreto de alumínio (flavonóides totais). Resultados: o extrato hidroetanólico de frutos de Carica papaya possui potencial antimutagênico e quimioprotetor (370 mg/100 g peso corporal). O teor de substâncias fenólicas do extrato hidroetanólico de frutos foi inferior a 0,001 µg/mg. Conclusão: o efeito antimutagênico e quimioprotetor observado nos extratos dos frutos de Carica papaya pode estar associado a outras substâncias. Estudos químicos precisam ser conduzidos para identificar as substâncias envolvidas na atividade. Abstract in spanish Introducción: los frutos de Carica papaya L. son ampliamente consumidos en todo el mundo y en Brasil, pero poco se sabe acerca de su efecto citotóxico, antimutagénico y quimioprotector. Objetivos: evaluar el efecto antimutagénico y quimiprotector de los frutos de Carica papaya y cuantificar las sust [...] ancias fenólicas. Métodos: la actividad mutagénica se evaluó por micronúcleos y las sustancias fenólicas se analizaron por el método Folin-Ciacalteau (fenólica), y el método colorimétrico cloruro de aluminio (flavonoides). Resultados: el extracto hidroetanólico de frutas de Carica papaya tiene efecto antimutagénico y quimioprotector (370 mg/100 g de peso corporal). El contenido de sustancias fenólicas de extracto hidroetanólico resultó inferior a 0,001 µg/mg. Conclusión: el efecto antimutagénico y quimioprotector observado en extractos de frutos de Carica papaya puede estar asociado con otras sustancias. Estudios químicos deben llevarse a cabo para identificar las sustancias que intervienen en la actividad. Abstract in english Introduction: the fruits of Carica papaya L. are widely consumed around the world and in Brazil, but little is known about its cytotoxic, antimutagenic and chemoprotector effects. Objectives: to evaluate the antimutagenic and chemoprotector potential of fruits of Carica papaya and quantify the pheno [...] lic substances present in those fruits. Methods: mutagenic activity was evaluated by micronucleus assay and phenolic substances were analyzed by the Folin-Ciacalteau method (total phenolics), and by aluminum chloride colorimetric method (total flavonoids). Results: the hidroetanolic extract of fruits of Carica papaya elicited antimutagenic and chemoprotector effects (370 mg/100 g body weight). The content of phenolic substances of hidroetanolic extract of fruits was lower than 0.001 µg/mg. Conclusions: the antimutagenic and chemoprotector effects observed must be related to other compounds. Chemical studies must be conducted to identify the substances involved in the activity.

  5. Metabolismo de carboidratos durante o amadurecimento do mamão (Carica papaya L. Cv. Solo): influência da radiação gama / Influence of gamma radiation on carbohydrates metabolism of ripening papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Solo)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M. L. P. A., GOMEZ; F. M., LAJOLO; B. R., CORDENUNSI.

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available A irradiação de alimentos é um tratamento pós-colheita bastante promissor, capaz de atuar tanto na desinfestação como no aumento da vida útil de frutos. O mamão é um fruto com curta vida pós-colheita, levando de 6 a 12 dias para atingir a senescência. Além disto, a infestação por larvas de mosca dim [...] inui sensivelmente o seu potencial de exportação. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a ação de uma dose de 0,5 kGy de irradiação gama, normalmente utilizada para desinfestação e aumento de vida útil dos frutos, sobre o comportamento dos carboidratos solúveis durante o amadurecimento do mamão (Carica papaya L. cv. Solo), e sobre as enzimas relacionadas ao metabolismo da sacarose: sacarose sintase (SS), sacarose-fosfato sintase (SPS) e invertases ácida e neutra. Os resultados demonstraram que a irradiação não exerce efeito sobre o teor de glicose e frutose, ou sobre a respiração e atividade da SS. Entretanto, a composição dos açúcares solúveis totais e da sacarose, e a atividade da SPS e das invertases foram afetados. Abstract in english Food irradiation is one of the most promising treatments that can be utilized for fruits desinfestation and extension of shelf life. The authors studied the influence of 0,5 kGy of Gamma irradiation on the soluble carbohydrates composition of papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Solo) fruit, and on sucrose [...] metabolizing enzymes: sucrose synthase (SS), sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS), acid and neutral invertases activities, during ripening. The results demonstred that ethylene production, total soluble sugars, sucrose content, and sucrose-phosphate synthase and invertases activities were affected by irradiation, but not respiration, glucose and fructose content, and SS activity.

  6. Metabolismo de carboidratos durante o amadurecimento do mamão (Carica papaya L. Cv. Solo: influência da radiação gama Influence of gamma radiation on carbohydrates metabolism of ripening papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. P. A. GOMEZ

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available A irradiação de alimentos é um tratamento pós-colheita bastante promissor, capaz de atuar tanto na desinfestação como no aumento da vida útil de frutos. O mamão é um fruto com curta vida pós-colheita, levando de 6 a 12 dias para atingir a senescência. Além disto, a infestação por larvas de mosca diminui sensivelmente o seu potencial de exportação. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a ação de uma dose de 0,5 kGy de irradiação gama, normalmente utilizada para desinfestação e aumento de vida útil dos frutos, sobre o comportamento dos carboidratos solúveis durante o amadurecimento do mamão (Carica papaya L. cv. Solo, e sobre as enzimas relacionadas ao metabolismo da sacarose: sacarose sintase (SS, sacarose-fosfato sintase (SPS e invertases ácida e neutra. Os resultados demonstraram que a irradiação não exerce efeito sobre o teor de glicose e frutose, ou sobre a respiração e atividade da SS. Entretanto, a composição dos açúcares solúveis totais e da sacarose, e a atividade da SPS e das invertases foram afetados.Food irradiation is one of the most promising treatments that can be utilized for fruits desinfestation and extension of shelf life. The authors studied the influence of 0,5 kGy of Gamma irradiation on the soluble carbohydrates composition of papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Solo fruit, and on sucrose metabolizing enzymes: sucrose synthase (SS, sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS, acid and neutral invertases activities, during ripening. The results demonstred that ethylene production, total soluble sugars, sucrose content, and sucrose-phosphate synthase and invertases activities were affected by irradiation, but not respiration, glucose and fructose content, and SS activity.

  7. Historias, recepciones y tradiciones: Notas sobre Filosofía chilena. La tradición analítica / Histories, Receptions and Traditions: Notes on Filosofía chilena. La tradición analítica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alejandro, Fielbaum.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El libro de Alex Ibarra, Filosofía chilena. La tradición analítica en el periodo de la institucionalización de la filosofía, plantea la discusión sobre las líneas filosóficas, demostrando la existencia de cierta tradición analítica en Chile. A partir de allí, reflexionamos en torno a los procesos de [...] constitución del campo de la filosofía en Chile como una historia atravesada por la necesidad de préstamos y cruces que impiden una delimitación clara de sus límites, lo que tornaría necesaria la atención a ciertas políticas de la lectura que el libro soslaya. La productividad de la filosofía producida en Chile surgiría gracias -y no pese- a su inscripción en sus tiempos y espacios, a partir de recepciones cuya ausencia de retraso no impide el gesto de cierto re-trazo de lo leído. Abstract in english Alex Ibarra's exposition in his book Filosofía chilena. La tradición analítica en el periodo de la institucionalización de la filosofía, places the discussion on the philosophical traditions, showing the existence of a certain kind of analytical tradition in Chile. From there, we expose the processe [...] s of constitution of the field in Chile as a history crossed by the need of importations and intersections that contest the clear delimitation of its boundaries, what makes necessary the attention of the politics of readings that the book avoid. The productivity of the philosophic production in Chile, arises thanks to -but not in spite of- its inscription in its age/times and spaces, coming from its receptions and its differences.

  8. Inoculação de fungo micorrízico e utilização de substratos comerciais para produção de plântulas de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L.) / Inoculation of mycorrhizal fungi and utilization of commercial substrates to papaya seedlings (Carica papaya L.) production

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    João P.N., Almeida; Bruno F.T., Lessa; Emanoela P., Paiva; Ítalo G., Arrais; Mauro S., Tosta; Vander, Mendonça.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available O cultivo do mamoeiro (Carica papaya) está entre as principais atividades do setor frutícola mundial. Métodos de gestão que efetivem o desenvolvimento da cultura são fundamentais. Assim, este trabalho teve por objetivos estudar o crescimento de plântulas de mamoeiro sob diferentes substratos comerci [...] ais com inoculação (em semente) de fungo micorrízico arbuscular. As sementes de mamão foram inoculadas com o fungo Glomus fasciculatum, em três dosagens: 0,0 g, 1,0 g e 2,0 g para cada 10,0 g de sementes. De seguida, as sementes foram colocadas em tabuleiros de poliestireno com quatro diferentes substratos comerciais. O estudo foi realizado em esquema fatorial com delineamento inteiramente casualizado com cinco repetições. Trinta dias após a sementeira fizeram-se as análises de crescimento e desenvolvimento das plantas. O substrato comercial que continha na sua composição superfosfato simples, nitrato de potássio, turfa, vermiculita e casca de Pinus proporcionou um maior crescimento das plântulas. A inoculação das sementes com a dose de 2,0 g do fungo micorrízico beneficiou o crescimento das plântulas. Abstract in english Papaya (Carica papaya) cultivation is among the principal activities of the world orchard sector. Therefore, it becomes important to find ways of management that improve the development of the culture. This work aimed to study the growth and the development of papaya seedlings in different commercia [...] l substrates with inoculation (in seeds) of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Glomus fasciculatum, in three dosages: 0.0 g, 1.0 g, and 2.0 g for each 10.0 g of seeds. The seeds were placed in polystyrene trays with four different commercial substrates. The experiment was performed in factorial scheme in completely randomized design, with five replications. Thirty days after seedling, plant growth and development were analyzed. The commercial substrate containing superphosphate, potassium nitrate, turf, vermiculite and Pinus bark provided the highest growth of seedlings. The inoculation of seeds with 2.0 g of mycorrhizal fungi benefits the growth of seedlings.

  9. Eficiência fotoquímica em folhas do mamoeiro (Carica papaya L.) cv. Golden durante o estádio reprodutivo e caracterização da ontogenia dos frutos / Photochemical efficiency of papaya leaves (Carica papaya L.) cv. Golden during the reproductive stage and characterization of fruit ontogeny

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Diolina Moura, Silva; Ketney Tonetto dos, Santos; Maísa Melo, Duarte.

    1066-10-01

    Full Text Available Considerando que a fisiologia do amadurecimento dos frutos do mamoeiro envolve desde a produção de fotoassimilados, para a sua formação e desenvolvimento, até as enzimas que degradarão a parede celular, promovendo o amolecimento da polpa, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a cinética da emissão d [...] a fluorescência da clorofila a em folhas do mamoeiro (Carica papaya L.) cv. Golden durante o período reprodutivo e avaliar os teores de sólidos solúveis (SS), acidez titulável (AT) e atividade da pectinametilesterase (PME) durante a ontogenia dos frutos. Os maiores índices de desempenho fotoquímico (PItotal) foram verificados nos estádios de formação e crescimento dos frutos, devido ao melhor desempenho das reações de oxirredução do fotossistema I [?R0/(1-?R0)]. Maior eficiência fotoquímica das plantas neste período possibilita maior demanda pelo carbono fixado para a síntese de compostos para o metabolismo celular. Em geral, os fotoassimilados são direcionados para os drenos fortes mais próximos, entretanto as sementes têm prioridade, portanto os teores de SS, AT e a atividade da PME na polpa dos frutos permaneceram constantes durante o desenvolvimento dos mesmos, sendo verificadas alterações nestas características somente no estádio de colheita. Estes resultados confirmam a participação da PME como enzima que prepara o substrato para que as demais enzimas pectinolíticas atuem, disponibilizando os ácidos orgânicos desmetilados e o início da degradação dos polissacarídeos da parece celular antes mesmo da colheita. Abstract in english Whereas the physiology of fruit ripening of papaya involves from the production of photoassimilates for their training and development to the enzymes that degrade the cell wall promoting pulp softening, the objective of this study was to evaluate the chlorophyll a (Chl a) fluorescence induction kine [...] tics in of papaya (Carica papaya L.) cv. Golden leaves during the reproductive period and to evaluate the total soluble solids (SS), acidity total titratable (ATT), and activity of pectin methyl esterase (PME) during fruit ontogeny. The highest rates of photochemical performance index (PI total) were observed in the stages of fruit formation and growth , due to better performance of the redox reactions of photosystem I [?R0 / (1-?R0)]. Higher photochemical efficiency of plants in this period allows greater demand for fixed carbon for the synthesis of compounds for cellular metabolism. Generally, photoassimilates are directed to the closer strong drains, but the seeds have priority, so the SS, AT and PME activity in flesh fruit, remained constant during their development, and any alterations in these characteristics only in the harvest stage. These results confirm that the PME as an enzyme that prepares the substrate for the other pectic enzymes act, providing the demethylated organic acids and the beginning of the degradation of cellular wall polysaccharides even before harvest.

  10. Sex and aggregation pheromone transport after methyl eugenol consumption in male Bactrocera papayae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amongst at least 52 sibling species complexes in the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae), B. papayae (formerly Mal B) Drew and Hancock (Drew and Hancock 1994) is beginning to emerge as an economically important insect pest which poses a severe threat to the fruit cultivation in both subtropical and tropical countries. In Malaysia, B. papayae is one of the most damaging pests which infests many commercially grown fruits (Tan and Lee 1982). Like the Oriental fruit fly and its sibling species complex, B. carambolae Drew and Hancock, B. papayae is also strongly attracted to, and compulsively feeds on, methyl eugenol (ME) (Tan 1993). Chemical analyses revealed that in B. papayae males, ME is converted to phenylpropanoids which are then selectively accumulated in the rectal gland. Of the three major volatile substances, 2-allyl-4,5-dimethoyphenol (allyl-DMP) was detected in higher quantities relative to the trans-coniferyl alcohol (4-(3-hydroxy-E-propenyl)-2-methoxyphenol) (CF) and cis-3,4-dimethoxycinnamyl alcohol (cis-DMC) (Nishida et al. 1988a, 1988b). Behavioural studies have also shown that allyl-DMP and CF function as male sex and aggregation pheromone in B. papayae (Tan and Nishida 1996, Hee and Tan 1998). Allyl-DMP was found to be the most attractive compound and cis-DMC the least attractive to the males (Tan 1996). Consumption of ME enhances the mating competitiveness of males. This is demonstrated by the strong attraction of femalnstrated by the strong attraction of females to conspecific ME-fed males in wind tunnel experiments (Hee and Tan 1998). In male-male mating competition for virgin females, males that fed on ME performed significantly better (Shelly and Dewire 1994, Tan and Nishida 1996). Thus it appears that ME-fed males produced signals that were more attractive. However, the characterisation and understanding of the functions of these phenylpropanoids have not been accompanied by studies of their physiological mode of transport in male flies. The current paper describes the sex and aggregation pheromone transport after methyl eugenol consumption in male B. papayae. Here, we investigate the presence of the pheromones and their precursor ME in the male digestive and circulatory system

  11. Fate of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. on fresh and frozen cut mangoes and papayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawn, Laura K; Danyluk, Michelle D

    2010-03-31

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella infections have been associated with consumption of a number of fruits and vegetables. Although the fate of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella on many of these products is well studied, little is known about their behavior on cut mango and papaya. Mangoes and papayas have been associated with four and two documented outbreaks of salmonellosis, respectively. The objective of this study was to evaluate the fate of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella on fresh (4 degrees C, 12 degrees C and 23 degrees C) and frozen (-20 degrees C) cut mangoes and papayas. Cut mangoes and papayas were spot inoculated with either a four-strain or five-strain cocktail of E. coli O157:H7 or Salmonella, respectively. Inoculated samples were air dried, placed in containers and stored at 4+/-2, 12+/-2, 23+/-2 and -20+/-2 degrees C. Samples were enumerated following stomaching on nonselective and selective media at days 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, 21 and 28 (4+/-2 and 12+/-2 degrees C); 0, 1, 3, 5 and 7 (23+/-2 degrees C); and 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 (-20+/-2 degrees C). Population levels (log CFU/g) of fruit were calculated. E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella have the potential to grow on temperature-abused fresh cut mangoes and papayas held at 23 degrees C. At 12 degrees C, Salmonella populations can grow on cut mangoes and papayas, however E. coli O157:H7 populations only grew on papayas. E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella survived for 28 days, at 4 degrees C, on refrigerated mangoes and papayas. E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella can survive on frozen cut mangoes and papayas for at least 180 days. Fresh and frozen cut mangoes and papayas are potential vectors for E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella transmission. PMID:20022397

  12. A microsatellite library for Carica papaya L. cv. Sunrise solo / Marcadores microssatélites para Carica papaya L. cv. Sunrise solo

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Silvia Correa, Santos; Carlos, Ruggiero; Cristina Lacerda Soares Petrarolha, Silva; Eliana Gertrudes Macedo, Lemos.

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Em áreas experimentais das Fazendas de Ensino e Pesquisa da UNESP/Campus de Ilha Solteira e Jaboticabal foram selecionadas e marcadas 20 plantas hermafroditas e 20 femininas dos cultivares Sunrise Solo, Improved Sunrise Solo cv.72/12 e Baixinho de Santa Amália. As sementes provenientes dos frutos se [...] lecionados foram plantadas para analisar-se a eficiência da autofecundação e a freqüência dos sexos nas progênies. Posteriormente, amostras de tecido foliar jovem das plantas matrizes foram coletadas para a extração de DNA. Foram construídas cinco bibliotecas enriquecidas de seqüências microsatélites, utilizando-se as sondas (TCA)10, (TC)13, (GATA)4, (CAC)10 e (TGAG)8. Foi possível o desenvolvimento de primers somente com a biblioteca que utilizou a sonda (TCA)10 . Esta permitiu o desenho de 32 pares de primers. Destes, 31 apresentaram padrão de banda única em agarose Metaphor e em acrilamida. Para o primer S36 foram observadas 2 bandas, mas sem polimorfismo para diferenciação da forma sexual na cultura do mamoeiro. No entanto, estes primers poderão ser testados na investigação de outras características em populações segregantes desta espécie e de espécies afins, análises de germoplasma, identificação de cultivares, evolução parental e marcas em melhoramento assistido. Abstract in english In experimental areas of the Education and Researches Ilha Solteira and Jaboticabal UNESP/Campus farms were selected and tagged 20 hermaphrodite plants and 20 feminine of cultivar Sunrise Solo, Improved Sunrise Solo cv.72/12 and Baixinho of Santa Amália.The seeds origined of the selected fruits were [...] cropped to be analysed the self-pollination efficiency and frequency of the sex in the progenies. After that, samples of the young leaf of the matrix plants were colected for the extration of the DNA. It was built five library enriched of microsatellite sequencies, using probes (TCA)10, (TC)13, (GATA)4, (CAC)10 e (TGAG)8.It was possible the development of the primers only in the library that has utilized the probe (TCA)10. This probe allowed the design of 32 primer pairs. From these, 31 presented pattern of unique band in agarose Metaphor and in acrilamide. For primer S36 were observed 2 bands, but with no polymorphism to differentiation in the sexual form at papaya tree culture. However, these primers can be tested, in the futures, in the investigation of the others features in segregated populations of this specie and the related species, germoplasm analysis, cultivars identification, parent evolution and molecular markers for the assisted plant breeding programs.

  13. A microsatellite library for Carica papaya L. cv. Sunrise solo Marcadores microssatélites para Carica papaya L. cv. Sunrise solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Correa Santos

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available In experimental areas of the Education and Researches Ilha Solteira and Jaboticabal UNESP/Campus farms were selected and tagged 20 hermaphrodite plants and 20 feminine of cultivar Sunrise Solo, Improved Sunrise Solo cv.72/12 and Baixinho of Santa Amália.The seeds origined of the selected fruits were cropped to be analysed the self-pollination efficiency and frequency of the sex in the progenies. After that, samples of the young leaf of the matrix plants were colected for the extration of the DNA. It was built five library enriched of microsatellite sequencies, using probes (TCA10, (TC13, (GATA4, (CAC10 e (TGAG8.It was possible the development of the primers only in the library that has utilized the probe (TCA10. This probe allowed the design of 32 primer pairs. From these, 31 presented pattern of unique band in agarose Metaphor and in acrilamide. For primer S36 were observed 2 bands, but with no polymorphism to differentiation in the sexual form at papaya tree culture. However, these primers can be tested, in the futures, in the investigation of the others features in segregated populations of this specie and the related species, germoplasm analysis, cultivars identification, parent evolution and molecular markers for the assisted plant breeding programs.Em áreas experimentais das Fazendas de Ensino e Pesquisa da UNESP/Campus de Ilha Solteira e Jaboticabal foram selecionadas e marcadas 20 plantas hermafroditas e 20 femininas dos cultivares Sunrise Solo, Improved Sunrise Solo cv.72/12 e Baixinho de Santa Amália. As sementes provenientes dos frutos selecionados foram plantadas para analisar-se a eficiência da autofecundação e a freqüência dos sexos nas progênies. Posteriormente, amostras de tecido foliar jovem das plantas matrizes foram coletadas para a extração de DNA. Foram construídas cinco bibliotecas enriquecidas de seqüências microsatélites, utilizando-se as sondas (TCA10, (TC13, (GATA4, (CAC10 e (TGAG8. Foi possível o desenvolvimento de primers somente com a biblioteca que utilizou a sonda (TCA10 . Esta permitiu o desenho de 32 pares de primers. Destes, 31 apresentaram padrão de banda única em agarose Metaphor e em acrilamida. Para o primer S36 foram observadas 2 bandas, mas sem polimorfismo para diferenciação da forma sexual na cultura do mamoeiro. No entanto, estes primers poderão ser testados na investigação de outras características em populações segregantes desta espécie e de espécies afins, análises de germoplasma, identificação de cultivares, evolução parental e marcas em melhoramento assistido.

  14. Studies on physiologically active root distribution and appropriate method of fertilizer application using isotopic techniques in two varieties of papaya (Carica papaya) during pre-bearing stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Coorg Honey Dew and Surya varieties of papaya aged 10 weeks, the abundance of active roots at 10 cm depth decreased during 20 to 100 days after injection of carrier-free 32P from 77% to 62% in the former and from 89% to 47% in the latter. Bulk of the active roots (85-65%) resided between 10 to 50 cm radial distance. While the phosphorus derived from fertilizer (Pdff) 32P-labelled superphosphate varied from 0.72 to 10.27%, placement between 10 and 40 cm radial distance was appropriate. (author)

  15. Determinação de isotiocianato de benzila em Carica papaya utilizando cromatografia gasosa com detectores seletivos Determination of benzyl isothiocyanate in Carica papaya using gas chromatography with selectives detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Izabela Miranda de Castro; Marianna Ramos dos Anjos; Elba dos Santos de Oliveira

    2008-01-01

    In the present work, a method was developed and validated for the quantification of benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) in the fruits of Carica papaya. The quantification of this compound was carried out by gas chromatography (GC) with selective detectors - nitrogen phosphorus detector (NPD) and flame photometric detector (FPD). The performance of these detectors showed a higher sensitivity of the NPD with a broader linear range of detection. The LOD/LOQ were 0.038/0.100 µg/mL for NPD and 5.78/19.29...

  16. Quality of Guava and Papaya Fruit Pulp as Influenced by Blending Ratio and Storage Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhat K. Nema

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Guava and papaya are the most widely grown commercial fruits of central India. Both the fruits are nutritive and may be used for processing. The analysis of organoleptic characters (i.e., colour, flavour, texture, taste and overall acceptability and qualitative characters (i.e., TSS, pH, acidity, ascorbic acid content of guava and papaya fruits was conducted on fresh fruit, prepared pulp and mixed pulp. During the storage of fruit pulp at low temperature (6±1°C, the decrease in overall acceptability of both the pulp was observed with increase in storage period. However, blending of both the pulp in different ratios influenced the organoleptic characters as well as the qualitative characters of the blended pulp.

  17. Effects of irradiation on the organoleptic quality and ripening process of papaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papaya variety Eksotika harvested at stage 2 of maturity (green skin with a tinge of yellow) were cleaned, air dried and exposed to irradiation at lower doses i.e. 250, 500, 750, 1000 Gray and then were kept at 20 deg. C for up to 9 days or until ripe. Sensory evaluation was carried out the storage period in order to determine effects of radiation on organoleptic quality and ripening process. About 15-24 experienced panelists were involved in the sensory evaluation. It was found that effect on the organoleptic quality of fruit irradiated with dose at 1000 Gray was unacceptable. Nevertheless, the quality was very much less affected by irradiation at 750 Gray or lower. In general the irradiated papaya ripened earlier than the control where the skin colour change by turning from green to 100% yellow but gives harder texture. Freckles on skin surface during ripening were reduced by irradiation

  18. The effect of gamma radiation on the peroxides activity, colour and ascorbic acid content of papaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activity of peroxidase enzyme increases during ripening with external colour used as a maturity index. An experiment indicated that 200 Krad dose level was most effective in inhibiting any increase in peroxidase activity when papaya was stored at room temperature. The doses of 25, 50 and 100 Krad level at least double the shelf life of fruit with 100 Krad was the most effective when kept in the cold. The development of yellow colour and synthesis of vitamin C is not effected. So, this preliminary study indicates that gamma radiation prolongs the shelf life of papaya when stored at cold or room temperature due to the inhibiting of the ripening process. It is also suggested that treatment of fungicides combined with gamma radiation might have an additive effect on shelf life

  19. Beverages of lemon juice and exotic noni and papaya with potential for anticholinergic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gironés-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B; Ferreres, Federico; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2015-03-01

    Lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f.) juice beverages enriched either with noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) (LN) or papaya (Carica papaya L.) (LP), were characterized by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS(n), the antioxidant capacity was evaluated by (DPPH·), superoxide (O2(·-)), hydroxyl radicals (·OH) and hypochlorous acid (HOCl) assays, and their potential as acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) inhibitors was also assessed. The fruits are rich in a wide range of bioactive phenolics. Regarding DPPH·, ·OH and HOCl assays, the LP displayed strong activity, and LN was the most active against O2(·-). Concerning cholinesterases, LP was the most active, mainly due to lemon juice contribution. The effect on the cholinesterases was not as strong as in previous reports on purified extracts, but the bioactive-rich beverages offer the possibility of dietary coadjutants for daily consumption of health-promoting substances by adults with aging-related cognitive or physical disorders. PMID:25306312

  20. Genomics of helper component proteinase reveals effective strategy for papaya ringspot virus resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangrauthia, Satendra K; Singh, Priyanka; Praveen, Shelly

    2010-01-01

    Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) causes severe economic losses in both cucurbits and papaya throughout the tropics and subtropics. Development of PRSV-resistant transgenic plants faces a major hurdle in achieving resistance against geographically distinct isolates. One of the major reasons of failing to achieve the broad-spectrum PRSV resistance is the involvement of silencing suppressor proteins of viral origin. Here, based on sequence profile of silencing suppressor protein, HcPro, we show that PRSV-HcPro, acts as a suppressor of RNA silencing through micro RNA binding in a dose- dependent manner. In planta expression of PRSV-HcPro affects developmental biology of plants, suggesting the interference of suppressor protein in micro RNA-directed regulatory pathways of plants. Besides facilitating the establishment of PRSV, it showed strong positive synergism with other heterologous viruses as well. This study provides a strategy to develop effective and stable PRSV-resistant transgenic plants. PMID:19672730

  1. Enzymatic wound debridement; role of papaya in the management of post cesarean gaped wounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Enzymatic wound debridement is an emerging concept in facilitating the wound healing process. Papaya has de-sloughing, antibacterial and wound healing properties. It has been used in African countries since centuries for different medicinal pur-poses. Apart from anecdotal reports and few studies on chronic ulcers and burns, no planned studies are available to support its action in postoperative wound infection.Objectives: To compare efficacy and safety of papaya dressing with conventional wound dressing with povidone iodine in post cesarean section gaped wounds. Setting: Gynecology Unit 3, Sir Ganga Ram Hospital Lahore - Pakistan, over a period of six months(June 2012 to Nov 2012). Study Design: Randomized, quasi experimental stu-dy. Materials and Methods: The study sample included 60 patients with post cesarean section gaped wounds. The sample was divided into two groups; thirty patients as Group A or the study group received Papaya dressing and rest of thirty patients as Group B or the control group received Povidone iodine dressing. Wounds were thoroughly washed with saline and then mashed unripe papaya was spread over the whole area of wound in the study group and povidone iodine in the control group. Wounds were covered with sterile bandage for at least 48 hours in study group and 24 hours in the control group. The process was repeated till a clean base of wound with healthy granulation tis-sue was achieved suitable for secondary suture. The efficacy parameters studied were the duration of time needed to develop healthy granulation tissue and total duration of hospital stay which were compared bet-ween the two groups. Safety factors studied were the adverse effects of medications used in the study. Results: Out of 1200 cesarean sections done during study period, sixty (5%) were gaped in the post-operative period. Out of 60, 55 (90%) were emergency and only 5 (10%) were elective cesarean sections. All the sixty patients with postoperative gaped wounds were included in the study, of which 30 patients received Papaya and 30 received Povidone iodine dressing. Time required to induce healthy granulation tissue was significantly shorter in the papaya group as compared to povidone iodine group (3.4 +- 0.4 days versus 7.2 +- 0.2 days).Similarly the duration of hospital stay was also short in the study as compared to control group i.e. 11.6 +- 1.2 days and 16.8 +- 1.4 days respectively. The side effects of medications used in study (papaya and povidone iodine) like local irritation and hyper-sensitivity reactions were minor and not significally different in both groups. Conclusion: Papaya dressing is effective, safe, widely available and cost effective for wound healing in post-operative infected gaped wounds. (author)

  2. Uso de esterco associado à adubação mineral na produção de mudas de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L. The use of manure associated with mineral fertilization in papaya (Carica papaya L. seedling production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Célia Faria Simão Canesin

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Na composição do substrato para produção de mudas de mamoeiro, recomenda-se o uso de adubação orgânica, que traz como vantagens a melhoria das características físicas, químicas e biológicas do solo, criando um ambiente favorável ao desenvolvimento inicial das mudas, bem como boa resposta do mamoeiro. Os materiais orgânicos desempenham ainda um importante papel na nutrição das plantas como fornecedores de nutrientes. Contudo, observa-se que existe uma grande variação nas recomendações e quase sempre a adubação orgânica está associada à adubação mineral. Neste contexto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi o de verificar os efeitos do uso de esterco de curral associado ou não à adubação mineral no substrato sobre a formação de mudas de mamoeiro. O Experimento foi conduzido na FEP/UNESP/Câmpus de Ilha Solteira-SP. O delineamento utilizado foi em blocos, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas, sendo parcelas as cultivares e subparcelas os substratos. Cada parcela com 5 repetições e 10 plantas úteis por subparcela. Para a comparação das médias, utilizou-se o teste de Tukey. Com base nos resultados obtidos, pode-se concluir que: a Na formação das mudas de mamoeiro, o esterco de curral pode ser utilizado sem a necessidade de adubação mineral com o superfosfato simples e o cloreto de potássio; b O esterco de curral foi capaz de fornecer às mudas de mamoeiro os nutrientes N, P, K, Ca, Mg e Cu, necessários para seu desenvolvimento até o transplantio para o campo.The use of organic fertilization is recommended to be added to the substrate for papaya seedling production, as it enhances the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the soil, creating a favorable environment for the initial development of the plants, which results in better plant growth. The organic matter has also the important role of providing nutrients to the plants. However, there is great variation in the recommendations, and in most cases organic fertilization is associated with mineral supplementation. The objective of this research was to verify the effects of the use of corral manure, associated or not with mineral fertilization, added to the papaya seedling substrate. The experiment was deployed at the Teaching and Research Farm of the College of Engineering of Ilha Solteira, UNESP, in Ilha Solteira, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The design was set in blocks, in split plots, where papaya cultivars were the whole unit and substrates the subunit treatments. Each unit with 5 replications and the subunit composed of 10 plants each. Means were separated by Tukey test. Results indicated that: a papaya seedling production the corral manure can be used without supplementation of simple superphosphate and potassium chloride, b corral manure alone supplied nutrients N, P, K, Ca, Mg and Cu to the papaya seedlings until transplanted to the field.

  3. Fitotoxicidade de fungicidas, acaricidas e inseticidas sobre o mamoeiro (Carica papaya L.) cultivar sunrise solo improved line 72/12 / Toxic effects of pesticides products on papaya plant (Carica papaya L.) cv. sunrise solo improved line 72/12

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alcílio, Vieira; Carlos, Ruggiero; Sérgio Lucio David, Marin.

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se os efeitos fitotóxicos de fungicidas, acaricidas e inseticidas e algumas associações entre eles, em plantas de mamoeiros (Carica papaya L.) cv. Sunrise Solo Improved Line 72/12, em condições de verão, no município de São Mateus - ES, localizado na região produtora do Estado. O experimen [...] to foi arranjado em delineamento de blocos casualizados, com 4 repetições e 03 plantas úteis por parcela experimental. Foram utilizados os seguintes produtos, com as respectivas doses, para cada 100 l de água: abamectin (Vertimec 18 CE - 50 ml); dicofol + tetradiphon (Carbax - 200 ml), fenbutatin oxide (Torque 500 SC - 60 ml); mancozeb (Dithane PM - 200g); oxicloreto de cobre (Reconil - 400g) e thiabendazole (Tecto 450 - 100ml). Analisou-se a fitotoxicidade dos produtos em relação à altura da planta, nº de folhas, número de flores e frutos ; diâmetro do caule e queimaduras ou injúrias foliares. As medições e contagens foram feitas um dia antes das pulverizações, 15 e 30 dias após. Constatou-se que o Vertimec 18 CE, associado ao Reconil ou ao Tecto 450, ocasionou leves injúrias foliares, detectadas aos 15 dias após as pulverizações, que se tornaram praticamente imperceptíveis, aos 30 dias após as pulverizações; e que Dithane PM, Reconil, Tecto 450, Carbax, Torque 500 SC, Dithane PM + Carbax, Dithane PM + Torque 500 SC, Dithane PM + Vertimec 18 CE, Reconil + Carbax, Reconil + Torque 500 SC, Tecto 450 + Carbax e, Tecto 450 + + Torque 500 SC não interferiram nos parâmetros de desenvolvimento e de produção estudados, bem como não causaram injúrias ou queimaduras nas folhas dos mamoeiros. Abstract in english In this work was studied the phytotoxic effect of inseticides, acaricides and fungicides alone and in combination, on papaya plants (Carica papaya L.); cv. Sunrise Solo Improved Line 72/12, under field conditions. The experiment were conducted in a farm, located at São Mateus county, the most import [...] ant papaya region in the State of Espírito Santo.The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with four replications, with three plants by plot. The products with their respective dose in a volume of 100 l H2O were: abamectin (Vertimec 18 CE - 50 ml); dicofol + tetradifon (Carbax - 200 ml); fenbutatin oxide (Torque 500 SC - 60 ml); mancozeb (Dithane PM - 200g).; cuprix oxychloride (Reconil 400g) and thiabendazole (Tecto 450 - 100ml). Plants were evaluated for plant high, number of leaves, flowers and fruits, and extension of leaf injury, one day before, 15 and 30 days after spray. Vertimec 18 CE in combination with Reconil or Tecto 450, caused light leaf injuries, observed only15 days after spraying. These plants recovered from leaf injury and 30 days later, no leaf lesion was observed. Dithane PM, Reconil, Tecto 450, Carbax, Torque 500 SC, Dithane PM + Carbax , Dithane PM + Torque 500 SC, Dithane PM + Vertimec 18 CE, Reconil + Carbax, Reconil + Torque 500 SC, Tecto 450 + Carbax and Tecto 450 + Torque 500 SC, did not affected plant growth and yield studied. No leaf burns injury were caused in papaya plants.

  4. Fitotoxicidade de fungicidas, acaricidas e inseticidas sobre o mamoeiro (Carica papaya L. cultivar sunrise solo improved line 72/12 Toxic effects of pesticides products on papaya plant (Carica papaya L. cv. sunrise solo improved line 72/12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcílio Vieira

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se os efeitos fitotóxicos de fungicidas, acaricidas e inseticidas e algumas associações entre eles, em plantas de mamoeiros (Carica papaya L. cv. Sunrise Solo Improved Line 72/12, em condições de verão, no município de São Mateus - ES, localizado na região produtora do Estado. O experimento foi arranjado em delineamento de blocos casualizados, com 4 repetições e 03 plantas úteis por parcela experimental. Foram utilizados os seguintes produtos, com as respectivas doses, para cada 100 l de água: abamectin (Vertimec 18 CE - 50 ml; dicofol + tetradiphon (Carbax - 200 ml, fenbutatin oxide (Torque 500 SC - 60 ml; mancozeb (Dithane PM - 200g; oxicloreto de cobre (Reconil - 400g e thiabendazole (Tecto 450 - 100ml. Analisou-se a fitotoxicidade dos produtos em relação à altura da planta, nº de folhas, número de flores e frutos ; diâmetro do caule e queimaduras ou injúrias foliares. As medições e contagens foram feitas um dia antes das pulverizações, 15 e 30 dias após. Constatou-se que o Vertimec 18 CE, associado ao Reconil ou ao Tecto 450, ocasionou leves injúrias foliares, detectadas aos 15 dias após as pulverizações, que se tornaram praticamente imperceptíveis, aos 30 dias após as pulverizações; e que Dithane PM, Reconil, Tecto 450, Carbax, Torque 500 SC, Dithane PM + Carbax, Dithane PM + Torque 500 SC, Dithane PM + Vertimec 18 CE, Reconil + Carbax, Reconil + Torque 500 SC, Tecto 450 + Carbax e, Tecto 450 + + Torque 500 SC não interferiram nos parâmetros de desenvolvimento e de produção estudados, bem como não causaram injúrias ou queimaduras nas folhas dos mamoeiros.In this work was studied the phytotoxic effect of inseticides, acaricides and fungicides alone and in combination, on papaya plants (Carica papaya L.; cv. Sunrise Solo Improved Line 72/12, under field conditions. The experiment were conducted in a farm, located at São Mateus county, the most important papaya region in the State of Espírito Santo.The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with four replications, with three plants by plot. The products with their respective dose in a volume of 100 l H2O were: abamectin (Vertimec 18 CE - 50 ml; dicofol + tetradifon (Carbax - 200 ml; fenbutatin oxide (Torque 500 SC - 60 ml; mancozeb (Dithane PM - 200g.; cuprix oxychloride (Reconil 400g and thiabendazole (Tecto 450 - 100ml. Plants were evaluated for plant high, number of leaves, flowers and fruits, and extension of leaf injury, one day before, 15 and 30 days after spray. Vertimec 18 CE in combination with Reconil or Tecto 450, caused light leaf injuries, observed only15 days after spraying. These plants recovered from leaf injury and 30 days later, no leaf lesion was observed. Dithane PM, Reconil, Tecto 450, Carbax, Torque 500 SC, Dithane PM + Carbax , Dithane PM + Torque 500 SC, Dithane PM + Vertimec 18 CE, Reconil + Carbax, Reconil + Torque 500 SC, Tecto 450 + Carbax and Tecto 450 + Torque 500 SC, did not affected plant growth and yield studied. No leaf burns injury were caused in papaya plants.

  5. Development and validation of a multiplex reverse transcription PCR assay for simultaneous detection of three papaya viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuo, Decai; Shen, Wentao; Yang, Yong; Yan, Pu; Li, Xiaoying; Zhou, Peng

    2014-10-01

    Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV), and Papaya mosaic virus (PapMV) produce similar symptoms in papaya. Each threatens commercial production of papaya on Hainan Island, China. In this study, a multiplex reverse transcription PCR assay was developed to detect simultaneously these three viruses by screening combinations of mixed primer pairs and optimizing the multiplex RT-PCR reaction conditions. A mixture of three specific primer pairs was used to amplify three distinct fragments of 613 bp from the P3 gene of PRSV, 355 bp from the CP gene of PLDMV, and 205 bp from the CP gene of PapMV, demonstrating the assay's specificity. The sensitivity of the multiplex RT-PCR was evaluated by showing plasmids containing each of the viral target genes with 1.44 × 103, 1.79 × 103, and 1.91 × 102 copies for the three viruses could be detected successfully. The multiplex RT-PCR was applied successfully for detection of three viruses from 341 field samples collected from 18 counties of Hainan Island, China. Rates of single infections were 186/341 (54.5%), 93/341 (27.3%), and 3/341 (0.9%), for PRSV, PLDMV, and PapMV, respectively; 59/341 (17.3%) of the samples were co-infected with PRSV and PLDMV, which is the first time being reported in Hainan Island. This multiplex RT-PCR assay is a simple, rapid, sensitive, and cost-effective method for detecting multiple viruses in papaya and can be used for routine molecular diagnosis and epidemiological studies in papaya. PMID:25337891

  6. Papaya ringspot virus coat protein gene for antigen presentation Escherichia coli.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chatchen, S.; Ju?í?ek, Miloslav; Rueda, P.; Kertbundit, Sunee

    2006-01-01

    Ro?. 39, ?. 1 (2006), s. 16-21. ISSN 1225-8687 Grant ostatní: Thai Research Fund(TH) BT-B-06-PG-14-4503 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : antigen presentation * canine parvo virus * epitope * papaya ringspot virus Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.465, year: 2006 http://www.jbmb.or.kr/view_article.php3?cont=jbmb&kid=174&mid=3&pid=3

  7. DINÁMICA DEL CRECIMIENTO DE PAPAYA POR EFECTO DE LA INOCULACIÓN MICORRÍZICA Y FERTILIZACIÓN CON FÓSFORO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelina Esmeralda Qui\\u00F1ones-Aguilar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En México, la papaya es un fruto importante de exportación; sin embargo, este mercado exige calidad bio, constituyendo un reto en la producción con el uso de tecnologías bio-ecológicas y sostenibles. Los hongos micorr í zicos arbusculares (HMA pueden contribuir significativamente en la nutrición vegetal, en especial en la obtención de fósforo (P . El empleo de los HMA en papaya es alentador, pero falta definir aspectos sobre el manejo agronómico de productos a base de HMA. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el efecto del HMA Glomus sp. Zac-2 y la fertilización con P, sobre el crecimiento de papaya var. Cera, durante la etapa de vivero. Para ello, se realizó un experimento trifactorial 2 x 3 x 4 (inoculación HMA, fuente y dosis de P en un diseño completamente al azar. Las variables evaluadas fueron altura de planta (AP y diámetro de tallo (DT, cada 15 días; biomasa seca (BS y densidad de esporas (DE, al final del experimento (90 días. A partir de la BS de plantas con y sin micorrizar, se calculó el índice relativo de dependencia micorrízica (IRDM. Las variables AP, DT y BS fueron diferentes ( P ? 0.05 entre plantas con y sin HMA, independientemente de la dosis y fuente de P. A los 75 días, las plantas con HMA incrementaron su crecimiento más de 500 % con respecto a las no inoculadas; el IRDM fue 99 %. Estos resultados sugieren que la inoculación de HMA en papaya durante la fase de vivero puede beneficiar su crecimiento posterior en campo.

  8. Phenol induced by irradiation does not impair sensory quality of fenugreek and papaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Suchandra; Variyar, Prasad S.; Sharma, Arun

    2013-11-01

    The effect of radiation processing on the sensory quality of fenugreek and papaya exposed to doses in the range of 2.5-10 kGy and 100 Gy-2.5 kGy respectively was investigated. Despite an increase in the content of phenol in the volatile oil of these food products overall sensory quality of the irradiated and control samples was not significantly affected by radiation processing.

  9. Control of papaya fruits anthracnose by essential oil of Ricinus communis

    OpenAIRE

    César Luis Siqueira Júnior; Maria das Graças Machado Freire; Antônio Sérgio Nascimento Moreira; Maria Ligia Rodrigues Macedo

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the potential of castor oil for the control of papaya diseases caused by the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and the bacterium Pseudomonas caricapapayae. The treatment with 1% castor oil did not significantly affect the fungal growth. The effectiveness of castor oil for the control of anthracnose was shown when 5% and 10% (v/v) were used in the assays resulting in reduced mycelial growth. Fungal sporulation was strongly inhibited at 10% (v/v) conc...

  10. Estimativas de parâmetros genéticos e fenotípicos em mamão Estimates of genetic and phenotypic parameters in papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulcinéia Elizabete Foltran

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Na Estação Experimental de Tietê, estimaram-se os parâmetros genéticos e fenotípicos das variáveis altura da planta, diâmetro do caule a 10 e a 50 cm acima do nível do solo, comprimento do internódio mediano, número de folhas e índice foliar, a partir de dados tomados aos três, cinco e sete meses de idade, em um ensaio de oito progênies de meios-irmãos de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L.. As análises da variância foram significativas para altura das plantas, nas três idades; para diâmetro do caule a 10 cm de altura, aos sete meses, e para comprimento do internódio mediano, aos três e aos cinco meses. As estimativas do coeficiente de determinação genotípica, ao nível de médias de progênies, foram, na maioria, altas. Esses resultados mostram a possibilidade de sucesso na seleção massal para as variáveis estudadas.Genetic and phenotypic parameters of papaya (Carica papaya L. were estimated for plant height, stem diameter at 10 and 50 cm height (above the soil surface, number of leaves, internodes length and foliar index at the ages of three, five and seven months old. The experiment was conducted using eight half-sib progenies at Tietê Experimental Station, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The results of the variance analyses showed significant effects for plant height for the three ages; for stem diameter at 10 cm height, in seven month old plants; and for median internodes length in three and five month old plants. Estimates for the genotypic determination coefficient, for the average of progenies, were high in most of the cases. These results showed the possibility of a successful mass selection of papaya, for the variables studied.

  11. Estimativas de parâmetros genéticos e fenotípicos em mamão / Estimates of genetic and phenotypic parameters in papaya

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Dulcinéia Elizabete, Foltran; Paulo de Souza, Gonçalves; José Carlos, Sabino; Toshio, Igue; Regina Célia F., Vilela.

    Full Text Available Na Estação Experimental de Tietê, estimaram-se os parâmetros genéticos e fenotípicos das variáveis altura da planta, diâmetro do caule a 10 e a 50 cm acima do nível do solo, comprimento do internódio mediano, número de folhas e índice foliar, a partir de dados tomados aos três, cinco e sete meses de [...] idade, em um ensaio de oito progênies de meios-irmãos de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L.). As análises da variância foram significativas para altura das plantas, nas três idades; para diâmetro do caule a 10 cm de altura, aos sete meses, e para comprimento do internódio mediano, aos três e aos cinco meses. As estimativas do coeficiente de determinação genotípica, ao nível de médias de progênies, foram, na maioria, altas. Esses resultados mostram a possibilidade de sucesso na seleção massal para as variáveis estudadas. Abstract in english Genetic and phenotypic parameters of papaya (Carica papaya L.) were estimated for plant height, stem diameter at 10 and 50 cm height (above the soil surface), number of leaves, internodes length and foliar index at the ages of three, five and seven months old. The experiment was conducted using eigh [...] t half-sib progenies at Tietê Experimental Station, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The results of the variance analyses showed significant effects for plant height for the three ages; for stem diameter at 10 cm height, in seven month old plants; and for median internodes length in three and five month old plants. Estimates for the genotypic determination coefficient, for the average of progenies, were high in most of the cases. These results showed the possibility of a successful mass selection of papaya, for the variables studied.

  12. Establishing Optimal Dehydration Process Parameters for Papaya By EmployingA Firefly Algorithm, Goal Programming Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Julian Scott Yeomans

    2014-01-01

    This study employs a Firefly Algorithm (FA) to determine the optimal osmotic dehydration parameters for papaya. The functional form of the osmotic dehydration model is established via a standard response surface technique. The format of the resulting optimization model to be solved is a non-linear goal programming problem. While various alternate solution approaches are possible, an FA-driven procedure is employed. For optimization purposes, it has been demonstrated that the F...

  13. Prospects and problems of irradiating papaya. A case study in Hawaii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) ban of ethylene dibromide (EDB) as a fruit fumigant has forced Hawaii's papaya industry to search for alternative treatments. Among various alternatives considered, irradiation process is the most efficacious because fruits can be sorted, packaged, chilled and conveyed to an irradiator for low-dose treatments (0.26 kGy for disinfestation) before shipment to export markets. The papaya industry in Hawaii, however, has not assigned a high priority to the irradiation process. Instead, the industry opted for the double-dip hot water treatment which was rushed to become an USDA-approved procedure shortly before 1 September 1984. Three major concerns expressed by the papaya industry about the irradiation process as a replacement for chemical fumigation are: (1) Capital investment; (2) Logistics of irradiation processing and fruit transport; and (3) Consumer acceptance. The outlook for radiation disinfestation of Hawaii-grown papaya is quite good in spite of these concerns expressed by the industry. Some packers are beginning to feel that there are more advantages and benefits in adopting this process than the disadvantage of negative publicity about nuclear technology. With the availability of irradiation, the fruit and vegetable industry in Hawaii could be expanded by increased production and sales of new or existing crops. A worthwhile task ahead would be for the food industry, government agencies and researchers stry, government agencies and researchers to join forces in conducting an effective consumer education programme by assuring the public that irradiated foods are safe. Concurrently, certain segments of the food industry should consider and prepare for the processing and marketing of irradiated foods. (author)

  14. Reasoned opinion on the modification of MRLs for spirodiclofen in strawberries bananas, avocado, mango and papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, the Netherlands, herewith referred as the evaluating Member State (EMS, received an application from Bayer S.A.S-Bayer CropScience to modify the existing MRLs for spirodiclofen in strawberries and bananas and set import tolerances for papaya, avocado and mango. The Netherlands proposed to decrease the existing MRL for strawberries from 2 mg/kg to 0.02 mg/kg and to increase the MRL for banana from the limit of quantification 0.02* mg/kg to 0.3mg/kg. In order to accommodate the import of produce, the Netherlands proposed to set the MRL for papaya, mangos and avocados at 1.0 mg/kg. The Netherlands drafted an evaluation report according to Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, which was submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA. According to EFSA the data are sufficient to derive MRL proposals of 0.3 mg/kg for the proposed use in banana and 1.5 mg/kg to accommodate the reported use in the USA on avocado, noting that the MRL in the country of origin is set at the level of 1 mg/kg. EFSA has some reservations regarding the proposal that the residue trial results for avocado might be extrapolated to propose MRLs on papaya and mango. The intended use on strawberries is not adequately supported by residue data. Based on the risk assessment results, EFSA concludes that the proposed use of spirodiclofen on strawberry, banana, avocado, mango and papaya will not result in consumer exposure exceeding the toxicological reference value and therefore is unlikely to pose a consumer health risk.

  15. Caracterización de diversas fracciones del látex Carica papaya como biocatalizadores en la hidrólisis de triglicéridos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivera, I.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Carica papaya latex contains interesting enzymes; the best known is papain, but lipolytic activity is also present. Due to the complexity of the latex polymeric matrix, it has not been possible to completely isolate enzymes responsible of lipolytic activity. The aim of this work was to characterize the lipolytic activity in the raw latex (CPLtx and two partially purified fractions of papaya latex (without protease, CPL-p and without esterase CPL-e. Thermostability, optimal temperature and pH in the hydrolysis of two model triglycerides (tributyrin and triolein and the selectivity towards triglycerides with different chain lengths were determined. The lipolytic activity of these biocatalysts in the hydrolysis of tributyrin and olive oil was similar to other commercially available immobilized microbial lipases (RM IM and Novozyme 435.El látex de Carica papaya es fuente de interesantes enzimas, la más conocida es la papaína, pero la actividad lipolítica también está presente. No obstante, debido a la complejidad de la matriz polimérica del látex, hasta la fecha no ha sido posible aislar las enzimas responsables de la actividad lipolítica del látex. Este trabajo está dedicado a la caracterización de la actividad lipolítica en el látex crudo (CPLtx y dos fracciones parcialmente purificadas de látex de papaya (sin proteasas, CPL-p y sin esterasas, CPL-e, a las cuales se determinaron la termostabilidad, temperatura y pH óptimos en la hidrólisis de dos triglicéridos modelo (tributirina y trioleina, así como la selectividad hacia triglicéridos con diferentes longitudes de cadena. Los tres presentaron actividades lipolíticas en hidrólisis de tributirina y aceite de oliva comparables con otras lipasas microbianas inmovilizadas disponibles comercialmente (RM IM y Novozyme 435.

  16. Color index and correlation with physical and chemical parameters of guava, mango and papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jedman Dantas Motta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available It was used a low cost colorimeter determine the color in agricultural products. Color analysis on peel and pulps of guava, papaya and mango were made. The values found in the L*a*b* color spaces were used to calculate color indexes that were related to the soluble solids content, pH and the fruit consistence during the maturation. The results obtained permit to conclude that it is possible to estimate the ripening of papaya over the color peel, having found an accurate relation between peel color index and soluble solids content expressed in terms of the third degree equation. Nevertheless for the guava and mango there is not a relation between the peel color indexes and soluble solids content. There is not a relation between color indexes of the guava, papaya and mango pulps with soluble solids content. For all fruits studied there was not relation between color indexes of the peel or pulp with pH.

  17. Gamma irradiation as a quarantine treatment for carambola, papaya and mango

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary experiments carried out on the effects of irradiation on carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.), papaya (Carica papaya L.) and mango (Mangifera indica L.) with regard to fruit fly treatment, fruit injury and the physicochemical and organoleptic properties showed that irradiation can be successfully developed and should be investigated further as a quarantine treatment for these fruits. Emergence of normal adult fruit flies of the Dacus dorsalis complex did not occur when infested carambolas were treated at doses as low as 100 Gy. Carambola showed external symptoms of injury at irradiation doses in excess of 200 Gy. There appeared to be some reduction in sugar content at doses exceeding 100 Gy. Papaya, cv. ''Eksotika'', tolerated irradiation up to 300 Gy. Irradiation at this dose did not alter the ripening behaviour, nor did it cause any injury or alter the organoleptic properties of the fruit. An additional benefit was that doses above 250 Gy significantly reduced freckling of the fruit and enhanced its cosmetic value. ''Eksotika'' is an ideal candidate for quarantine treatment using gamma irradiation. Mango, cv. ''Harumanis'', tolerated irradiation fairly well. Exposure of fruit to doses of up to 750 Gy did not produce significant injury. (author). 13 refs, 2 figs, 17 tabs

  18. Isolation of natural inhibitors of papain obtained from Carica papaya latex

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rubens, Monti; Jonas, Contiero; Antonio José, Goulart.

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta novos dados sobre inibidores naturais de papaína. O látex fresco de frutos verdes de Carica papaya foi coletado pela manhã em plantações da região de Araraquara, SP, Brasil e imediatamente transportado ao laboratório em banho de gelo. Três frações com efeito inibitório da ati [...] vidade esterásica da papaína foram isoladas a partir do látex fresco, através de diálise, filtração em Sephadex G-25 e cromatografia em SP-Sephadex C-25. As frações isoladas identificadas como inibidores I e II, mostraram reação negativa à ninidrina; entretanto, a fração identificada como P-III mostrou reação positiva. Dados cinéticos revelaram inibição não-competitiva (inibidor I) e incompetitiva (inibidores II e P-III). Abstract in english Studies were carried out to natural papain inhibitor from papaya latex. Fresh latex from green fruits of Carica papaya was collected and immediately transported in ice bath to the lab, from which three fractions with inhibitor effect of esterase papain activity were isolated by latex dialysis, Sepha [...] dex G-25 gel filtration and ionic exchange chromatography in SP-Sephadex C-25. The isolated fractions, identified as inhibitors I and II, showed a negative reaction with ninhydrin; however, the fraction identified as P-III showed positive reaction with ninhydrin. Kinetics data showed non-competitive inhibition (inhibitor I) and uncompetitive (inhibitors II and P-III).

  19. Relationship between photochemical efficiency (JIP-Test Parameters) and portable chlorophyll meter readings in papaya plants

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fernanda Assumpção, Castro; Eliemar, Campostrini; Alena, Torres Netto; Leandro Hespanhol, Viana.

    Full Text Available The Portable Chlorophyll Meter (PCM) is used to estimate the total chlorophyll and leaf nitrogen content of various species. Since there is a relationship between the chlorophyll concentration and the photochemical efficiency, a relationship can also be established between the PCM readings and some [...] fluorescence variables to provide information on photosystem II (PSII) structure and activity. Papaya (Carica papaya L.) plants ['Sunrise Solo' (leaves with intense green coloring) and 'Golden' cultivars (leaves with yellow-green coloring) were grown in a greenhouse with 30% interception of photosynthetically active photon flux density. The plants were cultivated in 15L plastics pots. Ninety to 100 days after planting the older leaves turned yellow and the chlorophyll fluorescence variables and PCM readings were measured. At low PCM values (less than 30 to 'Sunrise Solo' and less than 20 to 'Golden') the PSII structure and activity were damaged, which is likely related to a reduction in the numbers of active reaction centers (RC/CS0). At higher PCM values the chlorophyll a fluorescence variables (ABS/RC, DI0/RC, TR0/CS0 e ET0/CS0) that are related to PSII structure and activity PSII were not responsive. These results indicated that the effects of chlorophyll content measured by PCM on the photochemical phase of photosynthesis evaluated by chlorophyll fluorescence occur after the degradation of chlorophyll molecules is initiated. In papaya the Portable Chlorophyll Meter (SPAD-502) was shown to be suitable for diagnosis of PSII energy distribution under N stress and senescence.

  20. Estimación de las necesidades hídricas de la papaya utilizando la aproximación de los coeficientes culturales duales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoima Chaterl\\u00E1n

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Considerando el incremento de la actividad de riego en el cultivo de la papaya durante los últimos años, resulta de interés el conocimiento de los elementos técnicos y agronomicos necesarios para una adecuada programación del riego a partir de la estimación de las necesidades hidrícas del cultivo. Para esto se utilizo el modelo SIMDualKc el cual efectua el calculo de la evapotranspiración del cultivo (ETc y la programación del riego a partir de la metodología de los coeficientes culturales duales (Kc=Kcb+Ke. La investigación fue realizada en la Estación Experimental de Riego y Drenaje, situada en Alquízar, provincia La Habana, Cuba. Los experimentos fueron desarrollados entre el período marzo-noviembre 1997. Se utilizó la Papaya var. "Maradol roja". La calibración consistió en la búsqueda de los coeficientes culturales basales para las diferentes etapas de desarrollo del cultivo reduciendo al mínimo las diferencias entre los valores simulados y observados del contenido de humedad del suelo. Fue evaluada la bondad de ajuste de las predicciones del modelo, realizándose una serie de análisis estadísticos. Se puede concluir que el modelo puede ser utilizado para la generación de calendarios alternativos de riego destinados a mejorar el ahorro de agua y la productividad de la papaya en estas condiciones edafoclimáticas.

  1. Isolation of natural inhibitors of papain obtained from Carica papaya latex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Monti

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out to natural papain inhibitor from papaya latex. Fresh latex from green fruits of Carica papaya was collected and immediately transported in ice bath to the lab, from which three fractions with inhibitor effect of esterase papain activity were isolated by latex dialysis, Sephadex G-25 gel filtration and ionic exchange chromatography in SP-Sephadex C-25. The isolated fractions, identified as inhibitors I and II, showed a negative reaction with ninhydrin; however, the fraction identified as P-III showed positive reaction with ninhydrin. Kinetics data showed non-competitive inhibition (inhibitor I and uncompetitive (inhibitors II and P-III.Este trabalho apresenta novos dados sobre inibidores naturais de papaína. O látex fresco de frutos verdes de Carica papaya foi coletado pela manhã em plantações da região de Araraquara, SP, Brasil e imediatamente transportado ao laboratório em banho de gelo. Três frações com efeito inibitório da atividade esterásica da papaína foram isoladas a partir do látex fresco, através de diálise, filtração em Sephadex G-25 e cromatografia em SP-Sephadex C-25. As frações isoladas identificadas como inibidores I e II, mostraram reação negativa à ninidrina; entretanto, a fração identificada como P-III mostrou reação positiva. Dados cinéticos revelaram inibição não-competitiva (inibidor I e incompetitiva (inibidores II e P-III.

  2. Host genetic influences on the anthelmintic efficacy of papaya-derived cysteine proteinases in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luoga, Wenceslaus; Mansur, Fadlul; Stepek, Gillian; Lowe, Ann; Duce, Ian R; Buttle, David J; Behnke, Jerzy M

    2015-06-01

    Eight strains of mice, of contrasting genotypes, infected with Heligmosomoides bakeri were studied to determine whether the anthelmintic efficacy of papaya latex varied between inbred mouse strains and therefore whether there is an underlying genetic influence on the effectiveness of removing the intestinal nematode. Infected mice were treated with 330 nmol of crude papaya latex or with 240 nmol of papaya latex supernatant (PLS). Wide variation of response between different mouse strains was detected. Treatment was most effective in C3H (90·5-99·3% reduction in worm counts) and least effective in CD1 and BALB/c strains (36·0 and 40·5%, respectively). Cimetidine treatment did not improve anthelmintic efficacy of PLS in a poor drug responder mouse strain. Trypsin activity, pH and PLS activity did not differ significantly along the length of the gastro-intestinal (GI) tract between poor (BALB/c) and high (C3H) drug responder mouse strains. Our data indicate that there is a genetic component explaining between-mouse variation in the efficacy of a standard dose of PLS in removing worms, and therefore warrant some caution in developing this therapy for wider scale use in the livestock industry, and even in human medicine. PMID:25736575

  3. Supercritical fluid chromatography with photodiode array detection for pesticide analysis in papaya and avocado samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pano-Farias, Norma S; Ceballos-Magaña, Silvia G; Gonzalez, Jorge; Jurado, José M; Muñiz-Valencia, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    To improve the analysis of pesticides in complex food matrices with economic importance, alternative chromatographic techniques, such as supercritical fluid chromatography, can be used. Supercritical fluid chromatography has barely been applied for pesticide analysis in food matrices. In this paper, an analytical method using supercritical fluid chromatography coupled to a photodiode array detection has been established for the first time for the quantification of pesticides in papaya and avocado. The extraction of methyl parathion, atrazine, ametryn, carbofuran, and carbaryl was performed through the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe methodology. The method was validated using papaya and avocado samples. For papaya, the correlation coefficient values were higher than 0.99; limits of detection and quantification ranged from 130-380 and 220-640 ?g/kg, respectively; recovery values ranged from 72.8-94.6%; precision was lower than 3%. For avocado, limit of detection values were ?450 ?g/kg; precision was lower than 11%; recoveries ranged from 50.0-94.2%. Method feasibility was tested for lime, banana, mango, and melon samples. Our results demonstrate that the proposed method is applicable to methyl parathion, atrazine, ametryn, and carbaryl, toxics pesticides used worldwide. The methodology presented in this work could be applicable to other fruits. PMID:25641906

  4. LEAF GAS EXCHANGE CHARACTERISTICS OF FOUR PAPAYA GENOTYPES DURING DIFFERENT STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAMPOSTRINI ELIEMAR

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, was used four papaya (Carica papaya L. genotypes: three from the 'Solo ( Sunrise Solo TJ, Sunrise Solo 72/12 and Baixinho de Santa Amália group and one from the 'Formosa' group (Know-You 01. They were grown in plastic pots containing a sandy-clay-loam soil subjected to pH correction and fertilization, under greenhouse conditions. Throughout the experimental period plants were subjected to periodic irrigation to maintain the soil humitidy around field capacity. The experiment was conducted 73 days after sowing. In all genotypes, leaf gas exchange characteristics were determined. The net photosynthetic rate (A, mumol m-2 s-1 , stomatal conductance (g s mol m-2 s-1, leaf temperature (T I, 0C and intercellular carbon dioxide concentration (ci, muL L-1 on the 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th and 9th leaves from the plant apex were determined. No significant differences were observed for A, g s, c i, or Tl either among the leaves sampled from any of the genotypes. A was positively correlated with g s and in the other hand T I and g s were negatively correlated. The results suggest that, for 73 DAP, all the sampled papaya leaves functioned as sources of organs.

  5. Chemical characterization of the flour of peel and seed from two papaya cultivars

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cláudia Mendes dos, Santos; Celeste Maria Patto de, Abreu; Juliana Mesquita, Freire; Estela de Rezende, Queiroz; Marcelle Mendes, Mendonça.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Papaya is among the currently most important tropical fruits grown in Brazil and in the world. The fruit is mainly consumed fresh although it offers many industrial products. The processing of this fruit, as well as its fresh consumption, results in large amounts of waste, such as peels and seeds. P [...] apaya consumption is one of the causes of significant loss of food value; therefore, new aspects on the use of its waste as by-products, or in the production of food additives, or even the incorporation of its flour in food have aroused great interest because these are products of high nutritional value, and their use may be economically viable. The objective of this study was to produce and characterize peel and seed flours from two papaya cultivars (Havai and Calimosa) for their chemical constituents focusing on possible use in foods. The proximate and mineral composition, titratable acidity, soluble solids, pH, contents of vitamin C, and phenolic compounds were determined. According to the results obtained, the papaya peel and seed flours had high contents of protein and fiber and therefore can be used as alternative sources of nutrients and can also be added in foods avoiding waste and adding value to the fruit.

  6. Physicochemical, nutritional, and microbial quality of fresh-cut and frozen papaya prepared from cultivars with varying resistance to internal yellowing disease (Enterobacter cloacae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quality, nutritional, and microbial analyses were completed for fresh-cut and frozen papaya cubes prepared from cultivars with varying resistance to internal yellowing disease, caused by the bacterium Enterobacter cloacae. In general, fresh-cut and frozen papaya retained nutritional and microbial qu...

  7. Foraging on and consumption of two species of papaya pest mites, Tetranychus kanzawai and Panonychus citri (Acari: tetranychidae) by Mallada basalis (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida and Panonychus citri (McGregor) are two major acarine pests of the principal papaya variety in Taiwan, and they often co-occur in the same papaya screenhouses. This study measured prey acceptability, foraging schedule, short-term consumption rate, and handling time of la...

  8. Análisis comparativo y perfil de publicaciones en la Revista Chilena de Pediatría 2001-2006 / Comparative analysis and publication profile in Revista Chilena de Pediatría 2001-2006

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    PAUL R, HARRIS D; JOSÉ LUIS, LIEBBE G; JONATHAN, SOTOMAYOR A; FRANCISCA, UGARTE P; FRANCISCO, CANO SCH.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available La Revista Chilena de Pediatría (Rev Chil Pediatr), publicación oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría está indexada en SciELO pero no en la Librería Médica de EEUU (NLM). Objetivos: a) determinar el perfil de los artículos publicados y visitados en la Rev Chil Pediatr, compararlo con el de Jor [...] nal de Pediatría de Brasil (J Ped Br) y el de Journal of Pediatrics (J Ped) de Estados Unidos; b) evaluar la visibilidad de Rev Chil Pediatr y compararla con la Revista Médica de Chile. Métodos: Se evaluaron los ejemplares en línea de las revistas mencionadas a través de la base de datos SciELO y PubMed entre 2001 a 2006. Se tomó una muestra representativa y aleatoria de los artículos publicados en ese período para cada revista. Adicionalmente se evaluaron los artículos más visitados de la Rev Chil Pediatr y se clasificaron como originales (investigación clínica y básica) y no originales (editorial, caso clínico, revisión y otros). Todos los artículos fueron catalogados según su contenido en una de las 25 especialidades médicas definidas. Además se comparó el número de visitas anuales y globales a la Rev Chil Pediatr y a la Revista Médica de Chile y se analizaron las citaciones más frecuentes otorgadas y recibidas por la Rev Chil Pediatr en ese período. Resultados: De 512 artículos en la Rev Chil Pediatr, se analizaron 220; 35% fueron originales y 65% no originales, publicando un porcentaje significativamente menor de artículos originales que el J Ped Br y que el J Ped (p Abstract in english Background: The Revista Chilena de Pediatría (Rev Chil Pediatr), official journal of Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría is index in SciELO, but not in the National Library of Medicine (NLM) of USA. Objectives: a) Determine the profile of published and visited articles of Rev Chil Ped, in order to compare [...] them with the Jornal de Pediatria from Brazil (J Ped Br) and the Journal of Pediatrics (J Ped) from USA. b) Evaluate the visibility of Rev Chil Pediatr compared to Revista Medica de Chile (Rev Med Chil). Method: On line issues from the above mentioned journal were evaluated through SciELO database and PubMed database from 2001 - 2006. A random and representative subset of published articles was obtained from each one of the 3 journals during the referred period. The most visited articles from Rev Chil Pediatr were analyzed and classified as originals (clinical and basic research) and non originals (editorial, clinical case, reviews and others). The articles were classified according to thematic content in 25 medical specialties. In addition, the number of annual visits to Rev Chil Pediatr and Rev Med Chil were analyzed, including the most frequent citations given and received in that period of time. Results: Out of 512 articles in Rev Chil Pediatr, 220 were analyzed; 35% were originals and 65% non originals, with a significant lower percentage of original articles compared to J Ped Br and J Ped (p

  9. Effects of Chitosan or Calcium Chloride on External Postharvest Qualities and Shelf-Life of ‘Holland’ Papaya Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Chutichudet

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Papaya (Carica papaya L. is an important fruit widely cultivated commercially throughout Thailand. Its all year around fruit bearing capability makes papaya a popular fruit with Thai people. Unfortunately, papaya has a very limited shelf-life, as such; the objective of this research was to delay the external postharvest qualities by using chitosan and calcium chloride on the ‘Holland’ variety of papaya fruit. The experiment was arranged in a Factorial Completely Randomized Design, composed of two factors: coating with chitosan at four concentrations (1.0, 1.5, 2.0 or 2.5% or dipping in calcium chloride solution at four levels (1.0, 1.5, 2.0, or 2.5%, compared with control fruits. After treating, all treatments were stored under ambient temperature (27 °C, 80% R.H.. The results showed that fruit treated with chitosan, irrespective of any concentrations, had the least similar fruit weight loss after six days of storage; however, fruit-treated  with 2.5% chitosan showed the maximum fruit firmness and a delayed red color appearance on the fruit skin. In addition, the best treatment for extending shelf-life proved to be from a treatment of 2.5% chitosan.

  10. A physical map of the papaya genome with integrated genetic map and genome sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Ming-Cheng

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Papaya is a major fruit crop in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide and has primitive sex chromosomes controlling sex determination in this trioecious species. The papaya genome was recently sequenced because of its agricultural importance, unique biological features, and successful application of transgenic papaya for resistance to papaya ringspot virus. As a part of the genome sequencing project, we constructed a BAC-based physical map using a high information-content fingerprinting approach to assist whole genome shotgun sequence assembly. Results The physical map consists of 963 contigs, representing 9.4× genome equivalents, and was integrated with the genetic map and genome sequence using BAC end sequences and a sequence-tagged high-density genetic map. The estimated genome coverage of the physical map is about 95.8%, while 72.4% of the genome was aligned to the genetic map. A total of 1,181 high quality overgo (overlapping oligonucleotide probes representing conserved sequences in Arabidopsis and genetically mapped loci in Brassica were anchored on the physical map, which provides a foundation for comparative genomics in the Brassicales. The integrated genetic and physical map aligned with the genome sequence revealed recombination hotspots as well as regions suppressed for recombination across the genome, particularly on the recently evolved sex chromosomes. Suppression of recombination spread to the adjacent region of the male specific region of the Y chromosome (MSY, and recombination rates were recovered gradually and then exceeded the genome average. Recombination hotspots were observed at about 10 Mb away on both sides of the MSY, showing 7-fold increase compared with the genome wide average, demonstrating the dynamics of recombination of the sex chromosomes. Conclusion A BAC-based physical map of papaya was constructed and integrated with the genetic map and genome sequence. The integrated map facilitated the draft genome assembly, and is a valuable resource for comparative genomics and map-based cloning of agronomically and economically important genes and for sex chromosome research.

  11. Origen, consolidación y vigencia de la Nueva Dogmática Chilena (ca. 1955?1970

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    MATUS, Jean Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo describe la evolución de tres generaciones de profesores de Derecho penal chilenos, desde 1925 hasta 1970. Se indican las fuentes e influencias que reciben cada una de ellas y cómo influyen en las sucesivas generaciones, respectivamente. Se establecen las condiciones que incidieron en la eclosión de una gran cantidad de nuevos especialistas en Derecho penal en la generación de 1955-1970, denominada Nueva Dogmática Chilena, y su participación en la disputa entre el “sistema neoclásico” y la "teoría de la acción final". Se concluye con el análisis de la vigencia de sus aportes y de los efectos del Golpe de Estado de 1973 en su desarrollo posterior.

  12. Interculturalidad y ciencias de la educación en lengua de señas chilena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina-Alejandra-de-Lourdes Becerra-Sepúlveda

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Los paradigmas de intervención orales para la cultura sorda afectan la percepción sobre la lengua de señas Chilena . Esto provoca debates emanados de una subvaloración, dadas sus particularidades visuales: iconicidad e isomorfismo, subvaloración nacida de una incomprensión en la lectura de investigaciones internacionales (por escasez de estudios nacionales, especialmente acerca del lenguaje corporeizado. Esto se contradice con nuevas investigaciones en psicolingüística cognitiva acer-ca de embodied cognition . El abordaje de la LSCh a partir de nuevas teorías atraviesa la interculturalidad y educación a fin de proponerse la metáfora de “la cultura en el cuerpo” como modalidad de estudio contemporáneo.

  13. Efecto de las condiciones de elaboración en la incorporación de calcio y la firmeza del mamón (carica papaya l.) en almíbar / Effect of processing conditions in changes of calcium levels and firmness of papaya (carica papaya l.) in syrup

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Laura A, Ramallo; Trinidad, Liotta.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se estudió el efecto de las condiciones de operación del pre-tratamiento de impregnación con calcio sobre el incremento del mineral y sobre la resistencia a la compresión de mamón en almíbar. La fruta de mamón se seccionó en cilindros de aproximadamente 10 mm de longitud y 25 [...] mm de diámetro. Una solución acuosa de hidróxido de calcio se utilizó como medio de impregnación. Se aplicaron diferentes condiciones de pretratamiento. Se eligió un diseño factorial de tres factores en dos niveles para evaluar el efecto combinado de tres variables independientes de impregnación: concentración, temperatura y tiempo de impregnación. La respuesta del sistema se midió en función de la incorporación de calcio en la fruta y valores de las propiedades mecánicas del alimento elaborado. Los resultados indicaron que la concentración de la solución y el tiempo de inmersión son las variables de mayor relevancia sobre la dureza del mamón en almíbar. El mayor contenido de calcio (116,7 mg/100 g de fruta fresca) se alcanzó por inmersión de frutas en solución de Ca(OH)2 al 1,5% y 40 °C, durante 4,5 horas. Abstract in english In this work, the effect of operating conditions during calcium pretreatment on the calcium uptake and the compression resistance of papaya bits in syrup was studied. The papaya fruit was cut into cylinders of approximately 10 mm in length and 25 mm in diameter. An aqueous solution of calcium hydrox [...] ide was used as impregnation medium. Different conditions of calcium pre-treatment were applied. A three-factor two-level factorial design was chosen to evaluate the combined effect of three independent impregnation variables: concentration solution, temperature and impregnation time. The system response was measured in terms of calcium gain in the fruit and mechanical property values of processed food. The results showed that the solution concentration and the impregnation time were the most relevant variables on the hardness of papaya in syrup. The greatest calcium content (116.7 mg/100 g fresh fruit) was reached by fruit impregnation in 1.5% Ca(HO)2-solution at 40°C for 4.5 h.

  14. Predacious mites in papaya (Carica papaya L.) orchards: in search of a biological control agent of phytophagous mite pests / Ácaros predadores em pomares de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L.): em busca de um agente de controle biológico de ácaros fitófagos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Karin F.S., Collier; Jose O.G. de, Lima; Gilberto S., Albuquerque.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de selecionar ácaros predadores com potencial de controle de ácaros fitófagos do mamão, foram realizadas, de janeiro de 1999 a fevereiro de 2000, amostragens bimensais de ácaros em dois pomares, um orgânico (Silva Jardim, RJ) e outro com controle químico de pragas, doenças e invasoras [...] (Linhares, ES). Todas as espécies presentes nas brotações laterais, folhas novas, folhas velhas e botões florais dos mamoeiros e nas folhas das plantas invasoras foram quantificadas e identificadas ao menos até família. Apesar da relativamente diversa fauna de ácaros, somente representantes de uma família de predadores, Phytoseiidae, foram encontrados. Dentre estes, Neoseiulus idaeus Denmark & Muma destacou-se por sua abundância e freqüência nas diferentes épocas do ano no pomar de Linhares, coincidindo principalmente com as flutuações na abundância dos tetraniquídeos. Tal ocorrência em um sistema de produção com grande emprego de acaricidas, aliada às características biológicas favoráveis dessa espécie, recomendam-na como candidata a agente de controle biológico de ácaros pragas do mamão, em especial Tetranychus urticae Koch. Abstract in english This study was conducted to search for potential mite predators to control phytophagous mites in papaya orchards. Bimonthly surveys, from January 1999 to February 2000, were carried out in two orchards, one in Silva Jardim (RJ), where pests are naturally controlled, and one at Linhares (ES), where p [...] ests are chemically controlled. All mite species collected from buds, new leaves, old leaves, and floral buttons of papaya trees and from weed leaves were quantified and identified to at least family level. Despite the relatively diverse mite fauna, we found representatives of only one family of predacious mites, i.e. Phytoseiidae. Among these, Neoseiulus idaeus Denmark & Muma was the most abundant and frequent during all seasons in the Linhares orchard, coinciding mainly with the fluctuations in abundance of tetranychid mites. Such occurrence in a production system with large use of acaricides, together with its favorable biological traits reported in the literature, lead us to recommend this species as a good candidate for biological control of papaya mite pests, especially Tetranychus urticae Koch.

  15. Efeito do cultivo do mamoeiro (Carica papaya L.) em ambiente protegido sobre a ocorrência de ácaros fitófagos e moscas-brancas / Effect of papaya (Carica papaya L.) cultivated in a protected environment on the occurrence of phytophagous mites and whiteflies

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marineide Rosa, Vieira; Luiz de Souza, Correa; Tatiane Marie Martins Gomes de, Castro; Laura Fernanda Simões da, Silva; Maria de Souza, Monteverde.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O efeito do cultivo do mamoeiro em ambiente protegido foi estudado em três condições: sem cobertura e em dois telados construídos com tela de propileno branca, com malhas de 2 x 2 mm e 2 x 1 mm. Nessa área foram feitas avaliações na cultivar Baixinho de Santa Amália, contando-se o número de plantas [...] com sintomas de ataque recente, para o ácaro branco Polyphagotarsonemus latus, com sintomas e presença de ácaros, para o ácaro rajado Tetranychus urticae e com presença de adultos ou ninfas nas folhas, no caso das moscas-brancas Trialeurodes sp., Bemisia tabaci biótipo B e uma terceira espécie não identificada. Para moscas-brancas, também foram realizadas contagens de ninfas e exúvias em laboratório. O cultivo em ambiente protegido favoreceu a sobrevivência e o desenvolvimento populacional das espécies estudadas, sendo que algumas possíveis causas são discutidas no texto. Considerando-se que o cultivo protegido pode ser uma boa alternativa para o controle de viroses, como o mosaico do mamoeiro, problema limitante para a cultura, estratégias de manejo de pragas nesses ambientes devem ser desenvolvidas, para viabilizar o seu uso. Abstract in english It was measured the effect of cultivating papaya cultivar "Baixinho de Santa Amália" in a protected environment and in three situations: without shade, and under screen shades of white polyethylene mesh sizes 2 x 2 mm or 2 x 1 mm. It was registered the number of plants with symptoms of recent attack [...] s of the broad mite (Polyphagotarsonemus latus), symptoms and presence of the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) and the presence on leaves of adults or nymphs of whiteflies (Trialeurodes sp., Bemisia tabaci biotype B and a third unidentified species). Whitefly nymph and exuviae numbers were also counted in the laboratory. Cultivation in a protected environment favored the survival and development of the species under study, and some possible reasons for these are discussed along the text. Since cultivating papaya in protected environment can be a good alternative for "papaya ringspot virus" control, which is a restrictive factor for the crop, the development of strategies to control the pests in this condition is necessary for correct recommendation of such measure.

  16. Efeito do cultivo do mamoeiro (Carica papaya L. em ambiente protegido sobre a ocorrência de ácaros fitófagos e moscas-brancas Effect of papaya (Carica papaya L. cultivated in a protected environment on the occurrence of phytophagous mites and whiteflies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marineide Rosa Vieira

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O efeito do cultivo do mamoeiro em ambiente protegido foi estudado em três condições: sem cobertura e em dois telados construídos com tela de propileno branca, com malhas de 2 x 2 mm e 2 x 1 mm. Nessa área foram feitas avaliações na cultivar Baixinho de Santa Amália, contando-se o número de plantas com sintomas de ataque recente, para o ácaro branco Polyphagotarsonemus latus, com sintomas e presença de ácaros, para o ácaro rajado Tetranychus urticae e com presença de adultos ou ninfas nas folhas, no caso das moscas-brancas Trialeurodes sp., Bemisia tabaci biótipo B e uma terceira espécie não identificada. Para moscas-brancas, também foram realizadas contagens de ninfas e exúvias em laboratório. O cultivo em ambiente protegido favoreceu a sobrevivência e o desenvolvimento populacional das espécies estudadas, sendo que algumas possíveis causas são discutidas no texto. Considerando-se que o cultivo protegido pode ser uma boa alternativa para o controle de viroses, como o mosaico do mamoeiro, problema limitante para a cultura, estratégias de manejo de pragas nesses ambientes devem ser desenvolvidas, para viabilizar o seu uso.It was measured the effect of cultivating papaya cultivar "Baixinho de Santa Amália" in a protected environment and in three situations: without shade, and under screen shades of white polyethylene mesh sizes 2 x 2 mm or 2 x 1 mm. It was registered the number of plants with symptoms of recent attacks of the broad mite (Polyphagotarsonemus latus, symptoms and presence of the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae and the presence on leaves of adults or nymphs of whiteflies (Trialeurodes sp., Bemisia tabaci biotype B and a third unidentified species. Whitefly nymph and exuviae numbers were also counted in the laboratory. Cultivation in a protected environment favored the survival and development of the species under study, and some possible reasons for these are discussed along the text. Since cultivating papaya in protected environment can be a good alternative for "papaya ringspot virus" control, which is a restrictive factor for the crop, the development of strategies to control the pests in this condition is necessary for correct recommendation of such measure.

  17. Etiología y epidemiología de la necrosis de flores y frutos juveniles del papayo (Carica papaya L.) en Guerrero, México / Etiology and epidemiology of flowers and young fruits necrosis in papaya (Carica papaya L.) in Guerrero, México

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alfonso, Vásquez-López; Elías, Hernández-Castro; J. Antonio, Mora-Aguilera; Cristian, Nava-Díaz; Francisco, Sánchez-García.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La necrosis floral, pudrición y caída de frutos juveniles del papayo (Caricapapaya L.) son enfermedades con incidencia alta y reducen la productividad de huertos comerciales en Huamuxtitlán, Guerrero, México. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la etiología y epidemiología de estas enfer [...] medades. De flores y frutos necróticos se aislaron Cladosporium sp. y Fusarium spp., y en proporción menor Alternaria sp. y Colletotrichum sp. Las especies Fusarium equiseti, F. chlamydosporum, Cladosporium cladosporioides y Alternaria alternata provocaron necrosis y caída floral 8 d después de la inoculación (ddi) y necrosis, pudrición y caída de frutos juveniles 15 ddi. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides provocó lesiones necróticas en 30 % de las flores inoculadas y no causó síntomas en frutos. La dinámica poblacional de esporas de Alternaria spp. y Fusarium spp. en el aire se estudió en una plantación de papayo cv. Maradol de marzo del 2007 a marzo del 2008; las esporas de ambos hongos se encontraron de mayo a octubre, aunque el número mayor se capturó en mayo y septiembre. Las esporas de Fusarium spp. fueron más abundantes en horario nocturno (20:00 a 04:00 h) y las de Alternaria spp. entre las 12:00 y 14:00 h. Fusarium equiseti, F. chlamydosporum, Cladosporium cladosporioides y Alternaria alternata son agentes patógenos de la necrosis de lores y pudrición y caída de frutos juveniles del papayo en Huamuxtitlán, Guerrero, México. Los propágulos de Alternaria spp. y Fusarium spp. están dispersos en el ambiente de la zona de estudio de mayo a octubre. Abstract in english Flower necrosis, rot, and dropping of young fruits of the papaya (Carica papaya L.) are diseases with high incidence and which reduce productivity of commercial groves in Huamuxtitlán, Guerrero, Mexico. The objective of the present study was to determine the etiology and epidemiology of these diseas [...] es. Cladosporium sp. and Fusarium spp. were isolated from necrotic flowers and fruits, and in a smaller proportion, Alternaria sp. and Colletotrichum spp. The species Fusarium equiseti, F. chlamydosporum, Cladosporium cladosporoides and Alternaria alternate caused necrosis and flower abortion 8 d after inoculation (dai) and necrosis, rot and dropping of young fruits 15 dai. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides provoked necrotic lesions in 30 % of the inoculated flowers but did not cause symptoms in fruits. The population dynamic of spores of Alternaria spp. and Fusarium spp. in the air was studied in a plantation of papaya cv. Maradol from March 2007 to March 2008; the spores of both fungi were found from May to October, although the highest number was captured in May and September. The spores of Fusarium spp. were most abundant during the night hours (20:00 to 04:00 h) and those of Alternaria spp. between 12:00 and 14:00 h. Fusarium equiseti, F. chlamydosporum, Cladosporium cladosporioides and Alternaria alternata are pathogenic agents of the necrosis of flowers and dropping of young fruits of papaya in Huamuxtitlán, Guerrero, México. The propagules of Alternaria spp. and Fusarium spp. are dispersed in the environment of the study zone from May to October.

  18. Comparative evaluation of volatiles, phenolics, sugars, organic acids and antioxidant properties of Sel-42 and Tainung papaya varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelebek, Hasim; Selli, Serkan; Gubbuk, Hamide; Gunes, Esma

    2015-04-15

    The present study was designed to determine the phenolic compounds, organic acids, sugars, aroma profiles and antioxidant properties of Sel-42 and Tainung papayas grown in Turkey. High-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) method was used for the phenolic compounds analysis. Twelve phenolic compounds were identified and quantified in the samples. The total phenolic content of Sel-42 was clearly higher than that of Tainung. Protocatechuic acid-hexoside, gallic acid-deoxyhexoside, ferulic acid and chlorogenic acids were the most abundant phenolics in both cultivars. Aroma composition of papaya was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 46 and 42 aroma compounds, including esters, alcohols, terpenes, lactones, acids, carbonyl compounds, and volatile phenols were identified in the Sel-42 and Tainung, respectively. The significant linear correlation was confirmed between the values for the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of papaya extracts. PMID:25466106

  19. The wild type of Momordica charantia is not infected by potyviruses that cause disease in papaya and cucurbit crops

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    David Marques de Almeida, Spadotti; José Edivaldo, Buriolla; Jorge Alberto Marques, Rezende; Vinicius Castro, Souza.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the susceptibility of wild and domesticated plants of Momordica charantia to viruses from the genus Potyvirus that cause diseases in papaya (Carica papaya) and cucurbit crops was evaluated. The plants were subjected to experimental and natural infection with Papaya ringspot viru [...] s types P and W (PRSV-P and PRSV-W) and Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV). None of the potyviruses infected the wild type of M. charantia through mechanical or aphid inoculation or under field exposition, whereas the domesticated type was only infected by isolates of ZYMV. In addition, both wild and domesticated types of M. charantia were not infected in natural conditions by an isolate of Zucchini lethal chlorosis virus, genus Tospovirus, transmitted by Frankliniella zucchini. These data clearly indicated that this wild type of M. charantia does not seem to have a role in the epidemiology of the diseases caused by these three potyviruses in Brazil.

  20. Control of egg hatch ability and adult emergence of three fruit fly species in papayas by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of gamma radiation on the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera Dorsalis (Hendel), melon fly, Bactrocera Cucurbitae (Coquilett), and Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis Capitata (Weidemann) were studied. Melon fly was determined to be the most susceptible of the three species. A dosage of 550 Gy rendered the eggs 100% sterile when irradiated in papayas at 4-6 hours before hatching. Oriental and mediterranean fruit flies were found to be more resistant, requiring doses of 750 and 850 Gy, respectively. A dose of only 100 Gy was needed to inhibit adult eclosion when the three species were treated at third instar larvae. Warm water treatment at 490C for 20 minutes was found sufficient in preventing the hatching of any egg in the infested papaya fruits. However, since eggs may hatch before the warm-water treatment can be applied, a combination of irradiation treatment using 100 Gy is recommended for disinfestation of papaya fruits. (author). 17 refs.; 3 tabs

  1. Nutrição mineral do mamoeiro (Carica papaya L.): II - deficiência de boro em condições de campo e casa de vegetação / Mineral nutrition of papaya tree (Carica papaya L.): II - boron deficiency under field and greenhouse conditions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rubens José Pietsch, Cunha; Henrique Paulo, Haag.

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de caracterizar a deficiência de boro no mamoeiro (Carica papaya L.) em condições de casa de vegetação e correlacionar com o problema que ocorre em condições de campo, conhecido como "careca do mamoeiro" ou "queda do chapéu", foram instalados dois ensaios. O primeiro foi conduzido em [...] condições de campo no município de Botucatu, SP., em um solo pertencente ao grande grupo Terra Roxa Estruturada e de clima Cf.b.. O segundo ensaio foi conduzido em condições de casa de vegetação e soluções nutritivas. Os autores descrevem os sintomas de deficiência de boro em mamoeiro e correlacionam o problema conhecido como "careca do mamoeiro", com a deficiência de boro. Abstract in english The purpose of the present research was to characterize boron deficiency on papaya trees growing on nutrient solution, of which boron was excluded, as well as, to correlate it a field occuring problem called "Careca". Plants growing on nutrient solution were cultivated under greenhouse conditions. T [...] he field experiment was set out in Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil, with a climate classified as Cf.b. and Paleudalf soil type. Boron deficiency was characterized by the emergence of small leaves with narrow deformed and hard leaf blades, necrosed margins and prominent veins. As an advanced boron deficiency symptom, plant stunting occurred. Boron concentration in the leaves and stems of plants growing on nutrient solution, of which boron was excluded, was 20 ppm and 17 ppm respectively. They were smaller when compared with the check plants, with boron concentration of 136 ppm and 35 ppm on leaves and stems respectively. Is is concluded that field occurring problem called "careca" is correlated with boron deficiency.

  2. Etiologia e estratégias de controle de viroses do mamoeiro no brasil / Etiology and control strategies of papaya virus diseases in Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    ROBERTO C. A., LIMA; J. ALBERSIO A., LIMA; MANOEL T., SOUZA JR.; GILVAN, PIO-RIBEIRO; GENIRA P., ANDRADE.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available As viroses constituem o principal grupo de doenças do mamoeiro (Carica papaya), ocasionando grandes perdas na produção, podendo chegar à destruição total das plantações afetadas. Embora mais de dez vírus tenham sido constatados infetando naturalmente o mamoeiro, em todo o mundo, no Brasil, até o pre [...] sente, foram assinaladas apenas as ocorrências do vírus da mancha anelar do mamoeiro (Papaya ringspot virus, PRSV), do vírus do amarelo letal do mamoeiro (Papaya lethal yellowing virus, PLYV) e do vírus da meleira que se encontra em fase de caracterização. A mancha anelar causada pelo PRSV é, inquestionavelmente, o mais importante problema sanitário do mamoeiro. O controle do PRSV mostra-se imprescindível, apesar de bastante difícil, em razão da sua forma de disseminação rápida e eficiente por diversas espécies de afídeos e ausência de resistência genética em C. papaya. Na tentativa de controlar o PRSV, várias medidas já foram testadas, não existindo, até o momento, nenhuma estratégia eficiente e duradoura para seu controle no Brasil. O desenvolvimento de plantas transgênicas de mamoeiro expressando o gene da capa protéica (cp) do PRSV, imunes ao mesmo, abriu nova possibilidade para solução do problema. Abstract in english The major disease problems affecting papaya (Carica papaya) throughout the world are caused by viruses. These diseases cause serious reductions in fruit production, even totally destroying affected orchards. Although more than ten different viruses have been registered in papaya world-wide, only thr [...] ee have been identified to date that naturally infect papaya in Brazil: Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), Papaya lethal yellowing virus (PLYV) and the "meleira" steak disease virus that is being characterized. Ringspot caused by PRSV is unquestionably the most important disease affecting papaya in the world. Control of PRSV in Brazil is necessary but not easy, because it is efficiently transmitted by different aphid species and the absence of resistance in C. papaya. Several measures to control PRSV have been tested in Brazil without great sucess. There is no efficient and durable strategic control available. The development of transgenic papaya plants expressing the PRSV coat protein gene (cp), immune to the virus, has opened up a new efficient and probably, more durable control measure.

  3. Etiologia e estratégias de controle de viroses do mamoeiro no brasil Etiology and control strategies of papaya virus diseases in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROBERTO C. A. LIMA

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available As viroses constituem o principal grupo de doenças do mamoeiro (Carica papaya, ocasionando grandes perdas na produção, podendo chegar à destruição total das plantações afetadas. Embora mais de dez vírus tenham sido constatados infetando naturalmente o mamoeiro, em todo o mundo, no Brasil, até o presente, foram assinaladas apenas as ocorrências do vírus da mancha anelar do mamoeiro (Papaya ringspot virus, PRSV, do vírus do amarelo letal do mamoeiro (Papaya lethal yellowing virus, PLYV e do vírus da meleira que se encontra em fase de caracterização. A mancha anelar causada pelo PRSV é, inquestionavelmente, o mais importante problema sanitário do mamoeiro. O controle do PRSV mostra-se imprescindível, apesar de bastante difícil, em razão da sua forma de disseminação rápida e eficiente por diversas espécies de afídeos e ausência de resistência genética em C. papaya. Na tentativa de controlar o PRSV, várias medidas já foram testadas, não existindo, até o momento, nenhuma estratégia eficiente e duradoura para seu controle no Brasil. O desenvolvimento de plantas transgênicas de mamoeiro expressando o gene da capa protéica (cp do PRSV, imunes ao mesmo, abriu nova possibilidade para solução do problema.The major disease problems affecting papaya (Carica papaya throughout the world are caused by viruses. These diseases cause serious reductions in fruit production, even totally destroying affected orchards. Although more than ten different viruses have been registered in papaya world-wide, only three have been identified to date that naturally infect papaya in Brazil: Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV, Papaya lethal yellowing virus (PLYV and the "meleira" steak disease virus that is being characterized. Ringspot caused by PRSV is unquestionably the most important disease affecting papaya in the world. Control of PRSV in Brazil is necessary but not easy, because it is efficiently transmitted by different aphid species and the absence of resistance in C. papaya. Several measures to control PRSV have been tested in Brazil without great sucess. There is no efficient and durable strategic control available. The development of transgenic papaya plants expressing the PRSV coat protein gene (cp, immune to the virus, has opened up a new efficient and probably, more durable control measure.

  4. DEL MALTRATO AL UXORICIDIO. LA VIOLENCIA «PUERTAS ADENTRO» EN LA ALDEA CHILENA TRADICIONAL (Siglo XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Salinas Meza

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo pone de manifiesto el contexto en el cual las mujeres chilenas de las aldeas del siglo XIX son víctimas de diversos tipos de agresiones físicas, directas e indirectas, y psicológicas. Las conductas violentas de los agresores son explicadas en el marco de una comunidad que las reconoce como un componente habitual de la vida cotidiana. Así, se delimitan espacios específicos en los que se desenvuelven las relaciones de la gente, tales como el mundo urbano de la aldea y el mundo doméstico de la casa. En ambos, las personas construyen redes colectivas de solidaridad y fraternidad; pero, al mismo tiempo, desarrollan relaciones de competencia que son generadoras de roces y agresiones que ilustran la sociabilidad y el parentesco. Por otra parte, las mujeres agredidas confundieron a menudo la agresión con la aceptación de la autoridad masculina que permitía suponer la existencia de un matrimonio socialmente aceptado y cotidianamente bien llevado. La actitud de rebeldía femenina chocaba con el rechazo social y el ejercicio de un poder marital que se expresaba en conductas agresivas. Así, las relaciones en la pareja no fueron entre iguales, sino jerárquicas, imponiendo a las mujeres un rol subordinado y dependiente frente a los hombres, los que, a su vez, ostentaban la autoridad suficiente para controlarlas y castigarlas. Con la ayuda documental de un abundante número de expedientes judiciales se intenta comprender y explicar las conductas que asumen hombres y mujeres en la relación familiar desarrollada en las aldeas chilenas del siglo XIX.

  5. Razonando sobre la idea de diferencia en las políticas educativas chilenas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Infante Jaras

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se analiza cómo las políticas educativas entendidas como prácticas discursivas, producen problemáticas relacionadas con la noción de diferencia. Primero, se indican los planteamientos metodológicos utilizados, luego se examina críticamente el neoliberalismo como supuesto que organiza y enmarca las políticas educativas chilenas. A continuación se presenta cómo se produce la idea de diferencia y cómo se genera un sistema de razonamiento sobre esta idea. Finalmente, se concluye mostrando la producción y circulación de subjetividades en las políticas educativas chilenas.This article presents educational policies as discursive practices that not only construct systems to reason difference but also they create particular problems to be solved through specific strategies. First, we show the methodological approach to study educational policies in Chile. Second, we problematize the effects of neoliberal logics in organizing and framing educational policies. Third, we present the analyses with an emphasis on the production, reproduction, and circulation of discourses that essentialize difference. The article concludes with the troubling of those subjectivities produced in the documents examined.

  6. Razonando sobre la idea de diferencia en las políticas educativas chilenas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marta, Infante Jaras; Claudia, Matus Cánovas; Ruby, Vizcarra Rebolledo.

    Full Text Available En este artículo se analiza cómo las políticas educativas entendidas como prácticas discursivas, producen problemáticas relacionadas con la noción de diferencia. Primero, se indican los planteamientos metodológicos utilizados, luego se examina críticamente el neoliberalismo como supuesto que organiz [...] a y enmarca las políticas educativas chilenas. A continuación se presenta cómo se produce la idea de diferencia y cómo se genera un sistema de razonamiento sobre esta idea. Finalmente, se concluye mostrando la producción y circulación de subjetividades en las políticas educativas chilenas. Abstract in english This article presents educational policies as discursive practices that not only construct systems to reason difference but also they create particular problems to be solved through specific strategies. First, we show the methodological approach to study educational policies in Chile. Second, we pro [...] blematize the effects of neoliberal logics in organizing and framing educational policies. Third, we present the analyses with an emphasis on the production, reproduction, and circulation of discourses that essentialize difference. The article concludes with the troubling of those subjectivities produced in the documents examined.

  7. Effect of irradiation on the biochemical and organoleptic changes during the ripening of papaya and mango fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papaya and mango rot caused by fungi is a major problem during storage and marketing. Gamma irradiation treatment was used to determine its effect on the quality of papayas and mangoes irradiated at 0,5 to 0,95 kGy. The level of respiration, soluble solids, texture, vitamin C and the sensorial evaluation were effectuated. The results indicate that irradiation treatment reduces significantly (p?0,001) weakens the texture of mangoes. The content of soluble solids and vitamin C are not significantly affected by the irradiation. The sensory evaluation indicates that up to 0,95 kGy the sensorial quality is not changed. (author)

  8. AKTIVITAS ANTIBAKTERI GETAH PEPAYA KERING TERHADAP Staphylococcus aureus PADA DANGKE [Antibacterial Activity of Dried Papaya Latex toward Staphylococcus aureus in Dangke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rifah Hestyani Arum

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Dangke is a traditional milk curd product, made by coagulation of milk using fresh papaya latex. This product is usually kept at room temperature (27-30ºC until consumption. Dried papaya latex was used in this study to produce dangke, and its effect to S. aureus was determined by direct contact in TSB and dangke. Fresh papaya latex was dried using vacuum oven at 50-55ºC for 22 hours. Dried papaya latex at a concentration of 2.7x10-3 g/100 mL could reduce S. aureus approximately 1 log CFU/mL in TSB after 24 hours. Dried papaya latex and papain could maintain the S. aureus number in dangke within 24 hours storage at room temperature. The antibacterial activity of non-proteolytic compound of papaya latex, i.e ethanolic extract of papaya latex was determined by macrodilution method, resulted an the MIC90 of 8 mg/mL. The cell membrane leakage after exposure was detected by measuring the optical density of bacterial supernatant at 260 nm. The result showed that exposure to increasing antibacterial concentration resulted in increasing of optical density of S. aureus supernatant, indicating that the antibacterial caused the S. aureus membrane leakage. Fluorescence microscopy imaging showed that S. aureus exposure to antibacterial caused membrane leakage thus gave Propidium Iodide (PI chance to penetrate into the cell, as indicated by changing of fluorescence color from green to red.

  9. Heat treatment and gamma radiation on the control of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Penz. et Sacc., causal agent of the papaya fruits (Carica papaya L.) anthracnose; Tratamento termico e radiacao gamma no controle de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (PENZ.) PENTZ et SACC., agente causal da antracnose em frutos de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Tanni Maria Werneck da

    1988-12-01

    For controlling papaya anthracnose on stored fruits the effect of heat treatment and gamma radiation on Colletotrichum gloeosporioides was studied in vitro and in vivo. Some physiological studies with four isolades of C. gloeosporioides from papaya fruits concerning the best conditions for mycelial growth and sporulation were also performed. The results showed that the best conditions for isolates development in BDA were: temperature between 25 and 27{sup 0} C for mycelium radial growth; between 27 and 30{sup 0} C under (12 hours alternating periods of fluorescent). (author). 131 refs., 9 figs., 33 tabs.

  10. Métodos de extracción de semilla en papaya Golden y la relación con la longevidad / Extraction methods in Golden type papaya seed and relationship with longevity

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Julio César, García Dean; Mario Ernesto, Vázquez Badillo; María Alejandra, Torres Tapia; Sergio Ignacio, Dávila Cabello; David, Sánchez Aspeytia.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Es muy escasa la información disponible, relacionada al manejo de poscosecha de semilla de papaya (Carica papaya L.) y su influencia en la calidad fisiológica de la semilla, sobre todo en germinación y vigor. El trabajo de investigación se realizó en el laboratorio de producción de semillas del Cent [...] ro de Capacitación y Desarrollo de Tecnología de Semillas, en el invernadero número uno de la Universidad Autónoma Agraria "Antonio Narro" (UAAAN) durante 2008. La finalidad del trabajo fue evaluar seis tratamientos de extracción de semilla: se utilizó ácido clorhídrico (HCl) a 0.3 y 0.5% durante una hora de reposo, ácido sulfúrico (H2SO4) a 0.3% a 1.5 h de reposo, hipoclorito de sodio (NaClO) al 5% con media hora de reposo y fermentación a 48 y 72 h. La semilla extraída fue almacenada durante 90, 180 y 240 días a 4 °C. Se evaluó la germinación y vigor de la semilla. Se utilizó un diseño completamente al azar con arreglo factorial. Los resultados indicaron que la calidad fisiológica de la semilla, fue afectada por los efectos de deterioro que causa el almacenamiento y por los métodos de extracción de semilla; sin embargo, la semilla conserva su calidad fisiológica hasta los 240 días de almacenamiento, en los tratamientos a base de HCl al 0.3% y fermentación por 24 h con 93.3 y 91.2% de germinación después de 240 días de almacenamiento. Abstract in english It is very scarce available information related to post-harvest handling of papaya seed (Carica papaya L.) and their influence in seed physiologic quality, mainly in germination and vigor. The investigation work was carried out in seeds production laboratory of Center of Training and Development of [...] Seeds Technology, in greenhouse number one of Universidad Autónoma Agraria "Antonio Narro" (UAAAN) during 2008. Aim of work was to evaluate six treatments of seed extraction: hydrochloric acid was used (HCl) at 0.3 and 0.5% during one hour of rest, sulfuric acid (H2SO4) at 0.3% with 1.5 h of rest, sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) at 5% with 30 minutes of rest and fermentation at 48 and 72 h. Extracted seed was stored during 90, 180 and 240 days at 4 °C. It was evaluated seed germination and vigor. A totally random design was used with factorial arrangement. Results indicated that seed physiologic quality was affected by deterioration effects caused by storage and by methods of seed extraction; however, seed conserves its physiologic quality up to 240 days of storage, in treatments with help of HCl at 0.3% and fermentation for 24 h with 93.3 and 91.2 % germination after 240 days of storage.

  11. Métodos de extracción de semilla en papaya Golden y la relación con la longevidad Extraction methods in Golden type papaya seed and relationship with longevity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César García Dean

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Es muy escasa la información disponible, relacionada al manejo de poscosecha de semilla de papaya (Carica papaya L. y su influencia en la calidad fisiológica de la semilla, sobre todo en germinación y vigor. El trabajo de investigación se realizó en el laboratorio de producción de semillas del Centro de Capacitación y Desarrollo de Tecnología de Semillas, en el invernadero número uno de la Universidad Autónoma Agraria "Antonio Narro" (UAAAN durante 2008. La finalidad del trabajo fue evaluar seis tratamientos de extracción de semilla: se utilizó ácido clorhídrico (HCl a 0.3 y 0.5% durante una hora de reposo, ácido sulfúrico (H2SO4 a 0.3% a 1.5 h de reposo, hipoclorito de sodio (NaClO al 5% con media hora de reposo y fermentación a 48 y 72 h. La semilla extraída fue almacenada durante 90, 180 y 240 días a 4 °C. Se evaluó la germinación y vigor de la semilla. Se utilizó un diseño completamente al azar con arreglo factorial. Los resultados indicaron que la calidad fisiológica de la semilla, fue afectada por los efectos de deterioro que causa el almacenamiento y por los métodos de extracción de semilla; sin embargo, la semilla conserva su calidad fisiológica hasta los 240 días de almacenamiento, en los tratamientos a base de HCl al 0.3% y fermentación por 24 h con 93.3 y 91.2% de germinación después de 240 días de almacenamiento.It is very scarce available information related to post-harvest handling of papaya seed (Carica papaya L. and their influence in seed physiologic quality, mainly in germination and vigor. The investigation work was carried out in seeds production laboratory of Center of Training and Development of Seeds Technology, in greenhouse number one of Universidad Autónoma Agraria "Antonio Narro" (UAAAN during 2008. Aim of work was to evaluate six treatments of seed extraction: hydrochloric acid was used (HCl at 0.3 and 0.5% during one hour of rest, sulfuric acid (H2SO4 at 0.3% with 1.5 h of rest, sodium hypochlorite (NaClO at 5% with 30 minutes of rest and fermentation at 48 and 72 h. Extracted seed was stored during 90, 180 and 240 days at 4 °C. It was evaluated seed germination and vigor. A totally random design was used with factorial arrangement. Results indicated that seed physiologic quality was affected by deterioration effects caused by storage and by methods of seed extraction; however, seed conserves its physiologic quality up to 240 days of storage, in treatments with help of HCl at 0.3% and fermentation for 24 h with 93.3 and 91.2 % germination after 240 days of storage.

  12. Determinação de isotiocianato de benzila em Carica papaya utilizando cromatografia gasosa com detectores seletivos / Determination of benzyl isothiocyanate in Carica papaya using gas chromatography with selectives detectors

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Izabela Miranda de, Castro; Marianna Ramos dos, Anjos; Elba dos Santos de, Oliveira.

    1953-19-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english In the present work, a method was developed and validated for the quantification of benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) in the fruits of Carica papaya. The quantification of this compound was carried out by gas chromatography (GC) with selective detectors - nitrogen phosphorus detector (NPD) and flame phot [...] ometric detector (FPD). The performance of these detectors showed a higher sensitivity of the NPD with a broader linear range of detection. The LOD/LOQ were 0.038/0.100 µg/mL for NPD and 5.78/19.29 µg/mL for FPD. The recovery of the method for BITC was 90,64%. An average value of BITC concentration in all the analyzed samples was 16,23 µg BITC/g.

  13. Determinação de isotiocianato de benzila em Carica papaya utilizando cromatografia gasosa com detectores seletivos Determination of benzyl isothiocyanate in Carica papaya using gas chromatography with selectives detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Miranda de Castro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, a method was developed and validated for the quantification of benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC in the fruits of Carica papaya. The quantification of this compound was carried out by gas chromatography (GC with selective detectors - nitrogen phosphorus detector (NPD and flame photometric detector (FPD. The performance of these detectors showed a higher sensitivity of the NPD with a broader linear range of detection. The LOD/LOQ were 0.038/0.100 µg/mL for NPD and 5.78/19.29 µg/mL for FPD. The recovery of the method for BITC was 90,64%. An average value of BITC concentration in all the analyzed samples was 16,23 µg BITC/g.

  14. Carotenoids and Vitamin C during Handling and Distribution of Guava (Psidium guajava L.), Mango (Mangifera indica L.), and Papaya (Carica papaya L.) at Commercial Restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Daniela Da Silva; Lobato, Alvanice Lemos; Ribeiro, Sônia Machado Rocha; Santana, Angela Maria Campos; Chaves, José Benício Paes; Pinheiro-Sant'Ana, Helena Maria

    2010-05-26

    The content and stability of vitamin C (ascorbic acid, AA, and dehydroascorbic acid, DHA) and carotenoids (beta-carotene, lycopene, and beta-cryptoxanthin) were analyzed in papaya, mango, and guava after the reception, preparation (cleaning, peeling, and slicing), and distribution stages for consumption in a commercial restaurant. The analysis of carotenoids and vitamin C was carried out by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The fruits analyzed were considered excellent sources of vitamin C and carotenoids. There were no significant differences in the vitamin C and carotenoids content during the different fruit handling stages at the commercial restaurant, which demonstrates the excellent stability of the components under the usual handling conditions employed. The results show that customers of the commercial restaurant are directly benefitted since the nutritional quality of the fruits was preserved during all of the handling and distribution periods. PMID:20441159

  15. Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci in papaya seedlings Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci em plântulas de mamoeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Otávio S. Beriam

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The natural occurrence of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci causing leaf spot symptoms in papaya seedlings is reported. The pathogen was identified through biochemical, physiological, serological, and molecular assays and artificial inoculations in papaya plants. It was also shown that the strains were pathogenic to bean and tobacco plants. The restriction patterns obtained with Afa I, Alu I, Dde I, Hae III, Hpa II, Hinf I, Sau 3A I and Taq I of the PCR-RFLP of 16S-23S DNAr were identical to the P. s. pv. tabaci patterns. Primers corresponding to hrpL gene of P. syringae were also tested and the results grouped the papaya strains with P s. pv. tabaci. Bacterial strains were deposited at Coleção de Culturas IBSBF, Instituto Biológico, Campinas, Brazil, under access numbers 1687 and 1822.É relatada a ocorrência natural de Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci causando sintomas de lesões foliares em plântulas de mamoeiro. O patógeno foi identificado por meio de testes bioquímicos, fisiológicos, serológicos e moleculares, além de ensaios de patogenicidade em plantas de mamoeiro, feijoeiro e fumo. Os padrões de restrição obtidos com as enzimas Afa I, Alu I, Dde I, Hae III, Hpa II, Hinf I, Sal 3A I e Taq I, utilizando-se a técnica de PCR-RLFP da região espaçadora 16S-23S do DNA ribossômico, foram idênticos àqueles apresentados para P. s. pv. tabaci. Primers correspondentes ao gene hrpL de P. syringae foram também testados e os resultados obtidos permitiram agrupar as linhagens isoladas de mamão com P. s. pv. tabaci. Linhagens bacterianas estão depositadas na coleção de culturas IBSBF, Instituto Biológico, Campinas, sob n. 1687 e 1822.

  16. Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci in papaya seedlings / Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci em plântulas de mamoeiro

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luís Otávio S., Beriam; Irene M.G., Almeida; Suzete A.L., Destéfano; Eunice, Grabert; Denise M., Balani; Mariana, Ferreira; Júlio, Rodrigues Neto.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available É relatada a ocorrência natural de Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci causando sintomas de lesões foliares em plântulas de mamoeiro. O patógeno foi identificado por meio de testes bioquímicos, fisiológicos, serológicos e moleculares, além de ensaios de patogenicidade em plantas de mamoeiro, feijoeiro e [...] fumo. Os padrões de restrição obtidos com as enzimas Afa I, Alu I, Dde I, Hae III, Hpa II, Hinf I, Sal 3A I e Taq I, utilizando-se a técnica de PCR-RLFP da região espaçadora 16S-23S do DNA ribossômico, foram idênticos àqueles apresentados para P. s. pv. tabaci. Primers correspondentes ao gene hrpL de P. syringae foram também testados e os resultados obtidos permitiram agrupar as linhagens isoladas de mamão com P. s. pv. tabaci. Linhagens bacterianas estão depositadas na coleção de culturas IBSBF, Instituto Biológico, Campinas, sob n. 1687 e 1822. Abstract in english The natural occurrence of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci causing leaf spot symptoms in papaya seedlings is reported. The pathogen was identified through biochemical, physiological, serological, and molecular assays and artificial inoculations in papaya plants. It was also shown that the strains wer [...] e pathogenic to bean and tobacco plants. The restriction patterns obtained with Afa I, Alu I, Dde I, Hae III, Hpa II, Hinf I, Sau 3A I and Taq I of the PCR-RFLP of 16S-23S DNAr were identical to the P. s. pv. tabaci patterns. Primers corresponding to hrpL gene of P. syringae were also tested and the results grouped the papaya strains with P s. pv. tabaci. Bacterial strains were deposited at Coleção de Culturas IBSBF, Instituto Biológico, Campinas, Brazil, under access numbers 1687 and 1822.

  17. Manejo de plantas daninhas na cultura do mamoeiro / Weed control in papaya

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C.P., Ronchi; A.A., Silva; L.A.L., Serrano; L.F., Cattaneo; E.N., Santana; G.A., Ferreguetti.

    Full Text Available Apesar de o controle de plantas daninhas na cultura do mamoeiro representar um dos componentes de grande importância do custo de produção, no mundo e no Brasil, a disponibilidade de informações sobre esse tema é escassa, o que reflete a pouca importância que tem sido dada ao assunto nas últimas déca [...] das. Neste texto são discutidos alguns avanços no manejo integrado de plantas daninhas que têm sido alcançados em vários países, particularmente no tocante à manutenção da vegetação natural ou à introdução de leguminosas na entrelinha de cultivo. Não obstante, várias espécies de plantas daninhas foram identificadas como hospedeiras de vetores de importantes viroses à cultura, com destaque para Commelina benghalensis e Solanum americanum. Isso se reveste de grande importância para o manejo (seletivo) das plantas daninhas, sobretudo na produção integrada de mamão. Também são discutidos, em especial para a região norte do Estado do Espírito Santo, a seletividade de herbicidas, os períodos de controle e as principais características e aspectos práticos sobre o manejo de plantas daninhas na cultura do mamoeiro. Abstract in english Despite the fact that weed control entails high costs to crop production, the availability of national and international papers regarding papaya weed control is scarce, showing that little importance has been given to this subject in the last decades. Some integrated weed management advances attamed [...] in several countries are discussed, particularly in the use of both natural groundcover or leguminous plants in the crop interrows. However, several weed species have been identified as host plants of major virus vectors to the crop, such as C. benghalensis and S. americanum. Such information is of major importance for selective weed control, particularly in the integrated system of papaya production. The present review also examined herbicide selectivity, weedy periods as well as the main characteristics and practical aspects of weed control in papaya, focusing on the production areas of the northern Espírito Santo State.

  18. Manejo de plantas daninhas na cultura do mamoeiro Weed control in papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.P. Ronchi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Apesar de o controle de plantas daninhas na cultura do mamoeiro representar um dos componentes de grande importância do custo de produção, no mundo e no Brasil, a disponibilidade de informações sobre esse tema é escassa, o que reflete a pouca importância que tem sido dada ao assunto nas últimas décadas. Neste texto são discutidos alguns avanços no manejo integrado de plantas daninhas que têm sido alcançados em vários países, particularmente no tocante à manutenção da vegetação natural ou à introdução de leguminosas na entrelinha de cultivo. Não obstante, várias espécies de plantas daninhas foram identificadas como hospedeiras de vetores de importantes viroses à cultura, com destaque para Commelina benghalensis e Solanum americanum. Isso se reveste de grande importância para o manejo (seletivo das plantas daninhas, sobretudo na produção integrada de mamão. Também são discutidos, em especial para a região norte do Estado do Espírito Santo, a seletividade de herbicidas, os períodos de controle e as principais características e aspectos práticos sobre o manejo de plantas daninhas na cultura do mamoeiro.Despite the fact that weed control entails high costs to crop production, the availability of national and international papers regarding papaya weed control is scarce, showing that little importance has been given to this subject in the last decades. Some integrated weed management advances attamed in several countries are discussed, particularly in the use of both natural groundcover or leguminous plants in the crop interrows. However, several weed species have been identified as host plants of major virus vectors to the crop, such as C. benghalensis and S. americanum. Such information is of major importance for selective weed control, particularly in the integrated system of papaya production. The present review also examined herbicide selectivity, weedy periods as well as the main characteristics and practical aspects of weed control in papaya, focusing on the production areas of the northern Espírito Santo State.

  19. Estudo e modelagem da cinética de desidratação osmótica do mamão formosa (Carica papaya L.)

    OpenAIRE

    El-Aquar Ânoar Abbas; Xidieh, Murr Fernanda E.

    2003-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve como objetivo o estudo da cinética e modelagem do processo de desidratação osmótica de cubos de mamão Formosa (Carica papaya L.), assim como da qualidade do produto final. O tratamento osmótico foi conduzido a 30ºC, com agitação de 110rpm, utilizando-se dois tipos de soluções de sacarose 70ºBrix: a primeira contendo lactato de sódio 2,4% p/p e ácido láctico 0,1M e a segunda com lactato de sódio 2,4% p/p e ácido cítrico 0,1M. O estudo da cinética de ...

  20. Estimativas de parâmetros genéticos e fenotípicos em mamão Estimates of genetic and phenotypic parameters in papaya

    OpenAIRE

    Dulcinéia Elizabete Foltran; Paulo Souza Gonçalves; José Carlos Sabino; Toshio Igue; Vilela, Regina Ce?lia F.

    1993-01-01

    Na Estação Experimental de Tietê, estimaram-se os parâmetros genéticos e fenotípicos das variáveis altura da planta, diâmetro do caule a 10 e a 50 cm acima do nível do solo, comprimento do internódio mediano, número de folhas e índice foliar, a partir de dados tomados aos três, cinco e sete meses de idade, em um ensaio de oito progênies de meios-irmãos de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L.). As análises da variância foram significativas para altura das plantas, nas três idades; para...

  1. Reasoned opinion on the modification of MRLs for spirodiclofen in strawberries bananas, avocado, mango and papaya

    OpenAIRE

    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-01-01

    In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC) No 396/2005, the Netherlands, herewith referred as the evaluating Member State (EMS), received an application from Bayer S.A.S-Bayer CropScience to modify the existing MRLs for spirodiclofen in strawberries and bananas and set import tolerances for papaya, avocado and mango. The Netherlands proposed to decrease the existing MRL for strawberries from 2 mg/kg to 0.02 mg/kg and to increase the MRL for banana from the limit of quantificatio...

  2. Influencia del Estado de Madurez sobre las Propiedades Viscoelásticas de Frutas Tropicales (Mango, Papaya y Plátano) / Influence of Maturity States on Viscoelastic Properties of Tropical Fruits (Mango, Papaya y Plantain)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ramiro, Torres; Everaldo J, Montes; Omar A, Pérez; Ricardo D, Andrade.

    Full Text Available En esta investigación se determinó la relación del estado de madurez con la viscoelasticidad, en mango de las variedades puerco y corazón , papaya de la variedad hawaiana y plátano. El estado de madurez se determinó por el color de la fruta visualmente, de acuerdo a una escala de maduración, y las p [...] ropiedades viscoelásticas se determinaron por prueba de relajación y compresión del esfuerzo en un texturómetro. Dos modelos comunes, Maxwell generalizado y Peleg, se ajustaron a los datos experimentales. El modelo de Maxwell describió mejor el comportamiento viscoelástico de las frutas estudiadas. Los mangos de ambas variedades presentaron el mismo comportamiento viscoelástico en los diferentes estados de madurez, mientras que para papaya y plátano, el comportamiento elástico disminuyó con el estado de madurez. Abstract in english In this investigation the relation of maturity states with viscoelasticity in two mango varieties ( puerco and corazón ), hawaiian papaya and plantain, were determined. Maturity state was determined by visually examining the color of the fruit, according to a maturation scale. Viscoelastic propertie [...] s were determined by stress compression–relaxation tests using a texturometer. Two common models, generalized Maxwell and Peleg, were fitted to the experimental data. For all fruits, Maxwell model better described the viscoelastic behavior of the fruits. The two mango varieties showed the same viscoelastic behavior at different maturity states, while for papaya and banana, the elastic behavior decreased with maturity state.

  3. Creencias sobre Papanicolaou y cáncer cérvicouterino en un grupo de mujeres chilenas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María Teresa, Urrutia S.

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: Son variadas las descripciones en relación a las creencias y como estas se relacionan con las conductas preventivas en cáncer cérvicouterino. Objetivo: Describir las creencias que tienen un grupo de mujeres chilenas pertenecientes al sistema público de atención acerca del Papanicolaou [...] y cáncer cérvicouterino. Método: Estudio analítico de corte transversal realizado en 333 mujeres chilenas. Se estudiaron las creencias sobre el Papanicolaou y el cáncer cérvicouterino con un instrumento desarrollado y validado en población chilena (CPC-28). Resultados: El 96% de las mujeres refiere tener un Papanicolaou en los últimos 3 años. El antecedente familiar es reportado por el 49,8% como causa de cáncer cérvicouterino. La barrera principal para adherir al Papanicolaou es la falta de conocimiento en cuanto a la edad requerida. La principal señal de acción que impulsa a que la mujer adhiera al tamizaje es la indicación entregada por el doctor. El beneficio mas importante es el cuidado de la salud. El 14,1% señala la presencia de relaciones sexuales como necesaria para adherir al tamizaje. El 17,4% de las mujeres se percibe fuera de riesgo de desarrollar un cáncer cérvicouterino. Las 6 dimensiones estudiadas se correlacionan entre si. Conclusión: Las creencias deben ser consideradas al momento de intervenir una población, empezando por valorarlas y comprenderlas para posteriormente poder modificarlas. Abstract in english Background: Many reasons has been described about relation between beliefs and cervical cancer behaviors. Objective: To describe the beliefs about cervical cancer and Pap test in a group of chilean women. Method: Cross sectional and analytic study was done with 333 chilean women. Beliefs about cervi [...] cal cancer and Pap test was studied with the CPC-28 questionnaire, developed and validated in Chilean population. Results: 96% have had a Pap test in the last 3 years. Family history about cervical cancer was reported by 49.8% as a cause of cervical cancer. The principal barrier to Pap test was lack of knowledge about the age. The principal cue to action was the doctor recommendation. The benefit was the care of health. The sexual intercourse was reported by 14.1% as necessary to take a Pap test. The risk to develop cervical cancer is reported by 17.4%. The six dimensions studied were correlated between them. Conclusion: The beliefs must be considered to education programs, firstly understanding and then modifying them.

  4. BIOPROSPECTING: A TOOL TO CONSERVE CHILEAN BRYOPHYTES / BIOPROSPECCIÓN: UNA HERRAMIENTA PARA LA CONSERVACIÓN DE BRIÓFITAS CHILENAS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jorge, Cuvertino-Santoni; Gloria, Montenegro.

    Full Text Available Esta revisión presenta el estado actual del conocimiento de la diversidad de las briófitas chilenas (musgos, hepáticas y antocerotas), de los metabolitos secundarios de estas plantas y de la actividad biológica de extractos obtenidos a partir de especies de poblaciones chilenas. Nuestro objetivo es [...] determinar el potencial de estas plantas como fuente de moléculas útiles para las industrias farmacéutica y agroalimentaria, y promover su conservación. Sólo de un 3,7% de las briófitas chilenas (55 spp.) han sido analizados químicamente sus extractos (metanol, éter, etanol, diclorometano, acetona y hexano). Se ha evaluado la actividad biológica sólo de cuatro especies de poblaciones chileno-argentinas (Porella chilensis (Lehm. & Lindenb.) Trevi., Riccardia polyclada (Mitt. ex Thurn) Hässel, Balantiopsis cancellata (Nees) Stephani, y Sphagnum magellanicum Brid.). La mayor parte de los estudios se ha concentrado en hepáticas de amplia distribución en el Hemisferio Austral y en los bosques templados de Chile y Argentina. Se discuten brevemente aspectos relacionados a la bioprospección como herramienta para la conservación, y al cultivo in vitro de briófitas con fines productivos y de conservación. Abstract in english Here, we present the current state of knowledge on the diversity of Chilean bryophytes (mosses, liverworts, and hornworts), the secondary metabolites present in these plants, and the biological activity of extracts from populations of Chilean species. Our goal is to establish the potential of these [...] plants as a source of useful molecules for pharmaceutical and agricultural industries, thus promoting their conservation. Only 3,7% of Chilean bryophytes (55 spp.) have been analyzed using chemical characterization of their extracts (methanol, ether, ethanol, dichloromethane, acetone and hexane). Only four species from Chilean and Argentinian populations (Porella chilensis (Lehm. & Lindenb.) Trevi., Riccardiapolyclada (Mitt. ex Thurn) Hässel, Balantiopsis cancellata (Nees) Stephani, and Sphagnum magellanicum Brid.) have been evaluated for biological activity. The majority of these studies have concentrated on liverworts widely distributed in the Southern Hemisphere and in the temperate forests of the southern half of Chile and adjacent Argentina. We briefly discuss aspects related to the use of bioprospecting as a conservation tool as well as the maintenance of in vitro bryophyte cultures with the goal of conservation and production.

  5. Cytogenetics of Chilean angiosperms: Advances and prospects / Citogenética de angiospermas chilenas: Avances y proyecciones

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    PEDRO, JARA-SEGUEL; JONATHAN, URRUTIA.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Los datos citogenéticos sobre angiospermas chilenas han sido reportados desde al menos ocho décadas atrás; sin embargo, mucha de esta información está dispersa en diversas fuentes y no está disponible como un documento completo que permita tener una visión general sobre los avances y vacíos en esta [...] materia. El objetivo de este trabajo es resumir los avances y proyecciones sobre los estudios citogenéticos disponibles para angiospermas chilenas, basado en publicaciones recopiladas desde 1929 hasta el 2010. Nosotros encontramos 78 publicaciones aportadas por cuatro grupos de investigadores chilenos y por algunos especialistas extranjeros. Datos citogenéticos han sido reportados para 139 especies de angiospermas chilenas (2.8 % del total), las cuales pertenecen a 58 géneros y 34 familias. Durante los años 2001-2010, existió un incremento en el número de publicaciones estando disponibles 40 reportes que incluyen 95 especies adicionales. Basados en estos datos, esperamos que esta tendencia pueda ser mantenida en la siguiente década si los actuales grupos de investigación y especialistas jóvenes siguen interesados en estudiar plantas nativas. Abstract in english Cytogenetic data on Chilean angiosperms have been reported since at least eight decades ago; however, much of this information is disperse in diverse sources and is not readily available as a comprehensive document that allows having a general vision on advances and gaps in this matter. The goal of [...] this paper is to summarize the advances and prospets on cytogenetic studies of the Chilean angiosperms based on compiled publications from 1929 to 2010. We found 78 publications supplied by four groups of Chilean researchers and some foreign specialists. Cytogenetic data have been reported for 139 Chilean angiosperm species (2.8 % of the total), which belong to 58 genera and 34 families. During 2001-2010 there was an increase in the number of publications, being available 40 reports including 95 additional species. Based on these data, we hope that such a trend can be maintained in the next decade if the current research groups and young specialists continue to be interested in the study of native plants.

  6. Cytogenetics of Chilean angiosperms: Advances and prospects Citogenética de angiospermas chilenas: Avances y proyecciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEDRO JARA-SEGUEL

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Cytogenetic data on Chilean angiosperms have been reported since at least eight decades ago; however, much of this information is disperse in diverse sources and is not readily available as a comprehensive document that allows having a general vision on advances and gaps in this matter. The goal of this paper is to summarize the advances and prospets on cytogenetic studies of the Chilean angiosperms based on compiled publications from 1929 to 2010. We found 78 publications supplied by four groups of Chilean researchers and some foreign specialists. Cytogenetic data have been reported for 139 Chilean angiosperm species (2.8 % of the total, which belong to 58 genera and 34 families. During 2001-2010 there was an increase in the number of publications, being available 40 reports including 95 additional species. Based on these data, we hope that such a trend can be maintained in the next decade if the current research groups and young specialists continue to be interested in the study of native plants.Los datos citogenéticos sobre angiospermas chilenas han sido reportados desde al menos ocho décadas atrás; sin embargo, mucha de esta información está dispersa en diversas fuentes y no está disponible como un documento completo que permita tener una visión general sobre los avances y vacíos en esta materia. El objetivo de este trabajo es resumir los avances y proyecciones sobre los estudios citogenéticos disponibles para angiospermas chilenas, basado en publicaciones recopiladas desde 1929 hasta el 2010. Nosotros encontramos 78 publicaciones aportadas por cuatro grupos de investigadores chilenos y por algunos especialistas extranjeros. Datos citogenéticos han sido reportados para 139 especies de angiospermas chilenas (2.8 % del total, las cuales pertenecen a 58 géneros y 34 familias. Durante los años 2001-2010, existió un incremento en el número de publicaciones estando disponibles 40 reportes que incluyen 95 especies adicionales. Basados en estos datos, esperamos que esta tendencia pueda ser mantenida en la siguiente década si los actuales grupos de investigación y especialistas jóvenes siguen interesados en estudiar plantas nativas.

  7. Análisis comparativo y perfil de publicaciones en la Revista Chilena de Pediatría 2001-2006 Comparative analysis and publication profile in Revista Chilena de Pediatría 2001-2006

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    PAUL R HARRIS D

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available La Revista Chilena de Pediatría (Rev Chil Pediatr, publicación oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría está indexada en SciELO pero no en la Librería Médica de EEUU (NLM. Objetivos: a determinar el perfil de los artículos publicados y visitados en la Rev Chil Pediatr, compararlo con el de Jornal de Pediatría de Brasil (J Ped Br y el de Journal of Pediatrics (J Ped de Estados Unidos; b evaluar la visibilidad de Rev Chil Pediatr y compararla con la Revista Médica de Chile. Métodos: Se evaluaron los ejemplares en línea de las revistas mencionadas a través de la base de datos SciELO y PubMed entre 2001 a 2006. Se tomó una muestra representativa y aleatoria de los artículos publicados en ese período para cada revista. Adicionalmente se evaluaron los artículos más visitados de la Rev Chil Pediatr y se clasificaron como originales (investigación clínica y básica y no originales (editorial, caso clínico, revisión y otros. Todos los artículos fueron catalogados según su contenido en una de las 25 especialidades médicas definidas. Además se comparó el número de visitas anuales y globales a la Rev Chil Pediatr y a la Revista Médica de Chile y se analizaron las citaciones más frecuentes otorgadas y recibidas por la Rev Chil Pediatr en ese período. Resultados: De 512 artículos en la Rev Chil Pediatr, se analizaron 220; 35% fueron originales y 65% no originales, publicando un porcentaje significativamente menor de artículos originales que el J Ped Br y que el J Ped (p Background: The Revista Chilena de Pediatría (Rev Chil Pediatr, official journal of Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría is index in SciELO, but not in the National Library of Medicine (NLM of USA. Objectives: a Determine the profile of published and visited articles of Rev Chil Ped, in order to compare them with the Jornal de Pediatria from Brazil (J Ped Br and the Journal of Pediatrics (J Ped from USA. b Evaluate the visibility of Rev Chil Pediatr compared to Revista Medica de Chile (Rev Med Chil. Method: On line issues from the above mentioned journal were evaluated through SciELO database and PubMed database from 2001 - 2006. A random and representative subset of published articles was obtained from each one of the 3 journals during the referred period. The most visited articles from Rev Chil Pediatr were analyzed and classified as originals (clinical and basic research and non originals (editorial, clinical case, reviews and others. The articles were classified according to thematic content in 25 medical specialties. In addition, the number of annual visits to Rev Chil Pediatr and Rev Med Chil were analyzed, including the most frequent citations given and received in that period of time. Results: Out of 512 articles in Rev Chil Pediatr, 220 were analyzed; 35% were originals and 65% non originals, with a significant lower percentage of original articles compared to J Ped Br and J Ped (p < 0.05. The thematic areas with more articles were respiratory disease, infectious diseases and nutrition with 9.1, 7.7 and 7.7%, respectively. Rev Chil Pediatr published twice as many nutrition articles and five times more public health articles compared to J Ped (p < 0.05. The most visited articles on line were of nutrition, infectious diseases, respiratory diseases and neonatology. Among the 10 most visited articles from Rev Chil Pediatr, 7 were review articles. Since 2005, an explosive growth is detected in the number of visits to articles from Rev Chil Pediatr in SciELO. When the number of visits was adjusted to the number of physicians belonging to the corresponding society, there was a higher number of visits to Rev Chil Pediatr from 2005 compared to Rev Med Chile. Conclusion: The thematic content of Rev Chil Pediatr is similar to regional journals, but different to international ones. There is an appropriate correlation between published and visited articles. SciELO has been an important tool that contributes to the diffusion of research published in Rev Chil Pediatr

  8. Yeast ratio is a critical factor for sequential fermentation of papaya wine by Williopsis saturnus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pin-Rou; Kho, Stephanie Hui Chern; Yu, Bin; Curran, Philip; Liu, Shao-Quan

    2013-01-01

    Summary The growth kinetics and fermentation performance of Williopsis saturnus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae at ratios of 10:1, 1:1 and 1:10 (W.:S.) were studied in papaya juice with initial 7-day fermentation by W.?saturnus, followed by S.?cerevisiae. The growth kinetics of W.?saturnus were similar at all ratios, but its maximum cell count decreased as the proportion of S.?cerevisiae was increased. Conversely, there was an early death of S.?cerevisiae at the ratio of 10:1. Williopsis saturnus was the dominant yeast at 10:1 ratio that produced papaya wine with elevated concentrations of acetate esters. On the other hand, 1:1 and 1:10 ratios allowed the coexistence of both yeasts which enabled the flavour-enhancing potential of W.?saturnus as well as the ethyl ester and alcohol-producing abilities of S.?cerevisiae. In particular, 1:1 and 1:10 ratios resulted in production of more ethyl esters, alcohols and 2-phenylethyl acetate. However, the persistence of both yeasts at 1:1 and 1:10 ratios led to formation of high levels of acetic acid. The findings suggest that yeast ratio is a critical factor for sequential fermentation of papaya wine by W.?saturnus and S.?cerevisiae as a strategy to modulate papaya wine flavour. PMID:23171032

  9. A matrix solid-phase dispersion method for the extraction of seven pesticides from mango and papaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navickiene, Sandro; Aquino, Adriano; Bezerra, Débora Santos Silva

    2010-10-01

    A simple and effective extraction method based on matrix solid-phase dispersion was developed to determine trichlorfon, pyrimethanil, methyl parathion, tetraconazole, thiabendazole, imazalil, and tebuconazole in papaya and mango using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with selected ion monitoring. Different parameters of the method were evaluated, such as type of solid-phase (silica-gel, neutral alumina, and Florisil), the amount of solid-phase, and eluent [dichloromethane, ethyl acetate-dichloromethane (4:1, 1:4, 1:1, 2:3, v/v)]. The best results were obtained using 2.0 g of mango or papaya, 3.0 g of silica as dispersant sorbent, and ethyl acetate-dichloromethane (1:1, v/v) as eluting solvent. The method was validated using mango and papaya samples fortified with pesticides at different concentration levels (0.05, 0.10, and 1.0 mg/kg). Average recoveries (4 replicates) ranged from 80% to 146%, with relative standard deviations between 1.0% and 28%. Detection and quantification limits for mango and papaya ranged from 0.01 to 0.03 mg/kg and 0.05 to 0.10 mg/kg, respectively. The proposed method was applied to the analysis of these compounds in commercial fruit samples from a local market (Aracaju/SE, Brazil), and residues of the pesticides were not detected on the samples. PMID:20875237

  10. Effects of chitosan-based coatings containing peppermint essential oil on the quality of post-harvest papaya fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edible coatings comprised of antimicrobial polymers based on chitosan are promising technologies to preserve post-harvest fruit quality. In this study, we investigated the potential utility of a coating made from chitosan modified by N-acylation with fatty acid to preserve post-harvest papaya qualit...

  11. An Efficient Seed Germination and Seedling Establishment Protocol for Hybrid Carica papaya Linn. With Application of Plant Growth Regulator

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    Ravishankar Chauhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro germination of hybrid seeds of papaya (Carica papaya Linn. was attempted in the present investigation. Hybrid papaya seeds were subjected to three kinds of treatments. First on semisolid medium Murashige and Skoog (1962, secondly on only inorganic salt solution of the same medium but without organic nutrients and with various combinations of plant growth regulators on coco-peat as support material and in the third set of experiment, the seeds without seed-coat with 6-benzyl adenine having coco-peat as support material. Results showed that the germination rate of the papaya seeds was inhibited by the seed coat. Therefore, the best 90% in vitro germination was observed when the seeds without seed-coat were subjected to 0.5 mg L-1 6-benzyl adenine in coco-peat containing vessels. The seedlings were subjected to in vitro hardening. After three months of transfer to greenhouse and subsequently in nursery, the young seedlings showed 90% survival.

  12. VARYING GENETIC DIVERSITY OF PAPAYA RINGSPOT VIRUS ISOLATES FROM TWO TIME-SEPARATED OUTBREAKS IN JAMAICA AND VENEZUELA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coat protein (CP) genes of eleven Jamaican Papaya ringspot virus type-p (PRSV) isolates that were collected in 1999 were cloned and sequenced. The nucleotide and amino acid sequences of these isolates were compared to each other, with a sequence of another Jamaican isolate collected after the f...

  13. Pressão hidrostática nos atributos sensoriais do néctar de mamão / Hydrostatic high pressure in sensory attributes of papaya nectar

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fernanda Branco, Shinagawa; Rosires, Deliza; Amauri, Rosenthal; Maria Alice, Zarur.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A indústria de alimentos utiliza a análise sensorial como ferramenta essencial no desenvolvimento, otimização, controle de qualidade e análise do potencial mercadológico de novos produtos. A alta pressão hidrostática (APH) é uma tecnologia inovadora que permite manter a qualidade dos alimentos em te [...] rmos nutricionais e sensoriais, bem como o frescor natural e aumentar a sua vida útil. A APH não afeta ligações covalentes, portanto são mínimos os efeitos nos constituintes químicos responsáveis pela cor, sabor e conteúdo nutricional. Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar o efeito da APH aplicada à polpa de mamão nos atributos sensoriais do néctar. Para tal, polpa controle (sem tratamento), pasteurizada (92°C 40s-1) e pressurizada (300MPa 5min-1 25°C-1) e quatro marcas comerciais de polpa de mamão congeladas foram utilizadas para preparar os sete respectivos néctares. Estudos iniciais foram realizados para determinação da quantidade de água e açúcar “ideal” a serem adicionadas à polpa para o preparo do néctar, de acordo com a resposta dos consumidores. As sete amostras foram analisadas por 12 provadores selecionados e treinados, utilizando a Análise Descritiva Quantitativa (ADQ). Os resultados mostraram que os néctares das amostras controle e pressurizada foram similares quanto aos atributos sensoriais, tendo sido caracterizadas pela presença de grumos, sabor característico de mamão, consistência e aroma característico de mamão. Abstract in english The food industry uses the sensory evaluation as an essential tool in the development, optimization, quality control and the analysis of new product potential market. High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) is an innovative technology that allows retaining the nutritional and sensory food quality, as well a [...] s the natural freshness, and extends product shelf life. The HHP does not affect covalent bonds; therefore, it has little effect on chemical constituents responsible for the color, flavor and nutritional content. This study aimed at evaluating the effect of HHP applied to the papaya pulp on sensory attributes of papaya nectar. Control (without treatment), pasteurized (92°C 40s-1) and pressurized papaya purée (300MPa 5min-1 25°C-1) and four commercial papaya frozen purées available in the market were used to prepare the seven respective papaya nectars. Preliminary studies were carried out to determine the amount of water and sugar to be added to the purée, according to the consumer preference. The seven samples were evaluated by 12 selected and trained panelists using the Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA). The results showed that the nectars of control and pressurized samples were similar regarding sensory attributes having been characterized by the presence of lumps, characteristic flavor of papaya, consistency and characteristic aroma of papaya.

  14. Sorologia e sobrevivência do vírus do amarelo letal do mamoeiro Serology and surviving characteristics of Papaya lethal yellowing virus

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    Ana Lúcia Lopes do Nascimento

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O vírus do amarelo letal do mamoeiro (Papaya lethal yellowing virus, PLYV é responsável por uma das principais doenças do mamoeiro (Carica papaya no Nordeste brasileiro. O PLYV pode ser transmitido através do solo, água, instrumento de corte e mãos contaminadas. A presente pesquisa teve como objetivo estudar as características biológicas, sorológicas e físicas de um isolado do vírus e avaliar sua sobrevivência em tecido seco infetado. O PLYV foi detectado por "Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay" (ELISA indireto e isolado em mudas de mamoeiro, através da inoculação mecânica. A sobrevivência do PLYV em folhas e raízes secas de mamoeiro infetado foi avaliada por sorologia e inoculação em plantas sadias. A presença do vírus foi detectada em folhas e raízes de mamoeiro secas, indicando que o vírus pode permanecer ativo em restos de cultura por até 120 dias. A purificação do PLYV permitiu a obtenção de 309.5 mg de vírus/kg de folha e o anti-soro obtido mostrou-se altamente específico, com títulos de 1:128 em dupla difusão em Agar e 1:1.024.000 em Elisa indireto. Estudos das propriedades físicas do PLYV em mamoeiro revelaram um ponto de inativação térmica (PIT em torno de 80 ºC, um ponto máximo de diluição (PMD de ac. 10-6 e uma longevidade in vitro (LIV acima de 50 dias.The Papaya lethal yellowing virus (PLYV is responsible for one of the most important disease of papaya (Carica papaya in the Northeast of Brazil. The PLYV can be transmitted through the soil, irrigation water, agriculture tools and contaminated hands. The present research had the objective to characterize biologically, serologically and physically a PLYV isolate and evaluates how long it survives in infected dried tissues. The PLYV was identified by indirect enzyme linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA, isolated in young papaya plants by mechanical inoculations and maintained at green house conditions for virus purification. Approximately 309.5 mg of virus was purified per kg of infected papaya leaves and a polyclonal antiserum was obtained from an immunized rabbit. The antiserum obtained was shown to be highly specific to PLYV with a titer of 1:128 in double immune-diffusion and a titer of 1:1.024.000 in indirect ELISA. The virus was detected in dried roots and leaves maintained at room temperature up to 120 days, confirming its high stability within nonliving plant tissues, which could explain its dissemination by contaminated hands, tools, water and soil. The physical properties determined for the virus revealed a thermal inactivation point of 80 ºC, longevity in vitro over 50 days and dilution end point ac. of 10-6.

  15. ESTIMATIVA DO COEFICIENTE DE DETERMINAÇÃO GENOTÍPICA EM MAMOEIROS (Carica papaya L.) INOCULADOS COM FUNGO MICORRÍZICO ARBUSCULAR / ESTIMATIVE OF THE GENOTYPIC DETERMINATION COEFFICIENT IN PAPAYA (Carica papaya L.) IN RESPONSE TO INOCULATION OF ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGUS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    ALDO VILAR, TRINDADE; JORGE LUIZ LOYOLA, DANTAS; FLORÍCIO PINTO DE, ALMEIDA; ISABEL CRISTINA SILVA, MAIA.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho objetivou determinar o coeficiente de determinação genotípica (b) do mamoeiro (Carica papaya L.) quanto à capacidade de se associar e responder ao fungo micorrízico arbuscular (FMA) Gigaspora margarita. O experimento foi instalado em casa de vegetação da Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura, u [...] sando solo com uma dose única de fósforo (20 mg dm-3). Os tratamentos foram representados por quatro genótipos de cada um dos grupos 'Solo' e 'Formosa', mais as variedades 'Improved Sunrise Solo Line 72/12' e 'Tainung Nº 1', submetidas ou não à inoculação do fungo Gigaspora margarita. Foi utilizado um delineamento de blocos casualizados, com 4 repetições. Após a coleta dos dados, estimou-se o coeficiente "b" para os seguintes caracteres: parte aérea, comprimento de raiz, altura de planta, eficiência micorrízica e colonização. Os genótipos testados responderam à inoculação do fungo MA; os genótipos do grupo Formosa apresentaram menor comprimento de raiz; a eficiência micorrízica e a colonização radicular média para os dois grupos de plantas foram similares, situando-se em 60% e 50%, respectivamente; a inoculação aumentou a absorção de P, K e Cu, sendo esse efeito maior na variedade representante de cada grupo; o coeficiente "b" demonstrou que o melhoramento de plantas pode modular a produção de parte aérea, comprimento de raízes, altura de plantas e a eficiência micorrízica do grupo Formosa; para o grupo Solo este efeito mostrou-se mais provável para colonização radicular e menos provável para produção de parte aérea, eficiência micorrízica, comprimento de raízes e altura de plantas. Abstract in english An experiment was conducted at the Embrapa -- Cassava and Tropical Fruit Crops with the aim of estimating the genotypic determination coefficient (b) of papaya for its capacity of associate and response to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Four genotypes and one variety of both "Solo"and "Formosa" [...] groups were tested, inoculated or not with Gigaspora margarita in a soil which received 30 mg dm-3 of phosphorus. Data of shoot dry weight (SDW), mycorrhizal efficiency and colonization were statistically analized to generate the coefficient. All genotypes responded significantly to AMF but plants from "Formosa" group showed lower root length; mycorrhiza efficiency and colonization were similar for both groups, but there was no correlation between these characteristics; inoculation increased P, K and Cu absorption with higher values for the variety of each group. Coefficient "b" showed that for "Formosa" group, plant breeding may modulate shoot plant production, root length, plant heigth and mycorrhizal effeciency; for "Solo"group this effect showed to be more probable for root colonization than to mycorrhizal efficiency.

  16. Acceso y poder discursivo en las noticias de la televisión chilena

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Pedro, Santander M.

    Full Text Available El presente artículo aborda, desde la perspectiva del Análisis Crítico del Discurso (ACD), la relación entre acceso, discurso y poder en un corpus de noticias de la televisión chilena. El objetivo es establecer qué papel juega el lenguaje empleado por los periodistas para determinar la manera en que [...] las fuentes informativas acceden a los noticiarios y cómo son representadas. Para esos efectos, se analizó comparativamente una misma noticia que fue difundida por los principales canales de televisión en noviembre de 2000. Abstract in english The following article examines from the perspective of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) the relation among access, discourse and power in Chilean television newscasts. The aim is to establish how the language used by journalists determines the way sources access to the news and how they are represe [...] nted. Therefore, we analyze comparatively the way the same news was diffused during November 2000 in the most important television newscasts.

  17. Tiempo, memoria, escritura (a propósito de la narrativa chilena) / Time, memory, writing (regarding chilean narrative)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mario, Lillo Cabezas.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available El artículo es una reflexión previa que intenta fundamentar teóricamente los problemas del tiempo, de la memoria y de la escritura presentes en la narrativa chilena posterior a 1990, por ejemplo, de Gonzalo Contreras. La carencia de espesor temporal, la memoria reprimida o silenciada y la escritura [...] incapaz de dar cuenta del pasado son hipótesis que vertebran las reflexiones. Abstract in english This article is a theoretical reflection on the issues of time, memory and writing in the Chilean contemporary narrative after 1990, including the works of Gonzalo Contreras. The lack of time density, the repressed or silenced memory and the incapacity of writing to deal with the past are the axis o [...] f this article.

  18. Validación chilena del cuestionario de evaluación de apego en el adulto CAMIR

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    Lusmenia Garrido

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue examinar la confiabilidad y validez del instrumento de evaluación de apego en el adulto, .Cartes: Modèles Individuels de Relation (CAMIR., en la realidad sociocultural chilena. Este instrumento, basado en la teoría del apego, es un cuestionario de auto-reporte que evalúa los modelos operativos internos en adultos y otras escalas relacionadas al apego. Los participantes fueron 578 sujetos, 204 hombres y 374 mujeres, con edades entre 14 y 80 años. Los sujetos completaron el CAMIR y medidas de vínculo y sintomatología actual, a través del Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI and Outcome Questionnaire OQ-45.2. A través del análisis estadístico de los resultados se evaluaron las características psicométricas del test y se analiz ó la posibilidad de generar normas locales para la prueba. Los resultados confirmaron que el CAMIR es un instrumento confiable y válido en la evaluación de los modelos internos de relación en adultos.

  19. Integración metodológica para el estudio del texto de las sentencias penales chilenas

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    Claudio Antonio Ag\\u00FCero San Juan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Proponemos una metodología para describir la estructura y el funcionamiento del texto "sentencia penal chilena" y evaluar la calidad de su argumentación. La importancia de estos procesos radica en que la sentencia es un caso paradigmático del modo en que las sociedades construyen lo bueno y lo malo. En virtud de la especificidad del género y del registro lingüístico del texto en estudio, integramos elementos de pragma-dialéctica, de lingüística sistémico funcional y de Modified Wigmorean Analysis para suplir las desventajas individuales de cada metodología y optimizar sus ventajas. Se revisa someramente el aparato crítico que sustenta cada una de las estrategias de análisis, luego, a través del estudio de un fragmento de una sentencia real, demostramos la factibilidad de la integración y concluimos revisando la posibilidad de usar esta propuesta en comparaciones intertextuales e interdiscursivas.

  20. El delito de estafa en la jurisprudencia chilena The swindle crime in the jurisprudence of Chile

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    Gustavo Balmaceda Hoyos

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se expone la interpretación que estimamos han asumido los tribunales chilenos sobre el delito de estafa, valorando si se trata de un juicio coherente con la técnica chilena de tipificación, idiosincrasia, y que responda de mejor manera a las necesidades político-criminales del presente, durante el período de tiempo comprendido entre 1841 y 2010.The present work exposes the interpretation that we considered has assumed the Chilean courts about the swindle crime, valuing if it is a coherent judgment with the Chilean standardization's technique of felonies, idiosyncrasy, and if it responds the better way to our present's criminal policy, during the period of time between 1841 and 2010.

  1. Dormancia en semillas de papaya cv Maradol Roja durante el almacenamiento

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    Maruchi Alonso-Esquivel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar el efecto de la humedad de la semilla cultivar Maradol Roja y la temperatura durante el almacenamiento, en la dormancia de la papaya. Este trabajo fue desarrollado en el Laboratorio Nacional de Semillas de la Empresa Productora y Comercializadora de Semillas, provincia La Habana, Cuba, en el período noviembre 2006 a enero 2008. Fueron extraídas las semillas de frutos de papaya cv Maradol Roja, y se secaron a tres contenidos de humedad (12%, 10,56% y 9,26%, y acondicionadas en bolsas de polietileno y almacenadas a 15ºC y 4ºC. El porcentaje de germinación, altura y peso fresco de la planta fueron realizadas al inicio y después de tres, seis, nueve y doce meses de almacenamiento. Hubo tendencia a la disminución de la germinación en los primeros seis mess del almacenamiento, alcanzándose los valores más bajos del porcentaje de germinación (55,6%. A partir de los nueve y doce meses fue detectado un aumento signifi cativo en la germinación, independiente del contenido de humedad de la semilla. El ambiente de 15ºC favoreció mayor germinación en períodos mayores de almacenamiento en relació a las mantenidas a 4ºC, que exhibieron mejores porcentajes de germinación en un período menor (tres meses de almacenamiento. La dormancia fi nalizó en los periodos de almacenamiento a los nueve y doce meses, independientemente del contenido de humedad.

  2. Oxidative stress in patients with Alzheimer's disease: effect of extracts of fermented papaya powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbagallo, Mario; Marotta, Francesco; Dominguez, Ligia J

    2015-01-01

    Brain tissue is particularly susceptible to oxidative stress (OS). Increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reduced antioxidant systems, and decreased efficiency in repairing mechanisms have been linked to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Postmortem studies in AD patients' brains have shown oxidative damage markers (i.e., lipid peroxidation, protein oxidative damage, and glycoxidation). Fermented papaya (FPP, a product of Carica papaya Linn fermentation with yeast) is a nutraceutical supplement with favorable effects on immunological, hematological, inflammatory, and OS parameters in chronic/degenerative diseases. We studied 40 patients (age 78.2 ± 1.1 years), 28 AD patients, and 12 controls. Urinary 8-OHdG was measured to assess OS. Twenty AD patients were supplemented with FPP (Immunage, 4.5 grams/day) for 6 months, while controls did not receive any treatment. At baseline, 8-OHdG was significantly higher in patients with AD versus controls (13.7 ± 1.61?ng/mL versus 1.6 ± 0.12?ng/mL, P < 0.01). In AD patients FPP significantly decreased 8-OHdG (14.1 ± 1.7?ng/mL to 8.45 ± 1.1?ng/mL, P < 0.01), with no significant changes in controls. AD is associated with increased OS, and FPP may be helpful to counteract excessive ROS in AD patients. PMID:25944987

  3. Effect of Prior Heat Stress on the Early Growth of Carica papaya

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    Gideon Olarewaju OKUNLOLA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out to determine the effects of heat stress on some growth parameters like shoot height, leaf area, fresh weight, dry weight as well as the accumulation of chlorophylls in Carica papaya. Seedlings of C. papaya were exposed to prior heat stress at 40 °C. A group of plants was placed in a Gallenkamp oven for four hours; another group of plants was placed in the oven for eight hours while the third group of plants was placed in a dark cupboard for the period of eight hours. Sampling was carried out at weekly intervals starting from seven days after treatment. Plants were randomly picked from each of the three treatments. Three replicates were used for each parameter. The results obtained from the study showed that there was an increment in the shoot height, leaf area, fresh weight and dry weight from the beginning to the end of the experimental period. However, the accumulation of chlorophylls did not follow a particular pattern. The analysis of variance carried out on the data obtained showed that heat stress had a significant effect on the petiole length, shoot height, leaf length, leaf width, leaf area, fresh weight and dry weight. Heat stress, however, did not produce a significant effect on the accumulation of chlorophylls a and b and total chlorophyll.

  4. Control of papaya fruits anthracnose by essential oil of Ricinus communis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Luis Siqueira Júnior

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the potential of castor oil for the control of papaya diseases caused by the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and the bacterium Pseudomonas caricapapayae. The treatment with 1% castor oil did not significantly affect the fungal growth. The effectiveness of castor oil for the control of anthracnose was shown when 5% and 10% (v/v were used in the assays resulting in reduced mycelial growth. Fungal sporulation was strongly inhibited at 10% (v/v concentration of essential oil. The studies with the fresh fruits treated with 5% (v/v castor oil in aqueous emulsions resulted in effective reduction of pathogen spread in these fruits. No lesion was found in the fruits treated with oil, when compared to the control fruits. Castor oil showed no effect against the P. caricapapayae when tested in vitro. These results suggested the potential use of the castor bean essential oil and its fatty acids constituents for the control of anthracnose in papaya fruits.

  5. Control of papaya fruits anthracnose by essential oil of Ricinus communis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    César Luis, Siqueira Júnior; Maria das Graças Machado, Freire; Antônio Sérgio Nascimento, Moreira; Maria Ligia Rodrigues, Macedo.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the potential of castor oil for the control of papaya diseases caused by the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and the bacterium Pseudomonas caricapapayae. The treatment with 1% castor oil did not significantly affect the fungal growth. The effectiveness o [...] f castor oil for the control of anthracnose was shown when 5% and 10% (v/v) were used in the assays resulting in reduced mycelial growth. Fungal sporulation was strongly inhibited at 10% (v/v) concentration of essential oil. The studies with the fresh fruits treated with 5% (v/v) castor oil in aqueous emulsions resulted in effective reduction of pathogen spread in these fruits. No lesion was found in the fruits treated with oil, when compared to the control fruits. Castor oil showed no effect against the P. caricapapayae when tested in vitro. These results suggested the potential use of the castor bean essential oil and its fatty acids constituents for the control of anthracnose in papaya fruits.

  6. Literatura chilena de exilio, un vacío epistemológico / Chilean literature of exile, an epistemological emptiness

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sol Marina, Garay C.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo se presenta como una reflexión acerca del desinterés actual que supone, dentro del panorama literario en Chile, el estudio de la literatura creada por autores y autoras chilenas durante el exilio chileno ocurrido entre 1973 y 1989. Una reflexión que espero sirva como referente para aqu [...] ellos investigadores que se interesen por estudiar y dar a conocer los diversos corpus literarios vinculados al exilio chileno vivido en diferentes países del mundo. Una producción literaria aún por desvelar y que agrupa un conjunto de corpus literarios que nos hablan del pasado reciente de Chile y sus habitantes, una literatura chilena de exilio en la cual las experiencias de dolor y desarraigo dan paso a la apertura al otro y al encuentro con diversas memorias culturales. Abstract in english This paper presents a reflection on the current lack of interest within the literary scene of Chile related to the study of literature created by Chilean authors during their exile abroad between 1973 and 1989. A reflection that I hope will serve as a reference for those researchers who are interest [...] ed in studying and publicizing the different literary corpus that came up during the Chilean exile in different countries all over the world. A literature which is still to reveal and that groups together a wide range of literary corpus telling the story of the recent past suffered by Chile and its people, a Chilean literature of exile in which the experiences of pain and uprooting paved the way for an opening to each other as well as for the meeting and the interaction of various cultural memories.

  7. "Matar al padre": Análisis discursivo de dos textos de la sociología chilena en período de dictadura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Alvarado

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta una visión panorámica de las transformaciones de la sociología chilena durante el período de dictadura militar. Específicamente, desde una perspectiva lingüística se comenta el discurso escrito de la sociología chilena durante el período 1975-1989, tiempo durante el cual la producción escrita de esta disciplina se reconstituye bajo la influencia de las transformaciones del contexto sociocultural nacional, latinoamericano y mundial. Nuestra hipótesis de trabajo consiste en que dicha redefinición significó para estos discursos el paso desde un canon centrado en el concepto de la estructura social, hacia otro que enfatiza el concepto de cultura, asumida ésta como un sistema de valores. Lo anterior se demuestra por medio del análisis de dos textos fundamentales del período: Cultura y modernización en América Latina, de Pedro Morandé y El espejo trizado de José Joaquín Brünner.This article presents a panoramic view of the metamorphosis of Chilean sociology during the period of military dictatorship (1973-1989. The production of texts in Chilean sociology for the purpose of this investigation will be approached from a linguistic perspective. The written production of this discipline in this particular moment in history 1975-1989, demonstrates a reconstruction under the influence of the national, Latin American and international sociocultural context. Our work hypothesis is that the reconstruction of discipline oriented discourse meant that there was a movement from the general rule of viewing the social structure as the object of study towards one that emphasized culture, and accepting it as a system of values. The prior statement is demonstrated through the analysis of two texts of the period: Culture and Modernization by Pedro Morandé and The Broken Mirror by José Joaquín Brünner

  8. Toponimia chilena: "la lejana posesión" Chilean toponymy: the far-away possession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Latorre

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available La toponimia de la Isla de Pascua está casi totalmente dominada por vocablos pascuenses. Este predominio ha aumentado a pesar de las expediciones holandesas, españolas e inglesas durante el siglo XVIII, las misiones religiosas francesas, las asonadas esclavistas desde Perú y la toma de posesión y administración chilenas durante el siglo siguiente. Estas visitas, muy especialmente la de la expedición española de 1770, deberían haber extinguido los topónimos rapa nui, como ha sucedido con otras lenguas autóctonas en Chile. Muy por el contrario, muchos nombres pascuenses ya se habían establecido a mediados del siglo XIX y con la administración chilena se ha producido un aumento en la toponimia vernácula, hasta el punto de que ella es dominante en la actualidad. La supervivencia del rapa nui como lengua viva es solamente uno de los factores que explican este predominio.The toponymy of Easter Island is almost completely dominated by names in Rapa Nui, the native language. This dominance has increased in spite of the Dutch, Spanish and English expeditions during the eighteenth century as well as the French religious missions, the slave raids from Peru , and the Chilean administration of the island during the following century. All of these, particularly the Spanish expedition of 1770, should have resulted in the extinction of the Rapa Nui toponymy, as has happened with other native languages in Chile. Quite the contrary, many native place names were already established by the middle of the nineteenth century; under Chilean administration there has been an increase in the vernacular place names, to such an extent that the latter are dominant at present. The survival of Rapa Nui as a living language is just one of the factors accounting for this dominance.

  9. Toponimia chilena: "la lejana posesión" / Chilean toponymy: the far-away possession

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Guillermo, Latorre.

    Full Text Available La toponimia de la Isla de Pascua está casi totalmente dominada por vocablos pascuenses. Este predominio ha aumentado a pesar de las expediciones holandesas, españolas e inglesas durante el siglo XVIII, las misiones religiosas francesas, las asonadas esclavistas desde Perú y la toma de posesión y ad [...] ministración chilenas durante el siglo siguiente. Estas visitas, muy especialmente la de la expedición española de 1770, deberían haber extinguido los topónimos rapa nui, como ha sucedido con otras lenguas autóctonas en Chile. Muy por el contrario, muchos nombres pascuenses ya se habían establecido a mediados del siglo XIX y con la administración chilena se ha producido un aumento en la toponimia vernácula, hasta el punto de que ella es dominante en la actualidad. La supervivencia del rapa nui como lengua viva es solamente uno de los factores que explican este predominio. Abstract in english The toponymy of Easter Island is almost completely dominated by names in Rapa Nui, the native language. This dominance has increased in spite of the Dutch, Spanish and English expeditions during the eighteenth century as well as the French religious missions, the slave raids from Peru , and the Chil [...] ean administration of the island during the following century. All of these, particularly the Spanish expedition of 1770, should have resulted in the extinction of the Rapa Nui toponymy, as has happened with other native languages in Chile. Quite the contrary, many native place names were already established by the middle of the nineteenth century; under Chilean administration there has been an increase in the vernacular place names, to such an extent that the latter are dominant at present. The survival of Rapa Nui as a living language is just one of the factors accounting for this dominance.

  10. Indução e desenvolvimento de calos e embriões somáticos em mamoeiro / Papaya callus and somatic embryo induction and development

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eliane Pires de, Almeida; Roberto Pedroso de, Oliveira; Jorge Luis Loyola, Dantas.

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo estabelecer um protocolo para a indução e desenvolvimento de calos e embriões somáticos em mamoeiro (Carica papaya L. cv. Tainung n.1). Foram utilizados quatro tipos de explantes (hipocótilo com folhas cotiledonares, hipocótilo, folhas cotiledonares e epicótilo) e dua [...] s condições de cultivo (escuro e 16 horas de luz). A indução e o desenvolvimento de calos foram avaliados nos meios de cultura ½MS2, ½MS10 e HMH e a indução e o desenvolvimento de embriões somáticos nos meios ½MS e HMH1. O cultivo de explantes de hipocótilo com folhas cotiledonares em meio de cultura ½MS10, por 20 dias, sob condições de escuro, foi o mais adequado para a indução (100%) e o crescimento de calos friáveis embriogênicos. O cultivo desses calos em meio ½MS, por duas subculturas de 30 dias, sob condições de escuro, foi o mais adequado para a indução (60%) e o desenvolvimento de embriões somáticos. O tipo de explante, meios de cultura e condições de cultivo foram definidos para a embriogênese somática em mamoeiro. Abstract in english In order to establish a protocol for induction and development of callus and somatic embryos of papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Tainung n.1) four explant types (hypocotyl with cotiledonary leaves, hypocotyl, cotiledonary leaves and epycotyl) and two light conditions (dark and 16 h photoperiod) were use [...] d. Callus induction and development were evaluated in ½MS2, ½MS10 and HMH media, and somatic embryo induction and development in ½MS and HMH1 media. In vitro culture of hypocotyl with cotiledonary leaves in ½MS10 medium, under dark condition for 20 days, was suitable for induction (100%) and growth of embryogenic friable callus. The culture of these callus in ½MS medium, under dark condition for two subcultures of 30 days, was suitable for induction (60%) and development of papaya somatic embryos. The explant type, culture media and culture conditions were defined for papaya somatic embryogenesis.

  11. Heterosis in papaya: inter and intragroup analysis / Heterose no mamão: analise inter e intra-grupo

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Deisy Lúcia, Cardoso; Lucas Nunes da, Luz; Celia Maria Peixoto de, Macêdo; Leandro Gonçalves Simões, Azeredo; Messias Gonzaga, Pereira.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available O mamão (Carica papaya L.) é uma cultura típica de áreas tropicais e o Brasil é um dos principais produtores mundiais. Nas últimas décadas, a cultura de mamão se expandiu para diferentes regiões do país, mas o número de cultivares disponíveis ainda é limitado. No presente trabalho, um cruzamento dia [...] lélico completo foi realizado com oito acessos de mamão do banco de germoplasma da UENF/Caliman. Quatro genótipos pertencem ao grupo heterótico Formosa e quatro, ao grupo Solo. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a ocorrência e viabilidade de explorar a heterose em híbridos heteróticos intra-grupo. Cinquenta e seis progénies híbridas foram geradas e avaliadas. Entre os híbridos intra-grupo Formosa, duas combinações híbridas (MR x J4 e MR x SK) apresentaram heterose para todas as características, bem como uma boa produção média total de frutos. Entre os híbridos intra-grupo Solo, três combinações híbridas (WM x GG, WM x SS e WM x SM) destacam-se pela produção de frutas e alto teor de sólidos solúveis. Em Formosa x híbridos de solo, todas as combinações híbridas com o progenitor JS (JS x WM, JS x GG, JS x SS e JS x SM) apresentaram frutos de alta qualidade e boa média para produção de frutos. O perfil de heterose dos híbridos testados permitiu a identificação de híbridos promissores dentro dos grupos heteróticos Formosa e Solo. A análise das variáveis canónicas também possibilitou a visualização de grupos distintos de híbridos, de acordo com a proveniência dos progenitores. Abstract in english Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a typical crop of tropical areas, and Brazil is one of the leading world producers. In recent decades, papaya culture has expanded to different regions of the country, but the number of cultivars available is still limited. In the present study, a complete diallel cross [...] was carried out using eight accessions of papaya from the UENF/Caliman germplasm bank. Four genotypes belong to the Formosa heterotic group and four, to the Solo group. This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence and viability of exploring heterosis in heterotic intragroup hybrids. Fifty-six hybrid progenies were generated and evaluated. Among the Formosa intragroup hybrids, two hybrid combinations (MR x J4 and MR x SK) showed heterosis for all traits, as well as good average total fruit production. Among the Solo intragroup hybrids, three hybrid combinations (WM x GG, WM x SS and WM x SM) stand out for fruit production and high content of soluble solids. In Formosa x Solo hybrids, all hybrid combinations with the parent JS (JS x WM, JS x GG, JS x SS and JS x SM) showed high fruit quality and good average for fruit production. The heterotic profile of the hybrids tested allowed the identification of promising hybrids within Formosa and Solo heterotic groups. The analysis of the canonical variables also allowed the visualization of distinct groups of hybrids, depending on the provenance of the parents.

  12. Effect of UV-C irradiation and low temperature storage on bioactive compounds, antioxidant enzymes and radical scavenging activity of papaya fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Pastrana, Dulce M; Gardea, Alfonso A; Yahia, Elhadi M; Martínez-Téllez, Miguel A; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A

    2014-12-01

    Mature green 'Maradol' papaya fruits were exposed to ultraviolet (UV)-C irradiation (1.48 kJ·m(-2)) and stored at 5 or 14 °C. Changes in total phenols, total flavonoids, enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD), as well as the scavenging activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radicals were investigated in peel and flesh tissues at 0, 5, 10 and 15 days of storage. UV-C irradiation increased significantly (P papaya peel during storage at 5 °C. UV-C irradiation effect on radical scavenging of papaya peel could be attributed to increased flavonoid content. Papaya antioxidant system was activated by UV-C and cold storage by increasing phenolic content and antioxidant enzymatic activities as a defense response against oxidative-stress. PMID:25477649

  13. Insecticidal activity of seed extracts of Carica papaya (L.) against the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    OpenAIRE

    Fiqueroa Brito, R.; Huerta de la Peña, A.; Pérez-Moreno, I.; Marco, V.; Lopez Olguín, J. F.

    2011-01-01

    The present study shows that natural products from Carica papaya can be considered as a valid alternative to control pests in agriculture. The insecticide properties of the seed extracts of four cultivars of C. papaya (Maradol, Mammee, Yellow and Hawaiian) were added to an artificial insect diet. Bioassays were conducted with hexanic, acetonic and methanolic extracts at concentrations of 10, 100 and 1000ppm. All tests were performed with the first larval stage of Spodoptera frugiperda. The re...

  14. Validación Chilena del Cuestionario de Evaluación del Apego Romántico Experiences in Close Relationships (ECR: Análisis de la Validez de Criterio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Spencer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue analizar la validez de criterio del cuestionario de apego romántico Ex - periences in Close Relationships (ECR, Brennan, Clark y Shaver, 1998 para la población chilena de adultos. Este cuestionario evalúa las dos dimensiones del apego romántico adulto: la evitación (de la intimidad y la ansiedad (acerca de las relaciones. Los participantes fueron 549 adultos, quienes completaron el cuestionario ECR y el cuestionario de apego adulto CaMir. Se evaluó las propiedades psicométricas del cuestionario, mostrando que es un instrumento con una adecuada validez de criterio y con una estructura factorial que representa las dos dimensiones teóricas propuestas por los autores originales. Se concluye que la versión chilena del ECR es válida para examinar el apego romántico en la adultez.

  15. ODONTODACTYLUS HAWAIIENSIS MANNING,1967 (STAMATOPODA, GONODACTYLIDAE) EN AGUAS CHILENAS / ODONTODACTYLUS HAWAIIENSIS MANNING,1967 (STOMATOPODA, GONODACTYLIDAE) IN CHILEAN WATERS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marco A., Retamal.

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Se identifica y registra, por primera vez, la especie Odontodactylus hawaiiensis Manning, 1967 en aguas oceánicas chilenas, extendiéndose su distribución geográfica desde el Archipiélago Hawaiiano (islas Maui, Molokai y Hawaii) hasta los alrededores de la isla Salas y Gómez [...] Abstract in english ABSTRACT An species of Stomatopod is identified from Chilean oceanic waters Odontodactylus hawaiiensis Manning, 1967; it is reported from waters around Salas and Gómez island [...

  16. The effect of gamma irradiation on the ripening degree of papaya by comparing the changes of colour index, texture firmness and pH value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is made to see the effect of gamma radiation on papaya (carica papaya) from eksotika cultivar through colour index comparison, firmness and pH value. Dose used on fruit is 0.0 kGy, 0.5 kGy, 1.0 kGy. 1.5 kGy and 2.0 kGy. All fruit was wrapped by using plastic after fruit being radiated. Sample was stored at temperature room for 14 days and will be analysed in day 1, 3, 7, 10 and 14. It was found the dose 1.0 kGy show slowest papaya experience ripening process compared to the other dose. Through radiation found that radiation can extend further papaya life span. After day 10, found that for dose 0.0, 0.5, 1.5 and 2.0 kGy suffer rot. For dose 0.0, 0.5, 1.5 and 2.0 kGy, discovered it is not suitable with the papaya in this study. Even more cleary, radiation is good for delayed the ripening rate but it is must be suitable with the papaya. (author)

  17. Revista Chilena de Cirugía: índice de publicación según procedencia de los artículos / Summ affiliation of authors publishing in Revista Chilena de Cirugía

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    MANUEL, VIAL G; CARLOS, MANTEROLA D; VIVIANA, PINEDA N.

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Una de las variables que se analiza en los estudios bibliométricos es la procedencia de las publicaciones. Este tipo de análisis ha permitido cuantificar el impacto que tienen las distintas universidades o centros hospitalarios en el total de publicaciones de una revista en particular. [...] El objetivo de este estudio es determinar una eventual asociación entre el índice de publicación y la procedencia de los artículos publicados en la Revista Chilena de Cirugía (Rev Chil Cir). Material y método: Estudio biblio-métrico. Se analizaron todos los artículos publicados en la Rev Chil Cir entre los años 2002 y 2006. Los artículos se categorizaron de acuerdo al año de publicación, el tipo de artículo, región del país que originó el artículo y la filiación universitaria manifestada en cada artículo. Se calculó la tasa de publicación, el promedio anual y general de publicación, y la tasa de publicación anual promedio (TPAP). Posteriormente, se aplicó estadística analítica para determinar diferencias entre grupos, utilizando T de Student, ANOVA y prueba de comparaciones múltiples de Duncan. Resultados: En el periodo estudiado, se publicaron 545 artículos científicos, con un promedio de 18,2 artículos por número y 109 artículos por volumen. El 67,9 % fue generado por la Región Metropolitana (RM), el 10,8 % por la VIII región y el 7,8 % por la IX región. Solo en un 64,8 % de las publicaciones queda de manifiesto alguna filiación universitaria. Las mayores TPAP correspondieron a los Capítulos IX y VIII Región con 2,3 + 0,8 y 1,8 + 0,2 publicaciones/año x 10 miembros (p Abstract in english Background: The analysis of author affiliation of published manuscripts allows an assessment of the impact that different universities or hospitals have on a determinate journal. Aim: To analyze author affiliation of manuscripts published in Revista Chilena de Cirugía. Material and methods: All manu [...] scripts published in the journal between 2002 and 2006, were analyzed. The affiliation of authors, the year of publication and the region of Chile in which the manuscript was generated, were recorded. The publication rate, annual average were calculated. The association of authors to specific regional subsidiaries of the Chilean Society of Surgeons was also recorded and the average annual publication rates per regional subsidiary, were calculated. Resu/fs; During the study period 545 manuscripts were published, with a mean of 18 manuscripts per issue and 109 per volume. Sixty eight percent of manuscripts came from the metropolitan region, 11 % from the eight region and 8 % from the ninth region. In only 65 % of manuscripts, authors had an university affiliation. The higher average annual publication rates were observed in the subsidiaries of the eighth and ninth region, with 2.3 + 0.8 and 1.8 + 0.2 publications per year per 10 members, respectively. Conclusions: An important proportion of manuscripts have authors without university affiliation. The higher average annual publication rates come from regional subsidiaries of the Chilean Society of Surgeons

  18. Propagación in vitro de Carica papaya var. PTM-331 a partir de meristemos apicales / In vitro propagation of Carica papaya var. PTM-331 from apical meristem

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Reynaldo, Solis L.; Julio, Olivera S.; Rafael S., La Rosa L..

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo consistió en desarrollar un protocolo de propagación in vitro de la variedad de papaya PTM-331 a partir de meristemos apicales, con la finalidad de obtener plántulas vigorosas y libres de enfermedades, empleando la técnica del cultivo de tejidos. Las yemas apicales empleadas fueron obteni [...] das de plantas cultivadas en invernadero, los cuales fueron usados como explantes para la extracción de meristemos. La mejor diferenciación de meristemos se logró en el medio basal MS suplementado con 0,5 mg.L-1 de BAP, 0,5 mg.L-1 de AIA y 10 mg.L-1 de adenina. La mejor multiplicación se logró con el medio MS suplementado con 0,5 mg.L-1 de BAP, 0,5 mg.L-1 deAIA y 0,3 mg.L-1 de AG3, con un coeficiente de multiplicación de 3,42; mientras que el mejor medio para el enraizamiento fue la combinación del medio MS, 3 mg.L-1 de AIB y 5 mg.L-1 de adenina, donde se obtuvo 83,33% de plantas enraizadas. Abstract in english An in vitro protocol was develop to propagate variety of papaya PTM-331 from apical meristems, with the objective of obtaining vigorous and disease-free seedlings, using tissue culture techniques. Apical buds were obtained from seedlings cultivated in greenhouse and used as explants for meristem dis [...] section. Meristems were cultured on MS basal medium supplemented with 0,5 mg.L-1 of BAP, 0,5 mg.L-1 of AIA and 10 mg.L-1 of adenine for their differentiation. The best multiplication of explants was achieved with the combination of MS medium supplemented with 0,5 mg.L-1 of BAP, 0,5 mg.L-1 ofAIA and 0,3 mg.L-1 of AG3, where largest seedlings, with more shoots were obtained. The best medium for rooting was the combination of MS, 3 mg.L-1 of AIB and 5 mg.L-1 of adenine, where 83,33% of rooted plants were obtained.

  19. Propagación in vitro de Carica papaya var. PTM-331 a partir de meristemos apicales In vitro propagation of Carica papaya var. PTM-331 from apical meristem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynaldo Solis L.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo consistió en desarrollar un protocolo de propagación in vitro de la variedad de papaya PTM-331 a partir de meristemos apicales, con la finalidad de obtener plántulas vigorosas y libres de enfermedades, empleando la técnica del cultivo de tejidos. Las yemas apicales empleadas fueron obtenidas de plantas cultivadas en invernadero, los cuales fueron usados como explantes para la extracción de meristemos. La mejor diferenciación de meristemos se logró en el medio basal MS suplementado con 0,5 mg.L-1 de BAP, 0,5 mg.L-1 de AIA y 10 mg.L-1 de adenina. La mejor multiplicación se logró con el medio MS suplementado con 0,5 mg.L-1 de BAP, 0,5 mg.L-1 de AIA y 0,3 mg.L-1 de AG3, con un coeficiente de multiplicación de 3,42; mientras que el mejor medio para el enraizamiento fue la combinación del medio MS, 3 mg.L-1 de AIB y 5 mg.L-1 de adenina, donde se obtuvo 83,33% de plantas enraizadas.An in vitro protocol was develop to propagate variety of papaya PTM-331 from apical meristems, with the objective of obtaining vigorous and disease-free seedlings, using tissue culture techniques. Apical buds were obtained from seedlings cultivated in greenhouse and used as explants for meristem dissection. Meristems were cultured on MS basal medium supplemented with 0,5 mg.L-1 of BAP, 0,5 mg.L-1 of AIA and 10 mg.L-1 of adenine for their differentiation. The best multiplication of explants was achieved with the combination of MS medium supplemented with 0,5 mg.L-1 of BAP, 0,5 mg.L-1 of AIA and 0,3 mg.L-1 of AG3, where largest seedlings, with more shoots were obtained. The best medium for rooting was the combination of MS, 3 mg.L-1 of AIB and 5 mg.L-1 of adenine, where 83,33% of rooted plants were obtained.

  20. Recuperation of the high germinability condition of papaya seed through priming technology and bioregulators / Recuperación de la alta capacidad de germinación de la semilla de papaya mediante la tecnología de preacondicionamiento y biorreguladores

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Francisco, Bautista-Calles; Guillermo, Carrillo-Castañeda; Ángel, Villegas-Monter.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available La pérdida rápida de la viabilidad de la semilla de Carica papaya L. (papaya) y su elevado precio comercial afectan la disponibilidad de semillas de alta calidad para los cultivadores. Se uso semilla certificada de papaya cv. Maradol para determinar las metodologías prácticas para recuperar la capac [...] idad de germinación de las semillas. Las semillas se sometieron a: a) preacondicionamiento hí d rico: tras 4 d de preacondicionamiento hídrico la germinación de semillas aumentó hasta 84%, 250% más que en aquellas que no se trataron; sin embargo, las plántulas generadas a partir de las semillas no tratadas acumularon más biomasa que las que sí se trataron; 2) preacondicionamiento químico: las semillas tratadas durante 4 d en una solución de cloruro de calcio 10-5 M germinaron 262% más que las no tratadas y, además, sus plántulas acumularon más biomasa que las plántulas testigo. Cuando las semillas se trataron ya sea en solución de ácido salicílico 10-4 o en la de Agromil S®, se obtuvo una germinación significativa, 81 y 73% más alta que en las no tratadas. Todas las semillas tratadas germinaron con mayor rapidez que las no tratadas. Abstract in english Rapid loss of seed viability of Carica papaya L. (papaya) and its high commercial price impairs the availability of high quality seed to growers. Certified papaya seed cv. Maradol was utilized to define practical methodologies to restore the seed germination performance. Seed was submitted to: 1) hy [...] dropriming: 4 d of hydropriming rose seed germination up to 84%, 250% more than the untreated seeds; however, the seedlings generated from untreated seeds accumulated more biomass than the other treatments; 2) chemopriming: seeds treated 4 d in a 10-5 M calcium chloride solution germinated 262% more than did the untreated seeds and in addition, the seedlings generated from treated seeds accumulated more biomass than the control seedlings. When seeds were treated either in the 10-4 M salicylic acid or in Agromil S® solution high germination was accomplished 81 and 73% higher than the untreated seed respectively. All treated seeds germinated faster than the untreated ones.

  1. Effect of irradiation on color of minimally processed melon and papaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The access to nutritious food is an essential dimension of food meal. High potential for fresh-cut industry exists and ready-to-eat fruit market has grown rapidly in recent years due to the health benefits associated. Although there is many concerns to food safety other parameters like texture, taste, color and sensory acceptance are fundamental principles of acceptance to any food. Actually the use of instrumental measurements has proven to be a major predictor of sensory responses. According to many authors, the addition of different techniques should always be considered to provide additional information of the sensory aspects. Therefore the objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of irradiation on color of minimally processed melon and papaya. The fruits were purchased in a market of Sao Paulo, at the same point of ripeness and sent to the IPEN/CNEN-SP. The fruits were sanitized and manually cut into cubes of approximately 2 x 2 cm with the aid of stainless steel knives and packed in polyethylene bags. Melons and papaya were irradiated in a Multipurpose Gamma Source (IPEN - Sao Paulo - Brazil) and were divided in six groups for color analysis: Control; 0.5 kGy; 1.0 kGy, 1.5kGy, 2.0 kGy and 3.0kGy. After the treatment, the MP fruits were kept in a refrigerator at 4 deg C ± 1 deg C until the end of the analysis. The color of the samples was determined using a Minolta colorimeter CR-400 Chromameter. The parameters L*, a* and b* were evaluated. The results were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance One-Dimensional Analysis of Variance (One-Way-ANOVA) followed by Tukey test. All statistical analysis was performed using the program Graph Pad Prism 5 and adopting a significance level of 5 % (p* parameter of any dose despite the tendency to darkening observed for the group of 3.0 kGy. This fact also occurred for the chromatographic coordinates a* and b* which remained in the same tonality for all treatments (p<0.05). Current results indicate that gamma radiation can be used for keeping the color. Doses up to 3kGy were efficient for that. Future studies should consider pretreatments to minimize the darkening effects on fruits. Therefore, the results from this study suggest the use of gamma radiation as a quality alternative for keep the color of minimally processed melon and papaya. (author)

  2. Evapotranspiração e coeficiente da cultura do mamoeiro Evapotranspiration and crop coefficient of papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson P. Posse

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivos determinar a evapotranspiração da cultura (ETc e o coeficiente da cultura (Kc para o mamoeiro (Carica papaya L.. O experimento foi realizado na área de convênio UENF/PESAGRO-RIO, no município de Campos dos Goytacazes - RJ, no período de 25-4-2006 a 20-8-2007, utilizando o mamoeiro cultivar Híbrido UENF/CALIMAN01. Para a determinação da ETc e do Kc, foi utilizado lisímetro de pesagem com área superficial de 6 m². A evapotranspiração de referência (ETo foi estimada pelo método de Penman-Monteith (FAO. A evapotranspiração máxima da cultura foi de 2,9 mm dia-1, aos 229 dias após o transplantio (DAT, sendo a evapotranspiração média da cultura, em todo o período, de 1,8 mm dia ¹. O valor do Kc do mamoeiro variou linearmente de 0,63 até 1,05, do transplantio até 206 DAT. Após esse período, a variação do Kc relacionou-se inversamente com o diâmetro de copa, reduzindo-se ao valor médio mínimo de 0,81, aos 300 DAT. Considerando todo o período em estudo, obteve-se Kc médio de 0,87.This study aimed to determine the crop evapotranspiration (ETc and the crop coefficient (Kc for of UENF/CALIMAN01 papaya hybrid (Carica papaya L.. The experiment was conducted in an area of UENF/PESAGRO-RIO, in Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ, Brazil, from 4-25-2006 to 8-20-2007. To determine the ETc and Kc, a weighing lysimeter (6 m² was used. The reference evapotranspiration (ETo was determined by the Penmam-Monteith (FAO method. The maximum crop evapotranspiration was of 2.9 mm day-1, 229 days after the transplant (DAT, and the medium crop evapotranspiration during the experiment was of 1.8 mm day-1. The value of crop coefficient (Kc varied linearly from 0.63 to 1.05, the transplant to 206 DAT. After this period, the variation of Kc presented inversely relation with the canopy diameter, being reduced to a value medium minimum of 0.81, to 300 DAT. Considering the whole period of study, it was obtained an average Kc of 0.87.

  3. Efecto del calcio en aplicaciones precosecha y poscosecha sobre la severidad de antracnosis (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides y la calidad de frutos de papaya (Carica papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Sabor\\u00EDo

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evalu6 el efecto de aplicaciones pre- cosecha y poscosecha de calcio en papaya va- riedad "criolla" sabre la severidad de antracno- sis (CoUetotrichum gloeosporioides y varia- hIes de calidad del fruto. Los tratamientos pre- cosecha fueron 4: aspersi6n de CaCl2 al 1% Y 4% (2 aplicaciones: <40 dfas posantesis (dpa y entre 100-140 dpa con el penetrante alquilaril- polimero (NP- 7 Bayer (0.4 mIlL, CaCO3 al suelo (1 ton/ha, 70 dpa y testigo (0% Ca. El diseno experimental fue un BCA (4 repeticio- nes de 20 frutos. Los tratamientos poscosecha fueron 3: inmersiones par 5 min con 0%, 1 % Y 4% de CaCI2, con el mismo penetrante. El dise- no experimental fue un BCA (3 repeticiones de 15 frutas. Se evalu6 severidad, % calcio en cascara, brix, pH, % acidez, firmeza (cascara y pulpa y % de madurez. En la aplicaci6n de cal- cia precosecha la severidad fue: 1 % CaC12 con 6%, testigo 7%, CaCO3 9% y 4% CaC12 con 11 %, no se encontr6 que el Ca tuviera un efec-

  4. La solidez de la economía chilena a la luz de las reformas estructurales: 1970-1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángeles SÁNCHEZ DÍEZ

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En el presente artículo se recogen las principales reformas estructurales que han tenido lugar en Chile desde 1970 y que constituyen la base de la solidez actual de dicha economía latinoamericana. Se propone una división en períodos en la que se distingue la época del gobierno de la Unidad Popular, el gobierno de la Junta Militar y la transición a la democracia para evaluar los resultados económicos que se registraron a la luz de las distintas estrategias de desarrollo. Las principales reformas que se dieron en el periodo 1970-1973 bajo la "vía chilena hacia el socialismo" fueron la creación del Área de Propiedad social, la profundización de la Reforma Agraria y la nacionalización de la Gran Minería Durante el monetarismo ortodoxo (1974-1982 destacan como principales reformas la liberalización y desregulación de los mercados, la l a ronda de privatizaciones, la apertura comercial, la liberalización financiera y las "siete modernizaciones", todas ellas respaldadas por la ortodoxia de la denominada Escuela de Chicago. Tras la profunda crisis de 1982 que afectó a todo el continente latinoamericano fue necesario replantear el modelo y se introdujeron distintas medidas de carácter neoliberal que consiguieron que fuera posible aprovechar los beneficios de las reformas realizadas con anterioridad. La transición a la democracia constituye un reto para la sociedad chilena, en tanto que contando con las bases de una economía sólida deben incorporarse la visión social y política para que el crecimiento se convierta en desarrollo. En este sentido toma importancia la última estrategia de la CEPAL de "Transformación productiva con equidad".ABSTRACT: In this paper, the main structural reforms are searched, which happened between 1970 and 1995. These are the base of the actual economic framework. The different considered periods are: the "Unidad Popular" government, the military government and the democratic transition. Finally, we must evaluate the economic results that are dependent of the implementation of the reforms and of the different development strategies. The main reforms that occurred in 1970-1973 with the "vía chilena hacia el socialismo" were: The creation of "area de propiedad social" —social property area-, the agrarian reform and the nationalisation of the most important mining companies. In the orthodox monetarism (1974-1982, the liheralisation and deregulation of the markets, the 1" Stage/Round of privatisation, the trade and the financial liberation and the seven modernizations were the most outstanding reforms, which were supported by the Chicago School. The heavy crisis which affected Latin- American countries and also Chile, caused the reforms of monetarism made possible the improvement of the effect of the reforms of the Chicago Boys. Finally the transition to democracy was am important challenge to Chilean society because Chile had the bases of a solid economy, but it was necessary to attend social and political issues to change growth into development. For this reason the last strategy of the ECLAC "Transformación productiva con equidad" is so important.

  5. Inducción in vitro de raíces de Carica papaya mediante Agrobacterium rhizogenes y ácido 3-indolbutírico / In vitro induction of Carica papaya roots through Agrobacterium rhizogenes and 3-indolebutyric acid

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Manuel de Jesús, Bermúdez Guzmán; Pedro, Valadez Ramírez; Marco Tulio, Buenrostro Nava; Gilberto, Manzo Sánchez; Salvador, Guzmán González.

    1055-10-01

    Full Text Available El enraizamiento de plántulas in vitro es una de las etapas más importantes en el proceso de micropropagación y en C. papaya ha sido una de las principales limitantes, obteniéndose porcentajes de sobrevivencia inferiores al 50%. El presente trabajo de investigación se realizó en el laboratorio de Bi [...] otecnología de la Universidad de Colima en 2009. Con el propósito de inducir un sistema radicular eficiente, se evaluaron brotes de papaya var. "Maradol" de aproximadamente 3 cm de longitud que fueron inoculados con A. rhizogenes a concentraciones de 1x10(7), 1x10(8) y 1x10(9) células mL-1 y establecidos en medio MS con acetosiringona (100 mM) y floroglucinol (25 mg/L). Para el experimento con la auxina, los brotes se subcultivaron en medio líquido MS con 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 y 5 ?M de AIB; se incubaron en oscuridad durante 126 h, seguido del subcultivo en sustrato BM2+sales minerales del MS. Ninguno de los brotes inoculados con las concentraciones bacterianas formó raíces; en contraste, 100% de los brotes tratados con AIB a una concentración de 3 ?M formaron raíces. Con lo anterior se demuestra que las plántulas de C. papaya posiblemente no son susceptibles a la cepa A4 de A. rhizogenes, mientras que el empleo de AIB resultó ser la opción más viable y efectiva para la inducción in vitro de raíces en brotes de papaya. Abstract in english In vitro rooting of seedlings is one of the most important steps in the process o f micropropagatio n and in C. Papaya has been one of the major limiting, having survival percentages below 50%. The present research was conducted in the laboratory of Biotechnology of the University of Colima in 2009. [...] In order to induce an efficient root system, evaluated papaya shoots var. "Maradol" of approximately 3 cm length, inoculated with A. rhizogenes at concentrations of 1x10(7), 1x10(8) and 1x10(9) cells ml-1 and established on MS medium with acetosyringone (1 00 mM) and phloroglucinol (25 mg / L). For the experiment with auxin shoots were subcultured in MS liquid medium containing 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 ?M IBA; incubated in the dark for 126 h, followed by subculture in substrate BM2 + MS mineral salts. None of the inoculated shoots with bacterial concentrations formed roots; in contrast, 100% of the treated shoots with IBA to a concentration of 3 ?M formed roots. With the above demonstrates that seedlings of C. papaya may not be susceptible to strain A4 A. rhizogenes, while the use of IBA proved to be the most viable and effective option for in vitro root induction in shoots of papaya.

  6. Nitrogen fertilization sources and insecticidal activity of aqueous seeds extract of Carica papaya against Spodoptera frugiperda in maize / Fuentes nitrogenadas de fertilización y actividad insecticida del extracto acuoso de semilla de Carica papaya contra Spodoptera frugiperda en maíz

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rodolfo, Figueroa-Brito; Patricia, Villa-Ayala; Jesús F, López-Olguín; Arturo, Huerta-de la Peña; Juan R, Pacheco-Aguilar; Miguel A, Ramos-López.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available R. Figueroa-Brito, P. Villa-Ayala, J.F. López-Olguín, A. Huerta-de la Peña, J.R. Pacheco-Aguilar y M.A. Ramos-López. 2013. Fuentes nitrogenadas de fertilización y actividad insecticida del extracto acuoso de semilla de Carica papaya contra Spodoptera frugiperda en maíz. Cien. Inv. Agr. 40(3): 567-57 [...] 7. Se estimó el daño causado por el gusano cogollero del maíz Spodoptera frugiperda Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) durante la etapa vegetativa de maíz cultivado con fertilizantes nitrogenados químicos, vermicomposta, y extracto acuoso de semillas de Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae). Cada brote se infestó con una larva de primer instar de S. frugiperda. Las variables evaluadas incluyen el porcentaje de germinación. Las variables respuesta fueron el porcentaje de emergencia, longitud de la segunda y quinta hoja, diámetro de tallo y altura de la planta; así como la estimación de daño causado por larvas de S. frugiperda al maíz. Los resultados indicaron que la vermicomposta ayudó a la emergencia de la semilla, en una relación 3:1 de suelo con vermicomposta alcanzó 100% de emergencia, mientras que solo con suelo, la emergencia fue de 80%; el sulfato de amonio incrementó el tamaño de la segunda hoja y quinta hoja 89,6 y 160,4% respectivamente, aumentó el diámetro de tallo y la altura de la planta 290,2 y 13,3%, respecto al tratamiento donde solo se aplicó agua. Las fuentes de nitrógeno estimularon que S. frugiperda ocasionara más daño a la planta, el tratamiento con urea presentó 70% de daño, con fosfonitrato 62,3%, con sulfato de amonio fue de 51,8% sin extracto acuoso de semillas de C. papaya. El tratamiento con sulfato de amonio + extracto acuoso de semillas de C. papaya registró el menor daño del insecto al maíz con 29,6%. Abstract in english R. Figueroa-Brito, P. Villa-Ayala, J.F. López-Olguín, A. Huerta-de la Pena, J.R. Pacheco-Aguilar, and M.A. Ramos-López. 2013. Nitrogen fertilization sources and insecticidal activity of aqueous seeds extract of Carica papaya against Spodoptera frugiperda in maize. Cien. Inv. Agr. 40(3): 567-577. The [...] damage caused by the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to vegetative-stage maize cultivated with chemical nitrogen fertilizers, vermicompost, and Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae) seed extract was estimated. Each shoot was infested with one first instar larva of S. frugiperda. The variables measured included the percentage of germination, length of the second and fifth leaves, stem diameter and plant height, and the estimation of damage caused by S. frugiperda larvae on maize. The results indicated that vermicompost helped seed germination on a relation 3:1 from black soil and vermicompost, the emergence was 100%, while the emergence with black soil was 80%. The ammonium sulfate increased the length of the second and fifth leaves 89.6% and 160.4% respectively, augmented the stem diameter and the plant height 290.2% and 13.3% respectively, respect to water treatment. The exogenous nitrogen sources stimulate S. frugiperda to cause more damage to the plant, the treatment urea showed 70% of damage, with phosphonitrate 62.3% and with ammonium sulfate 51.8%, when were evaluated without aqueous seed extract of C. papaya. Ammonium sulfate + aqueous extract of C. papaya seeds showed the lowest insect damage to maize with 29.6%.

  7. Process variables influence on microwave assisted extraction of pectin from waste Carcia papaya L. peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maran, J Prakash; Prakash, K Arun

    2015-02-01

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate and optimize the influence of process variables such as microwave power, pH, time and solid-liquid ratio on the extraction of pectin from waste Carcia papaya L peel. The experiments were carried out based on a four factors three level Box-Behnken response surface design. A quadratic model was developed from the experimental data in order to predict the pectin yield. The optimal condition was found to be: microwave power of 512 w, pH of 1.8, time of 140 s and solid-liquid ratio of 1:15 g/ml with maximum pectin yield (25.41%). PMID:25445679

  8. Preparation and characterization of inclusion complex of benzyl isothiocyanate extracted from papaya seed with ?-cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenzhao; Liu, Xiaoyu; Yang, Qingfeng; Zhang, Ning; Du, Yideng; Zhu, Huaping

    2015-10-01

    The inclusion complex of benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC), extracted from papaya seed with ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD), was prepared. Different analytical techniques, such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis, X-ray diffractometry, particle size distribution analysis and (1)H Nuclear magnetic resonance analysis, were used to investigate the characterization of the inclusion complex (BITC-?-CD). All these approaches indicated that the inclusion complex was capable of being formed. The inclusion complex exhibited different spectroscopic and thermodynamic features and properties from BITC, and we deduced the possible inclusion modes for BITC-?-CD. The calculated apparent stability constant of the BITC-?-CD was 600.8l/mol, and the aqueous solubility of BITC was indistinctively improved by phase solubility studies. The results illustrated that ?-CD was a proper excipient for increasing the stability and controlled release of BITC. Thus, ?-CD complexation technology would be a promising approach, in expanding the application of BITC as a food antibacterial agent. PMID:25872431

  9. Controle químico do oídio do mamoeiro / Chemical control of papaya powdery mildew

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    JOSELI S., TATAGIBA; JOSÉ R., LIBERATO; LAÉRCIO, ZAMBOLIM; HÉLCIO, COSTA; JOSÉ A., VENTURA.

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Realizaram-se três experimentos, em Linhares-ES, de controle do oídio (Ovulariopsis sp.) do mamoeiro (Carica papaya). A severidade da doença foi estimada usando escala de notas de 0 a 4. Em casa de vegetação, utilizaram-se mudas de 'Improved Sunrise Solo Line 72/12', em delineamento inteiramente cas [...] ualizado com seis tratamentos e cinco repetições. Foram feitas três pulverizações de triflumizole (150, 225 e 300 mg.l-1 i.a.), enxofre (1560 mg.l-1 i.a.) e tiofanato metílico (700 mg.l-1 i.a) e quatro avaliações da severidade da doença a intervalos semanais. Em campo, realizaram-se dois experimentos com o 'Baixinho de Santa Amália', tendo delineamento em blocos casualizados e quatro repetições. Foram feitas cinco pulverizações, a intervalos bissemanais e cinco avaliações da severidade da doença, sendo uma previamente e as demais aos 21, 35, 49 e 63 dias após a primeira pulverização. Em casa de vegetação, todos os produtos reduziram a área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença (AACPD). Triflumizole foi mais eficiente, não tendo diferenças entre suas doses. No primeiro experimento de campo, enxofre (1560 mg.l-1 i.a.) e bicarbonato de sódio (2000 mg.l-1) foram os produtos mais eficientes na redução da AACPD, seguidos por triflumizole, que não apresentou diferenças entre as doses aplicadas (150, 225 e 300 mg.l-1 i.a.). Tiofanato metílico (700 mg.l-1 i.a.) não diferiu da testemunha. No segundo experimento, azoxystrobin (20 a 100 mg.l-1 i.a.) aplicado a cada 14 ou 28 dias, com ou sem adjuvante-molhante, e enxofre (1560 mg.l-1 i.a.) não reduziram a AACPD. Este trabalho mostrou a possibilidade de utilização de enxofre e de bicarbonato de sódio no controle do oídio do mamoeiro. Abstract in english Three trials were conducted in Linhares county to study the chemical control of papaya (Carica papaya) powdery mildew (Ovulariopsis sp.). In all trials disease severity was visually estimated using a scale from 0 to 4. In the greenhouse, a trial was arranged in a completely randomised design with fi [...] ve replications using 'Improved Sunrise Solo Line 72/12'. Three sprays of triflumizole (150, 225, and 300 mg.l-1 a.i.), sulphur (1560 mg.l-1 a.i.) and methyl thiophanate (700 mg.l-1 a.i.) were evaluated at seven-day intervals during four weeks. The other two trials were carried out in an orchard of cv. Baixinho de Santa Amália, using a completely randomised block design with four replications. In each trial, five biweekly sprays and five evaluations were done: one before the first spray and the others 21, 35, 49, and 63 days after the first spray. In the greenhouse, all treatments differed from the control in relation to the area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC). Triflumizole was the most efficient fungicide. In the first field trial the most efficient fungicides in reducing the AUDPC were sodium bicarbonate (2000 mg.l-1 a.i.) and sulphur (1560 mg.l-1 a.i.) followed by triflumizole (150 to 300 mg.l-1 a.i.). Methyl tiophanate (700 mg.l-1 i.a.) did not differ from the control treatment. In the second field trial, azoxystrobin (20 to 100 mg.l-1 a.i.) applied at 14 or 28-day intervals, with or without adjuvant, and sulphur (1560 mg.l-1 a.i.) did not decrease the AUDPC. The results revealed the possibility of using sulphur and sodium bicarbonate to control papaya powdery mildew in the field.

  10. Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. III. Tropical fruits: bananas, mangoes, and papayas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current status of research on the use of ionizing radiation for shelf life improvement and disinfestation of fresh tropical fruits like bananas, mangoes, and papayas are reviewed. The aspects covered are influence of maturity and physiological state of the fruits on delayed ripening and tolerance to radiation; varietal responses; changes in chemical constituents, volatiles, respiration, and ethylene evolution; biochemical mechanisms of delayed ripening and browning of irradiated fruits; and organoleptic quality. The efficacy of the combination of hot water dip and radiation treatments for control of postharvest fungal diseases are considered. The immediate potential of radiation as a quarantine treatment, in place of the currently used chemical fumigants, for disinfestation of fruit flies and mango seed weevil are discussed. Future prospects for irradiation of tropical fruits are discussed in the light of experience gained from studies conducted in different countries.146 references

  11. Effect of irradiation on color of minimally processed melon and papaya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabbri, Adriana D.T.; Sagretti, Juliana M.A.; Hirashima, Fabiana K.; Rogovschi, Vladimir D.; Nunes, Thaise C.F.; Sabato, Susy F., E-mail: adriana.fabbri@yahoo.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Irradiacao de Alimentos

    2013-07-01

    The access to nutritious food is an essential dimension of food meal. High potential for fresh-cut industry exists and ready-to-eat fruit market has grown rapidly in recent years due to the health benefits associated. Although there is many concerns to food safety other parameters like texture, taste, color and sensory acceptance are fundamental principles of acceptance to any food. Actually the use of instrumental measurements has proven to be a major predictor of sensory responses. According to many authors, the addition of different techniques should always be considered to provide additional information of the sensory aspects. Therefore the objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of irradiation on color of minimally processed melon and papaya. The fruits were purchased in a market of Sao Paulo, at the same point of ripeness and sent to the IPEN/CNEN-SP. The fruits were sanitized and manually cut into cubes of approximately 2 x 2 cm with the aid of stainless steel knives and packed in polyethylene bags. Melons and papaya were irradiated in a Multipurpose Gamma Source (IPEN - Sao Paulo - Brazil) and were divided in six groups for color analysis: Control; 0.5 kGy; 1.0 kGy, 1.5kGy, 2.0 kGy and 3.0kGy. After the treatment, the MP fruits were kept in a refrigerator at 4 deg C ± 1 deg C until the end of the analysis. The color of the samples was determined using a Minolta colorimeter CR-400 Chromameter. The parameters L{sup *}, a{sup *} and b{sup *} were evaluated. The results were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance One-Dimensional Analysis of Variance (One-Way-ANOVA) followed by Tukey test. All statistical analysis was performed using the program Graph Pad Prism 5 and adopting a significance level of 5 % (p<0.05), expressed as the mean results ± standard deviation. Samples of papaya and melons showed no statistical difference for the L{sup *} parameter of any dose despite the tendency to darkening observed for the group of 3.0 kGy. This fact also occurred for the chromatographic coordinates a{sup *} and b{sup *} which remained in the same tonality for all treatments (p<0.05). Current results indicate that gamma radiation can be used for keeping the color. Doses up to 3kGy were efficient for that. Future studies should consider pretreatments to minimize the darkening effects on fruits. Therefore, the results from this study suggest the use of gamma radiation as a quality alternative for keep the color of minimally processed melon and papaya. (author)

  12. Evaluación de la uniformidad del riego y efecto del fertirriego nitrogenado en un huerto de lechosa (Carica papaya L. Evaluation of irrigation uniformity and effect of nitrogen fertirrigation in a papaya orchard (Carica papaya L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Basso

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available En un huerto de lechosa cv. Cartagena Roja se estudió el desempeño del fertirriego nitrogenado y riego sobre el rendimiento del cultivo. Se evaluaron cuatro tratamientos de fertilización nitrogenada y tres de riego, utilizando cintas de goteo, y se registró la humedad del suelo usando un TDR y mediante gravimetría. La cosecha se inició al final del período lluvioso y se prolongó durante veinte y un semanas del período seco. Se encontró que la descarga de los emisores resultó altamente uniforme en sus distintas modalidades de operación. Los tratamientos de fertilización nitrogenada no se vieron reflejados en el rendimiento de las plantas pero sí en el adelanto de la cosecha en los tratamientos con mayor dosis de fertilizante. Los tratamientos de riego tampoco afectaron los rendimientos, lo cual se atribuyó al efecto de la humedad almacenada en el perfil durante el período húmedo.Nitrogenous fertilization and watering performance on yield of a papaya orchard cv. Red Cartagena was studied. Four treatments of nitrogenous fertilization and three of watering were evaluated using drip lines. The soil moisture was registered by TDR and gravimetry. The harvest began at the end of the rainy period and it prolonged for twenty one weeks in the dry period. It was found that the emitter discharge was highly uniform in its different operation modalities. The nitrogenous fertilization did not affect the plant yield but permitted earlier maturity of fruits. Similarly, the watering treatments did not affect the yield which was attributed to the effect of the water stored in the soil profile during the rainy period.

  13. Evaluación de la uniformidad del riego y efecto del fertirriego nitrogenado en un huerto de lechosa (Carica papaya L.) / Evaluation of irrigation uniformity and effect of nitrogen fertirrigation in a papaya orchard (Carica papaya L.)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carmen, Basso; Roberto, Villafañe; Stalin, Torres; José, Díaz.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available En un huerto de lechosa cv. Cartagena Roja se estudió el desempeño del fertirriego nitrogenado y riego sobre el rendimiento del cultivo. Se evaluaron cuatro tratamientos de fertilización nitrogenada y tres de riego, utilizando cintas de goteo, y se registró la humedad del suelo usando un TDR y media [...] nte gravimetría. La cosecha se inició al final del período lluvioso y se prolongó durante veinte y un semanas del período seco. Se encontró que la descarga de los emisores resultó altamente uniforme en sus distintas modalidades de operación. Los tratamientos de fertilización nitrogenada no se vieron reflejados en el rendimiento de las plantas pero sí en el adelanto de la cosecha en los tratamientos con mayor dosis de fertilizante. Los tratamientos de riego tampoco afectaron los rendimientos, lo cual se atribuyó al efecto de la humedad almacenada en el perfil durante el período húmedo. Abstract in english Nitrogenous fertilization and watering performance on yield of a papaya orchard cv. Red Cartagena was studied. Four treatments of nitrogenous fertilization and three of watering were evaluated using drip lines. The soil moisture was registered by TDR and gravimetry. The harvest began at the end of t [...] he rainy period and it prolonged for twenty one weeks in the dry period. It was found that the emitter discharge was highly uniform in its different operation modalities. The nitrogenous fertilization did not affect the plant yield but permitted earlier maturity of fruits. Similarly, the watering treatments did not affect the yield which was attributed to the effect of the water stored in the soil profile during the rainy period.

  14. MEJORAMIENTO DE VIDA DE ANAQUEL Y CALIDAD DE PAPAYA 'MARADOL' CON 1-METILCICLOPROPENO (1-MCP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Osuna-Garc\\u00EDa

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se establecieron dos ensayos para evaluar el efecto de la concentración del 1-MCP sobre la vida de anaquel y calidad de papaya 'Maradol'. Para el primer ensayo se evaluaron tres concentraciones de 1-MCP (0, 100 y 200 nl·litro-1, el cual se aplicó en cámaras experimentales herméticas de 0.512 m3 por 12 h a 12 ± 0.5 ºC. Posteriormente los frutos se almacenaron por cuatro días a ambiente o por cuatro días en refrigeración y luego seis días a ambiente. Para el segundo ensayo se usó sólo la concentración de 200 nl·litro-1 de 1-MCP comparada contra un testigo sin aplicación. La aplicación del 1-MCP se hizo en una cámara comercial de 50 m3 por 12 h a 12 ± 0.5 ºC. Los frutos se almacenaron en refrigeración por seis días y luego se transfirieron a simulación de mercadeo. Se evaluó pérdida de peso, firmeza, color externo e interno, sólidos solubles totales y enfermedades. Se encontró que bajo condiciones de ambiente o refrigeración, el 1-MCP en la concentración de 200 nl·litro-1 alargó la vida de anaquel y mantuvo calidad ya que disminuyó pérdida de peso, retrasó el desarrollo del color externo e interno y demoró la evolución de sólidos solubles, asimismo, redujo la presencia de enfermedades y mantuvo firmeza por mayor tiempo. En la evaluación semicomercial el 1-MCP en la concentración de 200 nl·litro-1 demostró su potencial de coadyuvar a la exportación de papaya Nayarita a Canadá ya que alargó en seis días la vida de anaquel sin menoscabo de calidad.

  15. Origin and evolution of female plant from an identical male plant, in carica papaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field study was carried during January 2011 to March, 2013, to confirm the origin and evolution of female plant from an identical male plant in, a dioecious plant, the Carica papaya L. The plants were grown from the seeds of a normal female plant fruit. The grown, plants were identified as XX, XY and XYh (in March - April, 2012) on the basis of male and female flower bearing. The identical male plants, which usually bear only male (unisexual) flowers having calyx, corrolla and androecium, were observed also to bear bisexual flower, having calyx, corrolla, and gynoecium (ovary fused with androecium ). The fruits were set having the bisexual flowers in the identical male (hermaphrodite) plant. These fruits were kept under observation from setting to ripening stage. The ripened fruits were harvested from the identical male plants and 90-95% fruits from these plants were found with the seeds. Plants grown from these male fruit seeds produced all three type of plants i.e., male, female and hermaphrodite. This study indicated that an identical male (XYh) plant produced the female (XX) plant naturally, because of the XXY= XYh condition, which can contribute basic genetic material to male and female plants i.e an identical male (XYh = XXY= 2N +1 = 18+1= 19) produced all three type of plants, the pure male, the hermaphrodite and the female plant, originated from a single source of an identical male, as shown here. XYh = XXY g XY + XX + XXY. The propagation of all three sexes of Carica papaya from a single source of an identical male plant seeds is the first report in the world. (author)

  16. Protective Effect of Carica papaya Linn Against gamma-Radiation-Induced Tissue Damage in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was designed to determine the possible protective effects of the Carica papaya fruit aqueous extract (CP) against ?-radiation induced oxidative stress, biochemical and hematological alterations in male albino rats. Papaya (250 mg/Kg BW /day) was given to male albino rats, via gavages for 6 days prior exposure to the 1st radiation fraction and the treatment was continued for 14 days after the 1st irradiation fraction till the end of the experiment (4 Gy / week up to 8 Gy total doses). The samples were taken from the blood and some organs, liver and kidney for the biochemical analysis. In the irradiated group, there were a significant decrease in RBCs, WBCs count and Hb content. Dramatic increments in the serum indices of liver (aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin) and kidney (urea, uric acid and creatinine) functions were also recorded depicting a liver and kidney impairment state. Also, a significant increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) content and Xanthine oxidase (XO) activity in parallel to a significant decrease in the activity of xanthine dehydrogenase accompanied by a significant decrease in reduced glutathione content (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) activities were recorded in both liver and kidney tissues compared to control group. Treatment with CP (250 mg/kg) was found to offer significant protection against gamma-radiation induced toxicity in the tissues, which was evident by the improved status of most of the parameters investigated. These results suggest that CP could increase the antioxidant defense systems in the liver and kidney of irradiated animals, and may protect from adverse effects of whole body radiation

  17. Improved Immunoassay Sensitivity in Serum as a Result of Polymer-Entrapped Quantum Dots: 'Papaya Particles'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranzoni, Andrea; den Hamer, Anniek; Karoli, Tomislav; Buechler, Joseph; Cooper, Matthew A

    2015-06-16

    Fluorescent labels are widely employed in biomarker quantification and diagnostics, however they possess narrow Stokes shifts and can photobleach, limiting multiplexed detection applications and compromising sensitivity. In contrast, quantum dots do not photobleach and have much wider Stokes shifts, but a paucity of robust surface attachment chemistries for bioconjugation has limited their uptake in biomedical diagnostics. We report a novel class of biofunctional fluorescent labels based on trapping of ?10(4) quantum dots within a core nanoparticle. The doped particles act as scaffolds for generation of a multilayered shell consisting of a functionalized hydrophilic polymer with covalently attached receptors for analyte capture. These constructs, which conceptually resemble a papaya fruit, are chemically stable, remain monodispersed for >6 months in buffer, and show utility in immunoassay applications. Using monoclonal antibody fragments against nonstructural protein dengue NS1, an early biomarker for dengue fever, antibody immobilization capacity was 75-fold higher compared with traditional carbodiimide protein coupling. In the model dengue immunoassay, we observed a 15-fold lower limit of detection and 4-fold higher fluorescence intensity with the "papaya particles" compared to current "best-in-class" commercial reagents. Direct deployment in human serum allowed sensitive detection of different NS1 serotypes with lower limits of detection within the clinically relevant range (1-10 ng/mL), and sufficient specificity for identification of the dengue serotype was achieved for concentrations >10 ng/mL (DV1-3) and >50 ng/mL (DV4). The combination of chemical and physical stability and high binding capacity combined with the intrinsic advantages of quantum dots may enable more simple, robust diagnostic assays in the future. PMID:25971296

  18. Análise de sistemas gene marcador/ agente seletivo alternativos para seleção positiva de embriões somáticos transgênicos de mamoeiro Analysis of marker gene/ selective agent systems alternatives to positive selection of transgenic papaya (Carica papaya L.) Somatic embryos

    OpenAIRE

    M. T. SOUZA JÚNIOR; M. F. VENTUROLI; M. C. F. COELHO; RECH FILHO E. L.

    2001-01-01

    Questões relacionadas à biossegurança de organismos geneticamente modificados e à percepção pública destes têm levado as instituições envolvidas no desenvolvimento comercial de plantas transgênicas a abandonarem o uso de genes marcadores que conferem resistência a antibióticos. O desenvolvimento de mamoeiros (Carica papaya L.) transgênicos tem sido baseado, até o momento, no uso de um único gene marcador, o gene npt II, que confere resistência a antibióticos como canamicina ...

  19. Open Access in Chilean Dentistry Journals / Acceso Abierto en las Revistas Chilenas de Odontología

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ricardo, Cartes-Velásquez.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available El acceso abierto (AA) se ha convertido en un tema de interés y desarrollo en el mundo de las publicaciones científicas, especialmente en el área biomédica, impulsado por los preceptos de acceso libre a la información y cooperación que redunde en el mejoramiento de la calidad de vida de las personas [...] . El objetivo de este estudio es evaluar como se encuentran las publicaciones científicas odontológicas chilenas con respecto al AA. Se incluyeron todas las publicaciones científicas odontológicas chilenas indexadas en LATINDEX, en ellas se evaluaron las variables: libre acceso a artículos completos, acceso a volúmenes anteriores, acceso expedito e intuitivo, plataforma de publicación y presencia en los índices Pubmed, LILACS, SciELO y/o Google Scholar. Se encontraron 19 publicaciones de las cuales el 58% (11) presentaron libre acceso a artículos completos, 2 permitían el acceso independiente a cada artículo, 6 tenían acceso a sus volúmenes anteriores de forma ordenada e intuitiva y 4 con alguna limitación y/o desorden, en cuanto a la plataforma de publicación 3 tenían webs dedicadas o propias y 8 estaban asociadas a webs institucionales. Ninguna publicación se indexa actualmente en las plataformas estudiadas, pero 5 lo hicieron en Pubmed y 6 en LILACS. El 58% de las publicaciones estudiadas presentaban AA. Solo 1 publicación mantenía altos estándares de AA. No existe presencia en plataformas especializadas como SciELO o Google Scholar. Abstract in english Open Access (OA) has become a topic of interest and development in the world of scientific publications, especially in biomedicine area, driven by the precepts of free access to information and cooperation that results in improvement of people quality of life. The aim of this study is to evaluate th [...] e state of Chilean dentistry journals regarding OA. Included all Chilean scientific dental publications indexed in LATINDEX, evaluated variables free access to full articles, access to previous volumes, easy and intuitive access, publisher and presence in PubMed, LILACS, SciELO and / or Google Scholar index. 19 publications was founded of which 58% (11) had free access to full articles, 2 allowed independent access to each paper, 6 had access to their previous volumes in an orderly and 4 with some limitation and / or disorder, regarding to publisher: 3 have own websites and 8 were associated with institutional websites. With regard to indexing: 5 were in Pubmed and 6 in LILACS, but none currently. 58% of the publications studied showed OA. Only 1 publication maintained high standards of OA. No presence in specialized platforms like SciELO or Google Scholar.

  20. Effect of irradiation on the biochemical and organoleptic changes during the ripening of papaya and mango fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, Monique; Bernard, Linda; Jobin, Michele; Milot, Sylvain; Gagnon, Marcel

    Papaya and mango rot caused by fungi is a major problem during storage and marketing. Gamma irradiation treatment was used to determine its effect on the quality of papayas and mangoes irradiated at 0,5 to 0,95 kGy. The level of respiration, soluble solids, texture, vitamin C and the sensorial evaluation were effectuated. The results indicate that irradiation treatment reduces significantly (p ? 0,001) the level of respiration and significantly (p ? 0,001) weakens the texture of mangoes. The content of soluble solids and vitamin C are not significantly affected by the irradiation. The sensory evaluation indicates that up to 0,95 kGy the sensorial quality is not changed.

  1. QUALITATIVE PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF CARICA PAPAYA LEAF EXTRACT AGAINST HUMAN AND PLANT PATHOGENIC FUNGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikandar Khan Sherwani

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Plants have been explored extensively all over the globe in quest of a novel bioactive compound that could a good therapeutic candidate treating infectious diseases especially against drug resistant microbes. Qualitative phytochemical analyses of Carica papaya leaf extract reveal that except steroids and tannins all the possible phytochemical constituents including carbohydrates, proteins, anthraquinones, flavonoids, saponins, cardiac glycosides and alkaloids were present. Two ways of Carica papaya leaf extract preparations i.e crushed and boiled were tested for their antifungal activity against 6 saprophytic fungi Penicillium sp, Aspergilus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium sp, Rhizopus and Helminthosporum, 5 dermatophytic fungi Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton tonsurans and 6 yeasts including Candida albicans, Candida albicans ATCC 0383, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida galbrata, Candida tropicalis, Candida kruzei. The activity was found against majority of fungi but was much better in case of crushed leaf extract.

  2. Staphylococcal enterotoxin A gene-carrying Staphylococcus aureus isolated from foods and its control by crude alkaloid from papaya leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handayani, Lita; Faridah, Didah Nur; Kusumaningrum, Harsi D

    2014-11-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a known pathogen causing intoxication by producing enterotoxins in food. Staphylococcal enterotoxin A is one of the enterotoxins commonly implicated in staphylococcal food poisoning. The ability of crude alkaloid extract from papaya leaves to inhibit the growth of S. aureus and staphylococcal enterotoxin A synthesis was investigated. Staphylococcal enterotoxin A gene-carrying S. aureus was isolated from raw milk and ready-to-eat foods. Crude alkaloid was extracted from ground, dried papaya leaves using ultrasonic-assisted extraction, and a MIC of the alkaloid was determined by the broth macrodilution method. Furthermore, S. aureus isolate was exposed to the crude alkaloid extract at one- and twofold MIC, and the expression of sea was subsequently analyzed using a quantitative reverse transcription real-time PCR. Ten isolates of S. aureus were obtained, and nine of those isolates were sea carriers. The yield of crude alkaloid extract was 0.48 to 1.82% per dry weight of papaya leaves. A MIC of crude alkaloid to S. aureus was 0.25 mg/ml. After exposure to the alkaloid at 0.25 and 0.5 mg/ml for 2 h, a significant increase in cycle threshold values of sea was observed. The sea was expressed 29 and 41 times less when S. aureus was exposed to crude alkaloid at one- and twofold MIC, respectively. This study revealed that crude alkaloid of papaya leaves could control staphylococcal enterotoxin A gene-carrying S. aureus by suppressing the expression of sea, in addition to the ability to inhibit the growth of S. aureus. The expression of sea was successfully quantified. PMID:25364936

  3. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a protease inhibitor from the latex of Carica papaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Kunitz-type trypsin/chymotrypsin inhibitor isolated from C. papaya latex has been crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Two different crystal forms are observed, diffracting to 2.6 and 1.7 Å. A Kunitz-type protease inhibitor purified from the latex of green papaya (Carica papaya) fruits was crystallized in the presence and absence of divalent metal ions. Crystal form I, which is devoid of divalent cations, diffracts to a resolution of 2.6 Å and belongs to space group P31 or P32. This crystal form is a merohedral twin with two molecules in the asymmetric unit and unit-cell parameters a = b = 74.70, c = 78.97 Å. Crystal form II, which was grown in the presence of Co2+, diffracts to a resolution of 1.7 Å and belongs to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 44.26, b = 81.99, c = 140.89 Å

  4. Pintura chilena durante la primera mitad del siglo XX : influjos y tendencias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Emilio Zamorano P\\u00E9rez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo identifica algunos modelos y estructuras estéticas que orientan la pintura chilena durante la primera mitad del siglo XX, ello bajo la perspectiva de ciertas correspondencias que se manifiestan en nuestra pintura con respecto a algunos movimientos estéticos foráneos, de raíz básicamente europea. Se examina el fenómeno de los influjos y transferencias, entendiendo que lo primero se manifiesta como reflejo de un contexto cultural, en tanto que lo segundo como un desplazamiento formal e iconográfico que se localiza al interior de la obra. Bajo esa perspectiva se analizan algunas de las siguientes categorías: Academia v/ s Vanguardia (confrontación de dos espacios simbólicos; los modelos iconográficos y formales en la enseñanza del arte; algunas orientaciones de la reflexión teórica (crítica; el Estado como ordenador del campo cultural chileno. Además de algunos referentes paradigmáticos, tales como la presencia en Chile del español Fernando Alvarez de Sotomayor; las propuestas e innovación del grupo Montparnasse; el aporte a la reflexión crítica de Jean Emar, entre otros aspectos.

  5. INCORPORACIÓN DEL PAISAJE EN LA GESTIÓN DEL TERRITORIO DE LA PATAGONIA CHILENA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAR\\u00CDA DOLORES MU\\u00D1OZ

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta una metodología para el análisis y gestión del paisaje en la Patagonia chilena, un territorio que se destaca por la belleza y diversidad de los paisajes del agua generados por la presencia de grandes lagos, ríos, fiordos, humedales y campos de hielo. El primer caso de estudio es una investigación para evaluar las potencialidades turísticas y territoriales de los paisajes del agua en la cuenca del río Baker. Se utiliza una metodología interdisciplinaria y técnicas de medición, cualitativa y cuantitativa, que permitieran analizar los valores espaciales, ambientales, territoriales y culturales asociados al paisaje. Un aspecto esencial fue incorporar la valoración social del paisaje. El segundo caso, ubicado en el estrecho de Magallanes, corresponde a una metodología de análisis territorial como base para diseñar un Plan de Manejo Turístico en el Área Marina Protegida Francisco Coloane (que incluye al Parque Marino Francisco Coloane. Comprende el análisis de las condiciones ambientales, las características del paisaje y potencialidades del turismo de intereses especiales asociado al paisaje para respaldar la propuesta de gestión. En ambos casos, la metodología considera al paisaje como principal recurso territorial y plantea una forma de gestión respaldada por principios de sustentabilidad ambiental y social.

  6. MONOPSONISTIC BEHAVIOR IN CHILEAN MANUFACTURING / COMPORTAMIENTO MONOPSONICO EN LA MANUFACTURA CHILENA

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    DAVID, MACKINSON; LUCAS, NAVARRO.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo utiliza una metodología firma-específica desarrollada por Brummund (2012) para medir poder monopsónico en el mercado de trabajo usando datos de plantas manufactureras chilenas para el período 2001-2006. Los resultados muestran una alta heterogeneidad en poder de mercado laboral entre la [...] s plantas y que cerca de un 25% de las plantas tienen un nivel alto de poder monopsónico. Se encuentra también que las características individuales de las plantas tienen un mayor poder explicativo del comportamiento monopsónico de las plantas que las características agregadas del mercado laboral en el que se desempeñan. La implicancia de política de estos resultados es que un salario mínimo restrictivo podría tener efectos ambiguos sobre el bienestar. Abstract in english This paper uses a firm-specific method for measuring monopsonistic behavior developed by Brummund (2012) using data for Chilean manufacturing plants for the period 2001-2006. We find that there is significant heterogeneity in labor market power across plants and that nearly a quarter of the plants h [...] ave a significant level of labor market power. It is also shown that individual plant characteristics explain more of the variation in monopsonistic behavior than do the characteristics of the accompanying labor market. These results are relevant for labor market policy since and suggest that a binding minimum wage could have ambiguous effects on welfare.

  7. Construcción Social de la Vejez y Expectativas ante la Jubilación en Mujeres Chilenas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paulina, Osorio P.

    Full Text Available Este artículo es una aproximación al conocimiento de las expectativas y valoraciones de trabajadoras mayores ante la jubilación y vejez en Chile. Los cambios observados en el desarrollo y vida de las mujeres trabajadoras, se los ha comprendido y dimensionado en el contexto de transformación que ha e [...] xperimentado la sociedad chilena en el último tiempo. La posición y relación de las mujeres trabajadoras con el mundo social, doméstico y familiar ha ido cambiando. Lo cual genera, a su vez cambios en las formas tradicionales de experiencia de la jubilación y construcción de la vejez por parte de estas mujeres Abstract in english This paper is an approximation to the expectations and valuations by older female workers about their own retirement and old age in Chile. We study and measure the changes observed in the occupational career and life of women workers in the context of transformation that the Chilean society has expe [...] rienced in the last time. The position in and the relationship of the hard-working women with the social, domestic and family world has been evolving towards new forms of experience of the retirement and construction of the old age

  8. UN GRAN VAR BAYESIANO PARA LA ECONOMIA CHILENA / LARGE BAYESIAN VAR FOR THE CHILEAN ECONOMY

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    WILDO, GONZALEZ P.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo desarrolla un gran VAR bayesiano con más de cien variables para la economía chilena, en el mismo sentido que Banbura, Giannone y Reichlin (2010) se muestra que cuando el grado de contracción del ajuste de los priors son fijados en relación a la dimensión del corte transversal de la mue [...] stra (bayesian shrinkage), la capacidad predictiva de un VAR puede ser mejorado agregando variables macroeconómicas e información sectorial. Los resultados muestran que la predicción del gran VAR bayesiano se compara favorablemente con relación a algunos modelos univariados. Se examinan adicionalmente los impulsos respuesta a un shock monetario, así como también de algunos shocks sectoriales. Abstract in english This article develops a Large Bayesian VAR with more than 100 variables for the Chilean economy, as Banbura, Giannone and Reichlin (2010) shows that, when the degree of shrinkage is set in relation to the cross-sectional dimension of the sample (bayesian shrinkage), the forecasting performance of a [...] VAR can be improved by adding macroeconomic variables and sectoral information. The results show that the large bayesian VAR compares favorably with some univariate models. It further examines the impulse response functions to a monetary shock, as well as some sectoral shocks.

  9. Estudiantes de sectores rurales en las universidades chilenas: problemas y desafíos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juan, Cornejo Espejo.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Si bien no existen estudios específicos acerca de los estudiantes provenientes de sectores rurales que ingresan a la educación superior en Chile ni de sus trayectorias académicas, se puede afirmar, a partir de otros estudios, que ha habido un fuerte aumento de este tipo de estudiantes en las distint [...] as universidades chilenas en la última década. Pese a esa expansión, su futuro académico y laboral resulta incierto en razón de las altas tasas de reprobación y abandonos tempranos, situación que obliga al diseño de una política de retención y apoyo académico-humano específica. Abstract in english Though specific studies do not exist about students from rural sectors who join the higher education institutions in Chile nor their academic paths, it is possible to affirm, from other studies, that there has been a strong increase of this type of students in the different Chilean universities in t [...] he last decade. In spite of this expansion, their academic and labor future turns out to be uncertain in reason of the high rates of failure and early abandons, situation that needs the design of retention politics, and human-academic funding.

  10. Regiones fronterizas y flujos culturales: La peruanidad en una región chilena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Podestá Arzubiaga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo discute las dinámicas culturales que articulan la zona fronteriza del norte de Chile (Arica y sur peruano (Tacna. El argumento central es que se observa un creciente proceso de influencia de la cultura peruana en la ciudad de Arica, fenómeno que denominamos "la peruanidad de una región chilena". Los factores que influyen tienen que ver con el impacto regional de la globalización; la prolongada crisis económica de Arica; el acelerado crecimiento económico del sur de Perú; el agotamiento del clásico enfoque de la geo-política, y la influencia de los nuevos programas educacionales.This article discusses the cultural dynamics that shape the border area in Northern Chile (Arica and Southern Peru (Tacna. The main argument is the emergence of a growing influence of Peruvian culture in the city of Arica, which we label as ¨Peruvinization of a Chilean Region¨. The factors that influence this process have to do with the regional impact of globalization, the prolonged economic crisis in Arica, the accelerated economic growth of Southern Peru, the outdating of the classical geopolitical approach, and the influence of new educational programs.

  11. Poder, Ideología y el Consenso de Washington: Desarrollo y Expansión de la Política Chilena de Vivienda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Gilbert

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Es bien sabido que a menudo la realidad supera la ficción. Esto ciertamente se aplica en el caso del modelo de subsidio habitacional en Chile. Desarrollado por los chilenos con ayuda de la ideología neo-liberal inventada en Chicago, las poderosas instituciones de Washington DC aparecen como actores menores en la escena chilena. Inicialmente, Chile necesitaba el apoyo y financiamiento del Banco Mundial pero una vez conseguidos, Chile siguió su propia agenda. El Banco de Desarrollo Interamericano y USAID no lograron mucho más. Chile era el amo y señor en su propia casa. ¿Fue ésta una victoria para la autonomía nacional por sobre el poder del financiamiento internacional?. Ciertamente no, porque el nuevo modelo que se estaba aplicando en Chile fue el precursor de mucho de lo que se estaba implementando desde Washington en los días de ajuste estructural. Chile ?ganó? porque aceptó las reglas del nuevo juego establecido por instituciones muchísimo más poderosas que los bancos de desarrollo multilaterales. Washington del Desarrollo aprendió mucho de Chile y luego aplicó lo aprendido a los países más endeudados, más pequeños y menos sofisticados.

  12. Representación de las clases propietarias en la literatura chilena del siglo XX: Tres momentos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Noemi Voionmaa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este ensayo analiza la representación de las clases propietarias en la literatura chilena en tres momentos claves del siglo XX: durante la república parlamentaria (Casa grande de Luis Orrego Luco, a comienzos de la dictadura militar (Casa de campo, de José Donoso y al final de ella (Mala onda, de Alberto Fuguet. La transformación en el modo de representación permite pensar en la elaboración de una "estética de la riqueza", la cual va acompañada de una disminución en el nivel de conciencia de clase mostrada por esos sectores.This essay studies the representation of the propertied classes in three moments in Chilean literature: the early 20th century, during the Parliamentary Republic, in the novel Casa grande by Luis Orrego Luco; at the beginning of the dictatorship, in José Donoso’s Casa de campo; and during the return to democracy, in the early 1990s, in Alberto Fuguet’s Mala onda. The modification in the ways in which these classes are represented allows us to think of an "aesthetics of richness" which goes hand in hand with the withering of class consciousness.

  13. Regiones extremas chilenas y su invisibilidad económica / Economic invisibility of Chile’s end regions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sergio, Soza-Amigo; Loreto, Correa.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se constata que las zonas extremas de Chile no poseen una estructura que viabilice un modelo de desarrollo homogéneo respecto a las demás regiones, y que dichas diferencias se manifiestan en sus composiciones demográficas y económicas. La hipótesis central de este trabajo es que las [...] regiones extremas del norte y sur-austral son prácticamente invisibles en el contexto económico nacional. Además, se advierte a través de un análisis input-output, que en el desarrollo endógeno de ambas regiones extremas, Arica y Parinacota no es capaz de generar recursos para satisfacer sus propias necesidades de desarrollo, y que Magallanes y Antártica Chilena al menos ha construido su base económica de manera más formal y diversificada. Abstract in english This article verifies that the end regions of Chile do not have a structure that makes viable a homogeneous development model in relationship to the rest of the regions, and these differences are manifested in their demographic and economic compositions. The central hypothesis of this article is tha [...] t the end regions in the north and the extreme south are practically invisible in the national economic context. The proposed article notes that, in analyzing the endogenous development of both regions, in the north Arica and Parinacota are not able to generate resources to meet their own development needs, and in the south the Magellan and Chilean Antarctica regions have at least built their economic base in a more formal and diversified manner.

  14. Parcelas de agrado alrededor de Santiago y Valparaíso: ¿Migración por amenidad a la chilena?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rodrigo, Hidalgo; Axel, Borsdorf; Felipe, Plaza.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza el marco legal, distribución y estructura espacial de las migraciones por amenidad en las regiones montañosas chilenas (cordillera de la Costa, cordillera de los Andes) y sus tendencias en las últimas décadas. Se presentan tres casos de estudio, dos en regiones montañosas y un ca [...] so en un área de semimontaña. Basado en datos cuantitativos, mediante el análisis de datos censales 1992-2002, y cualitativos (entrevista a expertos), contempla también las relaciones entre vecinos y los conflictos entre los inmigrantes y la población tradicional. El artículo finaliza con una evaluación de las consecuencias económicas y sociales de los nuevos parques residenciales o las llamadas parcelas de agrado constituidas por lotes de más de 5.000 m². Abstract in english The article analyzes the legal framework, distribution and spatial structure of amenity migration in mountain regions in Chile (Cordillera de la Costa, Cordillera de los Andes) and their trends in recent decades. Presents three case studies, two in mountainous regions and one in a semi-mountainous a [...] rea. Based on qualitative data (interview with experts), and the relations between neighbors and the conflicts between immigrants and the traditional population. The article ends with an evaluation of the economic and social consequences of new parks or residential plots pleased calls up a batch of over 5,000 m².

  15. Autoritarismo, enajenación y locura en la poesía chilena de fines del siglo XX. Zurita, Maquieira, Cuevas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar GALINDO VILLARROEL

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El ensayo analiza la figura del sujeto en tres poetas claves de la poesía chilena de fines del siglo XX: Raúl Zurita, Diego Maquieira y José Ángel Cuevas, con el propósito de dar cuenta del proceso de enajenación vivido por diversos tipos de subjetividades en crisis. Este complejo proceso de metaforización de la censura y la represión social se traduce en una multiplicidad de voces que interactúan en el espacio del texto, dando lugar a voces desquiciadas, en los márgenes entre la razón y la locura, que complejizan las relaciones entre escritura y vida. Así la ambigüedad sexual, el disfraz, la escisión del sujeto, son rasgos de una escritura de una fuerte carga testimonial y crítica.ABSTRACT: The essay analyzes the figure of the subject in three of the most important Chilean poets at the end twentieth century, Raúl Zurita, Diego Maquieira and José Ángel Cuevas, in orden to show the process of alienation lived by different types of subject in situations of crisis. The complex processes of censorship and social repression converted to metaphors appears in the form of multiple voices interacting in the textual space, deranged voices on the frontiers of reason and madness which complicate the relation between writing and life. Sexual ambiguity, the mask, and the fragmentation of the subject are characteristics of this highly testimonial and critical literature.

  16. Regiones fronterizas y flujos culturales: La peruanidad en una región chilena

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juan, Podestá Arzubiaga.

    Full Text Available El artículo discute las dinámicas culturales que articulan la zona fronteriza del norte de Chile (Arica) y sur peruano (Tacna). El argumento central es que se observa un creciente proceso de influencia de la cultura peruana en la ciudad de Arica, fenómeno que denominamos "la peruanidad de una región [...] chilena". Los factores que influyen tienen que ver con el impacto regional de la globalización; la prolongada crisis económica de Arica; el acelerado crecimiento económico del sur de Perú; el agotamiento del clásico enfoque de la geo-política, y la influencia de los nuevos programas educacionales. Abstract in english This article discusses the cultural dynamics that shape the border area in Northern Chile (Arica) and Southern Peru (Tacna). The main argument is the emergence of a growing influence of Peruvian culture in the city of Arica, which we label as ¨Peruvinization of a Chilean Region¨. The factors that in [...] fluence this process have to do with the regional impact of globalization, the prolonged economic crisis in Arica, the accelerated economic growth of Southern Peru, the outdating of the classical geopolitical approach, and the influence of new educational programs.

  17. La Asociación Chilena de Editores de Revistas Biomédicas The Chilean Association of Biomedical Journal Editors

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    Humberto Reyes B

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available On September 29th, 2000, The Chilean Association of Biomedical Journal Editors was founded, sponsored by the "Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (CONICYT" (the Governmental Agency promoting and funding scientific research and technological development in Chile and the "Sociedad Médica de Santiago" (Chilean Society of Internal Medicine. The Association adopted the goals of the World Association of Medical Editors (WAME and therefore it will foster "cooperation and communication among Editors of Chilean biomedical journals; to improve editorial standards, to promote professionalism in medical editing through education, self-criticism and self-regulation; and to encourage research on the principles and practice of medical editing". Twenty nine journals covering a closely similar number of different biomedical sciences, medical specialties, veterinary, dentistry and nursing, became Founding Members of the Association. A Governing Board was elected: President: Humberto Reyes, M.D. (Editor, Revista Médica de Chile; Vice-President: Mariano del Sol, M.D. (Editor, Revista Chilena de Anatomía; Secretary: Anna María Prat (CONICYT; Councilors: Manuel Krauskopff, Ph.D. (Editor, Biological Research and Maritza Rahal, M.D. (Editor, Revista de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. The Association will organize a Symposium on Biomedical Journal Editing and will spread information stimulating Chilean biomedical journals to become indexed in international databases and in SciELO-Chile, the main Chilean scientific website (www.scielo.cl (Rev Méd Chile 2001;129: 95-98

  18. La Asociación Chilena de Editores de Revistas Biomédicas / The Chilean Association of Biomedical Journal Editors

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Humberto, Reyes B.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english On September 29th, 2000, The Chilean Association of Biomedical Journal Editors was founded, sponsored by the "Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (CONICYT)" (the Governmental Agency promoting and funding scientific research and technological development in Chile) and the "Soc [...] iedad Médica de Santiago" (Chilean Society of Internal Medicine). The Association adopted the goals of the World Association of Medical Editors (WAME) and therefore it will foster "cooperation and communication among Editors of Chilean biomedical journals; to improve editorial standards, to promote professionalism in medical editing through education, self-criticism and self-regulation; and to encourage research on the principles and practice of medical editing". Twenty nine journals covering a closely similar number of different biomedical sciences, medical specialties, veterinary, dentistry and nursing, became Founding Members of the Association. A Governing Board was elected: President: Humberto Reyes, M.D. (Editor, Revista Médica de Chile); Vice-President: Mariano del Sol, M.D. (Editor, Revista Chilena de Anatomía); Secretary: Anna María Prat (CONICYT); Councilors: Manuel Krauskopff, Ph.D. (Editor, Biological Research) and Maritza Rahal, M.D. (Editor, Revista de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello). The Association will organize a Symposium on Biomedical Journal Editing and will spread information stimulating Chilean biomedical journals to become indexed in international databases and in SciELO-Chile, the main Chilean scientific website (www.scielo.cl) (Rev Méd Chile 2001;129: 95-98)

  19. Notas sobre ecocrítica y poesía chilena / Notes on ecocriticism and Chilean poetry

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mauricio, Ostria González.

    Full Text Available Se examinan algunas prácticas poéticas chilenas, caracterizadas por presentar visiones profundas de los sujetos humanos y la naturaleza. Se indaga en ellos tanto las relaciones de los sujetos con su medio y la presencia de una conciencia ecológica activa, como la plasmación discursiva de un imaginar [...] io vinculado a esa conciencia relacional: la plas-mación de vivencias de profunda integración del ser humano con el cosmos. Se indaga tanto los referentes ambientales como la articulación de elementos de la naturaleza en tanto expresión de los sujetos textuales. Abstract in english Certain Chilean poetics practices are examined, which present profound visions of human subjects and of nature. The inquiry focuses on both the subjects' relations with their environment, and the presence of an active ecological awareness, as well as the literary concretion of an imagery linked to t [...] hat relational awareness: the concretion of experiences of a profound integration of the human being with the cosmos. Environ-mental referents and the articulation of natural elements as expression of textual subjects are approached within the frame of globalization processes and the defense of regional cultural values.

  20. Prevalencia de vaginosis bacteriana en trabajadoras sexuales chilenas / Prevalence of bacterial vaginosis in Chilean sex workers

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gloria, Venegas; Gioconda, Boggiano; Erica, Castro.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar la prevalencia de vaginosis bacteriana (VB) en trabajadoras sexuales chilenas y relacionar los hallazgos con variables sociodemográficas, sexuales y clínicas. MÉTODO: Se estudió una muestra de 379 trabajadoras sexuales que asistían para control a Unidades de Atención y Control d [...] e Salud Sexual de Chile. A todas se las entrevistó para obtener antecedentes sociodemográficos y sexuales, se les realizó evaluación clínica que incluyó características del flujo vaginal, pH y prueba de aminas, y se les tomó una muestra vaginal para tinción de Gram. Para el diagnóstico de VB se empleó el criterio de Nugent. Los datos fueron analizados con EPI-INFO 3.4.1 y BioStat, utilizándose un grado de significación de P Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (BV) in Chilean sex workers and relate the findings to sociodemographic, sexual, and clinical variables. METHODS: A sample of 379 sex workers seen in Chilean Sexual Health Monitoring and Care Units for check-ups was studied. All of them w [...] ere interviewed to obtain their sociodemographic and sexual history. A clinical examination was performed that included the characteristics of vaginal discharge, pH, and amine test. A vaginal sample was taken for Gram stain. The Nugent criteria were used for the diagnosis of BV. The data was analyzed with EPI-INFO 3.4.1 and BioStat, using a degree of significance of P

  1. Construcción Social de la Vejez y Expectativas ante la Jubilación en Mujeres Chilenas

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    Paulina Osorio P

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo es una aproximación al conocimiento de las expectativas y valoraciones de trabajadoras mayores ante la jubilación y vejez en Chile. Los cambios observados en el desarrollo y vida de las mujeres trabajadoras, se los ha comprendido y dimensionado en el contexto de transformación que ha experimentado la sociedad chilena en el último tiempo. La posición y relación de las mujeres trabajadoras con el mundo social, doméstico y familiar ha ido cambiando. Lo cual genera, a su vez cambios en las formas tradicionales de experiencia de la jubilación y construcción de la vejez por parte de estas mujeresThis paper is an approximation to the expectations and valuations by older female workers about their own retirement and old age in Chile. We study and measure the changes observed in the occupational career and life of women workers in the context of transformation that the Chilean society has experienced in the last time. The position in and the relationship of the hard-working women with the social, domestic and family world has been evolving towards new forms of experience of the retirement and construction of the old age

  2. An analysis of the performance of chilean aquacultural exports. (1995-2005) / Análise do comportamento das exportações aqüícolas chilenas (1995-2005) / Análisis del comportamiento de las exportaciones acuícolas chilenas (1995-2005)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cristian, Morales; Ramón, Lacayo; Rodrigo, Sfeir.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available As políticas cambiárias e de livre mercado introduzidas pelos últimos governos do Chile com o objetivo expresso de promover as exportações de produtos tradicionais e não tradicionais, têm tido como conseqüência, em particular, um relativo auge da aqüicultura. O cultivo do salmão é de renome, e expor [...] tações menos conhecidas deste setor têm uma importância cada vez maior no comportamento global da economia chilena. O objetivo deste artigo é a análise do comportamento das exportações aqüícolas chilenas para o período 1995-2005, como complemento de um trabalho anterior sobre as exportações agrícolas chilenas. Analisou-se o comportamento de vários indicadores de especialização (vantagem comparativa revelada e contribuição à balança comercial), estrutura de comercio (participação da exportação dos produtos selecionados no total das exportações) e competitividade (índices de participação setorial e de quota de mercado) em cada categoria exportada. Onze categorias do Sistema Harmonizado foram reduzidas a seis: salmão, filete de peixe, algas, ostras, mexilhões e invertebrados aquáticos. Além disso, se analisou o comportamento do principal país exportador e competidor de Chile em cada categoria selecionada. Os resultados permitem concluir que, exceções aparte, as exportações aqüícolas tanto de Chile como de seus principais competidores contam com um relativamente alto grau de especialização. Também mostram tendências na competitividade que podem ajudar a tomar medidas corretivas onde necessárias. Estes resultados podem ser úteis para os responsáveis na implementação de políticas com beneficio para o sector e para a economia em geral. Abstract in spanish Las políticas cambiarias y de libre mercado introducidas por los últimos gobiernos de Chile con el objetivo expreso de promover las exportaciones de productos tradicionales y no tradicionales, han tenido como consecuencia, en particular, un relativo auge de la acuicultura. El cultivo del salmón es d [...] e renombre, y exportaciones menos conocidas de este sector tienen una importancia cada vez mayor en el comportamiento global de la economía chilena. El objetivo de este artículo es el análisis del comportamiento de las exportaciones acuícolas chilenas para el periodo 1995-2005, como complemento de un trabajo anterior sobre las exportaciones agrícolas chilenas. Se analizó el comportamiento de varios indicadores de especialización (ventaja comparativa revelada y contribución a la balanza comercial), estructura de comercio (participación de la exportación de los productos seleccionados en el total de las exportaciones) y competitividad (índices de participación sectorial y de cuota de mercado) en cada categoría exportada. Once categorías del Sistema Armonizado fueron reducidas a seis: salmón, filete de pescado, algas, ostiones, mejillones e invertebrados acuáticos. Además, se analizó el comportamiento del principal país exportador y competidor de Chile en cada categoría seleccionada. Los resultados permiten concluir que, excepciones aparte, las exportaciones acuícolas tanto de Chile como de sus principales competidores gozan de un relativamente alto grado de especialización. También muestran tendencias en la competitividad que pueden ayudar a tomar medidas correctivas donde se necesite. Estos resultados pueden ser útiles a aquellos responsables de implementar políticas con beneficio para el sector y para la economía en general. Abstract in english Exchange rate and market liberalization policies put in place by recent Chilean administrations with the stated goal of promoting exports in both traditional and non-traditional sectors have resulted in a relative boom for the aquacultural activities in particular. The farming of salmon is well know [...] n, and less traditional exports in this area are beginning to play a larger role in the performance of the Chilean economy as a whole. This paper’s objective is the analysis of the performance of the Chilean aquacultural

  3. Effect of Growth Regulators and Carbon Sources on Axillary Shoot Proliferation from Shoot-Tip Explant and Successful Transplantation of Papaya (Carica papaya L.

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    A.H. Kabir

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The investigation was based on direct shoot formation from shoot tip explant, subsequent morphogenesis and rooting of the in vitro proliferated shoots and transplantation of regenerated plants under ex vitro condition. Through proper growth regulators, it was possible to differentiate multiple shoots from shoot tip of papaya (Shahi. In the present investigation, it was observed that shoot proliferation was best in MS medium containing BAP 1.0 mg L-1+KIN 0.5 mg L-1 and BAP 1.0 mg L-1+NAA 0.5 mg L-1. Maximum number of shoot per culture (28.2 and length of the largest shoot (1.7 cm was found on MS medium supplemented with BAP 1.0 mg L-1+KIN 0.5 mg L-1. Shoot proliferation efficiency was found the best in 11 weeks old explant in MS medium containing BAP 1.0 mg L-1+KIN 0.5 mg L-1. Sucrose in 30 g L-1 concentration as carbon source was proved to be best for shoot proliferation (82%. Maximum number of shoot per culture (41.2 and maximum length of shoot were obtained in the aforesaid concentration of carbon source. For adventitious rooting of regenerated shoot, MS medium containing IBA 1.0 mg L-1+NAA 0.5 mg L-1 was found to be the best. In this growth regulator, treatment 92% of rooting was observed. Longest length of the root (7.9 ± 0.121 cm was found on MS medium supplemented with IBA 1.0 mg L-1+IAA 0.5 mg L-1. After transplanting the 20 days old rooted shoots into garden soil, compost and sand (2:1:1, 80% of survivability after 5 weeks was achieved.

  4. Artificial neural network analysis of genetic diversity in Carica papaya L. / Rede neural artificial na análise da divergência genética em Carica papaya L.

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cibelle Degel, Barbosa; Alexandre Pio, Viana; Silvana Silva Red, Quintal; Messias Gonzaga, Pereira.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O estudo da diversidade genética é de fundamental importância na seleção preliminar de acessos com características superiores e a utilização desses materiais com sucesso em programas de melhoramento genético. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar, como estratégia de análise da diversidade genética, [...] a técnica de bioinformática denominada rede neural artificial. Foi considerada a média de três épocas de plantio, oito caracteres quantitativos e trinta e sete acessos de mamoeiro, utilizando-se o delineamento em blocos casualizados com duas repetições. Com base na análise discriminante de Anderson, 91,90 % dos acessos foram classificados corretamente nos grupos previamente definidos pela rede neural artificial. Concluiu-se que a técnica de rede neural artificial se demonstrou viável na classificação dos acessos. Observou-se a presença significativa de diversidade genética entre os acessos avaliados. Abstract in english The study of genetic diversity is fundamental in the preliminary selection of accessions with superior characteristics and for a successful use of these genotypes in breeding programs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate, as a strategy for genetic diversity analysis, the bioinformatics approac [...] h called artificial neural network. Based on the average of three growing seasons, eight quantitative traits and thirty-seven papaya accessions were evaluated in a randomized complete block design, with two replications. By Anderson's discriminant analysis, 91.90 % of the accessions were correctly classified in the groups previously defined by artificial neural network. It was concluded that the technique of artificial neural network is feasible to classify the accessions. The presence of significant genetic diversity among accessions was observed.

  5. Actividad antifúngica del aceite esencial de naranja (Citrus sinensis L.) sobre hongos postcosecha en frutos de lechosa (Carica papaya L.) / Anti-fungal activity of essential orange oil (Citrus sinensis L.) over post-harvest fungi in papaya fruits (Carica papaya L.)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Clemencia, Guédez; Luis, Cañizalez; Laura, Avendaño; José, Scorza; Carmen, Castillo; Rafael, Olivar; Yolanda, Méndez; Libert, Sánchez.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Los hongos postcosecha causan pudriciones que afectan la calidad de los frutos de lechosa (Carica papaya L.). Actualmente los aceites esenciales son considerados una alternativa a los fungicidas químicos para controlar estos hongos. En este estudio se evaluó la actividad antifúngica del aceite esenc [...] ial de naranja (Citrus sinensis L.) sobre los hongos Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Penicillium indicum, Fusarium solani, Rhizopus stolonifer y Aspergillus flavus, en medio de cultivo Papa Dextrosa Agar (PDA) en un diseño completamente al azar. Los resultados mostraron que existe un efecto inhibidor del aceite esencial de naranja (AEN) en el crecimiento micelial de los hongos in vitro, superior al 80% a concentración de AE de 1%, y 100% de inhibición a concentraciones de 2,5% y 5% de AE (p Abstract in english Post-harvest fungi produce rotting that affects the quality of papaya fruits (Carica papaya L.) At present, essential oils are considered an alternative to chemical anti-fungal substances for controlling these fungi. In this study we evaluated the antifungal activity of essential orange oil (Citrus [...] sinensis L.) over Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Penicillum indicum, Fusarium solani, Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus flavus, in Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) culture medium in a completely random design. The results showed that there is an inhibitory effect of essential orange oil (EOO) over the in vitro mycelium growth of fungi, higher than 80% at a 1% EOO concentration and 100% inhibition at 2.5% and 5% EOO concentrations (p