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Papaya Lethal Yellowing Virus (PLYV) Infects Vasconcellea cauliflora  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Papaya lethal yellowing virus (PLYV) é um dos três vírus descritos infectando mamoeiros (Carica papaya L.) no Brasil. Vasconcellea cauliflora (Jacq.) A. DC., antes denominada de Carica cauliflora (Jacq.), é uma reconhecida fonte de resistência natural ao Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), causador da "Ma...

Amaral, P.P.R.; Resende, R.O., de; Souza, M.T.

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Distribution, diversity and environmental adaptation of highland papaya (Vasconcellea spp.) in tropical and subtropical America  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Vasconcellea species, often referred to as highland papayas, consist of a group of fruit species that are closely related to the common papaya (Carica papaya). The genus deserves special attention as a number of species show potential as raw material in the tropical fruit industry, fresh or in proce...

Scheldeman, X.; Willemen, L.; Coppens D'eeckenbrugge, G.; Romeijn-Peeters, E.; Restrepo, M.T.; Romero Motoche, J.

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Obtención, regeneración y evaluación de híbridos intergenéricos entre Carica papaya Y Vasconcellea cauliflora  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O resgate de híbridos provenientes de cruzamentos intergenéricos entre mamão (Carica papaya L.) e outras espécies de vasconcelleas (antes conhecidas como caricas) possibilita a tranferência de genes das espécies selvagens para a cultivada. O objectivo do presente trabalho foi a obtenção e avaliação de plantas híbridas mediante o resgate e regeneração de embriões ou óvulos resultantes do cruzamento entre C. papaya e Vasconcellea cauliflora. Dos cruzamentos e (more) fectuados, 0 a 76% formaram frutos, de acordo com o tipo de papaya usado. As sementes presentes nos frutos foram vás, inmaduras o possuiam embriões zigóticos. Na maioria dessas sementes ocorreu poliembrionia zigótica in vivo, embora também foram formado alguns híbridos individuais. Conseguiu-se o desenvolvimento, germinação, multiplicação de embriões híbridos e regeneração de plantas in vitro. As plantas establecidas em campo produziram flores andróicas y andromonóicas. Abstract in spanish El rescate de híbridos de cruces intergenéricos entre la lechosa (Carica papaya L.) y otras especies de vasconcelleas (antes conocidas como caricas) posibilita la transferencia de genes desde las especies silvestres hacia la cultivada. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue la obtención y evaluación de plantas híbridas mediante el rescate y regeneración de embriones u óvulos después del cruce entre C. papaya y Vasconcellea cauliflora. Se obtuvo un porcentaje de fruc (more) tificación entre 0 y 76%, de acuerdo al tipo de lechosa usada en el cruce. En los frutos, las semillas fueron vanas, inmaduras o contenían embriones cigóticos. En la mayoría de ellas ocurrió la poliembrionía cigótica in vivo, aún cuando también se produjeron híbridos individuales. Se logró el desarrollo, germinación y multiplicación de embriones híbridos, y la regeneración de plantas in vitro. Las plantas sembradas en campo produjeron flores andróicas y andromonóicas. Abstract in english The rescue of hybrids from intergeneric crosses between papaya (Carica papaya L.) and other vasconcelleas species (known before as caricas) can make possible gene transfer from a wild species to a cultivated one. The object of this research was to obtain and evaluate hybrid plants after rescue and regeneration of embryos or ovules, from the crosses made between C. papaya and Vasconcellea cauliflora. After cross pollination, 0 to 76% fructification was attained, according (more) to the papaya type used. In the fruits, seeds were vain, immature or contained zygotic embryos. In most of them occurred in vivo zygotic polyembryony, although some individual hybrids were also formed. Development, germination, multiplication of embryo hybrids and plant regeneration in vitro were achieved. In the field, plants produced androic and andromonoic flowers.

Vegas, Ariadne; Trujillo, Gustavo; Sandrea, Yanet

2003-12-01

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Phylogenetic analysis of the highland papayas ( Vasconcellea) and allied genera (Caricaceae) using PCR-RFLP.  

Science.gov (United States)

The chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA diversity of 61 genotypes belonging to 18 Vasconcellea species, the so-called highland papayas, was studied by PCR-RFLP analysis of two non-coding cpDNA regions ( trnM- rbcL and trnK1- trnK2) and one non-coding mtDNA region ( nad4/1- nad4/2). This sample set was supplemented with six genotypes belonging to three other Caricaceae genera: the monotypic genus Carica, including only the cultivated papaya, and the genera Jacaratia and Cylicomorpha. Moringa ovalifolia was added as an outgroup species. The PCR-amplified cpDNA regions were digested with 18 restriction endonucleases, the mtDNA region with 11. A total of 22 point mutations and four insertion/deletions were scored in the sample. A higher level of interspecific variation was detected in the two cpDNA regions in comparison to the analysis of the mtDNA. Wagner parsimony and Neighbor-Joining analysis resulted in dendrograms with similar topologies. PCR-RFLP analysis supported the monophyly of Caricaceae, but among the 26 mutations scored, an insufficient number of markers discriminated between the different Caricaceae genera included in this study. Hence the inference of the intergeneric relationships within Caricaceae was impossible. However, some conclusions can be noted at a lower taxonomic level. The Caricaceae species were divided into two lineages. One group included only Vasconcellea spp., whereas the second included the remaining Vasconcellea spp., together with the papaya genotypes and those from the other Caricaceae genera. This may indicate a higher level of inter-fertility for the Vasconcellea species from the latter clade in interspecific crossings with papaya. The putative progenitors of the natural sterile hybrid V. x heilbornii, i.e. V. stipulata and V. cundinamarcensis, were only distantly related to V. x heilbornii. This indicates that probably none of these species was involved as the maternal progenitor in the origin of V. x heilbornii. Surprisingly, V. x heilbornii had organellar genome patterns identical with V. weberbaueri, suggesting a possible involvement of this species in the origin of V. x heilbornii. On the basis of discrepancy between morphological traits and the cpDNA profiles of some pairs of Vasconcellea species, we believe that besides V. x heilbornii, some other species have originated through interspecific hybridization. A reticulate evolution for Vasconcellea has therefore been suggested. Finally, intraspecific cpDNA variation was detected in V. microcarpa, thus providing molecular evidence for the high diversity previously indicated by morphological observations. PMID:14752605

Van Droogenbroeck, B; Kyndt, T; Maertens, I; Romeijn-Peeters, E; Scheldeman, X; Romero-Motochi, J P; Van Damme, P; Goetghebeur, P; Gheysen, G

2004-01-30

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Phylogenetic analysis of the highland papayas ( Vasconcellea) and allied genera (Caricaceae) using PCR-RFLP.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA diversity of 61 genotypes belonging to 18 Vasconcellea species, the so-called highland papayas, was studied by PCR-RFLP analysis of two non-coding cpDNA regions ( trnM- rbcL and trnK1- trnK2) and one non-coding mtDNA region ( nad4/1- nad4/2). This sample set was supplemented with six genotypes belonging to three other Caricaceae genera: the monotypic genus Carica, including only the cultivated papaya, and the genera Jacaratia and Cylicomorpha. Moringa ovalifolia was added as an outgroup species. The PCR-amplified cpDNA regions were digested with 18 restriction endonucleases, the mtDNA region with 11. A total of 22 point mutations and four insertion/deletions were scored in the sample. A higher level of interspecific variation was detected in the two cpDNA regions in comparison to the analysis of the mtDNA. Wagner parsimony and Neighbor-Joining analysis resulted in dendrograms with similar topologies. PCR-RFLP analysis supported the monophyly of Caricaceae, but among the 26 mutations scored, an insufficient number of markers discriminated between the different Caricaceae genera included in this study. Hence the inference of the intergeneric relationships within Caricaceae was impossible. However, some conclusions can be noted at a lower taxonomic level. The Caricaceae species were divided into two lineages. One group included only Vasconcellea spp., whereas the second included the remaining Vasconcellea spp., together with the papaya genotypes and those from the other Caricaceae genera. This may indicate a higher level of inter-fertility for the Vasconcellea species from the latter clade in interspecific crossings with papaya. The putative progenitors of the natural sterile hybrid V. x heilbornii, i.e. V. stipulata and V. cundinamarcensis, were only distantly related to V. x heilbornii. This indicates that probably none of these species was involved as the maternal progenitor in the origin of V. x heilbornii. Surprisingly, V. x heilbornii had organellar genome patterns identical with V. weberbaueri, suggesting a possible involvement of this species in the origin of V. x heilbornii. On the basis of discrepancy between morphological traits and the cpDNA profiles of some pairs of Vasconcellea species, we believe that besides V. x heilbornii, some other species have originated through interspecific hybridization. A reticulate evolution for Vasconcellea has therefore been suggested. Finally, intraspecific cpDNA variation was detected in V. microcarpa, thus providing molecular evidence for the high diversity previously indicated by morphological observations.

Van Droogenbroeck B; Kyndt T; Maertens I; Romeijn-Peeters E; Scheldeman X; Romero-Motochi JP; Van Damme P; Goetghebeur P; Gheysen G

2004-05-01

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COMPORTAMIENTO DE MATERIALES DE LOS GÉNEROS Carica Y Vasconcellea FRENTE A Erwinia papayae, Meloidogyne incognita Y Rotylenchulus reniformis/ REACTION OF THE GENERA Carica AND Vasconcellea MATERIALS TO Erwinia papayae, Meloidogyne incognita AND Rotylenchulus reniformis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La bacteriosis del cancro y el ataque de los nematodos constituyen graves obstáculos en la extensión del cultivo de la papaya (Carica papaya L.). El objetivo principal de este trabajo fue la selección de genotipos tanto comerciales como silvestres resistentes a los patógenos mencionados. Para la evaluación del comportamiento ante la bacteria del cancro causada por Erwinia papayae, se seleccionaron once accesiones de C. papaya, Vasconcellea goudotiana y V. cauliflora (more) y se inocularon 10 plantas de cada genotipo con una suspensión bacteriana de concentración de 10(8) UFC.mL-1. La inoculación se realizó produciendo heridas en los tallos de las plantas sanas. Los testigos se trataron de igual forma con agua destilada estéril. Para la evaluación de la resistencia a nematodos se realizaron dos experimentos; en el primero se utilizaron materiales de C. papaya y V. goudotiana, los cuales se inocularon con una población mixta de Meloidogyne incognita raza 1 y Rotylenchulus reniformis con 2000 huevos+juveniles.1000 cm-3 en suelo-arena estéril. Para el segundo experimento se usaron, además de los materiales mencionados, V. cauliflora, V. cundinamarcensis, V. microcarpa var. microcarpa, V. microcarpa var. pilifera, inoculados sólo con M. incognita raza 1 con 2500 huevos+juveniles.1000 cm-3. A las 12 semanas se calculó la población final y se midieron las siguientes variables: peso aéreo y radical fresco y seco. Los resultados del comportamiento de los genotipos frente a la bacteria determinó que V. goudotiana y V. cauliflora no se enfermaron, no así el género Carica, donde todas las plantas resultaron susceptibles, coincidiendo con la evaluación de nematodos, donde todas las accesiones de C. papaya y V. goudotiana fueron susceptibles y no tolerante al ataque de la población mixta de M. incognita raza 1 y R. reniformis, por afectarse las variables agronómicas evaluadas; mientras que la mayoría de los materiales de V. cundinamarcencis y V. microcarpa resultaron resistentes al ataque de M. incognita raza 1. Estos resultados permiten la obtención de genes de resistencias en los materiales silvestres, los cuales podrían ser incorporados a los genotipos mejorados o comerciales, y permitiría un mejor manejo de los patógenos mencionados, que resultan limitantes severos en el cultivo de papaya en Venezuela. Abstract in english The bacterial canker and the attack of nematodes are serious obstacles to the extension of Carica papaya L. crop. The main objective of this work was the selection of both commercial and wild genotypes resistant to the above mentioned pathogens. To assess the response to the bacterial canker caused by Erwinia papayae, eleven accesions of C. papaya, Vasconcellea goudotiana y V. cauliflora were selected and ten plants of each genotype were inoculated with a bacterial suspen (more) sion with a concentration of 10(8) CFU.mL-1 . The plants were inoculated by wounds on the stems of the healthy plants. The controls were similarly treated but with sterile distilled water. Two trials were carried out to evaluate the resistance to nematodes. In the first trial, materials of C. papaya and V. goudotiana were inoculated with a mixed population of Meloidogyne incognita race 1 and Rotylenchulus reniformis, with 2000 eggs+juveniles. 1000 cm-3 in sterile soil-sand. In the second trial, V. cauliflora, V. cundinamarcensis, V. microcarpa var. microcarpa and V. microcarpa var. pilifera, in addition to the genotypes previously used, were inoculated only with M. incognita race 1, with 2500 eggs+juvenils.1000 cm-3. After 12 weeks, the final population was calculated and the fresh and dried weights of the aerial parts and roots were determined. The results of the reaction of the genotypes towards the bacterium determined that V. goudotiana and V. cauliflora did not get the disease, what differed from the Carica genus, where all the plants resulted susceptible, a result that was similar to the evaluation to nematodes, where all the genotypes of C. papaya and V. goudotian

Maselli, Anna; Rosales, Ligia Carolina; Guevara, Yolanda; Suárez H, Zoraida

2010-12-01

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Moisture sorption isotherms and isosteric heat determination in Chilean papaya (Vasconcellea pubescens)  

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Full Text Available The moisture sorption isotherms of Chilean papaya were determined at 5, 20, and 45 ºC, over a relative humidity range of 10-95%. The GAB, BET, Oswin, Halsey, Henderson, Smith, Caurie and Iglesias-Chirife models were applied to the sorption experimental data. The goodness of fit of the mathematical models was statistically evaluated by means of the determination coefficient, mean relative percentage deviation, sum square error, root-mean-square error, and chi-square values. The GAB, Oswin and Halsey models were found to be the most suitable for the description of the sorption data. The sorption heats calculated using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation were 57.35 and 59.98 kJ·mol-1, for adsorption and desorption isotherms, respectively.

Antonio Vega-Gálvez; Marlene Palacios; Roberto Lemus-Mondaca; Catarina Passaro

2008-01-01

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Moisture sorption isotherms and isosteric heat determination in Chilean papaya (Vasconcellea pubescens)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The moisture sorption isotherms of Chilean papaya were determined at 5, 20, and 45 ºC, over a relative humidity range of 10-95%. The GAB, BET, Oswin, Halsey, Henderson, Smith, Caurie and Iglesias-Chirife models were applied to the sorption experimental data. The goodness of fit of the mathematical models was statistically evaluated by means of the determination coefficient, mean relative percentage deviation, sum square error, root-mean-square error, and chi-square value (more) s. The GAB, Oswin and Halsey models were found to be the most suitable for the description of the sorption data. The sorption heats calculated using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation were 57.35 and 59.98 kJ·mol-1, for adsorption and desorption isotherms, respectively.

Vega-Gálvez, Antonio; Palacios, Marlene; Lemus-Mondaca, Roberto; Passaro, Catarina

2008-01-01

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Citogenética de especies de Vasconcellea (Caricaceae)/ Cytogenetic of Vasconcellea species (Caricaceae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Conocer aspectos básicos de la citogenética de las papayas de montaña o papayuelas, especies del género Vasconcellea (Caricaceae) originarias de Ecuador y Colombia, fue el objetivo del trabajo. Botones florales se fijaron en etanol-acético 3:1 por 24h, luego se transfirieron a nueva solución y se almacenaron en frío. Los microsporocitos y los granos de polen se tiñieron con acetocarmín (1%). Se evaluaron las fases de meiosis y la viabilidad de polen para describi (more) r el comportamiento cromosómico. Se encontró que: 1) todas las seis especies estudiadas fueron diploides (2n=2x=18); 2) se describió el número cromosómico para V. sphaerocarpa, V. longiflora y V. palandensis (2n=18); 3) el grado de asimetría de los complementos cromosómicos indicó un proceso de evolución; 4) la presencia de numerosos NOR en V. sphaerocarpa está relacionada con los micronucleolos y corroboró el posible origen híbrido; y 5) V. cauliflora (42.98%) y V. cundinamarcensis (47.93%) presentaron la más baja viabilidad polínica. Abstract in english This work aims to know basic aspects of cytogenetics of mountain papayas' or 'papayuelas', Vasconcellea species (Caricaceae), originated from Ecuador and Colombia. Flower buds were fixed in 3:1 acetic-alcohol solution for 24 hr, transferred to new solution and stored al low temperature. Both microsporocytes and pollen grains were stained with 1% acetic carmine. Meiosis phases and pollen viability were evaluated to describe chromosome behavior. We found that: 1) all tested (more) species were diploid (2n=2x=18); 2) chromosome number of V. sphaerocarpa, V. longiflora and V. palandensis (2n=18) were by first time reported; 3) asymmetry level of chromosome complements indicated a evolution process in these species; 4) presence of numerous NOR in V. sphaerocarpa associated to micronucleoli corroborated its possible hybrid origin; and 5) V. cauliflora (42.98%) and V. cundinamarcensis (47.93%) presented the low percentage of pollen viability.

Caetano, Creucí Maria; Lagos Burbano, Túlio César; Sandoval Sierra, Claudia Lorena; Posada Tique, César Augusto; Caetano Nunes, Diego Geraldo

2008-12-01

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Citogenética de especies de Vasconcellea (Caricaceae) Cytogenetic of Vasconcellea species (Caricaceae)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Conocer aspectos básicos de la citogenética de las papayas de montaña o papayuelas, especies del género Vasconcellea (Caricaceae) originarias de Ecuador y Colombia, fue el objetivo del trabajo. Botones florales se fijaron en etanol-acético 3:1 por 24h, luego se transfirieron a nueva solución y se almacenaron en frío. Los microsporocitos y los granos de polen se tiñieron con acetocarmín (1%). Se evaluaron las fases de meiosis y la viabilidad de polen para describir el comportamiento cromosómico. Se encontró que: 1) todas las seis especies estudiadas fueron diploides (2n=2x=18); 2) se describió el número cromosómico para V. sphaerocarpa, V. longiflora y V. palandensis (2n=18); 3) el grado de asimetría de los complementos cromosómicos indicó un proceso de evolución; 4) la presencia de numerosos NOR en V. sphaerocarpa está relacionada con los micronucleolos y corroboró el posible origen híbrido; y 5) V. cauliflora (42.98%) y V. cundinamarcensis (47.93%) presentaron la más baja viabilidad polínica.This work aims to know basic aspects of cytogenetics of mountain papayas' or 'papayuelas', Vasconcellea species (Caricaceae), originated from Ecuador and Colombia. Flower buds were fixed in 3:1 acetic-alcohol solution for 24 hr, transferred to new solution and stored al low temperature. Both microsporocytes and pollen grains were stained with 1% acetic carmine. Meiosis phases and pollen viability were evaluated to describe chromosome behavior. We found that: 1) all tested species were diploid (2n=2x=18); 2) chromosome number of V. sphaerocarpa, V. longiflora and V. palandensis (2n=18) were by first time reported; 3) asymmetry level of chromosome complements indicated a evolution process in these species; 4) presence of numerous NOR in V. sphaerocarpa associated to micronucleoli corroborated its possible hybrid origin; and 5) V. cauliflora (42.98%) and V. cundinamarcensis (47.93%) presented the low percentage of pollen viability.

Creucí Maria Caetano; Túlio César Lagos Burbano; Claudia Lorena Sandoval Sierra; César Augusto Posada Tique; Diego Geraldo Caetano Nunes

2008-01-01

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Citogenética de especies de Vasconcellea (Caricaceae)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Conocer aspectos básicos de la citogenética de las papayas de montaña o papayuelas, especies del género Vasconcellea (Caricaceae) originarias de Ecuador y Colombia, fue el objetivo del trabajo. Botones florales se fijaron en etanol-acético 3:1 por 24h, luego se transfirieron a nueva solución y se almacenaron en frío. Los microsporocitos y los granos de polen se tiñieron con acetocarmín (1%). Se evaluaron las fases de meiosis y la viabilidad de polen para describir el comportamiento cromosómico. Se encontró que: 1) todas las seis especies estudiadas fueron diploides (2n=2x=18); 2) se describió el número cromosómico para V. sphaerocarpa, V. longiflora y V. palandensis (2n=18); 3) el grado de asimetría de los complementos cromosómicos indicó un proceso de evolución; 4) la presencia de numerosos NOR en V. sphaerocarpa está relacionada con los micronucleolos y corroboró el posible origen híbrido; y 5) V. cauliflora (42.98%) y V. cundinamarcensis (47.93%) presentaron la más baja viabilidad polínica.

Caetano Creucí María; Lagos Burbano Túlio César; Sandoval Sierra Claudia Lorena; Posada Tique César Augusto; Caetano Nunes Diego Feraldo

2008-01-01

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Rapid divergence and expansion of the X chromosome in papaya.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

X chromosomes have long been thought to conserve the structure and gene content of the ancestral autosome from which the sex chromosomes evolved. We compared the recently evolved papaya sex chromosomes with a homologous autosome of a close relative, the monoecious Vasconcellea monoica, to infer changes since recombination stopped between the papaya sex chromosomes. We sequenced 12 V. monoica bacterial artificial chromosomes, 11 corresponding to the papaya X-specific region, and 1 to a papaya autosomal region. The combined V. monoica X-orthologous sequences are much shorter (1.10 Mb) than the corresponding papaya region (2.56 Mb). Given that the V. monoica genome is 41% larger than that of papaya, this finding suggests considerable expansion of the papaya X; expansion is supported by a higher repetitive sequence content of the X compared with the papaya autosomal sequence. The alignable regions include 27 transcript-encoding sequences, only 6 of which are functional X/V. monoica gene pairs. Sequence divergence from the V. monoica orthologs is almost identical for papaya X and Y alleles; the Carica-Vasconcellea split therefore occurred before the papaya sex chromosomes stopped recombining, making V. monoica a suitable outgroup for inferring changes in papaya sex chromosomes. The papaya X and the hermaphrodite-specific region of the Y(h) chromosome and V. monoica have all gained and lost genes, including a surprising amount of changes in the X.

Gschwend AR; Yu Q; Tong EJ; Zeng F; Han J; VanBuren R; Aryal R; Charlesworth D; Moore PH; Paterson AH; Ming R

2012-08-01

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A dated phylogeny of the papaya family (Caricaceae) reveals the crop's closest relatives and the family's biogeographic history.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Papaya (Carica papaya) is a crop of great economic importance, and the species was among the first plants to have its genome sequenced. However, there has never been a complete species-level phylogeny for the Caricaceae, and the crop's closest relatives are therefore unknown. We investigated the evolution of the Caricaceae based on sequences from all species and genera, the monospecific Carica, African Cylicomorpha with two species, South American Jacaratia and Vasconcellea with together c. 28 species, and Mexican/Guatemalan Jarilla and Horovitzia with four species. Most Caricaceae are trees or shrubs; the species of Jarilla, however, are herbaceous. We generated a matrix of 4711 nuclear and plastid DNA characters and used maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian analysis to infer species relationships, rooting trees on the Moringaceae. Divergence times were estimated under relaxed and strict molecular clocks, using different subsets of the data. Ancestral area reconstruction relied on a ML approach. The deepest split in the Caricaceae occurred during the Late Eocene, when the ancestor of the Neotropical clade arrived from Africa. In South America, major diversification events coincide with the Miocene northern Andean uplift and the initial phase of the tectonic collision between South America and Panama resulting in the Panamanian land bridge. Carica papaya is sister to Jarilla/Horovitzia, and all three diverged from South American Caricaceae in the Oligocene, 27 (22-33) Ma ago, coincident with the early stages of the formation of the Panamanian Isthmus. The discovery that C. papaya is closest to a clade of herbaceous or thin-stemmed species has implications for plant breeders who have so far tried to cross papaya only with woody highland papayas (Vasconcellea).

Carvalho FA; Renner SS

2012-10-01

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A dated phylogeny of the papaya family (Caricaceae) reveals the crop's closest relatives and the family's biogeographic history.  

Science.gov (United States)

Papaya (Carica papaya) is a crop of great economic importance, and the species was among the first plants to have its genome sequenced. However, there has never been a complete species-level phylogeny for the Caricaceae, and the crop's closest relatives are therefore unknown. We investigated the evolution of the Caricaceae based on sequences from all species and genera, the monospecific Carica, African Cylicomorpha with two species, South American Jacaratia and Vasconcellea with together c. 28 species, and Mexican/Guatemalan Jarilla and Horovitzia with four species. Most Caricaceae are trees or shrubs; the species of Jarilla, however, are herbaceous. We generated a matrix of 4711 nuclear and plastid DNA characters and used maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian analysis to infer species relationships, rooting trees on the Moringaceae. Divergence times were estimated under relaxed and strict molecular clocks, using different subsets of the data. Ancestral area reconstruction relied on a ML approach. The deepest split in the Caricaceae occurred during the Late Eocene, when the ancestor of the Neotropical clade arrived from Africa. In South America, major diversification events coincide with the Miocene northern Andean uplift and the initial phase of the tectonic collision between South America and Panama resulting in the Panamanian land bridge. Carica papaya is sister to Jarilla/Horovitzia, and all three diverged from South American Caricaceae in the Oligocene, 27 (22-33) Ma ago, coincident with the early stages of the formation of the Panamanian Isthmus. The discovery that C. papaya is closest to a clade of herbaceous or thin-stemmed species has implications for plant breeders who have so far tried to cross papaya only with woody highland papayas (Vasconcellea). PMID:22659516

Carvalho, Fernanda Antunes; Renner, Susanne S

2012-05-31

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NOTE - ISSR markers for genetic relationships in Caricaceae and sex differentiation in papaya  

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Full Text Available ISSR markers are polymorphic and their results easily reproducible. They are therefore intensely used in phylogeneticstudies and sex differentiation of some economically interesting plant species. The objectives of this study were to analyze the geneticdiversity in Caricaceae using ISSR markers, to identify a specific ISSR band that could distinguish female from hermaphroditepapaya genotypes and to verify whether this marker could be used for early sex differentiation. The ISSR-PCR was performed withnine primers and they could distinguish all species. It was observed that Jacaratia spinosa was closer to Vasconcellea than toCarica. The species C. papaya was only distantly related to both genera. A 500 bp ISSR marker was found in 25 % of the papayagenotypes studied. Specifically in these cases this marker could be used for early sex differentiation in papaya.

Fabiane Rabelo da Costa; Telma Nair Santana Pereira; Ana Paula Candido Gabriel; Messias Gonzaga Pereira

2011-01-01

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Biochemical characterization of VQ-VII, a cysteine peptidase with broad specificity, isolated from Vasconcellea quercifolia latex.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The latex from Vasconcellea quercifolia ("oak leaved papaya"), a member of the Caricaceae family, contains at least seven cysteine endopeptidases with high proteolytic activity, which helps to protect these plants against injury. In this study, we isolated and characterized the most basic of these cysteine endopeptidases, named VQ-VII. This new purified enzyme was homogeneous by bidimensional electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, and exhibited a molecular mass of 23,984 Da and an isoelectric point >11. The enzymatic activity of VQ-VII was completely inhibited by E-64 and iodoacetic acid, confirming that it belongs to the catalytic group of cysteine endopeptidases. By investigating the cleavage of the oxidized insulin B-chain to establish the hydrolytic specificity of VQ-VII, we found 13 cleavage sites on the substrate, revealing that it is a broad-specificity peptidase. The pH profiles toward p-Glu-Phe-Leu-p-nitroanilide (PFLNA) and casein showed that the optimum pH is about 6.8 for both substrates, and that in casein, it is active over a wide pH range (activity higher than 80 % between pH 6 and 9.5). Kinetic enzymatic assays were performed with the thiol peptidase substrate PFLNA (K m = 0.454 ± 0.046 mM, k cat = 1.57 ± 0.07 s(-1), k cat/K m = 3.46 × 10(3) ± 14 s(-1) M(-1)). The N-terminal sequence (21 amino acids) of VQ-VII showed an identity >70 % with 11 plant cysteine peptidases and the presence of highly conserved residues and motifs shared with the "papain-like" family of peptidases. VQ-VII proved to be a new latex enzyme of broad specificity, which can degrade extensively proteins of different nature in a wide pH range.

Torres MJ; Trejo SA; Natalucci CL; López LM

2013-06-01

17

Biochemical characterization of VQ-VII, a cysteine peptidase with broad specificity, isolated from Vasconcellea quercifolia latex.  

Science.gov (United States)

The latex from Vasconcellea quercifolia ("oak leaved papaya"), a member of the Caricaceae family, contains at least seven cysteine endopeptidases with high proteolytic activity, which helps to protect these plants against injury. In this study, we isolated and characterized the most basic of these cysteine endopeptidases, named VQ-VII. This new purified enzyme was homogeneous by bidimensional electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, and exhibited a molecular mass of 23,984 Da and an isoelectric point >11. The enzymatic activity of VQ-VII was completely inhibited by E-64 and iodoacetic acid, confirming that it belongs to the catalytic group of cysteine endopeptidases. By investigating the cleavage of the oxidized insulin B-chain to establish the hydrolytic specificity of VQ-VII, we found 13 cleavage sites on the substrate, revealing that it is a broad-specificity peptidase. The pH profiles toward p-Glu-Phe-Leu-p-nitroanilide (PFLNA) and casein showed that the optimum pH is about 6.8 for both substrates, and that in casein, it is active over a wide pH range (activity higher than 80 % between pH 6 and 9.5). Kinetic enzymatic assays were performed with the thiol peptidase substrate PFLNA (K m = 0.454 ± 0.046 mM, k cat = 1.57 ± 0.07 s(-1), k cat/K m = 3.46 × 10(3) ± 14 s(-1) M(-1)). The N-terminal sequence (21 amino acids) of VQ-VII showed an identity >70 % with 11 plant cysteine peptidases and the presence of highly conserved residues and motifs shared with the "papain-like" family of peptidases. VQ-VII proved to be a new latex enzyme of broad specificity, which can degrade extensively proteins of different nature in a wide pH range. PMID:23568402

Torres, María José; Trejo, Sebastián Alejandro; Natalucci, Claudia Luisa; López, Laura María Isabel

2013-04-09

18

Identification of a putative triacylglycerol lipase from papaya latex by functional proteomics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Latex from Caricaceae has been known since 1925 to contain strong lipase activity. However, attempts to purify and identify the enzyme were not successful, mainly because of the lack of solubility of the enzyme. Here, we describe the characterization of lipase activity of the latex of Vasconcellea heilbornii and the identification of a putative homologous lipase from Carica papaya. Triacylglycerol lipase activity was enriched 74-fold from crude latex of Vasconcellea heilbornii to a specific activity (SA) of 57 ?mol·min(-1)·mg(-1) on long-chain triacylglycerol (olive oil). The extract was also active on trioctanoin (SA = 655 ?mol·min(-1)·mg(-1) ), tributyrin (SA = 1107 ?mol·min(-1)·mg(-1) ) and phosphatidylcholine (SA = 923 ?mol·min(-1)·mg(-1) ). The optimum pH ranged from 8.0 to 9.0. The protein content of the insoluble fraction of latex was analyzed by electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry, and 28 different proteins were identified. The protein fraction was incubated with the lipase inhibitor [(14) C]tetrahydrolipstatin, and a 45 kDa protein radiolabeled by the inhibitor was identified as being a putative lipase. A C. papaya cDNA encoding a 55 kDa protein was further cloned, and its deduced sequence had 83.7% similarity with peptides from the 45 kDa protein, with a coverage of 25.6%. The protein encoded by this cDNA had 35% sequence identity and 51% similarity to castor bean acid lipase, suggesting that it is the lipase responsible for the important lipolytic activities detected in papaya latex. PMID:21114629

Dhouib, R; Laroche-Traineau, J; Shaha, R; Lapaillerie, D; Solier, E; Rualès, J; Pina, M; Villeneuve, P; Carrière, F; Bonneu, M; Arondel, V

2010-11-29

19

Identification of a putative triacylglycerol lipase from papaya latex by functional proteomics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Latex from Caricaceae has been known since 1925 to contain strong lipase activity. However, attempts to purify and identify the enzyme were not successful, mainly because of the lack of solubility of the enzyme. Here, we describe the characterization of lipase activity of the latex of Vasconcellea heilbornii and the identification of a putative homologous lipase from Carica papaya. Triacylglycerol lipase activity was enriched 74-fold from crude latex of Vasconcellea heilbornii to a specific activity (SA) of 57 ?mol·min(-1)·mg(-1) on long-chain triacylglycerol (olive oil). The extract was also active on trioctanoin (SA = 655 ?mol·min(-1)·mg(-1) ), tributyrin (SA = 1107 ?mol·min(-1)·mg(-1) ) and phosphatidylcholine (SA = 923 ?mol·min(-1)·mg(-1) ). The optimum pH ranged from 8.0 to 9.0. The protein content of the insoluble fraction of latex was analyzed by electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry, and 28 different proteins were identified. The protein fraction was incubated with the lipase inhibitor [(14) C]tetrahydrolipstatin, and a 45 kDa protein radiolabeled by the inhibitor was identified as being a putative lipase. A C. papaya cDNA encoding a 55 kDa protein was further cloned, and its deduced sequence had 83.7% similarity with peptides from the 45 kDa protein, with a coverage of 25.6%. The protein encoded by this cDNA had 35% sequence identity and 51% similarity to castor bean acid lipase, suggesting that it is the lipase responsible for the important lipolytic activities detected in papaya latex.

Dhouib R; Laroche-Traineau J; Shaha R; Lapaillerie D; Solier E; Rualès J; Pina M; Villeneuve P; Carrière F; Bonneu M; Arondel V

2011-01-01

20

Cross-species microsatellite amplification in Vasconcellea and related genera and their use in germplasm classification.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To generate inexpensive and efficient DNA markers for addressing a number of population genetics problems and identification of wild hybrids in Vasconcellea, we have evaluated the use of simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers previously developed for other species. A set of 103 Vasconcellea accessions and some individuals of the related genera Carica and Jacaratia were analyzed with 10 primer pairs directing amplification of chloroplast microsatellites in Nicotiana tabacum and 9 nuclear SSR primer pairs recently identified in Vasconcellea x heilbornii. Heterologous amplification of chloroplast SSRs was successful for 8 of the 10 loci, of which 6 showed polymorphism. Seven of the 9 nuclear SSR primer pairs were useful in Vasconcellea and often also in Jacaratia and Carica, all revealing polymorphism. Exclusive haplotypes for each described taxon were identified based on chloroplast microsatellite data. Clustering based on separate nuclear and chloroplast data resulted in a clear grouping per taxon, but only low resolution was obtained above species level. The codominancy of nuclear SSRs and the general high polymorphism rate of SSR markers will make them more useful in future population genetics studies and diversity assessment in conservation programs.

Kyndt T; Droogenbroeck BV; Haegeman A; Roldán-Ruiz I; Gheysen G

2006-07-01

 
 
 
 
21

Cross-species microsatellite amplification in Vasconcellea and related genera and their use in germplasm classification.  

Science.gov (United States)

To generate inexpensive and efficient DNA markers for addressing a number of population genetics problems and identification of wild hybrids in Vasconcellea, we have evaluated the use of simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers previously developed for other species. A set of 103 Vasconcellea accessions and some individuals of the related genera Carica and Jacaratia were analyzed with 10 primer pairs directing amplification of chloroplast microsatellites in Nicotiana tabacum and 9 nuclear SSR primer pairs recently identified in Vasconcellea x heilbornii. Heterologous amplification of chloroplast SSRs was successful for 8 of the 10 loci, of which 6 showed polymorphism. Seven of the 9 nuclear SSR primer pairs were useful in Vasconcellea and often also in Jacaratia and Carica, all revealing polymorphism. Exclusive haplotypes for each described taxon were identified based on chloroplast microsatellite data. Clustering based on separate nuclear and chloroplast data resulted in a clear grouping per taxon, but only low resolution was obtained above species level. The codominancy of nuclear SSRs and the general high polymorphism rate of SSR markers will make them more useful in future population genetics studies and diversity assessment in conservation programs. PMID:16936787

Kyndt, T; Droogenbroeck, B Van; Haegeman, A; Roldán-Ruiz, I; Gheysen, G

2006-07-01

22

ISSR markers for genetic relationships in Caricaceae and sex differentiation in papaya/ Marcadores ISSR nas relações genéticas em Cariaceae e na identificação sexual do mamoeiro  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Os marcadores ISSR apresentam amplo polimorfismo e alta reprodutibilidade de resultados, o que tem intensificado seu uso em estudos filogenéticos e na diferenciação sexual de algumas espécies de interesse econômico. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram analisar a divergência genética em Caricaceae utilizando-se marcadores ISSR, identificar uma marca capaz de diferenciar plantas hermafroditas e femininas em mamoeiro e verificar se este marcador pode ser utilizado na se (more) xagem precoce de diferentes genótipos da espécie. O estudo foi conduzido com nove primers, os quais foram capazes de distinguir todas as espécies. Observou-se que Jacaratia spinosa ficou mais próxima de Vasconcellea do que de Carica. A espécie C. papaya mostrou-se geneticamente distante de ambos os gêneros. Verificou-se ainda a presença de um fragmento ISSR de 500 pb em 25 % dos genótipos de mamoeiro estudados, podendo ser usado para auxiliar a sexagem precoce do mamoeiro especificamente nesses casos. Abstract in english ISSR markers are polymorphic and their results easily reproducible. They are therefore intensely used in phylogenetic studies and sex differentiation of some economically interesting plant species. The objectives of this study were to analyze the genetic diversity in Caricaceae using ISSR markers, to identify a specific ISSR band that could distinguish female from hermaphrodite papaya genotypes and to verify whether this marker could be used for early sex differentiation. (more) The ISSR-PCR was performed with nine primers and they could distinguish all species. It was observed that Jacaratia spinosa was closer to Vasconcellea than to Carica. The species C. papaya was only distantly related to both genera. A 500 bp ISSR marker was found in 25 % of the papaya genotypes studied. Specifically in these cases this marker could be used for early sex differentiation in papaya.

Costa, Fabiane Rabelo da; Pereira, Telma Nair Santana; Gabriel, Ana Paula Candido; Pereira, Messias Gonzaga

2011-12-01

23

Quarantine System for Papaya.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel system to ensure that papaya are free of fruit flies so as to meet quarantine restrictions is described. Papaya are subjected to selection on the basis of color in combination with a two-stage heated fluid treatment wherein time and temperature of...

H. M. Couey C. F. Hayes

1985-01-01

24

Áreas potenciales para colectas del Género Vasconcellea Badillo en Venezuela/ Potential areas for collecting the Vasconcellea Badillo genus in Venezuela  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish En Venezuela, dentro de la familia Caricaceae, se han reportado las especies silvestres Vasconcellea. cundinamarcensis Badillo, V. cauliflora (Jacq.) A. DC, V. microcarpa subsp microcarpa (Jacq.) A DC. y V. microcarpa subsp pilifera (V. M. Badillo) V. M. Badillo (endémica de los andes en los estados Mérida y Lara). La especie V. cundinamarcensis representa un material promisorio de importancia comercial local en los estados andinos y V. cauliflora está señalada como u (more) n material resistente a virus, con gran potencial para usos en mejoramiento. El presente trabajo fue elaborado para determinar las áreas geográficas potenciales para colectas de las especies de este género. Con datos recopilados tanto de herbarios como de nuevos puntos de colectas realizadas en el país se elaboró una base de datos que posteriormente fue analizada utilizando el programa FloraMap v 1.1, 2001. Los resultados permitieron observar que las especies V. cauliflora y V. microcarpa tienen probablemente una amplia distribución en el país, mientras que la especie V. cundinamarcensis estaría limitada a la región alta andina. Abstract in english In Venezuela the following wild species of Caricaceae have been reported: V. cundinamarcensis Badillo, V. cauliflora (Jacq.) A. DC., V. microcarpa subsp microcarpa (Jacq.) A. DC and V. microcarpa subsp pilifera (V.M. Badillo) V.M. Badillo (endemic of the Andean of Mérida and Lara States). V. cundinamarcensis represents a promissory material with local commercial importance in the Andean states while V. cauliflora has been indicated as a resistant to virus material, with (more) great potential for plant breeding. The objective of this paper was to determine potential areas for collects of these species. With information compiled from herbarium and from new collects realized in the country, a database was elaborated, and later they were analyzed using the software FloraMap v. 1.1 2001. The results showed that the species V. cauliflora and V. microcarpa probably have a wide distribution in the country, whereas V. cundinamarcensis would be limited to the high Andean region.

Rodríguez, Dilia; Marín, Carlos; Quecan, Hernando; Ortiz, Rafael

2005-01-01

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Industrializacion de la Papaya (Industrialization of the Papaya).  

Science.gov (United States)

The origin, characteristics, types, maturation, storage, and zones of production of the papaya are presented and the preservation and utilization are described. Tables indicating the proportions of papaya to other fruits in canned production are given. An...

L. L. Orellana

1974-01-01

26

BASKETFUL BENEFITS OF PAPAYA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Papaya (Carica papaya linn) is well known for its exceptional nutritional and medicinal properties throughout the world. From the times immemorial, the whole Papaya plant including its leaves, seeds, ripe and unripe fruits and their juice is used as a traditional medicine. The fruit has a large oval shape, yellowish-green skin and yellow flesh. Nowadays, Papaya is considered as a Nutraceutical fruit due to its multi-faceted medicinal properties. The prominent medicinal properties of Papaya include Anti-fertility, Uterotonic, Diuretic, Anti-hypertensive, Hypolipidemic, Anti-helmintic, Wound-healing, Anti-fungal, Anti-bacterial, Anti-tumor and Free radical scavenging activities. Phytochemically, the whole plant contains enzymes (Papain), carotenoids, alkaloids, monoterpenoids, flavonoids, minerals and vitamins. In the present review article, a humble attempt is made to compile all the strange facts available about this tasty fruit. This tasty fruit of Papaya is popular among family members of all ages for the delicious dishes derived from it.

Parle Milind; Gurditta

2011-01-01

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Post-irradiation identification of papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit  

Science.gov (United States)

Impact of radiation processing on the volatile essential oil profile of papaya (Carica papaya) was investigated. Gamma-radiation processing resulted in the appearance of a new peak in the GLC profile that was identified as phenol. The observed dose dependent increase in phenol content suggested possible use of this compound as a marker for radiation processed papaya.

Chatterjee, Suchandra; Variyar, Prasad S.; Sharma, Arun

2012-03-01

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Características Físico-Químicas del Látex de Papayuelo (Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis Badillo, Caricaceae)/ Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Papayuelo Latex (Vasconcellea Cundinamarcensis Badillo, Caricaceae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se determinó el rendimiento y la actividad enzimática de la papaína presente en el látex de papayuelo (Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis), cultivado en Cobquecura, VIII región del Bío-Bío, Chile, durante un año. Entre enero y diciembre, las plantas, frutos y látex, obtenidos de frutos inmaduros, fueron caracterizados con el propósito de conocer el comportamiento del cultivo a través de las estaciones del año, y comprender las posibles relaciones entre los parámet (more) ros estudiados. El diseño experimental fue completamente aleatorio y los datos se procesaron mediante un ANDEVA y prueba de rangos múltiples de Duncan. Se encontró diferencia estadística significativa entre estaciones en cuanto al desarrollo de la planta y sus características. Los mayores rendimientos de látex se obtuvieron en la estación de primavera, mientras que la actividad enzimática se mantuvo constante durante el año de estudio. Abstract in english A study to determine the yield and enzymatic activity of papain present in the latex obtained from papayuelo fruit (Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis ) cultivated in Cobquecura, VIII Bío-Bío Region in Chile, during one year was done. Between January and December the papayuelo plants, fruits and latex obtained from unripe fruits were characterized. The objective of the study was to know the species behavior through the seasons and the relation between the parameters studied. (more) The experimental design was completely random, and the data were processed through ANOVA and Duncan?s multiple range test. A significant statistical difference in plant growth and plan characteristics between seasons was found. The higher latex yields were obtained in spring, whereas the enzymatic activity was constant through the year.

Vidal, Leslie V; Finot, Víctor L; Mora, Karina del C; Venegas, Fernando A

2009-01-01

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Características Físico-Químicas del Látex de Papayuelo (Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis Badillo, Caricaceae) Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Papayuelo Latex (Vasconcellea Cundinamarcensis Badillo, Caricaceae)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se determinó el rendimiento y la actividad enzimática de la papaína presente en el látex de papayuelo (Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis), cultivado en Cobquecura, VIII región del Bío-Bío, Chile, durante un año. Entre enero y diciembre, las plantas, frutos y látex, obtenidos de frutos inmaduros, fueron caracterizados con el propósito de conocer el comportamiento del cultivo a través de las estaciones del año, y comprender las posibles relaciones entre los parámetros estudiados. El diseño experimental fue completamente aleatorio y los datos se procesaron mediante un ANDEVA y prueba de rangos múltiples de Duncan. Se encontró diferencia estadística significativa entre estaciones en cuanto al desarrollo de la planta y sus características. Los mayores rendimientos de látex se obtuvieron en la estación de primavera, mientras que la actividad enzimática se mantuvo constante durante el año de estudio.A study to determine the yield and enzymatic activity of papain present in the latex obtained from papayuelo fruit (Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis ) cultivated in Cobquecura, VIII Bío-Bío Region in Chile, during one year was done. Between January and December the papayuelo plants, fruits and latex obtained from unripe fruits were characterized. The objective of the study was to know the species behavior through the seasons and the relation between the parameters studied. The experimental design was completely random, and the data were processed through ANOVA and Duncan’s multiple range test. A significant statistical difference in plant growth and plan characteristics between seasons was found. The higher latex yields were obtained in spring, whereas the enzymatic activity was constant through the year.

Leslie V Vidal; Víctor L Finot; Karina del C Mora; Fernando A Venegas

2009-01-01

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In vitro morphogenic responses of Vasconcellea chilensis Planch. ex A. DC (Caricaceae)/ Respuestas morfogenéticas in vitro de Vasconcellea chilensis Planch. ex A. DC (Caricaceae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La formación de brotes múltiples bajo condiciones in vitro pudo ser inducida en secciones nodales de plantas adultas de "palo gordo" Vasconcellea chilensis ex Carica chilensis, mediante el uso de altos niveles de tidiazuron (TDZ), ácido indolacético (AIA) y en presencia de addenda orgánica (hidrolizado enzimático de caseína, sulfato de adenina y cisteína) incluidas en el medio nutritivo "WPM". Dichos brotes se iniciaron sincrónicamente, en forma de agregados comp (more) actos y/o en hileras, sobre la superficie del explante. En subcultivo, los brotes evidenciaron elongación tornando a color verde, con iniciación de nuevos brotes desde la base y, a pesar de la presencia de ácido indolbutírico (AIB) como única hormona, no desarrollaron raíces. Otros explantes ensayados, tales como pecíolos, no evidenciaron respuesta. Solo secciones de hojas iniciaron la formación de una estructura compacta o callo a nivel de la nervadura principal transcurridas 4-5 semanas, tornándose pardo luego y con posterior muerte tisular Abstract in english Multiple shoot formation was induced in vitro on nodal sections excised from adult "palo gordo" plants of Vasconcellea chilensis ex Carica chilensis, in the presence of relatively high levels of thidiazuron (TDZ), indole-3- acetic acid (IAA) and organic addenda included in the WPM formulation including casein hydrolysate, adenine sulfate and cystein. Multiple shoots appeared simultaneously in strands or clusters on the surface of the explants; usually two or more clusters (more) with new shoots were initiated, all showing synchronous growth. In subculture, in the presence of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) as single hormone, root formation did not take place; the shoots turned green instead, evidenced elongation and development of new shoots at the base of the explants. Other explants, such as petioles and leaf sections exhibited callus initiation upon the vascular system after 4-5 weeks; however, this tissue turned brown later on and died

Jordan Z, Miguel

2011-12-01

31

Post-irradiation identification of papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Impact of radiation processing on the volatile essential oil profile of papaya (Carica papaya) was investigated. Gamma-radiation processing resulted in the appearance of a new peak in the GLC profile that was identified as phenol. The observed dose dependent increase in phenol content suggested possible use of this compound as a marker for radiation processed papaya. - Highlights: ? Effect of ?-irradiation on the essential oil profile of papaya is demonstrated. ? ?-Irradiation resulted in a dose dependent increase in a new peak, phenol. ? Phenol formed in the volatile oil is proposed as a new marker of irradiated food. ? Content of phenol remained unchanged during the entire storage period.

2012-01-01

32

Biogasification of papaya processing wastes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Biogasification of papaya processing wastes for pollution control and energy utilization is feasible. The biogasification process with sludge recycling permits smaller reactor volume without any deterioration of CH4 production rate and CH4 content. Appropriate design and operational criteria for biogasification processing of papaya wastes were developed.

Yang, P.Y.; Weitzenhoff, M.H.; Moy, J.H.

1984-01-01

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Digital Transcriptome Analysis of Putative Sex-Determination Genes in Papaya (Carica papaya)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Papaya (Carica papaya) is a trioecious plant species that has male, female and hermaphrodite flowers on different plants. The primitive sex chromosomes genetically determine the sex of the papaya. Although draft sequences of the papaya genome are already available, the genes for sex determination ha...

Urasaki, Naoya; Tarora, Kazuhiko; Shudo, Ayano; Ueno, Hiroki; Tamaki, Moritoshi; Miyagi, Norimichi; Adaniya, Shinichi

34

Casa Chilena 1: Rancagua, Chile  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Los nogales crecidos a los cuales se les ha dejado en paz, la negación del exterior gracias a una tapia perimetral pintada a la cal, un patio interior con posibilidades de ser cubierto por una sombra simple de membrana agrícola anclada a sus muros, un estar familiar austero con síntomas de exterior desplegado a todo lo largo del patio, un cielo de madera en bruto pintada y los dormitorios de colores fuertes, recuerdan de una u otra manera, las casas de inquilinos del campo chileno. En la Casa Chilena 2, se acentúa la negación del exterior y el patio interior se parte en dos generando exteriores matizados.The grown walnut trees left in peace, the negation of the exterior thanks to a whitewashed perimeter wall, an interior patio with the possibility of being covered by the simple shade of an agricultural screen anchored to its walls, an austere, family living room with exterior characteristics unfolding along the patio, a rough, painted wood ceiling and bedrooms in strong colors, remind one of the Inquilino houses of the Chilean countryside. In the Chilean House 2, the negation of the exterior is accentuated and the interior patio divides in two to generate blended exteriors.

Smiljan Radic

2010-01-01

35

75 FR 22207 - Importation of Papayas From Colombia and Ecuador  

Science.gov (United States)

...Importation of Papayas From Colombia and Ecuador AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection...shipments of fresh papayas from Colombia and Ecuador into the continental United States. The...importation of papayas from Colombia and Ecuador include requirements for field...

2010-04-28

36

Ocorrência de Ovulariopsis papayae Bijl em folhas de mamoeiro Occurrence of Ovulariopsis papayae Bijl in papaya leaves  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available É citada pela primeira vez, em nossas condições, a ocorrência de oídio causado por Ovulariopsis papayae Bijl em folhas de mamoeiro (Cacica papaya L.). São descritas a sintomatologia, as características morfológicas do patógeno e o teste de patogenicidade.The occurrence causing powdery mildew in papaya leaves was observed for the first time in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The symptomatology and the morphological characteristics of the pathogen were described and the pathogenicity was comproved.

Ivan José Antunes Ribeiro; Lucia Helena Signori Melo de Castro; Maria Teresa de Toledo Rica; Coleis de Toledo Piza Junior

1988-01-01

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Managing papaya ringspot virus: Impact of grass barriers on alate aphid immigration into papaya orchards  

Science.gov (United States)

Papaya ringspot virus, transmitted by alate aphids, is the most limiting factor of papaya production in the Caribbean region. Although there are transgenic papaya varieties that provide protection from this virus, these varieties are effective only in certain regions against certain strains of the v...

38

Physical-chemical analyses of irradiated papayas (Carica papaya L.)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Papaya is cultivated in Espirito Santo State/Brazil and as it stands up to irradiation, it is important to validate this technology, since it is already being applied in some countries. Penetration energy, ratio (relation between soluble solids and titrable acidity) and skin color were evaluated to verify the influence of four different doses of irradiation (0.0, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.00 kGy) on papayas, during 21 days. As a result for the skin color and the penetration energy, it was found that in the first days after irradiation, these variables increased with increase in radiation dose; however, after a time lapse, the tendency inverted and the irradiated fruits had a slower ripening process. For the ratio, a very important variable that it is responsible for the fruit taste, no difference was found between irradiated and the control fruit. Color and texture measurements are dependent on the storage temperature.

Camargo, R.J. [Radiation Technology Center, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Lineu Prestes, 2242, 05508-900, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Tadini, C.C. [Chemical Engineering Department, Escola Politecnica, Sao Paulo University, P.O. Box 61548, 05424-970, SP (Brazil); Sabato, S.F. [Radiation Technology Center, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Lineu Prestes, 2242, 05508-900, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: sfsabato@ipen.br

2007-11-15

39

Physical-chemical analyses of irradiated papayas (Carica papaya L.)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Papaya is cultivated in Espirito Santo State/Brazil and as it stands up to irradiation, it is important to validate this technology, since it is already being applied in some countries. Penetration energy, ratio (relation between soluble solids and titrable acidity) and skin color were evaluated to verify the influence of four different doses of irradiation (0.0, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.00 kGy) on papayas, during 21 days. As a result for the skin color and the penetration energy, it was found that in the first days after irradiation, these variables increased with increase in radiation dose; however, after a time lapse, the tendency inverted and the irradiated fruits had a slower ripening process. For the ratio, a very important variable that it is responsible for the fruit taste, no difference was found between irradiated and the control fruit. Color and texture measurements are dependent on the storage temperature

2007-01-01

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Induction of somatic embryogenesis in Papaya (Carica papaya)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study highlights the induction of somatic embryogenesis using immaturezygotic embryos of Carica papaya commercial varieties viz. Coorg Honey dew, Washington,Honey dew, Pusa delicious, Pusa nanha, Taiwan 786, Taiwan 785, Sunrise, Solo, Co-1, C0-7,and Co-3 respectively. Somatic embryos formed in the presence of thidiazuron (TDZ) incombination with 2, 4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2, 4-D), but never on explants culturedon control medium lacking plant growth regulators. Embryogenic callus could be inducedfrom immature zygotic embryos after 4-6 weeks of culture on full-strength Murashige andSkoog inorganic salts, which served as the basal medium supplemented with 4.52 ?M 2, 4-Dand 2.27 ?M TDZ (induction and maintenance medium). The ability to induce embryogenictissue varied for different papaya tested varieties, and there was a mixed genotypic responseon the induction of embryogenic cultures. The highest percentage of somatic embryogenesiswas noticed in a papaya variety Taiwan-786 (87.0±4.2a), followed by Taiwan- 785 (85.0±3.0a),and Coorg Honey dew (81.0±3.2a) respectively. This protocol is simple and reproducible,and could be useful for regenerating large number of plants as well as provide a targettissue for genetic transformation experiments.

Ravindra B. Malabadi,; S. Vijaya Kumar; Gangadhar S. Mulgund; K. Nataraja

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
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PREMIER PAPAYA PLANTATIONS RESCUED THROUGH SCIENCE AND TEAMWORK  

Science.gov (United States)

This 'Forum' article in ARS/USDA Agriculture Research magazine provides a recap of the papaya work in Hawaii that helped the Hawaiian papaya industry recover from severe effects of the papaya ringspot virus. This virus is the most important problem of papaya worldwide, and caused major damage to t...

42

Somatic embryogenesis of Carica Papaya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the somatic embryogenesis of Carica papaya. Culture medium used was1/2 strength MS basal medium supplemented with 6% sucrose, 0.27 % agar, glutamine and various concentrations of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). After 8 weeks in culture, the best concentration of 2,4-D to induce somatic embryo is at 45.2 ?M. (Author)

2006-01-01

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Anticancer activity of Carica papaya: a review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Carica papaya is widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical countries and is used as food as well as traditional medicine to treat a range of diseases. Increasing anecdotal reports of its effects in cancer treatment and prevention, with many successful cases, have warranted that these pharmacological properties be scientifically validated. A bibliographic search was conducted using the key words "papaya", "anticancer", and "antitumor" along with cross-referencing. No clinical or animal cancer studies were identified and only seven in vitro cell-culture-based studies were reported; these indicate that C. papaya extracts may alter the growth of several types of cancer cell lines. However, many studies focused on specific compounds in papaya and reported bioactivity including anticancer effects. This review summarizes the results of extract-based or specific compound-based investigations and emphasizes the aspects that warrant future research to explore the bioactives in C. papaya for their anticancer activities.

Nguyen TT; Shaw PN; Parat MO; Hewavitharana AK

2013-01-01

44

Anticancer activity of Carica papaya: a review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Carica papaya is widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical countries and is used as food as well as traditional medicine to treat a range of diseases. Increasing anecdotal reports of its effects in cancer treatment and prevention, with many successful cases, have warranted that these pharmacological properties be scientifically validated. A bibliographic search was conducted using the key words "papaya", "anticancer", and "antitumor" along with cross-referencing. No clinical or animal cancer studies were identified and only seven in vitro cell-culture-based studies were reported; these indicate that C. papaya extracts may alter the growth of several types of cancer cell lines. However, many studies focused on specific compounds in papaya and reported bioactivity including anticancer effects. This review summarizes the results of extract-based or specific compound-based investigations and emphasizes the aspects that warrant future research to explore the bioactives in C. papaya for their anticancer activities. PMID:23212988

Nguyen, Thao T T; Shaw, Paul N; Parat, Marie-Odile; Hewavitharana, Amitha K

2012-12-05

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Response of commercially important papaya cultivars to papaya ringspot virus in eastern U.P. conditions  

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Full Text Available Papaya ringspot disease caused by papaya ringspot potyvirus (PRSV) was found to be widespread in the eastern U.P., restricting commercial cultivation of the crop. The virus was reported to cause about 70% yield loss in this region with 95% disease incidence. Fourteen varieties of papaya (Carica papaya L.) were tested to identify sources of resistance, if any. However, none of the tested varieties was resistant to PRSV but variety Harichaap showed only 10% incidence with an average yield loss of 10.38% suggesting its better performance over others.

VIMLA SINGH, G.P. RAO* and K. SHUKLA

2012-01-01

46

Papaya proteinase IV amino acid sequence.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The amino acid sequence of papaya proteinase IV (PPIV), a major proteinase from the latex of Carica papaya [(1989) Biochem. J. 261, 469-476] is described. The enzyme has a high degree of sequence identity with papaya proteinase III, chymopapain and papain (81, 70 and 67%, respectively), and is clearly a member of the papain superfamily of cysteine proteinases. Nevertheless, the sequence shows substitution of certain residues conserved in all other known members of the superfamily. It is suggested that some of these substitutions may account for the unusual specificity of PPIV.

Ritonja A; Buttle DJ; Rawlings ND; Turk V; Barrett AJ

1989-11-01

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Papaya proteinase IV amino acid sequence.  

Science.gov (United States)

The amino acid sequence of papaya proteinase IV (PPIV), a major proteinase from the latex of Carica papaya [(1989) Biochem. J. 261, 469-476] is described. The enzyme has a high degree of sequence identity with papaya proteinase III, chymopapain and papain (81, 70 and 67%, respectively), and is clearly a member of the papain superfamily of cysteine proteinases. Nevertheless, the sequence shows substitution of certain residues conserved in all other known members of the superfamily. It is suggested that some of these substitutions may account for the unusual specificity of PPIV. PMID:2591528

Ritonja, A; Buttle, D J; Rawlings, N D; Turk, V; Barrett, A J

1989-11-20

48

EFFECT OF UNRIPE CARICA PAPAYA ON UTERUS  

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Full Text Available The present study was under taken to establish the uterine stimulant activity of aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya. The effect of the aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya was studied on isolated rat uterus and embryo. Uterine stimulant activity was compared with clinically available drug oxytocin and the effect on embryo was compared with misoprostol. In the in vitro model, Carica papaya showed contractile effect on the isolated uterus in diestrus stage and when administered orally in dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg to pregnant rats, resulted in gradual decrease in body weight indicating embryonic resorption. The present study confirms the uterine stimulant activity of aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya fruit.

Meera Sumanth; Ugendra K

2013-01-01

49

PROCESOS DE CANONIZACIÓN DE LA LITERATURA CHILENA  

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Full Text Available Este trabajo estudia los procesos de canonización en la literatura chilena y sus relaciones con las identidades socioculturales, desde la generación romántica de 1852 (ó 1842) hasta la última década del siglo XX, delimitando sus autores, textos y metatextos canónicos. La hipótesis que organiza el trabajo es que la literatura chilena se inició en torno a un canon único, que ha sido reemplazado a través del tiempo por cánones plurales, paralelos y contrapuestos.This paper studies the literary canonization processes in Chilean literature andtheir relations with social and cultural identities. Its purpose is to establish the boundaries of the texts and metatexts written by Chilean canonical authors, starting with the romantic generation of 1852 (or 1842) and ending up with the works published in the last decade of 'the XX century. The hypothesis of this essay is that Chilean literature can be said to have its origins focused on a single canon, which is later replaced by a series of plural, parallel and even opposite canons.

Iván Carrasco M

2008-01-01

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Toxicity assessment of transgenic papaya ringspot virus of 823-2210 line papaya fruits.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The transgenic papaya is a valuable strategy for creating plants resistant to papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) infection and increasing production. This study was further performed to evaluate the comparative toxicity effects of the newly developed transgenic line of the fruits of two backcross transgenic papaya lines (2210 and 823) and one hybrid line (823-2210) and compare to their parent non-transgenic (TN-2) counterparts. The stability analysis of coat protein (CP) of PRSV was investigated using the digestion stability assays in simulated gastric fluid (SGF), simulated intestinal fluid (SIF), and bile salts to detect the CP fragments. Results revealed that the CP fragments were rapidly hydrolyzed in SGF and were undetectable in organs and gastrointestinal contents in rats. For the genotoxicity, three in vitro assays were conducted and exhibited that non-transgenic and backcross transgenic papaya fruits were negative. Moreover, a repeated animal feeding study was conducted by feeding 2 g/kg of body weight (bw) of non-transgenic and backcross transgenic papaya fruits for 28 days in rats. There were no biological or toxicological significances between non-transgenic and backcross transgenic papaya fruits in rats. The results demonstrated that the backcross transgenic papaya fruit can be recognized as an equivalent substitution for traditional papaya in food safety.

Lin HT; Yen GC; Huang TT; Chan LF; Cheng YH; Wu JH; Yeh SD; Wang SY; Liao JW

2013-02-01

51

Improving Tenderness of Spent Layer Hens Meat Using Papaya Leaves (Carica papaya)  

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Full Text Available Two experiments were performed to study the use of papaya leaves as a meat tenderizer. The first experiment was to evaluate the effect of papaya dry leaves added to hen’s diet before slaughter. Spent hens (n=48) were used, half of them were fed a concentrate ration containing10% dried papaya leaves powder (DPLP) while others received layer ration (Control), for 10 days. The second experiment involved a comparison between papaya leaves juice (PLJ), fresh papaya leaves (FPL) and vinegar solution (VS) as marinades applied to meat for one or two hours before cooking. Spent layer hens (n=42) were used for tenderness evaluation method. After slaughtering and preparing the chickens two methods of cooking were used (oven and moist cooking). The cooked parts (breast, thigh and drumstick) were subjected to a panel test evaluation according to a designed questionnaire. Addition of dried papaya leaves powder to spent layer hens ration significantly (P?0.05) increased the level of meat tenderness. Moist cooking had significantly (P?0.05) improved meat tenderization compared to oven cooking. Meat treated with fresh papaya leaves had significantly (P?0.05) improved tenderness. It was concluded that wrapping the tough meat of spent layer hens with fresh papaya leaves for one hour and moist cooking improve tenderness of meat.

H. O. Abdalla, N. N. A. Ali, F. S. Siddig and S. A. M. Ali*

2013-01-01

52

Nutritional Analysis of two Local Varieties of Papaya (Carica papaya L.) at Different Maturation Stages  

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Full Text Available Two varieties, Local-1 and Local-2 of papaya (Carica papaya L.) were analyzed at four maturity stages (green, mature, ripen and rotten) to obtain a comparative information on their nutritional parameters such as pH, moisture, ash, TTA protein, lipid, carbohydrate, free sugar, reducing sugar, carotene, riboflavin, thiamin, ascorbic acid, calcium, sodium, magnesium, potassium, iron and phosphorus content. The nutrient composition of papaya flesh was found to vary at different maturation stage. The pH, moisture content increases gradually with advancement of maturity in healthy papaya but decreases at rotten stage. The ash, TTA and fiber content was found to be maximum in mature stages and gradually deceases from ripen stage to rotten stage. The results on carbohydrate shown that ripe papaya is a good source of carbohydrate (23.5±0.04 g %) but the content decreases in rotten stage. The concentration of protein, lipid, riboflavin and thiamine are extremely low in ripe papaya. The free sugar, reducing sugar and starch content gradually increases up to ripen stage but decreases at rotten stage. Ripe papaya is a very rich source of vitamin A and vitamin C but their concentrations decrease abruptly at rotten stage. The minerals such as calcium, sodium, magnesium, potassium and phosphorus content of papaya flesh gradually increases with the advancement of maturity whereas the increasing level of iron declines at ripen stages.

Luthfunnesa Bari; Parvez Hassan; N. Absar; M.E. Haque; M.I.I.E. Khuda; M.M. Pervin; Shahanaz Khatun; M.I. Hossain

2006-01-01

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Molecular detection of Papaya meleira virus in the latex of Carica papaya by RT-PCR  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A RT-PCR assay was developed for early and accurate detection of Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) in the latex from infected papayas. The meleira disease is characterized by an excessive exudation of more fluidic latex from fruits, leaves and stems. This latex oxidises and gives the fruit a ¿sticky¿ text...

Araujo, M.M.M., de; Tavares, E.T.; Silva, F.R., da; Marinho, V.L.D.; Souza, M.T.

54

Nutritional Analysis of two Local Varieties of Papaya (Carica papaya L.) at Different Maturation Stages  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Two varieties, Local-1 and Local-2 of papaya (Carica papaya L.) were analyzed at four maturity stages (green, mature, ripen and rotten) to obtain a comparative information on their nutritional parameters such as pH, moisture, ash, TTA protein, lipid, carbohydrate, free sugar, reducing sugar, ...

Luthfunnesa Bari; Parvez Hassan; N. Absar; M.E. Haque; M.I.I.E. Khuda; M.M. Pervin; Shahanaz Khatun; M.I. Hossain

55

Response of commercially important papaya cultivars to papaya ringspot virus in eastern U.P. conditions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Papaya ringspot disease caused by papaya ringspot potyvirus (PRSV) was found to be wide...

VIMLA SINGH, G.P. RAO* and K. SHUKLA

56

Erwinia mallotivora sp., a New Pathogen of Papaya (Carica papaya) in Peninsular Malaysia  

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Full Text Available Erwinia mallotivora was isolated from papaya infected with dieback disease showing the typical symptoms of greasy, water-soaked lesions and spots on leaves. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain belonged to the genus Erwinia and was united in a monophyletic group with E. mallotivora DSM 4565 (AJ233414). Earlier studies had indicated that the causal agent for this disease was E. papayae. However, our current studies, through Koch’s postulate, have confirmed that papaya dieback disease is caused by E. mallotivora. To our knowledge, this is the first new discovery of E. mallotivora as a causal agent of papaya dieback disease in Peninsular Malaysia. Previous reports have suggested that E. mallotivora causes leaf spot in Mallotus japonicus. However, this research confirms it also to be pathogenic to Carica papaya.

Noriha Mat Amin; Hamidun Bunawan; Rohaiza Ahmad Redzuan; Indu Bala S. Jaganath

2010-01-01

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Marcadores RAPD para la identificación del sexo en papaya (Carica papaya L.) en Colombia  

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Full Text Available La determinación del sexo en plantas de papaya es considerado un sistema intrigante, debido a que esta especie presenta tres sexos (macho, hembra y hermafrodita) determinados por un locus multialélico. Además, esta especie no presenta cromosomas sexuales morfológicamente diferenciables. Los marcadores moleculares pueden asociarse a características de interés, como en el presente caso, al sexo en plántulas de papaya. Con el objetivo de identificar marcadores moleculares que permitan una rápida identificación del sexo en genotipos colombianos de plántulas de papaya, se aplicó la técnica RAPD (ampliación aleatoria de polimorfismos del ADN). El estudio encontró tres marcadores RAPD polimórficos, los cuales permitieron diferenciar los sexos de la papaya. Dos marcadores fueron específicos para plantas macho y hermafrodita, y un tercero para plantas hembra. Estos nuevos marcadores moleculares podrán ser beneficiosos en la determinación del sexo en genotipos colombianos de papaya.

Chaves-Bedoya Giovanni; Pulido Mauricio; Sánchez-Betancour Erika; Núñez Víctor

2009-01-01

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78 FR 48628 - Importation of Papayas From Peru  

Science.gov (United States)

...0579-AD68 Importation of Papayas From Peru AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection...commercial consignments of fresh papayas from Peru into the continental United States. The...conditions for the importation of papayas from Peru would include requirements for...

2013-08-09

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Multivariate comparison of papaya ringspot epidemics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nine epidemiological parameters, estimated to characterize each of 60 disease progress curves of papaya ringspot (papaya ringspot virus type P [PRSV-P]) incidence on papaya (Carica papaya), were analyzed using a combination of principal component and cluster analysis techniques to select the best subset of variables with the highest explanatory capacity and to classify epidemics according to their degree of similarity. The effects of cultural methods, transplanting date, planting density, and field location on epidemic classification and control of papaya ringspot also were examined. Standardized area under disease progress curve (AUDPCs), shape parameter of the Weibull distribution function, and time between transplant date and first symptoms (Xo) were selected, using principal component analysis, as the most important variables and represented 83.5% of the overall variance. The remaining variability was explained by the apparent infection rate (rG-Gompertz) standardized by the Richard's method, the scale parameter (b) of the Weibull distribution function, initial and final disease incidence, time to reach 50% incidence, and time of epidemic duration. Five epidemic categories were defined through a direct linkage of the principal component scores associated with AUDPCs, c, and Xo, via cluster analysis. Experimental site and transplanting date had more influence on the definition of epidemic categories than did planting density. No category indicated complete suppression of papaya ringspot. Epidemics associated with early trans-planting dates (February, April, and June) were in the category representing the smallest AUDPCs (approximately 25%-days day-1), the longest time to first symptoms (greater than or equal to 120 days), and low values of c (1 to 3). AUDPCs was more sensitive to experimental site than the other factors. Transplanting dates in February and June were suggested as additional alternatives to April and May transplanting dates practiced by growers, to delay the epidemic onset and to reduce the incidence of papaya ringspot of Central Veracruz, Mexico.

Mora-Aguilera G; Nieto-Angel D; Campbell CL; Teliz D; Garcia E

1996-01-01

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DESHIDRATACIÓN OSMÓTICA DE FRUTOS DE PAPAYA HAWAIANA (Carica papaya L.) EN CUATRO AGENTES EDULCORANTES OSMOTIC DEHYDRATION OF HAWAIIAN PAPAYA FRUITS (Carica papaya L.) USING FOUR SWEETENER AGENTS  

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Full Text Available Trozos de papaya hawaiiana (Carica papaya L.) fueron sometidos a un proceso de osmo-deshidratación usando cuatro agentes edulcorantes: miel de abejas, miel de caña, crema de miel de abejas y sacarosa en medio acuoso a 79 grados Brix, temperatura de 20 ºC y 23 horas de inmersión. Los resultados estadísticos mostraron que el agente de mayor capacidad deshidratante fue la miel de abejas y el menor la sacarosa. Además, los análisis cinéticos indicaron que la máxima transferencia de masa ocurre en las primeras cuatro horas del proceso y la máxima pérdida de masa del producto que puede ser alcanzada fue de 32 % con un contenido de humedad final en los frutos de papaya osmodeshidratada de 41,3 % b.h.Pieces of Hawaiian papaya (Carica papaya L.) were subjected to osmotic dehydration using four sweetener agents: honey, molasses, honey cream and sucrose in aqueous solution to 79 degrees Brix, 20 ºC temperature and 23 hours of immersion. The statistical results showed that honey was the sweetener agent with highest osmotic capacity while sucrose had the lowest. The kinetic analysis also showed that the maximum mass transfer occurs during the first four hours of the process and the maximum mass loss of the product that can be attained was 32 % with a final moisture content of 41,3 % w.b.

Margarita Maria Ríos Pérez; Carlos Julio Márquez Cardozo; Héctor José Ciro Velásquez

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Evaluación de híbridos de papaya (carica papaya l.) en pococí, limón, Costa Rica  

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Full Text Available Evaluación de híbridos de papaya (Carica papaya L.) en Pococí, Limón, Costa Rica. Se estableció un experimento con nueve híbridos de papaya con el objetivo de determinar sus potenciales agronómicos y comerciales en una región de alta pluviosidad (cantón de Pococí, provincia de Limón). Las características evaluadas fueron tamaño de fruta, productividad total, brix de la pulpa y susceptibilidad a la antracnosis de la fruta causado por Colletotrichum gloesporioides. Se determinó que solo uno de los materiales mostró características similares al testigo comercial como fruta para consumo en fresco. Otro de los híbridos tuvo potencial para uso con fines agroindustriales.

Eric Mora; Antonio Bogantes

2004-01-01

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Correlation between ethylene emission and skin colour changes during papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit ripening  

Science.gov (United States)

The skin colour changes and ethylene emission rates were monitored during papaya (C. papaya L.) fruit ripening. Two groups of papaya (‘Formosa’ and ‘Solo’) were applied in this study. The total colour difference was used as measured parameter and the corresponding half time of its saturation was used as correlation parameter. A high correlation factor between the saturation half time and corresponding climacteric peak time was found. It was concluded that high ethylene emission rate in ‘Solo’ fruit promotes a quick change of the total colour difference.

da Silva, M. G.; Oliveira, J. G.; Vitoria, A. P.; Corrêa, S. F.; Pereira, M. G.; Campostrini, E.; Santos, E. O.; Cavalli, A.; Vargas, H.

2005-06-01

63

Effect of gamma irradiation in papaya (Carica papaya L.) harvested in three degrees of maturation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The papaya is a fragile tropical fruit with thin skin, susceptible to post harvest diseases and mechanical injuries. Furthermore, it is sensible to low temperatures and at normal conditions it ripens rapidly, increasing the difficulties with storage. The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of gamma irradiation in papayas harvested in three degrees of maturation, in order to increase shelf life. To accomplish that, papayas were harvested in perfect quality conditions, washed, submitted to carnauba wax and selected by skin coloration into three distinct degrees of maturation: Mat 0, or beginning of yellow coloration; Mat 1, yellow stripes more developed, and Mat 2, one third yellow. Half of them were submitted to irradiation with 0, 75 kGy, while the others became control treatment. They were analyzed in four different periods of conservation, which were 1 day after irradiation (DAI) refrigerated (11 +- 1 deg C), 14 DAI refrigerated, 14 DAI refrigerated + 3 at room temperature (RT = 24 deg +- 2 deg C) and 14 DAI refrigerated + 6 at RT. The effect of irradiation was not influenced by the maturation degree at harvest. Irradiation promoted firmness maintenance of papaya and, therefore, delayed ripening; modified the green color of papaya to a lighter tone, which determined more homogeneity in the skin yellow color development (greater values of L* and b*), and turned the papaya flesh color lighter (rower values of b*). There was no effect of irradiation in papaya weight loss, in the occurrence of diseases, in the development of surface yellow color, in the parameter a* of papaya skin color, in the parameters L*, a* and chroma of flesh color, p H and total soluble solids content. Visual and organoleptic sensorial tests were accomplished with papayas from a new delivery in the conservation period of 14 DAI refrigerated + 3 at RT. In the visual test was evaluated the appearance of papaya in the following treatments: Mat O control, Mat O irradiated, Mat 1 control, Mat 1 irradiated, Mat 2 control e Mat 2 irradiated, in which the first one received lower scores due to the occurrence of ratting on one of the papayas. In the organoleptic test, the parameters firmness, sweetness and acceptance were evaluated for the following treatments: control, Mat O irradiated, Mat 1 irradiated e Mat 2 irradiated. There was no difference between treatments for the sweetness parameter. The irradiated treatments received better scores for firmness as well as papayas irradiated at Mat 1 and 2 for acceptance (author)

2001-01-01

64

Free radical scavenging activity of papaya juice  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Papaya juice is an efficient scavenger of highly reactive hydroxyl radicals (OH radical) formed during /sup 60/Co irradiation of water. The OH anion radicals were detected by the electron spin resonance (ESR) technique of spin trapping using DMPO (5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide) or by a colorimetric assay in which salicylate is converted into polyhydroxybenzoic acids. Papaya juice is also able to quench the ESR signal of a stable free radical (TEMPOL) and the ESR signal of the DMPO-OH adduct. The active substance(s) in papaya juice are heat-stable, dialyzable, and soluble in water but not in lipid solvents. The active agents do not appear to be ascorbate, tocopherol, or carotenoids.

Webman, E.J.; Mower, H.F.; Edlin, Gordon

1989-03-01

65

Free radical scavenging activity of papaya juice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Papaya juice is an efficient scavenger of highly reactive hydroxyl radicals (OH radical) formed during 60Co irradiation of water. The OH anion radicals were detected by the electron spin resonance (ESR) technique of spin trapping using DMPO (5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide) or by a colorimetric assay in which salicylate is converted into polyhydroxybenzoic acids. Papaya juice is also able to quench the ESR signal of a stable free radical (TEMPOL) and the ESR signal of the DMPO-OH adduct. The active substance(s) in papaya juice are heat-stable, dialyzable, and soluble in water but not in lipid solvents. The active agents do not appear to be ascorbate, tocopherol, or carotenoids. (author).

1989-01-01

66

Fusarium species associated with fruit rot of banana (Musa spp.), papaya (Carica papaya) and guava (Psidium guajava)  

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Full Text Available A total of 60 isolates of Fusarium were isolated from fruit rot of banana (Musa spp.), papaya (Carica papaya) and guava(Psidium guajava). The most common species recovered from the fruit rot of the three fruit crops were F. semitectum(40 %), F. solani (38.3 %), F. verticillioides (11.7 %) and F. oxysporum (10 %). Fusarium semitectum was isolated from fruit rot of banana, papaya and guava; F. oxysporum from banana and papaya; F. solani from banana and guava and F.verticillioides from banana. From pathogenicity tests, F. solani and F. semitectum were pathogenic to both banana and papaya and F. verticillioides to banana. F. oxysporum was not pathogenic to banana and papaya and F. semitectum was not pathogenic to guava. The results of the present study showed the presence of several Fusarium spp. on fruit rot of banana, papaya and guava and several species are found to be pathogenic causing fruit rot on their hosts.

Zakaria, L.; Mazzura, W. C.; Kong, W. H.; Baharuddin, S.

2012-01-01

67

Caracterizacion, Manejo y Almacenamiento de Papaya (The Papaya: Characteristics, Handling, and Storage).  

Science.gov (United States)

Papaya were studied during maturation at normal temperatures. The results obtained: the pepsins content increased, changes in protopectina and soluble peptina were less noticeable; acid content increased until a maximum and then decreased, the content of ...

M. C. de Arriola J. F. Menchu C. Rolz

1976-01-01

68

Uptake of 32P labelled superphosphate by endomycorrhizal papaya (Carica papaya cv. Coorg honey dew)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In papaya (Carica papaya cv. Coorg honey dew), there was an increase in 32P uptake and total phosphorus in plants inoculated with mycorrhizal fungi Glomus mossae and G. fasciculatum. Phosphorus derived from fertilizer (Pdff) was lower in mycorrhizal plants while soil derived P, utilisation of P and A values were higher showing thereby that mycorrhizal plants had utilised forms of phosphorus not available to non-mycorrhizal plants. (author). 13 refs., 1 tab

1995-01-01

69

Physicochemical And Biochemical Characterization Of Transgenic Papaya Modified For Protection Against Papaya Ringspot Virus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Papaya, a nutritious tropical fruit, is consumed both in its fresh form and as a processed product worldwide. Major quality indices which include firmness, acidity, pH, colour and size, are cultivar dependent. Transgenic papayas engineered for resistance to Papaya ringspot virus were evaluated over the ripening period to address physicochemical quality attributes and food safety concerns. RESULTS: With the exception of one transgenic line, no significant differences (P > 0.05) were observed in firmness, acidity and pH. Lightness (L*) and redness (a*) of the pulps of non-transgenic and transgenic papaya were similar but varied over the ripening period (P < 0.05). Fruit mass though non-uniform (P < 0.05) for some lines was within the range reported for similar papaya cultivars as were shape indices of female fruits. Transgene proteins, CP and NPTII, were not detected in fruit pulp at the table-ready stage. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that transformation did not produce any major unintended alterations in the physicochemical attributes of the transgenic papayas. Transgene proteins in the edible fruit pulp were low or undetectable.

Roberts M; Minott DA; Pinnock S; Tennant PF; Jackson JC

2013-08-01

70

La productividad de la ciencia jurídico-penal chilena  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A partir de los datos aparecidos en un reciente informe que pone de relieve el explosivo aumento de la productividad científica de la ciencia jurídico-penal chilena, el autor ofrece algunas conjeturas acerca de los factores que han posiblemente incidido en este aumento.Su razonamiento se orienta hacia la idea de que este aumento bien puede ser considerado un paradigma en el panorama de la ciencia jurídica chilena. Para ello se detiene en algunos de los datos relevantes que son ofrecidos en el informe y, sobre la base de ellos, sugiere que las políticas de perfeccionamiento docente que varias casas de estudios chilenas han adoptado desde los años noventa están detrás de este promisorio panorama.

Patricio Lazo

2007-01-01

71

Antioxidant Activity of Papaya Seed Extracts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The antioxidant activities of the ethanol, petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water extract fractions from the seeds of papaya were evaluated in this study. The ethyl acetate fraction showed the strongest DPPH and hydroxyl free radical-scavenging activities, and its activities were strong...

Kaibing Zhou; Hui Wang; Wenli Mei; Xiaona Li; Ying Luo; Haofu Dai

72

Papaya preparation (Caricol®) in digestive disorders.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is used as a natural remedy in abnormal digestion in tropical and industrialized countries. Besides this wide distribution little evidence has been produced with reference to its physiological effect in humans and the proof of efficacy. Former clinical observations had revealed positive effects for patients with constipation, heartburn, and symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) after eating papaya preparations. In line with these former positive clinical observations, we studied the clinical effects of the papaya preparation Caricol® in a double blind placebo controlled study design. METHODS: In this study the participants were volunteers, with chronic (prevailing) indigestions and dysfunctions in the gastrointestinal tract. During the trial the intake of the substance of intent and placebo was 20 ml daily for 40 days. The endpoints were the frequency of 22 symptoms recorded before and after the documented intake recorded by questionnaire. RESULTS: The symptoms "Constipation", "Bloating", and "Heartburn" were defined as primary and frequency of "painful (straining) bowel movements" as secondary endpoint. The participation ended after the intake period within two days ("early returnees"). Wash out effects were observed in "late returnees", who returned with a delay of 8.6 (±5.95 days). In the verum group early returnees revealed statistically significant improvements of the symptoms "constipation" and "bloating". The analysis of "heartburn" felt short of significant improvement because of the small number of included cases with this criteria (N=13, p=0.114). None of the significant benefits were observed after the washout phase. CONCLUSION: We conclude from these results, that the papaya preparation (Caricol®) contributes to the maintenance of digestive tract physiology. It ameliorates various functional disturbances, like symptoms of IBS. The mechanism of this digestive tract physiology support is discussed.

Muss C; Mosgoeller W; Endler T

2013-01-01

73

THE YIELDING CHARACTERISTIC OF SENTUL CHICKENS FED DIET CONTAINING PAPAYA LEAVES MEAL (Carica papaya L. Less)  

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Full Text Available Sentul chicken is one of the local chicken come from Ciamis, West Java-Indonesia, and a dual-purpose type that can utilized for eggs and meat production. In other way, this bird is very good for chicken meat species, because has a compact body and white skin color. One of alternative to improve the sentul chicken quality is by giving the ration which has papaya leaf meal; rich of high crude protein, contained carotene, vitamin C and high of minerals. The research aimed to find out how far the treatment on the yielding characteristics. The research used 75 day old chick and then divided into twenty five cages. The experiment conducted with Completely Randomized Design, five papaya leaves meal levels in the ration, namely: 0% (R0), 2.5% (R1) ,5% ( R2), 7.5% ( R3), and 10% (R4), repeated five times, where each replication consist of three sentul chickens. Final body weight, carcass percentage and abdominal fat percentage were parameters observed. The results showed that by using papaya leaf meal up until 7.5% gave no significant effect (P >0.05) on final body weight, carcass percentage and abdominal fat percentage. But by giving 10% papaya leaf meal gave decreased effect on final body weight, carcass percentage and abdominal fat percentage (P<0.05). The real conclusion of this experiment that by giving 7.5% papaya leaf meal gave the best of carcass quality

T. Widjastuti; E. Sujana; S. Darana

2012-01-01

74

Digital transcriptome analysis of putative sex-determination genes in papaya (Carica papaya).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Papaya (Carica papaya) is a trioecious plant species that has male, female and hermaphrodite flowers on different plants. The primitive sex chromosomes genetically determine the sex of the papaya. Although draft sequences of the papaya genome are already available, the genes for sex determination have not been identified, likely due to the complicated structure of its sex-chromosome sequences. To identify the candidate genes for sex determination, we conducted a transcriptome analysis of flower samples from male, female and hermaphrodite plants using high-throughput SuperSAGE for digital gene expression analysis. Among the short sequence tags obtained from the transcripts, 312 unique tags were specifically mapped to the primitive sex chromosome (X or Y(h)) sequences. An annotation analysis revealed that retroelements are the most abundant sequences observed in the genes corresponding to these tags. The majority of tags on the sex chromosomes were located on the X chromosome, and only 30 tags were commonly mapped to both the X and Y(h) chromosome, implying a loss of many genes on the Y(h) chromosome. Nevertheless, candidate Y(h) chromosome-specific female determination genes, including a MADS-box gene, were identified. Information on these sex chromosome-specific expressed genes will help elucidating sex determination in the papaya.

Urasaki N; Tarora K; Shudo A; Ueno H; Tamaki M; Miyagi N; Adaniya S; Matsumura H

2012-01-01

75

COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON ANTHELMINTIC POTENTIAL OF CUCURBITA MAXIMA (PUMPKIN) SEEDS AND CARICA PAPAYA (PAPAYA) SEEDS  

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Full Text Available The crude extract of Carica papaya (papaya) seeds (CP) and Cucurbita maxima (Pumpkin) seeds (CM) were assayed against adult earthworms (Pheretima posthuma) for the evaluation of anthelmintic activity. Various concentrations of both extracts were tested and results were expressed in terms of time for paralysis (P) and time for death (D) of worms. Albendazole was used as a reference standard. The result showed that in both of the extracts (i.e. CP and CM) dose of 60 mg / ml possesses more wormicidal activity. The time of paralysis was 1.88 ± 0.52 minute and 1.93 ± 0.57 minute whereas the time of death was 3.45 ± 0.17 minute and 4.90 ± 0.18 minute in the case of Carica papaya and Cucurbita maxima respectively. In conclusion, the use of seeds of Carica papaya (CP) and Cucurbita maxima (CM) for anthelmintic activity have been confirmed and further studies are suggested to isolate the active principles responsible for the activity. Both the extracts showed significant anthelmintic activity, but the comparative study showed that out of these two, Carica papaya proves to be a better anthelmintic remedy.

Sengupta Rupa; Banik Jayanta

2013-01-01

76

The draft genome of the transgenic tropical fruit tree papaya (Carica papaya Linnaeus).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Papaya, a fruit crop cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions, is known for its nutritional benefits and medicinal applications. Here we report a 3x draft genome sequence of 'SunUp' papaya, the first commercial virus-resistant transgenic fruit tree to be sequenced. The papaya genome is three times the size of the Arabidopsis genome, but contains fewer genes, including significantly fewer disease-resistance gene analogues. Comparison of the five sequenced genomes suggests a minimal angiosperm gene set of 13,311. A lack of recent genome duplication, atypical of other angiosperm genomes sequenced so far, may account for the smaller papaya gene number in most functional groups. Nonetheless, striking amplifications in gene number within particular functional groups suggest roles in the evolution of tree-like habit, deposition and remobilization of starch reserves, attraction of seed dispersal agents, and adaptation to tropical daylengths. Transgenesis at three locations is closely associated with chloroplast insertions into the nuclear genome, and with topoisomerase I recognition sites. Papaya offers numerous advantages as a system for fruit-tree functional genomics, and this draft genome sequence provides the foundation for revealing the basis of Carica's distinguishing morpho-physiological, medicinal and nutritional properties.

Ming R; Hou S; Feng Y; Yu Q; Dionne-Laporte A; Saw JH; Senin P; Wang W; Ly BV; Lewis KL; Salzberg SL; Feng L; Jones MR; Skelton RL; Murray JE; Chen C; Qian W; Shen J; Du P; Eustice M; Tong E; Tang H; Lyons E; Paull RE; Michael TP; Wall K; Rice DW; Albert H; Wang ML; Zhu YJ; Schatz M; Nagarajan N; Acob RA; Guan P; Blas A; Wai CM; Ackerman CM; Ren Y; Liu C; Wang J; Wang J; Na JK; Shakirov EV; Haas B; Thimmapuram J; Nelson D; Wang X; Bowers JE; Gschwend AR; Delcher AL; Singh R; Suzuki JY; Tripathi S; Neupane K; Wei H; Irikura B; Paidi M; Jiang N; Zhang W; Presting G; Windsor A; Navajas-Pérez R; Torres MJ; Feltus FA; Porter B; Li Y; Burroughs AM; Luo MC; Liu L; Christopher DA; Mount SM; Moore PH; Sugimura T; Jiang J; Schuler MA; Friedman V; Mitchell-Olds T; Shippen DE; dePamphilis CW; Palmer JD; Freeling M; Paterson AH; Gonsalves D; Wang L; Alam M

2008-04-01

77

Interaction between Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) infection of papaya plants and Mediterranean fruit fly infestation of fruits  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), is a pest of quarantine importance that usually only infests papaya fruits in advanced stages of maturity. However, some diseases, such as sticky disease of papaya plants, caused by the Papaya meleira virus (PMeV), break the natural resistance of fruits to fruit flies, enabling them to be infested while still unripe. Therefore, this study of the relationship of papaya sticky disease with C. capitata under field conditions was conducted to determine the period of security to guarantee the harvest of papaya fruits free of fruit flies in areas where sticky disease is endemic. Infestation of papaya fruits by C. capitata was evaluated from uninfected plants and from sticky disease infected plants, in seven stages of the disease and three stages of ripening of fruits. A direct relationship was observed between time of sticky disease symptoms and infestation of fruits by the Medfly, and it was determined that a period of four weeks after the first appearance of the symptoms of sticky disease in papaya plants was the period of security in which infestation of fruits by fruit flies did not occur. Infection of papaya plants with sticky disease was associated with a reduced level of benzyl-isothiocyanate (BITC), from 43.1 ?g ml?1 to 1.7 ?g ml?1, a natural chemical compound in the latex of papaya fruit, and considered to be associated with resistance to fruit flies.

Martins DdS; Ventura JA; de Cássia Antunes Lima R; Culik MP; Costa H; Ferreira PSF

2012-06-01

78

Selection and estimation of the genetic gain in segregating generations of papaya (Carica papaya L.)  

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Full Text Available In Brazil, papaya is sustained by a narrow genetic basis, with few genetically distinct cultivars for planting.Therefore, this study aimed to select and estimate the direct and combined genetic gains for commercial fruit yield (Yld Plt-1)in segregating generations of papaya. Six traits were simultaneously targeted in combined selection and were attributedweights associated to agronomic values. Direct selection however was based on Yld Plt-1 only. Results indicated geneticvariability in the segregating generations for the evaluated traits and although combined selection achieved a lower geneticgain in Yld Plt-1, it offers greater chances of success in the following generations since favorable and unfavorable agronomictraits of papaya are considered. These results motivated the recommendation to advance generations with 30 plants, selectedfrom a total of 345 plants, considering all segregating treatments.

Francisco Filho da Silva; Messias Gonzaga Pereira; Helaine Christine Cancela Ramos; Pedro Corrêa Damasceno Junior; Telma Nair Santana Pereira; Ana Paula Cândido Gabriel; Alexandre Pio Viana; Geraldo Antônio Ferreguetti

2008-01-01

79

Extraction and characteristics of seed oil from Papaya (Carica papaya) in Congo-Brazzaville  

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Full Text Available Papaya seeds were collected and dried. This study was carried out on papaya seed to clarify their proximate composition and the characteristics of the extracted oil including unsaponifiable matter and fatty acid composition. The seed is a rich source of protein (26.78%) and crude fiber (21.4%). Palmitic acid was the main saturated fatty acid (15.22%), while linoleic acid was the major unsaturated fatty acid (76.38%) in all lipid classes. The physical properties of the oil extracts showed the state to be liquid at room temperature. Carica papaya seeds have ash content of 3.2% (with the presence of following minerals: K, Na, Ca, P and Mg). However, Ca and P occur in appreciable quantities (1821±2.12 mg/100 g dry matter and 1156±1.8 mg/100 g dry mater, respectively).

G. Bouanga-Kalou; A. Kimbonguila; J.M. Nzikou; F.B. Ganongo-Po; F.E. Moutoula; E. Panyoo-Akdowa; Th. Silou and S. Desobry

2011-01-01

80

Whole-photosynthesis and transpiration in field-grown papaya plants  

Science.gov (United States)

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a principal horticultural crop of tropical and subtropical regions. Knowledge of papaya response to environmental factors provides a scientific basis to develop management strategies to optimize fruit yield and quality. In papaya, the photosynthetic capacity also influ...

 
 
 
 
81

Antioxidant Activity and Physicochemical Properties of Mature Papaya Fruit (Carica papaya L. cv. Eksotika)  

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Full Text Available Papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Eksotika) is one of the most commonly consumed tropical fruits by humans, especially Malaysians. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the maturity stage (12, 14, 16, 18 and 20 weeks after anthesis) of papaya fruit on its physicochemical properties, antioxidant capacity and sensory characteristics. Papaya fruits were selected and classified based on their visual maturity, i.e., stages 1 to 5. The activities of several antioxidants were tested, including the Total Phenolic Content (TPC), Total Flavonoid Content (TFC), Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS). The physicochemical changes were measured in terms of the pH, Titratable Acidity (TA), moisture, Total Soluble Solids (TSS) and pulp color of the papaya fruits at the five ripening stages. Significant differences (p<0.05) were found in different degrees of ripening. The pH of the fruit decreased significantly (p<0.05), whereas the TA, moisture and TSS all increased significantly (p<0.05) with maturity. The redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) values of the fruit color both increased significantly, whereas the lightness (L*) of the color fluctuated. The TPC, TFC, FRAP, DPPH and ABTS values also increased significantly (p<0.05) with ripening. Sensory evaluation based on the color, sweetness, sourness, flavor and overall acceptance for the last three maturity stages was also performed. Stage 5 had a better score than stages 3 or 4. The results showed the important role of the ripening stage in increasing the antioxidant content of papaya fruits.

Zuhair Radhi Addai; Aminah Abdullah; Sahilah Abd. Mutalib; Khalid Hamid Musa; Eqbal M.A. Douqan

2013-01-01

82

Oxidative processes during 'Golden' papaya fruit ripening  

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Full Text Available 'Golden' papayas at maturity stage 1 (15% yellow skin) were chosen to study selected oxidative processes, the activity of antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation in storage at 22°C, during the ripening of the fruit. An increase in ethylene production was observed on the second day of storage and it was followed by an increase in respiration. An increased activity of catalase, glutathione reductase and ascorbate peroxidase was observed concurrently or soon after this increase in ethylene production and respiration. The increased activity of these enzymes near the peaks of ethylene production and respiration is related to the production of oxidants accompanying the onset of ripening. On the fourth day of storage, there was an increased lipid peroxidation and decreased activities of catalase, glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase. Lipid peroxidation induces the increase of antioxidant enzymes, which can be verified by further increases in the activities of catalase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase. Unlike the other antioxidant enzymes, the ascorbate peroxidase activity in the pulp increased continuously during ripening, suggesting its important role in combating reactive oxygen species during papaya ripening. With regard to physical-chemical characteristics, the soluble solids did not vary significantly, the acidity and ascorbic acid contents increased, and hue angle and firmness decreased during storage. The results revealed that there was variation in the activity of antioxidant enzymes, with peaks of lipid peroxidation during the ripening of 'Golden' papaya. These results provide a basis for future research, especially with regard to the relationships among the climacteric stage, the activation of antioxidant enzymes and the role of ascorbate peroxidase in papaya ripening.

Evellyn Couto Oliveira Resende; Paula Fabiane Martins; Ricardo Antunes de Azevedo; Angelo Pedro Jacomino; Ilana Urbano Bron

2012-01-01

83

Dwarf mutant of papaya (Carica papaya L. ) induced by gamma rays  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Treating the seeds of papaya with 15 Krad of gamma rays, three plants were isolated from the M/sub 3/ population. Repeated full sibmating among the progenies of these dwarf mutants helped in establishing a homozygous population of dwarf papaya in M/sub 6/ generation. Though the per plant yield in mutant is less, nevertheless its importance is envisaged in the fact that it is likely to incur less damage by wind and storm, can be better managed and more number of plants can be accomodated per unit area, thus giving increased yield per hectare. 5 refs.

Ram, M. (Indian Agricultural Research Inst., Pusa. Regional Research Station)

1981-09-01

84

Dwarf mutant of papaya (Carica papaya L.) induced by gamma rays  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Treating the seeds of papaya with 15 Krad of gamma rays, three plants were isolated from the M3 population. Repeated full sibmating among the progenies of these dwarf mutants helped in establishing a homozygous population of dwarf papaya in M6 generation. Though the per plant yield in mutant is less, nevertheless its importance is envisaged in the fact that it is likely to incur less damage by wind and storm, can be better managed and more number of plants can be accomodated per unit area, thus giving increased yield per hectare. (author)

1981-01-01

85

Influence of gamma radiation on carbohydrates metabolism of ripening papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Solo)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Food irradiation is one of the most promising treatments that can be utilized for fruits disinfestation and extension of shelf life. The authors studied the influence of 0,5 kGy of Gamma irradiation on the soluble carbohydrates composition of papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Solo) fruit, and on sucrose metabolizing enzymes: sucrose synthase (SS), sucrose-phosphate synthase, acid and neutral invertases activities, during ripening. The results demonstrated that ethylene production, total soluble sugars, sucrose content, and sucrose-phosphate synthase and invertases activities were affected by irradiation, but not respiration, glucose and fructose content, and SS activity. (author)

1999-01-01

86

Growth and yield of papaya under irrigation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Thermal units or degree day systems can both be used to quantify relationships between plants and air temperature. The Northern Fluminense region holds no tradition for irrigated papaya (Carica papaya L.) cropping and, because of the need for irrigation, it is important knowing its growth and development characteristics under these conditions. This study aimed to determine the relationship between growth rate of papaya plants and degree days, and its effect on crop productivity, under different irrigation levels. An experiment was set up with the cultivar "Improved Sunrise Soil 72/12", in a randomized blocks design, with seven irrigation water depths and three repetitions; crop growth and yield parameters were evaluated. There were significant correlations between water depths and degree days. Polynomial models of 2nd and 3rd order appropriately fitted the relationships degree day versus plant height, stem diameter, crown diameter and number of emitted leaves, for each water depth. Growth parameters related to degree days and to the applied treatments are indicative of yield potential. The total water depth that promoted the greatest fruit yield was 2,937 mm.

Almeida Frederico Terra de; Bernardo Salassier; Sousa Elias Fernandes de; Marin Sérgio Lúcio David; Grippa Sidney

2003-01-01

87

Dwarfing granule formulation for papaya and preparation method thereof  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a dwarf papaya granular formulation and a preparation method thereof. The dwarf papaya granular preparation comprises paclobutrazol, plant cytokinin and granulation promoting agent humic acid. The preparation method is as follows: respectively crashing the components, then sequentially mixing and granulating the crashed paclobutrazol, plant cytokinin and granulation promoting agent humic acid with a ratio of 10-15:5-10:75-85 in parts by weight, and molding into granules of 3-5mm. The dwarf papaya granular preparation comprises 10-15% of paclobutrazol, 5-10% of plant cytokinin and 75-85% of granulation promoting agent humic acid. By using the dwarf papaya granular preparation provided by the invention, not only the natural growth height of the papaya can be dwarfed, but also the papaya can grow normally due to being adaptive to the height of general helio green houses in north, thus ensuring the yield of papaya in general helio green houses in north and improving the quality of papaya.

NINGZHAO LIU

88

Gamma radiation in papaya harvested at three stages of maturation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Papaya is a fragile, perishable fruit, highly accepted worldwide. To keep the quality of papaya from harvest to the consumers, conservation techniques are often used; among them is the application of gamma irradiation. The objective of this work was to evaluate gamma irradiation in papayas harvested at three degrees of maturation, in order to increase shelf life. Papayas were harvested in perfect quality conditions and selected by skin coloration into three distinct degrees of maturation: maturation 0, or beginning of yellow coloration; maturation 1, yellow stripes more developed, and maturation 2, one third yellow. Half of them were irradiated with 0.75 kGy, while the other half became control treatment. They were analyzed in four periods of conservation, which were 1 DAI (days after irradiation refrigerated at 11 {+-} 1 deg C), 14 DAI, 14 DAI + 3 DRT (room temperature at 24 deg C {+-} 2 deg C) and 14 DAI + 6 DRT. The papaya maturation degree at harvest did not influence the radiation effect. Irradiation maintained firmness of papaya and, therefore, delayed ripening; modified the green color of papaya to a lighter, more intense tone, which determined more homogeneity in the development of the skin's yellow color (greater values of L{sup *} and chroma). There was no effect of irradiation in papaya weight loss, occurrence of diseases, chroma of flesh color, p H and total soluble solids contents. (author)

Pimentel, Rodrigo Meirelles de Azevedo; Walder, Julio Marcos Melges [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Irradiacao de Alimentos]. E-mail: jmwalder@cena.usp.br

2004-04-01

89

Gamma radiation in papaya harvested at three stages of maturation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Papaya is a fragile, perishable fruit, highly accepted worldwide. To keep the quality of papaya from harvest to the consumers, conservation techniques are often used; among them is the application of gamma irradiation. The objective of this work was to evaluate gamma irradiation in papayas harvested at three degrees of maturation, in order to increase shelf life. Papayas were harvested in perfect quality conditions and selected by skin coloration into three distinct degrees of maturation: maturation 0, or beginning of yellow coloration; maturation 1, yellow stripes more developed, and maturation 2, one third yellow. Half of them were irradiated with 0.75 kGy, while the other half became control treatment. They were analyzed in four periods of conservation, which were 1 DAI (days after irradiation refrigerated at 11 ± 1°C), 14 DAI, 14 DAI + 3 DRT (room temperature at 24° ± 2°C) and 14 DAI + 6 DRT. The papaya maturation degree at harvest did not influence the radiation effect. Irradiation maintained firmness of papaya and, therefore, delayed ripening; modified the green color of papaya to a lighter, more intense tone, which determined more homogeneity in the development of the skin's yellow color (greater values of L* and croma). There was no effect of irradiation in papaya weight loss, occurrence of diseases, croma of flesh color, pH and total soluble solids contents.

Pimentel Rodrigo Meirelles de Azevedo; Walder Julio Marcos Melges

2004-01-01

90

Chemical Profile of Unripe Pulp of Carica papaya  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Unripe pulp of Carica papaya was screened to test for the presence of certain phytochemicals. Chemical composition of the pulp were determined. Phytochemical screening of mature unripe pulp of Carica papaya (dry weight) showed the presence of saponins and cardenolides while chemica...

O.I. Oloyede

91

Gamma radiation in papaya harvested at three stages of maturation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Papaya is a fragile, perishable fruit, highly accepted worldwide. To keep the quality of papaya from harvest to the consumers, conservation techniques are often used; among them is the application of gamma irradiation. The objective of this work was to evaluate gamma irradiation in papayas harvested at three degrees of maturation, in order to increase shelf life. Papayas were harvested in perfect quality conditions and selected by skin coloration into three distinct degrees of maturation: maturation 0, or beginning of yellow coloration; maturation 1, yellow stripes more developed, and maturation 2, one third yellow. Half of them were irradiated with 0.75 kGy, while the other half became control treatment. They were analyzed in four periods of conservation, which were 1 DAI (days after irradiation refrigerated at 11 ± 1 deg C), 14 DAI, 14 DAI + 3 DRT (room temperature at 24 deg C ± 2 deg C) and 14 DAI + 6 DRT. The papaya maturation degree at harvest did not influence the radiation effect. Irradiation maintained firmness of papaya and, therefore, delayed ripening; modified the green color of papaya to a lighter, more intense tone, which determined more homogeneity in the development of the skin's yellow color (greater values of L* and chroma). There was no effect of irradiation in papaya weight loss, occurrence of diseases, chroma of flesh color, p H and total soluble solids contents. (author)

2004-01-01

92

Preparation and sensory evaluation of papaya milk shake  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present investigation was undertaken with the object of studying the standard procedure of preparation of milk shake from buffalo milk blended with papaya and studied for its acceptability. Milk shake was prepared from different proportions of buffalo milk and papaya pulp i.e. 100:0 (T0), 90:10 ...

S. T. Pakalwad; H. B. Awaz; S. L. Pawar; S. P. Poul

93

Isolation and functional characterization of a lycopene ?-cyclase gene that controls fruit colour of papaya (Carica papaya L.)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The colour of papaya fruit flesh is determined largely by the presence of carotenoid pigments. Red-fleshed papaya fruit contain lycopene, whilst this pigment is absent from yellow-fleshed fruit. The conversion of lycopene (red) to ?-carotene (yellow) is catalysed by lycopene ?-cyclase. This present ...

Devitt, Luke C.; Fanning, Kent; Dietzgen, Ralf G.; Holton, Timothy A.

94

Effects of Different Concentrations and Applications of Calcium on Storage Life and Physicochemical Characteristics of Papaya (Carica Papaya L.)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Papaya (Carica Papaya L.) fruits index 2 were treated with 1.5, 2.5 and 3.5% solutions of calcium chloride by dipping and vacuum infiltration (-33 Kpa) or untreated (0%) as control. Effects of these treatments were evaluated on storage life and postharvest quality characteristics of pa...

T. M. M. Mahmud; A. Al Eryani-Raqeeb; S. R. Syed Omar; A. R. Mohamed Zaki; Al E. Abdul-Rahman

95

Caracterización de accesiones de papaya (Carica papaya L.) a través de marcadores AFLP en Cuba  

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Full Text Available Los marcadores moleculares son herramientas valiosas en los estudios genéticos en plantas, y están siendo empleados exitosamente en programas de mejoramiento principalmente en la elección de progenitores y en la selección. El polimorfismo observado mediante la técnica molecular AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism) ha sido de utilidad para estudios de diversidad genética en frutales. En el presente trabajo se realizó la caracterización molecular de 12 accesiones de papaya (Carica papaya L.) del banco de germoplasma del Instituto de Investigaciones en Fruticultura Tropical (IIFT), empleando la técnica AFLP. Se evaluaron seis combinaciones de iniciadores para la amplificación selectiva, las cuales amplificaron un total de 431 bandas con 73,3% de polimorfismo. El número total de patrones de bandas identificados fue igual en todas las combinaciones utilizadas, con un porcentaje de identificación alto, lo que sugiere que dichas combinaciones pudieran ser empleadas para estudios de variabilidad genética en papaya. En general, los resultados presentados demuestran que existe diversidad genética entre las accesiones evaluadas, lo cual constituye un reflejo del origen que presentan los genotipos analizados a partir de la introducción de materiales foráneos y la polinización abierta de un grupo de materiales selectos. Por tanto, se recomienda retomar la prospección y selección de accesiones locales, así como la introducción de nuevos genotipos foráneos, como dos vías fundamentales para aumentar la diversidad genética presente en el banco de germoplasma de papaya de Cuba. Palabras clave: marcadores moleculares, polimorfismo, diversidad genética.

Alonso Esquivel Maruchi; Bautista Alor Martín; Ortiz García Matilde; Quiroz Moreno Adriana; Rohde Wolfgang; Sánchez Teyer Lorenzo Felipe

2009-01-01

96

Erwinia mallotivora sp., a New Pathogen of Papaya (Carica papaya) in Peninsular Malaysia  

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Erwinia mallotivora was isolated from papaya infected with dieback disease showing the typical symptoms of greasy, water-soaked lesions and spots on leaves. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain belonged to the genus Erwinia and was united in a monophyletic group wi...

Noriha Mat Amin; Hamidun Bunawan; Rohaiza Ahmad Redzuan; Indu Bala S. Jaganath

97

Effects of heat, irradiation and their combination on the keeping quality of papaya (carica papaya linn.)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An experimental work has been done to determine the effect of gamma irradiation either alone or in combination with hot water dipping on the shelf life of fresh papaya. Mature green papayas of 'semangka paris' variety were treated under 3 different conditions, i.e. dipped in hot water at 50 Celsius degrees for 10 minutes; irradiated in air with a dose of 0.5 kGy; treated with combination of hot water dipping at 50 Celsius degrees for 10 minutes and irradiation with a dose of 0.5 kGy, and stored at ambient conditions. Quality evaluation was done subjectively during storage on the colour, texture, and taste. Besides, weight loss was also observed. Chemical characteristics, namely the contents of vitamin C, ?-carotene, total soluble pectin, and reducing sugar were also determined as objective parameters. The results revealed that ripening of mature green papaya could be delayed by irradiation with the dose of 0.5 kGy. Best result was obtained from the combination treatment. The treated papayas were still acceptable up to 8 days of storage, whereas the untreated ones were acceptable only up to 5 days of storage. (author)

1998-01-01

98

Development of transgenic papayas expressing the coat protein gene from a Brazilian isolate of Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) = Desenvolvimento de mamoeiros transgênicos resistentes a vírus expressando o gene da capa protéica de um isolado brasileiro de Papaya ringspot virus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Translatable and nontranslatable versions of the coat protein (cp) gene of a Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) isolate collected in the state of Bahia, Brazil, were engineered for expression in Sunrise and Sunset Solo varieties of papaya (Carica papaya). The biolistic system was used to transform seconda...

Souza, M.T.; Níckel, O.; Gonsalves, D.

99

Compostos fenólicos inibidores da germinação em sementes de mamão (Carica papaya)/ Phenolic compound inhibitors in papaya seeds (Carica papaya L.)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Sementes de mamão germinam lenta e irregularmente, o que tem sido atribuído à presença da sarcotesta. O trabalho teve como objetivos avaliar o efeito inibitório de extratos de sarcotesta na germinação de sementes de alface e quantificar compostos fenólicos em sementes de mamão. Foram utilizados frutos de mamão do grupo Formosa, híbrido Tainung 01, colhidos em Maio e Setembro/2005, obtendo-se sementes com e sem sarcotesta que foram avaliadas quanto à germinaç? (more) ?o aos 15 e 30 dias após a semeadura. Realizou-se um bioensaio com sementes de alface, que foram colocadas para germinar em substrato umedecido com água e com soluções obtidas a partir de extrato da sarcotesta de sementes de mamão. Determinou-se, também, o conteúdo de compostos fenólicos nas diferentes estruturas destas (sarcotesta, esclerotesta, endosperma e embrião), utilizando-se o ácido tânico como padrão e para reação de coloração, o reagente Folin-Ciacalteau, com leitura em espectrofotômetro a 765 nm. Verificou-se que o extrato de sarcotesta inibe a germinação e o crescimento da raiz primária das plântulas de alface, devido à presença de compostos fenólicos. Maior quantidade destes compostos foi observada na esclerotesta das sementes de mamão, seguida da sarcotesta, sendo praticamente nula a presença de tais compostos no embrião e no endosperma. Sementes oriundas da colheita de Maio/2005 exibiram dormência, apresentando maior conteúdo de fenóis na sarcotesta quando comparadas às sementes obtidas de frutos colhidos em Setembro/2005, as quais não apresentaram dormência. Abstract in english The slow and erratic germination of papaya seeds has been attributed to inhibitors present in the sarcotesta. This study was undertaken to evaluate the inhibition effect of sarcotesta extract on lettuce seed germination and to quantify phenolic compounds in papaya seeds. Papaya fruits of the Formosa group, hybrid Tainung 01, were harvested in May and September/2005. At each harvest time, seeds with and without sarcotesta were obtained and the germination percentage was ev (more) aluated at 15 and 30 days after seeding. A bioassay was performed with lettuce seeds, which germinated in substratum moistened with water (control) and with solutions obtained from papaya sarcotesta extract. The phenolic compounds were quantified in different structures of papaya seeds (sarcotesta, esclerotesta, endosperm and embryo), using tannic acid as standard and the color reaction with Folin-Ciacalteau reagent measured at 765 nm by spectrophotometry. The bioassay indicated that sarcotesta extract inhibits the germination and growth of the lettuce seedling primary roots due to the presence of inhibitory substances (phenols). A high amount of these substances was found in the papaya seed esclerotesta, followed by the sarcotesta, but there was practically no concentration of these compounds in the embryo and endosperm. Seeds extracted from fruits harvested in May 2005 had dormancy and higher phenolic content compared to seeds harvested in September 2005, which did not exhibit dormancy.

Tokuhisa, Daí; Dias, Denise Cunha Fernandes dos Santos; Alvarenga, Eveline Mantovani; Hilst, Paulo Cèsar; Demuner, Antônio Jacinto

2007-01-01

100

Compostos fenólicos inibidores da germinação em sementes de mamão (Carica papaya) Phenolic compound inhibitors in papaya seeds (Carica papaya L.)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sementes de mamão germinam lenta e irregularmente, o que tem sido atribuído à presença da sarcotesta. O trabalho teve como objetivos avaliar o efeito inibitório de extratos de sarcotesta na germinação de sementes de alface e quantificar compostos fenólicos em sementes de mamão. Foram utilizados frutos de mamão do grupo Formosa, híbrido Tainung 01, colhidos em Maio e Setembro/2005, obtendo-se sementes com e sem sarcotesta que foram avaliadas quanto à germinação aos 15 e 30 dias após a semeadura. Realizou-se um bioensaio com sementes de alface, que foram colocadas para germinar em substrato umedecido com água e com soluções obtidas a partir de extrato da sarcotesta de sementes de mamão. Determinou-se, também, o conteúdo de compostos fenólicos nas diferentes estruturas destas (sarcotesta, esclerotesta, endosperma e embrião), utilizando-se o ácido tânico como padrão e para reação de coloração, o reagente Folin-Ciacalteau, com leitura em espectrofotômetro a 765 nm. Verificou-se que o extrato de sarcotesta inibe a germinação e o crescimento da raiz primária das plântulas de alface, devido à presença de compostos fenólicos. Maior quantidade destes compostos foi observada na esclerotesta das sementes de mamão, seguida da sarcotesta, sendo praticamente nula a presença de tais compostos no embrião e no endosperma. Sementes oriundas da colheita de Maio/2005 exibiram dormência, apresentando maior conteúdo de fenóis na sarcotesta quando comparadas às sementes obtidas de frutos colhidos em Setembro/2005, as quais não apresentaram dormência.The slow and erratic germination of papaya seeds has been attributed to inhibitors present in the sarcotesta. This study was undertaken to evaluate the inhibition effect of sarcotesta extract on lettuce seed germination and to quantify phenolic compounds in papaya seeds. Papaya fruits of the Formosa group, hybrid Tainung 01, were harvested in May and September/2005. At each harvest time, seeds with and without sarcotesta were obtained and the germination percentage was evaluated at 15 and 30 days after seeding. A bioassay was performed with lettuce seeds, which germinated in substratum moistened with water (control) and with solutions obtained from papaya sarcotesta extract. The phenolic compounds were quantified in different structures of papaya seeds (sarcotesta, esclerotesta, endosperm and embryo), using tannic acid as standard and the color reaction with Folin-Ciacalteau reagent measured at 765 nm by spectrophotometry. The bioassay indicated that sarcotesta extract inhibits the germination and growth of the lettuce seedling primary roots due to the presence of inhibitory substances (phenols). A high amount of these substances was found in the papaya seed esclerotesta, followed by the sarcotesta, but there was practically no concentration of these compounds in the embryo and endosperm. Seeds extracted from fruits harvested in May 2005 had dormancy and higher phenolic content compared to seeds harvested in September 2005, which did not exhibit dormancy.

Daí Tokuhisa; Denise Cunha Fernandes dos Santos Dias; Eveline Mantovani Alvarenga; Paulo Cèsar Hilst; Antônio Jacinto Demuner

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Efficacy of Essential Oils on the Conidial Germination, Growth of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Penz. and Sacc and Control of Postharvest Diseases in Papaya (Carica papaya L.)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The efficacy of nine essential oils were investigated in vitro on conidial germination and mycelial growth inhibition of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides isolate from papaya (Carica papaya L.). In general, better antifungal effect was observed with Cinnamomum zeylani...

Laura Leticia Barrera-Necha; Silvia Bautista-Banos; Hilda Elizabeth Flores-Moctezuma; Abel Rojas Estudillo

102

Effect of Biopreservatives on Storage Life of Papaya (Carica papaya L.)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE In this experiment the effect on post-harvest preservation of papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit coated with either Aloe gel (AG; 100%) or papaya leaf extract with Aloe gel (PLEAG; 1:1) was studied. To evaluate the role of coating on ripening behavior and quality of papaya the uncoated and coated fruits were stored and ripened at room temperature (25 °C-29 °C) and 82-84% relative humidity. Physico-chemical properties were analyzed at 4 day intervals during the storage period. The incidence of disease attack was also visually observed. The overall results showed the superiority of AG and PLEAG coating in lengthening the shelf-life of papaya fruit compared to controls which showed significant decay from 6th day onward and complete decay within 12 days of storage. The AG and PLEAG coated fruits maintained their shelf life for 12 days and decayed at 16th day. The coated fruits also maintained their color, flavor and firmness up to 12 days of storage. An increase in ascorbic acid content (120.2 mg/100 g) was also found in coated fruits in contrast to the control (59 mg/100 g). Only 27% disease incidence was observed in AG and 13% in PLEAG coated fruits as compared to control (100%) during the storage period. The results of this study show that both AG and PLEAG coatings have excellent potential to be used on fresh produce to maintain quality and extend shelf-life.

Fatema H. Brishti; Jawadul Misir; Ayesha Sarker

2013-01-01

103

77 FR 31294 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Papaya...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Information Collection; Importation of Papaya From Colombia and Ecuador AGENCY: Animal...importation of commercial shipments of fresh papaya from Colombia and Ecuador into the continental...importation of commercial shipments of fresh papaya from Colombia and Ecuador, contact...

2012-05-25

104

76 FR 13972 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Fresh Papaya Fruit From...  

Science.gov (United States)

...a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Fresh Papaya Fruit From Malaysia Into the Continental United States...pest risks associated with the importation of fresh papaya (Carica papaya) fruit from Malaysia into the continental...

2011-03-15

105

NORMALIZACIÓN DE LA FILOSOFÍA CHILENA: UN CAMINO DE CLAUSURA DISCIPLINAR  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El artículo pretende iluminar y resaltar el proceso de institucionalización, profesionalización y administración de las prácticas de la filosofía chilena a través del concepto de “normalidad filosófica” propuesto por el argentino Francisco Romero para describir las situación de la filosofía latinoamericana de los años 50. A través de este ejercicio, la constitución disciplinar de la filosofía chilena se mostrará “clausurada” con respecto a otros espacios o discursos alternativos al discurso académico. De ahí que se hable de una “clausura disciplinar” de la filosofía chilena.The article tries to illuminate and to stand out the process of institutionalization, professionalization, and administration of the practices of Chilean philosophy through the concept of “philosophical normality” proposed by the Argentinian Francisco Romero to decribe the situation of the latin american philosophy in the fifties. Through this exercise, the disciplinary constitution of Chilean philosophy would be showed “closed” regarding other spaces or alternative speeches to academic speech. This is why it speaks about a “disciplinary closure” of Chilean philosophy.

Matías Silva Rojas

2009-01-01

106

Development of Transgenic Papaya through Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Transgenic papaya plants were regenerated from hypocotyls and immature zygotic embryo after cocultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA-4404 carrying a binary plasmid vector system containing neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII) gene as the selectable marker and ?-glucuronidase (GUS) as the reporter gene. The explants were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens on regeneration medium containing 500?mg/L carbenicillin?+?200?mg/L cefotaxime for one week. The cocultivated explants were transferred into the final selection medium containing 500?mg/L carbenicillin?+?200?mg/L cefotaxime?+?50?mg/L kanamycin for callus induction as well as plant regeneration. The callus derived from the hypocotyls of Carica papaya cv. Shahi showed the highest positive GUS activities compared to Carica papaya cv. Ranchi. The transformed callus grew vigorously and formed embryos followed by transgenic plantlets successfully. The result of this study showed that the hypocotyls of C. papaya cv. Shahi and C. papaya cv. Ranchi are better explants for genetic transformation compared to immature embryos. The transformed C. papaya cv. Shahi also showed the maximum number of plant regeneration compared to that of C. papaya cv. Ranchi. PMID:24066284

Azad, Md Abul Kalam; Rabbani, Md Golam; Amin, Latifah; Sidik, Nik Marzuki

2013-08-28

107

Development of Transgenic Papaya through Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Transgenic papaya plants were regenerated from hypocotyls and immature zygotic embryo after cocultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA-4404 carrying a binary plasmid vector system containing neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII) gene as the selectable marker and ?-glucuronidase (GUS) as the reporter gene. The explants were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens on regeneration medium containing 500?mg/L carbenicillin?+?200?mg/L cefotaxime for one week. The cocultivated explants were transferred into the final selection medium containing 500?mg/L carbenicillin?+?200?mg/L cefotaxime?+?50?mg/L kanamycin for callus induction as well as plant regeneration. The callus derived from the hypocotyls of Carica papaya cv. Shahi showed the highest positive GUS activities compared to Carica papaya cv. Ranchi. The transformed callus grew vigorously and formed embryos followed by transgenic plantlets successfully. The result of this study showed that the hypocotyls of C. papaya cv. Shahi and C. papaya cv. Ranchi are better explants for genetic transformation compared to immature embryos. The transformed C. papaya cv. Shahi also showed the maximum number of plant regeneration compared to that of C. papaya cv. Ranchi.

Azad MA; Rabbani MG; Amin L; Sidik NM

2013-01-01

108

Plant lipases: partial purification of Carica papaya lipase.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Lipases from plants have very interesting features for application in different fields. This chapter provides an overview on some of the most important aspects of plant lipases, such as sources, applications, physiological functions, and specificities. Lipases from laticifers and particularly Carica papaya lipase (CPL) have emerged as a versatile autoimmobilized biocatalyst. However, to get a better understanding of CPL biocatalytic properties, the isolation and purification of individual C. papaya lipolytic enzymes become necessary. In this chapter, a practical protocol for partial purification of the latex-associated lipolytic activity from C. papaya is given.

Rivera I; Mateos-Díaz JC; Sandoval G

2012-01-01

109

Antioxidant Activity of Papaya Seed Extracts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The antioxidant activities of the ethanol, petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water extract fractions from the seeds of papaya were evaluated in this study. The ethyl acetate fraction showed the strongest DPPH and hydroxyl free radical-scavenging activities, and its activities were stronger than those of ascorbic acid and sodium benzoate, respectively. The n-butanol fraction demonstrated the greatest ABTS+ radicals scavenging activity. The ethyl acetate fraction and the n-butanol fraction not only showed higher antioxidant activities than the petroleum ether fraction, water fraction and ethanol fraction, but also showed higher superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide radicals scavenging activities than those of the other extract fractions. The high amount of total phenolics and total flavonoids in the ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions contributed to their antioxidant activities. The ethyl acetate fraction was subjected to column chromatography, to yield two phenolic compounds, p-hydroxybenzoic acid (1) and vanillic acid (2), which possessed significant antioxidant activities. Therefore, the seeds of papaya and these compounds might be used as natural antioxidants.

Kaibing Zhou; Hui Wang; Wenli Mei; Xiaona Li; Ying Luo; Haofu Dai

2011-01-01

110

Antioxidant activity of papaya seed extracts.  

Science.gov (United States)

The antioxidant activities of the ethanol, petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water extract fractions from the seeds of papaya were evaluated in this study. The ethyl acetate fraction showed the strongest DPPH and hydroxyl free radical-scavenging activities, and its activities were stronger than those of ascorbic acid and sodium benzoate, respectively. The n-butanol fraction demonstrated the greatest ABTS? radicals scavenging activity. The ethyl acetate fraction and the n-butanol fraction not only showed higher antioxidant activities than the petroleum ether fraction, water fraction and ethanol fraction, but also showed higher superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide radicals scavenging activities than those of the other extract fractions. The high amount of total phenolics and total flavonoids in the ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions contributed to their antioxidant activities. The ethyl acetate fraction was subjected to column chromatography, to yield two phenolic compounds, p-hydroxybenzoic acid and vanillic acid, which possessed significant antioxidant activities. Therefore, the seeds of papaya and these compounds might be used as natural antioxidants. PMID:21788927

Zhou, Kaibing; Wang, Hui; Mei, Wenli; Li, Xiaona; Luo, Ying; Dai, Haofu

2011-07-25

111

Antioxidant activity of papaya seed extracts.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The antioxidant activities of the ethanol, petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water extract fractions from the seeds of papaya were evaluated in this study. The ethyl acetate fraction showed the strongest DPPH and hydroxyl free radical-scavenging activities, and its activities were stronger than those of ascorbic acid and sodium benzoate, respectively. The n-butanol fraction demonstrated the greatest ABTS? radicals scavenging activity. The ethyl acetate fraction and the n-butanol fraction not only showed higher antioxidant activities than the petroleum ether fraction, water fraction and ethanol fraction, but also showed higher superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide radicals scavenging activities than those of the other extract fractions. The high amount of total phenolics and total flavonoids in the ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions contributed to their antioxidant activities. The ethyl acetate fraction was subjected to column chromatography, to yield two phenolic compounds, p-hydroxybenzoic acid and vanillic acid, which possessed significant antioxidant activities. Therefore, the seeds of papaya and these compounds might be used as natural antioxidants.

Zhou K; Wang H; Mei W; Li X; Luo Y; Dai H

2011-01-01

112

Management of ring spot disease of papaya through plant products  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The most effective treatment, to prevent papaya ring spot disease of papaya was ten sprays with aqueous root extract of Boerhaavia diffusa along with milk protein.It exhibited minimum (20.18, 20.65 %) papaya ring spot disease incidence followed by five sprays with B. diffusa along with milk protein + five sprays with aqueous leaf extract of Clerodendrum aculeatum along with milk protein (23.67, 24.23 %) and ten sprays with C aculeatum along with milk protein (28.13, 29.12 %) during 2004 – 05 and 2005 – 06, respectively. Maximum plant height, number of fruits, fruit yield per plants and minimum yield losses were observed in papaya plants given ten sprays of B. diffusa along with milk protein followed by five sprays with B. diffusa along with milk protein + five sprays with C aculeatum along with milk protein and ten sprays with C. aculeatum along with milk protein in all the varieties during both years.

L.P. AWASTHI* and SHYAM SINGH

2011-01-01

113

Radiation disinfestation as a quarantine treatment for solo papaya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Solo papaya is subject to infestation by the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). Since ethylene dibromide has been banned for use as a fumigant for fruits, gamma radiation was investigated as an alternative quarantine disinfestation treatment for solo papaya. Results of small-scale laboratory tests showed that 150 Gy completely prevented the emergence of B. dorsalis. For egg-infested solo papaya, pupal recovered decreased with increasing dose while insect survival was not associated with fruit maturity. For larvae-infested ones, insect survival, in general, was highest in the full-ripe stage and lowest in the one-fourth-ripe stage of the fruit. Confirmatory tests of the proposed treatment using more than 100,000 test insects revealed that 150 Gy radiation dose is sufficient to provide Probit 9 quarantine security for solo papaya. (author). 10 refs.; 1 fig.; 4 tabs

1992-01-01

114

CLONING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF FLOWER DEVELOPMENT GENES IN PAPAYA  

Science.gov (United States)

Instability of papaya flowers, revealed by environmentally influenced sex reversal and stamen carpellody, results in malformed fruit that is unmarketable. Based on knowledge of flower development in the model plants Antirrhirum and Arabidopsis, we are characterizing homologous genes associated with ...

115

Characterisation of odour?active compounds in papaya (Carica papaya L.) wine  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The volatile compounds of papaya wine were isolated by continuous solvent extraction and analysed by gas chromatography?flame ionization detector and gas chromatography?mass spectrometry. A total of 118 volatile constituents were detected, and ninety?seven were positively identified. The composition of papaya wine included fifty?three esters, twenty?two alcohols, nine acids, seven phenols and derivatives, seven sulphur compounds, five lactones, five terpenes, three ketones, two aldehydes and five miscellaneous compounds. The aroma?active areas in the gas chromatogram were screened by application of the aroma extract dilution analysis and by odour activity values. Six odorants were considered as odour?active volatiles: ethyl octanoate, (E)???damascenone, 3?methylbutyl acetate, benzyl isohtiocyanate; ethyl hexanoate and ethyl butanoate.

Pino JA; Queris O

2012-02-01

116

ESR detection procedure of irradiated papaya containing high water content  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

ESR signals were recorded from irradiated papaya at liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K), and freeze-dried irradiated papaya at room temperature (295 K). Two side peaks from the flesh at the liquid nitrogen temperature indicated a linear dose response for 3-14 days after the {gamma}-irradiation. The line shapes recorded from the freeze-dried specimens were sharper than those at liquid nitrogen temperature.

Kikuchi, Masahiro, E-mail: kikuchi.masahiro@jaea.go.j [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki-machi, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Shimoyama, Yuhei [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki-machi, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Ukai, Mitsuko [Hokkaido University of Education, 1-2 Hachiman-cho, Hakodate, Hokkaido 040-8567 (Japan); Kobayashi, Yasuhiko [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki-machi, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)

2011-05-15

117

ESR detection procedure of irradiated papaya containing high water content  

Science.gov (United States)

ESR signals were recorded from irradiated papaya at liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K), and freeze-dried irradiated papaya at room temperature (295 K).Two side peaks from the flesh at the liquid nitrogen temperature indicated a linear dose response for 3-14 days after the ?-irradiation. The line shapes recorded from the freeze-dried specimens were sharper than those at liquid nitrogen temperature.

Kikuchi, Masahiro; Shimoyama, Yuhei; Ukai, Mitsuko; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko

2011-05-01

118

ESR detection procedure of irradiated papaya containing high water content  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ESR signals were recorded from irradiated papaya at liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K), and freeze-dried irradiated papaya at room temperature (295 K). Two side peaks from the flesh at the liquid nitrogen temperature indicated a linear dose response for 3-14 days after the ?-irradiation. The line shapes recorded from the freeze-dried specimens were sharper than those at liquid nitrogen temperature.

2011-01-01

119

Estudio de una mutación en papaya (Carica papaya L.) que produce letalidad de plantas femeninas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Estudio de una mutación en papaya (Carica papayaL.) que produce letalidad de plantas femeninas. Durante elperíodo 1995-2003 se descubrió y estudió una nueva mutaciónen una línea genética de papaya. En esta especie, las plantashermafroditas son heterocigotos obligadas debido a la letalidad de la condición homocigota para el alelo del hermafroditismo, el cual es a su vez dominante sobre el alelo femenino.Por este motivo, la segregación de una planta hermafrodita sigue una relación 2:1 (hermafroditas:femeninas). En este trabajo, se reporta la aparición de una línea mutante en la cual elporcentaje de plantas hermafroditas y femeninas es de 95% y5% respectivamente, lo que sugiere la aparición una mutaciónasociado al alelo femenino que también provoca la letalidadde este genotipo en condición homocigótica. La hibridaciónentre una planta femenina con una planta hermafrodita de esta línea produce una descendencia que sigue una relación de2:1 (hermafroditas:femeninas) en lugar del esperado 1:1. Esteresultado sugiere que las pocas plantas femeninas de esta líneason el resultado de la reversión de esta letalidad en uno de susalelos, lo que les permite recobrar su viabilidad. Esta líneapresenta también un porcentaje bajo de plantas hermafroditascon diversas anomalías en sus flores. Se sugiere que todas lasanomalías de esta línea son de origen epigenético, posiblemente causadas por transposones.

Eric Mora Newcomer; Antonio Bogantes Arias

2005-01-01

120

Multivariate analysis to determine the genetic distance among backcross papaya (Carica papaya) progenies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Morpho-agronomic and molecular (RAPD and ISSR markers) data were used to evaluate genetic distances between papaya backcross progenies in order to help identify agronomically superior genotypes. Thirty-two papaya progenies were evaluated based on 15 morpho-agronomic characteristics, 20 ISSR and 19 RAPD primers. Manhattan, Jaccard and Gower distances were used to estimate differences based on continuous and binary data and combined analyses, respectively. Except for production, there were significant differences in the continuous variables among the genotypes. The molecular analysis revealed 193 dominant markers (ISSR and RAPD), being 53 polymorphic loci. Among the various clusters that were generated, the one based on a combined analysis of morpho-agronomic and molecular data gave the highest cophenetic correlation (0.72) compared to individual analysis, consistently allocating the progenies into six groups. We found that the Gower algorithm was more coherent in the discrimination of the genotypes, demonstrating that a combination of molecular and agronomic data is valuable for studies of genetic dissimilarity in papaya.

Ramos HC; Pereira MG; Gonçalves LS; Berilli AP; Pinto FO; Ribeiro EH

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

NIa-pro of Papaya ringspot virus interacts with papaya methionine sulfoxide reductase B1.  

Science.gov (United States)

A chloroplast-localized papaya methionine sulfoxide reductase B1 (PaMsrB1) interacting with Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) NIa-Pro was identified using a Sos recruitment two-hybrid system (SRS). SRS analysis of several deletion mutants of PRSV NIa-Pro and PaMsrB1 demonstrated that the C-terminal (residues 133-239) fragment of PRSV NIa-Pro and residues 112-175 of PaMsrB1 were necessary for this interaction between PRSV NIa-Pro and PaMsrB1. MsrB1 can repair Met-oxidized proteins damaged by reactive oxygen species (ROS). We confirmed that PRSV infection leads to ROS accumulation and a slight upregulation of level PaMsrB1 mRNA in papaya. This interaction between PaMsrB1 with PRSV NIa-Pro may disturb the import of PaMsrB1 into the chloroplasts. These results suggest that this specific interaction could interfere with PaMsrB1 into the chloroplasts to scavenge ROS caused by PRSV infection. This may be a novel mechanism of PRSV towards the host defense. PMID:23040510

Gao, Le; Shen, Wentao; Yan, Pu; Tuo, Decai; Li, Xiaoying; Zhou, Peng

2012-10-05

122

NIa-pro of Papaya ringspot virus interacts with papaya methionine sulfoxide reductase B1.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A chloroplast-localized papaya methionine sulfoxide reductase B1 (PaMsrB1) interacting with Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) NIa-Pro was identified using a Sos recruitment two-hybrid system (SRS). SRS analysis of several deletion mutants of PRSV NIa-Pro and PaMsrB1 demonstrated that the C-terminal (residues 133-239) fragment of PRSV NIa-Pro and residues 112-175 of PaMsrB1 were necessary for this interaction between PRSV NIa-Pro and PaMsrB1. MsrB1 can repair Met-oxidized proteins damaged by reactive oxygen species (ROS). We confirmed that PRSV infection leads to ROS accumulation and a slight upregulation of level PaMsrB1 mRNA in papaya. This interaction between PaMsrB1 with PRSV NIa-Pro may disturb the import of PaMsrB1 into the chloroplasts. These results suggest that this specific interaction could interfere with PaMsrB1 into the chloroplasts to scavenge ROS caused by PRSV infection. This may be a novel mechanism of PRSV towards the host defense.

Gao L; Shen W; Yan P; Tuo D; Li X; Zhou P

2012-12-01

123

Analysis of ripening-related gene expression in papaya using an Arabidopsis-based microarray  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a commercially important crop that produces climacteric fruits with a soft and sweet pulp that contain a wide range of health promoting phytochemicals. Despite its importance, little is known about transcriptional modificatio...

Fabi João Paulo; Seymour Graham B; Graham Neil S; Broadley Martin R; May Sean T; Lajolo Franco Maria; Cordenunsi Beatriz Rosana

124

Las estrategias del silencio: Pedro Llastra y la postvanguardia chilena  

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Full Text Available Este artículo examina cómo se inserta la poesía de Pedro Lastra en una coyuntura histórica precisa: la de la revisión de los paradigmas de la vanguardia chilena una vez que sus principales representantes se identificaron con un canon continenalThis article discursses how Pedro Lastra's reflects the complexities of a period usually known in the Spanish American tradition as "the post vanguard". It specifically focuses on how his work revises the legacy of the most important Chilean avant-garde poets

MIGUEL GOMES

2005-01-01

125

Rapid sex identification of papaya (Carica papaya) using multiplex loop-mediated isothermal amplification (mLAMP).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is established as a cash crop throughout the tropical and subtropical regions due to its easy adaptation to diverse agricultural conditions, high yields, and prompt returns. The sex types of papaya plants are hermaphrodite, male, and female. Among them, hermaphroditic plants are the major type in papaya production, because the fruit has commercial advantages over that of the other sexes. Sex inheritance in papaya is determined by the M and M(h) dominant alleles in males and hermaphrodites, respectively, and a recessive m allele in females. Currently, all hermaphrodite seeds are not available due to the lethality of dominant homozygosity. Therefore, in this study, six male-hermaphrodite-specific markers were developed for a rapid sex identification using multiplex loop-mediated isothermal amplification (mLAMP) to efficiently and precisely select hermaphroditic individuals in the seedling or early growth stage. The LM1-LAMP assay consisted of two sex-LAMP reactions for amplifying two male-specific markers (T12 and Cpsm90) in one reaction, and showed several advantages in terms of a rapid reaction time (<1 h), isothermal conditions (less equipment required), a high efficiency (0.5 ng of DNA required in the reaction mixture), and an economical reaction system (5 ?l in volume). The established method can be easily performed in the field by visual inspection and facilitates the selection of all hermaphroditic individuals in papaya production.

Hsu TH; Gwo JC; Lin KH

2012-10-01

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Effects of Different Concentrations and Applications of Calcium on Storage Life and Physicochemical Characteristics of Papaya (Carica Papaya L.)  

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Full Text Available Papaya (Carica Papaya L.) fruits index 2 were treated with 1.5, 2.5 and 3.5% solutions of calcium chloride by dipping and vacuum infiltration (-33 Kpa) or untreated (0%) as control. Effects of these treatments were evaluated on storage life and postharvest quality characteristics of papaya. After 21 days of storage at 13±1°C, the fruits were removed from storage for physicochemical analysis. Following additional five days holding in the storage condition for fruits used for evaluation of the rate of disease incidence and storage life. Postharvest dip treatments at different concentrations of calcium prolonged storage life, slowed down the ripening processes and maintained the quality of papaya. Whereas, it was effectively greater with calcium infiltration treatments than that for dip treatments. Calcium infiltration extended the storage life and retained the quality as calcium concentrations increased up to 2.5% and then declined. The desired effect was obtained at 2.5% infiltration compared with other treatments. The least disease incidence was found in those fruits infiltrated with 2.5% calcium. Hence, it can be concluded that postharvest infiltration of calcium at 2.5% has the potential to control disease incidence, prolong the storage life and preserve valuable attributes of postharvest papaya, presumably because of its effects on inhibition of ripening and senescence process and loss of the fruit firmness of papaya.

T. M. M. Mahmud; A. Al Eryani-Raqeeb; S. R. Syed Omar; A. R. Mohamed Zaki; Al E. Abdul-Rahman

2008-01-01

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Manejo de epifitias del Virus de la mancha anular de la papaya utilizando barreras de Zea mays L. en Carica papaya L./ Epiphyte management of Papaya ringspot virus using Zea mays L. barriers in Carica papaya L.  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar el efecto de barreras de maíz (Zea mays L.) intercaladas en plantaciones de papaya (Carica papaya L.) var. Maradol roja en el progreso de epifitias del Virus de la mancha anular de la papaya (PRSV). Con este propósito, se realizaron evaluaciones de plantas sintomáticas cada 15 días, durante 240 días después del trasplante. Los tratamientos fueron dos: el manejo integral de la papaya mediante la protección de viveros, b (more) arreras perimetrales de sorgo forrajero y maíz intercalado (MIP-Maíz), y manejo con las prácticas descritas en el tratamiento anterior, sin incluir el maíz intercalado (MIP). En el MIP-Maíz se observó disminución del área bajo la curva del progreso de la enfermedad (abcpe) en relación al MIP. Las barreras intercaladas de maíz tuvieron un efecto en la reducción de epifitias y disminuyeron la incidencia y severidad final del PRSV en 25 y 17% respectivamente, comparado con el MIP. Se demostró que la adición de barreras de maíz intercaladas en plantaciones de papaya reducen las afectaciones producidas por el PRSV en zonas con endemismo de esta enfermedad viral. Abstract in english The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of corn (Zea mays L.) barriers intercropped in plantations of papaya (Carica papaya L.) var. Maradol roja on the progress of Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) epiphytes. For this purpose, evaluations of symptomatic plants were developed every 15 days during 240 days after transplanting. Two treatments were used: the inclusion or not of intercropped corn (MIP-Corn) in the integrated management of papaya with nursery prot (more) ection and edge barriers of forage sorghum. In the MIP-Corn, a reduction in the area under the disease progress curve (audpc) was observed in comparison with MIP. The intercropped maize barriers had a reducing effect on epiphytes and decreased the incidence and final severity of PRSV in 25 and 17% respectively, compared with MIP. It was demonstrated that the addition of intercropped corn barriers in papaya plantations reduced the damages caused by PRSV in endemic areas of this viral disease.

Cabrera Mederos, Dariel; García Hernández, Dahert; González, José Efraín; Portal, Orelvis

2013-08-01

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Interactions of papaya proteinase IV with inhibitors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Papaya proteinase IV (PPIV) is not inhibited by chicken cystatin, or human cystatins A or C, unlike most other proteinases of the papain superfamily. The enzyme inactivates chicken cystatin and human cystatin C by limited proteolysis of the glycyl bond previously shown to be involved in the inhibitory inactivity of the cystatins, but has no action on cystatin A. Contamination of commercial crystalline papain with PPIV accounts for the limited proteolysis of cystatins by 'papain' reported previously. PPIV is slowly bound by human alpha 2-macroglobulin. The enzyme is irreversibly inactivated by E-64, and by peptidyl diazomethanes containing glycine in P1 and a hydrophobic side-chain in P2. The reaction of PPIV with iodoacetate is extremely slow. PPIV is inhibited by peptide aldehydes despite the presence of bulky sidechains in P1, suggesting that these reversible inhibitors do not bind as substrate analogues. PMID:1690669

Buttle, D J; Ritonja, A; Dando, P M; Abrahamson, M; Shaw, E N; Wikstrom, P; Turk, V; Barrett, A J

1990-03-12

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Interactions of papaya proteinase IV with inhibitors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Papaya proteinase IV (PPIV) is not inhibited by chicken cystatin, or human cystatins A or C, unlike most other proteinases of the papain superfamily. The enzyme inactivates chicken cystatin and human cystatin C by limited proteolysis of the glycyl bond previously shown to be involved in the inhibitory inactivity of the cystatins, but has no action on cystatin A. Contamination of commercial crystalline papain with PPIV accounts for the limited proteolysis of cystatins by 'papain' reported previously. PPIV is slowly bound by human alpha 2-macroglobulin. The enzyme is irreversibly inactivated by E-64, and by peptidyl diazomethanes containing glycine in P1 and a hydrophobic side-chain in P2. The reaction of PPIV with iodoacetate is extremely slow. PPIV is inhibited by peptide aldehydes despite the presence of bulky sidechains in P1, suggesting that these reversible inhibitors do not bind as substrate analogues.

Buttle DJ; Ritonja A; Dando PM; Abrahamson M; Shaw EN; Wikstrom P; Turk V; Barrett AJ

1990-03-01

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ESTIMACIÓN DEL ÁREA FOLIAR DE PAPAYA (Carica papaya L.) BASADA EN MUESTREO NO DESTRUCTIVO ESTIMATION OF PAPAYA (Carica papaya L.) LEAF AREA BASED ON NON-DESTRUCTIVE SAMPLING  

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Full Text Available El cultivo de papaya (Carica papaya L.) es muy importante en la fruticultura del departamento de Córdoba, por la buena calidad de la fruta producida. La investigación, se realizó en Montería, a 13msnm, temperatura media de 27.4°C, precipitación anual de 1346,1mm, humedad relativa de 84% y brillo solar anual de 2180,2 horas, con el fin de obtener un modelo que permita estimar el área foliar de la planta, a partir de muestreo no destructivo. Mediante muestreo aleatorio simple, se seleccionaron hojas sanas de plantas adultas, de diferentes tamaños y distintas etapas de desarrollo, de los doseles superior, medio e inferior, de la variedad Maradol roja. Se tomaron medidas longitudinales: largo y ancho máximo de la hoja, ancho de la hoja a un medio, un tercio, un cuarto, un quinto y dos tercios de su largo, ancho máximo de lóbulos y longitud de nervadura de los mismos, con la finalidad de determinar las medidas altamente relacionadas con el área fotosintética de la hoja. El área foliar (Y), se midió por el método de relación peso: área, sobre una muestra de 30 hojas por dosel. Se construyeron modelos de regresión simple y múltiple, para luego seleccionar el de mejor ajuste. Se seleccionó un modelo de regresión simple, cuya variable explicativa corresponde a la longitud de la nervadura central del lóbulo izquierdo, contiguo al adyacente lóbulo medio (X). El modelo ajustado resultó ser: o = -303,0742 + 31,2028X, R² = 0,9335.The papaya (Carica papaya L) is a very important crop in the Cordoba state, especially for the good fruit quality. This research was carried out at Montería at 13masl, 27.4°C, annual rainfall of 1346.1mm, 84% relative humidity and 2180.2 hours annual sunlight, in order to obtain a model to estimate the plants leaf area, based on non-destructive sampling. A probability sampling procedure was used to select different size leaves and developmental stages from the upper, middle and lower canopy of adult plants of the red Maradol variety. Maximum leaf length and width, width of the middle third, fourth, fifth and two-thirds of leaf length, lobe width and midrib length of every lobe were registered with the purpose of identifying measures highly related to photosynthetic leaf area. The leaf area (Y) was measured based on the weight:area relation, from 30 leaves per canopy sample. Simple linear regression models and multiple linear regression were adjusted. A simple linear regression model was selected which independent variable representing the length of the midrib, next to the left next lobe and adjacent to the middle lobe (X). The adjusted model was: or = -303,0742 + 31,2028X, R² = 0,9335.

Carlos Cardona Ayala; Hermes Araméndiz Tatis; Carlos Barrera Causil

2009-01-01

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7 CFR 319.56-25 - Papayas from Central America and Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Papayas from Central America and Brazil. 319.56-25 Section 319.56-25...56-25 Papayas from Central America and Brazil. The Solo type of papaya may be...one of the following locations: (1) Brazil: State of Espirito...

2009-01-01

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High-density linkage mapping revealed suppression of recombination at the sex determination locus in papaya.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A high-density genetic map of papaya (Carica papaya L.) was constructed using 54 F(2) plants derived from cultivars Kapoho and SunUp with 1501 markers, including 1498 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers, the papaya ringspot virus coat protein marker, morphological sex type, and fru...

Ma, Hao; Moore, Paul H; Liu, Zhiyong; Kim, Minna S; Yu, Qingyi; Fitch, Maureen M M; Sekioka, Terry; Paterson, Andrew H

133

CHROMOSOMAL LOCATION AND GENE PAUCITY IN THE MALE SPECIFIC REGION ON PAPAYA Y CHROMOSOME  

Science.gov (United States)

Sex chromosomes in flowering plants evolved recently and many of them remain homomorphic, including those in papaya. We investigated the chromosomal location of papaya’s small male specific region of the hermaphrodite Y (Yh) chromosome (MSY) and its genomic features. We conducted chromosome fluoresc...

134

Application of a qualitative and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction method for detecting genetically modified papaya line 55-1 in papaya products.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Genetically modified (GM) papaya (Carica papaya L.) line 55-1 (55-1), which is resistant to papaya ringspot virus infection, has been marketed internationally. Many countries have mandatory labeling regulations for GM foods, and there is a need for specific methods for detecting 55-1. Here, an event- and construct-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was developed for detecting 55-1 in papaya products. Quantitative detection was possible for fresh papaya fruit up to dilutions of 0.001% and 0.01% (weight per weight [w/w]) for homozygous SunUp and heterozygous Rainbow cultivars, respectively, in non-GM papaya. The limit of detection and quantification was as low as 250 copies of the haploid genome according to a standard reference plasmid. The method was applicable to qualitative detection of 55-1 in eight types of processed products (canned papaya, pickled papaya, dried fruit, papaya-leaf tea, jam, puree, juice, and frozen dessert) containing papaya as a main ingredient.

Nakamura K; Akiyama H; Takahashi Y; Kobayashi T; Noguchi A; Ohmori K; Kasahara M; Kitta K; Nakazawa H; Kondo K; Teshima R

2013-01-01

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Application of a qualitative and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction method for detecting genetically modified papaya line 55-1 in papaya products.  

Science.gov (United States)

Genetically modified (GM) papaya (Carica papaya L.) line 55-1 (55-1), which is resistant to papaya ringspot virus infection, has been marketed internationally. Many countries have mandatory labeling regulations for GM foods, and there is a need for specific methods for detecting 55-1. Here, an event- and construct-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was developed for detecting 55-1 in papaya products. Quantitative detection was possible for fresh papaya fruit up to dilutions of 0.001% and 0.01% (weight per weight [w/w]) for homozygous SunUp and heterozygous Rainbow cultivars, respectively, in non-GM papaya. The limit of detection and quantification was as low as 250 copies of the haploid genome according to a standard reference plasmid. The method was applicable to qualitative detection of 55-1 in eight types of processed products (canned papaya, pickled papaya, dried fruit, papaya-leaf tea, jam, puree, juice, and frozen dessert) containing papaya as a main ingredient. PMID:23122142

Nakamura, Kosuke; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Yuki; Kobayashi, Tomoko; Noguchi, Akio; Ohmori, Kiyomi; Kasahara, Masaki; Kitta, Kazumi; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Kazunari; Teshima, Reiko

2012-09-08

136

Ramón Díaz Eterovic como representante de la novela negra chilena  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish En la nueva narrativa chilena escrita entre los 80 y los 90, tal como en la Argentina, existe una fuerte tendencia a utilizar la forma detectivesca para enfrentar la realidad en ambos países durante los gobiernos autoritarios. Se realiza el análisis de dos novelas de Díaz Eterovic con dicha temática y se muestra, utilizando los planteamientos teóricos bajtianos que, en el caso de las novelas chilenas analizadas, se usa al concepto de "estilización" de los modelos no (more) rteamericanos (por ejemplo, Chandler, Hammett y MacDonald), que también se presenta en la experiencia argentina (en Osvaldo Soriano, por ejemplo). Abstract in english In the new Chilean narrative of the 80's and 90's, just like in the Argentinian narrative, a strong tendency to use the detective format to get the reality of both countries during its authoritaric governments can be found. Based, above all, on the literary analysis of this two best detective novels ("Nobody knows more than the deads" (1993) and "Angels and lonesomes" (1996), I will show, using the bajtinian theoretical approach, that in the case of the detective novels o (more) f our chilean author we speak of a "estilization of Northamerican 'models'" (e.g. Chandler, Hammett and MacDonald), that, also, takes notice of the Argentinian experience (cf. e.g. Osvaldo Soriano).

Franken Kurzen, Clemens A.

2000-01-01

137

Ramón Díaz Eterovic como representante de la novela negra chilena  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En la nueva narrativa chilena escrita entre los 80 y los 90, tal como en la Argentina, existe una fuerte tendencia a utilizar la forma detectivesca para enfrentar la realidad en ambos países durante los gobiernos autoritarios. Se realiza el análisis de dos novelas de Díaz Eterovic con dicha temática y se muestra, utilizando los planteamientos teóricos bajtianos que, en el caso de las novelas chilenas analizadas, se usa al concepto de "estilización" de los modelos norteamericanos (por ejemplo, Chandler, Hammett y MacDonald), que también se presenta en la experiencia argentina (en Osvaldo Soriano, por ejemplo).In the new Chilean narrative of the 80's and 90's, just like in the Argentinian narrative, a strong tendency to use the detective format to get the reality of both countries during its authoritaric governments can be found. Based, above all, on the literary analysis of this two best detective novels ("Nobody knows more than the deads" (1993) and "Angels and lonesomes" (1996), I will show, using the bajtinian theoretical approach, that in the case of the detective novels of our chilean author we speak of a "estilization of Northamerican 'models'" (e.g. Chandler, Hammett and MacDonald), that, also, takes notice of the Argentinian experience (cf. e.g. Osvaldo Soriano).

Clemens A. Franken Kurzen

2000-01-01

138

ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF PAPAYA LEAF EXTRACTS AGAINST PATHOGENIC BACTERIA  

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Full Text Available It was reported that the extracts of papaya leaves could inhibit the growth of Rhizopus stolonifer. Antibacterial activity of Carica papaya leaf extracts on pathogenic bacteria was observed in this study. Papaya leaves were extracted by using maceration method and three kinds of solvents: ethanol, ethyl acetate, and hexane. Papaya leaf extracts were tested against Bacillus stearothermophilus, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas sp., and Escherichia coli by agar diffusion method. The objectives of this study were to determine extract ability against pathogenic bacteria, to observe the influence of pH, NaCl, and heat on extracts ability, and to observe extract ability against B. stearothermophilus spores. The data showed that ethyl acetate extract could inhibit B. stearothermophilus, L. monocytogenes, Pseudomonas sp., and E. coli. The extract activity was influenced by pH, and it was more effective in low pH. The extract activity was influenced by NaCl against B. stearothermophillus and E. coli. However, it was not influenced by NaCl in bioassay against L. monocytogenes and Pseudomonas sp. The extract activity was influenced by heating process against all the bacteria tested. The extracts inhibited B. stearothermophilus spores as well. Papaya leaves are potential natural anti-bacteria, which might be used in certain kinds of food.

Elisa Friska Romasi; Jessica Karina; Adolf Jan Nexson Parhusip

2011-01-01

139

Preparation and sensory evaluation of papaya milk shake  

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Full Text Available The present investigation was undertaken with the object of studying the standard procedure of preparation of milk shake from buffalo milk blended with papaya and studied for its acceptability. Milk shake was prepared from different proportions of buffalo milk and papaya pulp i.e. 100:0 (T0), 90:10 (T1), 85:15 (T2) and 80:20 (T3). The sensory score for overall acceptability of papaya milk shake of treatments T0, T1, T2 and T3 were 8.18, 8.56, 8.23 and 8.03, respectively. It was observed that the papaya milk shake prepared from 90 parts of buffalo milk and 10 parts of papaya pulp was most acceptable and ranked between like very much to like extremely. The addition of higher proportion of pulp in the blend scored towards lower side by a panel of judges. [Vet World 2010; 3(4.000): 185-187

S. T. Pakalwad; H. B. Awaz; S. L. Pawar; S. P. Poul

2010-01-01

140

Analysis of ripening-related gene expression in papaya using an Arabidopsis-based microarray.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a commercially important crop that produces climacteric fruits with a soft and sweet pulp that contain a wide range of health promoting phytochemicals. Despite its importance, little is known about transcriptional modifications during papaya fruit ripening and their control. In this study we report the analysis of ripe papaya transcriptome by using a cross-species (XSpecies) microarray technique based on the phylogenetic proximity between papaya and Arabidopsis thaliana. RESULTS: Papaya transcriptome analyses resulted in the identification of 414 ripening-related genes with some having their expression validated by qPCR. The transcription profile was compared with that from ripening tomato and grape. There were many similarities between papaya and tomato especially with respect to the expression of genes encoding proteins involved in primary metabolism, regulation of transcription, biotic and abiotic stress and cell wall metabolism. XSpecies microarray data indicated that transcription factors (TFs) of the MADS-box, NAC and AP2/ERF gene families were involved in the control of papaya ripening and revealed that cell wall-related gene expression in papaya had similarities to the expression profiles seen in Arabidopsis during hypocotyl development. CONCLUSION: The cross-species array experiment identified a ripening-related set of genes in papaya allowing the comparison of transcription control between papaya and other fruit bearing taxa during the ripening process.

Fabi JP; Seymour GB; Graham NS; Broadley MR; May ST; Lajolo FM; Cordenunsi BR; Oliveira do Nascimento JR

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Phenolic and carotenoid profiles of papaya fruit (Carica papaya L.) and their contents under low temperature storage.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Tropical fruits are rich in phenolic and carotenoid compounds, and these are associated with cultivar, pre- and postharvest handling factors. The aim of this work was to identify major phenolics and carotenoids in 'Maradol' papaya fruit and to investigate their response to storage temperature. RESULTS: Ferulic acid, caffeic acid and rutin were identified in 'Maradol' papaya fruit exocarp as the most abundant phenolic compounds, and lycopene, ?-cryptoxanthin and ?-carotene were identified in mesocarp as the major carotenoids. Ranges of contents of ferulic acid (1.33-1.62 g kg(-1) dry weight), caffeic acid (0.46-0.68 g kg(-1) dw) and rutin (0.10-0.16 g kg(-1) dw) were found in papaya fruit, which tend to decrease during ripening at 25 °C. Lycopene (0.0015 to 0.012 g kg(-1) fresh weight) and ?-cryptoxanthin (0.0031 to 0.0080 g kg(-1) fw) were found in fruits stored at 25 °C, which tend to increase during ripening. No significant differences in ?-carotene or rutin contents were observed in relation to storage temperature. CONCLUSION: Phenolics and carotenoids of 'Maradol' papaya were influenced by postharvest storage temperature with exception of ?-carotene and rutin. Ripe papaya stored at 25 °C had more carotenoids than those stored at 1 °C. Low (chilling) temperature (1 °C) negatively affected the content of major carotenoids, except ?-carotene, but preserved or increased ferulic and caffeic acids levels, as compared to high (safe) temperature (25 °C).

Rivera-Pastrana DM; Yahia EM; González-Aguilar GA

2010-11-01

142

Chemical Profile of Unripe Pulp of Carica papaya  

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Full Text Available Unripe pulp of Carica papaya was screened to test for the presence of certain phytochemicals. Chemical composition of the pulp were determined. Phytochemical screening of mature unripe pulp of Carica papaya (dry weight) showed the presence of saponins and cardenolides while chemical analysis revealed the presence of potassium (223.0mg/100g) as well as sodium, calcium, iron, phosphorus, zinc, copper, magnesium and manganese in considerable quantities. Proximate analysis of the pulp showed that it contained starch (43.28%), sugars (15.15%), crude protein (13.63%), crude fat (1.29%), moisture (10.65%) and fibre (1.88%). All these results indicate that the pulp of mature unripe Carica papaya contains nutrients and mineral elements that may be useful in nutrition. The presence of some phytochemicals like saponins and cardenolides explained the astringent action of the plant encountered in the numerous therapeutic uses.

O.I. Oloyede

2005-01-01

143

Postharvest Variation in Cell Wall-Degrading Enzymes of Papaya (Carica papaya L.) during Fruit Ripening.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pectin methylesterase (PME), polygalacturonase (PG), xylanase, cellulase, and proteinase activity were determined and related to respiration, ethylene evolution, and changes in skin color of papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit from harvest through to the start of fruit breakdown. PME gradually increased from the start of the climacteric rise reaching a peak 2 days after the respiratory peak. PG and xylanase were not detectable in the preclimacteric stage but increased during the climacteric: during the post climacteric stage, the PG declined to a level one-quarter of peak activity with xylanase activity returning to zero. Cellulase activity gradually increased 3-fold after harvest to peak at the same time as PME, 2 days after the edible stage. Proteinase declined throughout the climacteric and postclimacteric phases. A close relationship exists between PG and xylanase and the rise in respiration, ethylene evolution, and softening. Cultivar differences in postclimacteric levels of enzymic activity were not detected.An inhibitor of cellulase activity was detected in preclimacteric fruit. The inhibitor was not benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC). BITC did inhibit PG activity, though no inhibitor of PG activity was detected in preclimacteric homogenates when BITC was highest. The results indicate that inhibitors did not play a direct role in controlling wall softening.

Paull RE; Chen NJ

1983-06-01

144

Folate Levels and Polyglutamylation Profiles of Papaya ( Carica papaya cv. Maradol) during Fruit Development and Ripening.  

Science.gov (United States)

Folates are essential micronutrients for humans, and their deficiency causes several detrimental effects on human health. Papaya fruit is an important natural source of some micronutrients. This paper presents a first complete characterization of folate derivatives accumulated in cv. Maradol papaya during fruit development and ripening processes. During postharvest ripening, the fruit accumulated up to 24.5% of the daily folate recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for an adult in a 1 cup (145 g) portion. Tetrahydrofolate (THF) and 5-methyl-THF were the predominant folate classes observed. Surprisingly, an unusually long polyglutamylation profile of tentatively up to 17 glutamates linked to 5-methyl-THF was detected; to the authors' knowledge, this very long polyglutamyl tail has not been reported for any organism, and it is probably characteristic of this plant species. This polyglutamylation degree changed throughout fruit development and ripening, showing the largest differences at the onset of ripening. This work raises questions about the functional role of folate derivatives in fruit development. PMID:23574547

Ramos-Parra, Perla A; García-Salinas, Carolina; Hernández-Brenes, Carmen; Díaz de la Garza, Rocío I

2013-04-11

145

Empleo de un Recubrimiento Formulado con Propóleos para el Manejo Poscosecha de Frutos de Papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Hawaiana) Use of a Coating Formulated with Propolis for Postharvest Handling of Papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Hawaiian) Fruits  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Resumen. El fruto de papaya es reconocido por las propiedades nutricionales y sensoriales; no obstante, su tiempo de vida útil en poscosecha es muy corto. En los últimos años, para incrementar la vida de almacenamiento del fruto se ha implementado el uso de recubrimientos como vehículos de agentes antimicrobianos y antioxidantes, entre otros. En este trabajo se comparó el efecto de dos recubrimientos; cera comercial (control) y cera comercial conteniendo un extracto etanólico de propóleos (5% p/v), sobre la vida en poscosecha de frutos de papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Hawaiana) almacenados a temperatura ambiente (28 ± 2 ºC) y humedad relativa entre 65 y 70%. El efecto de los recubrimientos se determinó mediante el índice de deterioro de los frutos y el recuento microbiano (mesófilos aerobios, mohos y levaduras). Adicionalmente, se evaluaron durante 12 días las propiedades fisicoquímicas de los frutos (cambio de color, textura, pH, acidez total titulable, pérdida de peso y sólidos solubles). Los resultados mostraron que las papayas tratadas con el recubrimiento formulado con el extracto de propóleos, presentó un menor deterioro en cuanto a su apariencia y mayor inhibición del crecimiento de microorganismos durante los primeros 6 días de evaluación en comparación con los frutos control; además, no se observaron diferencias, producto de los recubrimientos, en relación a las características fisicoquímicas de los frutos.Abstract. Papaya fruit is known for the nutritional and sensory properties; however, its postharvest shelf life is very short. In recent years, to extend the storage life of this fruit, the use of coatings as a carrier of antimicrobial agents and antioxidants, has been implemented. In this work, the effect of two coatings, commercial wax (control) and commercial wax containing an ethanolic extract of propolis (5% w/v) on the postharvest of papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Hawaiian) was compared. The fruits were stored at room temperature (28 ± 2 ºC) and a relative humidity between 65 and 70%. The effect of coatings was determined by the deterioration index of the fruit, and the microbial counts (aerobic mesophiles, molds and yeasts). Additionally, during 12 days were evaluated physicochemical properties of the fruits (color, texture, pH, titratable acidity, weight loss and soluble solids). The results showed that the papaya fruits treated with the coating containing the propolis extract presented less deterioration in their appearance and greater inhibition growth of microorganisms during the first 6 days compared with control fruits; moreover, no differences among the coatings in relation to the physicochemical characteristics of the fruit were observed.

Elizabeth Barrera Bello; Marcela Gil Loaiza; Carlos Mario García Pajón; Diego Luis Durango Restrepo; Jesús Humberto Gil González

2012-01-01

146

Empleo de un Recubrimiento Formulado con Propóleos para el Manejo Poscosecha de Frutos de Papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Hawaiana)/ Use of a Coating Formulated with Propolis for Postharvest Handling of Papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Hawaiian) Fruits  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Resumen. El fruto de papaya es reconocido por las propiedades nutricionales y sensoriales; no obstante, su tiempo de vida útil en poscosecha es muy corto. En los últimos años, para incrementar la vida de almacenamiento del fruto se ha implementado el uso de recubrimientos como vehículos de agentes antimicrobianos y antioxidantes, entre otros. En este trabajo se comparó el efecto de dos recubrimientos; cera comercial (control) y cera comercial conteniendo un extracto (more) etanólico de propóleos (5% p/v), sobre la vida en poscosecha de frutos de papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Hawaiana) almacenados a temperatura ambiente (28 ± 2 ºC) y humedad relativa entre 65 y 70%. El efecto de los recubrimientos se determinó mediante el índice de deterioro de los frutos y el recuento microbiano (mesófilos aerobios, mohos y levaduras). Adicionalmente, se evaluaron durante 12 días las propiedades fisicoquímicas de los frutos (cambio de color, textura, pH, acidez total titulable, pérdida de peso y sólidos solubles). Los resultados mostraron que las papayas tratadas con el recubrimiento formulado con el extracto de propóleos, presentó un menor deterioro en cuanto a su apariencia y mayor inhibición del crecimiento de microorganismos durante los primeros 6 días de evaluación en comparación con los frutos control; además, no se observaron diferencias, producto de los recubrimientos, en relación a las características fisicoquímicas de los frutos. Abstract in english Abstract. Papaya fruit is known for the nutritional and sensory properties; however, its postharvest shelf life is very short. In recent years, to extend the storage life of this fruit, the use of coatings as a carrier of antimicrobial agents and antioxidants, has been implemented. In this work, the effect of two coatings, commercial wax (control) and commercial wax containing an ethanolic extract of propolis (5% w/v) on the postharvest of papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Haw (more) aiian) was compared. The fruits were stored at room temperature (28 ± 2 ºC) and a relative humidity between 65 and 70%. The effect of coatings was determined by the deterioration index of the fruit, and the microbial counts (aerobic mesophiles, molds and yeasts). Additionally, during 12 days were evaluated physicochemical properties of the fruits (color, texture, pH, titratable acidity, weight loss and soluble solids). The results showed that the papaya fruits treated with the coating containing the propolis extract presented less deterioration in their appearance and greater inhibition growth of microorganisms during the first 6 days compared with control fruits; moreover, no differences among the coatings in relation to the physicochemical characteristics of the fruit were observed.

Barrera Bello, Elizabeth; Gil Loaiza, Marcela; García Pajón, Carlos Mario; Durango Restrepo, Diego Luis; Gil González, Jesús Humberto

2012-06-01

147

Consumer in-store response to irradiated papayas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study, purchase behavior of California consumers in response to irradiated papayas is described. The papayas were shipped from Hawaii and irradiated in California under a permit by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service and approved by the California Department of Food and Agriculture. Results show that the superior appearance of the irradiated fruit appealed to consumers and that two-thirds or more of the people queried indicated that they would buy irradiated produce. It is noted that this marketing took place in a supportive environment with no protestors present. Informational material was available.

Bruhn, C.M.; Noell, J.W.

1987-09-01

148

Papaya fruit quality management during the postharvest supply chain  

Science.gov (United States)

Papayas are popular in tropical and subtropical regions and are being exported in large volumes to Europe, the U.S. and Japan. The fruit has excellent taste, exotic flavor and nutritional properties, being rich in vitamins A, C, and antioxidants. However, due to its highly perishable nature it has n...

149

Morfología de la flor y de la semilla de papaya (Carica papaya L.): variedad Maradol e híbrido Tainung-1/ Floral and seed morphology of papaya (Carica papaya L.): Maradol variety and Tainung-1 hybrid  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Con el objetivo de analizar la morfología de la flor y de la semilla de papaya (Carica papaya L.) de la variedad 'Maradol' y el híbrido 'Tainung-1', se recolectó el material vegetal en dos plantaciones y se llevaron al laboratorio de Fisiología de Cultivos, Facultad de Agronomía, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, con el fin de realizar las descripciones correspondientes de los tres tipos de flores (femeninas, hermafroditas y estaminadas) y de la semilla, sus (more) características externas (forma, tamaño, hilo, micrópilo, funículo, rafe y abierta seminal) e internas (cubierta seminal, endospermo y embrión). Se concluyó principalmente que a nivel morfológico las flores y semillas de los dos materiales evaluados mostraron características similares, por tanto, las descripciones dadas en este trabajo son generales para ambos. Abstract in english Vegetal material from papaya (Carica papaya L.) 'Maradol' variety and 'Tainung-1' hybrid were collected from two plantations and taken to the Plant Physiology laboratory to analyse their flower and seed morphology. Descriptions were made of the three types of flowers (female, hermaphrodite and staminate) and the seeds' external (shape, size, hilum, micropyle, funicle, raphe and testa) and internal characteristics (testa, endosperm and embryo). The main morphological concl (more) usion was that the flowers and seeds from the two types evaluated showed similar characteristics; the descriptions given in this paper are thus general for them.

Gil, Arlette Ivonne; Miranda, Diego

2005-07-01

150

Estimation of papaya leaf area using the central vein length  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Four genotypes of papaya (Carica papaya L.) two from the 'Solo' group (Sunrise Solo and Improved Sunrise Solo line 72/12) and two from the 'Formosa' group (Tainung 02 and Known-You 01), grown in Macaé, RJ, Brazil (lat. 22(0) 24' S, long. 41(0) 42' W), were used in this study. Twenty-five mature leaves from each genotype were sampled four and five months after seedling transplant to the field to determine the length of the leaf central vein (LLCV) and the leaf area (LA). According to covariance analyses there were no significant differences in the slope and intercept of the mathematical models calculated for each genotype. Thus, a single mathematical model (Log LA = 0.315 + 1.85 Log LLCV, R²=0.898) was adjusted to estimate the LA using the length of LLCV for the four genotypes. An unique model can be applied to estimate the LA for the four papaya genotypes using LLCV in the range from 0.25 to 0.60 m, and for papaya trees 150 to 180 days after transplanting.

Campostrini Eliemar; Yamanishi Osvaldo Kiyoshi

2001-01-01

151

Ecophysiology of papaya: a review/ Ecofisiologia do mamoeiro: uma revisão  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O mamoeiro (Carica papaya L.) é uma das principais culturas das regiões tropicais e subtropicais. O conhecimento das respostas dessa cultura aos fatores do ambiente pode fornecer bases científicas para traçarem-se estratégias de manejo que possam otimizar a produção e a qualidade dos frutos. Um melhor entendimento das respostas dos genótipos aos fatores específicos do ambiente poderá contribuir para um eficiente zoneamento agrícola e para futuros programas de m (more) elhoramento da espécie. Objetivou-se apresentar o estado-da-arte do conhecimento relacionado aos efeitos e à interação dos fatores ambientes sobre o processo fotossintético e a fisiologia da planta inteira. Nesta revisão, demonstra-se que os fatores do ambiente, como luz, vento, característica físicas e químicas do solo, temperatura, água no solo, umidade relativa, além de fatores bióticos, como fungos micorrízicos e o genótipo, podem afetar intensamente a produtividade e a fisiologia do mamoeiro. Uma compreensão da ação dos fatores do ambiente e suas interações com o processo fisiológico dessa espécie são de grande importância para a sustentabilidade econômica da produção do mamoeiro, em condições de viveiro e de campo. A partir de um manejo da cultura baseado em resultados científicos, será possível otimizar a assimilação fotossintética do carbono e elevar a qualidade e produção de frutos do mamoeiro. Abstract in english Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a principal horticultural crop of tropical and subtropical regions. Knowledge of how papaya responds to environmental factors provides a scientific basis for the development of management strategies to optimize fruit yield and quality. A better understanding of genotypic responses to specific environmental factors will contribute to efficient agricultural zoning and papaya breeding programs. The objective of this review is to present current r (more) esearch knowledge related to the effect of environmental factors and their interaction with the photosynthetic process and whole-plant physiology. This review demonstrates that environmental factors such as light, wind, soil chemical and physical characteristics, temperature, soil water, relative humidity, and biotic factors such as mycorrhizal fungi and genotype profoundly affect the productivity and physiology of papaya. An understanding of the environmental factors and their interaction with physiological processes is extremely important for economically sustainable production in the nursery or in the field. With improved, science-based management, growers will optimize photosynthetic carbon assimilation and increase papaya fruit productivity and quality.

Campostrini, Eliemar; Glenn, David M.

2007-12-01

152

Ecophysiology of papaya: a review Ecofisiologia do mamoeiro: uma revisão  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a principal horticultural crop of tropical and subtropical regions. Knowledge of how papaya responds to environmental factors provides a scientific basis for the development of management strategies to optimize fruit yield and quality. A better understanding of genotypic responses to specific environmental factors will contribute to efficient agricultural zoning and papaya breeding programs. The objective of this review is to present current research knowledge related to the effect of environmental factors and their interaction with the photosynthetic process and whole-plant physiology. This review demonstrates that environmental factors such as light, wind, soil chemical and physical characteristics, temperature, soil water, relative humidity, and biotic factors such as mycorrhizal fungi and genotype profoundly affect the productivity and physiology of papaya. An understanding of the environmental factors and their interaction with physiological processes is extremely important for economically sustainable production in the nursery or in the field. With improved, science-based management, growers will optimize photosynthetic carbon assimilation and increase papaya fruit productivity and quality.O mamoeiro (Carica papaya L.) é uma das principais culturas das regiões tropicais e subtropicais. O conhecimento das respostas dessa cultura aos fatores do ambiente pode fornecer bases científicas para traçarem-se estratégias de manejo que possam otimizar a produção e a qualidade dos frutos. Um melhor entendimento das respostas dos genótipos aos fatores específicos do ambiente poderá contribuir para um eficiente zoneamento agrícola e para futuros programas de melhoramento da espécie. Objetivou-se apresentar o estado-da-arte do conhecimento relacionado aos efeitos e à interação dos fatores ambientes sobre o processo fotossintético e a fisiologia da planta inteira. Nesta revisão, demonstra-se que os fatores do ambiente, como luz, vento, característica físicas e químicas do solo, temperatura, água no solo, umidade relativa, além de fatores bióticos, como fungos micorrízicos e o genótipo, podem afetar intensamente a produtividade e a fisiologia do mamoeiro. Uma compreensão da ação dos fatores do ambiente e suas interações com o processo fisiológico dessa espécie são de grande importância para a sustentabilidade econômica da produção do mamoeiro, em condições de viveiro e de campo. A partir de um manejo da cultura baseado em resultados científicos, será possível otimizar a assimilação fotossintética do carbono e elevar a qualidade e produção de frutos do mamoeiro.

Eliemar Campostrini; David M. Glenn

2007-01-01

153

Sensitivity of papaya seeds to gamma-irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The major problems faced by the papaya industry in Malaysia are the papaya ringspot virus disease and the short shelf-life of the fruit. Efforts have been made to address these problems and they include conventional breeding and selection and biotechnological tools for development of transgenic papayas with PRSV resistance and delayed fruit ripening characteristics. Irradiation-induced changes in papaya for selection of improved varieties could offer another approach to resolve these problems. As the first step, the radio-sensitivity of papaya seed must be established before mass irradiation of the materials to generate the desired variability for evaluation and selection later. For the first approximation dosage, the seeds of two local. varieties, Sekaki and Eksotika were irradiated as either dry seeds or as pre-germinated seeds (soaked overnight in water and surface-dried). The dosage ranged from 0 to 300 Gy. Wet pre-germinated seeds were all killed at 100 Gy while dry seeds did not show loss of viability even at 300 Gy. The dosage for dry seeds was raised to 1000 Gy in the following experiment and the LD 50 (or half-kill) was estimated to be 650 Gy. However, at this dosage, seedling growth was markedly reduced and this dosage may not be suitable for mass irradiation. From the growth data, it was estimated that 525 Gy was the dosage that reduced 50% of growth in height and this dosage was recommended for mass irradiation of dry seeds. For wet, pre-germinated seeds, results from the third experiment indicated that 42.5 Gy was the optimal dosage for mass irradiation. At this dosage, both seed germination and seedling growth was reduced by 50%. (Author)

2002-01-01

154

Anatomia foliar de plantas transgênicas e não transgênicas de Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae)/ Leaf anatomy of genetically modified and wild-type Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O mamoeiro, Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae) é uma espécie americana, cujos frutos são largamente consumidos em todo mundo. Devido às perdas de produção provocadas por viroses e a dificuldade em controlá-las por métodos convencionais, a espécie tem sido alvo de pesquisas de melhoramento genético envolvendo transgenia para resistência a vírus. O presente trabalho descreve a anatomia foliar de plantas de mamoeiro convencional e transgênico resistente ao vírus da (more) mancha anelar-Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) com inserção da capa protéica viral. As duas cultivares apresentam pecíolo com endoderme e fibras pericíclicas. As folhas são hipoestomáticas e dorsiventrais, com laticíferos acompanhando os feixes vasculares e grande concentração de idioblastos com drusas de oxalato de cálcio. A epiderme é glabra, possuindo estômatos anomocíticos e anisocíticos, com células de paredes anticlinais retas na face adaxial e levemente sinuosas na face abaxial. O presente trabalho concluiu que o processo de transformação genética não alterou as características anatômicas das folhas de C. papaya, servindo de subsídio para avaliação da conformidade anatômica da cultivar transgênica. Abstract in english Papaya, Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae), is an American species, consumed worldwide. A major limitation to papaya production is attack by viruses, like the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). Papaya has been genetically modified to increase its resistance to PRSV. The aim of this research was to compare the leaf anatomy of wild-type and genetically modified (GM) C. papaya plants to evaluate the influence of genetic modification on leaf anatomy. Wild-type and GM plants showed peti (more) ole with endodermis and pericycle fibers. The leaves are hypostomatic and dorsiventral, with laticifers along vascular system and abundant druses of calcium oxalate. The epidermis was glabrous and presented anomocytic and anisocytic stomata, straight anticlinal walls on the adaxial face and sinuous on the abaxial face. Anatomical differences between wild-type and GM C. papaya leaves were not observed. These data contribute to risk assessments regarding the anatomical conformity of GM plants.

Leal-Costa, Marcos Vinicius; Munhoz, Márcia; Meissner Filho, Paulo Ernesto; Reinert, Fernanda; Tavares, Eliana Schwartz

2010-06-01

155

[Identification and antagonistic activities of an endophytic bacterium MGP3 isolated from papaya fruit].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Postharvest decay resulted from anthracnose caused by pathogens Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and blight diseases caused by Phytophthora nicotianae leads to significant loss of papaya fruits. In order to reduce such loss, we isolated endophytic bacteria that may possess powerful antagonistic activities toward these pathogens for effective biological control of anthracnose and blight diseases. METHODS: The methods of dilution and inhibition circle were used for isolating and screening endophytic bacteria from papaya fruit. Based on morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics, and homology analysis of the partial sequence of 16S rDNA, an endophytic bacterium was identified. The colonization of the antagonistic endophyte in papaya was detected by inoculating suspension of strains in caudices of papaya plant after Rifampicin-resistant mutants (rif(r)) induction. The effects on diseases caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Phytophthora nicotianae were tested by preharvest and postharvest experiments. RESULTS: One of the endophytic bacteria named MGP3 was selected from the papaya pericarp and identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Accession No. JF708186). This bacterium was able to colonize in the laminae, leafstalk or pericarp of papaya, and strongly inhibit 10 phytopathogens. In the postharvest experiment, MGP3 inhibited 50% anthracnose and 71% blight of harvested papaya fruits. The application of MGP3 at five preharvest stages of papaya significantly reduced latent infection rate of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and disease index of anthracnose. CONCLUSION: Antagonistic endophytic bacterium MGP3 isolated from papaya fruit had potential application value as a biological control agent.

Shi J; Liu A; Li X; Chen W

2011-09-01

156

Effect of gamma irradiation in papaya (Carica papaya L.) harvested in three degrees of maturation.; Efeito da irradiacao gama em mamao papaia (Carica papaya L.) colhido em tres pontos de maturacao  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The papaya is a fragile tropical fruit with thin skin, susceptible to post harvest diseases and mechanical injuries. Furthermore, it is sensible to low temperatures and at normal conditions it ripens rapidly, increasing the difficulties with storage. The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of gamma irradiation in papayas harvested in three degrees of maturation, in order to increase shelf life. To accomplish that, papayas were harvested in perfect quality conditions, washed, submitted to carnauba wax and selected by skin coloration into three distinct degrees of maturation: Mat 0, or beginning of yellow coloration; Mat 1, yellow stripes more developed, and Mat 2, one third yellow. Half of them were submitted to irradiation with 0, 75 kGy, while the others became control treatment. They were analyzed in four different periods of conservation, which were 1 day after irradiation (DAI) refrigerated (11 +- 1 deg C), 14 DAI refrigerated, 14 DAI refrigerated + 3 at room temperature (RT = 24 deg +- 2 deg C) and 14 DAI refrigerated + 6 at RT. The effect of irradiation was not influenced by the maturation degree at harvest. Irradiation promoted firmness maintenance of papaya and, therefore, delayed ripening; modified the green color of papaya to a lighter tone, which determined more homogeneity in the skin yellow color development (greater values of L* and b*), and turned the papaya flesh color lighter (rower values of b*). There was no effect of irradiation in papaya weight loss, in the occurrence of diseases, in the development of surface yellow color, in the parameter a* of papaya skin color, in the parameters L*, a* and chroma of flesh color, p H and total soluble solids content. Visual and organoleptic sensorial tests were accomplished with papayas from a new delivery in the conservation period of 14 DAI refrigerated + 3 at RT. In the visual test was evaluated the appearance of papaya in the following treatments: Mat O control, Mat O irradiated, Mat 1 control, Mat 1 irradiated, Mat 2 control e Mat 2 irradiated, in which the first one received lower scores due to the occurrence of ratting on one of the papayas. In the organoleptic test, the parameters firmness, sweetness and acceptance were evaluated for the following treatments: control, Mat O irradiated, Mat 1 irradiated e Mat 2 irradiated. There was no difference between treatments for the sweetness parameter. The irradiated treatments received better scores for firmness as well as papayas irradiated at Mat 1 and 2 for acceptance (author)

Pimentel, Rodrigo Meirelles de Azevedo

2001-07-01

157

Estereotipos de género en la publicidad: un análisis de contenido de las revistas chilenas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cuando los valores masculinos tienen influencia dominante en una cultura, aquélla se ve reflejada en los estereotipos de género en la publicidad. Recíprocamente, estos estereotipos tienen un efecto sobre la socialización de los grupos y el posicionamiento de las marcas. En culturas con un bajo índice de masculinidad (Hofstede, 2001) como la cultura chilena, se esperaría una baja o nula estereotipación de género en la publicidad (An y Kim, 2007; Milner y Collins, 1998). Usando análisis de contenido, este estudio examina los estereotipos de género en la publicidad gráfica chilena. Específicamente, se analizan diez indicadores de estereotipación de género en la publicidad. Los resultados de este estudio revelan la existencia de estereotipos de género en la publicidad chilena en seis de los diez indicadores empleados.

Rodrigo Uribe; Enrique Manzur; Pedro Hidalgo; Rebeca Fernández

2008-01-01

158

La convergencia de las regiones chilenas, 1960-2009  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En el presente artículo se analizan cincuenta años de convergencia económica para las regiones de Chile, en un contexto de cambios políticos radicales asociados a profundas transformaciones económicas. Para el análisis de convergencia del PIB per cápita se consideraron los sub períodos 1960-1973, 1973-1989 y 1989-2009, mientras que para la variable productividad se consideraron los sub períodos 1976-1989 y 1989-2009. El análisis se llevó a cabo empleando las definiciones de convergencia ? absoluta y ? usando corte transversal y datos panel. Las estimaciones de panel concluyen un proceso de convergencia ? para todo el período 1960-2009 de 55 años para reducir la mitad de la brecha. Sin embargo, para el análisis de convergencia ? muestra una reducción de la dispersión en los cincuenta años, pero desacelerándose a partir de 1990. Adicionalmente, fueron estimadas las funciones de distribución de las variables PIB y productividad anuales usando kernels, evidenciándose una persistente desigualdad regional, especialmente desde 1985 en adelante, al observarse la formación del fenómeno de la bimodalidad, es decir, emerge una brecha entre ciertas regiones con mayores niveles de renta y otras con menores niveles. Los antecedentes cuantificados nos indican un lento ajuste a los cambios de las economías regionales y una escasa efectividad del mercado a la hora de solucionar las disparidades regionales. En consecuencia, la convergencia de las regiones chilenas es una asignatura pendiente en las políticas públicas de Chile

Alejandro Corvalán; Danilo Pezo

2012-01-01

159

Interacciones tempranas y género infantil en familias monoparentales chilenas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio transversal de las interacciones madre-hijo(a) en familias monoparentales chilenas de bajo ingresos, considerando las diferencias según el género infantil. Participan 80 díadas, con 39 niñas y 41 niños entre los 4 y 15 meses y se evalúa la calidad de las interacciones con el instrumento CARE-Index. Se observan altos puntajes en depresión y estrés materno, así como un promedio en la calidad de la interacción que indica necesidad de intervención, mostrando lo anterior vulnerabilidad en las díadas del estudio. Las díadas con infantes de género masculino muestran interacciones significativamente más difíciles con sus madres que las de género femenino, quienes a su vez muestran interacciones significativamente más pasivas que los infantes de género masculino. Los tamaños de efecto observados en las diferencias son medianos en ambos casos. Se observa también complementariedad en las conductas de madres e hijos(as), obteniéndose correlaciones positivas y significativas entre sensibilidad materna y cooperatividad infantil, control materno y las conductas difíciles de los infantes, así como entre la conducta no responsiva de las madres y la actitud pasiva en los niños(as). Se discuten los hallazgos a partir de las teorías existentes en relación a género infantil e interacciones tempranas, en el contexto de familias monoparentales a cargo de la madre.

Marcia Olhaberry Huber

2012-01-01

160

Cyanogenesis in glucosinolate-producing plants: Carica papaya and Carica quercifolia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Carica papaya, Carica quercifolia, Carica hastata, Caricaceae, Passifloraceae, Biosynthesis, Glucosinolates, Cyanohydrin glycosides, Cyanogenic glycosides, Prunasin, Tetraphyllin B, Cyclopentenylglycine

Olafsdottir, E.S.; JØrgensen, Lise Bolt

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

40 CFR 174.515 - Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement...Exemptions § 174.515 Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement...tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus are exempt from the...

2010-07-01

162

Construction of Papaya Male and Female BAC Libraries and Application in Physical Mapping of the Sex Chromosomes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Papaya is a major fruit crop in the tropics and has recently evolved sex chromosomes. Towards sequencing the papaya sex chromosomes, two bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries were constructed from papaya male and female genomic DNA. The female BAC library was constructed using restriction ...

Gschwend, Andrea R.; Yu, Qingyi; Moore, Paul; Saski, Christopher; Chen, Cuixia; Wang, Jianping; Na, Jong-Kuk; Ming, Ray

163

76 FR 49725 - Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Fresh Papaya Fruit From Malaysia into the...  

Science.gov (United States)

...To Authorize the Importation of Fresh Papaya Fruit From Malaysia into the Continental...the continental United States of fresh papaya fruit from Malaysia. Based on the findings...noxious weeds via the importation of fresh papaya fruit from Malaysia. DATES:...

2011-08-11

164

Papaya latex enzymes capable of detoxification of gliadin.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Assay of fractions obtained from ion exchange chromatography of papaya latex on CM Sephadex-C50, size exclusion chromatography on Sephacryl S-300 and size exclusion HPLC have provided an insight into the relative contributions of the gluten-detoxifying enzymes present. This outcome has been achieved by the use of the above chromatographic techniques, coupled with assays of lysosomal activity, protease activity using benzylarginine ethyl ester (BAEE) as substrate, prolyl endopeptidase (PEP) using glycylprolylnitroanilide and a prolidase assay using acetylprolylglycine. These procedures have shown that the activity in papaya latex is due largely to caricain and to a lesser extent, chymopapain and glutamine cyclotransferase. The presence of caricain and these other enzymes was confirmed by mass spectrometry of trypsin digests of the most active fraction obtained by CM Sephadex-C50 chromatography and size exclusion HPLC. Fractions rich in caricain would be suitable for enzyme therapy in gluten intolerance and appear to have synergistic action with porcine intestinal extracts.

Cornell HJ; Doherty W; Stelmasiak T

2010-01-01

165

Sensitivity of a real-time PCR method for the detection of transgenes in a mixture of transgenic and non-transgenic seeds of papaya (Carica papaya L.).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Genetically engineered (GE) ringspot virus-resistant papayas cultivars 'Rainbow' and 'SunUp' have been grown in Hawai'i for over 10 years. In Hawai'i, the introduction of GE papayas into regions where non-GE cultivars are grown and where feral non-GE papayas exist have been accompanied with concerns associated with transgene flow. Of particular concern is the possibility of transgenic seeds being found in non-GE papaya fruits via cross-pollination. Development of high-throughput methods to reliably detect the adventitious presence of such transgenic material would benefit both the scientific and regulatory communities. RESULTS: We assessed the accuracy of using conventional qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as well as real-time PCR-based assays to quantify the presence of transgenic DNA from bulk samples of non-GE papaya seeds. In this study, an optimized method of extracting high quality DNA from dry seeds of papaya was standardized. A reliable, sensitive real-time PCR method for detecting and quantifying viral coat protein (cp) transgenes in bulk seed samples utilizing the endogenous papain gene is presented. Quantification range was from 0.01 to 100 ng/mul of GE-papaya DNA template with a detection limit as low as 0.01% (10 pg). To test this system, we simulated transgene flow using known quantities of GE and non-GE DNA and determined that 0.038% (38 pg) GE papaya DNA could be detected using real-time PCR. We also validated this system by extracting DNA from known ratios of GE seeds to non-GE seeds of papaya followed by real-time PCR detection and observed a reliable detection limit of 0.4%. CONCLUSIONS: This method for the quick and sensitive detection of transgenes in bulked papaya seed lots using conventional as well as real-time PCR-based methods will benefit numerous stakeholders. In particular, this method could be utilized to screen selected fruits from maternal non-GE papaya trees in Hawai'i for the presence of transgenic seed at typical regulatory threshold levels. Incorporation of subtle differences in primers and probes for variations in cp worldwide should allow this method to be utilized elsewhere when and if deregulation of transgenic papaya occurs.

Nageswara-Rao M; Kwit C; Agarwal S; Patton MT; Skeen JA; Yuan JS; Manshardt RM; Stewart CN Jr

2013-09-01

166

A bio-hybrid anaerobic treatment of papaya processing wastes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hybrid anaerobic treatment of papaya processing wastes is technically feasible. At 30/sup 0/C, the optimal organic loading rates for maximizing organic removal efficiency and methane production are 1.3 and 4.8 g TCOD/1/day, respectively. Elimination of post-handling and treatment of digested effluent can also be achieved. The system is more suitable for those processing plants with a waste amount of more than 3,000 metric tons per year.

Yang, P.Y.; Chou, C.Y.

1987-01-01

167

Evaluación de accesiones cubanas de papaya (Carica papaya L.) ante la mancha anular/ Avaliação de acessos cubanos de mamão papaya (carica papaya L.) à mancha anelar/ Assessment of Cuban papaya (Carica papaya L.) accessions against ringspot  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Os acessos de mamão Tallo morado de Nava, Amarilla de Duaba, Amarilla de Nava e Sapote de Pilón foram coletados em diferentes regiões de Cuba e plantados em condições de campo em Jagüey Grande, Matanzas - Cuba. Nestas plantas foram avaliadas a presença e intensidade dos sintomas de mancha anelar, usando uma escala graduada de 1-5. Os resultados mostraram um aumento, com o tempo, na proporção de plantas afetadas em todos os acessos. O acesso Amarilla de Duaba apre (more) sentou sintomas dois meses após a primeira avaliação (MDPE), enquanto para os restantes foram observados sintomas após cinco MDPE, contudo em proporções diferentes entre eles. Aos sete MDPE os acessos Amarilla de Duaba e Amarilla de Nava, apresentaram proporções iguais de plantas doentes, enquanto Tallo morado de Nava e Sapote de Pilon apresentaram menores proporções. O aumento da intensidade dos sintomas foi diferente nos órgãos da planta na seguinte ordem: caule (1,7-2,66), pecíolos (2,21-3,03) e folhagens (3,44-4,03). Nos frutos a intensidade dos sintomas observados foi inferior a 2,5, considerada leve em função da sua intensidade e distribuição. Estes são os primeiros resultados sobre a susceptibilidade a mancha anelar destes acessos, sendo muito úteis para os produtores, bem como para os programas de melhoramento do país. Abstract in spanish Se colectaron en diferentes regiones de Cuba semillas de las accesiones de papayo Tallo Morado de Nava, Amarilla de Duaba, Amarilla de Nava y Sapote de Pilón. Estas se plantaron en condiciones de campo en Jagüey Grande, Matanzas - Cuba, donde se evaluó la presencia e intensidad de síntomas de mancha anular, siguiendo una escala graduada del 1 al 5. Los resultados mostraron un incremento temporal de la proporción de plantas afectadas en todas las accesiones. La accesi (more) ón Amarilla de Duaba mostró los síntomas a los dos meses después de la primera evaluación (MDPE), mientras que el resto lo hizo a los cinco MDPE, aunque con proporciones que variaron entre ellas. A los siete MDPE las accesiones Amarilla de Duaba y Amarilla de Nava mostraron proporciones idénticas de plantas enfermas, mientras que Tallo morado de Nava y Sapote de Pilón mostraron proporciones inferiores. La intensidad de los síntomas se incrementó en los diferentes órganos siguiendo el siguiente orden: tallo (1,7 a 2,66), pecíolos (2,21 a 3,03) y follaje (3,44-4,03). En los frutos la intensidad de los síntomas observados fue inferior a 2,5, considerados como leves de acuerdo a su intensidad y distribución. Se ofrecen los primeros resultados sobre la susceptibilidad a la mancha anular de estas accesiones, siendo de gran utilidad para los productores, así como para los programas de mejoramiento genético en el país. Abstract in english The papaya accessions "Tallo morado de Nava", "Amarilla de Duaba", "Amarilla de Nava" and "Sapote de Pilón" were collected from different regions of Cuba and planted under field conditions in Jagüey Grande, Matanzas - Cuba. These plants were assessed for the presence and intensity of ringspot symptoms, using a graduated scale of 1-5. Results showed an increase, with time, in the proportion of affected plants for all accessions. The accession "Amarilla de Duaba" had symp (more) toms two months after the first assessment (MAFA), while for the remaining accessions, symptoms were noted after only five MAFA but at proportions that differed among them. At seven MAFA, the accessions "Amarilla de Duaba" and "Amarilla de Nava" had proportions equal to those of diseased plants, while "Tallo morado de Nava" and "Sapote de Pilon" showed lower proportions. The increase in symptom intensity was different for the plant organs in the following order: stem (1.7-2.66), petioles (2.21-3.03) and leaves (3.44-4.03). For fruits, the intensity of the observed symptoms was inferior to 2.5, considered light based on their intensity and distributions. These are the first results about ringspot susceptibility for these accessions, which are highly us

Rodríguez, Douglas; Alonso, Maruchy; Tornet, Yoel; Valero, Lázaro; Lorenzetti, Emi Rainildes; Pérez, Romualdo

2013-03-01

168

Organelle DNA accumulation in the recently evolved papaya sex chromosomes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sex chromosomes are a pair of specialized chromosomes containing a sex determination region that is suppressed for recombination. Without recombination, Y chromosomes are thought to accumulate repetitive DNA sequences which contribute to their degeneration. A pair of primitive sex chromosomes controls sex type in papaya with male and hermaphrodite determined by the slightly different male-specific region of the Y (MSY) and hermaphrodite-specific region of Y(h) (HSY) chromosomes, respectively. Here, we show that the papaya HSY and MSY in the absence of recombination have accumulated nearly 12 times the amount of chloroplast-derived DNA than the corresponding region of the X chromosome and 4 times the papaya genome-wide average. Furthermore, a chloroplast genome fragment containing the rsp15 gene has been amplified 23 times in the HSY, evidence of retrotransposon-mediated duplication. Surprisingly, mitochondria-derived sequences are less abundant in the X and HSY compared to the whole genome. Shared organelle integrations are sparse between X and HSY, with only 11 % of chloroplast and 12 % of mitochondria fragments conserved, respectively, suggesting that the accelerated accumulation of organelle DNA occurred after the HSY was suppressed for recombination. Most of the organelle-derived sequences have divergence times of <7 MYA, reinforcing this notion. The accumulated chloroplast DNA is evidence of the slow degeneration of the HSY.

VanBuren R; Ming R

2013-06-01

169

Organelle DNA accumulation in the recently evolved papaya sex chromosomes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sex chromosomes are a pair of specialized chromosomes containing a sex determination region that is suppressed for recombination. Without recombination, Y chromosomes are thought to accumulate repetitive DNA sequences which contribute to their degeneration. A pair of primitive sex chromosomes controls sex type in papaya with male and hermaphrodite determined by the slightly different male-specific region of the Y (MSY) and hermaphrodite-specific region of Y(h) (HSY) chromosomes, respectively. Here, we show that the papaya HSY and MSY in the absence of recombination have accumulated nearly 12 times the amount of chloroplast-derived DNA than the corresponding region of the X chromosome and 4 times the papaya genome-wide average. Furthermore, a chloroplast genome fragment containing the rsp15 gene has been amplified 23 times in the HSY, evidence of retrotransposon-mediated duplication. Surprisingly, mitochondria-derived sequences are less abundant in the X and HSY compared to the whole genome. Shared organelle integrations are sparse between X and HSY, with only 11 % of chloroplast and 12 % of mitochondria fragments conserved, respectively, suggesting that the accelerated accumulation of organelle DNA occurred after the HSY was suppressed for recombination. Most of the organelle-derived sequences have divergence times of <7 MYA, reinforcing this notion. The accumulated chloroplast DNA is evidence of the slow degeneration of the HSY. PMID:23636354

VanBuren, Robert; Ming, Ray

2013-05-01

170

A rapid detection for irradiated fresh papayas using ESR spectroscopy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The detections of radicals induced in irradiated both fresh and dried papayas were carried out at liquid nitrogen and room temperature using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. Fresh papayas irradiated by the ?-rays were separated into flesh and skin that subjected to the ESR detection. The ESR spectra of the specimen at liquid-nitrogen temperature were observed clearly at a week after the ?-irradiation. Those signals were consisted from main peak at g=2.000 and side peaks at g=2.018 and 1.982. They showed a linear response against the dose. Furthermore, the side peaks from freeze-dried papaya flesh stored at 4degC were observed clearly at two weeks after the ?-irradiation. Those signals also showed the linear dose-response. The detection scheme for irradiated fresh fruits can be done by two stages: 1) A screening test of ESR signals at liquid nitrogen temperature using fresh samples. 2) A room temperature ESR measurement using freeze-dry samples. (author)

2011-01-01

171

Dengue fever treatment with Carica papaya leaves extracts.  

Science.gov (United States)

The main objective of the current study is to investigate the potential of Carica papaya leaves extracts against Dengue fever in 45 year old patient bitten by carrier mosquitoes. For the treatment of Dengue fever the extract was prepared in water. 25 mL of aqueous extract of C. papaya leaves was administered to patient infected with Dengue fever twice daily i.e. morning and evening for five consecutive days. Before the extract administration the blood samples from patient were analyzed. Platelets count (PLT), White Blood Cells (WBC) and Neutrophils (NEUT) decreased from 176×10(3)/µL, 8.10×10(3)/µL, 84.0% to 55×10(3)/µL, 3.7×10(3)/µL and 46.0%. Subsequently, the blood samples were rechecked after the administration of leaves extract. It was observed that the PLT count increased from 55×10(3)/µL to 168×10(3)/µL, WBC from 3.7×10(3)/µL to 7.7×10(3)/µL and NEUT from 46.0% to 78.3%. From the patient feelings and blood reports it showed that Carica papaya leaves aqueous extract exhibited potential activity against Dengue fever. Furthermore, the different parts of this valuable specie can be further used as a strong natural candidate against viral diseases. PMID:23569787

Ahmad, Nisar; Fazal, Hina; Ayaz, Muhammad; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Mohammad, Ijaz; Fazal, Lubna

2011-08-01

172

Hypoglycemic effect of Carica papaya leaves in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditional plant treatment for diabetes has shown a surging interest in the last few decades. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the hypoglycemic effect of the aqueous extract of C. papaya leaves in diabetic rats. Several studies have reported that some parts of the C. papaya plant exert hypoglycemic effects in both animals and humans. Methods Diabetes was induced in rats by intraperitoneal administration of 60 mg/kg of streptozotocin (STZ). The aqueous extract of C. papaya was administered in three different doses (0.75, 1.5 and 3 g/100 mL) as drinking water to both diabetic and non-diabetic animals during 4 weeks. Results The aqueous extract of Carica papaya (0.75 g and 1.5 g/100 mL) significantly decreased blood glucose levels (pC. papaya could help islet regeneration manifested as preservation of cell size. In the liver of diabetic treated rats, C. papaya prevented hepatocyte disruption, as well as accumulation of glycogen and lipids. Finally, an antioxidant effect of C. papaya extract was also detected in diabetic rats. Conclusions This study showed that the aqueous extract of C. papaya exerted a hypoglycemic and antioxidant effect; it also improved the lipid profile in diabetic rats. In addition, the leaf extract positively affected integrity and function of both liver and pancreas.

Juárez-Rojop Isela Esther; Díaz-Zagoya Juan C; Ble-Castillo Jorge L; Miranda-Osorio Pedro H; Castell-Rodríguez Andrés E; Tovilla-Zárate Carlos A; Rodríguez-Hernández Arturo; Aguilar-Mariscal Hidemi; Ramón-Frías Teresa; Bermúdez-Ocaña Deysi Y

2012-01-01

173

Evaluating Hawaii-Grown Papaya for Resistance to Internal Yellowing Disease Caused by Enterobacter cloacae  

Science.gov (United States)

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) cultivars and breeding lines were evaluated for resistance to Enterobacter cloacae (Jordan) Hormaeche & Edwards, the bacterial causal agent of internal yellowing disease (IY), using a range of concentrations of the bacterium. Linear regression analysis was performed and IY ...

174

Molecular characterization and infectivity of Papaya leaf curl China virus infecting tomato in China*  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Papaya leaf curl China virus (PaLCuCNV) was previously reported as a distinct begomovirus infecting papaya in southern China. Based on molecular diagnostic survey, 13 PaLCuCNV isolates were obtained from tomato plants showing leaf curl symptoms in Henan and Guangxi Provinces of China. Complete nucle...

Zhang, Hui; Ma, Xin-ying; Qian, Ya-juan; Zhou, Xue-ping

175

Radiacao gama como um processo quarentenario para Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) e Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied., 1830) (Diptera: tephritidae) em mamao papaya (Carica papaya L.) cultivar sunrise solo. (Gamma radiation use as a quarantine treatment for Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) and Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied., 1830) in papaya fruits (Carica papaya, Linnaeus), cultivar sunrise solo).  

Science.gov (United States)

The gamma irradiation as treatment for control of the immature stages of fruit flies, C. capitata and A. fraterculus in papaya fruits, cultivar Sunrise Solo is studied. The gamma rays attenuation was observed by one and two papaya fruits placed between so...

J. T. Faria

1989-01-01

176

Screening of Antagonistic Bacteria for Biocontrol Activities on Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in Papaya  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Of the 27 antagonistic bacteria isolated from the fructosphere of papaya and screened by dual and concomitant test, four isolates of bacteria (B23, B19, B04 and B15) had high antagonistic activities against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides of papaya. Using the Biolog system, isolates B23 and B1...

M.A. Rahman; J. Kadir; T.M.M. Mahmud; R. Abdul Rahman; M.M. Begum

177

Detection of Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus by reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV) can infect transgenic papaya resistant to a related pathogen, Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), posing a substantial threat to papaya production in China. Current detection methods, however, are unable to be used for rapid detection in the field. Here, a reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed for the detection of PLDMV, using a set of four RT-LAMP primers designed based on the conserved sequence of PLDMV CP. The RT-LAMP method detected specifically PLDMV and was highly sensitive, with a detection limit of 1.32×10(-6)?g of total RNA per reaction. Indeed, the reaction was 10 times more sensitive than one-step RT-PCR, while also requiring significantly less time and equipment. The effectiveness of RT-LAMP and one-step RT-PCR in detecting the virus were compared using 90 field samples of non-transgenic papaya and 90 field samples of commercialized PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya from Hainan Island. None of the non-transgenic papaya tested positive for PLDMV using either method. In contrast, 19 of the commercialized PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya samples tested positive by RT-LAMP assay, and 6 of those tested negative by RT-PCR. Therefore, the PLDMV-specific RT-LAMP is a simple, rapid, sensitive, and cost-effective tool in the field diagnosis and control of PLDMV.

Shen W; Tuo D; Yan P; Li X; Zhou P

2013-10-01

178

The Papaya Y Chromosome Evolved Recently and Shows Gene Paucity and DNA Sequence Expansion  

Science.gov (United States)

Sex chromosomes in flowering plants, in contrast to those in animals, evolved relatively recently and only a few are heteromorphic. At cytological level, the sex chromosomes of papaya appear homomorphic, nevertheless, we are finding the papaya Y chromosome shows features of incipient sex chromosome ...

179

Reguladores vegetais na quebra da dominância apical de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L.) Plant growth regulators on breaking apical dominance in papaya plants (Carica papaya L.)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O trabalho avaliou os efeitos de reguladores vegetais sobre a quebra da dominância apical de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L. cv. Improved Sunrise Solo). A aplicação dos reguladores vegetais foi iniciada quando as plantas tinham seis meses de idade, totalizando três aplicações, a intervalos de sete dias, constando dos seguintes tratamentos: T1- água (testemunha); T2- GA3 250 mg L-1; T3- GA3 500 mg L-1; T4- benziladenina (BA) 250 mg L-1; T5- BA 500 mg L-1; T6- GA3 125 mg L-1 + BA 125 mg L-1; T7- GA3 250 mg L-1 + BA 250 mg L-1. Esses tratamentos foram acompanhados da remoção ou não da gema apical. Os resultados mostraram que plantas tratadas com GA3 + BA a 125 e 250 mg L-1, com e sem a remoção da gema apical, apresentaram maior número de brotações que a testemunha, a qual não apresentou nenhuma brotação das gemas laterais.The objective of this work was to study the effects of gibberelin and cytokinin on breaking apical dominance and axillary buds growth of the Carica papaya L. Papaya plants sprayed three times within a period of 7 days, with the following treatments: T1- water (control), T2- GA3 250 mg L-1, T3- GA3 500 mg L-1, T4- benzyladenine (BA) 250 mg L-1, T5- BA 500 mg L-1, T6- GA3 125 mg L-1 + BA 125 mg L-1, T7- GA3 250 mg L-1 + BA 250 mg L-1. The treatments were carried out with or without removal of the apical buds. After 36 days of the last plant growth regulators application was observed lateral bud numbers, lateral buds length and lateral buds diameter. The results showed that there were a higher number of shoots in plants treated with GA3 at 125 mg L-1 + BA at 125 mg L-1 and GA3 at 250mg L-1 + BA at 250 mg L-1. The removal of the apical bud helped the sprouting of the papaya plants.

Elizabeth Orika Ono; José Francisco Grana Júnior; João Domingos Rodrigues

2004-01-01

180

Reguladores vegetais na quebra da dominância apical de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L.)/ Plant growth regulators on breaking apical dominance in papaya plants (Carica papaya L.)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O trabalho avaliou os efeitos de reguladores vegetais sobre a quebra da dominância apical de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L. cv. Improved Sunrise Solo). A aplicação dos reguladores vegetais foi iniciada quando as plantas tinham seis meses de idade, totalizando três aplicações, a intervalos de sete dias, constando dos seguintes tratamentos: T1- água (testemunha); T2- GA3 250 mg L-1; T3- GA3 500 mg L-1; T4- benziladenina (BA) 250 mg L-1; T5- BA 500 mg L-1; T6- GA3 125 mg (more) L-1 + BA 125 mg L-1; T7- GA3 250 mg L-1 + BA 250 mg L-1. Esses tratamentos foram acompanhados da remoção ou não da gema apical. Os resultados mostraram que plantas tratadas com GA3 + BA a 125 e 250 mg L-1, com e sem a remoção da gema apical, apresentaram maior número de brotações que a testemunha, a qual não apresentou nenhuma brotação das gemas laterais. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to study the effects of gibberelin and cytokinin on breaking apical dominance and axillary buds growth of the Carica papaya L. Papaya plants sprayed three times within a period of 7 days, with the following treatments: T1- water (control), T2- GA3 250 mg L-1, T3- GA3 500 mg L-1, T4- benzyladenine (BA) 250 mg L-1, T5- BA 500 mg L-1, T6- GA3 125 mg L-1 + BA 125 mg L-1, T7- GA3 250 mg L-1 + BA 250 mg L-1. The treatments were carried out with or (more) without removal of the apical buds. After 36 days of the last plant growth regulators application was observed lateral bud numbers, lateral buds length and lateral buds diameter. The results showed that there were a higher number of shoots in plants treated with GA3 at 125 mg L-1 + BA at 125 mg L-1 and GA3 at 250mg L-1 + BA at 250 mg L-1. The removal of the apical bud helped the sprouting of the papaya plants.

Ono, Elizabeth Orika; Grana Júnior, José Francisco; Rodrigues, João Domingos

2004-08-01

 
 
 
 
181

ANÁLISIS DE CONSULTAS A UN BUSCADOR DE LA WEB CHILENA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Los buscadores de páginas Web son herramientas indispensables de orientación para sus usuarios, lo cual refleja la gran cantidad de personas que los utilizan diariamente. Las bitácoras (logs) que registran el uso de un buscador son una valiosa fuente de información: nos hablan de las expectativas, preferencias y necesidades de las personas, es decir, qué esperan ellas encontrar en la Web. El resultado del análisis de logs de uso tiene un importante valor comercial, en particular para el comercio electrónico y la publicidad en Internet. El objetivo de este estudio es encontrar relaciones entre las consultas de los usuarios de la Web Chilena (.cl) y las diversas áreas de clasificación de sus diferentes sitios. También se esperan encontrar relaciones entre los tipos de búsqueda realizados y los sitios visitados, para así conocer la necesidad que los lleva a formular sus consultas. La información obtenida está basada en los logs del buscador chileno TodoCL [1] entre febrero y marzo de 2004.Web page search engines are essential tools on users’ orientation, which is reflected by the big amount of people who are using them every day. The logs, reflecting the Web search engine uses, are a valuable source of information: they give us information about the users’ expectations, preferences and needs, which is everything that they expect to find on the Web. The results from the logs usage analysis have an important commercial value, in particular, for e-commerce and Internet publicity. The purpose of this study is to find relations between Chilean Web (.cl) users’ queries and the different classification areas for its web sites. Also we expect to find relations between the search types made and the web sites visited, trying to get the need behind the query . The data used for this study was gotten from the Chilean search engine TodoCL, between February and March 2004.

Ricardo Baeza-Yates; Carolina Galleguillos

2005-01-01

182

Effect of heat treatment on ethylene and CO2 emissions rates during papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit ripening  

Science.gov (United States)

Ripening studies of nontreated and treated papaya (papaya L) are accomplished by monitoring the ethylene and CO2 emission rates of that climacteric fruit, to evaluate its shelf life. The treatments simulate the commercial Phitosanitarian process used to avoid the fly infestation. Ethylene emission was measured using a commercial CO2 laser driven photoacoustic setup and CO2, using a commercial gas analysis also based on the photothermal effect. The results show a marked change in ethylene and CO2 emission rate pattern for treated fruits when compared to the ones obtained for nontreated fruits and a displacement of the climacteric pick shown that the treatment causes a decrease of shelf life of fruit.

da Silva, M. G.; Santos, E. O.; Sthel, M. S.; Cardoso, S. L.; Cavalli, A.; Monteiro, A. R.; de Oliveira, J. G.; Pereira, M. G.; Vargas, H.

2003-01-01

183

Histopathological changes in Wistar albino rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Exposure of animals to xenobiotics may or may not trigger adverse response at cellular levels. Aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya is consumed by sickle cell patients as antisickling agent in Western Nigeria. Aim: This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of Carica papaya on certain organs in Wister albino rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya. Materials and Methods: Different doses of aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya were administered orally daily for 42 days to six groups of rats. At the end of exposure, the animals were sacrificed and tissue sections were prepared from livers, kidneys, hearts and small intestines using standard techniques. Results: Histopathological results showed that no pathological changes were observed in tissue sections of experimental animals when compared with tissue sections of the same organs in control animals. Conclusion: No pathological changes were elicited in the organs of rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya.

Taofeeq Oduola; Ibrahim Bello; Thomas Idowu; Godwin Avwioro; Luqman Olatubosun; Ganiyu Adeosun

2010-01-01

184

Evaluation of platelet augmentation activity of Carica papaya leaf aqueous extract in rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Carica papaya leaves have been used traditionally to treat indigestion, as a vermifuge. Carica papayaleaves have also been shown to possess anti-tumor and immunomodulatory effects. The current study aims at determining the effect of Carica papaya leaves aqueous extract in increasing the platelet count in thrombocytopenic rat model. Aqueous extract of Carica papaya leaves at concentration of 400mg/kg and 800mg/kg were given to cyclophosphamide induced thrombocytopenic rats for a period of fifteen days. Blood was withdrawn at various time intervals to determine the platelet count. Also, the clotting time was determined on the 15th day of the study by capillary method. Carica papaya leaf extract was found to increase the platelet count and also to decrease the clotting time in rats. The study aims at determining the possible effects of papaya leaves in thrombocytopenia occurring in dengue fever.

Swati Patil; Supritha Shetty; Rama Bhide; Shridhar Narayanan

2013-01-01

185

Hurdle technology to preserve the 'Golden' papaya post harvest quality  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the purpose of evaluating a combination of post harvest techniques on papaya Golden storage, the following treatments were investigated: carton boxes packaging (CP); CP + plastic bag of PEBD - low density polyethylene film, with 0.05mm of thickness (PE); CP + PEBD with 0.025mm of thickness impregnated with mineral ethylene scavenger (PEAbs); gamma-irradiation (0.4 kGy and 0.7 kGy); and refrigerated storage at 10 deg C e 90% of relative humidity for 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 days plus five days under environmental conditions to allow ripening and to simulate the product marketing. To evaluate the effects on fruit quality the following measurements were taken: - first experiment, disease incidence, skin color and loss of turgidity (as visual variables); skin and flesh color, weight loss, flesh firmness, total soluble solids, total titratable acidity, pH, lycopene and beta-carotene composition; - second experiment, sensorial analysis on samples submitted to the treatments with better results from the first experiment. Post harvest diseases were the main factor responsible for discarding fruits. Percentage of weight loss was higher on papayas stored without plastic packaging. Time affected the flesh firmness (F = 95%). However, there wasn't influence of the treatments on that parameter. A significant effect on skin color was observed with interaction between irradiation (0.4 and 0.7 kGy) and storage period. Once reached the edible stage, irradiated papayas presented more uniformity on skin color. For beta-carotene and Lycopene, the mean values were 1.27 to 1.79 and 19.16 to 23.90 mug/ml of flesh, respectively. But those substances weren't affected by the combined methods or the time. The same behavior were observed for total soluble solids, total titratable acidity and pH (mean values of 11.53 to 12.20 deg Brix, 0.117 to 0.136 g of citric acid/100g of flesh and 4.91 to 5.04, respectively). On sensory evaluation, the judges didn't get to detect significant differences among papayas submitted to different treatments. A synergism was verified on the techniques combination, with the best results obtained from the association of CP + PEabs + gamma-irradiation at 0.4 kGy, which reached a total storage period of 35 days. Thus, that is the post harvest hurdle technology recommend for exporting 'Golden' papayas to markets with quarantine restrictions to fruit-flies (author)

2007-01-01

186

Potencial antifúngico de extractos de cuatro especies vegetales sobre el crecimiento de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides en papaya (Carica papaya) en poscosecha  

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Full Text Available El manejo de antracnosis por Colletotrichum gloeosporioides es el problema más importante en poscosecha de frutos tropicales. La actividad antifúngica de diferentes extractos vegetales fue evaluada in vitro e in vivo para controlar la antracnosis poscosecha en papaya. Extractos de ajo (Allium sativum) (10 y 15 %) y canela (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) (0,0050; 0,0100; 0,0150 %) mostraron efecto fungicida en contra de C. gloeosporioides para supresión de crecimiento micelial (100 %), inhibición de germinación (100 %) y esporulación del hongo (100 %), considerándose estos extractos como los más promisorios para inhibir el desarrollo del hongo in vitro. Estudios in vivo también revelaron que los extracto de ajo (11,74 %) y canela a dosis de 0,0054 % aplicada antes y al mismo tiempo de la inoculación con C. gloeosporioides, fueron las dosis óptimas para el control (severidad) de la antracnosis en frutos de papaya artificialmente inoculados, mientras que a mayores dosis la severidad aumentó. La variable fitotoxicidad arrojó resultados consistentes con lo anterior, comprobándose que al aumentar las dosis de extracto de canela se presentó cambio de color en los frutos. Los resultados sugieren la posibilidad de usar estos extractos a dosis adecuadas como biofungicidas para controlar antracnosis en papaya en poscosecha.

Nadia Landero Valenzuela; Daniel Nieto Ángel; Daniel Téliz Ortiz; Raquel Alatorre Rosas; Mario Orozco Santos; Carlos Fredy Ortiz García

2013-01-01

187

Heat shock and gamma radiation in the quarantine process of Papaya CV. Solo(Carica papaya L.)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: To export, it is not only necessary to achieve quality standards, but also, quarantine standards. The main function of irradiation is quarantine control of fruit flies, therefore it is necessary to combine with treatments which focus at keeping fruit quality. The objective of this work was the evaluation of the quality of papaya submitted to heat treatment followed by irradiation at quarantine doses. Papayas were selected green and separated in treatments: a) control; irradiation at doses; b) 250, c) 500 Gy; d) hot water at 60 deg C for 30 seconds; and combined to doses e) 250, f) 500 Gy. The papayas were stored at 21 (± 1 deg C) with relative humidity of 85 - 90%, and then after 8 days, they were evaluated by their soluble solid content, pH, titratable acidity, firmness, decay index and internal color. The analysis of mass loss and external color were executed at 0, 2, 4 and 7 days after irradiation. It was observed that in fruits submitted to hot water (d, e, f) there were less decay and in combined treatments (e, f) it was verified higher firmness. In the second day, irradiated treatments (b, c, e, f) were more yellow than the others. As to the other parameters evaluated, there were no differences between treatments (author)

2007-10-05

188

Heat shock and gamma radiation in the quarantine process of Papaya CV. Solo(Carica papaya L.)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Full text: To export, it is not only necessary to achieve quality standards, but also, quarantine standards. The main function of irradiation is quarantine control of fruit flies, therefore it is necessary to combine with treatments which focus at keeping fruit quality. The objective of this work was the evaluation of the quality of papaya submitted to heat treatment followed by irradiation at quarantine doses. Papayas were selected green and separated in treatments: a) control; irradiation at doses; b) 250, c) 500 Gy; d) hot water at 60 deg C for 30 seconds; and combined to doses e) 250, f) 500 Gy. The papayas were stored at 21 ({+-} 1 deg C) with relative humidity of 85 - 90%, and then after 8 days, they were evaluated by their soluble solid content, pH, titratable acidity, firmness, decay index and internal color. The analysis of mass loss and external color were executed at 0, 2, 4 and 7 days after irradiation. It was observed that in fruits submitted to hot water (d, e, f) there were less decay and in combined treatments (e, f) it was verified higher firmness. In the second day, irradiated treatments (b, c, e, f) were more yellow than the others. As to the other parameters evaluated, there were no differences between treatments (author)

Pimentel, Rodrigo M.A.; Walder, Julio M.M. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: rmapiment@cena.usp.br; jmwalder@cena.usp.br; Marcondes, Yvens E.M. [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: yvensmar@unimep.br

2007-07-01

189

Sales de calcio mejoran vida de anaquel y aceptabilidad general de papaya (Carica papaya L. var. Maradol) fresca cortada  

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Full Text Available Las tendencias actuales de los consumidores por alimentos sanos y de conveniencia promueven un mayor consumo de frutas y hortalizas, donde destacan productos frescos cortados. Sin embargo, por su naturaleza estos productos pueden ser muy susceptibles a diferentes alteraciones que afectan su calidad. El uso de aditivos como sales de calcio representa una alternativa tecnológica para mantener, o incluso mejorar, la calidad durante su vida de anaquel. Por lo anterior el objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar el efecto de sales de calcio en papaya fresca cortada sobre la calidad física, química, microbiológica, nutracéutica y sensorial. Cubos de papaya, variedad Maradol (2 cm de arista) fueron tratados con lactato y cloruro de calcio al 1,0 y 3,0 %, bajo condiciones de inmersión por 2 min a 40 °C. Las muestras tratadas fueron colocadas en vasos de polietileno tereftalato (PET) de 500 mL con tapa, y almacenadas por 8 días a 5 °C. En comparación con los frutos testigo, los tratamientos a base de calcio demostraron mejorar la firmeza (~ 8 N), principalmente los frutos tratados con cloruro de calcio al 3,0 %. Por otra parte, la calidad nutracéutica (fenólicos totales) no se vio afectada por el uso de sales de calcio, mientras que las evaluaciones microbiológicas demuestran condiciones de inocuidad conforme a normatividad. Se sugiere el uso de cloruro de calcio para fines de comercializar papaya fresca cortada.

Nayely Leyva López; J. Basilio Heredia; Laura Aracely Contreras Angulo; María Dolores Muy Rangel; Juan Pedro Campos Sauceda; Irma González Lizarraga

2011-01-01

190

Estudio de la conservación de la papaya (Carica papaya L.) asociado a la aplicación de películas comestibles  

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Full Text Available Brasil es un importante productor de papaya, pero sólo una pequeña parte se exporta. Esta fruta es altamente perecedera, por lo que el control de la maduración es esencial para aumentar la vida útil, tanto para el mercado interno como para la exportación. Una alternativa que ha cobrado impulso en el mercado es el uso de películas comestibles biodegradables, entre ellas la película producida a partir de almidón de yuca. En este estudio se evaluó el efecto de una película de almidón de yuca (2 %) sobre la papaya almacenadas a temperatura ambiental (25 ± 2 ºC) y a 8 °C, y 82 % de humedad relativa durante 6 días de almacenamiento. Se realizaron análisis de pérdida de peso, color, pH, acidez, carotenoides totales, vitamina C y sólidos solubles totales, cada tres días de almacenamiento. La película comestible de almidón de yuca resultó ser una buena alternativa para la preservación de la papaya durante seis días de almacenamiento, en relación a los parámetros pH, grados Brix, acidez y carotenoides.

Alessandra Almeida Castro; Jane Delane Reis Pimentel; Danilo Santos Souza; Thaciana Vieira de Oliveira; Mariana da Costa Oliveira

2011-01-01

191

An Analysis on DNA Fingerprints of Thirty Papaya Cultivars (Carica papaya L.), Grown in Thailand with the Use of Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms Technique  

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Full Text Available The experiment was carried out at the Department of Horticulture, Ubon Ratchathani University, Ubon Ratchathani province, Northeast Thailand during June 2002 to May 2003 aims to identify DNA fingerprints of thirty papaya cultivars with the use of Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLP) technique. Papaya cultivars were collected from six different research centers in Thailand. Papaya plants of each cultivar were grown under field conditions up to four months then leaf numbers 2 and 3 of each cultivar (counted from top) were chosen for DNA extraction and the samples were used for AFLP analysis. Out of 64 random primers being used, 55 pairs gave an increase in DNA bands but only 12 pairs of random primers were randomly chosen for the final analysis of the experiment. The results showed that AFLP markers gave Polymorphic Information Contents (PIC) of three ranges i.e., AFLP markers of 235 lied on a PIC range of 0.003-0.05, 47 for a PIC range of 0.15-0.20 and 12 for a PIC range of 0.35-0.40. The results on dendrogram cluster analysis revealed that the thirty papaya cultivars were classified into six groups i.e., (1) Kaeg Dum and Malador (2) Kaeg Nuan (3) Pakchong and Solo (4) Taiwan (5) Co Coa Hai Nan and (6) Sitong. Nevertheless, in spite of the six papaya groups all papaya cultivars were genetically related to each other where diversity among the cultivars was not significantly found.

Janthasri Ratchadaporn; Katengam Sureeporn; U. Khumcha

2007-01-01

192

Optical and ultrastructural study of the pollen grain development in hermaphrodite papaya tree (Carica papaya L.)  

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Full Text Available The objective of this study was to describe the pollen grain development in hermaphrodite papaya tree. The flower buds were collected at different stages of the development and the anthers were treated chemically for observation under optical and electronic transmission microscopes. The pollen grain development followed the normal pattern described for the Angiosperms. The pollen grain development was described from meiocyte to the mature pollen grain. In the microsporogenesis, the microspore mother cells or the meiocytes underwent meiosis giving rise to the tetrads that were enclosed by the calose. Later, the tetrads were released by the dissolution of the calose by calase activity and microspores underwent mitosis. Microgametogenesis was characterized by asymmetrical mitotic division of each microspore giving rise to bi-nucleate pollen grains. The structures similar to the plastids were found in the cytoplasm and close to the nucleus of the generative cell. Gradual degeneration was observed in the tapetum during the male gamete development.Esta pesquisa descreve os estádios de formação do gameta masculino (grão de pólen) em mamoeiro. Para isto foram coletados botões florais em diferentes etapas de desenvolvimento e as anteras foram tratadas quimicamente para serem observadas ao microscópio óptico e eletrônico de transmissão. O desenvolvimento do grão de pólen seguiu o padrão normal para Angiospermas. Foram descritos os estádios de desenvolvimento do grão de pólen desde meiócitos ou células mães de micrósporos até o grão de pólen binucleado. Na microesporogênese, as células esporogênicas sofreram meiose dando origem as tétrades, com posterior liberação dos micrósporos da tétrade. A microgametogênese caracterizou-se, principalmente, pela divisão mitótica assimétrica de cada micrósporo originando grãos de pólen binucleados. Estruturas semelhantes a plastídios foram encontradas no citoplasma da célula generativa e agregados próximos ao núcleo da célula generativa. Observou-se degeneração gradativa das células do tapete no decorrer da formação do gameta.

Lídia Márcia Silva Santos; Telma Nair Santana Pereira; Margarete Magalhães de Souza; Pedro Correa Damasceno Junior; Fabiane Rabelo da Costa; Beatriz Ferreira Ribeiro; Noil Gomes de Freitas; Messias Gonzaga Pereira

2008-01-01

193

Optical and ultrastructural study of the pollen grain development in hermaphrodite papaya tree (Carica papaya L.)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Esta pesquisa descreve os estádios de formação do gameta masculino (grão de pólen) em mamoeiro. Para isto foram coletados botões florais em diferentes etapas de desenvolvimento e as anteras foram tratadas quimicamente para serem observadas ao microscópio óptico e eletrônico de transmissão. O desenvolvimento do grão de pólen seguiu o padrão normal para Angiospermas. Foram descritos os estádios de desenvolvimento do grão de pólen desde meiócitos ou células (more) mães de micrósporos até o grão de pólen binucleado. Na microesporogênese, as células esporogênicas sofreram meiose dando origem as tétrades, com posterior liberação dos micrósporos da tétrade. A microgametogênese caracterizou-se, principalmente, pela divisão mitótica assimétrica de cada micrósporo originando grãos de pólen binucleados. Estruturas semelhantes a plastídios foram encontradas no citoplasma da célula generativa e agregados próximos ao núcleo da célula generativa. Observou-se degeneração gradativa das células do tapete no decorrer da formação do gameta. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to describe the pollen grain development in hermaphrodite papaya tree. The flower buds were collected at different stages of the development and the anthers were treated chemically for observation under optical and electronic transmission microscopes. The pollen grain development followed the normal pattern described for the Angiosperms. The pollen grain development was described from meiocyte to the mature pollen grain. In the microsporoge (more) nesis, the microspore mother cells or the meiocytes underwent meiosis giving rise to the tetrads that were enclosed by the calose. Later, the tetrads were released by the dissolution of the calose by calase activity and microspores underwent mitosis. Microgametogenesis was characterized by asymmetrical mitotic division of each microspore giving rise to bi-nucleate pollen grains. The structures similar to the plastids were found in the cytoplasm and close to the nucleus of the generative cell. Gradual degeneration was observed in the tapetum during the male gamete development.

Santos, Lídia Márcia Silva; Pereira, Telma Nair Santana; Souza, Margarete Magalhães de; Damasceno Junior, Pedro Correa; Costa, Fabiane Rabelo da; Ribeiro, Beatriz Ferreira; Freitas, Noil Gomes de; Pereira, Messias Gonzaga

2008-06-01

194

SIGNIFICADO DE LA HISTERECTOMÍA PARA UN GRUPO DE MUJERES CHILENAS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Antecedentes: La histerectomía por patología benigna del útero, es una de las cirugías más frecuente después de la operación cesárea. Objetivo: Evaluar el significado que tiene la histerectomía para mujeres chilenas, beneficiarías de un hospital público de la Región Metropolitana de Santiago, Chile. Método: Estudio transversal descriptivo, de tipo cualitativo, sobre el significado que 120 mujeres histerectomizadas asigna a esa cirugía. Se describen 3 temas q (more) ue reflejan el significado de la extracción del útero: pérdida, tristeza-dolor, y mejoría de una enfermedad. Resultados: El promedio de edad fue 56 ±11,9 años, y de escolaridad de 7,8 ± 4,3 años. El 63% de las mujeres fue histerectomizada por patología ginecológica benigna. El significado que la mujer atribuye a la extracción del útero se encuentra relacionado a una experiencia de pérdida, que si bien conlleva un alivio de la enfermedad, también implica dolor, tristeza y soledad. Conclusión: Sensibilizar a los profesionales de la salud, que trabajan con mujeres histerectomizadas, a comprender y respetar el significado que para ellas tiene la histerectomía y propiciar el ambiente adecuado para contenerlas y educarlas pre y pos cirugía. Abstract in english Background: Elective hysterectomy, after caesarian section, is one of the most frequent surgeries. Objective: To evaluate the significance that the hysterectomy has for Chilean women from a public hospital of the Metropolitan Region of Santiago, Chile. Method: Qualitative and cross-sectional design study of the significance of hysterectomy for 120 women. Three themes were derived from interviews: loss, sadness - sorrow, recovery from illness. Results: The mean of age was (more) 56 ± 11.9 years; the educational level was 7.8 ± 4.3 years. A total of 63% of women had planned elective hysterectomy preformed. The significance that the women attribute to the hysterectomy is related to the experience of loss, and although it includes recovery from illness, it also signifies sorrow, sadness, and loneliness. Conclusion: The health care providers, who work with these women, need to be respectful and understanding of the significance that the women give to this surgery, and to give them the best setting for supporting and educating them before and after the surgery.

Urrutia S, María Teresa; Riquelme G, Pía

2009-01-01

195

SIGNIFICADO DE LA HISTERECTOMÍA PARA UN GRUPO DE MUJERES CHILENAS  

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Full Text Available Antecedentes: La histerectomía por patología benigna del útero, es una de las cirugías más frecuente después de la operación cesárea. Objetivo: Evaluar el significado que tiene la histerectomía para mujeres chilenas, beneficiarías de un hospital público de la Región Metropolitana de Santiago, Chile. Método: Estudio transversal descriptivo, de tipo cualitativo, sobre el significado que 120 mujeres histerectomizadas asigna a esa cirugía. Se describen 3 temas que reflejan el significado de la extracción del útero: pérdida, tristeza-dolor, y mejoría de una enfermedad. Resultados: El promedio de edad fue 56 ±11,9 años, y de escolaridad de 7,8 ± 4,3 años. El 63% de las mujeres fue histerectomizada por patología ginecológica benigna. El significado que la mujer atribuye a la extracción del útero se encuentra relacionado a una experiencia de pérdida, que si bien conlleva un alivio de la enfermedad, también implica dolor, tristeza y soledad. Conclusión: Sensibilizar a los profesionales de la salud, que trabajan con mujeres histerectomizadas, a comprender y respetar el significado que para ellas tiene la histerectomía y propiciar el ambiente adecuado para contenerlas y educarlas pre y pos cirugía.Background: Elective hysterectomy, after caesarian section, is one of the most frequent surgeries. Objective: To evaluate the significance that the hysterectomy has for Chilean women from a public hospital of the Metropolitan Region of Santiago, Chile. Method: Qualitative and cross-sectional design study of the significance of hysterectomy for 120 women. Three themes were derived from interviews: loss, sadness - sorrow, recovery from illness. Results: The mean of age was 56 ± 11.9 years; the educational level was 7.8 ± 4.3 years. A total of 63% of women had planned elective hysterectomy preformed. The significance that the women attribute to the hysterectomy is related to the experience of loss, and although it includes recovery from illness, it also signifies sorrow, sadness, and loneliness. Conclusion: The health care providers, who work with these women, need to be respectful and understanding of the significance that the women give to this surgery, and to give them the best setting for supporting and educating them before and after the surgery.

María Teresa Urrutia S; Pía Riquelme G

2009-01-01

196

Caracterización del aceite de coquito de palma chilena (Jubaea chilensis)  

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Full Text Available The characteristics of the seeds from Chilean palm and the detailed composition of its fat are studied starting from 4 lots of seeds from the two regions being the major producers of Chilean palm seeds. From the proximate composition of the seeds a high content of fats is deduced with a mean value of 67.3%. The contents of proteins, carbohydrates and fibre were in the range of 7-11%. A detailed analysis of the fat indicates a high content of saturated fatty acids being capric, caprilic, lauric and miristic acids the major fatty acids. For this reason the presence of a high percentage of medium-chain triglycerides are detected in the triglyceride analysis. As for tocopherols, the fat contains low amounts of α-, γ- y δ-tocopherol with a total average of 84 mg/kg. Concerning phytosterols, the total content was around 1000 mg/kg being β-sitosterol and Î?7-estigmastenol the two major sterolsSe analizan las características generales del coquito de palma chilena y se estudia con detalle la composición de su aceite. Con este objetivo, se analizan 4 lotes de coquitos procedentes de las dos regiones de Chile donde existe mayor producción. La composición proximal del coquito indica un contenido muy mayoritario de grasa, con un promedio de 67,3% mientras los contenidos de proteínas, hidratos de carbono y fibra se encuentran entre el 7 y el 11%. Un análisis detallado de la grasa muestra un contenido elevado de ácidos grasos saturados (alrededor del 85%) siendo los ácidos cáprico, caprílico, láurico y mirístico los que se encuentran en mayor concentración, lo que origina un elevado porcentaje de triglicéridos de cadena media. Respecto a los tocoferoles, el aceite contiene cantidades limitadas de α-, γ- y δ-tocoferol con un valor promedio total de 84 mg/kg, no detectándose la presencia de tocotrienoles. Respecto a los fitoesteroles, el contenido total es del orden de 1000 mg/kg siendo los esteroles mayoritarios el β-sitosterol y el Î?7-estigmastenol.

Masson, Lilia; Camilo, Conrado; Torija, M. Esperanza

2008-01-01

197

Contrasting patterns of X/Y polymorphism distinguish Carica papaya from other sex chromosome systems.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The sex chromosomes of the tropical crop papaya (Carica papaya) are evolutionarily young and consequently allow for the examination of evolutionary mechanisms that drive early sex chromosome divergence. We conducted a molecular population genetic analysis of four X/Y gene pairs from a collection of 45 wild papaya accessions. These population genetic analyses reveal striking differences in the patterns of polymorphism between the X and Y chromosomes that distinguish them from other sex chromosome systems. In most sex chromosome systems, the Y chromosome displays significantly reduced polymorphism levels, whereas the X chromosome maintains a level of polymorphism that is comparable to autosomal loci. However, the four papaya sex-linked loci that we examined display diversity patterns that are opposite this trend: the papaya X alleles exhibit significantly reduced polymorphism levels, whereas the papaya Y alleles maintain greater than expected levels of diversity. Our analyses suggest that selective sweeps in the regions of the X have contributed to this pattern while also revealing geographically restricted haplogroups on the Y. We discuss the possible role sexual selection and/or genomic conflict have played in shaping the contrasting patterns of polymorphism found for the papaya X and Y chromosomes.

Weingartner LA; Moore RC

2012-12-01

198

Wound-healing potential of an ethanol extract of Carica papaya (Caricaceae) seeds.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Carica papaya L. (Linn) (Caricaceae) is traditionally used to treat various skin disorders, including wounds. It is widely used in developing countries as an effective and readily available treatment for various wounds, particularly burns. This study evaluated the wound-healing and antimicrobial activity of C. papaya seed extract. Ethanol extract of C. papaya seed (50 mg/kg/day) was evaluated for its wound-healing activity in Sprague-Dawley rats using excision wound model. Animals were randomly divided into four groups of six each (group 1 served as control, group 2 treated with papaya seed extract, group 3 treated with a standard drug mupirocin and papaya seed extract (1:1 ratio) and group 4 treated with a mupirocin ointment. Rate of wound contraction and hydroxyproline content were determined to assess the wound-healing activity of the seed extract. The group 2 animals showed a significant decrease in wound area of 89% over 13 days when compared with groups 1 (82%), 3 (86%) and 4 (84%) respectively. The hydroxyproline content was significantly higher with the granulation tissue obtained from group 2 animals which were treated with C. papaya seed extract. Histological analysis of granulation tissue of the group 2 animals showed the deposition of well-organized collagen. The extract exhibited antimicrobial activity against Salmonella choleraesuis and Staphylococcus aureus. Our results suggest that C. papaya promotes significant wound healing in rats and further evaluation for this activity in humans is suggested.

Nayak BS; Ramdeen R; Adogwa A; Ramsubhag A; Marshall JR

2012-12-01

199

Sequences of the coat protein gene from brazilian isolates of Papaya ringspot virus  

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Full Text Available Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is the causal agent of the main papaya (Carica papaya) disease in the world. Brazil is currently the world's main papaya grower, responsible for about 40% of the worldwide production. Resistance to PRSV on transgenic plants expressing the PRSV coat protein (cp) gene was shown to be dependent on the sequence homology between the cp transgene expressed in the plant genome and the cp gene from the incoming virus, in an isolate-specific fashion. Therefore, knowledge of the degree of homology among the cp genes from distinct PRSV isolates which are present in a given area is important to guide the development of transgenic papaya for the control of PRSV in that area. The objective of the present study was to assess the degree of homology among the PRSV cp genes of several Brazilian isolates of this virus. Papaya and PRSV are present in many different ecosystems within Brazil. Twelve PRSV isolates, collected in eight different states from four different geographic regions, were used in this study. The sequences of the cp gene from these isolates were compared among themselves and to the gene used to generate transgenic papaya for Brazil. An average degree of homology of 97.3% at the nucleotide sequence was found among the Brazilian isolates. When compared to 27 isolates from outside Brazil in a homology tree, the Brazilian isolates were clustered with Australian, Hawaiian, and Central and North American isolates, with an average degree of homology of 90.7% among them.

LIMA ROBERTO C. A.; SOUZA JR. MANOEL T.; PIO-RIBEIRO GILVAN; LIMA J. ALBERSIO A.

2002-01-01

200

Wound-healing potential of an ethanol extract of Carica papaya (Caricaceae) seeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Carica papaya L. (Linn) (Caricaceae) is traditionally used to treat various skin disorders, including wounds. It is widely used in developing countries as an effective and readily available treatment for various wounds, particularly burns. This study evaluated the wound-healing and antimicrobial activity of C. papaya seed extract. Ethanol extract of C. papaya seed (50 mg/kg/day) was evaluated for its wound-healing activity in Sprague-Dawley rats using excision wound model. Animals were randomly divided into four groups of six each (group 1 served as control, group 2 treated with papaya seed extract, group 3 treated with a standard drug mupirocin and papaya seed extract (1:1 ratio) and group 4 treated with a mupirocin ointment. Rate of wound contraction and hydroxyproline content were determined to assess the wound-healing activity of the seed extract. The group 2 animals showed a significant decrease in wound area of 89% over 13 days when compared with groups 1 (82%), 3 (86%) and 4 (84%) respectively. The hydroxyproline content was significantly higher with the granulation tissue obtained from group 2 animals which were treated with C. papaya seed extract. Histological analysis of granulation tissue of the group 2 animals showed the deposition of well-organized collagen. The extract exhibited antimicrobial activity against Salmonella choleraesuis and Staphylococcus aureus. Our results suggest that C. papaya promotes significant wound healing in rats and further evaluation for this activity in humans is suggested. PMID:22296524

Nayak, Bijoor Shivananda; Ramdeen, Ria; Adogwa, Andrew; Ramsubhag, Adash; Marshall, Julien Rhodney

2012-02-01

 
 
 
 
201

Contrasting patterns of X/Y polymorphism distinguish Carica papaya from other sex chromosome systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

The sex chromosomes of the tropical crop papaya (Carica papaya) are evolutionarily young and consequently allow for the examination of evolutionary mechanisms that drive early sex chromosome divergence. We conducted a molecular population genetic analysis of four X/Y gene pairs from a collection of 45 wild papaya accessions. These population genetic analyses reveal striking differences in the patterns of polymorphism between the X and Y chromosomes that distinguish them from other sex chromosome systems. In most sex chromosome systems, the Y chromosome displays significantly reduced polymorphism levels, whereas the X chromosome maintains a level of polymorphism that is comparable to autosomal loci. However, the four papaya sex-linked loci that we examined display diversity patterns that are opposite this trend: the papaya X alleles exhibit significantly reduced polymorphism levels, whereas the papaya Y alleles maintain greater than expected levels of diversity. Our analyses suggest that selective sweeps in the regions of the X have contributed to this pattern while also revealing geographically restricted haplogroups on the Y. We discuss the possible role sexual selection and/or genomic conflict have played in shaping the contrasting patterns of polymorphism found for the papaya X and Y chromosomes. PMID:22855536

Weingartner, Laura A; Moore, Richard C

2012-08-01

202

Alternativa comercial para extender vida de anaquel de papaya 'Maradol'/ A commercial alternative to extend shelf-life of 'Maradol' papaya  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto del 1-Metilciclopropeno (1-MCP) y etileno (solos o en combinación) para manipular el proceso de maduración y extender vida de anaquel de papaya 'Maradol'. Durante el 2007 se realizaron tres ensayos: 1. Efecto del 1-MCP en papaya almacenada en condiciones de mercadeo y refrigeración más mercadeo; 2. Papaya tratada con 1-MCP y etileno y mezcla 1-MCP + etileno; 3. Evaluación comercial del 1-MCP y etileno en papaya. Se an (more) alizaron pérdida de peso, color externo, firmeza, color de pulpa y sólidos solubles totales. Se encontró que el 1-MCP a 100 nl·litro-1 retrasó el desarrollo de color externo y pulpa e inhibió el ablandamiento de los frutos. También se observó que el etileno a dosis de 100 µl·litro-1 aplicado después del 1-MCP no revirtió el efecto de éste, sin embargo, el 1-MCP aplicado después del etileno redujo la velocidad de ablandamiento y el desarrollo del color en cáscara y pulpa inducido por el etileno. Se concluye que el 1-MCP a 100 nl·litro-1 por 12 horas aplicado después del etileno puede ser una técnica viable para manipular el proceso de maduración y alargar vida de anaquel de papaya 'Maradol'. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) and ethylene (alone or combined) to handle the ripening process and to extend the shelf-life of 'Maradol' papaya. During 2007 three assays were conducted: 1. Effect of 1-MCP in papaya stored under marketing simulation and refrigeration plus marketing simulatio; 2. Papaya treated with 1-MCP and ethylene and the mixture of 1-MCP plus ethylene; 3. Commercial evaluation of 1-MCP and ethylen (more) e on papaya. Weight loss, external color, firmness, pulp color and total soluble solids were evaluated. It was found that 1-MCP at 100 nl·liter-1 delayed the development of external and pulp color, and inhibited the fruit softening. Also it was observed that ethylene at 100 µl·liter-1 applied after 1-MCP was unable to reverse the 1-MCP effect. However, 1-MCP applied after ethylene delayed fruit softening and the development of skin and pulp color induced by the ethylene application. It was concluded that 1-MCP at 100 nl·liter-1 for 12 hours applied after ethylene may be a viable technique to manipulate the ripening process and to extend the shelf-life of 'Maradol' papaya.

Osuna-García, J. A.; Pérez-Barraza, M. H.; Vázquez-Valdivia, V.; Urías-López, M. A.

2009-08-01

203

Estudo e modelagem da cinética de desidratação osmótica do mamão formosa (Carica papaya L.) Kinetics and modeling on osmotic dehydration of papaya (Carica papaya L.)  

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Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo o estudo da cinética e modelagem do processo de desidratação osmótica de cubos de mamão Formosa (Carica papaya L.), assim como da qualidade do produto final. O tratamento osmótico foi conduzido a 30ºC, com agitação de 110rpm, utilizando-se dois tipos de soluções de sacarose 70ºBrix: a primeira contendo lactato de sódio 2,4% p/p e ácido láctico 0,1M e a segunda com lactato de sódio 2,4% p/p e ácido cítrico 0,1M. O estudo da cinética de desidratação osmótica mostrou que a solução contendo ácido cítrico apresentou valor de perda de água (WL), ao final de 48 horas de processo, ligeiramente superior ao encontrado para a solução contendo ácido láctico. Comportamento contrário ocorreu para o ganho de sólidos (SG). O ajuste dos dados experimentais foi realizado através do modelo difusional para geometria cúbica, sem considerar encolhimento durante o processo e um modelo empírico de dois parâmetros. Os coeficientes de difusividade efetiva de água (Def) variaram de 1,27 a 5,03 x 10-10 m²/s. A qualidade da fruta após processamento foi avaliada através de análises de vitamina C, carotenóides totais, acidez e pH.The present work had as objective the study of kinetics and mathematical modeling of osmotic dehydration process of papaya cubes (Carica papaya L.), as well as the quality of the final product. The osmotic treatment was carried out for 30ºC, with agitation 110rpm, with two types of 70ºBrix sucrose solutions: solution containing sodium lactate 2,4% w/w and lactic acid 0,1M and another one with sodium lactate 2,4% w/w and citric acid 0,1M. The study of kinetics of osmotic dehydration showed the solution containing citric acid had a water loss (WL) value, at the end of 48 hours of process, lightly superior to the found for the solution containing lactic acid. Opposite behavior happened for the solid gain (SG). Modeling of experimental data was accomplished through the difusional model for cubic geometry, considering no shrinkage during the process and an empirical two parameters one. The coefficients of effective difusivity of water (Def) varied from 1,27 to 5,03 x 10-10 m²/s. Quality of fruit after processing was evaluated through vitamin C, total carotenoid, acidity and pH analyses.

Ânoar Abbas El-Aquar; Fernanda E. Xidieh Murr

2003-01-01

204

Preferential reproduction mode of hermaphrodite papaya plant (Carica papaya L; Caricaceae) Modo de reprodução preferencial de plantas hermafroditas de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L; Caricaceae)  

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Full Text Available This research was done to study the reproductive system of papaya hermaphrodite plant based on the histochemical nature of pollen grain, stigma receptivity, in vivo pollen grain germination and pollen:ovule ratio. In the histochemical analysis, pollen grains were stained by using Sudan IV and I2KI solution ; the stigma receptivity was assessed by alpha-naphthtyl acetate solution in closed and opened flowers. Pollen germination and pollen tube growing were examined in flower buds near anthesis with 0.1% aniline blue. To estimate the pollen:ovule ratio , anthers from each flower bud were dissected and all pollen grains were counted; ovules were dissected from ovaries and were counted under stereomicroscope. The results indicated that papaya pollen grains are of lipidic nature; the stigmas were receptive before the opening and until 48 hours after opening; the pollen grains germinated and emitted polinic tube before flower opening and the pollen:ovule ratio indicated the predominance of autogamous reproductive system. These results indicate that hermaphrodite papaya trees is preferentially of optional autogamous with cleistogamy.Esta pesquisa teve o objetivo de estudar o sistema reprodutivo preferencial de plantas hermafroditas de mamoeiro, com base na natureza histoquímica dos grãos de pólen, receptividade do estigma, teste de germinação in vivo do grão de pólen e razão pólen : óvulo. Na análise histoquímica dos grãos de pólen, foram utilizados os corantes Sudan IV e solução de I2KI; a receptividade do estigma foi avaliada com a solução de acetato de alfa-naftil em flores abertas e fechadas. A germinação e o crescimento do tubo polínico in vivo foram avaliados em flores fechadas, utilizando solução de azul de anilina a 0,1%. Para estimar a razão pólen:óvulo, anteras de cada flor foram dissecadas, e os grãos de pólen foram contados; ovários foram dissecados, e os óvulos foram contados sob estereomicroscópio. Os resultados indicaram que os grãos de pólen do mamoeiro são de natureza lipídica; os estigmas estavam receptivos antes da abertura e até 48 h após a abertura; os grãos de pólen germinaram e emitiram tubo polínico antes da abertura floral, e a relação pólen:óvulo, indicou predominância do sistema reprodutivo autógamo. Esses resultados indicaram que o modo de reprodução preferencial do mamoeiro hermafrodita é autógamo facultativo com cleistogamia.

Pedro Corrêa Damasceno junior; Telma Nair Santana Pereira; Messias Gonzaga Pereira; Francisco Filho da Silva; Margarete de Magalhães Souza; Rodrigo Gualandi Nicoli

2009-01-01

205

Consideraciones sobre la utilización de diferentes densidades en el cultivo de papaya (Carica papaya, L.) "Baixinho de Santa Amalia" en islas canarias Different plantation densities for papaya (Carica papaya, L) cv. "Baixinho de Santa Amalia" culture in the canary islands  

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Full Text Available El cultivo de papaya en Islas Canarias se ha extendido en los últimos años bajo condiciones de invernadero. La utilización de cultivares de papaya tipo "Baixinho de Santa Amalia" (mutante natural del cultivar "Sunrise") de porte bajo, emisión de la flor a corta altura y precocidad en la floración, resultan de gran interés sobre todo en esta clase de medios. Estas características fenológicas hacen posible el manejo del cultivo a mayores densidades que las empleadas con otros cultivares. Por lo tanto, se ha planteado este trabajo cuyo objetivo principal es determinar cual es el marco de plantación óptimo, que permita obtener mayores rendimientos sin depreciar la calidad del fruto. Para ello, se ha evaluado la producción tanto de las plantas hermafroditas como de las plantas femeninas durante dos ciclos de cultivo, así como las características organolépticas, grado de carpeloidía y deformación de los frutos. Los resultados indican que la densidad mayor, proporciona mejor comportamiento de las plantas así como mayor producción de frutos y menor porcentaje de fruta desechable.The growth of papaya plants under greenhouse conditions has recently become the norm in the Canary Islands. The use of "Baixinho de Santa Amalia" (a natural mutant of the "Sunrise" cultivar), which is a dwarf cultivar flowering early and not high up the plant, is the great interest, above all under these conditions. These phenological characteristic make possible the planting at higher densities than for other cultivars. This study has been carried out to determine the optimal planting density to permit greater production without reducing fruit quality. To this aim the yield, both of hermaphrodite and female plants, has been evaluated through two crop cycles, as well as studying the organoleptic characteristics, degree of carpellody and deformation of the fruits. The results suggest that the highest density provides better plant perfomance as well as higher fruit production and lower percentage of rejected fruit.

Mª Cristina Rodriguez Pastor

2002-01-01

206

Presença dos vírus da mancha anelar e do amarelo letal em frutos de mamoeiro comercializados The presence of Papaya ringspot virus and Papaya lethal yellowing virus in commercialized papaya fruits  

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Full Text Available Considerando os índices elevados de incidência de vírus que infetam o mamoeiro (Carica papaya) em condições de campo e seus sintomas típicos nos frutos, foi efetuado um levantamento na Central de Comercialização do Estado do Ceará (CEASA) de frutos infetados com o vírus da mancha anelar do mamoeiro (Papaya ringspot virus, PRSV) e o vírus do amarelo letal do mamoeiro (Papaya lethal yellowing virus, PLYV). Os principais Centros de comercialização de frutos são as CEASAs e os produtos comercializados nos supermercados são, em grande parte, adquiridos nesses Centros. Os frutos coletados aleatoriamente nas bancas de comercialização da CEASA foram levados ao Laboratório de Virologia Vegetal, da Universidade Federal do Ceará (UFC) para análises sintomatológicas e testes de "enzyme linked immunosorent assay" (ELISA) indireto, com anti-soros específicos para o PRSV e PLYV. De acordo com os resultados das análises sintomatológicas, confirmadas por sorologia, dentre os 8.400 frutos analisados, 5,5% estavam infetados por PRSV e 1,2% por PLYV, demonstrando a necessidade de implementar um programa rigoroso de controle, envolvendo erradicação de fontes de vírus no campo, representados por plantas infetadas nos pomares, áreas abandonadas e inclusive cultivos de fundo de quintal.Considering the high incidence of virus in papaya (Carica papaya) orchards and their typical symptoms in the fruits, a survey was carried out in the Central Market in the State of Ceará (CEASA) for the presence of papaya fruits infected with Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) and Papaya lethal yellowing virus (PLYV). CEASAs are the most important fruit commercial centers, and a great number of plant products sold in supermarkets are obtained in CEASA. Fruits were randomly collected from CEASA stalls and brought to the Plant Virus Laboratory at the Federal University of Ceará (UFC) to be analyzed for typical virus symptoms and tested by indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) against antisera specific to PRSV and PLYV. According to the results obtained by symptom analysis, which were confirmed by serology, among the 8,400 fruits analyzed 5.5% were infected with PRSV and 1.2% with PLYV, showing the need to implement a control program involving eradication of virus sources in the field, represented by infected plants in papaya orchards, abandoned orchards and infected plants identified in backyards.

Najara F. Ramos; Aline K.Q. Nascimento; Maria Fátima B. Gonçalves; José Albérsio A. Lima

2008-01-01

207

Dormancia en semillas de papaya cv maradol roja durante el almacenamiento/ Dormancy of papaya seeds cv Maradol Roja during storage  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Dormancia en semillas de papaya cv Maradol Roja durante el almacenamiento. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar el efecto de la humedad de la semilla cultivar Maradol Roja y la temperatura durante el almacenamiento, en la dormancia de la papaya. Este trabajo fue desarrollado en el Laboratorio Nacional de Semillas de la Empresa Productora y Comercializadora de Semillas, provincia La Habana, Cuba, en el período noviembre 2006 a enero 2008. Fueron extraídas las (more) semillas de frutos de papaya cv Maradol Roja, y se secaron a tres contenidos de humedad (12%, 10,56% y 9,26%), y acondicionadas en bolsas de polietileno y almacenadas a 15ºC y 4ºC. El porcentaje de germinación, altura y peso fresco de la planta fueron realizadas al inicio y después de tres, seis, nueve y doce meses de almacenamiento. Hubo tendencia a la disminución de la germinación en los primeros seis meses del almacenamiento, alcanzándose los valores más bajos del porcentaje de germinación (55,6%). A partir de los nueve y doce meses fue detectado un aumento significativo en la germinación, independiente del contenido de humedad de la semilla. El ambiente de 15ºC favoreció mayor germinación en períodos mayores de almacenamiento en relación a las mantenidas a 4ºC, que exhibieron mejores porcentajes de germinación en un período menor (tres meses de almacenamiento). La dormancia finalizó en los periodos de almacenamiento a los nueve y doce meses, independientemente del contenido de humedad. Abstract in english Dormancy of papaya seeds cv Maradol Roja during storage. The objective of this work was to determine the effect of humidity content of papaya cv Maradol Roja and storage temperatura on dormany. The work was conducted at the Laboratorio Nacional de Semillas, Empresa Productora y Comercializadora de Semillas, La Habana, Cuba, from November 2006 to January 2008. Seeds were extracted from papaya fruits cv Maradol Roja and dried to three humidiy contents (12%, 10,56% y 9,26%), (more) and aconditioned in polyiethylene bags and stored at 15ºC and 4ºC. Percentaje of seed germination, heigth and fresh weight of the seedlings were measured at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months in storage. There was a trend towards reduced seed germination during the first 6 months in storage (55,6%). After 9 and 12 months a significant incresase in germination was observed, independent of seed water content. Seeds stored in environment at 15ºC favored germination after longer sotrage compared to seeds kept in storage for shorter periods (3 months). Seed dormany concluded between 9 and 12 months in storage irrespective of seed water content.

Alonso-Esquivel, Maruchi; Ortiz-López, Yoleinis; Ramos-Ramírez, Roberto; Oliva-Diaz, Hugo; Capote-del Sol, Maricela

2011-12-01

208

Genótipos melhorados de mamão (Carica papaya L.): avaliação sensorial e físico-química dos frutos Improved genotypes of papaya (Carica papaya L.): sensory and physico-chemical evaluation  

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Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar genótipos promissores através da avaliação sensorial e físico-química de frutos de doze genótipos melhorados de mamão (CMF008, CMF012, CMF018, CMF019, CMF020, CMF021, CMF022, CMF023, CMF030, CMF031, CMF036, CMF047), provenientes do Banco Ativo de Germoplasma da EMBRAPA Mandioca e Fruticultura, Cruz das Almas, Bahia, em dois anos consecutivos (1999 e 2000). As amostras dos doze genótipos foram submetidas à avaliação sensorial para os atributos aparência, cor, aroma, sabor e textura, através de testes afetivos utilizando-se escala hedônica estruturada de nove pontos. Realizou-se determinações de pH, acidez total titulável, sólidos solúveis (ºBrix), "ratio" e ácido ascórbico. Nas duas épocas de estudo, verificou-se que as maiores médias de aceitação para o atributo cor foram obtidas pelos frutos dos genótipos CMF008, CMF020, CMF021, CMF022, CMF023, CMF030, CMF031 e CMF036 que apresentaram coloração vermelho-alaranjada e os frutos dos genótipos CMF012, CMF022, CMF023, CMF031 e CMF047 obtiveram maior aceitação dos provadores alcançando médias elevadas para o atributo sabor. Constatou-se que as texturas mais firmes da polpa de mamão foram as mais aceitas, atingindo médias elevadas os frutos dos genótipos CMF008, CMF012, CMF022, CMF023, CMF030, CMF031, CMF036 e CMF047. Constatou-se, também, que os frutos dos genótipos CMF012, CMF020, CMF031 e CMF047 apresentaram os mais elevados valores de sólidos solúveis (12 a 14ºBrix) e os frutos dos genótipos CMF020 e CMF031 revelaram quantidades elevadas de ácido ascórbico, ao redor de 100mg%. O genótipo CMF031 foi o mais aceito pela equipe de provadores e apresentou os maiores valores de sólidos solúveis (ºBrix) e ácido ascórbico, podendo, então, ser considerado o mais promissor e com bom potencial para o mercado de fruta fresca e para industrialização.The objective of the present work was the sensory and physico-chemical evaluation offruits of twelve improved papaya genotypes (CMF008, CMF012, CMF018, CMF019, CMF020, CMF021, CMF022, CMF023, CMF030, CMF031, CMF036, CMF047) obtained two years running from the Active Germplasm Bank for Papaya at EMBRAPA Cassava and Fruit Crops, located in Cruz das Almas, Bahia State, Brazil. Sensory evaluation of the twelve papaya genotypes were carried out using affective tests (9 point hedonic scale) for the attributes of overall appearance, colour, odour, flavour and texture. The following physico-chemical determinations were carried out: pH, total titrable acidity, soluble solids (ºBrix), ratio and vitamin C. For both years, the fruits of genotypes CMF008, CMF020, CMF021, CMF022, CMF023, CMF030, CMF031 and CMF036 were preferred in terms of colour because they were orange-red and the fruits of genotypes CMF012, CMF022, CMF023, CMF031 and CMF047 were the most preferred in terms of flavour; the more solid papaya pulp were the most accepted, so the genotypes CMF008, CMF012, CMF022, CMF023, CMF030, CMF031, CMF036 and CMF047 reached highter scores in terms of texture. The fruits of genotypes CMF012, CMF020, CMF031 and CMF047 showed the highest soluble solids contents (12 - 14ºBrix) and the fruits of genotypes CMF020 and CMF031 showed higher ascorbic acid contents, about 100mg%. The results showed that the CMF031 genotype was the most accepted by the judges and it showed the highest soluble solids and ascorbic acid contents, then it could be considered as a promising genotype and has good potential for the fresh fruit market and for industrialization.

Ligia R. R. Santana; Fernando C.A.U. Matsuura; Ricardo L. Cardoso

2004-01-01

209

Viabilidade polínica de Carica papaya L.: uma comparação metodológica Pollen viability of Carica papaya L.: a methodological comparison  

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Full Text Available A viabilidade polínica do mamoeiro cultivar 'Sunrise Solo' (Carica papaya L.) foi estudada utilizando germinação in vitro e testes colorimétricos, assim como a validade dos testes colorimétricos como estimativa de viabilidade comparada àquela do teste germinativo. Os dois meios de cultura, descritos na literatura como meios eficientes para germinação da espécie, diferem basicamente pela presença de nutrientes essenciais e concentração de ágar. O meio de cultura sem elementos essenciais e com maior concentração de ágar forneceu o melhor índice de germinação polínica (65%). Os cinco corantes testados foram: 2,3,5-cloreto de trifeniltetrazólio (TTC), Alexander, carmim acético, lugol e Sudan IV. O teste de coloração com TTC forneceu estimativa de viabilidade (67,5%) equivalente ao teste de germinação in vitro e, portanto, confiável de viabilidade polínica. Os demais corantes testados superestimaram a viabilidade polínica (> 90%), porém são eficientes na determinação de constituintes celulares e da integridade do grão de pólen.Pollen viability of Carica papaya L. 'Sunrise Solo' cultivar was estimated using in vitro germination and pollen stain tests. Two culture media described in the literature as efficient for pollen in vitro germination of C. papaya were used. Germination was higher in the media without essential elements but with a higher concentration of agar (65% compared with 51.5%). These results were compared with viability estimates based on staining pollen. The five stains used to test for pollen viability were: 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride - TTC, Alexander's stain, acetocarmine, iodine-potassium iodide and Sudan IV. Pollen viability estimated with TTC was 67.5% and similar to germination results providing a reliable estimate of in vitro germination. The four other stains overestimated pollen viability (> 90%), and their use should be restricted to determining cell constituents, and pollen grain integrity.

Márcia Munhoz; Cynthia Fernandes Pinto da Luz; Paulo Ernesto Meissner Filho; Orthud Monika Barth; Fernanda Reinert

2008-01-01

210

Viabilidade polínica de Carica papaya L.: uma comparação metodológica/ Pollen viability of Carica papaya L.: a methodological comparison  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A viabilidade polínica do mamoeiro cultivar 'Sunrise Solo' (Carica papaya L.) foi estudada utilizando germinação in vitro e testes colorimétricos, assim como a validade dos testes colorimétricos como estimativa de viabilidade comparada àquela do teste germinativo. Os dois meios de cultura, descritos na literatura como meios eficientes para germinação da espécie, diferem basicamente pela presença de nutrientes essenciais e concentração de ágar. O meio de cultu (more) ra sem elementos essenciais e com maior concentração de ágar forneceu o melhor índice de germinação polínica (65%). Os cinco corantes testados foram: 2,3,5-cloreto de trifeniltetrazólio (TTC), Alexander, carmim acético, lugol e Sudan IV. O teste de coloração com TTC forneceu estimativa de viabilidade (67,5%) equivalente ao teste de germinação in vitro e, portanto, confiável de viabilidade polínica. Os demais corantes testados superestimaram a viabilidade polínica (> 90%), porém são eficientes na determinação de constituintes celulares e da integridade do grão de pólen. Abstract in english Pollen viability of Carica papaya L. 'Sunrise Solo' cultivar was estimated using in vitro germination and pollen stain tests. Two culture media described in the literature as efficient for pollen in vitro germination of C. papaya were used. Germination was higher in the media without essential elements but with a higher concentration of agar (65% compared with 51.5%). These results were compared with viability estimates based on staining pollen. The five stains used to te (more) st for pollen viability were: 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride - TTC, Alexander's stain, acetocarmine, iodine-potassium iodide and Sudan IV. Pollen viability estimated with TTC was 67.5% and similar to germination results providing a reliable estimate of in vitro germination. The four other stains overestimated pollen viability (> 90%), and their use should be restricted to determining cell constituents, and pollen grain integrity.

Munhoz, Márcia; Luz, Cynthia Fernandes Pinto da; Meissner Filho, Paulo Ernesto; Barth, Orthud Monika; Reinert, Fernanda

2008-06-01

211

Influencia del tamaño empresarial sobre los resultados: un estudio comparativo entre empresas chilenas y españolas  

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Full Text Available Con la finalidad de contribuir en la importancia que tiene el tamaño empresarial en el resultado que alcanzan las organizaciones, la presente investigación persigue dos objetivos. En primer lugar, realizar una revisión bibliográfica del tamaño de las empresas y su relación con los resultados empresariales, y en segundo lugar, contrastar los planteamientos anteriores para aportar evidencia empírica al respecto, a través de un análisis comparativo entre empresas chilenas y españolas. El contraste se realiza sobre un panel completo de empresas industriales chilenas y españolas, para el periodo 1999-2005 y se emplea un modelo de efectos aleatorios. Utilizando técnicas para datos de panel se descubre que existe una relación entre el tamaño y los resultados empresariales, y además que el tamaño es una variable que influye significativamente en los resultados de las empresas. En conclusión, las empresas que deseen alcanzar mejores resultados deben considerar la dimensión empresarial o su tamaño como una variable relevante para dicho propósito.

Patricia Huerta; Sergio Contreras; Paloma Almodóvar; José Navas

2010-01-01

212

Cyanogenic allosides and glucosides from Passiflora edulis and Carica papaya.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Leaf and stem material of Passiflora edulis (Passifloraceae) contains the new cyanogenic glycosides (2R)-beta-D-allopyranosyloxy-2-phenylacetonitrile (1a) and (2S)-beta-D-allopyranosyloxy-2-phenylacetonitrile (1b), along with smaller amounts of (2R)-prunasin (2a), sambunigrin (2b), and the alloside of benzyl alcohol (4); the major cyanogens of the fruits are (2R)-prunasin (2a) and (2S)-sambunigrin (2b). The major cyanogenic glycoside of Carica papaya (Caricaceae) is 2a; only small amounts of 2b also are present. We were not able to confirm the presence of a cyclopentenoid cyanogenic glycoside, tetraphyllin B, in Carica papaya leaf and stem materials. In detailed 1H NMR studies of 1a/b and 2a/b, differences in higher order effects in glucosides and allosides proved to be valuable for assignment of structures in this series. The diagnostic chemical shifts of cyanogenic methine and anomeric protons in 1a/b are sensitive to anisotropic environmental effects. The assignment of C-2 stereochemistry of 1a/b was made in analogy to previous assignments in the glucoside series and was supported by GLC analysis of the TMS ethers.

Seigler DS; Pauli GF; Nahrstedt A; Leen R

2002-08-01

213

Cyanogenic allosides and glucosides from Passiflora edulis and Carica papaya.  

Science.gov (United States)

Leaf and stem material of Passiflora edulis (Passifloraceae) contains the new cyanogenic glycosides (2R)-beta-D-allopyranosyloxy-2-phenylacetonitrile (1a) and (2S)-beta-D-allopyranosyloxy-2-phenylacetonitrile (1b), along with smaller amounts of (2R)-prunasin (2a), sambunigrin (2b), and the alloside of benzyl alcohol (4); the major cyanogens of the fruits are (2R)-prunasin (2a) and (2S)-sambunigrin (2b). The major cyanogenic glycoside of Carica papaya (Caricaceae) is 2a; only small amounts of 2b also are present. We were not able to confirm the presence of a cyclopentenoid cyanogenic glycoside, tetraphyllin B, in Carica papaya leaf and stem materials. In detailed 1H NMR studies of 1a/b and 2a/b, differences in higher order effects in glucosides and allosides proved to be valuable for assignment of structures in this series. The diagnostic chemical shifts of cyanogenic methine and anomeric protons in 1a/b are sensitive to anisotropic environmental effects. The assignment of C-2 stereochemistry of 1a/b was made in analogy to previous assignments in the glucoside series and was supported by GLC analysis of the TMS ethers. PMID:12150815

Seigler, David S; Pauli, Guido F; Nahrstedt, Adolf; Leen, Rosemary

2002-08-01

214

The treatment of paediatric burns using topical papaya.  

Science.gov (United States)

Due to the limited resources for the management of burns in most regions of Africa there is a significant role for many aspects of traditional African medicine. The active component of many traditional preparations is often of plant origin and more than 25 plants have been described as useful in relations to burns and wound healing. Carica papaya is currently used in The Gambia at the Royal Victoria Hospital, Banjul in the Paediatric Unit as the major component of burns dressings, where it is well tolerated by the children. Cheap and widely available, the pulp of the papaya fruit is mashed and applied daily to full thickness and infected burns. It appears to be effective in desloughing necrotic tissue, preventing burn wound infection, and providing a granulating wound suitable for the application of a split thickness skin graft. Possible mechanisms of action include the activity of proteolytic enzymes chymopapain and papain, as well as an antimicrobial activity, although further studies are required. PMID:10563690

Starley, I F; Mohammed, P; Schneider, G; Bickler, S W

1999-11-01

215

DISCURSO ACADÉMICO DE LANZAMIENTO DE LA REVISTA CHILENA DE DERECHO Y CIENCIA POLÍTICA  

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Full Text Available Me complace enormemente la invitación que se me ha cursado para dirigir algunaspalabras en el lanzamiento de esta Revista Chilena de Derecho y Ciencia Política.Me honra el hecho de que me hayan tenido Uds. en consideración para este actoacadémico y, por supuesto, también que me hayan incorporado al elenco de especialistasde su Comité Científi co Externo. Por ello, comienzo por expresar mi sinceroagradecimiento.

Patricio - Ignacio Carvajal

2012-01-01

216

Cuando la memoria reconstruye la historia. El ?género negro? en la literatura chilena contemporánea  

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Full Text Available Este artículo analiza el papel que ha jugado el ?género negro? en la nueva narrativa chilena, como una forma alusiva y tangencial de desenmascarar lo sucedido durante los últimos años de la historia de ese país. El texto se detiene, en especial, en el enfoque crítico implícito en el relato de serie negra y en la reconstrucción, a partir de una temática criminológica, de los conflictos políticos y sociales del Chile dictatorial y postdictatorial.

Gilda Waldman M.

2001-01-01

217

Development of virus resistant transgenic papayas expressing the coat protein gene from a Brazilian isolate of Papaya ringspot virus Desenvolvimento de mamoeiros transgênicos resistentes a vírus expressando o gene da capa protéica de um isolado brasileiro de Papaya ringspot virus  

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Full Text Available Translatable and nontranslatable versions of the coat protein (cp) gene of a Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) isolate collected in the state of Bahia, Brazil, were engineered for expression in Sunrise and Sunset Solo varieties of papaya (Carica papaya). The biolistic system was used to transform secondary somatic embryo cultures derived from immature zygotic embryos. Fifty-four transgenic lines, 26 translatable and 28 nontranslatable gene versions, were regenerated, with a transformation efficiency of 2.7%. Inoculation of cloned R0 plants with PRSV BR, PRSV HA or PRSV TH, Brazilian, Hawaiian and Thai isolates, respectively, revealed lines with mono-, double-, and triple-resistance. After molecular analysis and a preliminary agronomic evaluation, 13 R1 and R2 populations were incorporated into the papaya-breeding program at Embrapa Cassava and Tropical Fruits, in Cruz das Almas, Bahia, Brazil.Versões traduzíveis e não traduzíveis do gene da capa protéica (cp) de um isolado de Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) coletado no Estado da Bahia, Brasil, foram produzidas para expressão nas variedades Sunrise e Sunset Solo de mamoeiro (Carica papaya). O sistema de biobalística foi utilizado para transformar embriões somáticos secundários derivados de embriões zigóticos imaturos. Cinqüenta e quatro linhas transgênicas, sendo 26 contendo versões traduzíveis e 28 contendo versões não traduzíveis do gene cp foram regeneradas, o que resultou em 2,7% de eficiência de transformação, quando considerado o número de linhas transgênicas obtidas por embrião zigótico imaturo excisado. Desafios de plantas R0 com PRSV BR, PRSV HA ou PRSV TH, respectivamente isolado brasileiro, havaiano e tailandês, revelaram linhas com resistência a um, dois e três isolados de PRSV. Após análises moleculares e avaliação agronômica preliminar, 13 populações R1 e R2 de mamoeiros transgênicos foram incorporadas ao programa de melhoramento genético da Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura, em Cruz das Almas, Bahia, Brasil.

Manoel T. Souza Júnior; Osmar Nickel; Dennis Gonsalves

2005-01-01

218

Development of virus resistant transgenic papayas expressing the coat protein gene from a Brazilian isolate of Papaya ringspot virus/ Desenvolvimento de mamoeiros transgênicos resistentes a vírus expressando o gene da capa protéica de um isolado brasileiro de Papaya ringspot virus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Versões traduzíveis e não traduzíveis do gene da capa protéica (cp) de um isolado de Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) coletado no Estado da Bahia, Brasil, foram produzidas para expressão nas variedades Sunrise e Sunset Solo de mamoeiro (Carica papaya). O sistema de biobalística foi utilizado para transformar embriões somáticos secundários derivados de embriões zigóticos imaturos. Cinqüenta e quatro linhas transgênicas, sendo 26 contendo versões traduzíveis e 2 (more) 8 contendo versões não traduzíveis do gene cp foram regeneradas, o que resultou em 2,7% de eficiência de transformação, quando considerado o número de linhas transgênicas obtidas por embrião zigótico imaturo excisado. Desafios de plantas R0 com PRSV BR, PRSV HA ou PRSV TH, respectivamente isolado brasileiro, havaiano e tailandês, revelaram linhas com resistência a um, dois e três isolados de PRSV. Após análises moleculares e avaliação agronômica preliminar, 13 populações R1 e R2 de mamoeiros transgênicos foram incorporadas ao programa de melhoramento genético da Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura, em Cruz das Almas, Bahia, Brasil. Abstract in english Translatable and nontranslatable versions of the coat protein (cp) gene of a Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) isolate collected in the state of Bahia, Brazil, were engineered for expression in Sunrise and Sunset Solo varieties of papaya (Carica papaya). The biolistic system was used to transform secondary somatic embryo cultures derived from immature zygotic embryos. Fifty-four transgenic lines, 26 translatable and 28 nontranslatable gene versions, were regenerated, with a tr (more) ansformation efficiency of 2.7%. Inoculation of cloned R0 plants with PRSV BR, PRSV HA or PRSV TH, Brazilian, Hawaiian and Thai isolates, respectively, revealed lines with mono-, double-, and triple-resistance. After molecular analysis and a preliminary agronomic evaluation, 13 R1 and R2 populations were incorporated into the papaya-breeding program at Embrapa Cassava and Tropical Fruits, in Cruz das Almas, Bahia, Brazil.

Souza Júnior, Manoel T.; Nickel, Osmar; Gonsalves, Dennis

2005-08-01

219

Efficacy of Essential Oils on the Conidial Germination, Growth of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Penz. and Sacc and Control of Postharvest Diseases in Papaya (Carica papaya L.)  

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Full Text Available The efficacy of nine essential oils were investigated in vitro on conidial germination and mycelial growth inhibition of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides isolate from papaya (Carica papaya L.). In general, better antifungal effect was observed with Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Syzygium aromaticum oils which had strong inhibition of conidial germination of C. gloeosporioides at 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 ?g mL-1 and a dose dependent inhibition mycelial growth was caused by these oils. Teloxys ambrosioides, Mentha piperita and Ruta chalepensis oils exhibited a moderate action at 150, 200 and 250 ?g mL-1 on conidial germination and mycelial growth inhibition. Allium sativum, Citrus aurantifolia and Eucalyptus globulus oils had no antifungal activity at different concentration. Taking into account the in vitro results, C. zeylanicum and S. aromaticum oils were evaluated on papaya fruit during storage at ambient temperature and 14°C. The lowest infection percentage were for papaya fruits treated with S. aromaticum at 50 ?g mL-1 at both temperature tested, nevertheless did not overcome the activity of synthetic fungicide. After storage at both temperature, values of Soluble Solids Content (SSC) was not significantly different. S. aromaticum oils may be a possibility to control C. gloeosporioides of papaya fruit.

Laura Leticia Barrera-Necha; Silvia Bautista-Banos; Hilda Elizabeth Flores-Moctezuma; Abel Rojas Estudillo

2008-01-01

220

Industrial Hygiene In-Depth Survey Report, Papaya Packing/Shipping Facilities, Hilo, Hawaii.  

Science.gov (United States)

An industrial hygiene survey was conducted at the Papaya Packing/Shipping facilities (SIC-4581), Hilo, Hawaii to investigate worker exposure to ethylene-dibromide (106934)(EDB) used for pest control in fruit packing plants.

D. E. Clapp

1986-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Bandeo de cromosomas humanos con extracto crudo de frutas u hojas de papaya  

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Full Text Available Preparaciones de una semana de cromosomas humanos fueron tratadas con filtrados de una hoja de papaya (Carica papaya) licuada (53 g) en 100 ml de agua destilada, y tenidas con 1.5 % Giemsa (pH 6.8). Se obtuvo buen bandeo de cromosomas luego de 2 min de tratamiento. Soluciones que han sido congeladas por años son efectivas y el método es más barato y fácil que otrosOne week old human chromosome preparations were treated with filtrate from one liquefied leaf (53 g) of papaya (Carica papaya) in 100 ml of distilled water, and stained with 1.5 % Giemsa (pH 6.8). Good chromosome banding was obtained after 2 min of treatment. Solutions that have been frozen even for years are effective and the method is cheaper and easier than others

María Virginia Solís

2001-01-01

222

Fermented papaya preparation halts the progression of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in rats  

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Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) can progress to cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. Oxidative stress is implicated in NASH progression. Fermented papaya preparation (FPP) has oxygen radical scavenging activity and is effective in oxidative ...

Shinki Murakami; Fusako Takayama; Toru Egashira; Mitsuko Imao; Akitane Mori

223

Industrial Hygiene Report, Walk-Through Survey, Papaya Packing/Shipping Facilities, Hilo, Hawaii, July 1983,  

Science.gov (United States)

Worker exposure to ethylene-dibromide (EDB) was investigated at three papaya packing and shipping facilities (SIC-0723) in Hilo, Hawaii. Breathing zone samples were collected in the three facilities over a three day period. Blind spikes were submitted as ...

D. Clapp

1983-01-01

224

Influence of gamma radiation on carbohydrates metabolism of ripening papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Solo); Metabolismo de carboidratos durante o amadurecimento do mamao (Carica papaya L. Cv. Solo): influencia da radiacao gama  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Food irradiation is one of the most promising treatments that can be utilized for fruits disinfestation and extension of shelf life. The authors studied the influence of 0,5 kGy of Gamma irradiation on the soluble carbohydrates composition of papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Solo) fruit, and on sucrose metabolizing enzymes: sucrose synthase (SS), sucrose-phosphate synthase, acid and neutral invertases activities, during ripening. The results demonstrated that ethylene production, total soluble sugars, sucrose content, and sucrose-phosphate synthase and invertases activities were affected by irradiation, but not respiration, glucose and fructose content, and SS activity. (author)

Gomez, M.L.P.A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FCF/USP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas; Lajolo, F.M.; Cordenunsi, B.R. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FCF/USP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Dept. de Alimentos e Nutricao Experimental

1999-05-15

225

Protective effect of dried fruits of Carica papaya on hepatotoxicity in rat  

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Full Text Available Aqueous and ethanol extracts of Carica papaya has been evaluated for its hepatoprotective activity in rat. The aqueous and ethanol extracts of Carica papaya showed significant hepatoprotection against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity. The protective activity was evaluated by using biochemical parameters such as serum bilirubin, serum alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase. The histopathological changes of liver were compared with control.

Md. Zafor Sadeque, Zinnat Ara Begum

2010-01-01

226

Hypoglycemic effect of Carica papaya leaves in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Traditional plant treatment for diabetes has shown a surging interest in the last few decades. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the hypoglycemic effect of the aqueous extract of C. papaya leaves in diabetic rats. Several studies have reported that some parts of the C. papaya plant exert hypoglycemic effects in both animals and humans. METHODS: Diabetes was induced in rats by intraperitoneal administration of 60 mg/kg of streptozotocin (STZ). The aqueous extract of C. papaya was administered in three different doses (0.75, 1.5 and 3 g/100 mL) as drinking water to both diabetic and non-diabetic animals during 4 weeks. RESULTS: The aqueous extract of Carica papaya (0.75 g and 1.5 g/100 mL) significantly decreased blood glucose levels (p<0.05) in diabetic rats. It also decreased cholesterol, triacylglycerol and amino-transferases blood levels. Low plasma insulin levels did not change after treatment in diabetic rats, but they significantly increased in non-diabetic animals. Pancreatic islet cells were normal in non-diabetic treated animals, whereas in diabetic treated rats, C. papaya could help islet regeneration manifested as preservation of cell size. In the liver of diabetic treated rats, C. papaya prevented hepatocyte disruption, as well as accumulation of glycogen and lipids. Finally, an antioxidant effect of C. papaya extract was also detected in diabetic rats. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that the aqueous extract of C. papaya exerted a hypoglycemic and antioxidant effect; it also improved the lipid profile in diabetic rats. In addition, the leaf extract positively affected integrity and function of both liver and pancreas.

Juárez-Rojop IE; Díaz-Zagoya JC; Ble-Castillo JL; Miranda-Osorio PH; Castell-Rodríguez AE; Tovilla-Zárate CA; Rodríguez-Hernández A; Aguilar-Mariscal H; Ramón-Frías T; Bermúdez-Ocaña DY

2012-01-01

227

Degradación cinética de carotenoides obtenidos de frutos de Carica papaya L Kinetic degradation of carotenoids from Carica papaya L. fruits  

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Full Text Available Se evaluó la degradación de carotenoides extraídos de frutos de lechosa (Carica papaya L.). Los pigmentos previamente separados y liofilizados fueron almacenados en la oscuridad. Se midió su absorbancia a 440 nm, cada 15 días. Se determinó el orden de reacción, tiempo de vida media (t1/2) y constante de velocidad de degradación (k). La degradación de los carotenoides siguio una cinética de primer orden. El producto liofilizado presento t1/2: 43,3 días y k: 0,0160 días-1. Bajo estas condiciones experimentales los carotenoides tardaran 250 días en degradarse por completo.Degradation of carotenoids from Carica papaya L. fruits was evaluated. Pigments previously extracted from the fruit, were lyophilized, stored in the dark and monitored spectrophotometrically by absorbance at 440 nm, over intervals of 15 days. Reaction order, half-life (t1/2) and constant degradation rate (k) were determined. Reactions followed a first order kinetic model. The lyophilized product presented t1/2: 43.3 days and k: 0.0160 days-1. Under these experimental conditions the carotenoid concentrations will be zero at 250 days.

M. J. Moreno Alvarez; D. R. Belén Camacho; V Torrez

2003-01-01

228

Oral dosing with papaya latex is an effective anthelmintic treatment for sheep infected with Haemonchus contortus  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The cysteine proteinases in papaya latex have been shown to have potent anthelmintic properties in monogastric hosts such as rodents, pigs and humans, but this has not been demonstrated in ruminants. Methods In two experiments, sheep were infected concurrently with 5,000 infective larvae of Haemonchus contortus and 10,000 infective larvae of Trichostrongylus colubriformis and were then treated with the supernatant from a suspension of papaya latex from day 28 to day 32 post-infection. Faecal egg counts were monitored from a week before treatment until the end of the experiment and worm burdens were assessed on day 35 post-infection. Results We found that the soluble fraction of papaya latex had a potent in vivo effect on the abomasal nematode H. contortus, but not on the small intestinal nematode T. colubriformis. This effect was dose-dependent and at tolerated levels of gavage with papaya latex (117 ?mol of active papaya latex supernatant for 4 days), the H. contortus worm burdens were reduced by 98%. Repeated treatment, daily for 4 days, was more effective than a single dose, but efficacy was not enhanced by concurrent treatment with the antacid cimetidine. Conclusions Our results provide support for the idea that cysteine proteinases derived from papaya latex may be developed into novel anthelmintics for the treatment of lumenal stages of gastro-intestinal nematode infections in sheep, particularly those parasitizing the abomasum.

Buttle David J; Behnke Jerzy M; Bartley Yvonne; Elsheikha Hany M; Bartley David J; Garnett Martin C; Donnan Alison A; Jackson Frank; Lowe Ann; Duce Ian R

2011-01-01

229

Power, progress and prevarication: local knowledge and GE papaya in Thailand.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Genetically engineered (GE) papaya was developed in the 1990s to improve the livelihoods of small scale farmers in Thailand. Yet these farmers have been excluded from the discourse around its deregulation and deployment. While elite stakeholders continue to debate in Bangkok, little is known about small scale farmers' understanding of biotechnology, their perceptions of the technology and whether or not they are likely to be adopters if it became available. In this case study, I report on farmer knowledge of agricultural biotechnology and genetically engineered papaya in northeast Thailand. Forty farmers in four villages were surveyed with regard to their knowledge and perceptions of GE papaya. A qualitative grounded theory approach was employed to understand their responses, from which three themes emerged: progress, power and prevarication. From these themes, the decision-making process of farmers seems to be dominated by their existing local knowledge and their interest in progressing their economic status. The responses of small-scale Isaan farmers provide a new perspective on the debate over GE virus-resistant papaya in Thailand. Based on the results of this study, we can conclude that this small subset of Thai papaya growers perceive GE virus-resistant papaya as a compatible innovation that is likely to be adopted by Thai farmers if it becomes available.

Davidson SN

2012-04-01

230

Effects of Ripe Carica Papaya Seed Powder on Testicular Histology of Boars  

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Full Text Available The effect of oral administration of ripe Carica Papaya seed powder on testicular histology of Sus scrofa domestica boars has been addressed in the present article. Fifteen pubertal Large White boars were randomly selected and divided into two groups. Each boar in the experimental group received a daily dose of 300mg C Papaya mixed with 0.5 kg of conventional pig feed while the control group received a placebo. The experiment was carried out for 56 days in the University of Nairobi. After every two weeks, one boar from the control group and two from the experimental group were castrated and testicular tissue samples processed for histology. At the end of 56 days the remaining entire boars were maintained for 14 days and 60 days respectively without the papaya powder to assess reversibility. The test material had no effect on haematological parameters. However, histopathological changes of the seminiferous epithelium which appeared to be dependent upon duration of C Papaya consumption was noticed, these changes were reversible.Although the mechanism(s) for the effect of papaya seed extract is not explained by this study, it is observed that papaya seed powder causes gradual disorganization, exfoliation and loss of spermatocytes and spermatids.

Kipyegon AN*, HM Mutembei, VT Tsuma and JA Oduma1

2012-01-01

231

Gamma radiation use as a quarantine treatment for Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) and Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied., 1830) in papaya fruits (Carica papaya, Linnaeus), cultivar sunrise solo  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The gamma irradiation as treatment for control of the immature stages of fruit flies, C. capitata and A. fraterculus in papaya fruits, cultivar Sunrise Solo is studied. The gamma rays attenuation was observed by one and two papaya fruits placed between source and infested fruit, and this changed the radiation doses required to obtain mortality in eggs and larvae of the Medfly. The efficacy of irradiation was higher when the infested papayas were packed in paper box. The radiation dose determined using the Probit 9 concept, for immature stages mortality of C. capitata was 107,74 Gy and for A. fraterculus was 50,82 Gy. The sterilizing doses for adults of C. capitata and D. fraterculus, irradiated as pupae, was 60 Gy and 40 Gy, respectively. (author)

1989-01-01

232

Genótipos melhorados de mamão (Carica papaya L.): avaliação tecnológica dos frutos na forma de sorvete Improved genotypes of papaya (Carica papaya L.): technological evaluation as ice-cream  

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Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo a avaliação tecnológica na forma de sorvete, de frutos de cinco genótipos selecionados de mamão (CMF012, CMF020, CMF023, CMF031, CMF047), provenientes do Banco Ativo de Germoplasma da Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura, Cruz das Almas, Bahia. Estes genótipos foram identificados em estudos anteriores por apresentarem cor atraente, sabor agradável e valores elevados de sólidos solúveis (ºBrix). As amostras de sorvete foram submetidas à avaliação sensorial para os atributos aparência, cor, aroma, sabor e textura, através de testes afetivos, utilizando-se escala hedônica estruturada de nove pontos. Realizou-se determinações de pH, acidez total titulável, sólidos solúveis (ºBrix), "ratio", ácido ascórbico, sólidos totais, cinzas, proteínas, lipídeos, açúcares totais, redutores e não-redutores. Os resultados das avaliações sensoriais e físico-químicas foram analisados através de ANOVA e teste de Tukey. Os sorvetes demonstraram elevada aceitação, obtendo médias correspondentes ao conceito "gostei moderadamente" para todos os atributos avaliados. Os genótipos CMF020 e CMF031 destacaram-se alcançando média correspondente ao termo da escala hedônica "gostei muito" para o atributo sabor. Os provadores não indicaram prevalência entre os produtos quanto à aparência, cor e textura; portanto, os genótipos pouco atraentes como fruto de mesa, poderão ser aproveitados na indústria para elaboração de sorvete. Além disso, podem ser considerados como uma sobremesa valiosa e nutritiva, pois apresentaram níveis satisfatórios de carboidratos e razoáveis de vitamina C e proteínas. O estudo demonstrou que o sorvete de mamão é uma excelente alternativa para o aproveitamento da fruta.The objective of the present work was to evaluate as an alternative of consumption the ice-cream of five selective papaya genotypes (CMF012, CMF020, CMF023, CMF031, CMF047) obtained from the Active Germplasm Bank for Papaya at Embrapa Cassava and Fruit Crops, located in Cruz das Almas, Bahia State, Brazil. These genotypes were identified at before studies because they showed atractive colour, good flavour and highter soluble solid (ºBrix). Sensory analyses of the ice-creams were carried out using affective tests (9 point hedonic scale) for the attributes of overall appearance, colour, odour, flavour and texture. The following physico-chemical determinations were carried out: pH, total titrable acidity, soluble solid (ºBrix), ratio, vitamin C, total solid, ash, protein, lipid, total sugars, reducing and non-reducing sugars.The sensory and physico-chemical data were submitted to an analysis of variation, followed the Tukey test. The ice creams showed higher scores for all of attributes. The genotypes CMF020 and CMF031 were preferred in terms of flavour. The judges didn!t indicate preference among the products in terms of overall appearance, colour and texture, so the less atractive genotypes for the fresh fruit market, could be utilized for the industry to make ice cream. They are a nutritive dessert, because they showed enough carbohydrates, vitamin C and protein contents. This study showed that the papaya ice cream is an excellent alternative of consumption.

Ligia R.R. Santana; Fernando C.A.U. Matsuura; Ricardo L. Cardoso

2003-01-01

233

Genótipos melhorados de mamão (Carica papaya L.): avaliação tecnológica dos frutos na forma de sorvete/ Improved genotypes of papaya (Carica papaya L.): technological evaluation as ice-cream  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho teve como objetivo a avaliação tecnológica na forma de sorvete, de frutos de cinco genótipos selecionados de mamão (CMF012, CMF020, CMF023, CMF031, CMF047), provenientes do Banco Ativo de Germoplasma da Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura, Cruz das Almas, Bahia. Estes genótipos foram identificados em estudos anteriores por apresentarem cor atraente, sabor agradável e valores elevados de sólidos solúveis (ºBrix). As amostras de sorvete foram subme (more) tidas à avaliação sensorial para os atributos aparência, cor, aroma, sabor e textura, através de testes afetivos, utilizando-se escala hedônica estruturada de nove pontos. Realizou-se determinações de pH, acidez total titulável, sólidos solúveis (ºBrix), "ratio", ácido ascórbico, sólidos totais, cinzas, proteínas, lipídeos, açúcares totais, redutores e não-redutores. Os resultados das avaliações sensoriais e físico-químicas foram analisados através de ANOVA e teste de Tukey. Os sorvetes demonstraram elevada aceitação, obtendo médias correspondentes ao conceito "gostei moderadamente" para todos os atributos avaliados. Os genótipos CMF020 e CMF031 destacaram-se alcançando média correspondente ao termo da escala hedônica "gostei muito" para o atributo sabor. Os provadores não indicaram prevalência entre os produtos quanto à aparência, cor e textura; portanto, os genótipos pouco atraentes como fruto de mesa, poderão ser aproveitados na indústria para elaboração de sorvete. Além disso, podem ser considerados como uma sobremesa valiosa e nutritiva, pois apresentaram níveis satisfatórios de carboidratos e razoáveis de vitamina C e proteínas. O estudo demonstrou que o sorvete de mamão é uma excelente alternativa para o aproveitamento da fruta. Abstract in english The objective of the present work was to evaluate as an alternative of consumption the ice-cream of five selective papaya genotypes (CMF012, CMF020, CMF023, CMF031, CMF047) obtained from the Active Germplasm Bank for Papaya at Embrapa Cassava and Fruit Crops, located in Cruz das Almas, Bahia State, Brazil. These genotypes were identified at before studies because they showed atractive colour, good flavour and highter soluble solid (ºBrix). Sensory analyses of the ice-cre (more) ams were carried out using affective tests (9 point hedonic scale) for the attributes of overall appearance, colour, odour, flavour and texture. The following physico-chemical determinations were carried out: pH, total titrable acidity, soluble solid (ºBrix), ratio, vitamin C, total solid, ash, protein, lipid, total sugars, reducing and non-reducing sugars.The sensory and physico-chemical data were submitted to an analysis of variation, followed the Tukey test. The ice creams showed higher scores for all of attributes. The genotypes CMF020 and CMF031 were preferred in terms of flavour. The judges didn!t indicate preference among the products in terms of overall appearance, colour and texture, so the less atractive genotypes for the fresh fruit market, could be utilized for the industry to make ice cream. They are a nutritive dessert, because they showed enough carbohydrates, vitamin C and protein contents. This study showed that the papaya ice cream is an excellent alternative of consumption.

Santana, Ligia R.R.; Matsuura, Fernando C.A.U.; Cardoso, Ricardo L.

2003-12-01

234

Heat treatment and gamma radiation on the control of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Penz. et Sacc., causal agent of the papaya fruits (Carica papaya L.) anthracnose  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] For controlling papaya anthracnose on stored fruits the effect of heat treatment and gamma radiation on Colletotrichum gloeosporioides was studied in vitro and in vivo. Some physiological studies with four isolades of C. gloeosporioides from papaya fruits concerning the best conditions for mycelial growth and sporulation were also performed. The results showed that the best conditions for isolates development in BDA were: temperature between 25 and 270 C for mycelium radial growth; between 27 and 300 C under 12 hours alternating periods of fluorescent). (author). 131 refs., 9 figs., 33 tabs

1988-01-01

235

Época de colheita dos frutos e ocorrência de dormência em sementes de mamão (Carica papaya L.)/ Fruit harvest season and dormancy occurrency in papaya seeds (Carica papaya L.)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O trabalho teve como objetivo relacionar a época de colheita dos frutos com a ocorrência de dormência nas sementes de mamão. Foram utilizados frutos de mamão do grupo Formosa, híbrido Tainung 01, colhidos no estádio 1 de maturação (até 15% da superfície externa com coloração amarela) em cinco diferentes épocas do ano: Julho e Novembro/2004 e Fevereiro, Maio e Setembro/2005. Os frutos permaneceram armazenados em ambiente de laboratório até atingirem o está (more) dio 5 de maturação (mais de 75% da superfície externa com coloração amarela). Em cada época, foram obtidas sementes com e sem sarcotesta, que foram submetidas ao teste de germinação, conduzido em germinador sob temperatura alternada de 20-30°C (16h/8h, respectivamente), avaliando-se a porcentagem de plântulas normais aos 15 e 30 dias após a semeadura. Verificou-se que a presença da sarcotesta na semente diminui a velocidade e a porcentagem de germinação. Houve efeito da época de colheita do fruto na germinação das sementes, sendo que as sementes extraídas de frutos colhidos em Julho/2004 e Maio/2005 apresentaram dormência pós-colheita, o que não ocorreu com as sementes obtidas de frutos que amadureceram em épocas de temperaturas mais altas. Abstract in english This study was carried out in order to relate the fruit harvest season and dormancy occurrence in papaya seeds. Papaya fruits of the Formosa group, Tainung 01 hybrid, were harvested at maturation stage 1 (15% external color yellow), at five different times: July and November/2004 and February, May and September/2005. The fruits were stored at room temperature until they reached maturation stage 5 (more than 75% external color yellow). Seeds with and without sarcotesta wer (more) e obtained at each harvest time. Standard germination of these seeds was performed in a germinator at 20/30 º C (8/16 hours, respectively) and normal seedlings percentage was evaluated at 15 and 30 days. Seeds with sarcotesta had lower germination speed and percentage. There was an effect of fruit harvest time on seed germination. Seeds extracted from fruits harvested in July/2004 and May/2005 had post-harvest dormancy, which did not occur in seeds from fruits harvested in the high temperature periods.

Tokuhisa, Daí; Dias, Denise Cunha Fernandes dos Santos; Alvarenga, Eveline Mantovani; Santos Dias, Luiz Antônio dos; Marin, Sérgio Lúcio David

2008-01-01

236

Época de colheita dos frutos e ocorrência de dormência em sementes de mamão (Carica papaya L.) Fruit harvest season and dormancy occurrency in papaya seeds (Carica papaya L.)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo relacionar a época de colheita dos frutos com a ocorrência de dormência nas sementes de mamão. Foram utilizados frutos de mamão do grupo Formosa, híbrido Tainung 01, colhidos no estádio 1 de maturação (até 15% da superfície externa com coloração amarela) em cinco diferentes épocas do ano: Julho e Novembro/2004 e Fevereiro, Maio e Setembro/2005. Os frutos permaneceram armazenados em ambiente de laboratório até atingirem o estádio 5 de maturação (mais de 75% da superfície externa com coloração amarela). Em cada época, foram obtidas sementes com e sem sarcotesta, que foram submetidas ao teste de germinação, conduzido em germinador sob temperatura alternada de 20-30°C (16h/8h, respectivamente), avaliando-se a porcentagem de plântulas normais aos 15 e 30 dias após a semeadura. Verificou-se que a presença da sarcotesta na semente diminui a velocidade e a porcentagem de germinação. Houve efeito da época de colheita do fruto na germinação das sementes, sendo que as sementes extraídas de frutos colhidos em Julho/2004 e Maio/2005 apresentaram dormência pós-colheita, o que não ocorreu com as sementes obtidas de frutos que amadureceram em épocas de temperaturas mais altas.This study was carried out in order to relate the fruit harvest season and dormancy occurrence in papaya seeds. Papaya fruits of the Formosa group, Tainung 01 hybrid, were harvested at maturation stage 1 (15% external color yellow), at five different times: July and November/2004 and February, May and September/2005. The fruits were stored at room temperature until they reached maturation stage 5 (more than 75% external color yellow). Seeds with and without sarcotesta were obtained at each harvest time. Standard germination of these seeds was performed in a germinator at 20/30 º C (8/16 hours, respectively) and normal seedlings percentage was evaluated at 15 and 30 days. Seeds with sarcotesta had lower germination speed and percentage. There was an effect of fruit harvest time on seed germination. Seeds extracted from fruits harvested in July/2004 and May/2005 had post-harvest dormancy, which did not occur in seeds from fruits harvested in the high temperature periods.

Daí Tokuhisa; Denise Cunha Fernandes dos Santos Dias; Eveline Mantovani Alvarenga; Luiz Antônio dos Santos Dias; Sérgio Lúcio David Marin

2008-01-01

237

Emergência e matéria seca de plantas daninhas na cultura do mamoeiro (Carica papaya) Emergence and dry matter of weeds in papaya crop (Carica papaya)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste experimento foi avaliar o "banco" de sementes de plantas daninhas através do método da emergência de plântulas, na cultura do mamoeiro, em que se empregaram diferentes sistemas de manejo. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com três repetições e seis tratamentos: capina em área total; herbicida nas linhas + grade nas entrelinhas; subsolagem cruzada antes do plantio + capina em área total; subsolagem cruzada antes do plantio + herbicida nas linhas e feijão de porco nas entrelinhas; subsolagem cruzada antes do plantio + herbicida nas linhas e crotalária nas entrelinhas; e herbicida nas linhas + vegetação nativa nas entrelinhas da cultura, roçada quando necessário. A avaliação do banco de sementes foi feita aos 30, 60, 90 e 120 dias após a implantação de um bioensaio em casa de vegetação, com amostras retiradas no campo nas épocas chuvosa e seca, na profundidade de 0-15 cm. A matéria seca das plantas daninhas foi obtida utilizando-se um quadrado de 0,5 x 0,5 m, jogado a lanço quatro vezes nas parcelas. Os sistemas de manejo de capina em área total e de herbicida na linha + grade nas entrelinhas de plantio de mamoeiros, com feijão-de-porco e crotalária, reduzem o banco de sementes no solo. Dos adubos verdes, crotalária e feijão-de-porco, o primeiro altera a dinâmica do "banco" de sementes de forma mais significativa.The objective of this work was to evaluate the seed bank of weeds through the seedling emergence method in papaya crop, using different tillage systems. A randomized complete block design was used, with three replications and six treatments: weeding in total area, herbicide in the rows + disc in the interrows, crossed sub soiling before planting + weeding in total area, crossed sub soiling before planting + herbicide in the rows and pig bean in the interrows, crossed sub soiling before planting + herbicide in the row + crotalaria in the interrows and crossed sub soiling before planting + herbicide in the rows + native vegetation in the interrows, cleared when necessary. Seed bank evaluation was performed at 30, 60, 90 and 120 days after implantation of the experiment in the greenhouse with samples collected in the field in the rainy and dry seasons at 0-15 cm in depth. Weed dry matter was obtained by using a square of 0.5 x 0.5 m sorted four times in the plots. The weeding management systems in total area and herbicide in the row + disc in the papaya crop interrows with pig bean and crotalaria reduce seed bank in the soil. Among the green fertilizers, crotalaria alters more significantly the dynamics of the seed bank than pig bean.

I.S. Santana; M.F.S.P. Peixoto; J.E.B. Carvalho; L.S.V. Sampaio; C.A.S. Ledo; C.P. Peixoto

2005-01-01

238

EVALUACIÓN DE DOS HÍBRIDOS DE PAPAYA INTRODUCIDOS EN CUBA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se realizó la caracterización morfológica de 2 híbridos de papaya "Tainung-01" y "Scarlett Princess" introducidos en el banco de germoplasma del Instituto de Investigaciones en Fruticultura Tropical, La Habana, Cuba. Y fueron comparados con el cultivar cubano Maradol. Los resultados corroboraron que los híbridos presentan características fenotípicas del Grupo Formosa, frutos de forma elongata en las plantas hermafroditas. El peso medio de los frutos es de 1,6 kg (''Tainung-01'') y 1,7 kg (''Scarlett Princess''), de pulpa color naranja-rojiza y roja, respectivamente, así como, con una productividad entre 98,5 y 63,8 kg.planta-1, características que evidencian la posibilidad de utilizarlos en programas de mejoramiento genético del cultivo y directamente por los productores.

Maruchi Alonso; Yoel Tornet; Roberto Ramos; Emilio Farrés; Douglas Rodríguez

2009-01-01

239

Identification of gamma-irradiated papaya, melon and watermelon  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ionizing radiation can be used to control spoilage microorganisms and to increase the shelf life of fresh fruits and vegetables in replacement for the treatment with chemical fumigants. In order to enforce labelling regulations, methods for detecting the irradiation treatment directly in the produce are required. Recently, a number of detection methods for irradiated food have been adopted by the Codex Comission. A rapid screening method for qualitative detection of irradiation is the DNA Comet Assay. The applicability of the DNA Comet Assay for distinguishing irradiated papaya, melon, and watermelon was evaluated. The samples were treated in a {sup 60}Co facility at dose levels of 0.0, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 kGy. The irradiated samples showed typical DNA fragmentation whereas cells from non-irradiated ones appeared intact. In addition to the DNA Comet Assay also the half-embryo test was applied in melon and watermelon to detect the irradiation treatment.

Marin-Huachaca, N.S.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge E-mail: jmancini@usp.br; Delincee, Henry E-mail: henry.delincee@bfe.uni-karlsruhe.de; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H. E-mail: villavic@net.ipen.br

2004-10-01

240

Identification of gamma-irradiated papaya, melon and watermelon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ionizing radiation can be used to control spoilage microorganisms and to increase the shelf life of fresh fruits and vegetables in replacement for the treatment with chemical fumigants. In order to enforce labelling regulations, methods for detecting the irradiation treatment directly in the produce are required. Recently, a number of detection methods for irradiated food have been adopted by the Codex Comission. A rapid screening method for qualitative detection of irradiation is the DNA Comet Assay. The applicability of the DNA Comet Assay for distinguishing irradiated papaya, melon, and watermelon was evaluated. The samples were treated in a 60Co facility at dose levels of 0.0, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 kGy. The irradiated samples showed typical DNA fragmentation whereas cells from non-irradiated ones appeared intact. In addition to the DNA Comet Assay also the half-embryo test was applied in melon and watermelon to detect the irradiation treatment.

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Identification of gamma-irradiated papaya, melon and watermelon  

Science.gov (United States)

Ionizing radiation can be used to control spoilage microorganisms and to increase the shelf life of fresh fruits and vegetables in replacement for the treatment with chemical fumigants. In order to enforce labelling regulations, methods for detecting the irradiation treatment directly in the produce are required. Recently, a number of detection methods for irradiated food have been adopted by the Codex Comission. A rapid screening method for qualitative detection of irradiation is the DNA Comet Assay. The applicability of the DNA Comet Assay for distinguishing irradiated papaya, melon, and watermelon was evaluated. The samples were treated in a 60Co facility at dose levels of 0.0, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0kGy. The irradiated samples showed typical DNA fragmentation whereas cells from non-irradiated ones appeared intact. In addition to the DNA Comet Assay also the half-embryo test was applied in melon and watermelon to detect the irradiation treatment.

Marín-Huachaca, Nélida S.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; Delincée, Henry; Villavicencio, Anna Lúcia C. H.

2004-09-01

242

Anatomy of somatic embryogenesis in Carica papaya L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mature zygotic embryos of Carica papaya L. ?Sunrise Solo? were used as explants for embryogenesis induction. The explants were inoculated on Murashige and Skoog culture medium supplemented with 2 mg.L-1 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and incubated in darkness at 25+2°C. Histological analysis of callogenesis and somatic embryogenesis indicated occurrence of direct and indirect somatic embryogenesis development. Direct somatic embryo formation was observed from hypocotyledonary epidermic cells only from explant 18 days after inoculation. Somatic embryos formed indirectly were originated from embryogenic superficial cells of pre-embryonic complexes located on peripherical and on internal cell layers of callus 49 days after inoculation. Diverse morphological differences including disformed embryos were observed among the somatic embryos.

Fernando Juliana A.; Melo Murilo; Soares Marli K. M.; Appezzato-da-Glória Beatriz

2001-01-01

243

Selective cleavage of glycyl bonds by papaya proteinase IV.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The specificity of papaya proteinase IV (PPIV) has been examined with small substrates and a protein. With both classes of substrate, the enzyme shows a marked selectivity for cleaving glycyl bonds. Boc-Ala-Ala-Gly-NHPhNO2 is a convenient substrate for routine assays that discriminate well against chymopapain, the most common contaminant of PPIV. Sixteen cleavage points in beta-trypsin were identified, of which 13 are glycyl bonds. Tentative suggestions are made as to the reasons for lack of cleavage of some other glycyl bonds. The structure of PPIV has been modelled on that of papain, and we suggest that the replacement of the highly conserved residues Gly-65 and Gly-23 by arginine and glutamic acid, respectively, can account for the specificity of PPIV.

Buttle DJ; Ritonja A; Pearl LH; Turk V; Barrett AJ

1990-01-01

244

Selective cleavage of glycyl bonds by papaya proteinase IV.  

Science.gov (United States)

The specificity of papaya proteinase IV (PPIV) has been examined with small substrates and a protein. With both classes of substrate, the enzyme shows a marked selectivity for cleaving glycyl bonds. Boc-Ala-Ala-Gly-NHPhNO2 is a convenient substrate for routine assays that discriminate well against chymopapain, the most common contaminant of PPIV. Sixteen cleavage points in beta-trypsin were identified, of which 13 are glycyl bonds. Tentative suggestions are made as to the reasons for lack of cleavage of some other glycyl bonds. The structure of PPIV has been modelled on that of papain, and we suggest that the replacement of the highly conserved residues Gly-65 and Gly-23 by arginine and glutamic acid, respectively, can account for the specificity of PPIV. PMID:2404797

Buttle, D J; Ritonja, A; Pearl, L H; Turk, V; Barrett, A J

1990-01-29

245

Identification of Papaya ringspot potyvirus strains with molecular biological methods  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The strains of Papaya ringspot potyvirus (PRSV) such as PRSV126?Ys?Vb?Sm were identified with strain specific primers of PRSV. It was found that the primer PR21/PR22 could distinguish Ys from Vb and Sm, while another pair of primer PR300/PR301 could differentiate Vb from Ys, Sm and PRSV126. The PRSV strains could also be identified by RT-PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (RT-PCR-RFLP) with one restriction enzyme of Hae II, Sau3A I and Hinf I. The results indicated that Ys could be identified with single digestion of Sau3A I or of Hae II, and PRSV126 with Hinf I. The strains of Vb, Ys and Sm could also be identified respectively by RT-PCR-RFLP single-strand conformation polymorphism (RT-PCR-RFLP-SSCP).

He Guoan; Xiao Huogen; Zhang Shuguang; Li Huaping; Fan Huaizhong

2002-01-01

246

Morphological analysis and photosynthetic performance of improved papaya genotypes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Brazil is the largest world producer of papaya and the third largest exporter despite of only 1.5 to 2.0% of its production is exported. Such an underexplored exportation potential highlight the necessity for physiological studies on new cultivars and hybrids to verify their agronomic and commercial viability. Two Brazilian states, Bahia and Espirito Santo, are responsible for 80% of national production. Papaya can also be an agricultural alternative to north / northeast (more) of Rio de Janeiro, because the region is close to consumer centers and have similar environmental conditions of the most productive regions. Nevertheless, it is worth to develop cultivars that can express the highest yield potential in this region. The aim of this work was to characterize physiologically two hybrids developed for the north/northeast of Rio de Janeiro (UENF/Caliman 01 and JS12) in comparison with three top commercial genotypes (Golden, Sunrise Solo 7212 and Tainung) of Caricapapaya L. The cv. Golden presented the lowest shoot and root growth, the lowest height, shrunk diameter, specific leaf weight, less efficiency in electrons transport per sample area and show the lowest ability to synthesized total chlorophylls in comparison with the others genotypes. At noon, this genotype showed higher stomatal conductance, related to the leaf-air vapor pressure deficit, which lead to higher transpiration rate and intrinsic water use efficiency. No differences were detected in the photosynthetic rates among the five genotypes suggesting that the UENF`s hybrids are endowed with similar photosynthetic capacity and morphological characteristics to the top commercial genotypes. The relevance of this characterization to drive future successful genetic improvement programs will be discussed.

Torres Netto, Alena; Campostrini, Eliemar; Azevedo, Letícia C.; Souza, Marcelo A.; Ramalho, José C.; Chaves, Manuela M.

2009-01-01

247

Anatomy of somatic embryogenesis in Carica papaya L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mature zygotic embryos of Carica papaya L. ‘Sunrise Solo’ were used as explants for embryogenesis induction. The explants were inoculated on Murashige and Skoog culture medium supplemented with 2 mg.L-1 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and incubated in darkness at 25+2°C. Histological analysis of callogenesis and somatic embryogenesis indicated occurrence of direct and indirect somatic embryogenesis development. Direct somatic embryo formation was observed from hypocotyledonary epidermic cells only from explant 18 days after inoculation. Somatic embryos formed indirectly were originated from embryogenic superficial cells of pre-embryonic complexes located on peripherical and on internal cell layers of callus 49 days after inoculation. Diverse morphological differences including disformed embryos were observed among the somatic embryos.Embriões zigóticos maduros de Carica papaya L. ‘Sunrise Solo’ foram utilizados como explantes para indução da embriogênese. Estes explantes foram inoculados em meio de cultura de Murashige & Skoog suplementado com 2,0 mg.L-1 de 2,4 ácido diclorofenoxiacético (2,4-D) e mantidos no escuro em câmara de crescimento à temperatura de 21°C por período de tempo variável. Através da análise histológica foi possível verificar que os primeiros embriões somáticos formaram-se diretamente a partir de células únicas da epiderme hipocotiledonar do explante após o 18º dia de cultura. Porém, os demais embriões somáticos originaram-se indiretamente a partir de células superficiais de complexos pré-embriônicos presentes nas camadas periféricas e internas do calo após o 49º dia de cultura. Foram detectadas algumas diferenças morfológicas entre os embriões somáticos obtidos.

Juliana A. Fernando; Murilo Melo; Marli K. M. Soares; Beatriz Appezzato-da-Glória

2001-01-01

248

Morphological analysis and photosynthetic performance of improved papaya genotypes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Brazil is the largest world producer of papaya and the third largest exporter despite of only 1.5 to 2.0% of its production is exported. Such an underexplored exportation potential highlight the necessity for physiological studies on new cultivars and hybrids to verify their agronomic and commercial viability. Two Brazilian states, Bahia and Espirito Santo, are responsible for 80% of national production. Papaya can also be an agricultural alternative to north / northeast of Rio de Janeiro, because the region is close to consumer centers and have similar environmental conditions of the most productive regions. Nevertheless, it is worth to develop cultivars that can express the highest yield potential in this region. The aim of this work was to characterize physiologically two hybrids developed for the north/northeast of Rio de Janeiro (UENF/Caliman 01 and JS12) in comparison with three top commercial genotypes (Golden, Sunrise Solo 7212 and Tainung) of Caricapapaya L. The cv. Golden presented the lowest shoot and root growth, the lowest height, shrunk diameter, specific leaf weight, less efficiency in electrons transport per sample area and show the lowest ability to synthesized total chlorophylls in comparison with the others genotypes. At noon, this genotype showed higher stomatal conductance, related to the leaf-air vapor pressure deficit, which lead to higher transpiration rate and intrinsic water use efficiency. No differences were detected in the photosynthetic rates among the five genotypes suggesting that the UENF`s hybrids are endowed with similar photosynthetic capacity and morphological characteristics to the top commercial genotypes. The relevance of this characterization to drive future successful genetic improvement programs will be discussed.

Alena Torres Netto; Eliemar Campostrini; Letícia C. Azevedo; Marcelo A. Souza; José C. Ramalho; Manuela M. Chaves

2009-01-01

249

Cloning and expression analysis of phytoene desaturase and ?-carotene desaturase genes in Carica papaya.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The fruit flesh color of papaya is an important nutritional quality trait and is due to the accumulation of carotenoid. To elucidate the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway in Carica papaya, the phytoene desaturase (PDS) and the ?-carotene desaturase (ZDS) genes were isolated from papaya (named CpPDS and CpZDS) using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) approach, and their expression levels were investigated in red- and yellow-fleshed papaya varieties. CpPDS contains a 1749 bp open reading frame coding for 583 amino acids, while CpZDS contains a 1716 bp open reading frame coding for 572 amino acids. The deduced CpPDS and CpZDS proteins contain a conserved dinucleotide-binding site at the N-terminus and a carotenoid-binding domain at the C-terminus. Papaya genome sequence analysis revealed that CpPDS and CpZDS are single copy; the CpPDS was mapped to papaya chromosome LG6, and the CpZDS was mapped to chromosome LG3. Quantitative PCR showed that both CpPDS and CpZDS were expressed in all tissues examined with the highest expression in maturing fruits, and that the expression of CpPDS and CpZDS were higher in red-fleshed fruits than in yellow-fleshed fruits. These results indicated that the differential accumulation of carotenoids in red- and yellow-fleshed papaya varieties might be partly explained by the transcriptional level of CpPDS and CpZDS.

Yan P; Gao XZ; Shen WT; Zhou P

2011-02-01

250

Study about papaya (Carica papaya L.) conservation submitted to a combined treatment of irradiation and an edible film of quitosan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this research, on a first stage the effect of two treatments were studied: thermal, and a chitosan edible coating, combined with four different irradiation doses: 0,00 kGy, 0,50 kGy, 0,75 kGy and 1,00 kGy for effects in the ripening of papaya (Carica Papaya) cv. Golden. To evaluate the influence of these two factors in the physical-chemical characteristics of the fruit during ripening, analysis on color, both skin and pulp, firmness, soluble solids, pH and titrable acidity were performed. The incidence of fungi in fruit skin was also analyzed. The fruits were first maintained at 10 deg C chamber for fifteen days to simulate maritime transportation to the importer country and then transferred to a 25 deg C chamber aiming simulation of the commercialization conditions. From this first step, the conclusion was that chitosan in the concentration of 2% was not able to contain the fungi development and that it also influenced in a significant form the variable pH. A more expressive result was obtained for irradiation doses of 0,75 kGy and 1,00 kGy, as it was observed in the beginning the acceleration in ripening through the variables skin color and penetration energy of the fruit pulp. When storage temperature was changed to 25 deg C this situation inverted for these same variables and a two day delay was observed on the development of yellow color on the fruit skin and loss of pulp firmness. The variables titrable acidity, soluble solids and pulp color were not influenced by treatment or by irradiation. On a second stage, the fruits, in the same condition of the previous stage, were analyzed in relation of their mass and ripening stage using a ripening scale provided by the producer of the fruits for this experiment, as to evaluate the gradual development of fruit ripening according to the various treatments (chitosan 3%, thermal or control) and irradiation dose (0,00 kGy and 0,75 kGy). Confirming the results obtained in the first stage, the irradiation was able to delay ripening in one day and a half approximately. The chitosan in these new conditions of test propitiated fungi development and the fruits coated with chitosan did not ripe in the way it was seen to come. A last stage was done to verify consumer behavior in respect to an irradiated papaya. By three different sensorial tests it was verified if provers were able to perceive significant difference between irradiated and non irradiated samples, what was the acceptance of a irradiated sample and the intention of purchase of a irradiated and a non irradiated papaya. Conclusion from these tests was that the difference established in the triangular test was not enough to establish significant difference between the acceptances of the two samples in the four parameters tested: appearance, texture, aroma and flavor. For the purchase intention it was verified that the irradiation is not a barrier for the consumer. (author)

2004-01-01

251

Use of microsatellite markers in molecular analysis of segregating populations of papaya (Carica papaya L.) derived from backcrossing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Brazil is the world leader in papaya production. However, only a small number of cultivars are registered for commercial planting, mainly owing to delays in obtaining cultivars and the high costs of the field phase of breeding programs. These costs can be reduced when molecular tools are combined with conventional breeding methods. In the present study, we conducted a molecular analysis of a self-fertilized population of a first backcrossing generation of BC1S1 papaya plants via microsatellite markers both to monitor the level of homozygosity and the gene/allele transfer that confers the Golden trait (fruit color) and to assess the parental genomic proportion in the genotypes studied. Based on the analysis of 20 polymorphic microsatellite loci, 19 genotypes with the Golden trait belonging to BC1S1 were evaluated in addition to the parental genotypes. Genetic distance was estimated through weighted index. The genotypes were then grouped using the hierarchical nearest neighbor method, and the analysis of principal coordinates was used to measure the proportion of parental genomes in the segregating genotypes. The mean value of the inbreeding coefficient was 0.36. The analysis of the principal coordinates revealed that on average, 64% of the recurrent parent genome was present in the population. Together, the analyses allowed the selection of 3 individuals for the next backcross cycle (33BC1S1-18, 34BC1S1-16, and 37BC1S1-10). These individuals had a higher proportion of the recurrent parent and were grouped close to the recurrent parent in the cluster analysis.

Pinto FO; Pereira MG; Luz LN; Cardozo DL; Ramos HC; Macedo CM

2013-01-01

252

Use of microsatellite markers in molecular analysis of segregating populations of papaya (Carica papaya L.) derived from backcrossing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Brazil is the world leader in papaya production. However, only a small number of cultivars are registered for commercial planting, mainly owing to delays in obtaining cultivars and the high costs of the field phase of breeding programs. These costs can be reduced when molecular tools are combined with conventional breeding methods. In the present study, we conducted a molecular analysis of a self-fertilized population of a first backcrossing generation of BC1S1 papaya plants via microsatellite markers both to monitor the level of homozygosity and the gene/allele transfer that confers the Golden trait (fruit color) and to assess the parental genomic proportion in the genotypes studied. Based on the analysis of 20 polymorphic microsatellite loci, 19 genotypes with the Golden trait belonging to BC1S1 were evaluated in addition to the parental genotypes. Genetic distance was estimated through weighted index. The genotypes were then grouped using the hierarchical nearest neighbor method, and the analysis of principal coordinates was used to measure the proportion of parental genomes in the segregating genotypes. The mean value of the inbreeding coefficient was 0.36. The analysis of the principal coordinates revealed that on average, 64% of the recurrent parent genome was present in the population. Together, the analyses allowed the selection of 3 individuals for the next backcross cycle (33BC1S1-18, 34BC1S1-16, and 37BC1S1-10). These individuals had a higher proportion of the recurrent parent and were grouped close to the recurrent parent in the cluster analysis. PMID:23884768

Pinto, F O; Pereira, M G; Luz, L N; Cardozo, D L; Ramos, H C C; Macedo, C M P

2013-07-08

253

Molecular diagnosis of Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) from leaf samples of Carica papaya L. using conventional and real-time RT-PCR.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) is the causal agent of papaya sticky disease. This study describes two methods for molecular diagnosis of PMeV using conventional and real-time PCR. These methods were shown to be more efficient than current methods of viral detection using extraction of PMeV dsRNA and observation of symptoms in the field. The methods described here were used to evaluate the effect of inoculation of papaya plants with purified PMeV dsRNA on the progress of PMeV infection. A single inoculation with PMeV dsRNA was observed to delay the progress of the virus infection by several weeks. The possibility of vertical transmission of PMeV was also investigated. No evidence was found for PMeV transmission through seeds collected from diseased fruit. The implications of these results for the epidemiology of PMeV and the management of papaya sticky disease are discussed.

Abreu PM; Piccin JG; Rodrigues SP; Buss DS; Ventura JA; Fernandes PM

2012-03-01

254

Recombinant pro-regions from papain and papaya proteinase IV-are selective high affinity inhibitors of the mature papaya enzymes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Proteolytic enzymes require the presence of their pro-regions for correct folding. Of the four proteolytic enzymes from Carica papaya, papain and papaya proteinase IV (PPIV) have 68% sequence identity. We find that their pro-regions are even more similar, exhibiting 73.6% identity. cDNAs encoding the pro-regions of these two proteinases have been expressed in Escherichia coli independently from their mature enzymes. The recombinant pro-regions of papain and PPIV have been shown to be high affinity inhibitors of all four of the mature native papaya cysteine proteinases. Their inhibition constants are in the range 10(-6) - 10(-9) M. PPIV was inhibited two to three orders of magnitude less effectively than papain, chymopapain and caricain. The pro-region of PPIV, however, inhibited its own mature enzyme more effectively than did the pro-region of papain. Alignment of the sequences of the four papaya enzymes shows that there is a highly variable section towards the C-terminal of the pro-region. This region may therefore confer selectivity to the pro-regions for the individual proteolytic enzymes.

Taylor MA; Baker KC; Briggs GS; Connerton IF; Cummings NJ; Pratt KA; Revell DF; Freedman RB; Goodenough PW

1995-01-01

255

Recombinant pro-regions from papain and papaya proteinase IV-are selective high affinity inhibitors of the mature papaya enzymes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Proteolytic enzymes require the presence of their pro-regions for correct folding. Of the four proteolytic enzymes from Carica papaya, papain and papaya proteinase IV (PPIV) have 68% sequence identity. We find that their pro-regions are even more similar, exhibiting 73.6% identity. cDNAs encoding the pro-regions of these two proteinases have been expressed in Escherichia coli independently from their mature enzymes. The recombinant pro-regions of papain and PPIV have been shown to be high affinity inhibitors of all four of the mature native papaya cysteine proteinases. Their inhibition constants are in the range 10(-6) - 10(-9) M. PPIV was inhibited two to three orders of magnitude less effectively than papain, chymopapain and caricain. The pro-region of PPIV, however, inhibited its own mature enzyme more effectively than did the pro-region of papain. Alignment of the sequences of the four papaya enzymes shows that there is a highly variable section towards the C-terminal of the pro-region. This region may therefore confer selectivity to the pro-regions for the individual proteolytic enzymes. PMID:7770454

Taylor, M A; Baker, K C; Briggs, G S; Connerton, I F; Cummings, N J; Pratt, K A; Revell, D F; Freedman, R B; Goodenough, P W

1995-01-01

256

An Analysis on DNA Fingerprints of Thirty Papaya Cultivars (Carica papaya L.), Grown in Thailand with the Use of Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms Technique  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The experiment was carried out at the Department of Horticulture, Ubon Ratchathani University, Ubon Ratchathani province, Northeast Thailand during June 2002 to May 2003 aims to identify DNA fingerprints of thirty papaya cultivars with the use of Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLP) techni...

Janthasri Ratchadaporn; Katengam Sureeporn; U. Khumcha

257

Estimación de las necesidades hídricas de la papaya utilizando la aproximación de los coeficientes culturales duales/ Papaya estimation of water requirements using the dual crop coefficient  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Considerando el incremento de la actividad de riego en el cultivo de la papaya durante los últimos años, resulta de interés el conocimiento de los elementos técnicos y agronomicos necesarios para una adecuada programación del riego a partir de la estimación de las necesidades hidrícas del cultivo. Para esto se utilizo el modelo SIMDualKc el cual efectua el calculo de la evapotranspiración del cultivo (ETc) y la programación del riego a partir de la metodología d (more) e los coeficientes culturales duales (Kc=Kcb+Ke). La investigación fue realizada en la Estación Experimental de Riego y Drenaje, situada en Alquízar, provincia La Habana, Cuba. Los experimentos fueron desarrollados entre el período marzo-noviembre 1997. Se utilizó la Papaya var. "Maradol roja". La calibración consistió en la búsqueda de los coeficientes culturales basales para las diferentes etapas de desarrollo del cultivo reduciendo al mínimo las diferencias entre los valores simulados y observados del contenido de humedad del suelo. Fue evaluada la bondad de ajuste de las predicciones del modelo, realizándose una serie de análisis estadísticos. Se puede concluir que el modelo puede ser utilizado para la generación de calendarios alternativos de riego destinados a mejorar el ahorro de agua y la productividad de la papaya en estas condiciones edafoclimáticas. Abstract in english Considering the increased activity of irrigation in the cultivation of papaya in recent years, interest is knowledge of the technical and agronomic necessary for proper irrigation scheduling based on the estimation of crop water requirements. For this we used the model SIMDualKc, which make the calculation of crop evapotranspiration (ETc) and irrigation scheduling based on the methodology of the dual crop coefficient (Kc = Kcb + Ke). The research was conducted at the Expe (more) rimental Station of Irrigation and Drainage, located in Alquízar, Havana, Cuba. The experiments were carried out between the periods march to november 1997. We used the Papaya (Carica papaya L) var. "Maradol red." The calibration consisted in the search for cultural factors at baseline for the different stages of crop development by minimizing the differences between the simulated and observed soil moisture content. Was evaluated for goodness of fit of the model's predictions SIMDualKc, realizandoce a series of statistical analysis. It can be concluded that the model can be used to generate alternative schedules irrigation to improve water conservation and productivity of papaya in these soil and climatic conditions.

Chaterlán, Yoima; Rosa, Ricardo; Herández, Geisy; López, Teresa; Pereira, Luis S

2012-09-01

258

In vitro erythrocyte membrane stabilization properties of Carica papaya L. leaf extracts.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Carica papaya L. fruit juice and leaf extracts are known to have many beneficial medical properties. Recent reports have claimed possible beneficial effects of C. papaya L. leaf juice in treating patients with dengue viral infections. This study aims to evaluate the membrane stabilization potential of C. papaya L. leaf extracts using an in vitro hemolytic assay. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted in between June and August 2010. Two milliliters of blood from healthy volunteers and patients with serologically confirmed current dengue infection were freshly collected and used in the assays. Fresh papaya leaves at three different maturity stages (immature, partly matured, and matured) were cleaned with distilled water, crushed, and the juice was extracted with 10 ml of cold distilled water. Freshly prepared cold water extracts of papaya leaves (1 ml containing 30 ?l of papaya leaf extracts, 20 ?l from 40% erythrocytes suspension, and 950 ?l of phosphate buffered saline) were used in the heat-induced and hypotonic-induced hemolytic assays. In dose response experiments, six different concentrations (9.375, 18.75, 37.5, 75, 150, and 300 ?g/ml) of freeze dried extracts of the partly matured leaves were used. Membrane stabilization properties were investigated with heat-induced and hypotonicity-induced hemolysis assays. RESULTS: Extracts of papaya leaves of all three maturity levels showed a significant reduction in heat-induced hemolysis compared to controls (P < 0.05). Papaya leaf extracts of all three maturity levels showed more than 25% inhibition at a concentration of 37.5 ?g/ml. The highest inhibition of heat-induced hemolysis was observed at 37.5 ?g/ml. Inhibition activity of different maturity levels was not significantly (P < 0.05) different from one another. Heat-induced hemolysis inhibition activity did not demonstrate a linear dose response relationship. At 37.5 ?g/ml concentration of the extract, a marked inhibition of hypotonicity-induced hemolysis was observed. CONCLUSION: C. papaya L. leaf extracts showed a significant inhibition of hemolysis in vitro and could have a potential therapeutic effect on disease processes causing destabilization of biological membranes.

Ranasinghe P; Ranasinghe P; Abeysekera WP; Premakumara GA; Perera YS; Gurugama P; Gunatilake SB

2012-10-01

259

Study on shelf life extension of papayas irradiated by /sup 60/Co gamma-rays  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Papayas are one of the main fresh fruits in Taiwan area. Papaya fruits were treated with hot water to pasteurize peels followed by /sup 60/Co gamma-ray irradiation to extend the ripening time. The purpose of synergetic methods is to extend the shelf life of papaya fruits. This experiment was carried out by seven treatments, which were: (1) control group, (2) hot water treatment only, (3) hot water treatment with a 25 krad ..gamma..-irradiation, (4) hot water treatment with a 50 krad ..gamma..-irradiation, (5) hot water treatment with a 75 krad ..gamma..-irradiation, (6) 75 krad ..gamma..-irradiation only, and (7) hot water treatment with a 100 krad ..gamma..-irradiation. The items of observation were: surface yellowing, surface decaying, quality of texture, and length of period lasted after irradiation for 50% marketable papayas. The results of this study showed that a shelf-life extension of six days could be obtained for papayas subjected to hot water (50 to 55/sup 0/C) treatment and a 100 krad irradiation. 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Chang, M.S.; Chen, M.D.; Lin, C.T.; Fu, Y.K.

1984-11-01

260

Influence of chromoplast morphology on carotenoid bioaccessibility of carrot, mango, papaya, and tomato.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Based on the observation of outstanding dissimilarities of the morphology of pigment-containing chromoplasts in nutritionally important carotenoid sources, the bioaccessibility (BA) of carotenoids from edible portions of carrot, mango, papaya, and tomato was compared using an in vitro digestion model. While carrot and tomato contained large carotenoid crystals clearly visible by light microscopy, mango and papaya contained different types of carotenoid-bearing structures. Particularly, ?-carotene is deposited in globular and tubular elements in papaya and mango chromoplasts, where carotenoids accumulate in a lipid-dissolved and liquid-crystalline form, respectively. The highest BA of ?-carotene was found for mango (10.1%), followed by papaya (5.3%), tomato (3.1%), and carrot (0.5%). In our digestion model, differences between total lycopene BA from papaya and tomato were insignificant, possibly since both pigments occur in a solid crystalline deposition form in both fruits. Furthermore, the BA of lutein, ?-cryptoxanthin, and ?-cryptoxanthin esters was shown to be superior to that of the carotenes from the respective food sources. The effect of lipid addition to the different food sources was studied. Although BA was enhanced for most carotenoids, the above-mentioned ranking of BAs of ?-carotene remained unchanged after lipid addition. Consequently, the physical form of carotenoid deposition in plant chromoplasts is suggested to have major impact on their liberation efficiency from the food matrices.

Schweiggert RM; Mezger D; Schimpf F; Steingass CB; Carle R

2012-12-01

 
 
 
 
261

Modulation of jejunal contractions by extract of Carica papaya L. seeds.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Carica papaya L. (papaya) seed preparations are used in traditional medicine to expel intestinal worms in human and ruminants. In the present study, an ethanol extract of papaya seeds (EEPS; 0.1-6.4 mg/mL) caused concentration-dependent inhibition of jejunal contractions in contrast to corresponding concentrations of DMSO (solvent control). The inhibitory effect of EEPS on jejunal contractions was significantly irreversible. Previous studies have indicated that benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) is the main bioactive compound responsible for the anthelmintic activity of papaya seeds. In the present study, standard BITC (0.01-0.64 mmol/L) also caused significant irreversible inhibition of jejunal contractions. Recovery of jejunal contractions after BITC-induced inhibition was weaker than recovery after EEPS-induced inhibition (BITC versus EEPS: 19 +/- 7% vs 38 +/- 13%). Cryosections of the jejunum showed marked morphological damage of the segments treated with BITC in contrast to DMSO-treated segments. EEPS-induced jejunal damage was, however, less marked. These results indicate that papaya seed extract and BITC, its principal bioactive constituent are capable of weakening the contractile capability of rabbit isolated jejunum. It is thus envisaged that at the toxic level that will be needed to kill and expel intestinal worms in vivo, BITC may also cause impairment of intestinal functions.

Adebiyi A; Adaikan PG

2005-07-01

262

Influence of chromoplast morphology on carotenoid bioaccessibility of carrot, mango, papaya, and tomato.  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on the observation of outstanding dissimilarities of the morphology of pigment-containing chromoplasts in nutritionally important carotenoid sources, the bioaccessibility (BA) of carotenoids from edible portions of carrot, mango, papaya, and tomato was compared using an in vitro digestion model. While carrot and tomato contained large carotenoid crystals clearly visible by light microscopy, mango and papaya contained different types of carotenoid-bearing structures. Particularly, ?-carotene is deposited in globular and tubular elements in papaya and mango chromoplasts, where carotenoids accumulate in a lipid-dissolved and liquid-crystalline form, respectively. The highest BA of ?-carotene was found for mango (10.1%), followed by papaya (5.3%), tomato (3.1%), and carrot (0.5%). In our digestion model, differences between total lycopene BA from papaya and tomato were insignificant, possibly since both pigments occur in a solid crystalline deposition form in both fruits. Furthermore, the BA of lutein, ?-cryptoxanthin, and ?-cryptoxanthin esters was shown to be superior to that of the carotenes from the respective food sources. The effect of lipid addition to the different food sources was studied. Although BA was enhanced for most carotenoids, the above-mentioned ranking of BAs of ?-carotene remained unchanged after lipid addition. Consequently, the physical form of carotenoid deposition in plant chromoplasts is suggested to have major impact on their liberation efficiency from the food matrices. PMID:22980866

Schweiggert, Ralf M; Mezger, Dominik; Schimpf, Franziska; Steingass, Christof B; Carle, Reinhold

2012-07-16

263

Eradication of Bactrocera papayae (Diptera: Tephritidae) by male annihilation and protein baiting in Queensland, Australia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An established population of Bactrocera papayae Drew and Hancock (Asian papaya fruit fly) was detected on the Australian mainland near Cairns, north Queensland, on 16 October 1995 (Fay et al. 1997). Coincidentally, the first flies were bred from green papaya, a host not normally utilised in the unripe state by indigenous fruit fly species. B. papayae is a member of the Oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis) complex (Drew and Hancock 1994) and has more than 190 known hosts in Southeast Asia, where it is a major pest species. Consequently, the threat to Australian horticulture posed by the incursion was recognised immediately. By 26 October 1995, breeding populations were confirmed around Cairns, Mossman and Mareeba and a Pest Quarantine Area (PQA) was legislated. By 1 November 1995, following detections south of Innisfail, the PQA boundaries were set at 144 deg. 15'E, 19 deg. 00'S, covering nearly 78,000 km2. B. papayae was ultimately trapped over some 20,000 km2. A national eradication campaign began in November 1995, undertaken by the Queensland Department of Primary Industries

1995-10-16

264

Processamento mínimo de mamão 'formosa' Fresh cut of 'formosa' papaya  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido para verificar o efeito do tamanho do corte, 2,5 x 2,5cm (corte 1) e 2,5 x 5,0cm (corte 2), e da temperatura de armazenamento (3, 6 e 9ºC), na velocidade da modificação da atmosfera ambiente e nas características químicas de mamões do grupo `Formosa' minimamente processados e embalados em copos plásticos (500ml). A concentração de CO2 no interior destes copos aumentou 2 a 3 vezes, durante as primeiras 6 horas após o corte, para depois diminuir e se estabilizar. Esta concentração aumentou com o aumento da temperatura de armazenamento. A umidade dos pedaços diminuiu consideravelmente nos dois primeiros dias, e a temperatura que melhor conservou a umidade foi a de 6ºC. A acidez total titulável foi menor no corte 2, com as maiores reduções a 6 e 9oC. Os teores de sólidos solúveis totais não variaram entre os tratamentos, e os cuidados higiênicos adotados durante o processamento permitiram a obtenção de produtos com baixa contagem microbiana, 10³UFC.g-1 nos pedaços armazenados a 9ºC após sete dias, e com boa manutenção da qualidade sensorial das mesmas. Estes resultados permitem indicar o mamão `Formosa' para a produção de produtos minimamente processados, na forma de pedaços, com conservação refrigerada (3 e 6ºC ) por um período de 7 dias.This work was undertaken to verify the effect of cutting size, 2.5 x 2.5cm (chunk 1), 2.5 x 5.0cm (chunk 2), and storage temperatures (3, 6 and 9ºC), on atmosphere modification rate and chemical characteristics of `Formosa' fresh-cut papaya packed in plastic cups (500 ml). The CO2 concentration into theses cups increased fron two to three fold during first 6 hours after cutting, then it decreased and stabilized. This concentration increased with the storage temperature increasing. The chunks's moisture remarkably decreased in the first 2 days, and the temperature which best sustained the moisture was 6ºC. The titratable total acidity was lower in chunk 2, with the highest reductions at 6 and 9ºC. The total soluble solids content did not vary between treatments, and hygienic care adopted during processing allowed to obtain low microbial counting products, 10³ CFU.g-1 in chunks stored at 9ºC after seven days and with good maintenance of its sensorial quality. These results allow to indicate `Formosa' papaya for fresh-cuts production, in chunk form, with refrigerated conservation (3 e 6ºC ) for 7 day periods.

Gustavo Henrique de Almeida TEIXEIRA; José Fernando DURIGAN; Ben-Hur MATTIUZ; Oswaldo Durival ROSSI JÚNIOR

2001-01-01

265

Dynamic transposable element accumulation in the nascent sex chromosomes of papaya.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

From their inception, Y chromosomes in plants and animals are subjected to the powerful effects of Müller's ratchet, a process spurred by suppression of recombination that results in a rapid accumulation of mutations and repetitive elements. These mutations eventually lead to gene loss and degeneration of the Y chromosome. Y chromosomes in mammals are ancient, whereas most sex chromosomes in plants and many in insects and fish evolved recently. Sex type in papaya is controlled by a pair of nascent sex chromosomes that evolved around 7 million years ago. The papaya X and Y(h) were recently sequenced, providing valuable insight into the early stages of sex chromosome evolution. Here we discuss the fruits of this work with a focus on the repeat accumulation, gene trafficking and promiscuous DNA sequences found in the slowly degenerating Y(h) chromosome of papaya.

Vanburen R; Ming R

2013-01-01

266

Genetics Transformation of Carica papaya by Infecting Mature Zygotic Embryos with Agrobacterium tumefaciens Strains LBA-4404  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Transient expression of the GUS gene has been demonstrated in somatic callus of the two varieties of Carica papaya cv. Shahi and Ranchi after co-cultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA-4404 carrying a binary plastid vector system containing neomycin phosphotransferase gene as the selectable marker and -glucuronidase (GUS) as reporter gene. The mature embryonal axes were used as explants. The co-cultivated explants were ?transferred into final selection medium containing 500 mg L 1 carbenicillin + 200 mg L 1 cefotaxime + 50 mg L 1 kanamycin. The callus of C. papaya cv. Shahi showed highest GUS activity compared to C. papaya cv. Ranchi. The anatomical section of callus showed the positive GUS activity. All transformed callus grew vigorously in this medium and formed embryos followed by plantlets.

M.A.K. Azad; M.G. Rabbani

2005-01-01

267

Molecular cloning of two cysteine proteinases from paw-paw (Carica papaya).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two cDNA clones for plant cysteine proteinases have been isolated from a Carica papaya (paw-paw, papaya) leaf tissue cDNA library by using a mixture of 16 synthetic oligodeoxyribonucleotides as a hybridization probe. The inserted regions are 311 and 440 base-pairs in length and have the potential to encode a region corresponding to the C-terminal region of two proteins which are homologous with the known plant cysteine proteinases and the mammalian thiol cathepsins. One of the sequences shows a high (greater than 77%) homology with the plant cysteine proteinase papain, the other is closely related to papaya chymopapain. One sequence contains all, and the other most, of the 3' untranslated region of the mRNA. The inserts were used as specific probes in Northern Blot analyses giving an estimated size for the two mRNA species of 1.45 kilobases.

McKee RA; Adams S; Matthews JA; Smith CJ; Smith H

1986-07-01

268

The effect of gamma radiation on the chemical content, texture and shelf life of papaya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Commercially matured papaya, Carica papaya var. Solo were gamma irradiated at doses of 0 kGy, 0.75 kGy, 1.0 KGy and 1.5 kGy. The production rate of ethylene, development of ripening colour, pectin substances and ascorbic acid content as well as the weight losses were studied during storage at room temperature. Ethylene production, development of ripening colour and softening were found to be retarded by irradiation. Irradiation also slowed down the reduction rate of alcohol insoluble substances and hydrochloric acid soluble pectin and the increment of water soluble pectin and hexamataphosphate soluble pectin. Doses of 1.0 kGy and 1.5 kGy effectively suppressed the synthesis of vitamin C although no effect on the existing ascorbic acid was detected. The weight losses of papaya were not affected by irradiation treatment

1990-01-01

269

Dynamic transposable element accumulation in the nascent sex chromosomes of papaya.  

Science.gov (United States)

From their inception, Y chromosomes in plants and animals are subjected to the powerful effects of Müller's ratchet, a process spurred by suppression of recombination that results in a rapid accumulation of mutations and repetitive elements. These mutations eventually lead to gene loss and degeneration of the Y chromosome. Y chromosomes in mammals are ancient, whereas most sex chromosomes in plants and many in insects and fish evolved recently. Sex type in papaya is controlled by a pair of nascent sex chromosomes that evolved around 7 million years ago. The papaya X and Y(h) were recently sequenced, providing valuable insight into the early stages of sex chromosome evolution. Here we discuss the fruits of this work with a focus on the repeat accumulation, gene trafficking and promiscuous DNA sequences found in the slowly degenerating Y(h) chromosome of papaya. PMID:23734293

Vanburen, Robert; Ming, Ray

2013-01-01

270

Using gamma radiation to induce papaya varieties for mosaic disease tolerance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Seeds of eight papaya varieties were irradiated with gamma radiation at doses of 0, 100, 150 and 200 Gray, then planted at Sisaket Horticultural Research Center. Plants with no symptom of mosaic disease and those with rarely to moderately mosaic disease symptom and good yield were selected and five fruits of them were collected. Seeds from them (M2 seed) were planted and inoculated the seedlings with Papaya Ringspot Virus(PRV) that caused mosaic disease. Seedlings that showed no symptom were transplanted to the field. It was found that irradiated papaya variety Kokokandam showed some characters different from non-irradiated one. The irradiated plants were shorter in height and internode, smaller in bush and leaf size and better tolerant to mosaic disease. The characteristic of other varieties are being observed including yield and disease tolerance

1994-01-01

271

Combined treatment of UV and gamma radiation of papaya for decay control  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An exploratory study was made to determine if combining u.v. and gamma radiation treatment at selective doses would decrease the fungal decay incidence in papaya (Carica papaya L. var. Solo), and thereby increase the marketable life of the fruit. Also studied was the effect of the combined treatment on the spores of Aschochyta spp., Colletotrichium spp. and Phytophthora spp., which are commonly found on papaya grown in Hawaii. This was to test the postulate that the combined treatment would prevent photoreactivation of the disrupted nuclei in microorganisms and lead to eventual death. Experimental results did not indicate a conclusive trend to effectiveness but suggested a number of problems to be resolved before the treatment can become useful in fungal decay control of fruits. (author)

1977-11-25

272

Combined Treatment of UV and Gamma Radiation of Papaya for Decay Control  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An exploratory study was made to determine if combining u.v. and gamma radiation treatment at selective doses would decrease the fungal decay incidence in papaya (Carica papaya L. var. Solo), and thereby increase the marketable life of the fruit. Also studied was the effect of the combined treatment on the spores of Aschochyta spp., Colletotrichium spp. and Phytophthora spp., which are commonly found on papaya grown in Hawaii. This was to test the postulate that the combined treatment would prevent photoreactivation of the disrupted nuclei in microorganisms and lead to eventual death. Experimental results did not indicate a conclusive trend to effectiveness but suggested a number of problems to be resolved before the treatment can become useful in fungal decay control of fruits. (author)

1978-01-01

273

New records of Discomycetes (Pezizales) for the Chilean mycobiota/ Nuevos registros de Discomycetes (Pezizales) para la micobiota chilena  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se adicionan a la micobiota chilena tres especies de Pezizales, Byssonectria terrestris (Alb. & Schwein.) Pfister, Pseudoplectania nigrella (Pers.) Fuckel y Pseudoplectania sphagnophila (Pers.) Kreisel, Se describen e ilustran los caracteres diagnósticos y se realizan comentarios acerca de las especies.

SANDOVAL, PABLO

2012-01-01

274

Razonando sobre la idea de diferencia en las políticas educativas chilenas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En este artículo se analiza cómo las políticas educativas entendidas como prácticas discursivas, producen problemáticas relacionadas con la noción de diferencia. Primero, se indican los planteamientos metodológicos utilizados, luego se examina críticamente el neoliberalismo como supuesto que organiza y enmarca las políticas educativas chilenas. A continuación se presenta cómo se produce la idea de diferencia y cómo se genera un sistema de razonamiento sobre esta idea. Finalmente, se concluye mostrando la producción y circulación de subjetividades en las políticas educativas chilenas.This article presents educational policies as discursive practices that not only construct systems to reason difference but also they create particular problems to be solved through specific strategies. First, we show the methodological approach to study educational policies in Chile. Second, we problematize the effects of neoliberal logics in organizing and framing educational policies. Third, we present the analyses with an emphasis on the production, reproduction, and circulation of discourses that essentialize difference. The article concludes with the troubling of those subjectivities produced in the documents examined.

Marta Infante Jaras; Claudia Matus Cánovas; Ruby Vizcarra Rebolledo

2011-01-01

275

Razonando sobre la idea de diferencia en las políticas educativas chilenas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish En este artículo se analiza cómo las políticas educativas entendidas como prácticas discursivas, producen problemáticas relacionadas con la noción de diferencia. Primero, se indican los planteamientos metodológicos utilizados, luego se examina críticamente el neoliberalismo como supuesto que organiza y enmarca las políticas educativas chilenas. A continuación se presenta cómo se produce la idea de diferencia y cómo se genera un sistema de razonamiento sobre es (more) ta idea. Finalmente, se concluye mostrando la producción y circulación de subjetividades en las políticas educativas chilenas. Abstract in english This article presents educational policies as discursive practices that not only construct systems to reason difference but also they create particular problems to be solved through specific strategies. First, we show the methodological approach to study educational policies in Chile. Second, we problematize the effects of neoliberal logics in organizing and framing educational policies. Third, we present the analyses with an emphasis on the production, reproduction, and (more) circulation of discourses that essentialize difference. The article concludes with the troubling of those subjectivities produced in the documents examined.

Infante Jaras, Marta; Matus Cánovas, Claudia; Vizcarra Rebolledo, Ruby

2011-01-01

276

CALIDAD DE VIDA RELACIONADA CON EL CLIMATERIO EN UNA POBLACIÓN CHILENA DE MUJERES SALUDABLES  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Aplicar una versión chilena de la escala MRS para evaluar calidad de vida de mujeres climatéricas. Métodos: Aplicación de la versión chilena de la escala MRS a mujeres de 45-64 años inscritas en el SSMO: Grupo 1, concurrentes a controles preventivos de salud (n=844) y Grupo 2, concurrentes a ginecólogo (n=360). Resultados: El adecuado comportamiento del instrumento fue confirmado porque el análisis de confiabilidad interna, que presentó un alfa de Cromb (more) ach >0,86; la confiabilidad externa mostró una correlación en re-encuesta del Grupo 1 y 2 con coeficiente de Pearson p Abstract in english Objective: To apply a chilean version of the MRS scale to evaluate quality of life in climacteric women. Methods: Application of chilean version of the MRS scale in 45-64 year-old women registered at Metropolitan Health Service (MHS) of Chile. Group 1, women attending programmed health preventive controls (n=844); and Group 2, women who require attention by gynecologist (n=360). Results: The suitable behavior of the used instrument was confirmed because the analysis of in (more) ternal reliability showed Crombach's alpha >0.8; external reliability showed correlation in re-test of both group with Pearson's coefficient p

Aedo M, Sócrates; Porcile J, Arnaldo; Irribarra A, Cristina

2006-01-01

277

Sequences of the coat protein gene from brazilian isolates of Papaya ringspot virus Seqüência do gene da proteína capsidial de isolados brasileiros de Papaya ringspot virus  

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Full Text Available Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is the causal agent of the main papaya (Carica papaya) disease in the world. Brazil is currently the world's main papaya grower, responsible for about 40% of the worldwide production. Resistance to PRSV on transgenic plants expressing the PRSV coat protein (cp) gene was shown to be dependent on the sequence homology between the cp transgene expressed in the plant genome and the cp gene from the incoming virus, in an isolate-specific fashion. Therefore, knowledge of the degree of homology among the cp genes from distinct PRSV isolates which are present in a given area is important to guide the development of transgenic papaya for the control of PRSV in that area. The objective of the present study was to assess the degree of homology among the PRSV cp genes of several Brazilian isolates of this virus. Papaya and PRSV are present in many different ecosystems within Brazil. Twelve PRSV isolates, collected in eight different states from four different geographic regions, were used in this study. The sequences of the cp gene from these isolates were compared among themselves and to the gene used to generate transgenic papaya for Brazil. An average degree of homology of 97.3% at the nucleotide sequence was found among the Brazilian isolates. When compared to 27 isolates from outside Brazil in a homology tree, the Brazilian isolates were clustered with Australian, Hawaiian, and Central and North American isolates, with an average degree of homology of 90.7% among them.O Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) é o agente causal da mancha anelar, principal doença do mamoeiro (Carica papaya) no mundo. O Brasil é o maior produtor desta fruteira, sendo responsável por aproximadamente 40% da produção mundial. A resistência a este vírus, obtida em mamoeiros transgênicos expressando o gene da proteína capsidial (cp) do PRSV, mostrou-se dependente do grau de homologia entre a seqüência do transgene expresso pela planta e o gene cp do vírus invasor, de forma isolado-específico. Dessa forma, quando se objetiva produzir mamoeiros transgênicos com amplo espectro de resistência ao PRSV, é importante o conhecimento do grau de homologia deste gene entre os diversos isolados presentes em uma área geográfica específica onde o mamoeiro será cultivado. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o grau de homologia entre o gene cp de diversos isolados brasileiros de PRSV. O mamoeiro e o PRSV encontram-se presentes em diversos ecossistemas brasileiros. Doze isolados de PRSV, coletados em oito estados de quatro regiões geográficas, foram utilizados neste estudo. As seqüências do gene cp destes isolados foram comparadas entre si e com o gene utilizado para gerar mamoeiros transgênicos para o Brasil. Um grau de homologia médio de 97,3% para as seqüências de nucleotídeos foi observado entre os isolados brasileiros. Quando comparado com 27 isolados de outras regiões, em uma árvore de homologia, os isolados brasileiros foram agrupados com os isolados australianos, havaianos, e os da América Central e do Norte. Um grau de homologia médio de 90,7% foi observado entre os 40 isolados analisados.

ROBERTO C. A. LIMA; MANOEL T. SOUZA JR.; GILVAN PIO-RIBEIRO; J. ALBERSIO A. LIMA

2002-01-01

278

Use of morpho-agronomic traits and DNA profiling for classification of genetic diversity in papaya.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We examined the genetic diversity of papaya (Carica papaya) based on morph-agronomic and molecular data. Twenty-seven genotypes grown in Brazil were analyzed with 11 AFLP primer combinations, 23 ISSR markers, 22 qualitative and 30 quantitative descriptors. For the joint analyses, we used the Gower algorithm (Joint Gower) and the average value of the individual dissimilarity matrix for each type of data (Average-Joint Gower); 359 AFLP and 52 ISSR polymorphic bands were found. Approximately 29.2 and 7.7% of the AFLP and ISSR bands, respectively, were genotype-specific and may therefore be used for papaya variety protection. Although there was a significant correlation between the qualitative and quantitative descriptor dissimilarity matrices (r = 0.43), the morph-agronomic data were not highly correlated with the molecular data. Moreover, correlation between AFLP and ISSR dissimilarity matrices was nearly null (r = -0.01). Joint Gower analysis of all data showed high correlations, especially for AFLP markers, most likely due to the larger number of bands, generating a strong bias in the diversity estimates. The Joint-Average-Gower analysis allowed a better balance between the correlations for the continuous and the discrete variables. The results generated by clustering analysis distinguished 5 genetically distinct groups. While we found that papaya genotypes are significantly variable for many traits, we observed that Joint-Average-Gower analysis allowed for genotype clustering based on the most widely used criterion for classifying papaya genotypes, which is fruit type ('Formosa' or 'Solo'). This information helps provide an accurate estimate of the genetic diversity and structure of papaya germplasm, which will be used for further breeding strategies.

de Jesus ON; de Freitas JP; Dantas JL; de Oliveira EJ

2013-03-01

279

An integrated cytogenetic and physical map reveals unevenly distributed recombination spots along the papaya sex chromosomes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Papaya is a model system for the study of sex chromosome evolution in plants. However, the cytological structures of the papaya chromosomes remain largely unknown and chromosomal features have not been linked with any genetic or genomic data. We constructed a cytogenetic map of the papaya sex chromosome (chromosome 1) by hybridizing 16 microsatellite markers and 2 cytological feature-associated markers on pachytene chromosomes using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Except for three markers, the order of the markers was concordant to that of marker loci along the linkage map. This discrepancy was likely caused by skewed segregation in the highly heterochromatic or centromeric regions. The papaya sex chromosome is largely euchromatic, its heterochromatin spans about 15 % of the Y chromosome and is mostly restricted to the centromeric and pericentromeric regions. Analysis of the recombination frequency along the papaya sex chromosome revealed a complete suppression of recombination in the centromere and pericentromere region and 60 % higher recombination rate in the long arm than in the short arm. The uneven distribution of recombination events might be caused by differences in sequence composition. Sequence analysis of 18 scaffolds in total length of 15 Mb revealed higher gene density towards the telomeres and lower gene density towards the centromere, and a relatively higher gene density in the long arm than in the short arm. In an opposite trend, the centromeric and pericentromeric region contained the highest repetitive sequences and the long arm showed the lowest repetitive sequences. This cytogenetic map provides essential information for evolutionary study of sex chromosomes in Caricaceae and will facilitate the analysis of papaya sex chromosomes.

Wai CM; Moore PH; Paull RE; Ming R; Yu Q

2012-08-01

280

Effect of Maturity Stage of Papaya Maradol on Physiological and Biochemical Parameters  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: Nowadays, the worldwide increase in diseases has motivated consumers to increase the intake of fruits and vegetables, in response to various research reports indicating that fruits and vegetables can help prevent certain types of illnesses, due to their potentially high antioxidant properties. We evaluated the effect of the stage of ripeness of papaya fruit (Carica papaya L.) on the contents of bioactive components and their relation with antioxidant capacity. Approach: Whole papaya fruit were selected based on their visual ripeness, classifying them in four stages of ripeness (R1, R2, R3 and R4). Physiological and physical-chemical analysis performed included respiration, production of ethylene, firmness, pH, titratable acidity and total soluble solids, color (L*, a*, b*, °Hue, C); Polygalacturonase (PG) and Pectin Methyl Esterase (PME) activity, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity (measured using DPPH, TEAC and ORAC assays). Results: The antioxidant capacity decreased approximately 27% in the RS4 when using DPPH and TEAC and increased when using ORAC (60.9%). PG activity increased from 8.14 (in RS1)-22.48 U gFW-1 (in RS4) as the stage of ripeness of papaya fruit increased. PME was affected in a similar manner with an activity of 0.5562 U gFW-1, at the end of the ripening storage. A high correlation between PG activity and softening of ripen papayas was observed. Conclusion/Recommendations: It was observed that papaya fruit experienced changes in firmness, which is correlated with activity from two of the main enzymes: PG and PME and with the increase of respiration and production of ethylene. The various stages of ripeness showed very good antioxidant capacity, being higher in RS1, which is correlated with the higher content of phenolic contents found in this ripening stage.

Laura E. Gayosso-García Sancho; Elhadi M. Yahia; Miguel A. Martínez-Téllez; Gustavo A. González-Aguilar

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Use of morpho-agronomic traits and DNA profiling for classification of genetic diversity in papaya.  

Science.gov (United States)

We examined the genetic diversity of papaya (Carica papaya) based on morph-agronomic and molecular data. Twenty-seven genotypes grown in Brazil were analyzed with 11 AFLP primer combinations, 23 ISSR markers, 22 qualitative and 30 quantitative descriptors. For the joint analyses, we used the Gower algorithm (Joint Gower) and the average value of the individual dissimilarity matrix for each type of data (Average-Joint Gower); 359 AFLP and 52 ISSR polymorphic bands were found. Approximately 29.2 and 7.7% of the AFLP and ISSR bands, respectively, were genotype-specific and may therefore be used for papaya variety protection. Although there was a significant correlation between the qualitative and quantitative descriptor dissimilarity matrices (r = 0.43), the morph-agronomic data were not highly correlated with the molecular data. Moreover, correlation between AFLP and ISSR dissimilarity matrices was nearly null (r = -0.01). Joint Gower analysis of all data showed high correlations, especially for AFLP markers, most likely due to the larger number of bands, generating a strong bias in the diversity estimates. The Joint-Average-Gower analysis allowed a better balance between the correlations for the continuous and the discrete variables. The results generated by clustering analysis distinguished 5 genetically distinct groups. While we found that papaya genotypes are significantly variable for many traits, we observed that Joint-Average-Gower analysis allowed for genotype clustering based on the most widely used criterion for classifying papaya genotypes, which is fruit type ('Formosa' or 'Solo'). This information helps provide an accurate estimate of the genetic diversity and structure of papaya germplasm, which will be used for further breeding strategies. PMID:23546977

de Jesus, O N; de Freitas, J P X; Dantas, J L L; de Oliveira, E J

2013-03-11

282

L-ascorbic acid, ?-carotene and lycopene content in papaya fruits (Carica papaya) with or without physiological skin freckles/ Conteúdo de ácido l-ascórbico, ?-caroteno e licopeno em frutos de mamão (Carica papaya) com e sem mancha fisiológica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A Mancha Fisiológica do Mamão (MFM) é uma desordem da casca do mamão, que deprecia a aparência do fruto e prejudica a sua comercialização, embora não prejudique o seu valor nutritivo. Considerando ser o mamão, uma boa fonte de ácido L-ascórbico, b-caroteno e licopeno, esta pesquisa visou determinar o índice destes componentes em frutas de mamão, das variedades do grupo 'Formosa' e 'Solo', com e sem Mancha Fisiológica do Mamão (MFM) aparente na pele. As frut (more) as foram colhidas na região do sudeste de Brasil. O teor de ácido L-ascórbico foi determinado pela técnica de titulação. Os índices do b-caroteno e do licopeno foram determinados pela técnica de cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (HPLC). O teor de ácido L-ascórbico variou de (59,9 ± 3,4) mg 100 g-1 a (112,4 ± 12,6) mg 100 g-1 de polpa fresca de mamão. O teor de b-caroteno variou de (0,19 ± 0,07) mg 100 g-1 a (0,56 ± 0,09) mg 100 g-1 e o do licopeno variou de (1,44 ± 0,28) mg 100 g-1 a (3,39 ± 0,32) mg 100 g-1 de polpa fresca de mamão. Os índices de ácidos L-ascórbico na polpa dos frutos de mamão com MFM variaram de 7,0 mg 100 g-1 a 10,0 mg 100 g-1 a mais do que os teores encontrados na polpa dos frutos de mamão sem a MFM (P Abstract in english The Skin Freckles is a papaya skin disorder that depreciates de fruit appearance and hampers its commercialization, although not lowering its nutritive value. Being the papaya a good source of ascorbic acid, ?-carotene and licopene this research aimed at determining L-ascorbic acid, ?-carotene and licopene content in papaya fruits, from 'Formosa' and 'Solo' group varieties, with and without apparent physiological skin disease (skin freckles). Fruits were harvest (more) ed in the Southeast Region of Brazil. L-ascorbic acid content was determined by titration technique. ?-carotene and licopene contents were determined by high performance liquid chromatography technique (HPLC). L-ascorbic acid content in papaya fruits ranged from (59.9 ± 3.4) mg 100 g-1 to (112.4 ± 12.6) mg 100 g-1 in fresh papaya pulp. ?-carotene content ranged from (0.19 ± 0.07) mg 100 g-1 to (0.56 ± 0.09) mg 100 g-1 and that of licopene ranged from (1.44 ± 0.28) mg 100 g-1 to (3.39 ± 0.32) mg 100 g-1 in fresh papaya pulp. L-ascorbic acid contents of papaya fruits with skin disease averaged 7.0 mg 100 g-1 to 10.0 mg 100 g-1 higher than those of papaya fruits without skin freckles (P

Souza, Leandro Marelli de; Ferreira, Karla Silva; Chaves, José Benício Paes; Teixeira, Sílvio Lopes

2008-01-01

283

L-ascorbic acid, ?-carotene and lycopene content in papaya fruits (Carica papaya) with or without physiological skin freckles Conteúdo de ácido l-ascórbico, ?-caroteno e licopeno em frutos de mamão (Carica papaya) com e sem mancha fisiológica  

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Full Text Available The Skin Freckles is a papaya skin disorder that depreciates de fruit appearance and hampers its commercialization, although not lowering its nutritive value. Being the papaya a good source of ascorbic acid, ?-carotene and licopene this research aimed at determining L-ascorbic acid, ?-carotene and licopene content in papaya fruits, from 'Formosa' and 'Solo' group varieties, with and without apparent physiological skin disease (skin freckles). Fruits were harvested in the Southeast Region of Brazil. L-ascorbic acid content was determined by titration technique. ?-carotene and licopene contents were determined by high performance liquid chromatography technique (HPLC). L-ascorbic acid content in papaya fruits ranged from (59.9 ± 3.4) mg 100 g-1 to (112.4 ± 12.6) mg 100 g-1 in fresh papaya pulp. ?-carotene content ranged from (0.19 ± 0.07) mg 100 g-1 to (0.56 ± 0.09) mg 100 g-1 and that of licopene ranged from (1.44 ± 0.28) mg 100 g-1 to (3.39 ± 0.32) mg 100 g-1 in fresh papaya pulp. L-ascorbic acid contents of papaya fruits with skin disease averaged 7.0 mg 100 g-1 to 10.0 mg 100 g-1 higher than those of papaya fruits without skin freckles (P A Mancha Fisiológica do Mamão (MFM) é uma desordem da casca do mamão, que deprecia a aparência do fruto e prejudica a sua comercialização, embora não prejudique o seu valor nutritivo. Considerando ser o mamão, uma boa fonte de ácido L-ascórbico, b-caroteno e licopeno, esta pesquisa visou determinar o índice destes componentes em frutas de mamão, das variedades do grupo 'Formosa' e 'Solo', com e sem Mancha Fisiológica do Mamão (MFM) aparente na pele. As frutas foram colhidas na região do sudeste de Brasil. O teor de ácido L-ascórbico foi determinado pela técnica de titulação. Os índices do b-caroteno e do licopeno foram determinados pela técnica de cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (HPLC). O teor de ácido L-ascórbico variou de (59,9 ± 3,4) mg 100 g-1 a (112,4 ± 12,6) mg 100 g-1 de polpa fresca de mamão. O teor de b-caroteno variou de (0,19 ± 0,07) mg 100 g-1 a (0,56 ± 0,09) mg 100 g-1 e o do licopeno variou de (1,44 ± 0,28) mg 100 g-1 a (3,39 ± 0,32) mg 100 g-1 de polpa fresca de mamão. Os índices de ácidos L-ascórbico na polpa dos frutos de mamão com MFM variaram de 7,0 mg 100 g-1 a 10,0 mg 100 g-1 a mais do que os teores encontrados na polpa dos frutos de mamão sem a MFM (P < 0,05).

Leandro Marelli de Souza; Karla Silva Ferreira; José Benício Paes Chaves; Sílvio Lopes Teixeira

2008-01-01

284

Phytochemistry and Heamatological Potential of Ethanol Seed Leaf and Pulp Extracts of Carica papaya (Linn.)  

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Full Text Available This study was aimed at qualitative evaluation of the ethanol seed, leaf and pulp extracts of C. papaya for bioactive compounds and also to investigate their effect on the haematology in male albino rats. A 3x4 factorial experimental layout using randomized complete design was adopted. Results show that the phytochemicals found in seed, leaf and pulp were almost the same but however, in varying proportions. Present result also revealed that there were significant effects (pC. papaya extracts could be used to enhance the production of selected blood parameters, taking issue of dosage into consideration.

E.V. Ikpeme; U.B. Ekaluo; M.E. Kooffreh; O. Udensi

2011-01-01

285

Effect of ionizing radiation on the activity of pectinesterase in papaya (cultivar solo)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Papaya fruits (Carica papaya L.) were exposed to ionizing radiation gamma type ( sup(60)Co), using a dose of 0.7kGy, and then stored in a cold room at 10C with a relative humidity of 85% for a period of 25 days. The pectinesterase activity of the irradiated fruits was found to be similar to that of the non-irradiated fruits during the storage period. The radiation dose maintained the texture and enzyme activity of the irradiated fruits the same as that of the non-irradiated fruits. (author)

1988-01-01

286

Effect of 60Co ? irradiation and GA3 treatment on mutation of Carica papaya L  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The seeds of Carica papaya L. were irradiated by 60Co ?-rays of 10-40 Gy and treated by GA3 of 10-50 mg/L after irradiation. The results showed that small nuclear cell percentage, chromosome variation percentage and leaf variability of papaya seedling increased with increase of irradiation dose, the pollen fertility and fruit quality decreased. GA3 of 10-50 mg/L treatment after irradiation could alleviate the irradiation harm, and the effect of lower concentration of GA3 was better than higher concentration with lower dose irradiation, however, the effect of higher concentration of GA3 was better with higher dose irradiation

2003-01-01

287

CHARACTERIZATION OF PAPAYA FRUIT MEDIATED SILVER NANOPARTICLES AND EVALUATION OF ITS ANTIMICROBIAL AND WOUND HEALING ACTIVITY  

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Full Text Available The field of Nanotechnology is the most active area of research in modern material science. Though there are many chemical as well as physical methods, green synthesis of nanomaterial is the most emerging method of synthesis. We report the synthesis of antibacterial silver nanoparticles using Papaya. The synthesized AgNPs have been characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy and SEM microscopy. The silver nanoparticles stabilized by Papaya fruit extract were found to have enhanced antimicrobial activity against well-known pathogenic strains Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris and E. coli.

EnamalaNarmadha; Hemashenpagam N; SathiyaVimal S.; VasanthaRaj S

2013-01-01

288

Purification of papain from fresh latex of Carica papaya  

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Full Text Available In the present study we wish to report a method of crystallizing papain from fresh papaya latex which gave higher yields than previously reported. This method does not involve the use of sulphydryl reagents. The papain thus obtained is practically pure and shows a single band when submitted to electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gel, and is identical to the papain obtained by other methods. In routine enzymatic assays, specific activity was measured using Z-gly-pNP and BAEE as substrates. Papain crystallized by this method, without the use of high concentrations of salts or thiol-containing substances such as cysteine and dithiothreitol, is obtained in the form of a complex with natural inhibitors existent in latex which can be removed by dialysis.No presente trabalho apresenta-se um método de cristalização da papaína oriunda do látex fresco de mamão, o qual apresenta uma alta produtividade em relação aos métodos previamente descritos. A metodologia aqui descrita não envolve o uso de reagentes sulfidrílicos, a papaína foi obtida de forma praticamente pura, apresentando uma simples banda quando submetida a eletroforese, e com propriedades idênticas àquelas obtidas por outros métodos. A atividade específica foi determinada utilizando Z-gly-pNP e BAEE como substrato. A papaína obtida por essa metodologia, sem uso de substâncias tais como cisteína e ditiotreitol, apresenta-se na forma de um complexo com inibidores naturais, os quais podem ser removidos por diálise.

Rubens Monti; Carmelita A. Basilio; Henrique C. Trevisan; Jonas Contiero

2000-01-01

289

Quality of Golden papaya stored under controlled atmosphere conditions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This work evaluated physicochemical parameters of Golden papaya stored under refrigeration in controlled atmospheres. The fruits were kept at 13? in chambers containing either 3 or 6% O2 combined with 6%, 10% or 15% CO2. Moreover, a normal atmosphere was produced with 20.8% O2 and 0.03% CO2 with ethylene scrubbing, and a control treatment was used with ambient conditions. Evaluations were performed at the following times: before storage, after 30 days of storage in controlled atmosphere, and after removal from controlled atmosphere and storage for 7 days in the cold room. At the lower O2 levels and higher CO2 levels, the ripening rate was decreased. The drop in pulp acidity was avoided after 30 days of storage at 3% O2, but the fruits reached normal acidity after removal from controlled atmosphere and storage for 7 days in the cold room. The reducing sugars remained at a higher concentration after 30 days under 3% O2 and 15% CO2 even 7 days after removal from controlled atmosphere and storage in the cold room. This atmosphere also preserved the content of ascorbic acid at a higher level.

Martins DR; de Resende ED

2013-10-01

290

Quality of Golden papaya stored under controlled atmosphere conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

This work evaluated physicochemical parameters of Golden papaya stored under refrigeration in controlled atmospheres. The fruits were kept at 13? in chambers containing either 3 or 6% O2 combined with 6%, 10% or 15% CO2. Moreover, a normal atmosphere was produced with 20.8% O2 and 0.03% CO2 with ethylene scrubbing, and a control treatment was used with ambient conditions. Evaluations were performed at the following times: before storage, after 30 days of storage in controlled atmosphere, and after removal from controlled atmosphere and storage for 7 days in the cold room. At the lower O2 levels and higher CO2 levels, the ripening rate was decreased. The drop in pulp acidity was avoided after 30 days of storage at 3% O2, but the fruits reached normal acidity after removal from controlled atmosphere and storage for 7 days in the cold room. The reducing sugars remained at a higher concentration after 30 days under 3% O2 and 15% CO2 even 7 days after removal from controlled atmosphere and storage in the cold room. This atmosphere also preserved the content of ascorbic acid at a higher level. PMID:23325129

Martins, Derliane Ribeiro; de Resende, Eder Dutra

2013-01-16

291

A microsatellite library for Carica papaya L. cv. Sunrise solo  

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Full Text Available In experimental areas of the Education and Researches Ilha Solteira and Jaboticabal UNESP/Campus farms were selected and tagged 20 hermaphrodite plants and 20 feminine of cultivar Sunrise Solo, Improved Sunrise Solo cv.72/12 and Baixinho of Santa Amália.The seeds origined of the selected fruits were cropped to be analysed the self-pollination efficiency and frequency of the sex in the progenies. After that, samples of the young leaf of the matrix plants were colected for the extration of the DNA. It was built five library enriched of microsatellite sequencies, using probes (TCA)10, (TC)13, (GATA)4, (CAC)10 e (TGAG)8.It was possible the development of the primers only in the library that has utilized the probe (TCA)10. This probe allowed the design of 32 primer pairs. From these, 31 presented pattern of unique band in agarose Metaphor and in acrilamide. For primer S36 were observed 2 bands, but with no polymorphism to differentiation in the sexual form at papaya tree culture. However, these primers can be tested, in the futures, in the investigation of the others features in segregated populations of this specie and the related species, germoplasm analysis, cultivars identification, parent evolution and molecular markers for the assisted plant breeding programs.

Santos Silvia Correa; Ruggiero Carlos; Silva Cristina Lacerda Soares Petrarolha; Lemos Eliana Gertrudes Macedo

2003-01-01

292

Purification of papain from fresh latex of Carica papaya  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese No presente trabalho apresenta-se um método de cristalização da papaína oriunda do látex fresco de mamão, o qual apresenta uma alta produtividade em relação aos métodos previamente descritos. A metodologia aqui descrita não envolve o uso de reagentes sulfidrílicos, a papaína foi obtida de forma praticamente pura, apresentando uma simples banda quando submetida a eletroforese, e com propriedades idênticas àquelas obtidas por outros métodos. A atividade espec (more) ífica foi determinada utilizando Z-gly-pNP e BAEE como substrato. A papaína obtida por essa metodologia, sem uso de substâncias tais como cisteína e ditiotreitol, apresenta-se na forma de um complexo com inibidores naturais, os quais podem ser removidos por diálise. Abstract in english In the present study we wish to report a method of crystallizing papain from fresh papaya latex which gave higher yields than previously reported. This method does not involve the use of sulphydryl reagents. The papain thus obtained is practically pure and shows a single band when submitted to electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gel, and is identical to the papain obtained by other methods. In routine enzymatic assays, specific activity was measured using Z-gly-pNP and BAEE (more) as substrates. Papain crystallized by this method, without the use of high concentrations of salts or thiol-containing substances such as cysteine and dithiothreitol, is obtained in the form of a complex with natural inhibitors existent in latex which can be removed by dialysis.

Monti, Rubens; Basilio, Carmelita A.; Trevisan, Henrique C.; Contiero, Jonas

2000-01-01

293

Papaya epicarp extract protects against aluminum-induced neurotoxicity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In a previous study, we demonstrated the ability of papaya epicarp extract (PEE) to protect against oxidative stress-induced insult in human SH-SY5Y neuronal cells in a mechanism that appeared to be by means of PEE potent antioxidant properties. To further understand this relationship, we examined the effect of PEE intervention on aluminum (Al)-induced cytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. The results indicated that PEE was effective in protecting against Al-induced cell death in a dose-dependent manner. PEE restored the Al-induced inhibition of folate-dependent methionine synthase activity and the antioxidant enzymes (catalase, glutathione peroxidases and superoxide dismutase). PEE ameliorated the Al-induced impairment of intracellular glutathione and total antioxidant capacity. Together, these findings indicate that PEE supplementation can play a neuroprotective role in ameliorating the changes in redox status of SH-SY5Y cells exposed to Al, a well-known environmental toxin that is involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases and neurodevelopmental disorders.

Waly MI; Guizani N; Ali A; Rahman MS

2012-09-01

294

Estudo do processo de extração de papaína a partir do látex do fruto de mamão (Carica papaya L.) cv. Maradol Study of the extraction process of papain from the latex of the fruit of papaya (Carica papaya L.) cv. Maradol  

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Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi estudado o processo de extração da papaína presente no látex de frutos de mamão (Carica papaya L.) cultivar Maradol. As variáveis estudadas na extração da papaína foram proporção de látex:álcool (1:2.1 e 1:3) e tipo de secagem (à vácuo e por refractance window). As respostas obtidas foram atividade enzimática da enzima e rendimento do processo de extração. O melhor resultado em termos de atividade enzimática e rendimento foi obtido nas condições de secagem à vácuo e proporção látex:álcool de 1:3. A enzima obtida foi caracterizada por testes físico-químicos, microbiológicos e de atividade enzimática e comparada com uma amostra comercial usada como padrão.In this work, we studied the Papain extraction process, from the latex of papaya fruit (Carica papaya L.) cv. Maradol. The variables studied in the extraction of papain were: the proportion of latex:alcohol (1:2.1 and 1:3) and type of drying( vacuum and refractance window) and the responses obtained in terms of enzymatic activity of the enzyme papain and yield of the extraction process. The best result in terms of enzyme activity and yield was the procedure used to vacuum drying and the proportion latex:alcohol 1:3. The enzyme obtained was characterized by physico-chemical, microbiological and enzymatic activity when compared with a commercial sample used as standard.

Margarita M Andrade-Mahecha; Olga Morales-Rodríguez; Hugo A Martínez-Correa

2011-01-01

295

Estudo do processo de extração de papaína a partir do látex do fruto de mamão (Carica papaya L.) cv. Maradol/ Study of the extraction process of papain from the latex of the fruit of papaya (Carica papaya L.) cv. Maradol  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho foi estudado o processo de extração da papaína presente no látex de frutos de mamão (Carica papaya L.) cultivar Maradol. As variáveis estudadas na extração da papaína foram proporção de látex:álcool (1:2.1 e 1:3) e tipo de secagem (à vácuo e por refractance window). As respostas obtidas foram atividade enzimática da enzima e rendimento do processo de extração. O melhor resultado em termos de atividade enzimática e rendimento foi obtido na (more) s condições de secagem à vácuo e proporção látex:álcool de 1:3. A enzima obtida foi caracterizada por testes físico-químicos, microbiológicos e de atividade enzimática e comparada com uma amostra comercial usada como padrão. Abstract in english In this work, we studied the Papain extraction process, from the latex of papaya fruit (Carica papaya L.) cv. Maradol. The variables studied in the extraction of papain were: the proportion of latex:alcohol (1:2.1 and 1:3) and type of drying( vacuum and refractance window) and the responses obtained in terms of enzymatic activity of the enzyme papain and yield of the extraction process. The best result in terms of enzyme activity and yield was the procedure used to vacuum (more) drying and the proportion latex:alcohol 1:3. The enzyme obtained was characterized by physico-chemical, microbiological and enzymatic activity when compared with a commercial sample used as standard.

Andrade-Mahecha, Margarita M; Morales-Rodríguez, Olga; Martínez-Correa, Hugo A

2011-07-01

296

Label-free quantitative proteomics reveals differentially regulated proteins in the latex of sticky diseased Carica papaya L. plants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) is so far the only described laticifer-infecting virus, the causal agent of papaya (Carica papaya L.) sticky disease. The effects of PMeV on the laticifers' regulatory network were addressed here through the proteomic analysis of papaya latex. Using both 1-DE- and 1D-LC-ESI-MS/MS, 160 unique papaya latex proteins were identified, representing 122 new proteins in the latex of this plant. Quantitative analysis by normalized spectral counting revealed 10 down-regulated proteins in the latex of diseased plants, 9 cysteine proteases (chymopapain) and 1 latex serine proteinase inhibitor. A repression of papaya latex proteolytic activity during PMeV infection was hypothesized. This was further confirmed by enzymatic assays that showed a reduction of cysteine-protease-associated proteolytic activity in the diseased papaya latex. These findings are discussed in the context of plant responses against pathogens and may greatly contribute to understand the roles of laticifers in plant stress responses.

Rodrigues SP; Ventura JA; Aguilar C; Nakayasu ES; Choi H; Sobreira TJ; Nohara LL; Wermelinger LS; Almeida IC; Zingali RB; Fernandes PM

2012-06-01

297

Carotenoids are more bioavailable from papaya than from tomato and carrot in humans: a randomised cross-over study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Carrot, tomato and papaya represent important dietary sources of ?-carotene and lycopene. The main objective of the present study was to compare the bioavailability of carotenoids from these food sources in healthy human subjects. A total of sixteen participants were recruited for a randomised cross-over study. Test meals containing raw carrots, tomatoes and papayas were adjusted to deliver an equal amount of ?-carotene and lycopene. For the evaluation of bioavailability, TAG-rich lipoprotein (TRL) fractions containing newly absorbed carotenoids were analysed over 9·5 h after test meal consumption. The bioavailability of ?-carotene from papayas was approximately three times higher than that from carrots and tomatoes, whereas differences in the bioavailability of ?-carotene from carrots and tomatoes were insignificant. Retinyl esters appeared in the TRL fractions at a significantly higher concentration after the consumption of the papaya test meal. Similarly, lycopene was approximately 2·6 times more bioavailable from papayas than from tomatoes. Furthermore, the bioavailability of ?-cryptoxanthin from papayas was shown to be 2·9 and 2·3 times higher than that of the other papaya carotenoids ?-carotene and lycopene, respectively. The morphology of chromoplasts and the physical deposition form of carotenoids were hypothesised to play a major role in the differences observed in the bioavailability of carotenoids from the foods investigated. Particularly, the liquid-crystalline deposition of ?-carotene and the storage of lycopene in very small crystalloids in papayas were found to be associated with their high bioavailability. In conclusion, papaya was shown to provide highly bioavailable ?-carotene, ?-cryptoxanthin and lycopene and may represent a readily available dietary source of provitamin A for reducing the incidence of vitamin A deficiencies in many subtropical and tropical developing countries.

Schweiggert RM; Kopec RE; Villalobos-Gutierrez MG; Högel J; Quesada S; Esquivel P; Schwartz SJ; Carle R

2013-08-01

298

Una recepción diferente: La arquitectura moderna brasileña y la cultura arquitectónica chilena A Diferent Reception: Modern Brazilian Architecture and Chilean Architectonic Culture  

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Full Text Available La difusión de la arquitectura brasileña hacia fines de los cuarenta construyó un discurso que, preferentemente, se detenía en la exuberancia y la libertad formales; las publicaciones chilenas de la época miraban, sin embargo, en otra dirección.

Horacio Torrent

2011-01-01

299

Reação de germoplasma e híbridos de mamoeiro à mancha-de-phoma (Phoma caricae-papayae) em condições de campo Reaction of germplasm and hybrid of papaya to phoma-spot (Phoma caricae-papayae) in field conditions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Com o objetivo de se avaliar germoplasmas e híbridos de mamoeiro quanto à resistência a mancha-de-phoma em folhas, foram conduzidos três experimentos em blocos ao acaso com duas repetições na empresa Caliman Agrícola S/A, Linhares, Espírito Santo. Avaliou-se, em duas épocas, a incidência e a severidade da mancha-de-phoma em folhas de 50 genótipos e de 68 híbridos. Os genótipos que apresentaram menores severidades de doença foram 'Maradol', 'Maradol GL', 'Papaya 46', 'Tailândia' e 'SH 15-04' e os que apresentaram menores incidências foram 'Maradol', 'Maradol GL', 'Americano', 'Tailândia' e 'Baixinho de Santa Amália'. Os híbridos com menores incidências foram 'Americano x Waimanalo', 'Sekati x JS 12', 'Maradol x Taiwan et' e 'Maradol x Caliman G' enquanto que as menores severidades foram observadas em 'Calimosa x Tailândia', 'Calimosa x Maradol', 'Sekati x Caliman AM' e 'Sekati x JS 12'. Estes resultados orientarão o melhoramento voltado para a resistência à mancha-de-phoma na cultura do mamoeiro por meio de hibridizações, bem como auxiliarão na escolha de cultivares para o plantio, visando reduzir a necessidade de controle químico na cultura do mamoeiro.With the objective of evaluating germplasm and hybrids of papaya for their reaction to phoma-spot in leaves, three experiments were performed in a completely randomized block design with two replications at Agricultural Caliman S/A, in Linhares, Espírito Santo, Brazil. The incidence and severity of phoma-spot were evaluated in leaves of 50 genotypes and 68 hybrids. The lowest levels of disease severity were observed in 'Maradol', 'Maradol GL', 'Papaya 46', 'Tailândia', and 'SH 15-04' whereas the lowest incidences were detected in 'Maradol', 'Maradol GL', 'Americano', 'Tailândia' and 'Baixinho de Santa Amália'. The hybrids 'Calimosa x Tailândia', 'Calimosa x Maradol', 'Sekati x Caliman AM' and 'Sekati x JS 12' presented the lowest levels of severity, whereas 'Americano x Waimanalo', 'Sekati x JS 12', 'Maradol x Taiwan et' and 'Maradol x Caliman G' had the lowest incidence of disease. These results should be useful as a guide in breeding for resistance to phoma-spot of the papaya crop through hybridization, as well as in the recommendation of cultivars, seeking to reduce the necessity of chemical control in papaya crops.

Marcelo Vivas; Silvaldo Felipe da Silveira; Carlos Eduardo Pessanha da Silva Terra; Messias Gonzaga Pereira

2010-01-01

300

Parámetros poblacionales de Tetranychus merganser Boudreaux (Acari: Tetranychidae) en papayo (Carica papaya L.) a diferentes temperaturas/ Population parameters of Tetranychus merganser Boudreaux (Acari: Tetranychidae) in papaya (Carica papaya L.) at different temperatures  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El ácaro Tetranychus merganser es una de las especies que causa mayor daño económico en la zona productora de papayo (Carica papaya) del estado de Veracruz, México. Por tanto, se requiere conocer aspectos de su biología para tomar mejores decisiones de su manejo. Se obtuvo una colonia de ácaros a partir de una hembra recolectada en el municipio de Manlio F. Altamirano, y se incrementó la población en invernadero sobre hojas de frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris). El objet (more) ivo fue evaluar la influencia de la temperatura en los parámetros poblacionales de esta especie y sobre la duración de sus fases de desarrollo. Para ello se iniciaron cohortes desde huevecillos y expuestas a las siguientes condiciones: temperaturas constantes (19, 23, 27, 31, 33 y 35 °C); 60±2 % de humedad relativa; fotoperiodo de 14:10 h luz:oscuridad y alimentación en discos de hojas de papaya. La duración del ciclo de vida de T. merganser disminuyó de 52.3 hasta 12.9 d con el aumento de la temperatura. La tasa neta reproductiva (Ro) fue 37.40, 62.38, 43.98, 10.47 y 2.32 para 19, 23, 27, 31 y 33° C; a 35 °C la cohorte no fue viable. La tasa intrínseca de crecimiento poblacional (r m) fue 0.08, 0.19, 0.21, 0.18 y 0.12 a las temperaturas anotadas. El desarrollo óptimo ocurrió entre 23 y 27 °C. Aunque el papayo no es su mejor hospedero comparado con parámetros poblacionales más favorables obtenidos por otros autores en frijol, T. merganser puede comportarse como plaga en papayo en las condiciones ambientales predominantes en la zona. Abstract in english Tetranychus merganser is a mite species that causes greater economic damage in the papaya (Carica papaya) production area in the state of Veracruz, Mexico. Therefore, it was necessary to study their biology in order to make better decisions in their management. We obtained a colony of mites from a female collected in the municipality of Manlio F. Altamirano, and expanded their population on bean leaves (Phaseolus vulgaris) under greenhouse conditions. The objective was to (more) evaluate the influence of temperature on the population parameters of this species and the duration of their developmental stages. For this purpose, we established cohorts starting with eggs, and exposed them to the following conditions: constant temperatures (19, 23, 27, 31, 33 and 35 °C); 60±2 % relative humidity, photoperiod of 14:10 h light:dark, and fed with papaya leaf discs. The duration of the life cycle of T. merganser decreased from 52.3 to 12.9 d with the increase of temperature. The net reproductive rate (R) was 37.40, 62.38, 43.98, 10.47 and 2.32 for 19, 23, 27, 31 and 33 °C; at 35 °C, the cohort was not viable. The intrinsic rate of population increase (r m) was 0.08, 0.19, 0.21, 0.18 and 0.12 at the temperatures recorded. Optimal development occurred between 23 and 27 C. Although papaya is not its best host compared to more favorable population parameters obtained by other authors in beans, T. merganser can behave like a pest in papaya under the environmental conditions prevailing in the area.

Reyes-Pérez, Noel; Villanueva-Jiménez, Juan A.; de la Cruz Vargas-Mendoza, Mónica; Cabrera-Mireles, Héctor; Otero-Colina, Gabriel

2013-03-01

 
 
 
 
301

Análisis comparativo y perfil de publicaciones en la Revista Chilena de Pediatría 2001-2006 Comparative analysis and publication profile in Revista Chilena de Pediatría 2001-2006  

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Full Text Available La Revista Chilena de Pediatría (Rev Chil Pediatr), publicación oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría está indexada en SciELO pero no en la Librería Médica de EEUU (NLM). Objetivos: a) determinar el perfil de los artículos publicados y visitados en la Rev Chil Pediatr, compararlo con el de Jornal de Pediatría de Brasil (J Ped Br) y el de Journal of Pediatrics (J Ped) de Estados Unidos; b) evaluar la visibilidad de Rev Chil Pediatr y compararla con la Revista Médica de Chile. Métodos: Se evaluaron los ejemplares en línea de las revistas mencionadas a través de la base de datos SciELO y PubMed entre 2001 a 2006. Se tomó una muestra representativa y aleatoria de los artículos publicados en ese período para cada revista. Adicionalmente se evaluaron los artículos más visitados de la Rev Chil Pediatr y se clasificaron como originales (investigación clínica y básica) y no originales (editorial, caso clínico, revisión y otros). Todos los artículos fueron catalogados según su contenido en una de las 25 especialidades médicas definidas. Además se comparó el número de visitas anuales y globales a la Rev Chil Pediatr y a la Revista Médica de Chile y se analizaron las citaciones más frecuentes otorgadas y recibidas por la Rev Chil Pediatr en ese período. Resultados: De 512 artículos en la Rev Chil Pediatr, se analizaron 220; 35% fueron originales y 65% no originales, publicando un porcentaje significativamente menor de artículos originales que el J Ped Br y que el J Ped (p Background: The Revista Chilena de Pediatría (Rev Chil Pediatr), official journal of Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría is index in SciELO, but not in the National Library of Medicine (NLM) of USA. Objectives: a) Determine the profile of published and visited articles of Rev Chil Ped, in order to compare them with the Jornal de Pediatria from Brazil (J Ped Br) and the Journal of Pediatrics (J Ped) from USA. b) Evaluate the visibility of Rev Chil Pediatr compared to Revista Medica de Chile (Rev Med Chil). Method: On line issues from the above mentioned journal were evaluated through SciELO database and PubMed database from 2001 - 2006. A random and representative subset of published articles was obtained from each one of the 3 journals during the referred period. The most visited articles from Rev Chil Pediatr were analyzed and classified as originals (clinical and basic research) and non originals (editorial, clinical case, reviews and others). The articles were classified according to thematic content in 25 medical specialties. In addition, the number of annual visits to Rev Chil Pediatr and Rev Med Chil were analyzed, including the most frequent citations given and received in that period of time. Results: Out of 512 articles in Rev Chil Pediatr, 220 were analyzed; 35% were originals and 65% non originals, with a significant lower percentage of original articles compared to J Ped Br and J Ped (p < 0.05). The thematic areas with more articles were respiratory disease, infectious diseases and nutrition with 9.1, 7.7 and 7.7%, respectively. Rev Chil Pediatr published twice as many nutrition articles and five times more public health articles compared to J Ped (p < 0.05). The most visited articles on line were of nutrition, infectious diseases, respiratory diseases and neonatology. Among the 10 most visited articles from Rev Chil Pediatr, 7 were review articles. Since 2005, an explosive growth is detected in the number of visits to articles from Rev Chil Pediatr in SciELO. When the number of visits was adjusted to the number of physicians belonging to the corresponding society, there was a higher number of visits to Rev Chil Pediatr from 2005 compared to Rev Med Chile. Conclusion: The thematic content of Rev Chil Pediatr is similar to regional journals, but different to international ones. There is an appropriate correlation between published and visited articles. SciELO has been an important tool that contributes to the diffusion of research published in Rev Chil Pediatr

PAUL R HARRIS D; JOSÉ LUIS LIEBBE G; JONATHAN SOTOMAYOR A; FRANCISCA UGARTE P; FRANCISCO CANO SCH

2007-01-01

302

Chemical and morphological characterization of Costa Rican papaya (Carica papaya L.) hybrids and lines with particular focus on their genuine carotenoid profiles.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) F1 hybrids and inbred lines grown in Costa Rica were screened for morphological and nutritionally relevant fruit traits. The qualitative composition of carotenoids showed great similarity, being mostly composed of free and esterified ?-cryptoxanthins accompanied by ?-carotene, lycopene, and biosynthetic precursors. High levels of (all-E)-lycopene and its isomers were distinctive for red-fleshed hybrids, whereas yellow-fleshed fruits were virtually devoid of lycopenes. Because carotenoid levels among the investigated hybrids and lines differed significantly, this study supports the hypothesis of an exploitable genetic variability, and a potential heterotic effect regarding carotenoid expression may be instrumental in papaya-breeding programs. Due to significantly higher levels of provitamin A carotenoids and coinciding high levels of total lycopene, particularly red-fleshed hybrids might represent prospective sources of these compounds. Furthermore, the nutritional value of some genotypes was boosted by substantial amounts of ascorbic acid (up to 73 mg/100 g of fresh weight), which correlated to total soluble solids (R(2) = 0.86).

Schweiggert RM; Steingass CB; Esquivel P; Carle R

2012-03-01

303

Avaliação do efeito de fosfitos na redução da varíola (Asperisporium caricae) do mamoeiro (Carica papaya) Evaluation of phosphite applications for severity of papaya black spot (Asperisporium caricae)  

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Full Text Available O controle da varíola do mamoeiro é necessário; portanto, propôs-se, neste estudo, avaliar o efeito de aplicações foliares de fosfitos (K, Ca, Mg e Cu) sobre a doença. Dois fosfitos e o fungicida Fosetyl-Al foram testados em condições de campo, com plantas naturalmente infectadas pelo patógeno. Dez fosfitos e o fungicida Fosetyl-Al foram testados sob telado também com plantas naturalmente infectadas por A. caricae. Tanto no experimento de campo quanto sob telado, os tratamentos contendo fosfito reduziram a severidade da doença.The control of black spot of papaya is necessary, therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of foliar applications of phosphites (K, Ca, Mg and Cu) on papaya black spot. Two phosphites and the fungicide Fosetyl-Al were tested on a field trial with papaya plants naturally infected by the pathogen. Ten phosphites and the fungicide Fosetyl-Al were tested in a greenhouse trial, also with plants naturally infected by A. caricae. In both, field and greenhouse trials, the phosphite treatments reduced black spot severity.

Alexei de Campos Dianese; Luiz Eduardo Bassay Blum; Jaqueline Barbosa Dutra; Leonardo Ferreira Lopes; Mariana Coelho Sena; Leandro Ferreira de Freitas

2008-01-01

304

Preliminary purification and enzyme activity assay of papain from papaya milk  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Papain was preliminary purificated by Hitrap SP column with FPLC system, and the enzyme activity was estimated by Kimmel & Smith method. The results showed that the specific activity of papain had no relationship with papaya shape (such as long, round and oval), but with its mature degree.

Yang Lin; Wang Fang; Huang Xinqi

1996-01-01

305

Hypersensitivity to paw-paw (Cerica papaya): report of a case.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A 23-year-old female presented with classical features of immediate hypersensitivity reaction after contact with paw-paw (Cerica papaya). She had a total serum IgE of 2500 i.u./ml. Prick tests with paw-paw extracts were positive. Her serum gave a positive P-K test on her siblings.

Ezeoke AC

1985-09-01

306

Polyethylene glycol effects on somatic embryogenesis of papaya hybrid UENF/CALIMAN 01 seeds  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Among commercial fruits, papaya (Carica papaya L.) is notably one of the most common ones around the world. The aim of the current study was to establish a somatic embryogenesis protocol for the hybrid UENF/CALIMAN 01, elucidating the effects of sucrose and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) on the induction of embryogenic cultures and the effect of polyethylene glycol (PEG) on somatic embryo maturation. Immature zygotic embryos of C. papaya hybrid UENF/CALIMAN 01 wer (more) e cultured in MS culture medium supplemented with different concentrations of sucrose (30 and 60 g L-1) and 2,4-D (0, 20, 40 and 80 ?M). The combination of 30 g L-1 sucrose and 20 ?M 2,4-D resulted in the highest induction rates and the largest callus diameters. Furthermore, this combination was associated with the greatest potential to form somatic embryos. To promote maturation, cultures were inoculated in MS medium and exposed to different concentrations of PEG (0, 30 and 60 g L-1). The 60 g L-1 PEG treatment group had the highest average for the number, maturation and conversion of somatic embryos that resulted in plantlets at the end of the process. The addition of PEG to MS medium led to increased protein synthesis. These results are unprecedented for C. papaya hybrid UENF/CALIMAN 01 as the current study demonstrates the development of somatic embryogenesis in this high quality hybrid.

Heringer, Angelo Schuabb; Vale, Ellen Moura; Barroso, Tatiana; Santa-Catarina, Claudete; Silveira, Vanildo

2013-01-01

307

[Contribution to food microscopy of Anacardium occidentale L, Carica papaya L and Myrciaria cauliflora (Martius) Berg  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

With a view towards food microscopy the authors present an anatomical study of the pseudofruit of Anacardium occidentale L., the fruit of Carica papaya L., and the fruit of Myrciaria cauliflora (Martius) Berg. Drawings illustrate the text to facilitate identification of the corresponding hystologic elements found in industrialized products.

de Oliveira F; Akisue G; Akisue MK

1975-07-01

308

[Contribution to food microscopy of Anacardium occidentale L, Carica papaya L and Myrciaria cauliflora (Martius) Berg].  

Science.gov (United States)

With a view towards food microscopy the authors present an anatomical study of the pseudofruit of Anacardium occidentale L., the fruit of Carica papaya L., and the fruit of Myrciaria cauliflora (Martius) Berg. Drawings illustrate the text to facilitate identification of the corresponding hystologic elements found in industrialized products. PMID:1233593

de Oliveira, F; Akisue, G; Akisue, M K

309

How to become a tree without wood - biomechanical analysis of the stem of Carica papaya L.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Carica papaya L. does not contain wood, according to the botanical definition of wood as lignified secondary xylem. Despite its parenchymatous secondary xylem, these plants are able to grow up to 10-m high. This is surprising, as wooden structural elements are the ubiquitous strategy for supporting height growth in plants. Proposed possible alternative principles to explain the compensation for lack of wood in C. papaya are turgor pressure of the parenchyma, lignified phloem fibres in the bark, or a combination of the two. Interestingly, lignified tissue comprises only 5-8% of the entire stem mass. Furthermore, the phloem fibres do not form a compact tube enclosing the xylem, but instead form a mesh tubular structure. To investigate the mechanism of papaya's unusually high mechanical strength, a set of mechanical measurements were undertaken on whole stems and tissue sections of secondary phloem and xylem. The structural Young's modulus of mature stems reached 2.5 GPa. Since this is low compared to woody plants, the flexural rigidity of papaya stem construction may mainly be based on a higher second moment of inertia. Additionally, stem turgor pressure was determined indirectly by immersing specimens in sucrose solutions of different osmolalities, followed by mechanical tests; turgor pressure was between 0.82 and 1.25 MPa, indicating that turgor is essential for flexural rigidity of the entire stem.

Kempe A; Lautenschläger T; Lange A; Neinhuis C

2013-05-01

310

CLONING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF APETALA3 AND PISTILLATA ORTHOLOGS IN PAPAYA  

Science.gov (United States)

In the ABCE model of flower development, B function organ-identity genes act in the second and third whorls of the flower to control petal and stamen identity. Papaya has three sex forms, male, female, and hermaphrodite so its flowers might be ideal for testing the function of B class genes in all t...

311

AFLP analysis of genetic relationships among papaya and its wild relatives (Caricaceae) from Ecuador.  

Science.gov (United States)

The AFLP technique was used to assess the genetic relationships among the cultivated papaya ( Carica papaya L.) and related species native to Ecuador. Genetic distances based on AFLP data were estimated for 95 accessions belonging to three genera including C. papaya, at least eight Vasconcella species and two Jacaratia species. Cluster analysis using different methods and principal co-ordinate analysis (PCO), based on the AFLP data from 496 polymorphic bands generated with five primer combinations, was performed. The resulted grouping of accessions of each species corresponds largely with their taxonomic classifications and were found to be consistent with other studies based on RAPD, isozyme and cpDNA data. The AFLP analysis supports the recent rehabilitation of the Vasconcella group as a genus; until recently Vasconcella was considered as a section within the genus Carica. Both cluster and PCO analysis clearly separated the species of the three genera and illustrated the large genetic distance between C. papaya accessions and the Vasconcella group. The specific clustering of the highly diverse group of Vasconcella x heilbornii accessions also suggests that these genotypes may be the result of bi-directional introgression events between Vasconcella stipulata and Vasconcella cundinamarcensis. PMID:12582531

Van Droogenbroeck, B.; Breyne, P.; Goetghebeur, P.; Romeijn-Peeters, E.; Kyndt, T.; Gheysen, G.

2002-06-21

312

AFLP analysis of genetic relationships among papaya and its wild relatives (Caricaceae) from Ecuador.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The AFLP technique was used to assess the genetic relationships among the cultivated papaya ( Carica papaya L.) and related species native to Ecuador. Genetic distances based on AFLP data were estimated for 95 accessions belonging to three genera including C. papaya, at least eight Vasconcella species and two Jacaratia species. Cluster analysis using different methods and principal co-ordinate analysis (PCO), based on the AFLP data from 496 polymorphic bands generated with five primer combinations, was performed. The resulted grouping of accessions of each species corresponds largely with their taxonomic classifications and were found to be consistent with other studies based on RAPD, isozyme and cpDNA data. The AFLP analysis supports the recent rehabilitation of the Vasconcella group as a genus; until recently Vasconcella was considered as a section within the genus Carica. Both cluster and PCO analysis clearly separated the species of the three genera and illustrated the large genetic distance between C. papaya accessions and the Vasconcella group. The specific clustering of the highly diverse group of Vasconcella x heilbornii accessions also suggests that these genotypes may be the result of bi-directional introgression events between Vasconcella stipulata and Vasconcella cundinamarcensis.

Van Droogenbroeck B; Breyne P; Goetghebeur P; Romeijn-Peeters E; Kyndt T; Gheysen G

2002-08-01

313

Anthelmintic activity of papaya seeds on Hymenolepis diminuta infections in rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this study is to see the anthelmintic activity potential of papaya seeds against Hymenolepis diminuta in rats. The objectives of this study were: (1) to determine the effectiveness of papaya seeds on helminths especially H. diminuta in rats and (2) to determine the effective dose level on helminths in rats. Thirty six male rats from strain Sprague-Dawley were chosen as samples in this experiment. Two types of dose level were used for papaya seeds treatments such as 0.6 g kg-1 and 1.2 g kg-1. The geometric mean (GEM) was used to calculate mean for eggs per gram (EPG) before and after the treatment to be included in the reduction percentage calculation. After 21 days post treatment, necropsies were done to get the worm count and the GEM was used to calculate the efficacy percentage for the treatment. Results from this study showed that the reduction percentages in EPG for papaya seeds treatment for both doses level were very high which is 96.8% for 0.6g kg-1 dose level and 96.2% for 1.2 g kg-1 dose level. Whereas the efficacy percentage based on the worm counts for both doses level were also very high that was 90.77% for 0.6 g kg-1 dose level and 93.85% for 1.2 g kg-1.

Sapaat A; Satrija F; Mahsol HH; Ahmad AH

2012-12-01

314

Foliar Spray of Humic Substances on Seedling Production of Papaya (Pawpaw)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this research was to study the effect of humic substances on seedling production of papaya cv. Formosa. A completed randomized blocks design with five treatments (humic acid doses) was adopted, with five repetitions of 10 seedlings each, with a total of 250 seedlings. The following ...

I.H.L. Cavalcante; R.R.S. Da Silva; F.G. Albano; F.N. De Lima; A. De S. Marques

315

Biochemical Assessment of Daddawa Food Seasoning Produced by Fermentation of Pawpaw (Carica papaya) Seeds  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Biochemical assessment of pawpaw (Carica papaya) seeds and daddawa produced from the seed by fermentation was carried out. B. Subtilis, B. pumilus and B. licheniformis were found to be involved in the fermentation. The proximate composition showed that the seed had...

M.A. Dakare; D.A. Ameh; A.S. Agbaji

316

Anthelmintic activity of papaya seeds on Hymenolepis diminuta infections in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study is to see the anthelmintic activity potential of papaya seeds against Hymenolepis diminuta in rats. The objectives of this study were: (1) to determine the effectiveness of papaya seeds on helminths especially H. diminuta in rats and (2) to determine the effective dose level on helminths in rats. Thirty six male rats from strain Sprague-Dawley were chosen as samples in this experiment. Two types of dose level were used for papaya seeds treatments such as 0.6 g kg-1 and 1.2 g kg-1. The geometric mean (GEM) was used to calculate mean for eggs per gram (EPG) before and after the treatment to be included in the reduction percentage calculation. After 21 days post treatment, necropsies were done to get the worm count and the GEM was used to calculate the efficacy percentage for the treatment. Results from this study showed that the reduction percentages in EPG for papaya seeds treatment for both doses level were very high which is 96.8% for 0.6g kg-1 dose level and 96.2% for 1.2 g kg-1 dose level. Whereas the efficacy percentage based on the worm counts for both doses level were also very high that was 90.77% for 0.6 g kg-1 dose level and 93.85% for 1.2 g kg-1. PMID:23202594

Sapaat, A; Satrija, F; Mahsol, H H; Ahmad, A H

2012-12-01

317

How to become a tree without wood - biomechanical analysis of the stem of Carica papaya L.  

Science.gov (United States)

Carica papaya L. does not contain wood, according to the botanical definition of wood as lignified secondary xylem. Despite its parenchymatous secondary xylem, these plants are able to grow up to 10-m high. This is surprising, as wooden structural elements are the ubiquitous strategy for supporting height growth in plants. Proposed possible alternative principles to explain the compensation for lack of wood in C. papaya are turgor pressure of the parenchyma, lignified phloem fibres in the bark, or a combination of the two. Interestingly, lignified tissue comprises only 5-8% of the entire stem mass. Furthermore, the phloem fibres do not form a compact tube enclosing the xylem, but instead form a mesh tubular structure. To investigate the mechanism of papaya's unusually high mechanical strength, a set of mechanical measurements were undertaken on whole stems and tissue sections of secondary phloem and xylem. The structural Young's modulus of mature stems reached 2.5 GPa. Since this is low compared to woody plants, the flexural rigidity of papaya stem construction may mainly be based on a higher second moment of inertia. Additionally, stem turgor pressure was determined indirectly by immersing specimens in sucrose solutions of different osmolalities, followed by mechanical tests; turgor pressure was between 0.82 and 1.25 MPa, indicating that turgor is essential for flexural rigidity of the entire stem. PMID:23656471

Kempe, A; Lautenschläger, T; Lange, A; Neinhuis, C

2013-05-01

318

Assessment Study on the use of Pawpaw; Carica papaya Seeds to Control Oreochromis niloticus Breeding  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study was carried out to assess the ability of using pawpaw (Carica papaya) seeds as a natural reproduction inhibitor for tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus) culture to control its breeding. Biochemical, physiological and histopathological effects of pawpaw seeds on male tilapia ...

Hossam H. Abbas; Wafaa T. Abbas

319

The Aqueous Seed Extract Of Carica papaya Linn. Prevents Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Hepatotoxicity In Rats  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Summary: Carica papaya Linn. is known to have a versatile application in African folkloric medicine. In the current study, the dose-dependent (100 – 400 mg/kg/day/oral route) and time-course protective effects of the 400...

A A Adeneye; J A Olagunju; AA F Banjo; S F Abdul; O A Sanusi; O O Sanni; B A Osarodion; O E Shonoiki

320

Effect of Carica papaya bark extract on oxidative stress parameters in testes of male albino rats  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Summary: Carica papaya bark has contraceptive benefits when given at a high dose in male rats the mechanism at which it achieves this is yet to be fully understood. Forty male Wistar rats were used for the study....

T O Kusemiju; O E Yama; A O Okanlawon

 
 
 
 
321

Phytochemistry and Heamatological Potential of Ethanol Seed Leaf and Pulp Extracts of Carica papaya (Linn.)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study was aimed at qualitative evaluation of the ethanol seed, leaf and pulp extracts of C. papaya for bioactive compounds and also to investigate their effect on the haematology in male albino rats. A 3x4 factorial experimental layout using randomized complete design was adopted. Result...

E.V. Ikpeme; U.B. Ekaluo; M.E. Kooffreh; O. Udensi

322

ANTIOXIDATIVE PROPERTIES OF ETHYL ACETATE FRACTION OF UNRIPE PULP OF CARICA PAPAYA IN MICE  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Unripe Carica papaya fruits were extracted with methanol in Soxhlet apparatus and later with a liquid-liquid extraction with the aim of identifying and quantifying secondary metabolite fraction of this plant. Quercetin and ?-sitosterol have been isolated from the fruit and the quantities detected w...

Omotade Oloyede; Jeferson Franco; Daniel Roos; Joao Rocha Magareth Athayde; Aline Boligon

323

Genetics Transformation of Carica papaya by Infecting Mature Zygotic Embryos with Agrobacterium tumefaciens Strains LBA-4404  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Transient expression of the GUS gene has been demonstrated in somatic callus of the two varieties of Carica papaya cv. Shahi and Ranchi after co-cultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA-4404 carrying a binary plastid vector system containing neomycin phosphotransfe...

M.A.K. Azad; M.G. Rabbani

324

Complete nucleotide sequence of a monopartite Begomovirus and associated satellites infecting Carica papaya in Nepal.  

Science.gov (United States)

Carica papaya (papaya) is a fruit crop that is cultivated mostly in kitchen gardens throughout Nepal. Leaf samples of C. papaya plants with leaf curling, vein darkening, vein thickening, and a reduction in leaf size were collected from a garden in Darai village, Rampur, Nepal in 2010. Full-length clones of a monopartite Begomovirus, a betasatellite and an alphasatellite were isolated. The complete nucleotide sequence of the Begomovirus showed the arrangement of genes typical of Old World begomoviruses with the highest nucleotide sequence identity (>99 %) to an isolate of Ageratum yellow vein virus (AYVV), confirming it as an isolate of AYVV. The complete nucleotide sequence of betasatellite showed greater than 89 % nucleotide sequence identity to an isolate of Tomato leaf curl Java betasatellite originating from Indonesian. The sequence of the alphasatellite displayed 92 % nucleotide sequence identity to Sida yellow vein China alphasatellite. This is the first identification of these components in Nepal and the first time they have been identified in papaya. PMID:23397078

Shahid, M S; Yoshida, S; Khatri-Chhetri, G B; Briddon, R W; Natsuaki, K T

2013-02-09

325

Changes in protein profile during coagulation of latex from Carica papaya  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We describe the changes in peptide composition by SDS-PAGE analysis of latex from Carica papaya collected at various times after incision of the unripe fruit. The data show that during latex coagulation several peptides are processed in an orderly fashion.

Silva L.G.; Garcia O.; Lopes M.T.P.; Salas C.E.

1997-01-01

326

Evolution of volatile compounds in papaya wine fermented with three Williopsis saturnus yeasts  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The changes in volatile compounds during papaya juice fermentation with three Williopsis saturnus yeasts were investigated in this study. Time-course papaya juice fermentations were carried out using three Williopsis saturnus yeasts: W. saturnus var. mrakii NCYC2251, W. saturnus var. saturnus NCYC22 and W. saturnus var. sargentensis NCYC2727. Changes in yeast cell population, Brix and pH were similar among the three yeasts, which preferentially utilised glucose over fructose while partially degrading l-malic acid. A range of volatile compounds were produced during fermentation including fatty acids, alcohols and esters with esters being the most abundant volatile compounds produced. Benzyl isothiocyanate, butyric acid, 2-ethylhexanol, benzaldehyde and ?-damascenone present in the papaya juice were metabolised to trace levels during fermentation. There were significant variations among the three yeasts in their ability to produce and metabolise volatile compounds during fermentation. The study suggests that papaya juice fermentation with W. saturnus yeasts is able to result in the formation of a more complex aroma compounds.

Lee Pin-Rou; Ong Yuen-Ling; Yu Bin; Curran Philip; Liu Shao-Quan

2010-10-01

327

AUTOSOMAL DEGENERATION AS THE PROCESS FOR THE EVOLUTION OF A PRIMITIVE Y CHROMOSOME IN PAPAYA  

Science.gov (United States)

Plant sex chromosomes, in contrast to those in animals, evolved recently and only a few are heteromorphic. Genomic analyses of the homomorphic sex chromosomes of papaya show features of the early stages of sex chromosome evolution. Sequence analysis of 20% of the male specific region (MSY) shows tha...

328

A PRIMITIVE Y CHROMOSOME IN PAPAYA MARKS INCIPIENT SEX CHROMOSOMES EVOLUTION  

Science.gov (United States)

Eukaryotic sex chromosomes are believed to have evolved from ancestral autosomes. Genetic analyses indicate that sex chromosomes in higher plants have evolved recently and independently in several taxa. A papaya chromosome which contains a male-specific locus shows much recombination suppression and...

329

Physical Mapping Of A Sex Reversal Mutation On Papaya Y Chromosome  

Science.gov (United States)

Unlike animal species, most flowering plants are hermaphrodite, producing flowers that contain both male and female organs. Papaya is one of the limited number of plant species that produce male, female, and hermaphrodite flowers on separate individuals, offering us the opportunity of investigating ...

330

GENOMIC ANALYSES OF THE MALE SPECIFIC REGION ON THE PRIMITIVE Y CHROMOSOME IN PAPAYA  

Science.gov (United States)

The papaya male and hermaphrodite sexes have a primitive Y chromosome that provides a unique opportunity to study sex chromosome evolution. This primitive Y chromosome has a small male specific region (MSY) comprising only about 10% of the chromosome. This MSY shows severe suppression of recombinati...

331

Effect of cut-type on quality of minimally processed papaya  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: This research was undertaken to study the effects of different cut-types (cube, parallelepiped, cylinder and sphere) on the quality and shelf-life of papaya cv. Sunrise Solo. Physicochemical analyses were carried out during 10 days of storage at 4 °C to determine colour, firmness, pH, titratable acidity, total soluble solids, weight loss and vitamin C content. Microbiological analysis and sensory evaluation were also performed.RESULTS: Papaya spheres (1.55 cm radius) presented the most favourable physicochemical and microbiological properties (smaller changes in colour parameters L*, a*, b*, chroma and hue angle, firmer texture, lower increase in pH, higher titratable acidity, almost constant total soluble solids, reduced weight loss, high vitamin C content and lower microbial loads) and sensory characteristics on day 10, while papaya cubes (1.4 cm side) proved to be the least acceptable.CONCLUSION: The results of physicochemical, microbiological and sensory analyses performed on different cut-types of papaya indicated acceptable fresh-cut produce during 10 days of storage at 4 °C. The potential shelf-life at 4 °C is therefore 10 days, provided that no contamination occurs in the postharvest period and during minimal processing operations. Copyright

Argañosa ACarlaSJ; Raposo MFilomenaJ; Teixeira PaulaCM; Morais AlcinaMMB

2008-09-01

332

Processamento mínimo de mamão 'formosa'/ Fresh cut of 'formosa' papaya  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho foi conduzido para verificar o efeito do tamanho do corte, 2,5 x 2,5cm (corte 1) e 2,5 x 5,0cm (corte 2), e da temperatura de armazenamento (3, 6 e 9ºC), na velocidade da modificação da atmosfera ambiente e nas características químicas de mamões do grupo `Formosa' minimamente processados e embalados em copos plásticos (500ml). A concentração de CO2 no interior destes copos aumentou 2 a 3 vezes, durante as primeiras 6 horas após o corte, para depois (more) diminuir e se estabilizar. Esta concentração aumentou com o aumento da temperatura de armazenamento. A umidade dos pedaços diminuiu consideravelmente nos dois primeiros dias, e a temperatura que melhor conservou a umidade foi a de 6ºC. A acidez total titulável foi menor no corte 2, com as maiores reduções a 6 e 9oC. Os teores de sólidos solúveis totais não variaram entre os tratamentos, e os cuidados higiênicos adotados durante o processamento permitiram a obtenção de produtos com baixa contagem microbiana, 10³UFC.g-1 nos pedaços armazenados a 9ºC após sete dias, e com boa manutenção da qualidade sensorial das mesmas. Estes resultados permitem indicar o mamão `Formosa' para a produção de produtos minimamente processados, na forma de pedaços, com conservação refrigerada (3 e 6ºC ) por um período de 7 dias. Abstract in english This work was undertaken to verify the effect of cutting size, 2.5 x 2.5cm (chunk 1), 2.5 x 5.0cm (chunk 2), and storage temperatures (3, 6 and 9ºC), on atmosphere modification rate and chemical characteristics of `Formosa' fresh-cut papaya packed in plastic cups (500 ml). The CO2 concentration into theses cups increased fron two to three fold during first 6 hours after cutting, then it decreased and stabilized. This concentration increased with the storage temperature i (more) ncreasing. The chunks's moisture remarkably decreased in the first 2 days, and the temperature which best sustained the moisture was 6ºC. The titratable total acidity was lower in chunk 2, with the highest reductions at 6 and 9ºC. The total soluble solids content did not vary between treatments, and hygienic care adopted during processing allowed to obtain low microbial counting products, 10³ CFU.g-1 in chunks stored at 9ºC after seven days and with good maintenance of its sensorial quality. These results allow to indicate `Formosa' papaya for fresh-cuts production, in chunk form, with refrigerated conservation (3 e 6ºC ) for 7 day periods.

TEIXEIRA, Gustavo Henrique de Almeida; DURIGAN, José Fernando; MATTIUZ, Ben-Hur; ROSSI JÚNIOR, Oswaldo Durival

2001-01-01

333

Preservation of papaya by gamma radiation of cobalt 60  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The preservation of papaya cultivar Solo was submit to the irradiation at a dose of 80 krad and storage in room temperature to 250 C and with refrigeration to 100 C and the mean relative humidity of the air was 85% and 92% respectively, was studied. First the fruits was submit to the fungi control, with hot water, 470 C to 20 min. After the packaging in carton box the fruits was immediately irradiated by EMBRARAD S.A. and after that storage. Fruits were storage at room temperature was ripened after 9 days. Any difference was observed inside and outside colour of the irradiated and the control fruits. The only difference was the texture. In the radiated ripped fruit was 1,95 kg/cm2 and by the control samples 0,80 kg/cm2. Respiration of irradiated fruit was more active in comparison with the control samples, but don't enter into senescence. Storage at 100 C was the best results being obtained for 30 days such the control sample with the irradiated. But the irradiated fruit was more yellow and uniform in relation to the control samples. Also the texture was more consistent in mean of 2,12 kg/cm2 and 1,36 kg/cm2, respectively. In that temperature the respiration of irradiated fruits was minor in comparison with the control samples. During the storage don't have difference in the weight losses, between the irradiated and the control samples fruits. (author)

1987-01-01

334

Crisis de representatividad y estallido social. Una aproximación a la actual experiencia chilena  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available De un tiempo a la actualidad el denominado modelo chileno se encuentra en jaque. Las exigencias de la sociedad civil chilena se vuelven palpables por las calles de nuestro país. La molestia y, por consiguiente, protesta social, ha tomado cada vez más fuerza y adhesión entre quienes no se sienten representados en lo más mínimo ni por el Estado ni por la clase política, generando como resultado diferentes frentes de conflictividad, tales como activistas ecológicos, trabajadores del cobre, estudiantes secundarios y universitarios, profesores y el pueblo mapuche entre otros, que han desembocado en la amplia impopularidad y rechazo del ahora Presidente de Chile, Sebastián Piñera. No obstante, la dicotomía generada es interesante. Mientras en el foro interno del país se sucede una histórica protesta social de proporciones por la amplia brecha de desigualdad, éste refleja una pujante economía, cuyos indicadores macroeconómicos lo muestran como los mejores de América Latina.

Andrea Mira S.

2011-01-01

335

Clases medias chilenas y transgresión de la homogamia: una perspectiva histórica  

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Full Text Available En este trabajo estudiamos a las clases medias chilenas desde el punto de vista de procesos poco reflexivos de transgresión, que son relevantes cuando se enfrentan las desigualdades sociales desde la perspectiva de los propios individuos, como ocurre respecto de la homogamia. Un estudio histórico, desde el período post-colonial hasta hoy, nos permite caracterizar cómo ocurren estas transgresiones.In this paper we study the Chilean middle classes from the point of view of small reflexive processes of transgression, which are relevant when addressing social inequalities from the perspective of the individuals themselves, as for homogamy. An historical study, from the post-colonial period until today, allows us to characterize how these transgressions happens.

Oscar Mac-Clure

2012-01-01

336

Clases medias chilenas y transgresión de la homogamia: una perspectiva histórica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish En este trabajo estudiamos a las clases medias chilenas desde el punto de vista de procesos poco reflexivos de transgresión, que son relevantes cuando se enfrentan las desigualdades sociales desde la perspectiva de los propios individuos, como ocurre respecto de la homogamia. Un estudio histórico, desde el período post-colonial hasta hoy, nos permite caracterizar cómo ocurren estas transgresiones. Abstract in english In this paper we study the Chilean middle classes from the point of view of small reflexive processes of transgression, which are relevant when addressing social inequalities from the perspective of the individuals themselves, as for homogamy. An historical study, from the post-colonial period until today, allows us to characterize how these transgressions happens.

Mac-Clure, Oscar

2012-01-01

337

Validación chilena del cuestionario de evaluación de apego en el adulto CAMIR  

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Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue examinar la confiabilidad y validez del instrumento de evaluación de apego en el adulto, .Cartes: Modèles Individuels de Relation (CAMIR)., en la realidad sociocultural chilena. Este instrumento, basado en la teoría del apego, es un cuestionario de auto-reporte que evalúa los modelos operativos internos en adultos y otras escalas relacionadas al apego. Los participantes fueron 578 sujetos, 204 hombres y 374 mujeres, con edades entre 14 y 80 años. Los sujetos completaron el CAMIR y medidas de vínculo y sintomatología actual, a través del Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) and Outcome Questionnaire OQ-45.2. A través del análisis estadístico de los resultados se evaluaron las características psicométricas del test y se analiz ó la posibilidad de generar normas locales para la prueba. Los resultados confirmaron que el CAMIR es un instrumento confiable y válido en la evaluación de los modelos internos de relación en adultos.

Lusmenia Garrido; María Pía Santelices; Blaise Pierrehumbert; Iván Armijo

2009-01-01

338

Estimacion de VAR Bayesianos para la Economia Chilena/ Estimating Bayesian VAR for the Chilean Economy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish En este trabajo se estiman VAR Bayesianos para la economía chilena. Bajo esta metodología se estudian los mecanismos de transmisión de la política monetaria y se realizan ejercicios de proyecciones para las principales variables macroeconómicas. Luego se contrastan estos resultados con los obtenidos de estimaciones de VAR tradicionales presentados en la literatura previa y se discuten algunas implicancias para el diseño de la política monetaria. Abstract in english In this paper Bayesian Vector Autoregression (BVAR) models are estimated for the Chilean economy. Under this approach, the transmission mechanisms of monetary policy and forecast exercises are studied and evaluated for the main macroeconomic variables. Then, the results are contrasted with the standard VAR models presented in the previous literature for the case of Chile and the implications for the monetary policy design are discussed.

Jaramillo G, Patricio

2009-06-01

339

La política habitacional chilena: Alternativas de acceso a la vivienda para las familias más pobres.  

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Full Text Available El presente artículo contiene las principales razones que llevaron al Ministerio de Vivienda y Urbanismo a introducir, en el año 2001, modificaciones a la Política Habitacional, y se exponen los objetivos y los programas de la Nueva Política Habitacional Chilena, que fueron producto de dichos cambios, generando una variedad de alternativas que en la actualidad permite el acceso a la vivienda propia a las diversas familias del país, en particular para aquellos grupos de menores recursos y con mayores dificultades para resolver su problema habitacional. Asimismo, se indican algunos logros de dicha Política en lo que va corrido desde su entrada en vigencia, particularmente en lo que dice relación con el Fondo Concursable para Proyectos Habitacionales Solidarios, como lo son la focalización, inversión, cobertura y beneficiados. Por último, se señalan los desafíos para el Ministerio para el año 2004.

Jaime Ravinet de la Fuente

2004-01-01

340

Biological, Physical, and Molecular Properties of a Papaya lethal yellowing virus Isolate  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Papaya (Carica papaya) is an important tropical fruit crop in northeastern Brazil. Lethal yellowing is a disease caused by Papaya lethal yellowing virus (PLYV) that occurs only in northeastern Brazil. The symptoms are characterized by progressive leaf yellowing and greenish circular spots on the fruits. The virus has isometric particles (30 nm), genomic single-stranded (ss)RNA (1.6 × 10? Da), and a coat protein with a single component (35 kDa). Although no biological vector has been confirmed, the virus is spreading every year. In the present study, an isolate of the virus was characterized biologically, serologically, physically, and molecularly, and its survival in dried tissue was evaluated. Approximately 309.5 mg of virus was purified per kilogram of infected papaya leaves, and a high-titer polyclonal antiserum (1:1,024,000) was obtained from an immunized rabbit. The virus was detected in dried roots and leaves maintained up to 120 days. Its physical properties were thermal inactivation point (80°C), longevity in vitro (60 days), and dilution end point (10??). The virus was inactivated in leaves and roots eradicated from infected plants when they were submitted to a solarization period of 12 days, but maintained its infectivity when leaves and roots were maintained over the soil at natural conditions for 32 days. Among 58 plant species from 13 botanical families, the PLYV isolate infected only C. papaya, Jacaratia heterophylla, J. spinosa, Vasconcella cauliflora, V. quercifolia, and V. monoica, all from the family Caricaceae. A fragment of 1,098 nt of the virus isolate, corresponding to the 3? replicase (RdRp) and 5? coat protein (CP) cistron, was cloned and sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis of the RdRp nucleotide sequences indicated some similarity of PLYV with members of the genus Sobemovirus.

Nascimento AlineKQ; Lima JAlbersioA; Nascimento AnaLL; Beserra EvandoAJr; Purcifull DanE

2010-10-01

 
 
 
 
341

Literatura chilena de exilio, un vacío epistemológico/ Chilean literature of exile, an epistemological emptiness  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Este artículo se presenta como una reflexión acerca del desinterés actual que supone, dentro del panorama literario en Chile, el estudio de la literatura creada por autores y autoras chilenas durante el exilio chileno ocurrido entre 1973 y 1989. Una reflexión que espero sirva como referente para aquellos investigadores que se interesen por estudiar y dar a conocer los diversos corpus literarios vinculados al exilio chileno vivido en diferentes países del mundo. Una p (more) roducción literaria aún por desvelar y que agrupa un conjunto de corpus literarios que nos hablan del pasado reciente de Chile y sus habitantes, una literatura chilena de exilio en la cual las experiencias de dolor y desarraigo dan paso a la apertura al otro y al encuentro con diversas memorias culturales. Abstract in english This paper presents a reflection on the current lack of interest within the literary scene of Chile related to the study of literature created by Chilean authors during their exile abroad between 1973 and 1989. A reflection that I hope will serve as a reference for those researchers who are interested in studying and publicizing the different literary corpus that came up during the Chilean exile in different countries all over the world. A literature which is still to rev (more) eal and that groups together a wide range of literary corpus telling the story of the recent past suffered by Chile and its people, a Chilean literature of exile in which the experiences of pain and uprooting paved the way for an opening to each other as well as for the meeting and the interaction of various cultural memories.

Garay C, Sol Marina

2013-06-01

342

Patrones de crecimiento urbano en la Patagonia chilena: el caso de la ciudad de Coyhaique  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Las políticas de Estado junto con la importante oferta/demanda de productos inmobiliarios para población de mayor ingreso han orientado el desarrollo reciente de varias ciudades chilenas, originando nuevas formas urbanas. Si bien estos procesos han sido descritos y analizados para varias ciudades y áreas metropolitanas de Chile central, no existen suficientes antecedentes empíricos que den cuenta de la realidad del desarrollo urbano de las ciudades más australes del (more) país, como el caso de Coyhaique en la Patagonia chilena. Este trabajo pretende identificar y analizar los patrones de urbanización de esta ciudad, en un contexto territorial caracterizado, entre otros aspectos, por la fragmentación geográfica, el aislamiento, dispersión de los centros poblados y concentración de la población en la capital regional. Se analiza la evolución y factores explicativos que dan cuenta de su rápido proceso de urbanización y, sobre la base de documentos técnicos, históricos y geográficos, se presentan estimaciones futuras del crecimiento de la ciudad. Abstract in english State policies and real estate market destined to people with more economic power, have orientated the recent development of many Chilean cities, reinforcing old urban patterns and creating new ones. Even though these processes have been described and analyzed for many cities and metropolitan areas of Central Chile, there hasn't been enough evidence about the urban development in Southern Chilean cities; such is the case of Coyhaique, located in Chilean Patagonia. From th (more) is perspective this work aims to identify and analyze the urban growth patterns in the city, in a territorial context characterized, besides other aspects, for geographical fragmentation, isolation, dispersion of towns and concentration of population, services and facilities inside the regional capital. The urban growth pattern was analyzed using historical reviews about the evolution since the foundation in 1929. The methods used were GIS and photo interpretation of satellite images of different periods. Finally, urban growth estimation was made based on technical studies.

Azócar García, Gerardo; Aguayo Arias, Mauricio; Henríquez Ruiz, Cristian; Vega Montero, Claudia; Sanhueza Contreras, Rodrigo

2010-09-01

343

Toponimia chilena: "la lejana posesión" Chilean toponymy: the far-away possession  

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Full Text Available La toponimia de la Isla de Pascua está casi totalmente dominada por vocablos pascuenses. Este predominio ha aumentado a pesar de las expediciones holandesas, españolas e inglesas durante el siglo XVIII, las misiones religiosas francesas, las asonadas esclavistas desde Perú y la toma de posesión y administración chilenas durante el siglo siguiente. Estas visitas, muy especialmente la de la expedición española de 1770, deberían haber extinguido los topónimos rapa nui, como ha sucedido con otras lenguas autóctonas en Chile. Muy por el contrario, muchos nombres pascuenses ya se habían establecido a mediados del siglo XIX y con la administración chilena se ha producido un aumento en la toponimia vernácula, hasta el punto de que ella es dominante en la actualidad. La supervivencia del rapa nui como lengua viva es solamente uno de los factores que explican este predominio.The toponymy of Easter Island is almost completely dominated by names in Rapa Nui, the native language. This dominance has increased in spite of the Dutch, Spanish and English expeditions during the eighteenth century as well as the French religious missions, the slave raids from Peru , and the Chilean administration of the island during the following century. All of these, particularly the Spanish expedition of 1770, should have resulted in the extinction of the Rapa Nui toponymy, as has happened with other native languages in Chile. Quite the contrary, many native place names were already established by the middle of the nineteenth century; under Chilean administration there has been an increase in the vernacular place names, to such an extent that the latter are dominant at present. The survival of Rapa Nui as a living language is just one of the factors accounting for this dominance.

Guillermo Latorre

2001-01-01

344

Toponimia chilena: "la lejana posesión"/ Chilean toponymy: the far-away possession  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La toponimia de la Isla de Pascua está casi totalmente dominada por vocablos pascuenses. Este predominio ha aumentado a pesar de las expediciones holandesas, españolas e inglesas durante el siglo XVIII, las misiones religiosas francesas, las asonadas esclavistas desde Perú y la toma de posesión y administración chilenas durante el siglo siguiente. Estas visitas, muy especialmente la de la expedición española de 1770, deberían haber extinguido los topónimos rapa n (more) ui, como ha sucedido con otras lenguas autóctonas en Chile. Muy por el contrario, muchos nombres pascuenses ya se habían establecido a mediados del siglo XIX y con la administración chilena se ha producido un aumento en la toponimia vernácula, hasta el punto de que ella es dominante en la actualidad. La supervivencia del rapa nui como lengua viva es solamente uno de los factores que explican este predominio. Abstract in english The toponymy of Easter Island is almost completely dominated by names in Rapa Nui, the native language. This dominance has increased in spite of the Dutch, Spanish and English expeditions during the eighteenth century as well as the French religious missions, the slave raids from Peru , and the Chilean administration of the island during the following century. All of these, particularly the Spanish expedition of 1770, should have resulted in the extinction of the Rapa Nui (more) toponymy, as has happened with other native languages in Chile. Quite the contrary, many native place names were already established by the middle of the nineteenth century; under Chilean administration there has been an increase in the vernacular place names, to such an extent that the latter are dominant at present. The survival of Rapa Nui as a living language is just one of the factors accounting for this dominance.

Latorre, Guillermo

2001-01-01

345

Effects of nitric oxide treatment on the cell wall softening related enzymes and several hormones of papaya fruit during storage.  

Science.gov (United States)

Papaya fruits (Carica papaya L. cv 'Sui you 2') harvested with papaya fruits treated with nitric oxide had a significantly lower rate of ethylene production and a lesser loss of firmness during storage. A decrease in polygalacturonase, pectin methyl esterase, pectate lyase and cellulase activities was observed in nitric oxide treated fruit. In addition, the contents of indole acetic acid, abscisic acid and zeatin riboside were reduced in nitric oxide treated fruit, but no significant reduction in the level of gibberellin was found. These results indicate that nitric oxide treatment can effectively delay the softening and ripening of papaya fruit, likely via the regulation of cell wall softening related enzymes and certain hormones. PMID:23744122

Guo, Qin; Wu, Bin; Chen, Weixin; Zhang, Yuli; Wang, Jide; Li, Xueping

2013-06-01

346

n vitro study of antiamoebic effect of methanol extract of mature seeds of Carica papaya on trophozoites of Entamoeba histolytica  

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Full Text Available Antiamoebic activity of methanol extract of mature seeds of Carica papaya was tested in vitro on axenic culture of Entamoeba histolytica using metronidazole as a reference amoebicidal agent. The MIC of seed extract was > 62.5 µg/mL as compared to < 0.8 µg/mL for metronidazole. The present study suggests that the mature seeds of C. papaya have antiamoebic effect but less pronounced than metronidazole.

Sujit Kumar Sarker, Nilufar Begum, Dinesh Mondal, Md. Abdullah Siddique, Mohammad A. Rashid

2010-01-01

347

Estudos morfo-anatômicos de sementes de dois genótipos de mamão(Carica papaya L.) Morphological and anatomical studies of seeds of two genotypes of papaya Carica papaya L.  

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Full Text Available A propagação do mamoeiro Carica papaya L. é realizada por meio de mudas oriundas das sementes. Apesar da importância da semente do mamoeiro para a formação dos pomares comerciais, estudos morfológicos e anatômicos neste sentido são raros. O presente trabalho descreve aspectos morfológicos e anatômicos das estruturas que constituem as sementes de dois genótipos do mamoeiro, Sunrise Solo 783 e Formosa Roxo 45. Sunrise Solo 783 e Formosa Roxo 45 pertencem aos dois grandes grupos 'Solo' e 'Formosa' respectivamente. Os referidos genótipos foram oriundos do banco de germoplasma da Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (UENF) em parceria com Empresa Caliman Agrícola S.A. A pesquisa foi conduzida no Laboratório de Microscopia Eletrônica da Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), Lavras, MG.Para a caracterização morfológica procedeu-se a dissecação e observação das estruturas utilizando bisturi, pinças e sexploradora sob microscópio estereoscópio. Para a caracterização anatômica utilizou-se a microscopia eletrônica de varredura. As amostras foram preparadas de acordo com a metodologia de rotina do Laboratório de Microscopia Eletrônica da UFLA e observadas a alto vácuo em diversos aumentos no microscópio Leo Evo 40, à distância de trabalho de 10 mm. As medições foram realizadas usando-se o Software Leo User Interface (versão Leo 3.2). Os estudos morfológicos permitiram identificar as estruturas que compõem a semente do mamoeiro e os estudos anatômicos permitiram observar a existência de diferenças estruturais e dimensionais entre as células dos dois genótipos estudados.The papaya (Carica papaya L.) propagation is made by seedlings produced from true seeds. Although the use of seeds in the implementation of commercial papaya orchards is well documented in literature, studies on the anatomy and morphology of these structures are in small number. In present work morphological and anatomical aspects of the seeds from two papaya genotypes Sunrise Solo 783 and Formosa Roxo 45,belonging to two grand groups ´Solo` and ´Formosa` are described. These genotypes were obtained of Gemoplasm Bank of the Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (UENF) in cooperation with the company Caliman Agricola S.A. The work was carried out at the Eletronic Microscopy and Ultra-strutural Analisys Laboratory of the Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA). To make the morphological characterization, the seeds were dissected carefully by hand and observed in the stereomicroscope. For the anatomic studies, seeds were prepared according to the routine protocol of the LME and observed in scanning electronic microscope Leo Evo 40, at work distance of 10 mm under high vacuum conditions. Measurements were made using the Software Leo User Interface (Version Leo 3.2). The results of the morphological studies provide adequate conditions to observe the different structures of the papaya seeds and from anatomic studies it was possible to verify structural and dimensional differences among the cells of the two genotypes under investigation.

Sônia Aparecida dos Santos; Roberto Ferreira da Silva; Messias Gonzaga Pereira; Eduardo Alves; José da Cruz Machado; Flávio Meira Borém; Renato Mendes Guimarães; Elizabeth Rosemeire Marques

2009-01-01

348

Estudos morfo-anatômicos de sementes de dois genótipos de mamão(Carica papaya L.)/ Morphological and anatomical studies of seeds of two genotypes of papaya Carica papaya L.  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A propagação do mamoeiro Carica papaya L. é realizada por meio de mudas oriundas das sementes. Apesar da importância da semente do mamoeiro para a formação dos pomares comerciais, estudos morfológicos e anatômicos neste sentido são raros. O presente trabalho descreve aspectos morfológicos e anatômicos das estruturas que constituem as sementes de dois genótipos do mamoeiro, Sunrise Solo 783 e Formosa Roxo 45. Sunrise Solo 783 e Formosa Roxo 45 pertencem aos doi (more) s grandes grupos 'Solo' e 'Formosa' respectivamente. Os referidos genótipos foram oriundos do banco de germoplasma da Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (UENF) em parceria com Empresa Caliman Agrícola S.A. A pesquisa foi conduzida no Laboratório de Microscopia Eletrônica da Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), Lavras, MG.Para a caracterização morfológica procedeu-se a dissecação e observação das estruturas utilizando bisturi, pinças e sexploradora sob microscópio estereoscópio. Para a caracterização anatômica utilizou-se a microscopia eletrônica de varredura. As amostras foram preparadas de acordo com a metodologia de rotina do Laboratório de Microscopia Eletrônica da UFLA e observadas a alto vácuo em diversos aumentos no microscópio Leo Evo 40, à distância de trabalho de 10 mm. As medições foram realizadas usando-se o Software Leo User Interface (versão Leo 3.2). Os estudos morfológicos permitiram identificar as estruturas que compõem a semente do mamoeiro e os estudos anatômicos permitiram observar a existência de diferenças estruturais e dimensionais entre as células dos dois genótipos estudados. Abstract in english The papaya (Carica papaya L.) propagation is made by seedlings produced from true seeds. Although the use of seeds in the implementation of commercial papaya orchards is well documented in literature, studies on the anatomy and morphology of these structures are in small number. In present work morphological and anatomical aspects of the seeds from two papaya genotypes Sunrise Solo 783 and Formosa Roxo 45,belonging to two grand groups ´Solo` and ´Formosa` are described. (more) These genotypes were obtained of Gemoplasm Bank of the Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (UENF) in cooperation with the company Caliman Agricola S.A. The work was carried out at the Eletronic Microscopy and Ultra-strutural Analisys Laboratory of the Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA). To make the morphological characterization, the seeds were dissected carefully by hand and observed in the stereomicroscope. For the anatomic studies, seeds were prepared according to the routine protocol of the LME and observed in scanning electronic microscope Leo Evo 40, at work distance of 10 mm under high vacuum conditions. Measurements were made using the Software Leo User Interface (Version Leo 3.2). The results of the morphological studies provide adequate conditions to observe the different structures of the papaya seeds and from anatomic studies it was possible to verify structural and dimensional differences among the cells of the two genotypes under investigation.

Santos, Sônia Aparecida dos; Silva, Roberto Ferreira da; Pereira, Messias Gonzaga; Alves, Eduardo; Machado, José da Cruz; Borém, Flávio Meira; Guimarães, Renato Mendes; Marques, Elizabeth Rosemeire

2009-01-01

349

Metabolismo de carboidratos durante o amadurecimento do mamão (Carica papaya L. Cv. Solo): influência da radiação gama/ Influence of gamma radiation on carbohydrates metabolism of ripening papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Solo)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A irradiação de alimentos é um tratamento pós-colheita bastante promissor, capaz de atuar tanto na desinfestação como no aumento da vida útil de frutos. O mamão é um fruto com curta vida pós-colheita, levando de 6 a 12 dias para atingir a senescência. Além disto, a infestação por larvas de mosca diminui sensivelmente o seu potencial de exportação. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a ação de uma dose de 0,5 kGy de irradiação gama, normalmente util (more) izada para desinfestação e aumento de vida útil dos frutos, sobre o comportamento dos carboidratos solúveis durante o amadurecimento do mamão (Carica papaya L. cv. Solo), e sobre as enzimas relacionadas ao metabolismo da sacarose: sacarose sintase (SS), sacarose-fosfato sintase (SPS) e invertases ácida e neutra. Os resultados demonstraram que a irradiação não exerce efeito sobre o teor de glicose e frutose, ou sobre a respiração e atividade da SS. Entretanto, a composição dos açúcares solúveis totais e da sacarose, e a atividade da SPS e das invertases foram afetados. Abstract in english Food irradiation is one of the most promising treatments that can be utilized for fruits desinfestation and extension of shelf life. The authors studied the influence of 0,5 kGy of Gamma irradiation on the soluble carbohydrates composition of papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Solo) fruit, and on sucrose metabolizing enzymes: sucrose synthase (SS), sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS), acid and neutral invertases activities, during ripening. The results demonstred that ethylene pro (more) duction, total soluble sugars, sucrose content, and sucrose-phosphate synthase and invertases activities were affected by irradiation, but not respiration, glucose and fructose content, and SS activity.

GOMEZ, M. L. P. A.; LAJOLO, F. M.; CORDENUNSI, B. R.

1999-05-01

350

Metabolismo de carboidratos durante o amadurecimento do mamão (Carica papaya L. Cv. Solo): influência da radiação gama Influence of gamma radiation on carbohydrates metabolism of ripening papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Solo)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A irradiação de alimentos é um tratamento pós-colheita bastante promissor, capaz de atuar tanto na desinfestação como no aumento da vida útil de frutos. O mamão é um fruto com curta vida pós-colheita, levando de 6 a 12 dias para atingir a senescência. Além disto, a infestação por larvas de mosca diminui sensivelmente o seu potencial de exportação. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a ação de uma dose de 0,5 kGy de irradiação gama, normalmente utilizada para desinfestação e aumento de vida útil dos frutos, sobre o comportamento dos carboidratos solúveis durante o amadurecimento do mamão (Carica papaya L. cv. Solo), e sobre as enzimas relacionadas ao metabolismo da sacarose: sacarose sintase (SS), sacarose-fosfato sintase (SPS) e invertases ácida e neutra. Os resultados demonstraram que a irradiação não exerce efeito sobre o teor de glicose e frutose, ou sobre a respiração e atividade da SS. Entretanto, a composição dos açúcares solúveis totais e da sacarose, e a atividade da SPS e das invertases foram afetados.Food irradiation is one of the most promising treatments that can be utilized for fruits desinfestation and extension of shelf life. The authors studied the influence of 0,5 kGy of Gamma irradiation on the soluble carbohydrates composition of papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Solo) fruit, and on sucrose metabolizing enzymes: sucrose synthase (SS), sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS), acid and neutral invertases activities, during ripening. The results demonstred that ethylene production, total soluble sugars, sucrose content, and sucrose-phosphate synthase and invertases activities were affected by irradiation, but not respiration, glucose and fructose content, and SS activity.

M. L. P. A. GOMEZ; F. M. LAJOLO; B. R. CORDENUNSI

1999-01-01

351

Revista Chilena de Cirugía: índice de publicación según procedencia de los artículos Summ affiliation of authors publishing in Revista Chilena de Cirugía  

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Full Text Available Introducción: Una de las variables que se analiza en los estudios bibliométricos es la procedencia de las publicaciones. Este tipo de análisis ha permitido cuantificar el impacto que tienen las distintas universidades o centros hospitalarios en el total de publicaciones de una revista en particular. El objetivo de este estudio es determinar una eventual asociación entre el índice de publicación y la procedencia de los artículos publicados en la Revista Chilena de Cirugía (Rev Chil Cir). Material y método: Estudio biblio-métrico. Se analizaron todos los artículos publicados en la Rev Chil Cir entre los años 2002 y 2006. Los artículos se categorizaron de acuerdo al año de publicación, el tipo de artículo, región del país que originó el artículo y la filiación universitaria manifestada en cada artículo. Se calculó la tasa de publicación, el promedio anual y general de publicación, y la tasa de publicación anual promedio (TPAP). Posteriormente, se aplicó estadística analítica para determinar diferencias entre grupos, utilizando T de Student, ANOVA y prueba de comparaciones múltiples de Duncan. Resultados: En el periodo estudiado, se publicaron 545 artículos científicos, con un promedio de 18,2 artículos por número y 109 artículos por volumen. El 67,9 % fue generado por la Región Metropolitana (RM), el 10,8 % por la VIII región y el 7,8 % por la IX región. Solo en un 64,8 % de las publicaciones queda de manifiesto alguna filiación universitaria. Las mayores TPAP correspondieron a los Capítulos IX y VIII Región con 2,3 + 0,8 y 1,8 + 0,2 publicaciones/año x 10 miembros (p Background: The analysis of author affiliation of published manuscripts allows an assessment of the impact that different universities or hospitals have on a determinate journal. Aim: To analyze author affiliation of manuscripts published in Revista Chilena de Cirugía. Material and methods: All manuscripts published in the journal between 2002 and 2006, were analyzed. The affiliation of authors, the year of publication and the region of Chile in which the manuscript was generated, were recorded. The publication rate, annual average were calculated. The association of authors to specific regional subsidiaries of the Chilean Society of Surgeons was also recorded and the average annual publication rates per regional subsidiary, were calculated. Resu/fs; During the study period 545 manuscripts were published, with a mean of 18 manuscripts per issue and 109 per volume. Sixty eight percent of manuscripts came from the metropolitan region, 11 % from the eight region and 8 % from the ninth region. In only 65 % of manuscripts, authors had an university affiliation. The higher average annual publication rates were observed in the subsidiaries of the eighth and ninth region, with 2.3 + 0.8 and 1.8 + 0.2 publications per year per 10 members, respectively. Conclusions: An important proportion of manuscripts have authors without university affiliation. The higher average annual publication rates come from regional subsidiaries of the Chilean Society of Surgeons

MANUEL VIAL G; CARLOS MANTEROLA D; VIVIANA PINEDA N

2008-01-01

352

Promover la salud mental con mujeres chilenas en desventaja social/ Promoting mental health in socially disadvantaged chilean women/ Promover a saúde mental com mulheres chilenas em desvantagem social  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Descreve-se uma experiência do projeto chileno-canadense, intitulado "Promover a saúde mental de mulheres chilenas em desvantagem social: os Segredos de Maruja". Apresentam-se os objetivos, as etapas das intervenções e as avaliações preliminares. Com a participação das mulheres usuárias dos Centros de Saúde, profissionais de saúde e autoridades da comunidade de La Pintana, foi construído, aplicado e avaliado um projeto de intervenção para apoiar as mulheres (more) na tomada de decisões que favorecessem sua saúde mental, pessoal, familiar e social. A intervenção contemplou o desenho, a produção, a distribuição e a avaliação de 12 cartilhas educativas tipo calendários, cada uma referente a três temas de saúde mental considerado importante pelas mesmas mulheres: identidade e auto-estima; vínculos e comunicação; e autocuidado. Cada cartilha tem um teste de autodiagnóstico e endereços dos recursos sociais comunitários. Ademais, comprometeu as enfermeiras que trabalham nos Centros de Saúde que incorporaram esta estratégia no seu atendimento habitual e avaliaram seu impacto tanto na sua identidade e autonomia profissional quanto na melhoria da qualidade do cuidado brindado às mulheres. Abstract in spanish Se descrive una parte de la experiencia del proyecto Chileno/Canadiense: "Promover la salud mental de las mujeres chilenas en desventaja social: Los Secretos de Maruja". Se describen los objetivos, las etapas del proceso, de intervención y los resultados de las evaluaciones preliminares. Con la participación de las mujeres usuárias de los centros de salud, profesionales y autoridades de la comuna de La Pintana, se construyó, aplicó y evaluó un proyecto de intervenci (more) ón para apoyar a las mujeres en la toma de decisiones que favorezcan su salud mental personal, familiar y social. La intervención contempló el diseño, producción, distribución y evaluación de 12 folletos educativos tipo calendarios, cada uno respecto a tres temas de salud mental identificados por las mismas mujeres: Identidad y autoestima, Vínculo y Comunicación y Autocuidado. Además se involucró a las enfermeras que trabajan en los Centros de Salud, quienes incorporaron esta estrategia a la atención de salud habitual y evaluaron su impacto en la identidad, autonomía profesional y en la mejoría de la calidad del cuidado. Abstract in english This paper describes a Chilean/Canadian intervention project about Mental Health Promotion with socially disadvantaged women called "Maruja's secrets". We present their objectives, each stage of the intervention process and preliminary evaluations. With the participation of women of the community, health professionals and authorities of health members of La Pintana, we conceive, develop and evaluate an intervention to support and coach women in decision making to improve (more) their personnel and social mental health. The intervention process include design, engaged community nurses, distribution and evaluation of 12 educative color calendars, each one with 14 messages about mental health issues, that were discovered in focus groups with the same women: Identity and self- esteem; communication and selfcare. Each calendar has 14 messages, a self-diagnosis test and addresses of community social resources. Community nurses were involved in the distribution and they evaluate their experience as a way of strengthening nursing identity and the quality of nursing care.

Rivera, M Soledad; Campos, M Sylvia; Campos, Solange; Lange, Ilta; Urrutia, Mila; Castellano, Angela

2004-12-01

353

Sujetos en la Política Educacional Chilena de Transversalidad Psychological Subjects in the Cross-Curricula Chilean Educational Policy  

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Full Text Available Se plantea que existen diferentes concepciones implícitas de sujeto psicológico, en la visión de alumno presente en la política educacional chilena de educación transversal. El análisis es realizado desde el supuesto de que en el lenguaje contemporáneo relativo a la identidad personal se reflejan visiones opuestas acerca de la persona. Específicamente se analizan los Objetivos Fundamentales Transversales (oft), de la Reforma Educacional chilena. Finalmente, se argumenta que esta coexistencia de visiones podría explicar, en parte, las dificultades de la implementación de la transversalidad en la educación chilena, además de postular que el desafío por lograr articular los aprendizajes valóricos en la escuela debe ser contextualizado en una sociedad en que están presentes diferentes concepciones de sujeto psicológico y moral.It is stated that there are different implicit conceptions of the psychological subject in the way students are considered by the cross-curricula educational Chilean policy. The fundamental assumption which leads the analysis is that opposite cosmo visions about the person are reflected in the current language related with the personal identity. Particularly the Cross-curricula Fundamental Objectives of the Chilean Educational Reform are analyzed. Furthermore, it is argued that this co-existence of visions could somehow explain the difficulties on the implementation of the cross-curricula fundamental objectives in Chilean education. Finally, it is proposed that the challenge for succeeding in the articulation of values education learning at school, should be contextualized in a society where different conceptions of psychological and moral subjects are present.

Pablo Castro

2006-01-01

354

Sex and aggregation pheromone transport after methyl eugenol consumption in male Bactrocera papayae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Amongst at least 52 sibling species complexes in the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae), B. papayae (formerly Mal B) Drew and Hancock (Drew and Hancock 1994) is beginning to emerge as an economically important insect pest which poses a severe threat to the fruit cultivation in both subtropical and tropical countries. In Malaysia, B. papayae is one of the most damaging pests which infests many commercially grown fruits (Tan and Lee 1982). Like the Oriental fruit fly and its sibling species complex, B. carambolae Drew and Hancock, B. papayae is also strongly attracted to, and compulsively feeds on, methyl eugenol (ME) (Tan 1993). Chemical analyses revealed that in B. papayae males, ME is converted to phenylpropanoids which are then selectively accumulated in the rectal gland. Of the three major volatile substances, 2-allyl-4,5-dimethoyphenol (allyl-DMP) was detected in higher quantities relative to the trans-coniferyl alcohol (4-(3-hydroxy-E-propenyl)-2-methoxyphenol) (CF) and cis-3,4-dimethoxycinnamyl alcohol (cis-DMC) (Nishida et al. 1988a, 1988b). Behavioural studies have also shown that allyl-DMP and CF function as male sex and aggregation pheromone in B. papayae (Tan and Nishida 1996, Hee and Tan 1998). Allyl-DMP was found to be the most attractive compound and cis-DMC the least attractive to the males (Tan 1996). Consumption of ME enhances the mating competitiveness of males. This is demonstrated by the strong attraction of females to conspecific ME-fed males in wind tunnel experiments (Hee and Tan 1998). In male-male mating competition for virgin females, males that fed on ME performed significantly better (Shelly and Dewire 1994, Tan and Nishida 1996). Thus it appears that ME-fed males produced signals that were more attractive. However, the characterisation and understanding of the functions of these phenylpropanoids have not been accompanied by studies of their physiological mode of transport in male flies. The current paper describes the sex and aggregation pheromone transport after methyl eugenol consumption in male B. papayae. Here, we investigate the presence of the pheromones and their precursor ME in the male digestive and circulatory system

1998-06-02

355

Asymmetric purine-pyrimidine distribution in cellular small RNA population of papaya  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The small RNAs (sRNA) are a regulatory class of RNA mainly represented by the 21 and 24-nucleotide size classes. The cellular sRNAs are processed by RNase III family enzyme dicer (Dicer like in plant) from a self-complementary hairpin loop or other type of RNA duplexes. The papaya genome has been sequenced, but its microRNAs and other regulatory RNAs are yet to be analyzed. Results We analyzed the genomic features of the papaya sRNA population from three sRNA deep sequencing libraries made from leaves, flowers, and leaves infected with Papaya Ringspot Virus (PRSV). We also used the deep sequencing data to annotate the micro RNA (miRNA) in papaya. We identified 60 miRNAs, 24 of which were conserved in other species, and 36 of which were novel miRNAs specific to papaya. In contrast to the Chargaff’s purine-pyrimidine equilibrium, cellular sRNA was significantly biased towards a purine rich population. Of the two purine bases, higher frequency of adenine was present in 23nt or longer sRNAs, while 22nt or shorter sRNAs were over represented by guanine bases. However, this bias was not observed in the annotated miRNAs in plants. The 21nt species were expressed from fewer loci but expressed at higher levels relative to the 24nt species. The highly expressed 21nt species were clustered in a few isolated locations of the genome. The PRSV infected leaves showed higher accumulation of 21 and 22nt sRNA compared to uninfected leaves. We observed higher accumulation of miRNA* of seven annotated miRNAs in virus-infected tissue, indicating the potential function of miRNA* under stressed conditions. Conclusions We have identified 60 miRNAs in papaya. Our study revealed the asymmetric purine-pyrimidine distribution in cellular sRNA population. The 21nt species of sRNAs have higher expression levels than 24nt sRNA. The miRNA* of some miRNAs shows higher accumulation in PRSV infected tissues, suggesting that these strands are not totally functionally redundant. The findings open a new avenue for further investigation of the sRNA silencing pathway in plants.

Aryal Rishi; Yang Xiaozeng; Yu Qingyi; Sunkar Ramanjulu; Li Lei; Ming Ray

2012-01-01

356

Asymmetric purine-pyrimidine distribution in cellular small RNA population of papaya.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The small RNAs (sRNA) are a regulatory class of RNA mainly represented by the 21 and 24-nucleotide size classes. The cellular sRNAs are processed by RNase III family enzyme dicer (Dicer like in plant) from a self-complementary hairpin loop or other type of RNA duplexes. The papaya genome has been sequenced, but its microRNAs and other regulatory RNAs are yet to be analyzed. RESULTS: We analyzed the genomic features of the papaya sRNA population from three sRNA deep sequencing libraries made from leaves, flowers, and leaves infected with Papaya Ringspot Virus (PRSV). We also used the deep sequencing data to annotate the micro RNA (miRNA) in papaya. We identified 60 miRNAs, 24 of which were conserved in other species, and 36 of which were novel miRNAs specific to papaya. In contrast to the Chargaff's purine-pyrimidine equilibrium, cellular sRNA was significantly biased towards a purine rich population. Of the two purine bases, higher frequency of adenine was present in 23nt or longer sRNAs, while 22nt or shorter sRNAs were over represented by guanine bases. However, this bias was not observed in the annotated miRNAs in plants. The 21nt species were expressed from fewer loci but expressed at higher levels relative to the 24nt species. The highly expressed 21nt species were clustered in a few isolated locations of the genome. The PRSV infected leaves showed higher accumulation of 21 and 22nt sRNA compared to uninfected leaves. We observed higher accumulation of miRNA* of seven annotated miRNAs in virus-infected tissue, indicating the potential function of miRNA* under stressed conditions. CONCLUSIONS: We have identified 60 miRNAs in papaya. Our study revealed the asymmetric purine-pyrimidine distribution in cellular sRNA population. The 21nt species of sRNAs have higher expression levels than 24nt sRNA. The miRNA* of some miRNAs shows higher accumulation in PRSV infected tissues, suggesting that these strands are not totally functionally redundant. The findings open a new avenue for further investigation of the sRNA silencing pathway in plants.

Aryal R; Yang X; Yu Q; Sunkar R; Li L; Ming R

2012-01-01

357

Fate of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. on fresh and frozen cut mangoes and papayas.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella infections have been associated with consumption of a number of fruits and vegetables. Although the fate of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella on many of these products is well studied, little is known about their behavior on cut mango and papaya. Mangoes and papayas have been associated with four and two documented outbreaks of salmonellosis, respectively. The objective of this study was to evaluate the fate of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella on fresh (4 degrees C, 12 degrees C and 23 degrees C) and frozen (-20 degrees C) cut mangoes and papayas. Cut mangoes and papayas were spot inoculated with either a four-strain or five-strain cocktail of E. coli O157:H7 or Salmonella, respectively. Inoculated samples were air dried, placed in containers and stored at 4+/-2, 12+/-2, 23+/-2 and -20+/-2 degrees C. Samples were enumerated following stomaching on nonselective and selective media at days 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, 21 and 28 (4+/-2 and 12+/-2 degrees C); 0, 1, 3, 5 and 7 (23+/-2 degrees C); and 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 (-20+/-2 degrees C). Population levels (log CFU/g) of fruit were calculated. E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella have the potential to grow on temperature-abused fresh cut mangoes and papayas held at 23 degrees C. At 12 degrees C, Salmonella populations can grow on cut mangoes and papayas, however E. coli O157:H7 populations only grew on papayas. E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella survived for 28 days, at 4 degrees C, on refrigerated mangoes and papayas. E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella can survive on frozen cut mangoes and papayas for at least 180 days. Fresh and frozen cut mangoes and papayas are potential vectors for E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella transmission.

Strawn LK; Danyluk MD

2010-03-01

358

A microsatellite library for Carica papaya L. cv. Sunrise solo Marcadores microssatélites para Carica papaya L. cv. Sunrise solo  

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Full Text Available In experimental areas of the Education and Researches Ilha Solteira and Jaboticabal UNESP/Campus farms were selected and tagged 20 hermaphrodite plants and 20 feminine of cultivar Sunrise Solo, Improved Sunrise Solo cv.72/12 and Baixinho of Santa Amália.The seeds origined of the selected fruits were cropped to be analysed the self-pollination efficiency and frequency of the sex in the progenies. After that, samples of the young leaf of the matrix plants were colected for the extration of the DNA. It was built five library enriched of microsatellite sequencies, using probes (TCA)10, (TC)13, (GATA)4, (CAC)10 e (TGAG)8.It was possible the development of the primers only in the library that has utilized the probe (TCA)10. This probe allowed the design of 32 primer pairs. From these, 31 presented pattern of unique band in agarose Metaphor and in acrilamide. For primer S36 were observed 2 bands, but with no polymorphism to differentiation in the sexual form at papaya tree culture. However, these primers can be tested, in the futures, in the investigation of the others features in segregated populations of this specie and the related species, germoplasm analysis, cultivars identification, parent evolution and molecular markers for the assisted plant breeding programs.Em áreas experimentais das Fazendas de Ensino e Pesquisa da UNESP/Campus de Ilha Solteira e Jaboticabal foram selecionadas e marcadas 20 plantas hermafroditas e 20 femininas dos cultivares Sunrise Solo, Improved Sunrise Solo cv.72/12 e Baixinho de Santa Amália. As sementes provenientes dos frutos selecionados foram plantadas para analisar-se a eficiência da autofecundação e a freqüência dos sexos nas progênies. Posteriormente, amostras de tecido foliar jovem das plantas matrizes foram coletadas para a extração de DNA. Foram construídas cinco bibliotecas enriquecidas de seqüências microsatélites, utilizando-se as sondas (TCA)10, (TC)13, (GATA)4, (CAC)10 e (TGAG)8. Foi possível o desenvolvimento de primers somente com a biblioteca que utilizou a sonda (TCA)10 . Esta permitiu o desenho de 32 pares de primers. Destes, 31 apresentaram padrão de banda única em agarose Metaphor e em acrilamida. Para o primer S36 foram observadas 2 bandas, mas sem polimorfismo para diferenciação da forma sexual na cultura do mamoeiro. No entanto, estes primers poderão ser testados na investigação de outras características em populações segregantes desta espécie e de espécies afins, análises de germoplasma, identificação de cultivares, evolução parental e marcas em melhoramento assistido.

Silvia Correa Santos; Carlos Ruggiero; Cristina Lacerda Soares Petrarolha Silva; Eliana Gertrudes Macedo Lemos

2003-01-01

359

A microsatellite library for Carica papaya L. cv. Sunrise solo/ Marcadores microssatélites para Carica papaya L. cv. Sunrise solo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Em áreas experimentais das Fazendas de Ensino e Pesquisa da UNESP/Campus de Ilha Solteira e Jaboticabal foram selecionadas e marcadas 20 plantas hermafroditas e 20 femininas dos cultivares Sunrise Solo, Improved Sunrise Solo cv.72/12 e Baixinho de Santa Amália. As sementes provenientes dos frutos selecionados foram plantadas para analisar-se a eficiência da autofecundação e a freqüência dos sexos nas progênies. Posteriormente, amostras de tecido foliar jovem das p (more) lantas matrizes foram coletadas para a extração de DNA. Foram construídas cinco bibliotecas enriquecidas de seqüências microsatélites, utilizando-se as sondas (TCA)10, (TC)13, (GATA)4, (CAC)10 e (TGAG)8. Foi possível o desenvolvimento de primers somente com a biblioteca que utilizou a sonda (TCA)10 . Esta permitiu o desenho de 32 pares de primers. Destes, 31 apresentaram padrão de banda única em agarose Metaphor e em acrilamida. Para o primer S36 foram observadas 2 bandas, mas sem polimorfismo para diferenciação da forma sexual na cultura do mamoeiro. No entanto, estes primers poderão ser testados na investigação de outras características em populações segregantes desta espécie e de espécies afins, análises de germoplasma, identificação de cultivares, evolução parental e marcas em melhoramento assistido. Abstract in english In experimental areas of the Education and Researches Ilha Solteira and Jaboticabal UNESP/Campus farms were selected and tagged 20 hermaphrodite plants and 20 feminine of cultivar Sunrise Solo, Improved Sunrise Solo cv.72/12 and Baixinho of Santa Amália.The seeds origined of the selected fruits were cropped to be analysed the self-pollination efficiency and frequency of the sex in the progenies. After that, samples of the young leaf of the matrix plants were colected for (more) the extration of the DNA. It was built five library enriched of microsatellite sequencies, using probes (TCA)10, (TC)13, (GATA)4, (CAC)10 e (TGAG)8.It was possible the development of the primers only in the library that has utilized the probe (TCA)10. This probe allowed the design of 32 primer pairs. From these, 31 presented pattern of unique band in agarose Metaphor and in acrilamide. For primer S36 were observed 2 bands, but with no polymorphism to differentiation in the sexual form at papaya tree culture. However, these primers can be tested, in the futures, in the investigation of the others features in segregated populations of this specie and the related species, germoplasm analysis, cultivars identification, parent evolution and molecular markers for the assisted plant breeding programs.

Santos, Silvia Correa; Ruggiero, Carlos; Silva, Cristina Lacerda Soares Petrarolha; Lemos, Eliana Gertrudes Macedo

2003-08-01

360

Control de dos especies de Colletotrichum causantes de antracnosis en frutos de papaya Maradol Control of two species of Colletotrichum causing anthracnose in Maradol papaya fruits  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La antracnosis es una limitante de la vida útil de los frutos de papaya, es causada principalmente por Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, aunque es posible encontrar otras especies de Colletotrichum causando enfermedades en un mismo cultivo. Para el control de la antracnosis en Yucatán se recomiendan varios fungicidas, pero no todos están permitidos por la agencia de protección al ambiente (EPA) de los Estados Unidos de América, principal país al cual se exporta la papaya yucateca. El presente estudio tuvo como objetivos identificar el agente causal de la antracnosis de papaya en Yucatán, evaluar el efecto de fungicidas que cuentan con registro de EPA sobre las especies que causan antracnosis y explorar el efecto de inductores a resistencia en el control de esta enfermedad. Durante marzo y mayo de 2006 se obtuvieron nueve aislamientos de Colletotrichum en frutos de tres regiones productoras de Yucatán, los cuales se identificaron mediante claves taxonómicas. La evaluación de los productos se hizo mediante bioensayos de sensibilidad in vitro y la efectividad en frutos inoculados, posteriormente en agosto de 2007, noviembre de 2007 y febrero de 2008, se evaluó el efecto de la aplicación poscosecha de los fungicidas e inductores de resistencia sobre la antracnosis en frutos infectados naturalmente desde campo. En las tres localidades se encontraron dos especies que causan antracnosis identificadas como C. gloeosporioides y C. dematium. En condiciones in vitro el desarrollo de C. gloeosporioides fue inhibido por prochloraz, ferbam, azoxystrobin, tryfloxystrobin y clorotalonil; el desarrollo de C. dematium fue inhibido sólo por prochloraz, ferbam y clorotalonil. En frutos inoculados prochloraz tuvo 100% de efectividad para las dos especies, mientras que azoxystrobin tuvo 87.5% de efectividad para C. gloeosporioides y 3.3% para C. dematium.Anthracnose is a limitation of papaya fruits' life, mainly caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, although it is possible to find other Colletotrichum species causing diseases in the same crop. In order to control anthracnose in Yucatán, several fungicides are recommended, but not all of them are allowed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of the United States, the main country to which Yucatan's papaya is exported. This study aimed to identify the causal agent of anthracnose of papaya in Yucatan, to evaluate the effect of fungicides that have EPA registration on species that cause anthracnose and to explore the effect of resistance inducers in controlling this disease. During March and May 2006, nine isolates of Colletotrichum were obtained from fruits of three producing regions of Yucatán, which were identifed using taxonomic keys. The product evaluation was done by sensitivity in vitro bioassays and the effectiveness in inoculated fruits, ensuing in August 2007, November 2007 and February 2008, the effect of postharvest application of fungicides and resistance inducers on anthracnose on naturally infected fruits from the field were evaluated. In the three sites, two species that cause anthracnose were found and identified as C. gloeosporioides and C. dematium. Under in vitro conditions, C. gloeosporioides development was inhibited by prochloraz, ferbam, azoxystrobin, tryfloxystrobin and chlorothalonil; C. dematium development was inhibited only by prochloraz, ferbam and chlorothalonil. In inoculated fruits, prochloraz was 100% effective for both species, while azoxystrobin was 87.5% effective in C. gloeosporioides and 3.3% in C. dematium.

Felipe Santamaría Basulto; Raúl Díaz Plaza; Omar Gutiérrez Alonso; Jorge Santamaría Fernández; Alfonso Larqué Saavedra

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Characterization of the exogenous insert and development of event-specific PCR detection methods for genetically modified Huanong No. 1 papaya.  

Science.gov (United States)

Genetically modified (GM) papaya (Carica papaya L.), Huanong No. 1, was approved for commercialization in Guangdong province, China in 2006, and the development of the Huanong No. 1 papaya detection method is necessary for implementing genetically modified organism (GMO) labeling regulations. In this study, we reported the characterization of the exogenous integration of GM Huanong No. 1 papaya by means of conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and thermal asymmetric interlaced (TAIL)-PCR strategies. The results suggested that one intact copy of the initial construction was integrated in the papaya genome and which probably resulted in one deletion (38 bp in size) of the host genomic DNA. Also, one unintended insertion of a 92 bp truncated NptII fragment was observed at the 5' end of the exogenous insert. Furthermore, we revealed its 5' and 3' flanking sequences between the insert DNA and the papaya genomic DNA, and developed the event-specific qualitative and quantitative PCR assays for GM Huanong No. 1 papaya based on the 5' integration flanking sequence. The relative limit of detection (LOD) of the qualitative PCR assay was about 0.01% in 100 ng of total papaya genomic DNA, corresponding to about 25 copies of papaya haploid genome. In the quantitative PCR, the limits of detection and quantification (LOD and LOQ) were as low as 12.5 and 25 copies of papaya haploid genome, respectively. In practical sample quantification, the quantified biases between the test and true values of three samples ranged from 0.44% to 4.41%. Collectively, we proposed that all of these results are useful for the identification and quantification of Huanong No. 1 papaya and its derivates. PMID:19645503

Guo, Jinchao; Yang, Litao; Liu, Xin; Guan, Xiaoyan; Jiang, Lingxi; Zhang, Dabing

2009-08-26

362

Characterization of the exogenous insert and development of event-specific PCR detection methods for genetically modified Huanong No. 1 papaya.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Genetically modified (GM) papaya (Carica papaya L.), Huanong No. 1, was approved for commercialization in Guangdong province, China in 2006, and the development of the Huanong No. 1 papaya detection method is necessary for implementing genetically modified organism (GMO) labeling regulations. In this study, we reported the characterization of the exogenous integration of GM Huanong No. 1 papaya by means of conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and thermal asymmetric interlaced (TAIL)-PCR strategies. The results suggested that one intact copy of the initial construction was integrated in the papaya genome and which probably resulted in one deletion (38 bp in size) of the host genomic DNA. Also, one unintended insertion of a 92 bp truncated NptII fragment was observed at the 5' end of the exogenous insert. Furthermore, we revealed its 5' and 3' flanking sequences between the insert DNA and the papaya genomic DNA, and developed the event-specific qualitative and quantitative PCR assays for GM Huanong No. 1 papaya based on the 5' integration flanking sequence. The relative limit of detection (LOD) of the qualitative PCR assay was about 0.01% in 100 ng of total papaya genomic DNA, corresponding to about 25 copies of papaya haploid genome. In the quantitative PCR, the limits of detection and quantification (LOD and LOQ) were as low as 12.5 and 25 copies of papaya haploid genome, respectively. In practical sample quantification, the quantified biases between the test and true values of three samples ranged from 0.44% to 4.41%. Collectively, we proposed that all of these results are useful for the identification and quantification of Huanong No. 1 papaya and its derivates.

Guo J; Yang L; Liu X; Guan X; Jiang L; Zhang D

2009-08-01

363

La solidez de la economía chilena a la luz de las reformas estructurales: 1970-1997  

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Full Text Available RESUMEN: En el presente artículo se recogen las principales reformas estructurales que han tenido lugar en Chile desde 1970 y que constituyen la base de la solidez actual de dicha economía latinoamericana. Se propone una división en períodos en la que se distingue la época del gobierno de la Unidad Popular, el gobierno de la Junta Militar y la transición a la democracia para evaluar los resultados económicos que se registraron a la luz de las distintas estrategias de desarrollo. Las principales reformas que se dieron en el periodo 1970-1973 bajo la "vía chilena hacia el socialismo" fueron la creación del Área de Propiedad social, la profundización de la Reforma Agraria y la nacionalización de la Gran Minería Durante el monetarismo ortodoxo (1974-1982) destacan como principales reformas la liberalización y desregulación de los mercados, la l a ronda de privatizaciones, la apertura comercial, la liberalización financiera y las "siete modernizaciones", todas ellas respaldadas por la ortodoxia de la denominada Escuela de Chicago. Tras la profunda crisis de 1982 que afectó a todo el continente latinoamericano fue necesario replantear el modelo y se introdujeron distintas medidas de carácter neoliberal que consiguieron que fuera posible aprovechar los beneficios de las reformas realizadas con anterioridad. La transición a la democracia constituye un reto para la sociedad chilena, en tanto que contando con las bases de una economía sólida deben incorporarse la visión social y política para que el crecimiento se convierta en desarrollo. En este sentido toma importancia la última estrategia de la CEPAL de "Transformación productiva con equidad".ABSTRACT: In this paper, the main structural reforms are searched, which happened between 1970 and 1995. These are the base of the actual economic framework. The different considered periods are: the "Unidad Popular" government, the military government and the democratic transition. Finally, we must evaluate the economic results that are dependent of the implementation of the reforms and of the different development strategies. The main reforms that occurred in 1970-1973 with the "vía chilena hacia el socialismo" were: The creation of "area de propiedad social" —social property area-, the agrarian reform and the nationalisation of the most important mining companies. In the orthodox monetarism (1974-1982), the liheralisation and deregulation of the markets, the 1" Stage/Round of privatisation, the trade and the financial liberation and the seven modernizations were the most outstanding reforms, which were supported by the Chicago School. The heavy crisis which affected Latin- American countries and also Chile, caused the reforms of monetarism made possible the improvement of the effect of the reforms of the Chicago Boys. Finally the transition to democracy was am important challenge to Chilean society because Chile had the bases of a solid economy, but it was necessary to attend social and political issues to change growth into developm