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Sample records for papaya chilena vasconcellea

  1. Deshidratación osmótica de la papaya chilena (Vasconcellea pubescens) e influencia de la temperatura y concentración de la solución sobre la cinética de transferencia de materia Desidratação osmótica do mamão chileno (Vasconcellea pubescens) e influência da temperatura e concentração da solução sobre a cinética de transferência de matéria

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Vega-Gálvez; Marlene Palacios; Francisca Boglio; Catarina Pássaro; Catalina Jeréz; Roberto Lemus-Mondaca

    2007-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar la cinética de deshidratación osmótica de la papaya chilena (Vasconcellea pubescens), utilizando dos variables experimentales: la temperatura (30, 40, 50 °C) y concentración (40, 50 y 60%) de la solución osmótica. Se determinó la variación de masa total, masa de agua y masa de sólidos solubles y se modeló con las ecuaciones difusionales, además en esta investigación se consideró y utilizó una modificación de la ecuación propuesta por B...

  2. Papaya Lethal Yellowing Virus (PLYV) Infects Vasconcellea cauliflora

    OpenAIRE

    Amaral, P. P. R.; Resende, R. O.; Souza, M. T.

    2006-01-01

    Papaya lethal yellowing virus (PLYV) é um dos três vírus descritos infectando mamoeiros (Carica papaya L.) no Brasil. Vasconcellea cauliflora (Jacq.) A. DC., antes denominada de Carica cauliflora (Jacq.), é uma reconhecida fonte de resistência natural ao Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), causador da "Mancha Anelar" ou "Mosaico" do mamoeiro. Neste estudo é demonstrado que V. cauliflora pode ser infectada por PLYV mediante inoculação mecânica. Esta é a segunda hospedeira de PLYV descrita ...

  3. Deshidratación osmótica de la papaya chilena (Vasconcellea pubescens) e influencia de la temperatura y concentración de la solución sobre la cinética de transferencia de materia / Desidratação osmótica do mamão chileno (Vasconcellea pubescens) e influência da temperatura e concentração da solução sobre a cinética de transferência de matéria

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antonio, Vega-Gálvez; Marlene, Palacios; Francisca, Boglio; Catarina, Pássaro; Catalina, Jeréz; Roberto, Lemus-Mondaca.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a cinética de desidratação osmótica do mamão chileno (Vasconcellea pubescens) utilizando duas variáveis experimentais: temperatura (30, 40 e 50 °C) e concentração (40, 50 e 60%) da solução osmótica. Para este estudo, determinou-se a variação de massa total, de m [...] assa de água, de massa de sólidos solúveis, modeladas com as equações difusionais. Nesta investigação, também se considera e se usa uma modificação da equação proposta por Biswal-Bozorgmehr. Estes modelos foram avaliados através do coeficiente de regressão linear, da somatória de erros quadrados, da raiz média de erros quadrados e do Qui-quadrado. Comparando os valores experimentais com os valores calculados, demonstrou-se que o modelo Biswal-Bozorgmehr modificado apresenta um melhor ajuste sobre a variação da massa de água e de sólidos solúveis. Com a equação de Arrhenius, analisou-se o efeito da temperatura sobre os parâmetros cinéticos (Kw e Kss) e a difusividade efetiva de água (Dwe) e de sólidos solúveis (Dsse). De acordo com o desenho fatorial, observou-se que a temperatura não teve influência sobre a difusividade efetiva da água e dos sólidos solúveis, mas sim sobre a concentração da solução osmótica. A melhor condição de saída de água e ganho de sólidos durante a desidratação osmótica do mamão chileno foi a 30 °C com uma concentração de 60%. Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar la cinética de deshidratación osmótica de la papaya chilena (Vasconcellea pubescens), utilizando dos variables experimentales: la temperatura (30, 40, 50 °C) y concentración (40, 50 y 60%) de la solución osmótica. Se determinó la variación de masa total, masa [...] de agua y masa de sólidos solubles y se modeló con las ecuaciones difusionales, además en esta investigación se consideró y utilizó una modificación de la ecuación propuesta por Biswal-Bozorgmehr. Estos modelos fueron evaluados por medio del coeficiente de regresión lineal, suma de errores cuadrados, raíz media de los errores cuadrados y Chi-cuadrado. Al comparar los valores experimentales con los calculados, se demostró que el modelo Biswal-Bozorgmehr modificado obtuvo mejor ajuste sobre la variación de masa de agua y sólidos solubles. Mediante la ecuación de Arrhenius se analizó el efecto de la temperatura sobre los parámetros cinéticos (Kw y Kss) y difusividad efectiva de agua (Dwe) y sólidos solubles (Dsse). De acuerdo al diseño factorial, se observó que la temperatura no influyó sobre la difusividad efectiva de agua y de sólidos, pero sí la concentración de la solución osmótica. La mejor condición de salida de agua y ganancia de sólidos solubles durante la deshidratación osmótica de la papaya chilena fue a 30 °C con una concentración del 60%.

  4. Obtención, regeneración y evaluación de híbridos intergenéricos entre Carica papaya Y Vasconcellea cauliflora

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ariadne, Vegas; Gustavo, Trujillo; Yanet, Sandrea.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese O resgate de híbridos provenientes de cruzamentos intergenéricos entre mamão (Carica papaya L.) e outras espécies de vasconcelleas (antes conhecidas como caricas) possibilita a tranferência de genes das espécies selvagens para a cultivada. O objectivo do presente trabalho foi a obtenção e avaliação [...] de plantas híbridas mediante o resgate e regeneração de embriões ou óvulos resultantes do cruzamento entre C. papaya e Vasconcellea cauliflora. Dos cruzamentos efectuados, 0 a 76% formaram frutos, de acordo com o tipo de papaya usado. As sementes presentes nos frutos foram vás, inmaduras o possuiam embriões zigóticos. Na maioria dessas sementes ocorreu poliembrionia zigótica in vivo, embora também foram formado alguns híbridos individuais. Conseguiu-se o desenvolvimento, germinação, multiplicação de embriões híbridos e regeneração de plantas in vitro. As plantas establecidas em campo produziram flores andróicas y andromonóicas. Abstract in spanish El rescate de híbridos de cruces intergenéricos entre la lechosa (Carica papaya L.) y otras especies de vasconcelleas (antes conocidas como caricas) posibilita la transferencia de genes desde las especies silvestres hacia la cultivada. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue la obtención y evaluación d [...] e plantas híbridas mediante el rescate y regeneración de embriones u óvulos después del cruce entre C. papaya y Vasconcellea cauliflora. Se obtuvo un porcentaje de fructificación entre 0 y 76%, de acuerdo al tipo de lechosa usada en el cruce. En los frutos, las semillas fueron vanas, inmaduras o contenían embriones cigóticos. En la mayoría de ellas ocurrió la poliembrionía cigótica in vivo, aún cuando también se produjeron híbridos individuales. Se logró el desarrollo, germinación y multiplicación de embriones híbridos, y la regeneración de plantas in vitro. Las plantas sembradas en campo produjeron flores andróicas y andromonóicas. Abstract in english The rescue of hybrids from intergeneric crosses between papaya (Carica papaya L.) and other vasconcelleas species (known before as caricas) can make possible gene transfer from a wild species to a cultivated one. The object of this research was to obtain and evaluate hybrid plants after rescue and r [...] egeneration of embryos or ovules, from the crosses made between C. papaya and Vasconcellea cauliflora. After cross pollination, 0 to 76% fructification was attained, according to the papaya type used. In the fruits, seeds were vain, immature or contained zygotic embryos. In most of them occurred in vivo zygotic polyembryony, although some individual hybrids were also formed. Development, germination, multiplication of embryo hybrids and plant regeneration in vitro were achieved. In the field, plants produced androic and andromonoic flowers.

  5. Phylogenetic analysis of the highland papayas ( Vasconcellea) and allied genera (Caricaceae) using PCR-RFLP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Droogenbroeck, B; Kyndt, T; Maertens, I; Romeijn-Peeters, E; Scheldeman, X; Romero-Motochi, J P; Van Damme, P; Goetghebeur, P; Gheysen, G

    2004-05-01

    The chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA diversity of 61 genotypes belonging to 18 Vasconcellea species, the so-called highland papayas, was studied by PCR-RFLP analysis of two non-coding cpDNA regions ( trnM- rbcL and trnK1- trnK2) and one non-coding mtDNA region ( nad4/1- nad4/2). This sample set was supplemented with six genotypes belonging to three other Caricaceae genera: the monotypic genus Carica, including only the cultivated papaya, and the genera Jacaratia and Cylicomorpha. Moringa ovalifolia was added as an outgroup species. The PCR-amplified cpDNA regions were digested with 18 restriction endonucleases, the mtDNA region with 11. A total of 22 point mutations and four insertion/deletions were scored in the sample. A higher level of interspecific variation was detected in the two cpDNA regions in comparison to the analysis of the mtDNA. Wagner parsimony and Neighbor-Joining analysis resulted in dendrograms with similar topologies. PCR-RFLP analysis supported the monophyly of Caricaceae, but among the 26 mutations scored, an insufficient number of markers discriminated between the different Caricaceae genera included in this study. Hence the inference of the intergeneric relationships within Caricaceae was impossible. However, some conclusions can be noted at a lower taxonomic level. The Caricaceae species were divided into two lineages. One group included only Vasconcellea spp., whereas the second included the remaining Vasconcellea spp., together with the papaya genotypes and those from the other Caricaceae genera. This may indicate a higher level of inter-fertility for the Vasconcellea species from the latter clade in interspecific crossings with papaya. The putative progenitors of the natural sterile hybrid V. x heilbornii, i.e. V. stipulata and V. cundinamarcensis, were only distantly related to V. x heilbornii. This indicates that probably none of these species was involved as the maternal progenitor in the origin of V. x heilbornii. Surprisingly, V. x heilbornii had organellar genome patterns identical with V. weberbaueri, suggesting a possible involvement of this species in the origin of V. x heilbornii. On the basis of discrepancy between morphological traits and the cpDNA profiles of some pairs of Vasconcellea species, we believe that besides V. x heilbornii, some other species have originated through interspecific hybridization. A reticulate evolution for Vasconcellea has therefore been suggested. Finally, intraspecific cpDNA variation was detected in V. microcarpa, thus providing molecular evidence for the high diversity previously indicated by morphological observations. PMID:14752605

  6. Susceptibilidad de Vasconcellea cauliflora al virus de la mancha anillada de la lechosa / Susceptibility of Vasconcellea cauliflora to Papaya ringspot virus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A, Gonzalez; G, Trujillo.

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Esta investigación demostró la susceptibilidad de Vasconcellea cauliflora, especie que ha sido considerada como resistente al virus de la mancha anillada de la lechosa (PRSV-P). La transmisión de la enfermedad se logró mediante la inoculación mecánica de una cepa severa del PRSV-P en plantas de 60 d [...] ías de edad. Estas evidenciaron síntomas de necrosis del cogollo en 8,3% bajo condiciones de invernadero a 25,15ºC y 78,68% HR promedio. Bajo condiciones de campo en la Facultad de Agronomía (UCV), Maracay (440 msnm), se contabilizó el 8,6% de plantas inoculadas con síntomas típicos de la enfermedad a los siete días del trasplante. Posteriormente se realizó un ensayo bajo condiciones controladas en cámara de crecimiento. Las plantas inoculadas fueron expuestas a tres tratamientos de temperatura e intensidad lumínica: T1= 29ºC y 6300 lux; T2= 27ºC y 5500 lux y T3= 25ºC y 4200 lux; con fotoperiodo de 16 horas de luz y 75,5% HR promedio. Los resultados demostraron la transmisión del PRSV-P en 82, 86 y 47% respectivamente; la sintomatología viral se corroboró mediante el uso de ELISA. Estos resultados cuestionan el uso de esta especie como fuente de genes de resistencia al PRSV-P en los programas de mejoramiento de lechosa. Abstract in english This work demonstrated the susceptibility of Vasconcellea cauliflora, a species considered as virus resistant to Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV-P). Disease transmission by mechanical inoculation of PRSV-P severe strain on 60 days old plants was corroborated. Under greenhouse conditions with average val [...] ues of 25.15ºC and 78.68% RH, 8.3% of plants inoculated with the severe strain showed apical necrosis. At the Facultad de Agronomía (UCV), Maracay (440 msnm) under field conditions, 8.6% of inoculated plants showed typical symptoms of the disease seven days after beings transplanted. Subsequently, an inoculation test was done in three growth chamber conditions: T1=29ºC and 6300 lux; T2= 27ºC and 5500 lux and T3= 25ºC and 4200 lux; the daily time was fixed at 16 h, and the relative humidity was about 75.5% on average. Systemic symptoms were observed in 82, 86 and 47% of plants in treatments T1, T2 y T3 respectively. These results were consistent with the ELISA test. The susceptibility of V. cauliflora to the local severe strain of PRSV-P was influenced by temperature and light intensity conditions. This questions the role of this species in search for PRSV-P resistance genes in papaya breeding programs.

  7. Susceptibilidad de Vasconcellea cauliflora al virus de la mancha anillada de la lechosa Susceptibility of Vasconcellea cauliflora to Papaya ringspot virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Gonzalez

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación demostró la susceptibilidad de Vasconcellea cauliflora, especie que ha sido considerada como resistente al virus de la mancha anillada de la lechosa (PRSV-P. La transmisión de la enfermedad se logró mediante la inoculación mecánica de una cepa severa del PRSV-P en plantas de 60 días de edad. Estas evidenciaron síntomas de necrosis del cogollo en 8,3% bajo condiciones de invernadero a 25,15ºC y 78,68% HR promedio. Bajo condiciones de campo en la Facultad de Agronomía (UCV, Maracay (440 msnm, se contabilizó el 8,6% de plantas inoculadas con síntomas típicos de la enfermedad a los siete días del trasplante. Posteriormente se realizó un ensayo bajo condiciones controladas en cámara de crecimiento. Las plantas inoculadas fueron expuestas a tres tratamientos de temperatura e intensidad lumínica: T1= 29ºC y 6300 lux; T2= 27ºC y 5500 lux y T3= 25ºC y 4200 lux; con fotoperiodo de 16 horas de luz y 75,5% HR promedio. Los resultados demostraron la transmisión del PRSV-P en 82, 86 y 47% respectivamente; la sintomatología viral se corroboró mediante el uso de ELISA. Estos resultados cuestionan el uso de esta especie como fuente de genes de resistencia al PRSV-P en los programas de mejoramiento de lechosa.This work demonstrated the susceptibility of Vasconcellea cauliflora, a species considered as virus resistant to Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV-P. Disease transmission by mechanical inoculation of PRSV-P severe strain on 60 days old plants was corroborated. Under greenhouse conditions with average values of 25.15ºC and 78.68% RH, 8.3% of plants inoculated with the severe strain showed apical necrosis. At the Facultad de Agronomía (UCV, Maracay (440 msnm under field conditions, 8.6% of inoculated plants showed typical symptoms of the disease seven days after beings transplanted. Subsequently, an inoculation test was done in three growth chamber conditions: T1=29ºC and 6300 lux; T2= 27ºC and 5500 lux and T3= 25ºC and 4200 lux; the daily time was fixed at 16 h, and the relative humidity was about 75.5% on average. Systemic symptoms were observed in 82, 86 and 47% of plants in treatments T1, T2 y T3 respectively. These results were consistent with the ELISA test. The susceptibility of V. cauliflora to the local severe strain of PRSV-P was influenced by temperature and light intensity conditions. This questions the role of this species in search for PRSV-P resistance genes in papaya breeding programs.

  8. COMPORTAMIENTO DE MATERIALES DE LOS GÉNEROS Carica Y Vasconcellea FRENTE A Erwinia papayae, Meloidogyne incognita Y Rotylenchulus reniformis / REACTION OF THE GENERA Carica AND Vasconcellea MATERIALS TO Erwinia papayae, Meloidogyne incognita AND Rotylenchulus reniformis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Anna, Maselli; Ligia Carolina, Rosales; Yolanda, Guevara; Zoraida, Suárez H.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La bacteriosis del cancro y el ataque de los nematodos constituyen graves obstáculos en la extensión del cultivo de la papaya (Carica papaya L.). El objetivo principal de este trabajo fue la selección de genotipos tanto comerciales como silvestres resistentes a los patógenos mencionados. Para la eva [...] luación del comportamiento ante la bacteria del cancro causada por Erwinia papayae, se seleccionaron once accesiones de C. papaya, Vasconcellea goudotiana y V. cauliflora y se inocularon 10 plantas de cada genotipo con una suspensión bacteriana de concentración de 10(8) UFC.mL-1. La inoculación se realizó produciendo heridas en los tallos de las plantas sanas. Los testigos se trataron de igual forma con agua destilada estéril. Para la evaluación de la resistencia a nematodos se realizaron dos experimentos; en el primero se utilizaron materiales de C. papaya y V. goudotiana, los cuales se inocularon con una población mixta de Meloidogyne incognita raza 1 y Rotylenchulus reniformis con 2000 huevos+juveniles.1000 cm-3 en suelo-arena estéril. Para el segundo experimento se usaron, además de los materiales mencionados, V. cauliflora, V. cundinamarcensis, V. microcarpa var. microcarpa, V. microcarpa var. pilifera, inoculados sólo con M. incognita raza 1 con 2500 huevos+juveniles.1000 cm-3. A las 12 semanas se calculó la población final y se midieron las siguientes variables: peso aéreo y radical fresco y seco. Los resultados del comportamiento de los genotipos frente a la bacteria determinó que V. goudotiana y V. cauliflora no se enfermaron, no así el género Carica, donde todas las plantas resultaron susceptibles, coincidiendo con la evaluación de nematodos, donde todas las accesiones de C. papaya y V. goudotiana fueron susceptibles y no tolerante al ataque de la población mixta de M. incognita raza 1 y R. reniformis, por afectarse las variables agronómicas evaluadas; mientras que la mayoría de los materiales de V. cundinamarcencis y V. microcarpa resultaron resistentes al ataque de M. incognita raza 1. Estos resultados permiten la obtención de genes de resistencias en los materiales silvestres, los cuales podrían ser incorporados a los genotipos mejorados o comerciales, y permitiría un mejor manejo de los patógenos mencionados, que resultan limitantes severos en el cultivo de papaya en Venezuela. Abstract in english The bacterial canker and the attack of nematodes are serious obstacles to the extension of Carica papaya L. crop. The main objective of this work was the selection of both commercial and wild genotypes resistant to the above mentioned pathogens. To assess the response to the bacterial canker caused [...] by Erwinia papayae, eleven accesions of C. papaya, Vasconcellea goudotiana y V. cauliflora were selected and ten plants of each genotype were inoculated with a bacterial suspension with a concentration of 10(8) CFU.mL-1 . The plants were inoculated by wounds on the stems of the healthy plants. The controls were similarly treated but with sterile distilled water. Two trials were carried out to evaluate the resistance to nematodes. In the first trial, materials of C. papaya and V. goudotiana were inoculated with a mixed population of Meloidogyne incognita race 1 and Rotylenchulus reniformis, with 2000 eggs+juveniles. 1000 cm-3 in sterile soil-sand. In the second trial, V. cauliflora, V. cundinamarcensis, V. microcarpa var. microcarpa and V. microcarpa var. pilifera, in addition to the genotypes previously used, were inoculated only with M. incognita race 1, with 2500 eggs+juvenils.1000 cm-3. After 12 weeks, the final population was calculated and the fresh and dried weights of the aerial parts and roots were determined. The results of the reaction of the genotypes towards the bacterium determined that V. goudotiana and V. cauliflora did not get the disease, what differed from the Carica genus, where all the plants resulted susceptible, a result that was similar to the evaluation to nematodes, where all the genotypes

  9. Estudios de germinación y remoción de latencia en semillas de papayuelas Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis y Vasconcellea goudotiana / Highland papayas Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis and Vasconcellea goudotiana seed germination and dormancy release studies

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sandra Patricia, Benítez; Lobo, Mario; Oscar Arturo, Delgado; Clara Inés, Medina.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la germinación y latencia de las semillas de Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis y V. goudotiana, para desarrollar procedimientos promotores de emergencia de los embriones. La categorización de las semillas viables no germinables se realizó con el empleo del tetrazolio. La fermentación prolonga [...] da de las semillas, para remover la sarcotesta, afectó la viabilidad de éstas, en especial las de V. cundinamarcensis. Aplicaciones de KNO3 y AG3 promovieron una germinación significativamente mayor, en comparación con el testigo, en semillas fermentadas previamente durante 15 días de V. goudotiana, lo cual no ocurrió en las de V. cundinamarcensis. La aplicación de Saccharomyces cerevisiae durante 36 horas, para fermentación y liberación de la sarcotesta, indujo germinación en las dos especies, con una respuesta significativamente superior en V. goudotiana. La adición de AG3 y KNO3, luego del tratamiento anterior, promovió mayor emergencia en ambos taxa, en especial en V. goudotiana. La fermentación de las semillas con Saccharomyces cerevisiae, en combinación con AG3 y KNO3 produjo germinación en las dos especies, con énfasis en V. goudotiana al aplicar 1000 ppm de AG3 + KNO3 al 2,5% y en V. cundinamarcensis, al utilizar 600 ppm de AG3 + AG3 al 2,5%, sin diferencia significativa con la aplicación de 1000 ppm de AG3 + KNO3 al 1,5%; se logró mayor germinación en V. goudotiana en el tratamiento precitado, con el cual se obtuvo con confiabilidad estadística la máxima brotación de plántulas, en relación con el resto de tratamientos evaluados con la propia especie y en V. cundinamarcensis. Abstract in english Seed germination and dormancy of Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis and V. goudotiana were studied in order to develop procedures for seed embryo emergency. Characterization of viable dormant seeds was done with the tetrazolium test. Long periods of seed fermentation, for sarcotestal removal, affected th [...] e seed viability, mainly in V. cundinamarcensis. AG3 and KNO3 application promoted a significantly higher germination, in V. goudotiana, but not in V. cundinamarcensis, in relation to control seeds, fermented during 15 days. AG3 and KNO3 application promoted a significantly higher germination in V. goudotiana, but not in V. cundinamarcensis, in relation to control 15 days fermented seeds. Seed fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae during 36 hours for sarcotest removal, promoted a significant higher germination than that of the control, fermented without enzyme application, mainly in V. goudotiana. Seed fermentation with S. cerevisiae during 36 hours application, for sarcotest removal, promoted a significant higher germination than that of the control, fermented without enzyme application, mainly in V. goudotiana. Seed germination, after S. cerevisiae fermentation and application of AG3 and KNO3, occurred in both species, being obtained the best germination in V. goudotiana, with application of 1000 ppm of GA3 + 2.5% KNO3, with statistical differences, related to the other germination applied treatments. The best germination results, without significant differences, in V. cundinamarcensis were obtained with the application of 600 ppm of GA3 + 2.5% KNO3 or 1000 ppm of GA3 + 1.5% KNO3, after the fermentation procedure with S. cerevisiae.

  10. Moisture sorption isotherms and isosteric heat determination in Chilean papaya (Vasconcellea pubescens)

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Vega-Gálvez; Marlene Palacios; Roberto Lemus-Mondaca; Catarina Passaro

    2008-01-01

    The moisture sorption isotherms of Chilean papaya were determined at 5, 20, and 45 ºC, over a relative humidity range of 10-95%. The GAB, BET, Oswin, Halsey, Henderson, Smith, Caurie and Iglesias-Chirife models were applied to the sorption experimental data. The goodness of fit of the mathematical models was statistically evaluated by means of the determination coefficient, mean relative percentage deviation, sum square error, root-mean-square error, and chi-square values. The GAB, Oswin and...

  11. Susceptibilidad de Vasconcellea cauliflora al virus de la mancha anillada de la lechosa Susceptibility of Vasconcellea cauliflora to Papaya ringspot virus

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, A.; Trujillo, G.

    2005-01-01

    Esta investigación demostró la susceptibilidad de Vasconcellea cauliflora, especie que ha sido considerada como resistente al virus de la mancha anillada de la lechosa (PRSV-P). La transmisión de la enfermedad se logró mediante la inoculación mecánica de una cepa severa del PRSV-P en plantas de 60 días de edad. Estas evidenciaron síntomas de necrosis del cogollo en 8,3% bajo condiciones de invernadero a 25,15ºC y 78,68% HR promedio. Bajo condiciones de campo en la Facultad de Agronom...

  12. Isolation and Characterisation of PRSV-P Resistance Genes in Carica and Vasconcellea

    OpenAIRE

    Razean Haireen, M. R.; Drew, R. A.

    2014-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is one of the major tropical fruit crops worldwide, but it is limited throughout its range by papaya ringspot virus type P (PRSV-P). Previous genetic studies identified a functional PRSV-P resistance marker in a mapping population of F2 plants of Vasconcellea pubescens (resistant to PRSV-P) × Vasconcellea parviflora (susceptible to PRSV-P) and showed that the marker exhibited homology to a serine threonine protein kinase (STK) gene. Full length cDNAs of putative PRS...

  13. Purification and characterization of the cysteine proteinases in the latex of Vasconcellea spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyndt, Tina; Van Damme, Els J M; Van Beeumen, Jozef; Gheysen, Godelieve

    2007-01-01

    Latex of all Vasconcellea species analyzed to date exhibits higher proteolytic amidase activities, generally attributed to cysteine proteinases, than the latex of Carica papaya. In the present study, we show that this higher activity is correlated with a higher concentration of enzymes in the latex of Vasconcellea fruits, but in addition also results from the presence of other cysteine proteinases or isoforms. In contrast to the cysteine proteinases present in papaya latex, which have been extensively studied, very little is known about the cysteine proteinases of Vasconcellea spp. In this investigation, several cDNA sequences coding for cysteine proteinases in Vasconcellea x heilbornii and Vasconcellea stipulata were determined using primers based on conserved sequences. In silico translation showed that they hold the characteristic features of all known papain-class cysteine proteinases, and a phylogenetic analysis revealed the existence of several papain and chymopapain homologues in these species. Ion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration procedures were applied on latex of V. x heilbornii in order to characterize its cysteine proteinases at the protein level. Five major protein fractions (VXH-I-VXH-V) revealing very high amidase activities (between 7.5 and 23.3 nkat x mg protein(-1)) were isolated. After further purification, three of them were N-terminally sequenced. The observed microheterogeneity in the N-terminal and cDNA sequences reveals the presence of several distinct cysteine proteinase isoforms in the latex of Vasconcellea spp. PMID:17229150

  14. Rapid divergence and expansion of the X chromosome in papaya

    OpenAIRE

    Gschwend, Andrea R.; Yu, Qingyi; Tong, Eric J.; Zeng, Fanchang; Han, Jennifer; Vanburen, Robert; Aryal, Rishi; Charlesworth, Deborah; Moore, Paul H.; Paterson, Andrew H.; Ming, Ray

    2012-01-01

    X chromosomes have long been thought to conserve the structure and gene content of the ancestral autosome from which the sex chromosomes evolved. We compared the recently evolved papaya sex chromosomes with a homologous autosome of a close relative, the monoecious Vasconcellea monoica, to infer changes since recombination stopped between the papaya sex chromosomes. We sequenced 12 V. monoica bacterial artificial chromosomes, 11 corresponding to the papaya X-specific region, and 1 to a papaya ...

  15. Citogenética de especies de Vasconcellea (Caricaceae Cytogenetic of Vasconcellea species (Caricaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Creucí Maria Caetano

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Conocer aspectos básicos de la citogenética de las papayas de montaña o papayuelas, especies del género Vasconcellea (Caricaceae originarias de Ecuador y Colombia, fue el objetivo del trabajo. Botones florales se fijaron en etanol-acético 3:1 por 24h, luego se transfirieron a nueva solución y se almacenaron en frío. Los microsporocitos y los granos de polen se tiñieron con acetocarmín (1%. Se evaluaron las fases de meiosis y la viabilidad de polen para describir el comportamiento cromosómico. Se encontró que: 1 todas las seis especies estudiadas fueron diploides (2n=2x=18; 2 se describió el número cromosómico para V. sphaerocarpa, V. longiflora y V. palandensis (2n=18; 3 el grado de asimetría de los complementos cromosómicos indicó un proceso de evolución; 4 la presencia de numerosos NOR en V. sphaerocarpa está relacionada con los micronucleolos y corroboró el posible origen híbrido; y 5 V. cauliflora (42.98% y V. cundinamarcensis (47.93% presentaron la más baja viabilidad polínica.This work aims to know basic aspects of cytogenetics of mountain papayas' or 'papayuelas', Vasconcellea species (Caricaceae, originated from Ecuador and Colombia. Flower buds were fixed in 3:1 acetic-alcohol solution for 24 hr, transferred to new solution and stored al low temperature. Both microsporocytes and pollen grains were stained with 1% acetic carmine. Meiosis phases and pollen viability were evaluated to describe chromosome behavior. We found that: 1 all tested species were diploid (2n=2x=18; 2 chromosome number of V. sphaerocarpa, V. longiflora and V. palandensis (2n=18 were by first time reported; 3 asymmetry level of chromosome complements indicated a evolution process in these species; 4 presence of numerous NOR in V. sphaerocarpa associated to micronucleoli corroborated its possible hybrid origin; and 5 V. cauliflora (42.98% and V. cundinamarcensis (47.93% presented the low percentage of pollen viability.

  16. Citogenética de especies de Vasconcellea (Caricaceae) / Cytogenetic of Vasconcellea species (Caricaceae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Creucí Maria, Caetano; Túlio César, Lagos Burbano; Claudia Lorena, Sandoval Sierra; César Augusto, Posada Tique; Diego Geraldo, Caetano Nunes.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Conocer aspectos básicos de la citogenética de las papayas de montaña o papayuelas, especies del género Vasconcellea (Caricaceae) originarias de Ecuador y Colombia, fue el objetivo del trabajo. Botones florales se fijaron en etanol-acético 3:1 por 24h, luego se transfirieron a nueva solución y se al [...] macenaron en frío. Los microsporocitos y los granos de polen se tiñieron con acetocarmín (1%). Se evaluaron las fases de meiosis y la viabilidad de polen para describir el comportamiento cromosómico. Se encontró que: 1) todas las seis especies estudiadas fueron diploides (2n=2x=18); 2) se describió el número cromosómico para V. sphaerocarpa, V. longiflora y V. palandensis (2n=18); 3) el grado de asimetría de los complementos cromosómicos indicó un proceso de evolución; 4) la presencia de numerosos NOR en V. sphaerocarpa está relacionada con los micronucleolos y corroboró el posible origen híbrido; y 5) V. cauliflora (42.98%) y V. cundinamarcensis (47.93%) presentaron la más baja viabilidad polínica. Abstract in english This work aims to know basic aspects of cytogenetics of mountain papayas' or 'papayuelas', Vasconcellea species (Caricaceae), originated from Ecuador and Colombia. Flower buds were fixed in 3:1 acetic-alcohol solution for 24 hr, transferred to new solution and stored al low temperature. Both microsp [...] orocytes and pollen grains were stained with 1% acetic carmine. Meiosis phases and pollen viability were evaluated to describe chromosome behavior. We found that: 1) all tested species were diploid (2n=2x=18); 2) chromosome number of V. sphaerocarpa, V. longiflora and V. palandensis (2n=18) were by first time reported; 3) asymmetry level of chromosome complements indicated a evolution process in these species; 4) presence of numerous NOR in V. sphaerocarpa associated to micronucleoli corroborated its possible hybrid origin; and 5) V. cauliflora (42.98%) and V. cundinamarcensis (47.93%) presented the low percentage of pollen viability.

  17. Isolation and Characterisation of PRSV-P Resistance Genes in Carica and Vasconcellea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razean Haireen, M R; Drew, R A

    2014-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is one of the major tropical fruit crops worldwide, but it is limited throughout its range by papaya ringspot virus type P (PRSV-P). Previous genetic studies identified a functional PRSV-P resistance marker in a mapping population of F2 plants of Vasconcellea pubescens (resistant to PRSV-P) × Vasconcellea parviflora (susceptible to PRSV-P) and showed that the marker exhibited homology to a serine threonine protein kinase (STK) gene. Full length cDNAs of putative PRSV-P resistance genes designated CP_STK from C. papaya and VP_STK1 and VP_STK2 from V. pubescens were cloned by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). Due to a frame-shift mutation, the two homologous sequences are transcribed and edited differently such that the gene product in V. pubescens is two separate transcripts, whereas in C. papaya they are fused into a single message. A peroxisomal targeting signal (PTS2) present in VP_STK2 but absent in the other transcripts may be the functional source of PRSV resistance in V. pubescens. The STK gene from V. pubescens may have been derived from an alternative splicing to confer resistance. The putative resistance gene, VP_STK2, that was identified in this study is a potential new source of PRSV-P resistance for papaya genotypes. PMID:25184131

  18. Citogenética de especies de Vasconcellea (Caricaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caetano Creucí María

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Conocer aspectos básicos de la citogenética de las papayas de montaña o papayuelas, especies del género Vasconcellea (Caricaceae originarias de Ecuador y Colombia, fue el objetivo del trabajo. Botones florales se fijaron en etanol-acético 3:1 por 24h, luego se transfirieron a nueva solución y se almacenaron en frío. Los microsporocitos y los granos de polen se tiñieron con acetocarmín (1%. Se evaluaron las fases de meiosis y la viabilidad de polen para describir el comportamiento cromosómico. Se encontró que: 1 todas las seis especies estudiadas fueron diploides (2n=2x=18; 2 se describió el número cromosómico para V. sphaerocarpa, V. longiflora y V. palandensis (2n=18; 3 el grado de asimetría de los complementos cromosómicos indicó un proceso de evolución; 4 la presencia de numerosos NOR en V. sphaerocarpa está relacionada con los micronucleolos y corroboró el posible origen híbrido; y 5 V. cauliflora (42.98% y V. cundinamarcensis (47.93% presentaron la más baja viabilidad polínica.

  19. Characterization of the proteolytic system present in Vasconcellea quercifolia latex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, María José; Trejo, Sebastián Alejandro; Obregón, Walter David; Avilés, Francesc Xavier; López, Laura María Isabel; Natalucci, Claudia Luisa

    2012-11-01

    Vasconcellea quercifolia (Caricaceae) latex contains several cysteine endopeptidases with high proteolytic activity. Cysteine endopeptidases are the main active compounds used by the plant as a defense mechanism. A proteolytic preparation from V. quercifolia ("oak leaved papaya") latex was purified by cation exchange chromatography. From SDS-PAGE and blotting of the selected fractions, the N-terminal amino acid sequences of polypeptides were determined by Edman's degradation. The analysis by peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) of the enzymes allowed their characterization and confirmed the presence of seven different cysteine proteinases in the latex of V. quercifolia. Moreover, the comparison between the tryptic maps with those deposited in databases using the MASCOT tool showed that none of the isolated proteases matched with another plant protease. Notably, a propeptidase was detected in the plant latex, which is being the first report in this sense. Furthermore, the cDNA of one of the cysteine proteases that is expressed in the latex of V. quercifolia was cloned and sequenced. The consensus sequence was aligned using the ClustalX web server, which allowed detecting a high degree of identity with cysteine proteases of the Caricaceae family and establishing the evolutionary relationship between them. We also observed a high conservation degree for those amino acid residues which are essential for the catalytic activity and tridimensional structure of the plant proteases belonging to the subfamily C1A. The PMF analysis strongly suggests that the sequence obtained corresponds to the VQ-III peptidase. PMID:22790602

  20. Evidence for Emergence of Sex-Determining Gene(s) in a Centromeric Region in Vasconcellea parviflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iovene, Marina; Yu, Qingyi; Ming, Ray; Jiang, Jiming

    2015-02-01

    Sex chromosomes have been studied in many plant and animal species. However, few species are suitable as models to study the evolutionary histories of sex chromosomes. We previously demonstrated that papaya (Carica papaya) (2n = 2x = 18), a fruit tree in the family Caricaceae, contains recently emerged but cytologically heteromorphic X/Y chromosomes. We have been intrigued by the possible presence and evolution of sex chromosomes in other dioecious Caricaceae species. We selected a set of 22 bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones that are distributed along the papaya X/Y chromosomes. These BACs were mapped to the meiotic pachytene chromosomes of Vasconcellea parviflora (2n = 2x = 18), a species that diverged from papaya ?27 million years ago. We demonstrate that V. parviflora contains a pair of heteromorphic X/Y chromosomes that are homologous to the papaya X/Y chromosomes. The comparative mapping results revealed that the male-specific regions of the Y chromosomes (MSYs) probably initiated near the centromere of the Y chromosomes in both species. The two MSYs, however, shared only a small chromosomal domain near the centromere in otherwise rearranged chromosomes. The V. parviflora MSY expanded toward the short arm of the chromosome, whereas the papaya MSY expanded in the opposite direction. Most BACs mapped to papaya MSY were not located in V. parviflora MSY, revealing different DNA compositions in the two MSYs. These results suggest that mutation of gene(s) in the centromeric region may have triggered sex chromosome evolution in these plant species. PMID:25480779

  1. Purification and characterization of a cysteine endopeptidase from Vasconcellea quercifolia A. St.-Hil. latex displaying high substrate specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, M José; Trejo, Sebastián A; Martin, M Inés; Natalucci, Claudia L; Avilés, Francesc X; López, Laura M I

    2010-10-27

    A new proteolytic preparation from Vasconcellea quercifolia ("oak leaved papaya") latex containing several cysteine endopeptidases with high proteolytic activity has been obtained. The specific activity of the new enzymatic preparation (VQ) was higher than that of Carica papaya latex. VQ was able to coagulate milk and to hydrolyze caseins and then could be used to produce cheeses and/or casein hydrolysates. Ion exchange chromatography of VQ allowed the isolation of a new protease, named quercifoliain I, homogeneous when analyzed by SDS-PAGE, IEF and MALDI-TOF-MS. Molecular mass was 24195 Da, and its isoelectric point was >9.3. The N-terminal sequence was determined (YPESVDWRQ). Insulin B-chain cleavage showed higher specificity than that of papain and was restricted to glycyl and alanyl residues at P1' position. The tryptic peptide mass fingerprint of quercifoliain I analyzed with the MASCOT search tool did not find a match with papain or any other plant cysteine proteases. PMID:20873836

  2. BASKETFUL BENEFITS OF PAPAYA

    OpenAIRE

    Parle Milind; Gurditta

    2011-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya linn) is well known for its exceptional nutritional and medicinal properties throughout the world. From the times immemorial, the whole Papaya plant including its leaves, seeds, ripe and unripe fruits and their juice is used as a traditional medicine. The fruit has a large oval shape, yellowish-green skin and yellow flesh. Nowadays, Papaya is considered as a Nutraceutical fruit due to its multi-faceted medicinal properties. The prominent medicinal properties of Papaya in...

  3. Identification of a putative triacylglycerol lipase from papaya latex by functional proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhouib, R; Laroche-Traineau, J; Shaha, R; Lapaillerie, D; Solier, E; Rualès, J; Pina, M; Villeneuve, P; Carrière, F; Bonneu, M; Arondel, V

    2011-01-01

    Latex from Caricaceae has been known since 1925 to contain strong lipase activity. However, attempts to purify and identify the enzyme were not successful, mainly because of the lack of solubility of the enzyme. Here, we describe the characterization of lipase activity of the latex of Vasconcellea heilbornii and the identification of a putative homologous lipase from Carica papaya. Triacylglycerol lipase activity was enriched 74-fold from crude latex of Vasconcellea heilbornii to a specific activity (SA) of 57 ?mol·min(-1)·mg(-1) on long-chain triacylglycerol (olive oil). The extract was also active on trioctanoin (SA = 655 ?mol·min(-1)·mg(-1) ), tributyrin (SA = 1107 ?mol·min(-1)·mg(-1) ) and phosphatidylcholine (SA = 923 ?mol·min(-1)·mg(-1) ). The optimum pH ranged from 8.0 to 9.0. The protein content of the insoluble fraction of latex was analyzed by electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry, and 28 different proteins were identified. The protein fraction was incubated with the lipase inhibitor [(14) C]tetrahydrolipstatin, and a 45 kDa protein radiolabeled by the inhibitor was identified as being a putative lipase. A C. papaya cDNA encoding a 55 kDa protein was further cloned, and its deduced sequence had 83.7% similarity with peptides from the 45 kDa protein, with a coverage of 25.6%. The protein encoded by this cDNA had 35% sequence identity and 51% similarity to castor bean acid lipase, suggesting that it is the lipase responsible for the important lipolytic activities detected in papaya latex. PMID:21114629

  4. ISSR markers for genetic relationships in Caricaceae and sex differentiation in papaya / Marcadores ISSR nas relações genéticas em Cariaceae e na identificação sexual do mamoeiro

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fabiane Rabelo da, Costa; Telma Nair Santana, Pereira; Ana Paula Candido, Gabriel; Messias Gonzaga, Pereira.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Os marcadores ISSR apresentam amplo polimorfismo e alta reprodutibilidade de resultados, o que tem intensificado seu uso em estudos filogenéticos e na diferenciação sexual de algumas espécies de interesse econômico. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram analisar a divergência genética em Caricaceae util [...] izando-se marcadores ISSR, identificar uma marca capaz de diferenciar plantas hermafroditas e femininas em mamoeiro e verificar se este marcador pode ser utilizado na sexagem precoce de diferentes genótipos da espécie. O estudo foi conduzido com nove primers, os quais foram capazes de distinguir todas as espécies. Observou-se que Jacaratia spinosa ficou mais próxima de Vasconcellea do que de Carica. A espécie C. papaya mostrou-se geneticamente distante de ambos os gêneros. Verificou-se ainda a presença de um fragmento ISSR de 500 pb em 25 % dos genótipos de mamoeiro estudados, podendo ser usado para auxiliar a sexagem precoce do mamoeiro especificamente nesses casos. Abstract in english ISSR markers are polymorphic and their results easily reproducible. They are therefore intensely used in phylogenetic studies and sex differentiation of some economically interesting plant species. The objectives of this study were to analyze the genetic diversity in Caricaceae using ISSR markers, t [...] o identify a specific ISSR band that could distinguish female from hermaphrodite papaya genotypes and to verify whether this marker could be used for early sex differentiation. The ISSR-PCR was performed with nine primers and they could distinguish all species. It was observed that Jacaratia spinosa was closer to Vasconcellea than to Carica. The species C. papaya was only distantly related to both genera. A 500 bp ISSR marker was found in 25 % of the papaya genotypes studied. Specifically in these cases this marker could be used for early sex differentiation in papaya.

  5. Biochemical characterization of VQ-VII, a cysteine peptidase with broad specificity, isolated from Vasconcellea quercifolia latex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, María José; Trejo, Sebastián Alejandro; Natalucci, Claudia Luisa; López, Laura María Isabel

    2013-06-01

    The latex from Vasconcellea quercifolia ("oak leaved papaya"), a member of the Caricaceae family, contains at least seven cysteine endopeptidases with high proteolytic activity, which helps to protect these plants against injury. In this study, we isolated and characterized the most basic of these cysteine endopeptidases, named VQ-VII. This new purified enzyme was homogeneous by bidimensional electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, and exhibited a molecular mass of 23,984 Da and an isoelectric point >11. The enzymatic activity of VQ-VII was completely inhibited by E-64 and iodoacetic acid, confirming that it belongs to the catalytic group of cysteine endopeptidases. By investigating the cleavage of the oxidized insulin B-chain to establish the hydrolytic specificity of VQ-VII, we found 13 cleavage sites on the substrate, revealing that it is a broad-specificity peptidase. The pH profiles toward p-Glu-Phe-Leu-p-nitroanilide (PFLNA) and casein showed that the optimum pH is about 6.8 for both substrates, and that in casein, it is active over a wide pH range (activity higher than 80 % between pH 6 and 9.5). Kinetic enzymatic assays were performed with the thiol peptidase substrate PFLNA (K m = 0.454 ± 0.046 mM, k cat = 1.57 ± 0.07 s(-1), k cat/K m = 3.46 × 10(3) ± 14 s(-1) M(-1)). The N-terminal sequence (21 amino acids) of VQ-VII showed an identity >70 % with 11 plant cysteine peptidases and the presence of highly conserved residues and motifs shared with the "papain-like" family of peptidases. VQ-VII proved to be a new latex enzyme of broad specificity, which can degrade extensively proteins of different nature in a wide pH range. PMID:23568402

  6. Cross-species microsatellite amplification in Vasconcellea and related genera and their use in germplasm classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyndt, T; Droogenbroeck, B Van; Haegeman, A; Roldán-Ruiz, I; Gheysen, G

    2006-07-01

    To generate inexpensive and efficient DNA markers for addressing a number of population genetics problems and identification of wild hybrids in Vasconcellea, we have evaluated the use of simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers previously developed for other species. A set of 103 Vasconcellea accessions and some individuals of the related genera Carica and Jacaratia were analyzed with 10 primer pairs directing amplification of chloroplast microsatellites in Nicotiana tabacum and 9 nuclear SSR primer pairs recently identified in Vasconcellea x heilbornii. Heterologous amplification of chloroplast SSRs was successful for 8 of the 10 loci, of which 6 showed polymorphism. Seven of the 9 nuclear SSR primer pairs were useful in Vasconcellea and often also in Jacaratia and Carica, all revealing polymorphism. Exclusive haplotypes for each described taxon were identified based on chloroplast microsatellite data. Clustering based on separate nuclear and chloroplast data resulted in a clear grouping per taxon, but only low resolution was obtained above species level. The codominancy of nuclear SSRs and the general high polymorphism rate of SSR markers will make them more useful in future population genetics studies and diversity assessment in conservation programs. PMID:16936787

  7. IN VITRO RHIZOGENESIS IN PAPAYA (CARICA PAPAYA L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira Da Silva, Jaime A.

    2013-01-01

    The seeds of two papaya (Carica papaya L.) cultivars ('Rainbow' and 'Sunrise Solo') were germinated on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with 3% sucrose, and free of plant growth regulators. Papaya contains some important secondary metabolites such as papain, and there would be interest in the in vitro mass production of papaya tissue of uniform origin. The most obvious form would be through the induction of somatic embryos, but rhizogenesis, an unexplored method, could provide as-yet unknown a...

  8. BASKETFUL BENEFITS OF PAPAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parle Milind

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Papaya (Carica papaya linn is well known for its exceptional nutritional and medicinal properties throughout the world. From the times immemorial, the whole Papaya plant including its leaves, seeds, ripe and unripe fruits and their juice is used as a traditional medicine. The fruit has a large oval shape, yellowish-green skin and yellow flesh. Nowadays, Papaya is considered as a Nutraceutical fruit due to its multi-faceted medicinal properties. The prominent medicinal properties of Papaya include Anti-fertility, Uterotonic, Diuretic, Anti-hypertensive, Hypolipidemic, Anti-helmintic, Wound-healing, Anti-fungal, Anti-bacterial, Anti-tumor and Free radical scavenging activities. Phytochemically, the whole plant contains enzymes (Papain, carotenoids, alkaloids, monoterpenoids, flavonoids, minerals and vitamins. In the present review article, a humble attempt is made to compile all the strange facts available about this tasty fruit. This tasty fruit of Papaya is popular among family members of all ages for the delicious dishes derived from it.

  9. Post-irradiation identification of papaya ( Carica papaya L.) fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Suchandra; Variyar, Prasad S.; Sharma, Arun

    2012-03-01

    Impact of radiation processing on the volatile essential oil profile of papaya ( Carica papaya) was investigated. Gamma-radiation processing resulted in the appearance of a new peak in the GLC profile that was identified as phenol. The observed dose dependent increase in phenol content suggested possible use of this compound as a marker for radiation processed papaya.

  10. Functional Genomics Tools for Papaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the genome of papaya (Carica papaya L.) sequenced, the study of gene function is becoming an increasing priority. Our research is to develop an RNA-induced gene silencing tool for the study of functional genomics in papaya. We employed agrobacterium leaf infiltration to induce PTGS in '-glucuro...

  11. Áreas potenciales para colectas del Género Vasconcellea Badillo en Venezuela Potential areas for collecting the Vasconcellea Badillo genus in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilia Rodríguez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En Venezuela, dentro de la familia Caricaceae, se han reportado las especies silvestres Vasconcellea. cundinamarcensis Badillo, V. cauliflora (Jacq. A. DC, V. microcarpa subsp microcarpa (Jacq. A DC. y V. microcarpa subsp pilifera (V. M. Badillo V. M. Badillo (endémica de los andes en los estados Mérida y Lara. La especie V. cundinamarcensis representa un material promisorio de importancia comercial local en los estados andinos y V. cauliflora está señalada como un material resistente a virus, con gran potencial para usos en mejoramiento. El presente trabajo fue elaborado para determinar las áreas geográficas potenciales para colectas de las especies de este género. Con datos recopilados tanto de herbarios como de nuevos puntos de colectas realizadas en el país se elaboró una base de datos que posteriormente fue analizada utilizando el programa FloraMap v 1.1, 2001. Los resultados permitieron observar que las especies V. cauliflora y V. microcarpa tienen probablemente una amplia distribución en el país, mientras que la especie V. cundinamarcensis estaría limitada a la región alta andina.In Venezuela the following wild species of Caricaceae have been reported: V. cundinamarcensis Badillo, V. cauliflora (Jacq. A. DC., V. microcarpa subsp microcarpa (Jacq. A. DC and V. microcarpa subsp pilifera (V.M. Badillo V.M. Badillo (endemic of the Andean of Mérida and Lara States. V. cundinamarcensis represents a promissory material with local commercial importance in the Andean states while V. cauliflora has been indicated as a resistant to virus material, with great potential for plant breeding. The objective of this paper was to determine potential areas for collects of these species. With information compiled from herbarium and from new collects realized in the country, a database was elaborated, and later they were analyzed using the software FloraMap v. 1.1 2001. The results showed that the species V. cauliflora and V. microcarpa probably have a wide distribution in the country, whereas V. cundinamarcensis would be limited to the high Andean region.

  12. Áreas potenciales para colectas del Género Vasconcellea Badillo en Venezuela / Potential areas for collecting the Vasconcellea Badillo genus in Venezuela

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Dilia, Rodríguez; Carlos, Marín; Hernando, Quecan; Rafael, Ortiz.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En Venezuela, dentro de la familia Caricaceae, se han reportado las especies silvestres Vasconcellea. cundinamarcensis Badillo, V. cauliflora (Jacq.) A. DC, V. microcarpa subsp microcarpa (Jacq.) A DC. y V. microcarpa subsp pilifera (V. M. Badillo) V. M. Badillo (endémica de los andes en los estados [...] Mérida y Lara). La especie V. cundinamarcensis representa un material promisorio de importancia comercial local en los estados andinos y V. cauliflora está señalada como un material resistente a virus, con gran potencial para usos en mejoramiento. El presente trabajo fue elaborado para determinar las áreas geográficas potenciales para colectas de las especies de este género. Con datos recopilados tanto de herbarios como de nuevos puntos de colectas realizadas en el país se elaboró una base de datos que posteriormente fue analizada utilizando el programa FloraMap v 1.1, 2001. Los resultados permitieron observar que las especies V. cauliflora y V. microcarpa tienen probablemente una amplia distribución en el país, mientras que la especie V. cundinamarcensis estaría limitada a la región alta andina. Abstract in english In Venezuela the following wild species of Caricaceae have been reported: V. cundinamarcensis Badillo, V. cauliflora (Jacq.) A. DC., V. microcarpa subsp microcarpa (Jacq.) A. DC and V. microcarpa subsp pilifera (V.M. Badillo) V.M. Badillo (endemic of the Andean of Mérida and Lara States). V. cundina [...] marcensis represents a promissory material with local commercial importance in the Andean states while V. cauliflora has been indicated as a resistant to virus material, with great potential for plant breeding. The objective of this paper was to determine potential areas for collects of these species. With information compiled from herbarium and from new collects realized in the country, a database was elaborated, and later they were analyzed using the software FloraMap v. 1.1 2001. The results showed that the species V. cauliflora and V. microcarpa probably have a wide distribution in the country, whereas V. cundinamarcensis would be limited to the high Andean region.

  13. Post-irradiation identification of papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Impact of radiation processing on the volatile essential oil profile of papaya (Carica papaya) was investigated. Gamma-radiation processing resulted in the appearance of a new peak in the GLC profile that was identified as phenol. The observed dose dependent increase in phenol content suggested possible use of this compound as a marker for radiation processed papaya. - Highlights: ? Effect of ?-irradiation on the essential oil profile of papaya is demonstrated. ? ?-Irradiation resulted in a dose dependent increase in a new peak, phenol. ? Phenol formed in the volatile oil is proposed as a new marker of irradiated food. ? Content of phenol remained unchanged during the entire storage period.

  14. Spiders associated with papaya, Carica papaya L., in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    The main objective of this work was to study the species composition and population dynamics of spiders associated with papaya plantings in three papaya production areas: Corozal, Isabela, and Lajas, Puerto Rico. Nineteen species representing seven families and 15 genera were identified. Members of ...

  15. Características Físico-Químicas del Látex de Papayuelo (Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis Badillo, Caricaceae) / Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Papayuelo Latex (Vasconcellea Cundinamarcensis Badillo, Caricaceae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leslie V, Vidal; Víctor L, Finot; Karina del C, Mora; Fernando A, Venegas.

    Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se determinó el rendimiento y la actividad enzimática de la papaína presente en el látex de papayuelo (Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis), cultivado en Cobquecura, VIII región del Bío-Bío, Chile, durante un año. Entre enero y diciembre, las plantas, frutos y látex, obtenidos de frutos inmaduros, fueron [...] caracterizados con el propósito de conocer el comportamiento del cultivo a través de las estaciones del año, y comprender las posibles relaciones entre los parámetros estudiados. El diseño experimental fue completamente aleatorio y los datos se procesaron mediante un ANDEVA y prueba de rangos múltiples de Duncan. Se encontró diferencia estadística significativa entre estaciones en cuanto al desarrollo de la planta y sus características. Los mayores rendimientos de látex se obtuvieron en la estación de primavera, mientras que la actividad enzimática se mantuvo constante durante el año de estudio. Abstract in english A study to determine the yield and enzymatic activity of papain present in the latex obtained from papayuelo fruit (Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis ) cultivated in Cobquecura, VIII Bío-Bío Region in Chile, during one year was done. Between January and December the papayuelo plants, fruits and latex ob [...] tained from unripe fruits were characterized. The objective of the study was to know the species behavior through the seasons and the relation between the parameters studied. The experimental design was completely random, and the data were processed through ANOVA and Duncan’s multiple range test. A significant statistical difference in plant growth and plan characteristics between seasons was found. The higher latex yields were obtained in spring, whereas the enzymatic activity was constant through the year.

  16. Características Físico-Químicas del Látex de Papayuelo (Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis Badillo, Caricaceae Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Papayuelo Latex (Vasconcellea Cundinamarcensis Badillo, Caricaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie V Vidal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó el rendimiento y la actividad enzimática de la papaína presente en el látex de papayuelo (Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis, cultivado en Cobquecura, VIII región del Bío-Bío, Chile, durante un año. Entre enero y diciembre, las plantas, frutos y látex, obtenidos de frutos inmaduros, fueron caracterizados con el propósito de conocer el comportamiento del cultivo a través de las estaciones del año, y comprender las posibles relaciones entre los parámetros estudiados. El diseño experimental fue completamente aleatorio y los datos se procesaron mediante un ANDEVA y prueba de rangos múltiples de Duncan. Se encontró diferencia estadística significativa entre estaciones en cuanto al desarrollo de la planta y sus características. Los mayores rendimientos de látex se obtuvieron en la estación de primavera, mientras que la actividad enzimática se mantuvo constante durante el año de estudio.A study to determine the yield and enzymatic activity of papain present in the latex obtained from papayuelo fruit (Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis cultivated in Cobquecura, VIII Bío-Bío Region in Chile, during one year was done. Between January and December the papayuelo plants, fruits and latex obtained from unripe fruits were characterized. The objective of the study was to know the species behavior through the seasons and the relation between the parameters studied. The experimental design was completely random, and the data were processed through ANOVA and Duncan’s multiple range test. A significant statistical difference in plant growth and plan characteristics between seasons was found. The higher latex yields were obtained in spring, whereas the enzymatic activity was constant through the year.

  17. In vitro morphogenic responses of Vasconcellea chilensis Planch. ex A. DC (Caricaceae) / Respuestas morfogenéticas in vitro de Vasconcellea chilensis Planch. ex A. DC (Caricaceae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Miguel, Jordan Z.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish La formación de brotes múltiples bajo condiciones in vitro pudo ser inducida en secciones nodales de plantas adultas de "palo gordo" Vasconcellea chilensis ex Carica chilensis, mediante el uso de altos niveles de tidiazuron (TDZ), ácido indolacético (AIA) y en presencia de addenda orgánica (hidroliz [...] ado enzimático de caseína, sulfato de adenina y cisteína) incluidas en el medio nutritivo "WPM". Dichos brotes se iniciaron sincrónicamente, en forma de agregados compactos y/o en hileras, sobre la superficie del explante. En subcultivo, los brotes evidenciaron elongación tornando a color verde, con iniciación de nuevos brotes desde la base y, a pesar de la presencia de ácido indolbutírico (AIB) como única hormona, no desarrollaron raíces. Otros explantes ensayados, tales como pecíolos, no evidenciaron respuesta. Solo secciones de hojas iniciaron la formación de una estructura compacta o callo a nivel de la nervadura principal transcurridas 4-5 semanas, tornándose pardo luego y con posterior muerte tisular Abstract in english Multiple shoot formation was induced in vitro on nodal sections excised from adult "palo gordo" plants of Vasconcellea chilensis ex Carica chilensis, in the presence of relatively high levels of thidiazuron (TDZ), indole-3- acetic acid (IAA) and organic addenda included in the WPM formulation includ [...] ing casein hydrolysate, adenine sulfate and cystein. Multiple shoots appeared simultaneously in strands or clusters on the surface of the explants; usually two or more clusters with new shoots were initiated, all showing synchronous growth. In subculture, in the presence of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) as single hormone, root formation did not take place; the shoots turned green instead, evidenced elongation and development of new shoots at the base of the explants. Other explants, such as petioles and leaf sections exhibited callus initiation upon the vascular system after 4-5 weeks; however, this tissue turned brown later on and died

  18. frutos de papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Adriana Sa\\u00F1udo Barajas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se determinaron los principales cambios en la composición de la pared celular y la degradación de pectinas solubles en agua relacionados con el ablandamiento postcosecha de frutos de papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. ?Maradol?. Se estudiaron frutos en estado de madurez 1/2 (50-75 % de coloración amarillo-naranja en la cáscara, los cuales se retrasaron en la maduración con 300 nL L-1 de 1-metilciclopropeno (1-MCP o se adelantaron con 2.5 g L-1 de ácido 2-cloroetil fosfónico (etefón. Posterior a los tratamientos, los frutos se almacenaron en condiciones de simulación de mercadeo (20 ± 2 °C y HR 85 % durante 6 d. Se evaluaron los cambios en firmeza, composición de la pared celular y despolimerización de las pectinas solubles en agua. La aplicación de 1-MCP inhibió totalmente el ablandamiento de los frutos. Los frutos testigo perdieron 69 % de la firmeza a los 3 d de almacenamiento y los frutos con etefón perdieron 84 % en el mismo periodo. El ablandamiento en los frutos testigo y etefón se acompañó de la solubilización de ácidos urónicos y azúcares totales de las fracciones CDTA, Na2CO3, KOH 4% y KOH 24 %. La despolimerización extensiva de pectinas solubles en agua y la acumulación de oligómeros derivados de pectinas sólo fue detectada en los tratamientos testigo y etefón, lo que muestra una relación con el ablandamiento de los frutos y sugire la posible acción de la poligalacturonasa.

  19. Improving Tenderness of Spent Layer Hens Meat Using Papaya Leaves (Carica papaya)

    OpenAIRE

    H O Abdalla, N. N. A. Ali

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments were performed to study the use of papaya leaves as a meat tenderizer. The first experiment was to evaluate the effect of papaya dry leaves added to hen’s diet before slaughter. Spent hens (n=48) were used, half of them were fed a concentrate ration containing10% dried papaya leaves powder (DPLP) while others received layer ration (Control), for 10 days. The second experiment involved a comparison between papaya leaves juice (PLJ), fresh papaya leaves (FPL) and vinegar solu...

  20. THE EVOLUTION OF SEX CHROMOSOMES IN PAPAYA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is one of plant species with male, female, and hermaphrodite plants. Sex determination in papaya is controlled by a primitive Y chromosome that contains a male-specific region with severe recombination suppression and DNA sequence degeneration. Our recent results showed tha...

  1. IN VITRO RHIZOGENESIS IN PAPAYA (CARICA PAPAYA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime A. TEIXEIRA DA SILVA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The seeds of two papaya (Carica papaya L. cultivars ('Rainbow' and 'Sunrise Solo' were germinated on Murashige and Skoog (MS medium with 3% sucrose, and free of plant growth regulators. Papaya contains some important secondary metabolites such as papain, and there would be interest in the in vitro mass production of papaya tissue of uniform origin. The most obvious form would be through the induction of somatic embryos, but rhizogenesis, an unexplored method, could provide as-yet unknown advantages. In this study, with the objective of artificaially inducing rhizogenesis in vitro, young leaves of both cultivars were placed on MS basal medium exposed to 5 concentrations (0, 1, 2, 4 or 8 mg/l of auxins (2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 2,4,5-T; indole-3-acetic acid, IAA; indole-3-butyric acid, IBA; ?-naphthaleneacetic acid, NAA; ?-naphthoxyacetic acid, BNOA or phloroglucinol. All auxins could induce adventitious roots. Most roots (23/explant formed with 2 mg/l NAA. The ability to induce only roots without any other intermediary organs such as callus or shoots provides an exclusive system for possible root-specific secondary metabolite production without the need for transgenic technologies such as Agrobacterium rhizogenes, or could provide a model protocol for more in-depth developmental studies on root development in papaya, an unexplored topic for this tropical plant.

  2. 75 FR 22207 - Importation of Papayas From Colombia and Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ...Importation of Papayas From Colombia and Ecuador AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection...shipments of fresh papayas from Colombia and Ecuador into the continental United States. The...importation of papayas from Colombia and Ecuador include requirements for field...

  3. Digital Transcriptome Analysis of Putative Sex-Determination Genes in Papaya (Carica papaya)

    OpenAIRE

    Urasaki, Naoya; Tarora, Kazuhiko; Shudo, Ayano; Ueno, Hiroki; Tamaki, Moritoshi; Miyagi, Norimichi; Adaniya, Shinichi; Matsumura, Hideo

    2012-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya) is a trioecious plant species that has male, female and hermaphrodite flowers on different plants. The primitive sex chromosomes genetically determine the sex of the papaya. Although draft sequences of the papaya genome are already available, the genes for sex determination have not been identified, likely due to the complicated structure of its sex-chromosome sequences. To identify the candidate genes for sex determination, we conducted a transcriptome analysis of flow...

  4. Ocorrência de Ovulariopsis papayae Bijl em folhas de mamoeiro Occurrence of Ovulariopsis papayae Bijl in papaya leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan José Antunes Ribeiro

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available É citada pela primeira vez, em nossas condições, a ocorrência de oídio causado por Ovulariopsis papayae Bijl em folhas de mamoeiro (Cacica papaya L.. São descritas a sintomatologia, as características morfológicas do patógeno e o teste de patogenicidade.The occurrence causing powdery mildew in papaya leaves was observed for the first time in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The symptomatology and the morphological characteristics of the pathogen were described and the pathogenicity was comproved.

  5. Ocorrência de Ovulariopsis papayae Bijl em folhas de mamoeiro Occurrence of Ovulariopsis papayae Bijl in papaya leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan José Antunes Ribeiro; Lucia Helena Signori Melo de Castro; Maria Teresa de Toledo Rica; Coleis de Toledo Piza Junior

    1988-01-01

    É citada pela primeira vez, em nossas condições, a ocorrência de oídio causado por Ovulariopsis papayae Bijl em folhas de mamoeiro (Cacica papaya L.). São descritas a sintomatologia, as características morfológicas do patógeno e o teste de patogenicidade.The occurrence causing powdery mildew in papaya leaves was observed for the first time in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The symptomatology and the morphological characteristics of the pathogen were described and the pathogenicity ...

  6. Allergenicity assessment of the Papaya ringspot virus coat protein expressed in transgenic Rainbow papaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    The virus-resistant, transgenic commercial papaya cultivars Rainbow and SunUp (Carica papaya L.) have been consumed locally in Hawaii and elsewhere in the mainland US and Canada since their release to planters in Hawaii in 1998. These cultivars are derived from transgenic papaya line 55-1 and carry ...

  7. EFFECT OF UNRIPE CARICA PAPAYA ON UTERUS

    OpenAIRE

    Meera Sumanth; Ugendra K

    2013-01-01

    The present study was under taken to establish the uterine stimulant activity of aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya. The effect of the aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya was studied on isolated rat uterus and embryo. Uterine stimulant activity was compared with clinically available drug oxytocin and the effect on embryo was compared with misoprostol. In the in vitro model, Carica papaya showed contractile effect on the isolated uterus in diestrus stage and when administered orally i...

  8. chilena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. Hojman

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Chile es el único país latinoamericano donde las políticas económicas neoliberales han tenido éxito. Esto podría deberse tanto a la cultura nacional como a la cultura organizacional del país, que están estrechamente relacionadas. Ambas están llenas de contradicciones. El trabajo identifica algunas características más estables en el largo plazo de ambas culturas, así como también dramáticos cambios culturales ocurridos desde mediados de los años ochenta. Éstos últimos coexistieron con rápido crecimiento de la economía. Debido a ambigüedades, inconsistencias y contradicciones en la gestión organizacional, particularmente en lo relativo a recursos humanos, muchos empleados pueden haber sido forzados a adoptar patrones culturales y de comportamiento frecuentemente asociados a la caricatura Condorito

  9. Physical-chemical analyses of irradiated papayas (Carica papaya L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camargo, R.J. [Radiation Technology Center, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Lineu Prestes, 2242, 05508-900, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Tadini, C.C. [Chemical Engineering Department, Escola Politecnica, Sao Paulo University, P.O. Box 61548, 05424-970, SP (Brazil); Sabato, S.F. [Radiation Technology Center, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Lineu Prestes, 2242, 05508-900, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: sfsabato@ipen.br

    2007-11-15

    Papaya is cultivated in Espirito Santo State/Brazil and as it stands up to irradiation, it is important to validate this technology, since it is already being applied in some countries. Penetration energy, ratio (relation between soluble solids and titrable acidity) and skin color were evaluated to verify the influence of four different doses of irradiation (0.0, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.00 kGy) on papayas, during 21 days. As a result for the skin color and the penetration energy, it was found that in the first days after irradiation, these variables increased with increase in radiation dose; however, after a time lapse, the tendency inverted and the irradiated fruits had a slower ripening process. For the ratio, a very important variable that it is responsible for the fruit taste, no difference was found between irradiated and the control fruit. Color and texture measurements are dependent on the storage temperature.

  10. Physical-chemical analyses of irradiated papayas ( Carica papaya L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, R. J.; Tadini, C. C.; Sabato, S. F.

    2007-11-01

    Papaya is cultivated in Espírito Santo State/Brazil and as it stands up to irradiation, it is important to validate this technology, since it is already being applied in some countries. Penetration energy, ratio (relation between soluble solids and titrable acidity) and skin color were evaluated to verify the influence of four different doses of irradiation (0.0, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.00 kGy) on papayas, during 21 days. As a result for the skin color and the penetration energy, it was found that in the first days after irradiation, these variables increased with increase in radiation dose; however, after a time lapse, the tendency inverted and the irradiated fruits had a slower ripening process. For the ratio, a very important variable that it is responsible for the fruit taste, no difference was found between irradiated and the control fruit. Color and texture measurements are dependent on the storage temperature.

  11. Physical-chemical analyses of irradiated papayas (Carica papaya L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papaya is cultivated in Espirito Santo State/Brazil and as it stands up to irradiation, it is important to validate this technology, since it is already being applied in some countries. Penetration energy, ratio (relation between soluble solids and titrable acidity) and skin color were evaluated to verify the influence of four different doses of irradiation (0.0, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.00 kGy) on papayas, during 21 days. As a result for the skin color and the penetration energy, it was found that in the first days after irradiation, these variables increased with increase in radiation dose; however, after a time lapse, the tendency inverted and the irradiated fruits had a slower ripening process. For the ratio, a very important variable that it is responsible for the fruit taste, no difference was found between irradiated and the control fruit. Color and texture measurements are dependent on the storage temperature

  12. Species relationships in the genus Vasconcellea (Caricaceae) based on molecular and morphological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyndt, Tina; Romeijn-Peeters, Eliza; Van Droogenbroeck, Bart; Romero-Motochi, José P; Gheysen, Godelieve; Goetghebeur, Paul

    2005-06-01

    Validity of the taxa currently recognized in the genus Vasconcellea was analyzed by investigating morphological and molecular data from 105 specimens of this genus and six specimens of the related genus Carica. Taxon identification of these specimens was compared with clustering in two phenetic dendrograms generated with 36 morphological characters and 254 amplified fragment length polymorphic (AFLP) markers. Moreover, cytoplasmic haplotypes were assessed using polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) of one mitochondrial and two chloroplast DNA regions. Results show that the morphological data set, containing mainly vegetative characteristics, merely reveals external resemblance between specimens, which is not directly associated with genetic relationships and taxon validity. Phenotypic plasticity and intercompatibility between several species are likely to confuse morphological delimitation of the taxa. Based on the results of our study, several specimens that could not be identified with the currently used identification key (1) could be attributed to a known taxon, which should be extended to include a higher range of morphological variability or (2) could be hypothesized to be of hybrid origin. Because of the high intraspecific variation within V. microcarpa and V. × heilbornii, revision of these taxa is recommended. PMID:21652488

  13. In vitro morphogenic responses of Vasconcellea chilensis Planch. ex A. DC (Caricaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Z. Miguel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Multiple shoot formation was induced in vitro on nodal sections excised from adult “palo gordo” plants of Vasconcellea chilensis ex Carica chilensis, in the presence of relatively high levels of thidiazuron (TDZ, indole-3- acetic acid (IAA and organic addenda included in the WPM formulation including casein hydrolysate, adenine sulfate and cystein. Multiple shoots appeared simultaneously in strands or clusters on the surface of the explants; usually two or more clusters with new shoots were initiated, all showing synchronous growth. In subculture, in the presence of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA as single hormone, root formation did not take place; the shoots turned green instead, evidenced elongation and development of new shoots at the base of the explants. Other explants, such as petioles and leaf sections exhibited callus initiation upon the vascular system after 4-5 weeks; however, this tissue turned brown later on and died.

  14. Somatic embryogenesis of Carica Papaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the somatic embryogenesis of Carica papaya. Culture medium used was1/2 strength MS basal medium supplemented with 6% sucrose, 0.27 % agar, glutamine and various concentrations of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). After 8 weeks in culture, the best concentration of 2,4-D to induce somatic embryo is at 45.2 ?M. (Author)

  15. Casa Chilena 1: Rancagua, Chile

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Smiljan, Radic.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Los nogales crecidos a los cuales se les ha dejado en paz, la negación del exterior gracias a una tapia perimetral pintada a la cal, un patio interior con posibilidades de ser cubierto por una sombra simple de membrana agrícola anclada a sus muros, un estar familiar austero con síntomas de exterior [...] desplegado a todo lo largo del patio, un cielo de madera en bruto pintada y los dormitorios de colores fuertes, recuerdan de una u otra manera, las casas de inquilinos del campo chileno. En la Casa Chilena 2, se acentúa la negación del exterior y el patio interior se parte en dos generando exteriores matizados. Abstract in english The grown walnut trees left in peace, the negation of the exterior thanks to a whitewashed perimeter wall, an interior patio with the possibility of being covered by the simple shade of an agricultural screen anchored to its walls, an austere, family living room with exterior characteristics unfoldi [...] ng along the patio, a rough, painted wood ceiling and bedrooms in strong colors, remind one of the Inquilino houses of the Chilean countryside. In the Chilean House 2, the negation of the exterior is accentuated and the interior patio divides in two to generate blended exteriors.

  16. Gene Technology for Papaya Ringspot Virus Disease Management

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Abul Kalam Azad; Latifah Amin; Nik Marzuki Sidik

    2014-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya) is severely damaged by the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). This review focuses on the development of PRSV resistant transgenic papaya through gene technology. The genetic diversity of PRSV depends upon geographical distribution and the influence of PRSV disease management on a sequence of PRSV isolates. The concept of pathogen-derived resistance has been employed for the development of transgenic papaya, using a coat protein-mediated, RNA-silencing mechanism and replicase...

  17. Anticancer activity of Carica papaya: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thao T T; Shaw, Paul N; Parat, Marie-Odile; Hewavitharana, Amitha K

    2013-01-01

    Carica papaya is widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical countries and is used as food as well as traditional medicine to treat a range of diseases. Increasing anecdotal reports of its effects in cancer treatment and prevention, with many successful cases, have warranted that these pharmacological properties be scientifically validated. A bibliographic search was conducted using the key words "papaya", "anticancer", and "antitumor" along with cross-referencing. No clinical or animal cancer studies were identified and only seven in vitro cell-culture-based studies were reported; these indicate that C. papaya extracts may alter the growth of several types of cancer cell lines. However, many studies focused on specific compounds in papaya and reported bioactivity including anticancer effects. This review summarizes the results of extract-based or specific compound-based investigations and emphasizes the aspects that warrant future research to explore the bioactives in C. papaya for their anticancer activities. PMID:23212988

  18. Ocorrência de Ovulariopsis papayae Bijl em folhas de mamoeiro / Occurrence of Ovulariopsis papayae Bijl in papaya leaves

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ivan José Antunes, Ribeiro; Lucia Helena Signori Melo de, Castro; Maria Teresa de Toledo, Rica; Coleis de Toledo, Piza Junior.

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese É citada pela primeira vez, em nossas condições, a ocorrência de oídio causado por Ovulariopsis papayae Bijl em folhas de mamoeiro (Cacica papaya L.). São descritas a sintomatologia, as características morfológicas do patógeno e o teste de patogenicidade. [...] Abstract in english The occurrence causing powdery mildew in papaya leaves was observed for the first time in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The symptomatology and the morphological characteristics of the pathogen were described and the pathogenicity was comproved. [...

  19. Genetic diversity studies of Papaya meleira virus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cleidiane B., Daltro; Emanuel Felipe Medeiros, Abreu; Francisco Jose Lima, Aragão; Eduardo C., Andrade.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Papaya (Carica papaya) is a fruit crop of great economic and social importance for Brazil and other papaya-producing countries. Brazil is the second largest producer in the world. The papaya sticky disease, caused by Papaya meleira virus (PMeV), has caused great losses in the major Brazilian papaya- [...] producing states. In order to estimate the genetic diversity of PMeV, latex samples were collected from papaya plants in the states of Bahia, Espírito Santo, Pernambuco, Ceará and Rio Grande do Norte, and total RNA was extracted. Specific primer for the replicase region allowed the amplification, by RT-PCR, of a fragment of approximately 560 bp from 31 isolates. The sequence analysis indicated a level of conservation greater than 88% among isolates. Furthermore, comparative analyzes indicated that PMeV has similarity with mycoviruses of the family Totiviridae. This phylogenetic relationship was reinforced by the presence of conserved motifs within in the RdRp regions from mycoviruses.

  20. Effect of Biopreservatives on Storage Life of Papaya (Carica papaya L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Brishti, Fatema H.; Jawadul Misir; Ayesha Sarker

    2013-01-01

    In this experiment the effect on post-harvest preservation of papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit coated with either Aloe gel (AG; 100%) or papaya leaf extract with Aloe gel (PLEAG; 1:1) was studied. To evaluate the role of coating on ripening behavior and quality of papaya the uncoated and coated fruits were stored and ripened at room temperature (25 °C-29 °C) and 82-84% relative humidity. Physico-chemical properties were analyzed at 4 day intervals during the storage period. The incidence o...

  1. The draft genome of the transgenic tropical fruit tree papaya (Carica papaya Linnaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report a draft genome sequence of ‘SunUp’ papaya, the first commercial virus-resistant transgenic fruit tree crop. The papaya genome has more than two times the DNA but about 28% fewer genes than the genome of the related botanical model Arabidopsis. A lack of genome duplication, atypical of angi...

  2. Nutritional Analysis of two Local Varieties of Papaya (Carica papaya L. at Different Maturation Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luthfunnesa Bari

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Two varieties, Local-1 and Local-2 of papaya (Carica papaya L. were analyzed at four maturity stages (green, mature, ripen and rotten to obtain a comparative information on their nutritional parameters such as pH, moisture, ash, TTA protein, lipid, carbohydrate, free sugar, reducing sugar, carotene, riboflavin, thiamin, ascorbic acid, calcium, sodium, magnesium, potassium, iron and phosphorus content. The nutrient composition of papaya flesh was found to vary at different maturation stage. The pH, moisture content increases gradually with advancement of maturity in healthy papaya but decreases at rotten stage. The ash, TTA and fiber content was found to be maximum in mature stages and gradually deceases from ripen stage to rotten stage. The results on carbohydrate shown that ripe papaya is a good source of carbohydrate (23.5±0.04 g % but the content decreases in rotten stage. The concentration of protein, lipid, riboflavin and thiamine are extremely low in ripe papaya. The free sugar, reducing sugar and starch content gradually increases up to ripen stage but decreases at rotten stage. Ripe papaya is a very rich source of vitamin A and vitamin C but their concentrations decrease abruptly at rotten stage. The minerals such as calcium, sodium, magnesium, potassium and phosphorus content of papaya flesh gradually increases with the advancement of maturity whereas the increasing level of iron declines at ripen stages.

  3. Improving Tenderness of Spent Layer Hens Meat Using Papaya Leaves (Carica papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. O. Abdalla, N. N. A. Ali, F. S. Siddig and S. A. M. Ali*

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were performed to study the use of papaya leaves as a meat tenderizer. The first experiment was to evaluate the effect of papaya dry leaves added to hen’s diet before slaughter. Spent hens (n=48 were used, half of them were fed a concentrate ration containing10% dried papaya leaves powder (DPLP while others received layer ration (Control, for 10 days. The second experiment involved a comparison between papaya leaves juice (PLJ, fresh papaya leaves (FPL and vinegar solution (VS as marinades applied to meat for one or two hours before cooking. Spent layer hens (n=42 were used for tenderness evaluation method. After slaughtering and preparing the chickens two methods of cooking were used (oven and moist cooking. The cooked parts (breast, thigh and drumstick were subjected to a panel test evaluation according to a designed questionnaire. Addition of dried papaya leaves powder to spent layer hens ration significantly (P?0.05 increased the level of meat tenderness. Moist cooking had significantly (P?0.05 improved meat tenderization compared to oven cooking. Meat treated with fresh papaya leaves had significantly (P?0.05 improved tenderness. It was concluded that wrapping the tough meat of spent layer hens with fresh papaya leaves for one hour and moist cooking improve tenderness of meat.

  4. Erwinia mallotivora sp., a New Pathogen of Papaya (Carica papaya in Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriha Mat Amin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Erwinia mallotivora was isolated from papaya infected with dieback disease showing the typical symptoms of greasy, water-soaked lesions and spots on leaves. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain belonged to the genus Erwinia and was united in a monophyletic group with E. mallotivora DSM 4565 (AJ233414. Earlier studies had indicated that the causal agent for this disease was E. papayae. However, our current studies, through Koch’s postulate, have confirmed that papaya dieback disease is caused by E. mallotivora. To our knowledge, this is the first new discovery of E. mallotivora as a causal agent of papaya dieback disease in Peninsular Malaysia. Previous reports have suggested that E. mallotivora causes leaf spot in Mallotus japonicus. However, this research confirms it also to be pathogenic to Carica papaya.

  5. Erwinia mallotivora sp., a new pathogen of papaya (Carica papaya) in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Noriha Mat; Bunawan, Hamidun; Redzuan, Rohaiza Ahmad; Jaganath, Indu Bala S

    2010-01-01

    Erwinia mallotivora was isolated from papaya infected with dieback disease showing the typical symptoms of greasy, water-soaked lesions and spots on leaves. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain belonged to the genus Erwinia and was united in a monophyletic group with E. mallotivora DSM 4565 (AJ233414). Earlier studies had indicated that the causal agent for this disease was E. papayae. However, our current studies, through Koch's postulate, have confirmed that papaya dieback disease is caused by E. mallotivora. To our knowledge, this is the first new discovery of E. mallotivora as a causal agent of papaya dieback disease in Peninsular Malaysia. Previous reports have suggested that E. mallotivora causes leaf spot in Mallotus japonicus. However, this research confirms it also to be pathogenic to Carica papaya. PMID:21339975

  6. CARICA PAPAYA: A COMPLETE PACKAGE OF NUTRITIONALAND MEDICINAL BENEFITS

    OpenAIRE

    Karabhari Rekha Bhaskar

    2014-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya Linn.) is well known for its exceptional nutritional and medicinal properties throughout the world. From the times immemorial, the whole Carica papaya plant including its leaves, seeds, ripe and unripe fruits and their juice is used as traditional medicine. The fruit has a large oval shape, yellowish -green skin and yellow flesh. Now a day, Carica papaya is considered as nutraceutical fruit due to its multi faceted medicinal and nutritional properties. Th...

  7. VITAMIN AND MINERAL CONTENT OF HAWAII’S PAPAYA CULTIVARS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaya (Carica papaya) cultivars were harvested from different locations throughout Hawaii and analyzed for vitamin C (ascorbic acid), provitamin A ( '-carotene, '-carotene, '-cryptoxanthin), and mineral composition. Papaya mean vitamin C content was 51.2 mg/100g, with no significant differences amo...

  8. Evidence of Natural Hybridization and Introgression between Vasconcellea Species (Caricaceae) from Southern Ecuador Revealed by Chloroplast, Mitochondrial and Nuclear DNA Markers

    OpenAIRE

    Droogenbroeck, B.; Kyndt, T.; Romeijn-peeters, E.; Thuyne, W.; Goetghebeur, P.; Romero-motochi, J. P.; Gheysen, G.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Vasconcellea × heilbornii is believed to be of natural hybrid origin between V. cundinamarcensis and V. stipulata, and is often difficult to discriminate from V. stipulata on morphological grounds. The aim of this paper is to examine individuals of these three taxa and of individuals from the closely related species V. parviflora and V. weberbaueri, which all inhabit a hybrid zone in southern Ecuador.

  9. DESHIDRATACIÓN OSMÓTICA DE FRUTOS DE PAPAYA HAWAIANA (Carica papaya L.) EN CUATRO AGENTES EDULCORANTES / OSMOTIC DEHYDRATION OF HAWAIIAN PAPAYA FRUITS (Carica papaya L.) USING FOUR SWEETENER AGENTS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Margarita Maria, Ríos Pérez; Carlos Julio, Márquez Cardozo; Héctor José, Ciro Velásquez.

    2998-30-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Trozos de papaya hawaiiana (Carica papaya L.) fueron sometidos a un proceso de osmo-deshidratación usando cuatro agentes edulcorantes: miel de abejas, miel de caña, crema de miel de abejas y sacarosa en medio acuoso a 79 grados Brix, temperatura de 20 ºC y 23 horas de inmersión. Los resultados estad [...] ísticos mostraron que el agente de mayor capacidad deshidratante fue la miel de abejas y el menor la sacarosa. Además, los análisis cinéticos indicaron que la máxima transferencia de masa ocurre en las primeras cuatro horas del proceso y la máxima pérdida de masa del producto que puede ser alcanzada fue de 32 % con un contenido de humedad final en los frutos de papaya osmodeshidratada de 41,3 % b.h. Abstract in english Pieces of Hawaiian papaya (Carica papaya L.) were subjected to osmotic dehydration using four sweetener agents: honey, molasses, honey cream and sucrose in aqueous solution to 79 degrees Brix, 20 ºC temperature and 23 hours of immersion. The statistical results showed that honey was the sweetener ag [...] ent with highest osmotic capacity while sucrose had the lowest. The kinetic analysis also showed that the maximum mass transfer occurs during the first four hours of the process and the maximum mass loss of the product that can be attained was 32 % with a final moisture content of 41,3 % w.b.

  10. DESHIDRATACIÓN OSMÓTICA DE FRUTOS DE PAPAYA HAWAIANA (Carica papaya L. EN CUATRO AGENTES EDULCORANTES OSMOTIC DEHYDRATION OF HAWAIIAN PAPAYA FRUITS (Carica papaya L. USING FOUR SWEETENER AGENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Maria Ríos Pérez

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Trozos de papaya hawaiiana (Carica papaya L. fueron sometidos a un proceso de osmo-deshidratación usando cuatro agentes edulcorantes: miel de abejas, miel de caña, crema de miel de abejas y sacarosa en medio acuoso a 79 grados Brix, temperatura de 20 ºC y 23 horas de inmersión. Los resultados estadísticos mostraron que el agente de mayor capacidad deshidratante fue la miel de abejas y el menor la sacarosa. Además, los análisis cinéticos indicaron que la máxima transferencia de masa ocurre en las primeras cuatro horas del proceso y la máxima pérdida de masa del producto que puede ser alcanzada fue de 32 % con un contenido de humedad final en los frutos de papaya osmodeshidratada de 41,3 % b.h.Pieces of Hawaiian papaya (Carica papaya L. were subjected to osmotic dehydration using four sweetener agents: honey, molasses, honey cream and sucrose in aqueous solution to 79 degrees Brix, 20 ºC temperature and 23 hours of immersion. The statistical results showed that honey was the sweetener agent with highest osmotic capacity while sucrose had the lowest. The kinetic analysis also showed that the maximum mass transfer occurs during the first four hours of the process and the maximum mass loss of the product that can be attained was 32 % with a final moisture content of 41,3 % w.b.

  11. Correlation between ethylene emission and skin colour changes during papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, M. G.; Oliveira, J. G.; Vitoria, A. P.; Corrêa, S. F.; Pereira, M. G.; Campostrini, E.; Santos, E. O.; Cavalli, A.; Vargas, H.

    2005-06-01

    The skin colour changes and ethylene emission rates were monitored during papaya (C. papaya L.) fruit ripening. Two groups of papaya (‘Formosa’ and ‘Solo’) were applied in this study. The total colour difference was used as measured parameter and the corresponding half time of its saturation was used as correlation parameter. A high correlation factor between the saturation half time and corresponding climacteric peak time was found. It was concluded that high ethylene emission rate in ‘Solo’ fruit promotes a quick change of the total colour difference.

  12. 76 FR 13972 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Fresh Papaya Fruit From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ...pest risks associated with the importation of fresh papaya (Carica papaya) fruit from Malaysia into the continental United...to allow the importation of edible fresh fruit of papaya (Carica papaya) into the continental United States....

  13. Caracterización de accesiones de papaya (Carica papaya L.) a través de marcadores AFLP en Cuba / Characterising Cuban papaya accessions (Carica papaya L.) by AFLP markers

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maruchi Alonso, Esquivel; Martín, Bautista Alor; Matilde, Ortiz García; Adriana, Quiroz Moreno; Wolfgang, Rohde; Lorenzo Felipe, Sánchez Teyer.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los marcadores moleculares son herramientas valiosas en los estudios genéticos en plantas, y están siendo empleados exitosamente en programas de mejoramiento principalmente en la elección de progenitores y en la selección. El polimorfismo observado mediante la técnica molecular AFLP (Amplified Fragm [...] ent Length Polymorphism) ha sido de utilidad para estudios de diversidad genética en frutales. En el presente trabajo se realizó la caracterización molecular de 12 accesiones de papaya (Carica papaya L.) del banco de germoplasma del Instituto de Investigaciones en Fruticultura Tropical (IIFT), empleando la técnica AFLP. Se evaluaron seis combinaciones de iniciadores para la amplificación selectiva, las cuales amplificaron un total de 431 bandas con 73,3% de polimorfismo. El número total de patrones de bandas identificados fue igual en todas las combinaciones utilizadas, con un porcentaje de identificación alto, lo que sugiere que dichas combinaciones pudieran ser empleadas para estudios de variabilidad genética en papaya. En general, los resultados presentados demuestran que existe diversidad genética entre las accesiones evaluadas, lo cual constituye un reflejo del origen que presentan los genotipos analizados a partir de la introducción de materiales foráneos y la polinización abierta de un grupo de materiales selectos. Por tanto, se recomienda retomar la prospección y selección de accesiones locales, así como la introducción de nuevos genotipos foráneos, como dos vías fundamentales para aumentar la diversidad genética presente en el banco de germoplasma de papaya de Cuba. Abstract in english Molecular markers are valuable tools for genetic studies in plants and they are often used successfully in genetic breeding, mainly for choosing progenitors and selection. Polymorphism observed by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) has been useful for genetic diversity studies in fruit tr [...] ees. Twelve papaya accessions from the Tropical Fruit Crop Research Institute germplasm bank were molecularly characterised by AFLP. 431 bands having 73.3% polymorphism were obtained using 6 primer combinations. The total number of band patterns identified was the same in all combinations assayed with a high percentage of identification, suggesting that such primer combinations could be used for genetic variability studies in papaya. The results demonstrated genetic diversity among the papaya accessions evaluated, indicating the origin of the analysed genotypes from exogenous material and open pollination of a selected group of material. It is thus recommended that local accessions and their selection be monitored as well as the introduction of new foreign genotypes as two ways of increasing the genetic diversity of the Cuban papaya germplasm bank.

  14. Quantification of the antiplasmodial alkaloid carpaine in papaya (Carica papaya) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julianti, Tasqiah; Oufir, Mouhssin; Hamburger, Matthias

    2014-08-01

    Daily consumption of papaya (Carica papaya) leaves as greens and an herbal infusion is common in some parts of Indonesia as a means for preventing malaria. Antiplasmodial activity of the leaf extracts and of the main alkaloid carpaine were recently confirmed. A quantitative assay for determination of carpaine in papaya leaves was developed and validated. The assay involved pressurized liquid extraction and quantification with the aid of ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy. Extraction conditions were optimized with respect to solvent, temperature, and number of extraction cycles. The ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy assay was validated over a range of 20-5000 ng/mL (R(2) of 0.9908). A total of 29 papaya leaf samples were analyzed, and carpaine concentration in dry leaves was found to range from 0.02 to 0.31%. No obvious dependence on geographic origin and leaf maturity was observed. PMID:25153096

  15. Influence of ripening stages on antioxidant properties of papaya fruit (Carica papaya L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addai, Zuhair Radhi; Abdullah, Aminah; Mutalib, Sahilah Abd.

    2013-11-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L. cv Eksotika) is one of the most commonly consumed tropical fruits by humans, especially Malaysians. The objective of this study was to determine the phenolic compounds and antioxidants activity in different ripening stages of papaya fruit. The fruits were harvested at five different, stages RS1, RS2, RS3, RS4, and RS5 corresponding to 12, 14, 16, 18, and 20 weeks after anthesis, respectively. Papayas fruit at five different stage of ripening were obtained from farms at Pusat Flora Cheras, JabatanPertanian and Hulu Langat Semenyih, Selangor, Malaysia. The antioxidants activity were analyzed using the total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), ferric reducing antioxidant Power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The analyses were conducted in triplicate and the data were subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS. The results showed significant differences (Ppapaya fruits.

  16. Uptake of 32P labelled superphosphate by endomycorrhizal papaya (Carica papaya cv. Coorg honey dew)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In papaya (Carica papaya cv. Coorg honey dew), there was an increase in 32P uptake and total phosphorus in plants inoculated with mycorrhizal fungi Glomus mossae and G. fasciculatum. Phosphorus derived from fertilizer (Pdff) was lower in mycorrhizal plants while soil derived P, utilisation of P and A values were higher showing thereby that mycorrhizal plants had utilised forms of phosphorus not available to non-mycorrhizal plants. (author). 13 refs., 1 tab

  17. Erwinia mallotivora sp., a New Pathogen of Papaya (Carica papaya) in Peninsular Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Noriha Mat Amin; Hamidun Bunawan; Rohaiza Ahmad Redzuan; Jaganath, Indu Bala S.

    2010-01-01

    Erwinia mallotivora was isolated from papaya infected with dieback disease showing the typical symptoms of greasy, water-soaked lesions and spots on leaves. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain belonged to the genus Erwinia and was united in a monophyletic group with E. mallotivora DSM 4565 (AJ233414). Earlier studies had indicated that the causal agent for this disease was E. papayae. However, our current studies, through Koch’s postulate, have confirmed...

  18. COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON ANTHELMINTIC POTENTIAL OF CUCURBITA MAXIMA (PUMPKIN) SEEDS AND CARICA PAPAYA (PAPAYA) SEEDS

    OpenAIRE

    Sengupta Rupa; Banik Jayanta

    2013-01-01

    The crude extract of Carica papaya (papaya) seeds (CP) and Cucurbita maxima (Pumpkin) seeds (CM) were assayed against adult earthworms (Pheretima posthuma) for the evaluation of anthelmintic activity. Various concentrations of both extracts were tested and results were expressed in terms of time for paralysis (P) and time for death (D) of worms. Albendazole was used as a reference standard. The result showed that in both of the extracts (i.e. CP and CM) dose of 60 mg / ml possesses more wormi...

  19. Incidencia y severidad de la antracnosis en líneas e híbridos de papaya (Carica papaya)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antonio, Bogantes-Arias; Eric, Mora-Newcomer.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Incidencia y severidad de la antracnosis en líneas e híbridos de papaya (Carica papaya). El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la incidencia y severidad de la antracnosis (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides), en frutas de papaya. El experimento se realizó en Guápiles, Limón, Costa Rica, entre los a [...] ños 2010 y 2011. Se sembraron cinco líneas y cuatro híbridos bajo un diseño de bloques completos al azar con tres repeticiones. Se evaluó la incidencia y severidad de la antracnosis, así como la firmeza y los sólidos solubles (grados Brix) de la fruta. Los híbridos presentaron características intermedias a los padres para las características evaluadas. En la antracnosis de fruta, la resistencia tiende a ser dominante para el material evaluado. Abstract in english Incidence and severity of anthracnose in breeding lines and crosses of papaya (Carica papaya). The objective of this study was to determine the incidence and severity of papaya fruit anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides). The experiment was carried out in Guápiles, Limón, Costa Rica, between [...] the years 2010 and 2011. Five lines and four crosses were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Evaluated traits were incidence and severity of anthracnose, fruit firmness and total soluble solids content of the pulp. Results suggest that the crosses have intermediate characteristics to those of their parent lines for these traits. In the specific case of anthracnose, evidence also suggests that the resistance to this disease tends to be inherited in a dominant manner.

  20. Efecto positivo de aplicaciones de ácido salicílico en la productividad de papaya (Carica papaya) / Positive effect of salicylic acid application on productivity of papaya (Carica papaya)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rodolfo, Martin-Mex; Ángel, Nexticapan-Garcéz; Rubí, Herrera-Tuz; Silvia, Vergara-Yoisura; Alfonso, Larqué-Saavedra.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Durante dos años se realizó un experimento con papaya (Carica papaya) cv. Maradol en condiciones de campo en Yucatán en el que se estudio el efecto de aspersiones de bajas concentraciones de ácido salicílico (AS), en la productividad del frutal. El AS a concentraciones de 0.01 ?M incremento el porce [...] ntaje de plantas hermafroditas en 20% sobre el control e incremento significativamente la altura y grosor de la planta. Esta misma concentración incremento 19.7% el número de frutos por planta, en 2% el peso de los frutos y en 21.9% el rendimiento por hectárea. El AS a todas las concentraciones probadas incremento significativamente la variable de productividad analizada. Abstract in english For two years, was conducted an experiment with papaya (Carica papaya) cv. Maradol under field conditions in Yucatan in which was studied the effect of spraying low concentrations of salicylic acid (SA), in the productivity of fruit. The SA to concentrations of 0.01 (?M increased the percentage of h [...] ermaphroditic plants in 20% over the control and significantly increased the height and thickness of plants. This same concentration increased 19.7% the number of fruits per plant, in 2% of the fruit weight and 21.9% the yield per hectare. The SA at all concentrations tested, significantly increased the productivity variable analyzed.

  1. CARICA PAPAYA: A COMPLETE PACKAGE OF NUTRITIONALAND MEDICINAL BENEFITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karabhari Rekha Bhaskar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Papaya (Carica papaya Linn. is well known for its exceptional nutritional and medicinal properties throughout the world. From the times immemorial, the whole Carica papaya plant including its leaves, seeds, ripe and unripe fruits and their juice is used as traditional medicine. The fruit has a large oval shape, yellowish -green skin and yellow flesh. Now a day, Carica papaya is considered as nutraceutical fruit due to its multi faceted medicinal and nutritional properties. The prominent medicinal properties of Carica papaya include anti-fertility, uterotonic, and diuretic, anti-hypertensive, wound healing, anti bacterial activities. Nutritionally the whole plant contains enzymes, vitamin A, vitamin C, B-complex vitamins and potassium. The present article reviews the nutritional and medicinal uses of Carica papaya.

  2. Administration Dependent Antioxidant Effect of Carica papaya Seeds Water Extract

    OpenAIRE

    Elisa Panzarini; Majdi Dwikat; Stefania Mariano; Cristian Vergallo; Luciana Dini

    2014-01-01

    Carica papaya is widely used in folk medicine as herbal remedy to prevent, protect against, and cure several diseases. These curative properties are based on the presence in different parts of the plant of phytochemical nutrients with antioxidant effect. Seeds are the less exploited part; thus this study is aimed at assessing the antioxidant activities of the C. papaya seeds water extract against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) oxidative stress in human skin Detroit 550 fibroblasts. C. papaya seeds ...

  3. Tendencias en la historiografía eclesiástica Chilena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camus Ibacache, Misael

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the lines of Chilean ecclesiastical history in XIX and XX. During both centuries the studies are centered in: Independence, Church-State relations, missions, editions of sinodal and pastoral texts. The A. values the influence of the liberal historiography in ecclesiastical history and emphasizes the existence of a new current that denominates pastoral historiography and describes the new sources that are used.

    Estudia las corrientes de la historia eclesiástica chilena en los siglos XIX y XX. Durante ambos siglos los estudios se centran en la Independencia, relaciones Iglesia-Estado, misiones, ediciones de textos conciliares y ediciones de textos pastorales. El A. valora la influencia de la historiografía liberal en la historia eclesiástica y destaca la existencia de una nueva corriente que denomina historiografía pastoral y describe sus fuentes.

  4. [Detection of recombinant DNA from genetically modified papaya].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goda, Y; Asano, T; Shibuya, M; Hino, A; Toyoda, M

    2001-08-01

    A method using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed to detect the genetically modified (GM) papaya (55-1 line), of which the mandatory safety assessment has not been finished in Japan because of insufficient data. The papaya intrinsic papain gene was used as an internal control. The results of PCR amplification of the papain gene segment indicated that a commercial silica membrane type kit (QIAGEN DNeasy plant mini) was useful for extraction of DNA from papaya fruit, but not for extraction from canned papaya fruit. On the other hand, a commercial ion-exchange type kit (QIAGEN Genomic-tip) provided enough purified DNA for PCR from canned papaya fruit. Compared with the parental line and other commercial non-GM papayas, the DNA from GM papaya fruit provided specific amplification bands in PCR with five primer pairs (Nos. 2-6) including beta-glucuronidase and neomycin phosphotransferase II gene-specific ones. On the other hand, the primer pairs recognizing these genes showed false-positive results when we used DNAs from canned papaya. Therefore, we recommend that the primer pairs (Nos. 5 and 6) recognizing the sequences derived from two different species of organism should be used in order to detect specifically the GM papaya in canned fruits. PMID:11817137

  5. Optimization of process parameters for osmotic dehydration of papaya cubes

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, S. K.; Verma, R. C.; Murdia, L. K.; Jain, H. K.; Sharma, G. P.

    2010-01-01

    Process temperature (30, 40 and 50 °C), syrup concentration (50, 60 and 70o Brix) and process time (4, 5 and 6 h) for osmotic dehydration of papaya (Carica papaya) cubes were optimized for the maximum water loss and optimum sugar gain by using response surface methodology. The peeled and pre-processed papaya cubes of 1 cm size were immersed in sugar syrup at constant temperature water bath having syrup to papaya cubes ratio of 4:1 (w/w). The cubes were removed from bath at pre-decided tim...

  6. Isolation and functional characterization of a lycopene ?-cyclase gene that controls fruit colour of papaya (Carica papaya L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Devitt, Luke C.; Fanning, Kent; Dietzgen, Ralf G.; Holton, Timothy A.

    2009-01-01

    The colour of papaya fruit flesh is determined largely by the presence of carotenoid pigments. Red-fleshed papaya fruit contain lycopene, whilst this pigment is absent from yellow-fleshed fruit. The conversion of lycopene (red) to ?-carotene (yellow) is catalysed by lycopene ?-cyclase. This present study describes the cloning and functional characterization of two different genes encoding lycopene ?-cyclases (lcy-?1 and lcy-?2) from red (Tainung) and yellow (Hybrid 1B) papaya cultivars. ...

  7. COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON ANTHELMINTIC POTENTIAL OF CUCURBITA MAXIMA (PUMPKIN SEEDS AND CARICA PAPAYA (PAPAYA SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sengupta Rupa

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The crude extract of Carica papaya (papaya seeds (CP and Cucurbita maxima (Pumpkin seeds (CM were assayed against adult earthworms (Pheretima posthuma for the evaluation of anthelmintic activity. Various concentrations of both extracts were tested and results were expressed in terms of time for paralysis (P and time for death (D of worms. Albendazole was used as a reference standard. The result showed that in both of the extracts (i.e. CP and CM dose of 60 mg / ml possesses more wormicidal activity. The time of paralysis was 1.88 ± 0.52 minute and 1.93 ± 0.57 minute whereas the time of death was 3.45 ± 0.17 minute and 4.90 ± 0.18 minute in the case of Carica papaya and Cucurbita maxima respectively. In conclusion, the use of seeds of Carica papaya (CP and Cucurbita maxima (CM for anthelmintic activity have been confirmed and further studies are suggested to isolate the active principles responsible for the activity. Both the extracts showed significant anthelmintic activity, but the comparative study showed that out of these two, Carica papaya proves to be a better anthelmintic remedy.

  8. THE YIELDING CHARACTERISTIC OF SENTUL CHICKENS FED DIET CONTAINING PAPAYA LEAVES MEAL (Carica papaya L. Less

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Widjastuti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sentul chicken is one of the local chicken come from Ciamis, West Java-Indonesia, and a dual-purpose type that can utilized for eggs and meat production. In other way, this bird is very good for chicken meat species, because has a compact body and white skin color. One of alternative to improve the sentul chicken quality is by giving the ration which has papaya leaf meal; rich of high crude protein, contained carotene, vitamin C and high of minerals. The research aimed to find out how far the treatment on the yielding characteristics. The research used 75 day old chick and then divided into twenty five cages. The experiment conducted with Completely Randomized Design, five papaya leaves meal levels in the ration, namely: 0% (R0, 2.5% (R1 ,5% ( R2, 7.5% ( R3, and 10% (R4, repeated five times, where each replication consist of three sentul chickens. Final body weight, carcass percentage and abdominal fat percentage were parameters observed. The results showed that by using papaya leaf meal up until 7.5% gave no significant effect (P >0.05 on final body weight, carcass percentage and abdominal fat percentage. But by giving 10% papaya leaf meal gave decreased effect on final body weight, carcass percentage and abdominal fat percentage (P<0.05. The real conclusion of this experiment that by giving 7.5% papaya leaf meal gave the best of carcass quality

  9. Proteomic analysis of papaya (Carica papaya L.) displaying typical sticky disease symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Silas P; Ventura, José A; Aguilar, Clemente; Nakayasu, Ernesto S; Almeida, Igor C; Fernandes, Patricia M B; Zingali, Russolina B

    2011-07-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) hosts the only described laticifer-infecting virus (Papaya meleira virus, PMeV), which is the causal agent of papaya sticky disease. To understand the systemic effects of PMeV in papaya, we conducted a comprehensive proteomic analysis of leaf samples from healthy and diseased plants grown under field conditions. First, a reference 2-DE map was established for proteins from healthy samples. A total of 486 reproducible spots were identified, and MALDI-TOF-MS/MS data identified 275 proteins accounting for 159 distinct proteins from 231 spots that were annotated. Second, the differential expression of proteins from healthy and diseased leaves was determined through parallel experiments, using 2-DE and DIGE followed by MALDI-TOF-MS/MS and LC-IonTrap-MS/MS, respectively. Conventional 2-DE analysis revealed 75 differentially expressed proteins. Of those, 48 proteins were identified, with 26 being upregulated (U) and 22 downregulated (D). In general, metabolism-related proteins were downregulated, and stress-responsive proteins were upregulated. This expression pattern was corroborated by the results of the DIGE analysis, which identified 79 differentially expressed proteins, with 23 identified (17 U and 6 D). Calreticulin and the proteasome subunits 20S and RPT5a were shown to be upregulated during infection by both 2-DE and DIGE analyses. These data may help shed light on plant responses against stresses and viral infections. PMID:21630455

  10. Extraction and characteristics of seed oil from Papaya (Carica papaya in Congo-Brazzaville

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bouanga-Kalou

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Papaya seeds were collected and dried. This study was carried out on papaya seed to clarify their proximate composition and the characteristics of the extracted oil including unsaponifiable matter and fatty acid composition. The seed is a rich source of protein (26.78% and crude fiber (21.4%. Palmitic acid was the main saturated fatty acid (15.22%, while linoleic acid was the major unsaturated fatty acid (76.38% in all lipid classes. The physical properties of the oil extracts showed the state to be liquid at room temperature. Carica papaya seeds have ash content of 3.2% (with the presence of following minerals: K, Na, Ca, P and Mg. However, Ca and P occur in appreciable quantities (1821±2.12 mg/100 g dry matter and 1156±1.8 mg/100 g dry mater, respectively.

  11. Whole-photosynthesis and transpiration in field-grown papaya plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a principal horticultural crop of tropical and subtropical regions. Knowledge of papaya response to environmental factors provides a scientific basis to develop management strategies to optimize fruit yield and quality. In papaya, the photosynthetic capacity also influ...

  12. Virus Resistant Transgenic Papaya: Commercial Development and Regulatory and Environmental Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Hawaii, transgenic papaya resistant to Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) was developed starting in the 1980s and released commercially in 1998 to combat the wide spread destruction of Hawaii’s papaya industry. This review describes the proactive development of the transgenic papaya and its impact on ...

  13. Evaluación de la calidad y el rendimiento en papaya silvestre (Carica papaya L.) de Cuba / Evaluation of quality and yield in papaya wild (Carica papaya L.) from Cuba

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jesús, Rodríguez Cabello; Yusnier, Díaz Hernández; Aymara, Pérez González; Zulma, Natali Cruz; Pedro, Rodríguez Hernández.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available La papaya (Carica papaya L.) de la familia Caricaceae, es nativa del trópico americano y la especie más importante del género Carica por su alto valor nutritivo e industrial. En sus áreas de origen existen parientes silvestres que proporcionan alimento a las comunidades que las mantienen y de ser ap [...] rovechadas, podrían constituir una importante fuente de ingresos debido a que poseen genes útiles para elevar el rendimiento y calidad nutricional de sus frutos. Existe referencia de las poblaciones de papaya silvestres en nuestro país. Sin embargo, aún no se han caracterizado o evaluado con profundidad, de modo que se desconoce el rendimiento y la calidad de sus frutos. El presente estudio se llevó a cabo con el propósito de evaluar genotipos de papaya silvestre, prospectados en las alturas del nacimiento de las Cuencas Almendares-Vento y Noreste de la Habana, a través de indicadores físicos, químicos y el rendimiento, que permitan valorar su aceptación en el mercado. Los resultados mostraron alto rendimiento y frutos con características que les permiten ser de gran aceptación en el mercado para consumo en fresco por su masa, forma, dimensiones, sólidos solubles totales y color de la cáscara y la pulpa. Además, las características apreciadas favorecen su empleo para futuros programas de mejoramiento genético en Cuba, con el propósito de obtener cultivares con alto número de frutos de mediano a pequeño tamaño por planta Abstract in english The papaya (Carica papaya L.), family Caricaceae, is native from American tropic and the most important in the gender Carica for its nutritious and industrial high value. In their origin areas wild relatives exist, that provide food to the communities that maintain them, could constitute an importan [...] t source of revenues, because they possess useful genes to elevate the yield and nutritional quality of their fruits. The wild papaya populations’ reference exists in our country. However, they have not still been characterized or evaluated with depth, so one ignores the yield and the quality of their fruits. The present study was carried out with the purpose of evaluating genotypes of wild papaya, prospected in the heights of the birth of the Basins Almendares-Vento and Northeast of Havana, through physical, chemical indicators and the yield, that allow to value their acceptance in the market. The results showed high yield and fruits with characteristics that allow them to be of great acceptance in the market for consumption in fresh for their mass, it forms, dimensions, soluble total solids and color of the shell and the pulp. Also, the appreciated characteristics favor their employment for futures programs of genetic improvement in Cuba, with the purpose of obtaining cultivares with high number of fruits of medium to small size for plant

  14. Oxidative processes during 'Golden' papaya fruit ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evellyn Couto Oliveira Resende

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available 'Golden' papayas at maturity stage 1 (15% yellow skin were chosen to study selected oxidative processes, the activity of antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation in storage at 22°C, during the ripening of the fruit. An increase in ethylene production was observed on the second day of storage and it was followed by an increase in respiration. An increased activity of catalase, glutathione reductase and ascorbate peroxidase was observed concurrently or soon after this increase in ethylene production and respiration. The increased activity of these enzymes near the peaks of ethylene production and respiration is related to the production of oxidants accompanying the onset of ripening. On the fourth day of storage, there was an increased lipid peroxidation and decreased activities of catalase, glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase. Lipid peroxidation induces the increase of antioxidant enzymes, which can be verified by further increases in the activities of catalase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase. Unlike the other antioxidant enzymes, the ascorbate peroxidase activity in the pulp increased continuously during ripening, suggesting its important role in combating reactive oxygen species during papaya ripening. With regard to physical-chemical characteristics, the soluble solids did not vary significantly, the acidity and ascorbic acid contents increased, and hue angle and firmness decreased during storage. The results revealed that there was variation in the activity of antioxidant enzymes, with peaks of lipid peroxidation during the ripening of 'Golden' papaya. These results provide a basis for future research, especially with regard to the relationships among the climacteric stage, the activation of antioxidant enzymes and the role of ascorbate peroxidase in papaya ripening.

  15. Dwarf mutant of papaya (Carica papaya L.) induced by gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treating the seeds of papaya with 15 Krad of gamma rays, three plants were isolated from the M3 population. Repeated full sibmating among the progenies of these dwarf mutants helped in establishing a homozygous population of dwarf papaya in M6 generation. Though the per plant yield in mutant is less, nevertheless its importance is envisaged in the fact that it is likely to incur less damage by wind and storm, can be better managed and more number of plants can be accomodated per unit area, thus giving increased yield per hectare. (author)

  16. Influence of gamma radiation on carbohydrates metabolism of ripening papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Solo)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food irradiation is one of the most promising treatments that can be utilized for fruits disinfestation and extension of shelf life. The authors studied the influence of 0,5 kGy of Gamma irradiation on the soluble carbohydrates composition of papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Solo) fruit, and on sucrose metabolizing enzymes: sucrose synthase (SS), sucrose-phosphate synthase, acid and neutral invertases activities, during ripening. The results demonstrated that ethylene production, total soluble sugars, sucrose content, and sucrose-phosphate synthase and invertases activities were affected by irradiation, but not respiration, glucose and fructose content, and SS activity. (author)

  17. Quality during storage of fresh-cut papaya (carica papaya L.) in various shapes

    OpenAIRE

    Morais, Alcina Maria M. B.; Argan?osa, Aurea Carla S. J.

    2010-01-01

    This research work was conducted to study the effect of the cut type (cube, rectangular parallelepiped, cylinder and sphere) on the quality and shelf life of fresh-cut papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Sunrise Solo) stored at 10 °C. Physico-chemical analyses were carried out during 10 d of storage; the color, firmness, pH, titratable acidity, total soluble solids, weight loss and ascorbic acid content of the fresh-cut fruits were determined. Microbiological analysis was also performed. The most f...

  18. Extraction and characteristics of seed oil from Papaya (Carica papaya) in Congo-Brazzaville

    OpenAIRE

    Bouanga-kalou, G.; Desobry, A. Kimbonguila J. M. Nzikou F. B. Ganongo-po F. E. Moutoula E. Panyoo-akdowa Th Silou And S.

    2011-01-01

    Papaya seeds were collected and dried. This study was carried out on papaya seed to clarify their proximate composition and the characteristics of the extracted oil including unsaponifiable matter and fatty acid composition. The seed is a rich source of protein (26.78%) and crude fiber (21.4%). Palmitic acid was the main saturated fatty acid (15.22%), while linoleic acid was the major unsaturated fatty acid (76.38%) in all lipid classes. The physical properties of the oil extracts showed the ...

  19. Dwarf mutant of papaya (Carica papaya L. ) induced by gamma rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ram, M. (Indian Agricultural Research Inst., Pusa. Regional Research Station)

    1981-09-01

    Treating the seeds of papaya with 15 Krad of gamma rays, three plants were isolated from the M/sub 3/ population. Repeated full sibmating among the progenies of these dwarf mutants helped in establishing a homozygous population of dwarf papaya in M/sub 6/ generation. Though the per plant yield in mutant is less, nevertheless its importance is envisaged in the fact that it is likely to incur less damage by wind and storm, can be better managed and more number of plants can be accomodated per unit area, thus giving increased yield per hectare. 5 refs.

  20. Molecular detection of Papaya meleira virus in the latex of Carica papaya by RT-PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Araujo, M. M. M.; Tavares, E. T.; Silva, F. R.; Marinho, V. L. D.; Souza, M. T.

    2007-01-01

    A RT-PCR assay was developed for early and accurate detection of Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) in the latex from infected papayas. The meleira disease is characterized by an excessive exudation of more fluidic latex from fruits, leaves and stems. This latex oxidises and gives the fruit a ¿sticky¿ texture. In the field, disease symptoms are seen almost exclusively on fruit. However, infected plants can be a source of virus for dissemination by insects. Primers specific for PMeV were designed b...

  1. Transplantation of carica (Vasconcellea pubescens at various altitudes of Mount Lawu, Central Java with treatment of shade and different types of fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALFATIKA PERMATASARI

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Permatasari A, Sugiyarto, Marsusi, Hailu WH. 2015. Transplantation of carica (Vasconcellea pubescens at various altitudes of Mount Lawu, Central Java with treatment of shade and different types of fertilizers. Nusantara Bioscience 7: 6-14. Ex-situ conservation efforts to increase crop production can be done by means of transplantation. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of altitude, shade and type of fertilizer and their interactions to the performance of carica (Vasconcellea pubescens vegetative plants transplanted to Mount Lawu, Central Java, Indonesia. The research was conducted in divided plot design at three altitudes (± 1400, 1600 and 1800 m asl. with shade treatment as main plots and fertilizer (manure, Zwavelzuur ammonium/ZA fertilizer, combination of manure with Ammonium fertilizer, and control as subplots. Parameters of vegetative variability were observed. The results of the performance of carica vegetative plant were analyzed using ANOVA followed by Duncan's test at 5% standard test. It was observed that an increase in altitude caused slower growth of carica vegetative parts, but better vegetative growth performance in the presence of shade. For the fertilizers, the best growth parameters were obtained in the treatment of manure with ZA fertilizer. Interaction between altitude, shade and type of fertilizer significantly influenced the performance of carica vegetative parameters. The best growth parameters are at an altitude of 1400 m above sea level with shade treatment and manure combined with ZA fertilizer.

  2. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF CARICA PAPAYA AS REVEALED BY AFLP MARKERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic relationships among Carica papaya cultivars, breeding lines, unimproved germplasm, and related species were established using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Seventy-one papaya accessions and related species were analyzed with nine EcoRI-MseI primer combinations. A t...

  3. FREQUENCY AND VARIATION OF MICROSATELLITE MARKERS IN THE PAPAYA GENOME

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers are single locus markers that display co-dominant inheritance and are widely used in genetic mapping, gene tagging, and genetic diversity studies. Genomic research on papaya (Carica papaya L.) is rapidly advancing and has recently yielded signif...

  4. MAPPING PHYSIOLOGICAL TRAITS IN CARICA PAPAYA USING MICROSATELLITE MARKERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Different varieties of papaya (Carica papaya L.) vary in the phenotypic expression of agronomically important traits. Genetic loci responsible for these differences can be mapped using DNA markers to genotype a segregating progeny population derived from a controlled cross between parents having dif...

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF VIRUS RESISTANT TRANSGENIC PAPAYAS EXPRESSING THE COAT PROTEIN FROM A BRAZILIAN ISOLATE OF PAPAYA RINGSPOT VIRUS (PRSV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Translatable and untranslatable versions of the coat protein (cp) gene of a Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) isolate collected in the State of Bahia, Brazil, were engineered for expression in Sunrise and Sunset Solo varieties of Carica papaya L. The biolistic system was used to transform secondary soma...

  6. Post-transcriptional gene silencing is involved in resistance of transgenic papayas to Papaya Ringspot Virus.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ruanjan, P.; Kertbundit, Sunee; Ju?í?ek, Miloslav

    2007-01-01

    Ro?. 51, ?. 3 (2007), s. 517-520. ISSN 0006-3134 Grant ostatní: BIOTEC, NASDA(TH) BT-B-06-PG-14-4503 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : Carica papaya * reverse transcription PCR * COAT PROTEIN GENE Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.259, year: 2007

  7. Effects of heat, irradiation and their combination on the keeping quality of papaya (carica papaya linn.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental work has been done to determine the effect of gamma irradiation either alone or in combination with hot water dipping on the shelf life of fresh papaya. Mature green papayas of 'semangka paris' variety were treated under 3 different conditions, i.e. dipped in hot water at 50 Celsius degrees for 10 minutes; irradiated in air with a dose of 0.5 kGy; treated with combination of hot water dipping at 50 Celsius degrees for 10 minutes and irradiation with a dose of 0.5 kGy, and stored at ambient conditions. Quality evaluation was done subjectively during storage on the colour, texture, and taste. Besides, weight loss was also observed. Chemical characteristics, namely the contents of vitamin C, ?-carotene, total soluble pectin, and reducing sugar were also determined as objective parameters. The results revealed that ripening of mature green papaya could be delayed by irradiation with the dose of 0.5 kGy. Best result was obtained from the combination treatment. The treated papayas were still acceptable up to 8 days of storage, whereas the untreated ones were acceptable only up to 5 days of storage. (author)

  8. Postharvest ripening and maturity indices for maradol papaya / Amadurecimento Pos Colheita E Índices De Maturação De Papaya Maradol / Maduración postcosecha e índices de madurez de papaya maradol

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Felipe, Santamaría Basulto; Enrique, Sauri Duch; Francisco, Espadas y Gil; Raúl, Díaz Plaza; Alfonso, Larqué Saavedra; Jorge M, Santamaría.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: English Abstract in portuguese As variedades de papaya mostram uma ampla variação no amadurecimento do fruto em termos de amolecimento, mudança da cor da casca e vida nas gôndolas. A maioria dos estudos sobre amadurecimento de papaya tem sido relatado na variedade ‘Solo’. Não tem se desenvolvido índices de amadurecimento objetivo [...] s para a variedade Maradol, os estudos que descrevem a mudança de cor no amadurecimento do fruto abrangem somente aos estados de amadurecimento inicial e final. Avaliaram-se as mudanças nos principais atributos de qualidade de papaya Maradol durante o amadurecimento para identificar estados de amadurecimento e definir índices de amadurecimento objetivos que possam ser sugeridos como índices de colheita e estándares de qualidade. A cor da casca pode ser considerada como um índice de maturação apropriado, os valores de b* são bons indicadores para os estágios recentes de maturação, enquanto que os valores de a* são melhores para os últimos estágios. Abstract in spanish Las variedades de papaya muestran una amplia variación en la maduración del fruto en términos de ablandamiento, cambios del color de la cáscara y vida de anaquel. La mayoría de los estudios sobre maduración de papaya se han reportado en variedades ‘Solo’. No se han desarrollado índices de maduración [...] objetivos para la variedad Maradol, los estudios que describen el cambio de color en la maduración del fruto cubren sólo a los estados de maduración inicial y final. Se evaluaron los cambios en los principales atributos de calidad de papaya Maradol durante la maduración para identificar estados de maduración y definir índices de maduración objetivos que puedan ser sugeridos como índices de cosecha y estándares de calidad. El color de la cáscara puede ser considerado como un índice de madurez apropiado, los valores de b* son buenos indicadores para los estados tempranos de madurez, mientras que los valores de a* son mejores para los últimos estados. Abstract in english Fruit ripening in papaya Carica papaya cultivars varies widely in terms of skin color changes, pulp firmness and shelf life. Most papaya ripening studies have been done using ‘Solo’ varieties. No objective maturity indices have been developed for Maradol papaya, and studies describing color changes [...] during fruit ripening only cover the initial and final maturity stages. Changes in the main quality attributes of Maradol papaya were documented during the ripening process to identify maturity stages and define objective maturity indices to be applied as harvest indices and quality standards. Six maturity stages were identified and quality attribute value ranges proposed as quality standards. Skin color can be considered an appropriate maturity index, b* values are good indicators for early maturity stages, while a* value are better for late stages.

  9. Effect of Biopreservatives on Storage Life of Papaya (Carica papaya L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatema H. Brishti

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE In this experiment the effect on post-harvest preservation of papaya (Carica papaya L. fruit coated with either Aloe gel (AG; 100% or papaya leaf extract with Aloe gel (PLEAG; 1:1 was studied. To evaluate the role of coating on ripening behavior and quality of papaya the uncoated and coated fruits were stored and ripened at room temperature (25 °C-29 °C and 82-84% relative humidity. Physico-chemical properties were analyzed at 4 day intervals during the storage period. The incidence of disease attack was also visually observed. The overall results showed the superiority of AG and PLEAG coating in lengthening the shelf-life of papaya fruit compared to controls which showed significant decay from 6th day onward and complete decay within 12 days of storage. The AG and PLEAG coated fruits maintained their shelf life for 12 days and decayed at 16th day. The coated fruits also maintained their color, flavor and firmness up to 12 days of storage. An increase in ascorbic acid content (120.2 mg/100 g was also found in coated fruits in contrast to the control (59 mg/100 g. Only 27% disease incidence was observed in AG and 13% in PLEAG coated fruits as compared to control (100% during the storage period. The results of this study show that both AG and PLEAG coatings have excellent potential to be used on fresh produce to maintain quality and extend shelf-life.

  10. Development of Transgenic Papaya through Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Md Abul Kalam; Rabbani, Md Golam; Amin, Latifah; Sidik, Nik Marzuki

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic papaya plants were regenerated from hypocotyls and immature zygotic embryo after cocultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA-4404 carrying a binary plasmid vector system containing neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII) gene as the selectable marker and ?-glucuronidase (GUS) as the reporter gene. The explants were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens on regeneration medium containing 500?mg/L carbenicillin?+?200?mg/L cefotaxime for one week. The cocultivated explants were transferred into the final selection medium containing 500?mg/L carbenicillin?+?200?mg/L cefotaxime?+?50?mg/L kanamycin for callus induction as well as plant regeneration. The callus derived from the hypocotyls of Carica papaya cv. Shahi showed the highest positive GUS activities compared to Carica papaya cv. Ranchi. The transformed callus grew vigorously and formed embryos followed by transgenic plantlets successfully. The result of this study showed that the hypocotyls of C. papaya cv. Shahi and C. papaya cv. Ranchi are better explants for genetic transformation compared to immature embryos. The transformed C. papaya cv. Shahi also showed the maximum number of plant regeneration compared to that of C. papaya cv. Ranchi. PMID:24066284

  11. Radiation-induced mutation breeding of papaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation-induced mutation breeding of papaya commenced at the Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI) in August, 2000. This research was initiated under a Coordinated Research Project (CRP - D23023) with assistance from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). In the preliminary dosimetry study, seeds from two local papaya varieties, Sekaki and Eksotika were irradiated, either as dry seeds or as pre-soaked seeds (soaked overnight in water and surface-dried) with radiation doses ranging from 0 to 300 Gy. 100 Gy dose was lethal for all wet presoaked seeds while dry seed did not show loss of viability, even at 300 Gy. From the growth data it was estimated that dose of 525 Gy reduced shoot elongation by 50%, and this dose was recommended for mass irradiation of dry seeds. For wet, pre-soaked seeds results indicated that 42.5 Gy was the optimal dose for mass irradiation. At this dose, both seeds germination and seedlings growth were reduced by 50%. In a massive irradiation experiment 2,000 Eksotika seeds were irradiated at 42.5 Gy (pre-soaked) and another 2,000 at 525 Gy (dry). In the M2 population, numerous physiological defects were observed, including stem splitting, leaf variegation and puckering, and crinkled dwarfs. In the M3 population, a wide variability was recorded for a number of traits. M3 seedlings derived from presoaked seeds irradiated a low 42.5 Gy dose presented a high number of plants that were shorter and more vigorous in leaf development compared to those irradiated at 525 Gy and to non-irradiated control seedlings. The distribution patterns of M3 progenies for nine quantitative field characters showed great variation, often exceeding the limits of the control population. There appears to be good prospects in improving Eksotika papaya especially in the development of dwarf trees with lower fruit bearing stature, higher total soluble solids in fruits and larger fruit size. Several M2 and M3 putative mutants also showed very good resistance to malformed top disease. However, no resistance to papaya ringspot virus disease was found in the 1920 M2 seedlings that were inoculated. (author)

  12. Una taxonomía de las universidades chilenas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Miguel, Muñoz; Christian, Blanco.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Se propone una taxonomía de las universidades chilenas mediante análisis factorial, que resulta distinta a las tipologías de Brunner (2005, 2009), Parada (2010), Torres y Zenteno (2011) y Rosso y Reyes (2012), y supera las objeciones de Bernasconi (2006). Evita, además, distinciones binarias del tip [...] o tradicional/privada, investigación/docencia, metropolitana/regional, católica/laica, etc. Tampoco establece rankings ni utiliza condiciones históricas, legales u otras alejadas de los modos de operación efectivos de las universidades. La siguiente taxonomía las agrupa según un pool de variables relevantes (investigación, tamaño, composición, acreditación, etc.) que da pie a cinco tipos de universidades: investigación, masivas, de acreditación, elitistas y no elitistas. Se espera aportar en la comprensión de las universidades y contribuir a las políticas públicas con herramientas conceptuales para abordar la diversidad universitaria. Abstract in english We propose a taxonomy of Chilean universities through a factor analysis with different results from those produced by typologies of Brunner (2005, 2009), Parada (2010), Torres and Zenteno (2011) and Rosso and Reyes (2012), overcoming Bernasconi’s objections (2006). It avoids binary distinctions like [...] traditional/private, metropolitan/regional, catholic/secular, etc. It does not establish rankings nor use historical, legal or other distinctions not referred to the effective universities’ operational characteristics. Universities are grouped according to a pool of relevant variables (research, size, composition, accreditation, etc.). Five types of universities are generated: Research, Massive, Accreditation, Elite and Non-Elite. This research intends to contribute to the understanding of universities in Chile and to public policies with conceptual tools for addressing the diversity of universities.

  13. Generalized drug reaction due to papaya juice in throat lozenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliev, D; Elsner, P

    1997-01-01

    We report the case of a 55-year-old woman without a history of atopic disease or drug allergy who developed a maculopapular symmetric exanthematous rash about 2 days after taking throat lozenges containing papaya juice. Patch tests gave negative reactions to the European standard series but were positive for papaya juice. A solution of 1% papain in water showed a weak and probably irritant reaction, while a 0.1% solution was negative. To our knowledge this is the first case report of systemic contact dermatitis to papaya without papain hypersensitivity. PMID:9252760

  14. HIGH SPEED CENTRIFUGAL COUNTERCURRENT CHROMATOGRAPHY (HSCCC) ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION BY LC-MSn ANALYSIS OF THE POLAR PHENOLICS FROM VASCONCELLEA QUERCIFOLIA

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    CRISTINA, QUISPE; EZEQUIEL, VIVEROS-VALDEZ; JOSÉ A, YARLEQUE; MARCO R, ARONES; JUAN C, PANIAGUA; GUILLERMO, SCHMEDA-HIRSCHMANN.

    1830-18-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english High speed centrifugal countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) was successfully applied to preparative isolation of the main polar phenolics from the Peruvian Caricaceae Vasconcellea quercifolia A. St.-Hil. High-performance liquid chromatography with diode array (HPLC-DAD) and electrospray ionisation [...] mass spectrometric detection (ESI-MS) was used to carry out a comprehensive characterisation of phenolic compounds from fruits and leaves of this plant. The main phenolics were the quercetin diglycoside rutin and the triglycoside manghaslin. Nine minor flavonoids were tentatively identified as kaempferol, quercetin, isorhamnetin and methoxymyricetin glycosides. HSCCC combined with other chromatographic methods allowed the isolation of the main phenolics from the plant. HPLC-DAD-MS analysis shows that the main phenolic compounds in V. quercifolia are similar to those described for V. pubescens but differs in the identity of the minor constituents.

  15. Compositional changes during papaya fruit ripening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to investigate compositional changes during ripening of Baladi, Ekostika I and Ekostika II papaya fruit cultivars at 20±1°C and 85% -90% relative humidity. The fruits of the three cultivars exhibited a typical climacteric pattern of respiration with peak of respiration of 82,92 and 98 mg CO2/ kg-hr, reached after 10 days in the three cultivars, respectively. Weight loss, total soluble solids (TSS), total sugars and ascorbic acid content progressively increased during ripening of the three papaya cultivars. More increase in TSS and total sugars was observed after the climacteric peak of respiration. Fruit tissue firmness and total phenolic compounds decreased continuously during ripening in the three cultivars. Reducing sugars, total protein and titratable acidity steadily increased to reach a peak, which coincided with climacteric peak of respiration, and subsequently decreased afterwards. The local Baladi cultivar had a lower respiration rate, more firm and less weight loss during ripening, which may indicate a longer shelf life than the other two introduced cultivars. On the other hand, the introduced cultivars were higher in TSS, total and reducing sugars and ascorbic acid content and lower in titratable acidity and phenolic compounds, which may reflect a better eating quality.(Author)

  16. HOMOPTERAN AND MITE PESTS OF PAPAYA AND THEIR CONTROL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homopteran pests in papaya fields in Florida, include mealybugs, Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink, soft scales Philephedra tuberculosa Nakahara and Gill, Coccus hesperidum L. and armored scales, Aspidiotus destructor, Acutaspis sp., Hemiberlesia sp., aphids, Myzus persicae (Sul...

  17. Radiation disinfestation as a quarantine treatment for solo papaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solo papaya is subject to infestation by the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). Since ethylene dibromide has been banned for use as a fumigant for fruits, gamma radiation was investigated as an alternative quarantine disinfestation treatment for solo papaya. Results of small-scale laboratory tests showed that 150 Gy completely prevented the emergence of B. dorsalis. For egg-infested solo papaya, pupal recovered decreased with increasing dose while insect survival was not associated with fruit maturity. For larvae-infested ones, insect survival, in general, was highest in the full-ripe stage and lowest in the one-fourth-ripe stage of the fruit. Confirmatory tests of the proposed treatment using more than 100,000 test insects revealed that 150 Gy radiation dose is sufficient to provide Probit 9 quarantine security for solo papaya. (author). 10 refs.; 1 fig.; 4 tabs

  18. Genetic-molecular characterization of backcross generations for sexual conversion in papaya (Carica papaya L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, H C C; Pereira, M G; Pereira, T N S; Barros, G B A; Ferreguetti, G A

    2014-01-01

    The low number of improved cultivars limits the expansion of the papaya crop, particularly because of the time required for the development of new varieties using classical procedures. Molecular techniques associated with conventional procedures accelerate this process and allow targeted improvements. Thus, we used microsatellite markers to perform genetic-molecular characterization of papaya genotypes obtained from 3 backcross generations to monitor the inbreeding level and parental genome proportion in the evaluated genotypes. Based on the analysis of 20 microsatellite loci, 77 genotypes were evaluated, 25 of each generation of the backcross program as well as the parental genotypes. The markers analyzed were identified in 11 of the 12 linkage groups established for papaya, ranging from 1 to 4 per linkage group. The average values for the inbreeding coefficient were 0.88 (BC1S4), 0.47 (BC2S3), and 0.63 (BC3S2). Genomic analysis revealed average values of the recurrent parent genome of 82.7% in BC3S2, 64.4% in BC1S4, and 63.9% in BC2S3. Neither the inbreeding level nor the genomic proportions completely followed the expected average values. This demonstrates the significance of molecular analysis when examining different genotype values, given the importance of such information for selection processes in breeding programs. PMID:25501249

  19. Sex determination in flowering plants: papaya as a model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryal, Rishi; Ming, Ray

    2014-03-01

    Unisexuality in flowering plants evolved from a hermaphrodite ancestor. Transition from hermaphrodite to unisexual flowers has occurred multiple times across the different lineages of the angiosperms. Sexuality in plants is regulated by genetic, epigenetic and physiological mechanisms. The most specialized mechanism of sex determination is sex chromosomes. The sex chromosomes ensure the stable segregation of sexual phenotypes by preventing the recombination of sex determining genes. Despite continuous efforts, sex determining genes of dioecious plants have not yet been cloned. Concerted efforts with various model systems are necessary to understand the complex mechanism of sex determination in plants. Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a tropical fruit tree with three sex forms, male, hermaphrodite, and female. Sexuality in papaya is determined by an XY chromosome system that is in an early evolutionary stage. The male and hermaphrodite of papaya are controlled by two different types of Y chromosomes: Y and Y(h). Large amounts of information in the area of genetics, genomics, and epigenetics of papaya have been accumulated over the last few decades. Relatively short lifecycle, small genome size, and readily available genetic and genomic resources render papaya an excellent model system to study sex determination and sex chromosomes in flowering plants. PMID:24467896

  20. Efficacy of four plant extracts on nematodes associated with papaya in Sindh, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    This investigation examines the effect of ethanol extracts of four plant species--Azadirachta indica (neem), Withania somnifera (ashwagandha), Tagetes erecta (marigold) and Eucalyptus citriodora (eucalyptus)--against nematodes associated with papaya (Carica papaya), and it assesses their influence o...

  1. Inhibition of cysteine proteinases by Carica papaya cystatin produced in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, I; Taylor, M; Baker, K; Bateman, R C

    1995-09-11

    A papaya cystatin (Cst)-encoding cDNA clone was isolated from a papaya leaf cDNA library and the active protein produced in Escherichia coli. The amino-acid sequence reveals a protein of 11,262 Da with over 40% identity to other published plant Cst. Unique features of the papaya Cst include a single Cys residue, variation in the papain-binding region, and the first reported inhibition of papaya proteinase IV by a Cst. PMID:7557432

  2. Histopathological changes in Wistar albino rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya

    OpenAIRE

    Taofeeq Oduola; Ibrahim Bello; Thomas Idowu; Godwin Avwioro; Luqman Olatubosun; Ganiyu Adeosun

    2010-01-01

    Background: Exposure of animals to xenobiotics may or may not trigger adverse response at cellular levels. Aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya is consumed by sickle cell patients as antisickling agent in Western Nigeria. Aim: This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of Carica papaya on certain organs in Wister albino rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya. Materials and Methods: Different doses of aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya were administered orall...

  3. ESTIMACIÓN DEL ÁREA FOLIAR DE PAPAYA (Carica papaya L.) BASADA EN MUESTREO NO DESTRUCTIVO / ESTIMATION OF PAPAYA (Carica papaya L.) LEAF AREA BASED ON NON-DESTRUCTIVE SAMPLING

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos, Cardona Ayala; Hermes, Araméndiz Tatis; Carlos, Barrera Causil.

    2009-06-30

    Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El cultivo de papaya (Carica papaya L.) es muy importante en la fruticultura del departamento de Córdoba, por la buena calidad de la fruta producida. La investigación, se realizó en Montería, a 13msnm, temperatura media de 27.4°C, precipitación anual de 1346,1mm, humedad relativa de 84% y brillo sol [...] ar anual de 2180,2 horas, con el fin de obtener un modelo que permita estimar el área foliar de la planta, a partir de muestreo no destructivo. Mediante muestreo aleatorio simple, se seleccionaron hojas sanas de plantas adultas, de diferentes tamaños y distintas etapas de desarrollo, de los doseles superior, medio e inferior, de la variedad Maradol roja. Se tomaron medidas longitudinales: largo y ancho máximo de la hoja, ancho de la hoja a un medio, un tercio, un cuarto, un quinto y dos tercios de su largo, ancho máximo de lóbulos y longitud de nervadura de los mismos, con la finalidad de determinar las medidas altamente relacionadas con el área fotosintética de la hoja. El área foliar (Y), se midió por el método de relación peso: área, sobre una muestra de 30 hojas por dosel. Se construyeron modelos de regresión simple y múltiple, para luego seleccionar el de mejor ajuste. Se seleccionó un modelo de regresión simple, cuya variable explicativa corresponde a la longitud de la nervadura central del lóbulo izquierdo, contiguo al adyacente lóbulo medio (X). El modelo ajustado resultó ser: o = -303,0742 + 31,2028X, R² = 0,9335. Abstract in english The papaya (Carica papaya L) is a very important crop in the Cordoba state, especially for the good fruit quality. This research was carried out at Montería at 13masl, 27.4°C, annual rainfall of 1346.1mm, 84% relative humidity and 2180.2 hours annual sunlight, in order to obtain a model to estimate [...] the plants leaf area, based on non-destructive sampling. A probability sampling procedure was used to select different size leaves and developmental stages from the upper, middle and lower canopy of adult plants of the red Maradol variety. Maximum leaf length and width, width of the middle third, fourth, fifth and two-thirds of leaf length, lobe width and midrib length of every lobe were registered with the purpose of identifying measures highly related to photosynthetic leaf area. The leaf area (Y) was measured based on the weight:area relation, from 30 leaves per canopy sample. Simple linear regression models and multiple linear regression were adjusted. A simple linear regression model was selected which independent variable representing the length of the midrib, next to the left next lobe and adjacent to the middle lobe (X). The adjusted model was: or = -303,0742 + 31,2028X, R² = 0,9335.

  4. ESTIMACIÓN DEL ÁREA FOLIAR DE PAPAYA (Carica papaya L. BASADA EN MUESTREO NO DESTRUCTIVO ESTIMATION OF PAPAYA (Carica papaya L. LEAF AREA BASED ON NON-DESTRUCTIVE SAMPLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Cardona Ayala

    Full Text Available El cultivo de papaya (Carica papaya L. es muy importante en la fruticultura del departamento de Córdoba, por la buena calidad de la fruta producida. La investigación, se realizó en Montería, a 13msnm, temperatura media de 27.4°C, precipitación anual de 1346,1mm, humedad relativa de 84% y brillo solar anual de 2180,2 horas, con el fin de obtener un modelo que permita estimar el área foliar de la planta, a partir de muestreo no destructivo. Mediante muestreo aleatorio simple, se seleccionaron hojas sanas de plantas adultas, de diferentes tamaños y distintas etapas de desarrollo, de los doseles superior, medio e inferior, de la variedad Maradol roja. Se tomaron medidas longitudinales: largo y ancho máximo de la hoja, ancho de la hoja a un medio, un tercio, un cuarto, un quinto y dos tercios de su largo, ancho máximo de lóbulos y longitud de nervadura de los mismos, con la finalidad de determinar las medidas altamente relacionadas con el área fotosintética de la hoja. El área foliar (Y, se midió por el método de relación peso: área, sobre una muestra de 30 hojas por dosel. Se construyeron modelos de regresión simple y múltiple, para luego seleccionar el de mejor ajuste. Se seleccionó un modelo de regresión simple, cuya variable explicativa corresponde a la longitud de la nervadura central del lóbulo izquierdo, contiguo al adyacente lóbulo medio (X. El modelo ajustado resultó ser: o = -303,0742 + 31,2028X, R² = 0,9335.The papaya (Carica papaya L is a very important crop in the Cordoba state, especially for the good fruit quality. This research was carried out at Montería at 13masl, 27.4°C, annual rainfall of 1346.1mm, 84% relative humidity and 2180.2 hours annual sunlight, in order to obtain a model to estimate the plants leaf area, based on non-destructive sampling. A probability sampling procedure was used to select different size leaves and developmental stages from the upper, middle and lower canopy of adult plants of the red Maradol variety. Maximum leaf length and width, width of the middle third, fourth, fifth and two-thirds of leaf length, lobe width and midrib length of every lobe were registered with the purpose of identifying measures highly related to photosynthetic leaf area. The leaf area (Y was measured based on the weight:area relation, from 30 leaves per canopy sample. Simple linear regression models and multiple linear regression were adjusted. A simple linear regression model was selected which independent variable representing the length of the midrib, next to the left next lobe and adjacent to the middle lobe (X. The adjusted model was: or = -303,0742 + 31,2028X, R² = 0,9335.

  5. Origin and domestication of papaya Yh chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanBuren, Robert; Zeng, Fanchang; Chen, Cuixia; Zhang, Jisen; Wai, Ching Man; Han, Jennifer; Aryal, Rishi; Gschwend, Andrea R; Wang, Jianping; Na, Jong-Kuk; Huang, Lixian; Zhang, Lingmao; Miao, Wenjing; Gou, Jiqing; Arro, Jie; Guyot, Romain; Moore, Richard C; Wang, Ming-Li; Zee, Francis; Charlesworth, Deborah; Moore, Paul H; Yu, Qingyi; Ming, Ray

    2015-04-01

    Sex in papaya is controlled by a pair of nascent sex chromosomes. Females are XX, and two slightly different Y chromosomes distinguish males (XY) and hermaphrodites (XY(h)). The hermaphrodite-specific region of the Y(h) chromosome (HSY) and its X chromosome counterpart were sequenced and analyzed previously. We now report the sequence of the entire male-specific region of the Y (MSY). We used a BAC-by-BAC approach to sequence the MSY and resequence the Y regions of 24 wild males and the Y(h) regions of 12 cultivated hermaphrodites. The MSY and HSY regions have highly similar gene content and structure, and only 0.4% sequence divergence. The MSY sequences from wild males include three distinct haplotypes, associated with the populations' geographic locations, but gene flow is detected for other genomic regions. The Y(h) sequence is highly similar to one Y haplotype (MSY3) found only in wild dioecious populations from the north Pacific region of Costa Rica. The low MSY3-Y(h) divergence supports the hypothesis that hermaphrodite papaya is a product of human domestication. We estimate that Y(h) arose only ?4000 yr ago, well after crop plant domestication in Mesoamerica >6200 yr ago but coinciding with the rise of the Maya civilization. The Y(h) chromosome has lower nucleotide diversity than the Y, or the genome regions that are not fully sex-linked, consistent with a domestication bottleneck. The identification of the ancestral MSY3 haplotype will expedite investigation of the mutation leading to the domestication of the hermaphrodite Y(h) chromosome. In turn, this mutation should identify the gene that was affected by the carpel-suppressing mutation that was involved in the evolution of males. PMID:25762551

  6. Analysis Of Papaya BAC End Sequences: Insights Into The Organization Of A Tree Fruit Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a major tree fruit crop of tropical and subtropical regions with an estimated genome size of 372 Mbp. We present the analysis of 4.7% of the papaya genome based on BAC end sequences (BESs) representing 17 million high-quality bases. Microsatellites discovered in 5,452 BE...

  7. EFFECTIVE SELECTION OF TRANSGENIC PAPAYA PLANTS WITH THE PMI/MAN SELECTION SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The selectable marker gene phospho-mannose isomerase (pmi), which encodes the enzyme phospho-mannose isomerase (PMI) to enable selection of transformed cell lines on media containing mannose (Man), was evaluated for genetic transformation of papaya (Carica papaya L.). We found that papaya embryogeni...

  8. CHROMOSOMAL LOCATION AND GENE PAUCITY IN THE MALE SPECIFIC REGION ON PAPAYA Y CHROMOSOME

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sex chromosomes in flowering plants evolved recently and many of them remain homomorphic, including those in papaya. We investigated the chromosomal location of papaya’s small male specific region of the hermaphrodite Y (Yh) chromosome (MSY) and its genomic features. We conducted chromosome fluoresc...

  9. 7 CFR 319.56-25 - Papayas from Central America and Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...false Papayas from Central America and Brazil. 319.56-25 Section 319.56-25...56-25 Papayas from Central America and Brazil. The Solo type of papaya may be...one of the following locations: (1) Brazil: State of Espirito...

  10. Characterization of a high oleic oil extracted from papaya (Carica papaya L.) seeds Caracterização de um óleo alto oleico extraído de sementes de mamão (Carica papaya L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Cassia Roberta Malacrida; Mieko Kimura; Neuza Jorge

    2011-01-01

    The physicochemical characteristics, fatty acid, tocopherol, and carotenoid composition of a crude oil extracted from papaya (Carica papaya L.) seeds, formosa variety, were investigated. The oil yield from the seeds was 29.16%. The data obtained for the analytical indexes were in agreement with those of other edible oils. The oil obtained had high oxidation resistance (77.97 hours). The major fatty acids in total lipid were oleic (71.30%), palmitic (16.16%), linoleic (6.06%), and stearic (4.7...

  11. Application of a qualitative and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction method for detecting genetically modified papaya line 55-1 in papaya products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kosuke; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Yuki; Kobayashi, Tomoko; Noguchi, Akio; Ohmori, Kiyomi; Kasahara, Masaki; Kitta, Kazumi; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Kazunari; Teshima, Reiko

    2013-01-15

    Genetically modified (GM) papaya (Carica papaya L.) line 55-1 (55-1), which is resistant to papaya ringspot virus infection, has been marketed internationally. Many countries have mandatory labeling regulations for GM foods, and there is a need for specific methods for detecting 55-1. Here, an event- and construct-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was developed for detecting 55-1 in papaya products. Quantitative detection was possible for fresh papaya fruit up to dilutions of 0.001% and 0.01% (weight per weight [w/w]) for homozygous SunUp and heterozygous Rainbow cultivars, respectively, in non-GM papaya. The limit of detection and quantification was as low as 250 copies of the haploid genome according to a standard reference plasmid. The method was applicable to qualitative detection of 55-1 in eight types of processed products (canned papaya, pickled papaya, dried fruit, papaya-leaf tea, jam, puree, juice, and frozen dessert) containing papaya as a main ingredient. PMID:23122142

  12. Development of transgenic papayas expressing the coat protein gene from a Brazilian isolate of Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) = Desenvolvimento de mamoeiros transgênicos resistentes a vírus expressando o gene da capa protéica de um isolado brasileiro de Papaya ringspot virus

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, M. T.; Ni?ckel, O.; Gonsalves, D.

    2005-01-01

    Translatable and nontranslatable versions of the coat protein (cp) gene of a Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) isolate collected in the state of Bahia, Brazil, were engineered for expression in Sunrise and Sunset Solo varieties of papaya (Carica papaya). The biolistic system was used to transform secondary somatic embryo cultures derived from immature zygotic embryos. Fifty-four transgenic lines, 26 translatable and 28 nontranslatable gene versions, were regenerated, with a transformation efficien...

  13. Herbicidas para el control de Spermacoce tenuior L en papaya (Carica papaya)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antonio, Bogantes-Arias; Moisés, Hernández-Cháves; Eric, Mora-Newcomer.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Herbicidas para el control de Spermacoce tenuior L. en papaya (Carica papaya). Con el objetivo de determinar la eficacia de varios herbicidas en el control de Spermacoce tenuior y otras arvenses en papa ya, se realizó un ensayo en el 2007, en una plantación de papa ya "Pococí" ubicada en Guápiles, e [...] n el Caribe de Costa Rica. La primera etapa consistió en la evaluación de seis tratamientos posemergentes (1. Glifosato 24 SL, 2. Glifosato 68 SG , 3. Glifosato 24 SL + carfentrazone 24 EC , 4. Glifosato 68 SG + carfentrazone 24 EC , 5. Glifosato 24 SL + metsulfurón metil 60 WG, 6. Glifosato 24 SL + oxifluorfen 24 EC). En la segunda etapa se evaluaron tres preemergentes (1. Orizalina 75 WP, 2. Oxifluorfen 12 EC, 3. Acetaclor 90 EC); distribuidos en bloques al azar. Se evaluó la cobertura de especie s antes y después de la aplicación, daño al cultivo, altura y grosor de plantas de papa ya. El tratamiento posemergente glifosato (0,94 kg i.a./ ha) + metsulfurón (16 g i.a./ha) en aplicación dirigida, mostró el mejor control de malezas a partir de la segunda y hasta la sexta semana después de la aplicación (SDA), sin observarse daño en el cultivo. El herbicida preemergente orizalina (3 kg i.a./ha) mostró el mejor control de Spermacoce tenuior hasta las 14 SDA tanto en el lomillo como en la rodaja. No se observó fitotoxidad en el cultivo. Abstract in english Herbicide perfomance for Spermacoce tenuior L. control in papaya (Carica papaya). In order to assess the effectiveness of pre and post-emergence herbicides for the control of Spermacoce tenuior and other weeds in papaya, a field test was conducted in 2007, in a commercial field of the "Pococí" hybri [...] d, located in Guápiles, Limón, Costa Rica. A first phase of the study consisted of six post-emergent treatments (1. Glyphosate 24 SL, 2. Glyphosate 68 SG , 3. Glip hosate 24 SL + carfentrazone 24 EC , 4. Glyphosate 68 SG + carfentrazone 24 EC , 5. Glip hosate 24 SL + metsulfuron methyl 60 WG, 6. Gliphosate 24 SL + oxyfluorfen 24 EC). A second phase consisted of three pre-emergent treatments (1. Oryzalin 75 WP, 2. Oxyfluorfen 12 EC, 3. Acetoclor 90 EC) distributed in a randomized complete block design in both phases. The percentage of weed ground cover, height and stem thickness of papaya plants were measured before and after herbicide app lication. Post-emergence applications of glyphosate (0.94 kg i.a./ha) + metsulfuron (16 g i.a./ha) showed the best weed control from the second until the sixth week after application (WAA ) without affecting the crop. Oryzalin applied as a preemergent (3 kg i.a./ha) showed the best control of Spermacoce tenuior until 14 WAA under the planting row and around the plants. No phytotoxicity was observed.

  14. Indução de brotos laterais de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L. Induction of lateral shoots of papaya tree (Carica papaya L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Segundo Giampan

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo estudar o efeito da benzilaminopurina e do ácido giberélico, bem como a forma de aplicação destes, na produção de brotos laterais de mamoeiro. Foram utilizados mamoeiros 'Sunrise Solo' e os reguladores vegetais benzilaminopurina (BAP e ácido giberélico (GA, na concentração de 500 mg.L-1. As formas de aplicação de BAP + GA estudadas foram: pulverização; pasta de lanolina; injeção; completo, que consistiu na utilização de todas as formas de aplicação, e o controle, constituído pela ausência de aplicação de reguladores. Foram realizadas três aplicações semanais dos reguladores em cada forma de aplicação, sendo eliminado o meristema apical de todas as plantas após a última aplicação. O comprimento e o diâmetro dos brotos laterais foram avaliados aos 30; 55 e 86 dias após a retirada da gema apical. O uso de reguladores favoreceu a produção de brotos laterais. A pulverização apresentou os melhores resultados tanto em relação ao número de brotos obtidos quanto à conformação das estacas, seguida pela injeção e pasta de lanolina.The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP and gibberellic acid (GA, as well as the form of application of these growth regulators in the plant, for the production of lateral shoots on papaya trees. Twelve months old 'Sunrise Solo' papaya trees were treated with BAP and GA, in the concentration of 500 mg.L-1. BAP + GA were applied to the trees by means of spraying, lanolin paste, injection, and a combination of all three procedures (complete. Untreated plants were used as control. After three successive applications of the plant growth regulators in each form of application, at one week intervals, all plants were decapitated. The length and diameter of the lateral shoots were measured at 30, 55 and 86 days after decapitation. The use of plant growth regulators favored the production of lateral shoots. The highest proliferation of lateral shoots was obtained by spraying the canopy of the trees with BAP + GA, followed by injection and lanolin paste applications.

  15. Indução de brotos laterais de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L.) / Induction of lateral shoots of papaya tree (Carica papaya L.)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Segundo, Giampan; Thales Sandoval, Cerqueira; Angelo Pedro, Jacomino; Jorge Alberto Marques, Rezende; Fabiana Fumi, Sasaki.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho teve por objetivo estudar o efeito da benzilaminopurina e do ácido giberélico, bem como a forma de aplicação destes, na produção de brotos laterais de mamoeiro. Foram utilizados mamoeiros 'Sunrise Solo' e os reguladores vegetais benzilaminopurina (BAP) e ácido giberélico (GA), na [...] concentração de 500 mg.L-1. As formas de aplicação de BAP + GA estudadas foram: pulverização; pasta de lanolina; injeção; completo, que consistiu na utilização de todas as formas de aplicação, e o controle, constituído pela ausência de aplicação de reguladores. Foram realizadas três aplicações semanais dos reguladores em cada forma de aplicação, sendo eliminado o meristema apical de todas as plantas após a última aplicação. O comprimento e o diâmetro dos brotos laterais foram avaliados aos 30; 55 e 86 dias após a retirada da gema apical. O uso de reguladores favoreceu a produção de brotos laterais. A pulverização apresentou os melhores resultados tanto em relação ao número de brotos obtidos quanto à conformação das estacas, seguida pela injeção e pasta de lanolina. Abstract in english The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and gibberellic acid (GA), as well as the form of application of these growth regulators in the plant, for the production of lateral shoots on papaya trees. Twelve months old 'Sunrise Solo' papaya trees were treated [...] with BAP and GA, in the concentration of 500 mg.L-1. BAP + GA were applied to the trees by means of spraying, lanolin paste, injection, and a combination of all three procedures (complete). Untreated plants were used as control. After three successive applications of the plant growth regulators in each form of application, at one week intervals, all plants were decapitated. The length and diameter of the lateral shoots were measured at 30, 55 and 86 days after decapitation. The use of plant growth regulators favored the production of lateral shoots. The highest proliferation of lateral shoots was obtained by spraying the canopy of the trees with BAP + GA, followed by injection and lanolin paste applications.

  16. Effects of Chitosan or Calcium Chloride on External Postharvest Qualities and Shelf-Life of ‘Holland’ Papaya Fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Chutichudet, B.; Prasit Chutichudet

    2014-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is an important fruit widely cultivated commercially throughout Thailand. Its all year around fruit bearing capability makes papaya a popular fruit with Thai people. Unfortunately, papaya has a very limited shelf-life, as such; the objective of this research was to delay the external postharvest qualities by using chitosan and calcium chloride on the ‘Holland’ variety of papaya fruit. The experiment was arranged in a Factorial Completely Randomized Design, compos...

  17. Detection method for genetically modified papaya using duplex PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Akihiro; Shimizu, Kaori; Mishima, Takashi; Aoki, Nobutaro; Hattori, Hideki; Sato, Hidetaka; Ueda, Nobuo; Watanabe, Takahiro; Hino, Akihiro; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Maitani, Tamio

    2006-08-01

    A simple and rapid method for the identification of genetically modified (GM) papaya, derived from Line 55-1, was developed by modifying the Japanese official PCR method. Genomic DNA was directly extracted from the fresh fruit without the lyophilization step, using a commercial silica-based kit. To develop a duplex PCR method which simultaneously detects the GM papaya-specific gene and the intrinsic papain gene, the papain 2-5'/3' (amplicon size; 184 bp) primer pair for the detection of the papain gene was newly designed within the region of the products (211 bp) amplified using the papain 1-5'/-3' primer pair adopted in the Japanese official PCR method. To detect the GM papaya-specific gene, the primer pair Nos C-5'/CaM N-3' described in the Japanese official method was used. The DNA sequences of the GM papaya gene and the intrinsic papain gene were co-amplified using the PCR method in a single tube. The developed duplex PCR method allows the simultaneous detection of the products by means of agarose gel electrophoresis or microchip electrophoresis. The proposed method for GM papaya identification is simple and rapid. PMID:16984033

  18. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF PAPAYA LEAF EXTRACTS AGAINST PATHOGENIC BACTERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolf Jan Nexson Parhusip

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available It was reported that the extracts of papaya leaves could inhibit the growth of Rhizopus stolonifer. Antibacterial activity of Carica papaya leaf extracts on pathogenic bacteria was observed in this study. Papaya leaves were extracted by using maceration method and three kinds of solvents: ethanol, ethyl acetate, and hexane. Papaya leaf extracts were tested against Bacillus stearothermophilus, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas sp., and Escherichia coli by agar diffusion method. The objectives of this study were to determine extract ability against pathogenic bacteria, to observe the influence of pH, NaCl, and heat on extracts ability, and to observe extract ability against B. stearothermophilus spores. The data showed that ethyl acetate extract could inhibit B. stearothermophilus, L. monocytogenes, Pseudomonas sp., and E. coli. The extract activity was influenced by pH, and it was more effective in low pH. The extract activity was influenced by NaCl against B. stearothermophillus and E. coli. However, it was not influenced by NaCl in bioassay against L. monocytogenes and Pseudomonas sp. The extract activity was influenced by heating process against all the bacteria tested. The extracts inhibited B. stearothermophilus spores as well. Papaya leaves are potential natural anti-bacteria, which might be used in certain kinds of food.

  19. Effect of gamma-irradiation on ripening papaya pectin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papaya (Carica papaya, L., var. Sunset) at three initial ripeness stages were irradiated with 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0, or 1.5 kGy gamma-irradiation and pectin changes during ripening determined. A significant linear relationship was found between irradiation dose and firmness immediately after irradiation. Irradiation had no effect on fruit skin or flesh color of papaya fruit irradiated at the 5 to 30% yellow stage and allowed to ripen. Papaya irradiated when 5 to 30% yellow showed no significant changes in pectin methylesterase activity when ripe. Immediately after irradiation, the pectin in 10 to 30% yellow papaya showed depolymerization and demethoxylation, though no effect on pectin methylesterase activity was detected. There was an increase in water soluble pectin (WSP), while chelator soluble (CSP) and alkali soluble pectin (ASP) decreased, with a significant decline in the methanol content of the ASP fraction. After the 25 to 30% yellow ripeness stage, fruit irradiated at 0.50 to 1.0 kGy had less pectic depolymerization, and had a firmer texture than nonirradiated when ripe. A lower level of WSP and higher levels of CSP and ASP were found in ripe fruit that had been irradiated at 0.5 to 1.0 kGy when 25 to 30% yellow skin with a significant quadratic relationship between irradiation dose and the three pectin fractions. The firmness of these irradiated fruit were retained for two days longer than the nonirradiated control. (author)

  20. ALTERNATIVA COMERCIAL PARA EXTENDER VIDA DE ANAQUEL DE PAPAYA 'MARADOL'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Osuna-Garc\\u00EDa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto del 1-Metilciclopropeno (1-MCP y etileno (solos o en combinación para manipular el proceso de maduración y extender vida de anaquel de papaya 'Maradol'. Durante el 2007 se realizaron tres ensayos: 1. Efecto del 1-MCP en papaya almacenada en condiciones de mercadeo y refrigeración más mercadeo; 2. Papaya tratada con 1-MCP y etileno y mezcla 1-MCP + etileno; 3. Evaluación comercial del 1-MCP y etileno en papaya. Se analizaron pérdida de peso, color externo, firmeza, color de pulpa y sólidos solubles totales. Se encontró que el 1-MCP a 100 nl·litro-1 retrasó el desarrollo de color externo y pulpa e inhibió el ablandamiento de los frutos. También se observó que el etileno a dosis de 100 ¿l·litro-1 aplicado después del 1-MCP no revirtió el efecto de éste, sin embargo, el 1-MCP aplicado después del etileno redujo la velocidad de ablandamiento y el desarrollo del color en cáscara y pulpa inducido por el etileno. Se concluye que el 1-MCP a 100 nl·litro-1 por 12 horas aplicado después del etileno puede ser una técnica viable para manipular el proceso de maduración y alargar vida de anaquel de papaya 'Maradol'.

  1. THE YIELDING CHARACTERISTIC OF SENTUL CHICKENS FED DIET CONTAINING PAPAYA LEAVES MEAL (Carica papaya L. Less)

    OpenAIRE

    Widjastuti, T.; Sujana, E.; Darana, S.

    2012-01-01

    Sentul chicken is one of the local chicken come from Ciamis, West Java-Indonesia, and a dual-purpose type that can utilized for eggs and meat production. In other way, this bird is very good for chicken meat species, because has a compact body and white skin color. One of alternative to improve the sentul chicken quality is by giving the ration which has papaya leaf meal; rich of high crude protein, contained carotene, vitamin C and high of minerals. The research aimed to find out how far the...

  2. Development of a Gene-Centered SSR Atlas as a Resource for Papaya (Carica papaya) Marker-Assisted Selection and Population Genetic Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Vidal, Newton Medeiros; Grazziotin, Ana Laura; Ramos, Helaine Christine Cancela; Pereira, Messias Gonzaga; Venancio, Thiago Motta

    2014-01-01

    Carica papaya (papaya) is an economically important tropical fruit. Molecular marker-assisted selection is an inexpensive and reliable tool that has been widely used to improve fruit quality traits and resistance against diseases. In the present study we report the development and validation of an atlas of papaya simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. We integrated gene predictions and functional annotations to provide a gene-centered perspective for marker-assisted selection studies. Our atla...

  3. Physico-chemical characteristics of papaya (Carica papaya L.) seed oil of the Hong Kong/Sekaki variety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanty, Noorzianna Abdul Manaf; Marikkar, Jalaldeen Mohammed Nazrim; Nusantoro, Bangun Prajanto; Long, Kamariah; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd

    2014-01-01

    A study was carried out to determine the physicochemical characteristics of the oil derived from papaya seeds of the Hong Kong/Sekaki variety. Proximate analysis showed that seeds of the Hong Kong/Sekaki variety contained considerable amount of oil (27.0%). The iodine value, saponification value, unsaponifiable matter and free fatty acid contents of freshly extracted papaya seed oil were 76.9 g I2/100g oil, 193.5 mg KOH/g oil, 1.52% and 0.91%, respectively. The oil had a Lovibond color index of 15.2Y + 5.2B. Papaya seed oil contained ten detectable fatty acids, of which 78.33% were unsaturated. Oleic (73.5%) acid was the dominant fatty acids followed by palmitic acid (15.8%). Based on the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis, seven species of triacylglycerols (TAGs) were detected. The predominant TAGs of papaya seed oil were OOO (40.4%), POO (29.1%) and SOO (9.9%) where O, P, and S denote oleic, palmitic and stearic acids, respectively. Thermal analysis by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed that papaya seed oil had its major melting and crystallization transitions at 12.4°C and -48.2°C, respectively. Analysis of the sample by Z-nose (electronic nose) instrument showed that the sample had a high level of volatile compounds. PMID:25174674

  4. Papaya (Carica papaya) lipase with some distinct acyl and alkyl specificities as compared with microbial lipases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, N N; Mukherjee, K D

    2000-12-01

    Lipase from papaya (Carica papaya) latex (CPL), Candida antarctica lipase B (Novozym 435, NOV) and Rhizomucor miehei lipase (Lipozyme IM 20, LIP) were used as biocatalysts for the esterification of caprylic acid with straight-chain saturated C(4)-C(18) alcohols and unsaturated C(18) alcohols, such as cis-9-octadecenyl (oleyl, C(18:1), n-9), cis-6-octadecenyl (petroselinyl, C(18:1), n-12), cis-9,cis-12-octadecadienyl (linoleyl, C(18:2), n-6), all-cis-9,12,15-octadecatrienyl (alpha-linolenyl, C(18:3), n-3) and all-cis-6,9,12-octadecatrienyl (gamma-linolenyl, C(18:3), n-6) alcohols. With CPL, highest activity was found in the esterification of octanol and decanol, whereas both NOV and LIP showed a broad chain-length-specificity for the alcohols. CPL, as opposed to the microbial lipases, strongly discriminated against all the saturated long-chain ( > C(12)) and unsaturated C(18) alcohols. PMID:11171278

  5. Empleo de un Recubrimiento Formulado con Propóleos para el Manejo Poscosecha de Frutos de Papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Hawaiana) / Use of a Coating Formulated with Propolis for Postharvest Handling of Papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Hawaiian) Fruits

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elizabeth, Barrera Bello; Marcela, Gil Loaiza; Carlos Mario, García Pajón; Diego Luis, Durango Restrepo; Jesús Humberto, Gil González.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Resumen. El fruto de papaya es reconocido por las propiedades nutricionales y sensoriales; no obstante, su tiempo de vida útil en poscosecha es muy corto. En los últimos años, para incrementar la vida de almacenamiento del fruto se ha implementado el uso de recubrimientos como vehículos de agentes a [...] ntimicrobianos y antioxidantes, entre otros. En este trabajo se comparó el efecto de dos recubrimientos; cera comercial (control) y cera comercial conteniendo un extracto etanólico de propóleos (5% p/v), sobre la vida en poscosecha de frutos de papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Hawaiana) almacenados a temperatura ambiente (28 ± 2 ºC) y humedad relativa entre 65 y 70%. El efecto de los recubrimientos se determinó mediante el índice de deterioro de los frutos y el recuento microbiano (mesófilos aerobios, mohos y levaduras). Adicionalmente, se evaluaron durante 12 días las propiedades fisicoquímicas de los frutos (cambio de color, textura, pH, acidez total titulable, pérdida de peso y sólidos solubles). Los resultados mostraron que las papayas tratadas con el recubrimiento formulado con el extracto de propóleos, presentó un menor deterioro en cuanto a su apariencia y mayor inhibición del crecimiento de microorganismos durante los primeros 6 días de evaluación en comparación con los frutos control; además, no se observaron diferencias, producto de los recubrimientos, en relación a las características fisicoquímicas de los frutos. Abstract in english Abstract. Papaya fruit is known for the nutritional and sensory properties; however, its postharvest shelf life is very short. In recent years, to extend the storage life of this fruit, the use of coatings as a carrier of antimicrobial agents and antioxidants, has been implemented. In this work, the [...] effect of two coatings, commercial wax (control) and commercial wax containing an ethanolic extract of propolis (5% w/v) on the postharvest of papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Hawaiian) was compared. The fruits were stored at room temperature (28 ± 2 ºC) and a relative humidity between 65 and 70%. The effect of coatings was determined by the deterioration index of the fruit, and the microbial counts (aerobic mesophiles, molds and yeasts). Additionally, during 12 days were evaluated physicochemical properties of the fruits (color, texture, pH, titratable acidity, weight loss and soluble solids). The results showed that the papaya fruits treated with the coating containing the propolis extract presented less deterioration in their appearance and greater inhibition growth of microorganisms during the first 6 days compared with control fruits; moreover, no differences among the coatings in relation to the physicochemical characteristics of the fruit were observed.

  6. Dengue fever treatment with Carica papaya leaves extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Nisar; Fazal, Hina; Ayaz, Muhammad; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Mohammad, Ijaz; Fazal, Lubna

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of the current study is to investigate the potential of Carica papaya leaves extracts against Dengue fever in 45 year old patient bitten by carrier mosquitoes. For the treatment of Dengue fever the extract was prepared in water. 25 mL of aqueous extract of C. papaya leaves was administered to patient infected with Dengue fever twice daily i.e. morning and evening for five consecutive days. Before the extract administration the blood samples from patient were analyzed. Plate...

  7. Consumer in-store response to irradiated papayas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, purchase behavior of California consumers in response to irradiated papayas is described. The papayas were shipped from Hawaii and irradiated in California under a permit by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service and approved by the California Department of Food and Agriculture. Results show that the superior appearance of the irradiated fruit appealed to consumers and that two-thirds or more of the people queried indicated that they would buy irradiated produce. It is noted that this marketing took place in a supportive environment with no protestors present. Informational material was available

  8. Herencia de la concentración de los sólidos soluble entre líneas parentales de papaya (carica papaya l. y sus híbridos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Mora

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Herencia de la concentración de los sólidos solubles entre líneas parentales de papaya (Carica papaya L. y sus híbridos. Se estableció un experimento con el objetivo de determinar el patrón de herencia de la concentración de sólidos solubles de frutas (medido como grados brix entre tres líneas de papaya y sus tres posibles híbridos. Se utilizaron como materiales parentales tres líneas genéticas con niveles de azúcares significativamente diferentes entre ellos. Se determinó que la característica de alto contenido de sólidos solubles se comportó de manera dominante sobre un bajo contenido de los mismos. Se concluyó que existe un gran potencial para explotar comercialmente este patrón dominante al posibilitar el uso de germoplasma de buenas características agronómicas pero deficientes en sus contenidos de azúcares en sus frutas. La posible naturaleza de los factores que intervienen en la característica estudiada se discuten.

  9. Caracterización y evaluación de dos híbridos de papaya en Cuba / Characterization and evaluation of two papaya hybrids in Cuba

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maruchi, Alonso Esquivel; Yoel, Tornet Quintana; Roberto, Ramos Ramírez; Emilio, Farrés Armenteros; Maikel, Aranguren González; Douglas, Rodríguez Martínez.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available La papaya (Carica papaya L.) es considerada como una de las frutas de mayor valor nutritivo y digestivo, siendo utilizada ampliamente en dietas alimenticias, así como gran aceptación a nivel nacional e internacional. Su cultivo puede constituir una gran alternativa para la diversificación agrícola e [...] n las regiones de Cuba, debido a la existencia de áreas con condiciones edafoclimáticas favorables para desarrollar este frutal. Actualmente, los problemas que afectan al cultivo de la papaya son el bajo número de variedades explotadas comercialmente y la susceptibilidad a plagas y enfermedades. Una alternativa viable para la solución de este problema es recurrir a la ampliación de la base genética del papayo mediante la obtención de híbridos con resistencia a plagas y enfermedades, lo que contribuirá de manera decisiva en el mejoramiento del cultivo. El objetivo de esta investigación fue realizar la caracterización fenológica y productiva de dos híbridos de papaya "HGxMA" y "HGxMR" perteneciente al banco de germoplasma de este frutal ubicado en la Unidad Científico-Tecnológica de Base (UCTB) Jagüey Grande, Matanzas del período enero 2005 a noviembre 2007. Los resultados corroboraron que los híbridos presentan características fenotípicas del grupo formosa, frutos con forma elongata en las plantas hermafroditas. El peso medio de los frutos fue de 1.80 kg ("HGxMR") y 2.7 kg ("HGxMA"), de pulpa color naranja-rojiza y amarilla, respectivamente, así como, con una productividad entre 63.4 y 99.8.5 kg planta-1, características que evidencian la posibilidad de utilizarlos en programas de mejoramiento genético del cultivo y en el uso directo por los productores. Actualmente, el mercado consumidor de frutas de papaya de gran tamaño a nivel mundial va creciendo de manera considerable. Por estas razones, estos cultivares de papaya pueden constituir una opción con mayores potencialidades para satisfacer la demanda de los consumidores del cultivo. Abstract in english Papaya is considered one of the fruits of greatest nutritional and digestive value. It is widely used in diets and it has a high acceptance at national and international level. Its culture can constitute a great alternative for agricultural diversification in Cuba regions, due to the existence of ar [...] eas with favorable edaphoclimatic conditions to develop this fruit tree. Nowadays the problems that affect papaya culture are the low number of commercially developed varieties and the susceptibility to pests and diseases. A viable alternative to solve this problem is to widen the genetic papaya base obtaining hybrids with resistance to pest and disease that will contribute decisively to the culture improvement. In this work, the phenology and productive characterization has been done of two papaya hybrids "HGxMA" and "HGxMR" belonging to the germoplasm bank of this fruit tree, located at the Unidad Cientifico-Tecnologica de Base (UCTB) Jagüey Grande, Matanzas. The results confirm that the hybrids present phenotypical characteristics of the Formosa Group, with elongated fruits in hermaphroditic plants. The fruit average weigtht is 1.80 kg ("HGxMR") and 2.7 kg ("HGxMA"), of range-reddish and yellow pulp, respectively and productivity between 63.4 and 99.8.5 kg planta-1, characteristic that show the possibility of use them in genetic improvement programs and the direct use by producers. At present, the markert of big papaya fruits is increasing considerably worldwide. For these reasons, these papaya cultivars can constitute an option with greater potentialities to satisfy consumers demand of the culture.

  10. Turismo sostenible y proyectos hidroeléctricos: contradicciones en la patagonia chilena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Inostroza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza las perspectivas del turismo sostenible en la Patagonia chilena en relación a la probable implantación de centrales hidroeléctricas en su territorio. Se estudia el impacto de un gran proyecto hidroeléctrico en la región de Aysén (Chile y su repercusión en el turismo. Se concluye que la construcción y operación de grandes embalses y presas con sus correspondientes líneas de trasmisión eléctrica atentarían contra la principal ventaja competitiva del sector turístico de la Patagonia: una naturaleza que aún se conserva y que se ha proyectado en el imaginario social.

  11. Estimation of papaya leaf area using the central vein length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campostrini Eliemar

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Four genotypes of papaya (Carica papaya L. two from the 'Solo' group (Sunrise Solo and Improved Sunrise Solo line 72/12 and two from the 'Formosa' group (Tainung 02 and Known-You 01, grown in Macaé, RJ, Brazil (lat. 22(0 24' S, long. 41(0 42' W, were used in this study. Twenty-five mature leaves from each genotype were sampled four and five months after seedling transplant to the field to determine the length of the leaf central vein (LLCV and the leaf area (LA. According to covariance analyses there were no significant differences in the slope and intercept of the mathematical models calculated for each genotype. Thus, a single mathematical model (Log LA = 0.315 + 1.85 Log LLCV, R²=0.898 was adjusted to estimate the LA using the length of LLCV for the four genotypes. An unique model can be applied to estimate the LA for the four papaya genotypes using LLCV in the range from 0.25 to 0.60 m, and for papaya trees 150 to 180 days after transplanting.

  12. Genetic diversity of papaya ring spot virus in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Food and Agriculture Organization estimates that 20-40% of crop yield is lost due to pests and diseases. Viruses are agents that cause diseases which contribute greatly to the global yield loss. Because of this, food production is negatively affected, especially in the tropics. Carica papaya, co...

  13. Papaya fruit quality management during the postharvest supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papayas are popular in tropical and subtropical regions and are being exported in large volumes to Europe, the U.S. and Japan. The fruit has excellent taste, exotic flavor and nutritional properties, being rich in vitamins A, C, and antioxidants. However, due to its highly perishable nature it has n...

  14. Morfología de la flor y de la semilla de papaya (Carica papaya L.): variedad Maradol e híbrido Tainung-1 / Floral and seed morphology of papaya (Carica papaya L.): Maradol variety and Tainung-1 hybrid

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Arlette Ivonne, Gil; Diego, Miranda.

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de analizar la morfología de la flor y de la semilla de papaya (Carica papaya L.) de la variedad 'Maradol' y el híbrido 'Tainung-1', se recolectó el material vegetal en dos plantaciones y se llevaron al laboratorio de Fisiología de Cultivos, Facultad de Agronomía, Universidad Naciona [...] l de Colombia, Bogotá, con el fin de realizar las descripciones correspondientes de los tres tipos de flores (femeninas, hermafroditas y estaminadas) y de la semilla, sus características externas (forma, tamaño, hilo, micrópilo, funículo, rafe y abierta seminal) e internas (cubierta seminal, endospermo y embrión). Se concluyó principalmente que a nivel morfológico las flores y semillas de los dos materiales evaluados mostraron características similares, por tanto, las descripciones dadas en este trabajo son generales para ambos. Abstract in english Vegetal material from papaya (Carica papaya L.) 'Maradol' variety and 'Tainung-1' hybrid were collected from two plantations and taken to the Plant Physiology laboratory to analyse their flower and seed morphology. Descriptions were made of the three types of flowers (female, hermaphrodite and stami [...] nate) and the seeds' external (shape, size, hilum, micropyle, funicle, raphe and testa) and internal characteristics (testa, endosperm and embryo). The main morphological conclusion was that the flowers and seeds from the two types evaluated showed similar characteristics; the descriptions given in this paper are thus general for them.

  15. Development of a Gene-Centered SSR Atlas as a Resource for Papaya (Carica papaya) Marker-Assisted Selection and Population Genetic Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Newton Medeiros; Grazziotin, Ana Laura; Ramos, Helaine Christine Cancela; Pereira, Messias Gonzaga; Venancio, Thiago Motta

    2014-01-01

    Carica papaya (papaya) is an economically important tropical fruit. Molecular marker-assisted selection is an inexpensive and reliable tool that has been widely used to improve fruit quality traits and resistance against diseases. In the present study we report the development and validation of an atlas of papaya simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. We integrated gene predictions and functional annotations to provide a gene-centered perspective for marker-assisted selection studies. Our atlas comprises 160,318 SSRs, from which 21,231 were located in genic regions (i.e. inside exons, exon-intron junctions or introns). A total of 116,453 (72.6%) of all identified repeats were successfully mapped to one of the nine papaya linkage groups. Primer pairs were designed for markers from 9,594 genes (34.5% of the papaya gene complement). Using papaya-tomato orthology assessments, we assembled a list of 300 genes (comprising 785 SSRs) potentially involved in fruit ripening. We validated our atlas by screening 73 SSR markers (including 25 fruit ripening genes), achieving 100% amplification rate and uncovering 26% polymorphism rate between the parental genotypes (Sekati and JS12). The SSR atlas presented here is the first comprehensive gene-centered collection of annotated and genome positioned papaya SSRs. These features combined with thousands of high-quality primer pairs make the atlas an important resource for the papaya research community. PMID:25393538

  16. Development of a gene-centered ssr atlas as a resource for papaya (Carica papaya) marker-assisted selection and population genetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Newton Medeiros; Grazziotin, Ana Laura; Ramos, Helaine Christine Cancela; Pereira, Messias Gonzaga; Venancio, Thiago Motta

    2014-01-01

    Carica papaya (papaya) is an economically important tropical fruit. Molecular marker-assisted selection is an inexpensive and reliable tool that has been widely used to improve fruit quality traits and resistance against diseases. In the present study we report the development and validation of an atlas of papaya simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. We integrated gene predictions and functional annotations to provide a gene-centered perspective for marker-assisted selection studies. Our atlas comprises 160,318 SSRs, from which 21,231 were located in genic regions (i.e. inside exons, exon-intron junctions or introns). A total of 116,453 (72.6%) of all identified repeats were successfully mapped to one of the nine papaya linkage groups. Primer pairs were designed for markers from 9,594 genes (34.5% of the papaya gene complement). Using papaya-tomato orthology assessments, we assembled a list of 300 genes (comprising 785 SSRs) potentially involved in fruit ripening. We validated our atlas by screening 73 SSR markers (including 25 fruit ripening genes), achieving 100% amplification rate and uncovering 26% polymorphism rate between the parental genotypes (Sekati and JS12). The SSR atlas presented here is the first comprehensive gene-centered collection of annotated and genome positioned papaya SSRs. These features combined with thousands of high-quality primer pairs make the atlas an important resource for the papaya research community. PMID:25393538

  17. Sensitivity of papaya seeds to gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major problems faced by the papaya industry in Malaysia are the papaya ringspot virus disease and the short shelf-life of the fruit. Efforts have been made to address these problems and they include conventional breeding and selection and biotechnological tools for development of transgenic papayas with PRSV resistance and delayed fruit ripening characteristics. Irradiation-induced changes in papaya for selection of improved varieties could offer another approach to resolve these problems. As the first step, the radio-sensitivity of papaya seed must be established before mass irradiation of the materials to generate the desired variability for evaluation and selection later. For the first approximation dosage, the seeds of two local. varieties, Sekaki and Eksotika were irradiated as either dry seeds or as pre-germinated seeds (soaked overnight in water and surface-dried). The dosage ranged from 0 to 300 Gy. Wet pre-germinated seeds were all killed at 100 Gy while dry seeds did not show loss of viability even at 300 Gy. The dosage for dry seeds was raised to 1000 Gy in the following experiment and the LD 50 (or half-kill) was estimated to be 650 Gy. However, at this dosage, seedling growth was markedly reduced and this dosage may not be suitable for mass irradiation. From the growth data, it was estimated that 525 Gy was the dosage that reduced 50% of growth in height and this dosage was recommended for mass irradiation of dry seeds. For wet, pre-germinated seeds, dry seeds. For wet, pre-germinated seeds, results from the third experiment indicated that 42.5 Gy was the optimal dosage for mass irradiation. At this dosage, both seed germination and seedling growth was reduced by 50%. (Author)

  18. Purification and characterization of a papaya (Carica papaya L.) pectin methylesterase isolated from a commercial papain preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    We purified a single stable pectin methylesterase (CpL-PME; EC 3.1.1.11) from a commercial papain preparation, which is isolated from Carica papaya (L.) fruit latex. This CpL-PME was separated from the abundant cysteine endopeptidases activities using sequential hydrophobic interaction and cation-ex...

  19. Anatomia foliar de plantas transgênicas e não transgênicas de Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae Leaf anatomy of genetically modified and wild-type Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Vinicius Leal-Costa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O mamoeiro, Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae é uma espécie americana, cujos frutos são largamente consumidos em todo mundo. Devido às perdas de produção provocadas por viroses e a dificuldade em controlá-las por métodos convencionais, a espécie tem sido alvo de pesquisas de melhoramento genético envolvendo transgenia para resistência a vírus. O presente trabalho descreve a anatomia foliar de plantas de mamoeiro convencional e transgênico resistente ao vírus da mancha anelar-Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV com inserção da capa protéica viral. As duas cultivares apresentam pecíolo com endoderme e fibras pericíclicas. As folhas são hipoestomáticas e dorsiventrais, com laticíferos acompanhando os feixes vasculares e grande concentração de idioblastos com drusas de oxalato de cálcio. A epiderme é glabra, possuindo estômatos anomocíticos e anisocíticos, com células de paredes anticlinais retas na face adaxial e levemente sinuosas na face abaxial. O presente trabalho concluiu que o processo de transformação genética não alterou as características anatômicas das folhas de C. papaya, servindo de subsídio para avaliação da conformidade anatômica da cultivar transgênica.Papaya, Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae, is an American species, consumed worldwide. A major limitation to papaya production is attack by viruses, like the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV. Papaya has been genetically modified to increase its resistance to PRSV. The aim of this research was to compare the leaf anatomy of wild-type and genetically modified (GM C. papaya plants to evaluate the influence of genetic modification on leaf anatomy. Wild-type and GM plants showed petiole with endodermis and pericycle fibers. The leaves are hypostomatic and dorsiventral, with laticifers along vascular system and abundant druses of calcium oxalate. The epidermis was glabrous and presented anomocytic and anisocytic stomata, straight anticlinal walls on the adaxial face and sinuous on the abaxial face. Anatomical differences between wild-type and GM C. papaya leaves were not observed. These data contribute to risk assessments regarding the anatomical conformity of GM plants.

  20. Evaluation of schistosomicidal and leishmanicidal activities from Carica papaya (Linn.) stem and phytochemical composition

    OpenAIRE

    Khaled Nabih Rashed; Michele Garcia da Cruz; Geovana Pereira Guirra Vieira; Lizandra Guidi Magalhaes; Cunha, Wilson R.

    2013-01-01

    Carica papaya Linn., is a member of the small family Caricaceae. Each part of papaya tree possesses economic value and is considered as a valuable nutraceutical fruit plant. C. papaya has a wide range of purported medicinal properties including antiseptic, antiparasitic, anti inflammatory, antidiabetic and contraceptive activity. While there are only limited data to support most of these uses, there are some evidences for their use in healing decubitus ulcers and other wounds and in treating ...

  1. Evaluation of platelet augmentation activity of Carica papaya leaf aqueous extract in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Swati Patil; Supritha Shetty; Rama Bhide; Shridhar Narayanan

    2013-01-01

    Carica papaya leaves have been used traditionally to treat indigestion, as a vermifuge. Carica papayaleaves have also been shown to possess anti-tumor and immunomodulatory effects. The current study aims at determining the effect of Carica papaya leaves aqueous extract in increasing the platelet count in thrombocytopenic rat model. Aqueous extract of Carica papaya leaves at concentration of 400mg/kg and 800mg/kg were given to cyclophosphamide induced thrombocytopenic rats for a period of fift...

  2. Antiplasmodial Properties and Bioassay-Guided Fractionation of Ethyl Acetate Extracts from Carica papaya Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Smith; Paschal Etusim; Paula Melariri; William Campbell

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the antiplasmodial properties of crude extracts from Carica papaya leaves to trace the activity through bioassay-guided fractionation. The greatest antiplasmodial activity was observed in the ethyl acetate crude extract. C. papaya showed a high selectivity for P. falciparum against CHO cells with a selectivity index of 249.25 and 185.37 in the chloroquine-sensitive D10 and chloroquine-resistant DD2 strains, respectively. Carica papaya ethyl acetate extract was subjected to bio...

  3. Reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid detection of Papaya ringspot virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wentao; Tuo, Decai; Yan, Pu; Yang, Yong; Li, Xiaoying; Zhou, Peng

    2014-08-01

    Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) and Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV), which causes disease symptoms similar to PRSV, threaten commercial production of both non-transgenic-papaya and PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya in China. A reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay to detect PLDMV was developed previously. In this study, the development of another RT-LAMP assay to distinguish among transgenic, PRSV-infected and PLDMV-infected papaya by detection of PRSV is reported. A set of four RT-LAMP primers was designed based on the highly conserved region of the P3 gene of PRSV. The RT-LAMP method was specific and sensitive in detecting PRSV, with a detection limit of 1.15×10(-6)?g of total RNA per reaction. Indeed, the reaction was 10 times more sensitive than one-step RT-PCR. Field application of the RT-LAMP assay demonstrated that samples positive for PRSV were detected only in non-transgenic papaya, whereas samples positive for PLDMV were detected only in commercialized PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya. This suggests that PRSV remains the major limiting factor for non-transgenic-papaya production, and the emergence of PLDMV threatens the commercial transgenic cultivar in China. However, this study, combined with the earlier development of an RT-LAMP assay for PLDMV, will provide a rapid, sensitive and cost-effective diagnostic power to distinguish virus infections in papaya. PMID:24769198

  4. Effect of gamma irradiation in papaya (Carica papaya L.) harvested in three degrees of maturation.; Efeito da irradiacao gama em mamao papaia (Carica papaya L.) colhido em tres pontos de maturacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimentel, Rodrigo Meirelles de Azevedo

    2001-07-01

    The papaya is a fragile tropical fruit with thin skin, susceptible to post harvest diseases and mechanical injuries. Furthermore, it is sensible to low temperatures and at normal conditions it ripens rapidly, increasing the difficulties with storage. The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of gamma irradiation in papayas harvested in three degrees of maturation, in order to increase shelf life. To accomplish that, papayas were harvested in perfect quality conditions, washed, submitted to carnauba wax and selected by skin coloration into three distinct degrees of maturation: Mat 0, or beginning of yellow coloration; Mat 1, yellow stripes more developed, and Mat 2, one third yellow. Half of them were submitted to irradiation with 0, 75 kGy, while the others became control treatment. They were analyzed in four different periods of conservation, which were 1 day after irradiation (DAI) refrigerated (11 +- 1 deg C), 14 DAI refrigerated, 14 DAI refrigerated + 3 at room temperature (RT = 24 deg +- 2 deg C) and 14 DAI refrigerated + 6 at RT. The effect of irradiation was not influenced by the maturation degree at harvest. Irradiation promoted firmness maintenance of papaya and, therefore, delayed ripening; modified the green color of papaya to a lighter tone, which determined more homogeneity in the skin yellow color development (greater values of L* and b*), and turned the papaya flesh color lighter (rower values of b*). There was no effect of irradiation in papaya weight loss, in the occurrence of diseases, in the development of surface yellow color, in the parameter a* of papaya skin color, in the parameters L*, a* and chroma of flesh color, p H and total soluble solids content. Visual and organoleptic sensorial tests were accomplished with papayas from a new delivery in the conservation period of 14 DAI refrigerated + 3 at RT. In the visual test was evaluated the appearance of papaya in the following treatments: Mat O control, Mat O irradiated, Mat 1 control, Mat 1 irradiated, Mat 2 control e Mat 2 irradiated, in which the first one received lower scores due to the occurrence of ratting on one of the papayas. In the organoleptic test, the parameters firmness, sweetness and acceptance were evaluated for the following treatments: control, Mat O irradiated, Mat 1 irradiated e Mat 2 irradiated. There was no difference between treatments for the sweetness parameter. The irradiated treatments received better scores for firmness as well as papayas irradiated at Mat 1 and 2 for acceptance (author)

  5. Hurdle technology to preserve the 'Golden' papaya post harvest quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the purpose of evaluating a combination of post harvest techniques on papaya Golden storage, the following treatments were investigated: carton boxes packaging (CP); CP + plastic bag of PEBD - low density polyethylene film, with 0.05mm of thickness (PE); CP + PEBD with 0.025mm of thickness impregnated with mineral ethylene scavenger (PEAbs); gamma-irradiation (0.4 kGy and 0.7 kGy); and refrigerated storage at 10 deg C e 90% of relative humidity for 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 days plus five days under environmental conditions to allow ripening and to simulate the product marketing. To evaluate the effects on fruit quality the following measurements were taken: - first experiment, disease incidence, skin color and loss of turgidity (as visual variables); skin and flesh color, weight loss, flesh firmness, total soluble solids, total titratable acidity, pH, lycopene and beta-carotene composition; - second experiment, sensorial analysis on samples submitted to the treatments with better results from the first experiment. Post harvest diseases were the main factor responsible for discarding fruits. Percentage of weight loss was higher on papayas stored without plastic packaging. Time affected the flesh firmness (F = 95%). However, there wasn't influence of the treatments on that parameter. A significant effect on skin color was observed with interaction between irradiation (0.4 and 0.7 kGy) and storage period. Once reached the edible stage, irradiated papayas pres the edible stage, irradiated papayas presented more uniformity on skin color. For beta-carotene and Lycopene, the mean values were 1.27 to 1.79 and 19.16 to 23.90 mug/ml of flesh, respectively. But those substances weren't affected by the combined methods or the time. The same behavior were observed for total soluble solids, total titratable acidity and pH (mean values of 11.53 to 12.20 deg Brix, 0.117 to 0.136 g of citric acid/100g of flesh and 4.91 to 5.04, respectively). On sensory evaluation, the judges didn't get to detect significant differences among papayas submitted to different treatments. A synergism was verified on the techniques combination, with the best results obtained from the association of CP + PEabs + gamma-irradiation at 0.4 kGy, which reached a total storage period of 35 days. Thus, that is the post harvest hurdle technology recommend for exporting 'Golden' papayas to markets with quarantine restrictions to fruit-flies (author)

  6. Parasitizing behavior of Cervellus piranga Penteado-Dias (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Braconinae) on papaya borer weevil Pseudopiazurus obesus Marshall (Coleoptera, Curculionidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, Marcos A. B.; Zarbin, Paulo H. G.; Penteado-dias, Ange?lica M.; Teodoro, Adenir V.

    2011-01-01

    Parasitizing behavior of Cervellus piranga Penteado-Dias (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Braconinae) on papaya borer weevil Pseudopiazurus obesus Marshall (Coleoptera, Curculionidae). The papaya borer weevil Pseudopiazurus obesus is a pest associated with papaya crops in Brazil and Cervellus piranga is a naturally-occurring parasitoid which may contribute to regulate populations of this pest. We aimed at describing the parasitizing behavior of the parasitoid C. piranga on papaya borer weevil P. obe...

  7. Analysis of Papaya Cell Wall-Related Genes during Fruit Ripening Indicates a Central Role of Polygalacturonases during Pulp Softening

    OpenAIRE

    Fabi, Joa?o Paulo; Broetto, Sabrina Garcia; Da Silva, Sarah Li?gia Garcia Leme; Zhong, Silin; Lajolo, Franco Maria; Do Nascimento, Joa?o Roberto Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a climacteric fleshy fruit that undergoes dramatic changes during ripening, most noticeably a severe pulp softening. However, little is known regarding the genetics of the cell wall metabolism in papayas. The present work describes the identification and characterization of genes related to pulp softening. We used gene expression profiling to analyze the correlations and co-expression networks of cell wall-related genes, and the results suggest that papaya pulp so...

  8. Cyanogenesis in glucosinolate-producing plants: Carica papaya and Carica quercifolia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olafsdottir, E.S.; JØrgensen, Lise Bolt

    2002-01-01

    Carica papaya, Carica quercifolia, Carica hastata, Caricaceae, Passifloraceae, Biosynthesis, Glucosinolates, Cyanohydrin glycosides, Cyanogenic glycosides, Prunasin, Tetraphyllin B, Cyclopentenylglycine

  9. ANALYSIS OF PAPAYA BAC END SEQUENCES REVEALS FIRST INSIGHTS INTO THE ORGANIZATION OF A TREE-FRUIT GENOME

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a major tree fruit crop of tropical and subtropical regions with an estimated genome size of 372 Mbp. Here we present the sequence analysis of 4.7% of the papaya genome based on 50,661 BAC end sequences (BESs) representing 17,483,563 high quality bases generated from 26,...

  10. Determining sex and screening for the adventitious presence of transgenic material in Carica papaya L. seed germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaya Ringspot Virus (PRSV) is a devastating disease that has a detrimental impact on both commercial papaya production and Caricaceae germplasm conservation. The PRSV coat protein transgenic line 55-1 and derived progeny are resistant to PRSV and have saved the papaya industry in Hawaii. However,...

  11. ANALYSIS OF PAPAYA BAC END SEQUENCES REVEALS FIRST INSIGHTS INTO THE ORGANIZATION OF A FRUIT TREE GENOME

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a major tree fruit crop of tropical and subtropical regions with an estimated genome size of 372 Mbp. We present the analysis of 4.7% of the papaya genome based on BAC end sequences (BESs) representing 17 million high quality bases. Microsatellites discovered in 5,452 BE...

  12. 76 FR 49725 - Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Fresh Papaya Fruit From Malaysia into the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ...Importation of Fresh Papaya Fruit From Malaysia into the Continental United States AGENCY...United States of fresh papaya fruit from Malaysia. Based on the findings of a pest risk...importation of fresh papaya fruit from Malaysia. DATES: Effective Date: August...

  13. Dormancia en semillas de papaya cv maradol roja durante el almacenamiento / Dormancy of papaya seeds cv Maradol Roja during storage

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maruchi, Alonso-Esquivel; Yoleinis, Ortiz-López; Roberto, Ramos-Ramírez; Hugo, Oliva-Diaz; Maricela, Capote-del Sol.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Dormancia en semillas de papaya cv Maradol Roja durante el almacenamiento. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar el efecto de la humedad de la semilla cultivar Maradol Roja y la temperatura durante el almacenamiento, en la dormancia de la papaya. Este trabajo fue desarrollado en el Laborat [...] orio Nacional de Semillas de la Empresa Productora y Comercializadora de Semillas, provincia La Habana, Cuba, en el período noviembre 2006 a enero 2008. Fueron extraídas las semillas de frutos de papaya cv Maradol Roja, y se secaron a tres contenidos de humedad (12%, 10,56% y 9,26%), y acondicionadas en bolsas de polietileno y almacenadas a 15ºC y 4ºC. El porcentaje de germinación, altura y peso fresco de la planta fueron realizadas al inicio y después de tres, seis, nueve y doce meses de almacenamiento. Hubo tendencia a la disminución de la germinación en los primeros seis meses del almacenamiento, alcanzándose los valores más bajos del porcentaje de germinación (55,6%). A partir de los nueve y doce meses fue detectado un aumento significativo en la germinación, independiente del contenido de humedad de la semilla. El ambiente de 15ºC favoreció mayor germinación en períodos mayores de almacenamiento en relación a las mantenidas a 4ºC, que exhibieron mejores porcentajes de germinación en un período menor (tres meses de almacenamiento). La dormancia finalizó en los periodos de almacenamiento a los nueve y doce meses, independientemente del contenido de humedad. Abstract in english Dormancy of papaya seeds cv Maradol Roja during storage. The objective of this work was to determine the effect of humidity content of papaya cv Maradol Roja and storage temperatura on dormany. The work was conducted at the Laboratorio Nacional de Semillas, Empresa Productora y Comercializadora de S [...] emillas, La Habana, Cuba, from November 2006 to January 2008. Seeds were extracted from papaya fruits cv Maradol Roja and dried to three humidiy contents (12%, 10,56% y 9,26%), and aconditioned in polyiethylene bags and stored at 15ºC and 4ºC. Percentaje of seed germination, heigth and fresh weight of the seedlings were measured at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months in storage. There was a trend towards reduced seed germination during the first 6 months in storage (55,6%). After 9 and 12 months a significant incresase in germination was observed, independent of seed water content. Seeds stored in environment at 15ºC favored germination after longer sotrage compared to seeds kept in storage for shorter periods (3 months). Seed dormany concluded between 9 and 12 months in storage irrespective of seed water content.

  14. Evaluación de accesiones cubanas de papaya (Carica papaya L.) ante la mancha anular / Assessment of Cuban papaya (Carica papaya L.) accessions against ringspot / Avaliação de acessos cubanos de mamão papaya (carica papaya L.) à mancha anelar

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Douglas, Rodríguez; Maruchy, Alonso; Yoel, Tornet; Lázaro, Valero; Emi Rainildes, Lorenzetti; Romualdo, Pérez.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese Os acessos de mamão Tallo morado de Nava, Amarilla de Duaba, Amarilla de Nava e Sapote de Pilón foram coletados em diferentes regiões de Cuba e plantados em condições de campo em Jagüey Grande, Matanzas - Cuba. Nestas plantas foram avaliadas a presença e intensidade dos sintomas de mancha anelar, us [...] ando uma escala graduada de 1-5. Os resultados mostraram um aumento, com o tempo, na proporção de plantas afetadas em todos os acessos. O acesso Amarilla de Duaba apresentou sintomas dois meses após a primeira avaliação (MDPE), enquanto para os restantes foram observados sintomas após cinco MDPE, contudo em proporções diferentes entre eles. Aos sete MDPE os acessos Amarilla de Duaba e Amarilla de Nava, apresentaram proporções iguais de plantas doentes, enquanto Tallo morado de Nava e Sapote de Pilon apresentaram menores proporções. O aumento da intensidade dos sintomas foi diferente nos órgãos da planta na seguinte ordem: caule (1,7-2,66), pecíolos (2,21-3,03) e folhagens (3,44-4,03). Nos frutos a intensidade dos sintomas observados foi inferior a 2,5, considerada leve em função da sua intensidade e distribuição. Estes são os primeiros resultados sobre a susceptibilidade a mancha anelar destes acessos, sendo muito úteis para os produtores, bem como para os programas de melhoramento do país. Abstract in spanish Se colectaron en diferentes regiones de Cuba semillas de las accesiones de papayo Tallo Morado de Nava, Amarilla de Duaba, Amarilla de Nava y Sapote de Pilón. Estas se plantaron en condiciones de campo en Jagüey Grande, Matanzas - Cuba, donde se evaluó la presencia e intensidad de síntomas de mancha [...] anular, siguiendo una escala graduada del 1 al 5. Los resultados mostraron un incremento temporal de la proporción de plantas afectadas en todas las accesiones. La accesión Amarilla de Duaba mostró los síntomas a los dos meses después de la primera evaluación (MDPE), mientras que el resto lo hizo a los cinco MDPE, aunque con proporciones que variaron entre ellas. A los siete MDPE las accesiones Amarilla de Duaba y Amarilla de Nava mostraron proporciones idénticas de plantas enfermas, mientras que Tallo morado de Nava y Sapote de Pilón mostraron proporciones inferiores. La intensidad de los síntomas se incrementó en los diferentes órganos siguiendo el siguiente orden: tallo (1,7 a 2,66), pecíolos (2,21 a 3,03) y follaje (3,44-4,03). En los frutos la intensidad de los síntomas observados fue inferior a 2,5, considerados como leves de acuerdo a su intensidad y distribución. Se ofrecen los primeros resultados sobre la susceptibilidad a la mancha anular de estas accesiones, siendo de gran utilidad para los productores, así como para los programas de mejoramiento genético en el país. Abstract in english The papaya accessions "Tallo morado de Nava", "Amarilla de Duaba", "Amarilla de Nava" and "Sapote de Pilón" were collected from different regions of Cuba and planted under field conditions in Jagüey Grande, Matanzas - Cuba. These plants were assessed for the presence and intensity of ringspot sympto [...] ms, using a graduated scale of 1-5. Results showed an increase, with time, in the proportion of affected plants for all accessions. The accession "Amarilla de Duaba" had symptoms two months after the first assessment (MAFA), while for the remaining accessions, symptoms were noted after only five MAFA but at proportions that differed among them. At seven MAFA, the accessions "Amarilla de Duaba" and "Amarilla de Nava" had proportions equal to those of diseased plants, while "Tallo morado de Nava" and "Sapote de Pilon" showed lower proportions. The increase in symptom intensity was different for the plant organs in the following order: stem (1.7-2.66), petioles (2.21-3.03) and leaves (3.44-4.03). For fruits, the intensity of the observed symptoms was inferior to 2.5, considered light based on their intensity and distributions. These are the first results about ringspot susceptibility for these a

  15. Evaluación de accesiones cubanas de papaya (Carica papaya L. ante la mancha anular Avaliação de acessos cubanos de mamão papaya (carica papaya L. à mancha anelar Assessment of Cuban papaya (Carica papaya L. accessions against ringspot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Rodríguez

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Se colectaron en diferentes regiones de Cuba semillas de las accesiones de papayo Tallo Morado de Nava, Amarilla de Duaba, Amarilla de Nava y Sapote de Pilón. Estas se plantaron en condiciones de campo en Jagüey Grande, Matanzas - Cuba, donde se evaluó la presencia e intensidad de síntomas de mancha anular, siguiendo una escala graduada del 1 al 5. Los resultados mostraron un incremento temporal de la proporción de plantas afectadas en todas las accesiones. La accesión Amarilla de Duaba mostró los síntomas a los dos meses después de la primera evaluación (MDPE, mientras que el resto lo hizo a los cinco MDPE, aunque con proporciones que variaron entre ellas. A los siete MDPE las accesiones Amarilla de Duaba y Amarilla de Nava mostraron proporciones idénticas de plantas enfermas, mientras que Tallo morado de Nava y Sapote de Pilón mostraron proporciones inferiores. La intensidad de los síntomas se incrementó en los diferentes órganos siguiendo el siguiente orden: tallo (1,7 a 2,66, pecíolos (2,21 a 3,03 y follaje (3,44-4,03. En los frutos la intensidad de los síntomas observados fue inferior a 2,5, considerados como leves de acuerdo a su intensidad y distribución. Se ofrecen los primeros resultados sobre la susceptibilidad a la mancha anular de estas accesiones, siendo de gran utilidad para los productores, así como para los programas de mejoramiento genético en el país.Os acessos de mamão Tallo morado de Nava, Amarilla de Duaba, Amarilla de Nava e Sapote de Pilón foram coletados em diferentes regiões de Cuba e plantados em condições de campo em Jagüey Grande, Matanzas - Cuba. Nestas plantas foram avaliadas a presença e intensidade dos sintomas de mancha anelar, usando uma escala graduada de 1-5. Os resultados mostraram um aumento, com o tempo, na proporção de plantas afetadas em todos os acessos. O acesso Amarilla de Duaba apresentou sintomas dois meses após a primeira avaliação (MDPE, enquanto para os restantes foram observados sintomas após cinco MDPE, contudo em proporções diferentes entre eles. Aos sete MDPE os acessos Amarilla de Duaba e Amarilla de Nava, apresentaram proporções iguais de plantas doentes, enquanto Tallo morado de Nava e Sapote de Pilon apresentaram menores proporções. O aumento da intensidade dos sintomas foi diferente nos órgãos da planta na seguinte ordem: caule (1,7-2,66, pecíolos (2,21-3,03 e folhagens (3,44-4,03. Nos frutos a intensidade dos sintomas observados foi inferior a 2,5, considerada leve em função da sua intensidade e distribuição. Estes são os primeiros resultados sobre a susceptibilidade a mancha anelar destes acessos, sendo muito úteis para os produtores, bem como para os programas de melhoramento do país.The papaya accessions "Tallo morado de Nava", "Amarilla de Duaba", "Amarilla de Nava" and "Sapote de Pilón" were collected from different regions of Cuba and planted under field conditions in Jagüey Grande, Matanzas - Cuba. These plants were assessed for the presence and intensity of ringspot symptoms, using a graduated scale of 1-5. Results showed an increase, with time, in the proportion of affected plants for all accessions. The accession "Amarilla de Duaba" had symptoms two months after the first assessment (MAFA, while for the remaining accessions, symptoms were noted after only five MAFA but at proportions that differed among them. At seven MAFA, the accessions "Amarilla de Duaba" and "Amarilla de Nava" had proportions equal to those of diseased plants, while "Tallo morado de Nava" and "Sapote de Pilon" showed lower proportions. The increase in symptom intensity was different for the plant organs in the following order: stem (1.7-2.66, petioles (2.21-3.03 and leaves (3.44-4.03. For fruits, the intensity of the observed symptoms was inferior to 2.5, considered light based on their intensity and distributions. These are the first results about ringspot susceptibility for these accessions, which are highly useful for farmers, as well as for breeding programs in the country.

  16. Development of Transgenic Papaya through Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Abul Kalam Azad; Md. Golam Rabbani; Latifah Amin; Nik Marzuki Sidik

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic papaya plants were regenerated from hypocotyls and immature zygotic embryo after cocultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA-4404 carrying a binary plasmid vector system containing neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII) gene as the selectable marker and ?-glucuronidase (GUS) as the reporter gene. The explants were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens on regeneration medium containing 500?mg/L carbenicillin?+?200?mg/L cefotaxime for one week. The cocultivated expl...

  17. Purification of papain from fresh latex of Carica papaya

    OpenAIRE

    Rubens Monti; Basilio, Carmelita A.; Trevisan, Henrique C.; Jonas Contiero

    2000-01-01

    In the present study we wish to report a method of crystallizing papain from fresh papaya latex which gave higher yields than previously reported. This method does not involve the use of sulphydryl reagents. The papain thus obtained is practically pure and shows a single band when submitted to electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gel, and is identical to the papain obtained by other methods. In routine enzymatic assays, specific activity was measured using Z-gly-pNP and BAEE as substrates. Papai...

  18. Anatomy of somatic embryogenesis in Carica papaya L.

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando, Juliana A.; Murilo de Melo; Soares, Marli K. M.; Beatriz Appezzato-da-Glória

    2001-01-01

    Mature zygotic embryos of Carica papaya L. ‘Sunrise Solo’ were used as explants for embryogenesis induction. The explants were inoculated on Murashige and Skoog culture medium supplemented with 2 mg.L-1 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and incubated in darkness at 25+2°C. Histological analysis of callogenesis and somatic embryogenesis indicated occurrence of direct and indirect somatic embryogenesis development. Direct somatic embryo formation was observed from hypocotyledonary epidermic c...

  19. Increasing the shelf- life of papaya through vacuum packing

    OpenAIRE

    Padmanaban, Geetha; Singaravelu, Kanchana; Annavi, Susheela Thirumaran

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to increase the shelf life of fruits through vacuum packing. Papaya fruits were pretreated with waxing, oil application, purafil packets, tissue paper wrapping given along with control and were packed in 150 gauge thickness polyethylene film bags under vacuum and another set of these samples under without vacuum. The fruits were then stored at room and refrigerated temperature and analyzed for chemical changes. Results showed that the shelf life of the fru...

  20. Apertura y Eficiencia Productiva: La Industria Chilena, 1975-1988 Apertura y Eficiencia Productiva: La Industria Chilena, 1975-1988

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Román

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available Apertura y Eficiencia Productiva: La Industria Chilena, 1975-1988 The results of Chile's profound economic liberalizations remain the subject of ongoing debate. Using the Total Factor Productivity approach (TFP; we review the industrial sector performance during the 1975-1988 period. Our analysis shows that greater competitiveness dictated by economic liberalization was not accomplished through technical change but, rather, through intensive factor use (1976-81, or extensive factor use (1984-88. After exhaustion of the "easy phase", new levels of productive efficiency necessitated technical innovation, that is, investment in equipment, training. and reorganization of productive processes. However, after the 1982-83 crisis, firms did not follow this path: previous financial stress and low wage costs determined a growth path based on extensive use of labor, thereby delaying technological modernization of the industrial sector.

  1. Dengue fever treatment with Carica papaya leaves extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nisar; Fazal, Hina; Ayaz, Muhammad; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Mohammad, Ijaz; Fazal, Lubna

    2011-08-01

    The main objective of the current study is to investigate the potential of Carica papaya leaves extracts against Dengue fever in 45 year old patient bitten by carrier mosquitoes. For the treatment of Dengue fever the extract was prepared in water. 25 mL of aqueous extract of C. papaya leaves was administered to patient infected with Dengue fever twice daily i.e. morning and evening for five consecutive days. Before the extract administration the blood samples from patient were analyzed. Platelets count (PLT), White Blood Cells (WBC) and Neutrophils (NEUT) decreased from 176×10(3)/µL, 8.10×10(3)/µL, 84.0% to 55×10(3)/µL, 3.7×10(3)/µL and 46.0%. Subsequently, the blood samples were rechecked after the administration of leaves extract. It was observed that the PLT count increased from 55×10(3)/µL to 168×10(3)/µL, WBC from 3.7×10(3)/µL to 7.7×10(3)/µL and NEUT from 46.0% to 78.3%. From the patient feelings and blood reports it showed that Carica papaya leaves aqueous extract exhibited potential activity against Dengue fever. Furthermore, the different parts of this valuable specie can be further used as a strong natural candidate against viral diseases. PMID:23569787

  2. Estudo e modelagem da cinética de desidratação osmótica do mamão formosa (Carica papaya L.) Kinetics and modeling on osmotic dehydration of papaya (Carica papaya L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Ânoar Abbas El-Aquar; Xidieh Murr, Fernanda E.

    2003-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve como objetivo o estudo da cinética e modelagem do processo de desidratação osmótica de cubos de mamão Formosa (Carica papaya L.), assim como da qualidade do produto final. O tratamento osmótico foi conduzido a 30ºC, com agitação de 110rpm, utilizando-se dois tipos de soluções de sacarose 70ºBrix: a primeira contendo lactato de sódio 2,4% p/p e ácido láctico 0,1M e a segunda com lactato de sódio 2,4% p/p e ácido cítrico 0,1M. O estudo da cinética de ...

  3. Hypoglycemic effect of Carica papaya leaves in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juárez-Rojop Isela Esther

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditional plant treatment for diabetes has shown a surging interest in the last few decades. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the hypoglycemic effect of the aqueous extract of C. papaya leaves in diabetic rats. Several studies have reported that some parts of the C. papaya plant exert hypoglycemic effects in both animals and humans. Methods Diabetes was induced in rats by intraperitoneal administration of 60 mg/kg of streptozotocin (STZ. The aqueous extract of C. papaya was administered in three different doses (0.75, 1.5 and 3 g/100 mL as drinking water to both diabetic and non-diabetic animals during 4 weeks. Results The aqueous extract of Carica papaya (0.75 g and 1.5 g/100 mL significantly decreased blood glucose levels (pC. papaya could help islet regeneration manifested as preservation of cell size. In the liver of diabetic treated rats, C. papaya prevented hepatocyte disruption, as well as accumulation of glycogen and lipids. Finally, an antioxidant effect of C. papaya extract was also detected in diabetic rats. Conclusions This study showed that the aqueous extract of C. papaya exerted a hypoglycemic and antioxidant effect; it also improved the lipid profile in diabetic rats. In addition, the leaf extract positively affected integrity and function of both liver and pancreas.

  4. Atypical internal yellowing of papaya fruit in Hawaii caused by Enterobacter sakazakii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Internal yellowing (IY), characterized by yellow discolored tissue around the papaya (Carica papaya) seed cavity, diffuse margins and the presence of a distinctly rotten odor, was first reported in 1987. These symptoms were associated with the causal agent Enterobacter cloacae. Here we report the fo...

  5. Irradiation-derived sex reversal mutants for cloning sex determination genes in papaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unlike most animals, most flowering plants are hermaphrodites possessing both male and female organs. Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is one of the few plant species that produce male, female, and hermaphrodite flowers on separate individuals. These variations have distinctive morphologies and sexual func...

  6. DEVELOPING TRANSGENIC PAPAYA TO IMPROVE BROAD DISEASE RESISTANCE AGAINST FUNGAL PATHOGENS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.), one of the more important fruit crops of the tropics, has limited resistance to a range of fungal pathogens that may kill the plants or, at a minimum, reduce productivity and quality of the fruit. Phytoalexins have been shown to be important natural components in the defe...

  7. METHYL JASMONATE REDUCES DECAY AND MAINTAINS POSTHARVEST QUALITY OF PAPAYA 'SUNRISE'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure of papaya (Carica papaya L., cv. Sunrise) fruit to methyl jasmonate (MJ) vapors (ten to the -5 or ten to the -4 M) for 16 h at 20 degrees C inhibited fungal decay and reduced chilling injury development and loss of firmness during storage for 14-32 days at 10 degrees C and shelf life (4 day...

  8. Elicitor-induced Plant Defense and Pathogenesis-Related Gene Expression in Carica papaya L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The basic elements of a papaya systemic acquired resistance (SAR) pathway have been reported to resemble that described in Arabidopsis thaliana. An NPR1 (nonexpresser of pathogenesis-related genes) homolog (CpNPR1) was isolated from papaya and partially characterized (Zhu et al., 2003). To character...

  9. Papaya is not a host for Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The economic value of tomato production is threatened by tomato yellow leaf-curl virus TYLCV and its vector, the silverleaf whitefly Bemisia tabaci biotype B (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). Use of papaya Carica papaya L. as a banker plant for a whitefly parasitoid shows promise as a whitefly m...

  10. Detection of Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus by reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wentao; Tuo, Decai; Yan, Pu; Li, Xiaoying; Zhou, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV) can infect transgenic papaya resistant to a related pathogen, Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), posing a substantial threat to papaya production in China. Current detection methods, however, are unable to be used for rapid detection in the field. Here, a reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed for the detection of PLDMV, using a set of four RT-LAMP primers designed based on the conserved sequence of PLDMV CP. The RT-LAMP method detected specifically PLDMV and was highly sensitive, with a detection limit of 1.32×10(-6) ?g of total RNA per reaction. Indeed, the reaction was 10 times more sensitive than one-step RT-PCR, while also requiring significantly less time and equipment. The effectiveness of RT-LAMP and one-step RT-PCR in detecting the virus were compared using 90 field samples of non-transgenic papaya and 90 field samples of commercialized PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya from Hainan Island. None of the non-transgenic papaya tested positive for PLDMV using either method. In contrast, 19 of the commercialized PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya samples tested positive by RT-LAMP assay, and 6 of those tested negative by RT-PCR. Therefore, the PLDMV-specific RT-LAMP is a simple, rapid, sensitive, and cost-effective tool in the field diagnosis and control of PLDMV. PMID:24100065

  11. Cloning Of Organ-Specific Genes from Papaya Using cDNA-AFLP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaya is a fast growing and productive fruit crop in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. Papaya industry has benefited from application of molecular biology and biotechnology for crop improvement, particularly for viral disease resistance using transgenic varieties. The goal of this researc...

  12. Effect of heat treatment on ethylene and CO2 emissions rates during papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, M. G.; Santos, E. O.; Sthel, M. S.; Cardoso, S. L.; Cavalli, A.; Monteiro, A. R.; de Oliveira, J. G.; Pereira, M. G.; Vargas, H.

    2003-01-01

    Ripening studies of nontreated and treated papaya (papaya L) are accomplished by monitoring the ethylene and CO2 emission rates of that climacteric fruit, to evaluate its shelf life. The treatments simulate the commercial Phitosanitarian process used to avoid the fly infestation. Ethylene emission was measured using a commercial CO2 laser driven photoacoustic setup and CO2, using a commercial gas analysis also based on the photothermal effect. The results show a marked change in ethylene and CO2 emission rate pattern for treated fruits when compared to the ones obtained for nontreated fruits and a displacement of the climacteric pick shown that the treatment causes a decrease of shelf life of fruit.

  13. Nematodos agalladores asociados al cultivo de papaya (Carica papaya L. en el departamento de Córdoba, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaraba Juan de Dios

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue identificar los nematodos agalladores asociados al cultivo de papaya (Carica papaya L. en los municipios de Tierralta, Valencia, Lorica, Montería y Montelíbano que constituyen el área productora de papaya en Córdoba. Se evaluaron variables morfológicas y morfométricas en hembras, machos y juveniles de segundo estadío (J2. En las muestras de suelo se determinó pH, contenido de materia orgánica (MO, conductividad eléctrica (CE y textura, a fin de correlacionarlas con la presencia de especies nematodas. Se encontraron Meloidogyne javanica,M. incognita y M. arenaria, siendo M. incognita la especie más frecuente. Las tres especies se encontraron mezcladas en 37,5% de los individuos;M. incognita y M. arenaria en 50%, mientras que M. incognita y M. javanica no se encontraron mezcladas. Las especies se encontraron en pH de 4,9 a 6,4; CE de 0,1 a 0,45 dS· m-1; MO de 1,2 % a 2,5 % y la textura fue arenosa, franca y franco arenosa. El pH, el contenido de arena y la CE correlacionan de manera positiva con la presencia de los nematodos, mientras la MO mostró correlación negativa. Se reporta por primera vez la ocurrencia de M. javanica, M. incognita, M. arenaria, así como la mezcla de M. incognita y M. arenaria, en papayas de Colombia.

  14. Label-free quantitative proteomics reveals differentially regulated proteins in the latex of sticky diseased Carica papaya L. plants

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Silas P.; Ventura, Jose? A.; Aguilar, Clemente; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Choi, Hyungwon; Sobreira, Tiago J. P.; Nohara, Lilian L.; Wermelinger, Luciana S.; Almeida, Igor C.; Zingali, Russolina B.; Fernandes, Patricia M. B.

    2012-01-01

    Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) is so far the only described laticifer-infecting virus, the causal agent of papaya (Carica papaya L.) sticky disease. The effects of PMeV on the laticifers’ regulatory network were addressed here through the proteomic analysis of papaya latex. Using both 1-DE- and 1D-LC-ESI-MS/MS, 160 unique papaya latex proteins were identified, representing 122 new proteins in the latex of this plant. Quantitative analysis by normalized spectral counting revealed 10 down-regula...

  15. Histopathological changes in Wistar albino rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taofeeq Oduola

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exposure of animals to xenobiotics may or may not trigger adverse response at cellular levels. Aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya is consumed by sickle cell patients as antisickling agent in Western Nigeria. Aim: This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of Carica papaya on certain organs in Wister albino rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya. Materials and Methods: Different doses of aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya were administered orally daily for 42 days to six groups of rats. At the end of exposure, the animals were sacrificed and tissue sections were prepared from livers, kidneys, hearts and small intestines using standard techniques. Results: Histopathological results showed that no pathological changes were observed in tissue sections of experimental animals when compared with tissue sections of the same organs in control animals. Conclusion: No pathological changes were elicited in the organs of rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya.

  16. Tolerance induction to saline stress in papaya seeds treated with potassium nitrate and sildenafil citrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Fonsêca Zanotti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Papaya fruit (Carica papaya is a species of great commercial agriculture importance. Although has a saline stress sensitivity. Potassium nitrate (KNO3 and nitric oxide are substances that inducing saline stress tolerance. The aim of this study was evaluate the effects of sildenafil citrate (SC and KNO3 on the papaya seeds germination of under saline stress. Papaya seeds of hybrids Calimosa and JS12x Waimanalo were immersed in distilled water or KNO3 solutions and SC and followed germinated in distilled water or NaCl solution –0.3 MPa. Seeds of the hybrid JS12x Waimanalo had higher percentages of germination and normal seedlings. The controls of the two hybrids did not show saline stress tolerance during germination. Seeds of the hybrid JS12x Waimanalo, when treated with KNO3 or SC showed stress tolerance. The growth regulators tested were important in the induction of saline tolerance in papaya seeds.

  17. Evaluation of platelet augmentation activity of Carica papaya leaf aqueous extract in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Patil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Carica papaya leaves have been used traditionally to treat indigestion, as a vermifuge. Carica papayaleaves have also been shown to possess anti-tumor and immunomodulatory effects. The current study aims at determining the effect of Carica papaya leaves aqueous extract in increasing the platelet count in thrombocytopenic rat model. Aqueous extract of Carica papaya leaves at concentration of 400mg/kg and 800mg/kg were given to cyclophosphamide induced thrombocytopenic rats for a period of fifteen days. Blood was withdrawn at various time intervals to determine the platelet count. Also, the clotting time was determined on the 15th day of the study by capillary method. Carica papaya leaf extract was found to increase the platelet count and also to decrease the clotting time in rats. The study aims at determining the possible effects of papaya leaves in thrombocytopenia occurring in dengue fever.

  18. Sales de calcio mejoran vida de anaquel y aceptabilidad general de papaya (Carica papaya L. var. Maradol fresca cortada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayely Leyva López

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Las tendencias actuales de los consumidores por alimentos sanos y de conveniencia promueven un mayor consumo de frutas y hortalizas, donde destacan productos frescos cortados. Sin embargo, por su naturaleza estos productos pueden ser muy susceptibles a diferentes alteraciones que afectan su calidad. El uso de aditivos como sales de calcio representa una alternativa tecnológica para mantener, o incluso mejorar, la calidad durante su vida de anaquel. Por lo anterior el objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar el efecto de sales de calcio en papaya fresca cortada sobre la calidad física, química, microbiológica, nutracéutica y sensorial. Cubos de papaya, variedad Maradol (2 cm de arista fueron tratados con lactato y cloruro de calcio al 1,0 y 3,0 %, bajo condiciones de inmersión por 2 min a 40 °C. Las muestras tratadas fueron colocadas en vasos de polietileno tereftalato (PET de 500 mL con tapa, y almacenadas por 8 días a 5 °C. En comparación con los frutos testigo, los tratamientos a base de calcio demostraron mejorar la firmeza (~ 8 N, principalmente los frutos tratados con cloruro de calcio al 3,0 %. Por otra parte, la calidad nutracéutica (fenólicos totales no se vio afectada por el uso de sales de calcio, mientras que las evaluaciones microbiológicas demuestran condiciones de inocuidad conforme a normatividad. Se sugiere el uso de cloruro de calcio para fines de comercializar papaya fresca cortada.

  19. Physico-chemical and sensory quality of fresh cut papaya (Carica papaya) packaged in micro-perforated polyvinyl chloride containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayathunge, K G L R; Gunawardhana, D K S N; Illeperuma, D C K; Chandrajith, U G; Thilakarathne, B M K S; Fernando, M D; Palipane, K B

    2014-12-01

    Papaya cubes at maturity stages, 5-45 % yellow (more green than yellow) and 55-80 % yellow (more yellow than green) were washed with 5 % H2O2, drained and packaged in PVC trays having five, seven and ten micro-perforations and stored for 19 days. PVC trays with 3 mm diameter punch holes were used as the control. Based on physico-chemical properties, optimum maturity for papaya and micro-perforation level of PVC trays were determined. Effectiveness of citric acid in prevention of browning was also tested. Firmness and TSS changed significantly, on day 19. O2, CO2 and C2H4 concentration changed 2.4 to 4.2 %, 23.4 to 5.9 %, and 0 to 0.13 % respectively, from day 3 to 19. pH and titratable acidity did not change significantly throughout the storage. Pretreated papaya cubes, packaged in PVC trays with ten micro-perforations, kept under 4 °C had storage lives of 19 days. PMID:25477661

  20. Heat shock and gamma radiation in the quarantine process of Papaya CV. Solo(Carica papaya L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimentel, Rodrigo M.A.; Walder, Julio M.M. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: rmapiment@cena.usp.br; jmwalder@cena.usp.br; Marcondes, Yvens E.M. [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: yvensmar@unimep.br

    2007-07-01

    Full text: To export, it is not only necessary to achieve quality standards, but also, quarantine standards. The main function of irradiation is quarantine control of fruit flies, therefore it is necessary to combine with treatments which focus at keeping fruit quality. The objective of this work was the evaluation of the quality of papaya submitted to heat treatment followed by irradiation at quarantine doses. Papayas were selected green and separated in treatments: a) control; irradiation at doses; b) 250, c) 500 Gy; d) hot water at 60 deg C for 30 seconds; and combined to doses e) 250, f) 500 Gy. The papayas were stored at 21 ({+-} 1 deg C) with relative humidity of 85 - 90%, and then after 8 days, they were evaluated by their soluble solid content, pH, titratable acidity, firmness, decay index and internal color. The analysis of mass loss and external color were executed at 0, 2, 4 and 7 days after irradiation. It was observed that in fruits submitted to hot water (d, e, f) there were less decay and in combined treatments (e, f) it was verified higher firmness. In the second day, irradiated treatments (b, c, e, f) were more yellow than the others. As to the other parameters evaluated, there were no differences between treatments (author)

  1. Potencial antifúngico de extractos de cuatro especies vegetales sobre el crecimiento de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides en papaya (Carica papaya en poscosecha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Landero Valenzuela

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El manejo de antracnosis por Colletotrichum gloeosporioides es el problema más importante en poscosecha de frutos tropicales. La actividad antifúngica de diferentes extractos vegetales fue evaluada in vitro e in vivo para controlar la antracnosis poscosecha en papaya. Extractos de ajo (Allium sativum (10 y 15 % y canela (Cinnamomum zeylanicum (0,0050; 0,0100; 0,0150 % mostraron efecto fungicida en contra de C. gloeosporioides para supresión de crecimiento micelial (100 %, inhibición de germinación (100 % y esporulación del hongo (100 %, considerándose estos extractos como los más promisorios para inhibir el desarrollo del hongo in vitro. Estudios in vivo también revelaron que los extracto de ajo (11,74 % y canela a dosis de 0,0054 % aplicada antes y al mismo tiempo de la inoculación con C. gloeosporioides, fueron las dosis óptimas para el control (severidad de la antracnosis en frutos de papaya artificialmente inoculados, mientras que a mayores dosis la severidad aumentó. La variable fitotoxicidad arrojó resultados consistentes con lo anterior, comprobándose que al aumentar las dosis de extracto de canela se presentó cambio de color en los frutos. Los resultados sugieren la posibilidad de usar estos extractos a dosis adecuadas como biofungicidas para controlar antracnosis en papaya en poscosecha.

  2. Genome sequence comparison reveals a candidate gene involved in male-hermaphrodite differentiation in papaya (Carica papaya) trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Hiroki; Urasaki, Naoya; Natsume, Satoshi; Yoshida, Kentaro; Tarora, Kazuhiko; Shudo, Ayano; Terauchi, Ryohei; Matsumura, Hideo

    2014-11-22

    The sex type of papaya (Carica papaya) is determined by the pair of sex chromosomes (XX, female; XY, male; and XY(h), hermaphrodite), in which there is a non-recombining genomic region in the Y and Y(h) chromosomes. This region is presumed to be involved in determination of males and hermaphrodites; it is designated as the male-specific region in the Y chromosome (MSY) and the hermaphrodite-specific region in the Y(h) chromosome (HSY). Here, we identified the genes determining male and hermaphrodite sex types by comparing MSY and HSY genomic sequences. In the MSY and HSY genomic regions, we identified 14,528 nucleotide substitutions and 965 short indels with a large gap and two highly diverged regions. In the predicted genes expressed in flower buds, we found no nucleotide differences leading to amino acid changes between the MSY and HSY. However, we found an HSY-specific transposon insertion in a gene (SVP like) showing a similarity to the Short Vegetative Phase (SVP) gene. Study of SVP-like transcripts revealed that the MSY allele encoded an intact protein, while the HSY allele encoded a truncated protein. Our findings demonstrated that the SVP-like gene is a candidate gene for male-hermaphrodite determination in papaya. PMID:25416421

  3. Evaluation of Antimicrobial Properties of Edible Surface Coating Based on Carrageenan Conjugated with Silver Nanoparticles on Sekaki Papaya (Carica Papaya cv. Sekaki): A New Antimicrobial Edible Coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antibacterial properties of edible surface coating based on carrageenan incorporated with silver nanoparticles (SNPs), was investigated against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus to obtain optimum concentration of SNPs. Results obtained indicate that SNPs with concentration of 40 ml L-1 effectively inhibited the growth of both Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria. Sekaki papaya fruits were then coated with prepared edible coating formulation comprising of carrageenan (0.8 % w/v) and glycerol (1.0 % w/v) with and without SNPs (40 ppm) and stored at ambient conditions (26±2 degree Celsius and 60±10 % RH). Microbial analysis of coated and uncoated papaya samples during storage indicated that the edible coating comprising of carrageenan, glycerol and SNPs, strongly inhibited the growth of fungus that caused post harvest diseases of papaya as compared to uncoated and coated papaya fruits with edible coating without SNPs. (author)

  4. Anatomia foliar de plantas transgênicas e não transgênicas de Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae) Leaf anatomy of genetically modified and wild-type Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Vinicius Leal-Costa; Márcia Munhoz; Paulo Ernesto Meissner Filho; Fernanda Reinert; Eliana Schwartz Tavares

    2010-01-01

    O mamoeiro, Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae) é uma espécie americana, cujos frutos são largamente consumidos em todo mundo. Devido às perdas de produção provocadas por viroses e a dificuldade em controlá-las por métodos convencionais, a espécie tem sido alvo de pesquisas de melhoramento genético envolvendo transgenia para resistência a vírus. O presente trabalho descreve a anatomia foliar de plantas de mamoeiro convencional e transgênico resistente ao vírus da mancha anelar-Papaya ...

  5. Discurso militar e identidad nacional chilena / Military speech and chilean national identity / Discurso militar e identidade nacional chilena

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hernán, Cuevas Valenzuela.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese Este artigo estuda o discurso militar sobre a identidade nacional chilena. Ele argumenta que a identidade nacional é o resultado de um processo contínuo e aberto de formação que não é evidente em todas suas bordas. Portanto, o estudo da identidade requer não só revelar suas práticas e o conteúdo dis [...] cursivo manifesto, mas também deve examinar o seu conteúdo latente para identificar os vários mecanismos que moldam sua formação. Para alcançar este objetivo, propõe-se a complementaridade da análise qualitativa de conteúdo, a análise estrutural do discurso e a análise da morfologia do discurso. A conclusão sugere que, apesar das significativas mudanças, o discurso militar sobre a identidade nacional tem mantido um traço conservador baseado numa ontologia social essencialista. Abstract in spanish Este artículo estudia el discurso militar sobre la identidad nacional chilena. Se plantea que la identidad nacional resulta de un proceso permanente y abierto de formación que no es evidente en todas sus aristas. Por ello, el estudio de la identidad no sólo requiere revelar sus prácticas y contenido [...] s discursivos manifiestos, sino que también debe examinar sus contenidos latentes para identificar los variados mecanismos que confluyen en su formación. Para lograrlo se propone la complementariedad del análisis cualitativo de contenido, el análisis estructural del discurso y el análisis de la morfología del discurso. La conclusión plantea que a pesar de importantes cambios, el discurso militar sobre la identidad nacional ha mantenido su rasgo conservador basado en una ontología social esencialista. Abstract in english This article studies the military discourse on chilean national identity. The article states that national identity is a permanent and open-ended process of social construction that is not evident in all its aspects. For this reason, the study of identity requires not only to reveal discourse’s prac [...] tices and manifest contents, but it must also examine its latent content to identify the various mechanisms that come together in its production. For this, it proposes the complementarity of qualitative content analysis, structural analysis of discourse and analysis of the morphology of discourse. The conclusion is that despite important changes, the military discourse on national identity has maintained its conservative trait based on an essentialist social ontology.

  6. Verbo de concordancia en la lengua de señas chilena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Adamo Quintela

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo trata sobre una clase verbo de la lengua de señas chilena, el verbo de concordancia. A través de su descripción se da cuenta de los diversos mecanismos utilizados por el sistema de la lengua de señas para establecer la concordancia entre el sujeto y el objeto, que funcionan en la oración mediante el proceso de inflexión gramatical. Una característica relevante de la LSCh consiste en la utilización del espacio para producir modificaciones gramaticales regulares, entendidas como procesos de inflexión, a través de la co-ocurrencia de parámetros gestual-visuales, que permiten una comunicación eficiente entre sus usuarios. (This article focuses on a particular type of verb used in Chilean Sign Language: the verb of agreement. Through its description, different mechanisms used to show subject-object accord operating through inflection are presented. A relevant feature of Chilean Sign Language (LSCh, is to use space to mark regular grammatical modifications, understood as processes of inflection through the co-occurrence of visual-kinetic parameters that allow its user an efficient communication.

  7. Promover la salud mental con mujeres chilenas en desventaja social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Soledad Rivera

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Se descrive una parte de la experiencia del proyecto Chileno/Canadiense: ?Promover la salud mental de las mujeres chilenas en desventaja social: Los Secretos de Maruja?. Se describen los objetivos, las etapas del proceso, de intervención y los resultados de las evaluaciones preliminares. Con la participación de las mujeres usuárias de los centros de salud, profesionales y autoridades de la comuna de La Pintana, se construyó, aplicó y evaluó un proyecto de intervención para apoyar a las mujeres en la toma de decisiones que favorezcan su salud mental personal, familiar y social. La intervención contempló el diseño, producción, distribución y evaluación de 12 folletos educativos tipo calendarios, cada uno respecto a tres temas de salud mental identificados por las mismas mujeres: Identidad y autoestima, Vínculo y Comunicación y Autocuidado. Además se involucró a las enfermeras que trabajan en los Centros de Salud, quienes incorporaron esta estrategia a la atención de salud habitual y evaluaron su impacto en la identidad, autonomía profesional y en la mejoría de la calidad del cuidado

  8. Interacciones tempranas y género infantil en familias monoparentales chilenas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Olhaberry Huber

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio transversal de las interacciones madre-hijo(a en familias monoparentales chilenas de bajo ingresos, considerando las diferencias según el género infantil. Participan 80 díadas, con 39 niñas y 41 niños entre los 4 y 15 meses y se evalúa la calidad de las interacciones con el instrumento CARE-Index. Se observan altos puntajes en depresión y estrés materno, así como un promedio en la calidad de la interacción que indica necesidad de intervención, mostrando lo anterior vulnerabilidad en las díadas del estudio. Las díadas con infantes de género masculino muestran interacciones significativamente más difíciles con sus madres que las de género femenino, quienes a su vez muestran interacciones significativamente más pasivas que los infantes de género masculino. Los tamaños de efecto observados en las diferencias son medianos en ambos casos. Se observa también complementariedad en las conductas de madres e hijos(as, obteniéndose correlaciones positivas y significativas entre sensibilidad materna y cooperatividad infantil, control materno y las conductas difíciles de los infantes, así como entre la conducta no responsiva de las madres y la actitud pasiva en los niños(as. Se discuten los hallazgos a partir de las teorías existentes en relación a género infantil e interacciones tempranas, en el contexto de familias monoparentales a cargo de la madre.

  9. Effects of Edible Micronized Chitosan Coating on Quality and Shelf Life of Sliced Papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Sheng Su

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Papaya pulp is very perishable and has a short shelf life. Manually sliced papayas were treated with 0%, 0.25%, 0.5%, and 1% chitosan (non-micronized and micronized aqueous solutions; placed into plastic trays, and over-wrapped with PVDC film and then stored at 4°C. Color, soluble solid content, water loss, and total plate count of samples were evaluated. Chitosan coating had the ability to maintain the lightness of the sliced papayas. The a* values of the micronized chitosan-coated sliced papayas were significantly lower than those of the-coated. The sliced papayas that had been treated with 1% MC had a higher total soluble solid content and lower b* value after four days of storage. Also, the chitosan coating on the sliced papaya effectively retarded water loss and inhibited the growth of microorganisms. The results reveal that applying a chitosan coating effectively maintained the quality attributes and prolonged the shelf life of the sliced papayas.

  10. Anatomia foliar de plantas transgênicas e não transgênicas de Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae) / Leaf anatomy of genetically modified and wild-type Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcos Vinicius, Leal-Costa; Márcia, Munhoz; Paulo Ernesto, Meissner Filho; Fernanda, Reinert; Eliana Schwartz, Tavares.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O mamoeiro, Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae) é uma espécie americana, cujos frutos são largamente consumidos em todo mundo. Devido às perdas de produção provocadas por viroses e a dificuldade em controlá-las por métodos convencionais, a espécie tem sido alvo de pesquisas de melhoramento genético envolv [...] endo transgenia para resistência a vírus. O presente trabalho descreve a anatomia foliar de plantas de mamoeiro convencional e transgênico resistente ao vírus da mancha anelar-Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) com inserção da capa protéica viral. As duas cultivares apresentam pecíolo com endoderme e fibras pericíclicas. As folhas são hipoestomáticas e dorsiventrais, com laticíferos acompanhando os feixes vasculares e grande concentração de idioblastos com drusas de oxalato de cálcio. A epiderme é glabra, possuindo estômatos anomocíticos e anisocíticos, com células de paredes anticlinais retas na face adaxial e levemente sinuosas na face abaxial. O presente trabalho concluiu que o processo de transformação genética não alterou as características anatômicas das folhas de C. papaya, servindo de subsídio para avaliação da conformidade anatômica da cultivar transgênica. Abstract in english Papaya, Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae), is an American species, consumed worldwide. A major limitation to papaya production is attack by viruses, like the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). Papaya has been genetically modified to increase its resistance to PRSV. The aim of this research was to compare the [...] leaf anatomy of wild-type and genetically modified (GM) C. papaya plants to evaluate the influence of genetic modification on leaf anatomy. Wild-type and GM plants showed petiole with endodermis and pericycle fibers. The leaves are hypostomatic and dorsiventral, with laticifers along vascular system and abundant druses of calcium oxalate. The epidermis was glabrous and presented anomocytic and anisocytic stomata, straight anticlinal walls on the adaxial face and sinuous on the abaxial face. Anatomical differences between wild-type and GM C. papaya leaves were not observed. These data contribute to risk assessments regarding the anatomical conformity of GM plants.

  11. Preferential reproduction mode of hermaphrodite papaya plant (Carica papaya L; Caricaceae) / Modo de reprodução preferencial de plantas hermafroditas de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L; Caricaceae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Pedro Corrêa, Damasceno junior; Telma Nair Santana, Pereira; Messias Gonzaga, Pereira; Francisco Filho da, Silva; Margarete de Magalhães, Souza; Rodrigo Gualandi, Nicoli.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Esta pesquisa teve o objetivo de estudar o sistema reprodutivo preferencial de plantas hermafroditas de mamoeiro, com base na natureza histoquímica dos grãos de pólen, receptividade do estigma, teste de germinação in vivo do grão de pólen e razão pólen : óvulo. Na análise histoquímica dos grãos de p [...] ólen, foram utilizados os corantes Sudan IV e solução de I2KI; a receptividade do estigma foi avaliada com a solução de acetato de alfa-naftil em flores abertas e fechadas. A germinação e o crescimento do tubo polínico in vivo foram avaliados em flores fechadas, utilizando solução de azul de anilina a 0,1%. Para estimar a razão pólen:óvulo, anteras de cada flor foram dissecadas, e os grãos de pólen foram contados; ovários foram dissecados, e os óvulos foram contados sob estereomicroscópio. Os resultados indicaram que os grãos de pólen do mamoeiro são de natureza lipídica; os estigmas estavam receptivos antes da abertura e até 48 h após a abertura; os grãos de pólen germinaram e emitiram tubo polínico antes da abertura floral, e a relação pólen:óvulo, indicou predominância do sistema reprodutivo autógamo. Esses resultados indicaram que o modo de reprodução preferencial do mamoeiro hermafrodita é autógamo facultativo com cleistogamia. Abstract in english This research was done to study the reproductive system of papaya hermaphrodite plant based on the histochemical nature of pollen grain, stigma receptivity, in vivo pollen grain germination and pollen:ovule ratio. In the histochemical analysis, pollen grains were stained by using Sudan IV and I2KI s [...] olution ; the stigma receptivity was assessed by alpha-naphthtyl acetate solution in closed and opened flowers. Pollen germination and pollen tube growing were examined in flower buds near anthesis with 0.1% aniline blue. To estimate the pollen:ovule ratio , anthers from each flower bud were dissected and all pollen grains were counted; ovules were dissected from ovaries and were counted under stereomicroscope. The results indicated that papaya pollen grains are of lipidic nature; the stigmas were receptive before the opening and until 48 hours after opening; the pollen grains germinated and emitted polinic tube before flower opening and the pollen:ovule ratio indicated the predominance of autogamous reproductive system. These results indicate that hermaphrodite papaya trees is preferentially of optional autogamous with cleistogamy.

  12. Estudo e modelagem da cinética de desidratação osmótica do mamão formosa (Carica papaya L.) / Kinetics and modeling on osmotic dehydration of papaya (Carica papaya L.)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ânoar Abbas, El-Aquar; Fernanda E. Xidieh, Murr.

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho teve como objetivo o estudo da cinética e modelagem do processo de desidratação osmótica de cubos de mamão Formosa (Carica papaya L.), assim como da qualidade do produto final. O tratamento osmótico foi conduzido a 30ºC, com agitação de 110rpm, utilizando-se dois tipos de soluçõe [...] s de sacarose 70ºBrix: a primeira contendo lactato de sódio 2,4% p/p e ácido láctico 0,1M e a segunda com lactato de sódio 2,4% p/p e ácido cítrico 0,1M. O estudo da cinética de desidratação osmótica mostrou que a solução contendo ácido cítrico apresentou valor de perda de água (WL), ao final de 48 horas de processo, ligeiramente superior ao encontrado para a solução contendo ácido láctico. Comportamento contrário ocorreu para o ganho de sólidos (SG). O ajuste dos dados experimentais foi realizado através do modelo difusional para geometria cúbica, sem considerar encolhimento durante o processo e um modelo empírico de dois parâmetros. Os coeficientes de difusividade efetiva de água (Def) variaram de 1,27 a 5,03 x 10-10 m²/s. A qualidade da fruta após processamento foi avaliada através de análises de vitamina C, carotenóides totais, acidez e pH. Abstract in english The present work had as objective the study of kinetics and mathematical modeling of osmotic dehydration process of papaya cubes (Carica papaya L.), as well as the quality of the final product. The osmotic treatment was carried out for 30ºC, with agitation 110rpm, with two types of 70ºBrix sucrose s [...] olutions: solution containing sodium lactate 2,4% w/w and lactic acid 0,1M and another one with sodium lactate 2,4% w/w and citric acid 0,1M. The study of kinetics of osmotic dehydration showed the solution containing citric acid had a water loss (WL) value, at the end of 48 hours of process, lightly superior to the found for the solution containing lactic acid. Opposite behavior happened for the solid gain (SG). Modeling of experimental data was accomplished through the difusional model for cubic geometry, considering no shrinkage during the process and an empirical two parameters one. The coefficients of effective difusivity of water (Def) varied from 1,27 to 5,03 x 10-10 m²/s. Quality of fruit after processing was evaluated through vitamin C, total carotenoid, acidity and pH analyses.

  13. Presença dos vírus da mancha anelar e do amarelo letal em frutos de mamoeiro comercializados / The presence of Papaya ringspot virus and Papaya lethal yellowing virus in commercialized papaya fruits

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Najara F., Ramos; Aline K.Q., Nascimento; Maria Fátima B., Gonçalves; José Albérsio A., Lima.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Considerando os índices elevados de incidência de vírus que infetam o mamoeiro (Carica papaya) em condições de campo e seus sintomas típicos nos frutos, foi efetuado um levantamento na Central de Comercialização do Estado do Ceará (CEASA) de frutos infetados com o vírus da mancha anelar do mamoeiro [...] (Papaya ringspot virus, PRSV) e o vírus do amarelo letal do mamoeiro (Papaya lethal yellowing virus, PLYV). Os principais Centros de comercialização de frutos são as CEASAs e os produtos comercializados nos supermercados são, em grande parte, adquiridos nesses Centros. Os frutos coletados aleatoriamente nas bancas de comercialização da CEASA foram levados ao Laboratório de Virologia Vegetal, da Universidade Federal do Ceará (UFC) para análises sintomatológicas e testes de "enzyme linked immunosorent assay" (ELISA) indireto, com anti-soros específicos para o PRSV e PLYV. De acordo com os resultados das análises sintomatológicas, confirmadas por sorologia, dentre os 8.400 frutos analisados, 5,5% estavam infetados por PRSV e 1,2% por PLYV, demonstrando a necessidade de implementar um programa rigoroso de controle, envolvendo erradicação de fontes de vírus no campo, representados por plantas infetadas nos pomares, áreas abandonadas e inclusive cultivos de fundo de quintal. Abstract in english Considering the high incidence of virus in papaya (Carica papaya) orchards and their typical symptoms in the fruits, a survey was carried out in the Central Market in the State of Ceará (CEASA) for the presence of papaya fruits infected with Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) and Papaya lethal yellowing v [...] irus (PLYV). CEASAs are the most important fruit commercial centers, and a great number of plant products sold in supermarkets are obtained in CEASA. Fruits were randomly collected from CEASA stalls and brought to the Plant Virus Laboratory at the Federal University of Ceará (UFC) to be analyzed for typical virus symptoms and tested by indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) against antisera specific to PRSV and PLYV. According to the results obtained by symptom analysis, which were confirmed by serology, among the 8,400 fruits analyzed 5.5% were infected with PRSV and 1.2% with PLYV, showing the need to implement a control program involving eradication of virus sources in the field, represented by infected plants in papaya orchards, abandoned orchards and infected plants identified in backyards.

  14. Presença dos vírus da mancha anelar e do amarelo letal em frutos de mamoeiro comercializados The presence of Papaya ringspot virus and Papaya lethal yellowing virus in commercialized papaya fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najara F. Ramos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Considerando os índices elevados de incidência de vírus que infetam o mamoeiro (Carica papaya em condições de campo e seus sintomas típicos nos frutos, foi efetuado um levantamento na Central de Comercialização do Estado do Ceará (CEASA de frutos infetados com o vírus da mancha anelar do mamoeiro (Papaya ringspot virus, PRSV e o vírus do amarelo letal do mamoeiro (Papaya lethal yellowing virus, PLYV. Os principais Centros de comercialização de frutos são as CEASAs e os produtos comercializados nos supermercados são, em grande parte, adquiridos nesses Centros. Os frutos coletados aleatoriamente nas bancas de comercialização da CEASA foram levados ao Laboratório de Virologia Vegetal, da Universidade Federal do Ceará (UFC para análises sintomatológicas e testes de "enzyme linked immunosorent assay" (ELISA indireto, com anti-soros específicos para o PRSV e PLYV. De acordo com os resultados das análises sintomatológicas, confirmadas por sorologia, dentre os 8.400 frutos analisados, 5,5% estavam infetados por PRSV e 1,2% por PLYV, demonstrando a necessidade de implementar um programa rigoroso de controle, envolvendo erradicação de fontes de vírus no campo, representados por plantas infetadas nos pomares, áreas abandonadas e inclusive cultivos de fundo de quintal.Considering the high incidence of virus in papaya (Carica papaya orchards and their typical symptoms in the fruits, a survey was carried out in the Central Market in the State of Ceará (CEASA for the presence of papaya fruits infected with Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV and Papaya lethal yellowing virus (PLYV. CEASAs are the most important fruit commercial centers, and a great number of plant products sold in supermarkets are obtained in CEASA. Fruits were randomly collected from CEASA stalls and brought to the Plant Virus Laboratory at the Federal University of Ceará (UFC to be analyzed for typical virus symptoms and tested by indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA against antisera specific to PRSV and PLYV. According to the results obtained by symptom analysis, which were confirmed by serology, among the 8,400 fruits analyzed 5.5% were infected with PRSV and 1.2% with PLYV, showing the need to implement a control program involving eradication of virus sources in the field, represented by infected plants in papaya orchards, abandoned orchards and infected plants identified in backyards.

  15. Empleo del método de secado convectivo combinado para la deshidratación de papaya (Carica papaya L.), variedad Maradol roja / Use of convective dry method combined for dehydration of papaya fruit (Carica papaya L.), variety Maradol roja

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sahylin, Muñiz Becerá; Antihus, Hernández Gómez; Annia, García Pereira; Lilia, Méndez Lagunas.

    Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La presente investigación tiene como objetivo evaluar el método de secado convectivo de papaya (Carica papaya L.) variedad Maradol roja, combinado con la aplicación de pretratamientos de osmosis (DOSC) y escaldado simple (ESSC), mediante el efecto de los factores tecnológicos del secador: temperatur [...] a (40 y 60 ºC) y velocidad del flujo de aire (2,5 y 1,5 m/s) sobre el comportamiento de las propiedades de calidad de la fruta deshidratada y la cinética del proceso. El pretratamiento de escaldado simple se realizó en agua destilada caliente a 70°C durante 15 minutos y la deshidratación osmótica u osmosis a 60 °C por 4 horas a frutas cortadas en cubos de 1,5± 0,2 cm de largo por 1,0±0,01 cm de espesor, utilizando una solución de sacarosa comercial a 50°Brix. Como diseño experimental se empleó un Diseño Factorial Completo 2² y para el procesamiento estadístico de los datos el software STATGRAPHICS Plus 5.1. Como principales resultados se obtuvo que en ambos procesos el aumento de la temperatura a 60 ºC y la reducción de la velocidad del flujo de aire a 1,5 m/s disminuyó el tiempo de secado con valores de R² >0,95 y ? Abstract in english This research aim is to evaluate the convective dry method of papaya fruit (Carica papaya L.), variety Maradol roja, combined with simply blanching (ESSC) and Osmosis (DOSC) pre-treatments by the effect of technological factors of dryer: temperature (40 y 60 ºC) and air flow speed (2,5 y 1,5 m/s) ab [...] ove the behavior of quality properties in dehydrated fruit and the process´s kinetic. The simple blanching was realized using hot water 70 °C per 15 min and the osmotic dehydration 60 °C per 4 h to the cubes with 1,5±0,2 cm length per 1,0 ± 0,01 cm de thickness, using a sucrose osmotic solution at 50 °Brix concentration. As experimental design was used a Full Factorial 2² Design and the STATGRAPHICS Plus 5.1 software. As principal results was obtained that in both process the higher temperature to 60 ºC and lower air flow speed to 1,5 m/s provokes a reduction on drying time with value of R² >0,95 y ?

  16. Papaya Extract to Treat Dengue: A Novel Therapeutic Option?

    OpenAIRE

    Sarala, N.; Paknikar, Ss

    2014-01-01

    Dengue is a viral disease that today affects a vast number of people in over 125 countries and is responsible for a sizable number of deaths. In the absence of an effective antiviral drug to treat the disease, various treatments are being investigated. Studies have indicated that the juice of the leaves of the Carica papaya plant from the family Caricaceae could help to increase the platelet levels in these patients. This review describes some of the published studies on this topic. The searc...

  17. INFLUENCE OF THICKNESS ON THE DRYING OF PAPAYA PUREE (Carica papaya L.) THROUGH REFRACTANCE WINDOWTM TECHNOLOGY / INFLUENCIA DEL ESPESOR EN SECADO DE PURÉ DE PAPAYA (Carica Papaya L.) POR TECNOLOGÍA DE VENTANA DE REFRACTANCIA®

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    MARÍA U., OCORÓ-ZAMORA; ALFREDO A., AYALA-APONTE.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la influencia del espesor de las muestras (2, 3 y 4 mm) sobre las cinéticas de secado, actividad de agua (a w) y color (deltaE) de rodajas de puré de papaya procesadas por tecnología de ventana de refractanciaTM (RW™). Adicionalmente se evaluó la difusividad d [...] el agua (Deff) teniendo en cuenta el encogimiento. Los datos de humedad se ajustaron mediante los modelos de Newton y Midilli. Los resultados mostraron que a menor espesor el secado fue más rápido, los valores de a w fueron menores y los deltaE superiores. Las muestras alcanzaron 0.0652, 0.1132 y 0.2624 g agua/ g sólido seco en 60 min para rodajas de 2, 3 y 4 mm, respectivamente. El Modelo de Midilli fue el más apropiado para predecir las curvas de secado de papaya por RW™. Deff disminuyó a menor espesor y su orden de magnitud fue de 10-10 m²/s. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of sample thickness (2, 3 and 4 mm) on the drying kinetics, water activity (a w) and color (deltaE) of papaya puree slices processed through Refractance WindowTM technology (RW™). Additionally, the water diffusion coefficient (Deff) was evaluated t [...] aking into account the shrinkage effect. The experimental values of moisture were fitted using Newton's and Midilli's models. The results showed that the lower the thickness, the faster the drying, the lower the values of a w and the higher the deltaE. The samples reached 0.0652, 0.1132 and 0.2624 g water/ g dry solid in 60 min for 2, 3 and 4 mm slices, respectively. Midilli's model was the most appropriate to predict the experimental curves of papaya drying through RW™. Deff decreased at a lower thickness and its order of magnitude was of 10-10 m²/s.

  18. Phenol induced by irradiation does not impair sensory quality of fenugreek and papaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of radiation processing on the sensory quality of fenugreek and papaya exposed to doses in the range of 2.5–10 kGy and 100 Gy–2.5 kGy respectively was investigated. Despite an increase in the content of phenol in the volatile oil of these food products overall sensory quality of the irradiated and control samples was not significantly affected by radiation processing. - Highlights: • Sensory quality of fenugreek and papaya is not significantly affected by radiation processing. • Irradiation did not adversely affect the overall acceptability of the processed samples. • Radiation processing was thus successfully applied to the preservation of fenugreek and papaya

  19. Pengaruh getah pepaya (Carica papaya terhadap sintasan tokolan udang windu (Panaeus monodon pada kepadatan yang berbeda selama pengangkutan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofyatuddin Karina

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of present study was to evaluate the possibility of papaya’s latex (Carica papaya as anti stress or larvaside for tiger shrimp (Panaeus monodon post larvae Pl 14-30 during transportation. The tiger shrimp post larvae was collected from BBAP Ujung Batee, Aceh Besar on September, 2012. Reseach method used the completely random design with two factors, density of post larvae with three treatments (1000; 1500 dan 2000 ind/l and concentration of papaya’s latex with four treatments (0; 100; 200 dan 300 ppm and three replications for each treatments. The effect of papaya’s latex on tiger shrimp post larvae was observed by calculating the percentage of post larvae’s survival rate. The calculation was only done after twelve hours of transportation, due to the everage of survival rate percentage of post larvae on all levels of density was less than 50%. The ANOVA test showed that the density and the concentration factors gave significance effect on survival rate of tiger shrimp post larvae (P<0,05. The results showed that survival rate of tiger shrimp post larvae (PL 14-30 were decreased with increasing of larvae density and concentration of papaya’s latex. However, Duncan’s test showed that the highest survival rate was obtained at 1.000 ind/l and 0 ppm of papaya’s latex. Hence, the effect of papaya’s latex concentration treatments in this study was larvaside on tiger shrimp post larvae.

  20. Desenvolvimento de genótipos de mamoeiro tolerantes à mancha fisiológica / Development of papaya genotypes (Carica papaya L.) tolerant to skin freckles

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fernanda de Oliveira, Pinto; Helaine Christine Cancela, Ramos; Deisy Lúcia, Cardoso; Lucas Nunes da, Luz; Messias Gonzaga, Pereira.

    1101-11-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O mamoeiro é uma das fruteiras tropicais de grande impacto na fruticultura brasileira. Os principais entraves à expansão da cultura são a baixa variabilidade genética e a ocorrência de doenças que encarecem a produção. Neste contexto, realizou-se um cruzamento entre os genótipos 'JS12' e 'Golden' na [...] expectativa de se transferir a característica coloração verde-clara da casca dos frutos (característica Golden), associada à tolerância da mancha fisiológica do mamoeiro, do genitor 'Golden' para o genitor 'JS12'. A variação genética entre e dentro das progênies segregantes obtidas foi avaliada na população RC1S1. Três indivíduos possuidores da característica Golden (38RC1S1-11, 30RC1S1-10 e 31RC1S1-10) foram selecionados pela análise de agrupamento. Estas progênies aliam maior proporção genômica do genitor recorrente (JS12) e bons atributos morfoagronômicos, sendo os mais indicados para o avanço das autofecundações e retrocruzamentos em mamoeiro. Abstract in english Papaya is a tropical fruit of high impact in Brazilian fruit crop. The main barriers to the expansion of the crop are reduced genetic variability and disease occurrence that results in the more expensive production. In this context it was made a cross between the genotypes ' JS12' and 'Golden' in th [...] e expectation of transferring the trait pale green peel of the fruit (Golden trait), associated as tolerant papaya skin freckles from the 'Golden' genitor to the 'JS12' genitor. The population BC1S1 was evaluated for its genetic variation between and within segregating progenies. Three individuals possessing the Golden characteristics (38BC1S1-11, 31BC1S1-10 and 30BC1S1-10-10) were selected. These progenies combine greater genomic proportion of the recurrent parent and good morphoagronomic attributes being the most suitable for the advancement of self pollination and backcrossing in papaya.

  1. Viabilidade polínica de Carica papaya L.: uma comparação metodológica Pollen viability of Carica papaya L.: a methodological comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Munhoz

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A viabilidade polínica do mamoeiro cultivar 'Sunrise Solo' (Carica papaya L. foi estudada utilizando germinação in vitro e testes colorimétricos, assim como a validade dos testes colorimétricos como estimativa de viabilidade comparada àquela do teste germinativo. Os dois meios de cultura, descritos na literatura como meios eficientes para germinação da espécie, diferem basicamente pela presença de nutrientes essenciais e concentração de ágar. O meio de cultura sem elementos essenciais e com maior concentração de ágar forneceu o melhor índice de germinação polínica (65%. Os cinco corantes testados foram: 2,3,5-cloreto de trifeniltetrazólio (TTC, Alexander, carmim acético, lugol e Sudan IV. O teste de coloração com TTC forneceu estimativa de viabilidade (67,5% equivalente ao teste de germinação in vitro e, portanto, confiável de viabilidade polínica. Os demais corantes testados superestimaram a viabilidade polínica (> 90%, porém são eficientes na determinação de constituintes celulares e da integridade do grão de pólen.Pollen viability of Carica papaya L. 'Sunrise Solo' cultivar was estimated using in vitro germination and pollen stain tests. Two culture media described in the literature as efficient for pollen in vitro germination of C. papaya were used. Germination was higher in the media without essential elements but with a higher concentration of agar (65% compared with 51.5%. These results were compared with viability estimates based on staining pollen. The five stains used to test for pollen viability were: 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride - TTC, Alexander's stain, acetocarmine, iodine-potassium iodide and Sudan IV. Pollen viability estimated with TTC was 67.5% and similar to germination results providing a reliable estimate of in vitro germination. The four other stains overestimated pollen viability (> 90%, and their use should be restricted to determining cell constituents, and pollen grain integrity.

  2. Viabilidade polínica de Carica papaya L.: uma comparação metodológica / Pollen viability of Carica papaya L.: a methodological comparison

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Márcia, Munhoz; Cynthia Fernandes Pinto da, Luz; Paulo Ernesto, Meissner Filho; Orthud Monika, Barth; Fernanda, Reinert.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A viabilidade polínica do mamoeiro cultivar 'Sunrise Solo' (Carica papaya L.) foi estudada utilizando germinação in vitro e testes colorimétricos, assim como a validade dos testes colorimétricos como estimativa de viabilidade comparada àquela do teste germinativo. Os dois meios de cultura, descritos [...] na literatura como meios eficientes para germinação da espécie, diferem basicamente pela presença de nutrientes essenciais e concentração de ágar. O meio de cultura sem elementos essenciais e com maior concentração de ágar forneceu o melhor índice de germinação polínica (65%). Os cinco corantes testados foram: 2,3,5-cloreto de trifeniltetrazólio (TTC), Alexander, carmim acético, lugol e Sudan IV. O teste de coloração com TTC forneceu estimativa de viabilidade (67,5%) equivalente ao teste de germinação in vitro e, portanto, confiável de viabilidade polínica. Os demais corantes testados superestimaram a viabilidade polínica (> 90%), porém são eficientes na determinação de constituintes celulares e da integridade do grão de pólen. Abstract in english Pollen viability of Carica papaya L. 'Sunrise Solo' cultivar was estimated using in vitro germination and pollen stain tests. Two culture media described in the literature as efficient for pollen in vitro germination of C. papaya were used. Germination was higher in the media without essential eleme [...] nts but with a higher concentration of agar (65% compared with 51.5%). These results were compared with viability estimates based on staining pollen. The five stains used to test for pollen viability were: 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride - TTC, Alexander's stain, acetocarmine, iodine-potassium iodide and Sudan IV. Pollen viability estimated with TTC was 67.5% and similar to germination results providing a reliable estimate of in vitro germination. The four other stains overestimated pollen viability (> 90%), and their use should be restricted to determining cell constituents, and pollen grain integrity.

  3. Nutrição mineral do mamoeiro (Carica papaya L.): III - sintomatologia de carências nutricionais / Mineral nutrition of papaya tree (Carica papaya L.): III - symptomatology of macronutrient deficiency

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rubens José Pietsch, Cunha; Henrique Paulo, Haag.

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivando caracterizar as deficiências de N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S em mamoeiro (Carica papaya L.) em condições de casa de vegetação e soluções nutritivas, desenvolveu-se o presente trabalho. Os autores descrevem os sintomas de carência dos macronutrientes, com exceção do enxofre, cujas plantas que rece [...] beram o tratamento deficiente neste nutriente, não mostraram sintomas, provavelmente por contaminação externa. Os níveis analíticos encontrados em folhas sadias e desnutridas, expressos em função da matéria seca foram: N-4,24% e 3,61%; P-0,52% e 0,14%; K-3,81% e 1,36%; Ca-1,29% e 0,28%; Mg-0,65 e 0,17%. Abstract in english The purpose of the present research was to characterize symptoms of macronutrient deficiency of papaya trees growing on nutrient solution under greenhouse conditions. It was possible to characterize and distinguish deficiency symptoms for all macronutrients, except for sulfur. Nitrogen deficiency sh [...] owed off a clorosis of the basal leaves. Phosphorus deficiency was characterized as a partial clorosis of the intermediate leaf blades and potassium as a marginal clorosis and necrossis og young and old leaf edges. Magnesium deficiency was characterized as a clorotic mottle of young leaves and an upward growth of the leaf edges. The analytical levels found in leaves of plants growing on a complete nutrient solution and on solutions which nutrients had been excluded were respectively: N-4.24% and 3.61%; P-0.52% and 0.14%; K-3.81% and 1.36%; Ca-1.29% and 0.28%; Mg-0.65% and 0.17%.

  4. Degradación cinética de carotenoides obtenidos de frutos de Carica papaya L Kinetic degradation of carotenoids from Carica papaya L. fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno Alvarez, M. J.; Bele?n Camacho, D. R.; Torrez, V.

    2003-01-01

    Se evaluó la degradación de carotenoides extraídos de frutos de lechosa (Carica papaya L.). Los pigmentos previamente separados y liofilizados fueron almacenados en la oscuridad. Se midió su absorbancia a 440 nm, cada 15 días. Se determinó el orden de reacción, tiempo de vida media (t1/2) y constante de velocidad de degradación (k). La degradación de los carotenoides siguio una cinética de primer orden. El producto liofilizado presento t1/2: 43,3 días y k: 0,0160 días-1. Bajo esta...

  5. Detection of three wound-induced proteins in papaya latex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarkan, Mohamed; Wintjens, René; Looze, Yvan; Baeyens-Volant, Danielle

    2004-03-01

    The effects of routine mechanical wounding for latex collection from unripe fruits of the tropical Carica papaya tree were investigated. For that purpose, the protein composition of three different latexes was analyzed. The first one, commercially available, was provided in the form of a spray-dried powder, the second one was harvested from fully grown but unripe papaya fruits that are regularly tapped for latex production and the last one, was obtained from similar fruits wounded for the first time. Repeated mechanical wounding was found to profoundly affect the protein content of the latex inducing, among others, activation of papain. Regularly tapped latexes also accumulated several low molecular weight proteins not yet identified, as well as three proteins identified as a trypsin inhibitor, a class-II chitinase and a glutaminyl cyclase on the basis of their enzymatic or inhibitory activities and chromatographic elution profiles. This latter was found here, for the first time, to be a wound-induced protein. The roles of these proteins in the plant defense mechanism are discussed. PMID:15003415

  6. Nutrição mineral do mamoeiro: I. Curva de crescimento do mamoeiro (Carica papaya L.) em condições de campo / Mineral nutrition of papaya: I. growth curve of papaya trees (Carica papaya L.) under field conditions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rubens José Pietsch, Cunha; Henrique Paulo, Haag.

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese No município de Botucatu, SP, em um solo pertencente ao grande grupo Terra Roxa Estruturada, instalou-se um ensaio com o objetivo de se determinar a curva de crescimento do mamoeiro (Carica papaya L.). O delineamento estatístico utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. As amo [...] stragens foram realizadas em intervalos mensais a partir do quarto ao décimo segundo mês após o plantio das mudas no campo. Cada amostra era composta de uma planta, onde se determinava: os pesos das matérias fresca e seca do caule, folhas e flores mais frutos, comprimento de diâmetro do caule a 10 cm do solo. Dentre outras observações, constatou-se que apesar das variações climáticas durante o primeiro ano de cultivo, o acumulo de matéria seca pela parte aérea total foi crescente e contínua. Abstract in english A field experiment with papaya trees was set out on Paleudalf type of soil in Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil, to study the growth curve of the plants. Nine samples were taken at monthly intervals starting four months after planting. Each sample was constituted of one plant in each of the four experimen [...] tal replicates. The following parameters were determined: fresh and dry weight of leaves, and flowers plus fruits; stem height and diameter at 10 cm above soil surface. Independently of climatic variations during the first year, a continue and upward dry matter accumulation was observed.

  7. Carica papaya lipase (CPL): an emerging and versatile biocatalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez de María, Pablo; Sinisterra, José V; Tsai, Shau-Wei; Alcántara, Andrés R

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, the Carica papaya lipase (CPL) is attracting more and more interest. This hydrolase, being tightly bonded to the water-insoluble fraction of crude papain, is thus considered as a "naturally immobilized" biocatalyst. To date, several CPL applications have already been described: (i) fats and oils modification, derived from the sn-3 selectivity of CPL as well as from its preference for short-chain fatty acids; (ii) esterification and inter-esterification reactions in organic media, accepting a wide range of acids and alcohols as substrates; (iii) more recently, the asymmetric resolution of different non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), 2-(chlorophenoxy)propionic acids, and non-natural amino acids. Taking into account the novelty and the current interest of the topic, this review aims to highlight the origin, features, and applications of the C. papaya lipase, with the objective to prompt research groups to further investigate the spectra of applications that this emerging and versatile CPL could have in the future. PMID:16716557

  8. The treatment of paediatric burns using topical papaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starley, I F; Mohammed, P; Schneider, G; Bickler, S W

    1999-11-01

    Due to the limited resources for the management of burns in most regions of Africa there is a significant role for many aspects of traditional African medicine. The active component of many traditional preparations is often of plant origin and more than 25 plants have been described as useful in relations to burns and wound healing. Carica papaya is currently used in The Gambia at the Royal Victoria Hospital, Banjul in the Paediatric Unit as the major component of burns dressings, where it is well tolerated by the children. Cheap and widely available, the pulp of the papaya fruit is mashed and applied daily to full thickness and infected burns. It appears to be effective in desloughing necrotic tissue, preventing burn wound infection, and providing a granulating wound suitable for the application of a split thickness skin graft. Possible mechanisms of action include the activity of proteolytic enzymes chymopapain and papain, as well as an antimicrobial activity, although further studies are required. PMID:10563690

  9. Increasing the shelf- life of papaya through vacuum packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanaban, Geetha; Singaravelu, Kanchana; Annavi, Susheela Thirumaran

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to increase the shelf life of fruits through vacuum packing. Papaya fruits were pretreated with waxing, oil application, purafil packets, tissue paper wrapping given along with control and were packed in 150 gauge thickness polyethylene film bags under vacuum and another set of these samples under without vacuum. The fruits were then stored at room and refrigerated temperature and analyzed for chemical changes. Results showed that the shelf life of the fruits increased under vacuum packing with room and refrigeration temperatures for one and four weeks respectively. The fruits packed without any pretreatment in 150 gauge polyethylene bags maintained the quality with minimum changes followed by waxing, purafil and oil application. During storage moisture, acidity, Vitamin C and total sugar decreased whereas reducing sugar and total soluble solids (TSS) increased during storage. The sensory qualities declined with the period of storage and temperature differences. The study concluded that vacuum packaging and refrigeration conditions increased the shelf life of the papaya fruits. PMID:24426064

  10. ANÁLISIS DE CONSULTAS A UN BUSCADOR DE LA WEB CHILENA

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ricardo, Baeza-Yates; Carolina, Galleguillos.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Los buscadores de páginas Web son herramientas indispensables de orientación para sus usuarios, lo cual refleja la gran cantidad de personas que los utilizan diariamente. Las bitácoras (logs) que registran el uso de un buscador son una valiosa fuente de información: nos hablan de las expectativas, p [...] referencias y necesidades de las personas, es decir, qué esperan ellas encontrar en la Web. El resultado del análisis de logs de uso tiene un importante valor comercial, en particular para el comercio electrónico y la publicidad en Internet. El objetivo de este estudio es encontrar relaciones entre las consultas de los usuarios de la Web Chilena (.cl) y las diversas áreas de clasificación de sus diferentes sitios. También se esperan encontrar relaciones entre los tipos de búsqueda realizados y los sitios visitados, para así conocer la necesidad que los lleva a formular sus consultas. La información obtenida está basada en los logs del buscador chileno TodoCL [1] entre febrero y marzo de 2004. Abstract in english Web page search engines are essential tools on users’ orientation, which is reflected by the big amount of people who are using them every day. The logs, reflecting the Web search engine uses, are a valuable source of information: they give us information about the users’ expectations, preferences a [...] nd needs, which is everything that they expect to find on the Web. The results from the logs usage analysis have an important commercial value, in particular, for e-commerce and Internet publicity. The purpose of this study is to find relations between Chilean Web (.cl) users’ queries and the different classification areas for its web sites. Also we expect to find relations between the search types made and the web sites visited, trying to get the need behind the query . The data used for this study was gotten from the Chilean search engine TodoCL, between February and March 2004.

  11. Para una entrada en la imaginación poética alimentaria chilena

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Magda, Sepúlveda.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Las comidas y las bebidas recreadas en la poesía chilena ofrecen un espacio alternativo para reflexionar sobre la etnia, la clase social, el género y la violencia política. Cada uno de estos nudos define una ruta alimenticia donde las historias diferenciales se toman la palabra. Este artículo propon [...] e una cartografía de las imágenes alimentarias poéticas, caracterizando cuatro grandes rutas: aquellas donde la escritura privilegia la construcción de comunidades indígenas alrededor de la comida y aquellas donde los proyectos estéticos elaboran un patrimonio provinciano y/o rural alrededor de las comidas como defensa frente a las legitimidades centristas. Más aquellos itinerarios cuyas simbolizaciones erigen o deconstruyen los deseos caníbales entre diversas subjetividades y; aquellas donde los linajes lingüísticos hacen del hambre un motivo de descontento político, ya sea imaginando la abundancia a través del tópico de la tierra de Jauja o elaborando el hambre de los dioses que piden sacrificios humanos. Abstract in english Food and drink recreated in the Chile an poetry offer an alternative space to reflect upon ethnic matters, social class, gender and political violence. Every topoi defines a food route where stories have their say. In this way, we find four main routes: those in which writing priviledges the constru [...] ction of native communities around food preparation; those in which aesthetical projects elaborate their rural patrimony around food to defend themselves from centralized domination; those whose symbols construct and deconstruct cannibalistic desires among different intersubjectivities and those whose linguistic ancestry make hunger a motif of political discontent either by imagining abundance in the land of milk and honey or by elaborating the hunger of gods who demand human sacrifices.

  12. Efficacy of Essential Oils on the Conidial Germination, Growth of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz. Penz. and Sacc and Control of Postharvest Diseases in Papaya (Carica papaya L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Leticia Barrera-Necha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of nine essential oils were investigated in vitro on conidial germination and mycelial growth inhibition of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides isolate from papaya (Carica papaya L.. In general, better antifungal effect was observed with Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Syzygium aromaticum oils which had strong inhibition of conidial germination of C. gloeosporioides at 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 ?g mL-1 and a dose dependent inhibition mycelial growth was caused by these oils. Teloxys ambrosioides, Mentha piperita and Ruta chalepensis oils exhibited a moderate action at 150, 200 and 250 ?g mL-1 on conidial germination and mycelial growth inhibition. Allium sativum, Citrus aurantifolia and Eucalyptus globulus oils had no antifungal activity at different concentration. Taking into account the in vitro results, C. zeylanicum and S. aromaticum oils were evaluated on papaya fruit during storage at ambient temperature and 14°C. The lowest infection percentage were for papaya fruits treated with S. aromaticum at 50 ?g mL-1 at both temperature tested, nevertheless did not overcome the activity of synthetic fungicide. After storage at both temperature, values of Soluble Solids Content (SSC was not significantly different. S. aromaticum oils may be a possibility to control C. gloeosporioides of papaya fruit.

  13. Immobilization of mycoplana sp. MVMB2 isolated from petroleum contaminated soil onto papaya stem (carica papaya l.) and its application on degradation of phenanthrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study presents the degradation of phenanthrene using immobilized Mycoplana sp. MVMB2 isolated from contaminated soil. Papaya stem pretreated by two stage processes, treating with acid or alkali and drying, was used for the immobilization of Mycoplana sp. Alkali pretreated papaya stem was found to be most effective in cell uptake compared to acid treated one. The maximum immobilization capacity at various physiochemical conditions for the alkali pretreated papaya stem was found to be at 320 min time, pH 6.5, 30 C temperature, and 18.6 x 106 cells/mL initial concentrations. The adsorption mechanism of Mycoplana sp. MVMB2 on pretreated papaya stem was assessed using various kinetic and isotherm models. The immobilization of Mycoplana sp. MVMB2 on to pretreated papaya stem was corroborated by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transformed IR spectroscopy analysis. The performance of immobilized cells in batch reactor showed more than 95% phenanthrene degradation within 72 h, whereas, free cells were found to require 120 h. The immobilized cells also showed better degradation performance in the packed column study. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Immobilization of mycoplana sp. MVMB2 isolated from petroleum contaminated soil onto papaya stem (carica papaya l.) and its application on degradation of phenanthrene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinda Lakshmi, Mahalingam; Muthukumar, Karuppan; Velan, Manickam [Environmental Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, A.C. College of Technology, Anna University, Chennai (India)

    2012-08-15

    This study presents the degradation of phenanthrene using immobilized Mycoplana sp. MVMB2 isolated from contaminated soil. Papaya stem pretreated by two stage processes, treating with acid or alkali and drying, was used for the immobilization of Mycoplana sp. Alkali pretreated papaya stem was found to be most effective in cell uptake compared to acid treated one. The maximum immobilization capacity at various physiochemical conditions for the alkali pretreated papaya stem was found to be at 320 min time, pH 6.5, 30 C temperature, and 18.6 x 10{sup 6} cells/mL initial concentrations. The adsorption mechanism of Mycoplana sp. MVMB2 on pretreated papaya stem was assessed using various kinetic and isotherm models. The immobilization of Mycoplana sp. MVMB2 on to pretreated papaya stem was corroborated by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transformed IR spectroscopy analysis. The performance of immobilized cells in batch reactor showed more than 95% phenanthrene degradation within 72 h, whereas, free cells were found to require 120 h. The immobilized cells also showed better degradation performance in the packed column study. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Bandeo de cromosomas humanos con extracto crudo de frutas u hojas de papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Virginia Solís

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Preparaciones de una semana de cromosomas humanos fueron tratadas con filtrados de una hoja de papaya (Carica papaya licuada (53 g en 100 ml de agua destilada, y tenidas con 1.5 % Giemsa (pH 6.8. Se obtuvo buen bandeo de cromosomas luego de 2 min de tratamiento. Soluciones que han sido congeladas por años son efectivas y el método es más barato y fácil que otrosOne week old human chromosome preparations were treated with filtrate from one liquefied leaf (53 g of papaya (Carica papaya in 100 ml of distilled water, and stained with 1.5 % Giemsa (pH 6.8. Good chromosome banding was obtained after 2 min of treatment. Solutions that have been frozen even for years are effective and the method is cheaper and easier than others

  16. Influence of gamma radiation on carbohydrates metabolism of ripening papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Solo); Metabolismo de carboidratos durante o amadurecimento do mamao (Carica papaya L. Cv. Solo): influencia da radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, M.L.P.A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FCF/USP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas; Lajolo, F.M.; Cordenunsi, B.R. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FCF/USP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Dept. de Alimentos e Nutricao Experimental

    1999-05-15

    Food irradiation is one of the most promising treatments that can be utilized for fruits disinfestation and extension of shelf life. The authors studied the influence of 0,5 kGy of Gamma irradiation on the soluble carbohydrates composition of papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Solo) fruit, and on sucrose metabolizing enzymes: sucrose synthase (SS), sucrose-phosphate synthase, acid and neutral invertases activities, during ripening. The results demonstrated that ethylene production, total soluble sugars, sucrose content, and sucrose-phosphate synthase and invertases activities were affected by irradiation, but not respiration, glucose and fructose content, and SS activity. (author)

  17. Screening of papaya accessions resistant to Papaya lethal yellowing virus and capacity of Tetranychus urticae to transmit the virus / Identificação de acessos de mamoeiro resistentes ao Papaya lethal yellowing virus e capacidade de Tetranychus urticae em transmitir o vírus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcos Fernando, Basso; Álvaro Júlio, Pereira; Hermano Monteiro de Barros, Pereira; Humberto Josué de Oliveira, Ramos; Jorge Luiz Loyola, Dantas; Elizabeth Pacheco Batista, Fontes; Eduardo Chumbinho de, Andrade; Francisco Murilo, Zerbini.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi produzir um antissoro policlonal contra a proteína capsidial (PC) do Papaya lethal yellowing virus (PLYV) e determinar sua especificidade e sensibilidade na diagnose do vírus, bem como avaliar a resistência genética de acessos de mamoeiro (Carica papaya) ao PLYV e inves [...] tigar a capacidade do ácaro rajado Tetranychus urticae em adquirir e transmitir o vírus às plantas. Foram avaliados 65 acessos de mamoeiro. Para cada acesso, dez plantas foram submetidas à inoculação mecânica com extratos de plantas infectadas com PLYV, e três plantas receberam inoculação apenas com tampão de fosfato e foram usadas como controle negativo. Noventa dias após a inoculação, novas folhas sistêmicas emergentes foram coletadas das plantas inoculadas, e a infecção viral foi diagnosticada por Elisa indireto, com uso de antissoro policlonal sensível à PC do PLYV expressa in vitro. A transmissão viral por T. urticae foi avaliada em casa de vegetação. Os experimentos foram repetidos duas vezes. O antissoro policlonal reconheceu a PC do PLYV especificamente e discriminou a infecção pelo PLYV de infecções causadas por outros vírus. Dos 65 acessos de mamoeiros avaliados, 15 foram considerados resistentes, 18 moderadamente resistentes e 32 suscetíveis. O ácaro rajado T. urticae foi capaz de adquirir o PLYV, mas não de transmiti-lo para o mamoeiro. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to produce a polyclonal antiserum against the coat protein (CP) of Papaya lethal yellowing virus (PLYV) and to determine its specificity and sensibility in the diagnosis of the virus, as well as to evaluate the genetic resistance to PLYV in papaya (Carica papaya) acces [...] sions and to investigate the capacity of the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae to acquire and transmit PLYV to the plants. Sixty-five papaya accessions were evaluated. For each accession, ten plants were mechanically inoculated using PLYV-infected plant extracts, and three plants were mock inoculated with phosphate buffer alone and used as negative controls. Ninety days after inoculation, newly-emerging systemic leaves were collected from the inoculated plants, and viral infection was diagnosed by indirect Elisa, using polyclonal antiserum sensible to the in vitro-expressed PLYV CP. Viral transmission by T. urticae was evaluated in greenhouse. The experiments were repeated twice. Polyclonal antiserum recognized the recombinant PLYV CP specifically and discriminated PLYV infection from infections caused by other plant viruses. Out of the 65 papaya accessions evaluated, 15 were considered resistant, 18 moderately resistant, and 32 susceptible. The two-spotted spider mite T. urticae was capable of acquiring PLYV, but not of transmitting it to papaya.

  18. [Pharmacological study of papain from the papaya plant cultivated in Uzbekistan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhimov, M R

    2000-01-01

    It was experimentally established that papain from papaya cultivated in Uzbekistan possesses a pronounced proteolytic activity: 0.1, 0.5, and 1% papain solutions decreased the weight of burn crust in vitro and accelerated experimental burn healing in vivo. Under clinical conditions, papain produced therapeutic effect in patients with inflammatory disorders in genitals, intestine, liver, and eye. The pharmacological effects of papain produced from Uzbek papaya are identical to those of the commercial product from Merck. PMID:10934598

  19. The Aqueous Seed Extract Of Carica papaya Linn. Prevents Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Hepatotoxicity In Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Osarodion, B. A.; Sanni, O. O.; Sanusi, O. A.; Abdul, S. F.; Olagunju, J. A.; Banjo, Aa F.; Adeneye, A. A.; Shonoiki, O. E.

    2009-01-01

    Summary: Carica papaya Linn. is known to have a versatile application in African folkloric medicine. In the current study, the dose-dependent (100 – 400 mg/kg/day/oral route) and time-course protective effects of the 400 mg/kg/oral route of the aqueous seed extract of unripe and mature Carica papaya fruit (CPE) were investigated in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) hepatotoxic rats for 72 hours. Results showed the extract to cause significant (p

  20. Isolation of natural inhibitors of papain obtained from Carica papaya latex

    OpenAIRE

    Rubens Monti; Jonas Contiero; Antonio José Goulart

    2004-01-01

    Studies were carried out to natural papain inhibitor from papaya latex. Fresh latex from green fruits of Carica papaya was collected and immediately transported in ice bath to the lab, from which three fractions with inhibitor effect of esterase papain activity were isolated by latex dialysis, Sephadex G-25 gel filtration and ionic exchange chromatography in SP-Sephadex C-25. The isolated fractions, identified as inhibitors I and II, showed a negative reaction with ninhydrin; however, the fra...

  1. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL EVALUATION OF CARICA PAPAYA LINN. UNRIPE FRUITS

    OpenAIRE

    Anjum Varisha; Ansari Shahid Husain; Naquvi Kamran Javed; Arora Poonam

    2013-01-01

    Present study was performed for the development of quality standards of Carica papaya Linn. commonly known as Papita belonging to family Caricaceae is well known for its exceptional nutritional and medicinal properties. The study comprises of physico-chemical and phytochemical evaluation to confirm purity and authenticity of Carica papaya L. unripe fruit using WHO guidelines. Microscopy of the fruit showed presence thick cuticle, parenchyma, epicarp, mesocarp endocarp, calcium oxalate crystal...

  2. Protective effect of dried fruits of Carica papaya on hepatotoxicity in rat

    OpenAIRE

    Md Zafor Sadeque, Zinnat Ara Begum

    2010-01-01

    Aqueous and ethanol extracts of Carica papaya has been evaluated for its hepatoprotective activity in rat. The aqueous and ethanol extracts of Carica papaya showed significant hepatoprotection against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity. The protective activity was evaluated by using biochemical parameters such as serum bilirubin, serum alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase. The histopathological changes of liver were compared with...

  3. Antifungal Activity in Ethanolic Extracts of Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol Leaves and Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Cha?vez-quintal, Pedro; Gonza?lez-flores, Tania; Rodri?guez-buenfil, Ingrid; Gallegos-tintore?, Santiago

    2011-01-01

    Bioactive compounds from vegetal sources are a potential source of natural antifungic. An ethanol extraction was used to obtain bioactive compounds from Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol leaves and seeds of discarded ripe and unripe fruit. Both, extraction time and the papaya tissue flour:organic solvent ratio significantly affected yield, with the longest time and highest flour:solvent ratio producing the highest yield. The effect of time on extraction efficiency was confirmed by qualitative iden...

  4. Relationship between photochemical efficiency (JIP-Test Parameters) and portable chlorophyll meter readings in papaya plants

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda Assumpção Castro; Eliemar Campostrini; Alena Torres Netto; Leandro Hespanhol Viana

    2011-01-01

    The Portable Chlorophyll Meter (PCM) is used to estimate the total chlorophyll and leaf nitrogen content of various species. Since there is a relationship between the chlorophyll concentration and the photochemical efficiency, a relationship can also be established between the PCM readings and some fluorescence variables to provide information on photosystem II (PSII) structure and activity. Papaya (Carica papaya L.) plants ['Sunrise Solo' (leaves with intense green coloring) and 'Golden' cul...

  5. Degradación cinética de carotenoides obtenidos de frutos de Carica papaya L / Kinetic degradation of carotenoids from Carica papaya L. fruits

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M. J., Moreno Alvarez; D. R., Belén Camacho; V, Torrez.

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se evaluó la degradación de carotenoides extraídos de frutos de lechosa (Carica papaya L.). Los pigmentos previamente separados y liofilizados fueron almacenados en la oscuridad. Se midió su absorbancia a 440 nm, cada 15 días. Se determinó el orden de reacción, tiempo de vida media (t1/2) y constant [...] e de velocidad de degradación (k). La degradación de los carotenoides siguio una cinética de primer orden. El producto liofilizado presento t1/2: 43,3 días y k: 0,0160 días-1. Bajo estas condiciones experimentales los carotenoides tardaran 250 días en degradarse por completo. Abstract in english Degradation of carotenoids from Carica papaya L. fruits was evaluated. Pigments previously extracted from the fruit, were lyophilized, stored in the dark and monitored spectrophotometrically by absorbance at 440 nm, over intervals of 15 days. Reaction order, half-life (t1/2) and constant degradation [...] rate (k) were determined. Reactions followed a first order kinetic model. The lyophilized product presented t1/2: 43.3 days and k: 0.0160 days-1. Under these experimental conditions the carotenoid concentrations will be zero at 250 days.

  6. Efectos de la fertilización con nitrógeno en la producción de papaya (Carica papaya L. y en la incidencia de virosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vallejo G. Gladys

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available En un suelo Vertic Aplustoll arcilloso sobre franco esmetítico, isohipertérmico, del Centro de Producción Agropecuaria ACotové@, ubicado en el municipio de Santafé de Antioquia, en la zona de vida bosque seco Tropical (bs-T, se realizó un trabajo para determinar la respuesta de la variedad de papaya AU.N. Cotové@ (Carica papaya L. a la fertilización con N en dosis de 0, 183 y 366 kg/ha, equivalentes a dosis individuales de 5, 5, 10, 15, 25, 25, 25 y 10,10, 20, 30, 50, 50, 50 g de N/planta, respectivamente, fertilizando cada mes durante los primeros 4 meses después del transplante y cada 2 meses posteriormente, durante un período de 9 meses. Se suministraron además dosis constantes de P, K, S, Fe, Mn, Zn, y B. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques al azar con cuatro repeticiones y 10 plantas por unidad experimental, con distancias entre plantas de 2 m y entre surcos de 3m.

  7. Morfología de la flor y de la semilla de papaya (Carica papaya L.: variedad Maradol e híbrido Tainung-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Arlette Ivonne

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Con el objetivo de analizar la morfología de la flor y de la semilla de papaya (Carica papaya L. de la variedad ‘Maradol’ y el híbrido ‘Tainung-1’, se recolectó el material vegetal en dos plantaciones y se llevaron al laboratorio de Fisiología de Cultivos, Facultad de Agronomía, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, con el fin de realizar las descripciones correspondientes de los tres tipos de flores (femeninas, hermafroditas y estaminadas y de la semilla, sus características externas (forma, tamaño, hilo, micrópilo, funículo, rafe y cubierta seminal e internas (cubierta seminal, endospermo y embrión. Se concluyó principalmente que a nivel morfológico las flores y semillas de los dos materiales evaluados mostraron características similares, por tanto, las descripciones dadas en este trabajo son generales para ambos.

  8. Papain protects papaya trees from herbivorous insects: role of cysteine proteases in latex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Kotaro; Hirayama, Chikara; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Tateishi, Ken; Tamura, Yasumori; Hattori, Makoto; Kohno, Katsuyuki

    2004-02-01

    Many plants contain latex that exudes when leaves are damaged, and a number of proteins and enzymes have been found in it. The roles of those latex proteins and enzymes are as yet poorly understood. We found that papain, a cysteine protease in latex of the Papaya tree (Carica papaya, Caricaceae), is a crucial factor in the defense of the papaya tree against lepidopteran larvae such as oligophagous Samia ricini (Saturniidae) and two notorious polyphagous pests, Mamestra brassicae (Noctuidae) and Spodoptera litura (Noctuidae). Leaves of a number of laticiferous plants, including papaya and a wild fig, Ficus virgata (Moraceae), showed strong toxicity and growth inhibition against lepidopteran larvae, though no apparent toxic factors from these species have been reported. When the latex was washed off, the leaves of these lactiferous plants lost toxicity. Latexes of both papaya and the wild fig were rich in cysteine-protease activity. E-64, a cysteine protease-specific inhibitor, completely deprived the leaves of toxicity when painted on the surface of papaya and fig leaves. Cysteine proteases, such as papain, ficin, and bromelain, all showed toxicity. The results suggest that plant latex and the proteins in it, cysteine proteases in particular, provide plants with a general defense mechanism against herbivorous insects. PMID:14731257

  9. Effect of packaging materials and storage environment on postharvest quality of papaya fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azene, Mulualem; Workneh, Tilahun Seyoum; Woldetsadik, Kebede

    2014-06-01

    This experiment was conducted to assess the effects of packaging materials and storage environments on shelf life of papaya fruit (Carica papaya L.). A factorial combination of five packaging materials and two storage environments using randomized complete block design with three replications were used. The papaya fruits were evaluated for weight loss, percentage marketability, firmness, total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid, reducing sugar and total sugar content. The packaged and cooled fruits remained firmer than unpackaged and evaporatively cooled fruits. Higher chemical compositions were recorded in the control fruits stored under ambient conditions during the earlier times of storage. Packaging and cooling maintained the chemical quality of papaya fruits better than the control sample fruits towards the end of storage periods. The evaporatively cooled storage combined with packaging improved the shelf life of papaya fruits by more than two fold. The polyethylene bag packaging combined with evaporatively cooled storage maintained the superior quality of papaya fruit for a period of 21 days. This integrated agro-technology is recommended for postharvest loss reduction biotechnology in hot regions. PMID:24876636

  10. Gamma radiation use as a quarantine treatment for Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) and Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied., 1830) in papaya fruits (Carica papaya, Linnaeus), cultivar sunrise solo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gamma irradiation as treatment for control of the immature stages of fruit flies, C. capitata and A. fraterculus in papaya fruits, cultivar Sunrise Solo is studied. The gamma rays attenuation was observed by one and two papaya fruits placed between source and infested fruit, and this changed the radiation doses required to obtain mortality in eggs and larvae of the Medfly. The efficacy of irradiation was higher when the infested papayas were packed in paper box. The radiation dose determined using the Probit 9 concept, for immature stages mortality of C. capitata was 107,74 Gy and for A. fraterculus was 50,82 Gy. The sterilizing doses for adults of C. capitata and D. fraterculus, irradiated as pupae, was 60 Gy and 40 Gy, respectively. (author)

  11. New records of Discomycetes (Pezizales) for the Chilean mycobiota Nuevos registros de Discomycetes (Pezizales) para la micobiota chilena

    OpenAIRE

    PABLO SANDOVAL

    2012-01-01

    Se adicionan a la micobiota chilena tres especies de Pezizales, Byssonectria terrestris (Alb. & Schwein.) Pfister, Pseudoplectania nigrella (Pers.) Fuckel y Pseudoplectania sphagnophila (Pers.) Kreisel, Se describen e ilustran los caracteres diagnósticos y se realizan comentarios acerca de las especies.

  12. Época de colheita dos frutos e ocorrência de dormência em sementes de mamão (Carica papaya L. Fruit harvest season and dormancy occurrency in papaya seeds (Carica papaya L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daí Tokuhisa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo relacionar a época de colheita dos frutos com a ocorrência de dormência nas sementes de mamão. Foram utilizados frutos de mamão do grupo Formosa, híbrido Tainung 01, colhidos no estádio 1 de maturação (até 15% da superfície externa com coloração amarela em cinco diferentes épocas do ano: Julho e Novembro/2004 e Fevereiro, Maio e Setembro/2005. Os frutos permaneceram armazenados em ambiente de laboratório até atingirem o estádio 5 de maturação (mais de 75% da superfície externa com coloração amarela. Em cada época, foram obtidas sementes com e sem sarcotesta, que foram submetidas ao teste de germinação, conduzido em germinador sob temperatura alternada de 20-30°C (16h/8h, respectivamente, avaliando-se a porcentagem de plântulas normais aos 15 e 30 dias após a semeadura. Verificou-se que a presença da sarcotesta na semente diminui a velocidade e a porcentagem de germinação. Houve efeito da época de colheita do fruto na germinação das sementes, sendo que as sementes extraídas de frutos colhidos em Julho/2004 e Maio/2005 apresentaram dormência pós-colheita, o que não ocorreu com as sementes obtidas de frutos que amadureceram em épocas de temperaturas mais altas.This study was carried out in order to relate the fruit harvest season and dormancy occurrence in papaya seeds. Papaya fruits of the Formosa group, Tainung 01 hybrid, were harvested at maturation stage 1 (15% external color yellow, at five different times: July and November/2004 and February, May and September/2005. The fruits were stored at room temperature until they reached maturation stage 5 (more than 75% external color yellow. Seeds with and without sarcotesta were obtained at each harvest time. Standard germination of these seeds was performed in a germinator at 20/30 º C (8/16 hours, respectively and normal seedlings percentage was evaluated at 15 and 30 days. Seeds with sarcotesta had lower germination speed and percentage. There was an effect of fruit harvest time on seed germination. Seeds extracted from fruits harvested in July/2004 and May/2005 had post-harvest dormancy, which did not occur in seeds from fruits harvested in the high temperature periods.

  13. Emergência e matéria seca de plantas daninhas na cultura do mamoeiro (Carica papaya Emergence and dry matter of weeds in papaya crop (Carica papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.S. Santana

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste experimento foi avaliar o "banco" de sementes de plantas daninhas através do método da emergência de plântulas, na cultura do mamoeiro, em que se empregaram diferentes sistemas de manejo. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com três repetições e seis tratamentos: capina em área total; herbicida nas linhas + grade nas entrelinhas; subsolagem cruzada antes do plantio + capina em área total; subsolagem cruzada antes do plantio + herbicida nas linhas e feijão de porco nas entrelinhas; subsolagem cruzada antes do plantio + herbicida nas linhas e crotalária nas entrelinhas; e herbicida nas linhas + vegetação nativa nas entrelinhas da cultura, roçada quando necessário. A avaliação do banco de sementes foi feita aos 30, 60, 90 e 120 dias após a implantação de um bioensaio em casa de vegetação, com amostras retiradas no campo nas épocas chuvosa e seca, na profundidade de 0-15 cm. A matéria seca das plantas daninhas foi obtida utilizando-se um quadrado de 0,5 x 0,5 m, jogado a lanço quatro vezes nas parcelas. Os sistemas de manejo de capina em área total e de herbicida na linha + grade nas entrelinhas de plantio de mamoeiros, com feijão-de-porco e crotalária, reduzem o banco de sementes no solo. Dos adubos verdes, crotalária e feijão-de-porco, o primeiro altera a dinâmica do "banco" de sementes de forma mais significativa.The objective of this work was to evaluate the seed bank of weeds through the seedling emergence method in papaya crop, using different tillage systems. A randomized complete block design was used, with three replications and six treatments: weeding in total area, herbicide in the rows + disc in the interrows, crossed sub soiling before planting + weeding in total area, crossed sub soiling before planting + herbicide in the rows and pig bean in the interrows, crossed sub soiling before planting + herbicide in the row + crotalaria in the interrows and crossed sub soiling before planting + herbicide in the rows + native vegetation in the interrows, cleared when necessary. Seed bank evaluation was performed at 30, 60, 90 and 120 days after implantation of the experiment in the greenhouse with samples collected in the field in the rainy and dry seasons at 0-15 cm in depth. Weed dry matter was obtained by using a square of 0.5 x 0.5 m sorted four times in the plots. The weeding management systems in total area and herbicide in the row + disc in the papaya crop interrows with pig bean and crotalaria reduce seed bank in the soil. Among the green fertilizers, crotalaria alters more significantly the dynamics of the seed bank than pig bean.

  14. Heat treatment and gamma radiation on the control of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Penz. et Sacc., causal agent of the papaya fruits (Carica papaya L.) anthracnose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For controlling papaya anthracnose on stored fruits the effect of heat treatment and gamma radiation on Colletotrichum gloeosporioides was studied in vitro and in vivo. Some physiological studies with four isolades of C. gloeosporioides from papaya fruits concerning the best conditions for mycelial growth and sporulation were also performed. The results showed that the best conditions for isolates development in BDA were: temperature between 25 and 270 C for mycelium radial growth; between 27 and 300 C under 12 hours alternating periods of fluorescent). (author). 131 refs., 9 figs., 33 tabs

  15. SIGNIFICADO DE LA HISTERECTOMÍA PARA UN GRUPO DE MUJERES CHILENAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Urrutia S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: La histerectomía por patología benigna del útero, es una de las cirugías más frecuente después de la operación cesárea. Objetivo: Evaluar el significado que tiene la histerectomía para mujeres chilenas, beneficiarías de un hospital público de la Región Metropolitana de Santiago, Chile. Método: Estudio transversal descriptivo, de tipo cualitativo, sobre el significado que 120 mujeres histerectomizadas asigna a esa cirugía. Se describen 3 temas que reflejan el significado de la extracción del útero: pérdida, tristeza-dolor, y mejoría de una enfermedad. Resultados: El promedio de edad fue 56 ±11,9 años, y de escolaridad de 7,8 ± 4,3 años. El 63% de las mujeres fue histerectomizada por patología ginecológica benigna. El significado que la mujer atribuye a la extracción del útero se encuentra relacionado a una experiencia de pérdida, que si bien conlleva un alivio de la enfermedad, también implica dolor, tristeza y soledad. Conclusión: Sensibilizar a los profesionales de la salud, que trabajan con mujeres histerectomizadas, a comprender y respetar el significado que para ellas tiene la histerectomía y propiciar el ambiente adecuado para contenerlas y educarlas pre y pos cirugía.Background: Elective hysterectomy, after caesarian section, is one of the most frequent surgeries. Objective: To evaluate the significance that the hysterectomy has for Chilean women from a public hospital of the Metropolitan Region of Santiago, Chile. Method: Qualitative and cross-sectional design study of the significance of hysterectomy for 120 women. Three themes were derived from interviews: loss, sadness - sorrow, recovery from illness. Results: The mean of age was 56 ± 11.9 years; the educational level was 7.8 ± 4.3 years. A total of 63% of women had planned elective hysterectomy preformed. The significance that the women attribute to the hysterectomy is related to the experience of loss, and although it includes recovery from illness, it also signifies sorrow, sadness, and loneliness. Conclusion: The health care providers, who work with these women, need to be respectful and understanding of the significance that the women give to this surgery, and to give them the best setting for supporting and educating them before and after the surgery.

  16. Caracterización del aceite de coquito de palma chilena (Jubaea chilensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torija, M. Esperanza

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of the seeds from Chilean palm and the detailed composition of its fat are studied starting from 4 lots of seeds from the two regions being the major producers of Chilean palm seeds. From the proximate composition of the seeds a high content of fats is deduced with a mean value of 67.3%. The contents of proteins, carbohydrates and fibre were in the range of 7-11%. A detailed analysis of the fat indicates a high content of saturated fatty acids being capric, caprilic, lauric and miristic acids the major fatty acids. For this reason the presence of a high percentage of medium-chain triglycerides are detected in the triglyceride analysis. As for tocopherols, the fat contains low amounts of α-, γ- y δ-tocopherol with a total average of 84 mg/kg. Concerning phytosterols, the total content was around 1000 mg/kg being β-sitosterol and Î?7-estigmastenol the two major sterolsSe analizan las características generales del coquito de palma chilena y se estudia con detalle la composición de su aceite. Con este objetivo, se analizan 4 lotes de coquitos procedentes de las dos regiones de Chile donde existe mayor producción. La composición proximal del coquito indica un contenido muy mayoritario de grasa, con un promedio de 67,3% mientras los contenidos de proteínas, hidratos de carbono y fibra se encuentran entre el 7 y el 11%. Un análisis detallado de la grasa muestra un contenido elevado de ácidos grasos saturados (alrededor del 85% siendo los ácidos cáprico, caprílico, láurico y mirístico los que se encuentran en mayor concentración, lo que origina un elevado porcentaje de triglicéridos de cadena media. Respecto a los tocoferoles, el aceite contiene cantidades limitadas de α-, γ- y δ-tocoferol con un valor promedio total de 84 mg/kg, no detectándose la presencia de tocotrienoles. Respecto a los fitoesteroles, el contenido total es del orden de 1000 mg/kg siendo los esteroles mayoritarios el β-sitosterol y el Î?7-estigmastenol.

  17. Associação de moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae) com a "meleira do mamoeiro" (Carica papaya L.) / Association of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) with the sticky disease of papaya (Carica papaya L.)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antonio S., Nascimento; Walter J., R. Matrangolo; Cristiane J., Barbosa; Oton M., Marques; Tuffi C., Habibe.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Since 1988, the medfly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) was described infesting papaya (Carica papaya) cv. Sunrise Solo in North of the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Two experiments were carried out to determine the infestation of C. capitata and Anastrepha obliqua (Macq.) in papaya fruit, healthy [...] and infected by sticky disease. In the 1st experiment (forced infestation), no infestation of C. capitata in the healthy fruits was observed, and 60.6 pupae/fruit were obtained in the infected fruit. For A. obliqua, the infestation index was 10.3 and 72.4 pupae/fruit for healthy and infected fruit respectively. In the 2nd experiment (inoculated eggs), the infestation index for C. capitata was 4.0 and 6.3 pupae/fruit and for A. obliqua 10.1 and 10.4 pupae/fruit, for healthy and infected fruit respectively. The high suscetibility of green fruit of papaya infected by sticky disease for C. capitata and A. obliqua was discussed

  18. Antiulcerogenic activity of Carica papaya seed in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Lorraine Aparecida; Cordeiro, Kátia Wolff; Carrasco, Viviane; Carollo, Carlos Alexandre; Cardoso, Cláudia Andréa Lima; Argadoña, Eliana Janet Sanjinez; Freitas, Karine de Cássia

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the gastroprotective and healing effects of the methanolic extract of the seed of the papaya Carica papaya L. (MECP) in rats. Models of acute gastric ulcer induction by ethanol and indomethacin and of chronic ulcer by acetic acid were used. The gastric juice and mucus parameters were evaluated using the pylorus ligation model, and the involvement of sulfhydryl compounds (GSH) and nitric oxide in the gastroprotective effect was analyzed using the ethanol model. The toxicity was assessed through toxicity tests. No signs of toxicity were observed when the rats received a single dose of 2000 mg/kg of extract. The MECP in doses of 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg significantly reduced the gastric lesion with 56, 76, and 82 % inhibition, respectively, and a dose of 30 mg/kg lansoprazole showed 79 % inhibition in the ethanol model. MECP (125, 250, 500 mg/kg) and cimetidine (200 mg/kg) reduced the gastric lesion in the indomethacin model, with 62, 67, 81, and 85 % inhibition, respectively. The MECP (500 mg/kg) and cimetidine (200 mg/kg) treatments showed a reduction in ulcerative symptoms induced by acetic acid by 84 and 73 %, respectively. The antiulcerogenic activity seems to involve GSH because the inhibition dropped from 72 to 13 % in the presence of a GSH inhibitor. Moreover, the MECP showed systemic action, increasing the mucus production and decreasing gastric acidity. Treatments with MECP induce gastroprotection without signs of toxicity. This effect seems to involve sulfhydryl compounds, increased mucus, and reduced gastric acidity. PMID:25418890

  19. Evaluation of schistosomicidal and leishmanicidal activities from Carica papaya (Linn. stem and phytochemical composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Nabih Rashed

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Carica papaya Linn., is a member of the small family Caricaceae. Each part of papaya tree possesses economic value and is considered as a valuable nutraceutical fruit plant. C. papaya has a wide range of purported medicinal properties including antiseptic, antiparasitic, anti inflammatory, antidiabetic and contraceptive activity. While there are only limited data to support most of these uses, there are some evidences for their use in healing decubitus ulcers and other wounds and in treating intestinal worms in humans. It can be chosen as a source of papain for the development of various industrial and pharmaceutical products for various diseases. This present study was carried out to evaluate schistosomicidal and leishmanicidal activities and also to investigate the phytochemical composition of the C. papaya methanol extract. The extract was tested using Schistosoma mansoni and Leishmania amazonensis assays. The results showed that C. papaya methanol extract has a little or no activity against S. mansoni or L. amazonensis. Against S. mansoni, the extract showed no lethal effect, but a reduction in the motor activity at highest concentrations was observed. On the other hand, against L. amazonensis, the extract caused lysis of only 15.3±4.6 of parasites at the concentration of 400 µg/mL. Phytochemical analysis of 80% methanol extract of C. papaya stem showed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, carbohydrates and triterpenes. This is the first report about the schitosomicidal and leishmanicidal activities of C. papaya stems methanol extract and its chemical composition, particularly triterpenes which have shown significant schitosomicidal and leishmanicidal activities

  20. Antihypertensive effect of Carica papaya via a reduction in ACE activity and improved baroreflex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasil, Girlandia Alexandre; Ronchi, Silas Nascimento; do Nascimento, Andrews Marques; de Lima, Ewelyne Miranda; Romão, Wanderson; da Costa, Helber Barcellos; Scherer, Rodrigo; Ventura, José Aires; Lenz, Dominik; Bissoli, Nazaré Souza; Endringer, Denise Coutinho; de Andrade, Tadeu Uggere

    2014-11-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the antihypertensive effects of the standardised methanolic extract of Carica papaya, its angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory effects in vivo, its effect on the baroreflex and serum angiotensin converting enzyme activity, and its chemical composition. The chemical composition of the methanolic extract of C. papaya was evaluated by liquid chromatography-mass/mass and mass/mass spectrometry. The angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory effect was evaluated in vivo by Ang I administration. The antihypertensive assay was performed in spontaneously hypertensive rats and Wistar rats that were treated with enalapril (10 mg/kg), the methanolic extract of C. papaya (100 mg/kg; twice a day), or vehicle for 30 days. The baroreflex was evaluated through the use of sodium nitroprusside and phenylephrine. Angiotensin converting enzyme activity was measured by ELISA, and cardiac hypertrophy was evaluated by morphometric analysis. The methanolic extract of C. papaya was standardised in ferulic acid (203.41 ± 0.02 µg/g), caffeic acid (172.60 ± 0.02 µg/g), gallic acid (145.70 ± 0.02 µg/g), and quercetin (47.11 ± 0.03 µg/g). The flavonoids quercetin, rutin, nicotiflorin, clitorin, and manghaslin were identified in a fraction of the extract. The methanolic extract of C. papaya elicited angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory activity. The antihypertensive effects elicited by the methanolic extract of C. papaya were similar to those of enalapril, and the baroreflex sensitivity was normalised in treated spontaneously hypertensive rats. Plasma angiotensin converting enzyme activity and cardiac hypertrophy were also reduced to levels comparable to the enalapril-treated group. These results may be associated with the chemical composition of the methanolic extract of C. papaya, and are the first step into the development of a new phytotherapic product which could be used in the treatment of hypertension. PMID:25295669

  1. Recombinant pro-regions from papain and papaya proteinase IV-are selective high affinity inhibitors of the mature papaya enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M A; Baker, K C; Briggs, G S; Connerton, I F; Cummings, N J; Pratt, K A; Revell, D F; Freedman, R B; Goodenough, P W

    1995-01-01

    Proteolytic enzymes require the presence of their pro-regions for correct folding. Of the four proteolytic enzymes from Carica papaya, papain and papaya proteinase IV (PPIV) have 68% sequence identity. We find that their pro-regions are even more similar, exhibiting 73.6% identity. cDNAs encoding the pro-regions of these two proteinases have been expressed in Escherichia coli independently from their mature enzymes. The recombinant pro-regions of papain and PPIV have been shown to be high affinity inhibitors of all four of the mature native papaya cysteine proteinases. Their inhibition constants are in the range 10(-6) - 10(-9) M. PPIV was inhibited two to three orders of magnitude less effectively than papain, chymopapain and caricain. The pro-region of PPIV, however, inhibited its own mature enzyme more effectively than did the pro-region of papain. Alignment of the sequences of the four papaya enzymes shows that there is a highly variable section towards the C-terminal of the pro-region. This region may therefore confer selectivity to the pro-regions for the individual proteolytic enzymes. PMID:7770454

  2. NIa-Pro of Papaya ringspot virus interacts with Carica papaya eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit G (CpeIF3G).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Le; Tuo, Decai; Shen, Wentao; Yan, Pu; Li, Xiaoying; Zhou, Peng

    2015-02-01

    The interaction of papaya eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit G (CpeIF3G) with Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) NIa-Pro was validated using a bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay in papaya protoplasts based on the previous yeast two-hybrid assay results. The C-terminal (residues 133-239) fragment of PRSV NIa-Pro and the central domain (residues 59-167) of CpeIF3G were required for effective interaction between NIa-Pro and CpeIF3G as shown by a Sos recruitment yeast two-hybrid system with several deletion mutants of NIa-Pro and CpeIF3G. The central domain of CpeIF3G, which contains a C2HC-type zinc finger motif, is required to bind to other eIFs of the translational machinery. In addition, quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR assay confirmed that PRSV infection leads to a 2- to 4.5-fold up-regulation of CpeIF3G mRNA in papaya. Plant eIF3G is involved in various stress response by enhancing the translation of resistance-related proteins. It is proposed that the NIa-Pro-CpeIF3G interaction may impair translation preinitiation complex assembly of defense proteins and interfere with host defense. PMID:25416301

  3. Estimación de las necesidades hídricas de la papaya utilizando la aproximación de los coeficientes culturales duales / Papaya estimation of water requirements using the dual crop coefficient

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Yoima, Chaterlán; Ricardo, Rosa; Geisy, Herández; Teresa, López; Luis S, Pereira.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Considerando el incremento de la actividad de riego en el cultivo de la papaya durante los últimos años, resulta de interés el conocimiento de los elementos técnicos y agronomicos necesarios para una adecuada programación del riego a partir de la estimación de las necesidades hidrícas del cultivo. P [...] ara esto se utilizo el modelo SIMDualKc el cual efectua el calculo de la evapotranspiración del cultivo (ETc) y la programación del riego a partir de la metodología de los coeficientes culturales duales (Kc=Kcb+Ke). La investigación fue realizada en la Estación Experimental de Riego y Drenaje, situada en Alquízar, provincia La Habana, Cuba. Los experimentos fueron desarrollados entre el período marzo-noviembre 1997. Se utilizó la Papaya var. "Maradol roja". La calibración consistió en la búsqueda de los coeficientes culturales basales para las diferentes etapas de desarrollo del cultivo reduciendo al mínimo las diferencias entre los valores simulados y observados del contenido de humedad del suelo. Fue evaluada la bondad de ajuste de las predicciones del modelo, realizándose una serie de análisis estadísticos. Se puede concluir que el modelo puede ser utilizado para la generación de calendarios alternativos de riego destinados a mejorar el ahorro de agua y la productividad de la papaya en estas condiciones edafoclimáticas. Abstract in english Considering the increased activity of irrigation in the cultivation of papaya in recent years, interest is knowledge of the technical and agronomic necessary for proper irrigation scheduling based on the estimation of crop water requirements. For this we used the model SIMDualKc, which make the calc [...] ulation of crop evapotranspiration (ETc) and irrigation scheduling based on the methodology of the dual crop coefficient (Kc = Kcb + Ke). The research was conducted at the Experimental Station of Irrigation and Drainage, located in Alquízar, Havana, Cuba. The experiments were carried out between the periods march to november 1997. We used the Papaya (Carica papaya L) var. "Maradol red." The calibration consisted in the search for cultural factors at baseline for the different stages of crop development by minimizing the differences between the simulated and observed soil moisture content. Was evaluated for goodness of fit of the model's predictions SIMDualKc, realizandoce a series of statistical analysis. It can be concluded that the model can be used to generate alternative schedules irrigation to improve water conservation and productivity of papaya in these soil and climatic conditions.

  4. Patrones de crecimiento urbano en la Patagonia chilena: el caso de la ciudad de Coyhaique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Az\\u00F3car Garc\\u00EDa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Las políticas de Estado junto con la importante oferta/demanda de productos inmobiliarios para población de mayor ingreso han orientado el desarrollo reciente de varias ciudades chilenas, originando nuevas formas urbanas. Si bien estos procesos han sido descritos y analizados para varias ciudades y áreas metropolitanas de Chile central, no existen suficientes antecedentes empíricos que den cuenta de la realidad del desarrollo urbano de las ciudades más australes del país, como el caso de Coyhaique en la Patagonia chilena. Este trabajo pretende identificar y analizar los patrones de urbanización de esta ciudad, en un contexto territorial caracterizado, entre otros aspectos, por la fragmentación geográfica, el aislamiento, dispersión de los centros poblados y concentración de la población en la capital regional. Se analiza la evolución y factores explicativos que dan cuenta de su rápido proceso de urbanización y, sobre la base de documentos técnicos, históricos y geográficos, se presentan estimaciones futuras del crecimiento de la ciudad.

  5. Eradication of Bactrocera papayae (Diptera: Tephritidae) by male annihilation and protein baiting in Queensland, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An established population of Bactrocera papayae Drew and Hancock (Asian papaya fruit fly) was detected on the Australian mainland near Cairns, north Queensland, on 16 October 1995 (Fay et al. 1997). Coincidentally, the first flies were bred from green papaya, a host not normally utilised in the unripe state by indigenous fruit fly species. B. papayae is a member of the Oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis) complex (Drew and Hancock 1994) and has more than 190 known hosts in Southeast Asia, where it is a major pest species. Consequently, the threat to Australian horticulture posed by the incursion was recognised immediately. By 26 October 1995, breeding populations were confirmed around Cairns, Mossman and Mareeba and a Pest Quarantine Area (PQA) was legislated. By 1 November 1995, following detections south of Innisfail, the PQA boundaries were set at 144 deg. 15'E, 19 deg. 00'S, covering nearly 78,000 km2. B. papayae was ultimately trapped over some 20,000 km2. A national eradication campaign began in November 1995, undertaken by the Queensland Department of Primary Industries

  6. Phytochemical screening and hypoglycemic activity of Carica papaya leaf in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Isela E., Juárez-Rojop; Carlos, A.Tovilla-Zárate; Dora E., Aguilar-Domínguez; Luis F. Roa-de la, Fuente; Carlos E., Lobato-García; Jorge L., Blé-Castillo; Leonor, López-Meraz; Juan C., Díaz-Zagoya; Deysi Y., Bermúdez-Ocaña.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of plant constituents is essential to isolate biologically active compounds, aimed to understand their role on the treatment of diabetes. This study was designed to explore the preliminary phytochemical and physicochemical analysis of Carica papaya L., Caricaceae, leaf, and further ev [...] aluation of its hypoglycemic effect on diabetic rats. C. papaya leaves were extracted using chloroform, n-hexane or ethanol. For each extract a phytochemical screening was performed. The tests were conducted in triplicate and the qualitative and quantitative determination of the various metabolites was done using analytical standards proposed by Mexican Herbal Pharmacopoeia. The chloroform extract, containing steroids and quinones as major components, was chosen to study C. papaya biological effects. The chloroform extract was evaporated to dryness, and doses 0, 31, 62, 125 mg/kg were orally administered in 300 µl polyethylene glycol to diabetic rats; and 0 and 62 mg/kg to non-diabetic rats. After a 20-day treatment with the chloroform extract, the animals were sacrificed and blood was obtained for biochemical studies. The main effect observed was a decrease in serum glucose, triglycerides and transaminases in diabetic rats after the administration of C. papaya chloroform extract. These results confirm the potential beneficial action of C. papaya to treat the symptoms of diabetic patients.

  7. Perfil Antropométrico de Jugadoras Chilenas de Fútbol Femenino Anthropometric Profile of Female Football - Soccer Chilean Players

    OpenAIRE

    Atilio Aldo Almagiá Flores; Fernando Rodríguez Rodríguez; Fernando Omar Barrraza Gómez; Pablo José Lizana Arce; Carlos Alberto Jorquera Aguilera

    2008-01-01

    Se evaluó un total de 43 jugadoras de fútbol, 26 seleccionadas chilenas sub 20 y 17 jugadoras del plantel campeón de fútbol universitario 2007 de la Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso (PUCV), todas ellas bajo su consentimiento informado. Se evaluó utilizando el protocolo de mareaje y medición de la International Society for the Avancement in Kineanthropometric (IS AK), en condiciones normales de temperatura, a primera hora de la mañana y después del vaciado urinario, por ...

  8. Emergência e matéria seca de plantas daninhas na cultura do mamoeiro (Carica papaya) / Emergence and dry matter of weeds in papaya crop (Carica papaya)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    I.S., Santana; M.F.S.P., Peixoto; J.E.B., Carvalho; L.S.V., Sampaio; C.A.S., Ledo; C.P., Peixoto.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste experimento foi avaliar o "banco" de sementes de plantas daninhas através do método da emergência de plântulas, na cultura do mamoeiro, em que se empregaram diferentes sistemas de manejo. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com três repetições e seis tratamentos: [...] capina em área total; herbicida nas linhas + grade nas entrelinhas; subsolagem cruzada antes do plantio + capina em área total; subsolagem cruzada antes do plantio + herbicida nas linhas e feijão de porco nas entrelinhas; subsolagem cruzada antes do plantio + herbicida nas linhas e crotalária nas entrelinhas; e herbicida nas linhas + vegetação nativa nas entrelinhas da cultura, roçada quando necessário. A avaliação do banco de sementes foi feita aos 30, 60, 90 e 120 dias após a implantação de um bioensaio em casa de vegetação, com amostras retiradas no campo nas épocas chuvosa e seca, na profundidade de 0-15 cm. A matéria seca das plantas daninhas foi obtida utilizando-se um quadrado de 0,5 x 0,5 m, jogado a lanço quatro vezes nas parcelas. Os sistemas de manejo de capina em área total e de herbicida na linha + grade nas entrelinhas de plantio de mamoeiros, com feijão-de-porco e crotalária, reduzem o banco de sementes no solo. Dos adubos verdes, crotalária e feijão-de-porco, o primeiro altera a dinâmica do "banco" de sementes de forma mais significativa. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the seed bank of weeds through the seedling emergence method in papaya crop, using different tillage systems. A randomized complete block design was used, with three replications and six treatments: weeding in total area, herbicide in the rows + disc in the [...] interrows, crossed sub soiling before planting + weeding in total area, crossed sub soiling before planting + herbicide in the rows and pig bean in the interrows, crossed sub soiling before planting + herbicide in the row + crotalaria in the interrows and crossed sub soiling before planting + herbicide in the rows + native vegetation in the interrows, cleared when necessary. Seed bank evaluation was performed at 30, 60, 90 and 120 days after implantation of the experiment in the greenhouse with samples collected in the field in the rainy and dry seasons at 0-15 cm in depth. Weed dry matter was obtained by using a square of 0.5 x 0.5 m sorted four times in the plots. The weeding management systems in total area and herbicide in the row + disc in the papaya crop interrows with pig bean and crotalaria reduce seed bank in the soil. Among the green fertilizers, crotalaria alters more significantly the dynamics of the seed bank than pig bean.

  9. Conocimientos y autoeficacia asociados a la prevención del VIH y SIDA en mujeres chilenas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas Rodríguez, Natalia; Ferrer Lagunas, Lilian Marcela; Cianelli Acosta, Rosina; Miner, Sarah; Lara Campos, Loreto; Peragallo, Nilda

    2014-01-01

    Resumen Objetivo Evaluar la relación existente entre conocimientos y autoeficacia asociados al VIH/SIDA en mujeres chilenas en desventaja social. Metodología Estudio correlacional, que utiliza la medición basal del estudio “Testeando una intervención en VIH y SIDA en mujeres chilenas”, realizada entre 2006 y 2008, que tiene una muestra de 496 mujeres entre 18 y 49 años residentes en dos comunas de Santiago de Chile. Las participantes respondieron un cuestionario estructurado aplicado por entrevistadoras entrenadas. Este cuestionario incluyó preguntas sobre datos sociodemográficos, escala de conocimientos de conductas de riesgo y autoeficacia, entre otros. Resultados Edad promedio de 32.3±9.1 años, 72.2% vive con su pareja y 42.7% poseen educación media completa. La puntuación media de los conocimientos de la infección por el VIH fue de 8.9±2.5, mientras que para las tres escalas empleadas para medir autoeficacia fueron: “Normas de los pares” =9.8±3.6, “Intención de reducir conductas de riesgo” =12.2±3.6 y “Self Efficacy Form”=20.2±4.7. Los conocimientos tuvieron una correlación positiva débil con la “intención de reducir conductas de riesgo” (r=0.19; prelaciones sexuales seguras” (r=0.13; p=0.78). Conclusión Existe una débil correlación positiva entre el nivel de conocimientos sobre el VIH/SIDA y la autoeficacia en mujeres chilenas en desventaja social. PMID:25284914

  10. Poetas mapuches en la literatura chilena Mapuche poets in Chilean literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Carrasco M

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se estudia el modo en que las tradiciones textuales etnoliterarias de los mapuches y literarias de los españoles, se han imbricado en la literatura chilena a través del tiempo, y los aportes que ha dejado la incorporación de poetas de cultura mapuche en la poesía chilena contemporánea. En particular, se establece que autores como Sebastián Queupul, Pedro Alonzo, Elicura Chihuailaf y Leonel Lienlaf han participado en la conformación de la poesía etnocultural, dentro de la cual han propuesto una visión intercultural que sobrepasa los límites de la etnoliteratura mapuche y la literatura chilena tradicional, y un conjunto de estrategias textuales compartidas con otros poetas (enunciación sincrética, intertextualidad transliteraria y codificación plural, en la cual han creado una variedad propia, el doble registro.This paper studies the way in which mapuche textual ethnoliterary traditions and Spanish literary traditions have mixed in the Chilean literature through time, and the contribution of Mapuche poets to contemporary Chilean poetry, particularly, authors such as Sebastián Queupul, Pedro Alonzo, Elicura Chihuailaf and Leonel Lienlaf, where they have created an intercultural view that goes beyond the limits of the mapuche ethnoliterature and Chilean traditional literature, together with a bunch of text strategies shared with others poets (syncretic enunciation, transliterary intertext and plural codification, where they have created their own variety, the double register.

  11. JOAQUÍN EDWARDS BELLO: CRÓNICA Y CRÍTICA DE LA VIDA COTIDIANA CHILENA

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leónidas, Morales T.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Si bien el objeto central del artículo es la crítica a la vida cotidiana chilena en Joaquín Edwards Bello, en su primera parte se detiene en algunos aspectos importantes del género en que la crítica se da, la crónica urbana, asociados a su origen periodístico, a su estructura, a su lector y al estad [...] o de la modernidad chilena que su irrupción a comienzos del XX implica. En la segunda parte, y sobre la base de un breve corpus cronístico, el artículo intenta definir lo esencial de la crítica de Edwards como una crítica a un modo específico (no interrumpido desde la Colonia) de ejercerse el poder en la sociedad chilena, uno de extrema polarización, y a los discursos ideológicos que le prestan la cobertura de su "naturalización". Abstract in english This article focuses on the criticism of Chilean everyday life in the writings of Joaquín Edwards Bello. The first part concentrates on important aspects of urban chronicle as a genre associated to its journalistic origin, structure, readership, and the conditions of Chilean modernity at the beginni [...] ng of the 20th century. Supported by a brief corpus of chronicles, the second part of the article attempts to define one essential feature present in Edwards's criticism: namely a criticism of both a specific and uninterrupted mode in which power has been imposed on the Chilean society effecting extreme forms of polarization and the ideological discourses that "naturalize" its presence.

  12. Historias, recepciones y tradiciones: Notas sobre Filosofía chilena. La tradición analítica / Histories, Receptions and Traditions: Notes on Filosofía chilena. La tradición analítica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alejandro, Fielbaum.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El libro de Alex Ibarra, Filosofía chilena. La tradición analítica en el periodo de la institucionalización de la filosofía, plantea la discusión sobre las líneas filosóficas, demostrando la existencia de cierta tradición analítica en Chile. A partir de allí, reflexionamos en torno a los procesos de [...] constitución del campo de la filosofía en Chile como una historia atravesada por la necesidad de préstamos y cruces que impiden una delimitación clara de sus límites, lo que tornaría necesaria la atención a ciertas políticas de la lectura que el libro soslaya. La productividad de la filosofía producida en Chile surgiría gracias -y no pese- a su inscripción en sus tiempos y espacios, a partir de recepciones cuya ausencia de retraso no impide el gesto de cierto re-trazo de lo leído. Abstract in english Alex Ibarra's exposition in his book Filosofía chilena. La tradición analítica en el periodo de la institucionalización de la filosofía, places the discussion on the philosophical traditions, showing the existence of a certain kind of analytical tradition in Chile. From there, we expose the processe [...] s of constitution of the field in Chile as a history crossed by the need of importations and intersections that contest the clear delimitation of its boundaries, what makes necessary the attention of the politics of readings that the book avoid. The productivity of the philosophic production in Chile, arises thanks to -but not in spite of- its inscription in its age/times and spaces, coming from its receptions and its differences.

  13. Combined treatment of UV and gamma radiation of papaya for decay control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An exploratory study was made to determine if combining u.v. and gamma radiation treatment at selective doses would decrease the fungal decay incidence in papaya (Carica papaya L. var. Solo), and thereby increase the marketable life of the fruit. Also studied was the effect of the combined treatment on the spores of Aschochyta spp., Colletotrichium spp. and Phytophthora spp., which are commonly found on papaya grown in Hawaii. This was to test the postulate that the combined treatment would prevent photoreactivation of the disrupted nuclei in microorganisms and lead to eventual death. Experimental results did not indicate a conclusive trend to effectiveness but suggested a number of problems to be resolved before the treatment can become useful in fungal decay control of fruits. (author)

  14. Using gamma radiation to induce papaya varieties for mosaic disease tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeds of eight papaya varieties were irradiated with gamma radiation at doses of 0, 100, 150 and 200 Gray, then planted at Sisaket Horticultural Research Center. Plants with no symptom of mosaic disease and those with rarely to moderately mosaic disease symptom and good yield were selected and five fruits of them were collected. Seeds from them (M2 seed) were planted and inoculated the seedlings with Papaya Ringspot Virus(PRV) that caused mosaic disease. Seedlings that showed no symptom were transplanted to the field. It was found that irradiated papaya variety Kokokandam showed some characters different from non-irradiated one. The irradiated plants were shorter in height and internode, smaller in bush and leaf size and better tolerant to mosaic disease. The characteristic of other varieties are being observed including yield and disease tolerance

  15. Genetics Transformation of Carica papaya by Infecting Mature Zygotic Embryos with Agrobacterium tumefaciens Strains LBA-4404

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.K. Azad

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Transient expression of the GUS gene has been demonstrated in somatic callus of the two varieties of Carica papaya cv. Shahi and Ranchi after co-cultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA-4404 carrying a binary plastid vector system containing neomycin phosphotransferase gene as the selectable marker and -glucuronidase (GUS as reporter gene. The mature embryonal axes were used as explants. The co-cultivated explants were ?transferred into final selection medium containing 500 mg L 1 carbenicillin + 200 mg L 1 cefotaxime + 50 mg L 1 kanamycin. The callus of C. papaya cv. Shahi showed highest GUS activity compared to C. papaya cv. Ranchi. The anatomical section of callus showed the positive GUS activity. All transformed callus grew vigorously in this medium and formed embryos followed by plantlets.

  16. Combined Treatment of UV and Gamma Radiation of Papaya for Decay Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An exploratory study was made to determine if combining u.v. and gamma radiation treatment at selective doses would decrease the fungal decay incidence in papaya (Carica papaya L. var. Solo), and thereby increase the marketable life of the fruit. Also studied was the effect of the combined treatment on the spores of Aschochyta spp., Colletotrichium spp. and Phytophthora spp., which are commonly found on papaya grown in Hawaii. This was to test the postulate that the combined treatment would prevent photoreactivation of the disrupted nuclei in microorganisms and lead to eventual death. Experimental results did not indicate a conclusive trend to effectiveness but suggested a number of problems to be resolved before the treatment can become useful in fungal decay control of fruits. (author)

  17. Sequences of the coat protein gene from brazilian isolates of Papaya ringspot virus Seqüência do gene da proteína capsidial de isolados brasileiros de Papaya ringspot virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROBERTO C. A. LIMA

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV is the causal agent of the main papaya (Carica papaya disease in the world. Brazil is currently the world's main papaya grower, responsible for about 40% of the worldwide production. Resistance to PRSV on transgenic plants expressing the PRSV coat protein (cp gene was shown to be dependent on the sequence homology between the cp transgene expressed in the plant genome and the cp gene from the incoming virus, in an isolate-specific fashion. Therefore, knowledge of the degree of homology among the cp genes from distinct PRSV isolates which are present in a given area is important to guide the development of transgenic papaya for the control of PRSV in that area. The objective of the present study was to assess the degree of homology among the PRSV cp genes of several Brazilian isolates of this virus. Papaya and PRSV are present in many different ecosystems within Brazil. Twelve PRSV isolates, collected in eight different states from four different geographic regions, were used in this study. The sequences of the cp gene from these isolates were compared among themselves and to the gene used to generate transgenic papaya for Brazil. An average degree of homology of 97.3% at the nucleotide sequence was found among the Brazilian isolates. When compared to 27 isolates from outside Brazil in a homology tree, the Brazilian isolates were clustered with Australian, Hawaiian, and Central and North American isolates, with an average degree of homology of 90.7% among them.O Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV é o agente causal da mancha anelar, principal doença do mamoeiro (Carica papaya no mundo. O Brasil é o maior produtor desta fruteira, sendo responsável por aproximadamente 40% da produção mundial. A resistência a este vírus, obtida em mamoeiros transgênicos expressando o gene da proteína capsidial (cp do PRSV, mostrou-se dependente do grau de homologia entre a seqüência do transgene expresso pela planta e o gene cp do vírus invasor, de forma isolado-específico. Dessa forma, quando se objetiva produzir mamoeiros transgênicos com amplo espectro de resistência ao PRSV, é importante o conhecimento do grau de homologia deste gene entre os diversos isolados presentes em uma área geográfica específica onde o mamoeiro será cultivado. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o grau de homologia entre o gene cp de diversos isolados brasileiros de PRSV. O mamoeiro e o PRSV encontram-se presentes em diversos ecossistemas brasileiros. Doze isolados de PRSV, coletados em oito estados de quatro regiões geográficas, foram utilizados neste estudo. As seqüências do gene cp destes isolados foram comparadas entre si e com o gene utilizado para gerar mamoeiros transgênicos para o Brasil. Um grau de homologia médio de 97,3% para as seqüências de nucleotídeos foi observado entre os isolados brasileiros. Quando comparado com 27 isolados de outras regiões, em uma árvore de homologia, os isolados brasileiros foram agrupados com os isolados australianos, havaianos, e os da América Central e do Norte. Um grau de homologia médio de 90,7% foi observado entre os 40 isolados analisados.

  18. Sequences of the coat protein gene from brazilian isolates of Papaya ringspot virus / Seqüência do gene da proteína capsidial de isolados brasileiros de Papaya ringspot virus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    ROBERTO C. A., LIMA; MANOEL T., SOUZA JR.; GILVAN, PIO-RIBEIRO; J. ALBERSIO A., LIMA.

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available O Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) é o agente causal da mancha anelar, principal doença do mamoeiro (Carica papaya) no mundo. O Brasil é o maior produtor desta fruteira, sendo responsável por aproximadamente 40% da produção mundial. A resistência a este vírus, obtida em mamoeiros transgênicos expressand [...] o o gene da proteína capsidial (cp) do PRSV, mostrou-se dependente do grau de homologia entre a seqüência do transgene expresso pela planta e o gene cp do vírus invasor, de forma isolado-específico. Dessa forma, quando se objetiva produzir mamoeiros transgênicos com amplo espectro de resistência ao PRSV, é importante o conhecimento do grau de homologia deste gene entre os diversos isolados presentes em uma área geográfica específica onde o mamoeiro será cultivado. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o grau de homologia entre o gene cp de diversos isolados brasileiros de PRSV. O mamoeiro e o PRSV encontram-se presentes em diversos ecossistemas brasileiros. Doze isolados de PRSV, coletados em oito estados de quatro regiões geográficas, foram utilizados neste estudo. As seqüências do gene cp destes isolados foram comparadas entre si e com o gene utilizado para gerar mamoeiros transgênicos para o Brasil. Um grau de homologia médio de 97,3% para as seqüências de nucleotídeos foi observado entre os isolados brasileiros. Quando comparado com 27 isolados de outras regiões, em uma árvore de homologia, os isolados brasileiros foram agrupados com os isolados australianos, havaianos, e os da América Central e do Norte. Um grau de homologia médio de 90,7% foi observado entre os 40 isolados analisados. Abstract in english Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is the causal agent of the main papaya (Carica papaya) disease in the world. Brazil is currently the world's main papaya grower, responsible for about 40% of the worldwide production. Resistance to PRSV on transgenic plants expressing the PRSV coat protein (cp) gene was [...] shown to be dependent on the sequence homology between the cp transgene expressed in the plant genome and the cp gene from the incoming virus, in an isolate-specific fashion. Therefore, knowledge of the degree of homology among the cp genes from distinct PRSV isolates which are present in a given area is important to guide the development of transgenic papaya for the control of PRSV in that area. The objective of the present study was to assess the degree of homology among the PRSV cp genes of several Brazilian isolates of this virus. Papaya and PRSV are present in many different ecosystems within Brazil. Twelve PRSV isolates, collected in eight different states from four different geographic regions, were used in this study. The sequences of the cp gene from these isolates were compared among themselves and to the gene used to generate transgenic papaya for Brazil. An average degree of homology of 97.3% at the nucleotide sequence was found among the Brazilian isolates. When compared to 27 isolates from outside Brazil in a homology tree, the Brazilian isolates were clustered with Australian, Hawaiian, and Central and North American isolates, with an average degree of homology of 90.7% among them.

  19. Optimization of process parameters for foam-mat drying of papaya pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Palani; Varadharaju, N; Kalemullah, S; Maladhi, D

    2014-10-01

    Experiments were carried out to optimize the process parameters for production of papaya powder using foam-mat drying. Papaya pulp was foamed by incorporating methyl cellulose (0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1 %, w/w), glycerol-mono-stearate (1, 2, 3 and 4 %, w/w) and egg white (5, 10, 15 and 20 %, w/w) as foaming agents. The maximum stable foam formation was 72, 90 and 125% at 0.75 % methyl cellulose, 3 % glycerol-mono-stearate and 15 % egg white respectively with 9°Brix pulp and whipping time of 20 min. The foamed pulp was dried at air temperature of 60, 65 and 70 °C with foam thickness of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 mm in a batch type cabinet dryer. The drying time required for foamed papaya pulp was lower than non-foamed pulp at all selected temperatures. Biochemical analysis results showed a significant reduction in ascorbic acid, ?-carotene and total sugars in the foamed papaya dried product at higher foam thickness (6, 8 and 10 mm) and temperature (65 and 70 °C due to destruction at higher drying temperature and increasing time. There was no significant change in other biochemical constituents such as pH and acidity. The organoleptic and sensory evaluation of the quality attributes of papaya powder obtained from the pulp of 9°Brix added with 3 % glycerol-mono-stearate, whipped for 20 min and dried with a foam thickness of 4 mm at a temperature of 60 °C was found to be optimum to produce the foam-mat dried papaya powder. PMID:25328192

  20. Habitat fragmentation threatens wild populations of Carica papaya (Caricaceae) in a lowland rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Pesqueira, Mariana; Suárez-Montes, Pilar; Castillo, Guillermo; Núñez-Farfán, Juan

    2014-07-11

    • Premise of the study: Wild populations of domesticated species constitute a genetic reservoir and are fundamental to the evolutionary potential of species. Wild papaya (Carica papaya) is a rare, short-lived, gap-colonizing, dioecious tree that persists in the forest by continuous dispersal. Theoretically, these life-history characteristics render wild papaya highly susceptible to habitat fragmentation, with anticipated negative effects on its gene pool. Further, species dioecy may cause founder effects to generate local biases in sex ratio, decreasing effective population size.• Methods: We contrasted the genetic diversity and structure of C. papaya between wild populations from rainforest fragments and continuous forest at Los Tuxtlas, Mexico. We evaluated recent migration rates among populations as well as landscape resistance to gene flow. Finally, we calculated the sex ratio of the populations in both habitats.• Key results: Populations of wild papaya in rainforest fragments showed lower genetic diversity and higher population differentiation than populations in continuous rainforest. Estimates of recent migration rates showed a higher percentage of migrants moving from the continuous forest to the forest fragments than in the opposite direction. Agricultural land and cattle pasture were found to be the most resistant matrices to gene flow. Finally, biased sex ratios were seen to affect the effective population size in both habitats.• Conclusions: The mating system, rarity, and short life cycle of C. papaya are exacerbating the effects of rainforest fragmentation on its genetic diversity, threatening the persistence of its natural populations in the proposed place of origin as well as its genetic reservoir. PMID:25016010

  1. L-ascorbic acid, ?-carotene and lycopene content in papaya fruits (Carica papaya) with or without physiological skin freckles / Conteúdo de ácido l-ascórbico, ?-caroteno e licopeno em frutos de mamão (Carica papaya) com e sem mancha fisiológica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leandro Marelli de, Souza; Karla Silva, Ferreira; José Benício Paes, Chaves; Sílvio Lopes, Teixeira.

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A Mancha Fisiológica do Mamão (MFM) é uma desordem da casca do mamão, que deprecia a aparência do fruto e prejudica a sua comercialização, embora não prejudique o seu valor nutritivo. Considerando ser o mamão, uma boa fonte de ácido L-ascórbico, b-caroteno e licopeno, esta pesquisa visou determinar [...] o índice destes componentes em frutas de mamão, das variedades do grupo 'Formosa' e 'Solo', com e sem Mancha Fisiológica do Mamão (MFM) aparente na pele. As frutas foram colhidas na região do sudeste de Brasil. O teor de ácido L-ascórbico foi determinado pela técnica de titulação. Os índices do b-caroteno e do licopeno foram determinados pela técnica de cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (HPLC). O teor de ácido L-ascórbico variou de (59,9 ± 3,4) mg 100 g-1 a (112,4 ± 12,6) mg 100 g-1 de polpa fresca de mamão. O teor de b-caroteno variou de (0,19 ± 0,07) mg 100 g-1 a (0,56 ± 0,09) mg 100 g-1 e o do licopeno variou de (1,44 ± 0,28) mg 100 g-1 a (3,39 ± 0,32) mg 100 g-1 de polpa fresca de mamão. Os índices de ácidos L-ascórbico na polpa dos frutos de mamão com MFM variaram de 7,0 mg 100 g-1 a 10,0 mg 100 g-1 a mais do que os teores encontrados na polpa dos frutos de mamão sem a MFM (P Abstract in english The Skin Freckles is a papaya skin disorder that depreciates de fruit appearance and hampers its commercialization, although not lowering its nutritive value. Being the papaya a good source of ascorbic acid, ?-carotene and licopene this research aimed at determining L-ascorbic acid, ?-carotene and l [...] icopene content in papaya fruits, from 'Formosa' and 'Solo' group varieties, with and without apparent physiological skin disease (skin freckles). Fruits were harvested in the Southeast Region of Brazil. L-ascorbic acid content was determined by titration technique. ?-carotene and licopene contents were determined by high performance liquid chromatography technique (HPLC). L-ascorbic acid content in papaya fruits ranged from (59.9 ± 3.4) mg 100 g-1 to (112.4 ± 12.6) mg 100 g-1 in fresh papaya pulp. ?-carotene content ranged from (0.19 ± 0.07) mg 100 g-1 to (0.56 ± 0.09) mg 100 g-1 and that of licopene ranged from (1.44 ± 0.28) mg 100 g-1 to (3.39 ± 0.32) mg 100 g-1 in fresh papaya pulp. L-ascorbic acid contents of papaya fruits with skin disease averaged 7.0 mg 100 g-1 to 10.0 mg 100 g-1 higher than those of papaya fruits without skin freckles (P

  2. L-ascorbic acid, ?-carotene and lycopene content in papaya fruits (Carica papaya with or without physiological skin freckles Conteúdo de ácido l-ascórbico, ?-caroteno e licopeno em frutos de mamão (Carica papaya com e sem mancha fisiológica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Marelli de Souza

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Skin Freckles is a papaya skin disorder that depreciates de fruit appearance and hampers its commercialization, although not lowering its nutritive value. Being the papaya a good source of ascorbic acid, ?-carotene and licopene this research aimed at determining L-ascorbic acid, ?-carotene and licopene content in papaya fruits, from 'Formosa' and 'Solo' group varieties, with and without apparent physiological skin disease (skin freckles. Fruits were harvested in the Southeast Region of Brazil. L-ascorbic acid content was determined by titration technique. ?-carotene and licopene contents were determined by high performance liquid chromatography technique (HPLC. L-ascorbic acid content in papaya fruits ranged from (59.9 ± 3.4 mg 100 g-1 to (112.4 ± 12.6 mg 100 g-1 in fresh papaya pulp. ?-carotene content ranged from (0.19 ± 0.07 mg 100 g-1 to (0.56 ± 0.09 mg 100 g-1 and that of licopene ranged from (1.44 ± 0.28 mg 100 g-1 to (3.39 ± 0.32 mg 100 g-1 in fresh papaya pulp. L-ascorbic acid contents of papaya fruits with skin disease averaged 7.0 mg 100 g-1 to 10.0 mg 100 g-1 higher than those of papaya fruits without skin freckles (P A Mancha Fisiológica do Mamão (MFM é uma desordem da casca do mamão, que deprecia a aparência do fruto e prejudica a sua comercialização, embora não prejudique o seu valor nutritivo. Considerando ser o mamão, uma boa fonte de ácido L-ascórbico, b-caroteno e licopeno, esta pesquisa visou determinar o índice destes componentes em frutas de mamão, das variedades do grupo 'Formosa' e 'Solo', com e sem Mancha Fisiológica do Mamão (MFM aparente na pele. As frutas foram colhidas na região do sudeste de Brasil. O teor de ácido L-ascórbico foi determinado pela técnica de titulação. Os índices do b-caroteno e do licopeno foram determinados pela técnica de cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (HPLC. O teor de ácido L-ascórbico variou de (59,9 ± 3,4 mg 100 g-1 a (112,4 ± 12,6 mg 100 g-1 de polpa fresca de mamão. O teor de b-caroteno variou de (0,19 ± 0,07 mg 100 g-1 a (0,56 ± 0,09 mg 100 g-1 e o do licopeno variou de (1,44 ± 0,28 mg 100 g-1 a (3,39 ± 0,32 mg 100 g-1 de polpa fresca de mamão. Os índices de ácidos L-ascórbico na polpa dos frutos de mamão com MFM variaram de 7,0 mg 100 g-1 a 10,0 mg 100 g-1 a mais do que os teores encontrados na polpa dos frutos de mamão sem a MFM (P < 0,05.

  3. Assessment of the Anti-Protozoal Activity of Crude Carica papaya Seed Extract against Trypanosoma cruzi

    OpenAIRE

    Acosta-viana, Karla Y.; Eugenia Guzman-Marín; Salud Perez-Gutiérrez; Antonio Ortega-Pacheco; Matilde Jiménez-Coello

    2013-01-01

    In order to determine the in vivo activity against the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, two doses (50 and 75 mg/kg) of a chloroform extract of Carica papaya seeds were evaluated compared with a control group of allopurinol. The activity of a mixture of the three main compounds (oleic, palmitic and stearic acids in a proportion of 45.9% of oleic acid, 24.1% of palmitic and 8.52% of stearic acid previously identified in the crude extract of C. papaya was evaluated at doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg...

  4. Effects of Ripe Carica Papaya Seed Powder on Testicular Histology of Boars

    OpenAIRE

    Kipyegon An, Hm Mutembei

    2012-01-01

    The effect of oral administration of ripe Carica Papaya seed powder on testicular histology of Sus scrofa domestica boars has been addressed in the present article. Fifteen pubertal Large White boars were randomly selected and divided into two groups. Each boar in the experimental group received a daily dose of 300mg C Papaya mixed with 0.5 kg of conventional pig feed while the control group received a placebo. The experiment was carried out for 56 days in the University of Nairobi. After ev...

  5. Effect of 60Co ? irradiation and GA3 treatment on mutation of Carica papaya L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The seeds of Carica papaya L. were irradiated by 60Co ?-rays of 10-40 Gy and treated by GA3 of 10-50 mg/L after irradiation. The results showed that small nuclear cell percentage, chromosome variation percentage and leaf variability of papaya seedling increased with increase of irradiation dose, the pollen fertility and fruit quality decreased. GA3 of 10-50 mg/L treatment after irradiation could alleviate the irradiation harm, and the effect of lower concentration of GA3 was better than higher concentration with lower dose irradiation, however, the effect of higher concentration of GA3 was better with higher dose irradiation

  6. Effect of ionizing radiation on the activity of pectinesterase in papaya (cultivar solo)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papaya fruits (Carica papaya L.) were exposed to ionizing radiation gamma type ( sup(60)Co), using a dose of 0.7kGy, and then stored in a cold room at 10C with a relative humidity of 85% for a period of 25 days. The pectinesterase activity of the irradiated fruits was found to be similar to that of the non-irradiated fruits during the storage period. The radiation dose maintained the texture and enzyme activity of the irradiated fruits the same as that of the non-irradiated fruits. (author)

  7. Effect of Prior Heat Stress on the Early Growth of Carica papaya

    OpenAIRE

    Okunlola, Gideon Olarewaju; Adelusi, Adekunle Ajayi

    2013-01-01

    The experiment was carried out to determine the effects of heat stress on some growth parameters like shoot height, leaf area, fresh weight, dry weight as well as the accumulation of chlorophylls in Carica papaya. Seedlings of C. papaya were exposed to prior heat stress at 40 °C. A group of plants was placed in a Gallenkamp oven for four hours; another group of plants was placed in the oven for eight hours while the third group of plants was placed in a dark cupboard for the period of eight ...

  8. Effect of Carica papaya bark extract on oxidative stress parameters in testes of male albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Yama, O. E.; Okanlawon, A. O.; Kusemiju, T. O.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Carica papaya bark has contraceptive benefits when given at a high dose in male rats the mechanism at which it achieves this is yet to be fully understood. Forty male Wistar rats were used for the study. They were randomized into 8 groups Ia, IIa, IIIa, Ib, IIb, IIIb, IV and V respectively (n=5). Groups Ia-IIIa and Ib-IIIb were treated for 4 and 8 weeks with Carica papaya bark extract at doses 50 and 100 mg ml-1day-1 comparing to 2-5 ml distilled water baseline control. Group IV rats...

  9. Purification of papain from fresh latex of Carica papaya

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rubens, Monti; Carmelita A., Basilio; Henrique C., Trevisan; Jonas, Contiero.

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese No presente trabalho apresenta-se um método de cristalização da papaína oriunda do látex fresco de mamão, o qual apresenta uma alta produtividade em relação aos métodos previamente descritos. A metodologia aqui descrita não envolve o uso de reagentes sulfidrílicos, a papaína foi obtida de forma prat [...] icamente pura, apresentando uma simples banda quando submetida a eletroforese, e com propriedades idênticas àquelas obtidas por outros métodos. A atividade específica foi determinada utilizando Z-gly-pNP e BAEE como substrato. A papaína obtida por essa metodologia, sem uso de substâncias tais como cisteína e ditiotreitol, apresenta-se na forma de um complexo com inibidores naturais, os quais podem ser removidos por diálise. Abstract in english In the present study we wish to report a method of crystallizing papain from fresh papaya latex which gave higher yields than previously reported. This method does not involve the use of sulphydryl reagents. The papain thus obtained is practically pure and shows a single band when submitted to elect [...] rophoresis on polyacrylamide gel, and is identical to the papain obtained by other methods. In routine enzymatic assays, specific activity was measured using Z-gly-pNP and BAEE as substrates. Papain crystallized by this method, without the use of high concentrations of salts or thiol-containing substances such as cysteine and dithiothreitol, is obtained in the form of a complex with natural inhibitors existent in latex which can be removed by dialysis.

  10. Papaya extract to treat dengue: a novel therapeutic option?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarala, N; Paknikar, Ss

    2014-05-01

    Dengue is a viral disease that today affects a vast number of people in over 125 countries and is responsible for a sizable number of deaths. In the absence of an effective antiviral drug to treat the disease, various treatments are being investigated. Studies have indicated that the juice of the leaves of the Carica papaya plant from the family Caricaceae could help to increase the platelet levels in these patients. This review describes some of the published studies on this topic. The search was done independently by the two authors using PubMed, Google and the library database and included relevant articles of the last 10 years. A total of 7 studies were included in this review, which were one animal study, one case report, three case series and two randomized controlled trials. Although many of the studies and case reports published in literature lack adequate information, some of the studies do raise the possibility that this treatment could be an important option in the future. Further large-scale studies could establish the usefulness or ineffectiveness of this natural product in the treatment of dengue. PMID:24971201

  11. Purification of papain from fresh latex of Carica papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Monti

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we wish to report a method of crystallizing papain from fresh papaya latex which gave higher yields than previously reported. This method does not involve the use of sulphydryl reagents. The papain thus obtained is practically pure and shows a single band when submitted to electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gel, and is identical to the papain obtained by other methods. In routine enzymatic assays, specific activity was measured using Z-gly-pNP and BAEE as substrates. Papain crystallized by this method, without the use of high concentrations of salts or thiol-containing substances such as cysteine and dithiothreitol, is obtained in the form of a complex with natural inhibitors existent in latex which can be removed by dialysis.No presente trabalho apresenta-se um método de cristalização da papaína oriunda do látex fresco de mamão, o qual apresenta uma alta produtividade em relação aos métodos previamente descritos. A metodologia aqui descrita não envolve o uso de reagentes sulfidrílicos, a papaína foi obtida de forma praticamente pura, apresentando uma simples banda quando submetida a eletroforese, e com propriedades idênticas àquelas obtidas por outros métodos. A atividade específica foi determinada utilizando Z-gly-pNP e BAEE como substrato. A papaína obtida por essa metodologia, sem uso de substâncias tais como cisteína e ditiotreitol, apresenta-se na forma de um complexo com inibidores naturais, os quais podem ser removidos por diálise.

  12. Estudo do processo de extração de papaína a partir do látex do fruto de mamão (Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol Study of the extraction process of papain from the latex of the fruit of papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita M Andrade-Mahecha

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi estudado o processo de extração da papaína presente no látex de frutos de mamão (Carica papaya L. cultivar Maradol. As variáveis estudadas na extração da papaína foram proporção de látex:álcool (1:2.1 e 1:3 e tipo de secagem (à vácuo e por refractance window. As respostas obtidas foram atividade enzimática da enzima e rendimento do processo de extração. O melhor resultado em termos de atividade enzimática e rendimento foi obtido nas condições de secagem à vácuo e proporção látex:álcool de 1:3. A enzima obtida foi caracterizada por testes físico-químicos, microbiológicos e de atividade enzimática e comparada com uma amostra comercial usada como padrão.In this work, we studied the Papain extraction process, from the latex of papaya fruit (Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol. The variables studied in the extraction of papain were: the proportion of latex:alcohol (1:2.1 and 1:3 and type of drying( vacuum and refractance window and the responses obtained in terms of enzymatic activity of the enzyme papain and yield of the extraction process. The best result in terms of enzyme activity and yield was the procedure used to vacuum drying and the proportion latex:alcohol 1:3. The enzyme obtained was characterized by physico-chemical, microbiological and enzymatic activity when compared with a commercial sample used as standard.

  13. / Study of the extraction process of papain from the latex of the fruit of papaya (Carica papaya L.) cv. Maradol / Estudo do processo de extração de papaína a partir do látex do fruto de mamão (Carica papaya L.) cv. Maradol

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Margarita M, Andrade-Mahecha; Olga, Morales-Rodríguez; Hugo A, Martínez-Correa.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho foi estudado o processo de extração da papaína presente no látex de frutos de mamão (Carica papaya L.) cultivar Maradol. As variáveis estudadas na extração da papaína foram proporção de látex:álcool (1:2.1 e 1:3) e tipo de secagem (à vácuo e por refractance window). As respostas obtid [...] as foram atividade enzimática da enzima e rendimento do processo de extração. O melhor resultado em termos de atividade enzimática e rendimento foi obtido nas condições de secagem à vácuo e proporção látex:álcool de 1:3. A enzima obtida foi caracterizada por testes físico-químicos, microbiológicos e de atividade enzimática e comparada com uma amostra comercial usada como padrão. Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english In this work, we studied the Papain extraction process, from the latex of papaya fruit (Carica papaya L.) cv. Maradol. The variables studied in the extraction of papain were: the proportion of latex:alcohol (1:2.1 and 1:3) and type of drying( vacuum and refractance window) and the responses obtained [...] in terms of enzymatic activity of the enzyme papain and yield of the extraction process. The best result in terms of enzyme activity and yield was the procedure used to vacuum drying and the proportion latex:alcohol 1:3. The enzyme obtained was characterized by physico-chemical, microbiological and enzymatic activity when compared with a commercial sample used as standard.

  14. Label-free quantitative proteomics reveals differentially regulated proteins in the latex of sticky diseased Carica papaya L. plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Silas P; Ventura, José A; Aguilar, Clemente; Nakayasu, Ernesto S; Choi, HyungWon; Sobreira, Tiago J P; Nohara, Lilian L; Wermelinger, Luciana S; Almeida, Igor C; Zingali, Russolina B; Fernandes, Patricia M B

    2012-06-18

    Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) is so far the only described laticifer-infecting virus, the causal agent of papaya (Carica papaya L.) sticky disease. The effects of PMeV on the laticifers' regulatory network were addressed here through the proteomic analysis of papaya latex. Using both 1-DE- and 1D-LC-ESI-MS/MS, 160 unique papaya latex proteins were identified, representing 122 new proteins in the latex of this plant. Quantitative analysis by normalized spectral counting revealed 10 down-regulated proteins in the latex of diseased plants, 9 cysteine proteases (chymopapain) and 1 latex serine proteinase inhibitor. A repression of papaya latex proteolytic activity during PMeV infection was hypothesized. This was further confirmed by enzymatic assays that showed a reduction of cysteine-protease-associated proteolytic activity in the diseased papaya latex. These findings are discussed in the context of plant responses against pathogens and may greatly contribute to understand the roles of laticifers in plant stress responses. PMID:22465191

  15. Purification and characterization of a papaya (Carica papaya L.) pectin methylesterase isolated from a commercial papain preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasu, Prasanna; Savary, Brett J; Cameron, Randall G

    2012-07-15

    We purified a Carica papaya pectin methylesterase (CpL-PME; EC 3.1.1.11) from a commercial papain preparation. This CpL-PME was separated from the abundant cysteine endopeptidases activities using sequential hydrophobic interaction and cation-exchange chromatographies and then purified by affinity chromatography using Sepharose-immobilized kiwi PME inhibitor protein to obtain a single electrophoretically homogeneous protein. The enzyme was purified 92-fold with 38% yield, providing a specific activity of 1200 U/mg. The molecular weight was determined to be 35,135 by MALDI-TOF-MS in linear mode. MALDI-TOF-MS peptide mass fingerprinting following trypsin digestion indicated CpL-PME represents a novel Carica PME isoform. The CpL-PME required salt for activity, and it showed a broad activity range (pH 6-9) and moderate thermostability (optimum ca. 70°C). A calcium-insensitive methylated lime pectin treated with CpL-PME to reduce degree of methylesterification by 6% converted the substrate to high calcium sensitivity, indicating a processive mode of action. These properties support further research to apply CpL-PME to tailor pectin nanostructure. PMID:25683408

  16. INVENTARIO DE GASES CON EFECTO INVERNADERO EMITIDOS POR LA ACTIVIDAD AGROPECUARIA CHILENA Inventory of greenhouse gas emissions by Chilean agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Novoa S. A.; Sergio González M.; Rosemary Novoa J.; Rosa Rojas

    2000-01-01

    Se realizó una estimación de los gases con efecto invernadero emitidos por la agricultura chilena. Los resultados indican que el año 1994, la agricultura chilena emitió 321,92 Gg de metano, 21,80 Gg de N2O; 2,96 Gg de NOx y 51,97 Gg de CO. Además, se estimó que las emisiones de COVNM llegan a 2,59 Gg año-1. Estas cifras expresadas como porcentaje de las emisiones del sector no energía chileno llegan a un 74,3 % para el metano, un 5,1 % para el CO; un 93,8 % para el N2O; un 9,8 % para ...

  17. Avaliação do efeito de fosfitos na redução da varíola (Asperisporium caricae) do mamoeiro (Carica papaya) / Evaluation of phosphite applications for severity of papaya black spot (Asperisporium caricae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alexei de Campos, Dianese; Luiz Eduardo Bassay, Blum; Jaqueline Barbosa, Dutra; Leonardo Ferreira, Lopes; Mariana Coelho, Sena; Leandro Ferreira de, Freitas.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O controle da varíola do mamoeiro é necessário; portanto, propôs-se, neste estudo, avaliar o efeito de aplicações foliares de fosfitos (K, Ca, Mg e Cu) sobre a doença. Dois fosfitos e o fungicida Fosetyl-Al foram testados em condições de campo, com plantas naturalmente infectadas pelo patógeno. Dez [...] fosfitos e o fungicida Fosetyl-Al foram testados sob telado também com plantas naturalmente infectadas por A. caricae. Tanto no experimento de campo quanto sob telado, os tratamentos contendo fosfito reduziram a severidade da doença. Abstract in english The control of black spot of papaya is necessary, therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of foliar applications of phosphites (K, Ca, Mg and Cu) on papaya black spot. Two phosphites and the fungicide Fosetyl-Al were tested on a field trial with papaya plants naturally infe [...] cted by the pathogen. Ten phosphites and the fungicide Fosetyl-Al were tested in a greenhouse trial, also with plants naturally infected by A. caricae. In both, field and greenhouse trials, the phosphite treatments reduced black spot severity.

  18. Avaliação do efeito de fosfitos na redução da varíola (Asperisporium caricae do mamoeiro (Carica papaya Evaluation of phosphite applications for severity of papaya black spot (Asperisporium caricae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei de Campos Dianese

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O controle da varíola do mamoeiro é necessário; portanto, propôs-se, neste estudo, avaliar o efeito de aplicações foliares de fosfitos (K, Ca, Mg e Cu sobre a doença. Dois fosfitos e o fungicida Fosetyl-Al foram testados em condições de campo, com plantas naturalmente infectadas pelo patógeno. Dez fosfitos e o fungicida Fosetyl-Al foram testados sob telado também com plantas naturalmente infectadas por A. caricae. Tanto no experimento de campo quanto sob telado, os tratamentos contendo fosfito reduziram a severidade da doença.The control of black spot of papaya is necessary, therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of foliar applications of phosphites (K, Ca, Mg and Cu on papaya black spot. Two phosphites and the fungicide Fosetyl-Al were tested on a field trial with papaya plants naturally infected by the pathogen. Ten phosphites and the fungicide Fosetyl-Al were tested in a greenhouse trial, also with plants naturally infected by A. caricae. In both, field and greenhouse trials, the phosphite treatments reduced black spot severity.

  19. Changes in protein profile during coagulation of latex from Carica papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva L.G.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the changes in peptide composition by SDS-PAGE analysis of latex from Carica papaya collected at various times after incision of the unripe fruit. The data show that during latex coagulation several peptides are processed in an orderly fashion.

  20. Thrombocyte counts in mice after the administration of papaya leaf suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathasivam, Kathiresan; Ramanathan, Surash; Mansor, Sharif M; Haris, Mas Rosemal M H; Wernsdorfer, Walther H

    2009-10-01

    Following up a popular use of crude leaf preparations from Carica papaya for the treatment of dengue infections, a suspension of powdered Carica papaya leaves in palm oil has been investigated for its effect on thrombocyte counts in mice, administering by gavage 15 mg of powdered leaves per kg body weight to 5 mice. Equal numbers of animals received corresponding volumes of either palm oil alone or physiological saline solution. Thrombocyte counts before and at 1, 2, 4, 8, 10, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours after dosing revealed significantly higher mean counts at 1, 2, 4, 8, 10 and 12 after dosing with the C. papaya leaf formulation as compared to the mean count at hour 0. There was only a non-significant rise of thrombocyte counts in the group having received saline solution, possibly the expression of a normal circadian rhythm in mice. The group having received palm oil only showed a protracted increase of platelet counts that was significant at hours 8 and 48 and obviously the result of a hitherto unknown stimulation of thrombocyte release. The results call for a dose-response investigation and for extending the studies to the isolation and identification of the C. papaya substances responsible for the release and/or production of thrombocytes. PMID:19915811

  1. Changes in protein profile during coagulation of latex from Carica papaya

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, L. G.; Garcia, O.; Lopes, M. T. P.; Salas, C. E.

    1997-01-01

    We describe the changes in peptide composition by SDS-PAGE analysis of latex from Carica papaya collected at various times after incision of the unripe fruit. The data show that during latex coagulation several peptides are processed in an orderly fashion.

  2. Chromosomal location and gene paucity of the male specific region on papaya Y chromosome.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yu, Q.; Hou, S.; Hobza, Roman; Feltus, F.A.; Wang, X.; Jin, W.; Skelton, R.L.; Blas, A.; Lemke, C.; Saw, J.H.; Moore, P.H.; Alam, M.; Jiang, J.; Paterson, A.H.; Vyskot, Boris; Ming, R.

    2007-01-01

    Ro?. 278, ?. 2 (2007), s. 177-185. ISSN 1617-4615 R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GA521/06/0056 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : Carica papaya * repetitive sequences * sex chromosome Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.978, year: 2007

  3. Polyethylene glycol effects on somatic embryogenesis of papaya hybrid UENF/CALIMAN 01 seeds

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Angelo Schuabb, Heringer; Ellen Moura, Vale; Tatiana, Barroso; Claudete, Santa-Catarina; Vanildo, Silveira.

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Among commercial fruits, papaya (Carica papaya L.) is notably one of the most common ones around the world. The aim of the current study was to establish a somatic embryogenesis protocol for the hybrid UENF/CALIMAN 01, elucidating the effects of sucrose and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) on [...] the induction of embryogenic cultures and the effect of polyethylene glycol (PEG) on somatic embryo maturation. Immature zygotic embryos of C. papaya hybrid UENF/CALIMAN 01 were cultured in MS culture medium supplemented with different concentrations of sucrose (30 and 60 g L-1) and 2,4-D (0, 20, 40 and 80 ?M). The combination of 30 g L-1 sucrose and 20 ?M 2,4-D resulted in the highest induction rates and the largest callus diameters. Furthermore, this combination was associated with the greatest potential to form somatic embryos. To promote maturation, cultures were inoculated in MS medium and exposed to different concentrations of PEG (0, 30 and 60 g L-1). The 60 g L-1 PEG treatment group had the highest average for the number, maturation and conversion of somatic embryos that resulted in plantlets at the end of the process. The addition of PEG to MS medium led to increased protein synthesis. These results are unprecedented for C. papaya hybrid UENF/CALIMAN 01 as the current study demonstrates the development of somatic embryogenesis in this high quality hybrid.

  4. Application of Transgenic Technologies to Papaya: Developments and Biosafety Assessments in Thailand.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kertbundit, Sunee; Ju?í?ek, Miloslav

    2010-01-01

    Ro?. 4, ?. 1 (2010), s. 52-57. ISSN 1749-0413 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : coat protein-mediated resistance * GMO * Papaya ringspot virus Subject RIV: EF - Botanics http://home.ueb.cas.cz/publikace/2010_Kertbundit_TransgenicPlantJournal_52.pdf

  5. Induction of Resistance to Papaya Black Spot Elicited by Acibenzolar-S-Methyl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A.R. Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of acibenzolar-S-methyl tested at 5 concentrations (0, 1, 5, 25 and 100 ?M a.i. for its ability to protect papaya (Carica papaya cv. Rainbow from black spot (Asperisporium caricae following inoculation with the fungus. Effects of resistance induction treatment against black spot disease were evaluated by measuring the plant height and stem diameter. Disease symptoms were scored weekly by visually estimating disease severity of plants on the basis of a 5-class visual scale of 0 (no symptoms to 4 (extensive lesions on leaves. Accumulation of defence-related proteins in papaya leaves were also analysed and compared. Results revealed that the level of protection against A. caricae was dose-dependent. Maximum reduction of the disease in leaves was obtained with 25-100 ?M acibenzolar-S-methyl, with a time interval of 3 days between application of the activator and inoculation with the pathogen. The systemic resistance elicitation was characterized by an increase in 2 pathogenesis-related proteins, chitinase and ?-1, 3-glucanase. These results indicate that acibenzolar-S-methyl induces partial resistance in papaya against black spot disease which may provide the grower a new option for integrated management of the disease.

  6. Changes in protein profile during coagulation of latex from Carica papaya

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L.G., Silva; O., Garcia; M.T.P., Lopes; C.E., Salas.

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english We describe the changes in peptide composition by SDS-PAGE analysis of latex from Carica papaya collected at various times after incision of the unripe fruit. The data show that during latex coagulation several peptides are processed in an orderly fashion. [...

  7. Antiplasmodial Properties and Bioassay-Guided Fractionation of Ethyl Acetate Extracts from Carica papaya Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melariri, Paula; Campbell, William; Etusim, Paschal; Smith, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the antiplasmodial properties of crude extracts from Carica papaya leaves to trace the activity through bioassay-guided fractionation. The greatest antiplasmodial activity was observed in the ethyl acetate crude extract. C. papaya showed a high selectivity for P. falciparum against CHO cells with a selectivity index of 249.25 and 185.37 in the chloroquine-sensitive D10 and chloroquine-resistant DD2 strains, respectively. Carica papaya ethyl acetate extract was subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation to ascertain the most active fraction, which was purified and identified using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and GC-MS (Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry) methods. Linoleic and linolenic acids identified from the ethyl acetate fraction showed IC(50) of 6.88??g/ml and 3.58??g/ml, respectively. The study demonstrated greater antiplasmodial activity of the crude ethyl acetate extract of Carica papaya leaves with an IC(50) of 2.96 ± 0.14??g/ml when compared to the activity of the fractions and isolated compounds. PMID:22174990

  8. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL EVALUATION OF CARICA PAPAYA LINN. UNRIPE FRUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjum Varisha

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Present study was performed for the development of quality standards of Carica papaya Linn. commonly known as Papita belonging to family Caricaceae is well known for its exceptional nutritional and medicinal properties. The study comprises of physico-chemical and phytochemical evaluation to confirm purity and authenticity of Carica papaya L. unripe fruit using WHO guidelines. Microscopy of the fruit showed presence thick cuticle, parenchyma, epicarp, mesocarp endocarp, calcium oxalate crystals, laticifers, etc. Successive extractive value and hot extractive value was found highest in alcoholic extract 48.34 % and 44.90 % respectively (on dry weight basis. Mean ash values (% are 8.63 (total, 0.79 (acid insoluble ash, and 5.30 (water soluble ash and moisture content was found to be 9.41 % and the phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of carbohydrates, terpenoids, flavonoids, phenolic compounds in different extracts of Carica papaya L. fruit. TLC fingerprinting profile of different extracts were also developed and quantification of ?-carotene was also done by using nhexane:acetone (8.5:1.5 as a mobile phase at 415 nm and found to be higher in pet ether Carica papaya L. fruit extract 1.55 % w/w.

  9. IMPROVED CARICA PAPAYA TOLERANCE TO THE CARMINE SPIDER MITE BY EXPRESSION OF MANDUCA SEXTA CHITINASE TRANSGENE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaya plants producing the tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta) chitinase protein were obtained following microprojectile bombardment of embryogenic calli derived from the hypocotyls of the cultivar Kapoho. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot hybridization of reverse-transcriptase (RT)-PC...

  10. Anthelmintic activity of papaya seeds on Hymenolepis diminuta infections in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapaat, A; Satrija, F; Mahsol, H H; Ahmad, A H

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to see the anthelmintic activity potential of papaya seeds against Hymenolepis diminuta in rats. The objectives of this study were: (1) to determine the effectiveness of papaya seeds on helminths especially H. diminuta in rats and (2) to determine the effective dose level on helminths in rats. Thirty six male rats from strain Sprague-Dawley were chosen as samples in this experiment. Two types of dose level were used for papaya seeds treatments such as 0.6 g kg-1 and 1.2 g kg-1. The geometric mean (GEM) was used to calculate mean for eggs per gram (EPG) before and after the treatment to be included in the reduction percentage calculation. After 21 days post treatment, necropsies were done to get the worm count and the GEM was used to calculate the efficacy percentage for the treatment. Results from this study showed that the reduction percentages in EPG for papaya seeds treatment for both doses level were very high which is 96.8% for 0.6g kg-1 dose level and 96.2% for 1.2 g kg-1 dose level. Whereas the efficacy percentage based on the worm counts for both doses level were also very high that was 90.77% for 0.6 g kg-1 dose level and 93.85% for 1.2 g kg-1. PMID:23202594

  11. Biodiesel Production by Enzymatic Transesterification of Papaya Seed Oil and Rambutan Seed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Wong

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel production from vegetable oil has gained attention as an alternative fuel to minimize the usage of fossil fuels and reduce greenhouse gases pollution. In Malaysia, oils from local fruit seeds of papaya and rambutan are potential feedstock for biodiesel production due to their high lipid contents and easily available. In the present study, papaya and rambutan seed oils were extracted via soxhlet apparatus using n-hexane and the oil yields were in between 34–40%. The extracted oils were subjected to enzymatic transesterification by the immobilized Candida rugosa lipase as a catalyst under room temperature with varies molar ratios of methanol to oil. The highest biodiesel yield for papaya seed oil and rambutan seed oil was found to be 96% and 89% at methanol-to-oil ratios of 6:1 and 8:1, respectively. Results also showed a higher biodiesel yield using lipase immobilized on the magnetic particles as the heterogeneous catalyst compared to the yield obtained using free enzyme as the homogeneous catalyst. The properties of biodiesel such as density, acid value, iodine value and cetane number were analyzed and found to meet the European Standard of Biodiesel. The study shows that papaya and rambutan seed oils have the potential to be used as alternative feedstock for biodiesel production than the full dependence on palm oil in Malaysia.

  12. Molecular and Clinical Effects of Green Tea and Fermented Papaya Preparation on Diabetes and Cardiovascular Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-14

    Assess the Effect of Green Tea on Diabetes; Assess the Effect of Fermented Papaya Pretration on Diabetes; Effects of Green Tea and FPP on C-reactive Proteins; Effects of Green Tea and FPP of Lipid Profiles in Diabetes; Effect of Green Tea and FPP on Atheroma Formation

  13. Extraction of light filth from whole leaves of alfalfa, lemon balm, papaya, and spearmint: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, M J; Glaze, L E

    1987-01-01

    Results are reported for a collaborative study to extend AOAC method 44.A06-44.A08 to extraction of light filth from whole leaves of alfalfa, lemon balm, papaya, and spearmint. A 5 g (spearmint) or 10 g (alfalfa, lemon balm, papaya) test portion is defatted with isopropanol in a simple reflux apparatus. Rat hairs, insect fragments, and whole insects are isolated by wet sieving on a No. 230 sieve, a deaerating boil in 40% isopropanol, and flotation with mineral oil-heptane (85 + 15) from Tween 80-Na4EDTA (1 + 1) and 40% isopropanol in a Wildman trap flask. Each product was spiked at a different level. For rat hairs, recoveries averaged 82.2% from alfalfa, 88.9% from lemon balm, 80.6% from papaya, and 79.6% from spearmint. Recoveries of whole or equivalent insects from these products averaged 66.1, 218.8, 69.4, and 85.4%, respectively; recoveries of insect fragments from these products averaged 89.6, 94.4, 94.1, and 88.1%, respectively. The method has been adopted official first action for extraction of light filth from whole leaves of alfalfa, papaya, and spearmint. The extension of the method to lemon balm was not recommended because of interferences by intrinsic whole insects, which were the same species as the spike material. PMID:3436916

  14. Efecto de la cocción y del grado de maduración de frutas de mamón (Carica papaya L.) sobre la calidad del mamón en almíbar / Effect of cooking and fruit ripening of papaya (Carica papaya L.) on quality of papaya in syrup

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nancy N, Lovera; Laura, Ramallo; Viviana O, Salvadori.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo estudiar el efecto del grado de maduración de la fruta y la cocción sobre la retención de calcio y la firmeza del mamón en almíbar. Para los ensayos se emplearon frutas en dos grados de maduración distintos. La elaboración de frutas en almíbar se realizó con u [...] n tratamiento previo. El pre-tratamiento consistió en impregnar la fruta en soluciones isotónicas de lactato de calcio y la cocción se realizó en solución de sacarosa. Además se realizaron ensayos de elaboración del producto por cocción de frutas verdes frescas, sin pre-tratamiento, en almíbar con adición de 1,5% de lactato de calcio y en almíbar sin adición de calcio. Se midió el contenido de calcio y la firmeza en la fruta fresca, pre-tratada y pos-cocción. Los resultados experimentales indicaron que durante el pre-tratamiento las frutas verde y madura ganan 84,1 y 103,2 mg Ca/100g fruta fresca, respectivamente. Durante la cocción se retiene un 52,8% y 65,6% del calcio ganado, en fruta verde y madura respectivamente. El proceso de cocción de fruta verde en almíbar con lactato de calcio generó un producto con una ganancia de calcio de 78,6 mg Ca/100 g de fruta fresca y la cocción en almíbar (sin calcio) mantuvo los valores del contenido de calcio de la fruta fresca. El pre-tratamiento con calcio incrementa la firmeza de la fruta; la posterior cocción en almíbar favorece la firmeza en el caso de la fruta madura pero disminuye marcadamente la firmeza de la fruta verde. Abstract in english In this study the effect of fruit ripeness on the calcium retention and the firmness of papaya in syrup were investigated. The fruits in syrup were developed from pretreated papaya samples. The pretreatment consisted in an impregnation stage using isotonic solutions of calcium lactate, and the subse [...] quent cooking of the samples in sucrose syrup. In addition, green fruit without pretreatment was processed as a control. It was cooked in syrup with addition of 1.5% of calcium lactate and without calcium. Calcium content, color and firmness were measured in fresh fruit, pre-treated and processed samples.. Experimental results showed that during the pretreatment, green and ripe fruits increased their calcium content in 84.1 and 103.2 mg Ca/100g fresh fruit, respectively. During cooking, green and ripe fruits retained 52.8% and 65.6%, respectively, of the calcium content previously gained. Processed green fruits with calcium in syrup gained 78.6 mg Ca/100g fresh fruit, while those processed without mineral addition maintained the initial values of calcium content. The pretreatment with calcium increased the firmness of the fresh fruit, for both green and mature samples. After cooking, the ripe fruit firmness increased, as opposed to that of the green fruit, which decreased notoriously.

  15. Transmission efficiency of Papaya ringspot virus by three aphid species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalleshwaraswamy, C M; Kumar, N K Krishna

    2008-05-01

    The transmission efficiency of Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) by three aphid vectors (i.e., Aphis gossypii, A. craccivora, and Myzus persicae) was studied. Efficiency was measured by single-aphid inoculation, group inoculation (using five aphids), duration of virus retention, and the number of plants following a single acquisition access period (AAP) to which the aphids could successfully transmit the virus. Single-aphid inoculation studies indicated that M. persicae (56%) and A. gossypii (53%) were significantly more efficient in transmitting PRSV than A. craccivora (38%). Further, in the former two species, the time required for initiation of the first probe on the inoculation test plant was significantly shorter compared to A. craccivora. PRSV transmission efficiency was 100% in all three species when a group of five aphids were used per plant. There was a perceptible decline in transmission efficiency as the sequestration period increased, although M. persicae successfully transmitted PRSV after 30 min of sequestration. A simple leaf-disk assay technique was employed for evaluating the transmission efficiency of three species of aphids. The results of leaf-disk assays also indicated that A. gossypii (48%) and M. persicae (56%) were more efficient PRSV vectors than A. craccivora. Using leaf-disk assays, the ability of individual aphids to inoculate PRSV serially to a number of plants was studied. Following a single AAP on an infected leaf, M. persicae was more efficient than the other two species with 52.5% transmission after the first inoculation access period (IAP). However, its inoculation efficiency significantly decreased with the second and subsequent IAPs. A. gossypii was able to transmit PRSV sequentially up to four successive leaf disks, but with significantly declining efficiency. Since A. gossypii is reported to be the numerically dominant vector in south India in addition to being a more efficient vector capable of inoculating PRSV to multiple plants, it should be the target vector for control strategies. PMID:18943221

  16. Interculturalidad y ciencias de la educación en lengua de señas chilena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina-Alejandra-de-Lourdes Becerra-Sepúlveda

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Los paradigmas de intervención orales para la cultura sorda afectan la percepción sobre la lengua de señas Chilena . Esto provoca debates emanados de una subvaloración, dadas sus particularidades visuales: iconicidad e isomorfismo, subvaloración nacida de una incomprensión en la lectura de investigaciones internacionales (por escasez de estudios nacionales, especialmente acerca del lenguaje corporeizado. Esto se contradice con nuevas investigaciones en psicolingüística cognitiva acer-ca de embodied cognition . El abordaje de la LSCh a partir de nuevas teorías atraviesa la interculturalidad y educación a fin de proponerse la metáfora de “la cultura en el cuerpo” como modalidad de estudio contemporáneo.

  17. La iglesia chilena a fines del siglo XIX: un paradigma pastoral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camus Ibacache, Misael

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Study of the training and consolidation of the eclesiastic structure Chilean during the XlXth century and the two first decades of the XXth century through the documents of the visits ad liminina, the pastoral visits and the resolutions of the Episcopal Meetings.

    Estudio de la formación y consolidación de la estructura eclesiástica chilena durante el siglo XIX y las dos primeras décadas del XX a través de los documentos de las visitas ad liminina, las visitas pastorales y las Actas de las Sesiones Episcopales.

  18. Efficacy of Essential Oils on the Conidial Germination, Growth of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Penz. and Sacc and Control of Postharvest Diseases in Papaya (Carica papaya L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Leticia Barrera-Necha; Silvia Bautista-Banos; Hilda Elizabeth Flores-Moctezuma; Abel Rojas Estudillo

    2008-01-01

    The efficacy of nine essential oils were investigated in vitro on conidial germination and mycelial growth inhibition of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides isolate from papaya (Carica papaya L.). In general, better antifungal effect was observed with Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Syzygium aromaticum oils which had strong inhibition of conidial germination of C. gloeosporioides at 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 ?g mL-1 and a dose dependent inhibition mycelial growth was caused by these oils. Teloxy...

  19. Características de calidad de frutos de papaya maradol en la madurez de consumo / Quality characteristics in maradol papaya fruits at the comsumption ripeness stage

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Felipe, Santamaría Basulto; Raúl, Díaz Plaza; Enrique, Sauri Duch; Francisco, Espadas y Gil; Jorge Manuel, Santamaría Fernández; Alfonso, Larqué Saavedra.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El color de la cáscara es la característica más utilizada para evaluar la maduración de los frutos de papaya; las recomendaciones para la cosecha, comercialización y consumo se basan en la aparición de porcentajes de color verde, amarillo y naranja. Esas escalas subjetivas son ambiguas y crean dific [...] ultades en la interpretación del observador. Por lo anterior, el objetivo fue evaluar los principales cambios de apariencia, firmeza y sólidos solubles totales de papaya 'maradol' durante su maduración poscosecha para proponer índices objetivos que describan el estado de madurez de consumo. En noviembre de 2005 se definieron seis estados de maduración en frutos obtenidos en Yucatán y se evaluó el color del fruto, contenido de clorofilas y carotenoides, firmeza de la pulpa, azúcares y contenido de sólidos solubles totales. En marzo de 2006 se obtuvieron las características de los frutos en la madurez de consumo en dos localidades y se compararon con los resultados anteriores. La madurez de consumo de papaya maradol se alcanza entre los 13 y 15 días después de la cosecha en condiciones de almacenamiento de 23 ± 1°C y 75% de humedad relativa. El ángulo del tono de la cáscara entre 70 y 80°, el contenido de sólidos solubles totales entre 10 y 11.5 °Brix, y la firmeza de la pulpa de 4.7 a 6.9 newtons permitieron diferenciar dos estados de madurez de consumo. Abstract in english Skin fruit color is the main characteristic to evaluate papaya fruit ripening; recommendations for harvest, commercialization and consumption, are based in green, yellow and orange color percentages. These subjective scales are difficult for interpretation. The purpose of the present work was to eva [...] luate the main changes in appearance, firmness and total soluble solids occurring during postharvest ripening of maradol papaya fruits in order to define fruit characteristics that can be suggested as quality standards for consumption maturity. In November 2005, six maturity stages were identified and parameters such as fruit color, skin chlorophyll and carotenoids content, pulp firmness, sugars and total soluble solids were measured along them. In March 2006, fruit characteristics in consumption maturity of fruits harvested from two locations were obtained and compared with previous results. It was found that the consumption maturity stage is reached between 13 and 15 days after harvest when fruits were stored at 23±1°C and 75% of relative humidity. Skin°HUE values between 70 and 80, total soluble solids content between 10 and 11.5 °Brix and pulp firmness between 4.7 to 6.9 newtons allowed the differentiation of two consumption maturity stages.

  20. Effects of nitric oxide treatment on the cell wall softening related enzymes and several hormones of papaya fruit during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qin; Wu, Bin; Chen, Weixin; Zhang, Yuli; Wang, Jide; Li, Xueping

    2014-06-01

    Papaya fruits (Carica papaya L. cv 'Sui you 2') harvested with papaya fruits treated with nitric oxide had a significantly lower rate of ethylene production and a lesser loss of firmness during storage. A decrease in polygalacturonase, pectin methyl esterase, pectate lyase and cellulase activities was observed in nitric oxide treated fruit. In addition, the contents of indole acetic acid, abscisic acid and zeatin riboside were reduced in nitric oxide treated fruit, but no significant reduction in the level of gibberellin was found. These results indicate that nitric oxide treatment can effectively delay the softening and ripening of papaya fruit, likely via the regulation of cell wall softening related enzymes and certain hormones. PMID:23744122

  1. Efecto del cloruro de sodio sobre el crecimiento y estado nutricional de plantas de papaya / Effect of sodium chloride on growth and mineral content of papaya plant

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jorge, Parés; Carmen, Basso.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La limitada disponibilidad de agua de calidad para la agricultura de las zonas áridas y semiáridas ha propiciado el uso de agua de moderada a alta salinidad. La papaya (Carica papaya L.), aunque se reporta con diferentes sensibilidades al estrés salino, es una especie de gran potencial frutícola par [...] a ser cultivada económicamente en las regiones semiáridas del estado Lara, Venezuela. El objetivo de este ensayo fue evaluar el efecto de la salinidad ocasionada por el NaCl sobre el crecimiento vegetativo y el estado nutricional de la papaya ‘Maradol’ desarrollada bajo una estructura de techo transparente. Como fuente salina se utilizó cloruro de sodio grado analítico, el cual se adicionó a través del agua de riego en cuatro tratamientos (0,001; 2,0; 4,0 y 8,0 dS·m-1) bajo un diseño completamente aleatorizado con cuatro repeticiones, hasta finalizar la fase juvenil del desarrollo. Se evaluó la longitud del tallo, biomasa seca aérea y radical, área foliar, área de sección del tallo, contenido relativo de clorofila (SPAD) y el contenido de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn, Cu, Fe y Na a nivel foliar. Los tratamientos afectaron el crecimiento vegetativo de las plantas durante toda la fase juvenil del desarrollo. Se observó, además, reducción del contenido de clorofila con el estrés por NaCl. Los tenores N y Na incrementaron, mientras que, los de K, Zn, Cu y Fe disminuyeron. Los niveles de P, Ca, Mg y Mn, no se afectaron. En base a los resultados obtenidos la papaya ‘Maradol’ puede ser considerada como un cultivar de moderada tolerancia al NaCl. Abstract in english Due to limited availability of low-salinity water in arid and semi-arid regions, water use of moderate to high salinity in agriculture of those regions is unavoidable. Papaya, although exhibits different sensitivities to salinity, has great potential to be cultivated in semi-arid regions of Lara Sta [...] te, Venezuela. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of irrigation with water containing different levels of NaCl on growth and nutrient content of papaya ‘Maradol’. The experiment was carried out under a structure with transparent ceiling until the end of the plant juvenile phase. NaCl treatments were applied to irrigation water to obtain 0.001, 2.0, 4.0 and 8.0 dS·m-1 electrical conductivity under a completely randomized design with four replications. Shoot length, shoot and root dry mater, leaf area, stem-cross-sectional area, relative chlorophyll content (SPAD), and leaf N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn, Cu, Fe and Na concentration were evaluated The presence of NaCl in the irrigation water caused inhibition of growth in young plants. Significant reduction in contents of chlorophyll was also detected. Tissue concentration of N and Na increased with increasing levels of NaCl, while K, Zn, Cu and Fe decreased. Ca, Mg, P and Mn, were not affected. On the basis of data obtained, papaya ‘Maradol’ can be considered as a moderately NaCl tolerant cultivar.

  2. Analysis of Carica papaya Telomeres and Telomere-Associated Proteins: Insights into the Evolution of Telomere Maintenance in Brassicales

    OpenAIRE

    Shakirov, E. V.; Salzberg, S. L.; Alam, M.; Shippen, D. E.

    2008-01-01

    Telomeres are terminal regions of linear eukaryotic chromosomes that are critical for genome stability and continued cell proliferation. The draft assembly of the papaya genome provides an opportunity to analyze and compare the evolution of telomeric DNA sequence composition and telomere maintenance machinery in this and other organisms of the Brassicales Order, which includes Arabidopsis. Here we investigate telomere size and sequence variation at papaya chromosome ends. As with most other p...

  3. Efecto de la biofertilización y los biorreguladores en la germinación y el crecimiento de Carica papaya L.

    OpenAIRE

    Maricela Constantino; Regino Gómez-Álvarez; David Álvarez-Solís; Juan Manuel Pat-Fernández; Elda Guadalupe Espín

    2011-01-01

    Título en inglés: Effect of biofertilization and bioregulators on germination and growth of Carica papaya L. Resumen Con el objetivo de incrementar y acelerar el proceso de germinación de las semillas y obtener una alta producción y homogeneidad de plántulas de Carica papaya variedad Maradol en vivero, se evaluó el efecto de tres biofertilizantes aplicados solos o en combinación (Azotobacter chroococcum, Azospirillum brasilense y Glomus intraradices), y un biorregulador del cre...

  4. n vitro study of antiamoebic effect of methanol extract of mature seeds of Carica papaya on trophozoites of Entamoeba histolytica

    OpenAIRE

    Sujit Kumar Sarker, Nilufar Begum

    2010-01-01

    Antiamoebic activity of methanol extract of mature seeds of Carica papaya was tested in vitro on axenic culture of Entamoeba histolytica using metronidazole as a reference amoebicidal agent. The MIC of seed extract was > 62.5 µg/mL as compared to < 0.8 µg/mL for metronidazole. The present study suggests that the mature seeds of C. papaya have antiamoebic effect but less pronounced than metronidazole.

  5. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction (UAE) and Solvent Extraction of Papaya Seed Oil: Yield, Fatty Acid Composition and Triacylglycerol Profile

    OpenAIRE

    Hasanah Mohd Ghazali; Chin Ping Tan; Hamed Mirhosseini; Shadi Samaram

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of the current work was to evaluate the suitability of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) for the recovery of oil from papaya seed as compared to conventional extraction techniques (i.e., Soxhlet extraction (SXE) and solvent extraction (SE)). In the present study, the recovery yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil obtained from different extraction methods and conditions were compared. Results indicated that both solvent extraction (...

  6. n vitro study of antiamoebic effect of methanol extract of mature seeds of Carica papaya on trophozoites of Entamoeba histolytica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujit Kumar Sarker, Nilufar Begum, Dinesh Mondal, Md. Abdullah Siddique, Mohammad A. Rashid

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Antiamoebic activity of methanol extract of mature seeds of Carica papaya was tested in vitro on axenic culture of Entamoeba histolytica using metronidazole as a reference amoebicidal agent. The MIC of seed extract was > 62.5 µg/mL as compared to < 0.8 µg/mL for metronidazole. The present study suggests that the mature seeds of C. papaya have antiamoebic effect but less pronounced than metronidazole.

  7. Morphological study of bone marrow to assess the effects of lead acetate on haemopoiesis and aplasia and the ameliorating role of Carica papaya extract

    OpenAIRE

    Tham, Ching S.; Chakravarthi, Srikumar; Haleagrahara, Nagaraja; Alwis, Ranjit

    2012-01-01

    Lead causes damage to the body by inducing oxidative stress. The sites of damage include the bone marrow, where marrow hypoplasia and osteosclerosis may be observed. Leaves of Carica papaya, which have antioxidant and haemopoietic properties, were tested against the effect of lead acetate in experimental rats. The rats were divided into 8 groups; control, lead acetate only, Carica papaya (50 mg and 200 mg), post-treatment with Carica papaya (50 mg and 200 mg) following lead acetate administra...

  8. Evaluation of the mycelial network formed by arbuscular mycorrhizal hyphae in the rhizosphere of papaya and other plants under intercropping system

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz André Freire; Ishii Takaaki; Matsumoto Isao; Kadoya Kazuomi

    2003-01-01

    An experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions to observe the distribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) hyphae in the rhizosphere of papaya and other plants under intercropping system. Special acrylic root boxes with three compartments, separated by nylon mesh screens, were constructed. One outer compartment contained seedlings of papaya (Carica papaya L.) and other contained seedlings of bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flügge) or millet (Pennisetum glaucum L. R. Br.). The central ...

  9. Starch edible coating of papaya: effect on sensory characteristics Revestimento de mamão papaia por películas de amido: efeito nas características sensoriais

    OpenAIRE

    Ariane Castricini; Regina Celi Cavestré Coneglian; Rosires Deliza

    2012-01-01

    The coating of papayas with Cassava Starch (CS) and carboxymethyl starch (CMS) is an alternative to extend the shelf life of these fruits. This study evaluated the effect of the three different levels of CS and CMS (1, 3, and 5%) on sensory characteristics of papayas during storage. Nine selected and trained assessors evaluated 13 sensory attributes using the Multiple Comparison Test. The appearance and flavor attributes of the papayas treated with CS and CMS were compared to the control or r...

  10. Estudos morfo-anatômicos de sementes de dois genótipos de mamão(Carica papaya L.) / Morphological and anatomical studies of seeds of two genotypes of papaya Carica papaya L.

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sônia Aparecida dos, Santos; Roberto Ferreira da, Silva; Messias Gonzaga, Pereira; Eduardo, Alves; José da Cruz, Machado; Flávio Meira, Borém; Renato Mendes, Guimarães; Elizabeth Rosemeire, Marques.

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A propagação do mamoeiro Carica papaya L. é realizada por meio de mudas oriundas das sementes. Apesar da importância da semente do mamoeiro para a formação dos pomares comerciais, estudos morfológicos e anatômicos neste sentido são raros. O presente trabalho descreve aspectos morfológicos e anatômic [...] os das estruturas que constituem as sementes de dois genótipos do mamoeiro, Sunrise Solo 783 e Formosa Roxo 45. Sunrise Solo 783 e Formosa Roxo 45 pertencem aos dois grandes grupos 'Solo' e 'Formosa' respectivamente. Os referidos genótipos foram oriundos do banco de germoplasma da Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (UENF) em parceria com Empresa Caliman Agrícola S.A. A pesquisa foi conduzida no Laboratório de Microscopia Eletrônica da Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), Lavras, MG.Para a caracterização morfológica procedeu-se a dissecação e observação das estruturas utilizando bisturi, pinças e sexploradora sob microscópio estereoscópio. Para a caracterização anatômica utilizou-se a microscopia eletrônica de varredura. As amostras foram preparadas de acordo com a metodologia de rotina do Laboratório de Microscopia Eletrônica da UFLA e observadas a alto vácuo em diversos aumentos no microscópio Leo Evo 40, à distância de trabalho de 10 mm. As medições foram realizadas usando-se o Software Leo User Interface (versão Leo 3.2). Os estudos morfológicos permitiram identificar as estruturas que compõem a semente do mamoeiro e os estudos anatômicos permitiram observar a existência de diferenças estruturais e dimensionais entre as células dos dois genótipos estudados. Abstract in english The papaya (Carica papaya L.) propagation is made by seedlings produced from true seeds. Although the use of seeds in the implementation of commercial papaya orchards is well documented in literature, studies on the anatomy and morphology of these structures are in small number. In present work morp [...] hological and anatomical aspects of the seeds from two papaya genotypes Sunrise Solo 783 and Formosa Roxo 45,belonging to two grand groups ´Solo` and ´Formosa` are described. These genotypes were obtained of Gemoplasm Bank of the Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (UENF) in cooperation with the company Caliman Agricola S.A. The work was carried out at the Eletronic Microscopy and Ultra-strutural Analisys Laboratory of the Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA). To make the morphological characterization, the seeds were dissected carefully by hand and observed in the stereomicroscope. For the anatomic studies, seeds were prepared according to the routine protocol of the LME and observed in scanning electronic microscope Leo Evo 40, at work distance of 10 mm under high vacuum conditions. Measurements were made using the Software Leo User Interface (Version Leo 3.2). The results of the morphological studies provide adequate conditions to observe the different structures of the papaya seeds and from anatomic studies it was possible to verify structural and dimensional differences among the cells of the two genotypes under investigation.

  11. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction (UAE and Solvent Extraction of Papaya Seed Oil: Yield, Fatty Acid Composition and Triacylglycerol Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasanah Mohd Ghazali

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the current work was to evaluate the suitability of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE for the recovery of oil from papaya seed as compared to conventional extraction techniques (i.e., Soxhlet extraction (SXE and solvent extraction (SE. In the present study, the recovery yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil obtained from different extraction methods and conditions were compared. Results indicated that both solvent extraction (SE, 12 h/25 °C and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE methods recovered relatively high yields (79.1% and 76.1% of total oil content, respectively. Analysis of fatty acid composition revealed that the predominant fatty acids in papaya seed oil were oleic (18:1, 70.5%–74.7%, palmitic (16:0, 14.9%–17.9%, stearic (18:0, 4.50%–5.25%, and linoleic acid (18:2, 3.63%–4.6%. Moreover, the most abundant triacylglycerols of papaya seed oil were triolein (OOO, palmitoyl diolein (POO and stearoyl oleoyl linolein (SOL. In this study, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE significantly (p < 0.05 influenced the triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil, but no significant differences were observed in the fatty acid composition of papaya seed oil extracted by different extraction methods (SXE, SE and UAE and conditions.

  12. Supplementing lactating women with puréed papaya and grated carrots improved vitamin A status in a placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ncube, T N; Greiner, T; Malaba, L C; Gebre-Medhin, M

    2001-05-01

    Doubts have been raised about the effectiveness of carotene-containing foods in improving the vitamin A status of populations at risk. We investigated the effect of papaya and carrots on the vitamin A status of lactating women with 2- to 12-mo-old infants in ZIMBABWE: The women were randomly assigned to three supplementation groups and a placebo group, and received 6 mg of beta-carotene capsules, 650 g puréed papaya, 100 g grated carrots or a placebo, daily for 60 d. All groups were given a meal containing 10 g of vegetable oil daily. Serum retinol, relative dose response, serum ferritin, hemoglobin and C-reactive protein were measured before and after the supplementation period. Mean serum retinol increased significantly after supplementation in the beta-carotene group (P papaya group (P 0.05). The relative dose response decreased significantly (P papaya groups, but not in the carrot or placebo groups (P > 0.05). There was an increase in mean serum ferritin in all groups but the increase did not differ among groups. The hemoglobin increases in the beta-carotene and papaya groups were greater than that in the placebo group. We conclude that puréed papaya and grated carrots can improve the vitamin A and iron nutriture of lactating women. These findings reinforce the importance of plant food-based approaches in the control of vitamin A deficiency in low income countries. PMID:11340106

  13. New records of Discomycetes (Pezizales) for the Chilean mycobiota / Nuevos registros de Discomycetes (Pezizales) para la micobiota chilena

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    PABLO, SANDOVAL.

    Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se adicionan a la micobiota chilena tres especies de Pezizales, Byssonectria terrestris (Alb. & Schwein.) Pfister, Pseudoplectania nigrella (Pers.) Fuckel y Pseudoplectania sphagnophila (Pers.) Kreisel, Se describen e ilustran los caracteres diagnósticos y se realizan comentarios acerca de las espec [...] ies. Abstract in english [...

  14. New records of Discomycetes (Pezizales for the Chilean mycobiota Nuevos registros de Discomycetes (Pezizales para la micobiota chilena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PABLO SANDOVAL

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se adicionan a la micobiota chilena tres especies de Pezizales, Byssonectria terrestris (Alb. & Schwein. Pfister, Pseudoplectania nigrella (Pers. Fuckel y Pseudoplectania sphagnophila (Pers. Kreisel, Se describen e ilustran los caracteres diagnósticos y se realizan comentarios acerca de las especies.

  15. Metáforas en Lengua de Señas Chilena Metaphors in Chilean Sign Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Becerra

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio describe las características del lenguaje metafórico de personas sordas chilenas y su impacto en la comprensión lingüística. La relevancia de esta pregunta radica en la escasez de investigaciones realizadas, particularmente a nivel nacional. Se desarrolló un estudio cualitativo en base a análisis de videos de sujetos sordos en habla espontánea. Se confeccionó una lista de metáforas conceptuales y no conceptuales en Lengua de Señas Chilena. Posteriormente se evaluó su comprensión en un grupo de sujetos sordos, educados con modalidad comunicativa de lengua de señas. Los resultados obtenidos permiten observar la existencia de metáforas propias de la cultura sorda. Ellas serían coherentes con las particulares experiencias de los sujetos sordos y no necesariamente concuerdan con el lenguaje oral.The present study examined the characteristics of Chilean deaf people's metaphoric language and its relevance in linguistic comprehension. This key question is based in the scarcity of studies conducted in Chile. A qualitative study was developed, on the basis of analysis of videos of Chilean deaf people spontaneous sign language. A list of conceptual and no conceptual metaphors in Chilean sign language was developed. The comprehension of these metaphors was evaluated in a group of deaf subjets, educated using sign language communication. The results identify the existence of metaphors of the deaf culture. These methaphors would be coherent with the particular experiences of deaf subjets and do not necessarily agree with spoken language.

  16. Metáforas en Lengua de Señas Chilena / Metaphors in Chilean Sign Language

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carolina, Becerra.

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio describe las características del lenguaje metafórico de personas sordas chilenas y su impacto en la comprensión lingüística. La relevancia de esta pregunta radica en la escasez de investigaciones realizadas, particularmente a nivel nacional. Se desarrolló un estudio cualitativo en base [...] a análisis de videos de sujetos sordos en habla espontánea. Se confeccionó una lista de metáforas conceptuales y no conceptuales en Lengua de Señas Chilena. Posteriormente se evaluó su comprensión en un grupo de sujetos sordos, educados con modalidad comunicativa de lengua de señas. Los resultados obtenidos permiten observar la existencia de metáforas propias de la cultura sorda. Ellas serían coherentes con las particulares experiencias de los sujetos sordos y no necesariamente concuerdan con el lenguaje oral. Abstract in english The present study examined the characteristics of Chilean deaf people's metaphoric language and its relevance in linguistic comprehension. This key question is based in the scarcity of studies conducted in Chile. A qualitative study was developed, on the basis of analysis of videos of Chilean deaf p [...] eople spontaneous sign language. A list of conceptual and no conceptual metaphors in Chilean sign language was developed. The comprehension of these metaphors was evaluated in a group of deaf subjets, educated using sign language communication. The results identify the existence of metaphors of the deaf culture. These methaphors would be coherent with the particular experiences of deaf subjets and do not necessarily agree with spoken language.

  17. CALIDAD DE VIDA RELACIONADA CON EL CLIMATERIO EN UNA POBLACIÓN CHILENA DE MUJERES SALUDABLES

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sócrates, Aedo M; Arnaldo, Porcile J; Cristina, Irribarra A.

    Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Aplicar una versión chilena de la escala MRS para evaluar calidad de vida de mujeres climatéricas. Métodos: Aplicación de la versión chilena de la escala MRS a mujeres de 45-64 años inscritas en el SSMO: Grupo 1, concurrentes a controles preventivos de salud (n=844) y Grupo 2, concurrentes [...] a ginecólogo (n=360). Resultados: El adecuado comportamiento del instrumento fue confirmado porque el análisis de confiabilidad interna, que presentó un alfa de Crombach >0,86; la confiabilidad externa mostró una correlación en re-encuesta del Grupo 1 y 2 con coeficiente de Pearson p Abstract in english Objective: To apply a chilean version of the MRS scale to evaluate quality of life in climacteric women. Methods: Application of chilean version of the MRS scale in 45-64 year-old women registered at Metropolitan Health Service (MHS) of Chile. Group 1, women attending programmed health preventive co [...] ntrols (n=844); and Group 2, women who require attention by gynecologist (n=360). Results: The suitable behavior of the used instrument was confirmed because the analysis of internal reliability showed Crombach's alpha >0.8; external reliability showed correlation in re-test of both group with Pearson's coefficient p

  18. Eficiência fotoquímica em folhas do mamoeiro (Carica papaya L. cv. Golden durante o estádio reprodutivo e caracterização da ontogenia dos frutos Photochemical efficiency of papaya leaves (Carica papaya L. cv. Golden during the reproductive stage and characterization of fruit ontogeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diolina Moura Silva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Considerando que a fisiologia do amadurecimento dos frutos do mamoeiro envolve desde a produção de fotoassimilados, para a sua formação e desenvolvimento, até as enzimas que degradarão a parede celular, promovendo o amolecimento da polpa, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a cinética da emissão da fluorescência da clorofila a em folhas do mamoeiro (Carica papaya L. cv. Golden durante o período reprodutivo e avaliar os teores de sólidos solúveis (SS, acidez titulável (AT e atividade da pectinametilesterase (PME durante a ontogenia dos frutos. Os maiores índices de desempenho fotoquímico (PItotal foram verificados nos estádios de formação e crescimento dos frutos, devido ao melhor desempenho das reações de oxirredução do fotossistema I [?R0/(1-?R0]. Maior eficiência fotoquímica das plantas neste período possibilita maior demanda pelo carbono fixado para a síntese de compostos para o metabolismo celular. Em geral, os fotoassimilados são direcionados para os drenos fortes mais próximos, entretanto as sementes têm prioridade, portanto os teores de SS, AT e a atividade da PME na polpa dos frutos permaneceram constantes durante o desenvolvimento dos mesmos, sendo verificadas alterações nestas características somente no estádio de colheita. Estes resultados confirmam a participação da PME como enzima que prepara o substrato para que as demais enzimas pectinolíticas atuem, disponibilizando os ácidos orgânicos desmetilados e o início da degradação dos polissacarídeos da parece celular antes mesmo da colheita.Whereas the physiology of fruit ripening of papaya involves from the production of photoassimilates for their training and development to the enzymes that degrade the cell wall promoting pulp softening, the objective of this study was to evaluate the chlorophyll a (Chl a fluorescence induction kinetics in of papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Golden leaves during the reproductive period and to evaluate the total soluble solids (SS, acidity total titratable (ATT, and activity of pectin methyl esterase (PME during fruit ontogeny. The highest rates of photochemical performance index (PI total were observed in the stages of fruit formation and growth , due to better performance of the redox reactions of photosystem I [?R0 / (1-?R0]. Higher photochemical efficiency of plants in this period allows greater demand for fixed carbon for the synthesis of compounds for cellular metabolism. Generally, photoassimilates are directed to the closer strong drains, but the seeds have priority, so the SS, AT and PME activity in flesh fruit, remained constant during their development, and any alterations in these characteristics only in the harvest stage. These results confirm that the PME as an enzyme that prepares the substrate for the other pectic enzymes act, providing the demethylated organic acids and the beginning of the degradation of cellular wall polysaccharides even before harvest.

  19. Asymmetric purine-pyrimidine distribution in cellular small RNA population of papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aryal Rishi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The small RNAs (sRNA are a regulatory class of RNA mainly represented by the 21 and 24-nucleotide size classes. The cellular sRNAs are processed by RNase III family enzyme dicer (Dicer like in plant from a self-complementary hairpin loop or other type of RNA duplexes. The papaya genome has been sequenced, but its microRNAs and other regulatory RNAs are yet to be analyzed. Results We analyzed the genomic features of the papaya sRNA population from three sRNA deep sequencing libraries made from leaves, flowers, and leaves infected with Papaya Ringspot Virus (PRSV. We also used the deep sequencing data to annotate the micro RNA (miRNA in papaya. We identified 60 miRNAs, 24 of which were conserved in other species, and 36 of which were novel miRNAs specific to papaya. In contrast to the Chargaff’s purine-pyrimidine equilibrium, cellular sRNA was significantly biased towards a purine rich population. Of the two purine bases, higher frequency of adenine was present in 23nt or longer sRNAs, while 22nt or shorter sRNAs were over represented by guanine bases. However, this bias was not observed in the annotated miRNAs in plants. The 21nt species were expressed from fewer loci but expressed at higher levels relative to the 24nt species. The highly expressed 21nt species were clustered in a few isolated locations of the genome. The PRSV infected leaves showed higher accumulation of 21 and 22nt sRNA compared to uninfected leaves. We observed higher accumulation of miRNA* of seven annotated miRNAs in virus-infected tissue, indicating the potential function of miRNA* under stressed conditions. Conclusions We have identified 60 miRNAs in papaya. Our study revealed the asymmetric purine-pyrimidine distribution in cellular sRNA population. The 21nt species of sRNAs have higher expression levels than 24nt sRNA. The miRNA* of some miRNAs shows higher accumulation in PRSV infected tissues, suggesting that these strands are not totally functionally redundant. The findings open a new avenue for further investigation of the sRNA silencing pathway in plants.

  20. Una recepción diferente: La arquitectura moderna brasileña y la cultura arquitectónica chilena / A Diferent Reception: Modern Brazilian Architecture and Chilean Architectonic Culture

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Horacio, Torrent.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available La difusión de la arquitectura brasileña hacia fines de los cuarenta construyó un discurso que, preferentemente, se detenía en la exuberancia y la libertad formales; las publicaciones chilenas de la época miraban, sin embargo, en otra dirección. [...

  1. A microsatellite library for Carica papaya L. cv. Sunrise solo Marcadores microssatélites para Carica papaya L. cv. Sunrise solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Correa Santos

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available In experimental areas of the Education and Researches Ilha Solteira and Jaboticabal UNESP/Campus farms were selected and tagged 20 hermaphrodite plants and 20 feminine of cultivar Sunrise Solo, Improved Sunrise Solo cv.72/12 and Baixinho of Santa Amália.The seeds origined of the selected fruits were cropped to be analysed the self-pollination efficiency and frequency of the sex in the progenies. After that, samples of the young leaf of the matrix plants were colected for the extration of the DNA. It was built five library enriched of microsatellite sequencies, using probes (TCA10, (TC13, (GATA4, (CAC10 e (TGAG8.It was possible the development of the primers only in the library that has utilized the probe (TCA10. This probe allowed the design of 32 primer pairs. From these, 31 presented pattern of unique band in agarose Metaphor and in acrilamide. For primer S36 were observed 2 bands, but with no polymorphism to differentiation in the sexual form at papaya tree culture. However, these primers can be tested, in the futures, in the investigation of the others features in segregated populations of this specie and the related species, germoplasm analysis, cultivars identification, parent evolution and molecular markers for the assisted plant breeding programs.Em áreas experimentais das Fazendas de Ensino e Pesquisa da UNESP/Campus de Ilha Solteira e Jaboticabal foram selecionadas e marcadas 20 plantas hermafroditas e 20 femininas dos cultivares Sunrise Solo, Improved Sunrise Solo cv.72/12 e Baixinho de Santa Amália. As sementes provenientes dos frutos selecionados foram plantadas para analisar-se a eficiência da autofecundação e a freqüência dos sexos nas progênies. Posteriormente, amostras de tecido foliar jovem das plantas matrizes foram coletadas para a extração de DNA. Foram construídas cinco bibliotecas enriquecidas de seqüências microsatélites, utilizando-se as sondas (TCA10, (TC13, (GATA4, (CAC10 e (TGAG8. Foi possível o desenvolvimento de primers somente com a biblioteca que utilizou a sonda (TCA10 . Esta permitiu o desenho de 32 pares de primers. Destes, 31 apresentaram padrão de banda única em agarose Metaphor e em acrilamida. Para o primer S36 foram observadas 2 bandas, mas sem polimorfismo para diferenciação da forma sexual na cultura do mamoeiro. No entanto, estes primers poderão ser testados na investigação de outras características em populações segregantes desta espécie e de espécies afins, análises de germoplasma, identificação de cultivares, evolução parental e marcas em melhoramento assistido.

  2. A microsatellite library for Carica papaya L. cv. Sunrise solo / Marcadores microssatélites para Carica papaya L. cv. Sunrise solo

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Silvia Correa, Santos; Carlos, Ruggiero; Cristina Lacerda Soares Petrarolha, Silva; Eliana Gertrudes Macedo, Lemos.

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Em áreas experimentais das Fazendas de Ensino e Pesquisa da UNESP/Campus de Ilha Solteira e Jaboticabal foram selecionadas e marcadas 20 plantas hermafroditas e 20 femininas dos cultivares Sunrise Solo, Improved Sunrise Solo cv.72/12 e Baixinho de Santa Amália. As sementes provenientes dos frutos se [...] lecionados foram plantadas para analisar-se a eficiência da autofecundação e a freqüência dos sexos nas progênies. Posteriormente, amostras de tecido foliar jovem das plantas matrizes foram coletadas para a extração de DNA. Foram construídas cinco bibliotecas enriquecidas de seqüências microsatélites, utilizando-se as sondas (TCA)10, (TC)13, (GATA)4, (CAC)10 e (TGAG)8. Foi possível o desenvolvimento de primers somente com a biblioteca que utilizou a sonda (TCA)10 . Esta permitiu o desenho de 32 pares de primers. Destes, 31 apresentaram padrão de banda única em agarose Metaphor e em acrilamida. Para o primer S36 foram observadas 2 bandas, mas sem polimorfismo para diferenciação da forma sexual na cultura do mamoeiro. No entanto, estes primers poderão ser testados na investigação de outras características em populações segregantes desta espécie e de espécies afins, análises de germoplasma, identificação de cultivares, evolução parental e marcas em melhoramento assistido. Abstract in english In experimental areas of the Education and Researches Ilha Solteira and Jaboticabal UNESP/Campus farms were selected and tagged 20 hermaphrodite plants and 20 feminine of cultivar Sunrise Solo, Improved Sunrise Solo cv.72/12 and Baixinho of Santa Amália.The seeds origined of the selected fruits were [...] cropped to be analysed the self-pollination efficiency and frequency of the sex in the progenies. After that, samples of the young leaf of the matrix plants were colected for the extration of the DNA. It was built five library enriched of microsatellite sequencies, using probes (TCA)10, (TC)13, (GATA)4, (CAC)10 e (TGAG)8.It was possible the development of the primers only in the library that has utilized the probe (TCA)10. This probe allowed the design of 32 primer pairs. From these, 31 presented pattern of unique band in agarose Metaphor and in acrilamide. For primer S36 were observed 2 bands, but with no polymorphism to differentiation in the sexual form at papaya tree culture. However, these primers can be tested, in the futures, in the investigation of the others features in segregated populations of this specie and the related species, germoplasm analysis, cultivars identification, parent evolution and molecular markers for the assisted plant breeding programs.

  3. Efecto del etileno sobre el ACC y ACC oxidasa en la maduración de papaya 'maradol' / Ethylene effect on ACC content and ACC oxidase during ripening of 'maradol' papaya

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Javier De la, Cruz; Gilber, Vela; Lidia, Dorantes; Hugo S., García.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Frutos de papaya 'Maradol' (Carica papaya L.) fueron tratados con etileno en aire sintético (0, 100, 300 y 500 µL L-1) en contenedores de fibra de vidrio a diferentes tiempos de exposición (8, 16 y 24 h). Después del tratamiento, los frutos fueron transferidos para su maduración a temperatura ambien [...] te (25 °C). Los análisis efectuados en cada tratamiento fueron: firmeza, azúcares reductores, sólidos solubles, acidez titulable, color de cascara y pulpa (Hue), velocidad de producción de etileno (VPE), contenido de ácido 1-aminociclopropano-1-carboxílico (ACC) y actividad de la enzima formadora de etileno (ACC oxidasa). Los resultados indicaron que el primer cambio notable fue el color en la cascara (amarillo) y en la pulpa (naranja), típicos en un fruto listo para el consumo. Los frutos expuestos a 500 µL L-1 de etileno por 16 y 24 h mostraron un pico climatérico un día después del tratamiento, mientras que los frutos expuestos por solamente 8 h mostraron su pico climatérico 2 d después de la exposición al etileno. Las papayas expuestas a 500 µL L-1 de etileno por 16 y 24 h produjeron bajos valores de Hue en menos tiempo que el testigo, y su contenido de ACC aumentó a 2.7 nmol g-1 h-1, la actividad de la ACC oxidasa a 3 nL g-1 h-1, y la velocidad de producción de etileno (VPE) a 24 nL g-1 h-1. Estas condiciones permitieron que se alcanzaran valores de firmeza de 5.2 kgf cm-2 y 12 % de sólidos solubles a los 6 d a 25 °C. El contenido de azúcares reductores, valores de pH y la acidez no mostraron diferencias significativas (P > 0.05) entre tratamientos. Los frutos testigo alcanzaron valores similares después de 8 d de maduración directa. Los resultados sugieren que es posible acelerar la maduración de papaya 'Maradol' de 8 a 3 d por exposición a atmósferas con etileno. Abstract in english 'Maradol' papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruits were subjected to atmospheres containing certified mixtures of synthetic air and ethylene (0, 100, 300 and 500 µL L-1) in fiberglass containers for different periods (8, 16 and 24 h). After exposure, fruits were transferred to ambient conditions (25 °C) for [...] ripening. The analyses performed on each treatment were: firmness, soluble solids content, reducing sugars content, titratable acidity, peel and flesh color (Hue), ethylene production rate (EPR), 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) content and ethylene-forming enzyme (ACC oxidadese) activity. Results showed that the first noticeable change in fruits was the yellow and red color turning in peel and flesh respectively, both typical of a fully ripe and ready-to-eat-papaya fruit. Fruits exposed to 500 µL L-1 of ethylene for 16 and 24 h showed a climacteric peak one day after treatment, while fruits exposed for only 8 h displayed their climacteric peak 2 d after ethy-lene exposure. Papayas treated for 16 and 24 h developed very low Hue values in a shorter time then the control, and their ACC content increased to 2.7 nmol g-1 h-1. ACC oxidase activity also increased to 3 nL g-1 h-1, and EPR reached 24 nL g-1 h-1. This set of conditions allowed fruits to reach firmness values of 5.2 kgf cm-2 and 12 % of soluble solids after 6 d at 25 °C. Reducing sugars content and percent age of titratable acidity were not different (P > 0.05) between treatments. Similar values were found in control fruits after 8 d at normal ripening conditions. Results suggest that it is possible to shorten ripening of 'Maradol' papaya fruit from 8 to 3 d after application of exogenous ethylene.

  4. Studies on physiologically active root distribution and appropriate method of fertilizer application using isotopic techniques in two varieties of papaya (Carica papaya) during pre-bearing stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Coorg Honey Dew and Surya varieties of papaya aged 10 weeks, the abundance of active roots at 10 cm depth decreased during 20 to 100 days after injection of carrier-free 32P from 77% to 62% in the former and from 89% to 47% in the latter. Bulk of the active roots (85-65%) resided between 10 to 50 cm radial distance. While the phosphorus derived from fertilizer (Pdff) 32P-labelled superphosphate varied from 0.72 to 10.27%, placement between 10 and 40 cm radial distance was appropriate. (author)

  5. Determinação de isotiocianato de benzila em Carica papaya utilizando cromatografia gasosa com detectores seletivos Determination of benzyl isothiocyanate in Carica papaya using gas chromatography with selectives detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Izabela Miranda de Castro; Marianna Ramos dos Anjos; Elba dos Santos de Oliveira

    2008-01-01

    In the present work, a method was developed and validated for the quantification of benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) in the fruits of Carica papaya. The quantification of this compound was carried out by gas chromatography (GC) with selective detectors - nitrogen phosphorus detector (NPD) and flame photometric detector (FPD). The performance of these detectors showed a higher sensitivity of the NPD with a broader linear range of detection. The LOD/LOQ were 0.038/0.100 µg/mL for NPD and 5.78/19.2...

  6. Physico-Chemical Properties of Seed Oil from Papaya (Carica papaya) and the Kinetics of Degradation of the Oil During Heating

    OpenAIRE

    Bouanga-kalou, G.; L Matos, J. M. Nzikou

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the physico-chemical properies and the kinetics of degradation of papaya seed oil during heating. The seed is a good source of oil (32%). The physical properties of the oil extracts showed the state to be liquid at room temperature and indicated that the oil had refractive index, 1.4680; the peroxide value, 0.05 (meq O2/kg oil); free fatty acid, 1.2%; iodine value, 72.78 and saponification value, 198.5. Gas liquid chromatography technique has been devel...

  7. Effects of mechanical wounding on Carica papaya cysteine endopeptidases accumulation and activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarkan, Mohamed; Dibiani, Rachid; Baulard, Céline; Baeyens-Volant, Danielle

    2006-05-30

    The mechanical wounding impact on the Carica papaya latex protein pattern was investigated by analyzing three latexes. A first one commercially available, a second harvested from unripe but fully grown fruits, both obtained from regularly tapped fruits. A third one was collected from similar fruits but wounded for the first time. The results demonstrated both quantitative and qualitative changes in the protein content and in the enzymatic activity. Repeated wounding results in either, accumulation or activation (or both of them) of papain, chymopapain and caricain. Furthermore, new cysteine protease activity was found to transiently accumulate in the latex collected from newly wounded fruits. The possible implication of this enzymatic material in the papaya cysteine endopeptidases pro-forms activation is discussed. PMID:16580724

  8. Structural characterization of the papaya cysteine proteinases at low pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huet, Joëlle; Looze, Yvan; Bartik, Kristin; Raussens, Vincent; Wintjens, René; Boussard, Paule

    2006-03-10

    Current control of gastrointestinal nematodes relies primarily on the use of synthetic drugs and encounters serious problems of resistance. Oral administration of plant cysteine proteinases, known to be capable of damaging nematode cuticles, has recently been recommended to overcome these problems. This prompted us to examine if plant cysteine proteinases like the four papaya proteinases papain, caricain, chymopapain, and glycine endopeptidase that have been investigated here can survive acidic pH conditions and pepsin degradation. The four papaya proteinases have been found to undergo, at low pH, a conformational transition that instantaneously converts their native forms into molten globules that are quite unstable and rapidly degraded by pepsin. As shown by activity measurements, the denatured state of these proteinases which finally results from acid treatment is completely irreversible. It is concluded that cysteine proteinases from plant origin may require to be protected against both acid denaturation and proteolysis to be effective in the gut after oral administration. PMID:16434027

  9. Enzymatic wound debridement; role of papaya in the management of post cesarean gaped wounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Enzymatic wound debridement is an emerging concept in facilitating the wound healing process. Papaya has de-sloughing, antibacterial and wound healing properties. It has been used in African countries since centuries for different medicinal pur-poses. Apart from anecdotal reports and few studies on chronic ulcers and burns, no planned studies are available to support its action in postoperative wound infection.Objectives: To compare efficacy and safety of papaya dressing with conventional wound dressing with povidone iodine in post cesarean section gaped wounds. Setting: Gynecology Unit 3, Sir Ganga Ram Hospital Lahore - Pakistan, over a period of six months(June 2012 to Nov 2012). Study Design: Randomized, quasi experimental stu-dy. Materials and Methods: The study sample included 60 patients with post cesarean section gaped wounds. The sample was divided into two groups; thirty patients as Group A or the study group received Papaya dressing and rest of thirty patients as Group B or the control group received Povidone iodine dressing. Wounds were thoroughly washed with saline and then mashed unripe papaya was spread over the whole area of wound in the study group and povidone iodine in the control group. Wounds were covered with sterile bandage for at least 48 hours in study group and 24 hours in the control group. The process was repeated till a clean base of wound with healthy granulation tis-sue was achieved suitable for secondary suture. The efficacy parameters studied were the duration of time needed to develop healthy granulation tissue and total duration of hospital stay which were compared bet-ween the two groups. Safety factors studied were the adverse effects of medications used in the study. Results: Out of 1200 cesarean sections done during study period, sixty (5%) were gaped in the post-operative period. Out of 60, 55 (90%) were emergency and only 5 (10%) were elective cesarean sections. All the sixty patients with postoperative gaped wounds were included in the study, of which 30 patients received Papaya and 30 received Povidone iodine dressing. Time required to induce healthy granulation tissue was significantly shorter in the papaya group as compared to povidone iodine group (3.4 +- 0.4 days versus 7.2 +- 0.2 days).Similarly the duration of hospital stay was also short in the study as compared to control group i.e. 11.6 +- 1.2 days and 16.8 +- 1.4 days respectively. The side effects of medications used in study (papaya and povidone iodine) like local irritation and hyper-sensitivity reactions were minor and not significally different in both groups. Conclusion: Papaya dressing is effective, safe, widely available and cost effective for wound healing in post-operative infected gaped wounds. (author)

  10. Beverages of lemon juice and exotic noni and papaya with potential for anticholinergic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gironés-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B; Ferreres, Federico; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2015-03-01

    Lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f.) juice beverages enriched either with noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) (LN) or papaya (Carica papaya L.) (LP), were characterized by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS(n), the antioxidant capacity was evaluated by (DPPH·), superoxide (O2(·-)), hydroxyl radicals (·OH) and hypochlorous acid (HOCl) assays, and their potential as acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) inhibitors was also assessed. The fruits are rich in a wide range of bioactive phenolics. Regarding DPPH·, ·OH and HOCl assays, the LP displayed strong activity, and LN was the most active against O2(·-). Concerning cholinesterases, LP was the most active, mainly due to lemon juice contribution. The effect on the cholinesterases was not as strong as in previous reports on purified extracts, but the bioactive-rich beverages offer the possibility of dietary coadjutants for daily consumption of health-promoting substances by adults with aging-related cognitive or physical disorders. PMID:25306312

  11. Studies on Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (Am. Fungi on Mineral Nutrition of Carica papaya L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Felinov RODRIGUES

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Experiment was conducted to study the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on mineral nutrition of Carica papaya var. Surya. The experiment comprised of un-inoculated seedlings, seedlings inoculated with Glomus intraradices Schenck & Smith, seedlings inoculated with Glomus mosseae [(Nicol. & Gerd. Gerd. & Trappe] and seedlings inoculated with mixed inoculum [Glomus intraradices (Schenck & Smith + Glomus mosseae (Nicol. & Gerd. Gerd. & Trappe]. Studies revealed that total potassium and total phosphorus content of mycorrhizal leaf petiole was higher in inoculated plants as compared to controls and varied significantly within the treatments. Glomus mosseae was the most effective species of AM fungi, in influencing mineral nutrition of papaya followed by mixed inoculum (GI +GM and Glomus intraradices respectively.

  12. Evaluación de tres cultivares de papaya del grupo Solo basada en caracteres de crecimiento y productividad

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maruchi, Alonso; E, Farrés; Y, Tornet; J, Castro; R, Ramos; María C, Rodríguez.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La papaya (Carica papaya L.) es uno de los frutales más importantes y ampliamente distribuidos en los países tropicales y subtropicales. Debido a la explotación monovarietal basada en el cultivar ‘Maradol’ en Cuba, este cultivo está sujeto a serios riesgos. Para ello, la introducción, caracterizació [...] n y el mantenimiento de nuevos cultivares en el germoplasma de esta especie constituye un factor primordial con fines de identificación y obtención de nuevos genotipos. En el presente trabajo se muestra el comportamiento de tres cultivares de papaya introducidos en el banco de germoplasma de este frutal perteneciente al Instituto de Investigaciones en Fruticultura Tropical. Los resultados indicaron que los cultivares ‘BH-65’ y ‘Baixinho de Santa Amalia’ mostraron diferencias significativas en el carácter altura de la planta con respecto al cultivar ‘Sunset’. El número de hojas totales emitidas por año estuvo por encima de 100, lo que indica una buena adaptabilidad de los genotipos a las condiciones de nuestro ensayo. Los cultivares ‘BH-65’ y ‘Baixinho de Santa Amalia’ emitieron la primera flor a menor altura, carácter que se considera útil con fines productivos. De manera general, se apreció un crecimiento y desarrollo vegetativo favorable, así como una excelente productividad en los tres cultivares de papaya del grupo Solo, lo que representa un gran avance para el desarrollo de futuros programas de mejoramiento y su utilización con fines comerciales. La simple introducción de genotipos del grupo Solo al país puede promover una significativa expansión del cultivo y abrir futuras vías de comercialización de la fruta, debido a su gran aceptación en el mercado de exportación Abstract in english Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is one of the most important and widely spread fruit trees in tropical and subtropical countries. Due to the monovarietal explotation of ‘Maradol’ cultivar in Cuba, this crop is submitted to serious risks. Thus, the introduction, characterization and maintenance of new cult [...] ivars in the germplasm of this species constitute a key factor to identify and obtain new genotypes. This work presents the behaviour of three papaya cultivars introduced in the fruit germplasm bank from the Research Institute of Tropical Fruit Crops. Results indicate that cultivars ‘BH-65’ and ‘Baixinho de Santa Amalia’ showed significant plant height differences compared to ‘Sunset’. More than 100 leaves were emitted per year, which indicates a good genotypic adaptability to the contidions of this trial. Cultivars ‘BH-65’ and ‘Baixinho de Santa Amalia’ emitted the first flower at a lower plant height, a useful feature for productive purposes. In general, all papaya cultivars from Solo group had a favourable growth and vegetative development as well as an excellent productivity. It is a great advance to conduct further breeding programs to be used for commercial purposes. The mere introduction of new cultivars from ‘Solo group’ to the country could promote a crop production increment and therefore open future fruit market ways for exportation due to its trade success

  13. First records of two mealybug species in Brazil and new potential pests of papaya and coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culik, Mark P; Martins, David dos Santos; Gullan, Penny J

    2006-01-01

    Five mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) plant pest species: Dysmicoccus grassii (Leonardi), Ferrisia malvastra (McDaniel), Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell), Phenacoccus tucumanus Granara de Willink, and Pseudococcus elisae Borchsenius are recorded for the first time in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. These are the first records of D. grassii in Brazil, from papaya (Carica papaya, Caricaceae), and from coffee (Coffea canephora, Rubiaceae). Ferrisia malvastra is also newly recorded in Brazil, where it was found on Bidens pilosa (Asteraceae). Ferrisia virgata was collected from an unidentified weed and Phenacoccus tucumanus from Citrus sp. (Rutaceae). Plotococcus capixaba Kondo was found on pitanga ( Eugenia cf. pitanga, Myrtaceae) and Pseudococcus elisae on Coffea canephora , which are new host records for these mealybugs. PMID:19537975

  14. Effects of irradiation on the organoleptic quality and ripening process of papaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papaya variety Eksotika harvested at stage 2 of maturity (green skin with a tinge of yellow) were cleaned, air dried and exposed to irradiation at lower doses i.e. 250, 500, 750, 1000 Gray and then were kept at 20 deg. C for up to 9 days or until ripe. Sensory evaluation was carried out the storage period in order to determine effects of radiation on organoleptic quality and ripening process. About 15-24 experienced panelists were involved in the sensory evaluation. It was found that effect on the organoleptic quality of fruit irradiated with dose at 1000 Gray was unacceptable. Nevertheless, the quality was very much less affected by irradiation at 750 Gray or lower. In general the irradiated papaya ripened earlier than the control where the skin colour change by turning from green to 100% yellow but gives harder texture. Freckles on skin surface during ripening were reduced by irradiation

  15. Uso de esterco associado à adubação mineral na produção de mudas de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L.) / The use of manure associated with mineral fertilization in papaya (Carica papaya L.) seedling production

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Regina Célia Faria Simão, Canesin; Luiz de Souza, Corrêa.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Na composição do substrato para produção de mudas de mamoeiro, recomenda-se o uso de adubação orgânica, que traz como vantagens a melhoria das características físicas, químicas e biológicas do solo, criando um ambiente favorável ao desenvolvimento inicial das mudas, bem como boa resposta do mamoeiro [...] . Os materiais orgânicos desempenham ainda um importante papel na nutrição das plantas como fornecedores de nutrientes. Contudo, observa-se que existe uma grande variação nas recomendações e quase sempre a adubação orgânica está associada à adubação mineral. Neste contexto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi o de verificar os efeitos do uso de esterco de curral associado ou não à adubação mineral no substrato sobre a formação de mudas de mamoeiro. O Experimento foi conduzido na FEP/UNESP/Câmpus de Ilha Solteira-SP. O delineamento utilizado foi em blocos, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas, sendo parcelas as cultivares e subparcelas os substratos. Cada parcela com 5 repetições e 10 plantas úteis por subparcela. Para a comparação das médias, utilizou-se o teste de Tukey. Com base nos resultados obtidos, pode-se concluir que: a) Na formação das mudas de mamoeiro, o esterco de curral pode ser utilizado sem a necessidade de adubação mineral com o superfosfato simples e o cloreto de potássio; b) O esterco de curral foi capaz de fornecer às mudas de mamoeiro os nutrientes N, P, K, Ca, Mg e Cu, necessários para seu desenvolvimento até o transplantio para o campo. Abstract in english The use of organic fertilization is recommended to be added to the substrate for papaya seedling production, as it enhances the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the soil, creating a favorable environment for the initial development of the plants, which results in better plant gro [...] wth. The organic matter has also the important role of providing nutrients to the plants. However, there is great variation in the recommendations, and in most cases organic fertilization is associated with mineral supplementation. The objective of this research was to verify the effects of the use of corral manure, associated or not with mineral fertilization, added to the papaya seedling substrate. The experiment was deployed at the Teaching and Research Farm of the College of Engineering of Ilha Solteira, UNESP, in Ilha Solteira, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The design was set in blocks, in split plots, where papaya cultivars were the whole unit and substrates the subunit treatments. Each unit with 5 replications and the subunit composed of 10 plants each. Means were separated by Tukey test. Results indicated that: a) papaya seedling production the corral manure can be used without supplementation of simple superphosphate and potassium chloride, b) corral manure alone supplied nutrients N, P, K, Ca, Mg and Cu to the papaya seedlings until transplanted to the field.

  16. Uso de esterco associado à adubação mineral na produção de mudas de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L. The use of manure associated with mineral fertilization in papaya (Carica papaya L. seedling production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Célia Faria Simão Canesin

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Na composição do substrato para produção de mudas de mamoeiro, recomenda-se o uso de adubação orgânica, que traz como vantagens a melhoria das características físicas, químicas e biológicas do solo, criando um ambiente favorável ao desenvolvimento inicial das mudas, bem como boa resposta do mamoeiro. Os materiais orgânicos desempenham ainda um importante papel na nutrição das plantas como fornecedores de nutrientes. Contudo, observa-se que existe uma grande variação nas recomendações e quase sempre a adubação orgânica está associada à adubação mineral. Neste contexto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi o de verificar os efeitos do uso de esterco de curral associado ou não à adubação mineral no substrato sobre a formação de mudas de mamoeiro. O Experimento foi conduzido na FEP/UNESP/Câmpus de Ilha Solteira-SP. O delineamento utilizado foi em blocos, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas, sendo parcelas as cultivares e subparcelas os substratos. Cada parcela com 5 repetições e 10 plantas úteis por subparcela. Para a comparação das médias, utilizou-se o teste de Tukey. Com base nos resultados obtidos, pode-se concluir que: a Na formação das mudas de mamoeiro, o esterco de curral pode ser utilizado sem a necessidade de adubação mineral com o superfosfato simples e o cloreto de potássio; b O esterco de curral foi capaz de fornecer às mudas de mamoeiro os nutrientes N, P, K, Ca, Mg e Cu, necessários para seu desenvolvimento até o transplantio para o campo.The use of organic fertilization is recommended to be added to the substrate for papaya seedling production, as it enhances the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the soil, creating a favorable environment for the initial development of the plants, which results in better plant growth. The organic matter has also the important role of providing nutrients to the plants. However, there is great variation in the recommendations, and in most cases organic fertilization is associated with mineral supplementation. The objective of this research was to verify the effects of the use of corral manure, associated or not with mineral fertilization, added to the papaya seedling substrate. The experiment was deployed at the Teaching and Research Farm of the College of Engineering of Ilha Solteira, UNESP, in Ilha Solteira, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The design was set in blocks, in split plots, where papaya cultivars were the whole unit and substrates the subunit treatments. Each unit with 5 replications and the subunit composed of 10 plants each. Means were separated by Tukey test. Results indicated that: a papaya seedling production the corral manure can be used without supplementation of simple superphosphate and potassium chloride, b corral manure alone supplied nutrients N, P, K, Ca, Mg and Cu to the papaya seedlings until transplanted to the field.

  17. Fitotoxicidade de fungicidas, acaricidas e inseticidas sobre o mamoeiro (Carica papaya L.) cultivar sunrise solo improved line 72/12 / Toxic effects of pesticides products on papaya plant (Carica papaya L.) cv. sunrise solo improved line 72/12

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alcílio, Vieira; Carlos, Ruggiero; Sérgio Lucio David, Marin.

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se os efeitos fitotóxicos de fungicidas, acaricidas e inseticidas e algumas associações entre eles, em plantas de mamoeiros (Carica papaya L.) cv. Sunrise Solo Improved Line 72/12, em condições de verão, no município de São Mateus - ES, localizado na região produtora do Estado. O experimen [...] to foi arranjado em delineamento de blocos casualizados, com 4 repetições e 03 plantas úteis por parcela experimental. Foram utilizados os seguintes produtos, com as respectivas doses, para cada 100 l de água: abamectin (Vertimec 18 CE - 50 ml); dicofol + tetradiphon (Carbax - 200 ml), fenbutatin oxide (Torque 500 SC - 60 ml); mancozeb (Dithane PM - 200g); oxicloreto de cobre (Reconil - 400g) e thiabendazole (Tecto 450 - 100ml). Analisou-se a fitotoxicidade dos produtos em relação à altura da planta, nº de folhas, número de flores e frutos ; diâmetro do caule e queimaduras ou injúrias foliares. As medições e contagens foram feitas um dia antes das pulverizações, 15 e 30 dias após. Constatou-se que o Vertimec 18 CE, associado ao Reconil ou ao Tecto 450, ocasionou leves injúrias foliares, detectadas aos 15 dias após as pulverizações, que se tornaram praticamente imperceptíveis, aos 30 dias após as pulverizações; e que Dithane PM, Reconil, Tecto 450, Carbax, Torque 500 SC, Dithane PM + Carbax, Dithane PM + Torque 500 SC, Dithane PM + Vertimec 18 CE, Reconil + Carbax, Reconil + Torque 500 SC, Tecto 450 + Carbax e, Tecto 450 + + Torque 500 SC não interferiram nos parâmetros de desenvolvimento e de produção estudados, bem como não causaram injúrias ou queimaduras nas folhas dos mamoeiros. Abstract in english In this work was studied the phytotoxic effect of inseticides, acaricides and fungicides alone and in combination, on papaya plants (Carica papaya L.); cv. Sunrise Solo Improved Line 72/12, under field conditions. The experiment were conducted in a farm, located at São Mateus county, the most import [...] ant papaya region in the State of Espírito Santo.The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with four replications, with three plants by plot. The products with their respective dose in a volume of 100 l H2O were: abamectin (Vertimec 18 CE - 50 ml); dicofol + tetradifon (Carbax - 200 ml); fenbutatin oxide (Torque 500 SC - 60 ml); mancozeb (Dithane PM - 200g).; cuprix oxychloride (Reconil 400g) and thiabendazole (Tecto 450 - 100ml). Plants were evaluated for plant high, number of leaves, flowers and fruits, and extension of leaf injury, one day before, 15 and 30 days after spray. Vertimec 18 CE in combination with Reconil or Tecto 450, caused light leaf injuries, observed only15 days after spraying. These plants recovered from leaf injury and 30 days later, no leaf lesion was observed. Dithane PM, Reconil, Tecto 450, Carbax, Torque 500 SC, Dithane PM + Carbax , Dithane PM + Torque 500 SC, Dithane PM + Vertimec 18 CE, Reconil + Carbax, Reconil + Torque 500 SC, Tecto 450 + Carbax and Tecto 450 + Torque 500 SC, did not affected plant growth and yield studied. No leaf burns injury were caused in papaya plants.

  18. Fitotoxicidade de fungicidas, acaricidas e inseticidas sobre o mamoeiro (Carica papaya L. cultivar sunrise solo improved line 72/12 Toxic effects of pesticides products on papaya plant (Carica papaya L. cv. sunrise solo improved line 72/12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcílio Vieira

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se os efeitos fitotóxicos de fungicidas, acaricidas e inseticidas e algumas associações entre eles, em plantas de mamoeiros (Carica papaya L. cv. Sunrise Solo Improved Line 72/12, em condições de verão, no município de São Mateus - ES, localizado na região produtora do Estado. O experimento foi arranjado em delineamento de blocos casualizados, com 4 repetições e 03 plantas úteis por parcela experimental. Foram utilizados os seguintes produtos, com as respectivas doses, para cada 100 l de água: abamectin (Vertimec 18 CE - 50 ml; dicofol + tetradiphon (Carbax - 200 ml, fenbutatin oxide (Torque 500 SC - 60 ml; mancozeb (Dithane PM - 200g; oxicloreto de cobre (Reconil - 400g e thiabendazole (Tecto 450 - 100ml. Analisou-se a fitotoxicidade dos produtos em relação à altura da planta, nº de folhas, número de flores e frutos ; diâmetro do caule e queimaduras ou injúrias foliares. As medições e contagens foram feitas um dia antes das pulverizações, 15 e 30 dias após. Constatou-se que o Vertimec 18 CE, associado ao Reconil ou ao Tecto 450, ocasionou leves injúrias foliares, detectadas aos 15 dias após as pulverizações, que se tornaram praticamente imperceptíveis, aos 30 dias após as pulverizações; e que Dithane PM, Reconil, Tecto 450, Carbax, Torque 500 SC, Dithane PM + Carbax, Dithane PM + Torque 500 SC, Dithane PM + Vertimec 18 CE, Reconil + Carbax, Reconil + Torque 500 SC, Tecto 450 + Carbax e, Tecto 450 + + Torque 500 SC não interferiram nos parâmetros de desenvolvimento e de produção estudados, bem como não causaram injúrias ou queimaduras nas folhas dos mamoeiros.In this work was studied the phytotoxic effect of inseticides, acaricides and fungicides alone and in combination, on papaya plants (Carica papaya L.; cv. Sunrise Solo Improved Line 72/12, under field conditions. The experiment were conducted in a farm, located at São Mateus county, the most important papaya region in the State of Espírito Santo.The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with four replications, with three plants by plot. The products with their respective dose in a volume of 100 l H2O were: abamectin (Vertimec 18 CE - 50 ml; dicofol + tetradifon (Carbax - 200 ml; fenbutatin oxide (Torque 500 SC - 60 ml; mancozeb (Dithane PM - 200g.; cuprix oxychloride (Reconil 400g and thiabendazole (Tecto 450 - 100ml. Plants were evaluated for plant high, number of leaves, flowers and fruits, and extension of leaf injury, one day before, 15 and 30 days after spray. Vertimec 18 CE in combination with Reconil or Tecto 450, caused light leaf injuries, observed only15 days after spraying. These plants recovered from leaf injury and 30 days later, no leaf lesion was observed. Dithane PM, Reconil, Tecto 450, Carbax, Torque 500 SC, Dithane PM + Carbax , Dithane PM + Torque 500 SC, Dithane PM + Vertimec 18 CE, Reconil + Carbax, Reconil + Torque 500 SC, Tecto 450 + Carbax and Tecto 450 + Torque 500 SC, did not affected plant growth and yield studied. No leaf burns injury were caused in papaya plants.

  19. Development and validation of a multiplex reverse transcription PCR assay for simultaneous detection of three papaya viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuo, Decai; Shen, Wentao; Yang, Yong; Yan, Pu; Li, Xiaoying; Zhou, Peng

    2014-10-01

    Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV), and Papaya mosaic virus (PapMV) produce similar symptoms in papaya. Each threatens commercial production of papaya on Hainan Island, China. In this study, a multiplex reverse transcription PCR assay was developed to detect simultaneously these three viruses by screening combinations of mixed primer pairs and optimizing the multiplex RT-PCR reaction conditions. A mixture of three specific primer pairs was used to amplify three distinct fragments of 613 bp from the P3 gene of PRSV, 355 bp from the CP gene of PLDMV, and 205 bp from the CP gene of PapMV, demonstrating the assay's specificity. The sensitivity of the multiplex RT-PCR was evaluated by showing plasmids containing each of the viral target genes with 1.44 × 103, 1.79 × 103, and 1.91 × 102 copies for the three viruses could be detected successfully. The multiplex RT-PCR was applied successfully for detection of three viruses from 341 field samples collected from 18 counties of Hainan Island, China. Rates of single infections were 186/341 (54.5%), 93/341 (27.3%), and 3/341 (0.9%), for PRSV, PLDMV, and PapMV, respectively; 59/341 (17.3%) of the samples were co-infected with PRSV and PLDMV, which is the first time being reported in Hainan Island. This multiplex RT-PCR assay is a simple, rapid, sensitive, and cost-effective method for detecting multiple viruses in papaya and can be used for routine molecular diagnosis and epidemiological studies in papaya. PMID:25337891

  20. Creencias sobre Papanicolaou y cáncer cérvicouterino en un grupo de mujeres chilenas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Urrutia S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: Son variadas las descripciones en relación a las creencias y como estas se relacionan con las conductas preventivas en cáncer cérvicouterino. Objetivo: Describir las creencias que tienen un grupo de mujeres chilenas pertenecientes al sistema público de atención acerca del Papanicolaou y cáncer cérvicouterino. Método: Estudio analítico de corte transversal realizado en 333 mujeres chilenas. Se estudiaron las creencias sobre el Papanicolaou y el cáncer cérvicouterino con un instrumento desarrollado y validado en población chilena (CPC-28. Resultados: El 96% de las mujeres refiere tener un Papanicolaou en los últimos 3 años. El antecedente familiar es reportado por el 49,8% como causa de cáncer cérvicouterino. La barrera principal para adherir al Papanicolaou es la falta de conocimiento en cuanto a la edad requerida. La principal señal de acción que impulsa a que la mujer adhiera al tamizaje es la indicación entregada por el doctor. El beneficio mas importante es el cuidado de la salud. El 14,1% señala la presencia de relaciones sexuales como necesaria para adherir al tamizaje. El 17,4% de las mujeres se percibe fuera de riesgo de desarrollar un cáncer cérvicouterino. Las 6 dimensiones estudiadas se correlacionan entre si. Conclusión: Las creencias deben ser consideradas al momento de intervenir una población, empezando por valorarlas y comprenderlas para posteriormente poder modificarlas.Background: Many reasons has been described about relation between beliefs and cervical cancer behaviors. Objective: To describe the beliefs about cervical cancer and Pap test in a group of chilean women. Method: Cross sectional and analytic study was done with 333 chilean women. Beliefs about cervical cancer and Pap test was studied with the CPC-28 questionnaire, developed and validated in Chilean population. Results: 96% have had a Pap test in the last 3 years. Family history about cervical cancer was reported by 49.8% as a cause of cervical cancer. The principal barrier to Pap test was lack of knowledge about the age. The principal cue to action was the doctor recommendation. The benefit was the care of health. The sexual intercourse was reported by 14.1% as necessary to take a Pap test. The risk to develop cervical cancer is reported by 17.4%. The six dimensions studied were correlated between them. Conclusion: The beliefs must be considered to education programs, firstly understanding and then modifying them.

  1. Contribution of Major Hydrophilic and Lipophilic Antioxidants from Papaya Fruit to Total Antioxidant Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Gonza?lez-aguilar, Gustavo A.; Gayosso-garci?a Sancho, Laura E.; Yahia, Elhadi M.

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have shown that phenolic and carotenoid compounds protect against oxidative stress, reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases and some types of cancers. The objective of this research was to determine the individual contribution of the main phenolic compounds from the papaya fruit skin and the individual contribution of main carotenoids from the pulp for total antioxidant capacity at four ripening stages; and the individual and combined radical scavenging ability used the e...

  2. Estimativas de parâmetros genéticos e fenotípicos em mamão Estimates of genetic and phenotypic parameters in papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulcinéia Elizabete Foltran

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Na Estação Experimental de Tietê, estimaram-se os parâmetros genéticos e fenotípicos das variáveis altura da planta, diâmetro do caule a 10 e a 50 cm acima do nível do solo, comprimento do internódio mediano, número de folhas e índice foliar, a partir de dados tomados aos três, cinco e sete meses de idade, em um ensaio de oito progênies de meios-irmãos de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L.. As análises da variância foram significativas para altura das plantas, nas três idades; para diâmetro do caule a 10 cm de altura, aos sete meses, e para comprimento do internódio mediano, aos três e aos cinco meses. As estimativas do coeficiente de determinação genotípica, ao nível de médias de progênies, foram, na maioria, altas. Esses resultados mostram a possibilidade de sucesso na seleção massal para as variáveis estudadas.Genetic and phenotypic parameters of papaya (Carica papaya L. were estimated for plant height, stem diameter at 10 and 50 cm height (above the soil surface, number of leaves, internodes length and foliar index at the ages of three, five and seven months old. The experiment was conducted using eight half-sib progenies at Tietê Experimental Station, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The results of the variance analyses showed significant effects for plant height for the three ages; for stem diameter at 10 cm height, in seven month old plants; and for median internodes length in three and five month old plants. Estimates for the genotypic determination coefficient, for the average of progenies, were high in most of the cases. These results showed the possibility of a successful mass selection of papaya, for the variables studied.

  3. Immobilization of the Protease of Carica papaya on DEAE-cellulose

    OpenAIRE

    Bokhari, H.; Khan, M. R.

    2012-01-01

    Proteolytic enzymes can immobilize on different materials to constitute systems for continuous hydrolysis of protein substrates. They are mostly immobilized by binding some matrices filled in chromatographic columns and continuous proteolysis is accomplished by subsequent passing of the buffered substrates through the column bed from top to bottom and collecting of hydrolyzed products eluting out of the column from the bottom. Immobilization of the protease of Carica Papaya was carried out on...

  4. Caracterização anatômica de órgãos vegetativos do mamoeiro / Anatomical characterization of vegetative organs of papaya plants

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cláudia Elena, Carneiro; Jailson Lopes, Cruz.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O mamoeiro (Carica papaya L.) é uma planta cuja importância econômica cresceu bastante nos últimos anos, bem como os trabalhos científicos relacionados ao seu crescimento e à sua fisiologia. Infelizmente, foram realizados poucos trabalhos em relação à sua anatomia. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho é [...] caracterizar anatomicamente plantas do mamoeiro em estádios iniciais do crescimento. Esses estudos são importantes porque podem ser utilizados, principalmente, para correlações com o crescimento e a fisiologia dessa planta. Após coletadas, amostras frescas de raiz, caule e folha foram seccionadas transversalmente à mão livre, e os cortes submetidos ao processo de coloração com safranina e azul de astra. Observou-se que a raiz apresenta estrutura hexarca e caracteriza-se como sendo não axial. A estrutura anatômica do caule, nas regiões mais maduras, assemelha-se à estrutura do pecíolo. A lâmina foliar apresenta epiderme uniestratificada com mesofilo dorsiventral, e os estômatos anomocíticos são observados na face abaxial. Abstract in english Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a plant whose economic importance and scientific studies related to its growth and its physiology have greatly increased in recent years. Unfortunately, few researches in relation to its anatomy were performed. Thus, it was aimed to characterize the anatomically papaya p [...] lants in the early stages of growth. These studies are important because they can be used, mainly, for correlations with the growth and the physiology of this plant. After collected, the anatomical cuts of fresh root, stem and leaf were manually performed and their visualization were made through a coloration process using safranine and astra blue. The root structure is hexarc and is characterized as non-axial. The anatomical structure of the stem is similar to petiole in the mature parts. Leaf blade showed an uniestratified epidermis with dorsiventral mesophyll and anomocytic stomata were observed in the leaf abaxial surface.

  5. Studies on Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (Am.) Fungi on Mineral Nutrition of Carica papaya L.

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Bernard Felinov; Khade, Sharda Waman

    2009-01-01

    Experiment was conducted to study the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on mineral nutrition of Carica papaya var. Surya. The experiment comprised of un-inoculated seedlings, seedlings inoculated with Glomus intraradices Schenck & Smith, seedlings inoculated with Glomus mosseae [(Nicol. & Gerd.) Gerd. & Trappe] and seedlings inoculated with mixed inoculum [Glomus intraradices (Schenck & Smith) + Glomus mosseae (Nicol. & Gerd.) Gerd. & Trappe]. Studies revealed that total potassium and t...

  6. Estimativas de parâmetros genéticos e fenotípicos em mamão / Estimates of genetic and phenotypic parameters in papaya

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Dulcinéia Elizabete, Foltran; Paulo de Souza, Gonçalves; José Carlos, Sabino; Toshio, Igue; Regina Célia F., Vilela.

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Na Estação Experimental de Tietê, estimaram-se os parâmetros genéticos e fenotípicos das variáveis altura da planta, diâmetro do caule a 10 e a 50 cm acima do nível do solo, comprimento do internódio mediano, número de folhas e índice foliar, a partir de dados tomados aos três, cinco e sete meses de [...] idade, em um ensaio de oito progênies de meios-irmãos de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L.). As análises da variância foram significativas para altura das plantas, nas três idades; para diâmetro do caule a 10 cm de altura, aos sete meses, e para comprimento do internódio mediano, aos três e aos cinco meses. As estimativas do coeficiente de determinação genotípica, ao nível de médias de progênies, foram, na maioria, altas. Esses resultados mostram a possibilidade de sucesso na seleção massal para as variáveis estudadas. Abstract in english Genetic and phenotypic parameters of papaya (Carica papaya L.) were estimated for plant height, stem diameter at 10 and 50 cm height (above the soil surface), number of leaves, internodes length and foliar index at the ages of three, five and seven months old. The experiment was conducted using eigh [...] t half-sib progenies at Tietê Experimental Station, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The results of the variance analyses showed significant effects for plant height for the three ages; for stem diameter at 10 cm height, in seven month old plants; and for median internodes length in three and five month old plants. Estimates for the genotypic determination coefficient, for the average of progenies, were high in most of the cases. These results showed the possibility of a successful mass selection of papaya, for the variables studied.

  7. Testers for combining ability and selection of papaya hybrids resistant to fungal diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Eduardo Pessanha da Silva Terra; Messias Gonzaga Pereira; Marcelo Vivas; Silvaldo Felipe da Silveira

    2011-01-01

    Genetic resistance represents a sustainable alternative to disease control in papaya crop. The purpose of this studywas to evaluate the use of testers to estimate combining ability and select hybrids resistant to black spot, phoma spot and chocolatespot. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design with two replications and 20 plants per plot. The severity ofphoma spot and black spot on leaves and the lesion area of black spot and chocolate spot on fruits were evaluated in twosea...

  8. Establishing Optimal Dehydration Process Parameters for Papaya By EmployingA Firefly Algorithm, Goal Programming Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Julian Scott Yeomans

    2014-01-01

    This study employs a Firefly Algorithm (FA) to determine the optimal osmotic dehydration parameters for papaya. The functional form of the osmotic dehydration model is established via a standard response surface technique. The format of the resulting optimization model to be solved is a non-linear goal programming problem. While various alternate solution approaches are possible, an FA-driven procedure is employed. For optimization purposes, it has been demonstrated that the F...

  9. Reasoned opinion on the modification of MRLs for spirodiclofen in strawberries bananas, avocado, mango and papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, the Netherlands, herewith referred as the evaluating Member State (EMS, received an application from Bayer S.A.S-Bayer CropScience to modify the existing MRLs for spirodiclofen in strawberries and bananas and set import tolerances for papaya, avocado and mango. The Netherlands proposed to decrease the existing MRL for strawberries from 2 mg/kg to 0.02 mg/kg and to increase the MRL for banana from the limit of quantification 0.02* mg/kg to 0.3mg/kg. In order to accommodate the import of produce, the Netherlands proposed to set the MRL for papaya, mangos and avocados at 1.0 mg/kg. The Netherlands drafted an evaluation report according to Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, which was submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA. According to EFSA the data are sufficient to derive MRL proposals of 0.3 mg/kg for the proposed use in banana and 1.5 mg/kg to accommodate the reported use in the USA on avocado, noting that the MRL in the country of origin is set at the level of 1 mg/kg. EFSA has some reservations regarding the proposal that the residue trial results for avocado might be extrapolated to propose MRLs on papaya and mango. The intended use on strawberries is not adequately supported by residue data. Based on the risk assessment results, EFSA concludes that the proposed use of spirodiclofen on strawberry, banana, avocado, mango and papaya will not result in consumer exposure exceeding the toxicological reference value and therefore is unlikely to pose a consumer health risk.

  10. Prospects and problems of irradiating papaya. A case study in Hawaii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) ban of ethylene dibromide (EDB) as a fruit fumigant has forced Hawaii's papaya industry to search for alternative treatments. Among various alternatives considered, irradiation process is the most efficacious because fruits can be sorted, packaged, chilled and conveyed to an irradiator for low-dose treatments (0.26 kGy for disinfestation) before shipment to export markets. The papaya industry in Hawaii, however, has not assigned a high priority to the irradiation process. Instead, the industry opted for the double-dip hot water treatment which was rushed to become an USDA-approved procedure shortly before 1 September 1984. Three major concerns expressed by the papaya industry about the irradiation process as a replacement for chemical fumigation are: (1) Capital investment; (2) Logistics of irradiation processing and fruit transport; and (3) Consumer acceptance. The outlook for radiation disinfestation of Hawaii-grown papaya is quite good in spite of these concerns expressed by the industry. Some packers are beginning to feel that there are more advantages and benefits in adopting this process than the disadvantage of negative publicity about nuclear technology. With the availability of irradiation, the fruit and vegetable industry in Hawaii could be expanded by increased production and sales of new or existing crops. A worthwhile task ahead would be for the food industry, government agencies and researchers stry, government agencies and researchers to join forces in conducting an effective consumer education programme by assuring the public that irradiated foods are safe. Concurrently, certain segments of the food industry should consider and prepare for the processing and marketing of irradiated foods. (author)

  11. Phenol induced by irradiation does not impair sensory quality of fenugreek and papaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Suchandra; Variyar, Prasad S.; Sharma, Arun

    2013-11-01

    The effect of radiation processing on the sensory quality of fenugreek and papaya exposed to doses in the range of 2.5-10 kGy and 100 Gy-2.5 kGy respectively was investigated. Despite an increase in the content of phenol in the volatile oil of these food products overall sensory quality of the irradiated and control samples was not significantly affected by radiation processing.

  12. Bioseparation of papain from Carica papaya latex by precipitation of papain-poly (vinyl sulfonate) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braia, Mauricio; Ferrero, Maximiliano; Rocha, María Victoria; Loureiro, Dana; Tubio, Gisela; Romanini, Diana

    2013-09-01

    The formation of insoluble complexes between enzymes and polyelectrolytes is a suitable technique for isolating these biomolecules from natural sources, because it is a simple and rapid technique that allows the concentration of the protein. This technique can be used in most purification protocols at the beginning of the downstream process. The aim of this investigation is to isolate papain from Carica papaya latex by precipitation of insoluble complexes between this enzyme and poly (vinyl sulfonate). The papain-poly (vinyl sulfonate) complex was insoluble at pH lower than 6, with a PVS/PAP stoichiometric ratio of 1:279. Ionic strength affected the complex formation. The presence of the polymer increased the enzymatic activity and protected the enzyme from autodegradation. The optimal conditions for the formation of insoluble papain-polyelectrolyte complex formation were applied to C. papaya latex and a high recovery was obtained (around 86%) and a purification factor around 2. This method can be applied as an isolation method of papain from C. papaya latex or as a first step in a larger purification strategy. PMID:23891572

  13. Gamma irradiation as a quarantine treatment for carambola, papaya and mango

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary experiments carried out on the effects of irradiation on carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.), papaya (Carica papaya L.) and mango (Mangifera indica L.) with regard to fruit fly treatment, fruit injury and the physicochemical and organoleptic properties showed that irradiation can be successfully developed and should be investigated further as a quarantine treatment for these fruits. Emergence of normal adult fruit flies of the Dacus dorsalis complex did not occur when infested carambolas were treated at doses as low as 100 Gy. Carambola showed external symptoms of injury at irradiation doses in excess of 200 Gy. There appeared to be some reduction in sugar content at doses exceeding 100 Gy. Papaya, cv. ''Eksotika'', tolerated irradiation up to 300 Gy. Irradiation at this dose did not alter the ripening behaviour, nor did it cause any injury or alter the organoleptic properties of the fruit. An additional benefit was that doses above 250 Gy significantly reduced freckling of the fruit and enhanced its cosmetic value. ''Eksotika'' is an ideal candidate for quarantine treatment using gamma irradiation. Mango, cv. ''Harumanis'', tolerated irradiation fairly well. Exposure of fruit to doses of up to 750 Gy did not produce significant injury. (author). 13 refs, 2 figs, 17 tabs

  14. Relationship between photochemical efficiency (JIP-Test Parameters and portable chlorophyll meter readings in papaya plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Assumpção Castro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Portable Chlorophyll Meter (PCM is used to estimate the total chlorophyll and leaf nitrogen content of various species. Since there is a relationship between the chlorophyll concentration and the photochemical efficiency, a relationship can also be established between the PCM readings and some fluorescence variables to provide information on photosystem II (PSII structure and activity. Papaya (Carica papaya L. plants ['Sunrise Solo' (leaves with intense green coloring and 'Golden' cultivars (leaves with yellow-green coloring were grown in a greenhouse with 30% interception of photosynthetically active photon flux density. The plants were cultivated in 15L plastics pots. Ninety to 100 days after planting the older leaves turned yellow and the chlorophyll fluorescence variables and PCM readings were measured. At low PCM values (less than 30 to 'Sunrise Solo' and less than 20 to 'Golden' the PSII structure and activity were damaged, which is likely related to a reduction in the numbers of active reaction centers (RC/CS0. At higher PCM values the chlorophyll a fluorescence variables (ABS/RC, DI0/RC, TR0/CS0 e ET0/CS0 that are related to PSII structure and activity PSII were not responsive. These results indicated that the effects of chlorophyll content measured by PCM on the photochemical phase of photosynthesis evaluated by chlorophyll fluorescence occur after the degradation of chlorophyll molecules is initiated. In papaya the Portable Chlorophyll Meter (SPAD-502 was shown to be suitable for diagnosis of PSII energy distribution under N stress and senescence.

  15. Antifungal Activity in Ethanolic Extracts of Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol Leaves and Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Quintal, Pedro; González-Flores, Tania; Rodríguez-Buenfil, Ingrid; Gallegos-Tintoré, Santiago

    2011-01-01

    Bioactive compounds from vegetal sources are a potential source of natural antifungic. An ethanol extraction was used to obtain bioactive compounds from Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol leaves and seeds of discarded ripe and unripe fruit. Both, extraction time and the papaya tissue flour:organic solvent ratio significantly affected yield, with the longest time and highest flour:solvent ratio producing the highest yield. The effect of time on extraction efficiency was confirmed by qualitative identification of the compounds present in the lowest and highest yield extracts. Analysis of the leaf extract with phytochemical tests showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenes. Antifungal effectiveness was determined by challenging the extracts (LE, SRE, SUE) from the best extraction treatment against three phytopathogenic fungi: Rhizopus stolonifer, Fusarium spp. and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. The leaf extract exhibited the broadest action spectrum. The MIC(50) for the leaf extract was 0.625 mg ml(-1) for Fusarium spp. and >10 mg ml(-1) for C. gloeosporioides, both equal to approximately 20% mycelial growth inhibition. Ethanolic extracts from Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol leaves are a potential source of secondary metabolites with antifungal properties. PMID:22282629

  16. Severity of papaya ringspot in different genotypes of the Solo group introduced in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Rodríguez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The severity of Papaya ring-spot virus (PRSV-P induced symptoms was evaluated in five papaya´s genotypes fromthe Solo group introduced in Cuba. Under field conditions different organs of plants were samples by grading from1 to 5. Additional, evaluations regarding incubation period, number of infected plants and disease intensity wereevaluated under the greenhouse conditions. The intensity of symptoms varies according to experimental conditions.In the fields conditions `Sunset´, `Baixinho de Santa Amalia´ and `Golden´ showed most intensities symptoms, whilethe rest behaved as moderate. Under greenhouse conditions `BH-65´ and `Sunset´ developed strong symptoms,`Golden´ and `Baixinho de Santa Amalia´ were intermediate and `Sunrise Solo´ was the less affected. `Sunset´,`Sunrise Solo´ and `Golden´ showed the most severe affectations in the fruits. In the fields less severe symptomswere developed in the leaves than those in other parts of the plant, and under the greenhouse conditions. These arethe firsts results obtained in Cuba about this genotypes from the Solo group vs PRSV-P, revealing important resultsfor the genetic breeding programs and varieties diversifications studies of this fruit.

  17. Chemical characterization of the flour of peel and seed from two papaya cultivars

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cláudia Mendes dos, Santos; Celeste Maria Patto de, Abreu; Juliana Mesquita, Freire; Estela de Rezende, Queiroz; Marcelle Mendes, Mendonça.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Papaya is among the currently most important tropical fruits grown in Brazil and in the world. The fruit is mainly consumed fresh although it offers many industrial products. The processing of this fruit, as well as its fresh consumption, results in large amounts of waste, such as peels and seeds. P [...] apaya consumption is one of the causes of significant loss of food value; therefore, new aspects on the use of its waste as by-products, or in the production of food additives, or even the incorporation of its flour in food have aroused great interest because these are products of high nutritional value, and their use may be economically viable. The objective of this study was to produce and characterize peel and seed flours from two papaya cultivars (Havai and Calimosa) for their chemical constituents focusing on possible use in foods. The proximate and mineral composition, titratable acidity, soluble solids, pH, contents of vitamin C, and phenolic compounds were determined. According to the results obtained, the papaya peel and seed flours had high contents of protein and fiber and therefore can be used as alternative sources of nutrients and can also be added in foods avoiding waste and adding value to the fruit.

  18. Isolation of natural inhibitors of papain obtained from Carica papaya latex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Monti

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out to natural papain inhibitor from papaya latex. Fresh latex from green fruits of Carica papaya was collected and immediately transported in ice bath to the lab, from which three fractions with inhibitor effect of esterase papain activity were isolated by latex dialysis, Sephadex G-25 gel filtration and ionic exchange chromatography in SP-Sephadex C-25. The isolated fractions, identified as inhibitors I and II, showed a negative reaction with ninhydrin; however, the fraction identified as P-III showed positive reaction with ninhydrin. Kinetics data showed non-competitive inhibition (inhibitor I and uncompetitive (inhibitors II and P-III.Este trabalho apresenta novos dados sobre inibidores naturais de papaína. O látex fresco de frutos verdes de Carica papaya foi coletado pela manhã em plantações da região de Araraquara, SP, Brasil e imediatamente transportado ao laboratório em banho de gelo. Três frações com efeito inibitório da atividade esterásica da papaína foram isoladas a partir do látex fresco, através de diálise, filtração em Sephadex G-25 e cromatografia em SP-Sephadex C-25. As frações isoladas identificadas como inibidores I e II, mostraram reação negativa à ninidrina; entretanto, a fração identificada como P-III mostrou reação positiva. Dados cinéticos revelaram inibição não-competitiva (inibidor I e incompetitiva (inibidores II e P-III.

  19. Isolation of natural inhibitors of papain obtained from Carica papaya latex

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rubens, Monti; Jonas, Contiero; Antonio José, Goulart.

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho apresenta novos dados sobre inibidores naturais de papaína. O látex fresco de frutos verdes de Carica papaya foi coletado pela manhã em plantações da região de Araraquara, SP, Brasil e imediatamente transportado ao laboratório em banho de gelo. Três frações com efeito inibitório da ati [...] vidade esterásica da papaína foram isoladas a partir do látex fresco, através de diálise, filtração em Sephadex G-25 e cromatografia em SP-Sephadex C-25. As frações isoladas identificadas como inibidores I e II, mostraram reação negativa à ninidrina; entretanto, a fração identificada como P-III mostrou reação positiva. Dados cinéticos revelaram inibição não-competitiva (inibidor I) e incompetitiva (inibidores II e P-III). Abstract in english Studies were carried out to natural papain inhibitor from papaya latex. Fresh latex from green fruits of Carica papaya was collected and immediately transported in ice bath to the lab, from which three fractions with inhibitor effect of esterase papain activity were isolated by latex dialysis, Sepha [...] dex G-25 gel filtration and ionic exchange chromatography in SP-Sephadex C-25. The isolated fractions, identified as inhibitors I and II, showed a negative reaction with ninhydrin; however, the fraction identified as P-III showed positive reaction with ninhydrin. Kinetics data showed non-competitive inhibition (inhibitor I) and uncompetitive (inhibitors II and P-III).

  20. LEAF GAS EXCHANGE CHARACTERISTICS OF FOUR PAPAYA GENOTYPES DURING DIFFERENT STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAMPOSTRINI ELIEMAR

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, was used four papaya (Carica papaya L. genotypes: three from the 'Solo ( Sunrise Solo TJ, Sunrise Solo 72/12 and Baixinho de Santa Amália group and one from the 'Formosa' group (Know-You 01. They were grown in plastic pots containing a sandy-clay-loam soil subjected to pH correction and fertilization, under greenhouse conditions. Throughout the experimental period plants were subjected to periodic irrigation to maintain the soil humitidy around field capacity. The experiment was conducted 73 days after sowing. In all genotypes, leaf gas exchange characteristics were determined. The net photosynthetic rate (A, mumol m-2 s-1 , stomatal conductance (g s mol m-2 s-1, leaf temperature (T I, 0C and intercellular carbon dioxide concentration (ci, muL L-1 on the 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th and 9th leaves from the plant apex were determined. No significant differences were observed for A, g s, c i, or Tl either among the leaves sampled from any of the genotypes. A was positively correlated with g s and in the other hand T I and g s were negatively correlated. The results suggest that, for 73 DAP, all the sampled papaya leaves functioned as sources of organs.

  1. Validación chilena del cuestionario de evaluación de apego en el adulto CAMIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lusmenia Garrido

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue examinar la confiabilidad y validez del instrumento de evaluación de apego en el adulto, .Cartes: Modèles Individuels de Relation (CAMIR., en la realidad sociocultural chilena. Este instrumento, basado en la teoría del apego, es un cuestionario de auto-reporte que evalúa los modelos operativos internos en adultos y otras escalas relacionadas al apego. Los participantes fueron 578 sujetos, 204 hombres y 374 mujeres, con edades entre 14 y 80 años. Los sujetos completaron el CAMIR y medidas de vínculo y sintomatología actual, a través del Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI and Outcome Questionnaire OQ-45.2. A través del análisis estadístico de los resultados se evaluaron las características psicométricas del test y se analiz ó la posibilidad de generar normas locales para la prueba. Los resultados confirmaron que el CAMIR es un instrumento confiable y válido en la evaluación de los modelos internos de relación en adultos.

  2. Estimacion de VAR Bayesianos para la Economia Chilena / Estimating Bayesian VAR for the Chilean Economy

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Patricio, Jaramillo G.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este trabajo se estiman VAR Bayesianos para la economía chilena. Bajo esta metodología se estudian los mecanismos de transmisión de la política monetaria y se realizan ejercicios de proyecciones para las principales variables macroeconómicas. Luego se contrastan estos resultados con los obtenidos [...] de estimaciones de VAR tradicionales presentados en la literatura previa y se discuten algunas implicancias para el diseño de la política monetaria. Abstract in english In this paper Bayesian Vector Autoregression (BVAR) models are estimated for the Chilean economy. Under this approach, the transmission mechanisms of monetary policy and forecast exercises are studied and evaluated for the main macroeconomic variables. Then, the results are contrasted with the stand [...] ard VAR models presented in the previous literature for the case of Chile and the implications for the monetary policy design are discussed.

  3. Tiempo, memoria, escritura (a propósito de la narrativa chilena Time, memory, writing (regarding chilean narrative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Lillo Cabezas

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available El artículo es una reflexión previa que intenta fundamentar teóricamente los problemas del tiempo, de la memoria y de la escritura presentes en la narrativa chilena posterior a 1990, por ejemplo, de Gonzalo Contreras. La carencia de espesor temporal, la memoria reprimida o silenciada y la escritura incapaz de dar cuenta del pasado son hipótesis que vertebran las reflexiones.This article is a theoretical reflection on the issues of time, memory and writing in the Chilean contemporary narrative after 1990, including the works of Gonzalo Contreras. The lack of time density, the repressed or silenced memory and the incapacity of writing to deal with the past are the axis of this article.

  4. Tiempo, memoria, escritura (a propósito de la narrativa chilena) / Time, memory, writing (regarding chilean narrative)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mario, Lillo Cabezas.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El artículo es una reflexión previa que intenta fundamentar teóricamente los problemas del tiempo, de la memoria y de la escritura presentes en la narrativa chilena posterior a 1990, por ejemplo, de Gonzalo Contreras. La carencia de espesor temporal, la memoria reprimida o silenciada y la escritura [...] incapaz de dar cuenta del pasado son hipótesis que vertebran las reflexiones. Abstract in english This article is a theoretical reflection on the issues of time, memory and writing in the Chilean contemporary narrative after 1990, including the works of Gonzalo Contreras. The lack of time density, the repressed or silenced memory and the incapacity of writing to deal with the past are the axis o [...] f this article.

  5. Acidez de la corteza de algunas especies nativas chilenas / Bark acidity of some Chilean native species

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    HERNAN, POBLETE; EDMONE, ROFFAEL.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se determinó la cantidad de extraíbles y la acidez en corteza de cuatro especies nativas chilenas (arrayán, coigüe, canelo, tepa). Los resultados muestran que el valor de pH varía en forma importante dependiendo de la especie. Diferencias similares se registraron para la capacidad tampón alcalina, e [...] l contenido de ácidos volátiles y el número de Stiasny. También se pudo verificar que el efecto de un tratamiento térmico es variable dependiendo de la especie. Abstract in english The amount of extracts and bark acidity from four different Chilean hardwoods (arrayán, coigüe, canelo and tepa) was measured and results revealed that the pH of the bark differed depending on the species. This is also valid for the buffering capacity of the extracts, the amount of volatile acids an [...] d the Stiasny value. The influence of a thermal treatment differed depending on the species.

  6. Toponimia chilena: "la lejana posesión" / Chilean toponymy: the far-away possession

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Guillermo, Latorre.

    Full Text Available La toponimia de la Isla de Pascua está casi totalmente dominada por vocablos pascuenses. Este predominio ha aumentado a pesar de las expediciones holandesas, españolas e inglesas durante el siglo XVIII, las misiones religiosas francesas, las asonadas esclavistas desde Perú y la toma de posesión y ad [...] ministración chilenas durante el siglo siguiente. Estas visitas, muy especialmente la de la expedición española de 1770, deberían haber extinguido los topónimos rapa nui, como ha sucedido con otras lenguas autóctonas en Chile. Muy por el contrario, muchos nombres pascuenses ya se habían establecido a mediados del siglo XIX y con la administración chilena se ha producido un aumento en la toponimia vernácula, hasta el punto de que ella es dominante en la actualidad. La supervivencia del rapa nui como lengua viva es solamente uno de los factores que explican este predominio. Abstract in english The toponymy of Easter Island is almost completely dominated by names in Rapa Nui, the native language. This dominance has increased in spite of the Dutch, Spanish and English expeditions during the eighteenth century as well as the French religious missions, the slave raids from Peru , and the Chil [...] ean administration of the island during the following century. All of these, particularly the Spanish expedition of 1770, should have resulted in the extinction of the Rapa Nui toponymy, as has happened with other native languages in Chile. Quite the contrary, many native place names were already established by the middle of the nineteenth century; under Chilean administration there has been an increase in the vernacular place names, to such an extent that the latter are dominant at present. The survival of Rapa Nui as a living language is just one of the factors accounting for this dominance.

  7. Mutación discursiva en las Ciencias Sociales chilenas: Lecturas de un texto de Francisco Gallardo

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Miguel, Alvarado Borgoño.

    Full Text Available En este artículo daremos cuenta del surgimiento en los últimos 25 años en Chile de un tipo textual original bastante desconocido para los circuitos académicos que representa un desafío desde el punto de vista de su clasificación y análisis; denominamos al conjunto de estos textos como «antropología [...] poética». Nuestro intento de ubicar nuestra interrogante tipológica en el tema puntual del «género» en el cual sería posible ubicar a estas obras. La hipótesis del presente artículo consistirá en afirmar que el conjunto de obras compuesto por la «antropología poética chilena» consiste básicamente en un tipo distinto de producción textual, iniciadora de un nuevo género discursivo. Con este fin se analiza una obra representativa de esta corriente, el libro del chileno Francisco Gallardo "Antropología. Cruzando a través de", obra que expresa de manera especialmente nítida la originalidad de la Antropología Poética Chilena. Abstract in english In this article we will inform about the sprouting in the last 25 years in Chile of an original textual type rather unknown for the academic circuits which represents a challenge from the point of view of its classification and analysis, we call this set of texts poetical anthropology. Our attempt t [...] o locate our tipological question in the precise subject of the genre, in which it would be possible to locate to these works, the hypothesis of the this article will consist in affirming that the work assembly made up of Chilean poetical anthropology consists basically in a different type of textual production, introducer of a new text genre. It is for that reason that we will analyze the book of the Francisco Gallado titled "Antropología. Cruzando a través" like example of this new hybrid genre

  8. Mutación discursiva en las Ciencias Sociales chilenas: Lecturas de un texto de Francisco Gallardo

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    Miguel Alvarado Borgoño

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo daremos cuenta del surgimiento en los últimos 25 años en Chile de un tipo textual original bastante desconocido para los circuitos académicos que representa un desafío desde el punto de vista de su clasificación y análisis; denominamos al conjunto de estos textos como «antropología poética». Nuestro intento de ubicar nuestra interrogante tipológica en el tema puntual del «género» en el cual sería posible ubicar a estas obras. La hipótesis del presente artículo consistirá en afirmar que el conjunto de obras compuesto por la «antropología poética chilena» consiste básicamente en un tipo distinto de producción textual, iniciadora de un nuevo género discursivo. Con este fin se analiza una obra representativa de esta corriente, el libro del chileno Francisco Gallardo "Antropología. Cruzando a través de", obra que expresa de manera especialmente nítida la originalidad de la Antropología Poética Chilena.In this article we will inform about the sprouting in the last 25 years in Chile of an original textual type rather unknown for the academic circuits which represents a challenge from the point of view of its classification and analysis, we call this set of texts poetical anthropology. Our attempt to locate our tipological question in the precise subject of the genre, in which it would be possible to locate to these works, the hypothesis of the this article will consist in affirming that the work assembly made up of Chilean poetical anthropology consists basically in a different type of textual production, introducer of a new text genre. It is for that reason that we will analyze the book of the Francisco Gallado titled "Antropología. Cruzando a través" like example of this new hybrid genre

  9. CALIDAD DE VIDA RELACIONADA CON EL CLIMATERIO EN UNA POBLACIÓN CHILENA DE MUJERES SALUDABLES

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    Sócrates Aedo M

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Aplicar una versión chilena de la escala MRS para evaluar calidad de vida de mujeres climatéricas. Métodos: Aplicación de la versión chilena de la escala MRS a mujeres de 45-64 años inscritas en el SSMO: Grupo 1, concurrentes a controles preventivos de salud (n=844 y Grupo 2, concurrentes a ginecólogo (n=360. Resultados: El adecuado comportamiento del instrumento fue confirmado porque el análisis de confiabilidad interna, que presentó un alfa de Crombach >0,86; la confiabilidad externa mostró una correlación en re-encuesta del Grupo 1 y 2 con coeficiente de Pearson pObjective: To apply a chilean version of the MRS scale to evaluate quality of life in climacteric women. Methods: Application of chilean version of the MRS scale in 45-64 year-old women registered at Metropolitan Health Service (MHS of Chile. Group 1, women attending programmed health preventive controls (n=844; and Group 2, women who require attention by gynecologist (n=360. Results: The suitable behavior of the used instrument was confirmed because the analysis of internal reliability showed Crombach's alpha >0.8; external reliability showed correlation in re-test of both group with Pearson's coefficient p<0.01 for the 11 items under study and for the somatic, psychological and urogenital domains; the validity of content was confirmed because in the 2 groups in study 3 domains in the contents could be found (psychological, somatic and urogenital as seen in other countries; and the discriminative validity of the chilean version of the MRS scale demonstrated that both group of informed scores orient to a deterioration of quality of life in relation to the climacteric, being significantly greater the deterioration into the group 2. Conclusion: The Chilean version of the MRS scale is comparable methodologically to the original version of Heinemann and it allowed to evaluate as the quality of life in relation to the climacteric in a Chilean population is affected

  10. Literatura chilena de exilio, un vacío epistemológico / Chilean literature of exile, an epistemological emptiness

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sol Marina, Garay C.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este artículo se presenta como una reflexión acerca del desinterés actual que supone, dentro del panorama literario en Chile, el estudio de la literatura creada por autores y autoras chilenas durante el exilio chileno ocurrido entre 1973 y 1989. Una reflexión que espero sirva como referente para aqu [...] ellos investigadores que se interesen por estudiar y dar a conocer los diversos corpus literarios vinculados al exilio chileno vivido en diferentes países del mundo. Una producción literaria aún por desvelar y que agrupa un conjunto de corpus literarios que nos hablan del pasado reciente de Chile y sus habitantes, una literatura chilena de exilio en la cual las experiencias de dolor y desarraigo dan paso a la apertura al otro y al encuentro con diversas memorias culturales. Abstract in english This paper presents a reflection on the current lack of interest within the literary scene of Chile related to the study of literature created by Chilean authors during their exile abroad between 1973 and 1989. A reflection that I hope will serve as a reference for those researchers who are interest [...] ed in studying and publicizing the different literary corpus that came up during the Chilean exile in different countries all over the world. A literature which is still to reveal and that groups together a wide range of literary corpus telling the story of the recent past suffered by Chile and its people, a Chilean literature of exile in which the experiences of pain and uprooting paved the way for an opening to each other as well as for the meeting and the interaction of various cultural memories.

  11. CARACTERIZACIÓN DE COMPOST A BASE DE ESPINILLO EN RELACIÓN A LA NORMA CHILENA No2880

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    Ricardo Tighe-Neira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Caracterización de compost a base de espinillo en relación a la Norma Chilena No2880. El objetivo de este estudio fue caracterizar el compost a base de espinillo (Ulex europaeus L. y contrastar sus características físico-químicas con las de la Norma Chilena de compost (NCh 2880. El ensayo se montó en el Centro Experimental Pillanlelbún, Temuco, Chile, entre diciembre 2010 y abril de 2011. Se empleó un diseño factorial de 2×2, los factores fueron: mezcla y acelerador de compostaje (AC, ambos en dos niveles. Cuatro tratamientos: T1 U. europaeus (100% sin AC, T2 U. europaeus (78% + estiércol de bovino (22% sin AC, T3 U. europaeus (100% con AC y T4 U. europaeus (78% + estiércol de bovino (22% con AC. Se evaluó el contenido de materia orgánica (MO%, C orgánico total (%, relación C:N, N total (%, humedad (Ho%, tamaño partículas (TP%, toxicidad (% germinación de Raphanus sativus L., pH, densidad aparente (DAP kg/m3, conductividad eléctrica (CE dS/m y germinación de malezas (No de propágulos. Los tratamientos U. europaeus (100% sin AC y con AC presentaron mayor %MO, %N total y relación C:N que T2 y T4. A la vez, U. europaeus (100% sin AC, presentó un menor %C y T2 menor pH en comparación al resto de los tratamientos. Las demás variables evaluadas no presentaron diferencias significativas. Todas cumplieron con la NCh 2880, excepto toxicidad en el tratamiento con solo U. europaeus, y la CE en todos los tratamientos. Se debe reducir la CE para poder optar a su certificación por la NCh 2880.

  12. Patrones de crecimiento urbano en la Patagonia chilena: el caso de la ciudad de Coyhaique

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gerardo, Azócar García; Mauricio, Aguayo Arias; Cristian, Henríquez Ruiz; Claudia, Vega Montero; Rodrigo, Sanhueza Contreras.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las políticas de Estado junto con la importante oferta/demanda de productos inmobiliarios para población de mayor ingreso han orientado el desarrollo reciente de varias ciudades chilenas, originando nuevas formas urbanas. Si bien estos procesos han sido descritos y analizados para varias ciudades y [...] áreas metropolitanas de Chile central, no existen suficientes antecedentes empíricos que den cuenta de la realidad del desarrollo urbano de las ciudades más australes del país, como el caso de Coyhaique en la Patagonia chilena. Este trabajo pretende identificar y analizar los patrones de urbanización de esta ciudad, en un contexto territorial caracterizado, entre otros aspectos, por la fragmentación geográfica, el aislamiento, dispersión de los centros poblados y concentración de la población en la capital regional. Se analiza la evolución y factores explicativos que dan cuenta de su rápido proceso de urbanización y, sobre la base de documentos técnicos, históricos y geográficos, se presentan estimaciones futuras del crecimiento de la ciudad. Abstract in english State policies and real estate market destined to people with more economic power, have orientated the recent development of many Chilean cities, reinforcing old urban patterns and creating new ones. Even though these processes have been described and analyzed for many cities and metropolitan areas [...] of Central Chile, there hasn't been enough evidence about the urban development in Southern Chilean cities; such is the case of Coyhaique, located in Chilean Patagonia. From this perspective this work aims to identify and analyze the urban growth patterns in the city, in a territorial context characterized, besides other aspects, for geographical fragmentation, isolation, dispersion of towns and concentration of population, services and facilities inside the regional capital. The urban growth pattern was analyzed using historical reviews about the evolution since the foundation in 1929. The methods used were GIS and photo interpretation of satellite images of different periods. Finally, urban growth estimation was made based on technical studies.

  13. Effects of Chitosan or Calcium Chloride on External Postharvest Qualities and Shelf-Life of ‘Holland’ Papaya Fruit

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    B. Chutichudet

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Papaya (Carica papaya L. is an important fruit widely cultivated commercially throughout Thailand. Its all year around fruit bearing capability makes papaya a popular fruit with Thai people. Unfortunately, papaya has a very limited shelf-life, as such; the objective of this research was to delay the external postharvest qualities by using chitosan and calcium chloride on the ‘Holland’ variety of papaya fruit. The experiment was arranged in a Factorial Completely Randomized Design, composed of two factors: coating with chitosan at four concentrations (1.0, 1.5, 2.0 or 2.5% or dipping in calcium chloride solution at four levels (1.0, 1.5, 2.0, or 2.5%, compared with control fruits. After treating, all treatments were stored under ambient temperature (27 °C, 80% R.H.. The results showed that fruit treated with chitosan, irrespective of any concentrations, had the least similar fruit weight loss after six days of storage; however, fruit-treated  with 2.5% chitosan showed the maximum fruit firmness and a delayed red color appearance on the fruit skin. In addition, the best treatment for extending shelf-life proved to be from a treatment of 2.5% chitosan.

  14. Repeated Dose 28-Days Oral Toxicity Study of Carica papaya L. Leaf Extract in Sprague Dawley Rats

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    Hussin Muhammad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Carica papaya L. leaves have been used in ethnomedicine for the treatment of fevers and cancers. Despite its benefits, very few studies on their potential toxicity have been described. The aim of the present study was to characterize the chemical composition of the leaf extract from ‘Sekaki’ C. papaya cultivar by UPLC-TripleTOF-ESI-MS and to investigate the sub-acute oral toxicity in Sprague Dawley rats at doses of 0.01, 0.14 and 2 g/kg by examining the general behavior, clinical signs, hematological parameters, serum biochemistry and histopathology changes. A total of twelve compounds consisting of one piperidine alkaloid, two organic acids, six malic acid derivatives, and four flavonol glycosides were characterized or tentatively identified in the C. papaya leaf extract. In the sub-acute study, the C. papaya extract did not cause mortality nor were treatment-related changes in body weight, food intake, water level, and hematological parameters observed between treatment and control groups. Some biochemical parameters such as the total protein, HDL-cholesterol, AST, ALT and ALP were elevated in a non-dose dependent manner. Histopathological examination of all organs including liver did not reveal morphological alteration. Other parameters showed non-significant differences between treatment and control groups. The present results suggest that C. papaya leaf extract at a dose up to fourteen times the levels employed in practical use in traditional medicine in Malaysia could be considered safe as a medicinal agent.

  15. Repeated dose 28-days oral toxicity study of Carica papaya L. leaf extract in Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzan, Adlin; Abdullah, Noor Rain; Halim, Siti Zaleha; Rashid, Badrul Amini; Semail, Raja Hazlini Raja; Abdullah, Noordini; Jantan, Ibrahim; Muhammad, Hussin; Ismail, Zakiah

    2012-01-01

    Carica papaya L. leaves have been used in ethnomedicine for the treatment of fevers and cancers. Despite its benefits, very few studies on their potential toxicity have been described. The aim of the present study was to characterize the chemical composition of the leaf extract from 'Sekaki' C. papaya cultivar by UPLC-TripleTOF-ESI-MS and to investigate the sub-acute oral toxicity in Sprague Dawley rats at doses of 0.01, 0.14 and 2 g/kg by examining the general behavior, clinical signs, hematological parameters, serum biochemistry and histopathology changes. A total of twelve compounds consisting of one piperidine alkaloid, two organic acids, six malic acid derivatives, and four flavonol glycosides were characterized or tentatively identified in the C. papaya leaf extract. In the sub-acute study, the C. papaya extract did not cause mortality nor were treatment-related changes in body weight, food intake, water level, and hematological parameters observed between treatment and control groups. Some biochemical parameters such as the total protein, HDL-cholesterol, AST, ALT and ALP were elevated in a non-dose dependent manner. Histopathological examination of all organs including liver did not reveal morphological alteration. Other parameters showed non-significant differences between treatment and control groups. The present results suggest that C. papaya leaf extract at a dose up to fourteen times the levels employed in practical use in traditional medicine in Malaysia could be considered safe as a medicinal agent. PMID:22491681

  16. Purification and characterization of a wound-inducible thaumatin-like protein from the latex of Carica papaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looze, Yvan; Boussard, Paule; Huet, Joëlle; Vandenbusche, Guy; Vandenbussche, Guy; Azarkan, Mohamed; Raussens, Vincent; Wintjens, René

    2009-05-01

    A 22.137 kDa protein constituent of fresh latex was isolated both from the latex of regularly damaged papaya trees and from a commercially available papain preparation. The protein was purified up to apparent homogeneity and was shown to be absent in the latex of papaya trees that had never been previously mechanically injured. This suggests that the protein belongs to pathogenesis-related protein family, as expected for several other protein constituents of papaya latex. The protein was identified as a thaumatin-like protein (class 5 of the pathogenesis-related proteins) on the basis of its partial amino acid sequence. By sequence analysis of the Carica genome, three different forms of thaumatin-like protein were identified, where the latex constituent belongs to a well-known form, allowing the molecular modeling of its spatial structure. The papaya latex thaumatin-like protein was further characterized. The protein appears to be stable in the pH interval from 2 to 10 and resistant to chemical denaturation by guanidium chloride, with a DeltaG(water)(0) of 15.2 kcal/mol and to proteolysis by the four papaya cysteine proteinases. The physiological role of this protein is discussed. PMID:19527911

  17. Effects of Carica papaya (paw paw) seeds extract on the morphology of pituitary-gonadal axis of male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udoh, Paul; Essien, Itohowo; Udoh, Francis

    2005-12-01

    The effects of oral administration of Carica papaya seeds extract on the morphology of pituitary, testes and sex accessory glands were studied. The C. papaya extract (50 and 200 mg/kg/day) was administered orally to sexually mature male Wistar rats for 1 and 8 weeks, respectively. The control group received corn oil (vehicle) only. The animals were killed after 1 and 8 weeks treatment for histological preparation. The microscopic examination of the sections of pituitary gonadotrophs (FSH and LH cells) treated with 200 mg/kg of C. papaya extract showed pronounced hypertrophy, while section of rats treated with 50 mg/kg showed mild hypertrophy and hyperplasia. Whereas the testes of rats treated with C. papaya extract at 50 and 200 mg/kg revealed gradual degeneration of germ cells, Sertoli cells and Leydig cells as well as germinal epithelium. However, tubules of epididymes of rats treated with extract, 200 mg/kg, appeared empty indicating the degeneration of sperm cells in the lumina. The sections of prostate glands of rats treated with 200 mg/kg extract showed coagulation of secretion in the lumina as well as empty tubules with cell debris, while the effect was reduced in rats treated with 50 mg/kg. The seminal vesicles showed progressive collapse and shrinkage of villi. These results suggest that C. papaya extract interfered with the pituitary - gonadal axis to influence male reproductive functions, which confirmed its antifertility property as reported previously. PMID:16372375

  18. A physical map of the papaya genome with integrated genetic map and genome sequence

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    Luo Ming-Cheng

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Papaya is a major fruit crop in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide and has primitive sex chromosomes controlling sex determination in this trioecious species. The papaya genome was recently sequenced because of its agricultural importance, unique biological features, and successful application of transgenic papaya for resistance to papaya ringspot virus. As a part of the genome sequencing project, we constructed a BAC-based physical map using a high information-content fingerprinting approach to assist whole genome shotgun sequence assembly. Results The physical map consists of 963 contigs, representing 9.4× genome equivalents, and was integrated with the genetic map and genome sequence using BAC end sequences and a sequence-tagged high-density genetic map. The estimated genome coverage of the physical map is about 95.8%, while 72.4% of the genome was aligned to the genetic map. A total of 1,181 high quality overgo (overlapping oligonucleotide probes representing conserved sequences in Arabidopsis and genetically mapped loci in Brassica were anchored on the physical map, which provides a foundation for comparative genomics in the Brassicales. The integrated genetic and physical map aligned with the genome sequence revealed recombination hotspots as well as regions suppressed for recombination across the genome, particularly on the recently evolved sex chromosomes. Suppression of recombination spread to the adjacent region of the male specific region of the Y chromosome (MSY, and recombination rates were recovered gradually and then exceeded the genome average. Recombination hotspots were observed at about 10 Mb away on both sides of the MSY, showing 7-fold increase compared with the genome wide average, demonstrating the dynamics of recombination of the sex chromosomes. Conclusion A BAC-based physical map of papaya was constructed and integrated with the genetic map and genome sequence. The integrated map facilitated the draft genome assembly, and is a valuable resource for comparative genomics and map-based cloning of agronomically and economically important genes and for sex chromosome research.

  19. Efecto de las condiciones de elaboración en la incorporación de calcio y la firmeza del mamón (carica papaya l.) en almíbar / Effect of processing conditions in changes of calcium levels and firmness of papaya (carica papaya l.) in syrup

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Laura A, Ramallo; Trinidad, Liotta.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En el presente trabajo se estudió el efecto de las condiciones de operación del pre-tratamiento de impregnación con calcio sobre el incremento del mineral y sobre la resistencia a la compresión de mamón en almíbar. La fruta de mamón se seccionó en cilindros de aproximadamente 10 mm de longitud y 25 [...] mm de diámetro. Una solución acuosa de hidróxido de calcio se utilizó como medio de impregnación. Se aplicaron diferentes condiciones de pretratamiento. Se eligió un diseño factorial de tres factores en dos niveles para evaluar el efecto combinado de tres variables independientes de impregnación: concentración, temperatura y tiempo de impregnación. La respuesta del sistema se midió en función de la incorporación de calcio en la fruta y valores de las propiedades mecánicas del alimento elaborado. Los resultados indicaron que la concentración de la solución y el tiempo de inmersión son las variables de mayor relevancia sobre la dureza del mamón en almíbar. El mayor contenido de calcio (116,7 mg/100 g de fruta fresca) se alcanzó por inmersión de frutas en solución de Ca(OH)2 al 1,5% y 40 °C, durante 4,5 horas. Abstract in english In this work, the effect of operating conditions during calcium pretreatment on the calcium uptake and the compression resistance of papaya bits in syrup was studied. The papaya fruit was cut into cylinders of approximately 10 mm in length and 25 mm in diameter. An aqueous solution of calcium hydrox [...] ide was used as impregnation medium. Different conditions of calcium pre-treatment were applied. A three-factor two-level factorial design was chosen to evaluate the combined effect of three independent impregnation variables: concentration solution, temperature and impregnation time. The system response was measured in terms of calcium gain in the fruit and mechanical property values of processed food. The results showed that the solution concentration and the impregnation time were the most relevant variables on the hardness of papaya in syrup. The greatest calcium content (116.7 mg/100 g fresh fruit) was reached by fruit impregnation in 1.5% Ca(HO)2-solution at 40°C for 4.5 h.

  20. Teste de condutividade de elétrica para avaliação da qualidade fisiológica de sementes de mamão (Carica papaya L. Electrical conductivity test for physiological quality evaluation of papaya seeds (Carica papaya L.

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    Dai Tokuhisa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo verificar a eficiência do teste de condutividade elétrica para avaliar a qualidade fisiológica de sementes de mamão. Foram utilizados cinco lotes do híbrido Tainung 01, determinando-se, inicialmente, o teor de água das sementes. Em seguida, as sementes foram submetidas aos testes de germinação, envelhecimento acelerado, índice de velocidade de emergência de plântulas e massa seca de plântula. O teste de condutividade elétrica foi conduzido com quatro repetições de 50 sementes, utilizando-se duas temperaturas (25ºC e 30ºC, dois volumes de água (50 e 75mL e seis períodos de embebição (2, 4, 6, 8, 24 e 48 horas. Verificou-se que a condutividade elétrica aumentou com a elevação da temperatura e do período de embebição e decresceu com o aumento do volume de água. O teste de condutividade é eficiente para detectar diferenças na qualidade fisiológica dos lotes de sementes de mamão, especialmente quando as sementes são imersas em 50mL de água, a 25ºC, ou em 75mL de água, a 30ºC . Nestas condições, o período de embebição das sementes pode ser reduzido para duas horas.The objective of this study was to verify the efficiency of the electrical conductivity test for physiological quality evaluation of papaya (Carica papaya L. seeds. Initially, seeds from five lots, Tainung 01 hybrid, were submitted to the following tests: seed moisture content, standard germination, first count, accelerated aging, percentage and speed of seedling emergence index and seedling dry weight. Electrical conductivity tests were performed using four replications of 50 seeds, two temperatures (25 and 30ºC, two water volumes (50 and 75mL and six soaking periods (2, 4, 6, 8, 24 and 48 hours. It was observed that the electrical conductivity increased with the rise of temperature and soaking period but decreased with the increase in water volume. This test was efficient to detect differences in physiological quality of papaya seed lots, especially when the seeds were soaked in 50mL water at 25ºC, or in 75mL water at 30ºC. Under these conditions, the seed soaking period can be reduced to two hours.

  1. Teste de condutividade de elétrica para avaliação da qualidade fisiológica de sementes de mamão (Carica papaya L.) / Electrical conductivity test for physiological quality evaluation of papaya seeds (Carica papaya L.)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Dai, Tokuhisa; Camilla Atsumi Zanuncio, Sediyama; Paulo César, Hilst; Denise Cunha Fernandes dos Santos, Dias.

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O trabalho teve como objetivo verificar a eficiência do teste de condutividade elétrica para avaliar a qualidade fisiológica de sementes de mamão. Foram utilizados cinco lotes do híbrido Tainung 01, determinando-se, inicialmente, o teor de água das sementes. Em seguida, as sementes foram submetidas [...] aos testes de germinação, envelhecimento acelerado, índice de velocidade de emergência de plântulas e massa seca de plântula. O teste de condutividade elétrica foi conduzido com quatro repetições de 50 sementes, utilizando-se duas temperaturas (25ºC e 30ºC), dois volumes de água (50 e 75mL) e seis períodos de embebição (2, 4, 6, 8, 24 e 48 horas). Verificou-se que a condutividade elétrica aumentou com a elevação da temperatura e do período de embebição e decresceu com o aumento do volume de água. O teste de condutividade é eficiente para detectar diferenças na qualidade fisiológica dos lotes de sementes de mamão, especialmente quando as sementes são imersas em 50mL de água, a 25ºC, ou em 75mL de água, a 30ºC . Nestas condições, o período de embebição das sementes pode ser reduzido para duas horas. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to verify the efficiency of the electrical conductivity test for physiological quality evaluation of papaya (Carica papaya L.) seeds. Initially, seeds from five lots, Tainung 01 hybrid, were submitted to the following tests: seed moisture content, standard germination [...] , first count, accelerated aging, percentage and speed of seedling emergence index and seedling dry weight. Electrical conductivity tests were performed using four replications of 50 seeds, two temperatures (25 and 30ºC), two water volumes (50 and 75mL) and six soaking periods (2, 4, 6, 8, 24 and 48 hours). It was observed that the electrical conductivity increased with the rise of temperature and soaking period but decreased with the increase in water volume. This test was efficient to detect differences in physiological quality of papaya seed lots, especially when the seeds were soaked in 50mL water at 25ºC, or in 75mL water at 30ºC. Under these conditions, the seed soaking period can be reduced to two hours.

  2. Efeito do cultivo do mamoeiro (Carica papaya L. em ambiente protegido sobre a ocorrência de ácaros fitófagos e moscas-brancas Effect of papaya (Carica papaya L. cultivated in a protected environment on the occurrence of phytophagous mites and whiteflies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marineide Rosa Vieira

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O efeito do cultivo do mamoeiro em ambiente protegido foi estudado em três condições: sem cobertura e em dois telados construídos com tela de propileno branca, com malhas de 2 x 2 mm e 2 x 1 mm. Nessa área foram feitas avaliações na cultivar Baixinho de Santa Amália, contando-se o número de plantas com sintomas de ataque recente, para o ácaro branco Polyphagotarsonemus latus, com sintomas e presença de ácaros, para o ácaro rajado Tetranychus urticae e com presença de adultos ou ninfas nas folhas, no caso das moscas-brancas Trialeurodes sp., Bemisia tabaci biótipo B e uma terceira espécie não identificada. Para moscas-brancas, também foram realizadas contagens de ninfas e exúvias em laboratório. O cultivo em ambiente protegido favoreceu a sobrevivência e o desenvolvimento populacional das espécies estudadas, sendo que algumas possíveis causas são discutidas no texto. Considerando-se que o cultivo protegido pode ser uma boa alternativa para o controle de viroses, como o mosaico do mamoeiro, problema limitante para a cultura, estratégias de manejo de pragas nesses ambientes devem ser desenvolvidas, para viabilizar o seu uso.It was measured the effect of cultivating papaya cultivar "Baixinho de Santa Amália" in a protected environment and in three situations: without shade, and under screen shades of white polyethylene mesh sizes 2 x 2 mm or 2 x 1 mm. It was registered the number of plants with symptoms of recent attacks of the broad mite (Polyphagotarsonemus latus, symptoms and presence of the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae and the presence on leaves of adults or nymphs of whiteflies (Trialeurodes sp., Bemisia tabaci biotype B and a third unidentified species. Whitefly nymph and exuviae numbers were also counted in the laboratory. Cultivation in a protected environment favored the survival and development of the species under study, and some possible reasons for these are discussed along the text. Since cultivating papaya in protected environment can be a good alternative for "papaya ringspot virus" control, which is a restrictive factor for the crop, the development of strategies to control the pests in this condition is necessary for correct recommendation of such measure.

  3. Efeito do cultivo do mamoeiro (Carica papaya L.) em ambiente protegido sobre a ocorrência de ácaros fitófagos e moscas-brancas / Effect of papaya (Carica papaya L.) cultivated in a protected environment on the occurrence of phytophagous mites and whiteflies

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marineide Rosa, Vieira; Luiz de Souza, Correa; Tatiane Marie Martins Gomes de, Castro; Laura Fernanda Simões da, Silva; Maria de Souza, Monteverde.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O efeito do cultivo do mamoeiro em ambiente protegido foi estudado em três condições: sem cobertura e em dois telados construídos com tela de propileno branca, com malhas de 2 x 2 mm e 2 x 1 mm. Nessa área foram feitas avaliações na cultivar Baixinho de Santa Amália, contando-se o número de plantas [...] com sintomas de ataque recente, para o ácaro branco Polyphagotarsonemus latus, com sintomas e presença de ácaros, para o ácaro rajado Tetranychus urticae e com presença de adultos ou ninfas nas folhas, no caso das moscas-brancas Trialeurodes sp., Bemisia tabaci biótipo B e uma terceira espécie não identificada. Para moscas-brancas, também foram realizadas contagens de ninfas e exúvias em laboratório. O cultivo em ambiente protegido favoreceu a sobrevivência e o desenvolvimento populacional das espécies estudadas, sendo que algumas possíveis causas são discutidas no texto. Considerando-se que o cultivo protegido pode ser uma boa alternativa para o controle de viroses, como o mosaico do mamoeiro, problema limitante para a cultura, estratégias de manejo de pragas nesses ambientes devem ser desenvolvidas, para viabilizar o seu uso. Abstract in english It was measured the effect of cultivating papaya cultivar "Baixinho de Santa Amália" in a protected environment and in three situations: without shade, and under screen shades of white polyethylene mesh sizes 2 x 2 mm or 2 x 1 mm. It was registered the number of plants with symptoms of recent attack [...] s of the broad mite (Polyphagotarsonemus latus), symptoms and presence of the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) and the presence on leaves of adults or nymphs of whiteflies (Trialeurodes sp., Bemisia tabaci biotype B and a third unidentified species). Whitefly nymph and exuviae numbers were also counted in the laboratory. Cultivation in a protected environment favored the survival and development of the species under study, and some possible reasons for these are discussed along the text. Since cultivating papaya in protected environment can be a good alternative for "papaya ringspot virus" control, which is a restrictive factor for the crop, the development of strategies to control the pests in this condition is necessary for correct recommendation of such measure.

  4. Predacious mites in papaya (Carica papaya L.) orchards: in search of a biological control agent of phytophagous mite pests / Ácaros predadores em pomares de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L.): em busca de um agente de controle biológico de ácaros fitófagos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Karin F.S., Collier; Jose O.G. de, Lima; Gilberto S., Albuquerque.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de selecionar ácaros predadores com potencial de controle de ácaros fitófagos do mamão, foram realizadas, de janeiro de 1999 a fevereiro de 2000, amostragens bimensais de ácaros em dois pomares, um orgânico (Silva Jardim, RJ) e outro com controle químico de pragas, doenças e invasoras [...] (Linhares, ES). Todas as espécies presentes nas brotações laterais, folhas novas, folhas velhas e botões florais dos mamoeiros e nas folhas das plantas invasoras foram quantificadas e identificadas ao menos até família. Apesar da relativamente diversa fauna de ácaros, somente representantes de uma família de predadores, Phytoseiidae, foram encontrados. Dentre estes, Neoseiulus idaeus Denmark & Muma destacou-se por sua abundância e freqüência nas diferentes épocas do ano no pomar de Linhares, coincidindo principalmente com as flutuações na abundância dos tetraniquídeos. Tal ocorrência em um sistema de produção com grande emprego de acaricidas, aliada às características biológicas favoráveis dessa espécie, recomendam-na como candidata a agente de controle biológico de ácaros pragas do mamão, em especial Tetranychus urticae Koch. Abstract in english This study was conducted to search for potential mite predators to control phytophagous mites in papaya orchards. Bimonthly surveys, from January 1999 to February 2000, were carried out in two orchards, one in Silva Jardim (RJ), where pests are naturally controlled, and one at Linhares (ES), where p [...] ests are chemically controlled. All mite species collected from buds, new leaves, old leaves, and floral buttons of papaya trees and from weed leaves were quantified and identified to at least family level. Despite the relatively diverse mite fauna, we found representatives of only one family of predacious mites, i.e. Phytoseiidae. Among these, Neoseiulus idaeus Denmark & Muma was the most abundant and frequent during all seasons in the Linhares orchard, coinciding mainly with the fluctuations in abundance of tetranychid mites. Such occurrence in a production system with large use of acaricides, together with its favorable biological traits reported in the literature, lead us to recommend this species as a good candidate for biological control of papaya mite pests, especially Tetranychus urticae Koch.

  5. Validación Chilena del Cuestionario de Evaluación del Apego Romántico Experiences in Close Relationships (ECR: Análisis de la Validez de Criterio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Spencer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue analizar la validez de criterio del cuestionario de apego romántico Ex - periences in Close Relationships (ECR, Brennan, Clark y Shaver, 1998 para la población chilena de adultos. Este cuestionario evalúa las dos dimensiones del apego romántico adulto: la evitación (de la intimidad y la ansiedad (acerca de las relaciones. Los participantes fueron 549 adultos, quienes completaron el cuestionario ECR y el cuestionario de apego adulto CaMir. Se evaluó las propiedades psicométricas del cuestionario, mostrando que es un instrumento con una adecuada validez de criterio y con una estructura factorial que representa las dos dimensiones teóricas propuestas por los autores originales. Se concluye que la versión chilena del ECR es válida para examinar el apego romántico en la adultez.

  6. ODONTODACTYLUS HAWAIIENSIS MANNING,1967 (STAMATOPODA, GONODACTYLIDAE EN AGUAS CHILENAS ODONTODACTYLUS HAWAIIENSIS MANNING,1967 (STOMATOPODA, GONODACTYLIDAE IN CHILEAN WATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. Retamal

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Se identifica y registra, por primera vez, la especie Odontodactylus hawaiiensis Manning, 1967 en aguas oceánicas chilenas, extendiéndose su distribución geográfica desde el Archipiélago Hawaiiano (islas Maui, Molokai y Hawaii hasta los alrededores de la isla Salas y GómezABSTRACT An species of Stomatopod is identified from Chilean oceanic waters Odontodactylus hawaiiensis Manning, 1967; it is reported from waters around Salas and Gómez island

  7. ODONTODACTYLUS HAWAIIENSIS MANNING,1967 (STAMATOPODA, GONODACTYLIDAE) EN AGUAS CHILENAS ODONTODACTYLUS HAWAIIENSIS MANNING,1967 (STOMATOPODA, GONODACTYLIDAE) IN CHILEAN WATERS

    OpenAIRE

    Retamal, Marco A.

    2002-01-01

    RESUMEN Se identifica y registra, por primera vez, la especie Odontodactylus hawaiiensis Manning, 1967 en aguas oceánicas chilenas, extendiéndose su distribución geográfica desde el Archipiélago Hawaiiano (islas Maui, Molokai y Hawaii) hasta los alrededores de la isla Salas y GómezABSTRACT An species of Stomatopod is identified from Chilean oceanic waters Odontodactylus hawaiiensis Manning, 1967; it is reported from waters around Salas and Gómez island

  8. ODONTODACTYLUS HAWAIIENSIS MANNING,1967 (STAMATOPODA, GONODACTYLIDAE) EN AGUAS CHILENAS / ODONTODACTYLUS HAWAIIENSIS MANNING,1967 (STOMATOPODA, GONODACTYLIDAE) IN CHILEAN WATERS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marco A., Retamal.

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Se identifica y registra, por primera vez, la especie Odontodactylus hawaiiensis Manning, 1967 en aguas oceánicas chilenas, extendiéndose su distribución geográfica desde el Archipiélago Hawaiiano (islas Maui, Molokai y Hawaii) hasta los alrededores de la isla Salas y Gómez [...] Abstract in english ABSTRACT An species of Stomatopod is identified from Chilean oceanic waters Odontodactylus hawaiiensis Manning, 1967; it is reported from waters around Salas and Gómez island [...

  9. Etiología y epidemiología de la necrosis de flores y frutos juveniles del papayo (Carica papaya L.) en Guerrero, México / Etiology and epidemiology of flowers and young fruits necrosis in papaya (Carica papaya L.) in Guerrero, México

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alfonso, Vásquez-López; Elías, Hernández-Castro; J. Antonio, Mora-Aguilera; Cristian, Nava-Díaz; Francisco, Sánchez-García.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La necrosis floral, pudrición y caída de frutos juveniles del papayo (Caricapapaya L.) son enfermedades con incidencia alta y reducen la productividad de huertos comerciales en Huamuxtitlán, Guerrero, México. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la etiología y epidemiología de estas enfer [...] medades. De flores y frutos necróticos se aislaron Cladosporium sp. y Fusarium spp., y en proporción menor Alternaria sp. y Colletotrichum sp. Las especies Fusarium equiseti, F. chlamydosporum, Cladosporium cladosporioides y Alternaria alternata provocaron necrosis y caída floral 8 d después de la inoculación (ddi) y necrosis, pudrición y caída de frutos juveniles 15 ddi. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides provocó lesiones necróticas en 30 % de las flores inoculadas y no causó síntomas en frutos. La dinámica poblacional de esporas de Alternaria spp. y Fusarium spp. en el aire se estudió en una plantación de papayo cv. Maradol de marzo del 2007 a marzo del 2008; las esporas de ambos hongos se encontraron de mayo a octubre, aunque el número mayor se capturó en mayo y septiembre. Las esporas de Fusarium spp. fueron más abundantes en horario nocturno (20:00 a 04:00 h) y las de Alternaria spp. entre las 12:00 y 14:00 h. Fusarium equiseti, F. chlamydosporum, Cladosporium cladosporioides y Alternaria alternata son agentes patógenos de la necrosis de lores y pudrición y caída de frutos juveniles del papayo en Huamuxtitlán, Guerrero, México. Los propágulos de Alternaria spp. y Fusarium spp. están dispersos en el ambiente de la zona de estudio de mayo a octubre. Abstract in english Flower necrosis, rot, and dropping of young fruits of the papaya (Carica papaya L.) are diseases with high incidence and which reduce productivity of commercial groves in Huamuxtitlán, Guerrero, Mexico. The objective of the present study was to determine the etiology and epidemiology of these diseas [...] es. Cladosporium sp. and Fusarium spp. were isolated from necrotic flowers and fruits, and in a smaller proportion, Alternaria sp. and Colletotrichum spp. The species Fusarium equiseti, F. chlamydosporum, Cladosporium cladosporoides and Alternaria alternate caused necrosis and flower abortion 8 d after inoculation (dai) and necrosis, rot and dropping of young fruits 15 dai. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides provoked necrotic lesions in 30 % of the inoculated flowers but did not cause symptoms in fruits. The population dynamic of spores of Alternaria spp. and Fusarium spp. in the air was studied in a plantation of papaya cv. Maradol from March 2007 to March 2008; the spores of both fungi were found from May to October, although the highest number was captured in May and September. The spores of Fusarium spp. were most abundant during the night hours (20:00 to 04:00 h) and those of Alternaria spp. between 12:00 and 14:00 h. Fusarium equiseti, F. chlamydosporum, Cladosporium cladosporioides and Alternaria alternata are pathogenic agents of the necrosis of flowers and dropping of young fruits of papaya in Huamuxtitlán, Guerrero, México. The propagules of Alternaria spp. and Fusarium spp. are dispersed in the environment of the study zone from May to October.

  10. Study about papaya (Carica papaya L.) conservation submitted to a combined treatment of irradiation and an edible film of quitosan; Estudo do tratamento combinado de radiacao ionizante e cobertura de quitosana em mamao papaia (Carica papaya L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camargo, Rita Junqueira de

    2004-07-01

    In this research, on a first stage the effect of two treatments were studied: thermal, and a chitosan edible coating, combined with four different irradiation doses: 0,00 kGy, 0,50 kGy, 0,75 kGy and 1,00 kGy for effects in the ripening of papaya (Carica Papaya) cv. Golden. To evaluate the influence of these two factors in the physical-chemical characteristics of the fruit during ripening, analysis on color, both skin and pulp, firmness, soluble solids, pH and titrable acidity were performed. The incidence of fungi in fruit skin was also analyzed. The fruits were first maintained at 10 deg C chamber for fifteen days to simulate maritime transportation to the importer country and then transferred to a 25 deg C chamber aiming simulation of the commercialization conditions. From this first step, the conclusion was that chitosan in the concentration of 2% was not able to contain the fungi development and that it also influenced in a significant form the variable pH. A more expressive result was obtained for irradiation doses of 0,75 kGy and 1,00 kGy, as it was observed in the beginning the acceleration in ripening through the variables skin color and penetration energy of the fruit pulp. When storage temperature was changed to 25 deg C this situation inverted for these same variables and a two day delay was observed on the development of yellow color on the fruit skin and loss of pulp firmness. The variables titrable acidity, soluble solids and pulp color were not influenced by treatment or by irradiation. On a second stage, the fruits, in the same condition of the previous stage, were analyzed in relation of their mass and ripening stage using a ripening scale provided by the producer of the fruits for this experiment, as to evaluate the gradual development of fruit ripening according to the various treatments (chitosan 3%, thermal or control) and irradiation dose (0,00 kGy and 0,75 kGy). Confirming the results obtained in the first stage, the irradiation was able to delay ripening in one day and a half approximately. The chitosan in these new conditions of test propitiated fungi development and the fruits coated with chitosan did not ripe in the way it was seen to come. A last stage was done to verify consumer behavior in respect to an irradiated papaya. By three different sensorial tests it was verified if provers were able to perceive significant difference between irradiated and non irradiated samples, what was the acceptance of a irradiated sample and the intention of purchase of a irradiated and a non irradiated papaya. Conclusion from these tests was that the difference established in the triangular test was not enough to establish significant difference between the acceptances of the two samples in the four parameters tested: appearance, texture, aroma and flavor. For the purchase intention it was verified that the irradiation is not a barrier for the consumer. (author)

  11. Eficiência fotoquímica em folhas do mamoeiro (Carica papaya L.) cv. Golden durante o estádio reprodutivo e caracterização da ontogenia dos frutos / Photochemical efficiency of papaya leaves (Carica papaya L.) cv. Golden during the reproductive stage and characterization of fruit ontogeny

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Diolina Moura, Silva; Ketney Tonetto dos, Santos; Maísa Melo, Duarte.

    1066-10-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Considerando que a fisiologia do amadurecimento dos frutos do mamoeiro envolve desde a produção de fotoassimilados, para a sua formação e desenvolvimento, até as enzimas que degradarão a parede celular, promovendo o amolecimento da polpa, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a cinética da emissão d [...] a fluorescência da clorofila a em folhas do mamoeiro (Carica papaya L.) cv. Golden durante o período reprodutivo e avaliar os teores de sólidos solúveis (SS), acidez titulável (AT) e atividade da pectinametilesterase (PME) durante a ontogenia dos frutos. Os maiores índices de desempenho fotoquímico (PItotal) foram verificados nos estádios de formação e crescimento dos frutos, devido ao melhor desempenho das reações de oxirredução do fotossistema I [?R0/(1-?R0)]. Maior eficiência fotoquímica das plantas neste período possibilita maior demanda pelo carbono fixado para a síntese de compostos para o metabolismo celular. Em geral, os fotoassimilados são direcionados para os drenos fortes mais próximos, entretanto as sementes têm prioridade, portanto os teores de SS, AT e a atividade da PME na polpa dos frutos permaneceram constantes durante o desenvolvimento dos mesmos, sendo verificadas alterações nestas características somente no estádio de colheita. Estes resultados confirmam a participação da PME como enzima que prepara o substrato para que as demais enzimas pectinolíticas atuem, disponibilizando os ácidos orgânicos desmetilados e o início da degradação dos polissacarídeos da parece celular antes mesmo da colheita. Abstract in english Whereas the physiology of fruit ripening of papaya involves from the production of photoassimilates for their training and development to the enzymes that degrade the cell wall promoting pulp softening, the objective of this study was to evaluate the chlorophyll a (Chl a) fluorescence induction kine [...] tics in of papaya (Carica papaya L.) cv. Golden leaves during the reproductive period and to evaluate the total soluble solids (SS), acidity total titratable (ATT), and activity of pectin methyl esterase (PME) during fruit ontogeny. The highest rates of photochemical performance index (PI total) were observed in the stages of fruit formation and growth , due to better performance of the redox reactions of photosystem I [?R0 / (1-?R0)]. Higher photochemical efficiency of plants in this period allows greater demand for fixed carbon for the synthesis of compounds for cellular metabolism. Generally, photoassimilates are directed to the closer strong drains, but the seeds have priority, so the SS, AT and PME activity in flesh fruit, remained constant during their development, and any alterations in these characteristics only in the harvest stage. These results confirm that the PME as an enzyme that prepares the substrate for the other pectic enzymes act, providing the demethylated organic acids and the beginning of the degradation of cellular wall polysaccharides even before harvest.

  12. DISEÑO Y CONSTRUCCIÓN DE UN LIOFILIZADOR PARA CONSERVAR PAPAYA A TEMPERATURA AMBIENTE, COMO FUENTE DE PAPAÍNA A BAJO COSTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella M. Bertoluzzo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La obtención de papaína a partir de látex de los frutos de Papaya (Carica papaya L., implica un procedimiento costoso ya que los frutos maduran con mucha rapidez y su almacenamiento podría conducir a pérdidas, debido a diversos agentes como roedores, insectos, hongos, bacterias e incluso originarse por la acción de agentes físicos, como ocurre cuando las condiciones de humedad, temperatura, luz y aireación no son las adecuadas. Por tal motivo se diseñó y construyó a escala laboratorio, un liofilizador para conservar papaya en buenas condiciones por largo tiempo y a temperatura ambiente. Dicho procedimiento permite la obtención de papaína para su uso en el laboratorio, a bajo costo y sin modificación de su actividad enzimática.

  13. Comparative evaluation of volatiles, phenolics, sugars, organic acids and antioxidant properties of Sel-42 and Tainung papaya varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelebek, Hasim; Selli, Serkan; Gubbuk, Hamide; Gunes, Esma

    2015-04-15

    The present study was designed to determine the phenolic compounds, organic acids, sugars, aroma profiles and antioxidant properties of Sel-42 and Tainung papayas grown in Turkey. High-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) method was used for the phenolic compounds analysis. Twelve phenolic compounds were identified and quantified in the samples. The total phenolic content of Sel-42 was clearly higher than that of Tainung. Protocatechuic acid-hexoside, gallic acid-deoxyhexoside, ferulic acid and chlorogenic acids were the most abundant phenolics in both cultivars. Aroma composition of papaya was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 46 and 42 aroma compounds, including esters, alcohols, terpenes, lactones, acids, carbonyl compounds, and volatile phenols were identified in the Sel-42 and Tainung, respectively. The significant linear correlation was confirmed between the values for the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of papaya extracts. PMID:25466106

  14. Revista Chilena de Cirugía: índice de publicación según procedencia de los artículos / Summ affiliation of authors publishing in Revista Chilena de Cirugía

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    MANUEL, VIAL G; CARLOS, MANTEROLA D; VIVIANA, PINEDA N.

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: Una de las variables que se analiza en los estudios bibliométricos es la procedencia de las publicaciones. Este tipo de análisis ha permitido cuantificar el impacto que tienen las distintas universidades o centros hospitalarios en el total de publicaciones de una revista en particular. [...] El objetivo de este estudio es determinar una eventual asociación entre el índice de publicación y la procedencia de los artículos publicados en la Revista Chilena de Cirugía (Rev Chil Cir). Material y método: Estudio biblio-métrico. Se analizaron todos los artículos publicados en la Rev Chil Cir entre los años 2002 y 2006. Los artículos se categorizaron de acuerdo al año de publicación, el tipo de artículo, región del país que originó el artículo y la filiación universitaria manifestada en cada artículo. Se calculó la tasa de publicación, el promedio anual y general de publicación, y la tasa de publicación anual promedio (TPAP). Posteriormente, se aplicó estadística analítica para determinar diferencias entre grupos, utilizando T de Student, ANOVA y prueba de comparaciones múltiples de Duncan. Resultados: En el periodo estudiado, se publicaron 545 artículos científicos, con un promedio de 18,2 artículos por número y 109 artículos por volumen. El 67,9 % fue generado por la Región Metropolitana (RM), el 10,8 % por la VIII región y el 7,8 % por la IX región. Solo en un 64,8 % de las publicaciones queda de manifiesto alguna filiación universitaria. Las mayores TPAP correspondieron a los Capítulos IX y VIII Región con 2,3 + 0,8 y 1,8 + 0,2 publicaciones/año x 10 miembros (p Abstract in english Background: The analysis of author affiliation of published manuscripts allows an assessment of the impact that different universities or hospitals have on a determinate journal. Aim: To analyze author affiliation of manuscripts published in Revista Chilena de Cirugía. Material and methods: All manu [...] scripts published in the journal between 2002 and 2006, were analyzed. The affiliation of authors, the year of publication and the region of Chile in which the manuscript was generated, were recorded. The publication rate, annual average were calculated. The association of authors to specific regional subsidiaries of the Chilean Society of Surgeons was also recorded and the average annual publication rates per regional subsidiary, were calculated. Resu/fs; During the study period 545 manuscripts were published, with a mean of 18 manuscripts per issue and 109 per volume. Sixty eight percent of manuscripts came from the metropolitan region, 11 % from the eight region and 8 % from the ninth region. In only 65 % of manuscripts, authors had an university affiliation. The higher average annual publication rates were observed in the subsidiaries of the eighth and ninth region, with 2.3 + 0.8 and 1.8 + 0.2 publications per year per 10 members, respectively. Conclusions: An important proportion of manuscripts have authors without university affiliation. The higher average annual publication rates come from regional subsidiaries of the Chilean Society of Surgeons

  15. Nutrição mineral do mamoeiro (Carica papaya L.): II - deficiência de boro em condições de campo e casa de vegetação / Mineral nutrition of papaya tree (Carica papaya L.): II - boron deficiency under field and greenhouse conditions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rubens José Pietsch, Cunha; Henrique Paulo, Haag.

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Com o objetivo de caracterizar a deficiência de boro no mamoeiro (Carica papaya L.) em condições de casa de vegetação e correlacionar com o problema que ocorre em condições de campo, conhecido como "careca do mamoeiro" ou "queda do chapéu", foram instalados dois ensaios. O primeiro foi conduzido em [...] condições de campo no município de Botucatu, SP., em um solo pertencente ao grande grupo Terra Roxa Estruturada e de clima Cf.b.. O segundo ensaio foi conduzido em condições de casa de vegetação e soluções nutritivas. Os autores descrevem os sintomas de deficiência de boro em mamoeiro e correlacionam o problema conhecido como "careca do mamoeiro", com a deficiência de boro. Abstract in english The purpose of the present research was to characterize boron deficiency on papaya trees growing on nutrient solution, of which boron was excluded, as well as, to correlate it a field occuring problem called "Careca". Plants growing on nutrient solution were cultivated under greenhouse conditions. T [...] he field experiment was set out in Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil, with a climate classified as Cf.b. and Paleudalf soil type. Boron deficiency was characterized by the emergence of small leaves with narrow deformed and hard leaf blades, necrosed margins and prominent veins. As an advanced boron deficiency symptom, plant stunting occurred. Boron concentration in the leaves and stems of plants growing on nutrient solution, of which boron was excluded, was 20 ppm and 17 ppm respectively. They were smaller when compared with the check plants, with boron concentration of 136 ppm and 35 ppm on leaves and stems respectively. Is is concluded that field occurring problem called "careca" is correlated with boron deficiency.

  16. New approach for papaya latex storage without virus degradation Nova metodologia de armazenamento do latex de mamão sem degradação viral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silas P. Rodrigues

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Papaya meleira virus (PMeV is the causal agent of papaya (Carica papaya L. sticky disease, which has been detected through analysis of its double-stranded RNA (dsRNA genome from plant latex. In this work we demonstrate that PMeV dsRNA is protected during 25 days when latex is diluted in citrate buffer pH 5.0 (1:1 v/v and maintained at -20°C. At the same temperature, some protection was observed for pure latex or latex diluted in ultra-pure water. Conversely, the dsRNA was almost completely degraded after 25 days when maintained at 25°C, indicating the need for freezing. The proper procedures to collect and store papaya latex described here will contribute to efficient and large scale use of molecular diagnosis of PMeV.Papaya meleira virus (PMeV é o agente etiológico da meleira do mamoeiro (Carica papaya L., cujo diagnóstico é feito através da detecção do RNA dupla-fita (dsRNA viral a partir do látex das plantas. Neste trabalho é demonstrado que o dsRNA do PMeV é protegido durante 25 dias quando diluído em tampão citrato pH 5.0 (1:1 v/v seguido de armazenamento à -20°C. Nesta mesma temperatura, o dsRNA foi parcialmente protegido quando o látex foi diluído em água ultra-pura ou mantido puro. Ao contrário, quando as amostras foram mantidas à 25°C, observou-se uma degradação progressiva do dsRNA, com ausência de bandas após 25 dias, indicando a necessidade do congelamento do látex. Os procedimentos de coleta e armazenamento do látex descritos neste trabalho contribuem para a eficiência e uso em larga escala do diagnóstico molecular do PMeV.

  17. PENGGUNAAN GETAH PEPAYA DALAM SINTESIS ESTER XILITOL ASAM LEMAK (EXAL [The Use of Papaya Exudates for Fatty Acid Xilitol Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhardi

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid xylitol-ester (FAXILE are xylitol esters of fatty acids with one to five DE (degree of esterification value. FAXILE with DE value of 3 or higher can be used as low calorie fat replacer since they have low digestive property; while the xylitol ester with DE of less than 3 can be used as emulsifier. The FAXILE synthesis experiments were carried out by esterification of xylitol with palm oil¡¦s fatty acid (POFA using papaya exudates as a lipase source. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the potential of papaya exuadates for the synthesis of FAXILE. In this first experiment, test were carried out to determine hydrolytic activity of lipases obtained from different part of papaya plant. The test, were performed with the presence of CaO and under different pH value. The papaya exudates were used for FAXILE synthesis under an optimum condition obtained from the first experiment. Samples were drawn during incubation at 40„aC for 1,2,3, and 4 days and hydroxyl number was analyzed to confirm the ester formation. The results showed that the most active exudate was from papaya leaves, followed by exudates from fruit with hydrolytic activity of 653 and 296 ƒÝmol/g. minutes, respectively. The hydrolytic activity of the fruit exudate was optimum at pH 6.0, at 45-50„aC, with the addition of CaO 4% dry exudates. The FAXILE synthesis with acid of papaya exudates was optimum at pH 6.0, at 45„aC with molar ratio of xylitol: fatty acids was 1 to 6,3 days incubation. At this condition the conversion rate xylitol to FAXILE was 79%.

  18. New approach for papaya latex storage without virus degradation / Nova metodologia de armazenamento do latex de mamão sem degradação viral

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Silas P., Rodrigues; Josemar S., Andrade; José A., Ventura; Patricia M. B., Fernandes.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) é o agente etiológico da meleira do mamoeiro (Carica papaya L.), cujo diagnóstico é feito através da detecção do RNA dupla-fita (dsRNA) viral a partir do látex das plantas. Neste trabalho é demonstrado que o dsRNA do PMeV é protegido durante 25 dias quando diluído em tamp [...] ão citrato pH 5.0 (1:1 v/v) seguido de armazenamento à -20°C. Nesta mesma temperatura, o dsRNA foi parcialmente protegido quando o látex foi diluído em água ultra-pura ou mantido puro. Ao contrário, quando as amostras foram mantidas à 25°C, observou-se uma degradação progressiva do dsRNA, com ausência de bandas após 25 dias, indicando a necessidade do congelamento do látex. Os procedimentos de coleta e armazenamento do látex descritos neste trabalho contribuem para a eficiência e uso em larga escala do diagnóstico molecular do PMeV. Abstract in english Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) is the causal agent of papaya (Carica papaya L.) sticky disease, which has been detected through analysis of its double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) genome from plant latex. In this work we demonstrate that PMeV dsRNA is protected during 25 days when latex is diluted in citrate b [...] uffer pH 5.0 (1:1 v/v) and maintained at -20°C. At the same temperature, some protection was observed for pure latex or latex diluted in ultra-pure water. Conversely, the dsRNA was almost completely degraded after 25 days when maintained at 25°C, indicating the need for freezing. The proper procedures to collect and store papaya latex described here will contribute to efficient and large scale use of molecular diagnosis of PMeV.

  19. Repeated Dose 28-Days Oral Toxicity Study of Carica papaya L. Leaf Extract in Sprague Dawley Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Hussin Muhammad; Ibrahim Jantan; Noordini Abdullah; Raja Hazlini Raja Semail; Badrul Amini Rashid; Siti Zaleha Halim; Noor Rain Abdullah; Adlin Afzan; Zakiah Ismail

    2012-01-01

    Carica papaya L. leaves have been used in ethnomedicine for the treatment of fevers and cancers. Despite its benefits, very few studies on their potential toxicity have been described. The aim of the present study was to characterize the chemical composition of the leaf extract from ‘Sekaki’ C. papaya cultivar by UPLC-TripleTOF-ESI-MS and to investigate the sub-acute oral toxicity in Sprague Dawley rats at doses of 0.01, 0.14 and 2 g/kg by examining the general behavior, clinical signs, h...

  20. Effect of irradiation on the biochemical and organoleptic changes during the ripening of papaya and mango fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papaya and mango rot caused by fungi is a major problem during storage and marketing. Gamma irradiation treatment was used to determine its effect on the quality of papayas and mangoes irradiated at 0,5 to 0,95 kGy. The level of respiration, soluble solids, texture, vitamin C and the sensorial evaluation were effectuated. The results indicate that irradiation treatment reduces significantly (p?0,001) weakens the texture of mangoes. The content of soluble solids and vitamin C are not significantly affected by the irradiation. The sensory evaluation indicates that up to 0,95 kGy the sensorial quality is not changed. (author)

  1. Morphological study of bone marrow to assess the effects of lead acetate on haemopoiesis and aplasia and the ameliorating role of Carica papaya extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tham, Ching S; Chakravarthi, Srikumar; Haleagrahara, Nagaraja; DE Alwis, Ranjit

    2013-02-01

    Lead causes damage to the body by inducing oxidative stress. The sites of damage include the bone marrow, where marrow hypoplasia and osteosclerosis may be observed. Leaves of Carica papaya, which have antioxidant and haemopoietic properties, were tested against the effect of lead acetate in experimental rats. The rats were divided into 8 groups; control, lead acetate only, Carica papaya (50 mg and 200 mg), post-treatment with Carica papaya (50 mg and 200 mg) following lead acetate administration and pre-treatment with Carica papaya (50 mg and 200 mg) followed by lead acetate administration. The substances were administered for 14 days. The effects were evaluated by measuring protein carbonyl content (PCC) and glutathione content (GC) in the bone marrow. Histological changes in the bone marrow were also observed. The results showed that Carica papaya induced a significant reduction in the PCC activity and significantly increased the GC in the bone marrow. Carica papaya also improved the histology of the bone marrow compared with that of the lead acetate-treated group. In summary, Carica papaya was effective against the oxidative damage caused by lead acetate in the bone marrow and had a stimulatory effect on haemopoiesis. PMID:23403524

  2. AKTIVITAS ANTIBAKTERI GETAH PEPAYA KERING TERHADAP Staphylococcus aureus PADA DANGKE [Antibacterial Activity of Dried Papaya Latex toward Staphylococcus aureus in Dangke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rifah Hestyani Arum

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Dangke is a traditional milk curd product, made by coagulation of milk using fresh papaya latex. This product is usually kept at room temperature (27-30ºC until consumption. Dried papaya latex was used in this study to produce dangke, and its effect to S. aureus was determined by direct contact in TSB and dangke. Fresh papaya latex was dried using vacuum oven at 50-55ºC for 22 hours. Dried papaya latex at a concentration of 2.7x10-3 g/100 mL could reduce S. aureus approximately 1 log CFU/mL in TSB after 24 hours. Dried papaya latex and papain could maintain the S. aureus number in dangke within 24 hours storage at room temperature. The antibacterial activity of non-proteolytic compound of papaya latex, i.e ethanolic extract of papaya latex was determined by macrodilution method, resulted an the MIC90 of 8 mg/mL. The cell membrane leakage after exposure was detected by measuring the optical density of bacterial supernatant at 260 nm. The result showed that exposure to increasing antibacterial concentration resulted in increasing of optical density of S. aureus supernatant, indicating that the antibacterial caused the S. aureus membrane leakage. Fluorescence microscopy imaging showed that S. aureus exposure to antibacterial caused membrane leakage thus gave Propidium Iodide (PI chance to penetrate into the cell, as indicated by changing of fluorescence color from green to red.

  3. La solidez de la economía chilena a la luz de las reformas estructurales: 1970-1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángeles SÁNCHEZ DÍEZ

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En el presente artículo se recogen las principales reformas estructurales que han tenido lugar en Chile desde 1970 y que constituyen la base de la solidez actual de dicha economía latinoamericana. Se propone una división en períodos en la que se distingue la época del gobierno de la Unidad Popular, el gobierno de la Junta Militar y la transición a la democracia para evaluar los resultados económicos que se registraron a la luz de las distintas estrategias de desarrollo. Las principales reformas que se dieron en el periodo 1970-1973 bajo la "vía chilena hacia el socialismo" fueron la creación del Área de Propiedad social, la profundización de la Reforma Agraria y la nacionalización de la Gran Minería Durante el monetarismo ortodoxo (1974-1982 destacan como principales reformas la liberalización y desregulación de los mercados, la l a ronda de privatizaciones, la apertura comercial, la liberalización financiera y las "siete modernizaciones", todas ellas respaldadas por la ortodoxia de la denominada Escuela de Chicago. Tras la profunda crisis de 1982 que afectó a todo el continente latinoamericano fue necesario replantear el modelo y se introdujeron distintas medidas de carácter neoliberal que consiguieron que fuera posible aprovechar los beneficios de las reformas realizadas con anterioridad. La transición a la democracia constituye un reto para la sociedad chilena, en tanto que contando con las bases de una economía sólida deben incorporarse la visión social y política para que el crecimiento se convierta en desarrollo. En este sentido toma importancia la última estrategia de la CEPAL de "Transformación productiva con equidad".ABSTRACT: In this paper, the main structural reforms are searched, which happened between 1970 and 1995. These are the base of the actual economic framework. The different considered periods are: the "Unidad Popular" government, the military government and the democratic transition. Finally, we must evaluate the economic results that are dependent of the implementation of the reforms and of the different development strategies. The main reforms that occurred in 1970-1973 with the "vía chilena hacia el socialismo" were: The creation of "area de propiedad social" —social property area-, the agrarian reform and the nationalisation of the most important mining companies. In the orthodox monetarism (1974-1982, the liheralisation and deregulation of the markets, the 1" Stage/Round of privatisation, the trade and the financial liberation and the seven modernizations were the most outstanding reforms, which were supported by the Chicago School. The heavy crisis which affected Latin- American countries and also Chile, caused the reforms of monetarism made possible the improvement of the effect of the reforms of the Chicago Boys. Finally the transition to democracy was am important challenge to Chilean society because Chile had the bases of a solid economy, but it was necessary to attend social and political issues to change growth into development. For this reason the last strategy of the ECLAC "Transformación productiva con equidad" is so important.

  4. Heat treatment and gamma radiation on the control of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Penz. et Sacc., causal agent of the papaya fruits (Carica papaya L.) anthracnose; Tratamento termico e radiacao gamma no controle de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (PENZ.) PENTZ et SACC., agente causal da antracnose em frutos de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Tanni Maria Werneck da

    1988-12-01

    For controlling papaya anthracnose on stored fruits the effect of heat treatment and gamma radiation on Colletotrichum gloeosporioides was studied in vitro and in vivo. Some physiological studies with four isolades of C. gloeosporioides from papaya fruits concerning the best conditions for mycelial growth and sporulation were also performed. The results showed that the best conditions for isolates development in BDA were: temperature between 25 and 27{sup 0} C for mycelium radial growth; between 27 and 30{sup 0} C under (12 hours alternating periods of fluorescent). (author). 131 refs., 9 figs., 33 tabs.

  5. Métodos de extracción de semilla en papaya Golden y la relación con la longevidad Extraction methods in Golden type papaya seed and relationship with longevity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César García Dean

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Es muy escasa la información disponible, relacionada al manejo de poscosecha de semilla de papaya (Carica papaya L. y su influencia en la calidad fisiológica de la semilla, sobre todo en germinación y vigor. El trabajo de investigación se realizó en el laboratorio de producción de semillas del Centro de Capacitación y Desarrollo de Tecnología de Semillas, en el invernadero número uno de la Universidad Autónoma Agraria "Antonio Narro" (UAAAN durante 2008. La finalidad del trabajo fue evaluar seis tratamientos de extracción de semilla: se utilizó ácido clorhídrico (HCl a 0.3 y 0.5% durante una hora de reposo, ácido sulfúrico (H2SO4 a 0.3% a 1.5 h de reposo, hipoclorito de sodio (NaClO al 5% con media hora de reposo y fermentación a 48 y 72 h. La semilla extraída fue almacenada durante 90, 180 y 240 días a 4 °C. Se evaluó la germinación y vigor de la semilla. Se utilizó un diseño completamente al azar con arreglo factorial. Los resultados indicaron que la calidad fisiológica de la semilla, fue afectada por los efectos de deterioro que causa el almacenamiento y por los métodos de extracción de semilla; sin embargo, la semilla conserva su calidad fisiológica hasta los 240 días de almacenamiento, en los tratamientos a base de HCl al 0.3% y fermentación por 24 h con 93.3 y 91.2% de germinación después de 240 días de almacenamiento.It is very scarce available information related to post-harvest handling of papaya seed (Carica papaya L. and their influence in seed physiologic quality, mainly in germination and vigor. The investigation work was carried out in seeds production laboratory of Center of Training and Development of Seeds Technology, in greenhouse number one of Universidad Autónoma Agraria "Antonio Narro" (UAAAN during 2008. Aim of work was to evaluate six treatments of seed extraction: hydrochloric acid was used (HCl at 0.3 and 0.5% during one hour of rest, sulfuric acid (H2SO4 at 0.3% with 1.5 h of rest, sodium hypochlorite (NaClO at 5% with 30 minutes of rest and fermentation at 48 and 72 h. Extracted seed was stored during 90, 180 and 240 days at 4 °C. It was evaluated seed germination and vigor. A totally random design was used with factorial arrangement. Results indicated that seed physiologic quality was affected by deterioration effects caused by storage and by methods of seed extraction; however, seed conserves its physiologic quality up to 240 days of storage, in treatments with help of HCl at 0.3% and fermentation for 24 h with 93.3 and 91.2 % germination after 240 days of storage.

  6. Métodos de extracción de semilla en papaya Golden y la relación con la longevidad / Extraction methods in Golden type papaya seed and relationship with longevity

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Julio César, García Dean; Mario Ernesto, Vázquez Badillo; María Alejandra, Torres Tapia; Sergio Ignacio, Dávila Cabello; David, Sánchez Aspeytia.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Es muy escasa la información disponible, relacionada al manejo de poscosecha de semilla de papaya (Carica papaya L.) y su influencia en la calidad fisiológica de la semilla, sobre todo en germinación y vigor. El trabajo de investigación se realizó en el laboratorio de producción de semillas del Cent [...] ro de Capacitación y Desarrollo de Tecnología de Semillas, en el invernadero número uno de la Universidad Autónoma Agraria "Antonio Narro" (UAAAN) durante 2008. La finalidad del trabajo fue evaluar seis tratamientos de extracción de semilla: se utilizó ácido clorhídrico (HCl) a 0.3 y 0.5% durante una hora de reposo, ácido sulfúrico (H2SO4) a 0.3% a 1.5 h de reposo, hipoclorito de sodio (NaClO) al 5% con media hora de reposo y fermentación a 48 y 72 h. La semilla extraída fue almacenada durante 90, 180 y 240 días a 4 °C. Se evaluó la germinación y vigor de la semilla. Se utilizó un diseño completamente al azar con arreglo factorial. Los resultados indicaron que la calidad fisiológica de la semilla, fue afectada por los efectos de deterioro que causa el almacenamiento y por los métodos de extracción de semilla; sin embargo, la semilla conserva su calidad fisiológica hasta los 240 días de almacenamiento, en los tratamientos a base de HCl al 0.3% y fermentación por 24 h con 93.3 y 91.2% de germinación después de 240 días de almacenamiento. Abstract in english It is very scarce available information related to post-harvest handling of papaya seed (Carica papaya L.) and their influence in seed physiologic quality, mainly in germination and vigor. The investigation work was carried out in seeds production laboratory of Center of Training and Development of [...] Seeds Technology, in greenhouse number one of Universidad Autónoma Agraria "Antonio Narro" (UAAAN) during 2008. Aim of work was to evaluate six treatments of seed extraction: hydrochloric acid was used (HCl) at 0.3 and 0.5% during one hour of rest, sulfuric acid (H2SO4) at 0.3% with 1.5 h of rest, sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) at 5% with 30 minutes of rest and fermentation at 48 and 72 h. Extracted seed was stored during 90, 180 and 240 days at 4 °C. It was evaluated seed germination and vigor. A totally random design was used with factorial arrangement. Results indicated that seed physiologic quality was affected by deterioration effects caused by storage and by methods of seed extraction; however, seed conserves its physiologic quality up to 240 days of storage, in treatments with help of HCl at 0.3% and fermentation for 24 h with 93.3 and 91.2 % germination after 240 days of storage.

  7. Fractionation and purification of the enzymes stored in the latex of Carica papaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarkan, Mohamed; El Moussaoui, Anouar; van Wuytswinkel, Delphine; Dehon, Géraldine; Looze, Yvan

    2003-06-25

    The latex of the tropical species Carica papaya is well known for being a rich source of the four cysteine endopeptidases papain, chymopapain, glycyl endopeptidase and caricain. Altogether, these enzymes are present in the laticifers at a concentration higher than 1 mM. The proteinases are synthesized as inactive precursors that convert into mature enzymes within 2 min after wounding the plant when the latex is abruptly expelled. Papaya latex also contains other enzymes as minor constituents. Several of these enzymes namely a class-II and a class-III chitinase, an inhibitor of serine proteinases and a glutaminyl cyclotransferase have already been purified up to apparent homogeneity and characterized. The presence of a beta-1,3-glucanase and of a cystatin is also suspected but they have not yet been isolated. Purification of these papaya enzymes calls on the use of ion-exchange supports (such as SP-Sepharose Fast Flow) and hydrophobic supports [such as Fractogel TSK Butyl 650(M), Fractogel EMD Propyl 650(S) or Thiophilic gels]. The use of covalent or affinity gels is recommended to provide preparations of cysteine endopeptidases with a high free thiol content (ideally 1 mol of essential free thiol function per mol of enzyme). The selective grafting of activated methoxypoly(ethylene glycol) chains (with M(r) of 5000) on the free thiol functions of the proteinases provides an interesting alternative to the use of covalent and affinity chromatographies especially in the case of enzymes such as chymopapain that contains, in its native state, two thiol functions. PMID:12767335

  8. Effect of papaya latex extract on gravid and non-gravid rat uterine preparations in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherian, T

    2000-06-01

    In search of uterotonic principles, papaya (Carica papaya, Caricaceae) latex extract (PLE) was tested on rat uterine preparations in vitro at various stages of the estrous cycle and gestation periods. Rat uterine contractile activity was remarkably increased by different doses of PLE in proestrus and estrus stages compared to metestrus and diestrus stages of the estrous cycles. The maximum contractile activity of the uterus was observed at the later stages of pregnancy which correspond with the peak level of estrogen in the plasma. A direct dose-dependent spasmodic action with increased frequency and amplitude was observed with PLE in all non-gravid uterine preparations. Pretreatment of the tissue with phenoxybenzamine (PB) non-competitively blocked the effect of PLE. Blocking of the 5-HT receptors with methysergide partially blocked the excitatory response to PLE. Pretreating the tissue with Indomethacin, a cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, had no effect on the response to PLE. The release of PLE induced mast cell degranulation and subsequent release of heparin, biogenic amines or prostaglandins (PGs) was ruled out by pretreating the tissue with sodium cromoglycate, a mast cell stabilizer. Pure papain induced uterine contractions were not sustained for a longer period and at higher concentrations the receptor proteins were affected by the enzymatic action of papain. From this study it is evident that the crude papaya latex contain a uterotonic principle which might be a combination of enzymes, alkaloids and other substances which can evoke sustained contraction of the uterus acting mainly on the alpha adrenergic receptor population of the uterus at different stages. PMID:10837984

  9. Relationship between photochemical efficiency (JIP-Test Parameters) and portable chlorophyll meter readings in papaya plants

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fernanda Assumpção, Castro; Eliemar, Campostrini; Alena, Torres Netto; Leandro Hespanhol, Viana.

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The Portable Chlorophyll Meter (PCM) is used to estimate the total chlorophyll and leaf nitrogen content of various species. Since there is a relationship between the chlorophyll concentration and the photochemical efficiency, a relationship can also be established between the PCM readings and some [...] fluorescence variables to provide information on photosystem II (PSII) structure and activity. Papaya (Carica papaya L.) plants ['Sunrise Solo' (leaves with intense green coloring) and 'Golden' cultivars (leaves with yellow-green coloring) were grown in a greenhouse with 30% interception of photosynthetically active photon flux density. The plants were cultivated in 15L plastics pots. Ninety to 100 days after planting the older leaves turned yellow and the chlorophyll fluorescence variables and PCM readings were measured. At low PCM values (less than 30 to 'Sunrise Solo' and less than 20 to 'Golden') the PSII structure and activity were damaged, which is likely related to a reduction in the numbers of active reaction centers (RC/CS0). At higher PCM values the chlorophyll a fluorescence variables (ABS/RC, DI0/RC, TR0/CS0 e ET0/CS0) that are related to PSII structure and activity PSII were not responsive. These results indicated that the effects of chlorophyll content measured by PCM on the photochemical phase of photosynthesis evaluated by chlorophyll fluorescence occur after the degradation of chlorophyll molecules is initiated. In papaya the Portable Chlorophyll Meter (SPAD-502) was shown to be suitable for diagnosis of PSII energy distribution under N stress and senescence.

  10. Identification and biochemical characterization of a GDSL-motif carboxylester hydrolase from Carica papaya latex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelkafi, Slim; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Barouh, Nathalie; Fouquet, Benjamin; Lebrun, Régine; Pina, Michel; Scheirlinckx, Frantz; Villeneuve, Pierre; Carrière, Frédéric

    2009-11-01

    An esterase (CpEst) showing high specific activities on tributyrin and short chain vinyl esters was obtained from Carica papaya latex after an extraction step with zwitterionic detergent and sonication, followed by gel filtration chromatography. Although the protein could not be purified to complete homogeneity due to its presence in high molecular mass aggregates, a major protein band with an apparent molecular mass of 41 kDa was obtained by SDS-PAGE. This material was digested with trypsin and the amino acid sequences of the tryptic peptides were determined by LC/ESI/MS/MS. These sequences were used to identify a partial cDNA (679 bp) from expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of C. papaya. Based upon EST sequences, a full-length gene was identified in the genome of C. papaya, with an open reading frame of 1029 bp encoding a protein of 343 amino acid residues, with a theoretical molecular mass of 38 kDa. From sequence analysis, CpEst was identified as a GDSL-motif carboxylester hydrolase belonging to the SGNH protein family and four potential N-glycosylation sites were identified. The putative catalytic triad was localised (Ser(35)-Asp(307)-His(310)) with the nucleophile serine being part of the GDSL-motif. A 3D-model of CpEst was built from known X-ray structures and sequence alignments and the catalytic triad was found to be exposed at the surface of the molecule, thus confirming the results of CpEst inhibition by tetrahydrolipstatin suggesting a direct accessibility of the inhibitor to the active site. PMID:19555778

  11. Manejo de plantas daninhas na cultura do mamoeiro Weed control in papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.P. Ronchi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Apesar de o controle de plantas daninhas na cultura do mamoeiro representar um dos componentes de grande importância do custo de produção, no mundo e no Brasil, a disponibilidade de informações sobre esse tema é escassa, o que reflete a pouca importância que tem sido dada ao assunto nas últimas décadas. Neste texto são discutidos alguns avanços no manejo integrado de plantas daninhas que têm sido alcançados em vários países, particularmente no tocante à manutenção da vegetação natural ou à introdução de leguminosas na entrelinha de cultivo. Não obstante, várias espécies de plantas daninhas foram identificadas como hospedeiras de vetores de importantes viroses à cultura, com destaque para Commelina benghalensis e Solanum americanum. Isso se reveste de grande importância para o manejo (seletivo das plantas daninhas, sobretudo na produção integrada de mamão. Também são discutidos, em especial para a região norte do Estado do Espírito Santo, a seletividade de herbicidas, os períodos de controle e as principais características e aspectos práticos sobre o manejo de plantas daninhas na cultura do mamoeiro.Despite the fact that weed control entails high costs to crop production, the availability of national and international papers regarding papaya weed control is scarce, showing that little importance has been given to this subject in the last decades. Some integrated weed management advances attamed in several countries are discussed, particularly in the use of both natural groundcover or leguminous plants in the crop interrows. However, several weed species have been identified as host plants of major virus vectors to the crop, such as C. benghalensis and S. americanum. Such information is of major importance for selective weed control, particularly in the integrated system of papaya production. The present review also examined herbicide selectivity, weedy periods as well as the main characteristics and practical aspects of weed control in papaya, focusing on the production areas of the northern Espírito Santo State.

  12. Manejo de plantas daninhas na cultura do mamoeiro / Weed control in papaya

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C.P., Ronchi; A.A., Silva; L.A.L., Serrano; L.F., Cattaneo; E.N., Santana; G.A., Ferreguetti.

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Apesar de o controle de plantas daninhas na cultura do mamoeiro representar um dos componentes de grande importância do custo de produção, no mundo e no Brasil, a disponibilidade de informações sobre esse tema é escassa, o que reflete a pouca importância que tem sido dada ao assunto nas últimas déca [...] das. Neste texto são discutidos alguns avanços no manejo integrado de plantas daninhas que têm sido alcançados em vários países, particularmente no tocante à manutenção da vegetação natural ou à introdução de leguminosas na entrelinha de cultivo. Não obstante, várias espécies de plantas daninhas foram identificadas como hospedeiras de vetores de importantes viroses à cultura, com destaque para Commelina benghalensis e Solanum americanum. Isso se reveste de grande importância para o manejo (seletivo) das plantas daninhas, sobretudo na produção integrada de mamão. Também são discutidos, em especial para a região norte do Estado do Espírito Santo, a seletividade de herbicidas, os períodos de controle e as principais características e aspectos práticos sobre o manejo de plantas daninhas na cultura do mamoeiro. Abstract in english Despite the fact that weed control entails high costs to crop production, the availability of national and international papers regarding papaya weed control is scarce, showing that little importance has been given to this subject in the last decades. Some integrated weed management advances attamed [...] in several countries are discussed, particularly in the use of both natural groundcover or leguminous plants in the crop interrows. However, several weed species have been identified as host plants of major virus vectors to the crop, such as C. benghalensis and S. americanum. Such information is of major importance for selective weed control, particularly in the integrated system of papaya production. The present review also examined herbicide selectivity, weedy periods as well as the main characteristics and practical aspects of weed control in papaya, focusing on the production areas of the northern Espírito Santo State.

  13. Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci in papaya seedlings Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci em plântulas de mamoeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Otávio S. Beriam

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The natural occurrence of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci causing leaf spot symptoms in papaya seedlings is reported. The pathogen was identified through biochemical, physiological, serological, and molecular assays and artificial inoculations in papaya plants. It was also shown that the strains were pathogenic to bean and tobacco plants. The restriction patterns obtained with Afa I, Alu I, Dde I, Hae III, Hpa II, Hinf I, Sau 3A I and Taq I of the PCR-RFLP of 16S-23S DNAr were identical to the P. s. pv. tabaci patterns. Primers corresponding to hrpL gene of P. syringae were also tested and the results grouped the papaya strains with P s. pv. tabaci. Bacterial strains were deposited at Coleção de Culturas IBSBF, Instituto Biológico, Campinas, Brazil, under access numbers 1687 and 1822.É relatada a ocorrência natural de Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci causando sintomas de lesões foliares em plântulas de mamoeiro. O patógeno foi identificado por meio de testes bioquímicos, fisiológicos, serológicos e moleculares, além de ensaios de patogenicidade em plantas de mamoeiro, feijoeiro e fumo. Os padrões de restrição obtidos com as enzimas Afa I, Alu I, Dde I, Hae III, Hpa II, Hinf I, Sal 3A I e Taq I, utilizando-se a técnica de PCR-RLFP da região espaçadora 16S-23S do DNA ribossômico, foram idênticos àqueles apresentados para P. s. pv. tabaci. Primers correspondentes ao gene hrpL de P. syringae foram também testados e os resultados obtidos permitiram agrupar as linhagens isoladas de mamão com P. s. pv. tabaci. Linhagens bacterianas estão depositadas na coleção de culturas IBSBF, Instituto Biológico, Campinas, sob n. 1687 e 1822.

  14. Estudo e modelagem da cinética de desidratação osmótica do mamão formosa (Carica papaya L.)

    OpenAIRE

    El-Aquar Ânoar Abbas; Xidieh, Murr Fernanda E.

    2003-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve como objetivo o estudo da cinética e modelagem do processo de desidratação osmótica de cubos de mamão Formosa (Carica papaya L.), assim como da qualidade do produto final. O tratamento osmótico foi conduzido a 30ºC, com agitação de 110rpm, utilizando-se dois tipos de soluções de sacarose 70ºBrix: a primeira contendo lactato de sódio 2,4% p/p e ácido láctico 0,1M e a segunda com lactato de sódio 2,4% p/p e ácido cítrico 0,1M. O estudo da cinética de ...

  15. Dependência micorrízica de variedades comerciais de mamoeiro / Mycorrhizal dependency of papaya commercial varieties

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aldo Vilar, Trindade; José Oswaldo, Siqueira; Florício Pinto de, Almeida.

    1485-14-01

    Full Text Available O genótipo da planta é fator preponderante na resposta à micorriza. Avaliou-se, neste trabalho, a resposta a fósforo e o grau de dependência micorrízica de variedades de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L.). O experimento foi realizado em casa de vegetação da Embrapa-Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Mandioca e [...] Fruticultura, com quatro variedades, testando-se seis doses de P: 0, 20, 40, 80, 140, 280 mg dm-3 e três tratamentos fúngicos (um controle não-micorrizado e a inoculação de Glomus clarum ou Gigaspora margarita). Foram estimados os seguintes parâmetros: dose de P para máxima eficiência micorrízica; valor T'; benefício da aplicação do P; benefício micorrízico; eficiência simbiótica, e dependência micorrízica. Plantas não-micorrizadas apresentaram resposta quadrática ao P aplicado e as inoculadas seguiram modelo raiz-quadrático, com grande incremento de matéria seca da parte aérea nas doses baixas; o benefício de P foi maior nas variedades Sunrise Solo e Improved Sunrise Solo - Line 72/12, enquanto as variedades Baixinho de Santa Amália e Tainung nº 1 apresentaram benefício micorrízico proporcionalmente maior, resultando em maior eficiência simbiótica. As variedades de mamoeiro apresentaram a seguinte classificação quanto à dependência micorrízica: Baixinho de Santa Amália = Tainung nº 1 > Sunrise Solo = Improved Sunrise Solo - Line 72/12. A maior ou menor dependência relacionou-se com a capacidade da variedade em produzir raízes. Abstract in english Plant genome is an important factor in plant response to arbuscular fungi. This work was designed to evaluate the degree of response to P application and mycorrhizal dependence of different varieties of papaya (Carica papaya L.). The experiment was performed under greenhouse conditions at Embrapa-Ce [...] ntro Nacional de Pesquisa de Mandioca e Fruticultura, Cruz das Almas, BA, Brazil, using seedlings of four varieties, six rates of P: 0, 20, 40, 80, 140 and 280 mg dm-3, and three fungi treatments (one control uninoculated and inoculation with Glomus clarum or Gigaspora margarita). The following parameters were estimated: rate of P for maximum mycorrhizal efficiency; T' value; P benefit, mycorrhizal benefit, symbiotic efficiency, and mycorrhizal dependence. Control plants had a quadratic response to applied P, while those inoculated had a root-quadratic response with a great increment in growth at lower rates; phosphorus benefit was higher in Sunrise Solo and Improved Sunrise Solo - Line 72/12 varieties, while the other two varieties showed a higher mycorrhizal benefit, resulting in a higher symbiotic efficiency. Papaya varieties showed the following classification of mycorrhizal dependency: Baixinho de Santa Amália = Tainung nº 1 > Sunrise Solo = Improved Sunrise Solo - Line 72/12. Mycorrhizal dependence related with the capability of the variety to produce roots.

  16. Crystal Structure of the Coat Protein of the Flexible Filamentous Papaya Mosaic Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Shaoqing; Wang, Tao; Bohon, Jen; Gagne?, Marie-e?velaliberte?; Bolduc, Marile?ne; Leclerc, Denis; Li, Huilin

    2012-01-01

    Papaya Mosaic Virus (PapMV) is a filamentous plant virus that belongs to the Alphaflexiviridae family. Flexible filamentous viruses have defied more than two decades of effort in fiber diffraction, and no high-resolution structure is available for any member of the Alphaflexiviridae family. Here we report our structural characterization of PapMV by X-ray crystallography and cryo-EM 3D reconstruction. We found that PapMV is 135 Å in diameter with a helical symmetry of ~ 10 subunits per turn. ...

  17. Growth and yield of papaya under irrigation Crescimento e produção do mamoeiro sob irrigação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Terra de Almeida

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal units or degree day systems can both be used to quantify relationships between plants and air temperature. The Northern Fluminense region holds no tradition for irrigated papaya (Carica papaya L. cropping and, because of the need for irrigation, it is important knowing its growth and development characteristics under these conditions. This study aimed to determine the relationship between growth rate of papaya plants and degree days, and its effect on crop productivity, under different irrigation levels. An experiment was set up with the cultivar "Improved Sunrise Soil 72/12", in a randomized blocks design, with seven irrigation water depths and three repetitions; crop growth and yield parameters were evaluated. There were significant correlations between water depths and degree days. Polynomial models of 2nd and 3rd order appropriately fitted the relationships degree day versus plant height, stem diameter, crown diameter and number of emitted leaves, for each water depth. Growth parameters related to degree days and to the applied treatments are indicative of yield potential. The total water depth that promoted the greatest fruit yield was 2,937 mm.Entre os métodos de quantificar as relações entre as plantas e a temperatura do ar, estão os sistemas de unidades térmicas ou graus-dia. Sendo a região Norte Fluminense sem tradição no cultivo da cultura de mamão (Carica papaya L. e devido a necessidade de irrigação, é importante que se conheça o comportamento de seu crescimento e desenvolvimento sob estas condições. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o crescimento do mamoeiro em relação a graus-dia e seu efeito na produção, sob diferentes níveis de irrigação nesta região. Montou-se um experimento com a cultivar 'Improved Sunrise Solo 72/12', em um delineamento em blocos casualizados, com sete lâminas de irrigação e três repetições, procurando-se avaliar os parâmetros de crescimento e de produção. Houve interação significativa entre lâminas de irrigação e graus-dia. Modelos polinomiais de 2ª e 3ª ordem ajustaram significativamente a relação graus-dia X altura de plantas, diâmetro de caule, diâmetro de copa e número de folhas emitidas, para cada lâmina de irrigação. Os parâmetros de crescimento relacionados a graus-dia e aos tratamentos aplicados são indicativos de potencial de produção. A lâmina total de água que promoveu a maior produção de frutos foi de 2.937 mm.

  18. Protocolo para a embriogênese somática do mamoeiro / Papaya somatic embryogenic protocol

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    ELIANE PIRES DE, ALMEIDA; ROBERTO PEDROSO DE, OLIVEIRA; JORGE LUIZ LOYOLA, DANTAS.

    2017-20-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho teve por objetivo estabelecer um protocolo de embriogênese somática para o mamoeiro (Carica papaya L.) cv. Baixinho de Santa Amália, grupo Solo. Foram utilizados quatro tipos de explantes e duas condições de cultivo, sendo as fases de indução de calos, indução e maturação de embr [...] iões somáticos, alongamento e enraizamento das plântulas avaliadas em diferentes meios de cultura. A combinação explante hipocótilo com folhas cotiledonares e meio de cultura ½MS + 10 mg L-1 de 2,4-D, sob condições de escuro, foi a mais favorável para a indução de calos friáveis. Os meios de cultura HMH com 0,2 mg L-1 de ANA e 2,0 mg L-1 de cinetina e ½MS foram adequados para a indução e maturação de embriões somáticos; o meio MS com 1 mg L-1 de GA3 foi adequado para o alongamento das plântulas; e o meio MS com 1 mg L-1 IBA, para o enraizamento. A eficiência das fases de indução de calos, indução de embriões, maturação de embriões, alongamento, enraizamento e aclimatação das plântulas foi de 100%, 98%, 44%, 42%, 50% e 80%, respectivamente. O protocolo estabelecido possibilita que o processo de embriogênese somática seja realizado em um período de 230 dias, com uma eficiência final de 7%, e pode ser utilizado em trabalhos de transformação genética do mamoeiro. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to establish a protocol for somatic embryogenesis of papaya (Carica papaya L.) cv. Baixinho de Santa Amália, Solo group. Four explants and two culture conditions were used. The phases of callus induction, somatic embryo induction and development, elongation and rooting [...] were evaluated in different culture media. The combination among hypocotyl with cotyledonal leaves, ½MS medium with 10 mg L-1 2.4-D and dark conditions was the best to induce friable calli. HMH medium with 0.2 mg L-1 ANA and 2.0 mg L-1 kinetin and ½MS medium were suitable to induce and to develop somatic embryos. MS medium with 1 mg L-1 GA3 was the best to elongate the plantlets and MS medium with 1 mg L-1 IBA to root them. The efficiency of callus induction, embryo induction, embryo development, elongation, rooting and acclimatization phases were 100%, 98%, 44%, 42%, 50% and 80%, respectively. The somatic embryogenic protocol enables the process to be done in 230 days with final efficiency of 7%. This protocol can be used in papaya genetic transformation.

  19. Protocolo para a embriogênese somática do mamoeiro Papaya somatic embryogenic protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELIANE PIRES DE ALMEIDA

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo estabelecer um protocolo de embriogênese somática para o mamoeiro (Carica papaya L. cv. Baixinho de Santa Amália, grupo Solo. Foram utilizados quatro tipos de explantes e duas condições de cultivo, sendo as fases de indução de calos, indução e maturação de embriões somáticos, alongamento e enraizamento das plântulas avaliadas em diferentes meios de cultura. A combinação explante hipocótilo com folhas cotiledonares e meio de cultura ½MS + 10 mg L-1 de 2,4-D, sob condições de escuro, foi a mais favorável para a indução de calos friáveis. Os meios de cultura HMH com 0,2 mg L-1 de ANA e 2,0 mg L-1 de cinetina e ½MS foram adequados para a indução e maturação de embriões somáticos; o meio MS com 1 mg L-1 de GA3 foi adequado para o alongamento das plântulas; e o meio MS com 1 mg L-1 IBA, para o enraizamento. A eficiência das fases de indução de calos, indução de embriões, maturação de embriões, alongamento, enraizamento e aclimatação das plântulas foi de 100%, 98%, 44%, 42%, 50% e 80%, respectivamente. O protocolo estabelecido possibilita que o processo de embriogênese somática seja realizado em um período de 230 dias, com uma eficiência final de 7%, e pode ser utilizado em trabalhos de transformação genética do mamoeiro.The objective of this work was to establish a protocol for somatic embryogenesis of papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Baixinho de Santa Amália, Solo group. Four explants and two culture conditions were used. The phases of callus induction, somatic embryo induction and development, elongation and rooting were evaluated in different culture media. The combination among hypocotyl with cotyledonal leaves, ½MS medium with 10 mg L-1 2.4-D and dark conditions was the best to induce friable calli. HMH medium with 0.2 mg L-1 ANA and 2.0 mg L-1 kinetin and ½MS medium were suitable to induce and to develop somatic embryos. MS medium with 1 mg L-1 GA3 was the best to elongate the plantlets and MS medium with 1 mg L-1 IBA to root them. The efficiency of callus induction, embryo induction, embryo development, elongation, rooting and acclimatization phases were 100%, 98%, 44%, 42%, 50% and 80%, respectively. The somatic embryogenic protocol enables the process to be done in 230 days with final efficiency of 7%. This protocol can be used in papaya genetic transformation.

  20. Growth and yield of papaya under irrigation / Crescimento e produção do mamoeiro sob irrigação

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Frederico Terra de, Almeida; Salassier, Bernardo; Elias Fernandes de, Sousa; Sérgio Lúcio David, Marin; Sidney, Grippa.

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Entre os métodos de quantificar as relações entre as plantas e a temperatura do ar, estão os sistemas de unidades térmicas ou graus-dia. Sendo a região Norte Fluminense sem tradição no cultivo da cultura de mamão (Carica papaya L.) e devido a necessidade de irrigação, é importante que se conheça o c [...] omportamento de seu crescimento e desenvolvimento sob estas condições. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o crescimento do mamoeiro em relação a graus-dia e seu efeito na produção, sob diferentes níveis de irrigação nesta região. Montou-se um experimento com a cultivar 'Improved Sunrise Solo 72/12', em um delineamento em blocos casualizados, com sete lâminas de irrigação e três repetições, procurando-se avaliar os parâmetros de crescimento e de produção. Houve interação significativa entre lâminas de irrigação e graus-dia. Modelos polinomiais de 2ª e 3ª ordem ajustaram significativamente a relação graus-dia X altura de plantas, diâmetro de caule, diâmetro de copa e número de folhas emitidas, para cada lâmina de irrigação. Os parâmetros de crescimento relacionados a graus-dia e aos tratamentos aplicados são indicativos de potencial de produção. A lâmina total de água que promoveu a maior produção de frutos foi de 2.937 mm. Abstract in english Thermal units or degree day systems can both be used to quantify relationships between plants and air temperature. The Northern Fluminense region holds no tradition for irrigated papaya (Carica papaya L.) cropping and, because of the need for irrigation, it is important knowing its growth and develo [...] pment characteristics under these conditions. This study aimed to determine the relationship between growth rate of papaya plants and degree days, and its effect on crop productivity, under different irrigation levels. An experiment was set up with the cultivar "Improved Sunrise Soil 72/12", in a randomized blocks design, with seven irrigation water depths and three repetitions; crop growth and yield parameters were evaluated. There were significant correlations between water depths and degree days. Polynomial models of 2nd and 3rd order appropriately fitted the relationships degree day versus plant height, stem diameter, crown diameter and number of emitted leaves, for each water depth. Growth parameters related to degree days and to the applied treatments are indicative of yield potential. The total water depth that promoted the greatest fruit yield was 2,937 mm.

  1. Reasoned opinion on the modification of MRLs for spirodiclofen in strawberries bananas, avocado, mango and papaya

    OpenAIRE

    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-01-01

    In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC) No 396/2005, the Netherlands, herewith referred as the evaluating Member State (EMS), received an application from Bayer S.A.S-Bayer CropScience to modify the existing MRLs for spirodiclofen in strawberries and bananas and set import tolerances for papaya, avocado and mango. The Netherlands proposed to decrease the existing MRL for strawberries from 2 mg/kg to 0.02 mg/kg and to increase the MRL for banana from the limit of quantificatio...

  2. Occurrence of the green leafhopper of papaya, Solanasca bordia (Langlitz) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), in Brazil / Ocorrência de Solanasca bordia (Langlitz) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), cigarrinha verde do mamoeiro, no Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    David dos S., Martins; Mark P., Culik.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Neste artigo é relatada no mamoeiro a espécie de cigarrinha verde do mamoeiro, Solanasca bordia (Langlitz) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), resultado de um levantamento realizado em lavouras comerciais de mamão em seis localidades do Espírito Santo, em 2001/2002 (Linhares, Jaguaré, Sooretama, Pinheiros, V [...] itória e Serra). Abstract in english This article reports the presence of the green leafhopper of papaya, Solanasca bordia (Langlitz) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) on papaya, based on a survey of commercial papaya orchards in Espírito Santo, in six municipalities, in 2001/2002 (Linhares, Jaguaré, Sooretama, Pinheiros, Vitória e Serra). [...

  3. Revisiting the enzymes stored in the laticifers of Carica papaya in the context of their possible participation in the plant defence mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Moussaoui, A; Nijs, M; Paul, C; Wintjens, R; Vincentelli, J; Azarkan, M; Looze, Y

    2001-04-01

    In the tropical species Carica papaya, the articulated and anastomosing laticifers form a dense network of vessels displayed in all aerial parts of the plant. Damaging the papaya tree inevitably severs its laticifers, eliciting an abrupt release of latex. Besides the well-known cysteine proteinases, papain, chymopapain, caricain and glycyl endopeptidase, papaya latex is also a rich source of other enzymes. Together, these enzymes could provide an important contribution to plant defence mechanisms by sanitising and sealing the wounded areas on the tree. PMID:11361091

  4. Influencia del Estado de Madurez sobre las Propiedades Viscoelásticas de Frutas Tropicales (Mango, Papaya y Plátano) / Influence of Maturity States on Viscoelastic Properties of Tropical Fruits (Mango, Papaya y Plantain)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ramiro, Torres; Everaldo J, Montes; Omar A, Pérez; Ricardo D, Andrade.

    Full Text Available En esta investigación se determinó la relación del estado de madurez con la viscoelasticidad, en mango de las variedades puerco y corazón , papaya de la variedad hawaiana y plátano. El estado de madurez se determinó por el color de la fruta visualmente, de acuerdo a una escala de maduración, y las p [...] ropiedades viscoelásticas se determinaron por prueba de relajación y compresión del esfuerzo en un texturómetro. Dos modelos comunes, Maxwell generalizado y Peleg, se ajustaron a los datos experimentales. El modelo de Maxwell describió mejor el comportamiento viscoelástico de las frutas estudiadas. Los mangos de ambas variedades presentaron el mismo comportamiento viscoelástico en los diferentes estados de madurez, mientras que para papaya y plátano, el comportamiento elástico disminuyó con el estado de madurez. Abstract in english In this investigation the relation of maturity states with viscoelasticity in two mango varieties ( puerco and corazón ), hawaiian papaya and plantain, were determined. Maturity state was determined by visually examining the color of the fruit, according to a maturation scale. Viscoelastic propertie [...] s were determined by stress compression–relaxation tests using a texturometer. Two common models, generalized Maxwell and Peleg, were fitted to the experimental data. For all fruits, Maxwell model better described the viscoelastic behavior of the fruits. The two mango varieties showed the same viscoelastic behavior at different maturity states, while for papaya and banana, the elastic behavior decreased with maturity state.

  5. Palabras e imágenes, objetos y acciones en la postvanguardia chilena / Words and images, objects and actions in Chilean post-vanguard

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Oscar, Galindo V.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este artículo analiza una zona de la productividad poética postvanguardista chilena con el propósito de explorar en los entrecruzamientos entre palabras, imágenes, objetos y acciones en la obra de Enrique Lihn, Gonzalo Millán, Juan Luis Martínez y Raúl Zurita, entre otros. Se trata de una discursivi [...] dad que ha otorgado un nuevo dinamismo a la poesía chilena, provocando una escritura heterogénea y mutable en la construcción de nuevos debates en la poesía chilena contemporánea Abstract in english This paper analyses a section of the Chilean post-vanguard poetic productivity with the purpose of exploring intertwined words, images, objects and actions in Enrique Lihn, Gonzalo Millan, Juan Luis Martinez and Raul Zurita’s poetry. The study centers on discourse poetry which has given some new dyn [...] amics to Chilean poetry causing a mutable and heterogeneous writing in the construction of new debates in contemporary Chilean poetry

  6. Effects of chitosan-based coatings containing peppermint essential oil on the quality of post-harvest papaya fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edible coatings comprised of antimicrobial polymers based on chitosan are promising technologies to preserve post-harvest fruit quality. In this study, we investigated the potential utility of a coating made from chitosan modified by N-acylation with fatty acid to preserve post-harvest papaya qualit...

  7. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a family 19 glycosyl hydrolase from Carica papaya latex

    OpenAIRE

    Huet, Joe?lle; Azarkan, Mohamed; Looze, Yvan; Villeret, Vincent; Wintjens, Rene?

    2008-01-01

    A chitinase isolated from the latex of the tropical species Carica papaya has been crystallized. The addition of N-acetyl-d-glucosamine to the crystallization solution has improved the diffraction quality resolution of the crystal to 1.8?Å resolution.

  8. An Efficient Seed Germination and Seedling Establishment Protocol for Hybrid Carica papaya Linn. With Application of Plant Growth Regulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravishankar Chauhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro germination of hybrid seeds of papaya (Carica papaya Linn. was attempted in the present investigation. Hybrid papaya seeds were subjected to three kinds of treatments. First on semisolid medium Murashige and Skoog (1962, secondly on only inorganic salt solution of the same medium but without organic nutrients and with various combinations of plant growth regulators on coco-peat as support material and in the third set of experiment, the seeds without seed-coat with 6-benzyl adenine having coco-peat as support material. Results showed that the germination rate of the papaya seeds was inhibited by the seed coat. Therefore, the best 90% in vitro germination was observed when the seeds without seed-coat were subjected to 0.5 mg L-1 6-benzyl adenine in coco-peat containing vessels. The seedlings were subjected to in vitro hardening. After three months of transfer to greenhouse and subsequently in nursery, the young seedlings showed 90% survival.

  9. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a protease inhibitor from the latex of Carica papaya

    OpenAIRE

    Azarkan, Mohamed; Garcia-pino, Abel; Dibiani, Rachid; Wyns, Lode; Loris, Remy; Baeyens-volant, Danielle

    2006-01-01

    The Kunitz-type trypsin/chymotrypsin inhibitor isolated from C. papaya latex has been crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Two different crystal forms are observed, diffracting to 2.6 and 1.7?Å.

  10. Managing Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae), Using Spinosad-Based Protein Bait Sprays in Papaya Orchards in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    The efficacy of GF-120 Fruit Fly Bait was evaluated as a control of female oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) in papaya orchards in Hawaii. Two important components of this study were field sanitation and mass trapping using the male-specific lure methyl eugenol. Three different spray ...

  11. Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and solvent extraction of papaya seed oil: yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaram, Shadi; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Tan, Chin Ping; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of the current work was to evaluate the suitability of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) for the recovery of oil from papaya seed as compared to conventional extraction techniques (i.e., Soxhlet extraction (SXE) and solvent extraction (SE)). In the present study, the recovery yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil obtained from different extraction methods and conditions were compared. Results indicated that both solvent extraction (SE, 12 h/25 °C) and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) methods recovered relatively high yields (79.1% and 76.1% of total oil content, respectively). Analysis of fatty acid composition revealed that the predominant fatty acids in papaya seed oil were oleic (18:1, 70.5%-74.7%), palmitic (16:0, 14.9%-17.9%), stearic (18:0, 4.50%-5.25%), and linoleic acid (18:2, 3.63%-4.6%). Moreover, the most abundant triacylglycerols of papaya seed oil were triolein (OOO), palmitoyl diolein (POO) and stearoyl oleoyl linolein (SOL). In this study, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) significantly (p extracted by different extraction methods (SXE, SE and UAE) and conditions. PMID:24152670

  12. An analysis of the performance of chilean aquacultural exports. (1995-2005) / Análise do comportamento das exportações aqüícolas chilenas (1995-2005) / Análisis del comportamiento de las exportaciones acuícolas chilenas (1995-2005)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cristian, Morales; Ramón, Lacayo; Rodrigo, Sfeir.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: English Abstract in portuguese As políticas cambiárias e de livre mercado introduzidas pelos últimos governos do Chile com o objetivo expresso de promover as exportações de produtos tradicionais e não tradicionais, têm tido como conseqüência, em particular, um relativo auge da aqüicultura. O cultivo do salmão é de renome, e expor [...] tações menos conhecidas deste setor têm uma importância cada vez maior no comportamento global da economia chilena. O objetivo deste artigo é a análise do comportamento das exportações aqüícolas chilenas para o período 1995-2005, como complemento de um trabalho anterior sobre as exportações agrícolas chilenas. Analisou-se o comportamento de vários indicadores de especialização (vantagem comparativa revelada e contribuição à balança comercial), estrutura de comercio (participação da exportação dos produtos selecionados no total das exportações) e competitividade (índices de participação setorial e de quota de mercado) em cada categoria exportada. Onze categorias do Sistema Harmonizado foram reduzidas a seis: salmão, filete de peixe, algas, ostras, mexilhões e invertebrados aquáticos. Além disso, se analisou o comportamento do principal país exportador e competidor de Chile em cada categoria selecionada. Os resultados permitem concluir que, exceções aparte, as exportações aqüícolas tanto de Chile como de seus principais competidores contam com um relativamente alto grau de especialização. Também mostram tendências na competitividade que podem ajudar a tomar medidas corretivas onde necessárias. Estes resultados podem ser úteis para os responsáveis na implementação de políticas com beneficio para o sector e para a economia em geral. Abstract in spanish Las políticas cambiarias y de libre mercado introducidas por los últimos gobiernos de Chile con el objetivo expreso de promover las exportaciones de productos tradicionales y no tradicionales, han tenido como consecuencia, en particular, un relativo auge de la acuicultura. El cultivo del salmón es d [...] e renombre, y exportaciones menos conocidas de este sector tienen una importancia cada vez mayor en el comportamiento global de la economía chilena. El objetivo de este artículo es el análisis del comportamiento de las exportaciones acuícolas chilenas para el periodo 1995-2005, como complemento de un trabajo anterior sobre las exportaciones agrícolas chilenas. Se analizó el comportamiento de varios indicadores de especialización (ventaja comparativa revelada y contribución a la balanza comercial), estructura de comercio (participación de la exportación de los productos seleccionados en el total de las exportaciones) y competitividad (índices de participación sectorial y de cuota de mercado) en cada categoría exportada. Once categorías del Sistema Armonizado fueron reducidas a seis: salmón, filete de pescado, algas, ostiones, mejillones e invertebrados acuáticos. Además, se analizó el comportamiento del principal país exportador y competidor de Chile en cada categoría seleccionada. Los resultados permiten concluir que, excepciones aparte, las exportaciones acuícolas tanto de Chile como de sus principales competidores gozan de un relativamente alto grado de especialización. También muestran tendencias en la competitividad que pueden ayudar a tomar medidas correctivas donde se necesite. Estos resultados pueden ser útiles a aquellos responsables de implementar políticas con beneficio para el sector y para la economía en general. Abstract in english Exchange rate and market liberalization policies put in place by recent Chilean administrations with the stated goal of promoting exports in both traditional and non-traditional sectors have resulted in a relative boom for the aquacultural activities in particular. The farming of salmon is well know [...] n, and less traditional exports in this area are beginning to play a larger role in the performance of the Chilean economy as a whole. This paper’s objective is

  13. UN GRAN VAR BAYESIANO PARA LA ECONOMIA CHILENA / LARGE BAYESIAN VAR FOR THE CHILEAN ECONOMY

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    WILDO, GONZALEZ P.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este artículo desarrolla un gran VAR bayesiano con más de cien variables para la economía chilena, en el mismo sentido que Banbura, Giannone y Reichlin (2010) se muestra que cuando el grado de contracción del ajuste de los priors son fijados en relación a la dimensión del corte transversal de la mue [...] stra (bayesian shrinkage), la capacidad predictiva de un VAR puede ser mejorado agregando variables macroeconómicas e información sectorial. Los resultados muestran que la predicción del gran VAR bayesiano se compara favorablemente con relación a algunos modelos univariados. Se examinan adicionalmente los impulsos respuesta a un shock monetario, así como también de algunos shocks sectoriales. Abstract in english This article develops a Large Bayesian VAR with more than 100 variables for the Chilean economy, as Banbura, Giannone and Reichlin (2010) shows that, when the degree of shrinkage is set in relation to the cross-sectional dimension of the sample (bayesian shrinkage), the forecasting performance of a [...] VAR can be improved by adding macroeconomic variables and sectoral information. The results show that the large bayesian VAR compares favorably with some univariate models. It further examines the impulse response functions to a monetary shock, as well as some sectoral shocks.

  14. Parcelas de agrado alrededor de Santiago y Valparaíso: ¿Migración por amenidad a la chilena?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rodrigo, Hidalgo; Axel, Borsdorf; Felipe, Plaza.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El artículo analiza el marco legal, distribución y estructura espacial de las migraciones por amenidad en las regiones montañosas chilenas (cordillera de la Costa, cordillera de los Andes) y sus tendencias en las últimas décadas. Se presentan tres casos de estudio, dos en regiones montañosas y un ca [...] so en un área de semimontaña. Basado en datos cuantitativos, mediante el análisis de datos censales 1992-2002, y cualitativos (entrevista a expertos), contempla también las relaciones entre vecinos y los conflictos entre los inmigrantes y la población tradicional. El artículo finaliza con una evaluación de las consecuencias económicas y sociales de los nuevos parques residenciales o las llamadas parcelas de agrado constituidas por lotes de más de 5.000 m². Abstract in english The article analyzes the legal framework, distribution and spatial structure of amenity migration in mountain regions in Chile (Cordillera de la Costa, Cordillera de los Andes) and their trends in recent decades. Presents three case studies, two in mountainous regions and one in a semi-mountainous a [...] rea. Based on qualitative data (interview with experts), and the relations between neighbors and the conflicts between immigrants and the traditional population. The article ends with an evaluation of the economic and social consequences of new parks or residential plots pleased calls up a batch of over 5,000 m².

  15. Notas sobre ecocrítica y poesía chilena / Notes on ecocriticism and Chilean poetry

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mauricio, Ostria González.

    Full Text Available Se examinan algunas prácticas poéticas chilenas, caracterizadas por presentar visiones profundas de los sujetos humanos y la naturaleza. Se indaga en ellos tanto las relaciones de los sujetos con su medio y la presencia de una conciencia ecológica activa, como la plasmación discursiva de un imaginar [...] io vinculado a esa conciencia relacional: la plas-mación de vivencias de profunda integración del ser humano con el cosmos. Se indaga tanto los referentes ambientales como la articulación de elementos de la naturaleza en tanto expresión de los sujetos textuales. Abstract in english Certain Chilean poetics practices are examined, which present profound visions of human subjects and of nature. The inquiry focuses on both the subjects' relations with their environment, and the presence of an active ecological awareness, as well as the literary concretion of an imagery linked to t [...] hat relational awareness: the concretion of experiences of a profound integration of the human being with the cosmos. Environ-mental referents and the articulation of natural elements as expression of textual subjects are approached within the frame of globalization processes and the defense of regional cultural values.

  16. Historia y escritura corporal en la poesía chilena y canadiense contemporánea

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Naín, Nómez; Fernanda, Moraga.

    Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El artículo establece un recorrido panorámico por las diferentes estrategias textuales que la poesía de mujeres chilena y canadiense ha utilizado desde fines del siglo XIX hasta fines del siglo XX. En el trabajo se analizan sus contextos específicos y sus diferencias geográficas y culturales, pero t [...] ambién se muestran ciertas bases comunes basadas en la relación escritura-cuerpo y en la construcción de sujetos que buscan instalar su historia personal y colectiva a partir de un discurso de ruptura y crítica Abstract in english This paper establishes a panoramic journey through different textual strategies that Chilean and Canadian women poets have used from the end of the Nineteenth Century up until the end of the Twentieth Century. Specific contexts and geographic and cultural differences are analysed, but we also show c [...] ertain common foundations related to writing-body relationships and subject construction that seek to install a personal and collective history through a rupturist and critical discourse

  17. Estudiantes de sectores rurales en las universidades chilenas: problemas y desafíos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juan, Cornejo Espejo.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Si bien no existen estudios específicos acerca de los estudiantes provenientes de sectores rurales que ingresan a la educación superior en Chile ni de sus trayectorias académicas, se puede afirmar, a partir de otros estudios, que ha habido un fuerte aumento de este tipo de estudiantes en las distint [...] as universidades chilenas en la última década. Pese a esa expansión, su futuro académico y laboral resulta incierto en razón de las altas tasas de reprobación y abandonos tempranos, situación que obliga al diseño de una política de retención y apoyo académico-humano específica. Abstract in english Though specific studies do not exist about students from rural sectors who join the higher education institutions in Chile nor their academic paths, it is possible to affirm, from other studies, that there has been a strong increase of this type of students in the different Chilean universities in t [...] he last decade. In spite of this expansion, their academic and labor future turns out to be uncertain in reason of the high rates of failure and early abandons, situation that needs the design of retention politics, and human-academic funding.

  18. MONOPSONISTIC BEHAVIOR IN CHILEAN MANUFACTURING / COMPORTAMIENTO MONOPSONICO EN LA MANUFACTURA CHILENA

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    DAVID, MACKINSON; LUCAS, NAVARRO.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Este trabajo utiliza una metodología firma-específica desarrollada por Brummund (2012) para medir poder monopsónico en el mercado de trabajo usando datos de plantas manufactureras chilenas para el período 2001-2006. Los resultados muestran una alta heterogeneidad en poder de mercado laboral entre la [...] s plantas y que cerca de un 25% de las plantas tienen un nivel alto de poder monopsónico. Se encuentra también que las características individuales de las plantas tienen un mayor poder explicativo del comportamiento monopsónico de las plantas que las características agregadas del mercado laboral en el que se desempeñan. La implicancia de política de estos resultados es que un salario mínimo restrictivo podría tener efectos ambiguos sobre el bienestar. Abstract in english This paper uses a firm-specific method for measuring monopsonistic behavior developed by Brummund (2012) using data for Chilean manufacturing plants for the period 2001-2006. We find that there is significant heterogeneity in labor market power across plants and that nearly a quarter of the plants h [...] ave a significant level of labor market power. It is also shown that individual plant characteristics explain more of the variation in monopsonistic behavior than do the characteristics of the accompanying labor market. These results are relevant for labor market policy since and suggest that a binding minimum wage could have ambiguous effects on welfare.

  19. La Asociación Chilena de Editores de Revistas Biomédicas / The Chilean Association of Biomedical Journal Editors

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Humberto, Reyes B.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english On September 29th, 2000, The Chilean Association of Biomedical Journal Editors was founded, sponsored by the "Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (CONICYT)" (the Governmental Agency promoting and funding scientific research and technological development in Chile) and the "Soc [...] iedad Médica de Santiago" (Chilean Society of Internal Medicine). The Association adopted the goals of the World Association of Medical Editors (WAME) and therefore it will foster "cooperation and communication among Editors of Chilean biomedical journals; to improve editorial standards, to promote professionalism in medical editing through education, self-criticism and self-regulation; and to encourage research on the principles and practice of medical editing". Twenty nine journals covering a closely similar number of different biomedical sciences, medical specialties, veterinary, dentistry and nursing, became Founding Members of the Association. A Governing Board was elected: President: Humberto Reyes, M.D. (Editor, Revista Médica de Chile); Vice-President: Mariano del Sol, M.D. (Editor, Revista Chilena de Anatomía); Secretary: Anna María Prat (CONICYT); Councilors: Manuel Krauskopff, Ph.D. (Editor, Biological Research) and Maritza Rahal, M.D. (Editor, Revista de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello). The Association will organize a Symposium on Biomedical Journal Editing and will spread information stimulating Chilean biomedical journals to become indexed in international databases and in SciELO-Chile, the main Chilean scientific website (www.scielo.cl) (Rev Méd Chile 2001;129: 95-98)

  20. Regiones fronterizas y flujos culturales: La peruanidad en una región chilena

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juan, Podestá Arzubiaga.

    Full Text Available El artículo discute las dinámicas culturales que articulan la zona fronteriza del norte de Chile (Arica) y sur peruano (Tacna). El argumento central es que se observa un creciente proceso de influencia de la cultura peruana en la ciudad de Arica, fenómeno que denominamos "la peruanidad de una región [...] chilena". Los factores que influyen tienen que ver con el impacto regional de la globalización; la prolongada crisis económica de Arica; el acelerado crecimiento económico del sur de Perú; el agotamiento del clásico enfoque de la geo-política, y la influencia de los nuevos programas educacionales. Abstract in english This article discusses the cultural dynamics that shape the border area in Northern Chile (Arica) and Southern Peru (Tacna). The main argument is the emergence of a growing influence of Peruvian culture in the city of Arica, which we label as ¨Peruvinization of a Chilean Region¨. The factors that in [...] fluence this process have to do with the regional impact of globalization, the prolonged economic crisis in Arica, the accelerated economic growth of Southern Peru, the outdating of the classical geopolitical approach, and the influence of new educational programs.

  1. Sorologia e sobrevivência do vírus do amarelo letal do mamoeiro Serology and surviving characteristics of Papaya lethal yellowing virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Lopes do Nascimento

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O vírus do amarelo letal do mamoeiro (Papaya lethal yellowing virus, PLYV é responsável por uma das principais doenças do mamoeiro (Carica papaya no Nordeste brasileiro. O PLYV pode ser transmitido através do solo, água, instrumento de corte e mãos contaminadas. A presente pesquisa teve como objetivo estudar as características biológicas, sorológicas e físicas de um isolado do vírus e avaliar sua sobrevivência em tecido seco infetado. O PLYV foi detectado por "Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay" (ELISA indireto e isolado em mudas de mamoeiro, através da inoculação mecânica. A sobrevivência do PLYV em folhas e raízes secas de mamoeiro infetado foi avaliada por sorologia e inoculação em plantas sadias. A presença do vírus foi detectada em folhas e raízes de mamoeiro secas, indicando que o vírus pode permanecer ativo em restos de cultura por até 120 dias. A purificação do PLYV permitiu a obtenção de 309.5 mg de vírus/kg de folha e o anti-soro obtido mostrou-se altamente específico, com títulos de 1:128 em dupla difusão em Agar e 1:1.024.000 em Elisa indireto. Estudos das propriedades físicas do PLYV em mamoeiro revelaram um ponto de inativação térmica (PIT em torno de 80 ºC, um ponto máximo de diluição (PMD de ac. 10-6 e uma longevidade in vitro (LIV acima de 50 dias.The Papaya lethal yellowing virus (PLYV is responsible for one of the most important disease of papaya (Carica papaya in the Northeast of Brazil. The PLYV can be transmitted through the soil, irrigation water, agriculture tools and contaminated hands. The present research had the objective to characterize biologically, serologically and physically a PLYV isolate and evaluates how long it survives in infected dried tissues. The PLYV was identified by indirect enzyme linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA, isolated in young papaya plants by mechanical inoculations and maintained at green house conditions for virus purification. Approximately 309.5 mg of virus was purified per kg of infected papaya leaves and a polyclonal antiserum was obtained from an immunized rabbit. The antiserum obtained was shown to be highly specific to PLYV with a titer of 1:128 in double immune-diffusion and a titer of 1:1.024.000 in indirect ELISA. The virus was detected in dried roots and leaves maintained at room temperature up to 120 days, confirming its high stability within nonliving plant tissues, which could explain its dissemination by contaminated hands, tools, water and soil. The physical properties determined for the virus revealed a thermal inactivation point of 80 ºC, longevity in vitro over 50 days and dilution end point ac. of 10-6.

  2. Pressão hidrostática nos atributos sensoriais do néctar de mamão / Hydrostatic high pressure in sensory attributes of papaya nectar

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fernanda Branco, Shinagawa; Rosires, Deliza; Amauri, Rosenthal; Maria Alice, Zarur.

    1898-19-01

    Full Text Available A indústria de alimentos utiliza a análise sensorial como ferramenta essencial no desenvolvimento, otimização, controle de qualidade e análise do potencial mercadológico de novos produtos. A alta pressão hidrostática (APH) é uma tecnologia inovadora que permite manter a qualidade dos alimentos em te [...] rmos nutricionais e sensoriais, bem como o frescor natural e aumentar a sua vida útil. A APH não afeta ligações covalentes, portanto são mínimos os efeitos nos constituintes químicos responsáveis pela cor, sabor e conteúdo nutricional. Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar o efeito da APH aplicada à polpa de mamão nos atributos sensoriais do néctar. Para tal, polpa controle (sem tratamento), pasteurizada (92°C 40s-1) e pressurizada (300MPa 5min-1 25°C-1) e quatro marcas comerciais de polpa de mamão congeladas foram utilizadas para preparar os sete respectivos néctares. Estudos iniciais foram realizados para determinação da quantidade de água e açúcar “ideal” a serem adicionadas à polpa para o preparo do néctar, de acordo com a resposta dos consumidores. As sete amostras foram analisadas por 12 provadores selecionados e treinados, utilizando a Análise Descritiva Quantitativa (ADQ). Os resultados mostraram que os néctares das amostras controle e pressurizada foram similares quanto aos atributos sensoriais, tendo sido caracterizadas pela presença de grumos, sabor característico de mamão, consistência e aroma característico de mamão. Abstract in english The food industry uses the sensory evaluation as an essential tool in the development, optimization, quality control and the analysis of new product potential market. High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) is an innovative technology that allows retaining the nutritional and sensory food quality, as well a [...] s the natural freshness, and extends product shelf life. The HHP does not affect covalent bonds; therefore, it has little effect on chemical constituents responsible for the color, flavor and nutritional content. This study aimed at evaluating the effect of HHP applied to the papaya pulp on sensory attributes of papaya nectar. Control (without treatment), pasteurized (92°C 40s-1) and pressurized papaya purée (300MPa 5min-1 25°C-1) and four commercial papaya frozen purées available in the market were used to prepare the seven respective papaya nectars. Preliminary studies were carried out to determine the amount of water and sugar to be added to the purée, according to the consumer preference. The seven samples were evaluated by 12 selected and trained panelists using the Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA). The results showed that the nectars of control and pressurized samples were similar regarding sensory attributes having been characterized by the presence of lumps, characteristic flavor of papaya, consistency and characteristic aroma of papaya.

  3. CADÁVER TUERTO, DE EDUARDO LABARCA EN EL MARCO DE LA "NOVELA HISTÓRICA CHILENA RECIENTE" Corpse, de Eduardo Labarca under The "Historical Novel Recent Chilean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Barraza J

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Cadáver tuerto (2005 anticipa las variaciones del género novelesco en la literatura chilena, privilegiando y contemplando el proceso de la escritura. Labarca parodia en esta novela los cruces entre la ficción, la realidad y la historia, entre la vida y la autobiografía, entre el discurso televisivo, radial y del periodismo escrito, de modo tal que da un notorio giro discursivo a la narrativa chilena de filiación histórica.Cadáver tuerto (2005 anticipates the variations of the novel genre in Chilean literatura, priviledging and contemplating the writing process. Labarca parodies, in this novel, the crossings among fiction and reality, between life and autobiography, between television, radio and written newsprint discourse.

  4. Carica papaya lipase: a naturally immobilized enzyme with interesting biochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelkafi, Slim; Barouh, Nathalie; Fouquet, Benjamin; Fendri, Imen; Pina, Michel; Scheirlinckx, Frantz; Villeneuve, Pierre; Carrière, Frédéric

    2011-03-01

    Triacylglycerol (TAG) lipases have been thoroughly characterized in mammals and microorganisms, whereas very little is known about plant TAG lipases. The lipolytic activity occurring in all the laticies is known to be associated with sedimentable particles, and all attempts to solubilize the lipolytic activity of Carica papaya latex have been unsuccessful so far. However, some of the biochemical properties of the lipase from Carica papaya latex (CPL) were determined from the insoluble fraction of the latex. The activity was optimum at a temperature of 37°C and a pH of 9.0, and the specific activities of CPL were found to be 2,000?±?185 and 256?±?8 U/g when tributyrin and olive oil were used as substrates, respectively. CPL was found to be active in the absence of any detergent, whereas many lipases require detergent to prevent the occurrence of interfacial denaturation. CPL was inactive in the presence of micellar concentrations of Triton X-100, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and tetradecyl trimethylammonium bromide (TTAB), and still showed high levels of activity in the presence of sodium taurodeoxycholate (NaTDC) and the zwitterionic Chaps detergent. The effects of various proteases on the lipolytic activity of CPL were studied, and CPL was found to be resistant to treatment with various enzymes, except in the presence of trypsin. All these properties suggest that CPL may be a good candidate for various biotechnological applications. PMID:21267783

  5. Effect of Prior Heat Stress on the Early Growth of Carica papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gideon Olarewaju OKUNLOLA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out to determine the effects of heat stress on some growth parameters like shoot height, leaf area, fresh weight, dry weight as well as the accumulation of chlorophylls in Carica papaya. Seedlings of C. papaya were exposed to prior heat stress at 40 °C. A group of plants was placed in a Gallenkamp oven for four hours; another group of plants was placed in the oven for eight hours while the third group of plants was placed in a dark cupboard for the period of eight hours. Sampling was carried out at weekly intervals starting from seven days after treatment. Plants were randomly picked from each of the three treatments. Three replicates were used for each parameter. The results obtained from the study showed that there was an increment in the shoot height, leaf area, fresh weight and dry weight from the beginning to the end of the experimental period. However, the accumulation of chlorophylls did not follow a particular pattern. The analysis of variance carried out on the data obtained showed that heat stress had a significant effect on the petiole length, shoot height, leaf length, leaf width, leaf area, fresh weight and dry weight. Heat stress, however, did not produce a significant effect on the accumulation of chlorophylls a and b and total chlorophyll.

  6. Production of fatty acid butyl esters using the low cost naturally immobilized Carica papaya lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Erzheng; Wei, Dongzhi

    2014-07-01

    In this work, the low cost naturally immobilized Carica papaya lipase (CPL) was investigated for production of fatty acid butyl esters (FABE) to fulfill the aim of reducing the lipase cost in the enzymatic butyl-biodiesel process. The CPL showed specificities to different alcohol acyl acceptors. Alcohols with more than three carbon atoms did not have negative effects on the CPL activity. The CPL catalyzed butanolysis for FABE production was systematically investigated. The reaction solvent, alcohol/oil molar ratio, enzyme amount, reaction temperature, and water activity all affected the butanolysis process. Under the optimized conditions, the highest conversion of 96% could be attained in 24 h. These optimal conditions were further applied to CPL catalyzed butanolysis of other vegetable oils. All of them showed very high conversion. The CPL packed-bed reactor was further developed, and could be operated continuously for more than 150 h. All of these results showed that the low cost Carica papaya lipase can be used as a promising lipase for biodiesel production. PMID:24954104

  7. Water depletion on substrate and Osmocote? fertilizer dose in the papaya seedlings formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César Ferreira de Melo Júnior

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The successful of fruit production depends on the high quality seedlings use, given that the initial growth of papaya seedlings is related to the precocity and quality of the fruit production. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate the different water depletion levels in substrate defined as a mass fraction of container capacity (MFCC as well as Osmocote® fertilizer dose (14-14-14 in the formation of papaya seedlings in containers. The experimental design was in randomized block in split plot with four replications, defined as plot the water depletion level of substrate (5, 15, 25 and 35% of MCC and subplot as the fertilizer dose (0, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 kg m-3. The shoot height, stem diameter, number of leaves, dry fitomassas of shoot, root and total, the dry mass relation between shoots and roots, and the Dickson quality index were determined. All caracteristics were subjected to variance analysis, and Scott-Knott test and regression analysis for water level depletion and fertilizer dose. The interaction between treatments that provided the best responses of seedlings was that subjected to depletion of 15% of the MCC and the fertilizer dose of 8.5 kg m-3.

  8. Carica papaya latex is a rich source of a class II chitinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarkan, M; Amrani, A; Nijs, M; Vandermeers, A; Zerhouni, S; Smolders, N; Looze, Y

    1997-12-01

    A class II chitinase is present in the latex of the tropical species Carica papaya. The enzyme may be readily purified by using a combination of hydrophobic interaction- and cation-exchange chromatography. This enzyme preparation is homogeneous with respect to the three physico-chemical criteria of charge, M(r) (28,000) and hydrophobicity. It is also completely free of any proteolytic and bacteriolytic activities. The enzyme was classified as a class II chitinase on the basis of its N-terminal amino acid sequence up to the 30th residue. In agreement with this classification, the enzyme preparation hydrolyses chitinase substrates only very slowly and several free thiol functions are present in the polypeptide chain. These free thiol functions are buried, and to be available for titration with 2,2'-dipyridyldisulphide, the enzyme must be denatured. Unfolding of papaya chitinase requires particularly drastic conditions, not less than 4 M guanidinium hydrochloride at 25 degrees and pH 6.8. PMID:9419898

  9. Kinetic constants for the hydrolysis of aggrecan by the papaya proteinases and their relevance for chemonucleolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekeyser, P M; Buttle, D J; Devreese, B; Van Beeumen, J; Demeester, J; Lauwers, A

    1995-07-10

    The four known proteinases from papaya latex, namely papain (EC 3.4.22.2), chymopapain (EC 3.4.22.6), caricain (EC 3.4.22.30), and glycyl endopeptidase (EC 3.4.22.25), were purified to homogeneity and fully characterized by single radial immunodiffusion and active-site titration. A modified HPLC gel permeation assay was used to determine the kinetic constants for aggrecan hydrolysis by the papaya proteinases. The disappearance of intact aggrecan monomer was first-order, indicating that for the four enzymes studied the Km was much larger than 0.5 microM and that kcat/Km = 1.2 +/- 0.1 x 10(6) M-1 s-1 for chymopapain, 1.20 +/- 0.08 x 10(6) M-1 s-1 for caricain, 0.90 +/- 0.02 x 10(6) M-1 s-1 for papain, and 0.120 +/- 0.005 x 10(6) M-1 s-1 for glycyl endopeptidase. Chymodiactin, the chymopapain preparation used for chemonucleolysis, consists of a mixture of chymopapain (70%), caricain (20%), and glycyl endopeptidase (4%). The rate constant for the aggrecan hydrolysis by such a mixture was not significantly different from the rate constant for pure chymopapain. As a result of these observations, we predict that pure chymopapain could replace partially purified chymopapain preparations for chemonucleolysis. PMID:7625846

  10. Control of papaya fruits anthracnose by essential oil of Ricinus communis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    César Luis, Siqueira Júnior; Maria das Graças Machado, Freire; Antônio Sérgio Nascimento, Moreira; Maria Ligia Rodrigues, Macedo.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of this work was to investigate the potential of castor oil for the control of papaya diseases caused by the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and the bacterium Pseudomonas caricapapayae. The treatment with 1% castor oil did not significantly affect the fungal growth. The effectiveness o [...] f castor oil for the control of anthracnose was shown when 5% and 10% (v/v) were used in the assays resulting in reduced mycelial growth. Fungal sporulation was strongly inhibited at 10% (v/v) concentration of essential oil. The studies with the fresh fruits treated with 5% (v/v) castor oil in aqueous emulsions resulted in effective reduction of pathogen spread in these fruits. No lesion was found in the fruits treated with oil, when compared to the control fruits. Castor oil showed no effect against the P. caricapapayae when tested in vitro. These results suggested the potential use of the castor bean essential oil and its fatty acids constituents for the control of anthracnose in papaya fruits.

  11. 116 años de la Revista Chilena de Historia Natural: Breve relato de dos antes y un después / 116 years of Revista Chilena de Historia Natural: A brief story of two befores and an after

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    PATRICIO A, CAMUS.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El año 2013 marcará el cierre de una etapa importante para la Revista Chilena de Historia Natural (RCHN), ya que a partir de 2014 comenzará a publicarse a través de la plataforma SpringerOpen, incluyendo algunos cambios relevantes en su diseño, manejo editorial, e idioma, entre otros. Por lo tanto e [...] n este artículo sintetizo algunos aspectos clave en la evolución de RCHN desde su fundación a fines del siglo 19, a través de dos períodos históricos: (a) 1897-1963, donde destaca la figura de su creador Carlos E. Porter y el rol de la Sociedad Chilena de Historia Natural, y (b) 1983-2013, su etapa reciente ligada a la Sociedad de Biología de Chile. Adicionalmente presento un breve análisis de la situación y el impacto de RCHN en su etapa moderna, incluyendo información inédita que muestra la preferencia (vía citación) por distintos aspectos de sus contenidos (categoría de artículo, área disciplinaria, tipo de ambiente), y un ranking de los artículos más citados vs. aquellos más consultados online, que revela dos caras distintas del impacto de la revista. Abstract in english The year 2013 will mark the end of an important period for Revista Chilena de Historia Natural (RCHN), as from 2014 it will start to be published through the SpringerOpen platform, including some conspicuous changes in design, editorial management and language, among others. Therefore in this articl [...] e I summarize some key aspects in the evolution of RCHN since its foundation in the late 19th century, through two historical periods: (a) 1897-1963, which highlights the figure of its creator Carlos E. Porter and the role of the Sociedad Chilena de Historia Natural (Chilean Society of Natural History), and (b) 1983-2013, its recent period linked to the Sociedad de Biología de Chile (Biology Society of Chile). Additionally, I present a brief analysis of the situation and the impact of RCHN in its modern period, including unpublished information showing the preference (via citation) for different aspects of its contents (article category, disciplinary area, environment type), and a ranking of the most cited articles vs. those most consulted online, which reveals two different faces of the journal's impact.

  12. Indução e desenvolvimento de calos e embriões somáticos em mamoeiro Papaya callus and somatic embryo induction and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Pires de Almeida

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo estabelecer um protocolo para a indução e desenvolvimento de calos e embriões somáticos em mamoeiro (Carica papaya L. cv. Tainung n.1. Foram utilizados quatro tipos de explantes (hipocótilo com folhas cotiledonares, hipocótilo, folhas cotiledonares e epicótilo e duas condições de cultivo (escuro e 16 horas de luz. A indução e o desenvolvimento de calos foram avaliados nos meios de cultura ½MS2, ½MS10 e HMH e a indução e o desenvolvimento de embriões somáticos nos meios ½MS e HMH1. O cultivo de explantes de hipocótilo com folhas cotiledonares em meio de cultura ½MS10, por 20 dias, sob condições de escuro, foi o mais adequado para a indução (100% e o crescimento de calos friáveis embriogênicos. O cultivo desses calos em meio ½MS, por duas subculturas de 30 dias, sob condições de escuro, foi o mais adequado para a indução (60% e o desenvolvimento de embriões somáticos. O tipo de explante, meios de cultura e condições de cultivo foram definidos para a embriogênese somática em mamoeiro.In order to establish a protocol for induction and development of callus and somatic embryos of papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Tainung n.1 four explant types (hypocotyl with cotiledonary leaves, hypocotyl, cotiledonary leaves and epycotyl and two light conditions (dark and 16 h photoperiod were used. Callus induction and development were evaluated in ½MS2, ½MS10 and HMH media, and somatic embryo induction and development in ½MS and HMH1 media. In vitro culture of hypocotyl with cotiledonary leaves in ½MS10 medium, under dark condition for 20 days, was suitable for induction (100% and growth of embryogenic friable callus. The culture of these callus in ½MS medium, under dark condition for two subcultures of 30 days, was suitable for induction (60% and development of papaya somatic embryos. The explant type, culture media and culture conditions were defined for papaya somatic embryogenesis.

  13. In silico cloning and characterization of the TGA (TGACG MOTIF-BINDING FACTOR) transcription factors subfamily in Carica papaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrovo Espín, Fabio Marcelo; Peraza-Echeverria, Santy; Fuentes, Gabriela; Santamaría, Jorge M

    2012-05-01

    The TGA transcription factors belong to the subfamily of bZIP group D that play a major role in disease resistance and development. Most of the TGA identified in Arabidopsis interact with the master regulator of SAR, NPR1 that controls the expression of PR genes. As a first approach to determine the possible involvement of these transcription factors in papaya defense, we characterized Arabidopsis TGA orthologs from the genome of Carica papaya cv. SunUp. Six orthologs CpTGA1 to CpTGA6, were identified. The predicted CpTGA proteins were highly similar to AtTGA sequences and probably share the same DNA binding properties and transcriptional regulation features. The protein sequences alignment evidenced the presence of conserved domains, characteristic of this group of transcription factors. The phylogeny showed that CpTGA evolved into three different subclades associated with defense and floral development. This is the first report of basal expression patterns assessed by RT-PCR, from the whole subfamily of CpTGA members in different tissues from papaya cv. Maradol mature plants. Overall, CpTGA1, CpTGA3 CpTGA6 and CpTGA4 showed a basal expression in all tissues tested; CpTGA2 expressed strongly in all tissues except in petioles while CpTGA5 expressed only in petals and to a lower extent in petioles. Although more detailed studies in anthers and other floral structures are required, we suggest that CpTGA5 might be tissue-specific, and it might be involved in papaya floral development. On the other hand, we report here for the first time, the expression of the whole family of CpTGA in response to salicylic acid (SA). The expression of CpTGA3, CpTGA4 and CpTGA6 increased in response to SA, what would suggest its involvement in the SAR response in papaya. PMID:22410205

  14. Heterosis in papaya: inter and intragroup analysis / Heterose no mamão: analise inter e intra-grupo

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Deisy Lúcia, Cardoso; Lucas Nunes da, Luz; Celia Maria Peixoto de, Macêdo; Leandro Gonçalves Simões, Azeredo; Messias Gonzaga, Pereira.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O mamão (Carica papaya L.) é uma cultura típica de áreas tropicais e o Brasil é um dos principais produtores mundiais. Nas últimas décadas, a cultura de mamão se expandiu para diferentes regiões do país, mas o número de cultivares disponíveis ainda é limitado. No presente trabalho, um cruzamento dia [...] lélico completo foi realizado com oito acessos de mamão do banco de germoplasma da UENF/Caliman. Quatro genótipos pertencem ao grupo heterótico Formosa e quatro, ao grupo Solo. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a ocorrência e viabilidade de explorar a heterose em híbridos heteróticos intra-grupo. Cinquenta e seis progénies híbridas foram geradas e avaliadas. Entre os híbridos intra-grupo Formosa, duas combinações híbridas (MR x J4 e MR x SK) apresentaram heterose para todas as características, bem como uma boa produção média total de frutos. Entre os híbridos intra-grupo Solo, três combinações híbridas (WM x GG, WM x SS e WM x SM) destacam-se pela produção de frutas e alto teor de sólidos solúveis. Em Formosa x híbridos de solo, todas as combinações híbridas com o progenitor JS (JS x WM, JS x GG, JS x SS e JS x SM) apresentaram frutos de alta qualidade e boa média para produção de frutos. O perfil de heterose dos híbridos testados permitiu a identificação de híbridos promissores dentro dos grupos heteróticos Formosa e Solo. A análise das variáveis canónicas também possibilitou a visualização de grupos distintos de híbridos, de acordo com a proveniência dos progenitores. Abstract in english Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a typical crop of tropical areas, and Brazil is one of the leading world producers. In recent decades, papaya culture has expanded to different regions of the country, but the number of cultivars available is still limited. In the present study, a complete diallel cross [...] was carried out using eight accessions of papaya from the UENF/Caliman germplasm bank. Four genotypes belong to the Formosa heterotic group and four, to the Solo group. This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence and viability of exploring heterosis in heterotic intragroup hybrids. Fifty-six hybrid progenies were generated and evaluated. Among the Formosa intragroup hybrids, two hybrid combinations (MR x J4 and MR x SK) showed heterosis for all traits, as well as good average total fruit production. Among the Solo intragroup hybrids, three hybrid combinations (WM x GG, WM x SS and WM x SM) stand out for fruit production and high content of soluble solids. In Formosa x Solo hybrids, all hybrid combinations with the parent JS (JS x WM, JS x GG, JS x SS and JS x SM) showed high fruit quality and good average for fruit production. The heterotic profile of the hybrids tested allowed the identification of promising hybrids within Formosa and Solo heterotic groups. The analysis of the canonical variables also allowed the visualization of distinct groups of hybrids, depending on the provenance of the parents.

  15. Amadurecimento e senescência de mamão com 1-metilciclopropeno / Ripening and senescence of papaya with 1-methilcyclopropene

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Angelo Pedro, Jacomino; Ricardo Alfredo, Kluge; Auri, Brackmann; Paulo Roberto de Camargo e, Castro.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O mamão (Carica papaya L.) é uma fruta altamente perecível devido ao rápido amadurecimento após a colheita. A busca de técnicas que ampliem o período de conservação e reduzam as perdas pós-colheita é desejável. Mamões 'Sunrise Solo' foram colhidos em dois estádios de maturação (verde e maduro) e tra [...] tados com o antagonista competitivo do etileno 1-metilciclopropeno (1-MCP) nas concentrações de 0, 30, 90 e 270 nL L-1, durante 12 horas a 20ºC. Após o tratamentos os frutos foram armazenados em condições ambientais (20ºC) durante oito dias. A aplicação do 1-MCP (90 e 270 nL L-1) retardou a perda de coloração verde dos frutos e a incidência de podridões. Frutos verdes tratados com 1-MCP (270 nL L-1) apresentaram maior firmeza do que os frutos controle. O 1-MCP não afetou o conteúdo de sólidos solúveis dos frutos. A taxa respiratória e a produção de etileno foram reduzidas nos frutos tratados com 1-MCP (90 nL L-1 e 270 nL L-1) em ambos estádios de maturação. O 1-MCP (90 nL L-1 e 270 nL L-1) aumentou a vida de prateleira dos frutos do estádio verde de quatro para seis dias e dos frutos maduros de dois para quatro dias. Este bloqueador da ação do etileno mostrou-se eficiente para retardar o amadurecimento de mamões e aumentar sua vida de prateleira Abstract in english Papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruits are highly perishable due the fast ripening after harvest. The search for techniques that extend the shelf life and reduce the post-harvest losses is desirable. In this study, papaya 'Sunrise Solo' fruits were harvested in two ripening stages (green and ripe) and tre [...] ated with the competitive ethylene antagonist 1-methycyclopropene (1-MCP) at concentrations of 0, 30, 90 or 270 nL L-1 for 12 h at 20ºC followed by storage at room temperature (20ºC) during eight days. Application of 1-MCP (90 or 270 nL L-1) delayed degreening decay. Green fruits treated with 1-MCP (270 nL L-1) presented higher firmness in relation to control fruits. 1-MCP did not affect the soluble solids of fruits. The respiration rate and ethylene production were lower in fruits treated with 1-MCP (90 or 270 nL L-1) in both ripening stages. 1-MCP extended the shelf life of green fruits from four to six days and the shelf life of ripe fruits from two to four days. The 1-MCP was efficient to delay the ripening of papayas extending their shelf life

  16. Insecticidal activity of seed extracts of Carica papaya (L.) against the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    OpenAIRE

    Fiqueroa Brito, R.; Huerta La Pen?a, A.; Pe?rez-moreno, I.; Marco, V.; Lopez Olgui?n, J. F.

    2011-01-01

    The present study shows that natural products from Carica papaya can be considered as a valid alternative to control pests in agriculture. The insecticide properties of the seed extracts of four cultivars of C. papaya (Maradol, Mammee, Yellow and Hawaiian) were added to an artificial insect diet. Bioassays were conducted with hexanic, acetonic and methanolic extracts at concentrations of 10, 100 and 1000ppm. All tests were performed with the first larval stage of Spodoptera frugiperda. The re...

  17. Differential Gene Expression in Response to Papaya ringspot virus Infection in Cucumis metuliferus Using cDNA- Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Yu-tsung; Jan, Fuh-jyh; Lin, Chia-wei; Chung, Chien-hung; Chen, Jo-chu; Yeh, Shy-dong; Ku, Hsin-mei

    2013-01-01

    A better understanding of virus resistance mechanisms can offer more effective strategies to control virus diseases. Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), Potyviridae, causes severe economical losses in papaya an