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1

Evaluation of linear accelerator performance standards using an outcome oriented approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation therapy, along with other branches of medicine, is moving towards a firmer basis in evidence to optimally utilize resources. As new treatment technology and strategies place greater demands on quality assurance resources, the need to objectively evaluate equipment and process performance standards from the perspective of predicted clinical impact becomes more urgent. This study evaluates the appropriateness of recommended quality control tolerance and action levels for linear accelerators based on the calculated dosimetric impact of suboptimal equipment performance. A method is described to quantify the dosimetric changes, as reflected by the changes in the outcome surrogate, equivalent uniform dose (EUD), of machine performance deviations from the optimal, specifically in the range of tolerance and action levels promulgated by the Canadian Association of Provincial Cancer Agencies (CAPCA). Linear accelerator performance deviations were simulated for the treatment of prostate, breast, lung, and brain using 3D conformal techniques, and the impact evaluated in terms of the changes in the EUD of the target volumes and two principal organs at risk (OARs) per site. The eight key performance characteristics examined are: Output constancy, beam flatness, gantry angle, collimator angle, field size indicator, laser alignment (three directions) and, by inference, the optical distance indicator. Currently accepted CAPCA tolerance levels for these eight performance charce levels for these eight performance characteristics are shown to maintain average EUD deviations to within 2% for the targets and 2 Gy for the OARs. However, within the 2% or 2 Gy range, the recommended tolerance levels are found to have markedly different effects on the EUDs of the structures of interest

2

Goal orientations in negotiations: the influence of goal orientations on fixed-pie perceptions and bargaining outcomes.  

Science.gov (United States)

As is the case for other achievement situations, people may approach negotiations emphasizing outcome and/or process goals. This paper examines the effects of process goal orientation (PGO) and outcome goal orientation (OGO) on individuals' fixed-pie perceptions and the negotiation of joint outcomes. Process and outcome goal orientations are associated with different personal beliefs about the world. We hypothesized that persons who are primarily oriented toward outcome goals, based on their fixed-entity perception of the world, would mainly concentrate on the final results or on the outcomes of the negotiation. They would tend to perceive negotiations as fixed, zero-sum, competitive situations, which have to be "won" by one of the parties at the expense of the other. On the other hand, we predicted that people who are strongly process-oriented, based on their malleable-entity perception of the world, would focus mainly on formulating and mastering the best strategies that lead to successful resolution of the negotiation. They would perceive positions to be "malleable" and, hence, would tend to perceive the negotiation as a non zero-sum situation. Additionally, the interaction between the two types of goal orientations and its effect on the parties' joint negotiation outcomes was examined. Results of two empirical studies indicated that OGO was significantly positively associated with fixed-pie bias (Study 1). The significant interaction between PGO and OGO (Study 2) demonstrated that a strong OGO combined with a strong PGO led to the best joint negotiation outcomes. Implications for goal orientation and negotiation theories are discussed. PMID:22029443

Katz-Navon, Tal Y; Goldschmidt, Chanan

2009-02-01

3

Market oriented approach by public utilities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Public utilities, especially the larger ones, have an image of being inefficient, technocratic and bureaucratic institutions, unresponsive to modern lifestyles, growing consumerism, differentiated customer needs and changing social values. Improving this image and increasing customer satisfaction requires the adoption of a systematic market oriented approach, based on an appropriate segmentation of the client and general public. This article gives the broad outline of such an approach followed by some generally applicable practical recommendations. Finally it stresses the importance of human aspects of organizational behaviour and, consequently, the crucial part of corporate culture. 2 figs., 1 tab.

Mantel, J.J.; Verkuil, J.M.

1989-08-01

4

[Recovery of consciousness: process-oriented approach].  

Science.gov (United States)

Traditionally psychological neurorehabilitation of neurosurgical patients is provided subject to availability of clear consciousness and minimal potential to communicate verbally. Cognitive and emotional disorders, problems in social adaptation, neurotic syndromes are normally targets in such cases. We work with patients having survived severe brain damage being in different states of consciousness: vegetative state, minimal state of consciousness, mutism, confusion, posttraumatic Korsaroff syndrom. Psychologist considers recovery of consciousness as the target besides traditional tasks. Construction of communication with patient is central part of such job, where the patient remains unable to contact verbally, yet it is impossible to consider potential aphasia. This is a non-verbal "dialogue" with patient created by psychologist with gradual development and involving other people and objects of environment. Inline with modern neuroscientific achievements demonstrating ability to recognize by patients with severe brain injury (A. Owen, S. Laureys, M. Monti, M. Coleman, A. Soddu, M. Boly and others) we base upon psychological science, on psychotherapeutic approaches containing instruments inevitable to work with patients in altered states of consciousness and creation of non-verbal communication with patient (Jung, Reich, Alexander, Lowen, Keleman, Arnold and Amy Mindell, S. Tomandl, D. Boadella, A. Längle, P. Levin etc). This article will include 15 years of experience to apply Process-oriented approach by A. Mindell to recovery of consciousness of neurosurgical patients based on work with "minimal signals" (micro moves, breath, mimic reactions etc.), principle of feedback, psychosomatic resonance, empathy. PMID:24761599

Gusarova, S B

2014-01-01

5

The Process Approach to Clinical Pharmacy Orientation--Four Years' Experience.  

Science.gov (United States)

The process approach is an effective method of teaching clinical pharmacy clerkship orientation, the major advantage of which is increased student participation based on improved early identification of predetermined learning outcomes. The primary disadvantage is the difficulty of implementation. A lesson plan is appended. (MLW)

Moleski, Ronald J.; Snodgrass, Gary L.

1979-01-01

6

Holistic Approach to Learning and Teaching Introductory Object-Oriented Programming  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes a holistic approach to designing an introductory, object-oriented programming course. The design is grounded in constructivism and pedagogy of phenomenography. We use constructive alignment as the framework to align assessments, learning, and teaching with planned learning outcomes. We plan learning and teaching activities,…

Thota, Neena; Whitfield, Richard

2010-01-01

7

Secondary Student Motivation Orientations and Standards-Based Achievement Outcomes  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Individual student characteristics such as competence motivation, achievement values, and goal orientations have been related in meaningful ways to task attainment. The standards-based National Certificate of Educational Achievement (NCEA) was developed in New Zealand with the intention of strengthening connections between student…

Meyer, Luanna H.; McClure, John; Walkey, Frank; Weir, Kirsty F.; McKenzie, Lynanne

2009-01-01

8

An object oriented programming approach used in data acquisition program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The conception of polymorphous and its application in data acquisition program which supports multi type of hardware is introduced. The advantages of this object oriented programming approach used in data acquisition program are described

9

A Socially Oriented Approach Through Carbon Compound Chemistry  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses the development of a course designed to interest the average high school student. It is socially oriented in its approach to science and has been employed, in both the United States and Israel, for nonscience students. (DF)

Novick, Shimshon; Sutman, Frank X.

1973-01-01

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THE SUCCESSION OF DATA WAREHOUSE USING OBJECT ORIENTED APPROACH  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper describes techniques for designing both front & back end of a data warehouse in such a way that companies can continue to progress their warehouse and query tools as their business changes,customer demands changes, instead of continuously having to estructure and rewrite their existing tools. Object –Oriented approach are driving the current development of ODBMS that will handle complex objects, inheritance and other features that enable direct implementation technology that is being extended to combine data management capabilities with application of logical rules to provide more refined information to management. Object-oriented approach is used in different areas i.e Software Engg, Database Management System and Latest Approach is used in Data warehouse. Object-Oriented envelopment involves more than learning a program, it includes capability for development. A purely Object –Oriented tool like Java, Smalltalk , or the object –oriented use of C++ requires that problem domains be conceptualized in terms of the paradigm inherent in object technology. Most research in Object-oriented programming (OOP including object –oriented database Management systems (OODBMS, is concerned with supporting users which are not served well by more conventional technology. Our research has been from a different point of view – our primary motivating factor is toshow how existing applications can be enhanced using object –oriented Technology.

DR. PUSHPA SURI

2011-02-01

11

Risk evaluation: A cost-oriented approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This method provides a structured and cost-oriented way to determine risks associated with loss and destruction of industrial security interests consisting of material assets and human resources. Loss and destruction are assumed to be adversary perpetrated, high-impact events in which the health and safety of people or high-value property is at risk. This concept provides a process for: (1) assessing effectiveness of all integrated protection system, which includes facility operations, safety, emergency and security systems, and (2) a qualitative prioritization scheme to determine the level of consequence relative to cost and subsequent risk. The method allows managers the flexibility to establish asset protection appropriate to programmatic requirements and priorities and to decide if funding is appropriate. The evaluation objectives are to: (1) provide for a systematic, qualitative tabletop process to estimate the potential for an undesirable event and its impact; and (2) identify ineffective protection and cost-effective solutions

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An Aspect Oriented Process Based Approach To Information Risk Management  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this era of fast paced technological advancements, security issues and risks related to it have become a key concern for all organizations. Enterprise Governance, Risk management and Compliance(GRC) is the popular approach to handle enterprise risks and reduce its impact. This paper focuses on the risk management, especially the risk assessment approaches and proposes an aspect oriented approach to risk management. In this approach, the risk management processes are designed separately fro...

Dhanya Pramod; Raman, R.; Vijayakumar Bharathi, S.

2013-01-01

13

KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT, MARKET ORIENTATION, INNOVATIVENESS AND ORGANIZATIONAL OUTCOMES: A STUDY IN COMPANIES INSTALLED IN BRAZIL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article examines the relationships between knowledge management, market orientation, innovativeness and organizational outcomes. The research was conducted from a survey of 241 executives from companies in Brazil. The evidence found indicated that knowledge management contributes directly to the market orientation, but requires a clearly defined strategic direction to achieve outcomes and innovativeness. It was also concluded that knowledge, as a resource, has affect on other enterprise's resources, and it needs a direction to organizational goals in order to be effective.

Alex Antonio Ferraresi

2012-04-01

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Concurrent object-oriented programming: The MP-Eiffel approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article evaluates several possible approaches for integrating concurrency into object-oriented programming languages, presenting afterwards, a new language named MP-Eiffel. MP-Eiffel was designed attempting to include all the essential properties of both concurrent and object-oriented programming with simplicity and safety. A special care was taken to achieve the orthogonality of all the language mechanisms, allowing their joint use without unsafe side-effects (such as inh...

Silva, Miguel Augusto Mendes Oliveira E.

2004-01-01

15

Achieving service-oriented architecture applying an enterprise architecture approach  

CERN Document Server

A complete, comprehensive methodology and framework for adopting and managing a successful service oriented architecture environment Achieving Service-Oriented Architecture helps to set up an SOA Architecture Practice defining the policies, procedures, and standards that apply not just to IT developers but to the entire corporation as it relates to business applications.Why a new architectural approach is necessary for your business to achieve all the value SOA has to offerFocuses on setting up an enterprise architecture practice for service-oriented architectureDiscus

Sweeney, Rick

2010-01-01

16

A Data-Oriented Approach to Semantic Interpretation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In Data-Oriented Parsing (DOP), an annotated language corpus is used as a stochastic grammar. The most probable analysis of a new input sentence is constructed by combining sub-analyses from the corpus in the most probable way. This approach has been succesfully used for syntactic analysis, using corpora with syntactic annotations such as the Penn Treebank. If a corpus with semantically annotated sentences is used, the same approach can also generate the most probable semant...

Bod, Rens; Bonnema, Remko; Scha, Remko

1996-01-01

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Knowledge management, market orientation, innovativeness and organizational outcomes: a study on companies operating in Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This article analyzes the study of the relationship among knowledge management, the company's market orientation, innovativeness and organizational outcomes. The survey was conducted based on a survey held with executives from 241 companies in Brazil. The evidence found indicates that knowledge mana [...] gement directly contributes to market orientation, but it requires a clearly defined strategic direction to achieve results and innovativeness. It was also concluded that knowledge, as a resource, leverages other resources of the company, while it requires a direction in relation to the organizational goals in order to be effective.

Alex Antonio, Ferraresi; Silvio Aparecido dos, Santos; José Roberto, Frega; Heitor José, Pereira.

18

DATA PUBLISHING AND PRIVACY MAINTENANCE BY AN APPROACH ORIENTED SLICING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many of the Techniques based on the some of the oriented strategy and are completely reliable on these particular phenomena for the purpose of the accurate analysis takes place in a well effective manner respectively. A lot of analysis has been made on a present technique where the extraction of the performance is a key role it is quite effective on comparison to that of the several previous existing techniques in a well effective manner where it is further used in the real time scenario respectively. Here the designed strategy is done or implemented by the technically oriented method naming strategy based on the slicing where it is implemented where the accurate classification of the data takes place in a well effective manner both with respect to the row wise as well as the column wise respectively. Here there is a huge challenge to overcome the above mentioned drawbacks or the problems which is mainly used for the degradation of the performance takes place. Where there is no relation between the extracted data based on the properties related to that particular technique in an accurate oriented fashion. From the other end when the application of the other alternative technique as mentioned above the name of the bucket oriented strategy there is no similarity between the data take place and also the minute oriented operations it is a failure based approach respectively. Here by the above generalized technique there may be complete loss o the data therefore there is no sought of the efficiency in the system takes place in an effective manner so that the performance can be reduced in an effective manner where the consideration of the data related to the high dimension oriented approach. There are some of the previously implemented which are implemented in a well efficient manner and its oriented techniques are implemented beyond the security oriented aspect includes method of generalization followed by the phenomena oriented buckets in a quite respective fashion. Actually here the transmission of the data takes place in a environment based on the wireless based strategy in a well efficient manner. The user is very much concerned and frustrated about his own data in the well efficient manner that is either data is completely transferred from one to other end vice versa or not.  

Addagarla Harica

2013-08-01

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Multisensory processing in spatial orientation: an inverse probabilistic approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Most evidence that the brain uses Bayesian inference to integrate noisy sensory signals optimally has been obtained by showing that the noise levels in each modality separately can predict performance in combined conditions. Such a forward approach is difficult to implement when the various signals cannot be measured in isolation, as in spatial orientation, which involves the processing of visual, somatosensory, and vestibular cues. Instead, we applied an inverse probabilistic approach, based on optimal observer theory. Our goal was to investigate whether the perceptual differences found when probing two different states--body-in-space and head-in-space orientation--can be reconciled by a shared scheme using all available sensory signals. Using a psychometric approach, seven human subjects were tested on two orientation estimates at tilts < 120°: perception of body tilt [subjective body tilt (SBT)] and perception of visual vertical [subjective visual vertical (SVV)]. In all subjects, the SBT was more accurate than the SVV, which showed substantial systematic errors for tilt angles beyond 60°. Variability increased with tilt angle in both tasks, but was consistently lower in the SVV. The sensory integration model fitted both datasets very nicely. A further experiment, in which supine subjects judged their head orientation relative to the body, independently confirmed the predicted head-on-body noise by the model. Model predictions based on the derived noise properties from the various modalities were also consistent with previously published deficits in vestibular and somatosensory patients. We conclude that Bayesian computations can account for the typical differences in spatial orientation judgments associated with different task requirements. PMID:21471371

Clemens, Ivar A H; De Vrijer, Maaike; Selen, Luc P J; Van Gisbergen, Jan A M; Medendorp, W Pieter

2011-04-01

20

A Data-Oriented Approach to Semantic Interpretation  

CERN Document Server

In Data-Oriented Parsing (DOP), an annotated language corpus is used as a stochastic grammar. The most probable analysis of a new input sentence is constructed by combining sub-analyses from the corpus in the most probable way. This approach has been succesfully used for syntactic analysis, using corpora with syntactic annotations such as the Penn Treebank. If a corpus with semantically annotated sentences is used, the same approach can also generate the most probable semantic interpretation of an input sentence. The present paper explains this semantic interpretation method, and summarizes the results of a preliminary experiment. Semantic annotations were added to the syntactic annotations of most of the sentences of the ATIS corpus. A data-oriented semantic interpretation algorithm was succesfully tested on this semantically enriched corpus.

Bod, R; Scha, R; Bod, Rens; Bonnema, Remko; Scha, Remko

1996-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

An Aspect Oriented Process Based Approach To Information Risk Management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this era of fast paced technological advancements, security issues and risks related to it have become a key concern for all organizations. Enterprise Governance, Risk management and Compliance(GRC is the popular approach to handle enterprise risks and reduce its impact. This paper focuses on the risk management, especially the risk assessment approaches and proposes an aspect oriented approach to risk management. In this approach, the risk management processes are designed separately from the core business processes and are weaved to the flow of business process steps wherever necessary.This brings the advantage of separation of concerns of risk management from the business process. The design of business processes then need not look into the design of risk assessment related to it. This will enable handling of risk and its assessment by expert risk advisories, those who are specialized in it.

Dhanya Pramod

2013-06-01

22

Glucose control and cardiovascular outcomes: reorienting approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cardiovascular disease accounts for nearly 70% of morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus. Strides made in diabetes care have indeed helped prevent or reduce the burden of microvascular complications in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. However, the same cannot be said about macrovascular disease in diabetes. Several prospective trials so far have failed to provide conclusive evidence of the superiority of glycemic control in reducing macrovascular complications or death rates in people with advanced disease or those with long duration of diabetes. There are trends that suggest that benefits are restricted to those with lesser burden and shorter duration of disease. Furthermore, it is also suggested that benefits might accrue but it would take a longer time to manifest. Clinicians are faced with the challenge to decide how to triage patients for intensified care vs less intense care. This review focuses on evidence and attempts to provide a balanced view of the literature that has radically affected how physicians treat patients with macrovascular disease. It also takes cognizance of the fact that the natural course of the disease may be changing as well, possibly related to better overall awareness and possibly improved access to information about better individual healthcare. The review further takes note of some hard held notions about the pathobiology of the disease that must be interpreted with caution in light of new and emerging data. In light of recent developments ADA and EASD have taken step to provide some guidance to clinicians through a joint position statement. A lot more research would be required to figure out how best to manage macrovascular disease in diabetes mellitus. Glucocentric stance would need to be reconsidered, and attention paid to concurrent multifactorial interventions that seem to be effective in reducing vascular outcomes. PMID:22952467

Khardori, Romesh; Nguyen, Diep D

2012-01-01

23

The great recession and drinking outcomes: protective effects of politically oriented coping.  

Science.gov (United States)

Research derived from the stress paradigm suggests that certain types of coping (e.g., problem-focused coping instead of behavioral disengagement) are protective against problem-related drinking to deal with social stressors. Going beyond the typical focus in the coping literature, we hypothesize that stressors engendered by macrolevel social forces may require coping actions within the political realm in contrast to modes of coping focused outside of the political realm. A United States sample of 663 respondents completed a mail survey in 2010, including measures of stressful consequences of the Great Recession, drinking patterns and problems, modes of coping encompassed in the Brief COPE instrument, and politically oriented coping. Structural equation modeling examined whether modes of coping mediated the links between stressors and drinking outcomes. A substantial portion of the associations between stressors and drinking was explained by modes of coping. Politically oriented coping was protective against problem drinking for both genders. Future studies should further explore politically oriented coping in addition to modes of coping outside of the political realm when studying the relationships between macrolevel social stressors and deleterious drinking outcomes. PMID:25302131

Richman, Judith A; Brown, Robyn Lewis; Rospenda, Kathleen M

2014-01-01

24

Brake Design-an Object-Oriented Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

An object-oriented approach methodology is presented in this work that was applied in developing the computer software for the analysis and design of brakes. This was done using Microsoft Visual Basic (object-oriented) programming language. In designing the software, the various classes of brakes were considered. The mathematical expressions that govern the relationship between force, torque, pressure, heat generated and energy were assembled and carefully programmed. To enhance the ability to visually display and interpret the solutions obtained, graphical features were incorporated in the software. Benchmark problems were used to test the software's robustness, accuracy and efficiency. The results show that the software is highly accurate, efficient and robust. The usage of the software greatly increases the accuracy, and reduces the complexity and time spent in the analysis and design of brakes.

Akpobi, John A.

2011-10-01

25

Object Oriented Approach to Software Development for LHC Experiments  

CERN Multimedia

% RD41 \\\\ \\\\ We propose to study the viability of the Object Oriented~(OO) approach for developing the code for LHC experiments. The authors of this proposal will learn the key issues of this approach:~~OO analysis and design. Several methodologies will be studied to select the most appropriate for the High Energy Physics case. Some Computer Aided Software Engineering tools and implementation languages will be evaluated. These studies will be carried out with various well-defined prototypes, some of which have been defined in a preceding study and some of which will be defined in the course of this R\\&D project. We propose to also study in this project how the OO approach enhances a different, and hopefully better, project management. Management tools will be tried and professional training will be organized.

Tummers, B J; Day, C; Innocente, V; Mount, R; Visser, E; Burnett, T H; Balke, C

2002-01-01

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APPROACHES TO STUDY EDUCATIONAL AND OCCUPATIONAL TRAJECTORIES AND OUTCOMES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article analyzes the main approaches to study educational and occupational outcomes and trajectories. Young people have to decide when and what to study, later on, where to work. Their life levels will depend on those decisions, but the different ways that in both areas they are able to take and their outcomes in education and in the labor market depend on various factors. Among explications it is possible to identify six large approaches: human capital from economics, cultural and social capital from sociology, the socioeconomic status or familiar background approach and the educational and psychological approaches. These approaches are not contrary necessarily, they can be complementary, and their explanatory power depends on place and time, however, the literature does not have an effort to present together their contributions, methodologies and empirical results. This work seeks to remedy that situation and to point out some methodological and empirical weakness.

Tovar-García, Edgar Demetrio

2012-04-01

27

An Outcome-Oriented Theory of Choice and Empirical Paradoxes in Expected Utility Theory  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

I analyze observed choice between lotteries from an outcome-oriented point of view in the framework of choice between random variables. I characterize a choice maker, who faces a choice situation between lotteries, by (1) a surmising process that associates, with a pair of lotteries, a set of well-defined choice situations between random variables, and (2) a choice set that is a collection of well-defined choice situations. I give a partial axiomatic foundation of the theory. The theory is ap...

Kaneko, Fumihiro

1997-01-01

28

A Service Oriented Approach to Modeling Interdisciplinary Environmental Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Interdisciplinary research often requires the use of multiple data sources, models, and analysis routines coupled together in a workflow to answer a single research question. Coupling these computational resources into a workflow can be accomplished using various tools, but each of these tools requires the developer to follow a specific interface protocol to ensure that all components within the system remain compliant. Unfortunately, not all of the resources required for an analysis can be easily "wrapped" into a compliant form due to platform dependencies, computer architecture requirements, or programming language incompatibilities. Therefore, a more generic, service-oriented approach is needed that enables individual models to operate as intended and interact with other models through web service calls. This work presents a method for coupling independent models using web services to meditate communication. It consists of both client and server-side software. The client-side software extends a loosely integrated modeling environment for coupling data and models into configurations. The server-side software consists of software required for exposing datasets and models as web services. We build from the Open Modeling Interface (OpenMI) version 2.0 standard and demonstrate how it can be used to perform service-oriented simulations. We describe the design and implementation of both server and client-side software, the application of the software as part of an urban flood warning system, and offer suggestions for future work needed to advance service-oriented modeling of interdisciplinary environmental systems.

Castronova, A. M.; Goodall, J. L.

2011-12-01

29

Using Game Approach in Improving Learning Outcomes of Pencak Silat  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pencak Silat lesson requires appropriate motor learning model to improve students skill. Game approach, as one of motor learning model, is intended to improve students’ learning outcomes in Pencak Silat class. The objectives of this research are to improve Pencak Silat lecture, to improve students’ performance, to enhance students’ understanding of pencak silat lecture, and to apply game approach on the learning of Pencak Silat basic skills. This research uses action research method, wh...

Widiastuti Widiastuti

2014-01-01

30

Research for an Intelligent Component-Oriented Software Development Approaches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Using software agents as next generation flexible components and applying reuse technologies to rapidly construct agents and agent systems have great promise to improve application and system construction. The increasing complexity of software has made it necessary to reuse software. Reuse has increased the reliability of software applications and made it efficient to develop and maintain current software. An Intelligent componentoriented software development approach, which emphasizes the design and construction of software systems by using reusable components, is an effective approach to the software development. Combining the advantages of agentoriented and component-oriented methods, it aims to create more flexible, reusable and customizable agent components in future. An agent component-based architecture is proposed and a concrete application system is described to illustrate the method and process of applying the architecture

Youtian Qu

2009-12-01

31

A Proposed Model of Antecedents and Outcomes of Brand Orientation for Nonprofit Sector  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Most literature focuses on the branding in the profit sector, while few efforts have been spent on studies in the nonprofit sector which has been in the rise in the last decades and constitutes a remarkable percentage of the economy in many developed countries. Nonprofit organizations are in essence a kind of an indicator of how developed a country is, so it might be accepted that in underdeveloped countries and developing countries they are not well established yet, so analyzing the well established nonprofit organizations will also usher the ones which are at still birth age. An issue which should be analyzed about nonprofit organizations is the application of a significant marketing concept brand orientation. The proposed research aims to highlight the importance of branding and brand orientation for nonprofit organizations and to bring to surface the antecedents and the outcomes of being brand oriented in nonprofit sector. A comprehensive literature review was done and a conceptual model is proposed in this literature review.

Fahri Apaydin

2011-08-01

32

The standardized surgical approach improves outcome of gallbladder cancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to examine the extent of surgical procedures, pathological findings, complications and outcome of patients treated in the last 12 years for gallbladder cancer. Methods The impact of a standardized more aggressive approach compared with historical controls of our center with an individual approach was examined. Of 53 patients, 21 underwent resection for cure and 32 for palliation. Results Overall hospital mortality was 9% and procedure related mortality was 4%. The standardized approach in UICC stage IIa, IIb and III led to a significantly improved outcome compared to patients with an individual approach (Median survival: 14 vs. 7 months, mean+/-SEM: 26+/-7 vs. 17+/-5 months, p = 0.014. The main differences between the standardized and the individual approach were anatomical vs. atypical liver resection, performance of systematic lymph dissection of the hepaticoduodenal ligament and the resection of the common bile duct. Conclusion Anatomical liver resection, proof for bile duct infiltration and, in case of tumor invasion, radical resection and lymph dissection of the hepaticoduodenal ligament are essential to improve outcome of locally advanced gallbladder cancer.

Igna Dorian

2007-05-01

33

Study of Object Oriented Analysis and Design Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Object and component technologies, rapidly maturing branches of information technology, have been becoming pervasive elements of systems development, especially the recently popular Internet applications and thus leading to increased complexity and at the same time broader range of applications. Approach: This needs to be understood in order to maximize its benefits and applications with consistent results. However, mainstream Object Oriented Systems Development (OOSD, consisting of Object Oriented Analysis and Design (OOAD and Object- Oriented Programming (OOP, has a history of difficulties and is still struggling to gain prevalent acceptance. Results: There have been number of studies and experiments conducted by experts and researchers in the past which provides a solid base to take up this study and look into various intricacies present. There have been several studies and focused efforts in this direction which laid down the basis for a segment of people to form the opinion as ?technology adoption is mostly the result of marketing forces, not scientific evidence? whereas there have been another segment that believes that object technology is ?still long on hype and short on results ...?. The gurus of OOSD continue to tout its vast superiority over conventional systems development, even to the extent of developing a unified software development process. Conclusion: The advocates of OOSD claim many advantages including easier modeling, increased code reuse, higher system quality and easier maintenance. It is well understood that analysis and design are extremely critical aspects of successful systems development especially in the case of OOSD. As the development of any successful information system must begin with a well-conceived and implemented analysis and design, this study will focus on the most recent empirical evidence on the pros and cons of OOAD.

Sunil K. Pandey

2011-01-01

34

Mediman: Object oriented programming approach for medical image analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mediman is a new image analysis package which has been developed to analyze quantitatively Positron Emission Tomography (PET) data. It is object-oriented, written in C++ and its user interface is based on InterViews on top of which new classes have been added. Mediman accesses data using external data representation or import/export mechanism which avoids data duplication. Multimodality studies are organized in a simple database which includes images, headers, color tables, lists and objects of interest (OOI's) and history files. Stored color table parameters allow to focus directly on the interesting portion of the dynamic range. Lists allow to organize the study according to modality, acquisition protocol, time and spatial properties. OOI's (points, lines and regions) are stored in absolute 3-D coordinates allowing correlation with other co-registered imaging modalities such as MRI or SPECT. OOI's have visualization properties and are organized into groups. Quantitative ROI analysis of anatomic images consists of position, distance, volume calculation on selected OOI's. An image calculator is connected to mediman. Quantitation of metabolic images is performed via profiles, sectorization, time activity curves and kinetic modeling. Mediman is menu and mouse driven, macro-commands can be registered and replayed. Its interface is customizable through a configuration file. The benefit of the object-oriented approach are discussed from a development point of view from a development point of view

35

Building a genome database using an object-oriented approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

GOBASE is a relational database that integrates data associated with mitochondria and chloroplasts. The most important data in GOBASE, i. e., molecular sequences and taxonomic information, are obtained from the public sequence data repository at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), and are validated by our experts. Maintaining a curated genomic database comes with a towering labor cost, due to the shear volume of available genomic sequences and the plethora of annotation errors and omissions in records retrieved from public repositories. Here we describe our approach to increase automation of the database population process, thereby reducing manual intervention. As a first step, we used Unified Modeling Language (UML) to construct a list of potential errors. Each case was evaluated independently, and an expert solution was devised, and represented as a diagram. Subsequently, the UML diagrams were used as templates for writing object-oriented automation programs in the Java programming language. PMID:12542407

Barbasiewicz, Anna; Liu, Lin; Lang, B Franz; Burger, Gertraud

2002-01-01

36

Teaching Listening Comprehension Skills: A Test-orientated Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Attributed to a “receptive skill” in the communicative process, listening comprehension would be the most arduous task of all four language skills. It is likely that EFL (English as a foreign language students encounter various predicaments, of e.g. grasping main ideas of the dialogues in contexts, and in turn suffer from learning anxiety. The issue of how to assist the students in improving their listening competency is worth attention. This article is, therefore, intended for illustrating a test-orientated approach to teaching listening comprehension skills to EFL students through an analysis of sample questions about listening comprehension (i.e. Choosing the Right Picture, Short Questions, and Short Conversations on GEPT tests at the elementary level and through provision of tips (i.e. Skim, Scan, Listen, Guess/Infer, Choose & Write and Check on how to answer the questions effectively. Implications for teaching listening comprehension are also made at the end of the paper.

Shao-Wen Su

2012-05-01

37

A Task-oriented Approach to Search Engine Usability Studies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Usability is a multi-dimensional characteristic of a computer system. This paper focuses on usability as a measurement of interaction between the user and the system. The research employs a task-oriented approach to evaluate the usability of a meta search engine. This engine encourages and accepts queries of unlimited size expressed in natural language. A variety of conventional metrics developed by academic and industrial research, including ISO standards, are applied to the information retrieval process consisting of sequential tasks. Tasks range from formulating (long queries to interpreting and retaining search results. Results of the evaluation and analysis of the operation log indicate that obtaining advanced search engine results can be accomplished simultaneously with enhancing the usability of the interactive process. In conclusion, we discuss implications for interactive information retrieval system design and directions for future usability research.

Isak Taksa

2008-01-01

38

Patient-centered medicine and patient-oriented research: improving health outcomes for individual patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient-centered medicine is developing alongside the concepts of personalized medicine and tailored therapeutics. The main objective of patient-centered medicine is to improve health outcomes of individual patients in everyday clinical practice, taking into account the patient’s objectives, preferences, values as well as the available economic resources. Discussion Patient-centered medicine implies a paradigm shift in the relationship between doctors and patients, but also requires the development of patient-oriented research. Patient-oriented research should not be based on the evaluation of medical interventions in the average patient, but on the identification of the best intervention for every individual patient, the study of heterogeneity and the assignment of greater value to observations and exceptions. The development of information-based technologies can help to close the gap between clinical research and clinical practice, a fundamental step for any advance in this field. Summary Evidence-based medicine and patient centered medicine are not contradictory but complementary movements. It is not possible to practice patient-centered medicine that is not based on evidence, nor is it possible to practice evidence-based medicine at a distance from the individual patient.

Sacristán José A

2013-01-01

39

Using Game Approach in Improving Learning Outcomes of Pencak Silat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pencak Silat lesson requires appropriate motor learning model to improve students skill. Game approach, as one of motor learning model, is intended to improve students’ learning outcomes in Pencak Silat class. The objectives of this research are to improve Pencak Silat lecture, to improve students’ performance, to enhance students’ understanding of pencak silat lecture, and to apply game approach on the learning of Pencak Silat basic skills. This research uses action research method, which consists of several stages such as: planing, execution, observation, report and evaluation, and re-planning. Re-planning stage is the planning stage for the next cycle. On the first and second cycle, student have not been able to gain results as expected. On the third cycle, students’ performance improvement has already achieved maximum target. Researcher found that game approach is able to improve students’ learning outcome of Pencak Silat, increase students’ creativity in terms of motor learning, and create supportive learning environment. Students, individually or in group, are able to explore and create motor learning model with game approach.

Widiastuti Widiastuti

2014-02-01

40

A unique, innovative, and clinically oriented approach to anatomy education.  

Science.gov (United States)

The establishment of The Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine of Case Western Reserve University, whose first class entered in 2004, provided a unique opportunity to design an anatomy program that, from all indications, is effective, time efficient, and clinically relevant in the context of a nonlecture, problem-based, organ-systems-oriented curriculum. Through consultation with surgery colleagues, the case-directed anatomy program was developed. This approach, meeting one day a week for 1 hour 50 minutes for 30 weeks, uses clinical cases to introduce anatomical information that is reinforced using prosected cadavers and imaging. The format of the approach involves three steps: (1) students preview a clinical case with clinical questions and learning objectives, (2) students acquire basic knowledge using textbooks and self-directed learning modules, and (3) students reinforce their basic knowledge in weekly case-directed anatomy sessions, which involve an interactive discussion of the clinical case followed by a laboratory. In the laboratory, students rotate around stations viewing prosected cadavers and imaging. Learning anatomy does not stop after the first year, because the program is longitudinal. During the second year, students review anatomy in each organ-system course using the first-year format. Also, second-year students can assist the fellows or residents prepare the prosections for first-year students and for their review of anatomy in the second year. This provides students with a dissection experience. During third-year clinical rotations, anatomy knowledge is reinforced, and several surgery anatomy electives are available during the final year. In this way, anatomy is learned and reinforced throughout the medical school curriculum. PMID:17457071

Drake, Richard L

2007-05-01

 
 
 
 
41

Comparison of Advanced Pixel Based (ANN and SVM and Object-Oriented Classification Approaches Using Landsat-7 Etm+ Data  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, the pixel-based and object-oriented image classification approaches were used for identifying different land use types in Karnal district. Imagery from Landsat-7 ETM with 6 spectral bands was used to perform the image classification.Ground truth data were collected from the available maps, personal knowledge and communication with the local people. In order to prepare land use map different approaches: Artificial Neural Network(ANN and Support Vector Machine (SVM were used. For performing object oriented classification eCognition software was used. During the object oriented classification, in first step several differentsets of parameters were used for image segmentation and in second step nearest neighbor classifier was used for classification. Outcome from the classification works show that the object-oriented approach gave more accurate results (including higher producer’s and user’s accuracy for most of the land cover classes than those achieved by pixelbased classification algorithms. It is also observed that ANN performed better as compared to SVM classification approach.

Prasun Kumar Gupta

2010-08-01

42

Integration of the brief behavioral activation treatment for depression (BATD) into a college orientation program: depression and alcohol outcomes.  

Science.gov (United States)

College freshmen face a variety of academic and social challenges as they adjust to college life that can place them at risk for a number of negative outcomes, including depression and alcohol-related problems. Orientation classes that focus on teaching incoming students how to better cope with college-oriented stress may provide an opportunity to prevent the development of these adjustment problems. This article outlines a program based on behavioral activation that can be integrated into college orientation programs to provide a more comprehensive orientation experience. Data are presented from an initial pilot study in which 71 first-semester freshman at the University of Maryland participated in a 15-week, 2 hr per week orientation class (n = 37 in the behavioral activation-enhanced orientation classes and n = 34 in the control orientation as usual classes). Students' depression and alcohol use were evaluated at the beginning, middle, and end of the course. Results indicated a Time × Group interaction such that problem drinking (but not consumption) was significantly reduced across assessments in the behavioral activation classes and largely unchanged in the standard classes. No difference was observed in depression scores; however, fairly low depression scores across the 3 time points may have limited the opportunity to observe any meaningful impact of the orientation classes on depression. The authors conclude with a discussion of the implications of their findings for preventing adjustment problems among incoming college students and future directions. PMID:21787070

Reynolds, Elizabeth K; Macpherson, Laura; Tull, Matthew T; Baruch, David E; Lejuez, C W

2011-10-01

43

Issues and design approach for product oriented manufacturing systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Product Oriented Manufacturing (POM) concept here presented addresses competition in today’s changing global market of manufacturing companies. It is a challenge to the Function Oriented Manufacturing (FOM) concept supposedly adequate for dealing with demand changes and large product variety without needing reconfiguration. The POM concept evolves from the traditional cellular manufacturing, ultimately aiming at full system integration and coordination for completely process...

Alves, Anabela Carvalho; Silva, Si?lvio Carmo

2010-01-01

44

The impact of outcome orientation and justice concerns on tax compliance: the role of taxpayers' identity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous research has yielded inconsistent evidence for the impact of justice perceptions on tax compliance. This article suggests a more differentiated view on the basis of 2 congenial theories of procedural and distributive justice. The group-value model and a categorization approach argue that taxpayers are more concerned about justice and less about personal outcomes when they identify strongly with the inclusive category within which procedures and distributions apply. Regression analyses of survey data from 2,040 Australian citizens showed that 2 forms of tax compliance (pay-income reporting and tax minimization) were determined by self-interest variables. For 2 other forms (nonpay income and deductions), inclusive identification had an additional effect and moderated the effects of self-interest and justice variables as predicted. PMID:12184568

Wenzel, Michael

2002-08-01

45

Emotional Value of Applied Textiles : Dialogue-oriented and participatory approaches to textile design  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The present PhD thesis is conducted as an Industrial PhD project in collaboration with the Danish company Gabriel A/S (Gabriel), which designs and produces furniture textiles and ‘related products’ for manufacturers of furniture. A ‘related textile product’ is e.g. processing of piece goods, upholstery, mounting etc. This PhD project addresses the challenges of the textile industry, where the global knowledge economy increasingly forces companies to include user-participation and value innovation in their product development. My project revolves around the challenges which the textile designers at Gabriel face while trying to implement an innovative and process-oriented business strategy. The focal point has been the section of the strategy which aims at developing Blue Ocean products, which have a functional and an emotional value for the user. The thesis examines and explores emotional value of applied textiles. The objective is to operationalise the strategic term ‘emotional value’ as it relates to applied textiles. The procedure includes the development of user- and stakeholder-centred approaches, which are valuable for the textile designer in the design process. The research approach is application-oriented and practical. In chapter two, I explain the ‘programmatic approach’ to design research, in which design experiments are the core of the project. The research programme is dynamic; it is developing in the course of the project and in tandem with the knowledge generated. The outcome of the research is ‘exemplary’ and the research contributions are presented as ‘exemplars’, ‘frameworks’, ‘tools’ and ‘structures’, which are relevant for the design process or can be the subject of critique and further investigation by other researchers. The project is a contribution to the broad and multifaceted field of design research with a particular focus on textile design including the discourse and methodology used in the field of design. In addition the project relates to the Participatory Design approach and to the design research fields which focus on emotional aspects of design. Based on my experiences with the programmatic approach I propose a distinction between ’overall challenges’ and ’research questions’. I view this thesis as a research contribution which facilitates a programmatic approach to a project such as this one. The ‘overall challenges’ (challenges within the field of textile design) is a constant variable against which the programme (challenges which Gabriel’s textile designers face) can be benchmarked. Thus the ‘research questions’ (emotional value and user and stakeholder involvement) are ‘shapable’ and situation-specific, and they constantly interact with the experiments (procedures of user and stakeholder involvement). In the course of the thesis I explain and elaborate on four themes each of which contributes to the outcome of the project. 1) Creating a frame of reference for the textile design process and a systematic approach to applied textiles. In chapter three I compare a textile design process with Donald Schön’s definition of design as ‘a conversation with the materials of a situation’. Subsequently, through design experiments involving several participants, I develop the ‘Tripod Approach’– a structured and systematic approach to design and research of applied textiles. 2) Understanding and exploring emotional value related to design of applied textiles. In chapter four I argue – based on Jesse Prinz’s and Antonio Damasio’s emotion research – for a perception of emotional value of applied textiles which acknowledges bodily feedback as a core concept in the process which leads to ‘emotion’. This approach is used when exploring and adjusting Patrick Jordan’s framework of ‘the four pleasures’ to the study of emotional value of applied textiles as presented in this thesis. My experiments lead to the creation of a framework of four adjusted categories of ‘pleasure’ based on which a group of stakeholders can e

Bang, Anne Louise

2011-01-01

46

A Process-Oriented Approach to Learning Process-Oriented Counselling Skills in Groups  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes the teaching of process-oriented counselling skills in a group. The interweaving of theory and practice is discussed. The need for and a method of integrating the personal and professional growth of group members with the experiential and conceptual learning of counselling skills are outlined . The congruence of the content…

Cohen, Avraham

2004-01-01

47

Exploring Types of Career Orientation: A Latent Class Analysis Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

Career literature has been discussing the decline of the traditional career. Despite this debate, systematic information on the prevalence of contemporary career types is lacking. Two studies with large samples of employees aimed to determine types of career orientation, to explore their prevalence, and to validate these types by testing…

Gerber, Marius; Wittekind, Anette; Grote, Gudela; Staffelbach, Bruno

2009-01-01

48

A Matrix Approach to the Customer-oriented Product Design  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract A customer-oriented product designer must rely on many types of information, including customer-product requirements and design developments in the related fields. Concurrent engineering applications in product design problems will help designers to systematically consider relevant design information and make the most effective use of the time they devoted to the design process. Even though many ne...

2005-01-01

49

Strategic-Brief Therapy: An Insight-Oriented Approach?  

Science.gov (United States)

Clarifies role of insight in strategic therapy and distinguishes between therapist-ascribed meaning and interpretation, as well as client-ascribed meaning and insight. Argues that insight-oriented and strategic therapists share much in common and that insight has a role in the practice of strategic therapy. (Author/NB)

Duncan, Barry L.; Solovey, Andrew D.

1989-01-01

50

Wide-field solar adaptive optics in a layer-oriented approach  

CERN Document Server

We discuss a layer-oriented approach to multi-conjugate adaptive optics (MCAO) in solar imaging. The technique is a complement to the current star-oriented MCAO and appears as a necessary alternative when large field sizes are desired in solar observations. The basic procedure of the layer oriented method is indicated, and its characteristics are then illustrated in terms of numerical simulations.

Kellerer, Aglaé

2014-01-01

51

Goal-oriented systems modelling: justification of the approach and overview of the methods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents some central issues involved in modelling basic properties of technical systems. In that respect, means-oriented and goal-oriented approaches are described, and the role of goal-oriented methods in a more systematic systems description and modelling is emphasised. The features of three such methods, Goal Tree-Success Tree, Multilevel Flow Modelling, and Hybrid MFM-GTST are discussed and compared

52

Making The Most of Medical orientation; A New Approach.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Orientating new junior medical staff can be a complex and time consuming task. Traditional models have typically involved a day or longer of lectures. This involves a large number of senior staff being available on the first day of term. It also means that junior staff not present on the first day had any access to an orientation program at all. Evaluation of our program confirmed the belief that the day was dull and that there was simply too much information for new staff to absorb. As a result of this feedback we extensively updated our orientation program. Pre-reading of the junior staff manual became compulsory. We departed from the traditional lecture style program and devised a new ten- station scenario based interactive program. The stations were designed to cover aspects of the hospital?s mandatory education and key educational requirements in order to function effectively on our campus. Station leaders were selected and trained in the goals of the new process. Several of our secondment sites were engaged in the development of the project topics. We hoped that our secondment sites would be relieved of some orientation responsibility if core material was delivered centrally. The strength of the new orientation is that it is portable, reproducible and uniform. It is also available via video conferencing. A single person can educate new staff in three hours if the need arises. Most importantly all new staff will have access to the program within a week of starting a term at our hospital.

Dr Jonathan Taitz

2004-02-01

53

A new approach to the orientation of random hypergraphs  

CERN Document Server

A h-uniform hypergraph H=(V,E) is called (l,k)-orientable if there exists an assignment of each hyperedge e to exactly l of its vertices such that no vertex is assigned more than k hyperedges. Let H_{n,m,h} be a hypergraph, drawn uniformly at random from the set of all h-uniform hypergraphs with n vertices and m edges. In this paper, we determine the threshold of the existence of a (l,k)-orientation of H_{n,m,h} for k>=1 and h>l>=1, extending recent results motivated by applications such as cuckoo hashing or load balancing with guaranteed maximum load. Our proof combines the local weak convergence of sparse graphs and a careful analysis of a Gibbs measure on spanning subgraphs with degree constraints. It allows us to deal with a much broader class than the uniform hypergraphs.

Lelarge, Marc

2012-01-01

54

Graduate interns’ experiences: A career success orientations approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Organisations are challenged to achieve optimal business results by specifically attracting and retaining talented human resources, while simultaneously creating environments where individuals feel their own personal career aspirations are fulfilled. This study examined graduate interns’ experiences using career success orientations as a framework. Data were collected using a card sorting technique and semi-structured interviews. The data were then analysed and used as a guide for internshi...

Crous, F.; Kanye, B.

2007-01-01

55

Entrepreneurial orientation, environmental hostility and SME profitability: a contingency approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study investigates the effect of the entrepreneurial orientation (EO) on SME financial performance. The essay also proposes a contingency model to explore the moderating effects of environmental hostility on the relationship between EO and profitability. The study was conducted using a sample of 121 manufacturing SMEs in Spain. Results confirm the positive influence of EO on a firm?s profitability. More importantly, the impact of EO on SME profitability is higher when there is a fit bet...

Izaias Martins; Alex Rialp

2013-01-01

56

Graduate interns’ experiences: A career success orientations approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Organisations are challenged to achieve optimal business results by specifically attracting and retaining talented human resources, while simultaneously creating environments where individuals feel their own personal career aspirations are fulfilled. This study examined graduate interns’ experiences using career success orientations as a framework. Data were collected using a card sorting technique and semi-structured interviews. The data were then analysed and used as a guide for internship programme design. Implications of the findings are discussed.

F Crous

2007-03-01

57

A Service-Oriented Approach for Curriculum Planning and Validation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present a service-oriented personalization system, set in an educational framework, based on a semantic annotation of courses, given at a knowledge level (what the course teaches, what is requested to know for attending it in a profitable way). The system supports users in building personalized curricula, formalized by means of an action theory. It is also possible to verify the compliance of curricula w.r.t. a model, expressing constraints at a knowledge level. For what ...

Baroglio, Cristina; Baldoni, Matteo; Patti, Viviana; Marengo, Elisa

2007-01-01

58

APE (state-oriented approach) centralized control procedures; Procedures de conduite APE (Approche Par Etats)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article presents the progressive implementation of the state-oriented approach (APE) for centralized control procedures in French nuclear power plants. The implementation began in the years 1982-83 and it concerned only the circuits involved in engineered safeguard systems such IS (safety injection), EAS (containment spray system) and GMPP (reactor coolant pump set). In 2003 the last PWR unit switched from the event oriented approach to APE for post-accidental situations.

Astier, D. [FRAMATOME ANP, 92 - Paris-La-Defence (France); Depont, G. [Electricite de France (EDF/DPN), 93 - Saint-Denis (France); Van Dermarliere, Y. [Electricite de France (EDF/SEPTEN), 69 - Villeurbanne (France)

2004-07-01

59

The Job-Oriented Approach to Beginning Accounting  

Science.gov (United States)

An instructional approach for high school students, based on employment opportunities, is described in four phases: exploring accounting jobs, the accounting cycle, job training, and job placement. (MS)

Spanswick, Ralph

1976-01-01

60

Analyzing Web Service Contracts : an aspect oriented approach  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Web services should be dependable, because businesses rely on them. For that purpose the Service Oriented Architecture has standardized specifications at a syntactical level. In this paper, we demonstrate how such specifications are used to derive semantic models in the form of (timed) automata. These can be used to model check functional and behavioural properties of a given service. Since there might be several specifications dealing with different aspects, one must also check that these automata are consistent, where we propose to set up a suitable simulation relation. The proposed techniques are illustrated with a small case study

Cambronero, M.-Emilia; Okika, Joseph C.

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

New guideline represents 'processed-oriented' approach for ISO 9000.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hospitals that have been tracking the development of ISO 9000 in the health care industry should pay close attention to a new guideline about to emerge. According to Laura Preole, health care services manager of SGS International Certification Services based in Rutherford, NJ, the new guideline is the latest step in an effort to establish a more 'process-oriented' method of looking at the health care environment from the moment a patient walks into a facility to the moment he or she is discharged. PMID:11216288

2001-02-01

62

Data clustering in C++ an object-oriented approach  

CERN Document Server

Data clustering is a highly interdisciplinary field, the goal of which is to divide a set of objects into homogeneous groups such that objects in the same group are similar and objects in different groups are quite distinct. Thousands of theoretical papers and a number of books on data clustering have been published over the past 50 years. However, few books exist to teach people how to implement data clustering algorithms. This book was written for anyone who wants to implement or improve their data clustering algorithms. Using object-oriented design and programming techniques, Data Clusterin

Gan, Guojun

2011-01-01

63

Strategic-brief therapy: an insight-oriented approach?*.  

Science.gov (United States)

The role and importance of insight to the change process has been debated for many years. Strategists have given a significant amount of attention to discrediting insight and in the process have not considered its strategic advantages. This article will clarify the role of insight in strategic therapy and make distinctions between therapist-ascribed meaning (reframing) and interpretation, as well as client-ascribed meaning and insight. It will be argued that insight-oriented and strategic therapists share much in common and that insight, perhaps contrary to the current view, indeed has a role in the practice of strategic therapy. PMID:21118425

Duncan, B L; Solovey, A D

1989-01-01

64

Validity of the risk adjustment approach to compare outcomes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper focuses on the issue of the extent to which the present mainstream risk adjustment (RA methodology for measuring outcomes is a valid and useful tool for quality-improvement activities. The method's predictive and attributional validity are discussed, considering the confounding and effect modification produced by medical care over risk variables' effect. For this purpose, the sufficient-cause model and the counterfactual approach to effect and interaction are tentatively applied to the relationships between risk (prognostic variables, medical technology, and quality of care. The main conclusions are that quality of care modifies the antagonistic interaction between medical technologies and risk variables, related to different types of responders, as well as the confounding of the effect of risk variables produced by related medical technologies. Thus, confounding of risk factors in the RA method, which limits the latter's predictive validity, is related to the efficacy and complexity of associated medical technologies and to the quality mix of services. Attributional validity depends on the validity of the probabilities estimated for each subgroup of risk (predictive validity and the percentage of higher-risk patients at each service.

Silva Leticia Krauss

2003-01-01

65

A Discrete Approach to Computer-Oriented Calculus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Some of the implications and advantages of an instructional approach using results from the calculus of finite differences and finite sums, both for motivation and as tools leading to applications, are discussed. (MP)

Gordon, Sheldon P.

1979-01-01

66

Small Firm Internet Adoption: a market oriented approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fundamental to the development of new customer value offerings via web-based commerce is a small firm’s ability to strategically acquire and exploit knowledge. The focus of this paper is the empirical testing of a normative web-based commerce adoption model developed from a review of the extant literature related to electronic marketing, the Internet and the diffusion of new innovations. A preliminary test of the model’s theoretical contentions lent support to its overall focus, but found that the firm’s existing learning capabilities were diminished during the adoption of web-based commerce. Consequently, sub-optimal adoption outcomes were associated with insufficient knowledge development.

Colin Jones

2002-11-01

67

Goal-oriented approach to diagnostics in management of an enterprise  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problems which occur while performing diagnostics of the state of an enterprise and the results of its activity have been revealed. The inexpediency of using problem approach to diagnostics in management of an enterprise in modern conditions of economic management has been defined. The significance and essence of goal-oriented approach to diagnostics in management of an enterprise have been revealed. It has been set that the management decisions, developed using the goal-oriented approach to diagnostics, are more efficient.

I.M. Semenenko

2012-03-01

68

Inter-Organizational Learning across Levels: An Object-Oriented Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the research methodology of analyzing learning in inter-organizational networks based on an object-oriented approach. Design/methodology/approach: The paper draws from the cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT), specifically from the concepts of the object of activity, developmental…

Toiviainen, Hanna

2007-01-01

69

Recent developments and object-oriented approach in FTU database  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the last two years, the experimental database of Frascati Tokamak Upgrade (FTU) has been changed from several points of view, particularly: (i) the data and the analysis codes have been moved from the IBM main frame to Unix platforms making enabling the users to take advantage of the large quantities of commercial and free software available under Unix (Matlab, IDL, etc); (ii) AFS (Andrew File System) has been chosen as the distributed file system making the data available on all the nodes and distributing the workload; (iii) 'One measure/one file' philosophy (vs. the previous 'one pulse/one file') has been adopted increasing the number of files into the database but, at the same time, allowing the most important data to be available just after the plasma discharge. The client-server architecture has been tested using the signal viewer client jScope. Moreover, an object oriented data model (OODM) of FTU experimental data has been tried: a generalized model in tokamak experimental data has been developed with typical concepts such as abstraction, encapsulation, inheritance, and polymorphism. The model has been integrated with data coming from different databases, building an Object Warehouse to extract, with data mining techniques, meaningful trends and patterns from huge amounts of data

70

Client Oriented Approach for Assisting Business Improvement Decision Making  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An important aspect of the corporate responsibility towards the customers is to ensure the correct value transfer, through the quality and price of the product/service. By using customer satisfaction in order to measure value and the quality provided to customers, this paper proposes a methodology of assisting management decisions in improving business processes. The proposed techniques and tools, specific to quality management, are used for determining the processes which need to be improved or innovated in order to increase customer satisfaction. Thus, the methodology contributes to the creation of a decision-making framework for an efficient orientation of the resources for maximising the generated value and minimising the costs. In order to illustrate its application, we present a study based on the responses regarding satisfaction elements of 679 companies, the customers of a distribution chain in the field of interior fittings. The research highlights the practical method of determining the priority processes for increasing customer satisfaction, taking into account the satisfaction targets and the nature of the necessary actions in order to maximize the created value and to minimize the costs of these processes.

Diana Pitic

2014-02-01

71

Framing design research for service orientation through PSS approaches  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In order to respond to the industrial trend towards service design and delivery, design research must address a vast area partially related to value creation, marketing and network theories. However, compared to the space to be explored, there is little insight available. Thus, this paper, as a first step, proposes a way to frame such design research. First, an extensive literature review is performed of over 100 articles on not only PSS-design research but also on related research in fields as PSS in general, service design, innovation, and business models in a broad view. Based on the literature analysis, the authors present three crucial dimensions for service oriented design research, i.e. an offer dimension representing products and services, a provider dimension, and a customer/user dimension. In addition, three research targets are proposed; PSS-offer modelling, PSS development, and PSS potential. Furthermore, several promising future research directions are identified. These include evaluating economic consequences or environmental benefits, establishing terminology, organizational issues, and developing methods and tools to support designers. The boundaries to other research fields are getting blurry and many aspects of other professionalisms must be taken into account. Thus, there is especially need in future research to open towards other research areas.

Matzen, Detlef

2009-01-01

72

Investigating the moderating effect of rewarding climate on Mastery Approach Orientation in the prediction of work performance.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study of Mastery Approach Orientation as an achievement goal is central to the understanding of basic motivational processes though controversy surrounds its impact. This research extends the literature regarding this goal orientation by investigating the interaction between Mastery Approach Orientation and Rewarding Climate in the prediction of self and supervisors' ratings of work performance across two studies. Results indicated that Mastery Approach Orientation positively and consistently predicted self and supervisors' ratings of work performance at high Rewarding Climates. At low Rewarding Climates, the relationship between Mastery Approach Orientation and performance was more variable across the studies and reasons for this are explored. PMID:21492142

Izadikhah, Zahra; Jackson, Chris J

2011-05-01

73

A Kalman-Filter-Based Approach to Combining Independent Earth-Orientation Series  

Science.gov (United States)

An approach. based upon the use of a Kalman filter. that is currently employed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for combining independent measurements of the Earth's orientation, is presented. Since changes in the Earth's orientation can be described is a randomly excited stochastic process, the uncertainty in our knowledge of the Earth's orientation grows rapidly in the absence of measurements. The Kalman-filter methodology allows for an objective accounting of this uncertainty growth, thereby facilitating the intercomparison of measurements taken at different epochs (not necessarily uniformly spaced in time) and with different precision. As an example of this approach to combining Earth-orientation series, a description is given of a combination, SPACE95, that has been generated recently at JPL.

Gross, Richard S.; Eubanks, T. M.; Steppe, J. A.; Freedman, A. P.; Dickey, J. O.; Runge, T. F.

1998-01-01

74

How Changes in Students' Goal Orientations Relate to Outcomes in Social Studies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Do students tend to set similar types of goals throughout the school year, or do their goal orientations shift over time? If students become more oriented toward mastery or performance over the course of the year, do they improve in their academic achievement, have a more positive affect toward class, and develop the cognitive propensities that their teachers might hope for? A diverse sample of 9th- and 10th-grade world history students (N = 917) participated in a study addressing these quest...

Gehlbach, Hunter

2006-01-01

75

Market-oriented ecological promotion - The Zurich approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article discusses the promotion of sustainable energy use and power-production from renewable resources. In particular, the approach adopted by the City of Zurich in Switzerland is discussed. Changes currently being experienced in the Swiss energy business are looked at. The approach adopted by the City of Zurich, which includes both rewards for increasing energy efficiency as well as the definition of criteria for the evaluation of measures and their effect, is discussed. Instruments and goals are looked at. Other topics discussed include the 'ecologicalisation' of electrical power production and economical incentives for industry. The role played by the labelling of ecologically-produced power is discussed and the economical advantages for the City of Zurich itself are examined

76

The person-oriented approach: A short theoretical and practical guide  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A short overview of the person-oriented approach is given as a guide to the researcher interested in carrying out person-oriented research. Theoretical, methodological, and practical considerations of the approach are discussed. First, some historical roots are traced, followed by a description of the holisticinteractionistic research paradigm, which provided the general framework for the development of the modern person-oriented approach. The approach has both a theoretical and a methodological facet and after presenting its key theoretical tenets, an overview is given of some common person-oriented methods. Central to the person-oriented approach is a system view with its components together forming a pattern regarded as indivisible. This pattern should be understood and studied as a whole, not broken up into pieces (variables that are studied as separate entities. Hence, usually methodological tools are used by which whole patterns are analysed (e.g. cluster analysis. An empirical example is given where the pattern development of school grades is studied.

Lars R. Bergman

2014-04-01

77

An Aspect-Oriented Approach for Use Case Based Modeling of Software Product Lines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Software Product Line Development advocates software reuse by modeling common and variable artefacts separately across members of a family of products. Aspect-Oriented Software Development aims at separation of concerns with “aspects” to increase modularity, reusability, maintainability and ease of evolution. In this paper, we apply an as-pect-oriented use case modeling approach to product line system modeling. A use case specification captures stake-holders concerns as interactions betwe...

Some?, Ste?phane S.; Anthonysamy, Pauline

2009-01-01

78

Representation and Metrics Extraction from Feature Basis: An Object Oriented Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This tutorial presents an object oriented approach to data reading and metrics extraction from feature basis. Structural issues about basis are discussed first, then the Object Oriented Programming (OOP is aplied to modeling the main elements in this context. The model implementation is then discussed using C++ as programing language. To validate the proposed model, we apply on some feature basis from the University of Carolina, Irvine Machine Learning Database.

Fausto Neri da Silva Vanin

2010-10-01

79

Effects of Trainer Expressiveness, Seductive Details, and Trainee Goal Orientation on Training Outcomes  

Science.gov (United States)

This study focuses on trainer expressiveness and trainee mastery orientation within the context of the seductive details effect. The seductive details effect refers to inclusion of "highly interesting and entertaining information that is only tangentially related to the topic" (Harp & Mayer, 1998, p. 1). One hundred thirty-two participants…

Towler, Annette

2009-01-01

80

Within-Year Changes in Children's Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivational Orientations: Contextual Predictors and Academic Outcomes  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study was designed to investigate the nature, timing, and correlates of motivational change among a large sample (N = 1051) of third- through eighth-grade students. Analyses of within-year changes in students' motivational orientations revealed that both intrinsic and extrinsic motivations decreased from fall to spring, with declines…

Corpus, Jennifer Henderlong; McClintic-Gilbert, Megan S.; Hayenga, Amynta O.

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

An object-oriented approach to site characterization decision support  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effective decision support for site characterization is key to determining the nature and extent of contamination and the associated human and environmental risks. Site characterization data, however, present particular problems to technical analysts and decision-makers. Such data are four dimensional, incorporating temporal and spatial components. Their sheer volume can be daunting -- sites with hundreds of monitoring wells and thousands of samples sent for laboratory analyses are not uncommon. Data are derived from a variety of sources including laboratory analyses, non-intrusive geophysical surveys, historical information, bore logs, in-field estimates of key physical parameters such as aquifer transmissivity, soil moisture content, depth-to-water table, etc. Ultimately, decisions have to be made based on data that are always incomplete, often confusing, inaccurate, or inappropriate, and occasionally wrong. In response to this challenge, two approaches to environmental decision support have arisen, Data Quality Objectives (DQOS) and the Observational Approach (OA). DQOs establish criteria for data collection by clearly defining the decisions that need to be made, the uncertainty that can be tolerated, and the type and amount of data that needs to be collected to satisfy the uncertainty requirements. In practice, DQOs are typically based on statistical measures. The OA accepts the fact that the process of characterizing and remediating contaminated sites is always uncertain. Decision-making with the OA is based on what is known about a site, with contingencies developed for potential future deviations from the original assumptions about contamination nature, extent, and risks posed

82

Towards a user-oriented analytical approach to learning design  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The London Pedagogy Planner (LPP is a prototype for a collaborative online planning and design tool that supports lecturers in developing, analysing and sharing learning designs. The tool is based on a developing model of the components involved in learning design and the critical relationships between them. As a decision tool it makes the pedagogical design explicit as an output from the process, capturing it for testing, redesign, reuse and adaptation by the originator, or by others. The aim is to test the extent to which we can engage lecturers in reflecting on learning design, and make them part of the educational community that discovers how best to use technology-enhanced learning. This paper describes the development of LPP, presents pedagogical benefits of visual representations of learning designs and proposes an analytical approach to learning design based on these visual representations. The analytical approach is illustrated based on an initial evaluation with a small group of lecturers from two partner institutions.

Jonathan P. San Diego

2008-12-01

83

Delegating Compiler Objects - An Object-Oriented Approach to Crafting Compilers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Conventional compilers often are large entities that are highly complex, difficult to maintain and hard to reuse. In this article it is argued that this is due to the inherently functional approach to compiler construction. An alternative approach to compiler construction is proposed, based on object-oriented principles, which solves (or at least lessens) the problems of compiler construction. The approach is based on delegating compiler objects (DCOs) that provide a ...

Bosch, Jan

1995-01-01

84

A Task-oriented Approach for Hydrogeological Site Characterization  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydrogeological site characterization is a challenging task from several reasons: (1) the large spatial variability and scarcity of prior information render the outcome of any planned sampling campaign uncertain; (2) there are no simple tools for comparing between the many alternative measurement techniques and data acquisition strategies, and (3) physical and budgetary constraints associated with data acquisition. This paper presents several ideas on how to plan sampling campaigns in a rational manner while addressing these challenges. The first idea is to recognize that different sites and different problems require different characterization strategies. Hence the idea is to plan data acquisition according to its capability for meeting site-specific goals. For example, the characterization needs at a “research problem” site (e.g., a site intended to investigate the transport of uranium in the subsurface such as in Hanford) are different from those of a “problem” site (e.g., contaminated site associated with a health risk to human such as Camp Lejeune, or determining the safe yield of an aquifer). This distinction requires planners to define the characterization goal(s) in a quantitative manner. The second idea is to define metrics that could link specific data types and data acquisition strategies with the site-specific goals in a way that would allow planners to compare between strongly different, alternatives strategies at the design stage (even prior to data acquisition) and to modify the strategies as more data become available. To meet this goal, we developed the concept of the (comparative) information yield curve. Finally, we propose to look at site characterization from the perspective of statistical hypothesis testing, whereby data acquisition strategies could be evaluated in terms of their ability to support or refute various hypotheses made with regard to the characterization goals, and the strategies could be modified once the test is completed. Accept/reject regions for hypothesis testing can be determined based on goals determined by regulations or by agreement between the stakeholders. Hypothesis-driven design could help in minimizing the chances of making wrong decision (false positives or false negatives) with regard to the site-specific goals.

Rubin, Y.; Nowak, W.; de Barros, F.

2010-12-01

85

Service-oriented Software Development and Management: A CASE Tool-based Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to realize Service-Oriented Architecture  (SOA with Web Services (WSs, a new engineering  approach is required; we refer to it as Service-Oriented  Software Engineering (SOSE. This approach would sketch  out a method, including a process, models, languages, tools,  and notations. It encompasses three dimensions: (i services,  (ii compositions, and (iii management of both services and  compositions. The existing methods have not considered the  three perspectives neither they have considered how these  perspectives can be achieved together through a  comprehensive approach. This paper presents an  architecture, a specification, and an implementation of a  CASE tool for developing and managing Service-Oriented  Software (SOS. The CASE implements: (1 a metadata that  represents WSs from four perspectives: description,  deployment platforms, legacy systems, and composite  software, and (2 a set of management artifacts built on top  of the metadata. The metadata is implemented as repository,  the core component of the CASE tool architecture.

Youcef Baghdadi

2012-11-01

86

A Main Object-oriented Projective Invariant Image Watermarking Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Digital Watermarking is a technology that enables to protect distributed digital content from unauthorized reuse. Robust watermarks must be able to survive a range of geometrical ?attacks,? such as image resizing, cropping, translation, rotation, scaling, smoothing, filtering, and simplification. In the current paper we extend existing approaches that are based partially on image invariant features; by introducing new image invariant features and exclusively using them. The proposed watermarking method is based on a combination of image processing techniques, theory of geometry, multiple image invariant features, and public key encryption. Experimental results show that the use of such combination of techniques allowed for securing the embedded watermark and for success in image watermark's recovery, if images were exposed to several geometrical attacks.

Malik F. Alamaireh

2007-01-01

87

A Christian educational perspective on the process oriented approach to intrinsic motivation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Within the classroom context, albeit school or university, intrinsic motivation can effectively be described and changed if a process-oriented approach is employed. The question is posed whether a process-oriented approach to motivation is acceptable to Christian education. To answer this question, intrinsic motivation and the process-oriented approach to motivation are described. A Christian view of self-knowledge and control, which are the main components of a process-oricnted approach to motivation, is subsequently given and the process-oriented approach to motivation is subjected to a Christian evaluation. The conclusions are drawn that this approach can fruitfully be used in Christian education, given that self-knowledge and control arc interpreted within the context of the concept of the student as God’s representative on earth and the fact that God equipped him adequately with cognitive, affective and conative abilities to respond to His call to discover, develop and rule the earth actively.

Mechaéla Scott

1992-03-01

88

Sharing Scarce Resources: Group-Outcome Orientation, External Disaster, and Stealing in a Simulated Commons.  

Science.gov (United States)

Conducted two studies in which subjects (N=216) faced the dilemma of how to harvest resources from a shared pool when faced with external catastrophies and given opportunities to steal. Results showed that tying the individual's outcome to the rest of the group is good for the group. (LLL)

Edney, Julian J.; Bell, Paul A.

1984-01-01

89

Sexual orientation of women does not affect outcome of fertility treatment with donated sperm  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

STUDY QUESTION: Is there a difference in fertility between heterosexual women and lesbians undergoing sperm donation? SUMMARY ANSWER: Women undergoing treatment with donated sperm are equally fertile regardless of sexual orientation. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Lesbians have an increased prevalence of smoking, obesity, sexually transmitted diseases and, possibly, polycystic ovary syndrome, all factors known to affect fertility. Previous studies on sperm donation inseminations (D-IUI) show conflict...

Nordqvist, S.; Sydsjo?, Gunilla; Lampic, C.; Akerud, H.; Elenis, E.; Skoog Svanberg, A.

2014-01-01

90

Intractable epilepsy management: an EEG-oriented approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intractable epilepsy has always posed a challenge to management; conventional, surgical and alternative techniques available so far (e.g., vagal nerve stimulation, i.e. VNS). The author has attempted to search for a novel alternative (drug-regime) approach to its management to minimise any invasive technique or surgery. The drug-regime is based primarily on EEG-background picture (namely synchronisation and de-synchronisation), which the author claims plays a crucial role in epileptogenesis and/or enhancement of epileptic recruitment. Thus an EEG (both in wake and sleep states) shall be a pre-requisite. The novel drug-regime promises to alter the cortical background-activity in a manner to render it un-favorable for epileptogenesis/enhancement of epileptic recruitment, thereby attempting to produce control over Intractable Epilepsy. The new drug-regime, by virtue of its properties to alter the EEG-background activity, thus could enhance the efficacy of conventional treatment and together, they could form a highly effective management for Intractable Epilepsy, thus minimising the intervention of invasive techniques like VNS and epilepsy brain surgery. PMID:12888310

Jaseja, Harinder

2003-08-01

91

Integrative Educational Approach Oriented Towards Software and System Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper is based on our academic teaching and research work in software and system engineering to effectively develop modern, complex real-life Web application systems. It bridges the gap between academic education and industry needs and illustrates how such collaboration can be successfully developed in the IT area where technology development is rapid. Its scope covers the processes, models, technologies, people, and knowledge that have the capability to contribute to developing such systems. The paper also relates to contributions of some of Harlan D. Mills award recipients for software engineering achievement, to address the needs to: i improve the engineering education in an academic setting, and ii develop real-life software and system projects. Hybrid educational methods are applied for student learning that combine class room approach of teaching fundamental theoretical concepts and practice via real world complex projects embedding intelligence in software and systems products. System thinking demanded by modern design philosophies is applied to interlink prod-ucts, software, and people. Student groups are developing their projects in an interactive and collaborative manner.

Anca Juliana Stoica

2013-01-01

92

Crosscutting Specification Interference Detection at Aspect Oriented UML-Based Models: A Database Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In aspect oriented development, obliviousness is one of its pillars as it helps developers to implement crosscutting concerns via aspects, which increases the overall software modularity. Despite of its merits, obliviousness brings the problem of interferences among aspects as several aspects pointcuts may address the same joinpoint for the same advice. Existing approaches deals with conflicts at design level use graphs structures, which increase in size as project size increases. In this work, a relational database model is used to map aspect oriented design models and then conflicts are extracted by an algorithm runs over this database. This approach is simpler than other approaches and enables large project sizes while the other approaches get complicated due to increment in graph size. The proposed approach can be extended to the distributed team development, dependent on the database engine used.

Ahmed Sharaf Eldin

2014-08-01

93

The DPSIR Framework and a Pressure-Oriented Water Quality Monitoring Approach to Ecological River Restoration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Without monitoring anthropogenic pressures on the water environment, it is difficult to set realistic river restoration targets in relation to water quality. Therefore a more holistic approach is needed to systematically explore the links between socio-economic drivers and observed water quality-related impacts on river ecosystems. Using the DPSIR (Drivers-Pressures-State of the Environment-Impacts-Responses framework, this study linked ecological river restoration with the socio-economic sector, with the focus on promoting a pressure-oriented water quality monitoring system. Based on the European Water Framework Directive (WFD and relevant literature, it was found that most water quality-related indicators employed today are state/impacts-oriented, while very few are pressure-oriented. As a response, we call for more attention to a DPR (Drivers-Pressures-Responses framework in developing an industrial ecology-based pressure-oriented water quality monitoring system for aiding ecological river restoration planning. This approach is characterized in general by accounting for material-related flows throughout the socio-economic sector in relation to river ecosystem degradation. Then the obtained information would help decision makers take appropriate measures to alleviate various significant human-induced wastes and emissions at their sources. We believe that such a pressure-oriented monitoring system will substantially complement traditional state/impacts-oriented environmental and ecological monitoring and help develop more proactive planning and decision-making processes for specific river restoration projects and general water quality management.

Björn Frostell

2012-09-01

94

Functional Mentoring: A Practical Approach with Multilevel Outcomes  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction: Mentoring is a central component of professional development. Evaluation of "successful" mentoring programs, however, has been limited and mainly focused on measures of satisfaction with the relationship. In today's environment, mentoring programs must produce tangible outcomes to demonstrate success. To address this issue, the…

Thorndyke, Luanne E.; Gusic, Maryellen E.; Milner, Robert J.

2008-01-01

95

Electron-impact ionization of oriented molecules using the time-dependent close-coupling approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An overview is given on recent progress on computing triple differential cross sections for electron-impact ionization of the hydrogen molecule using a time-dependent close-coupling approach. Our calculations, when averaged over all molecular orientations, are generally in very good agreement with (e,2e) measurements made on H{sub 2}, where the molecular orientation is unknown, for a range of incident energies and outgoing electron angles and energies. In this paper, we present TDCS for ionization of H{sub 2} at specific molecular orientations. It is hoped that this study will help stimulate future measurements of TDCS from oriented H{sub 2} at medium impact energies.

Colgan, J [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Pindzola, M S, E-mail: jcolgan@lanl.gov [Department of Physics, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States)

2011-04-01

96

Multiple emotions: a person-centered approach to the relationship between intergroup emotion and action orientation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although a great deal of research has investigated the relationship between emotions and action orientations, most studies to date have used variable-centered techniques to identify the best emotion predictor(s) of a particular action. Given that people frequently report multiple or blended emotions, a profitable area of research may be to adopt person-centered approaches to examine the action orientations elicited by a particular combination of emotions or "emotion profile." In two studies, across instances of intergroup inequality in Australia and Canada, we examined participants' experiences of six intergroup emotions: sympathy, anger directed at three targets, shame, and pride. In both studies, five groups of participants with similar emotion profiles were identified by cluster analysis and their action orientations were compared; clusters indicated that the majority of participants experienced multiple emotions. Each action orientation was also regressed on the six emotions. There were a number of differences in the results obtained from the person-centered and variable-centered approaches. This was most apparent for sympathy: the group of participants experiencing only sympathy showed little inclination to perform prosocial actions, yet sympathy was a significant predictor of numerous action orientations in regression analyses. These results imply that sympathy may only prompt a desire for action when experienced in combination with other emotions. We suggest that the use of person-centered and variable-centered approaches as complementary analytic strategies may enrich research into not only the affective predictors of action, but emotion research in general. PMID:24749637

Fernando, Julian W; Kashima, Yoshihisa; Laham, Simon M

2014-08-01

97

The communication orientation model: explaining the diverse effects of sight, sound, and synchronicity on negotiation and group decision-making outcomes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two quantitative meta-analyses examined how the presence of visual channels, vocal channels, and synchronicity influences the quality of outcomes in negotiations and group decision making. A qualitative review of the literature found that the effects of communication channels vary widely and that existing theories do not sufficiently account for these contradictory findings. To parsimoniously encompass the full range of existing data, the authors created the communication orientation model, which proposes that the impact of communication channels is shaped by communicators' orientations to cooperate or not. Two meta-analyses-conducted separately for negotiations and decision making-provide strong support for this model. Overall, the presence of communication channels (a) increased the achievement of high-quality outcomes for communicators with a neutral orientation, (b) did not affect the outcomes for communicators with a cooperative orientation, but (c) hurt communicators' outcomes with a noncooperative orientation. Tests of cross-cultural differences in each meta-analysis further supported the model: for those with a neutral orientation, the beneficial effects of communication channels were weaker within East Asian cultures (i.e., Interdependent and therefore more predisposed towards cooperation) than within Western cultures (i.e., Independent). PMID:21846835

Swaab, Roderick I; Galinsky, Adam D; Medvec, Victoria; Diermeier, Daniel A

2012-02-01

98

Compilation and synthesis for embedded reconfigurable systems an aspect-oriented approach  

CERN Document Server

This book provides techniques to tackle the design challenges raised by the increasing diversity and complexity of emerging, heterogeneous architectures for embedded systems. It describes an approach based on techniques from software engineering called aspect-oriented programming, which allow designers to control today’s sophisticated design tool chains, while maintaining a single application source code.  Readers are introduced to the basic concepts of an aspect-oriented, domain specific language that enables control of a wide range of compilation and synthesis tools in the partitioning and mapping of an application to a heterogeneous (and possibly multi-core) target architecture.  Several examples are presented that illustrate the benefits of the approach developed for applications from avionics and digital signal processing. Using the aspect-oriented programming techniques presented in this book, developers can reuse extensive sections of their designs, while preserving the original application source-...

Diniz, Pedro; Coutinho, José; Petrov, Zlatko

2013-01-01

99

Linkages between Total Quality Management and the Outcomes-Based Approach in an Education Environment  

Science.gov (United States)

South Africa has embarked on a process of education renewal by adopting outcomes-based education (OBE). This paper focuses on the linkages between total quality management (TQM) and the outcomes-based approach in an education context. Quality assurance in academic programmes in higher education in South Africa is, in some instances, based on the…

de Jager, H. J.; Nieuwenhuis, F. J.

2005-01-01

100

Project Management, Critical Praxis, and Process-Oriented Approach to Teamwork  

Science.gov (United States)

To help alleviate issues of free-riding and conflicts in team projects, this study proposes the systematic incorporation of project management methods to introduce a process-oriented approach to and a critical praxis in team projects. We examined how the systematic use of project management methods influenced students' performance in team…

Ding, Huiling; Ding, Xin

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Risk-oriented approach for assessing the environmental safety of radioactive waste storage facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article discusses the risk-oriented approach for assessing the ecological security of radioactive waste storage facilities. On the basis of probability indicators the condition of ecological safety is found to be met at Odessa State Multiregional Facility on the normative criteria of deaths

102

METHODICAL APPROACH TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ESTIMATED ENTERPRISE’S COMPETITIVENESS IN ITS MARKETING ORIENTATION ? ?????????? ????????????? ??????? ? ?????? ????????????????????? ??????????? ? ???????? ?? ????????????? ??????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The economic essence of the submissions of “market-ing orientation” and “enterprise’s competitiveness” is specified, classification of the basic approaches to an estimation of the enterprise’s competitiveness are given; in the article we are considered the factors to define on the competitiveness of the enterprises, the conception of the methodical approach to an estima-tion of the competitiveness of the enterprise

Shchepakin M. B.

2012-09-01

103

Trajectory-Oriented Approach to Managing Traffic Complexity: Operational Concept and Preliminary Metrics Definition  

Science.gov (United States)

This document describes preliminary research on a distributed, trajectory-oriented approach for traffic complexity management. The approach is to manage traffic complexity in a distributed control environment, based on preserving trajectory flexibility and minimizing constraints. In particular, the document presents an analytical framework to study trajectory flexibility and the impact of trajectory constraints on it. The document proposes preliminary flexibility metrics that can be interpreted and measured within the framework.

Idris, Husni; Vivona, Robert; Garcia-Chico, Jose L.

2008-01-01

104

Alternative approaches to outcomes assessment: beyond psychometric tests.  

Science.gov (United States)

Outcomes assessments in clinical trials involving cognition and behavior rely upon IQ and neuropsychological assessments. These procedures provide limited evaluations of everyday functions. Some participants cannot perform cognitive tasks because they are low functioning or may represent missing data because of inability to travel. Interview-based assessments of adaptive behavior yield results that reflect everyday functions and can be done by telephone regardless of level of cognitive functioning. The design of the neurobehavioral component of the follow-up study for the management of myelomeningocele fetal surgery trial is as an example of a clinical trial that incorporates these alternatives. PMID:24174385

Fletcher, Jack M

2014-10-01

105

Impact of angiosome-oriented revascularization on clinical outcomes in critical limb ischemia patients without concurrent wound infection and diabetes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose : To investigate the impact of angiosome-oriented revascularization on clinical outcomes in critical limb ischemia (CLI) patients excluding those with both diabetes and wound infection. Methods : Using a retrospective multicenter database, a propensity score matching analysis was performed of 539 consecutive CLI patients (375 men; mean age 71±11 years) without concurrent wound infection and diabetes who underwent balloon angioplasty of isolated infrapopliteal lesions. Propensity score matching produced 2 groups of 182 patients each who underwent angiosome-oriented direct revascularization (123 men; mean age 72±11 years) or indirect revascularization (125 men; mean age 72±11 years). The groups were compared for wound healing rate, freedom from major adverse limb events (MALE), and amputation-free survival (AFS). Results : In the overall population, indirect revascularization was performed in 36.6% (n=197). In the propensity matching analysis, the complete wound healing rate at 12 months was higher in the direct group than the indirect revascularization patients (75% vs. 64%, p=0.01), while freedom from MALE (p=0.99) and AFS (p=0.17) were not significantly different at up to 24 months. In multivariate analysis, indirect revascularization had an independent negative impact on wound healing (adjusted hazard ratio 0.7, p=0.008). Conclusion : After propensity matching analysis for CLI patients other than those with both diabetes and wound infection, the wound healing rate was higher after direct revascularization than after indirect revascularization, whereas MALE and AFS were not significantly different. PMID:25290786

Iida, Osamu; Takahara, Mitsuyoshi; Soga, Yoshimitsu; Yamauchi, Yasutaka; Hirano, Keisuke; Tazaki, Junichi; Yamaoka, Terutoshi; Suematsu, Nobuhiro; Suzuki, Kenji; Shintani, Yoshiaki; Miyashita, Yusuke; Uematsu, Masaaki

2014-10-01

106

A unified approach to feature-centric analysis of object-oriented software  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Feature-centric comprehension of software is a prerequisite to incorporating modifications requested by users during software evolution and maintenance. However, feature-centric understanding of large object-oriented programs is difficult to achieve due to size, complexity and implicit cha-racter of mappings between features and source code. In this paper, we address these issues through our unified approach to feature-centric analysis of object-oriented software. Our approach supports discovery of feature-code traceability links and their analysis from three perspectives and at three levels of abstraction. We further improve scalability of analysis by partitioning features into canonical groups. To demonstrate feasibility our approach, we use our NetBeans-integrated tool Featureous for conducting a case study of feature-centric analysis of the JHotDraw project. Lastly, we discuss how Featureous supports program comprehension by means of concrete cognitive design elements.

Olszak, Andrzej; JØrgensen, Bo NØrregaard

2010-01-01

107

A Systematic Knowledge Management Approach Using Object-Oriented Theory in Customer Complaint Management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Research into the effectiveness of customer complaint management has attracted researchers, yet there has been little discussion on customer complaint management in the context of systematic knowledge management approach particularly in the domain of hotel industry. This paper aims to address such gap through the application of object-oriented theory for which the notation of unified modelling language has been adopted for the representation of the concepts, objects, relationships and vocabularies in the domain. The paper used data from forty seven hotel management staff and academics in hospitalitymanagement to investigate lessons learned and best practices in customer complaint management and knowledge management. By providing insights into the potential of a knowledge management approach using object oriented theory, this study advances our understanding on how a knowledge management approach can systematically support the management of hotel customer complaints.

Wusheng Zhang

2010-12-01

108

Teenage Pregnancy Prevention and Adolescents' Sexual Outcomes: An Experiential Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

This study evaluates the effectiveness of an experiential approach to teen pregnancy (TP) prevention called "Baby Think It Over," a computerized infant simulator, on adolescents' attitudes and behaviors regarding teen pregnancy and sexuality. Recently, a more realistic model called "Real Care Baby" was developed. The small amount of research on…

Somers, Cheryl L.

2006-01-01

109

A dynamic object-oriented architecture approach to ecosystem modeling and simulation.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Modeling and simulation in support of adaptive ecosystem management can be better accomplished through a dynamic, integrated, and flexible approach that incorporates scientific and technological components into a comprehensive ecosystem-modeling framework. The Integrated Dynamic Landscape Analysis and Modeling System (IDLAMS) integrates ecological models and decision support techniques, through a geographic information system (GIS)-based framework. The Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) sponsored the development of IDLAMS. Initially built upon a GIS framework, IDLAMS is migrating to an object-oriented (OO) architectural framework. An object-oriented architecture is more flexible and modular. It allows disparate applications and dynamic models to be integrated in a manner that minimizes (or eliminates) the need to rework or recreate the system as new models are added to the suite. In addition, an object-oriented design makes it easier to provide run-time feedback among models, thereby making it a more dynamic tool for exploring and providing insight into the interactions among ecosystem processes. Finally, an object-oriented design encourages the reuse of existing technology because OO-IDLAMS is able to integrate disparate models, databases, or applications executed in their native languages. Reuse is also accomplished through a structured approach to building a consistent and reusable object library. This reusability can substantially reduce the time and effort needed to develop future integrated ecosystem simulations.

Dolph, J. E.; Majerus, K. A.; Sydelko, P. J.; Taxon, T. N.

1999-04-09

110

Amorphization/templated recrystallization method for changing the orientation of single-crystal silicon: An alternative approach to hybrid orientation substrates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We demonstrate that the crystal orientation of single-crystal silicon layers may be changed in selected areas from one orientation to another by an amorphization/templated recrystallization (ATR) process, and then introduce ATR as an alternative approach for fabricating planar hybrid orientation substrates with surface regions of (100)- and (110)-oriented Si. The ATR technique, applied to a starting substrate comprising a thin (50-200 nm) overlayer of (100) or (110) Si on a (110) or (100) Si handle wafer, consists of two process steps: (i) Si+ or Ge+ ion implantation to create an amorphous silicon (a-Si) layer extending from the top of the overlayer to a depth below the overlayer/handle wafer interface, and (ii) a thermal anneal to produce the handle-wafer-templated epitaxial recrystallization of the a-Si layer. Regions exposed to the ATR process assume the orientation of the handle wafer while regions not exposed to the ATR process retain their original orientation. The practicality of this approach is demonstrated with the fabrication of a planar hybrid orientation substrate comprising (100) and (110) Si regions separated by SiO2-filled trenches

111

Regional blockade of the shoulder: approaches and outcomes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The article reviews the current literature regarding shoulder anesthesia and analgesia. Techniques and outcomes are presented that summarize our present understanding of regional anesthesia for the shoulder. Shoulder procedures producing mild to moderate pain may be managed with a single-injection interscalene block. However, studies support that moderate to severe pain, lasting for several days is best managed with a continuous interscalene block. This may cause increased extremity numbness, but will provide greater analgesia, reduce supplemental opioid consumption, improve sleep quality and patient satisfaction. In comparison to the nerve stimulation technique, ultrasound can reduce the volume of local anesthetic needed to produce an effective interscalene block. However, it has not been shown that ultrasound offers a definitive benefit in preventing major complications. The evidence indicates that the suprascapular and/or axillary nerve blocks are not as effective as an interscalene block. However in patients who are not candidates for the interscalene block, these blocks may provide a useful alternative for short-term pain relief. There is substantial evidence showing that subacromial and intra-articular injections provide little clinical benefit for postoperative analgesia. Given that these injections may be associated with irreversible chondrotoxicity, the injections are not presently recommended. PMID:22792099

Bowens, Clifford; Sripada, Ramprasad

2012-01-01

112

A problem-oriented approach to safety issues in drug development and beyond.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human safety issues arise throughout the life cycle of pharmaceutical products and relevant information comes from a multitude of sources. Assessment and management of risks to humans requires a problem-based analysis to bring together relevant information regardless of source. The Safety Evaluation Plan (SEP) is a tool to support problem-oriented safety analysis. Safety issues are specified and the evaluation and management of each problem is based on a status summary that integrates the most current information from all relevant sources. The status summary is updated regularly during the course of clinical development to reflect the results of new studies and new clinical trials. In the postmarketing period, relevant postmarketing data is incorporated. Recent regulatory initiatives emphasise early identification of product safety risks so that appropriate risk-management measures can be instituted at the time of approval. A problem-oriented approach supports growing regulatory expectations regarding risk assessment and risk management. The problem-oriented approach facilitates early identification of safety issues and an evidence-based approach to their evaluation. Proactive management of safety problems leads to prompt assessment of risks and timely and appropriate steps aimed at risk reduction. The SEP provides a single global assessment for each safety issue. Regulatory submissions for pharmaceutical and biological products are organised by type of information. International Conference of Harmonisation documents covering clinical safety issues structure and analyse information separately by type, for example, adverse events, serious adverse events, laboratory data, vital signs, etc. A problem-oriented analysis would need to find a place in the regulatory process. A problem-oriented approach to safety cuts across typical structures in the pharmaceutical industry where different groups handle preclinical, clinical and postmarketing safety information. The SEP can improve communication within the company and externally. Nonetheless, supporting structures need to be adapted to support such an interdisciplinary process. Overall, the problem-oriented approach, supported by a SEP, contributes to realistic expectations and sustained credibility when dealing with safety issues. PMID:15154827

Haas, Joanna F

2004-01-01

113

A Pattern-Oriented Approach to a Methodical Evaluation of Modeling Methods  

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Full Text Available The paper describes a pattern-oriented approach to evaluate modeling methods and to compare various methods with each other from a methodical viewpoint. A specific set of principles (the patterns is defined by investigating the notations and the documentation of comparable modeling methods. Each principle helps to examine some parts of the methods from a specific point of view. All principles together lead to an overall picture of the method under examination. First the core ("method neutral" meaning of each principle is described. Then the methods are examined regarding the principle. Afterwards the method specific interpretations are compared with each other and with the core meaning of the principle. By this procedure, the strengths and weaknesses of modeling methods regarding methodical aspects are identified. The principles are described uniformly using a principle description template according to descriptions of object oriented design patterns. The approach is demonstrated by evaluating a business process modeling method.

Michael Amberg

1996-11-01

114

Reliability Analysis of Electric Power Systems Using an Object-oriented Hybrid Modeling Approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The ongoing evolution of the electric power systems brings about the need to cope with increasingly complex interactions of technical components and relevant actors. In order to integrate a more comprehensive spectrum of different aspects into a probabilistic reliability assessment and to include time-dependent effects, this paper proposes an object-oriented hybrid approach combining agent-based modeling techniques with classical methods such as Monte Carlo simulation. Objec...

Schla?pfer, Markus; Kessler, Tom; Kro?ger, Wolfgang

2012-01-01

115

Outcome-Asset Impact Model: Linking Outcomes and Assets.  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduces the Outcome-Asset Impact Model, a tool that combines elements of client-centered outcomes and asset orientations with a systems approach. The application of this model to the evaluation of program interventions is illustrated through three case studies: (1) a multiple objective urban revitalization initiative; (2) an early intervention…

Reed, C. S.; Brown, R. E.

2001-01-01

116

Outcome Measurement in Economic Evaluations of Public Health Interventions: a Role for the Capability Approach?  

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Full Text Available Public health interventions have received increased attention from policy makers, and there has been a corresponding increase in the number of economic evaluations within the domain of public health. However, methods to evaluate public health interventions are less well established than those for medical interventions. Focusing on health as an outcome measure is likely to underestimate the impact of many public health interventions. This paper provides a review of outcome measures in public health; and describes the benefits of using the capability approach as a means to developing an all encompassing outcome measure.

Paula K. Lorgelly

2010-05-01

117

Worse patient-reported outcome after lateral approach than after anterior and posterolateral approach in primary hip arthroplasty.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background - The surgical approach in total hip arthroplasty (THA) is often based on surgeon preference and local traditions. The anterior muscle-sparing approach has recently gained popularity in Europe. We tested the hypothesis that patient satisfaction, pain, function, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) after THA is not related to the surgical approach. Patients - 1,476 patients identified through the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register were sent questionnaires 1-3 years after undergoing THA in the period from January 2008 to June 2010. Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) included the hip disability osteoarthritis outcome score (HOOS), the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities osteoarthritis index (WOMAC), health-related quality of life (EQ-5D-3L), visual analog scales (VAS) addressing pain and satisfaction, and questions about complications. 1,273 patients completed the questionnaires and were included in the analysis. Results - Adjusted HOOS scores for pain, other symptoms, activities of daily living (ADL), sport/recreation, and quality of life were significantly worse (p Self-reported limping occurred twice as often in patients who underwent THA with a lateral approach than in those who underwent THA with an anterior or posterolateral approach. There were no significant differences in patient-reported outcomes after THA between those who underwent THA with a posterolateral approach and those who underwent THA with an anterior approach. PMID:24954494

Amlie, Einar; Havelin, Leif I; Furnes, Ove; Baste, Valborg; Nordsletten, Lars; Hovik, Oystein; Dimmen, Sigbjorn

2014-09-01

118

Supravalvar aortic stenosis: current surgical approaches and outcomes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Supravalvar aortic stenosis (SVAS) is a congenital anomaly characterized by a discrete or diffuse narrowing of the ascending aorta. It may also be associated with right-ventricular outflow tract obstruction, aortic valve pathology and coronary ostial stenosis. While present in both familial and sporadic forms, it demonstrates a strong association with William-Beuren syndrome, both being anomalies associated with defects in the elastin gene. In this article, the authors have discussed the etiology, morphology, clinical presentation and genetic basis of SVAS. Various surgical approaches, both conventional and recent, have been discussed and demonstrated with the aid of diagrams. Single-, two- and three-sinus methods have been presented, along with a comparative analysis of early results, associated procedures, late mortality and reoperation. In conclusion, the authors have described their institutional experience of more than 40 years in the surgical management of SVAS. PMID:23895031

Deo, Salil V; Burkhart, Harold M; Dearani, Joseph A; Schaff, Hartzell V

2013-07-01

119

A global approach for image orientation using Lie algebraic rotation averaging and convex L? minimisation  

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In this paper we present a new global image orientation approach for a set of multiple overlapping images with given homologous point tuples which is based on a two-step procedure. The approach is independent on initial values, robust with respect to outliers and yields the global minimum solution under relatively mild constraints. The first step of the approach consists of the estimation of global rotation parameters by averaging relative rotation estimates for image pairs (these are determined from the homologous points via the essential matrix in a pre-processing step). For the averaging we make use of algebraic group theory in which rotations, as part of the special orthogonal group SO(3), form a Lie group with a Riemannian manifold structure. This allows for a mapping to the local Euclidean tangent space of SO(3), the Lie algebra. In this space the redundancy of relative orientations is used to compute an average of the absolute rotation for each image and furthermore to detect and eliminate outliers. In the second step translation parameters and the object coordinates of the homologous points are estimated within a convex L? optimisation, in which the rotation parameters are kept fixed. As an optional third step the results can be used as initial values for a final bundle adjustment that does not suffer from bad initialisation and quickly converges to a globally optimal solution. We investigate our approach for global image orientation based on synthetic data. The results are compared to a robust least squares bundle adjustment. In this way we show that our approach is independent of initial values and more robust against outliers than a conventional bundle adjustment.

Reich, M.; Heipke, C.

2014-08-01

120

Decomposed Approach of Market Orientation and Marketing Mix Capability: Research on Their Relationships with Firm Performance in the Korean Context  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The notion that market orientation provides firms a source of competitive advantage seems to be widely accepted since the effects of market orientation on business performance have been extensively researched and many studies have confirmed their affirmative relationships. However, aggregated approach of market orientation as one single construct has left the detailed investigations yet unexplored despite its tremendous contribution in marketing strategy arena. Thus, decomposed properties ...

Sohyoun Shin

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

a New Approach for AN Incremental Orientation of Micro-Uav Image Sequences  

Science.gov (United States)

Civil applications for small size unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) have become quite important in recent years and so have accurate orientation and navigation of these devices in unknown terrain. In this work we focus on on-line compatible positioning in facade observation based on monocular low resolution still images acquired by a camera mounted on a UAV. Also, a 3D point cloud of the facade is generated. This allows further processing steps, e.g. navigation assistance, collision avoidance or the evaluation of the point cloud density, verifying completeness of the data. To be able to deal with the increasing amount of observations and unknown parameters we implement an incremental bundle adjustment based on automatically determined tie points and sliding image triplets. The tripletwise orientation allows for an efficient double cross-check of the detected feature points and hence guarantees reliable initial values for the nonlinear bundle adjustment. The initial values are estimated within a convex formulation delivering a sound basis for the incremental adjustment. Our algorithm is evaluated by means of imagery we took of the facade of the Welfenschloss in Hannover, captured from a manually flown Microdrones md4-200 micro-UAV.We compare the orientation results of our approach with an approach in which initial values for the unknown object coordinates are computed algebraically.

Reich, M.; Unger, J.; Rottensteiner, F.; Heipke, C.

2014-03-01

122

The Pedagogical Orientations of South African Physical Sciences Teachers Towards Inquiry or Direct Instructional Approaches  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, inquiry-based science instruction has become widely advocated in science education standards in many countries and, hence, in teacher preparation programmes. Nevertheless, in practice, one finds a wide variety of science instructional approaches. In South Africa, as in many countries, there is also a great disparity in school demographic situations, which can also affect teaching practices. This study investigated the pedagogical orientations of in-service physical sciences teachers at a diversity of schools in South Africa. Assessment items in a Pedagogy of Science Teaching Test (POSTT) were used to identify teachers' science teaching orientations, and reasons for pedagogical choices were probed in interviews. The findings reveal remarkable differences between the orientations of teachers at disadvantaged township schools and teachers at more privileged suburban schools. We found that teachers at township schools have a strong `active direct' teaching orientation overall, involving direct exposition of the science followed by confirmatory practical work, while teachers at suburban schools exhibit a guided inquiry orientation, with concepts being developed via a guided exploration phase. The study identified contextual factors such as class size, availability of resources, teacher competence and confidence, time constraints, student ability, school culture and parents' expectations as influencing the methods adopted by teachers. In view of the recent imperative for inquiry-based learning in the new South African curriculum, this study affirms the context specificity of curriculum implementation (Bybee 1993) and suggests situational factors beyond the curriculum mandate that need to be addressed to achieve successful inquiry-based classroom instruction in science.

Ramnarain, Umesh; Schuster, David

2014-08-01

123

Object-oriented Approach to High-level Network Monitoring and Management  

Science.gov (United States)

An absolute prerequisite for the management of large investigating methods to build high-level monitoring computer networks is the ability to measure their systems that are built on top of existing monitoring performance. Unless we monitor a system, we cannot tools. Due to the heterogeneous nature of the hope to manage and control its performance. In this underlying systems at NASA Langley Research Center, paper, we describe a network monitoring system that we use an object-oriented approach for the design, we are currently designing and implementing. Keeping, first, we use UML (Unified Modeling Language) to in mind the complexity of the task and the required model users' requirements. Second, we identify the flexibility for future changes, we use an object-oriented existing capabilities of the underlying monitoring design methodology. The system is built using the system. Third, we try to map the former with the latter. APIs offered by the HP OpenView system.

Mukkamala, Ravi

2000-01-01

124

An Aspect-Oriented Approach for Use Case Based Modeling of Software Product Lines  

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Full Text Available Software Product Line Development advocates software reuse by modeling common and variable artefacts separately across members of a family of products. Aspect-Oriented Software Development aims at separation of concerns with “aspects” to increase modularity, reusability, maintainability and ease of evolution. In this paper, we apply an as-pect-oriented use case modeling approach to product line system modeling. A use case specification captures stake-holders concerns as interactions between a system and its actors. We adapt our previous work with the introduction of a “variability” relationship for the expression of variabilities. This relationship is used to model variable and common behaviours across a family of products as use cases. A variability composition mechanism enables building of executa-ble behaviour models for each member of a product line family by integrating common elements with the applicable variable elements.

Stéphane S. SOMé

2009-11-01

125

Media-Oriented Service Composition with Service Overlay Networks: Challenges, Approaches and Future Trends (Invited Paper  

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Full Text Available The massive and timely delivery of media is gradually integrating itself with the dynamic composition of media-oriented services so that new types of customized media services can be created according to the diverse de- mand of end users. The resulting effective and differentiated networking support will become one of the most important requirements of the network infrastructure in the future. In this survey paper, we first present the emerging trend on the interaction of media-oriented service composition and overlay-based networks by introducing related technical issues. Then, we describe the top-down and the bottom- up approaches that coordinate service mapping using the service overlay networks (SONs and provisioning resources for them, respectively. Finally, we examine latest research on futuristic overlay networks for service realization.

Namgon Kim

2010-05-01

126

Handwriting Verification : An Approach to Verify Handwriting Using Feature Extraction of Orientation and Curvature  

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Full Text Available The writer identification task lies in the definition of a feature space common to all the handwritten documents. In this study we have extended this principle to the whole document database Identifying handwritten documents is a herculuies task. This paper consists approach used to identify an individual writer’s handwriting by extracting features of orientation , curvature and width of characters. It is the approach to study individual’s characteristics . In this approach we train the classifier with sample words from an writer . Classifier identifies the trainned samples and displays writer’s name present in database otherwise it displays that writer’s name who writing stlye matches to the sample.

V Swetha D. Rao

2014-05-01

127

A Knowledge-Based System Approach for Extracting Abstractions from Service Oriented Architecture Artifacts  

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Full Text Available Rule-based methods have traditionally been applied to develop knowledge-based systems that replicate expert performance on a deep but narrow problem domain. Knowledge engineers capture expert knowledge and encode it as a set of rules for automating the expert’s reasoning process to solve problems in a variety of domains. We describe the development of a knowledge-based system approach to enhance program comprehension of Service Oriented Architecture (SOA software. Our approach uses rule-based methods to automate the analysis of the set of artifacts involved in building and deploying a SOA composite application. The rules codify expert knowledge to abstract information from these artifacts to facilitate program comprehension and thus assist Software Engineers as they perform system maintenance activities. A main advantage of the knowledge-based approach is its adaptability to the heterogeneous and dynamically evolving nature of SOA environments.

George Goehring

2013-03-01

128

Reliability Analysis of Electric Power Systems Using an Object-oriented Hybrid Modeling Approach  

CERN Document Server

The ongoing evolution of the electric power systems brings about the need to cope with increasingly complex interactions of technical components and relevant actors. In order to integrate a more comprehensive spectrum of different aspects into a probabilistic reliability assessment and to include time-dependent effects, this paper proposes an object-oriented hybrid approach combining agent-based modeling techniques with classical methods such as Monte Carlo simulation. Objects represent both technical components such as generators and transmission lines and non-technical components such as grid operators. The approach allows the calculation of conventional reliability indices and the estimation of blackout frequencies. Furthermore, the influence of the time needed to remove line overloads on the overall system reliability can be assessed. The applicability of the approach is demonstrated by performing simulations on the IEEE Reliability Test System 1996 and on a model of the Swiss high-voltage grid.

Schläpfer, Markus; Kröger, Wolfgang

2012-01-01

129

A goal-oriented limited-duration approach for borderline personality disorder during brief inpatient hospitalizations.  

Science.gov (United States)

As part of their overall care, patients with borderline personality disorder may require inpatient hospitalization for containment and stabilization in the context of severe distress, increased risk for self-harm, or after self-harming acts. Though data suggests that such patients are frequently hospitalized, the benefits of brief hospitalizations can sometimes be questionable. In some cases, the hospitalization environment may increase patient distress. Additionally, frequent serial hospitalizations can disrupt or sidetrack longer-term outpatient treatments. The present paper presents a Goal-Oriented Limited-Duration Borderline Personality Disorder Inpatient Treatment approach. The approach integrates elements from many other expert-based approaches for working in brief hospital settings and centers on the creation of a preadmission treatment agreement with a planned discharge date. This agreement involves clear goals for treatment and specifies how staff will be involved. Establishing a discharge date early in treatment allows staff to immediately begin working with feelings of rejection or abandonment. At discharge, recommendations are made and criteria for future admissions are set forth. This paper provides a description of the approach, information to consider in determining appropriateness, discussion of methods for clarifying goals, review of the discharge planning approach, and several examples of clinician-patient exchanges. This paper concludes with a case example in which the approach was used and discussions of future directions and potential benefits and limitations of the approach. PMID:22181025

Siefert, Caleb J

2012-12-01

130

Retraining automatic action tendencies changes alcoholic patients' approach bias for alcohol and improves treatment outcome.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study tested the effects of a new cognitive-bias modification (CBM) intervention that targeted an approach bias for alcohol in 214 alcoholic inpatients. Patients were assigned to one of two experimental conditions, in which they were explicitly or implicitly trained to make avoidance movements (pushing a joystick) in response to alcohol pictures, or to one of two control conditions, in which they received no training or sham training. Four brief sessions of experimental CBM preceded regular inpatient treatment. In the experimental conditions only, patients' approach bias changed into an avoidance bias for alcohol. This effect generalized to untrained pictures in the task used in the CBM and to an Implicit Association Test, in which alcohol and soft-drink words were categorized with approach and avoidance words. Patients in the experimental conditions showed better treatment outcomes a year later. These findings indicate that a short intervention can change alcoholics' automatic approach bias for alcohol and may improve treatment outcome. PMID:21389338

Wiers, Reinout W; Eberl, Carolin; Rinck, Mike; Becker, Eni S; Lindenmeyer, Johannes

2011-04-01

131

Members Matter in Team Training: Multilevel and Longitudinal Relationships between Goal Orientation, Self-Regulation, and Team Outcomes  

Science.gov (United States)

Longitudinal data from 338 individuals across 64 teams in a simulation-based team-training context were used to examine the effects of dispositional goal orientation on self-regulated learning (self-efficacy and metacognition). Team goal orientation compositions, as reflected by average goal orientations of team members, were examined for…

Dierdorff, Erich C.; Ellington, J. Kemp

2012-01-01

132

The Interaction of Pedagogical Approach, Gender, Self-Regulation, and Goal Orientation Using Student Response System Technology  

Science.gov (United States)

This research compares a behaviorally based approach for using electronic student response system (SRS) technology with a metacognitive-oriented approach to determine effects on attendance, preparation for class, and achievement. Also examined are the interaction effects of pedagogical approach with self-regulatory and motivational characteristics…

Edens, Kellah M.

2008-01-01

133

Policy Enacted--Teachers' Approaches to an Outcome-Based Framework for Course Design  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we report on how teachers in Higher Education enact policy. Outcome-based education (OBE) serves as an example of a governmental educational policy introduced with the European Bologna reform. With a hermeneutic approach, we have studied how 14 teachers interpreted this policy and re-designed their courses. The findings show…

Barman, Linda; Bolander-Laksov, Klara; Silén, Charlotte

2014-01-01

134

A Case-Based Approach Increases Student Learning Outcomes and Comprehension of Cellular Respiration Concepts  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated student learning outcomes using a case-based approach focused on cellular respiration. Students who used the case study, relative to students who did not use the case study, exhibited a significantly greater learning gain, and demonstrated use of higher-order thinking skills. Preliminary data indicate that after engaging…

Rybarczyk, Brian J.; Baines, Antonio T.; McVey, Mitch; Thompson, Joseph T.; Wilkins, Heather

2007-01-01

135

An Object-Oriented Approach To Generate Java Code From Hierarchical-Concurrent and History States  

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Full Text Available UML is widely accepted and practiced in industries for modeling and design of software systems. Software requirements and design are very important parts of software development. UML State Machine diagram is an important formalism to model the dynamic behavior of the system. In this paper, we present a new approach to generate compact and efficient Java code from complex state machine involving hierarchical-concurrent states; the proposed code can be used as a Java implementation pattern for automatic code generation for an object-oriented system. The main idea of our study is using Java Enum type with attributes for implementing complex state machines.

Abidi My Abidi

2013-12-01

136

Object-Oriented Design Pattern Approach to Seamless Modeling, Simulation and Implementation of Distributed Control Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Distributed control systems (DCS) come into wide use in automation areas. In this paper, an object-oriented design pattern approach for modeling, simulation and implementation of the DCS is proposed. The proposed design patterns enable the uniform modeling of the static structures and dynamic behaviors of the DCS, the transformation of the models into simulation program, and the generation of the embedded codes. The Java-based modeler and simulator, and code generator were developed based on these patterns. Applications to the building automation and factory automation systems proved its effectiveness.

Kanai, Satoshi; Kishinami, Takeshi; Tomura, Toyoaki; Uehiro, Kiyoshi; Ibuka, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto, Susumu

137

Market oriented new product development: How can a means-end chain approach affect the process?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Few disagree on the advantage of market oriented product development. However, can a well-known theory on consumer behaviour be used as a catalyst for achieving it? This paper describes a case study where means-end chain (MEC) approach was introduced to a cross-functional development team at two different stages of the development process. Results show that MEC data is perceived as a good way of gaining knowledge about consumers; that the information serves well as the basis of discussions and for keeping project goals fixed. The results also indicate that MEC data are most valuable to the team in the early stages of development process.

SØndergaard, Helle Alsted

138

The Complex Approach for Improvement of Personnel Management System in Export-Oriented Enterprise of Ukraine ??????????? ?????? ? ????????????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ?? ???????????????????????? ???????????? ???????  

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Full Text Available Personnel management system for export-oriented enterprises of Ukraine was studied and the complex comprehensive approach for improving the system was proposed as the solution for the problem of complex combining of foreign personnel management systems with existing systems on the enterprises of Ukraine. The world experience of human resource management in transnational corporations, international organizations and enterprises was considered in the analysis of peculiarities of the domestic economy, social environment, Ukrainian mentality and process of external and internal information influence. The comparison of some elements of management systems in industrial and information economics was conducted.??????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ?? ????????? ????????????? ???????????? ??????? ? ????????? ??????????? ?????? ? ?????????????????? ???? ??????? ? ???? ??????? ???????? ???????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ??????????? ? ????????????? ????????? ?? ???????????? ???????. ????? ??????? ???? ?????????? ????????????? ????????? ? ????????????????? ???????????, ????????????? ???????????? ? ???????????? ??? ??????? ???????????? ????????????? ?????????, ?????????? ?????, ?????????? ???????????? ? ???????? ???????? ? ??????????? ??????????????? ???????????. ???????????? ????????? ????????? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ? ?????????????? ? ?????????????? ?????????.

Kuznetsova Tatyana V.

2013-01-01

139

An Evaluation of Maintainability of Aspect-Oriented Systems: a Practical Approach  

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Full Text Available Maintenance of software systems is becoming major concern for software developers and users. In software projects/products, where software changes/updates are frequently required to improve software quality, maintainability is an important characteristic of ISO 9126 quality standard to evaluate. Analyzability, changeability, stability, and testability are sub attributes/characteristics of maintainability in ISO 9126. In this paper, changeability is measured by making changes at code level of an Aspect- Oriented (AO system. The approach taken to evaluate the changeability of an AO system is to compute the impact of changes made to modules of the system. Some projects1 in aspect-oriented programming (AOP language, AspectJ, have been taken for testing. The results suggest that the AO system can easily absorb changes and AO design metrics can be used as indicators of changeability as well as of maintainability. The results also suggest that a code level change in AO systems not always cause less change impact to other modules than a code level change in Object-Oriented (OO systems.

Avadhesh Kumar

2007-06-01

140

The long-term mechanically ventilated patient. An outcomes management approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

As noted previously, prior to permanently instituting an outcomes approach, we compared the effects of such a model to a nonoutcomes-managed approach. The positive trend noted during the study interval has been sustained 2 years later, and the variables of cost, LOS, and ventilator duration (median = 9 days for DRG 475, 483 combined) for these patients continue to be favorably affected (see Figure 2). In addition, the outcomes-management model has been well accepted by all members of the health care team. The outcomes manager is a respected and valued member of the team and is central to the ongoing success of the approach. Although the clinical pathway is an essential tool for focusing and delineating multidisciplinary best-practice, the pathway (and processes of care contained within) must be continually evaluated and changed as needed. The pathway cannot be static if care is to be progressive. Essential to the process is a method of collecting and processing data in a timely way. Further, it is important that data collection, while important, not be the focus of the role of outcomes manager. Instead, the focus is the delivery of timely and effective care. Our current outcomes model applies to management of patients beyond the boundaries of the MICU or pulmonary suite. In other words, once weaned and transferred to a regular floor the outcomes manager no longer manages the patients (although she does track selected outcomes). Management of patients throughout hospitalization is a future goal, but we are convinced that this cannot be accomplished by a single outcomes manager. Although we are aware that other outcomes models do follow patients throughout the continuum of hospitalization and beyond, our highly clinically interactive model precludes that possibility. We are currently considering other similar unit-based positions to provide the desired continuity following discharge from the MICU or pulmonary suite. Despite our enthusiasm for the outcomes-management model, we recognize that other models may also result in comparable, favorable outcomes. It is important that those who adopt similar models of care delivery for managing patients requiring prolonged ventilation be scientific in their approach. Long-term studies of the efficacy of these models are essential if we are to truly provide quality care for our patients in the future. Unfortunately, as noted earlier, bias will be hard to overcome. Hospitals vested in rapidly establishing a stable financial bottom-line are likely to embrace quick applications. Projects with a true experimental design to evaluate efficacy, such as this one, will be rare in these organizations. Finally, it is critical that variables of interest be inclusive of specific quality indicators such as ventilator duration and complications rather than global institutional markers such as LOS. Standardization of variables of interest is imperative if outcomes are to be compared. For example, patients requiring long-term mechanical ventilation are identified by the AACN's Third National Study Group on weaning as those who require mechanical ventilation for more than 3 days. If we are to compare other variables of interest such as total ventilator duration, such as definition is essential or we will be comparing apples and oranges in the future. Provision of quality, cost-effective care for patients requiring prolonged ventilation is a true clinical challenge. Outcomes management is a multidisciplinary method of care delivery that is systematic and comprehensive in approach. Although little science exists related to the application of the model for patients requiring prolonged ventilation, preliminary reports are promising and warrant future applications and evaluation of the same. PMID:9644351

Burns, S M

1998-03-01

 
 
 
 
141

Estimating Orientation Using Magnetic and Inertial Sensors and Different Sensor Fusion Approaches: Accuracy Assessment in Manual and Locomotion Tasks  

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Full Text Available Magnetic and inertial measurement units are an emerging technology to obtain 3D orientation of body segments in human movement analysis. In this respect, sensor fusion is used to limit the drift errors resulting from the gyroscope data integration by exploiting accelerometer and magnetic aiding sensors. The present study aims at investigating the effectiveness of sensor fusion methods under different experimental conditions. Manual and locomotion tasks, differing in time duration, measurement volume, presence/absence of static phases, and out-of-plane movements, were performed by six subjects, and recorded by one unit located on the forearm or the lower trunk, respectively. Two sensor fusion methods, representative of the stochastic (Extended Kalman Filter and complementary (Non-linear observer filtering, were selected, and their accuracy was assessed in terms of attitude (pitch and roll angles and heading (yaw angle errors using stereophotogrammetric data as a reference. The sensor fusion approaches provided significantly more accurate results than gyroscope data integration. Accuracy improved mostly for heading and when the movement exhibited stationary phases, evenly distributed 3D rotations, it occurred in a small volume, and its duration was greater than approximately 20 s. These results were independent from the specific sensor fusion method used. Practice guidelines for improving the outcome accuracy are provided.

Elena Bergamini

2014-10-01

142

Estimating orientation using magnetic and inertial sensors and different sensor fusion approaches: accuracy assessment in manual and locomotion tasks.  

Science.gov (United States)

Magnetic and inertial measurement units are an emerging technology to obtain 3D orientation of body segments in human movement analysis. In this respect, sensor fusion is used to limit the drift errors resulting from the gyroscope data integration by exploiting accelerometer and magnetic aiding sensors. The present study aims at investigating the effectiveness of sensor fusion methods under different experimental conditions. Manual and locomotion tasks, differing in time duration, measurement volume, presence/absence of static phases, and out-of-plane movements, were performed by six subjects, and recorded by one unit located on the forearm or the lower trunk, respectively. Two sensor fusion methods, representative of the stochastic (Extended Kalman Filter) and complementary (Non-linear observer) filtering, were selected, and their accuracy was assessed in terms of attitude (pitch and roll angles) and heading (yaw angle) errors using stereophotogrammetric data as a reference. The sensor fusion approaches provided significantly more accurate results than gyroscope data integration. Accuracy improved mostly for heading and when the movement exhibited stationary phases, evenly distributed 3D rotations, it occurred in a small volume, and its duration was greater than approximately 20 s. These results were independent from the specific sensor fusion method used. Practice guidelines for improving the outcome accuracy are provided. PMID:25302810

Bergamini, Elena; Ligorio, Gabriele; Summa, Aurora; Vannozzi, Giuseppe; Cappozzo, Aurelio; Sabatini, Angelo Maria

2014-01-01

143

Outcome of Open Transcortical Approach in the Management of Intraventricular Lesions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To evaluate the outcome of management of intraventricular lesions operated by an open transcortical (nonendoscopic) approach. Study Design: Case series. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Neurosurgery, Dow University of Health Sciences and Civil Hospital, Karachi, from January 2009 to December 2011, with six months follow-up. Methodology: All cases with lesions in the lateral ventricle and anterior third ventricle operated by open transcortical approach, were included after informed consent. Total excision of the lesion was attempted in all cases. Patients were analyzed for outcome in terms of establishment of diagnosis, completeness of resection, morbidity and mortality. Results: A total of 33 patients were operated. Twenty three were males and 10 were females. Colloid cyst was diagnosed in 14 patients (42%), giant cell astrocytoma and choroid plexus papilloma in 4 cases each and subependymoma and central neurocytoma in 2 cases each, epidermoid, choroid plexus carcinoma, oligodendroglioma, metastasis, meningioma, ependymoma and cavernous hemangioma in one patient each. The overall outcome could be labeled as good in 24 out of 33 cases (73%) and in 8 cases (24%) it was fair. One patient died due to ventriculitis and was categorized as poor outcome (3%). Postoperative complications included meningitis, seizures, intraventicular haemorrhage, subdural collection and transient hemiparesis. Nine patients had persistent hydrocephalus requiring ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Conclusion: Conventional open transcortical approach is still effective in getting conclusive biopsy or near total excision of the lesion with minimum morbidity. (author)

144

From an Object-Oriented Approach to the Financial Reporting: An Open Architecture  

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Full Text Available This paper developed an Object-Oriented (O-O approach as an open architecture forfinancial reporting that is based on the notation Unified Modelling Language (UML and theRational Rose® tool. The O-O approach integrated into the financial reporting has interoperablebuilding financial statements that must be available to be included in any economic and financialanalysis of a corporation. The implementation of an open architecture for developing financialreporting is supported by the systems analyst work that observes and understands the generaldomain of financial reporting, as well as, input from the specialists, directors and stakeholders of the corporation. Then, with reference to the Portuguese experience, the research scope is towardsa basic structure of financial reporting whose results are applicable to any corporation. Thefurther implication of the architecture for the financial reporting is to built a prototype to answerthe market needs.

Clara Silveira

2007-09-01

145

Hybrid Approach for the Public Transportation Time Dependent Orienteering Problem with Time Windows  

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The Time Dependent Orienteering Problem with Time Windows (TDOPTW) consists of a set of locations with associated time windows and scores. Visiting a location allows to collect its score as a reward. Traveling time between locations varies depending on the leave time. The objective is to obtain a route that maximizes the obtained score within a limited amount of time. In this paper we target the use of public transportation in a city, where users may move on foot or by public transportation. The approach can also be applied to the logistic sector, for example to the multimodal freight transportation. We apply an hybrid approach to tackle the problem. Experimental results for the city of San Sebastian show we are able to obtain valid routes in real-time.

Garcia, Ander; Arbelaitz, Olatz; Vansteenwegen, Pieter; Souffriau, Wouter; Linaza, Maria Teresa

146

Web Services modeling and composition approach using Objects-Oriented Petri Nets  

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Full Text Available Nowadays, with the emergence and the evolution of new technologies, such as e-business, a large number of companies are connected to Internet, and have proposed web services to trade. Web services as presented, are conceptually limited components to relatively simple functionalities. Generally, a single service does not satisfy the users needs that are more and more complex. Therefore, services must be made able to be composed to offer added value services. In this paper, a web services composition approach, modelled by Objects-Oriented Petri nets, is presented. In his context, an expressive algebra, which successfully solves the web services complex composition problem, is proposed. A java tool that allows automating this approach; based on a definite algebra and a G-nets meta-model, proposed by us, is developed.

Sofiane Chemaa

2012-07-01

147

The role of anterior ectosylvian cortex in cross-modality orientation and approach behavior.  

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Physiological and behavioral studies in cat have shown that corticotectal influences play important roles in the information-processing capabilities of superior colliculus (SC) neurons. While corticotectal inputs from the anterior ectosylvian sulcus (AES) play a comparatively small role in the unimodal responses of SC neurons, they are particularly important in rendering these neurons capable of integrating information from different sensory modalities (e.g., visual and auditory). The present experiments examined the behavioral consequences of depriving SC neurons of AES inputs, and thereby compromising their ability to integrate visual and auditory information. Selective deactivation of a variety of other cortical areas (posterolateral lateral suprasylvian cortex, PLLS; primary auditory cortex, AI; or primary visual cortex, 17/18) served as controls. Cats were trained in a perimetry device to ignore a brief, low-intensity auditory stimulus but to orient toward and approach a nearthreshold visual stimulus (a light-emitting diode, LED) to obtain food. The LED was presented at different eccentricities either alone (unimodal) or combined with the auditory stimulus (multisensory). Subsequent deactivation of the AES, with focal injections of a local anesthetic, had no effect on responses to unimodal cues regardless of their location. However, it profoundly, though reversibly, altered orientation and approach to multisensory stimuli in contralateral space. The characteristic enhancement of these responses observed when an auditory cue was presented in spatial correspondence with the visual stimulus was significantly degraded. Similarly, the inhibitory effect of a spatially disparate auditory cue was significantly ameliorated. The observed effects were specific to AES deactivation, as similar effects were not obtained with deactivation of PLLS, AI or 17/18, or saline injections into the AES. These observations are consistent with postulates that specific cortical-midbrain interactions are essential for the synthesis of multisensory information in the SC, and for the orientation and localization behaviors that depend on this synthesis. PMID:8951401

Wilkinson, L K; Meredith, M A; Stein, B E

1996-11-01

148

An Object-Oriented Modeling Approach for Collaboration Management in Virtual Enterprises  

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Full Text Available For the rapid progress of Internet technologies in recent years, Electronic Commerce (EC has gained attention as a major theme for enterprises to keep their competitiveness. From the perspective of effective resources utilization, it becomes now an important group for an enterprise to promote its performance and competitiveness through integrating itself and relevant suppliers and consumer as a virtual goal to achieve the so-called Business-to- Business EC. In this paper, we propose an object-oriented modeling approach that addresses the management of collaboration on the Internet between enterprises. The approach divides those required mechanisms for collaboration management into three layers: commitment, role, and activity ones. With this architecture, two enterprises may collaborate via the establishment and maintenance of commitment, the collaboration and coordination between roles and the interaction and coordination between activities. For specification, an object-oriented model is presented for each layer that describes the working details of that layer. To illustrate, these models are applied in a simplified supply chain management among various enterprises.

Jyhjong Lin

2002-01-01

149

Functional outcomes of preauricular underparotid retrograde approach for mandibular condyle fractures.  

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Management of condyle fractures includes a wide spectrum of alternatives including analgesia alone, physiotherapy, intermaxillary fixation, and open reduction and internal fixation. Various approaches have been previously mentioned for the access to the mandibular condyle. The aim of this retrospective clinical study was to evaluate our clinical results on preauricular underparotid retrograde approach for condylar fractures. This retrospective study included 20 condylar fractures in 16 patients who were treated surgically using a preauricular transparotid retrograde approach between 2010 and 2013. Functional outcomes with this method were addressed in light of the results obtained in this clinical series. We suggest this method in the management of condylar fractures. PMID:24717314

Pilanci, Özgur; Basaran, Karaca; Ceran, Fatih; Kuvat, Samet Vasfi

2014-05-01

150

Can Rational Prescribing Be Improved by an Outcome-Based Educational Approach? A Randomized Trial Completed in Iran  

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Introduction: An outcome-based education approach has been proposed to develop more effective continuing medical education (CME) programs. We have used this approach in developing an outcome-based educational intervention for general physicians working in primary care (GPs) and evaluated its effectiveness compared with a concurrent CME program in…

Esmaily, Hamideh M.; Silver, Ivan; Shiva, Shadi; Gargani, Alireza; Maleki-Dizaji, Nasrin; Al-Maniri, Abdullah; Wahlstrom, Rolf

2010-01-01

151

Closing the Black-White gap in birth outcomes: a life-course approach.  

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In the United States, Black infants have significantly worse birth outcomes than White infants. Over the past decades, public health efforts to address these disparities have focused primarily on increasing access to prenatal care, however, this has not led to closing the gap in birth outcomes. We propose a 12-point plan to reduce Black-White disparities in birth outcomes using a life-course approach. The first four points (increase access to interconception care, preconception care, quality prenatal care, and healthcare throughout the life course) address the needs of African American women for quality healthcare across the lifespan. The next four points (strengthen father involvement, systems integration, reproductive social capital, and community building) go beyond individual-level interventions to address enhancing family and community systems that may influence the health of pregnant women, families, and communities. The last four points (close the education gap, reduce poverty, support working mothers, and undo racism) move beyond the biomedical model to address the social and economic inequities that underlie much of health disparities. Closing the Black-White gap in birth outcomes requires a life course approach which addresses both early life disadvantages and cumulative allostatic load over the life course. PMID:20629248

Lu, Michael C; Kotelchuck, Milton; Hogan, Vijaya; Jones, Loretta; Wright, Kynna; Halfon, Neal

2010-01-01

152

Market-oriented new product development: How can a means-end chain approach affect the process?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Purpose - Aims to ascertain whether a well-known theory within consumer research - a means-end chain (MEC) - can be used as a catalyst to achieve market oriented product development. Design/methodology/approach - Describes a case study, involving a Danish food manufacturer, where a MEC approach was introduced to a cross-functional development team at two different stages of the development process. Findings - Results show that MEC data is perceived as a good way of gaining knowledge about consumers; that the information serves well as the basis of discussions and for keeping project goals fixed. The resukts also indicate that MEC data are most valuable to the team in the early stages of the development process and that lack of a learning orientation may inhibit the effects of a MEC approach. Originality/value - The MEC approach shows clear advantages for market oriented product development.

SØndergaard, Helle Alsted

2005-01-01

153

Decomposed Approach of Market Orientation and Marketing Mix Capability: Research on Their Relationships with Firm Performance in the Korean Context  

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Full Text Available The notion that market orientation provides firms a source of competitive advantage seems to be widely accepted since the effects of market orientation on business performance have been extensively researched and many studies have confirmed their affirmative relationships. However, aggregated approach of market orientation as one single construct has left the detailed investigations yet unexplored despite its tremendous contribution in marketing strategy arena. Thus, decomposed properties of market orientation and their relationships with various components of firm success were explored to precisely examine the paths in this study. Furthermore, to resolve conflicting arguments on whether market orientation has a direct influence on firm level consequences, marketing mix capability was suggested as a critical mediator to complete a resource deployment system rather than a resource possession approach, which is equivalent to resource-based view. From an analysis of a survey data of 285 Korean organizations, three dimensions of market orientation, namely customer orientation, competitor orientation, and interfunctional coordination, and four sub-constructs of marketing mix capability, such as product, communication, channel and pricing capability, along with their impacts on business performance were investigated in detail. This study revealed that customer orientation and interfunctional coordination had a direct impact on only customer satisfaction while all three dimensions of market orientation failed to directly link to other firm performance variables like market effectiveness, adaptability, and profitability. To bridge these relationships product and communication capabilities were proven to be a necessary condition while channel capability and pricing capability showed interesting relationships. Findings and implications were discussed and limitations and further research directions were also suggested.

Sohyoun Shin

2011-12-01

154

Analytical Learning Based on a Meta-programming Approach for the Detection of Object-oriented Design Defects  

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Full Text Available This study proposed a new defect-detection approach using a declarative meta-programming technique to analytical learning for object-oriented software. The extrapolating patterns are generated using analytical learning in which certain design defect characteristics can be understood through deductive learning. This study uses declarative meta-programming to represent the specific object-oriented components as logic rules with which design defects can finally be described. Using the two complementary techniques, the object-oriented software is transformed into the narrow related problem domain, in which design defect problems can be managed and simplified. The approach is validated by detecting design defects in certain open-source systems. The results obtained exhibit a superior precision to the conventional method. In application, the proposed strategy can be recognised as a flexible and automated system for detecting software design defects which many object-oriented software systems are able to use.

Preecha P. Yupapin

2012-01-01

155

Development of novel control strategies for single-stage autotrophic nitrogen removal: A process oriented approach  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The autotrophic nitrogen removing granular sludge process is a novel and intensified process. However, its stable operation and control remain a challenging issue. In this contribution, a process oriented approach was used to develop, evaluate and benchmark novel control strategies to ensure stable operation and rejection of disturbances. Three novel control strategies were developed, evaluated, and benchmarked against each other: a feedforward control (control structure 1 – CS#1), a rule-based feedback control (CS#2), and a feedforward–feedback controller, in which the feedback loop updates the set point of the feedforward loop (CS#3). The CS#1 gave the best performance against disturbances in the ammonium concentration, whereas the CS#2 provided the best performance against disturbances in the organic carbon concentration and dynamic influent conditions. The CS#3 rejected both disturbances satisfactorily. Thus, the appropriate design will depend on the specific disturbances in the influent generated in the upstream units of the wastewater treatment plant.

Vangsgaard, Anna Katrine; Mauricio Iglesias, Miguel

2014-01-01

156

Applying Business Process Oriented Learning in Industry: The PROLIX Solution Approach Based on a Case Study  

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Full Text Available With human capital being critical to corporate success, aligning individual training with business priorities, emerges as a key challenge. Business process oriented learning unites corporate training and business process management. This entails integrating learning into daily working tasks and putting in place mechanisms for the effective management of business processes, organisational roles, competencies and learning processes, to reduce the time to fill competency gaps and to build proficiency according to evolving business needs. In this paper we outline the main characteristics of the PROLIX approach for business-driven training and provide a practical example of how this concept can help a typical vehicle manufacturer effectively resolve competency related business problems stemming from changes in supply chain management.

Dimitra Pappa

2009-01-01

157

Software engineering techniques applied to agricultural systems an object-oriented and UML approach  

CERN Document Server

Software Engineering Techniques Applied to Agricultural Systems presents cutting-edge software engineering techniques for designing and implementing better agricultural software systems based on the object-oriented paradigm and the Unified Modeling Language (UML). The focus is on the presentation of  rigorous step-by-step approaches for modeling flexible agricultural and environmental systems, starting with a conceptual diagram representing elements of the system and their relationships. Furthermore, diagrams such as sequential and collaboration diagrams are used to explain the dynamic and static aspects of the software system.    This second edition includes: a new chapter on Object Constraint Language (OCL), a new section dedicated to the Model-VIEW-Controller (MVC) design pattern, new chapters presenting details of two MDA-based tools – the Virtual Enterprise and Olivia Nova, and a new chapter with exercises on conceptual modeling.  It may be highly useful to undergraduate and graduate students as t...

Papajorgji, Petraq J

2014-01-01

158

Object-oriented integrated approach for the design of scalable ECG systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper presents the implementation of Object-Oriented (OO) integrated approaches to the design of scalable Electro-Cardio-Graph (ECG) Systems. The purpose of this methodology is to preserve real-world structure and relations with the aim to minimize the information loss during the process of modeling, especially for Real-Time (RT) systems. We report on a case study of the design that uses the integration of OO and RT methods and the Unified Modeling Language (UML) standard notation. OO methods identify objects in the real-world domain and use them as fundamental building blocks for the software system. The gained experience based on the strongly defined semantics of the object model is discussed and related problems are analyzed. PMID:19745387

Boskovic, Dusanka; Besic, Ingmar; Avdagic, Zikrija

2009-01-01

159

A Genetic Programming Approach to Geometrical Digital Content Modeling in Web Oriented Applications  

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Full Text Available The paper presents the advantages of using genetic techniques in web oriented problems. The specific area of genetic programming applications that paper approaches is content modeling. The analyzed digital content is formed through the accumulation of targeted geometrical structured entities that have specific characteristics and behavior. The accumulated digital content is analyzed and specific features are extracted in order to develop an analysis system through the use of genetic programming. An experiment is presented which evolves a model based on specific features of each geometrical structured entity in the digital content base. The results show promising expectations with a low error rate which provides fair approximations related to analyzed geometrical structured entities.

Dragos PALAGHITA

2011-01-01

160

The role of systematic innovation management in cluster formations based on ecologically oriented approach  

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Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to study the role of the system of innovation management in cluster formations on the basis of ecologically oriented creative approach for sustainable development. The results of the analysis. The paper studies the problem of system management in the formation of cluster structures as ?copolis in the transition to environmentally sustainable development, addressed organizational and economic background applications eco-creative approach to the establishment and operation of ?copolis as self- reproduction socio-ecological-economic system. Perspective directions of solving the problems systems management in the context of sustainable development, in our view, next: the reproductive mechanism of the economic transformations directed on «green» development areas; dematerialization activation processes at various levels of management; ecologically oriented economic development (dynamic transformation of the economy, taking into account the principles of sustainable development based on innovation; clustering scientific production and educational specialization (ecopolis. Question the beneficial use of environmental conditions and initiatives arise when a key prerequisite for the formation of ecopolis. Conclusions and directions of further researches. It is shown that one of the best ways to achieve these goals, mechanisms that implement ecologically effective management at the regional level, is to create in the country such as forms of ecopolis. These studies need to continue to develop a system of tools and mechanisms to ensure the implementation of the concept of innovation management system such as cluster formations ecopolis in the context of sustainable development. Also it is required the development the organizational and economic development of system management tools cluster units.

L.H. Melnyk

2014-09-01

 
 
 
 
161

Change Prediction in Object-Oriented Software Systems: A Probabilistic Approach  

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Full Text Available An estimation of change-proneness of parts of a software system is an active topic in the area of software engineering. Such estimates can be used to predict changes to different classes of a system from one release to the next. They can also be used to estimate and possibly reduce the effort required during the development and maintenance phase by balancing the amount of developers’ time assigned to each part of a software system. This research work proposes a novel approach to predict changes in an object-oriented software system. The rationale behind this approach is that in a well-designed software system, feature enhancement or corrective maintenance should affect a limited amount of existing code. Our goal is to quantify this aspect of quality by assessing the probability that each class will change in a future generation. Our proposed probabilistic approach uses the dependencies obtained from the UML diagrams, as well as other code metrics extracted from source code of several releases of a software system using reverse engineering techniques. These measures, combined with the change log of the software system and the expected time of next release, are used in an automated manner to predict whether a class will change in the next release of the software system. The proposed systematic approach has been evaluated on a multiversion medium sized open source project namely JFlex, the Fast Scanner Generator for Java. The obtained results indicate the simplicity and accuracy of our approach in the comparison with existing methods referred in the literature.

Ali R. Sharafat

2008-05-01

162

Clinical outcomes of minimally invasive endoscopic and conventional sternotomy approaches for atrial septal defect repair  

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Background Concerns remain that minimally invasive atrial septal defect (ASD) repair may compromise patient outcomes. We compared clinical outcomes of adult patients undergoing ASD repair via a minimally invasive endoscopic approach versus a “gold standard” sternotomy. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the clinical outcomes of consecutive patients who underwent ASD patch repair at our institution between 2002 and 2012. We compared in-hospital/30-day mortality, postoperative complications, length of stay in hospital and in the intensive care unit and blood product requirements between patients who underwent right mini-thoracotomy (MT) and those who underwent conventional sternotomy. Results During the study period, 73 consecutive patients underwent ASD patch repair at our institution: 51 (age 47 ± 16 yr, 66.7% women) in the MT group and 22 (age 46 ± 21 yr, 59.1% women) in the sternotomy group. In-hospital mortality was similar between the 2 groups (MT 0% v. sternotomy 4.5%, p = 0.30). There were no significant differences in any postoperative complications or blood product requirements. No patients in the MT group suffered stroke, retrograde aortic dissection or leg ischemia. Mean intensive care unit (MT 1.2 ± 1.2 d v. sternotomy 1.7 ± 2.2 d, p = 0.26) and hospital length of stays (MT 5.1 ± 2.2 d v. sternotomy 6.3 ± 3.6 d, p = 0.17) were similar between the groups; however, there was a trend toward fewer patients requiring prolonged hospital stays (> 10 d) in the MT group (3.9% v. 18.2%, p = 0.06). Conclusion Repair of ostium secundum and sinus venosus ASD can be performed safely via MT endoscopic approach with similar outcomes as sternotomy. Patient preference for a more cosmetically appealing incision may be considered without concern of compromised outcomes. PMID:24869620

Chu, Michael W.A.; Losenno, Katie L.; Fox, Stephanie A.; Adams, Corey; Al-Habib, Hamad; Guo, Ray; Menkis, Alan H.; Kiaii, Bob

2014-01-01

163

Impact of Different Treatment Approaches on Pregnancy Outcomes in 99 Women Treated for Hodgkin Lymphoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the pregnancy outcomes in women with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) diagnosis, treated between 1972 and 1999 at Department of Radiotherapy and Hematology of University “Sapienza” of Roma. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively studied 99 female patients that conceived after treatment for HL. Fifty-nine (59%) were treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy, 32 (32%) with radiotherapy alone as supradiaphragmatic or as infradiaphragmatic and 8 (8%) patients with chemotherapy alone. Results: Ninety-nine patients reported 145 pregnancies. We observed 132 deliveries (2 of them twin births) after a median of 55 months (range, 14–278 months) from the end of therapy. Twelve women (12%) experienced 13 miscarriages after a median of 50 months (range, 13–120) from the end of therapy. We recorded 9/132 (7%) premature births and 3/134 babies (2%) were underweight at the time of birth. We recorded 2 cases of congenital malformations. No statistical differences were recorded when adverse pregnancy outcomes were analyzed with respect to chemotherapy alone, radiotherapy alone, or combined therapy. Conclusions: No significant associations between pregnancy outcomes and therapeutic approaches were found. In particular, the infradiaphragmatic radiotherapy showed no statistical association with miscarriages, premature birth, and low birth weight at term when compared with other therapeutic approaches.

164

Impact of Different Treatment Approaches on Pregnancy Outcomes in 99 Women Treated for Hodgkin Lymphoma  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the pregnancy outcomes in women with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) diagnosis, treated between 1972 and 1999 at Department of Radiotherapy and Hematology of University 'Sapienza' of Roma. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively studied 99 female patients that conceived after treatment for HL. Fifty-nine (59%) were treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy, 32 (32%) with radiotherapy alone as supradiaphragmatic or as infradiaphragmatic and 8 (8%) patients with chemotherapy alone. Results: Ninety-nine patients reported 145 pregnancies. We observed 132 deliveries (2 of them twin births) after a median of 55 months (range, 14-278 months) from the end of therapy. Twelve women (12%) experienced 13 miscarriages after a median of 50 months (range, 13-120) from the end of therapy. We recorded 9/132 (7%) premature births and 3/134 babies (2%) were underweight at the time of birth. We recorded 2 cases of congenital malformations. No statistical differences were recorded when adverse pregnancy outcomes were analyzed with respect to chemotherapy alone, radiotherapy alone, or combined therapy. Conclusions: No significant associations between pregnancy outcomes and therapeutic approaches were found. In particular, the infradiaphragmatic radiotherapy showed no statistical association with miscarriages, premature birth, and low birth weight at term when compared with other therapeutic approaches.

De Sanctis, Vitaliana, E-mail: vitaliana.desanctis@uniroma1.it [Department of Radiotherapy, University ' Sapienza' , Rome (Italy); Filippone, Francesco Romeo [Department of Radiotherapy, University ' Sapienza' , Rome (Italy); Alfo, Marco [Statistics, Probability and Applied Statistics, University ' Sapienza' , Rome (Italy); Muni, Roberta [Department of Radiotherapy, University ' Sapienza' , Rome (Italy); Cavalieri, Elena; Pulsoni, Alessandro; Annechini, Giorgia [Department of Hematology, University ' Sapienza' , Rome (Italy); Valeriani, Maurizio; Osti, Mattia Falchetto; Minniti, Giuseppe; Enrici, Riccardo Maurizi [Department of Radiotherapy, University ' Sapienza' , Rome (Italy)

2012-11-01

165

The Impact of Sexual Orientation on Women's Midlife Experience: A Transition Model Approach  

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Sexual orientation is an integral part of identity affecting every stage of an individual's development. This literature review examines women's cultural experiences based on sexual orientation and their effect on midlife experience. A developmental model is offered that incorporates sexual orientation as a contextual factor in this developmental…

Boyer, Carol Anderson

2007-01-01

166

A comprehensive approach to electro-orientation, electrodeformation, dielectrophoresis, and electrorotation of ellipsoidal particles and biological cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Suspended cells may respond to AC polarization by orienting, deforming, moving or rotating. For modeling of ellipsoidal cells, a new dipole approach is proposed. Along each of the principal axis of the model, three finite elements of arbitrary but equal cross-sectional area for the interior, low conductive membrane shell and exterior are assumed. The length of the external medium elements is defined by influential radii which are related to the depolarizing factors. The model predicts the potential at the ellipsoid's surface leading to the induced dipole moment. The moment obtained is identical to the Laplace approach for homogeneous ellipsoids; in the single-shell case, it is slightly different. The reason is the constant shell thickness which overcomes the confocal thickness necessary for the Laplace solution. Expressions for electro-orientation, deformation, dielectrophoresis, and electrorotation are derived. In linearly and circularly polarized fields, different orientation spectra are predicted to occur. While in linearly polarized AC fields, particles are oriented along their axis of highest polarizability, in circularly polarized fields, the axis of lowest polarizability is oriented perpendicular to the plane of field rotation. Based on this finding, a new electro-orientation method is proposed. In dielectrophoresis and electrorotation, reorientations are predicted which lead to discontinuous spectra. PMID:11506971

Gimsa, J

2001-08-01

167

Estimation of risk ratios in cohort studies with common outcomes: a Bayesian approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

In cohort studies with common outcomes, the odds ratio estimated from a logistic regression analysis is often interpreted as an indirect estimate of the risk ratio. In such settings, the odds ratio will be farther from the null than the risk ratio. Direct and unbiased estimates of the risk ratio may be obtained from a log binomial model fit by maximum likelihood. When the maximum likelihood log binomial model fails to converge (as is common) or provides predicted probability estimates or upper confidence limits greater than 1.0, various approaches have been suggested, but each has drawbacks, as we describe. We propose a novel Bayesian approach for the estimation of the risk ratio from the log binomial model that addresses drawbacks of existing approaches. Posterior computation can be accomplished easily using the WinBUGs code provided. PMID:20844438

Chu, Haitao; Cole, Stephen R

2010-11-01

168

A bootstrap approach for assessing the uncertainty of outcome probabilities when using a scoring system  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Scoring systems are a very attractive family of clinical predictive models, because the patient score can be calculated without using any data processing system. Their weakness lies in the difficulty of associating a reliable prognostic probability with each score. In this study a bootstrap approach for estimating confidence intervals of outcome probabilities is described and applied to design and optimize the performance of a scoring system for morbidity in intensive care units after heart surgery. Methods The bias-corrected and accelerated bootstrap method was used to estimate the 95% confidence intervals of outcome probabilities associated with a scoring system. These confidence intervals were calculated for each score and each step of the scoring-system design by means of one thousand bootstrapped samples. 1090 consecutive adult patients who underwent coronary artery bypass graft were assigned at random to two groups of equal size, so as to define random training and testing sets with equal percentage morbidities. A collection of 78 preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative variables were considered as likely morbidity predictors. Results Several competing scoring systems were compared on the basis of discrimination, generalization and uncertainty associated with the prognostic probabilities. The results showed that confidence intervals corresponding to different scores often overlapped, making it convenient to unite and thus reduce the score classes. After uniting two adjacent classes, a model with six score groups not only gave a satisfactory trade-off between discrimination and generalization, but also enabled patients to be allocated to classes, most of which were characterized by well separated confidence intervals of prognostic probabilities. Conclusions Scoring systems are often designed solely on the basis of discrimination and generalization characteristics, to the detriment of prediction of a trustworthy outcome probability. The present example demonstrates that using a bootstrap method for the estimation of outcome-probability confidence intervals provides useful additional information about score-class statistics, guiding physicians towards the most convenient model for predicting morbidity outcomes in their clinical context.

Cevenini Gabriele

2010-08-01

169

Object-oriented change detection approach for high-resolution remote sensing images based on multiscale fusion  

Science.gov (United States)

Aiming at the difficulties in change detection caused by the complexity of high-resolution remote sensing images that exist in varied ecological environments and artificial objects, in order to overcome the limitations in traditional pixel-oriented change detection methods and improve the detection precision, an innovative object-oriented change detection approach based on multiscale fusion is proposed. This approach introduced the classical color texture segmentation algorithm J-segmentation (JSEG) to change detection and achieved the multiscale feature extraction and comparison of objects based on the sequence of J-images produced in JSEG. By comprehensively using the geometry, spectrum, and texture features of objects, and proposing two different multiscale fusing strategies, respectively, based on Dempster/Shafer evidence theory and weighted data fusion, the algorithm further improves the divisibility between changed and unchanged areas, thereby establishing an integrated framework of object-oriented change detection based on multiscale fusion. Experiments were performed on high-resolution airborne and SPOT 5 remote sensing images. Compared with different object-oriented and pixel-oriented detection methods, results of the experiments verified the validity and reliability of the proposed approach.

Wang, Chao; Xu, Mengxi; Wang, Xin; Zheng, Shengnan; Ma, Zhenli

2013-01-01

170

An Approach to Assess Relative Degradation in Dissimilar Forests: Toward a Comparative Assessment of Institutional Outcomes  

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Full Text Available A significant challenge in the assessment of forest management outcomes is the limited ability to compare forest conditions quantitatively across ecological zones. We propose an approach for comparing different forest types through the use of reference forests. We tested our idea by drawing a sample of 42 forests from the Midwest USA, Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Brazil, Bolivia, Uganda, and Nepal. We grouped these forests by shared characteristics and selected a reference forest to serve as a baseline for each forest type. We developed an index of disturbances using ratios of several forest measurements to assess differences between each study forest and its reference forest. None of the study forests was known to have been impacted by major natural disturbances during the past 50 years. Therefore, the disturbances in these forests appear to be largely related to human activities. The forests most similar to their reference forests have had limited human interventions. Our results indicate the potential of this approach to compare different forest conditions across biomes. We argue that development of this approach could facilitate analyses of forest management institutions, promote reliable indicators to compare management outcomes, and contribute to improved policies for conservation.

Krister P. Andersson

2008-06-01

171

Calculation of deformation rate of interstitial solid solutions under irradiation with usage of the object-oriented approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The creep rate is determined by streams of self point defects and mobile complexes impurity - free point defect on the dislocation. These streams are by the numerical method, if the stationary distributions of point defects in a neighbourhood of sinks are known. For solution of this composite system of the nonlinear differential equations the object-oriented approach utilized, which one represents series iterative process consisting of four stages: the analysis, designing, evolution and modification. On the basis of the object-oriented approach, the program application DefRate.exe for research of radiation creep rate is created. The application works in an operating system Windows. As all parameters are set interactive, the designed program can be easily utilized for research of the broad set of materials. The introduced object-oriented method is applicable for research of the broad set of processes controlled by the diffusion, such as the swelling and radiation creep of construction materials, the hydrogen permeability etc

172

Mini-midvastus versus mini-medial parapatellar approach for minimally invasive total knee arthroplasty: outcomes pendulum is at equilibrium.  

Science.gov (United States)

Comparisons between mini-midvastus (mMV) and mini-medial parapatellar approach (mMPP) for total knee arthroplasty (TKA) have reported variable results. We compared two approaches with minimum two year follow up. Forty consecutive patients who underwent staged bilateral TKA were prospectively randomized for mMPP approach in one knee and mMV approach in the other. Clinical parameters (muscle strength, pain, ROM, Knee Society Score) and surgic.l parameters (duration of surgery, blood loss, lateral releases) were assessed at 2, 6, 12 weeks and 6, 12, 24 months postoperatively. Clinical outcomes revealed inconsistent pattern of differences at various intervals. Surgical outcomes were not different. There were no major differences in outcomes between the two approaches. We recommend someone use surgical approach with which they are most familiar. PMID:23790343

Heekin, R David; Fokin, Alexander A

2014-02-01

173

Am Beispiel "Anatomie": A Proficiency-Oriented Approach to Film for First- and Second-Year German  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents a proficiency-oriented approach to teaching feature films in the first- and second-year classroom. It argues that film is currently under utilized at the Basic and Independent User levels, particularly as a means to create context in the classroom. Strategies are presented to tap the potential of film for communicative…

Rogers, Jeff

2007-01-01

174

Producing a landslide inventory map using pixel-based and object-oriented approaches optimized by Taguchi method  

Science.gov (United States)

Landslides are considered one of the most important natural hazards. Mapping landslides and producing landslide inventory maps have received special attention from a wide range of specialists. The main objective of this study was to produce landslide inventory maps using advanced pixel-based (ANN and SVM) and object-oriented approaches. The most important challenge in this case is to determine the optimum structure of classification methods. The Taguchi method was to perform optimization of the structure of ANN and SVM and segmentation process in the object-oriented classification method. Results showed that the Taguchi method can be effectively used to cope with this problem. It significantly reduces the number of classification tests. We also showed that there were no significant differences existed between ANN and SVM approaches (?2 value of 3.33). However, we demonstrated that object-oriented approaches significantly outperformed the pixel-based classification methods (Z value of 5.70) in producing a landslide inventory map. The accurate map produced using an object-oriented approach (overall accuracy of 0.90) effectively determines the shape of landslides and also efficiently shows the intensifying effects of land use changes in the occurrence of landslides.

Moosavi, Vahid; Talebi, Ali; Shirmohammadi, Bagher

2014-01-01

175

The Strength of the Relation between Performance-Approach and Performance-Avoidance Goal Orientations: Theoretical, Methodological, and Instructional Implications  

Science.gov (United States)

In current research on achievement goal theory, most researchers differentiate between performance-approach and performance-avoidance goal orientations. Evidence from prior research and from several previously published data sets is used to highlight that the correlation is often rather large, with a number of studies reporting correlations above…

Linnenbrink-Garcia, Lisa; Middleton, Michael J.; Ciani, Keith D.; Easter, Matthew A.; O'Keefe, Paul A.; Zusho, Akane

2012-01-01

176

USE OF ENVIRONMENTAL APPROACH TO INNOVATION-ORIENTED DEVELOPMENT OF INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISES  

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Full Text Available To investigate, identify and specify environmental factors influencing sustainable and competitive development of industrial enterprises which are the driver of growth of national economies. External and internal environmental factors are considered in the context of innovation potentialities of companies-and innovations are the key factors which provide sustainable development of business structures. World practice of sustainable development in regard to industrial enterprises and modern theoretical and empirical concepts are investigated which tie-up sustainable development of industrial enterprises to their innovation activity. The result of this study is limited practice-oriented concept of complex character which allows to conclude that the level of innovation activity of an industrial enterprise directly depends on the level of its functioning and development. Practical use of the concept of interrelation of the level of development of industrial enterprises with due regard to above-mentioned restrictions is perspective in terms of formation of new tools considered as optimal limited alternative to current managerial approaches which mainly are response to external environmental changes, while modern business conditions demand pro-activity.

Sergej Petrovich Baranenko

2014-01-01

177

[Logical structure of the problem oriented clinical record. A combined Popper-Bayes approach].  

Science.gov (United States)

The problem-oriented medical record is a tool whose correct compilation meets the requirements of the law as well as the need for continuing medical education within the logic of clinical decision making. The reading of the contents of a record allows people to evaluate the correspondence between the "thinking" and the "doing" of a doctor, as well the objectivity of the facts--that is, the truth related to the reasons for a patient's admission to hospital and the nature of his or her illness. To this aim, the authors suggest a structural logical iter in concordance with the lines of hypothetical-deductive epistemology, in contrast to inductive epistemology, as tradition has always suggested. The latter, in fact, proposes to start from singular observations and proceeding, by successive steps, towards a diagnosis. It thus neglects to take error into consideration, and therefore the differential diagnostic process, and ignores the fact that one cannot pass from single descriptions to universal (diagnostic) laws on the basis of logic. The process of falsification therefore plays a central role in the diagnostic procedure and thus in the construction of the medical record. This falsification process is centered, according to the most recent epistemology, on the logical schemes of Popper-Hempel and Bayes. The authors propose an integrated combination of both schemes to enable a correct approach to diagnostic hypothesis and to differential diagnosis, with their relevant legal, didactic and administrative repercussions. PMID:11975111

Malavasi, Antonello; Realdi, Giuseppe

2002-01-01

178

Targeting Oncogenic Protein-Protein Interactions by Diversity Oriented Synthesis and Combinatorial Chemistry Approaches  

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Full Text Available We are currently witnessing a decline in the development of efficient new anticancer drugs, despite the salient efforts made on all fronts of cancer drug discovery. This trend presumably relates to the substantial heterogeneity and the inherent biological complexity of cancer, which hinder drug development success. Protein-protein interactions (PPIs are key players in numerous cellular processes and aberrant interruption of this complex network provides a basis for various disease states, including cancer. Thus, it is now believed that cancer drug discovery, in addition to the design of single-targeted bioactive compounds, should also incorporate diversity-oriented synthesis (DOS and other combinatorial strategies in order to exploit the ability of multi-functional scaffolds to modulate multiple protein-protein interactions (biological hubs. Throughout the review, we highlight the chemistry driven approaches to access diversity space for the discovery of small molecules that disrupt oncogenic PPIs, namely the p53-Mdm2, Bcl-2/Bcl-xL-BH3, Myc-Max, and p53-Mdmx/Mdm2 interactions.

Andreas G. Tzakos

2011-05-01

179

Recovering Use Case Diagrams from Object Oriented Code: an MDA-based Approach  

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Full Text Available Modernization of legacy systems requires the existence of technicalframeworks for information integration and tool interoperability that allow managing new platform technologies, design techniques and processes. MDA (Model Driven Architecture, adopted by the OMG (Object Management Group, is aligned with this requirement. Reverse engineering techniques play a crucial role in system modernization. In light of these issues, this article describes a framework to reverse engineering MDA models from object oriented code. This framework distinguishes three different abstraction levelslinked to models, metamodels and formal specifications. At model level,transformations are based on static and dynamic analysis. At metamodel level, transformations are specified as OCL (Object Constraint Languagecontracts between MOF (Meta Object Facility metamodels which control the consistency of these transformations. The level of formal specification includes algebraic specifications of MOF metamodels and metamodel-based transformations. This article shows how to reverse engineering use case diagrams from Java code in the MDA context focusing on transformations at model and metamodel levels. We validate our approach by using Eclipse Modeling Framework, Ecore metamodels and ATL (Atlas Transformation Language.

Claudia T. Pereira

2012-07-01

180

System Level Power Management for Embedded Rtos: An Object Oriented Approach  

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Full Text Available Power management systems for embedded devices can be developed in real-time operating system (RTOS or in applications. If power management policies are applied in operating system (OS, then designers and developers will not have to worry about complex power management algorithms and techniques. They can rather concentrate on application development. The OS contains specific and accurate information about the various tasks being executed. An RTOS further has a comprehensive set of power management application programming interfaces (APIs for both device drivers and applications within a power management component. Therefore, it is logical to place policies and algorithms in the OS that can place components not being used into lower power states. This can significantly reduce the system energy consumption. We present here an abstract model of a system power manager (PM, device power managers, and application power managers. We present relationship and interactions of these managers with each other using Unified Modeling Language (UML class diagrams, sequence diagrams and state charts. We recommend that the PM must be implemented at the OS level in any embedded device. We also recommend the interfaces for interactions between PM and the devices power manager, as well as PM and application power manager. Device driver and application developers can easily use this object oriented approach to make the embedded system more power efficient, easy to maintain, and faster to develop.

Ankur Agarwal

2009-11-01

 
 
 
 
181

EFFECTIVENESS OF A PARTICIPATORY ACTION ORIENTED TRAINING INTERVENTION APPROACH AMONG HARVESTERS IN OIL PALM PLANTATION  

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Full Text Available Consistent with the global demand for palm oil, the intensified upstream harvesting activities of oil palms? fresh fruit bunches, despite the harvesters evidences of various ergonomics risk factors leading to musculoskeletal disorders should be a cause for concern. Thus, this study describes the effectiveness of a modified and locally adapted Participatory Action-Oriented Training intervention program in improving the working environment of the harvesters. A training program modified and customized to the harvesters? working in oil palm plantation consist of 3 primary instrument (awareness video, interactive lecture and action checklist with 3 reinforcing activities (to increase knowledge, enhance understanding and practical application. Based on the result of post-intervention assessment, the self-reported prevalence of MSD and KAP score among Intervention Group (IG did not significantly differ from Control Group (CG. Instead of decreasing, the prevalence of MSD in the past 12 months and 7 days increased within IG. Qualitative findings in this research show that the negative psychosocial and organizational climate has severely affected the implementation of PAOT rendering the effect of the intervention approach. The interventions were ineffective on the IG as this study suffers from various situational barriers as obstacles to benefit the full extent of PAOT advantages.

Ng Yee Guan

2014-01-01

182

A Multiple Model Approach to Track Head Orientation With Delta Quaternions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Virtual reality and augmented reality environments using helmet-mounted displays create a sense of immersion by closely coupling user head motion to display content. Delays in the presentation of visual information can destroy the sense of presence in the simulation environment when it causes a lag in the display response to user head motion. The effect of display lag can be minimized by predicting head orientation, allowing the system to have sufficient time to counteract the delay. In this paper, a new head orientation prediction technique is proposed that uses a multiple delta quaternion (DQ) extended Kalman filter to track angular head velocity and angular head acceleration. This method is independent of the device used for orientation measurement, relying on quaternion orientation as the only measurement data. A new orientation prediction algorithm is proposed that estimates future head orientation as a function of the current orientation measurement and a predicted change in orientation, using the velocity and acceleration estimates. Extensive experimentation shows that the new method improves head orientation prediction when compared to single filter DQ prediction. PMID:22692926

Himberg, Henry; Motai, Yuichi; Bradley, Arthur

2012-06-01

183

An Object Oriented Approach to Simulation of TRIGA Mark II Dynamic Response  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper deals with the development of a model for the nuclear research reactor TRIGA Mark II operating at University of Pavia. The purpose of the modeling is to reproduce the dynamic behavior of the reactor on the entire operative power range, i.e. 0-250 kW, using the object oriented approach, implemented by the Modelica language. The main advantage is the a-causal formulation of the model, based on equations instead of statement assignment. Equations do not specify which variables are inputs and which are outputs, thus the causality in the model is unspecified and is fixed only when the corresponding equation system is solved. In this way, equations can be solved according to the data flow context in which the solution is computed. The model describes the entire plant, including the heat removal system. The component representing the reactor core contains a series of sub-components linked together through rigorously defined interfaces: in this way, it is possible to consider the interactions between the different physical aspects of the system. Equations governing natural circulation have been implemented in a component which defines the mass flow rate through the core, according to the temperature difference at the ends of the channels. Secondary and tertiary cooling loops are modeled using a simplified heat exchangers configuration: concentric tube version is adopted, which allows recreating the heat exchange dynamics without a great modeling effort. The developed a-causal model has been validated through the comparison with experimental data collected on the site, concerning three different power transients at 100 kW, 50 kW and 1 kW. A corresponding causal model has been referenced as concerns fuel and coolant temperatures evolution during the transients. The predictions of the two main approaches to dynamic modeling have been compared. A very satisfying accordance is found as discrepancies observed on the coolant temperature are comprised between 0.5% and 1% for the three transients. (author)

Bigoni, A.; Cammi, A.; Ponciroli, R. [Politecnico di Milano, Department of Energy, Nuclear Engineering Division (CeSNEF) Via Ponzio 34/3, 20133 Milano (Italy); Tigliole, A. Borio Di [University of Pavia, Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics and Laboratory of Applied Nuclear Energy (L.E.N.A), Via Bassi 4, 27100 Pavia (Italy)

2011-07-01

184

Aspect-Oriented Development Method for Non-Functional Characteristics of Cyber Physical Systems Based on MDA Approach  

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Full Text Available Cyber physical systems have many non-functional requirements, which always crosscut the whole system modules. That may cause the code tangle and scatter, make the systems hard to design, reuse and maintain, and affect performance of systems badly. AOP is a new software development paradigm, which could attain a higher level of separation of concerns in both functional and non-functional matters by introducing aspect, for the implementation of crosscutting concerns. Different aspects can be designed separately, and woven into systems. In this paper, we propose an aspect-oriented MDA approach for non-functional properties to develop cyber physical systems. An aspect-oriented UML profile is built to develop cyber physical systems. Aspect-oriented UML models are designed as Platform Independent Models (PIM for target-platform implementation, which deal with non-functional properties. OCL formal language is used to restrict the model in every stages of MDA, and the real-time extension of OCL formal language is made to describe the timing constraints of cyber physical systems. Finally, the model- based development and aspect-oriented approach, the formal methods and the cyber physical system are integrated effectively. A case study illustrates the aspect oriented MDA development of cyber physical systems.

Lichen Zhang

2012-03-01

185

Statistical approaches to assessing single and multiple outcome measures in dry eye therapy and diagnosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dry eye is a multifactorial disease which would require a broad spectrum of test measures in the monitoring of its treatment and diagnosis. However, studies have typically reported improvements in individual measures with treatment. Alternative approaches involve multiple, combined outcomes being assessed by different statistical analyses. In order to assess the effect of various statistical approaches to the use of single and combined test measures in dry eye, this review reanalyzed measures from two previous studies (osmolarity, evaporation, tear turnover rate, and lipid film quality). These analyses assessed the measures as single variables within groups, pre- and post-intervention with a lubricant supplement, by creating combinations of these variables and by validating these combinations with the combined sample of data from all groups of dry eye subjects. The effectiveness of single measures and combinations in diagnosis of dry eye was also considered. PMID:24112230

Tomlinson, Alan; Hair, Mario; McFadyen, Angus

2013-10-01

186

A data mining approach in home healthcare: outcomes and service use  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this research is to understand the performance of home healthcare practice in the US. The relationships between home healthcare patient factors and agency characteristics are not well understood. In particular, discharge destination and length of stay have not been studied using a data mining approach which may provide insights not obtained through traditional statistical analyses. Methods The data were obtained from the 2000 National Home and Hospice Care Survey data for three specific conditions (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart failure and hip replacement, representing nearly 580 patients from across the US. The data mining approach used was CART (Classification and Regression Trees. Our aim was twofold: 1 determining the drivers of home healthcare service outcomes (discharge destination and length of stay and 2 examining the applicability of induction through data mining to home healthcare data. Results Patient age (85 and older was a driving force in discharge destination and length of stay for all three conditions. There were also impacts from the type of agency, type of payment, and ethnicity. Conclusion Patients over 85 years of age experience differential outcomes depending on the condition. There are also differential effects related to agency type by condition although length of stay was generally lower for hospital-based agencies. The CART procedure was sufficiently accurate in correctly classifying patients in all three conditions which suggests continuing utility in home health care.

Curet Olivier

2006-02-01

187

Exploring the Synergies between the Object Oriented Paradigm and Mathematics: A Java Led Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

While the object oriented paradigm and its instantiation within programming languages such as Java has become a ubiquitous part of both the commercial and educational landscapes, its usage as a visualization technique within mathematics undergraduate programmes of study has perhaps been somewhat underestimated. By regarding the object oriented

Conrad, Marc; French, Tim

2004-01-01

188

Differences in Career Orientations of Urban Teachers: A Multi-Dimensional Approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses a current research effort that investigated the career orientations of a representative sample of urban secondary and elementary teachers in Utah. The author creates a theoretical background for the study and introduces the Career Orientation Inventory that was used in the data collection process. Implications for the urban educator are…

DeLong, Thomas J.

1984-01-01

189

A New Approach in Consistency of Object Oriented Model and Relational Model in Distributed Systems Base on Heterogeneous Databases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available According to application a database is designed to be object-oriented model or relational model but the important point is distribution and heterogeneity. So a model should be provided which work with different types of database and also be able to work disruption, and heterogeneity So one of the great challenges in the use of distributed database technologies is integrating object-oriented databases with relational databases because the platform-independent technologies have an object-oriented approach But today databases are usualy designed and implemented base on relational model. Hence this paper tries to offer a model that could bring further coordination and integration between these two exsisting database models

Tahereh kheradmandan

2011-02-01

190

Templateless Assembly of Molecularly Aligned Conductive Polymers Nanowires: A New Approach for Oriented Nanostructures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Although oriented carbon nanotubes, oriented nanowires of metals, semiconductors and oxides have attracted wide attention, there have been few reports on oriented polymer nanostructures such as nanowires. In this paper we report the assembly of large arrays of oriented nanowires containing molecularly aligned conducting polymers (polyaniline) without using of a porous membrane template to support the polymer. The uniform oriented nanowires were prepared through controlled nucleation and growth during a stepwise electrochemical deposition process in which a large number of nuclei were first deposited on the substrate using a large current density. After the initial nucleation, the current density was reduced step by step to grow the oriented nanowires from the nucleation sites created in the first step. The usefulness of these new polymer structures is demonstrated with a chemical sensor device for H2O2, the detection of which is widely investigated for glucose sensors. Finally, we point out that controlled nucleation and growth is a universal phenomenon and has potential for growing oriented nanostructures of a wide range of materials.

Liu, Jun (Lucent Bell Laboratories); Lin, Yuehe (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Liang, Liang (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Voigt, J A.(Sandia National Laboratories); Huber, Dale L.(Sandia National Laboratories); Tian, Z (Sandia National Laboratories); Coker, E (Sandia National Laboratories); Mckenzie, B (Sandia National Laboratories); Mcdermott, Michael J.(ROCKWELL HANFORD OPER.)

2003-02-03

191

Integrated Approach for Improving Small Scale Market Oriented Dairy Systems in Pakistan: Economic Impact of Interventions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA launched a Coordinated Research Program in 10 developing countries including Pakistan involving small scale market oriented dairy farmers to identify and prioritize the constraints and opportunities in the selected dairy farms, develop intervention strategies and assess the economic impact of the intervention. The interventions in animal health (control of mastitis at sub-clinical stage and reduction in calf mortality, nutrition (balanced feed reproduction (mineral supplementation, and general management (training of farmers were identified and implemented in a participatory approach at the selected dairy farms. The calf mortality was reduced from 35 to 13 percent up to the age of 3 months. Use of Alfa Deval post milking teat dips reduced the incidence of sub-clinical mastitis from 34 to 5% showing economical benefits of the interventions. Partial budget technique was used to analyze its impact in the registered herds. The farmers recorded monthly quantities of different feed ingredients and seasonal green fodder offered to the animals. From this data set total metabolizeable energy requirements and availability from feed were computed which revealed that animals were deficient in metabolizeable energy in all locations. This was also confirmed by seasonal variation in body condition scoring. At some selected farms the mineral mixture supplement was introduced which exhibited increased milk yield by 5 % in addition to shorten service period by 30 days. Three sessions of training were arranged to train the farmers to care new born calves, daily farm management and detect the animals in heat efficiently to enhance the over all income of the farmers. The overall income of the farm was increased by 40%.

A. Ghaffar

2010-02-01

192

The possibilities of applying a risk-oriented approach to the NPP reliability and safety enhancement problem  

Science.gov (United States)

An analysis and some generalizations of approaches to risk assessments are presented. Interconnection between different interpretations of the "risk" notion is shown, and the possibility of applying the fuzzy set theory to risk assessments is demonstrated. A generalized formulation of the risk assessment notion is proposed in applying risk-oriented approaches to the problem of enhancing reliability and safety in nuclear power engineering. The solution of problems using the developed risk-oriented approaches aimed at achieving more reliable and safe operation of NPPs is described. The results of studies aimed at determining the need (advisability) to modernize/replace NPP elements and systems are presented together with the results obtained from elaborating the methodical principles of introducing the repair concept based on the equipment technical state. The possibility of reducing the scope of tests and altering the NPP systems maintenance strategy is substantiated using the risk-oriented approach. A probabilistic model for estimating the validity of boric acid concentration measurements is developed.

Komarov, Yu. A.

2014-10-01

193

FAO/IAEA consultants' meeting on integrated approach for improving small scale market oriented dairy systems. Report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A Consultants' Meeting was held at IAEA, Vienna from 21-24 August 2000 to discuss the need for, and to develop an FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) to demonstrate increases in the productivity of small scale market oriented dairy systems using an integrated approach to improving nutrition, reproductive management and disease control. The meeting was attended by five consultants with expertise in specific aspects of research and development in dairy production, three external resource persons who were funded from their own institutes, a staff member of FAO's Animal Production Service, a representative of the IAEA's Department of Technical Co-operation and staff members of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division's Subprogramme on Animal Production and Health. The list of participants is given. The specific objectives of the meeting were to: Review the current research thrusts that are relevant to the objectives of the project, recommend areas that should be included and determine the most appropriate modalities for supporting these activities; Define the scientific scope of the project and recommend appropriate technologies and methods that should be applied in field and laboratory studies for obtaining the necessary information; Review the background document which has been prepared and make appropriate improvements and modifications; and Develop work plans, time scales, schedule of Research Co-ordination Meetings (RCMs) and the project framework matrix. The meeting was formally opened by Dr Martyn Jeggo, Head of the Animal Production and Health Section, who outlined the Sub-programme's mandate, medium-term strategy and how the planned CRP fits into this strategy. Dr Oswin Perera, the Scientific Secretary of the meeting, outlined the previous activities of the Sub-programme in animal nutrition and reproduction, discussed the background to the proposed project, and presented the objectives and expected outcomes of the meeting. The consultants and resource persons presented reviews on aspects of relevance to the proposed CRP. Subsequently, discussions were held in plenary sessions and in small groups to develop, modify and/or improve specific aspects of the draft project document. Finally, conclusions and recommendations were drafted, discussed and adopted

194

Revealing the Effects of Entrepreneurial Orientation on Firm Performance: A Conceptual Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study aims to investigate the effects of entrepreneurial orientation on firm performance. Entrepreneurial orientation has emerged as an important construct within the strategic management and entrepreneurship literatures over the past two decades. In recent times, especially with the growth of globalization and other such factors, the performance measurement standards and parameters have changed. This has also led to a significant change in the factors that are now used within the operational sphere of an organization in order to affect the firm performance. Empirical studies on the determinants of firm performance have identified that the entrepreneurial orientation of the firms senior management has a significant positive influence. However, the study suggests that the performance implications of entrepreneurial orientation might vary depending on the firms circumstances.

Kuo-Hsiung Chen

2011-01-01

195

Adolescent Maternal Lifecourse Outcomes: Implications from an Integrated Mental Health Services Approach  

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Full Text Available Family intervention literature on adolescent parenting describes the pathways between outcomes for adolescent mothers and their children and the contexts of the pregnancy itself (e.g., poverty, low or no prenatal care, lower educational attainment. The aim of these descriptions is often to inform intervention designs that promote adaptive functioning for the child, the mother, and the dyad. Mental health services are an important component of many of these interventions; these services may be delivered by a clinician within the organization providing the intervention, or the organization may connect mothers with external mental health services in their communities. Using in-house clinicians rather than external providers may be beneficial by decreasing the high attrition rates common to this population. Although this service delivery approach is theoretically appealing, it has not been subject to rigorous empirical evaluation. In the current randomized study, we examine outcomes for teenage mothers based on two service delivery methods: Integrated Mental Health Services (IMHS and the Standard of Care (SoC which outsources clients’ mental health needs through community referrals. Information about the effectiveness of service delivery strategies can help program providers make decisions about how best to allocate limited funds to provide effective services.

Beth S. Russell

2014-06-01

196

A New Focus on Distance Learning for Physically Impaired Students: A Multi-agent Oriented Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Physically impaired students cannot continue their studies in the existing education system due to some major problems. A multi-agent oriented distance learning system can be a better solution for disabled students to continue their studies. In this paper, a scheme of a multi-agent oriented distance learning system has been proposed. Agents within the system work on the basis of centralized as well as distributed multi-agent planning for inter-agent communication, collaboration and negotiation.

Shiladitya Pujari

2012-08-01

197

A Comprehensive Assessment of Object-Oriented Software Systems Using Metrics Approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Demand for efficient software is increasing day by day and object-oriented design technique became able to fulfill this demand because it is the most powerful mechanism to develop efficient software systems. It can not only help in reducing the cost but also helps in the development of high quality software systems. Software developers need appropriate metrics to develop efficient software system. Object-oriented metrics can play important role in this aspect due to their importance in the de...

Sanjay Kumar Dubey,; Prof. (Dr.) Ajay Rana

2010-01-01

198

Revealing the Effects of Entrepreneurial Orientation on Firm Performance: A Conceptual Approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study aims to investigate the effects of entrepreneurial orientation on firm performance. Entrepreneurial orientation has emerged as an important construct within the strategic management and entrepreneurship literatures over the past two decades. In recent times, especially with the growth of globalization and other such factors, the performance measurement standards and parameters have changed. This has also led to a significant change in the factors that are now used within the operati...

Kuo-Hsiung Chen; Karen Yuan Wang; Kai-Ping Huang; Jui-Mei Yien

2011-01-01

199

A flexible (C)LP-based approach to the analysis of object-oriented programs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Static analyses of object-oriented programs usually rely on intermediate representations that respect the original semantics while having a more uniform and basic syntax. Most of the work involving object-oriented languages and abstract interpretation usually omits the description of that language or just refers to the Control Flow Graph(CFG) it represents. However, this lack of formalization on one hand results in an absence of assurances regarding the correctness of the transformation an...

Me?ndez-lojo, Mario; Navas, J.; Hermenegildo Salinas, Manuel Vicente

2008-01-01

200

Three pedagogical approaches to introductory physics labs and their effects on student learning outcomes  

Science.gov (United States)

This dissertation presents the results of an experiment that measured the learning outcomes associated with three different pedagogical approaches to introductory physics labs. These three pedagogical approaches presented students with the same apparatus and covered the same physics content, but used different lab manuals to guide students through distinct cognitive processes in conducting their laboratory investigations. We administered post-tests containing multiple-choice conceptual questions and free-response quantitative problems one week after students completed these laboratory investigations. In addition, we collected data from the laboratory practical exam taken by students at the end of the semester. Using these data sets, we compared the learning outcomes for the three curricula in three dimensions of ability: conceptual understanding, quantitative problem-solving skill, and laboratory skills. Our three pedagogical approaches are as follows. Guided labs lead students through their investigations via a combination of Socratic-style questioning and direct instruction, while students record their data and answers to written questions in the manual during the experiment. Traditional labs provide detailed written instructions, which students follow to complete the lab objectives. Open labs provide students with a set of apparatus and a question to be answered, and leave students to devise and execute an experiment to answer the question. In general, we find that students performing Guided labs perform better on some conceptual assessment items, and that students performing Open labs perform significantly better on experimental tasks. Combining a classical test theory analysis of post-test results with in-lab classroom observations allows us to identify individual components of the laboratory manuals and investigations that are likely to have influenced the observed differences in learning outcomes associated with the different pedagogical approaches. Due to the novel nature of this research and the large number of item-level results we produced, we recommend additional research to determine the reproducibility of our results. Analyzing the data with item response theory yields additional information about the performance of our students on both conceptual questions and quantitative problems. We find that performing lab activities on a topic does lead to better-than-expected performance on some conceptual questions regardless of pedagogical approach, but that this acquired conceptual understanding is strongly context-dependent. The results also suggest that a single "Newtonian reasoning ability" is inadequate to explain student response patterns to items from the Force Concept Inventory. We develop a framework for applying polytomous item response theory to the analysis of quantitative free-response problems and for analyzing how features of student solutions are influenced by problem-solving ability. Patterns in how students at different abilities approach our post-test problems are revealed, and we find hints as to how features of a free-response problem influence its item parameters. The item-response theory framework we develop provides a foundation for future development of quantitative free-response research instruments. Chapter 1 of the dissertation presents a brief history of physics education research and motivates the present study. Chapter 2 describes our experimental methodology and discusses the treatments applied to students and the instruments used to measure their learning. Chapter 3 provides an introduction to the statistical and analytical methods used in our data analysis. Chapter 4 presents the full data set, analyzed using both classical test theory and item response theory. Chapter 5 contains a discussion of the implications of our results and a data-driven analysis of our experimental methods. Chapter 6 describes the importance of this work to the field and discusses the relevance of our research to curriculum development and to future work in physics education research.

Chambers, Timothy

 
 
 
 
201

Assessment of clinical outcomes in breast cancer patients treated with taxanes: multi-analytical approach.  

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Polymorphisms in genes encoding CYPs (Phase I) and ABCB1 (Phase III) enzymes may attribute to variability of efficacy of taxanes. The present study aims to find the influence of CYP and ABCB1 gene polymorphisms on taxanes based clinical outcomes. 132 breast cancer patients treated with taxanes based chemotherapy were genotyped for CYP3A4*1B, CYP3A5*3, CYP1B1*3, CYP2C8*3, ABCB1 1236C>T, 2677G>T/A and 3435C>T polymorphisms using PCR-RFLP. Associations of genetic variants with clinical outcomes in terms of response in 58 patients receiving neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (NACT), and chemo-toxicity in 132 patients were studied. Multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) analysis was performed to evaluate higher order gene-gene interactions with clinical outcomes. Pathological response to taxane based NACT was associated with GA genotype as well as A allele of CYP3A5*3 polymorphism (Pcorr=0.0465, Pcorr=0.0465). Similarly, association was found in dominant model of CYP3A5*3 polymorphism with responders (Pcorr=0.0465). Haplotype analysis further revealed ACYP3A4-ACYP3A5 haplotype to be significantly associated with responders (Pcorr=0.048). In assessing toxicity, significant association of variant (TT) genotype and T allele of ABCB1 2677G>T/A polymorphism, was found with 'grade 1 or no leucopenia' (Pcorr=0.0465, Pcorr=0.048). On evaluating higher order gene-gene interaction models by MDR analysis, CYP3A5*3; ABCB11236C>T and ABCB1 2677G>T/A; ABCB1 3435C>T and CYP1B1*3 showed significant association with treatment response, grade 2-4 anemia and dose delay/reduction due to neutropenia (P=0.024, P=0.004, P=0.026), respectively. Multi-analytical approaches may provide a better assessment of pharmacogenetic based treatment outcomes in breast cancer patients treated with taxanes. PMID:24704000

Tulsyan, Sonam; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Singh, Abhishek Kumar; Agarwal, Gaurav; Lal, Punita; Agrawal, Sushma; Mittal, Rama Devi; Mittal, Balraj

2014-06-10

202

Can kinematic approaches be used to predict shear fracture orientations for use in discrete fracture network models?  

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Structural geologists typically invoke the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion to explain the orientations of shear fractures. Nevertheless, there have been recent attempts to explain shear fracture orientation in terms of finite strain or strain increment. In these models, spatial variations in shear fracture orientation are explained by spatial variations in the orientations of lines of no finite elongation (LNFE), and/or zero extension directions. We test these models by analysing the orientations of conjugate cataclastic deformation bands that cut unconsolidated sand and gravel at McKinleyville, California, and dip shallowly towards the north-northeast and south-southwest. The acute dihedral angle between the two sets of deformation bands is 47° and is bisected by the sub-horizontal, north-northeast directed incremental and finite shortening directions. Trishear models of fault propagation folding above the McKinleyville fault predict two sets of LNFE that plunge steeply and shallowly to the south and north. These predictions are inconsistent with deformation band orientations and suggest that deformation bands did not form parallel to these LNFE. During plane strain, zero extension directions with acute dihedral angles of 47° develop when the dilatancy rate is 4.3. Experimental dilatancy rates for Vosges sandstone (cohesion > 0) and unconsolidated Hostun sand suggest the deformation bands either developed parallel to zero extension directions or in accordance with the Mohr-Coulomb criterion, assuming initial porosities of 22% and 39%, respectively. However, an empirical relationship between dilatancy rate, relative density and mean stress suggests that dilatancy rates for Vosges sandstone overestimate the dilatancy rate at McKinleyville. Deformation bands at McKinleyville likely developed either in a Mohr-Coulomb orientation, or an intermediate orientation bounded by the Mohr-Coulomb and Roscoe angles. These results suggest that approaches based on strain or strain increment (i.e. kinematic models) should be used with caution when predicting shear fracture orientations, and should not be used to populate discrete fracture network (DFN) models without careful consideration of their validity.

Imber, Jonathan; Jones, Richard; Perry, Tom; Wightman, Ruth

2013-04-01

203

Magnetic orientation of the Common Toad: establishing an arena approach for adult anurans  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Magnetic orientation is a taxonomically widespread phenomenon in the animal kingdom, but has been little studied in anuran amphibians. We collected Common Toads (Bufo bufo during their migration towards their spawning pond and tested them shortly after displacement for possible magnetic orientation in arena experiments. Animals were tested in two different set-ups, in the geomagnetic field and in a reversed magnetic field. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study testing orientation of adult anurans with a controlled magnetic field of a known strength and alignment. Results After displacement, toads oriented themselves unimodally under the geomagnetic field, following their former migration direction (d-axis. When the magnetic field was reversed, the distribution of bearings changed from a unimodal to a bimodal pattern, but still along the d-axis. The clustering of bearings was only significant after the toads reached the outer circle, 60.5 cm from their starting point. At a virtual inner circle (diameter 39 cm and at the start of the experiment, orientation of toads did not show any significant pattern. Conclusions The experimental set-up used in our study is suitable to test orientation behaviour of the Common Toad. We speculate that toads had not enough time to relocate their position on an internal map. Hence, they followed their former migration direction. Bimodality in orientation when exposed to the reversed magnetic field could be the result of a cue conflict, between magnetic and possibly celestial cues. For maintaining their migration direction toads use, at least partly, the geomagnetic field as a reference system.

Gollmann Günter

2011-03-01

204

An Aspect-Oriented Programming-based approach to software development for fault detection in measurement systems  

CERN Document Server

An Aspect-Oriented Programming-based approach to the development of software components for fault detection in automatic measurement systems is proposed. Faults are handled by means of specific software units, the ``aspects{''}, in order to better modularize issues transversal to several components. As a case study, this approach was applied to the design of the fault detection software inside a flexible framework for magnetic measurements, developed at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN). Experimental results of software modularity and performance measurements for comparing aspect- and objectoriented solutions in rotating coils tests on superconducting magnets are reported. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Arpaia, P; Inglese, Vitaliano; Bernardi, Mario Luca; Di Lucca, Giuseppe; Spiezia, Giovanni

2010-01-01

205

Promulgate: an approach to Optimize the data transfer in Service Oriented Architecture  

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Full Text Available The main potential benefit of Service-oriented architecture (SOA is applying across multiple solution environments based on the request and reply paradigm. Service-oriented architecture integrates both enterprise and application architectures. When the services and size of the workflow increases, the SOA orchestration reaches the scalability limits and same effected on the data transmission between services, a standard orchestration desires to transport all the data through a workflow engine when communicate on the web service without any third party data transfer, which results redundant data transfer and engine to become a bottleneck to execution of a workflow. As a solution, we present Promulgate, an alternative service-oriented architecture. Promulgate proposed an orchestration model as central control in grouping with a choreography model of optimized distributed data transport. We are using Data caching techniques by using dynamic proxy deployment and SOAP compression techniques by using zipped SOAP for this hybrid architecture to optimize the data transfer in SOA.

B. Chandra Mouli , Prof. C. Rajendra

2012-06-01

206

The burdens of survivorship: an approach to thinking about long-term outcomes after critical illness.  

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Internationally accepted approaches to the study of functioning and disability can inform critical care practitioners and scholars in their study of functional limitations, disability, and quality of life after critical illness and intensive care. Therefore this article provides an introduction to the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). The Institute of Medicine has also recommended this approach for the study of disability. This conceptual framework divides potential problems as follows: problems in body structure and tissue, limitations in activity (i.e., functional limitations as assessed in standardized environments), and restrictions in participation (i.e., the inability to fulfill a social role). The ICF draws attention to effect modifiers that can prevent problems at one level from progressing (or conversely can hasten their progression) to profound decrements in a patient's quality of life. It is particularly relevant for studies of long-term outcomes after critical illness and post-intensive care syndrome (PICS). This article provides a discussion of the ICF specific to the intensive care unit and the disablement process, with particular attention to new opportunities for intervention and their implications for cost and quality of life. PMID:22875378

Iwashyna, Theodore J; Netzer, Giora

2012-08-01

207

Indigenous Education for Critical Democracy: Teacher Approaches and Learning Outcomes in a K-5 Indian Education for All Program  

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This article focuses on how three dimensions of critical democracy preparation (place-based geographical knowledge, social and political awareness of American Indian history and culture, and orientations conducive to the development of personal connections with American Indians) were impacted by different instructional approaches introduced when…

Ngai, Phyllis B.; Koehn, Peter H.

2011-01-01

208

A Novel Approach to Construct Object-Oriented System Dependence Graph and Algorithm Design  

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Full Text Available On the basis of analyzing the defects that traditional system dependence graph have, a novel method based on ripple effect is proposed to construct coarse-grained system dependence graph. The method perfects object-oriented program semantics and reduces the computation complexity through expanding the signification of coarse-grained and analyzing ripple effect. Object-oriented program semantics are described in detail. The algorithms for analyzing ripple effects and constructing system dependence graph are designed. Furthermore the computation complexity of algorithms is analyzed to validate effectiveness.

Lin Du

2012-01-01

209

Mesh-based spherical deconvolution: a flexible approach to reconstruction of non-negative fiber orientation distributions.  

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Diffusion-weighted MRI has enabled the imaging of white matter architecture in vivo. Fiber orientations have classically been assumed to lie along the major eigenvector of the diffusion tensor, but this approach has well-characterized shortcomings in voxels containing multiple fiber populations. Recently proposed methods for recovery of fiber orientation via spherical deconvolution utilize a spherical harmonics framework and are susceptible to noise, yielding physically-invalid results even when additional measures are taken to minimize such artifacts. In this work, we reformulate the spherical deconvolution problem onto a discrete spherical mesh. We demonstrate how this formulation enables the estimation of fiber orientation distributions which strictly satisfy the physical constraints of realness, symmetry, and non-negativity. Moreover, we analyze the influence of the flexible regularization parameters included in our formulation for tuning the smoothness of the resultant fiber orientation distribution (FOD). We show that the method is robust and reliable by reconstructing known crossing fiber anatomy in multiple subjects. Finally, we provide a software tool for computing the FOD using our new formulation in hopes of simplifying and encouraging the adoption of spherical deconvolution techniques. PMID:20206705

Patel, Vishal; Shi, Yonggang; Thompson, Paul M; Toga, Arthur W

2010-07-01

210

Searching for the Definition of Macrosomia through an Outcome-Based Approach  

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Background Macrosomia has been defined in various ways by obstetricians and researchers. The purpose of the present study was to search for a definition of macrosomia through an outcome-based approach. Methods In a study of 30,831,694 singleton term live births and 38,053 stillbirths in the U.S. Linked Birth-Infant Death Cohort datasets (1995–2004), we compared the occurrence of stillbirth, neonatal death, and 5-min Apgar score less than four in subgroups of birthweight (4000–4099 g, 4100–4199 g, 4200–4299 g, 4300–4399 g, 4400–4499 g, 4500–4999 g vs. reference group 3500–4000 g) and birthweight percentile for gestational age (90th–94th percentile, 95th-96th, and ?97th percentile, vs. reference group 75th–90th percentile). Results There was no significant increase in adverse perinatal outcomes until birthweight exceeded the 97th percentile. Weight-specific odds ratios (ORs) elevated substantially to 2 when birthweight exceeded 4500 g in Whites. In Blacks and Hispanics, the aORs exceeded 2 for 5-min Apgar less than four when birthweight exceeded 4300 g. For vaginal deliveries, the aORs of perinatal morbidity and mortality were larger for most of the subgroups, but the patterns remained the same. Conclusions A birthweight greater than 4500 g in Whites, or 4300 g in Blacks and Hispanics regardless of gestational age is the optimal threshold to define macrosomia. A birthweight greater than the 97th percentile for a given gestational age, irrespective of race is also reasonable to define macrosomia. The former may be more clinically useful and simpler to apply. PMID:24941024

Chen, Yan; Fang, Fang; Luo, ZhongCheng; Zhang, Jun

2014-01-01

211

Outcome assessment of the VADO approach in psychiatric rehabilitation: a partially randomised multicentric trial  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies on representative samples of psychiatric services have shown that low proportions of cases received effective rehabilitation interventions. The following are likely to be the most important causes: the scarcity of mental health workers trained in social and work skills strategies and the absence of a structured framework to formulate rehabilitation practices. The aim of this study was to assess if a specific structured planning and evaluation manual, called VADO (Valutazione delle Abilità e Definizione degli Obiettivi – in english: Skills Assessment and Definition of Goals, is more effective than routine interventions in reducing disability in patients with schizophrenia. Method Each of 10 mental health services were invited to recruit 10 patients with a schizophrenic disorder. Altogether 98 patients were recruited. Of these, 62 patients were randomly allocated to the intervention/experimental or a control group. The remaining group of 36 patients was not randomised and it was considered as a parallel effectiveness study. Assessment measures at the beginning of the study and at the one-year follow-up included the FPS scale of social functioning and the BPRS 4.0. Between group (VADO vs. Routine and time effects were examined with ANOVA, Chi-square or Fisher exact. Clinical "improvement" was defined as an increase of at least ten points on the FPS or a decrease of at least 20% on BPRS scores. Results 31 of the 62 randomized patients received the experimental interventions, while 31 followed the routine ones. At follow-up, the experimental group showed statistically and clinically greater improvements in psychopathology and social functioning. Better outcomes of both social functioning and symptom severity were observed in non randomised patients (parallel effectiveness study. Conclusion The results suggest that setting personalised and measurable objectives, as recommended by the manual, can improve the outcome of rehabilitation of severe mental disorders. Better outcomes in the parallel effectiveness study could be attributed to the greater confidence and enthusiasm of staff in centres where the VADO approach originated.

Mirabella Fiorino

2006-04-01

212

Short-term outcome after posterior versus lateral surgical approach for total hip arthroplasty - a randomized clinical trial*  

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Full Text Available Abstract Purpose Currently, total hip replacement (THR is most commonly performed via a posterior or a direct lateral approach, but the impact of the latter on the invention's outcome has yet not been quantified. Methods We compared the short-term outcome of cementless THR using the both approaches in a prospective, randomized controlled trial. 60 patients with unilateral osteoarthritis were included. Outcome assessment was performed one day before surgery and one week, four weeks, six weeks and 12 weeks after surgery, respectively, using the Harris Hip score as primary objective. Results We found no significant difference in the intraindividual Harris Hip Score improvement at the pre-and three months post-operative assessments between both treatment groups (p = 0.115. However, Harris Hip scores and most functional and psychometric secondary endpoints showed a consistent tendency of a slightly better three months result in patients implanted via the posterior approach. In contrast a significant shorter operating time of the direct lateral approach was recorded (67 minutes versus 76 minutes, p Conclusion In our opinion this slightly better short-term functional outcome after posterior approach is not clinical relevant. However, to make definitive conclusions all clinical relevant factors (i.e. mid- to long-term function, satisfaction, complication rates and long-term survival have to be taken into account. Level of evidence: I - therapeutic

Witzleb W-C

2009-06-01

213

Applying a Constructive-Developmental Approach to Issues of Sexual Orientation and Religion in Career Counseling  

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An individual's constructive development, or system of meaning making, is relevant to the process of career counseling. A description of constructive-developmental theory and how that theory may be integrated in career counseling is provided, focusing on a case study that addresses issues of sexual orientation and religious identity. Methods for…

Paul, Parrish L.

2008-01-01

214

A Discovery-Oriented Approach to Solid-Phase Peptide Synthesis  

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In this discovery-oriented laboratory experiment, students use solid-phase synthesis techniques to construct a dipeptide containing an unknown amino acid. Following synthesis and cleavage from the polymeric support, electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry is employed to identify the unknown amino acid that was used in the peptide coupling. This…

Bockman, Matthew R.; Miedema, Christopher J.; Brennan, Brian B.

2012-01-01

215

Numerical approach of the injection molding process of fiber-reinforced composite with considering fiber orientation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the most important challenges in the injection molding process of the short-glass fiber/thermoplastic composite parts is being able to predict the fiber orientation, since it controls the mechanical and the physical properties of the final parts. Folgar and Tucker included into the Jeffery equation a diffusive type of term, which introduces a phenomenological coefficient for modeling the randomizing effect of the mechanical interactions between the fibers, to predict the fiber orientation in concentrated suspensions. Their experiments indicated that this coefficient depends on the fiber volume fraction and aspect ratio. However, a definition of the fiber interaction coefficient, which is very necessary in the fiber orientation simulations, hasn't still been proven yet. Consequently, this study proposed a developed fiber interaction model that has been introduced a fiber dynamics simulation in order to obtain a global fiber interaction coefficient. This supposed that the coefficient is a sum function of the fiber concentration, aspect ratio, and angular velocity. The proposed model was incorporated into a computer aided engineering simulation package C-Mold. Short-glass fiber/polyamide-6 composites were produced in the injection molding with the fiber weight concentration of 30 wt.%, 50 wt.%, and 70 wt.%. The physical properties of these composites were examined, and their fiber orientation distributions were measured by micro-computed-tomography equipment ?-CT. The simulation results showed a good agreement with experiment results

216

The Challenge of Induction! Introducing Engineering Students to Higher Education: A Task-Oriented Approach.  

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First-year engineering students at Robert Gordon University (Scotland) were presented with a task-oriented induction program. Students were divided into groups and assigned a facilitator, later personal tutor, to whom they could refer. Student reaction to the experience was very favorable. Effect on progression rates is yet to be determined. (AEF)

Edward, Norrie; Middleton, June

2002-01-01

217

Global models for the orientation field of fingerprints: an approach based on quadratic differentials.  

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Quadratic differentials naturally define analytic orientation fields on planar surfaces. We propose to model orientation fields of fingerprints by specifying quadratic differentials. Models for all fingerprint classes such as arches, loops and whorls are laid out. These models are parametrised by few, geometrically interpretable parameters which are invariant under Euclidean motions. We demonstrate their ability in adapting to given, observed orientation fields, and we compare them to existing models using the fingerprint images of the NIST Special Database 4. We also illustrate that these model allow for extrapolation into unobserved regions. This goes beyond the scope of earlier models for the orientation field as those are restricted to the observed planar fingerprint region. Within the framework of quadratic differentials we are able to verify analytically Penrose's formula for the singularities on a palm. Potential applications of these models are the use of their parameters as indices of large fingerprint databases, as well as the definition of intrinsic coordinates for single fingerprint images. PMID:18617711

Huckemann, Stephan; Hotz, Thomas; Munk, Axel

2008-09-01

218

Methodological bases of the use personality oriented to approach for the ground of the system of amateurish athletic education of students of university  

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Full Text Available Methodological bases of the use of the personality oriented approach are considered. Complex application of axiological, culturological and personality oriented approaches in the successful leadthrough of reforms is exposed. Opinion is studied 560 students about correlation of general and physical culture in personality and professional self-determination. It is set, what only 23,6 % acknowledge the presence of such connection, 53,4 % are categorically denied, 22 % - can not be determined with the position. It is marked that an educational process on a physical culture at the personality oriented approach gives possibility every student to realize itself in active cognition of maintenance of educational activity in the educational conduct. Thus a student leans against the capabilities, inclinations, interests, valued orientations and subject experience. Directions of the pedagogical planning of the personality oriented system of amateurish athletic education are rotined in the conditions of separate higher educational establishment.

Belikh S.I.

2012-09-01

219

Pharmacological versus microvascular decompression approaches for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia: clinical outcomes and direct costs  

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Full Text Available Laurinda Lemos1,2, Carlos Alegria3, Joana Oliveira3, Ana Machado2, Pedro Oliveira4, Armando Almeida11Life and Health Sciences Research Institute (ICVS, School of Health Sciences, Campus de Gualtar, University of Minho, Braga, Portugal; 2Hospital Center of Alto Ave, Unit of Fafe, Fafe, Portugal; 3Department of Neurosurgery, Hospital São Marcos; 4Products and Systems Engineering, Campus de Azurém, University of Minho, Guimarães, PortugalAbstract: In idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia (TN the neuroimaging evaluation is usually normal, but in some cases a vascular compression of trigeminal nerve root is present. Although the latter condition may be referred to surgery, drug therapy is usually the first approach to control pain. This study compared the clinical outcome and direct costs of (1 a traditional treatment (carbamazepine [CBZ] in monotherapy [CBZ protocol], (2 the association of gabapentin (GBP and analgesic block of trigger-points with ropivacaine (ROP (GBP+ROP protocol, and (3 a common TN surgery, microvascular decompression of the trigeminal nerve (MVD protocol. Sixty-two TN patients were randomly treated during 4 weeks (CBZ [n = 23] and GBP+ROP [n = 17] protocols from cases of idiopathic TN, or selected for MVD surgery (n = 22 due to intractable pain. Direct medical cost estimates were determined by the price of drugs in 2008 and the hospital costs. Pain was evaluated using the Numerical Rating Scale (NRS and number of pain crises; the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Sickness Impact Profile, and satisfaction with treatment and hospital team were evaluated. Assessments were performed at day 0 and 6 months after the beginning of treatment. All protocols showed a clinical improvement of pain control at month 6. The GBP+ROP protocol was the least expensive treatment, whereas surgery was the most expensive. With time, however, GBP+ROP tended to be the most and MVD the least expensive. No sequelae resulted in any patient after drug therapies, while after MDV surgery several patients showed important side effects. Data reinforce that, (1 TN patients should be carefully evaluated before choosing therapy for pain control, (2 different pharmacological approaches are available to initiate pain control at low costs, and (3 criteria for surgical interventions should be clearly defined due to important side effects, with the initial higher costs being strongly reduced with time.Keywords: trigeminal neuralgia, carbamazepine, gabapentin associated with ropivacaine, microvascular decompression, clinical outcomes, direct costs 

Almeida A

2011-08-01

220

Structuring requirements as necessary premise for customer-oriented development of complex products: A generic approach  

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Full Text Available Purpose: Complex products like for example intra-logistical facilities make high demands on developers and producers and involve high investment and operating costs. When planning and developing and also making buying decisions the facility utilization and the thus ensuing requirements on the facility and its components are inadequately considered to date. Nevertheless, with regard to customer-directed product design, these requirements must all be taken into account – especially as they can contribute to possible savings. In this context, it is necessary to survey and systematically regard requirements from a large number of areas like for example the operator, the facility producer and also requirements of external parties such as the law and to implement into adequate product characteristics to produce customer-oriented products. This is, however, a difficult task because of the diversity of stakeholders involved and their numerous and often divergent requirements. Therefore, it is essential to structure the requirements, so that planners and developers are able to manage the large amount of information. Structure models can be used in this context to cluster requirements. Within the German Collaborative Research Centre 696 a 10-dimensional model has been developed. This model allows structuring of all requirements on intra-logistical facilities or respectively complex products in general. In the context of dealing with hundreds of data records, structuring requirements is mandatory to achieve accuracy, clarity and consequently satisfactory results when transforming requirements into product characteristics which fit customer needs. In the paper an excerpt of this model is presented. Design/methodology/approach: In literature a multitude of methods which deal with the topic of structuring exist. The methods have been analysed regarding their purpose and their level of specification, i.e. the number of differentiated categories, to check if they could be applied in the regarded area of intra-logistics. Also potential stakeholders have been identified to ensure that the surveying of requirements is not incomplete. Based on these analyses an own model has been developed which combines, adepts and enlarges the existing methods. Findings: A 10-dimensional model has been developed for structuring requirements on intra-logistical facilities. This model is holistic, because additionally it allows capturing the stakeholders’ feedback to the requirements’ fulfilment. The dimensions of the model can be divided into four groups. The first one serves to structure the requirements regarding their content. These are the dimensions obligations, surroundings, information, qualification, technical-functional requirements and qualification. The second group serves to structure the reference object to which the requirements refer and includes the dimension product. Weighted level of performance and customer satisfaction are part of the third group, which encompasses the evaluation of the requirements’ fulfilment. The fourth group is for the temporal structuring of requirements and includes the dimension time. For applying the model it has been implemented for data processing as component of a large data processing system. The developed model is presented in this paper. Research limitations/implications: A 10-idimensional model for structuring requirements is presented in this paper. Thereby, a sub-division of the dimensions into categories and sub-categories has been made to ensure a topical classification of the requirements and additionally a structuring according to their level of specification. Considering individual dimensions and/or selected categories of dimensions allow a thematic focus to be placed on certain groups of requirements. This is particularly important, not only for the implementation of requirements into solutions but also for focusing on the needs of individual stakeholders, if e.g. requirements on maintenance have to be observed. Using the model, working with lots of requ

Robert Refflinghaus

2011-10-01

 
 
 
 
221

Multi-board concept - a scenario based approach for supporting product quality and life cycle oriented design  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper will describe the multi-board concept, which is a working approach for supporting life cycle oriented design and product quality. Aspects of this concept include construction of a common working environment where multiple display boards depict scenarios of the product life cycle, creating a shared quality mindset amongst design-ers, and developing creativity and synthesis in product design. The appropriateness of scenarios for supporting life cycle oriented design will be ar-gued and preliminary results from early experi-mentation will be presented.Initial results lead us to believe that the multi-board concept promises to be a useful means of communication amongst the design team. We be-lieve that it fosters a thorough understanding of life cycle events, which, in turn, inspires the design of innovative products of the highest quality.

Robotham, Antony John; Hertzum, Morten

2000-01-01

222

On the Differentiation of Achievement Goal Orientations in Physical Education: A Rasch Analysis Approach  

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In two cross-sectional studies, we investigated to what extent elementary (Study 1) and middle school (Study 2) students pursue similar, yet distinct, mastery-related and performance-related goals in physical education. We found that students were more likely to endorse outcome goals in conjunction with mastery-related goals and ability goals in…

Mouratidis, Athanasios; Lens, Willy; Sideridis, Georgios D.

2010-01-01

223

The Impact of Greek University Students' Perceptions of Their Learning Environment on Approaches to Studying and Academic Outcomes  

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The relationship between university students' perceptions of their academic environment, their approaches to study, and academic outcomes was investigated for first and fourth-final year students. The responses of 88 first and 92 fourth year students were analysed using a path analysis model. Students' perceptions of the learning environment were…

Karagiannopoulou, E.; Christodoulides, P.

2005-01-01

224

A quantum mechanical approach to establishing the magnetic field orientation from a maser Zeeman profile  

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Recent comparisons of magnetic field directions derived from maser Zeeman splitting with those derived from continuum source rotation measures have prompted new analysis of the propagation of the Zeeman split components, and the inferred field orientation. In order to do this, we first review differing electric field polarization conventions used in past studies. With these clearly and consistently defined, we then show that for a given Zeeman splitting spectrum, the magnetic field direction is fully determined and predictable on theoretical grounds: when a magnetic field is oriented away from the observer, the left-hand circular polarization is observed at higher frequency and the right-hand polarization at lower frequency. This is consistent with classical Lorentzian derivations. The consequent interpretation of recent measurements then raises the possibility of a reversal between the large-scale field (traced by rotation measures) and the small-scale field (traced by maser Zeeman splitting).

Green, J. A.; Gray, M. D.; Robishaw, T.; Caswell, J. L.; McClure-Griffiths, N. M.

2014-06-01

225

A goal-oriented adaptive finite-element approach for multi-electrode resistivity system  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a novel accurate and efficient goal-oriented adaptive finite-element method solution for complex multi-electrodes resistivity system with arbitrary smooth surface topographies. A simple Green's function of a half-space model is adopted to eliminate the singularity. A unified boundary value problem for the regular potential is formulated for a multi-electrodes system so that it shares a common system matrix. In addition, a goal-oriented error estimation technique is developed to generate an optimal common grid so that highly accurate solutions are obtained with minimum computation cost. Synthetic models are used to verify our algorithm and excellent agreements are obtained by comparing with other methods.

Ren, Zhengyong; Tang, Jingtian

2014-10-01

226

A quantum mechanical approach to establishing the magnetic field orientation from a maser Zeeman profile  

CERN Document Server

Recent comparisons of magnetic field directions derived from maser Zeeman splitting with those derived from continuum source rotation measures have prompted new analysis of the propagation of the Zeeman split components, and the inferred field orientation. In order to do this, we first review differing electric field polarization conventions used in past studies. With these clearly and consistently defined, we then show that for a given Zeeman splitting spectrum, the magnetic field direction is fully determined and predictable on theoretical grounds: when a magnetic field is oriented away from the observer, the left-hand circular polarization is observed at higher frequency and the right-hand polarization at lower frequency. This is consistent with classical Lorentzian derivations. The consequent interpretation of recent measurements then raises the possibility of a reversal between the large-scale field (traced by rotation measures) and the small-scale field (traced by maser Zeeman splitting).

Green, J A; Robishaw, T; Caswell, J L; McClure-Griffiths, N M

2014-01-01

227

An integrated agent-oriented approach to real-time operational design coordination.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Within the engineering design community there is support for further research into the development of improved approaches to design management. Such research has lead to coordination being identified as an important and pervasive characteristic of many existing approaches (e.g., concurrent engineering and work-flow management). In this article, operational design coordination is proposed as the basis for an improved approach. This article also presents a novel integrated approach that incorpo...

Coates, G.; Duffy, A. H. B.; Whitfield, I.; Hills, W.

2003-01-01

228

Extending Object-Oriented Approaches to Hydrological Modelling based on Triangular Irregular Networks  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This research project aims to further explore an object oriented methodology in which a hydrological system is considered to be a series of interacting hydrological elements. It will extend Slingsby’s hydrological model TINMOD (2002) whose data structure is based on a TIN with embedded methods and behaviours to build, maintain and derive its topology – as well as derive hydrological information (flow-paths, basins, flow length) about itself. Specifically, this project aims to add functi...

Stedham, Rl

2011-01-01

229

A Quantitative Measure for Object Oriented Design Approach for Large-Scale Systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Object Oriented development methodology is a trend in software development for complex systems. The architecture of the application domain depends on the nature of problem statement in hand. Successdepends on the overall design of a software in terms of flexibility and maintainability. Identifying and rectifying the design faults at early stage of development reduces cost and effort on the project by not exceeding the calendar. Quality metrics are helpful for the designer in measuring solutio...

Ms. Poornima U S

2011-01-01

230

Goal-Oriented Inference: Approach, Linear Theory, and Application to Advection Diffusion  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Inference of model parameters is one step in an engineering process often ending in predictions that support decision in the form of design or control. Incorporation of end goals into the inference process leads to more efficient goal-oriented algorithms that automatically target the most relevant parameters for prediction. In the linear setting the control-theoretic concepts underlying balanced truncation model reduction can be exploited in inference through a dimensionally optimal subspace ...

Lieberman, Chad E.; Willcox, Karen E.

2012-01-01

231

Goal orientations and conceptions of the nature of sport ability in children: A social cognitive approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Two studies investigated the links between goal orientations and conceptions of sport ability. In Study 1, 194 English children (aged 11-12 yrs) completed a psychological inventory which included questions on achievement goal choice and perceptions of the nature of sport ability. In Study 2, 304 French children (aged 11-17 yrs) completed questionnaires, including the French version of the Perception of Success Questionnaire and the Conception of the Nature of Athletic Ability Questionnaire. C...

Sarrazin, Philippe; Biddle, Stuart; Famose, Jean-pierre; Cury, Franc?ois; Fox, Kenneth; Durand, Marc

1996-01-01

232

Developing a process-oriented and modern quality organization: A case study approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The contemporary turbulent business world forces companies to seek new ways of doing business in novel situations. One of the areas mostly impacted by this turbulence relates to the design of appropriate organizational structures. The process-oriented organizational form seeks to attend these needs and recognizes the integrative and aligning nature of processes. However, an organization must do more than just focus its attention and efforts on processes. The layout design has also a significa...

Jochem, Roland; Raßfeld, Colin

2013-01-01

233

Integrated Approach for Improving Small Scale Market Oriented Dairy Systems in Pakistan: Economic Impact of Interventions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) launched a Coordinated Research Program in 10 developing countries including Pakistan involving small scale market oriented dairy farmers to identify and prioritize the constraints and opportunities in the selected dairy farms, develop intervention strategies and assess the economic impact of the intervention. The interventions in animal health (control of mastitis at sub-clinical stage and reduction in calf mortality), nutrition (balanced feed) r...

Ghaffar, A.

2010-01-01

234

Service Oriented Architecture for Business Dynamics: An Agent Based Business Modeling Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In today's rapidly changing environment the industries areinterested in executing business functions that has scope inmultiple applications. Business dynamics and technologicalinnovations have felt organizations to comply with adisparate mix of operating systems, applications anddatabases. This makes it difficult, time-consuming and costlyfor IT departments to deliver new applications that integrateheterogeneous technologies. It demands high interoperabilityand more flexible and adaptive business processmanagement. The inclination is to have systems assembled,from a loosely coupled collection of Web services, which areuniversal and integrated. This technical area appears tohave scope where the Agent Technology can be exploitedwith significant advantages. With Service OrientedArchitecture a decomposable architecture, and associatedset of development and IT management disciplines,composed of loosely coupled services communicating viapre-established protocols, these services can be assembledad-hoc to form customized applications that address a widevariety of business requirements.In the present paper, we propose a conceptual frameworkfor agent-based Service Oriented Architecture (SOA. Inwhich we try to integrate Service Oriented Architecture withthe agent technology & other tactical technologies like webservices, business workflow services, Business meta-rules,search optimization of services and semantic Webtechnology for business service mappings.

O. P. Rishi

2009-01-01

235

Designing Logical Topology for Wireless Sensor Networks: A Multi-Chain Oriented Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An optimal logical topology of a wireless sensor network (WSN facilitates the deployed sensor nodes tocommunicate with each other with little overheads,lowers energy consumption, lengthens lifetime of thenetwork, provides scalability, increases reliability, and reduces latency. Designing an optimal logicaltopology for a WSN thus needs to consider numerousfactors. Chain oriented topologies have been foundto offer a number of improvements in energy consumptions, lifetime, and load balancing than othertopologies of WSNs. However, they usually suffer from latency, scalability, reliability and interferenceproblems. In this paper, we present a chain oriented logical topology, which offers solutions to thoseproblems. The proposed topology is designed such that it retains the advantages of the chain orientedtopologies, and at the same time, overcomes the problems of the chain oriented topology such as latency,scalability, and data reliability. The proposed topology provides a communication abstraction, which canbe easily used to devise a range of application protocols. Moreover, the logical topology offers nodemanagement, resource management, and other services. The performance of the proposed topology iscompared with other topologies in respect to totalenergy consumption and lifetime of the network.

Quazi Mamun

2013-03-01

236

Brain metastases from gastrointestinal tumours: tailoring the approach to maximize the outcome.  

Science.gov (United States)

Brain metastases from the gastrointestinal cancers (GI) are uncommon, but their incidence is constantly increasing due to several reasons, including improved systemic therapy and survival. Nevertheless, the average outcome of these patients is poor and related to patients' or disease characteristics, and to the availability of treatment options. Because of the lack of evidence-based recommendations, no optimal treatment strategy has been defined. The approach to brain metastases remains often tailored, and the action plan is selected on the basis of their number, size and location, the presence of symptoms and the extra-cranial disease status. Clinical prognostic factors have been identified and grouped into index scores that can be helpful in the treatment decision making. At the same time, molecular factors contributing to brain metastases are being revealed, and the role of the unique brain microenvironment is beginning to be investigated. The aim of this review is to present and discuss available data on brain metastases from GI cancers. PMID:22578746

Menis, Jessica; Fontanella, Caterina; Follador, Alessandro; Fasola, Gianpiero; Aprile, Giuseppe

2013-01-01

237

Design of the DISCovery project: tailored work-oriented interventions to improve employee health, well-being, and performance-related outcomes in hospital care  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well-known that health care workers in today’s general hospitals have to deal with high levels of job demands, which could have negative effects on their health, well-being, and job performance. A way to reduce job-related stress reactions and to optimize positive work-related outcomes is to raise the level of specific job resources and opportunities to recover from work. However, the question remains how to translate the optimization of the balance between job demands, job resources, and recovery opportunities into effective workplace interventions. The aim of the DISCovery project is to develop and implement tailored work-oriented interventions to improve health, well-being, and performance of health care personnel. Methods/Design A quasi-experimental field study with a non-equivalent control group pretest-posttest design will be conducted in a top general hospital. Four existing organizational departments will provide both an intervention and a comparison group. Two types of research methods are used: (1 a longitudinal web-based survey study, and (2 a longitudinal daily diary study. After base-line measures of both methods, existing and yet to be developed interventions will be implemented within the experimental groups. Follow-up measurements will be taken one and two years after the base-line measures to analyze short-term and long-term effects of the interventions. Additionally, a process evaluation and a cost-effectiveness analysis will be carried out. Discussion The DISCovery project fulfills a strong need for theory-driven and scientifically well-performed research on job stress and performance interventions. It will provide insight into (1 how a balance between job demands, job resources, and recovery from work can be optimized, (2 the short-term and long-term effects of tailored work-oriented effects, and (3 indicators for successful or unsuccessful implementation of interventions.

Niks Irene MW

2013-02-01

238

Methodological bases of the use personality oriented to approach for the ground of the system of amateurish athletic education of students of university  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Methodological bases of the use of the personality oriented approach are considered. Complex application of axiological, culturological and personality oriented approaches in the successful leadthrough of reforms is exposed. Opinion is studied 560 students about correlation of general and physical culture in personality and professional self-determination. It is set, what only 23,6 % acknowledge the presence of such connection, 53,4 % are categorically denied, 22 % - can not be determined wit...

Belikh S.I.

2012-01-01

239

A systems-oriented single event effects test approach for high speed digital phase-locked loops  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A systems-oriented single event effects (SEE) test approach is outlined here for two different phase-locked loop (PLL) application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) used for spaceborne local oscillator (LO) generation. The system considerations in designing the upset detection technique is described. This is the only known technique for getting information critical to the system about single event upset (SEU) sensitivity at speed for PLLs. Test results are presented for PLL devices operating at clock speeds of 1.0 and 1.5 GHz. Significant frequency effects were not observed in these devices since the clock speed varied only 50%

240

Using Labeled Hyper Multi Digraph for Tabriz Traffic Modeling Data-Oriented Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Traffic congestion has become a major concern in many cities throughout the world, but it is quite difficult to improve the performance of urban traffic efficiently by using traditional methods of modeling because of complexity in the system and Tabriz is not an exception. Modeling the traffic of Tarbiz, to develop an intelligent managing system for control the traffic is crucial. Thus, to do so, the concepts of Labeled Hyper Multi Digraph (LHMD and Labeled Multi Digraph (LMD as data-oriented models are introduced in this study. This will be the first and essential step to design intelligent transportation systems for controlling Tabriz traffic.

Ahmad Habibizad Navin

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Disrupting the downward spiral of chronic pain and opioid addiction with mindfulness-oriented recovery enhancement: a review of clinical outcomes and neurocognitive targets.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prescription opioid misuse and addiction among chronic pain patients are problems of growing medical and social significance. Chronic pain patients often require intervention to improve their well-being and functioning, and yet, the most commonly available form of pharmacotherapy for chronic pain is centered on opioid analgesics--drugs that have high abuse liability. Consequently, health care and legal systems are often stymied in their attempts to intervene with individuals who suffer from both pain and addiction. As such, novel, nonpharmacologic interventions are needed to complement pharmacotherapy and interrupt the cycle of behavioral escalation. The purpose of this paper is to describe how the downward spiral of chronic pain and prescription opioid misuse may be targeted by one such intervention, Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement (MORE), a new behavioral treatment that integrates elements from mindfulness training, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and positive psychology. The clinical outcomes and neurocognitive mechanisms of this intervention are reviewed with respect to their effects on the risk chain linking chronic pain and prescription opioid misuse. Future directions for clinical and pharmacologic research are discussed. PMID:24845547

Garland, Eric L

2014-06-01

242

Keeping Ma’at: An astronomical approach to the orientation of the temples in ancient Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

For various reasons, Archaeoastronomy has not been one of the favourite disciplines of the Egyptologists in the past. Probably because of that, important questions such as the orientation of Egyptian temples and the relevance of astronomy in this respect had never been afforded with the necessary seriousness and deepness. The Egyptian-Spanish Mission for the Archaeoastronomy of ancient Egypt has, among its various priorities, the solution of this problem. In order to achieve that, we have measured the orientation of some 330 temples in the Valley, the Delta, the Oases and the Sinai so far. The aim is to find a correct and almost definitive answer to the question of whether the ancient Egyptian sacred constructions were astronomically aligned or not. Our data seem to answer this question in the affirmative sense. Besides, they offer a very interesting new perspective in the field of landscape archaeology, a new discipline hardly worked in Egypt so far, in which terrestrial landscape, dominated by the Nile, and celestial landscape, dominated by the sun and the stars, would combine in order to permit the establishment of Ma’at, the Cosmic Order, on Earth.

Belmonte, Juan Antonio; Shaltout, Mosalam

2010-08-01

243

Early outcome in endoscopic extended endonasal approach for removal of supradiaphragmatic craniopharyngiomas: a case series and a comprehensive review  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The choice of endoscopic expanded endonasal approach introduces the possibility of improved gross total resection of craniopharyngioma while minimizing surgical morbidity in a significant subset of patients. Methods From our trans-sphenoidal surgical series of 331 cases, we retrospectively reviewed visual, endocrine and neuro-cognitive outcomes in the first consecutive eight patients (median age 63 years; range 47–73 years) with newly diagnosed supradiaphragmatic craniopharyngioma (median tumour height 23 mm; range 15–34 mm), removed by expanded endonasal approach (median follow-up 27 months; range 10–69 months). Gross total resection was attempted in all patients. Results Gross total resection was achieved in 6 of 8 patients. Visual improvement was present in 6 of 8 patients of patients or in 14 of 16 eyes. New endocrinopathy, including diabetes insipidus, appeared in 5 of 8 patients. Stalk was preserved in 4 patients. Cognitive decline was present in 2 cases. Five of 8 patients retained previous quality of life. Conclusions Our early outcome results are comparable to the recent few expanded endonasal approach series, except for the incidence of new endocrinopathy and cerebrospinal fluid leak rate. This was influenced by higher number of transinfundibular tumours in our series, where stalk preservation is less likely, and not using nasoseptal flap or gasket closure in the first half of cases. Including data from the literature and ours, expanded endonasal approach shows a trend for improved gross total resection rate with less morbidity, more obviously for visual outcome and quality of life than for endocrine outcome. However, validity of expanded endonasal approach should be confirmed in a larger number of patients with a longer follow-up period. PMID:24133392

Bosnjak, Roman; Benedicic, Mitja; Vittori, Alenka

2013-01-01

244

Collections Digitization Framework: A Service-oriented Approach to Digitization in Academic Libraries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With advances in information technologies, academic libraries are now in a position to offer collections digitization services beyond campus communities. By mobilizing digitization to off-campus communities, academic libraries can reposition themselves as responsive and relevant in the face of a changing digital services landscape. This will also help academic libraries create unique opportunities to access and share hidden knowledge embedded within local and remote communities with rich intellectual traditions. This article proposes a service-oriented framework for academic libraries to reimagine and mobilize collections digitization as part of broader library services. The proposed Collections Digitization Framework is based on the Service Framework for Digital Libraries developed by the Digital Library Federation, whereby digitization activities have been formalized into discrete processes and functions. The issues and challenges that academic libraries may face in mobilizing digitization services are also discussed in the context of a collaborative community digitization initiative undertaken by two Canadian academic libraries.

Karim Tharani

2012-12-01

245

Economic Regulation of Regional Development: Target Orientation and Functional Content (Conceptual Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article studies theoretical features, target orientation and functional content of economic regulation of regional development. It identifies the content of the “economic regulation of regional development” notion with respect to the region as a territory, economic system and economic space. It establishes that economic regulation of regional development is a system impact on certain parameters, revision of which would ensure positive dynamics in revision of basic characteristics of regions such as properties, features and boundaries. It identifies the main goal and complex of tasks (complexity, target character, variability, resource provision, addressness and manageability of economic regulation of regional development. It shows directions of increase of efficiency of the system of economic regulation of regional development.

Medvid Viktoriia Yu.

2014-03-01

246

The Object Oriented Approach to Machine Physics Calculations with Java Technology  

CERN Document Server

At least as much time is spent solving problems addressed by application support as with actual interaction with the control system, if it is not factored into separate libraries but is coded by each programmer time and time again. Our Java libraries, called Abeans, address these issues in a communication platform independent way. Abeans perform connection management, error and timeout handling, logging, reporting, authentication, resource initialization and destruction, policy and configuration management, etc. Abeans also hide the communication details from the programmer and combine with CosyBeans, our GUI Java components, to form SCADA-like control panels. They are successfully used in such different environments such as a synchrotron light source (ANKA, Germany), an e-p collider complex (DESY, Germany), proton cyclotron (Riken, Japan) and a radio telescope (ESO, Germany). The Java library DataBush has a similar function for machine physics programs. The object oriented design of the library gives program...

Kadunc, M; Plesko, M; Tkacik, G

2001-01-01

247

Towards a Goal-Driven Approach for Business Process Improvement Using Process-Oriented Data Warehouse  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An emerging approach for business process analysis is to use business intelligence practices by employing data warehouse and decision-making techniques. However, little work has been done on developing core methods and tools to guide process analysis and improvement. Our research addresses this issue by introducing a goal-driven approach for business process improvement using process warehouse. In this paper, we present our three step method and its evaluation through an empirical study. The...

Khurram Shahzad, Muhammad; Giannoulis, Constantinos

2011-01-01

248

Management of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia with a high risk of adverse outcome: the Mayo Clinic approach  

Science.gov (United States)

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL) is usually an incidental diagnosis in patients with early–intermediate stage disease. However, most patients with a diagnosis of CLL will subsequently have significant morbidity and die from their disease and its complications. For these patients, CLL is not the ‘good leukemia’ with a predictably ‘benign’ outcome. Indeed, we can now identify a cohort of patients with high-risk CLL at diagnosis who will have rapid disease progression, poor response to treatment, and poor survival based on prognostic methods developed from an improved understanding of the biology of CLL. The concomitant development of improved treatments has led to risk-adjusted management approaches that could improve outcomes. We discuss the clinical and laboratory components of comprehensive risk evaluation of patients with CLL and our approach to the management of patients with a high to very high risk of disease progression and poor outcome. In addition, we review the challenges and prospects for improving prognostic precision and the development of new drugs to improve the treatment of patients with CLL with a high risk of adverse outcome. PMID:21649549

ZENT, CLIVE S.; KAY, NEIL E.

2012-01-01

249

Management of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia with a high risk of adverse outcome: the Mayo Clinic approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL) is usually an incidental diagnosis in patients with early-intermediate stage disease. However, most patients with a diagnosis of CLL will subsequently have significant morbidity and die from their disease and its complications. For these patients, CLL is not the 'good leukemia' with a predictably 'benign' outcome. Indeed, we can now identify a cohort of patients with high-risk CLL at diagnosis who will have rapid disease progression, poor response to treatment, and poor survival based on prognostic methods developed from an improved understanding of the biology of CLL. The concomitant development of improved treatments has led to risk-adjusted management approaches that could improve outcomes. We discuss the clinical and laboratory components of comprehensive risk evaluation of patients with CLL and our approach to the management of patients with a high to very high risk of disease progression and poor outcome. In addition, we review the challenges and prospects for improving prognostic precision and the development of new drugs to improve the treatment of patients with CLL with a high risk of adverse outcome. PMID:21649549

Zent, Clive S; Kay, Neil E

2011-08-01

250

The Strength-Focused and Meaning-Oriented Approach to Resilience and Transformation (SMART): A body-mind-spirit approach to trauma management.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article introduces the Strength-focused and Meaning- oriented Approach to Resilience and Transformation (SMART) as a model of crisis intervention, which aims at discovering inner strengths through meaning reconstruction. Limitations of conventional crisis management and current findings in post-traumatic growth research are discussed. Instead of adopting a pathological framework, the SMART approach holds a holistic view of health, employs facilitative strategies, and promotes dynamic coping. Intervention components include Eastern spiritual teachings, physical techniques such as yoga and meditation, and psycho-education that promotes meaning reconstruction. Efficacy of the SMART model is assessed with reference to two pilot studies conducted in Hong Kong at the time when the SARS pandemic caused widespread fear and anxiety in the community. Response to potential criticisms of the SMART model is attempted. PMID:16956851

Chan, Cecilia L W; Chan, Timothy H Y; Ng, Siv Man

2006-01-01

251

Component-oriented approach to the development and use of numerical models in high energy physics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We discuss the main concepts of a component approach to the development and use of numerical models in high energy physics. This approach is realized as the NiMax software system. The discussed concepts are illustrated by numerous examples of the system user session. In appendix chapter we describe physics and numerical algorithms of the model components to perform simulation of hadronic and nuclear collisions at high energies. These components are members of hadronic application modules that have been developed with the help of the NiMax system. Given report is served as an early release of the NiMax manual mainly for model component users

252

A global-view-oriented approach to directory management in distributed spatial database  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on discussion on general methods of constructing global directory in DSMDS (Distributed Spatial Database Management System), a new approach based on relation model was brought forward. It specifies three main components of the global directory, including directory organization, directory update and extern interface. Then the authors implemented an actual global directory named SDirectoryService as well, key approaches and techniques in implementation were discussed in detail. Some experiments were designed and performed to check the efficiency, correctness and feasibility of the global directory, which reveal the directory works well on each aspect. By using the directory effective global query processing was achieved in DSMDS.

Huang, Zhou; Fang, Yu; Chen, Bin; Yin, Dafei; Peng, Xia

2006-10-01

253

A joint-modeling approach to assess the impact of biomarker variability on the risk of developing clinical outcome  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In some clinical trials and epidemiologic studies, investigators are interested in knowing whether the variability of a biomarker is independently predictive of clinical outcomes. This question is often addressed via a naïve approach where a sample-based estimate (e.g., standard deviation) is calculated as a surrogate for the “true” variability and then used in regression models as a covariate assumed to be free of measurement error. However, it is well known that the measurement error i...

Gao, Feng; Miller, J. Philip; Xiong, Chengjie; Beiser, Julia A.; Gordon, Mae

2011-01-01

254

A Family-Oriented Approach to the Treatment of Developmentally-Delayed Preschoolers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The role of family therapy in a clinic for developmentally delayed preschoolers is examined. Two types of families are said to benefit from the family therapy approach: families in which the child's needs are misunderstood or somehow misread, and families whose dysfunctional transactional patterns antedated the child's problems. Initial screening…

Kord, Dennis

255

Collaborative Evaluation within a Framework of Stakeholder-Oriented Evaluation Approaches  

Science.gov (United States)

Collaborative Evaluation systematically invites and engages stakeholders in program evaluation planning and implementation. Unlike "distanced" evaluation approaches, which reject stakeholder participation as evaluation team members, Collaborative Evaluation assumes that active, on-going engagement between evaluators and program staff, result in…

O'Sullivan, Rita G.

2012-01-01

256

Assessment of Reading and Learning Disabilities: A Research-Based Intervention-Oriented Approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reviews implications of the three primary components of the federal definition of learning disabilities (discrepancy, heterogeneity, and exclusion) for the assessment of children with learning disabilities (LD). Also proposes a rationale and procedures for more efficient approaches to the identification of children as learning disabled that are…

Fletcher, Jack M.; Foorman, Barbara R.; Boudousquie, Amy

2002-01-01

257

Optimal Diffusion MRI Acquisition for Fiber orientation Density Estimation: An Analytic Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

An important challenge in the design of diffusion MRI experiments is how to optimize statistical efficiency, i.e., the accuracy with which parameters can be estimated from the diffusion data in a given amount of imaging time. In model-based spherical deconvolution analysis, the quantity of interest is the fiber orientation density (FOD). Here, we demonstrate how the spherical harmonics (SH) can be used to form an explicit analytic expression for the efficiency of the minimum variance (maximally efficient) linear unbiased estimator of the FOD. Using this expression, we calculate optimal b-values for maximum FOD estimation efficiency with SH expansion orders of L = 2, 4, 6, and 8 to be approximately b = 1500, 3000, 4600, and 6200 s/mm2, respectively. However, the arrangement of diffusion directions and scanner-specific hardware limitations also play a role in determining the realizable efficiency of the FOD estimator that can be achieved in practice. We show how some commonly used methods for selecting diffusion directions are sometimes inefficient, and propose a new method for selecting diffusion directions in MRI based on maximizing the statistical efficiency. We further demonstrate how scanner-specific hardware limitations generally lead to optimal b-values that are slightly lower than the ideal b-values. In summary, the analytic expression for the statistical efficiency of the unbiased FOD estimator provides important insight into the fundamental tradeoff between angular resolution, b-value, and FOD estimation accuracy. PMID:19603409

White, Nathan S.; Dale, Anders M.

2012-01-01

258

A new approach to architecture of sensor networks for mission-oriented applications  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, a novel mission-oriented sensor network architecture for military applications is proposed involving multiple sensing missions with varying quality of information (QoI) requirements. A new concept of mission QoI satisfaction index indicating the degree of satisfaction for any mission in the network is introduced. Furthermore, the 5WH (why, when, where, what, who, how) principle on the operational context of information is extended to capture the changes of QoI satisfaction indexes for mission admission and completion. These allow modeling the whole network as a "black box". With system inputs including the QoI requirements of the existing and newly arriving missions and output the QoI satisfaction index, the new concept of sensor network capacity is introduced and mathematically described. The QoI-centric sensor network capacity is a key element of the proposed architecture and aids controlling of admission of newly arriving missions in accordance with the QoI needs of all (existing and newly admitted missions). Finally, the proposed architecture and its key design parameters are illustrated through an example of a sensor network deployed for detecting the presence of a hazardous, chemical material.

Liu, Chi Harold; Leung, Kin K.; Bisdikian, Chatschik; Branch, Joel W.

2009-05-01

259

Optimal diffusion MRI acquisition for fiber orientation density estimation: an analytic approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

An important challenge in the design of diffusion MRI experiments is how to optimize statistical efficiency, i.e., the accuracy with which parameters can be estimated from the diffusion data in a given amount of imaging time. In model-based spherical deconvolution analysis, the quantity of interest is the fiber orientation density (FOD). Here, we demonstrate how the spherical harmonics (SH) can be used to form an explicit analytic expression for the efficiency of the minimum variance (maximally efficient) linear unbiased estimator of the FOD. Using this expression, we calculate optimal b-values for maximum FOD estimation efficiency with SH expansion orders of L = 2, 4, 6, and 8 to be approximately b = 1,500, 3,000, 4,600, and 6,200 s/mm(2), respectively. However, the arrangement of diffusion directions and scanner-specific hardware limitations also play a role in determining the realizable efficiency of the FOD estimator that can be achieved in practice. We show how some commonly used methods for selecting diffusion directions are sometimes inefficient, and propose a new method for selecting diffusion directions in MRI based on maximizing the statistical efficiency. We further demonstrate how scanner-specific hardware limitations generally lead to optimal b-values that are slightly lower than the ideal b-values. In summary, the analytic expression for the statistical efficiency of the unbiased FOD estimator provides important insight into the fundamental tradeoff between angular resolution, b-value, and FOD estimation accuracy. PMID:19603409

White, Nathan S; Dale, Anders M

2009-11-01

260

Outcome Assessment from the Perspective of Psychological Science: The TAIM Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

In this chapter, the authors outline an approach to assessing complex constructs supported by psychological science and research. This approach is informed by their background as psychologists but is general enough to incorporate other disciplinary approaches as well. They identify this approach as TAIM (Theory, Activities, Indicators, Multiple…

Steinke, Pamela; Fitch, Peggy

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Evaluating Model for E-learning Modules According to Selected Criteria: An Object Oriented Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper aims at developing an applied system to evaluate the e-Learning Modules (eLMs depending on selected related criteria. Those criteria concern with many fields as well as many factors like, learning theories, computer science, instructional computer, software engineering, educational sciences, language criteria, economical factors, etc. Therefore the authors expressed the term of selected criteria to reflect the meaning of integrated factors of the environment deals with the developed eLM. However eLM for any subject requires for a systematic steps of integrated work depending on the model which is considered by the developer. Mostly the output of a stage represents the input of the next step. Our model will cover all steps in details. Thus such model could be considered not only to evaluate the developed eLMs but it could be used during process of developing because many items of criteria are designed so as to be a guide for developer during development of eLM. Developer should consider eLMs while he/she develops an eLM. Finally the authors presented selected eLM to apply the evaluating model, outcomes of the evaluations process lead to the needful conclusion.

Qabas Abdal Zahraa Jabbar

2012-07-01

262

Target-Oriented Approach to Identification of Business Processes of a Company ??????????????????? ?????? ? ????????????? ??????-????????? ???????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article identifies essence of the procedure of identification of business processes and its place in creation of a process model of a company. It shapes a set of properties of the business process, which should be determined at its identification. It considers approaches to construction of a process model of a company and identifies its advantages and shortcomings. It considers procedures of structurisation and identification of business processes of a company, which are alternative ones by direction of movement along levels of its hierarchy. It demonstrates that the goal (task, at achievement of which a business process is directed, directly identifies its boundaries at exit and indirectly (through production and management technology of a company and in accordance with the accepted level of detailing business processes – boundaries at entry. The offered approach to identification of business processes on the basis of its goals is illustrated by an example of sales activity of a company.? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ????????????? ??????-????????? ? ?? ????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ???????????. ??????? ???? ??????? ??????-????????, ??????? ?????? ???? ?????????? ??? ??? ?????????????. ??????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ???????????, ?????????? ?? ???????????? ? ??????????. ??????????? ????????? ?????????????? ? ????????????? ??????-????????? ???????????, ?????????????? ?? ??????????? ??????????? ?? ??????? ??? ????????. ??????????????????, ??? ???? (??????, ?? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ??????-???????, ??????????????? ?????????? ??? ??????? ?? ?????? ? ????????????? (????? ???????????????? ? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ? ???????? ????????? ?????? ??????????? ??????-????????? – ??????? ?? ?????. ???????????? ?????? ? ????????????? ??????-????????? ?? ?????? ?? ????? ???????????????? ?? ??????? ???????? ???????????? ???????????.

Kotlik Andrey V.

2013-02-01

263

An Integrated Approach for Extraction of Objects from XML and Transformation to Heterogeneous Object Oriented Databases  

CERN Document Server

CERN's (European Organization for Nuclear Research) WISDOM project uses XML for the replication of data between different data repositories in a heterogeneous operating system environment. For exchanging data from Web-resident databases, the data needs to be transformed into XML and back to the database format. Many different approaches are employed to do this transformation. This paper addresses issues that make this job more efficient and robust than existing approaches. It incorporates the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) XML Schema specification in the database-XML relationship. Incorporation of the XML Schema exhibits significant improvements in XML content usage and reduces the limitations of DTD-based database XML services. Secondly the paper explores the possibility of database independent transformation of data between XML and different databases. It proposes a standard XML format that every serialized object should follow. This makes it possible to use objects of heterogeneous database seamlessly usi...

Ahmad, U; Hassan, M W; McClatchey, R; Willers, I; Ahmad, Uzair; Ali, Arshad; Clatchey, Richard Mc; Hassan, Mohammad Waseem; Willers, Ian

2004-01-01

264

Integration of environmental approach to strategy of production enterprises - environmentally oriented quality of production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the paper there is presented system approach, applied in Slovak transformed production enterprises, which solve questions of closing the so called industrial cycle from the side of the wastes' producers, especially from the side of energetically solid wastes producers - fly ashes and slags. The quality of processes and final products is connected not only with the technological chain itself and with outputs from it - the utility product, but also with the load of the environment, with wastes care. (authors)

265

Workbook Approach to Algorithm Design and Service Accounting in a Component Orientated Environment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As the shift towards the next generation of services runs its course, the emphasis within accounting for such services has moved towards robust and flexible components. An accounting architecture with the ability to scale, based on the foundation of a solid core of rating components, incorporating transaction management, object pooling and queuing is presented. Using the workbook approach to algorithm modelling is a logfical option that allows for the decoupling of the algorthm from the archi...

Brazil, Jonathon; Ryan, Conor; Leastar, Eamonn; O? Foghlu?, Mi?chea?l

2002-01-01

266

An Embedded Software Modeling and Process by Using Aspect-Oriented Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent years, mobile devices have become widespread and refined, and they have offered increased convenience in human life. For these reasons, a variety of embedded systems have been designed. Therefore, improving methods for developing of embedded software systematically has become an important issue. Platform-based design is one example of an embedded-system design method that can reduce the design cost via improving a design’s abstraction level. However, platform-based design lacks precise definitions for platforms and design processes. This paper provides an approach that combines the aspects and platform-based design methods for developing embedded software. The approach is built on platform-based design methodology and uses the separating of concerns (SoC concept to define the aspects and to reduce the crosscutting concerns in embedded system modeling. For aspect issues, we use the extended UML notation with aspects to describe both the static structure and the dynamic structure of the embedded system. We used an example of a digital photo frame system to demonstrate our approach.

Yong-Yi FanJiang

2011-02-01

267

Business process learning on the job: A design science oriented approach and its empirical evaluation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Today, Business Process Management (BPM has established itself as an important cross-functional task in companies. The primary goal of BPM is to optimize the business process design and henceforth the actual execution of business processes. However, since optimizing processes on paper is not sufficient to really boost a company’s performance, it is indispensable to optimize the process execution which defines how business processes are actually performed at the end of the day. Yet before employees are able to carry out processes, they need a given up-front learning time. Hence, to research how business process learning can be realized on-the-job is promising in order to reduce up-front learning time; thus, being able to work efficiently on processes already from the very beginning. In this paper we present a tool-supported approach towards business process learning on-the-job using the concepts of task guidance and process guidance. After introducing the approach and its prototypical implementation, the paper presents an empirical study of this prototype showing that the general approach is useful to optimize workplace learning.

Peter Loos

2012-12-01

268

Implementing Optimal Outcomes in Social Computing: A Game-Theoretic Approach  

CERN Document Server

In many social computing applications such as online Q&A forums, the best contribution for each task receives some high reward, while all remaining contributions receive an identical, lower reward irrespective of their actual qualities. Suppose a mechanism designer (site owner) wishes to optimize an objective that is some function of the number and qualities of received contributions. When potential contributors are strategic agents, who decide whether to contribute or not to selfishly maximize their own utilities, is such a "best contribution" mechanism, M_B, adequate to implement an outcome that is optimal for the mechanism designer? We first show that in settings where a contribution's value is determined primarily by an agent's expertise, and agents only strategically choose whether to contribute or not, contests can implement optimal outcomes: for any reasonable objective, the rewards for the best and remaining contributions in M_B can always be chosen so that the outcome in the unique symmetric equi...

Ghosh, Arpita

2012-01-01

269

Prospective one-year treatment outcomes of tortured refugees: a psychiatric approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

The treatment of torture survivors from diverse cultures has been a difficult task involving issues of loss, massive trauma, cultural style, and adjusting to a new country. Research on treatment outcomes has shown inconsistent results. This report presents a prospective one year treatment outcome of 22 severely tortured patients from Ethiopia, Somalia, Iran and Afghanistan. Treatment was provided by psychiatrists and counselors with interpreters from each culture involved. The specific treatment included psychiatric evaluation, medicine, education, supportive psychotherapy and assisting some social needs. All 22 were diagnosed with depression and 17 of these also had posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Twenty of 22 patients showed marked significant improvement on all of the scales for depression, PTSD, disability, and quality of life. Medicine was particularly useful in treating depression and the symptoms of flashbacks, nightmares and irritability. Standard psychiatric treatment with evaluation, diagnosis, appropriate medicine, supportive psychotherapy and counseling by ethnic counselors provided good outcomes. PMID:23086001

Kinzie, J David; Kinzie, J Mark; Sedighi, Behjat; Woticha, Abdella; Mohamed, Halima; Riley, Crystal

2012-01-01

270

Product Service Systems and Non-Market Oriented Approach – Methodological and Ethical Considerations from a Design Perspective  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Macroscopic social and economic changes in the last few years are forcing business companies and public institutions to redefine their approach to social intervention, focusing on local and highly individualised solutions. This change is also calling for a new design approach. The challenge for designers is not only to be able to provide local and highly individualised solutions, but also to propose strategies to transfer and reproduce the solutions, or part of them, into different local contexts, thus creating economy of scope. This would be possible by using forms of codification and modularisation of the most relevant components in local solutions. The code refers to the organisational knowledge included in local components and the way each component interacts with the others. Like software systems, local product-service systems can be built upon a source code. This paper will illustrate how this process was developed in a concrete case. Through this case the authors analyse the possibility to build something similar to a source code for initiatives based on social interaction and investigate the process of construction of such a code Furthermore, the author discuss differences and analogies between design intervention in a social context and in the normal business context. The question of codification suggests a methodological approach for supporting transferability both in the problem space (dealing with complexity) and in the solution space (dealing with contingency). The analysis of differences and similarities between business- and socially-oriented processes suggests a new role for designers and new opportunities for innovation.

Morelli, Nicola; Jonas, Wolfgang

2008-01-01

271

An Object Oriented Approach to Simulation of TRIGA Mark II Dynamic Response  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

thout a great modeling effort. The developed a-causal model has been validated through the comparison with experimental data collected on the site, concerning three different power transients at 100 kW, 50 kW and 1 kW. A corresponding causal model has been referenced as concerns fuel and coolant temperatures evolution during the transients. The predictions of the two main approaches to dynamic modeling have been compared. A very satisfying accordance is found as discrepancies observed on the coolant temperature are comprised between 0.5% and 1% for the three transients. (author)

272

Content-oriented Approach to Organization of Theories and Its Utilization  

Science.gov (United States)

In spite of the fact that the relation between theory and practice is a foundation of scientific and technological development, the trend of increasing the gap between theory and practice accelerates in these years. The gap embraces a risk of distrust of science and technology. Ontological engineering as the content-oriented research is expected to contribute to the resolution of the gap. This paper presents the feasibility of organization of theoretical knowledge on ontological engineering and new-generation intelligent systems based on it through an application of ontological engineering in the area of learning/instruction support. This area also has the problem of the gap between theory and practice, and its resolution is strongly required. So far we proposed OMNIBUS ontology, which is a comprehensive ontology that covers different learning/instructional theories and paradigms, and SMARTIES, which is a theory-aware and standard-compliant authoring system for making learning/instructional scenarios based on OMNIBUS ontology. We believe the theory-awareness and standard-compliance bridge the gap between theory and practice because it links theories to practical use of standard technologies and enables practitioners to easily enjoy theoretical support while using standard technologies in practice. The following goals are set in order to achieve it; computers (1) understand a variety of learning/instructional theories based on the organization of them, (2) utilize the understanding for helping authors' learning/instructional scenario making and (3) make such theoretically sound scenarios interoperable within the framework of standard technologies. This paper suggests an ontological engineering solution to the achievement of these three goals. Although the evaluation is far from complete in terms of practical use, we believe that the results of this study address high-level technical challenges from the viewpoint of the current state of the art in the research area of artificial intelligence not only in education but also in general, and therefore we hope that constitute a substantial contribution for organization of theoretical knowledge in many other areas.

Hayashi, Yusuke; Bourdeau, Jacqueline; Mizoguch, Riichiro

273

Ovarian serous adenocarcinoma identified during IVF: diagnostic approach, surgical management, and reproductive outcome  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background To present a diagnostic evaluation and treatment strategy for serous adenocarcinoma of the ovary discovered during an in vitro fertilisation (IVF) sequence, and report on reproductive outcome after tumour resection and embryo transfer. Case presentation Cycle monitoring in IVF identified an abnormal ovarian lesion which was subjected to ultrasound-guided needle aspiration. Cytology suggested malignancy, and unilateral oophorectomy was perform...

Gleeson Noreen C; Shkrobot Lyuda V; Sills Eric; Walsh David J; Sheppard Mary N; Ph, Walsh Anthony

2009-01-01

274

Building Capacity for Sustainability through Curricular and Faculty Development: A Learning Outcomes Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

Portland State University has made integration of sustainability across its academic programs an institutional priority. This article describes the strategies that have been used to engage faculty in developing sustainability curricula, including adopting sustainability as one of eight campus-wide learning outcomes, incorporating sustainability…

Allen, Jennifer H.; Gerwing, Jeffrey J.; McBride, Leslie G.

2010-01-01

275

The Effects of Early Socialization Experiences on Content Mastery and Outcomes: A Mediational Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

This field study examined how early socialization experiences affect new employee mastery of socialization content and socialization outcomes. New employees reported the realism of their preentry knowledge and the helpfulness of socialization agents. A follow-up survey assessed mastery of socialization content along with role clarity, job…

Klein, Howard J.; Fan, Jinyan; Preacher, Kristopher J.

2006-01-01

276

Developing Meaningful IFSP Outcomes through a Family-Centered Approach Using the Double ABCX Model  

Science.gov (United States)

Although many professionals recognize the importance of identifying family priorities and concerns, it is often more difficult to identify and access family resources. This article discusses the application of the double ABCX model, a family-centered model, to assist in developing meaningful IFSP outcomes based on family concerns and priorities.…

Xu, Yaoying

2008-01-01

277

Community Partners in Care (CPIC): Video Summary of Rationale, Study Approach / Implementation, and Client 6-month Outcomes  

Science.gov (United States)

“Community Partners in Care (CPIC): Video Summary of Rationale, Study Approach / Implementation, and Client 6-month Outcomes” is a 2 minute, 46 second video summarizing the study rationale, study approach, and the 6-month outcomes. The video was produced by four agencies: Healthy African American Families II, a health advocacy organization in South Los Angeles; Behavioral Health Services, the largest substance/alcohol abuse service provider in LA County; UCLA; and RAND Health; contract filmmakers Eileen Cabiling and Joe Mango handled cinematography, editing, and video support. The individuals appearing in the video are key CPIC community and academic partners. The celebratory tone of the video is consistent with a Community Partnered Participatory Research approach, a local variant of participatory action research, where study findings are celebrated by the partners, and dissemination efforts include approaches intended for general audiences, especially from low-income, low-literacy, minority communities, in addition to traditional academic products like peer-reviewed scientific manuscripts. The CPIC video offers a community perspective on the study results to our partners, the general public, other scientists and policy makers. We designed the video to teach community and healthcare partners how to adapt and implement the CPIC depression care model and to offer other community –academic partnerships an example of a non-traditional product developed for dissemination from an NIH-funded research study.

Mango, Joseph; Cabiling, Eileen; Jones, Loretta; Lucas-Wright, Aziza; Williams, Pluscedia; Wells, Kenneth; Pulido, Esmeralda; Meldrum, Marcia; Ramos, Ana; Chung, Bowen

2014-01-01

278

Modelling tritium and carbon 14 in the environment: a biomass oriented approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are many existing models describing the behaviour of carbon 14 and tritium in the environment. There are all quite difficult to handle and data consuming because they are based on the precise description of the different and complex mechanisms of the carbon and hydrogen cycles. A simplified model of transfer in the environment of tritium and carbon 14 is presented. It is based on the following assumptions: (a) the modelled radionuclides have an homogeneous repartition inside the biological compartments considered; (b) transfer flows of such radionuclides are proportional to the biomass changes in all the biological compartments; (c) time evolution of radionuclides isotopic equilibrium is discrete. Such a dynamic approach is based on the use of growth models of biological systems (plants, animals, etc..). From the proposed conceptual model, 2 mathematical models are proposed: a one pool model (organic carbon for carbon 14) and a two-pool model (organic tritium and tritiated water for tritium). (author)

279

A mini-anterior approach to the hip for total joint replacement: optimising results: improving hip joint replacement outcomes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Direct anterior approaches to the hip have gained popularity as a minimally invasive method when performing primary total hip replacement (THR). A retrospective review of a single institution joint registry was performed in order to compare patient outcomes after THR using the Anterior Supine Intermuscular (ASI) approach versus a more conventional direct lateral approach. An electronic database identified 1511 patients treated with 1690 primary THRs between January 2006 and December 2010. Our results represent a summary of findings from our previously published work. We found that patients that underwent an ASI approach had faster functional recovery and higher Harris hip scores in the early post-operative period when compared with patients who had a direct lateral approach The overall complication rate in our ASI group was relatively low (1.7%) compared with other series using the same approach. The most frequent complication was early periprosthetic femoral fractures (0.9%). The dislocation rate in our series was 0.4% and the prosthetic joint infection rate was 0.1%. We suggest that the ASI approach is acceptable and safe when performing THR and encourages early functional recovery of our patients. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014;96- B(11 Suppl A):32-5. PMID:25381405

Mirza, A J; Lombardi, A V; Morris, M J; Berend, K R

2014-11-01

280

The emergence and outcomes of collective action: an institutional and ecosystem approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Participation in collective action is frequently studied through a community-based analysis, with focus on the social features of the participants and on the ecological features of the managed system. This study addresses the importance of scaling down to household level to understand different individual incentives to collaborate (or not as well as scaling up to the landscape level to evaluate the ecological outcome of the local forms of collective action. A study of a riparian community of 33 households in the Lower Amazon located between two distinct ecosystems -a privately owned upland forest and a communally owned floodplain- reveals that household-based analysis uncovers how heterogeneity within the community leads to different incentives for participation in the communal floodplain, while systemic analysis reveals that interconnection between the managed ecosystem and adjacent ecosystem influences the decisions to participate as well as the ecological outcomes of the collective actions.

Futtema Célia

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Examination of the role of magnetic resonance imaging in multiple sclerosis: A problem-orientated approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI has brought in several benefits to the study of Multiple Sclerosis (MS. It provides accurate measurement of disease activity, facilitates precise diagnosis, and aid in the assessment of newer therapies. The imaging guidelines for MS are broadly divided in to approaches for imaging patients with suspected MS or clinically isolated syndromes (CIS or for monitoring patients with established MS. In this review, the technical aspects of MR imaging for MS are briefly discussed. The imaging process need to capture the twin aspects of acute MS viz. the autoimmune acute inflammatory process and the neurodegenerative process. Gadolinium enhanced MRI can identify acute inflammatory lesions precisely. The commonly applied MRI marker of disease progression is brain atrophy. Whole brain magnetization Transfer Ratio (MTR and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS are two other techniques use to monitor disease progression. A variety of imaging techniques such as Double Inversion Recovery (DIR, Spoiled Gradient Recalled (SPGR acquisition, and Fluid Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR have been utilized to study the cortical changes in MS. MRI is now extensively used in the Phase I, II and III clinical trials of new therapies. As the technical aspects of MRI advance rapidly, and higher field strengths become available, it is hoped that the impact of MRI on our understanding of MS will be even more profound in the next decade.

McFarland Henry

2009-01-01

282

A Study of the Relationship Between Freshwater Runoff and Benthos Abundance: a Scale-oriented Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

In some coastal environments, freshwater runoff is one of the main potential sources of auxiliary energy. Little is known, however, about the mechanisms by which this energy input influences biological production, particularly at intermediate and high trophic levels. Moreover, the evidence available does not allow to link runoff variability one unambiguously to the dynamics of marine fauna. Here, an empirical approach based on exploratory data analysis is used to test for a link between these components of the ecosystem. Linear regression and correlation models were used to examine the relationship between runoff and abundance, biomass and mean weight per individual of juvenile populations (benthic species sampled on suspended collectors (i.e. Obelia longissima, Hiatella arctica, Mytilus edulis, Semibalanus balanoidesand Balanus crenatus), over a 10-year period. The study was carried out in a large coastal ecosystem, the Estuary and north-western Gulf of St. Lawrence, for both regulated and non-regulated runoff situations. Notwithstanding the regression or correlation model, the spatial scale, the runoff signal, the runoff index, the species or the biological descriptor used, no significant relationships were observed. Results are discussed in light of current hypotheses proposed to account for the effects of runoff on marine fauna.

Ardisson, P.-L.; Bourget, E.

1997-10-01

283

Constraints on the retreat from a welfare-orientated approach to public health care in Malaysia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Both in its articulation of values and through incremental changes, the Malaysian government has signalled a change in attitude towards the welfare approach which had hitherto characterized public health care policy. This change envisions an end to reliance upon the state for the provision and financing of health services and the fostering of a system of family-based welfare. In the future citizens should finance their own health care through savings, insurance or as part of their terms of employment. While the state will still accept a degree of responsibility for those unable to pay for their health care, it wishes to share this burden with the corporate sector and non-government organizations as part of a national policy of the 'Caring Society'. In this article the retreat from a commitment to a welfare model of public health care is documented and some of the serious obstacles to such a policy are discussed. It is concluded that the government's aspirations for reforming the welfare model will need to be tempered by both practical and political considerations. Moreover, the socio-economic consequences of the Asian currency crisis of 1997 are likely to increase the need for government welfare action. PMID:10387810

Barraclough, S

1999-04-01

284

Plastic covered vineyard extraction from airborne sensor data with an object-oriented approach  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, the wide-spreading of vineyard cultivation in the Apulia Region, Italy) has showed negative consequences on the hydrogeological balance of soils as well as on the visual quality of rural landscape which has been significantly altered by the heavy diffusion of artificial plastic coverings. In order to monitor and manage this phenomenon, a detailed site mapping has become essential. With the increase of spatial resolution, pixel based approaches no longer capture the characteristics of classification targets. Consequently, classification accuracy is poor. Object-based image classification techniques overcome this issue by first segmenting the image into meaningful multipixel objects of various sizes and then assigning segments to classes using fuzzy methods and hierarchical decision keys. In this study an object-based classification procedure from Very High Spatial Resolution (VHSR) true color aerial data was developed on a test area located between the Apulian municipalities of Ginosa and Palagiano in order to support the update of the existing land use database aimed at plastic covered vineyard monitoring.

Tarantino, E.; Aiello, A.

2011-11-01

285

A Novel Online Encyclopedia-Oriented Approach for Large-Scale Knowledge Base Construction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the process of constructing large-scale knowledge base, manual-based construction approach lacks efficiency as well as flexibility. Therefore, automatically extracting of massive knowledge from online encyclopedia has attracted attention from an increasing number of scholars. Current research is mainly focused on the extracting of data from English online encyclopedia, whereas research about knowledge extraction from Chinese or other language data sources is rare. For such reason, the present paper proposes an automatic construction scheme for large-scale knowledge base based on Chinese online Encyclopedia. (iIn the first phase of the scheme, self-expanded learning is performed on the semantic relations between subjects and objects among the knowledge triples. (iiIn the second phase, semantic relations between the marked attributes and their entities is predicted using Conditional Random Fields (CRFs and Support vector machine (SVM classifier. A large-scale knowledge base is automatically constructed based on the scheme, and the experiment results indicate that the scheme possesses feasibility and effectiveness.

Ting Wang

2014-02-01

286

Integration of environmental approaches to strategy of production enterprises - environmentally oriented quality of production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the paper there are presented system approaches, applied in Slovak transformed production enterprises, which solve questions of closing the so called industrial cycle from the side of the wastes' producers. The production quality is connected not only with the technological chain itself and with outputs from it - the utility product, but also with the load of the life environment.The presented possibilities of the liquidation of solid energetic waste ? fly ashes ? represent a an overview of forms and methods of its utilization. By combusting one kind of coal in various boilers, fly ashes with different physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties originate, with the combustion temperature as a dominant factor. The fly ashes are directly (without influencing its composition applied in civil engineering, mining, metallurgy, waste water cleaning, etc. Their utilization after a separation removal of unwanted components is an economically difficult process. Such a unvaluable component is coal combustion residue, evaluated by the annealing loss (carbon-in-ash loss in fly ashes used for special procedures in civil enginering, e.g. in mortars (maximally 4% of c.a.s. loss or in the porous concrete (4-7% of c.a.s. loss. The building industry processes about 20% of solid energetic waste.

Michalíková Franti?ka

2001-12-01

287

A set cover approach to fast beam orientation optimization in intensity modulated radiation therapy for total marrow irradiation  

Science.gov (United States)

The beam orientation optimization (BOO) problem in intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment planning is a nonlinear problem, and existing methods to obtain solutions to the BOO problem are time consuming due to the complex nature of the objective function and size of the solution space. These issues become even more difficult in total marrow irradiation (TMI), where many more beams must be used to cover a vastly larger treatment area than typical site-specific treatments (e.g., head-and-neck, prostate, etc). These complications result in excessively long computation times to develop IMRT treatment plans for TMI, so we attempt to develop methods that drastically reduce treatment planning time. We transform the BOO problem into the classical set cover problem (SCP) and use existing methods to solve SCP to obtain beam solutions. Although SCP is NP-Hard, our methods obtain beam solutions that result in quality treatments in minutes. We compare our approach to an integer programming solver for the SCP to illustrate the speed advantage of our approach.

Lee, Chieh-Hsiu Jason; Aleman, Dionne M.; Sharpe, Michael B.

2011-09-01

288

The Interaction Effects of Program Training, Dosage, and Implementation Quality on Targeted Student Outcomes for The RULER Approach to Social and Emotional Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined how training, dosage, and implementation quality of a social and emotional learning program, The RULER Approach, were related to students' social and emotional competencies. There were no main effects for any of the variables on student outcomes, but students had more positive outcomes when their teachers (a) attended more…

Reyes, Maria Regina; Brackett, Marc A.; Rivers, Susan E.; Elbertson, Nicole A.; Salovey, Peter

2012-01-01

289

Outcome Measures of a Family-Based Education Approach with Mexican Immigrants in the Yakima Valley  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the continued incidence of obesity and health related issues in the United States and especially in the Hispanic population, it is important to provide useful healthy lifestyle education to this population. One of the barriers to providing this information is the lack of culture sensitivity in the content and presentation of current programs. In this pilot study, pre and post tests were used to measure the effectiveness of Salsa, Sabor, y Salud, a culturally sensitive program designed for Latinos. Outcome measures included dietary changes, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, heart rate, reported physical activity, and healthy lifestyle score. Diet was evaluated by 24-hour diet recall for both adults and children. Difference in outcome measures was assessed using a dependent t test. Significant decreases in weight, waist circumference, diastolic blood pressure, kilocalories, and grams of carbohydrates were observed. Adults reported an increase in total minutes of physical activity and the importance of living a healthy lifestyle. This culturally sensitive education program, Salsa, Sabor, y Salud, has a positive effect on health related outcome measures.

Virginia A. Bennett

2011-10-01

290

Engineering for quality in the postanesthesia care unit: an outcomes approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

For the past 18 months, we have been monitoring three categories of outcome indicators. This process has aided us in decreasing overall patient length of stay (LOS) and improved the quality of care we provide our PACU patients. Using a local area network (LAN) computer program, we track the following: a set of sentinel indicators, a set of proximate clinical outcome indicators, and a set of system indicators based on nonclinical issues that prolong PACU LOS. The LAN computer program links the surgical scheduling department, OR, and PACU, and aids in accurately compiling and collating data. Quality improvement tools to facilitate further scrutiny of processes and aspects of care felt to be of particular relevance to perioperative nursing have also been developed. We are entering an era in which external accrediting agencies and third-party payers are placing an increasing emphasis on measuring and optimizing patient outcomes. This overall program will position the PACU at an advantage in meeting such challenges. PMID:8970295

Burden, B

1996-10-01

291

Information technology for sustainable development : a problem based and project oriented approach  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper we present different strategies to integrate concerns about sustainability into Information and Communication Technology (ITC) projects by use of problem based learning (PBL) methodology. In alignment with PBL we introduce two different models for problem analysis where students move from a broader theme to a problem formulation designed to fit the time, discipline and theme of study. In the prospect of Education for Sustainable development (ESD) the students are to move from the conceptually complex field of sustainable development (SD) to a specific formulation of a problem that initiate design, implementation and test of ICT for SD. On the empirical level we draw from experiments in autumn 2009 and spring 2013 within the field of Media technology. Observations, text analysis of students’ work as well as reflections from staff has been relied on in order to analyse the practical implications of the different approaches to integrate sustainability. We conclude that students indeed chose divers strategies to integrate sustainability into their projects and those diverse strategies are indeed needed to obtain student engagement. Furthermore, the introduction of an open-ended thematic frame, like sustainability, encouraged students to broaden their perspective on stressing economic, environmental as well as social concerns. However, the experiments also showed that interlinking engineering subjects with sustainability is a rather time-consuming task – and some of the students were struggling with these open-ended themes at the same time as they were struggling with the rather open-ended perspectives on how to manage and structure a problem based and project organised project.

Holgaard, Jette Egelund; Guerra, Aida

2013-01-01

292

[Usability first : Model-based approach for the use-oriented risk analysis of medical devices].  

Science.gov (United States)

Due to increasing automation, the number and complexity of technical components have increased in the medical context (e.g., in the clinic or in the home care sector) in recent years. Besides new effective and efficient therapeutic and diagnostic options, these devices entail a wide range of functions and very complex (often computer-based) user interfaces that may lead to human-induced risk potential. A systematic and early human risk analysis and a usability evaluation allow medical device manufacturers to identify and control risks within the human-machine interaction very efficiently. At the Department of Medical Engineering in the Helmholtz Institute for Biomedical Engineering at the RWTH Aachen University, a formal-analytical methodology and a corresponding software tool for prospective human-risk analysis and model-based usability evaluation has been developed. Based on a twofold approach, user interactive process sequences and their potential impacts on the overall process are identified and the resulting use-related risks are assessed. For this, the tasks are categorized (in system and user tasks) and modeled and temporally related within the framework of a high-level task analysis. Within a subsequent cognitive low-level task analysis, potentially critical parallel process sequences are then tested in order to detect a potential resource overload of the user. The subsequent corresponding human-risk analysis is developed according to a knowledge base (checklist) of taxonomies related to human error. The HiFEM (human-function effect modeling) methodology is universally applicable and can be used for the evaluation of human-computer interfaces as well as for the analysis of purely mechanical control interfaces and simple hand-held instruments (such as a scalpel and implant). In a comparative study, the HiFEM method clearly outperforms the classic FMEA (failure modes and effects analysis) process with regard to effectiveness, efficiency, learnability, and user satisfaction. Especially small and medium-sized enterprises that constitute the medical device industry can be supported by the new methodology in the context of risk management according to ISO 14971 as well as usability engineering in accordance with IEC 62366 and IEC 60601-1-6 as well as EN ISO 9241. PMID:25367174

Janß, A; Radermacher, Klaus

2014-12-01

293

Modelling nitrogen transport and turnover at the hillslope scale - a process oriented approach  

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Biogeochemical models used for simulating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are mainly designed for the plot scale. Lateral fluxes of nutrients such as nitrate, which may be important drivers for soil GHG emissions, are not or only scarcely considered and explored in such models. This is due to the complexity of microbiological, physic-chemical and plant processes which need to be investigated and simulated along one spatial dimension, the depth, so that the introduction of a second (a hillslope) or third (entire landscapes) spatial dimension is likely to introduce additional complexity which can hardly be handled by most models. However, plot scale models, validated with data obtained at plot scale studies, will systematically under- or overestimate key GHG production and consumption processes if lateral in- or efflux of nutrients to or from a given site is of significant importance. E.g. in laterally connected environments, such as riparian zones denitrification will be fuelled by lateral influx of nitrate from uphill positioned fertilized land. Thus, landscape approaches are needed to identify and realistically simulate GHG emissions. The poster will present a coupled modeling system consisting of the fully distributed hydrology model CMF coupled to the regional ecosystem model LandscapeDNDC. The model coupling was preformed using the OpenPALM coupler from Cerfacs, France which is based on parallel computer technology. The coupler synchronizes the two models with respect to simulation time and performs the exchange of data (water fluxes, nutrient concentrations, etc.) from and to the models. The resulting coupled hydrology-ecosystem model was applied to simulate carbon and nitrogen cycling along a three dimensional virtual hillslope. In the experiment the uphill section of the domain consists of intensive arable land (maize - wheat rotation with up to 300 kg N fertilization) whereas the lowland section and riparian zone consists of extensive grassland. The simulation results show the effect of lateral nutrient transport (nitrate) along the hillslope leading to biomass productivity gradients in the extensive grassland towards the riparian zone associated with high indirect N2O emissions, specially in the riparian zone. Simulation of N cycling with the coupled hydrology - ecosystem model along a hillslope consisting of up to 30 grid cells. N fertilizer added upland will be converted into nitrate leading to biomass production and nutrient transport along the hillslope as well as N2O emissions.

Klatt, S.; Haas, E.; Kiese, R.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.; Wlotzka, M.; Heuveline, V.; Kraft, P.; Breuer, L.

2012-12-01

294

What do resource-oriented approaches mean to general practitioners and how can they be facilitated in primary care? A qualitative study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although resource orientation, as a part of health promotion, should play a major role in general practice, the anchoring and realization of resource-oriented approaches remain small in Germany. The aim of this study was to analyze what resource orientation means to general practitioners (GPs) and develop strategies as to how this can be facilitated in GP practice. Within a qualitative research approach, 19 semi-structured telephone interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Within the interviews, the inclusion of the patients' individual resources is described as core competence of GPs. Supporting the patients' disease coping strategies and self-help were seen as important by GPs. However, perceptions as to which resources are considered to be fundamental ranged widely across the participant group. The results confirm the important role of resource-oriented approaches in general practice. However, a general definition of resource orientation is needed. In addition, working conditions for GPs need to be taken into account to ensure that these contribute to a healthy work-life balance. The need for GP training was identified to improve communication skills. Further integration of GPs in health promotion and communal structures would be beneficial. PMID:23986779

Prüfer, Franziska; Joos, Stefanie; Miksch, Antje

2013-01-01

295

Different lenses, improved outcomes: a new approach to the analysis and design of healthcare information systems.  

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Healthcare systems are complex sociotechnical systems in which many information system innovations fail because of problems in planning or design. One of the reasons for this is that traditional analysis methods were designed for stable, relatively simple systems and single users. New analytical approaches are needed that can encompass the complexity of changing systems and multiple, interacting users. The author suggests that integrating two seemingly disparate approaches may be helpful in achieving successful designs for the complexities of healthcare systems. The first is derived from Carper's four ways of knowing; the second is Cognitive Work Analysis (CWA). The utility of the approach is demonstrated via a case study. PMID:11904249

Effken, Judith A

2002-04-01

296

Endoscopic endonasal approach for growth hormone secreting pituitary adenomas: outcomes in 53 patients using 2010 consensus criteria for remission.  

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We report the outcomes of the endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) for resection of growth hormone secreting pituitary adenomas using 2010 consensus criteria. We also assess outcomes with additional medical therapy and radiosurgery (RS) for patients not achieving remission with EEA alone. A retrospective review of 53 patients who had follow up endocrinologic data at least 3 months post-surgery was performed among patients who were treated by EEA between 1998 and 2012. Data were analyzed for remission using GH and IGF-I levels based on 2010 consensus criteria. We also analyzed the outcomes using 2000 consensus criteria for ease in comparison to prior studies of outcomes of surgery for acromegaly. In this series of mostly large (88.2% macroadenomas), invasive (46.9% Hardy-Wilson C, D, E) adenomas, there were 27 patients (50.9%) who achieved remission after EEA only. For patients who had no remission with EEA alone, RS and/or medical therapy were used and 37 patients (69.8 %) achieved remission overall. Statistical analysis showed larger tumor size, Hardy Stages C, D, E and Knosp Scores 3, 4 to be predictive against remission for EEA only and EEA with other modalities. The volume of residual tumor after EEA was not found to be predictive of remission with additional therapies. We used stringent consensus criteria from 2010 in a series which included a high proportion of invasive GH secreting adenomas to show that EEA alone or combined with other modalities results in comparable remission rates to earlier studies which used less strict criteria, while retaining low complication rates. PMID:23179961

Shin, Samuel S; Tormenti, Matthew J; Paluzzi, Alessandro; Rothfus, William E; Chang, Yue-Fang; Zainah, Hanady; Fernandez-Miranda, Juan C; Snyderman, Carl H; Challinor, Sue M; Gardner, Paul A

2013-12-01

297

Management of anterior segment penetrating injuries with traumatic cataract by pentagon approach in paediatric age group: Constraints and outcome  

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Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of multiple combined procedure (Pentagon approach as single-step secondary repair in cases of extensive keratolenticular trauma in paediatric age group. Methods: Retrospective evaluation of 18 patients of penetrating injuries with sclero-keratolenticular trauma, who underwent multiple procedure as single-step secondary repair by a single team of two surgeons during a 4 year period. Surgical procedure included reconstruction of anterior segment, synechiolysis, excision of membrane, lensectomy, open sky vitrectomy, PC IOL implantation over frill and penetrating keratoplasty. Meticulous antiamblyopia measures were applied in all cases. Results: Extensive vasoproliferative membrane, complicated cataract and anterior vitreous condensation were significant intra-operative hurdles. Moderate uveitis, secondary glaucoma, persistent epithelial defects were problems noted. Eleven (61.22% patients attained good visual outcome. Regrafting was required in remaining cases due to delayed graft failure. Conclusion: Despite being a highly complex technique, Pentagon approach provides effective management profile in terms of graft success and functional outcome, especially in keratolenticular trauma, in children.

Parihar Jitendra

2000-01-01

298

An innovative community-oriented approach to prevention and early intervention with refugees in the United States.  

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Thousands of refugees from around the world resettle in the United States every year. Many refugees suffer from mental health disorders as a result of experiences living in or escaping from their turbulent homelands, and many also experience mental health issues as they settle in their new host countries. As such, it is important to intervene during the early stages of refugee resettlement to help prevent or mitigate mental illness symptoms. However, because of several access and utilization barriers, such as stigma, refugees are not apt to receive needed mental health services. Moreover, the traditional Western model of treatment can be culturally incongruent with refugee practices. Alternative, culturally sensitive, community-based approaches must be considered. This article presents a community-oriented prevention and early intervention model that can be used with newly arrived refugees with limited English proficiency. Goals of the model are to increase knowledge of mental health and mental health service options to refugees, as well as support the process of adjusting to life in the United States. The New Refugee Services Project, developed by the Center for Survivors of Torture department of Asian Americans for Community Involvement (AACI) in San Santa Clara County, California is presented as an example case study. The structure outlined in this article aims to support the development, implementation, and assessment of future preventative interventions for refugee populations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25384000

Nazzal, Kristel Heidi; Forghany, Marzieh; Geevarughese, M Charis; Mahmoodi, Venus; Wong, Jorge

2014-11-01

299

Ovarian serous adenocarcinoma identified during IVF: diagnostic approach, surgical management, and reproductive outcome  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background To present a diagnostic evaluation and treatment strategy for serous adenocarcinoma of the ovary discovered during an in vitro fertilisation (IVF sequence, and report on reproductive outcome after tumour resection and embryo transfer. Case presentation Cycle monitoring in IVF identified an abnormal ovarian lesion which was subjected to ultrasound-guided needle aspiration. Cytology suggested malignancy, and unilateral oophorectomy was performed after formal staging. After surgery, the patient underwent an anonymous donor oocyte IVF cycle which established a viable twin intrauterine pregnancy. No recurrence of cancer has been detected in the >72 month follow-up interval; mother and twin daughters continue to do well. Conclusion Suspicious adnexal structures noted during controlled ovarian hyperstimulation for IVF warrant assessment, and this report confirms the role of aspiration cytology in such cases. If uterine conservation is possible, successful livebirth can be achieved from IVF if donor oocyes are utilised, as described here.

Gleeson Noreen C

2009-05-01

300

Motivational mechanisms and outcome expectancies underlying the approach bias towards addictive substances  

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Full Text Available Human behavior can be paradoxical, in that actions can be initiated that are seemingly incongruent with an individual’s explicit desires. This is most commonly observed in drug addiction, where maladaptive behavior (i.e. drug seeking appears to be compulsive, continuing at great personal cost. Approach biases towards addictive substances have been correlated with actual drug-use in a number of studies, suggesting that this measure can, in some cases, index everyday maladaptive tendencies. At present it is unclear whether this bias to drug cues is a Pavlovian conditioned approach response, a habitual response, the result of a Pavlovian-instrumental transfer process or a goal-directed action in the sense that expectancy of the rewarding effects of drugs controls approach. We consider this question by combining the theoretical framework of associative learning with the available evidence from approach bias research. Although research investigating the relative contributions of these mechanisms to the approach bias is to date relatively limited, we review existing studies and also outline avenues for future research.

BernhardHommel

2012-10-01

 
 
 
 
301

Family, Learning Environments, Learning Approaches, and Student Outcomes in a Malaysian Private University  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents the quantitative findings from a mixed methods study of students and faculty at a private medical university in Malaysia. In particular, the relationships among students' individual characteristics, general self-efficacy, family context, university and classroom learning environments, curriculum, approaches to learning, and…

Kek, Megan A. Yih Chyn; Darmawan, I. Gusti Ngurah; Chen, Yu Sui

2007-01-01

302

Comparison of predictor approaches for longitudinal binary outcomes: application to anesthesiology data  

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Longitudinal data with binary repeated responses are now widespread among clinical studies and standard statistical analysis methods have become inadequate in the answering of clinical hypotheses. Instead of such conventional approaches, statisticians have started proposing better techniques, such as the Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) approach and Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMM) technique. In this research, we undertook a comparative study of modeling binary repeated responses using an anesthesiology dataset which has 375 patient data with clinical variables. We modeled the relationship between hypotension and age, gender, surgical department, positions of patients during surgery, diastolic blood pressure, pulse, electrocardiography and doses of Marcain-heavy, chirocaine, fentanyl, and midazolam. Moreover, parameter estimates between the GEE and the GLMM were compared. The parameter estimates, except time-after, Marcain-Heavy, and Fentanyl from the GLMM, are larger than those from GEE. The standard errors from the GLMM are larger than those from GEE. GLMM appears to be more suitable approach than the GEE approach for the analysis hypotension during spinal anesthesia. PMID:25374787

Coskunfirat, Nesil; Saka, Osman

2014-01-01

303

An approach to psychotherapy toleration: the Distress/Endorsement Validation Scale (DEVS) for clinical outcome studies.  

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The issue of treatment tolerance within the field of psychotherapy is, at best, a nebulous construct and has been commonly evaluated via rates of subject attrition and homework compliance. This research presents the psychometric properties of a ten-item scale which endeavours to measure treatment distress and participant endorsement of therapy protocols used in clinical research. Two factors emerged and the subscales of Distress and Endorsement were derived. These subscales displayed good reliability with acceptable inter-item correlations within each subscale. The subscales were also able to differentiate the perspectives of male Vietnam veterans from their spouses on a lifestyle management course at the termination of intervention. However, this scale also displayed a cognitive behavioural trauma treatment protocol and eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing to be equivalent in treatment distress and participant endorsement in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder. Preliminary findings suggest that the relationship between these two subscales and outcome may, to some extent, be population specific. First evidence suggests that intervention distress ratings may be influenced by severity of presentation, whilst endorsement ratings are more influenced by symptomatic improvement over time. Suggestions for future research are presented and the full questionnaire is attached as an appendix. PMID:15530846

Devilly, Grant J

2004-12-01

304

High-grade undifferentiated sarcomas of the uterus: diagnosis, outcomes, and new treatment approaches.  

Science.gov (United States)

High-grade undifferentiated sarcomas (HGUS) are rare malignancies accounting for 6 % of all uterine sarcomas and have a very poor outcome. Histological classification of HGUS is currently debated as a subgroup with uniform nucleoli, and frequently YWHAE-FAM22 transcript has been described, constituting a potential target for new therapies. In localized HGUS, surgery involving total hysterectomy and bilateral oophorectomy is recommended. Adjuvant radiotherapy has recently been suggested in a retrospective study to decrease local recurrence and improve survival versus observation in localized HGUS. In metastatic or recurrent disease, chemotherapy with doxorubicin with or without ifosfamide constitutes the standard of care. Gemcitabine plus docetaxel also seems to be an interesting alternative. Targeted therapies such as pazopanib are now available for soft tissue sarcomas and so could be proposed for uterine sarcoma patients after first- or second-line chemotherapy in the metastatic phase. Further investigations are needed to determine their indications and targets. A European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) randomized trial testing maintenance therapy with cabozantinib after first-line chemotherapy in HGUS is ongoing. PMID:25123078

Philip, Charles-André; Pautier, Patricia; Duffaud, Florence; Ray-Coquard, Isabelle

2014-10-01

305

Configurational explanation of marketing outcomes : a fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As marketing, as a function and a process, is required to explain itself with more transparency, new tools and comprehensive analysis processes must be created and adopted, so that marketing performance and its determinants can systematically be understood and developed. In this dissertation, I present fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (‘FS/QCA’; Ragin, 2000; Fiss, 2008; Rihoux and Ragin, 2009; and others) as a novel approach to assessing marketing performance. My key argume...

Vassinen, Antti

2012-01-01

306

Retraining automatic action tendencies changes alcoholic patients’ approach bias for alcohol and improves treatment outcome  

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This study tested the effects of a new cognitive-bias modification (CBM) intervention that targeted an approach bias for alcohol in 214 alcoholic inpatients. Patients were assigned to one of two experimental conditions, in which they were explicitly or implicitly trained to make avoidance movements (pushing a joystick) in response to alcohol pictures, or to one of two control conditions, in which they received no training or sham training. Four brief sessions of experimental CBM preceded regu...

Wiers, R. W.; Eberl, C.; Rinck, M.; Becker, E. S.; Lindenmeyer, J.

2011-01-01

307

Outcome of major trauma in a Turkish university hospital: did integrated approach make a difference?  

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The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the institution in an in-hospital integrated approach to trauma on the mortality of severely injured patients in a university hospital in Turkey. We examined the effects of several risk factors, namely physiological parameters, anatomical findings, and the timeliness of therapeutic approaches, on the mortality of major trauma patients before and after the institution of integrated trauma care. The investigated risk factors were injury severity score (ISS), revised trauma score (RTS), anatomical localization of the injury, the type of injury, prehospital time, emergency room time, and referral from another hospital. TRISS (RTS, ISS, and age combination index) analysis was done for each patient and the M-, Z-, and W-statistics were calculated. Mortality in the low RTS and the penetrating injury groups decreased significantly. The overall mortality decreased from 32.5% to 23.3%. There were three unexpected survivors in the second period, but there were no unexpected survivors in the first period. Twenty-six of the first period and nine of the second period deaths were unexpected. A significant improvement was seen in the Z-statistics between the two periods. Z value increased from -2.47 to 0.55. In-hospital integrated approach to trauma made major improvements in the care of the patients with severe injuries, especially those with significant airway, ventilation and circulation problems. PMID:11142269

Ozgüç, H; Kaya, E; Yünük, O; Arma?an, E; Tokyay, R

2000-09-01

308

Using the health action process approach to predict and improve health outcomes in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus  

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Full Text Available Mariana MacPhail,1 Barbara Mullan,2 Louise Sharpe,1 Carolyn MacCann,1 Jemma Todd1 1School of Psychology, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2School of Psychology and Speech Pathology, Curtin University, Bentley, WA, Australia Background: The purpose of this study was to explore the predictive utility of the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA and test a HAPA-based healthy eating intervention, in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials and methods: The study employed a prospective, randomized, controlled trial design. The 4-month intervention consisted of self-guided HAPA-based workbooks in addition to two telephone calls to assist participants with the program implementation, and was compared to “treatment as usual”. Participants (n=87 completed health measures (diet, body mass index [BMI], waist circumference, blood pressure, blood glucose levels, lipid levels, and diabetes distress and HAPA measures prior to the intervention and again upon completion 4 months later. Results: The overall HAPA model predicted BMI, although only risk awareness and recovery self-efficacy were significant independent contributors. Risk awareness, intentions, and self-efficacy were also independent predictors of health outcomes; however, the HAPA did not predict healthy eating. No significant time × condition interaction effects were found for diet or any HAPA outcome measures. Conclusion: Despite the success of HAPA in predicting health outcomes for those with type 2 diabetes mellitus, the intervention was unsuccessful in changing healthy eating or any of the other measured variables, and alternative low-cost health interventions for those with type 2 diabetes mellitus should be explored. Keywords: intervention, healthy eating, theory, risk awareness, self-efficacy

MacPhail M

2014-10-01

309

Gender and racial differences in treatment process and outcome among participants in the adolescent community reinforcement approach.  

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Increasingly, evidence-based treatments are being implemented by community treatment providers, and it is important to understand whether they can be implemented with similar quality and equivalent effectiveness across gender and racial groups. This study examined whether initiation, engagement, dosage, treatment satisfaction, or outcomes for adolescents who received the Adolescent Community Reinforcement Approach (A-CRA) in a large implementation effort were equivalent by gender or racial group. Analyses of data from 2,141 adolescents representing 33 sites across the United States revealed no significant differences for initiation, engagement, or retention by gender or race. Ninety-six percent of the sample reported being satisfied with treatment; however, male adolescents had significantly higher rates of treatment satisfaction than female adolescents, and African American adolescents had significantly higher rates of treatment satisfaction than Caucasian adolescents. A subset of the initial sample (n = 1,819) was used to investigate outcomes. All racial groups had significant increases in days abstinent from alcohol and other drugs and in the percentage in recovery across the measurement period but did not differ from one another at the six-month follow-up. Female adolescents had a higher percentage of days abstinent from alcohol and other drugs and were more likely to be in recovery at the six-month follow-up than male adolescents. Overall, process indicators suggest the intervention was well implemented across gender and racial groups and equally effective across racial groups, with males having equivalent gains in abstinence and recovery compared with females despite males having greater intake severity and differential outcomes at six months. PMID:21443309

Godley, Susan H; Hedges, Kristin; Hunter, Brooke

2011-03-01

310

A biology-driven approach identifies the hypoxia gene signature as a predictor of the outcome of neuroblastoma patients  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypoxia is a condition of low oxygen tension occurring in the tumor microenvironment and it is related to poor prognosis in human cancer. To examine the relationship between hypoxia and neuroblastoma, we generated and tested an in vitro derived hypoxia gene signature for its ability to predict patients' outcome. Results We obtained the gene expression profile of 11 hypoxic neuroblastoma cell lines and we derived a robust 62 probesets signature (NB-hypo taking advantage of the strong discriminating power of the l1-l2 feature selection technique combined with the analysis of differential gene expression. We profiled gene expression of the tumors of 88 neuroblastoma patients and divided them according to the NB-hypo expression values by K-means clustering. The NB-hypo successfully stratifies the neuroblastoma patients into good and poor prognosis groups. Multivariate Cox analysis revealed that the NB-hypo is a significant independent predictor after controlling for commonly used risk factors including the amplification of MYCN oncogene. NB-hypo increases the resolution of the MYCN stratification by dividing patients with MYCN not amplified tumors in good and poor outcome suggesting that hypoxia is associated with the aggressiveness of neuroblastoma tumor independently from MYCN amplification. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that the NB-hypo is a novel and independent prognostic factor for neuroblastoma and support the view that hypoxia is negatively correlated with tumors' outcome. We show the power of the biology-driven approach in defining hypoxia as a critical molecular program in neuroblastoma and the potential for improvement in the current criteria for risk stratification.

Fardin Paolo

2010-07-01

311

Central venous infusion port inserted via high versus low jugular venous approaches: Retrospective comparison of outcome and complications  

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Purpose: To retrospectively compare immediate and long-term outcome of central venous infusion port inserted via right high versus low jugular vein approaches. Materials and methods: The study included 163 patients (125 women patients, 38 men patients; age range, 18-79 years; mean age, 53 years); 142 patients underwent port insertion with low jugular vein approach and 21 patients with high jugular vein approach. The causes of high jugular vein puncture were metastatic lymphadenopathy (n = 7), operation scar (n = 6), radiation scar (n = 5), failure of low jugular vein puncture (n = 2), and abnormal course of right subclavian artery (n = 1). Medical records and radiologic studies were reviewed retrospectively to determine and compare the outcome and the occurrence of complication related to port. Results: The procedure-related complications were all minor (n = 14, 8.6%) in both groups; hematoma (n = 4, 2.8% in low jugular puncture group and n = 1, 4.8% in high jugular puncture group, p = 0.6295), air embolism (n = 2, 1.4% in low jugular puncture group and n = 0 in high jugular puncture group, p = 0.5842) and minor bleeding (n = 5, 3.5% in low jugular vein puncture group and n = 2, 9.5% in high jugular vein puncture group, p = 0.2054). The average length of follow-up was 431 days for low jugular vein puncture group and 284 days for high jugular vein puncture group. The difference between two groups was significant (p = 0.0349). The reasons for catheter removal were patients' death (59 in low jugular puncture group and 14 in high jugular puncture group, p = 0.0465), suspected infection (11 in low jugular vein puncture group and 2 in high jugular vein puncture group, p = 0.8242), catheter occlusion (four in low jugular vein puncture group and one in high jugular vein puncture group, p = 0.6583). The catheter tip migrated upward an average of 1.86 cm (range, -0.5 to 5.0 cm) in low jugular vein puncture group and 1.56 cm (range, 0-3.6 cm) in high jugular vein puncture group and there was no significant difference (p = 0.4232). Conclusions: Right high jugular vein approach can be a feasible alternative to right low jugular vein approach.

Park, Hong Suk [Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, 809 Madu 1-dong, Ilsan-gu, Goyang-si, Gyeonggi-do 411-764 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: hpark@dreamwiz.com; Kim, Young Il; Lee, Sang Hyun; Kim, Jung Im; Seo, Hyobin; Lee, Sang Min; Lee, Youkyung; Lim, Min Kyung [Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, 809 Madu 1-dong, Ilsan-gu, Goyang-si, Gyeonggi-do 411-764 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Young Suk [Division of Hematology-Oncology, Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2009-12-15

312

An interdisciplinary, outcome-based approach to astmospheric CO2 mitigation with planted southern pine forests  

Science.gov (United States)

The Pine Integrated Network: Education, Mitigation and Adaptation Project ("PINEMAP") was funded by National Institute of Food and Agriculture to produce outcomes of enhanced climate change mitigation and adaptation in planted southern pine ecosystems. The PINEMAP project leverages a strong group of existing networks to produce synergy and cooperation on applied forestry research in the region. Over the last 50 years, cooperative research on planted southern pine management among southeastern U.S. universities, government agencies, and corporate forest landowners has developed and facilitated the widespread implementation of improved genetic and silvicultural technology. The impact of these regional research cooperatives is difficult to overstate, with current members managing 55% of the privately owned planted pine forestland, and producing 95% of the pine seedlings planted each year. The PINEMAP team includes the eight major forestry cooperative research programs, scientists from eleven land grant institutions, the US Forest Service, and climate modeling and adaptation specialists associated with the multi-state SE Climate Consortium and state climate offices. Our goal is to create and disseminate the knowledge that enables landowners to: harness planted pine forest productivity to mitigate atmospheric CO2; more efficiently use nitrogen and other fertilizer inputs; and adapt their forest management to increase resilience in the face of changing climate. We integrate our team's infrastructure and expertise to: 1) develop breeding, genetic deployment and innovative management systems to increase C sequestration and resilience to changing climate of planted southern pine forests ; 2) understand interactive effects of policy, biology, and climate change on sustainable management; 3) transfer new management and genetic technologies to private industrial and non-industrial landowners; and 4) educate a diverse cross-section of the public about the relevance of forests, forest management, and climate change. These efforts will enable our stakeholders to enhance the productivity of southern pine forests, while maintaining social, economic, and ecological sustainability.

Martin, T.; Fox, T.; Peter, G.; Monroe, M.

2012-12-01

313

Improving Outcomes for Youth with ADHD: A Conceptual Framework for Combined Neurocognitive and Skill-Based Treatment Approaches.  

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Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent and chronic mental health condition that often results in substantial impairments throughout life. Although evidence-based pharmacological and psychosocial treatments exist for ADHD, effects of these treatments are acute, do not typically generalize into non-treated settings, rarely sustain over time, and insufficiently affect key areas of functional impairment (i.e., family, social, and academic functioning) and executive functioning. The limitations of current evidence-based treatments may be due to the inability of these treatments to address underlying neurocognitive deficits that are related to the symptoms of ADHD and associated areas of functional impairment. Although efforts have been made to directly target the underlying neurocognitive deficits of ADHD, extant neurocognitive interventions have shown limited efficacy, possibly due to misspecification of training targets and inadequate potency. We argue herein that despite these limitations, next-generation neurocognitive training programs that more precisely and potently target neurocognitive deficits may lead to optimal outcomes when used in combination with specific skill-based psychosocial treatments for ADHD. We discuss the rationale for such a combined treatment approach, prominent examples of this combined treatment approach for other mental health disorders, and potential combined treatment approaches for pediatric ADHD. Finally, we conclude with directions for future research necessary to develop a combined neurocognitive + skill-based treatment for youth with ADHD. PMID:25120200

Chacko, Anil; Kofler, Michael; Jarrett, Matthew

2014-12-01

314

An integrated approach to worker self-management and health outcomes: chronic conditions, evidence-based practice, and health coaching.  

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Employee health, prevention, and maintenance programs are growing exponentially each year as costs continue to rise across the health care continuum. Employers and payers alike continue to be challenged by chronic health risks, effective prevention strategies, optimal health and wellness strategies, and programs that are effective for America's work force. In light of these challenges, new and exciting health management approaches are evolving. Changes in occupational health nursing practice can ultimately affect the way occupational health nurses plan, structure, and conduct education sessions. New trends, such as health coaching, embrace the incorporation of health research through evidence-based practice and standards of care to provide the science clinicians need to support interventions. Through knowledge of chronic conditions, evidence-based practice, and health coaching, occupational health nurses possess the skills and strategies that form the foundation necessary to affect and safely guide employee self-discovery and self-management and produce optimal health outcomes. PMID:22045011

Miller, Colleen

2011-11-01

315

Reducing volcanic risk on Fogo Volcano, Cape Verde, through a participatory approach: which outcome?  

Science.gov (United States)

This research paper presents the outcomes of Work Package 5 (socio-economical vulnerability assessment and community-based disaster risk reduction) of the MIAVITA (MItigate and Assess risk from Volcanic Impact on Terrain and human Activities) research programme conducted on Fogo Volcano, Cape Verde. The study lasted for almost 3 years (May 2010 to January 2012), of which most of the time was spent in the village of Chã das Caldeiras, situated within the 9 km wide caldera of the volcano inside Fogo Natural Park. The objectives of the programme included assessment of the vulnerability of the community at risk in terms of livelihoods, access to resources, and power relations between the local people and the different public and private institutions. These are important factors that need to be investigated in order to understand the root causes of vulnerability of the local people. This case study shows that the voluntary exposure of people to volcanic threats is linked to daily access to sources of livelihood, especially agriculture and tourism. This is despite the perception of people of the risk to their lives and properties. In order to counter the factors of vulnerability, the study also aimed to identify and enhance local capacities. To achieve such an objective, a participatory three-dimensional mapping (P3DM) activity was conducted to facilitate the dialogue between the local people and the different stakeholders as well as to prepare plans and measures to reduce volcanic risk. The P3DM was a half success considering that it has not yet led to an operational plan which takes into account the local capacities. The main reasons included (1) the non-participatory aspect of the project at the beginning which should have identified priorities for people and let them lead the project to ensure the sustainability of (2) deep conflicts within the community which complicated the focus group discussions around the 3-D map, and the difficulties in involving more marginalised people like women and the youth, and (3) the fact that volcanic risk is not a priority for the people, who are more concerned with daily difficulties due to unsustainable livelihoods, a lack of access to water, land tenure, and the restrictions by the Fogo Natural Park administration and the municipal officials. Still, the study was successful in creating a space for dialogue between the local people and the outside stakeholders such as the Natural Park Administration, the Civil Protection, and the Municipality of Santa Catarina, who have all participated actively during the course of the project.

Texier-Teixeira, P.; Chouraqui, F.; Perrillat-Collomb, A.; Lavigne, F.; Cadag, J. R.; Grancher, D.

2014-09-01

316

'Miracle baby': an outcome of multidisciplinary approach to neurotrauma in pregnancy.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) warranting neurosurgical intervention in the pregnant population is a rarity. We describe a case of a 27-year-old woman who at 13 weeks of gestation presented with multiple traumas having been involved in a near fatal road traffic accident. Glasgow Coma Scale was 6\\/15. CT brain showed extensive haemorrhagic contusions, diffuse brain swelling and multiple skull and facial fractures. Decompressive craniectomy was performed to control her intracranial pressure during her management in the intensive care. A viable intrauterine pregnancy was confirmed and progressed as maternal stabilisation and rehabilitation continued. At 35+3 weeks a 2770 g male child was delivered via emergency caesarean section after spontaneous onset of labour. The child had no detectable abnormalities and is clinically well. Eight months post-TBI the patient continues to make gradual improvements but is left with severe cognitive impairment and currently undergoing rehabilitation. A multidisciplinary approach was adopted in the management of this patient.

Neville, Grace

2012-01-01

317

A multi-marker molecular signature approach for treatment-specific subgroup identification with survival outcomes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Delivering on the promise of personalized medicine has become a focus of the pharmaceutical industry as the era of the blockbuster drug is fading. Central to realizing this promise is the need for improved analytical strategies for effectively integrating information across various biological assays (for example, copy number variation and targeted protein expression) toward identification of a treatment-specific subgroup-identifying the right patients. We propose a novel combination of elastic net followed by a maximal ?(2) and semiparametric bootstrap. The combined approaches are presented in a two-stage strategy that estimates patient-specific multi-marker molecular signatures (MMMS) to identify and directly test for a biomarker-driven subgroup with enhanced treatment effect. This flexible strategy provides for incorporation of business-specific needs, such as confining the search space to a subgroup size that is commercially viable, ultimately resulting in actionable information for use in empirically based decision making. PMID:24637498

Li, L; Guennel, T; Marshall, S; Cheung, L W-K

2014-10-01

318

Reconstruction of congenital microtia-atresia: outcomes with the Medpor/bone-anchored hearing aid-approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ideal surgery for congenital microtia-atresia would offer excellent cosmetic and hearing rehabilitation, with minimal morbidity. Classic approaches require multiple procedures, including rib cartilage harvest and aural atresia repair. Our facial plastic and otologic team approach incorporates a high-density porous polyethylene (Medpor, Porex Surgical, Newnan, GA) auricular framework, followed by single-stage bone-anchored hearing aid (BAHA) implantation. We evaluated the efficacy, safety, and morbidity of this 2-stage dual system approach. A prospective database of microtia patients was used to identify patients undergoing combined Medpor/BAHA auricular reconstruction and hearing rehabilitation between 2003 and 2006. The first stage involves placement of a Medpor framework beneath a temporoparietal fascia flap, followed by a second-stage procedure for lobule transposition and BAHA implantation. Twenty-five patients (28 ears) were evaluated. Aesthetic quality of the implants was excellent, with a high degree of framework detail visible, and a postauricular crease created in all patients. All patients were satisfied with the cosmetic result. There were no major Medpor complications such as infection, extrusion, loss of implant, or flap necrosis, and a 10.7% incidence of minor complications requiring operative revision. BAHA significantly improved hearing in all patients, with a complication rate of 31.8%, mainly skin overgrowth and cellulitis. The Medpor/BAHA dual plastic-otologic approach to microtia-atresia has produced excellent cosmetic results and hearing outcomes, which compare favorably to traditional microtia-atresia repair. This is a 2-stage aesthetic and functional protocol with an acceptably low rate of complications, which safely and efficiently achieves both aesthetic and functional goals. PMID:19325342

Romo, Thomas; Morris, Luc G T; Reitzen, Shari D; Ghossaini, Soha N; Wazen, Jack J; Kohan, Darius

2009-04-01

319

Beyond Ethnic Match: Effects of Client-Therapist Cognitive Match in Problem Perception, Coping Orientation, and Therapy Goals on Treatment Outcomes  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the outcome effects of cognitive match between Asian and White outpatient clients and their therapists. Many clinicians believe that one hindrance to the treatment of ethnic minority clients is that therapists and clients may not share common assumptions and attitudes about therapy and about the problems that are presented in…

Zane, Nolan; Sue, Stanley; Chang, Janet; Huang, Lillian; Huang, John; Lowe, Susana; Srinivasan, Shobha; Chun, Kevin; Kurasaki, Karen; Lee, Evelyn

2005-01-01

320

Frame-of-Reference Training Effectiveness: Effects of Goal Orientation and Self-Efficacy on Affective, Cognitive, Skill-Based, and Transfer Outcomes  

Science.gov (United States)

Empirical evidence supporting frame-of-reference (FOR) training as an effective intervention for calibrating raters is convincing. Yet very little is known about who does better or worse in FOR training. We conducted a field study of how motivational factors influence affective, cognitive, and behavioral learning outcomes, as well as near transfer…

Dierdorff, Erich C.; Surface, Eric A.; Brown, Kenneth G.

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Performance of binary markers for censored failure time outcome: nonparametric approach based on proportions.  

Science.gov (United States)

This work focuses on the assessment of the discrimination ability of a binary marker to identify patients that will relapse in time. We consider the cumulative definition of sensitivity and dynamic definition of specificity at a time horizon, that is, the probability of a positive marker in the population that will relapse (cases) and that will not relapse (controls). In the presence of censoring, sensitivity and specificity cannot be estimated by proportions because it is not known whether censored subjects should be considered as cases or controls. The solutions proposed do not enable to obtain asymptotic confidence intervals. We explore the use of inverse probability of censoring weighting/imputation (borrowed from the methodology used to correct for verification bias) to adjust the classification matrix for the presence of censoring. The adjustment based on weights estimated conditional on the marker turned to be equivalent to the adjustment based on imputation. These approaches, which address for the presence of marker-dependent censoring, showed a better performance than the adjustment based on weights estimated on the entire sample, even in the case of marker-independent censoring. We derived single intervals and confidence region for sensitivity and 1-specificity using the delta method. The confidence region is particularly useful for a binary marker because the marker has some ability to discriminate among cases and controls only if the region does not intersect the first quadrant bisector. PMID:22161769

Antolini, Laura; Valsecchi, Maria Grazia

2012-05-20

322

Adult flatfoot/posterior tibial tendon dysfunction: outcomes analysis of surgical treatment utilizing an algorithmic approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new classification scheme is presented along with an algorithmic surgical approach to the treatment of posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD). This classification scheme treats as separate entities the soft-tissue and osseous components of PTTD. The soft-tissue pathology is staged from tendinitis to tendinosis to that of complete rupture. The osseous element is graded as no planar deformity, reducible planar deformity, or rigid planar deformity. The stage of soft-tissue pathology is then combined with the grade of the osseous condition, leading to a comprehensive surgical treatment plan. Based on this classification, 13 patients were retrospectively evaluated. Only those patients falling into a specific classification (2A and 2B) were included in this analysis. The American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society clinical hindfoot-ankle scale was utilized. The mean preoperative clinical rating was 32.8. The mean postoperative clinical rating was 88.0. Pre- and postoperative radiographic criteria were also analyzed. Overall patient satisfaction utilizing this treatment algorithm was good to excellent. PMID:11131472

Weinraub, G M; Heilala, M A

2000-01-01

323

A multi-institutional approach to implement fruit fly low prevalence and free areas in Central America: Outcomes and constraints  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: For the purpose of boosting the fruit and vegetable exports of the Central American countries through fruit fly suppression/eradication actions, new approaches are used: - A multilateral alliance instead of isolated efforts. Thus, four international organisations, two donors Government institutions and the region's seven countries joined their efforts, coordinated by the IAEA; - A strategy of incremental enlargement of isolated low prevalence or free areas, instead of the old approach of attempting to eradicate the pest from the entire region; and - The use of pilot experimental areas, on which all elements that play a key role in a pest-free production-exports system are applied, instead of focusing only on some technologies in the field. Outcomes include the implementation of medfly-free areas in Honduras, Nicaragua and Costa Rica, and Panama is also in the process of doing so. Guatemala is presently negotiating with the Mexican Government the export of peach from its fruit fly-free zone in the Department of Quetzaltenango. Major constraints encountered are: - Weak alliances among the international organisations, - Troublesome coordination between Governments and the producers-exporters, - Insufficient trained civil servants in the Government and, - Insufficient funding to transfer the actions to bigger areas. (author)

324

Strategic Role of Customer Orientation in Differentiation Strategy and Organizational Performance Nexus: A Partial Least Square (PLS Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the nexus of differentiation strategy and organizational performance with customer orientation as a mediator in setting of the hotel industry in Malaysia. Data were gathered through a survey using mail and email questionnaire with a sample of 60 three to five star hotels. Smart PLS 2.0 (M3 was used to test the hypotheses. Findings suggest that customer orientation mediates the relationship of differentiation strategy and performance. This study is bridging the gap and presenting the importance of strategic role of customer orientation in facilitating differentiation strategy to produce better performance. It also provides several theoretical and practical implications for scholars and practitioners from perspective of this study.

Haim Hilman

2014-05-01

325

Validation of the Chinese Version of the Life Orientation Test with a Robust Weighted Least Squares Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

Of the several measures of optimism presently available in the literature, the Life Orientation Test (LOT; Scheier & Carver, 1985) has been the most widely used in empirical research. This article explores, confirms, and cross-validates the factor structure of the Chinese version of the LOT with ordinal data by using robust weighted least squares…

Li, Cheng-Hsien

2012-01-01

326

An Adaptive Approach to Family-Centered Intervention in Schools: Linking Intervention Engagement to Academic Outcomes in Middle and High School  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study examined the impact of an adaptive approach to family intervention in public schools on academic outcomes from age 11 to 17. Students were randomly assigned to the three-session Family Check-Up (FCU), which is designed to motivate change in parenting practices by using an assessment-driven approach and strengths-based feedback. All services were voluntary, and approximately 25% of the families engaged in the FCU. Compared with matched controls, adolescents whose parents received th...

Stormshak, Elizabeth A.; Connell, Arin; Dishion, Thomas J.

2009-01-01

327

A Multimodal Approach Including Craniospinal Irradiation Improves the Treatment Outcome of High-risk Intracranial Nongerminomatous Germ Cell Tumors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: To evaluate whether a multimodal approach including craniospinal irradiation (CSI) improves treatment outcome in nongerminomatous germ cell tumor (NGGCT) patients. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the records of 32 patients with NGGCTs. Fourteen patients belonged to the intermediate prognosis group (immature teratoma, teratoma with malignant transformation, and mixed tumors mainly composed of germinoma or teratoma), and 18 patients belonged to the poor prognosis group (other highly malignant tumors). Patients with pure germinoma or mature teratoma were excluded from this study. Nineteen patients were treated with a combination of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy (RT); 9 patients received chemotherapy plus RT; 3 patients received surgery plus RT; and 1 patient received RT alone. Twenty-seven patients received CSI with a median of 36 Gy (range, 20-41 Gy) plus focal boost of 18-30.6 Gy, and 5 patients received whole-brain RT (WBRT) (20-36 Gy) or focal RT (50.4-54 Gy). The rate of total and subtotal resection was 71.9%. The median follow-up for surviving patients was 121 months. Results: Treatment failed in 7 patients. Three of the 5 patients who received focal RT or WBRT had local failure. Four cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) failures occurred after CSI. No failure occurred in the intermediate prognosis group. Ten-year recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) for all patients were 77.6% and 74.6%, respectively. Ten-year RFS for the intermediate and poor prognosis groups were 100% and 61.1%, respectively (p = 0.012). OS for the two groups were 85.1% and 66.7%, respectively (p = 0.215). Tumor histology and CSI were significant prognostic factors for RFS, and CSI was significantly associated with OS. Conclusions: A multimodal approach was effective for treating NGGCTs. CSI should be considered for patients with poor prognostic histology.

Kim, Jun Won [Department of Radiation Oncology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Woo Chul [Department of Radiation Oncology, Inha University College of Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jae Ho [Department of Radiation Oncology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong-Seok; Shim, Kyu-Won [Department of Neurosurgery, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lyu, Chul Joo; Won, Sung Chul [Department of Pediatrics, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Chang-Ok, E-mail: cosuh317@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiation Oncology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2012-11-01

328

Measuring health outcomes of a multidisciplinary care approach in individuals with chronic environmental conditions using an abbreviated symptoms questionnaire  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Roy Fox1, Tara Sampalli1, Jonathan Fox11Nova Scotia Environmental Health Centre, Fall River, NS, CanadaAbstract: The Nova Scotia Environmental Health Centre is a treatment facility for individuals with chronic environmental conditions such as multiple chemical sensitivity, chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, chronic respiratory conditions and in some cases chronic pain. The premise of care is to provide a patient-centred multidisciplinary care approach leading to self-management strategies. In order to measure the outcome of the treatment in these complex problems, with overlapping diagnoses, symptoms in many body systems and suspected environmental triggers, a detailed symptoms questionnaire was developed specifically for this patient population and validated. Results from a pilot study in which an abbreviated symptoms questionnaire based on the top reported symptoms captured in previous research was used to measure the efficacy of a multidisciplinary care approach in individuals with multiple chemical sensitivity are presented in this paper. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent, type and patterns of changes over time in the top reported symptoms with treatment measured using the abbreviated symptoms questionnaire. A total of 183 active and 109 discharged patients participated in the study where the health status was measured at different time periods of follow up since the commencement of treatment at the Centre. The findings from this study were successful in generating an initial picture of the nature and type of changes in these symptoms. For instance, symptoms such as difficulty concentrating, sinus conditions and tiredness showed early improvement, within the first 6 months of being in treatment, while others, such as fatigue, hoarseness or loss of voice, took longer while others showed inconsistent changes warranting further enquiry. A controlled longitudinal study is planned to confirm the findings of the pilot study.Keywords: multiple chemical sensitivity, multidisciplinary, chronic conditions

Roy Fox

2008-12-01

329

A Power Electronic and Drives Curriculum with Project-oriented and Problem-based Learning: A Dynamic Teaching Approach for the Future  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Power electronics is an emerging technology. New applications are added every year as well as the power handling capabilities are steadily increasing. The demands to the education of engineers in this field are also increasing. Basically the content of the curriculum should be more expanded without extra study time. This paper present a teaching approach which makes it possible very fast for the student to get in-depth skills in this important area which is the problem-oriented and project-based learning. The trend and application of power electronics are illustrated. The necessary skills for power electronic engineers are outlined followed up by a discussion on how problem-oriented and project-based learning are implemented. A complete curriculum at Aalborg University is presented where different power electronics related projects at different study levels are carried out.

Blaabjerg, Frede

2002-01-01

330

Object oriented programming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper is an introduction to object oriented programming techniques. It tries to explain the concepts by using analogies with traditional programming. The object oriented approach not inherently difficult, but most programmers find a relatively high threshold in learning it. Thus, this paper will attempt to convey the concepts with examples rather than explain the formal theory

331

A new approach for the automatic evaluation of the solidification structure in steel using orientational entropy filtering.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a new method for the automatic evaluation of the dendritic solidification structure in metallurgical micrographs of solidified steel. The evaluation of the microstructural parameters such as the primary dendrite arm spacing and the primary grain size are of high importance due to their direct relationship with the internal quality and mechanical properties of the cast product. Given the repeated geometric features in the micrographs and the regular pattern in colour intensity, we applied a filter mask to determine the local entropies within the masks in order to detect the centre coordinates of each individual dendrite. The orientation of the dendrites was determined by rotating the filter mask over each pixel to find the orientation which corresponds to the lowest entropy value. The segmentation of the microstructure was then performed via Delaunay tessellation and subsequent transformation of the triangular mesh into a rectangular grid, enabling the determination of the desired microstructural parameters. PMID:24350716

Griesser, S; O'Leary, P

2014-02-01

332

Facilitating innovation: an action-oriented approach and participatory methodology to improve innovative social practice in agriculture.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study focuses upon the social organization of innovation. It makes use of insights from knowledge and information systems research, development sociology, management science and applied philosophy and seeks answers to the following questions: What do social actors, individuals and/or organizations, actually do to innovate their practices? How do they organize themselves? Can this be managed or facilitated, and if so, how? The research is exploratory rather than conclusion-oriented and sy...

Engel, P. G. H.

1995-01-01

333

Tramway-oriented development: what results in what context? Comparative approach between France and the Czech Republic.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper explores tramway-oriented development within two different cultures, France and the Czech Republic, which nevertheless have significant factors in common with regard to the goal of promoting the modal share of mass transit from a sustainable development perspective. Besides the basic urban variables, such as density and mixity, our work attempts to explore characteristics of pedestrian access to transit stations at neighbourhood scale. The strengths and weaknesses on each side and ...

Zelezny, Richard

2013-01-01

334

System-oriented approach for the modeling and thermodynamic analysis of new energy concepts; Systemtechnische Vorgehensweise zur Modellierung und thermodynamischen Analyse neuer Energiekonzepte  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

New energetic technologies are built up more and more frequently. Their internal structure can be compared with the internal structure of process engineering systems. In comparison to the infinitely large number of comparison processes (cycles) in chemical process engineering, the number of thermodynamic comparison processes is very limited. Under this aspect, the authors of the contribution under consideration report on a system-oriented approach for modelling and for the thermodynamic analysis of new energy concepts. The modelling of complicated energy concepts must consider thermodynamic aspects. Apparatus capacities have to be included.

Kozaczka, Jaroslaw [AGH - Univ. of Science and Technology, Krakow (Poland). Dept. of Power Machinery and Installations; Kolat, Pavel [Technical Univ. of Ostrava, Ostrava-Poruba (Czech Republic). Dept. of Power Engineering

2008-07-01

335

Relação entre gênero e orientação sexual a partir da perspectiva evolucionista Relation between gender and sexual orientation from the evolutionary approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este estudo trata da relação entre gênero e orientação sexual a partir da perspectiva interacionista da Psicologia Evolucionista e da análise de diferentes elementos da sexualidade humana. Procurou-se discutir a literatura existente sobre os conceitos de gênero e de orientação sexual, com base nos quatro porquês da Etologia. Propõe-se a existência de múltiplas origens para a orientação sexual, sendo uma delas relacionada aos padrões típicos de gênero e à identidade de gênero. Isso levaria à identificação com indivíduos do mesmo sexo ou do sexo oposto e, consequentemente, à atração pelo grupo diferente daquele com o qual se desenvolveu a identificação. Essa perspectiva integra pré-disposições biológicas à análise de influências culturais, compreendendo, como complementares, vertentes teóricas usualmente tidas como contraditórias.This study addresses the relationship between gender and sexual orientation from the interacionist perspective of Evolutionary Psychology and the analysis of various aspects of human sexuality. This article aimed to discuss existing literature about gender and sexual orientation, based on four questions of Ethology. It's proposed that sexual orientation has multiple origins, and that one of those is related to typical patterns of gender and gender identity. This would lead to identification with same-sex or opposite-sex individuals, and hence, to the attraction for the group different from the one to which identification was established. This approach integrates biological pre-dispositions to the analysis of cultural influences, understanding, as complementary, theoretical views that are usually stated as contradictory.

Aline Beckmann Menezes

2010-06-01

336

Visualizing and Assessing a Compositional Approach to Service-Oriented Business Process Design Using Unified Modelling Language (UML  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the context of Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA, complex systems can be realized through the visualization of business driven processes. The automation of Service Supported Systems (SSS is the future integral part of core SOA which provides preprocessed information and solution suggestions for the Cloud Computing Users (CCU. CCU requires compact and fast decision supporting displays and user interface in order to handle the increasing work load. This requires intelligent, intuitive and robust preprocessing system as a backbone for automation lifecycle management. Complex business management processes often entail complex environmental decision-making procedures. This process can be greatly enhanced if it is based on an exploratory-envisioning system such as Information Exploration and Visualization Environment. Current scientific research has taken advantage of e-science to enhance distributed simulation, analysis and visualization. Many of these infrastructures use one or more collaborative software paradigms like Grid Computing, High Level Architecture (HLA and Service Oriented Architecture (SOA, which together provide an optimal environment for heterogeneous and distant, real-time collaboration. While significant progress has been made using these collaborative platforms, often there is no particular software suite that fulfils all requirements for an entire organization or case study. End-user must cope manually with a collection of tools and its exporting/importing capabilities to obtain the output needed for a particular purpose. We presents how service oriented architecture can be utilized in automation services support system using RCD framework as underlying composition platform. The introduced framework combines rapid analysis development and intelligent process state visualization for CCU and discusses the challenges met in building reliable cloud computing services for web services. Unified Modeling Language (UML is used as a specification technique for the system analysis and design process which is the only way to visualize one’s design and check it against requirements before developers start to code.

Latef Oladimeji Yusuf

2011-04-01

337

A joint-modeling approach to assess the impact of biomarker variability on the risk of developing clinical outcome.  

Science.gov (United States)

In some clinical trials and epidemiologic studies, investigators are interested in knowing whether the variability of a biomarker is independently predictive of clinical outcomes. This question is often addressed via a naïve approach where a sample-based estimate (e.g., standard deviation) is calculated as a surrogate for the "true" variability and then used in regression models as a covariate assumed to be free of measurement error. However, it is well known that the measurement error in covariates causes underestimation of the true association. The issue of underestimation can be substantial when the precision is low because of limited number of measures per subject. The joint analysis of survival data and longitudinal data enables one to account for the measurement error in longitudinal data and has received substantial attention in recent years. In this paper we propose a joint model to assess the predictive effect of biomarker variability. The joint model consists of two linked sub-models, a linear mixed model with patient-specific variance for longitudinal data and a full parametric Weibull distribution for survival data, and the association between two models is induced by a latent Gaussian process. Parameters in the joint model are estimated under Bayesian framework and implemented using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods with WinBUGS software. The method is illustrated in the Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study to assess whether the variability of intraocular pressure is an independent risk of primary open-angle glaucoma. The performance of the method is also assessed by simulation studies. PMID:21339862

Gao, Feng; Miller, J Philip; Xiong, Chengjie; Beiser, Julia A; Gordon, Mae

2011-03-01

338

A novel and cost-effective monitoring approach for outcomes in an Australian biodiversity conservation incentive program.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report on the design and implementation of ecological monitoring for an Australian biodiversity conservation incentive scheme - the Environmental Stewardship Program. The Program uses competitive auctions to contract individual land managers for up to 15 years to conserve matters of National Environmental Significance (with an initial priority on nationally threatened ecological communities). The ecological monitoring was explicitly aligned with the Program's policy objective and desired outcomes and was applied to the Program's initial Project which targeted the critically endangered White Box-Yellow Box-Blakely's Red Gum Grassy Woodland and Derived Native Grassland ecological community in south eastern Australia. These woodlands have been reduced to farms located over 172,232 sq km. On each farm we established a monitoring site within the woodland patch funded for management and, wherever possible, a matched control site. The monitoring has entailed gathering data on vegetation condition, reptiles and birds. We also gathered data on the costs of experimental design, site establishment, field survey, and data analysis. The costs of monitoring are approximately 8.5% of the Program's investment in the first four years and hence are in broad accord with the general rule of thumb that 5-10% of a program's funding should be invested in monitoring. Once initial monitoring and site benchmarking are completed we propose to implement a novel rotating sampling approach that will maintain scientific integrity while achieving an annual cost-efficiency of up to 23%. We discuss useful lessons relevant to other monitoring programs where there is a need to provide managers with reliable early evidence of program effectiveness and to demonstrate opportunities for cost-efficiencies. PMID:23236399

Lindenmayer, David B; Zammit, Charles; Attwood, Simon J; Burns, Emma; Shepherd, Claire L; Kay, Geoff; Wood, Jeff

2012-01-01

339

Revisión de un Enfoque Modular de Programación Orientada a Aspectos / A Review of a Modular Approach of Aspect-Oriented Programming  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este trabajo se muestra el enfoque modular de programación orientada a aspectos de interfaces de puntos de unión o JPI para el lenguaje de programación Java, Se analiza también las principales diferencias y ventajas de JPI respecto a la metodología clásica de programación orientada a aspectos par [...] a Java (AspectJ) con el fin de obtener una programación orientada a aspectos de tipo modular. Adicionalmente, se propone una extensión del diagrama de clases UML para el diseño estructural y conceptual de aplicaciones JPI. Como ejemplo de aplicación, se presenta y describe un caso de programación en AspectJ y JPI, junto con un modelo de diagramas de clases UML del programa ejemplo, usando la propuesta de modelación de este trabajo. Se concluye que la propuesta de diagramas de clases UML JPI permite la definición de clases ingenuas, un elemento esencial para lograr una completa adaptación y transformación de soluciones de programación orientada a aspectos en soluciones JPI. Abstract in english In this paper the modular approach of aspect-oriented programming named join point interfaces or JPI for the Java programming language is discussed. Also, the main differences and advantages of JPI over the classical methodology of aspect-oriented programming for Java (AspectJ) are analyzed with the [...] aim of achieving a modular aspect-oriented programming. In addition, an extension of UML class diagram for the structural and conceptual design of JPI applications is proposed. As a study case, a programming example in AspectJ and JPI, along with a UML class diagram model of the study case, using the modeling proposed in this work, is presented. It is concluded that the proposed class diagram UML JPI allows defining an ingenuous class, an essential element for achieving a complete adaptation and transformation of aspect-oriented programming into JPI solutions.

Cristian L, Vidal; Sabino E, Rivero; Rodolfo F, Schmal; Jenny D, Morales.

340

New approaches to cross-cultural research on education's outcomes amongst the poor: reflections on RECOUP's methodology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Research Consortium on Educational Outcomes and Poverty (RECOUP), one of the three DFID consortia funded in 2005 to produce policy-relevant research in international education, has as its remit to investigate the outcomes of education for the poor. In this paper, at the mid-point of the research, we reflect on the research design for one of the three themes of RECOUP's work - human and social outcomes - in the light of the assumptions made at the time and subsequent experiences. We identi...

Jeffery, Roger; Colclough, Christopher; Singal, Nidhi

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Treatment outcome and prognostic factor analysis in transplant-eligible Chinese myeloma patients receiving bortezomib-based induction regimens including the staged approach, PAD or VTD  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background We have reported promising outcomes using a staged approach, in which bortezomib/thalidomide/dexamethasone was used only in 14 patients with suboptimal response to VAD (vincristine/adriamycin/dexamethasone before autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT. Here we compared the outcomes of the staged approach with frontline PAD (bortezomib/doxorubicin/dexamethasone or VTD (bortezomib/thalidomide/dexamethasone induction, and analysed prognostic factors for outcome. Patients and methods Ninety-one transplant-eligible Chinese patients received three induction regimens prior to ASCT [staged approach (N?=?25, PAD (N?=?31, VTD (N?=?35]. and received thalidomide maintenance for 2?years post-ASCT. Results 43 (47.3% patients had International Staging System (ISS III disease. By an intention-to-treat analysis, the overall CR/nCR rate were 37.4% post-induction, and 62.6% post-ASCT. Five-year overall (OS and event-free (EFS survivals were 66% and 45.1%. There was no difference of the post-induction CR/nCR rate, EFS or OS between patients induced by these three regimens. Moreover, ISS III disease did not affect CR/nCR rates. Multivariate analysis showed that ISS and post-ASCT CR/nCR impacted OS while ISS and post-induction CR/nCR impacted EFS. Conclusions These three induction regimens produced comparable and favorable outcomes in myeloma. The unfavorable outcome of ISS stage III persisted despite upfront/early use of bortezomib. CR/nCR predicted favorable survivals.

Chim Chor

2012-06-01

342

Linking the actors and policies throughout the disaster management cycle by "Agreement on Objectives" - a new output-oriented management approach  

Science.gov (United States)

Current management of disaster risks is often fragmented due to a lack of coordination between involved actors, i.e. civil protection and spatial planning - a phenomenon which is known as the "problem of interplay". This paper presents an output-oriented risk management approach ("parametric governance"). Here, the modality of the achievement of objectives remains in the hands of the given addressees. This implies a shift from a top-down to a more collaborative, process-oriented form of decision-making. The approach has been successfully applied in two hazard cases and three administrative contexts: (a) the City of Dortmund (Germany) facing flash floods, (b) East Attica region (Greece) facing forest fires, and (c) Lazio Region (Italy) also facing forest fires. As proved by the applications of the concept, a dialogue among experts, stakeholders, and decision-makers is indispensable in order to guarantee inclusion of all diverse and competing values, opinions, and claims. Moreover, a structured communication path is needed to meet the requirements of a risk governance process. Finally, a win-win-situation among the involved actors has to be created to reach an agreement on common goals and actions to achieve them in due time.

Greiving, S.; Pratzler-Wanczura, S.; Sapountzaki, K.; Ferri, F.; Grifoni, P.; Firus, K.; Xanthopoulos, G.

2012-04-01

343

Group debriefing for people with chronic diseases during the SARS pandemic: Strength-Focused and Meaning-Oriented Approach for Resilience and Transformation (SMART).  

Science.gov (United States)

This study presented preliminary results on the efficacy of a novel group debriefing model called Strength-Focused and Meaning-Oriented Approach for Resilience and Transformation (SMART). The SMART debriefing (1) aimed at boosting resilience and catalyzing transformation among persons undergoing stressful events, (2) adopted a growth-oriented and holistic approach of health promotion, and (3) employed methods drawn from various indigenous sources (e.g. Asian philosophies and Traditional Chinese Medicine). Participants (N=51) were people with chronic diseases recruited about 1 month (August 2003) after the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) outbreak was eventually under control, after causing widespread panic in Hong Kong. After the one-day group debriefing, participants showed significant decrease in depression level, as measured by Brief Symptom Inventory (Derogatis & Melisaratos, 1983, Psychological Medicine, 13(3), 595-605) and changes in cognitive appraisal towards SARS. Such changes were sustained in a 1-month follow-up. Clinical implications and directions for further study were discussed. PMID:16429250

Ng, S M; Chan, Timothy H Y; Chan, Cecilia L W; Lee, Antoinette M; Yau, Josephine K Y; Chan, Celia H Y; Lau, Jenny

2006-02-01

344

Linking the actors and policies throughout the disaster management cycle by "Agreement on Objectives" – a new output-oriented management approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Current management of disaster risks is often fragmented due to a lack of coordination between involved actors, i.e. civil protection and spatial planning – a phenomenon which is known as the "problem of interplay". This paper presents an output-oriented risk management approach ("parametric governance". Here, the modality of the achievement of objectives remains in the hands of the given addressees. This implies a shift from a top-down to a more collaborative, process-oriented form of decision-making. The approach has been successfully applied in two hazard cases and three administrative contexts: (a the City of Dortmund (Germany facing flash floods, (b East Attica region (Greece facing forest fires, and (c Lazio Region (Italy also facing forest fires. As proved by the applications of the concept, a dialogue among experts, stakeholders, and decision-makers is indispensable in order to guarantee inclusion of all diverse and competing values, opinions, and claims. Moreover, a structured communication path is needed to meet the requirements of a risk governance process. Finally, a win-win-situation among the involved actors has to be created to reach an agreement on common goals and actions to achieve them in due time.

S. Greiving

2012-04-01

345

Supporting Browsing of Blogs via Text Clustering and Concept Analysis Techniques: A Task-Oriented Evaluation Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Blogs are a good online tool that encourages information exchange and knowledge sharing. However, blog users often face two challenges. First, blog contents are often categorized vaguely or inadequately by authors. Second, many popular blogs sort content by date. Consequently, when a blog user does not possess the right keywords forinformation retrieval, he or she must take time to browse the contents by chronological order until the relevant content is identified. This study addressed the problems by using the hierarchical agglomerative clustering and formal concept analysis methods to re-classify blog contents. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed automated text clustering solution, we further conducted user task-oriented evaluation. The results showed that the technique can help authors (bloggers definenew categories and refine existing categories. In addition, the concept hierarchy applied in each category helped the blog users to quickly discover the needed information.

I-Chin Wu

2009-12-01

346

An agent-based and semantic service oriented approach for service discovery in Network Centric Warfare (NCW  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the new age one of the most challenging aspects of the information age is discovering the desired services with most accuracy and speed. In this paper a new semantic model is presented for the service discovering process in network centric warfare (NCW. The model is based on predefined ontology which is determined for the most important aspects of NCW in the application level. Services is based on a service oriented infrastructure and implemented as a grid which is developed as independent services. In the model, service discovery mechanism allows each of service agents to interact with its agent neighbors semantically and form a service chain for a specific task dynamically. The introduced model considered the semantic SOA which can overcome the undesirable time-delays and overhead corresponding to complexity of service discovery at heterogeneous environment such as NCW.

Masoud Barati

2011-09-01

347

A Systems Approach towards Intra-Arterial Management of Acute Ischemic Stroke: Need for Novel Outcome Measures and a Focus on Sequence rather than Steps  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this editorial, we seek to focus attention of neurointerventionists and stroke physicians towards a systems approach to the intra-arterial management of acute ischemic stroke. We highlight the need to pay attention to the overall sequence and workflow of a neurointerventional procedure rather than individual steps. We also stress the importance of novel outcome measures in analyzing procedural efficacy when managing patients with acute ischemic stroke.

Menon, B. K.; Goyal, M.

2011-01-01

348

Use of a group concept mapping approach to define learning outcomes for an interdisciplinary module in medicine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Learning outcomes are typically developed using standard group-based consensus methods. Two main constraints with standard techniques such as the Delphi method or expert working group processes are: (1) the ability to generate a comprehensive set of outcomes and (2) the capacity to reach agreement on them. We describe the first application of Group Concept Mapping (GCM) to the development of learning outcomes for an interdisciplinary module in medicine and engineering. The biomedical design module facilitates undergraduate participation in clinician-mentored team-based projects that prepare students for a multidisciplinary work environment. GCM attempts to mitigate the weaknesses of other consensus methods by excluding pre-determined classification schemes and inter-coder discussion, and by requiring just one round of data structuring. Academic members from medicine and engineering schools at three EU higher education institutions participated in this study. Data analysis, which included multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analysis, identified two main categories of outcomes: technical skills (new advancement in design process with special attention to users, commercialization and standardization) and transversal skills such as working effectively in teams and creative problem solving. The study emphasizes the need to address the highest order of learning taxonomy (analysis, synthesis, problem solving, creativity) when defining learning outcomes. PMID:24323801

Stoyanov, Slavi; Spoelstra, Howard; Bennett, Deirdre; Sweeney, Catherine; Van Huffel, Sabine; Shorten, George; O'Flynn, Siun; Cantillon-Murphy, Padraig; O'Tuathaigh, Colm; Burgoyne, Louise

2014-06-01

349

Thematic curriculum approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Thematic curriculum combines disciplines and media. The process is problem-oriented and the scenario most often follows the logic of exploring or storytelling. Those two approaches to teaching are appropriate because they fit into interdisciplinary and creative open-ended problem solving through play, as insisted upon by thematic curriculum. The matrix, where seven types of abilities intersect with five types of problems according to their degree of openness, defines well the outcomes of teac...

Šefer Jasmina P.

2003-01-01

350

A business-oriented approach to data warehouse development / Enfoque orientado al negocio para el desarrollo del almacén de datos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish Varios trabajos indican que un porcentaje significativo de los almacenes de datos no cumplen con los objetivos del negocio o que son fracasos rotundos. Una de las razones consiste en que la ingeniería de requerimientos es pasada por alto en proyectos reales. En este trabajo el diseño del almacén de [...] datos es abordado desde un punto de vista empresarial, en el que se da relevancia al análisis de la estrategia del negocio, la alineación entre los objetivos del almacén de datos y la estrategia de la empresa, un modelo de objetivos que permite obtener los requisitos de información y la derivación del modelo multidimensional del almacén. Proveemos un conjunto de directrices que permite a los desarrolladores diseñar un almacén de datos alineado a la estrategia del negocio. Se presenta un caso de estudio clásico. Abstract in english Several surveys have indicated that many data warehouses fail to meet business objectives or are outright failures. One reason for this is that requirement engineering is typically overlooked in real projects. This paper addresses data warehouse design from a business perspective by highlighting bus [...] iness strategy analysis, alignment between data warehouse objectives and a firm's strategy, goal-oriented information requirements' modelling and how an underlying multidimensional data warehouse model may be derived. A set of guidelines is provided allowing developers to design a data warehouse aligned with a prevailing business strategy. A classic case study is presented

A, Cravero Leal; J. N, Mazón; J, Trujillo.

2013-04-30

351

Relação entre gênero e orientação sexual a partir da perspectiva evolucionista / Relation between gender and sexual orientation from the evolutionary approach  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo trata da relação entre gênero e orientação sexual a partir da perspectiva interacionista da Psicologia Evolucionista e da análise de diferentes elementos da sexualidade humana. Procurou-se discutir a literatura existente sobre os conceitos de gênero e de orientação sexual, com base nos q [...] uatro porquês da Etologia. Propõe-se a existência de múltiplas origens para a orientação sexual, sendo uma delas relacionada aos padrões típicos de gênero e à identidade de gênero. Isso levaria à identificação com indivíduos do mesmo sexo ou do sexo oposto e, consequentemente, à atração pelo grupo diferente daquele com o qual se desenvolveu a identificação. Essa perspectiva integra pré-disposições biológicas à análise de influências culturais, compreendendo, como complementares, vertentes teóricas usualmente tidas como contraditórias. Abstract in english This study addresses the relationship between gender and sexual orientation from the interacionist perspective of Evolutionary Psychology and the analysis of various aspects of human sexuality. This article aimed to discuss existing literature about gender and sexual orientation, based on four quest [...] ions of Ethology. It's proposed that sexual orientation has multiple origins, and that one of those is related to typical patterns of gender and gender identity. This would lead to identification with same-sex or opposite-sex individuals, and hence, to the attraction for the group different from the one to which identification was established. This approach integrates biological pre-dispositions to the analysis of cultural influences, understanding, as complementary, theoretical views that are usually stated as contradictory.

Aline Beckmann, Menezes; Regina Célia Souza, Brito; Alda Loureiro, Henriques.

2010-06-01

352

Relação entre gênero e orientação sexual a partir da perspectiva evolucionista / Relation between gender and sexual orientation from the evolutionary approach  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo trata da relação entre gênero e orientação sexual a partir da perspectiva interacionista da Psicologia Evolucionista e da análise de diferentes elementos da sexualidade humana. Procurou-se discutir a literatura existente sobre os conceitos de gênero e de orientação sexual, com base nos q [...] uatro porquês da Etologia. Propõe-se a existência de múltiplas origens para a orientação sexual, sendo uma delas relacionada aos padrões típicos de gênero e à identidade de gênero. Isso levaria à identificação com indivíduos do mesmo sexo ou do sexo oposto e, consequentemente, à atração pelo grupo diferente daquele com o qual se desenvolveu a identificação. Essa perspectiva integra pré-disposições biológicas à análise de influências culturais, compreendendo, como complementares, vertentes teóricas usualmente tidas como contraditórias. Abstract in english This study addresses the relationship between gender and sexual orientation from the interacionist perspective of Evolutionary Psychology and the analysis of various aspects of human sexuality. This article aimed to discuss existing literature about gender and sexual orientation, based on four quest [...] ions of Ethology. It's proposed that sexual orientation has multiple origins, and that one of those is related to typical patterns of gender and gender identity. This would lead to identification with same-sex or opposite-sex individuals, and hence, to the attraction for the group different from the one to which identification was established. This approach integrates biological pre-dispositions to the analysis of cultural influences, understanding, as complementary, theoretical views that are usually stated as contradictory.

Aline Beckmann, Menezes; Regina Célia Souza, Brito; Alda Loureiro, Henriques.

353

Competitiveness through strategic orientation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to further the study of the factors that influence the international competitive position of international new ventures and, consequently, their international performance. Specifically, we analyze the role of entrepreneurial and market orientations in the international competitive position of such firms. Data were collected at Spanish and Belgian international new ventures. The structural equations model approach was used to test our hypotheses. Both the Spanish and the Belgian sample revealed a positive and significant relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and market orientation. Furthermore, both orientations have a positive and significant effect on the international competitive position of such firms. Finally, any firm’s international competitive position is positively and significantly related to its international performance. The study therefore appears to indicate that, when it comes to international new ventures, the conjunction of these two orientations is a key factor to attaining a superior competitive position and a positive performance in international markets.

Diego Monferrer

2012-12-01

354

Effectiveness of functional hand splinting and the cognitive orientation to occupational performance (CO-OP) approach in children with cerebral palsy and brain injury: two randomised controlled trial protocols  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Cerebral palsy (CP) and brain injury (BI) are common conditions that have devastating effects on a child’s ability to use their hands. Hand splinting and task-specific training are two interventions that are often used to address deficits in upper limb skills, both in isolation or concurrently. The aim of this paper is to describe the method to be used to conduct two randomised controlled trials (RCT) investigating (a) the immediate effect of functional hand splints, and (b) the effect of functional hand splints used concurrently with task-specific training compared to functional hand splints alone, and to task-specific training alone in children with CP and BI. The Cognitive Orientation to Occupational Performance (CO-OP) approach will be the task-specific training approach used. Methods/Design Two concurrent trials; a two group, parallel design, RCT with a sample size of 30 participants (15 per group); and a three group, parallel design, assessor blinded, RCT with a sample size of 45 participants (15 per group). Inclusion criteria: age 4-15 years; diagnosis of CP or BI; Manual Abilities Classification System (MACS) level I – IV; hand function goals; impaired hand function; the cognitive, language and behavioural ability to participate in CO-OP. Participants will be randomly allocated to one of 3 groups; (1) functional hand splint only (n=15); (2) functional hand splint combined with task-specific training (n=15); (3) task-specific training only (n=15). Allocation concealment will be achieved using sequentially numbered, sealed opaque envelopes opened by an off-site officer after baseline measures. Treatment will be provided for a period of 2 weeks, with outcome measures taken at baseline, 1 hour after randomisation, 2 weeks and 10 weeks. The functional hand splint will be a wrist cock-up splint (+/- thumb support or supination strap). Task-specific training will involve 10 sessions of CO-OP provided in a group of 2-4 children. Primary outcome measures will be the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) and the Goal Attainment Scale (GAS). Analysis will be conducted on an intention-to-treat basis. Discussion This paper outlines the protocol for two randomised controlled trials investigating functional hand splints and CO-OP for children with CP and BI. PMID:25023385

2014-01-01

355

Weaving basic and social sciences into a case-based, clinically oriented medical curriculum: one school's approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Southern Illinois University School of Medicine recently completed its fourth year of a resource-session-enhanced, case-based, tutor-group-oriented curriculum. As an example of a curricular unit, the authors describe the implementation of the basic and clinical sciences in one of the four units in year one, and detail that unit's organization, logistics, content, rationale, and other characteristics. The Sensorimotor Systems and Behavior (SSB) unit is preceded by a cardio-respiratory-renal unit and is followed by an endocrine-reproductive-gastrointestinal unit. A Doctoring unit temporally spans each of these three units. The SSB unit is allotted an 11.5-week period that includes an aggregate of 2.5 weeks of available clinical time, 1.5 weeks for examinations and exam study time, and approximately 8.5 weeks for tutor-group sessions, mandatory laboratory sessions, and self-directed learning. Optional resource sessions are offered during a two- to four-hour block on a single morning each week. Clinical training in the SSB unit augments self-directed, laboratory, and tutor-group learning of neuroscience, gross anatomy, cell biology, physiology, biochemistry, behavioral and social science, embryology, limited pharmacology and genetics, and basic clinical neurology for first-year students. Although it is fast-paced and places heavy responsibility for independent learning on the students, the SSB unit culminates in significant achievement in the basic and clinical sciences. The unit provides substantial clinical training and practical experience in physical and neurological examinations that directly integrate with basic science knowledge. The unit reduces lecture-based instruction, demands self-determination, and promotes experience in team effort, professionalism, peer interaction, empathy in clinical medicine, and practical use of basic science knowledge. PMID:15504774

Clough, Rich W; Shea, Sandra L; Hamilton, William R; Estavillo, Jaime A; Rupp, Gerald; Browning, Ronald A; Lal, Sumeer

2004-11-01

356

Development of the negative gravity anomaly of the 85°E Ridge, northeastern Indian Ocean - A process oriented modelling approach  

Science.gov (United States)

The 85°E Ridge extends from the Mahanadi Basin, off northeastern margin of India to the Afanasy Nikitin Seamount in the Central Indian Basin. The ridge is associated with two contrasting gravity anomalies: negative anomaly over the north part (up to 5°N latitude), where the ridge structure is buried under thick Bengal Fan sediments and positive anomaly over the south part, where the structure is intermittently exposed above the seafloor. Ship-borne gravity and seismic reflection data are modelled using process oriented method and this suggest that the 85°E Ridge was emplaced on approximately 10-15 km thick elastic plate ( Te) and in an off-ridge tectonic setting. We simulated gravity anomalies for different crust-sediment structural configurations of the ridge that were existing at three geological ages, such as Late Cretaceous, Early Miocene and Present. The study shows that the gravity anomaly of the ridge in the north has changed through time from its inception to present. During the Late Cretaceous the ridge was associated with a significant positive anomaly with a compensation generated by a broad flexure of the Moho boundary. By Early Miocene the ridge was approximately covered by the post-collision sediments and led to alteration of the initial gravity anomaly to a small positive anomaly. At present, the ridge is buried by approximately 3 km thick Bengal Fan sediments on its crestal region and about 8 km thick pre- and post-collision sediments on the flanks. This geological setting had changed physical properties of the sediments and led to alter the minor positive gravity anomaly of Early Miocene to the distinct negative gravity anomaly.

Sreejith, K. M.; Radhakrishna, M.; Krishna, K. S.; Majumdar, T. J.

2011-08-01

357

Transcriptome walking: a laboratory-oriented GUI-based approach to mRNA identification from deep-sequenced data  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Deep sequencing technology provides efficient and economical production of large numbers of randomly positioned, relatively short, estimates of base identities in DNA molecules. Application of this technology to mRNA samples allows rapid examination of the molecular genetic environment in individual cells or tissues, the transcriptome. However, assembly of such short sequences into complete mRNA creates a challenge that limits the usefulness of the technology, particularly when no, or limited, genomic data is available. Several approaches to this problem have been developed, but there is still no general method to rapidly obtain an mRNA sequence from deep sequence data when a specific molecule, or family of molecules, are of interest. A frequent requirement is to identify specific mRNA molecules from tissues that are being investigated by methods such as electrophysiology, immunocytology and pharmacology. To be widely useful, any approach must be relatively simple to use in the laboratory by operators without extensive statistical or bioinformatics knowledge, and with readily available hardware. Findings An approach was developed that allows de novo assembly of individual mRNA sequences in two linked stages: sequence discovery and sequence completion. Both stages rely on computer assisted, Graphical User Interface (GUI-guided, user interaction with the data, but proceed relatively efficiently once discovery is complete. The method grows a discovered sequence by repeated passes through the complete raw data in a series of steps, and is hence termed ‘transcriptome walking’. All of the operations required for transcriptome analysis are combined in one program that presents a relatively simple user interface and runs on a standard desktop, or laptop computer, but takes advantage of multi-core processors, when available. Complete mRNA sequence identifications usually require less than 24 hours. This approach has already identified previously unknown mRNA sequences in two animal species that currently lack any significant genome or transcriptome data. Conclusions As deep sequencing data becomes more widely available, accessible methods for extracting useful sequence information in the biological or medical laboratory will be of increasing importance. The approach described here does not rely on detailed knowledge of bioinformatic algorithms, and allows users with basic knowledge of molecular biology and standard laboratory computing equipment, but limited software or bioinformatics experience, to extract complete gene sequences from deep-sequencing data.

French Andrew S

2012-12-01

358

An effective approach to achieving low supersaturation for a/b-axis oriented YBa(2)Cu(3)O(7-?) film growth.  

Science.gov (United States)

Using liquid phase epitaxy, a novel approach was developed to grow a-axis oriented YBa2Cu3O7-? films (a-films) under an air atmosphere, which has been difficult previously since its formation requires extremely low supersaturation. In our new method, instead of conventional cooling from the saturated to supersaturated state, an extremely small driving force for film growth was generated from the unsaturated through saturated to supersaturated state. By controlling the amount of fresh solvent and the melting time before cooling down the Y-Ba-Cu-O solution, a growth region width up to 30 K was acquired for preparing a-films. Significantly, this work provides a low-cost and convenient way to produce high-quality a-films, which are potentially suitable for Josephson junction devices. PMID:24968344

Guo, L S; Chen, Y Y; Yao, X

2014-08-21

359

Ideological Challenges to Changing Strategic Orientation in Commodity Agriculture  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Why do some firms not change their strategic orientation despite economic incentives to do so? Most current literature on changing strategic orientations focuses on an antecedents and outcomes approach to business orientations. Intimated, but rarely addressed is, first, the idea that strategic orientations may be thought of as ideologies; and second, that such ideologies are likely to contend with each other. Taking such a perspective may be helpful in thinking about why transitioning to more sustainable strategic orientations is challenging even in the presence of financial incentives to make such changes. In assessing the transition to organic production and marketing in a commodity agriculture context we find that contending ideologies restrict its adoption. In addition, we suggest that strategic orientations are not adopted or contested solely within firms but also among them. We find that ideological contestation among firms in this context takes the form of a marketplace drama between a chemical, productonist and an organic orientation in which several forms of legitimacy are mobilized by protagonists.

Press, Melea; Arnould, Eric

2014-01-01

360

Concept-Oriented Programming  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Object-oriented programming (OOP) is aimed at describing the structure and behaviour of objects by hiding the mechanism of their representation and access in primitive references. In this article we describe an approach, called concept-oriented programming (COP), which focuses on modelling references assuming that they also possess application-specific structure and behaviour accounting for a great deal or even most of the overall program complexity. References in COP are co...

Savinov, Alexandr

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Technology Education Using a Novel Approach in e-Learning-Towards Optimizing the Quality of Learning Outcomes  

Science.gov (United States)

Ever since the advent of the new era in presenting taught material in Electronic Form, international bodies, academic institutions, public sectors, as well as specialized entities in the private sector, globally, have all persevered to exploit the power of Distance Learning and e-Learning to disseminate the knowledge in Science and Art using the ubiquitous World Wide Web and its supporting Internet and Internetworking. Many Science & Education-sponsoring bodies, like UNESCO, the European Community, and the World Bank have been keen at funding multinational Distance Learning projects, many of which were directed at an educated audience in certain technical areas. Many countries around the Middle East have found a number of interested European partners to launch funding requests, and were generally successful in their solicitation efforts for the needed funds from these funding bodies. Albeit their intricacies in generating a wealth of knowledge in electronic form, many of the e-Learning schemas developed thus far, have only pursued their goals in the most conventional of ways; In essence, there had been little innovation introduced to gain anything, if any, above traditional classroom lecturing, other than, of course, the gained advantage of the simultaneous online testing and evaluation of the learned material by the examinees. In a sincere effort to change the way in which people look at the merits of e-Learning, and seek the most out of it, we shall propose a novel approach aimed at optimizing the learning outcomes of presented materials. In this paper we propose what shall henceforth be called as Iterative e-Learning. In Iterative e-Learning, as the name implies, a student uses some form of electronic media to access course material in a specific subject. At the end of each phase (Section, Chapter, Session, etc.) on a specific topic, the student is assessed online of how much he/she would have achieved before he/she would move on. If the student fails, due to some delinquency on a particular topic, the online process of e-Learning would take the student at some more detailed and deeper level on the subject matter where he/she had failed; once the student bridges the gap, to this end, then the ongoing e-Learning process would carry him/her further up the next level of the subject matter he/she is pursuing. This process is carried on at all levels of learning: section, chapter, and course level. A student may not progress to the next course level before he/she would pass the entire course at 80% or more. If in the process of repeating some section, chapter, or a whole course, then the student shall be required to score a higher percentage than the mere 80% he was required to attain the first time around; say 5% more per iteration he/she makes. Here, students going through Iterative e-Learning shall be allowed to move on to the next level of learning sooner than others if the time that takes them to learn a particular topic is shorter than would normally require an average student to expend, provided, of course, they make it through all the required assessment phases. Unlike the traditional ways of classroom or online lecturing, a student going through Iterative e-Learning is expected to achieve a quality of learning never before achieved via standard pedagogical methodologies. With Iterative e-Learning, it is expected that poorly accredited academic institutions will be able, for the first time, to produce the quality of graduates who are more capable of competing for highly paying jobs globally, and to be of the quality of contributing in more industry-supported economies.

Malkawi, M. I.; Hawarey, M. M.

2012-04-01

362

Finding and Classifying Critical Points of 2D Vector Fields: A Cell-Oriented Approach Using Group Theory  

CERN Document Server

We present a novel approach to finding critical points in cell-wise barycentrically or bilinearly interpolated vector fields on surfaces. The Poincar\\e index of the critical points is determined by investigating the qualitative behavior of 0-level sets of the interpolants of the vector field components in parameter space using precomputed combinatorial results, thus avoiding the computation of the Jacobian of the vector field at the critical points in order to determine its index. The locations of the critical points within a cell are determined analytically to achieve accurate results. This approach leads to a correct treatment of cases with two first-order critical points or one second-order critical point of bilinearly interpolated vector fields within one cell, which would be missed by examining the linearized field only. We show that for the considered interpolation schemes determining the index of a critical point can be seen as a coloring problem of cell edges. A complete classification of all possible...

Effenberger, Felix

2010-01-01

363

Dynamic patient data bases: the foundation of an integrated approach to outcome measures for the healthcare professionals.  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years there has been a tremendous need among healthcare professionals to assess the effectiveness, efficiency, and appropriateness of the patient care services being provided through criteria-based outcome and program evaluation. Although the need for a tool which could evaluate the effectiveness of patient care is widely recognized, such an undertaking has been severely limited due to the lack of any automated means to collect and analyze patient data on a routine, continuous basis within a clinical setting. We have developed and implemented at Mineral Springs Hospital, Banff, Alberta an integrated and automated hospital information system that not only continuously collects administrative, financial, and patient data, but also contains an intelligent component for automated outcome measure and program evaluation. The system collects various non-duplicated data elements from each routine work process within the facility on a continuous basis. Through the creation of a dynamic patient database, data is transformed into information--a powerful decision support tool. The system provides flexible user-defined reports in patient-specific resource utilization, direct and/or indirect specific financial costs, result reporting of each intervention, service provided and user-defined criteria-based outcome, and program evaluation. The system design incorporates expert rules, dynamic data entry forms, quantitative models, and user-defined access control. Using information derived from the dynamic common database, managers and front-line clinicians can easily evaluate and modify management decisions or careplans on a macro or micro level. An external review is planned to evaluate whether the system has helped the assessment of effectiveness, efficiency and appropriateness of healthcare services being provided at the hospital. The fundamental concept behind the system design is that the patient is the center of activity for data collection. The system provides the answers to the 5 W's (who, what, where, when, and why) together with intervention and service result reports. A dynamic common patient database is the center of the system and is accessible to all with proper authorization. Common data elements are collected from routine work flow without extra data entry and this information is subsequently shared. Data collection is a continuous process. We believe that every process is the outcome of another sub-process or event. The design of the dynamic patient database incorporates patient-specific costing and outcome evaluation, user-defined flexible data entry forms, user-defined access control, outcome evaluation rules and information semantic rules. Such a patient database would provide the flexibility needed to accommodate diverse methodologies to evaluate outcomes whether it they be medical, cost, access and/or other combination of measures. The system was developed on a PC-based Network technology, using FOXPRO (XBase) as the database development tool incorporating advanced technology such as distributed processing and fault tolerant computing. We chose PC-based technology because it is economical, having relatively low maintenance costs and requires no major dependency on vendors. The developed system produces patient-specific reports with many dimensions. The reports are user-defined. The system reports general data, CMG, RGN, LOS, Expected LOS, and other user-defined demographic data. Resource utilization, financial costs, and result reportings are produced together with rule-based outcome assessments of any type of measures, including, but not limited to, pre-set functional/health goals, user satisfaction, clinicianUs text or codified comments etc. It provides the framework for continually capturing data at a practical, work-flow level. The incorporation of a dynamic patient database as the driving forece of an integrated, rule-based administration, financial and patient data system will provdie the tools for healthcar PMID:8591238

Kwok, H K; Stevens, N

1995-01-01

364

Outcome after cholecystectomy for symptomatic gall stone disease and effect of surgical access: laparoscopic v open approach.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The pre and postoperative symptoms and outcome after surgery in patients with symptomatic gall stone disease were evaluated by a detailed self administered postal questionnaire. The survey was conducted in two groups: 80 patients treated by laparoscopic cholecystectomy and an age matched cohort of patients who had conventional open cholecystectomy. The overall response rate on which the data were calculated was 76%. Symptomatic benefit ratios accruing from the surgical removal of the gall bla...

Vander Velpen, G. C.; Shimi, S. M.; Cuschieri, A.

1993-01-01

365

Maternal and neonatal outcomes of placenta previa and placenta accreta: three years of experience with a two-consultant approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Gamal A Kassem,1 Ali K Alzahrani21Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, King Abdul-Aziz Specialist Hospital, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaObjective: The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to evaluate maternal and neonatal outcomes in patients with placenta previa (PP) and placenta accreta (PA).Methods: The study population comprised all patients who had a cesarean section for PP and PA at a tertiary referral hospital in Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, ...

Ga, Kassem; Ak, Alzahrani

2013-01-01

366

Diversity-oriented approaches to unusual ?-amino acids and peptides: step economy, atom economy, redox economy, and beyond.  

Science.gov (United States)

Here we describe several useful strategies to a variety of unusual ?-amino acid derivatives and peptides based on "building block" approach. These building blocks are suitable for modification at an amino acid as well as at a peptide level. Moreover, these methods have embedded several points for diversification and are capable of producing a library of modified amino acids and peptides. We have employed highly atom-economic processes such as the Diels-Alder reaction, [2 + 2 + 2] cycloaddition, Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling, and olefin metathesis as key steps to assemble various unnatural amino acid derivatives and peptides. In some instances, we have used rongalite to generate Diels-Alder precursors. PMID:24219241

Kotha, Sambasivarao; Goyal, Deepti; Chavan, Arjun S

2013-12-20

367

Utilization of renewable energy potential in Pakistan - a goal oriented approach through industry-cum-academia linkage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Due to the recent power crisis in Pakistan, it is essential to utilize the god gifted renewable energy potentials in the form of hydro-power, solar, wind etc. With recent developments in emerging technologies globally, it is the basic need for indigenous development of renewable energy resources. It can be done through research and development by bridging the gaps between industries and technical institutions. In the world, this approach is being carried out not only for the development but for sustain ability of the R and D in the field of renewable energies. Local industries can play a vital role in using latest computational techniques in the research and development areas with the utilization of technical and engineering institutions. For sustainable development of renewable energy resources in the country, local industry have to come forward and contribute toward the betterment of the country. (author)

368

Developing measures of community-relevant outcomes for violence prevention programs: a community-based participatory research approach to measurement.  

Science.gov (United States)

Community-Based Participatory Research is a research paradigm that encourages community participation in designing and implementing evaluation research, though the actual outcome measures usually reflect the "external" academic researchers' view of program effect and the policy-makers' needs for decision-making. This paper describes a replicable process by which existing standardized psychometric scales commonly used in youth-related intervention programs were modified to measure indicators of program success defined by community partners. This study utilizes a secondary analysis of data gathered in the context of a community-based youth violence prevention program. Data were retooled into new measures developed using items from the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire, the Hare Area Specific Self-Esteem Scale, and the Youth Asset Survey. These measures evaluated two community-defined outcome indicators, "More Parental Involvement" and "Showing Kids Love." Results showed that existing scale items can be re-organized to create measures of community-defined outcomes that are psychometrically reliable and valid. Results also show that the community definitions of parent or parenting caregivers exemplified by the two indicators are similar to how these constructs have been defined in previous research, but they are not synonymous. There are nuanced differences that are important and worthy of better understanding, in part through better measurement. PMID:23846829

Hausman, Alice J; Baker, Courtney N; Komaroff, Eugene; Thomas, Nicole; Guerra, Terry; Hohl, Bernadette C; Leff, Stephen S

2013-12-01

369

The Outcomes of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus after a Telecare Approach Are Not Inferior to Traditional Outpatient Clinic Visits  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the feasibility of a telemedicine system based on Internet and a short message service in pregnancy and its influence on delivery and neonatal outcomes of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM. Methods. 100 women diagnosed of GDM were randomized into two parallel groups, a control group based on traditional face-to-face outpatient clinic visits and an intervention group, which was provided with a Telemedicine system for the transmission of capillary glucose data and short text messages with weekly professional feedback. 97 women completed the study (48/49, resp.. Main Outcomes Measured. The percentage of women achieving HbA1c values <5.8%, normal vaginal delivery and having a large for-gestational-age newborn were evaluated. Results. Despite a significant reduction in outpatient clinic visits in the experimental group, particularly in insulin-treated women (2.4 versus 4.6 hours per insulin-treated woman resp.; P<.001, no significant differences were found between the experimental and traditional groups regarding HbA1c levels (all women had HbA1c <5.8% during pregnancy, normal vaginal delivery (40.8% versus 54.2%, resp.; P>.05 and large-for-gestational-age newborns (6.1% versus 8.3%, resp.; P>.05. Conclusions. The system significantly reduces the need for outpatient clinic visits and achieves similar pregnancy, delivery, and newborn outcomes.

Laura del Valle

2010-01-01

370

A coordinated research programme to develop methodologies for an integrated approach to improve small scale market oriented dairy systems in developing countries.  

Science.gov (United States)

A five-year Coordinated Research Project (CRP) entitled 'Integrated approach for improving small scale market oriented dairy systems' is currently being implemented by the Food and Agriculture Organization and the International Atomic Energy Agency, through their Joint Programme on 'Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture'. The objectives are to (a) identify and prioritize the constraints and opportunities in the selected dairy farms; (b) determine the most important limiting factors; (c) develop intervention strategies; (c) assess the economic impact of the interventions; (d) develop methodologies for recording and demonstrating the economic impact; and (e) promote the adoption and dissemination of proven strategies and methodologies. Fifteen institutes in developing as well as developed countries are participating in the project, through ten research contracts (Bangladesh, Cameroon, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, Tunisia and Venezuela), one technical contract (Peru) and four research agreements (Malaysia, U.K., U.S.A. and Uruguay). The initial phase of the project, which focused on the conduct of Participatory Rural Appraisals and Economic Opportunity Surveys in the countries of the research contract holders, has now been completed. This paper describes the background to the CRP approach and the procedures used for developing, initiating and implementing this project. PMID:18265863

Perera, B M A O

2007-12-01

371

The use of health-related quality of life (HRQOL in children and adolescents as an outcome criterion to evaluate family oriented support for young carers in Germany: an integrative review of the literature  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Young people below the age of 18, whose lives are affected by looking after a relative with a disability or long-term illness, are called young carers. Evidence based family oriented support for young carers and their families in Germany is currently being developed. To allow for scientific evaluation, an outcome criterion needs to be chosen. Until today, there are no assessment instruments available, which focus on young carer's specific demands and needs. As HRQOL seems to be an adequate alternative outcome criterion, an integrative review of the literature was carried out to verify this assumption. Methods The aim of the integrative review was to get information about a the concept and the common definition of HRQOL in children, b preferable HRQOL assessment techniques in children, and c the relevance of HRQOL measures for the population of young carers. An additional aim of the review was to give advice on which instrument fits best to assess young carer's HRQOL in Germany. Searches were conducted in PubMed in order to obtain papers reporting about a the development or psychometric assessment of instruments measuring HRQOL in children and adolescents up to the age of 18, and b on the conceptual framework of HRQOL in children. Results HRQOL is a multidimensional construct covering physical, emotional, mental, social, and behavioural components of well-being and functioning as subjective perceived by a person depending on the cultural context and value system one is living in. Young carer's problems and needs are well covered by these common domains of HRQOL. Since no specific HRQOL-measures are available to address young carers, a generic one has to be chosen which a has been created for use in children, b allows self- and proxy-report, and c has good psychometric testing results. Comparing four generic measures with currently best published psychometric testing results, items of the KIDSCREEN cover young carer's specific problems most accurate. Conclusion The KIDSCREEN questionnaires seems adequate to evaluate the intervention as their items cover young carer's needs and problems most accurate.

Schnepp Wilfried

2008-12-01

372

Electronic structure, molecular orientation, charge transfer dynamics and solar cells performance in donor/acceptor copolymers and fullerene: Experimental and theoretical approaches  

Science.gov (United States)

By combining experimental and theoretical approaches, the electronic structure, molecular orientation, charge transfer dynamics and solar cell performance in donor/acceptor copolymer poly[2,7-(9,9-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-dibenzosilole)-alt-4,7-bis(thiophen-2-yl)benzo-2,1,3-thiadiazole] (PSiF-DBT) films and blended with 6,6.-phenyl-C 61-butyric acid methyl ester (PSiF-DBT:PCBM) were investigated. Good agreement between experimental and theoretical PSiF-DBT UV-Vis absorption spectrum is observed and the main molecular orbitals contributing to the spectrum were determined using DFT single point calculations. Non-coplanar configuration was determined by geometric optimization calculation in isolated PSiF-DBT pentamer and corroborated by angular variation of the sulphur 1s near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectra. Edge-on and plane-on molecular orientations were obtained for thiophene and benzothiadiazole units, respectively. A power conversion efficiency up to 1.58%, open circuit voltage of 0.51 V, short circuit current of 8.71 mA/cm2 and a fill factor of 35% was obtained using blended PSiF-DBT:PCBM as active layer in a bulk heterojunction solar cell. Ultrafast electron dynamics in the low-femtosecond regime was evaluated by resonant Auger spectroscopy using the core-hole clock methodology around sulphur 1s absorption edge. Electron delocalization times for PSiF-DBT and PSiF-DBT:PCBM polymeric films were derived for selected excitation energies corresponding to the main transitions in the sulphur 1s NEXAFS spectra. The mixture of PSiF-DBT with PCBM improves the charge transfer process involving the ?* molecular orbital of the thiophene units.

Garcia-Basabe, Y.; Marchiori, C. F. N.; Borges, B. G. A. L.; Yamamoto, N. A. D.; Macedo, A. G.; Koehler, M.; Roman, L. S.; Rocco, M. L. M.

2014-04-01

373

Electronic structure, molecular orientation, charge transfer dynamics and solar cells performance in donor/acceptor copolymers and fullerene: Experimental and theoretical approaches  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By combining experimental and theoretical approaches, the electronic structure, molecular orientation, charge transfer dynamics and solar cell performance in donor/acceptor copolymer poly[2,7-(9,9-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-dibenzosilole)-alt-4,7-bis(thiophen-2-yl) benzo-2,1,3-thiadiazole] (PSiF-DBT) films and blended with 6,6.-phenyl-C 61-butyric acid methyl ester (PSiF-DBT:PCBM) were investigated. Good agreement between experimental and theoretical PSiF-DBT UV-Vis absorption spectrum is observed and the main molecular orbitals contributing to the spectrum were determined using DFT single point calculations. Non-coplanar configuration was determined by geometric optimization calculation in isolated PSiF-DBT pentamer and corroborated by angular variation of the sulphur 1s near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectra. Edge-on and plane-on molecular orientations were obtained for thiophene and benzothiadiazole units, respectively. A power conversion efficiency up to 1.58%, open circuit voltage of 0.51 V, short circuit current of 8.71 mA/cm2 and a fill factor of 35% was obtained using blended PSiF-DBT:PCBM as active layer in a bulk heterojunction solar cell. Ultrafast electron dynamics in the low-femtosecond regime was evaluated by resonant Auger spectroscopy using the core-hole clock methodology around sulphur 1s absorption edge. Electron delocalization times for PSiF-DBT and PSiF-DBT:PCBM polymeric films were derived for selected excitation energies corresponding to the main transitions in the sulphur 1s NEXAFS spectra. The mixture of PSiF-DBT with PCBM improves the charge transfer process involving the ?* molecular orbital of the thiophene units

374

Electronic structure, molecular orientation, charge transfer dynamics and solar cells performance in donor/acceptor copolymers and fullerene: Experimental and theoretical approaches  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

By combining experimental and theoretical approaches, the electronic structure, molecular orientation, charge transfer dynamics and solar cell performance in donor/acceptor copolymer poly[2,7-(9,9-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-dibenzosilole)-alt-4,7-bis(thiophen-2-yl) benzo-2,1,3-thiadiazole] (PSiF-DBT) films and blended with 6,6.-phenyl-C 61-butyric acid methyl ester (PSiF-DBT:PCBM) were investigated. Good agreement between experimental and theoretical PSiF-DBT UV-Vis absorption spectrum is observed and the main molecular orbitals contributing to the spectrum were determined using DFT single point calculations. Non-coplanar configuration was determined by geometric optimization calculation in isolated PSiF-DBT pentamer and corroborated by angular variation of the sulphur 1s near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectra. Edge-on and plane-on molecular orientations were obtained for thiophene and benzothiadiazole units, respectively. A power conversion efficiency up to 1.58%, open circuit voltage of 0.51 V, short circuit current of 8.71 mA/cm{sup 2} and a fill factor of 35% was obtained using blended PSiF-DBT:PCBM as active layer in a bulk heterojunction solar cell. Ultrafast electron dynamics in the low-femtosecond regime was evaluated by resonant Auger spectroscopy using the core-hole clock methodology around sulphur 1s absorption edge. Electron delocalization times for PSiF-DBT and PSiF-DBT:PCBM polymeric films were derived for selected excitation energies corresponding to the main transitions in the sulphur 1s NEXAFS spectra. The mixture of PSiF-DBT with PCBM improves the charge transfer process involving the ?* molecular orbital of the thiophene units.

Garcia-Basabe, Y.; Borges, B. G. A. L.; Rocco, M. L. M., E-mail: lsroman@fisica.ufpr.br, E-mail: luiza@iq.ufrj.br [Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 21941-909 (Brazil); Marchiori, C. F. N.; Yamamoto, N. A. D.; Koehler, M.; Roman, L. S., E-mail: lsroman@fisica.ufpr.br, E-mail: luiza@iq.ufrj.br [Departament of Physics, Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba 81531-990 (Brazil); Macedo, A. G. [Departament of Physics, Technological Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba 80230-901 (Brazil)

2014-04-07

375

Maternal and neonatal outcomes of placenta previa and placenta accreta: three years of experience with a two-consultant approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Gamal A Kassem,1 Ali K Alzahrani21Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, King Abdul-Aziz Specialist Hospital, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaObjective: The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to evaluate maternal and neonatal outcomes in patients with placenta previa (PP and placenta accreta (PA.Methods: The study population comprised all patients who had a cesarean section for PP and PA at a tertiary referral hospital in Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, from December 2009 to December 2012. Maternal and neonatal data were obtained from medical records and the hospital database system. PA cases were managed by a multispeciality team, including two obstetric consultants.Results: In total, 122 patients with PP were identified, with PA found in 25 cases. The median intraoperative blood loss in cases of PA was 2,000 (mean 3,000 mL, with a loss of ?2,000 mL occurring in 72%, and ?5,000 mL in 20%. The median packed red blood cell transfusion requirement was 6 (mean 7.7 units, and 28% received ?10 units. Fetal growth restriction was diagnosed in two cases with known maternal medical disorders. Four cases (3.3% were diagnosed as small for gestational age. The mean birth weight of the neonates was at the 10th–50th percentile according to Hadlock fetal growth charts.Conclusion: The presence of a second obstetric consultant among the multispeciality team during surgery for PA was associated with a reduction in blood loss and a decreased need for large-volume blood transfusion. The rate of fetal growth restriction/small for gestational age in PP was average, but the babies were relatively small (level 2 evidence.Keywords: placenta previa, placenta accreta, maternal outcome, neonatal outcome

Kassem GA

2013-11-01

376

Learning Approach for Hand Eye Coordination and the Kinesthetic Outcomes of Learning to Throw-Catch a Ball  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects caused by the methods of teaching and eye-hand coordination to kinesthetic outcomes of throwing and catching a ball. The population of this study was 149 third grade elementary school students in a village in East Jakarta. A sample of 80 students was chosen using random cluster sampling. Data was analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the significance level is set at 0.05. The results showed that the kinesthetic of ball’s thr...

Yusmawati Yusmawati

2014-01-01

377

Learning Outcomes in Two Different Teaching Approach in Nursing Education in Iran: E-Learning versus Lecture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Traditional teaching methods used in medical education couldn't meet the need for keeping pace with up to date information. Present study has conducted in order to compare the effect of lecture and e-learning methods on nursing students' learning outcomes in the context of Iran. A cross-over design was applied. Study sample was consisted of 32 students which were in third semester of nursing bachelor program and were passing Maternal Child nursing course. The first part of the course was taught using lecture method during first four weeks; an e-learning method was the technique used to educate the remained part of the course during the second four weeks. Students' learning outcomes in each method, opinion toward and participation with both educational methods was assessed. No significant difference was found between students exam scores in both methods. Considering students' opinion toward educational methods, no significant difference was found between two methods in general but students reported better "capability" and "independency" in e-learning method while lecture was obtained higher scores in "effectiveness on learning" and "motivation" characteristics. E-learning can be used in teaching some nursing courses. It is recommended to use e-learning method with appropriate interactive strategies and attractive virtual environments to motivate students

Neda Mehrdad

2011-05-01

378

Outcome of a Standardized Approach to Childhood Urinary Symptoms-Long-Term Follow-Up of 720 Patients  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

AIMS: To investigate the relevance of enuresis subtyping for selection of treatment modality and for long-term outcome in a large consecutive patient cohort. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included all patients referred for urinary incontinence during a 5-year period but excluding recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI). Type and severity of incontinence, prior history, results of examinations performed, number of visits, and effect of all treatments provided, were included in a clinical database. RESULTS: Seven hundred twenty children aged 4-16 years (mean 8.5?±?2.2?years, 239 girls) were included in the analysis (42% with monosymptomatic (MNE), 55% with non-MNE, and 3% with isolated daytime incontinence). Initial evaluation revealed only few underlying causes (one neurological and eight anatomical). Investigations showed significant differences between MNE and non-MNE patients as both maximal voided volume and nocturnal urine volume was lower in non-MNE patients (P?

Rittig, Nikolaj; Hagstroem, SØren

2013-01-01

379

Learning Approach for Hand Eye Coordination and the Kinesthetic Outcomes of Learning to Throw-Catch a Ball  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects caused by the methods of teaching and eye-hand coordination to kinesthetic outcomes of throwing and catching a ball. The population of this study was 149 third grade elementary school students in a village in East Jakarta. A sample of 80 students was chosen using random cluster sampling. Data was analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA and the significance level is set at 0.05. The results showed that the kinesthetic of ball’s throw-catch by students who were taught with play teaching method is higher than the students who were taught with the guided teaching methods. There is an interaction between teaching methods, gender and hand eye coordination towards the kinesthetic outcomes of throwing and catching a ball. The kinesthetic result of ball’s throw-catch for male students who were taught with play teaching methods is higher than the male students who were taught with guided hand-eye-coordination teaching method. The kinesthetic result of ball’s throw-catch for female students who were taught with play teaching methods is higher than the female students who were taught with guided hand-eye-coordination teaching method. The kinesthetic result of ball’s throw-catch for male students with low hand-eye coordination taught with guided teaching method is higher than those who were taught with the play teaching method. The kinesthetic result of ball’s throw-catch for female students with low hand-eye coordination taught with the guided teaching method is higher than those taught with the play teaching method.

Yusmawati Yusmawati

2014-02-01

380

Translating Response During Therapy into Ultimate Treatment Outcome: A Personalized 4-Dimensional MRI Tumor Volumetric Regression Approach in Cervical Cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To assess individual volumetric tumor regression pattern in cervical cancer during therapy using serial four-dimensional MRI and to define the regression parameters' prognostic value validated with local control and survival correlation. Methods and Materials: One hundred and fifteen patients with Stage IB2-IVA cervical cancer treated with radiation therapy (RT) underwent serial MRI before (MRI 1) and during RT, at 2-2.5 weeks (MRI 2, at 20-25 Gy), and at 4-5 weeks (MRI 3, at 40-50 Gy). Eighty patients had a fourth MRI 1-2 months post-RT. Mean follow-up was 5.3 years. Tumor volume was measured by MRI-based three-dimensional volumetry, and plotted as dose(time)/volume regression curves. Volume regression parameters were correlated with local control, disease-specific, and overall survival. Results: Residual tumor volume, slope, and area under the regression curve correlated significantly with local control and survival. Residual volumes ?20% at 40-50 Gy were independently associated with inferior 5-year local control (53% vs. 97%, p <0.001) and disease-specific survival rates (50% vs. 72%, p = 0.009) than smaller volumes. Patients with post-RT residual volumes ?10% had 0% local control and 17% disease-specific survival, compared with 91% and 72% for <10% volume (p <0.001). Conclusion: Using more accurate four-dimensional volumetric regression analysis, tumor response can now be directly translated into individual patients' outcome for clinical aidual patients' outcome for clinical application. Our results define two temporal thresholds critically influencing local control and survival. In patients with ?20% residual volume at 40-50 Gy and ?10% post-RT, the risk for local failure and death are so high that aggressive intervention may be warranted.

 
 
 
 
381

Occupational Orientation in Virginia  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes the development, implementation, and field testing of Virginia's three-year Clusters Approach to Career Orientation (CACO) Project designed to generate an activity-based, across-the-board curriculum for pre-exploratory students relating to appropriateness in occupational choice. (TA)

Ressler, Ralph

1978-01-01

382

Limits to social innovation. Shifts in Flemish strategic projects towards market oriented approaches Grenzen aan sociale innovatie. Verschuivingen in Vlaamse strategische projecten naar marktgerichte benaderingen  

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Full Text Available According to recent analyses, many strategic projects are part of a “New Urban Policy” favouring private developments and enhancing gentrification and social exclusion. Alternative projects should be more transformative, integrated and emancipatory. In order to test these claims for the Flemish region, I use Moulaert and Nussbaumer’s model (2005a on the concept of social innovation to evaluate the socio-spatial innovation capacity of two Flemish strategic projects. The analysis suggests that social innovation is possible but that Flemish strategic projects are strongly affected by market, property and management oriented approaches.Volgens recente analyses zijn vele strategische projecten onderdeel van een “Nieuw Stedelijk Beleid”, dat private ontwikkeling, sociale verdringing en exclusie bevordert. Alternatieve projecten zouden meer transformatief, geïntegreerd en emancipatorisch (moeten zijn. Om deze uitspraken te testen voor de Vlaamse situatie, gebruikt dit artikel een model van Moulaert en Nussbaumer’s (2005a concept van sociale innovatie en evalueert daarmee de sociaal-ruimtelijke innovatiecapaciteit van twee Vlaamse strategische projecten. De analyse suggereert dat sociale innovatie mogelijk is, maar dat Vlaamse strategische projecten sterk beïnvloed worden door markt-, eigendoms- en managementgerichte benaderingen.

Pieter Van den Broeck

2012-12-01

383

Consolation as a unique outcome within a pastoral-narrative approach to grief Troos as unieke uitkoms in ‘n pastoraal-narratiewe benadering tot rousmart  

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Full Text Available Abstract Consolation as a unique outcome within a pastoral-narrative approach to grief The pastoral counselling of those who grieve, poses new challenges to pastoral care. Because of the shift away from a modernist paradigm, the grief process is now seen as an open-ended process rather than a closed process which focuses on the mastering of the so-called tasks of mourning and the avoidance of grief pathology. Recent grief theory suggests that the grief process cannot reach a point of closure. Grief counselling should therefore rather embark on a process of generating new meaning to the problem-saturated discourses surrounding death and loss. Narrative therapy is suggested as a means of grief counselling as it makes use of the story analogy which supports the notion of an open end to the grief process. In this study the narrative is explored within the framework of practical theology. Both the master Story of God and the grief-saturated stories of people are combined in a pastoral approach which envisages consolation as the unique outcome of the therapeutic process. Consolation is regarded as one of the secondary narratives in the greater narrative of God as well as the reformed theological vocabulary. It is suggested that a pastoral-narrative approach to grief will generate the consolation needed by the grief-stricken on their life-long journey of coming to terms with their loss.Consolation as a unique outcome within a pastoral-narrative approach to grief

The pastoral counselling of those who grieve poses new challenges to pastoral care. Because of the shift away from a modernist paradigm, the grief process is now seen as an open-ended process, rather than a closed process that focuses on the mastering of the so-called tasks of mourning, and the avoidance of grief pathology. Recent grief theory suggests that the grief process cannot reach a point of closure. Grief counselling should therefore rather embark on a process of generating new meaning to the problem-saturated discourses surrounding death and loss. Narrative therapy is suggested as a means of grief counselling, as it makes use of the story analogy, which supports the notion of an open end to the grief process. In this study, the narrative is explored within the framework of Practical Theology. Both the master story of God and the grief-saturated stories of people are combined in a pastoral approach that envisages consolation as the unique outcome of the therapeutic process. Consolation is regarded as one of the secondary narratives in the greater narrative of God, as well as in the reformed theological vocabulary. It is suggested that a pastoralnarrative approach to grief will generate the consolation needed by the grief-stricken on their lifelong journey of coming to terms with their loss.

How to cite this article: Brunsdon, A.R, 2009, ‘Troos as unieke uitkoms in ‘n pastoraal-narratiewe benadering tot rousmart’, HTS Teologiese Studies/ Theological Studies 65(1, Art. #275, 7 pages. DOI: 10.4102/hts.v65i1.275

Alfred R. Brunsdon

2009-09-01

384

Trainable multiscript orientation detection  

Science.gov (United States)

Detecting the correct orientation of document images is an important step in large scale digitization processes, as most subsequent document analysis and optical character recognition methods assume upright position of the document page. Many methods have been proposed to solve the problem, most of which base on ascender to descender ratio computation. Unfortunately, this cannot be used for scripts having no descenders nor ascenders. Therefore, we present a trainable method using character similarity to compute the correct orientation. A connected component based distance measure is computed to compare the characters of the document image to characters whose orientation is known. This allows to detect the orientation for which the distance is lowest as the correct orientation. Training is easily achieved by exchanging the reference characters by characters of the script to be analyzed. Evaluation of the proposed approach showed accuracy of above 99% for Latin and Japanese script from the public UW-III and UW-II datasets. An accuracy of 98.9% was obtained for Fraktur on a non-public dataset. Comparison of the proposed method to two methods using ascender / descender ratio based orientation detection shows a significant improvement.

Van Beusekom, Joost; Rangoni, Yves; Breuel, Thomas M.

2010-01-01

385

Quantitative Pharmacology Approach in Alzheimer’s Disease: Efficacy Modeling of Early Clinical Data to Predict Clinical Outcome of Tesofensine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Effective therapeutic options for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are limited and much research is currently ongoing. The high attrition rate in drug development is a critical issue. Here, the quantitative pharmacology approach (QP-A) and model-based drug development (MBDD) provide a valuable opportunity to support early selection of the most promising compound and facilitate a fast, efficient, and rational drug development process. The aim of this analysis was to exemplify the QP-A by eventually ...

Lehr, Thorsten; Staab, Alexander; Trommeshauser, Dirk; Schaefer, Hans Guenter; Kloft, Charlotte

2010-01-01

386

Orienteering Club  

CERN Multimedia

Courses d’orientation ce printemps Le Club d’orientation du CERN vous invite à venir découvrir la course d’orientation et vous propose, en partenariat avec d’autres clubs de la région, une dizaine de courses populaires. Celles-ci ont lieu les samedis après-midi, elles sont ouvertes à tous, quel que soit le niveau, du débutant au sportif confirmé, en famille ou en individuel, en promenade ou en course. Si vous êtes débutant vous pouvez profiter d’une petite initiation offerte par l’organisateur avant de vous lancer sur un parcours. Divers types de parcours sont à votre choix lors de chaque épreuve : facile court (2-3 km), facile moyen (3-5 km), technique court (3-4 km), technique moyen (4-5 km) et technique long (5-7 km). Les dates à retenir sont les suivantes : Samedi 23 mars: Pully (Vd) Samedi 13 avril: Pougny...

Club d'orientation