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Sample records for outcome oriented approach

  1. Outcome-Oriented Planning in Higher Education: An Approach or An Impossibility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micek, Sidney S.; Arney, William Ray

    The basic premise of this paper is: if current management and fiscal problems are to be solved in higher education, planners and decisionmakers must adopt an outcome-oriented approach to planning. In the past, most planners have tended to be means-oriented, focusing more attention on problems associated with the course of action being followed and…

  2. Personality, Organizational Orientations and Self-Reported Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamber, David; Castka, Pavel

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To identify competencies connecting personality, organizational orientations and self-reported learning outcomes (as measured by concise Likert-type scales), for individuals who are learning for their organizations. Design/methodology/approach: Five concise factor scales were constructed to represent aspects of personality. Three further…

  3. A Stimulus-Oriented Approach to Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Sekuler, Robert; Kahana, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    Our understanding of short-term recognition memory can be enhanced by careful choice and control of test materials. Theory-driven manipulation of memory test stimuli, including visual textures, human faces, and complex sounds, minimize individual differences and make it possible to predict recognition performance for specific combinations of stimulus items. This stimulus-oriented approach to memory reveals that stimulus similarity plays two different important roles in recognition memory. By ...

  4. Safety objective oriented approach for RWE NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Even with respect to the management of beyond design incidents the safety objective oriented approach for the management of accidents is more universal than the event oriented approach. The potential propagation of an accident can be avoided or the effects of an accident can be limited through the application of the two elements of the safety objective concept. Regardless of the triggering event, the recurrent monitoring of safety objectives by means of safety variables allows the detection of whether the condition of the plant is still safely in the permissible range or whether there is a risk of a critical condition in safety engineering terms. With the measures compiled in the emergency manual the safety reserves can be fully utilized in actual practice using all the available plant technology. As a result, the residual risk still currently featured in the safety studies is further reduced. In order to contribute additional expert knowledge in the event of the hypothetical accidents examined in the paper, the shift personnel will be supported by the management for non-anticipated event sequences. The safety objective concept described has so far been only partly put into practice in the individual RWE (Rheinisch-Westfaelisches Elektrizitaetswerk AG) nuclear power stations. The full implementation of the concept is currently under way. The required documents are currently being drawn up and are being simulator tested to the extent possible. (author). 2 figsextent possible. (author). 2 figs

  5. Method Engineering: A Service-Oriented Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauvet, Corine

    In the past, a large variety of methods have been published ranging from very generic frameworks to methods for specific information systems. Method Engineering has emerged as a research discipline for designing, constructing and adapting methods for Information Systems development. Several approaches have been proposed as paradigms in method engineering. The meta modeling approach provides means for building methods by instantiation, the component-based approach aims at supporting the development of methods by using modularization constructs such as method fragments, method chunks and method components. This chapter presents an approach (SO2M) for method engineering based on the service paradigm. We consider services as autonomous computational entities that are self-describing, self-configuring and self-adapting. They can be described, published, discovered and dynamically composed for processing a consumer's demand (a developer's requirement). The method service concept is proposed to capture a development process fragment for achieving a goal. Goal orientation in service specification and the principle of service dynamic composition support method construction and method adaptation to different development contexts.

  6. Holistic Approach to Learning and Teaching Introductory Object-Oriented Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thota, Neena; Whitfield, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a holistic approach to designing an introductory, object-oriented programming course. The design is grounded in constructivism and pedagogy of phenomenography. We use constructive alignment as the framework to align assessments, learning, and teaching with planned learning outcomes. We plan learning and teaching activities,…

  7. The Process Approach to Clinical Pharmacy Orientation--Four Years' Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moleski, Ronald J.; Snodgrass, Gary L.

    1979-01-01

    The process approach is an effective method of teaching clinical pharmacy clerkship orientation, the major advantage of which is increased student participation based on improved early identification of predetermined learning outcomes. The primary disadvantage is the difficulty of implementation. A lesson plan is appended. (MLW)

  8. An Heuristic Approach To Object Oriented Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepali Gupta

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Quality of software is increasingly important and testing related issues are becoming crucial for software. In order to measure and understand quality, it is necessary to relate it to measurable quantities. Heuristics provide a link between sets of abstract design principles and quantitative software metrics. The aim of object oriented software metrics is to predict quality and improve productivity of the software products. Object-orientation (OO allows software to be structured in a way that helps to manage complexity and change. This paper shows role of heuristics in object oriented software engineering and how object oriented paradigm differentiate from conventional function oriented paradigm.

  9. Evaluating Student Perceptions of Learning Processes and Intended Learning Outcomes under Inquiry Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spronken-Smith, Rachel; Walker, Rebecca; Batchelor, Julie; O'Steen, Billy; Angelo, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Inquiry-based learning (IBL) is promoted as a teaching approach that can enhance student learning outcomes. IBL can be categorised according to scale (e.g. tasks, course/module/paper, degree), mode (structured, guided, open) and framing (information or discovery-oriented). Our research used a survey instrument to determine how student perceptions…

  10. Selected outcomes of community-oriented, problem-based nursing programmes in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NS Gwele

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Whilst there is a significant body of research on the outcomes of problem-based learning (PBL programmes (Albanese and Mitchell, 1993; Vernon and Blake, 1993, there is little information regarding the outcomes of community-oriented programmes (COL for nursing students. Between 1994 and 1997, four university schools of nursing implemented problem-based, community-oriented learning (COL programmes. This research sought to describe, evaluate and compare the outcomes of graduates from these four universities with graduates who had followed conventional programmes.

  11. Comparison between Traditional Approach and Object-Oriented Approach in Software Engineering Development

    OpenAIRE

    Nabil Mohammed Ali Munassar; Govardhan, Dr A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the comparison between Traditional approaches and Object-Oriented approach. Traditional approach has a lot of models that deal with different types of projects such as waterfall, spiral, iterative and v-shaped, but all of them and other lack flexibility to deal with other kinds of projects like Object-Oriented. Object-oriented Software Engineering (OOSE) is an object modeling language and methodology. The approach of using object - oriented techniques for designing a syst...

  12. Secondary Student Motivation Orientations and Standards-Based Achievement Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Luanna H.; McClure, John; Walkey, Frank; Weir, Kirsty F.; McKenzie, Lynanne

    2009-01-01

    Background: Individual student characteristics such as competence motivation, achievement values, and goal orientations have been related in meaningful ways to task attainment. The standards-based National Certificate of Educational Achievement (NCEA) was developed in New Zealand with the intention of strengthening connections between student…

  13. Object oriented approach to B reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The complexity of full and partial reconstruction of B mesons has led CLEO to use object oriented techniques to do physics data analyses. An object oriented language for HEP data analysis was designed, a compiler which translates the user code into C++ source code, has been written using the UNIX tools, lex and yacc. The resulting C++ code can be linked and run in the normal CLEO data analysis system

  14. The Problem-Oriented Approach to Sports Injury Evaluations

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel, A. John

    1992-01-01

    The problem-oriented approach to sports injury evaluations is used successfully throughout the United States by various health care providers, and can be used by certified athletic trainers to enhance the evaluation and management of sports injuries. The problem-oriented medical record is used successfully to provide effective communications and as a learning tool in health-related education. In this paper, I present a problem-oriented system for evaluating and keeping medical records on spor...

  15. An object oriented programming approach used in data acquisition program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conception of polymorphous and its application in data acquisition program which supports multi type of hardware is introduced. The advantages of this object oriented programming approach used in data acquisition program are described

  16. Development-oriented elearning tool evaluation: the Edukalibre approach

    OpenAIRE

    Botturi, Luca; Dimitrova, Vania; Matravers, Julika; Tebb, Chris; Withworth, Drew; Geldermann, Jutta; Hubert, Isabelle

    2006-01-01

    The Edukalibre development approach described here offers libre educational tools based on open development model. The paper presents a development-oriented evaluation approach comprising three phases. Phase 1 focused on rapid and distributed usability inspections producing development-oriented feedback for designers, and was built around a usability inspection framework. Phase 2 was conducted through student feedback, and confirmed the results of Phase 1, along with indications about the rea...

  17. THE SUCCESSION OF DATA WAREHOUSE USING OBJECT ORIENTED APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DR. PUSHPA SURI

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes techniques for designing both front & back end of a data warehouse in such a way that companies can continue to progress their warehouse and query tools as their business changes,customer demands changes, instead of continuously having to estructure and rewrite their existing tools. Object –Oriented approach are driving the current development of ODBMS that will handle complex objects, inheritance and other features that enable direct implementation technology that is being extended to combine data management capabilities with application of logical rules to provide more refined information to management. Object-oriented approach is used in different areas i.e Software Engg, Database Management System and Latest Approach is used in Data warehouse. Object-Oriented envelopment involves more than learning a program, it includes capability for development. A purely Object –Oriented tool like Java, Smalltalk , or the object –oriented use of C++ requires that problem domains be conceptualized in terms of the paradigm inherent in object technology. Most research in Object-oriented programming (OOP including object –oriented database Management systems (OODBMS, is concerned with supporting users which are not served well by more conventional technology. Our research has been from a different point of view – our primary motivating factor is toshow how existing applications can be enhanced using object –oriented Technology.

  18. Value-at-risk of carbon constraints : an input oriented approach of resource scarcity

    OpenAIRE

    Busch, Timo; Raschky, Paul

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to broaden the discussion on corporate enviromental risk exposure by integrating an oil scarcity factor. This broader approach can be utilized as a means of instigating a discussion on carbon risks beyond output oriented adaption and mitigation strategies. Even though the outcomes might not seem to be relevant for current economic activities, the recent discussion about oil prices affecting the global economy illustrates the future relevance of this topic; it is j...

  19. Increased orienting to unexpected action outcomes in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ElenaNunez Castellar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Although some recent research has indicated reduced performance monitoring in patients with schizophrenia, the literature on this topic shows some remarkable inconsistencies. While most studies suggest diminished error signals following error responses, some studies reported normal post-error slowing, while others reported reduced post-error slowing. Here we review these studies and highlight the most important discrepancies. Furthermore, we argue that overall error rates are a mostly neglected issue that can at least partly explain these discrepancies. It has been reported previously that post-error slowing depends on the error rates. Participants or patients that make more errors are likely to show decreased post-error slowing. Therefore, when a group of patients is compared to a group of controls, it is extremely important to match error rates. For this purpose, we developed a procedure where we matched individuals’ error rates. In a task where subjects had to press a response key corresponding to one of four colors we manipulated the difficulty on an individual basis by varying the discriminability between the colors. Schizophrenic patients and a group of controls were tested with this procedure showing that differences in accuracy disappear. Interestingly, we can see that in patients, the color values that were needed to reach similar levels of accuracy correlate with the PANSS scale, with higher PANSS requiring more color. Most important, we found that schizophrenic patients have increased rather than decreased post-error slowing when the intertrial interval is short. This result can be interpreted within the framework of the orienting account, as it has been demonstrated previously that schizophrenic patients show increased distractibility.

  20. Approaches to outcome assessment in pulmonary rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sally

    2014-06-01

    A comprehensive assessment is the foundation of a successful pulmonary rehabilitation programme. There is a broad selection of outcome measures that tend to be categorized into measures of exercise performance (including measures of strength) quality of life (health status), psychological well-being, nutritional status and more recently knowledge and self-efficacy. There is a growing interest in the measurement of physical activity too, although this is a current line of research activity. A sophisticated suite of outcomes allows the rehabilitation program to be personalised to the individual and deliver effective rehabilitation. PMID:24874130

  1. Risk evaluation: A cost-oriented approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, B.H.

    1998-02-03

    This method provides a structured and cost-oriented way to determine risks associated with loss and destruction of industrial security interests consisting of material assets and human resources. Loss and destruction are assumed to be adversary perpetrated, high-impact events in which the health and safety of people or high-value property is at risk. This concept provides a process for: (1) assessing effectiveness of all integrated protection system, which includes facility operations, safety, emergency and security systems, and (2) a qualitative prioritization scheme to determine the level of consequence relative to cost and subsequent risk. The method allows managers the flexibility to establish asset protection appropriate to programmatic requirements and priorities and to decide if funding is appropriate. The evaluation objectives are to: (1) provide for a systematic, qualitative tabletop process to estimate the potential for an undesirable event and its impact; and (2) identify ineffective protection and cost-effective solutions.

  2. General text line extraction approach based on locally orientation estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Ouwayed, Nazih; Belai?d, Abdel; Auger, Franc?ois

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach for the multi-oriented text line extraction from historical handwritten Arabic documents. Because of the multi-orientation of lines and their dispersion in the page, we use an image paving allowing us to progressively and locally determine the lines. The paving is initialized with a small window and then its size is corrected by extension until enough lines and connected components were found. We use the Snake for line extraction. Once the paving is establ...

  3. A user-oriented and quantifiable approach to irrigation design.

    OpenAIRE

    Baars, E.; Bastiaansen, A. P. M.; Menenti, M.

    1995-01-01

    A new user-oriented approach is presented to apply marketing research techniques to quantify perceptions, preferences and utility values of farmers. This approach was applied to design an improved water distribution method for an irrigation scheme in Mendoza, Argentina. The approach comprises two subprocesses. The first consists of a diagnostic analysis and the identification of an alternative water distribution system as concept solution to the regional irrigation problems. In contrast to th...

  4. Structure-oriented versus process-oriented approach to enhance efficiency for emergency room operations: what lessons can we learn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Taik Gun; Lee, Younsuk; Shin, Hojung

    2011-01-01

    The efficiency and quality of a healthcare system can be defined as interactions among the system structure, processes, and outcome. This article examines the effect of structural adjustment (change in floor plan or layout) and process improvement (critical pathway implementation) on performance of emergency room (ER) operations for acute cerebral infarction patients. Two large teaching hospitals participated in this study: Korea University (KU) Guro Hospital and KU Anam Hospital. The administration of Guro adopted a structure-oriented approach in improving its ER operations while the administration of Anam employed a process-oriented approach, facilitating critical pathways and protocols. To calibrate improvements, the data for time interval, length of stay, and hospital charges were collected, before and after the planned changes were implemented at each hospital. In particular, time interval is the most essential measure for handling acute stroke patients because patients' survival and recovery are affected by the promptness of diagnosis and treatment. Statistical analyses indicated that both redesign of layout at Guro and implementation of critical pathways at Anam had a positive influence on most of the performance measures. However, reduction in time interval was not consistent at Guro, demonstrating delays in processing time for a few processes. The adoption of critical pathways at Anam appeared more effective in reducing time intervals than the structural rearrangement at Guro, mainly as a result of the extensive employee training required for a critical pathway implementation. Thus, hospital managers should combine structure-oriented and process-oriented strategies to maximize effectiveness of improvement efforts. PMID:21838024

  5. Orienting the Re-Entry Student: A Holistic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heretick, Donna M. L.; Doyle, Marion B.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a unique one-semester, one-credit course which provides orientation to the University community, academic advising, values clarification and vocational planning, skill renewal exercises, and personal counseling to re-entry students. Continuing feedback underscores the relevance of such a holistic approach to student needs. (Author/JAC)

  6. An Object-Oriented Approach to Partial Wave Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Cummings, J P; Cummings, John P.; Weygand, Dennis P.

    2003-01-01

    Partial Wave Analysis has traditionally been carried out using a set of tools handcrafted for each experiment. By taking an object-oriented approach, the design presented in this paper attempts to create a more generally useful, and easily extensible, environment for analyzing many different type of data.

  7. Auction Oriented Approach for Resource Management in Grid Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Surbhi Sangwan,

    2012-01-01

    Grid computing, emerging as a new paradigm for next-generationcomputing, enables the sharing, selection, and aggregation ofgeographically distributed heterogeneous resources for solvinglarge-scale problems in science, engineering, and commerce. Theresources in the Grid are heterogeneous and geographicallydistributed. The paper demonstrates the capability of economicbasedsystems for wide-area parallel and distributed computingby using auction-oriented approach. In this paper implementationof t...

  8. The Person-Oriented versus the Variable-Oriented Approach: Are They Complementary, Opposites, or Exploring Different Worlds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Lars R.; Trost, Kari

    2006-01-01

    The present commentary gives a brief overview of the person-oriented and variable-oriented approaches, how they are commonly used in longitudinal research, and what one should take into consideration before using either approach. In addition to presenting an empirical example on girls' adjustment problems using both approaches, this commentary…

  9. Business and scientific workflows a web service-oriented approach

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Focuses on how to use web service computing and service-based workflow technologies to develop timely, effective workflows for both business and scientific fields Utilizing web computing and Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA), Business and Scientific Workflows: A Web Service-Oriented Approach focuses on how to design, analyze, and deploy web service-based workflows for both business and scientific applications in many areas of healthcare and biomedicine. It also discusses and presents the recent research and development results. This informative reference features app

  10. APPROACHES TO STUDY EDUCATIONAL AND OCCUPATIONAL TRAJECTORIES AND OUTCOMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tovar-García, Edgar Demetrio

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the main approaches to study educational and occupational outcomes and trajectories. Young people have to decide when and what to study, later on, where to work. Their life levels will depend on those decisions, but the different ways that in both areas they are able to take and their outcomes in education and in the labor market depend on various factors. Among explications it is possible to identify six large approaches: human capital from economics, cultural and social capital from sociology, the socioeconomic status or familiar background approach and the educational and psychological approaches. These approaches are not contrary necessarily, they can be complementary, and their explanatory power depends on place and time, however, the literature does not have an effort to present together their contributions, methodologies and empirical results. This work seeks to remedy that situation and to point out some methodological and empirical weakness.

  11. Aspect Oriented Software Development vs. other Techniques (Structured Approach and Object Oriented Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Yakout A. Mohamed

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Aspects are a natural evolution of the object-oriented paradigm. They provide a solution to some difficulties you may have encountered with modularizing your object-oriented code: sometimes functionality just doesn't fit! You've probably found yourself repeating the same lines of code in lots of different object-oriented classes because those classes each need that functionality, and so you can't easily wrap it up in a single place. Good examples of this kind of code are audit trails, transaction handling, concurrency management, and so on. You can now modularize such code with aspects. Aspect-Oriented Software Development (AOSD. Provides unique and advanced program structuring and modularization techniques. The implementation of software applications using AOSD techniques results in a better implementation structure which has an impact on many important software qualities such as enhanced reusability and reduced complexity. In turn, these software qualities lead to an improved software development lifecycle and, hence, to better software.

  12. Nuclear quality assurance operating philosophy: A quality-oriented approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quality assurance programs have been part of the nuclear utility management process since the publication of the draft of 10CFR50 Appendix B in the late 1960s. The unwritten operational philosophy of nuclear quality assurance organizations focused on compliance with federal regulations. Adverse experiences, including operational events and extended shutdowns, prompted the gradual adoption of isolated practices extending beyond compliance orientation. These practices have an orientation that accommodates a definition of quality, a perspective of the role of nuclear quality assurance organizations in the overall concept of defense-in-depth, a definition of the segments of the nuclear quality assurance mission, and recent advances in the understanding of self-assessment. Observation of these practices at various nuclear utilities resulted in a syntheses of practices and approaches into a coherent quality-oriented nuclear quality assurance operating philosophy that is not totally adopted at any one utility

  13. DATA PUBLISHING AND PRIVACY MAINTENANCE BY AN APPROACH ORIENTED SLICING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Addagarla Harica

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Many of the Techniques based on the some of the oriented strategy and are completely reliable on these particular phenomena for the purpose of the accurate analysis takes place in a well effective manner respectively. A lot of analysis has been made on a present technique where the extraction of the performance is a key role it is quite effective on comparison to that of the several previous existing techniques in a well effective manner where it is further used in the real time scenario respectively. Here the designed strategy is done or implemented by the technically oriented method naming strategy based on the slicing where it is implemented where the accurate classification of the data takes place in a well effective manner both with respect to the row wise as well as the column wise respectively. Here there is a huge challenge to overcome the above mentioned drawbacks or the problems which is mainly used for the degradation of the performance takes place. Where there is no relation between the extracted data based on the properties related to that particular technique in an accurate oriented fashion. From the other end when the application of the other alternative technique as mentioned above the name of the bucket oriented strategy there is no similarity between the data take place and also the minute oriented operations it is a failure based approach respectively. Here by the above generalized technique there may be complete loss o the data therefore there is no sought of the efficiency in the system takes place in an effective manner so that the performance can be reduced in an effective manner where the consideration of the data related to the high dimension oriented approach. There are some of the previously implemented which are implemented in a well efficient manner and its oriented techniques are implemented beyond the security oriented aspect includes method of generalization followed by the phenomena oriented buckets in a quite respective fashion. Actually here the transmission of the data takes place in a environment based on the wireless based strategy in a well efficient manner. The user is very much concerned and frustrated about his own data in the well efficient manner that is either data is completely transferred from one to other end vice versa or not.  

  14. The right side? Under time pressure, approach motivation leads to right-oriented bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskes, Marieke; Sligte, Daniel; Shalvi, Shaul; De Dreu, Carsten K W

    2011-11-01

    Approach motivation, a focus on achieving positive outcomes, is related to relative left-hemispheric brain activation, which translates to a variety of right-oriented behavioral biases. In two studies, we found that approach-motivated individuals display a right-oriented bias, but only when they are forced to act quickly. In a task in which they had to divide lines into two equal parts, approach-motivated individuals bisected the line at a point farther to the right than avoidance-motivated individuals did, but only when they worked under high time pressure. In our analysis of all Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) World Cup penalty shoot-outs, we found that goalkeepers were two times more likely to dive to the right than to the left when their team was behind, a situation that we conjecture induces approach motivation. Because penalty takers shot toward the two sides of the goal equally often, the goalkeepers' right-oriented bias was dysfunctional, allowing more goals to be scored. Directional biases may facilitate group coordination but prove maladaptive in individual settings and interpersonal competition. PMID:22006059

  15. The standardized surgical approach improves outcome of gallbladder cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Igna Dorian; Weinrich Malte; Stremovskaia Tatiana; Justinger Christoph; Scheingraber Stefan; Schilling Martin K

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The objective of this study was to examine the extent of surgical procedures, pathological findings, complications and outcome of patients treated in the last 12 years for gallbladder cancer. Methods The impact of a standardized more aggressive approach compared with historical controls of our center with an individual approach was examined. Of 53 patients, 21 underwent resection for cure and 32 for palliation. Results Overall hospital mortality was 9% and procedure relate...

  16. Transforming Community Colleges Using a Learning Outcomes Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipley, Dale

    Focusing on theories and practices related to outcomes-based learning (OBL), this paper presents arguments for adopting an OBL approach in Canada's community colleges. Introductory sections review internal and external reasons for making changes to the teaching and learning paradigm, such as new demands for training and reduced funding. Part I…

  17. Outcome orientation - a misconception of probability that harms medical research and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Humphrey, Parris Taylor

    2014-01-01

    Uncertainty is an everyday experience in medical research and practice, but theory and methods for reasoning clearly about uncertainty were developed only recently. Confirmation bias, selective memory, and many misleading heuristics are known enemies of the insightful clinician, researcher, or citizen; but other snares worth exposing lurk in how we reason about uncertainty in our everyday lives. Here we draw attention to a cognitive bias described by Konold as the "outcome orientation" - little known or possibly unknown to those outside the field of probability pedagogy - and point out how this form of reasoning creates hazards for medical research and practice.

  18. A Task-oriented Approach to Search Engine Usability Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Isak Taksa; Amanda Spink; Robert Goldberg

    2008-01-01

    Usability is a multi-dimensional characteristic of a computer system. This paper focuses on usability as a measurement of interaction between the user and the system. The research employs a task-oriented approach to evaluate the usability of a meta search engine. This engine encourages and accepts queries of unlimited size expressed in natural language. A variety of conventional metrics developed by academic and industrial research, including ISO standards, are applied to the information retr...

  19. A New Model Using Auction Oriented Approach in Grid Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Surbhi Sangwan,

    2012-01-01

    Grids are emerging as the infrastructure for next generation computing. The resources in the Grid are heterogeneous and geographically distributed. The management of resources in such a large and distributed environment is a complex task. In this paper a model has been proposed using auction oriented approach. In thisauction model each bidder offers a bid for a collection ofresources rather than placing a bid on each item separately.This enables the bidder to express dependencies and compleme...

  20. Object-oriented approach to Rapid Custom Instruction design

    OpenAIRE

    Kallel, Emna; Aoudni, Yassine; Abid, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Due to continuous evolution of Systems-on-Chip (SoC), the complexity of their design and development has augmented exponentially. To deal with the ever-growing complexity of such embedded systems, we introduce, in this paper, an object-oriented approach to rapid SoC design using auto-generation of hardware custom instructions to simplify and accelerate the SoC design process. In our approach, a Data Flow Graph (DFG) is adopted as a representation of the arithmetic operation ...

  1. Beginning Java programming the object-oriented approach

    CERN Document Server

    Baesens, Bart; vanden Broucke, Seppe

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive Java guide, with samples, exercises, case studies, and step-by-step instruction Beginning Java Programming: The Object Oriented Approach is a straightforward resource for getting started with one of the world's most enduringly popular programming languages. Based on classes taught by the authors, the book starts with the basics and gradually builds into more advanced concepts. The approach utilizes an integrated development environment that allows readers to immediately apply what they learn, and includes step-by-step instruction with plenty of sample programs. Each chapter c

  2. A study on different approaches towards Aspect Oriented Requirements Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchetha Vijay

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Requirements and their quality are very important for the success and on time delivery of a project. However, Requirement Elicitation is not an easy and small task to begin with. Conflicts arise in various ways such as way of looking at things and analyzing them, differences in expectation, mental model and many more. In many cases, clients and users are not completely sure about their actual needs in the beginning. Hence the actual solution for all such problems and conflicts is a step by step process called Requirements Engineering (RE. RE aids us in identifying, analyzing and documenting system requirements. This is an important task because it helps to eradicate mistakes and conflicts, if any, in the very early stage of development. In any approach of Software Development, RE is a very important step. Aspect Oriented Software Development is not an exception to this. Aspect Oriented Requirements Engineering (AORE helps in providing better solution by offering new methods and approaches for separation of requirements. Several AORE approaches have emerged over the years. In this paper, we try to summarise the various approaches of AORE with a brief explanation to each ofthese approaches.

  3. The standardized surgical approach improves outcome of gallbladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igna Dorian

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to examine the extent of surgical procedures, pathological findings, complications and outcome of patients treated in the last 12 years for gallbladder cancer. Methods The impact of a standardized more aggressive approach compared with historical controls of our center with an individual approach was examined. Of 53 patients, 21 underwent resection for cure and 32 for palliation. Results Overall hospital mortality was 9% and procedure related mortality was 4%. The standardized approach in UICC stage IIa, IIb and III led to a significantly improved outcome compared to patients with an individual approach (Median survival: 14 vs. 7 months, mean+/-SEM: 26+/-7 vs. 17+/-5 months, p = 0.014. The main differences between the standardized and the individual approach were anatomical vs. atypical liver resection, performance of systematic lymph dissection of the hepaticoduodenal ligament and the resection of the common bile duct. Conclusion Anatomical liver resection, proof for bile duct infiltration and, in case of tumor invasion, radical resection and lymph dissection of the hepaticoduodenal ligament are essential to improve outcome of locally advanced gallbladder cancer.

  4. An Aspect Oriented Process Based Approach To Information Risk Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanya Pramod

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this era of fast paced technological advancements, security issues and risks related to it have become a key concern for all organizations. Enterprise Governance, Risk management and Compliance(GRC is the popular approach to handle enterprise risks and reduce its impact. This paper focuses on the risk management, especially the risk assessment approaches and proposes an aspect oriented approach to risk management. In this approach, the risk management processes are designed separately from the core business processes and are weaved to the flow of business process steps wherever necessary.This brings the advantage of separation of concerns of risk management from the business process. The design of business processes then need not look into the design of risk assessment related to it. This will enable handling of risk and its assessment by expert risk advisories, those who are specialized in it.

  5. Meta-analysis of multiple outcomes: a multilevel approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Noortgate, Wim; López-López, José Antonio; Marín-Martínez, Fulgencio; Sánchez-Meca, Julio

    2014-11-01

    In meta-analysis, dependent effect sizes are very common. An example is where in one or more studies the effect of an intervention is evaluated on multiple outcome variables for the same sample of participants. In this paper, we evaluate a three-level meta-analytic model to account for this kind of dependence, extending the simulation results of Van den Noortgate, López-López, Marín-Martínez, and Sánchez-Meca Behavior Research Methods, 45, 576-594 (2013) by allowing for a variation in the number of effect sizes per study, in the between-study variance, in the correlations between pairs of outcomes, and in the sample size of the studies. At the same time, we explore the performance of the approach if the outcomes used in a study can be regarded as a random sample from a population of outcomes. We conclude that although this approach is relatively simple and does not require prior estimates of the sampling covariances between effect sizes, it gives appropriate mean effect size estimates, standard error estimates, and confidence interval coverage proportions in a variety of realistic situations. PMID:25361866

  6. Object Oriented Approach to Software Development for LHC Experiments

    CERN Multimedia

    Tummers, B J; Day, C; Innocente, V; Mount, R; Visser, E; Burnett, T H; Balke, C

    2002-01-01

    % RD41 \\\\ \\\\ We propose to study the viability of the Object Oriented~(OO) approach for developing the code for LHC experiments. The authors of this proposal will learn the key issues of this approach:~~OO analysis and design. Several methodologies will be studied to select the most appropriate for the High Energy Physics case. Some Computer Aided Software Engineering tools and implementation languages will be evaluated. These studies will be carried out with various well-defined prototypes, some of which have been defined in a preceding study and some of which will be defined in the course of this R\\&D project. We propose to also study in this project how the OO approach enhances a different, and hopefully better, project management. Management tools will be tried and professional training will be organized.

  7. Designing an outcome-oriented computer decision-support system for cardiovascular ICU--a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, F; Vincent, D; Fenna, D; Goebel, R; Modry, D

    1991-12-01

    This paper describes the conceptual framework and preliminary results of an outcome-oriented decision-support system prototype for the cardiovascular intensive care unit (CVICU). The major characteristics of this design include: (1) its problem-based approach to solving clinical problems; (2) an integrated structure with the hospital information system in terms of its data, model and knowledge bases; (3) proposed alternative modes of interaction that include monitoring and critiquing; (4) and research modules that design, manage, and analyze outcome-based clinical studies. At present, an initial prototype has been implemented on a PC as a set of modules accessible from a main menu. The structural framework of the overall system is fairly well defined but only limited quantitative, statistical and expert knowledge has been captured. The second phase of the project involves porting the prototype to a Unix workstation environment, refining and adding models to the model base, expanding its knowledge bases, reasoning capability, and testing the prototype with actual clinical cases in a real-time fashion. PMID:1812188

  8. Auction Oriented Approach for Resource Management in Grid Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surbhi Sangwan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Grid computing, emerging as a new paradigm for next-generationcomputing, enables the sharing, selection, and aggregation ofgeographically distributed heterogeneous resources for solvinglarge-scale problems in science, engineering, and commerce. Theresources in the Grid are heterogeneous and geographicallydistributed. The paper demonstrates the capability of economicbasedsystems for wide-area parallel and distributed computingby using auction-oriented approach. In this paper implementationof the various auction models-English Auction, Dutch Auction,First-Price Sealed Auction, Continuous Double Auction is done.Also these models are compared.

  9. A New Model Using Auction Oriented Approach in Grid Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surbhi Sangwan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Grids are emerging as the infrastructure for next generation computing. The resources in the Grid are heterogeneous and geographically distributed. The management of resources in such a large and distributed environment is a complex task. In this paper a model has been proposed using auction oriented approach. In thisauction model each bidder offers a bid for a collection ofresources rather than placing a bid on each item separately.This enables the bidder to express dependencies and complementarities between various resources. It can havevarious types selection such as Telecom Spectrum, BusRoutes and Industrial Procurement. This model has alsobeen implemented.

  10. An object-oriented approach to nested data parallelism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffler, Thomas J.; Chatterjee, Siddhartha

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes an implementation technique for integrating nested data parallelism into an object-oriented language. Data-parallel programming employs sets of data called 'collections' and expresses parallelism as operations performed over the elements of a collection. When the elements of a collection are also collections, then there is the possibility for 'nested data parallelism.' Few current programming languages support nested data parallelism however. In an object-oriented framework, a collection is a single object. Its type defines the parallel operations that may be applied to it. Our goal is to design and build an object-oriented data-parallel programming environment supporting nested data parallelism. Our initial approach is built upon three fundamental additions to C++. We add new parallel base types by implementing them as classes, and add a new parallel collection type called a 'vector' that is implemented as a template. Only one new language feature is introduced: the 'foreach' construct, which is the basis for exploiting elementwise parallelism over collections. The strength of the method lies in the compilation strategy, which translates nested data-parallel C++ into ordinary C++. Extracting the potential parallelism in nested 'foreach' constructs is called 'flattening' nested parallelism. We show how to flatten 'foreach' constructs using a simple program transformation. Our prototype system produces vector code which has been successfully run on workstations, a CM-2, and a CM-5.

  11. Integration of the Brief Behavioral Activation Treatment for Depression (BATD) Into a College Orientation Program: Depression and Alcohol Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Reynolds, Elizabeth K.; Macpherson, Laura; Baruch, David E.; Tull, Matthew T.; Lejuez, C. W.

    2011-01-01

    College freshmen face a variety of academic and social challenges as they adjust to college life that can place them at risk for a number of negative outcomes, including depression and alcohol-related problems. Orientation classes that focus on teaching incoming students how to better cope with college-oriented stress may provide an opportunity to prevent the development of these adjustment problems. This article outlines a program based on behavioral activation that can be integrated into co...

  12. SCOS 2: An object oriented software development approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symonds, Martin; Lynenskjold, Steen; Mueller, Christian

    1994-01-01

    The Spacecraft Control and Operations System 2 (SCOS 2), is intended to provide the generic mission control system infrastructure for future ESA missions. It represents a bold step forward in order to take advantage of state-of-the-art technology and current practices in the area of software engineering. Key features include: (1) use of object oriented analysis and design techniques; (2) use of UNIX, C++ and a distributed architecture as the enabling implementation technology; (3) goal of re-use for development, maintenance and mission specific software implementation; and (4) introduction of the concept of a spacecraft control model. This paper touches upon some of the traditional beliefs surrounding Object Oriented development and describes their relevance to SCOS 2. It gives rationale for why particular approaches were adopted and others not, and describes the impact of these decisions. The development approach followed is discussed, highlighting the evolutionary nature of the overall process and the iterative nature of the various tasks carried out. The emphasis of this paper is on the process of the development with the following being covered: (1) the three phases of the SCOS 2 project - prototyping & analysis, design & implementation and configuration / delivery of mission specific systems; (2) the close cooperation and continual interaction with the users during the development; (3) the management approach - the split between client staff, industry and some of the required project management activities; (4) the lifecycle adopted being an enhancement of the ESA PSS-05 standard with SCOS 2 specific activities and approaches defined; and (5) an examination of some of the difficulties encountered and the solutions adopted. Finally, the lessons learned from the SCOS 2 experience are highlighted, identifying those issues to be used as feedback into future developments of this nature. This paper does not intend to describe the finished product and its operation, but focusing on the journey to arrive there, concentrating therefore on the process and not the products of the SCOS 2 software development.

  13. The person-oriented approach: A short theoretical and practical guide

    OpenAIRE

    Bergman, Lars R.; Margit Wångby

    2014-01-01

    A short overview of the person-oriented approach is given as a guide to the researcher interested in carrying out person-oriented research. Theoretical, methodological, and practical considerations of the approach are discussed. First, some historical roots are traced, followed by a description of the holisticinteractionistic research paradigm, which provided the general framework for the development of the modern person-oriented approach. The approach has both a theoretical and a methodologi...

  14. Mediman: Object oriented programming approach for medical image analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mediman is a new image analysis package which has been developed to analyze quantitatively Positron Emission Tomography (PET) data. It is object-oriented, written in C++ and its user interface is based on InterViews on top of which new classes have been added. Mediman accesses data using external data representation or import/export mechanism which avoids data duplication. Multimodality studies are organized in a simple database which includes images, headers, color tables, lists and objects of interest (OOI's) and history files. Stored color table parameters allow to focus directly on the interesting portion of the dynamic range. Lists allow to organize the study according to modality, acquisition protocol, time and spatial properties. OOI's (points, lines and regions) are stored in absolute 3-D coordinates allowing correlation with other co-registered imaging modalities such as MRI or SPECT. OOI's have visualization properties and are organized into groups. Quantitative ROI analysis of anatomic images consists of position, distance, volume calculation on selected OOI's. An image calculator is connected to mediman. Quantitation of metabolic images is performed via profiles, sectorization, time activity curves and kinetic modeling. Mediman is menu and mouse driven, macro-commands can be registered and replayed. Its interface is customizable through a configuration file. The benefit of the object-oriented approach are discussed from a development point of view from a development point of view

  15. Game Portability Using a Service-Oriented Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Maddock

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Game assets are portable between games. The games themselves are, however, dependent on the game engine they were developed on. Middleware has attempted to address this by, for instance, separating out the AI from the core game engine. Our work takes this further by separating the game from the game engine, and making it portable between game engines. The game elements that we make portable are the game logic, the object model, and the game state, which represent the game's brain, and which we collectively refer to as the game factor, or G-factor. We achieve this using an architecture based around a service-oriented approach. We present an overview of this architecture and its use in developing games. The evaluation demonstrates that the architecture does not affect performance unduly, adds little development overhead, is scaleable, and supports modifiability.

  16. Teaching Listening Comprehension Skills: A Test-orientated Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Wen Su

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Attributed to a “receptive skill” in the communicative process, listening comprehension would be the most arduous task of all four language skills. It is likely that EFL (English as a foreign language students encounter various predicaments, of e.g. grasping main ideas of the dialogues in contexts, and in turn suffer from learning anxiety. The issue of how to assist the students in improving their listening competency is worth attention. This article is, therefore, intended for illustrating a test-orientated approach to teaching listening comprehension skills to EFL students through an analysis of sample questions about listening comprehension (i.e. Choosing the Right Picture, Short Questions, and Short Conversations on GEPT tests at the elementary level and through provision of tips (i.e. Skim, Scan, Listen, Guess/Infer, Choose & Write and Check on how to answer the questions effectively. Implications for teaching listening comprehension are also made at the end of the paper.

  17. A service oriented approach for guidelines-based clinical decision support using BPMN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Loya, Salvador; Aziz, Ayesha; Chatwin, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Evidence-based medical practice requires that clinical guidelines need to be documented in such a way that they represent a clinical workflow in its most accessible form. In order to optimize clinical processes to improve clinical outcomes, we propose a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) based approach for implementing clinical guidelines that can be accessed from an Electronic Health Record (EHR) application with a Web Services enabled communication mechanism with the Enterprise Service Bus. We have used Business Process Modelling Notation (BPMN) for modelling and presenting the clinical pathway in the form of a workflow. The aim of this study is to produce spontaneous alerts in the healthcare workflow in the diagnosis of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). The use of BPMN as a tool to automate clinical guidelines has not been previously employed for providing Clinical Decision Support (CDS). PMID:25160142

  18. Comparison of Advanced Pixel Based (ANN and SVM and Object-Oriented Classification Approaches Using Landsat-7 Etm+ Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasun Kumar Gupta

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the pixel-based and object-oriented image classification approaches were used for identifying different land use types in Karnal district. Imagery from Landsat-7 ETM with 6 spectral bands was used to perform the image classification.Ground truth data were collected from the available maps, personal knowledge and communication with the local people. In order to prepare land use map different approaches: Artificial Neural Network(ANN and Support Vector Machine (SVM were used. For performing object oriented classification eCognition software was used. During the object oriented classification, in first step several differentsets of parameters were used for image segmentation and in second step nearest neighbor classifier was used for classification. Outcome from the classification works show that the object-oriented approach gave more accurate results (including higher producer’s and user’s accuracy for most of the land cover classes than those achieved by pixelbased classification algorithms. It is also observed that ANN performed better as compared to SVM classification approach.

  19. New approach to object-oriented simulation of concurrent systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pears, Arnold N.; Singh, Samar; Dillon, Tharam S.

    1997-06-01

    High speed simulation of concurrent systems requires distributed processing if meaningful results are to be obtained for large systems in a reasonable timeframe. One of the most common methods used for such simulation is parallel discrete event simulation (PDES). A range of PDES simulation kernels have been developed and much research has been devoted to optimistic execution strategies such as timewarp. Unfortunately in all this effort some fundamental aspects of object oriented modeling for simulation have received scant attention. In particular the ability of simulation kernels to act on truly generic simulation objects. In this context we define a truly generic object to be one which totally defines its responses to external stimuli, but which has no concept of its place in the interconnected web of objects that comprise the total simulation environment. To address this problem, we propose a new modeling approach based on interacting objects, and an associated simulation kernel architecture. This paper describes the architecture and features of our simulation kernel in detail, and demonstrates, using a small example, the benefits of adopting such a modeling approach. The major specific benefits include true object genericity, enhanced scope for object re-use, and enhanced opportunities to use polymorphism.

  20. A general approach for multi-oriented text line extraction of handwritten document

    OpenAIRE

    Ouwayed, Nazih; Belai?d, Abdel

    2011-01-01

    The multi-orientation occurs frequently in ancient handwritten documents, where the writers try to update a document by adding some annotations in the margins. Due to the margin narrowness, this gives rise to lines in different directions and orientations. Document recognition needs to ?nd the lines everywhere they are written whatever their orientation. This is why we propose in this paper a new approach allowing us to extract the multi-oriented lines in scanned documents. Because of the m...

  1. Understanding the achievement of radical process orientation : an interpretive approach

    OpenAIRE

    Braganza, Ashley

    1999-01-01

    The achievement of radical process orientation is vital to the strategic and operational integrity of organisations. However, organisations have a dismal record of implementing process orientation, especially when it involves radical organisational change. There is scant research to guide organisations through the design and implementation of radical process orientation. Hence, this research develops a model that provides insights into the achievement of radical process orie...

  2. RF control at SSCL - an object oriented design approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) in Texas, the construction of which was stopped in 1994, would have represented a major challenge in accelerator research and development. This paper addresses the issues encountered in the parallel design and construction of the control systems for the RF equipment for the five accelerators comprising the SSC. An extensive analysis of the components of the RF control systems has been undertaken, based upon the Schlaer-Mellor object-oriented analysis and design (OOA/OOD) methodology. The RF subsystem components such as amplifiers, tubes, power supplies, PID loops, etc. were analyzed to produce OOA information, behavior and process models. Using these models, OOD was iteratively applied to develop a generic RF control system design. This paper describes the results of this analysis and the development of 'bridges' between the analysis objects, and the EPICS-based software and underlying VME-based hardware architectures. The application of this approach to several of the SSCL RF control systems is discussed. ((orig.))

  3. An object-oriented approach to CMS reconstruction software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CMS has joined several R and D projects to test if and how Object Orientation can be applied to its software. We describe here how a prototype of the reconstruction software for the CMS inner tracker has been used to study Object Oriented Analysis and Design. (author)

  4. Issues and design approach for product oriented manufacturing systems

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Anabela Carvalho; Silva, Si?lvio Carmo

    2010-01-01

    The Product Oriented Manufacturing (POM) concept here presented addresses competition in today’s changing global market of manufacturing companies. It is a challenge to the Function Oriented Manufacturing (FOM) concept supposedly adequate for dealing with demand changes and large product variety without needing reconfiguration. The POM concept evolves from the traditional cellular manufacturing, ultimately aiming at full system integration and coordination for completely process...

  5. Orientation Mining-Driven Approach to Analyze Web Public Sentiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhao

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, Internet provides a unique opportunityto express and spread public sentiment, whichmakes the web contents becoming the largest informationsource of public sentiment. Since web public sentimentreflects people’s attitude to society and politics, the publicopinion’s orientation is significant to decision-makers. In thispaper, we utilize VSM (vector space model to present thetext orientation of web information and offer data-miningapproaches to analyze public opinion’s orientation, whichcan assist decision-makers to steer social information andguide the web public sentiment. To achieve the goal of textorientation analysis, two ways are proposed. Firstly, a noveltext orientation analysis method is described to analyzethe orientation of original web postings and their replies.Secondly, an improved single-pass clustering algorithm isintroduced to cluster the subject of web discussion anddiscover the hot topics.We also construct a prototype system,named WPSAS (web public sentiment analysis system, asexperimental platform to validate the presented methodology. The experimental results show that our methods are effective and efficient.

  6. Approaches Regarding Business Logic Modeling in Service Oriented Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Maria Ioana FLOREA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of the Service Oriented Computing (SOC, Service Oriented Architecture (SOA is a technology that has been developing for almost a decade and during this time there have been published many studies, papers and surveys that are referring to the advantages of projects using it. In this article we discuss some ways of using SOA in the business environment, as a result of the need to reengineer the internal business processes with the scope of moving forward towards providing and using standardized services and achieving enterprise interoperability.

  7. An object-oriented approach to evaluating multiple spectral models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A versatile, spectroscopy analysis engine has been developed by using object-oriented design and analysis techniques coupled with an object-oriented language, C++. This engine provides the spectroscopist with the choice of several different peak shape models that are tailored to the type of spectroscopy being performed. It also allows ease of development in adapting the engine to other analytical methods requiring more complex peak fitting in the future. This results in a program that can currently be used across a wide range of spectroscopy applications and anticipates inclusion of future advances in the field. (author) 6 refs.; 1 fig

  8. Comparing different approach and avoidance models of learning and personality in the prediction of work, university, and leadership outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Chris J; Hobman, Elizabeth V; Jimmieson, Nerina L; Martin, Robin

    2009-05-01

    Jackson (2005) developed a hybrid model of personality and learning, known as the learning styles profiler (LSP) which was designed to span biological, socio-cognitive, and experiential research foci of personality and learning research. The hybrid model argues that functional and dysfunctional learning outcomes can be best understood in terms of how cognitions and experiences control, discipline, and re-express the biologically based scale of sensation-seeking. In two studies with part-time workers undertaking tertiary education (N = 137 and 58), established models of approach and avoidance from each of the three different research foci were compared with Jackson's hybrid model in their predictiveness of leadership, work, and university outcomes using self-report and supervisor ratings. Results showed that the hybrid model was generally optimal and, as hypothesized, that goal orientation was a mediator of sensation-seeking on outcomes (work performance, university performance, leader behaviours, and counterproductive work behaviour). Our studies suggest that the hybrid model has considerable promise as a predictor of work and educational outcomes as well as dysfunctional outcomes. PMID:18627640

  9. Increasing Word Recognition with Racially Diverse Second-Grade Students Using Fluency-Oriented Reading Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Franklin Dickerson

    2012-01-01

    The author examined the effectiveness of 2 fluency-oriented reading programs on improving reading fluency for an ethnically diverse sample of second-grade students. The first approach is Fluency-Oriented Reading Instruction (S. A. Stahl & K. Heubach, 2005), which incorporates the repeated reading of a grade-level text over the course of an…

  10. Making The Most of Medical orientation; A New Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Jonathan Taitz

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientating new junior medical staff can be a complex and time consuming task. Traditional models have typically involved a day or longer of lectures. This involves a large number of senior staff being available on the first day of term. It also means that junior staff not present on the first day had any access to an orientation program at all. Evaluation of our program confirmed the belief that the day was dull and that there was simply too much information for new staff to absorb. As a result of this feedback we extensively updated our orientation program. Pre-reading of the junior staff manual became compulsory. We departed from the traditional lecture style program and devised a new ten- station scenario based interactive program. The stations were designed to cover aspects of the hospital?s mandatory education and key educational requirements in order to function effectively on our campus. Station leaders were selected and trained in the goals of the new process. Several of our secondment sites were engaged in the development of the project topics. We hoped that our secondment sites would be relieved of some orientation responsibility if core material was delivered centrally. The strength of the new orientation is that it is portable, reproducible and uniform. It is also available via video conferencing. A single person can educate new staff in three hours if the need arises. Most importantly all new staff will have access to the program within a week of starting a term at our hospital.

  11. APE (state-oriented approach) centralized control procedures; Procedures de conduite APE (Approche Par Etats)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astier, D. [FRAMATOME ANP, 92 - Paris-La-Defence (France); Depont, G. [Electricite de France (EDF/DPN), 93 - Saint-Denis (France); Van Dermarliere, Y. [Electricite de France (EDF/SEPTEN), 69 - Villeurbanne (France)

    2004-07-01

    This article presents the progressive implementation of the state-oriented approach (APE) for centralized control procedures in French nuclear power plants. The implementation began in the years 1982-83 and it concerned only the circuits involved in engineered safeguard systems such IS (safety injection), EAS (containment spray system) and GMPP (reactor coolant pump set). In 2003 the last PWR unit switched from the event oriented approach to APE for post-accidental situations.

  12. A Framework for Assessing the Software Reusability using Fuzzy Logic Approach for Aspect Oriented Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Kumar Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Software reusability is very important and crucial attribute to evaluate the system software. Due to incremental growth of software development, the software reusability comes under attention of many researcher and practitioner. It is pretty easier to reuse the software than developing the new software. Software reusability reduces the development time, cost and effort of software product. Software reusability define the depth to which a module can be reused again with very little or no modification. However the prediction of this quality attribute is cumbersome process. Aspect oriented software development is new approach that introduce the concerns to overcome the issues with modular programming and object oriented programming. However many researcher worked on accessing the software reusability on object oriented system but the software reusability of aspect oriented system is not completely explored. This paper explores the various metric that affects the reusability of aspect oriented software and estimate it using fuzzy logic approach.

  13. A new approach to the orientation of random hypergraphs

    CERN Document Server

    Lelarge, Marc

    2012-01-01

    A h-uniform hypergraph H=(V,E) is called (l,k)-orientable if there exists an assignment of each hyperedge e to exactly l of its vertices such that no vertex is assigned more than k hyperedges. Let H_{n,m,h} be a hypergraph, drawn uniformly at random from the set of all h-uniform hypergraphs with n vertices and m edges. In this paper, we determine the threshold of the existence of a (l,k)-orientation of H_{n,m,h} for k>=1 and h>l>=1, extending recent results motivated by applications such as cuckoo hashing or load balancing with guaranteed maximum load. Our proof combines the local weak convergence of sparse graphs and a careful analysis of a Gibbs measure on spanning subgraphs with degree constraints. It allows us to deal with a much broader class than the uniform hypergraphs.

  14. Direct and indirect latent-variable parenting outcomes of two universal family-focused preventive interventions: extending a public health-oriented research base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoth, R; Redmond, C; Shin, C

    1998-04-01

    Recent literature underscores the need for studies of family-based preventive interventions oriented toward public health objectives. This article illustrates a program evaluation approach for the study of family intervention outcomes in general populations. Thirty-three rural schools were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 conditions: the Preparing for the Drug-Free Years Program (PDFY), the Iowa Strengthening Families Program (ISFP), and a minimal-contact control group. Self-report and observational data collected from 523 families were used to develop measurement models of 3 latent parenting constructs that included measurement method effects. Analyses were conducted to ensure initial and attrition-related group equivalencies and to assess school effects. Structural equation models of the hypothesized sequence of direct and indirect effects for both PDFY and ISFP were then fit to the data. All hypothesized effects were significant for both interventions. The discussion addresses the potential public health benefits of evaluation research on universal preventive interventions. PMID:9583342

  15. A User-Oriented Approach to Music Information Retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Lesaffre, Micheline; Leman, Marc; Martens, Jean-pierre

    2006-01-01

    Search and retrieval of specific musical content (e.g. emotion, melody) has become an important aspect of system development but only little research is user-oriented. The success of music information retrieval technology primarily depends on both assessing and meeting the needs of its users. Potential users of music information retrieval systems, however, draw upon various ways of expressing themselves. But, who are the potential users of MIR systems and how would they describe music qualiti...

  16. Graduate interns’ experiences: A career success orientations approach

    OpenAIRE

    Crous, F.; Kanye, B.

    2007-01-01

    Organisations are challenged to achieve optimal business results by specifically attracting and retaining talented human resources, while simultaneously creating environments where individuals feel their own personal career aspirations are fulfilled. This study examined graduate interns’ experiences using career success orientations as a framework. Data were collected using a card sorting technique and semi-structured interviews. The data were then analysed and used as a guide for internshi...

  17. A business-oriented approach to data warehouse development

    OpenAIRE

    Ania Cravero Leal; Jose Norberto Mazón; Juan Trujillo

    2012-01-01

    Several surveys have indicated that many data warehouses fail to meet business objectives or are outright failures. One reason for this is that requirement engineering is typically overlooked in real projects. This paper addresses data warehouse design from a business perspective by highlighting business strategy analysis, alignment between data warehouse objectives and a firm’s strategy, goal-orientated information requirements’ modelling and how an underlying multidimensional data wareh...

  18. An Object-Oriented Approach to Writing Computational Electromagnetics Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Martin; Mallasch, Paul G.

    1996-01-01

    Presently, most computer software development in the Computational Electromagnetics (CEM) community employs the structured programming paradigm, particularly using the Fortran language. Other segments of the software community began switching to an Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) paradigm in recent years to help ease design and development of highly complex codes. This paper examines design of a time-domain numerical analysis CEM code using the OOP paradigm, comparing OOP code and structured programming code in terms of software maintenance, portability, flexibility, and speed.

  19. Parental Knowledge and Youth Risky Behavior: A Person Oriented Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Lippold, Melissa A.; Greenberg, Mark T.; Collins, Linda M.

    2012-01-01

    Most studies isolate the effects of one knowledge-related behavior on youth outcomes. This study explores the relationship between subgroups of mother–youth dyads that use specific combinations of parental knowledge-related behaviors and youth risky behavior. Using a sample of 796 rural 6th graders (53 % female), we assessed mother and youth reports of maternal knowledge, active parent monitoring efforts, youth disclosure, parental supervision, and the amount of parent–youth communication...

  20. How Changes in Students' Goal Orientations Relate to Outcomes in Social Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Gehlbach, Hunter

    2006-01-01

    Do students tend to set similar types of goals throughout the school year, or do their goal orientations shift over time? If students become more oriented toward mastery or performance over the course of the year, do they improve in their academic achievement, have a more positive affect toward class, and develop the cognitive propensities that their teachers might hope for? A diverse sample of 9th- and 10th-grade world history students (N = 917) participated in a study addressing these quest...

  1. A business-oriented approach to data warehouse development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ania Cravero Leal

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Several surveys have indicated that many data warehouses fail to meet business objectives or are outright failures. One reason for this is that requirement engineering is typically overlooked in real projects. This paper addresses data warehouse design from a business perspective by highlighting business strategy analysis, alignment between data warehouse objectives and a firm’s strategy, goal-orientated information requirements’ modelling and how an underlying multidimensional data warehouse model may be derived. A set of guidelines is provided allowing developers to design a data warehouse aligned with a prevailing business strategy. A classic case study is presented.

  2. Entrepreneurial orientation, environmental hostility and SME profitability: a contingency approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izaias Martins

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effect of the entrepreneurial orientation (EO on SME financial performance. The essay also proposes a contingency model to explore the moderating effects of environmental hostility on the relationship between EO and profitability. The study was conducted using a sample of 121 manufacturing SMEs in Spain. Results confirm the positive influence of EO on a firm?s profitability. More importantly, the impact of EO on SME profitability is higher when there is a fit between EO and the external environment.

  3. Data clustering in C++ an object-oriented approach

    CERN Document Server

    Gan, Guojun

    2011-01-01

    Data clustering is a highly interdisciplinary field, the goal of which is to divide a set of objects into homogeneous groups such that objects in the same group are similar and objects in different groups are quite distinct. Thousands of theoretical papers and a number of books on data clustering have been published over the past 50 years. However, few books exist to teach people how to implement data clustering algorithms. This book was written for anyone who wants to implement or improve their data clustering algorithms. Using object-oriented design and programming techniques, Data Clusterin

  4. Analyzing Web Service Contracts : an aspect oriented approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cambronero, M.-Emilia; Okika, Joseph C.

    2007-01-01

    Web services should be dependable, because businesses rely on them. For that purpose the Service Oriented Architecture has standardized specifications at a syntactical level. In this paper, we demonstrate how such specifications are used to derive semantic models in the form of (timed) automata. These can be used to model check functional and behavioural properties of a given service. Since there might be several specifications dealing with different aspects, one must also check that these automata are consistent, where we propose to set up a suitable simulation relation. The proposed techniques are illustrated with a small case study

  5. The Role of Sustainability Orientation in Outsourcing: Antecedents, Practices, and Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuting Li

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available With growing awareness of environmental issues and firm social responsibilities, outsourcing firms increasinglyrecognize the need to be sustainability-oriented as they pursue competitiveness in the global market. However,firms are not doing this purely for altruist reasons as they still have to make a profit and account to shareholders.Therefore thispaper investigates the antecedents that push firms that adopt outsourcing initiatives to besustainability-oriented. The authors develop a model that identifies the antecedents, goals, practices, andoutcomes associated with the sustainability-outsourcing linkage. The model starts by identifying fourantecedents (regulations, supply chain demand, firm reputation, and marketplace requirements that cause ofsustainability orientation in a firm. Then, internal (i.e., product design and external (i.e., supplier managementpractices thatfirms may adopt in order to cope with their sustainability goals are introduced. Finally, the modelevaluates the impact of these practices on their outsourcing performance from the triple bottom line perspective.So this is a conceptual paper that sheds light on the role of sustainability orientation in outsourcing firms’performance, and calls for more research attention on sustainable outsourcing.

  6. An Outcome Evaluation of Reality Orientation Therapy with Geriatric Patients in a State Mental Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Clarke S.; Ivory, Peter B. C. B.

    1976-01-01

    Reality Orientation (RO) Therapy, a recently developed mode of treatment for use with geriatric patients was discussed. A controlled study was conducted comparing the effects of RO with those of traditional hospital care. The results indicated that RO is a promising technique for use with a chronic geriatric patient population. (Author)

  7. Within-Year Changes in Children's Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivational Orientations: Contextual Predictors and Academic Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corpus, Jennifer Henderlong; McClintic-Gilbert, Megan S.; Hayenga, Amynta O.

    2009-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the nature, timing, and correlates of motivational change among a large sample (N = 1051) of third- through eighth-grade students. Analyses of within-year changes in students' motivational orientations revealed that both intrinsic and extrinsic motivations decreased from fall to spring, with declines…

  8. Latent Class Analysis with Distal Outcomes: A Flexible Model-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, Stephanie T.; Tan, Xianming; Bray, Bethany C.

    2013-01-01

    Although prediction of class membership from observed variables in latent class analysis is well understood, predicting an observed distal outcome from latent class membership is more complicated. A flexible model-based approach is proposed to empirically derive and summarize the class-dependent density functions of distal outcomes with…

  9. Goal-oriented approach to diagnostics in management of an enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Semenenko

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Problems which occur while performing diagnostics of the state of an enterprise and the results of its activity have been revealed. The inexpediency of using problem approach to diagnostics in management of an enterprise in modern conditions of economic management has been defined. The significance and essence of goal-oriented approach to diagnostics in management of an enterprise have been revealed. It has been set that the management decisions, developed using the goal-oriented approach to diagnostics, are more efficient.

  10. Multiple Triangulation Analysis: another approach to determine the orientation of magnetic flux ropes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X.-Z. Zhou

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Another approach (Multiple Triangulation Analysis, MTA is presented to determine the orientation of magnetic flux rope, based on 4-point measurements. A 2-D flux rope model is used to examine the accuracy of the MTA technique in a theoretical way. It is found that the precision of the estimated orientation is dependent on both the spacecraft separation and the constellation path relative to the flux rope structure. However, the MTA error range can be shown to be smaller than that of the traditional MVA technique. As an application to real Cluster data, several flux rope events on 26 January 2001 are analyzed using MTA, to obtain their orientations. The results are compared with the ones obtained by several other methods which also yield flux rope orientation. The estimated axis orientations are shown to be fairly close, suggesting the reliability of the MTA method.

  11. Inter-Organizational Learning across Levels: An Object-Oriented Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toiviainen, Hanna

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the research methodology of analyzing learning in inter-organizational networks based on an object-oriented approach. Design/methodology/approach: The paper draws from the cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT), specifically from the concepts of the object of activity, developmental…

  12. Regional Blockade of the Shoulder: Approaches and Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Bowens, Clifford; Sripada, Ramprasad

    2012-01-01

    The article reviews the current literature regarding shoulder anesthesia and analgesia. Techniques and outcomes are presented that summarize our present understanding of regional anesthesia for the shoulder. Shoulder procedures producing mild to moderate pain may be managed with a single-injection interscalene block. However, studies support that moderate to severe pain, lasting for several days is best managed with a continuous interscalene block. This may cause increased extremity numbness,...

  13. A Kalman-Filter-Based Approach to Combining Independent Earth-Orientation Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Richard S.; Eubanks, T. M.; Steppe, J. A.; Freedman, A. P.; Dickey, J. O.; Runge, T. F.

    1998-01-01

    An approach. based upon the use of a Kalman filter. that is currently employed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for combining independent measurements of the Earth's orientation, is presented. Since changes in the Earth's orientation can be described is a randomly excited stochastic process, the uncertainty in our knowledge of the Earth's orientation grows rapidly in the absence of measurements. The Kalman-filter methodology allows for an objective accounting of this uncertainty growth, thereby facilitating the intercomparison of measurements taken at different epochs (not necessarily uniformly spaced in time) and with different precision. As an example of this approach to combining Earth-orientation series, a description is given of a combination, SPACE95, that has been generated recently at JPL.

  14. Effective-mass approach for n-type semiconductor nanowire MOSFETs arbitrarily oriented

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method which calculates the effective masses in arbitrarily oriented semiconductor nanowires is presented. In order to avoid the full three-dimensional (3D) resolution of the Schroedinger equation, the method decouples within a Cartesian system the transport direction from the cross section. Results give the new effective mass expressions for each valley and channel orientation. As a direct application, transport in [100]-oriented Ge nanowire metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) is then studied by using a self-consistent 'mode-space' approach expressed in the nonequilibrium Green's function formalism. Along this wire orientation, we show that the effective masses resulting from our approach are very close to the one obtained using a sp3 tight-binding band-structure calculation for nanowires as thin as 4 nm

  15. Small Firm Internet Adoption: a market oriented approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Jones

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Fundamental to the development of new customer value offerings via web-based commerce is a small firm’s ability to strategically acquire and exploit knowledge. The focus of this paper is the empirical testing of a normative web-based commerce adoption model developed from a review of the extant literature related to electronic marketing, the Internet and the diffusion of new innovations. A preliminary test of the model’s theoretical contentions lent support to its overall focus, but found that the firm’s existing learning capabilities were diminished during the adoption of web-based commerce. Consequently, sub-optimal adoption outcomes were associated with insufficient knowledge development.

  16. The person-oriented approach: A short theoretical and practical guide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars R. Bergman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A short overview of the person-oriented approach is given as a guide to the researcher interested in carrying out person-oriented research. Theoretical, methodological, and practical considerations of the approach are discussed. First, some historical roots are traced, followed by a description of the holisticinteractionistic research paradigm, which provided the general framework for the development of the modern person-oriented approach. The approach has both a theoretical and a methodological facet and after presenting its key theoretical tenets, an overview is given of some common person-oriented methods. Central to the person-oriented approach is a system view with its components together forming a pattern regarded as indivisible. This pattern should be understood and studied as a whole, not broken up into pieces (variables that are studied as separate entities. Hence, usually methodological tools are used by which whole patterns are analysed (e.g. cluster analysis. An empirical example is given where the pattern development of school grades is studied.

  17. From AOP to UML: Towards an Aspect-Oriented Architectural Modeling Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Kande?, Mohamed M.; Kienzle, Jo?rg; Strohmeier, Alfred

    2002-01-01

    Capturing concerns that crosscut the boundaries of multiple components in software architecture descriptions is problematic. Standard description languages, such as UML, do not provide adequate means to understand and modularize such concerns, but aspect-oriented programming techniques do. This paper explores and analyzes the suitability of UML for aspect-oriented architectural modeling. It takes a bottom-up approach, starting from the code level to the level of software architecture descript...

  18. Representation and Metrics Extraction from Feature Basis: An Object Oriented Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Neri da Silva Vanin

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This tutorial presents an object oriented approach to data reading and metrics extraction from feature basis. Structural issues about basis are discussed first, then the Object Oriented Programming (OOP is aplied to modeling the main elements in this context. The model implementation is then discussed using C++ as programing language. To validate the proposed model, we apply on some feature basis from the University of Carolina, Irvine Machine Learning Database.

  19. Statistical Approach for Predicting Factors of Mood Method for Object Oriented

    OpenAIRE

    Firas Ajil Jassim; Fawzi Hasan Altaani

    2013-01-01

    Object oriented design is becoming more popular in software development and object oriented design metrics which is an essential part of software environment. The main goal in this paper is to predict factors of MOOD method for OO using a statistical approach. Therefore, linear regression model is used to find the relationship between factors of MOOD method and their influences on OO software measurements. Fortunately, through this process a prediction could be made for the ...

  20. Framing design research for service orientation through PSS approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakao, Tomohiko; Sandström, Gunilla Ölundh

    2009-01-01

    In order to respond to the industrial trend towards service design and delivery, design research must address a vast area partially related to value creation, marketing and network theories. However, compared to the space to be explored, there is little insight available. Thus, this paper, as a first step, proposes a way to frame such design research. First, an extensive literature review is performed of over 100 articles on not only PSS-design research but also on related research in fields as PSS in general, service design, innovation, and business models in a broad view. Based on the literature analysis, the authors present three crucial dimensions for service oriented design research, i.e. an offer dimension representing products and services, a provider dimension, and a customer/user dimension. In addition, three research targets are proposed; PSS-offer modelling, PSS development, and PSS potential. Furthermore, several promising future research directions are identified. These include evaluating economic consequences or environmental benefits, establishing terminology, organizational issues, and developing methods and tools to support designers. The boundaries to other research fields are getting blurry and many aspects of other professionalisms must be taken into account. Thus, there is especially need in future research to open towards other research areas.

  1. Recent developments and object-oriented approach in FTU database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last two years, the experimental database of Frascati Tokamak Upgrade (FTU) has been changed from several points of view, particularly: (i) the data and the analysis codes have been moved from the IBM main frame to Unix platforms making enabling the users to take advantage of the large quantities of commercial and free software available under Unix (Matlab, IDL, etc); (ii) AFS (Andrew File System) has been chosen as the distributed file system making the data available on all the nodes and distributing the workload; (iii) 'One measure/one file' philosophy (vs. the previous 'one pulse/one file') has been adopted increasing the number of files into the database but, at the same time, allowing the most important data to be available just after the plasma discharge. The client-server architecture has been tested using the signal viewer client jScope. Moreover, an object oriented data model (OODM) of FTU experimental data has been tried: a generalized model in tokamak experimental data has been developed with typical concepts such as abstraction, encapsulation, inheritance, and polymorphism. The model has been integrated with data coming from different databases, building an Object Warehouse to extract, with data mining techniques, meaningful trends and patterns from huge amounts of data

  2. Client Oriented Approach for Assisting Business Improvement Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Pitic

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An important aspect of the corporate responsibility towards the customers is to ensure the correct value transfer, through the quality and price of the product/service. By using customer satisfaction in order to measure value and the quality provided to customers, this paper proposes a methodology of assisting management decisions in improving business processes. The proposed techniques and tools, specific to quality management, are used for determining the processes which need to be improved or innovated in order to increase customer satisfaction. Thus, the methodology contributes to the creation of a decision-making framework for an efficient orientation of the resources for maximising the generated value and minimising the costs. In order to illustrate its application, we present a study based on the responses regarding satisfaction elements of 679 companies, the customers of a distribution chain in the field of interior fittings. The research highlights the practical method of determining the priority processes for increasing customer satisfaction, taking into account the satisfaction targets and the nature of the necessary actions in order to maximize the created value and to minimize the costs of these processes.

  3. Object-oriented approach for gas turbine engine simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curlett, Brian P.; Felder, James L.

    1995-01-01

    An object-oriented gas turbine engine simulation program was developed. This program is a prototype for a more complete, commercial grade engine performance program now being proposed as part of the Numerical Propulsion System Simulator (NPSS). This report discusses architectural issues of this complex software system and the lessons learned from developing the prototype code. The prototype code is a fully functional, general purpose engine simulation program, however, only the component models necessary to model a transient compressor test rig have been written. The production system will be capable of steady state and transient modeling of almost any turbine engine configuration. Chief among the architectural considerations for this code was the framework in which the various software modules will interact. These modules include the equation solver, simulation code, data model, event handler, and user interface. Also documented in this report is the component based design of the simulation module and the inter-component communication paradigm. Object class hierarchies for some of the code modules are given.

  4. Surgical approach in primary total hip arthroplasty: anatomy, technique and clinical outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petis, Stephen; Howard, James L.; Lanting, Brent L.; Vasarhelyi, Edward M.

    2015-01-01

    Total hip arthroplasty (THA) has revolutionized the treatment of hip arthritis. A number of surgical approaches to the hip joint exist, each with unique advantages and disadvantages. The most commonly used approaches include the direct anterior, direct lateral and posterior approaches. A number of technical intricacies allow safe and efficient femoral and acetabular reconstruction when using each approach. Hip dislocation, abductor insufficiency, fracture and nerve injury are complications of THA, although their relative risk varies by approach. Numerous clinical trials have sought to elicit differences in patient-reported outcomes, complication rates and return to function among the surgical approaches. This review outlines some of the technical pearls of performing a THA through either a direct anterior, direct lateral or posterior approach. A literature review outlines the impact of surgical approach on clinical outcomes and clinically relevant complication rates. PMID:25799249

  5. Surgical approach in primary total hip arthroplasty: anatomy, technique and clinical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petis, Stephen; Howard, James L; Lanting, Brent L; Vasarhelyi, Edward M

    2015-04-01

    Total hip arthroplasty (THA) has revolutionized the treatment of hip arthritis. A number of surgical approaches to the hip joint exist, each with unique advantages and disadvantages. The most commonly used approaches include the direct anterior, direct lateral and posterior approaches. A number of technical intricacies allow safe and efficient femoral and acetabular reconstruction when using each approach. Hip dislocation, abductor insufficiency, fracture and nerve injury are complications of THA, although their relative risk varies by approach. Numerous clinical trials have sought to elicit differences in patient-reported outcomes, complication rates and return to function among the surgical approaches. This review outlines some of the technical pearls of performing a THA through either a direct anterior, direct lateral or posterior approach. A literature review outlines the impact of surgical approach on clinical outcomes and clinically relevant complication rates. PMID:25799249

  6. Market-oriented ecological promotion - The Zurich approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article discusses the promotion of sustainable energy use and power-production from renewable resources. In particular, the approach adopted by the City of Zurich in Switzerland is discussed. Changes currently being experienced in the Swiss energy business are looked at. The approach adopted by the City of Zurich, which includes both rewards for increasing energy efficiency as well as the definition of criteria for the evaluation of measures and their effect, is discussed. Instruments and goals are looked at. Other topics discussed include the 'ecologicalisation' of electrical power production and economical incentives for industry. The role played by the labelling of ecologically-produced power is discussed and the economical advantages for the City of Zurich itself are examined

  7. Information-related complexity: a problem-oriented approach

    OpenAIRE

    Perevalov, Eugene; Grace, David

    2013-01-01

    A general notion of information-related complexity applicable to both natural and man-made systems is proposed. The overall approach is to explicitly consider a rational agent performing a certain task with a quantifiable degree of success. The complexity is defined as the minimum (quasi-)quantity of information that's necessary to complete the task to the given extent -- measured by the corresponding loss. The complexity so defined is shown to generalize the existing notion...

  8. PROPOSED MODEL FOR RESOURCE MANAGEMENT USING AUCTION ORIENTED APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Surbi Sangwan

    2012-01-01

    Grids are emerging as the infrastructure for next generationcomputing. In Grid environments, the resources areheterogeneous and geographically distributed with varyingavailability and a variety of usage and cost policies fordiverse users at different times and, priorities as well asgoals that vary with time. The management of resources insuch a large and distributed environment is a complex task.In this paper a model has been proposed using auctionoriented approach. This auction model allows ...

  9. A Christian educational perspective on the process oriented approach to intrinsic motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mechaéla Scott

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available Within the classroom context, albeit school or university, intrinsic motivation can effectively be described and changed if a process-oriented approach is employed. The question is posed whether a process-oriented approach to motivation is acceptable to Christian education. To answer this question, intrinsic motivation and the process-oriented approach to motivation are described. A Christian view of self-knowledge and control, which are the main components of a process-oricnted approach to motivation, is subsequently given and the process-oriented approach to motivation is subjected to a Christian evaluation. The conclusions are drawn that this approach can fruitfully be used in Christian education, given that self-knowledge and control arc interpreted within the context of the concept of the student as God’s representative on earth and the fact that God equipped him adequately with cognitive, affective and conative abilities to respond to His call to discover, develop and rule the earth actively.

  10. A model-based cluster analysis approach to adolescent problem behaviors and young adult outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Mun, Eun Young; Windle, Michael; Schainker, Lisa M.

    2008-01-01

    Data from a community-based sample of 1,126 10th- and 11th-grade adolescents were analyzed using a model-based cluster analysis approach to empirically identify heterogeneous adolescent subpopulations from the person-oriented and pattern-oriented perspectives. The model-based cluster analysis is a new clustering procedure to investigate population heterogeneity utilizing finite mixture multivariate normal densities and accordingly to classify subpopulations using more rigorous statistical pro...

  11. An object-oriented approach to site characterization decision support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effective decision support for site characterization is key to determining the nature and extent of contamination and the associated human and environmental risks. Site characterization data, however, present particular problems to technical analysts and decision-makers. Such data are four dimensional, incorporating temporal and spatial components. Their sheer volume can be daunting -- sites with hundreds of monitoring wells and thousands of samples sent for laboratory analyses are not uncommon. Data are derived from a variety of sources including laboratory analyses, non-intrusive geophysical surveys, historical information, bore logs, in-field estimates of key physical parameters such as aquifer transmissivity, soil moisture content, depth-to-water table, etc. Ultimately, decisions have to be made based on data that are always incomplete, often confusing, inaccurate, or inappropriate, and occasionally wrong. In response to this challenge, two approaches to environmental decision support have arisen, Data Quality Objectives (DQOS) and the Observational Approach (OA). DQOs establish criteria for data collection by clearly defining the decisions that need to be made, the uncertainty that can be tolerated, and the type and amount of data that needs to be collected to satisfy the uncertainty requirements. In practice, DQOs are typically based on statistical measures. The OA accepts the fact that the process of characterizing and remediating contaminated sites is always uncertain. Decision-making with the OA is based on what is known about a site, with contingencies developed for potential future deviations from the original assumptions about contamination nature, extent, and risks posed

  12. A Task-oriented Approach for Hydrogeological Site Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Y.; Nowak, W.; de Barros, F.

    2010-12-01

    Hydrogeological site characterization is a challenging task from several reasons: (1) the large spatial variability and scarcity of prior information render the outcome of any planned sampling campaign uncertain; (2) there are no simple tools for comparing between the many alternative measurement techniques and data acquisition strategies, and (3) physical and budgetary constraints associated with data acquisition. This paper presents several ideas on how to plan sampling campaigns in a rational manner while addressing these challenges. The first idea is to recognize that different sites and different problems require different characterization strategies. Hence the idea is to plan data acquisition according to its capability for meeting site-specific goals. For example, the characterization needs at a “research problem” site (e.g., a site intended to investigate the transport of uranium in the subsurface such as in Hanford) are different from those of a “problem” site (e.g., contaminated site associated with a health risk to human such as Camp Lejeune, or determining the safe yield of an aquifer). This distinction requires planners to define the characterization goal(s) in a quantitative manner. The second idea is to define metrics that could link specific data types and data acquisition strategies with the site-specific goals in a way that would allow planners to compare between strongly different, alternatives strategies at the design stage (even prior to data acquisition) and to modify the strategies as more data become available. To meet this goal, we developed the concept of the (comparative) information yield curve. Finally, we propose to look at site characterization from the perspective of statistical hypothesis testing, whereby data acquisition strategies could be evaluated in terms of their ability to support or refute various hypotheses made with regard to the characterization goals, and the strategies could be modified once the test is completed. Accept/reject regions for hypothesis testing can be determined based on goals determined by regulations or by agreement between the stakeholders. Hypothesis-driven design could help in minimizing the chances of making wrong decision (false positives or false negatives) with regard to the site-specific goals.

  13. Urban ninth-grade girls interactions with and outcomes from a design-oriented physics project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginbotham, Thomas Eric Miksad

    Past literature has documented a shrinking but persistent gap in physics and engineering for females, both in school and in the workforce. A commonly recommended strategy to invite girls into science at the school level is to have students work on design-projects in groups, which has been shown to increase all students' learning outcomes and attitudes towards science. Students (n=28) in a ninth-grade inner-city physics class participated in such a project, in which they built remotely operated underwater vehicles (ROV's) over the course of one month. Students (n=23) in a comparison classroom learned the same content using the Active Physics curriculum during the same time frame. Mixed methods were used to study the ROV classroom. Students in both classes were given pre- and post-physics content tests. Qualitative data collected during the project included field notes, video, and teacher interviews. Macro-level data analysis was done, which informed further micro-analysis. Macro-analysis revealed significantly higher learning outcomes for the ROV class than for the non-ROV class. Within the ROV class, girls, and in particular, girls in female-majority groups had increased learning outcomes and high levels of interest and engagement with the project, while girls in mixed-sex and male-majority groups did not. Qualitative macro-analysis revealed that in all of the female-majority groups, females took leadership roles within the groups, while in all of the non female-majority groups, males took leadership roles. The only groups in which girls completely disengaged from the project were mixed-sex or male majority groups. Case studies and cross case analysis suggested that girls foregrounded group process over product, and used the level of group unity as a metric of the groups' success. Groups led by girls were more cooperative and exhibited distributed leadership and participation. These findings were interpreted through lenses of expectation states theory and social interdependence theory. This study suggests that the commonly recommended non-sexist strategy of using hands-on group work can be positive, but should be undertaken with conscious attention to group dynamics.

  14. The feminization of American medicine. The transformation of health care from a masculine orientation to a more feminine orientation requires a new marketing approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R K

    2000-01-01

    Although the transformation of American medicine in the last part of the twentieth century has been well documented, a major development that has significant implications for health care marketing has been essentially overlooked. This development has been the shift in health care from a primarily masculine orientation to a primarily feminine orientation. This shift has been driven by, among other factors, the transition from an acute care orientation to a chronic care orientation and calls for a qualitatively different approach to the marketing of health services. PMID:11185869

  15. Information-related complexity: a problem-oriented approach

    CERN Document Server

    Perevalov, Eugene

    2013-01-01

    A general notion of information-related complexity applicable to both natural and man-made systems is proposed. The overall approach is to explicitly consider a rational agent performing a certain task with a quantifiable degree of success. The complexity is defined as the minimum (quasi-)quantity of information that's necessary to complete the task to the given extent -- measured by the corresponding loss. The complexity so defined is shown to generalize the existing notion of statistical complexity when the system in question can be described by a discrete-time stochastic process. The proposed definition also applies, in particular, to optimization and decision making problems under uncertainty in which case it gives the agent a useful measure of the problem's "susceptibility" to additional information and allows for an estimation of the potential value of the latter.

  16. A Main Object-oriented Projective Invariant Image Watermarking Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik F. Alamaireh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Digital Watermarking is a technology that enables to protect distributed digital content from unauthorized reuse. Robust watermarks must be able to survive a range of geometrical ?attacks,? such as image resizing, cropping, translation, rotation, scaling, smoothing, filtering, and simplification. In the current paper we extend existing approaches that are based partially on image invariant features; by introducing new image invariant features and exclusively using them. The proposed watermarking method is based on a combination of image processing techniques, theory of geometry, multiple image invariant features, and public key encryption. Experimental results show that the use of such combination of techniques allowed for securing the embedded watermark and for success in image watermark's recovery, if images were exposed to several geometrical attacks.

  17. PROPOSED MODEL FOR RESOURCE MANAGEMENT USING AUCTION ORIENTED APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surbi Sangwan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Grids are emerging as the infrastructure for next generationcomputing. In Grid environments, the resources areheterogeneous and geographically distributed with varyingavailability and a variety of usage and cost policies fordiverse users at different times and, priorities as well asgoals that vary with time. The management of resources insuch a large and distributed environment is a complex task.In this paper a model has been proposed using auctionoriented approach. This auction model allows bidders to bidon various attributes beyond the price. The auctioneerselects winners based on the price as well as on otherattributes. Thus, the overall utility of a deal for the buyermust consider not only the price of the auctioning item, butalso a combination of the different attributes. This model hasalso been implemented.

  18. A collaborative learning approach for service-oriented introductory physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael R.

    1997-03-01

    I have taught algebra-based introductory physics for six years to liberal arts students. It was primarily a service course for students majoring in Athletic Training, Physical Therapy, Geology, Biology, and Pre-Med. The typical student was characterized by having a minimal math and problem-solving proficiency. There also was a pattern of students being predisposed to memorizing facts and formulas, and attempting to solve problems by finding the correct formula and "plugging in" numbers to get an answer. The students seemed to have a minimal ability in deductive reasoning and problem solving, starting from basic principles. It is no wonder that they entered the introductory physics service course with extreme trepidation, based upon a strongly perceived physics phobia. A standard lecture format was used for the class size of approximately 25-30 students; and an attempt was always made to engage the students through the Socratic approach, by asking leading questions during the course of the lecture. The students were relatively unprepared and couldn't participate in the class, and often responded antagonistically. They indicated they didn't want to be asked to think about an issue, but would rather just be told the facts so they could take specific notes for subsequent memorization. It was clear from the results of the open book exams given during the semester that the majority of students could not approach problem solving using deductive reasoning based on basic principles, but relied on attempting to force-fit the problem into a worked example in the text (often out of context, with illogical results). The absentee rate in the classroom was usually around 30-40%. The academic administration of my liberal arts university has the policy of formal course evaluations by the students at the end of each semester. The evaluation questionnaire appears to be primarily a measurement of the stress level of the student during the course, and the evaluation score I received for the service physics course was typically on the order of 3 out of a possible 5; a score considered unsatisfactory by the administration.

  19. Compilation and synthesis for embedded reconfigurable systems an aspect-oriented approach

    CERN Document Server

    Diniz, Pedro; Coutinho, José; Petrov, Zlatko

    2013-01-01

    This book provides techniques to tackle the design challenges raised by the increasing diversity and complexity of emerging, heterogeneous architectures for embedded systems. It describes an approach based on techniques from software engineering called aspect-oriented programming, which allow designers to control today’s sophisticated design tool chains, while maintaining a single application source code.  Readers are introduced to the basic concepts of an aspect-oriented, domain specific language that enables control of a wide range of compilation and synthesis tools in the partitioning and mapping of an application to a heterogeneous (and possibly multi-core) target architecture.  Several examples are presented that illustrate the benefits of the approach developed for applications from avionics and digital signal processing. Using the aspect-oriented programming techniques presented in this book, developers can reuse extensive sections of their designs, while preserving the original application source-...

  20. Integrative Educational Approach Oriented Towards Software and System Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Juliana Stoica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is based on our academic teaching and research work in software and system engineering to effectively develop modern, complex real-life Web application systems. It bridges the gap between academic education and industry needs and illustrates how such collaboration can be successfully developed in the IT area where technology development is rapid. Its scope covers the processes, models, technologies, people, and knowledge that have the capability to contribute to developing such systems. The paper also relates to contributions of some of Harlan D. Mills award recipients for software engineering achievement, to address the needs to: i improve the engineering education in an academic setting, and ii develop real-life software and system projects. Hybrid educational methods are applied for student learning that combine class room approach of teaching fundamental theoretical concepts and practice via real world complex projects embedding intelligence in software and systems products. System thinking demanded by modern design philosophies is applied to interlink prod-ucts, software, and people. Student groups are developing their projects in an interactive and collaborative manner.

  1. Risk-oriented approach for assessing the environmental safety of radioactive waste storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article discusses the risk-oriented approach for assessing the ecological security of radioactive waste storage facilities. On the basis of probability indicators the condition of ecological safety is found to be met at Odessa State Multiregional Facility on the normative criteria of deaths

  2. Project Management, Critical Praxis, and Process-Oriented Approach to Teamwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Huiling; Ding, Xin

    2008-01-01

    To help alleviate issues of free-riding and conflicts in team projects, this study proposes the systematic incorporation of project management methods to introduce a process-oriented approach to and a critical praxis in team projects. We examined how the systematic use of project management methods influenced students' performance in team…

  3. Trajectory-Oriented Approach to Managing Traffic Complexity: Operational Concept and Preliminary Metrics Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Husni; Vivona, Robert; Garcia-Chico, Jose L.

    2008-01-01

    This document describes preliminary research on a distributed, trajectory-oriented approach for traffic complexity management. The approach is to manage traffic complexity in a distributed control environment, based on preserving trajectory flexibility and minimizing constraints. In particular, the document presents an analytical framework to study trajectory flexibility and the impact of trajectory constraints on it. The document proposes preliminary flexibility metrics that can be interpreted and measured within the framework.

  4. METHODICAL APPROACH TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ESTIMATED ENTERPRISE’S COMPETITIVENESS IN ITS MARKETING ORIENTATION ? ?????????? ????????????? ??????? ? ?????? ????????????????????? ??????????? ? ???????? ?? ????????????? ??????????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shchepakin M. B.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The economic essence of the submissions of “market-ing orientation” and “enterprise’s competitiveness” is specified, classification of the basic approaches to an estimation of the enterprise’s competitiveness are given; in the article we are considered the factors to define on the competitiveness of the enterprises, the conception of the methodical approach to an estima-tion of the competitiveness of the enterprise

  5. A unified approach to feature-centric analysis of object-oriented software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olszak, Andrzej; JØrgensen, Bo NØrregaard

    2010-01-01

    Feature-centric comprehension of software is a prerequisite to incorporating modifications requested by users during software evolution and maintenance. However, feature-centric understanding of large object-oriented programs is difficult to achieve due to size, complexity and implicit cha-racter of mappings between features and source code. In this paper, we address these issues through our unified approach to feature-centric analysis of object-oriented software. Our approach supports discovery of feature-code traceability links and their analysis from three perspectives and at three levels of abstraction. We further improve scalability of analysis by partitioning features into canonical groups. To demonstrate feasibility our approach, we use our NetBeans-integrated tool Featureous for conducting a case study of feature-centric analysis of the JHotDraw project. Lastly, we discuss how Featureous supports program comprehension by means of concrete cognitive design elements.

  6. Individual factors and GP approach as predictors for the outcome of rehabilitation among long-term sick listed cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, K.; Andersen, JH

    2005-01-01

    There appears to be a lack of evidence concerning the effect of rehabilitation programmes for the long-term sick. More focus in this area would supplement an approach that has been directed toward process evaluation of rehabilitation programmes. It was the purpose of this study to shed light on individual factors and health care and social welfare-related factors, which play a role for the outcome of rehabilitation programmes. In connection with a participatory, action-oriented outpatient rehabilitation program, a questionnaire survey was performed among the programmes participants ("clients"). Questionnaires were completed before the rehabilitation programme's start, at the end of the 8-week programme, and at the 9-months follow-up. Among 389 clients, 271 (69.7%) participated in the study at baseline as well at the 9-months follow-up. The majority of 212 participants were on sick leave--6.6% for more than 1 year. The remainder had been transferred to receiving social benefits after having exceeded the time limit for being sick-listed. A plan of action for active rehabilitation, which was made at the end of the 8-week rehabilitation programme, was only poorly fulfilled after 9 months, 48% were still on sick leave or social benefits at this time. Individual background variables, as well as psychological well-being, mental health, pain level, and pain coping, seemed to have little effect on the outcome of rehabilitation, whilst clients' own evaluations of competence and ability of the involved health care professionals were found important for a positive outcome of the programme. Especially stable relations to a single General Practitioner (GP), who took good care of the patient in the form of giving good information about health and social possibilities, and an empathic attitude toward these hard-pressed clients, were important factors. The odds ratio for a nonbeneficial outcome of the rehabilitation programme, among those who had changed GP and reported poor case treatment by the GP, was 3.9 (95% CI; 1.3-11.9). Additional findings were an association between a desire to go on early retirement pension, higher age, and self-estimated poorer health at baseline, and actual status as pensioner 9 months after the programme. Predictors of a beneficial outcome from the 8-week rehabilitation programme included good and comprehensive care-taking in particular by the clients' GP. The presence of a high level of symptoms and complaints of pain and stress had no effect on the outcome of rehabilitation in this cohort

  7. Policy Enacted--Teachers' Approaches to an Outcome-Based Framework for Course Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Linda; Bolander-Laksov, Klara; Silén, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we report on how teachers in Higher Education enact policy. Outcome-based education (OBE) serves as an example of a governmental educational policy introduced with the European Bologna reform. With a hermeneutic approach, we have studied how 14 teachers interpreted this policy and re-designed their courses. The findings show…

  8. A Case-Based Approach Increases Student Learning Outcomes and Comprehension of Cellular Respiration Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybarczyk, Brian J.; Baines, Antonio T.; McVey, Mitch; Thompson, Joseph T.; Wilkins, Heather

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated student learning outcomes using a case-based approach focused on cellular respiration. Students who used the case study, relative to students who did not use the case study, exhibited a significantly greater learning gain, and demonstrated use of higher-order thinking skills. Preliminary data indicate that after engaging…

  9. A diversity-oriented synthesis approach to macrocycles via oxidative ring expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Felix; Stratton, Christopher F; Akella, Lakshmi B; Tan, Derek S

    2012-04-01

    Macrocycles are key structural elements in numerous bioactive small molecules and are attractive targets in the diversity-oriented synthesis of natural product-based libraries. However, efficient and systematic access to diverse collections of macrocycles has proven difficult using classical macrocyclization reactions. To address this problem, we have developed a concise, modular approach to the diversity-oriented synthesis of macrolactones and macrolactams involving oxidative cleavage of a bridging double bond in polycyclic enol ethers and enamines. These substrates are assembled in only four or five synthetic steps and undergo ring expansion to afford highly functionalized macrocycles bearing handles for further diversification. In contrast to macrocyclization reactions of corresponding seco acids, the ring expansion reactions are efficient and insensitive to ring size and stereochemistry, overcoming key limitations of conventional approaches to systematic macrocycle synthesis. Cheminformatic analysis indicates that these macrocycles access regions of chemical space that overlap with natural products, distinct from currently targeted synthetic drugs. PMID:22406518

  10. Approaches for calculating alignment and orientation of photoionized open shell atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is proposed for calculating alignment and orientation for open shell atoms after photoionization of an inner shell by relating the open shell dipole matrix elements to those independent of the outer open shell configuration. Thus, an extended and usually non-trivial numerical open shell approach is avoided. Our method can be applied to different configuration potentials which is illustrated by Hartree-Fock calculations of alignment and orientation which have been performed for the L3 photoionization of K, Au, Sc and Mn, and for the M5 and N7 photoionization of In and Tl, applying different numerical approaches. Dramatic effects have been found for Mn. The alignment of Au is compared to the experiment

  11. A Pattern-Oriented Approach to a Methodical Evaluation of Modeling Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Amberg

    1996-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a pattern-oriented approach to evaluate modeling methods and to compare various methods with each other from a methodical viewpoint. A specific set of principles (the patterns is defined by investigating the notations and the documentation of comparable modeling methods. Each principle helps to examine some parts of the methods from a specific point of view. All principles together lead to an overall picture of the method under examination. First the core ("method neutral" meaning of each principle is described. Then the methods are examined regarding the principle. Afterwards the method specific interpretations are compared with each other and with the core meaning of the principle. By this procedure, the strengths and weaknesses of modeling methods regarding methodical aspects are identified. The principles are described uniformly using a principle description template according to descriptions of object oriented design patterns. The approach is demonstrated by evaluating a business process modeling method.

  12. Global processing fosters donations toward charity appeals framed in an approach orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Sumitava; Srinivasan, Narayanan; Manjaly, Jaison A

    2014-08-01

    People are often influenced by how persuasive appeals are framed. While decisions and preferences seem dependent on the effects of a fit between one's regulatory focus and the motivational orientation of a message, specific cognitive mechanisms involved are not yet clear. This study investigated how perceptual processing styles (global vs local) linked with the scope of attention (broad vs narrow) influence decisions depending on motivation-dependent framing (approach vs avoidance). We found that a global processing style fits approach-oriented message appeals and fosters monetary allocation toward charities framed in eager motivational terms. We discuss implications of the findings on processing styles in relation to affective versus deliberate modes of processing and the need to address in detail the role of attentional scope-dependent processing styles in decision making. PMID:24442836

  13. The long-term mechanically ventilated patient. An outcomes management approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, S M

    1998-03-01

    As noted previously, prior to permanently instituting an outcomes approach, we compared the effects of such a model to a nonoutcomes-managed approach. The positive trend noted during the study interval has been sustained 2 years later, and the variables of cost, LOS, and ventilator duration (median = 9 days for DRG 475, 483 combined) for these patients continue to be favorably affected (see Figure 2). In addition, the outcomes-management model has been well accepted by all members of the health care team. The outcomes manager is a respected and valued member of the team and is central to the ongoing success of the approach. Although the clinical pathway is an essential tool for focusing and delineating multidisciplinary best-practice, the pathway (and processes of care contained within) must be continually evaluated and changed as needed. The pathway cannot be static if care is to be progressive. Essential to the process is a method of collecting and processing data in a timely way. Further, it is important that data collection, while important, not be the focus of the role of outcomes manager. Instead, the focus is the delivery of timely and effective care. Our current outcomes model applies to management of patients beyond the boundaries of the MICU or pulmonary suite. In other words, once weaned and transferred to a regular floor the outcomes manager no longer manages the patients (although she does track selected outcomes). Management of patients throughout hospitalization is a future goal, but we are convinced that this cannot be accomplished by a single outcomes manager. Although we are aware that other outcomes models do follow patients throughout the continuum of hospitalization and beyond, our highly clinically interactive model precludes that possibility. We are currently considering other similar unit-based positions to provide the desired continuity following discharge from the MICU or pulmonary suite. Despite our enthusiasm for the outcomes-management model, we recognize that other models may also result in comparable, favorable outcomes. It is important that those who adopt similar models of care delivery for managing patients requiring prolonged ventilation be scientific in their approach. Long-term studies of the efficacy of these models are essential if we are to truly provide quality care for our patients in the future. Unfortunately, as noted earlier, bias will be hard to overcome. Hospitals vested in rapidly establishing a stable financial bottom-line are likely to embrace quick applications. Projects with a true experimental design to evaluate efficacy, such as this one, will be rare in these organizations. Finally, it is critical that variables of interest be inclusive of specific quality indicators such as ventilator duration and complications rather than global institutional markers such as LOS. Standardization of variables of interest is imperative if outcomes are to be compared. For example, patients requiring long-term mechanical ventilation are identified by the AACN's Third National Study Group on weaning as those who require mechanical ventilation for more than 3 days. If we are to compare other variables of interest such as total ventilator duration, such as definition is essential or we will be comparing apples and oranges in the future. Provision of quality, cost-effective care for patients requiring prolonged ventilation is a true clinical challenge. Outcomes management is a multidisciplinary method of care delivery that is systematic and comprehensive in approach. Although little science exists related to the application of the model for patients requiring prolonged ventilation, preliminary reports are promising and warrant future applications and evaluation of the same. PMID:9644351

  14. Gray matter alterations in chronic pain: A network-oriented meta-analytic approach

    OpenAIRE

    Cauda, Franco; Palermo, Sara; Costa, Tommaso; Torta, Riccardo; Duca, Sergio; Vercelli, Ugo; Geminiani, Giuliano; Torta, Diana M. E.

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have attempted to characterize morphological brain changes due to chronic pain. Although it has repeatedly been suggested that longstanding pain induces gray matter modifications, there is still some controversy surrounding the direction of the change (increase or decrease in gray matter) and the role of psychological and psychiatric comorbidities. In this study, we propose a novel, network-oriented, meta-analytic approach to characterize morphological changes in chronic pain....

  15. Clinical Nursing Terminology as Information Infrastructure :a socio-technical approach towards process oriented systems

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Rune

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This work deals with a socio-technical approach towards the implementation and use of ICT systems in health care. I have highlighted important initiatives that support the development of process oriented EPR systems in Norway through interpretive case studies with focus on standards in nursing and the secondary use of information. In short, information infrastructure has been used as a theoretical lens to investigate work practices in heterogeneous hospital departments, and with a fo...

  16. From the ephemeral to the enduring: how approach-oriented mindsets lead to greater status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilduff, Gavin J; Galinsky, Adam D

    2013-11-01

    We propose that the psychological states individuals bring into newly formed groups can produce meaningful differences in status attainment. Three experiments explored whether experimentally created approach-oriented mindsets affected status attainment in groups, both immediately and over time. We predicted that approach-oriented states would lead to greater status attainment by increasing proactive behavior. Furthermore, we hypothesized that these status gains would persist longitudinally, days after the original mindsets had dissipated, due to the self-reinforcing behavioral cycles the approach-oriented states initiated. In Experiment 1, individuals primed with a promotion focus achieved higher status in their newly formed groups, and this was mediated by proactive behavior as rated by themselves and their teammates. Experiment 2 was a longitudinal experiment and revealed that individuals primed with power achieved higher status, both immediately following the prime and when the groups were reassembled 2 days later to work on new tasks. These effects were mediated by independent coders' ratings of proactive behavior during the first few minutes of group interaction. Experiment 3 was another longitudinal experiment and revealed that priming happiness led to greater status as well as greater acquisition of material resources. Importantly, these immediate and longitudinal effects were independent of the effects of a number of stable dispositional traits. Our results establish that approach-oriented psychological states affect status attainment, over and above the more stable characteristics emphasized in prior research, and provide the most direct test yet of the self-reinforcing nature of status hierarchies. These findings depict a dynamic view of status organization in which the same group may organize itself differently depending on members' incoming psychological states. PMID:23895266

  17. A molecular biology-based approach to resolve the subunit orientation of lipoprotein?lipase

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Howard; Yang, Dawn; Hill, John S.; Davis, Richard C.; Nikazy, Judith; Schotz, Michael C.

    1997-01-01

    The subunit orientation of a dimeric enzyme influences the mechanism of action and function. To determine the subunit arrangement of lipoprotein lipase (LPL), a molecular biology-based approach was initiated. An eight amino acid linker region was engineered between two LPL monomers and expressed in COS-7 cells. The resultant tandem-repeat molecule (LPLTR) was lipolytically active and had kinetic parameters, salt inhibition, cofactor-dependent activity, heparin-binding characteristics, and a f...

  18. A Template-driven Approach for Maintainable Service-oriented Information Systems Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Pahl, Claus; Zhu, Yaoling; Gacitua-decar, Veronica

    2009-01-01

    Service-oriented architecture (SOA) is currently the predominant software integration framework. Web services provide the predominant platform for SOA. SOA as an integration architecture solution supports a range of application scenarios. We present a solution for the integration of business information systems based on SOA and Web services. We discuss maintainability requirements in relation to information-specific integration and architecture aspects. A template-based approach based on modu...

  19. The Influence of Game Features on Collaborative Gaming: A Process-oriented approach

    OpenAIRE

    Bonanno, Philip

    2007-01-01

    Game technology and design are creating powerful collaborative gaming experiences that can be exploited pedagogically. Building on a research trends from various fields, a process-oriented model is adopted to evaluate the instructional potential of games, considering both their surface and deep structure. Two experimental approaches are adopted. Through reflective evaluation the Neurocognitive skills employed, ‘Perceived Competence Facilitation' and ‘Perceived usefulness' of games are det...

  20. Combined object-oriented approach for development of process control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The traditional approaches for development of software control system in automation an information technology based on a directly code creation are no longer effective and successful enough. The response to these challenges is the Model Driven Engineering (MDE) or its counter part in the field of architectures Model Driven Architecture (MDA). One of the most promising approach supporting MDE and MDA is UML. It does not specify a methodology for software or system design but aims to provide an integrated modeling framework for structural, functional and behavior descriptions. The success of UML in many object-oriented approaches led to an idea of applying UML to design of multi agent systems. The approach proposed in this paper applies modified Harmony methodology and is based on the combined use of UML profile for system engineering, IEC61499 standard and FIPA standard protocols. The benefits of object-oriented paradigm and the models of IEC61499 standard are extended with UML/SysML and FIPA notations. The development phases are illustrated with the UML models of a simple process control system. The main benefits of using the proposed approach can be summarized as: it provides consistency in the syntax and underlying semantics; increases the potential and likelihood of reuse; supports the whole software development life cycle in the field of process control. Including the SysML features, based on extended activity and parametric diagrams, flow ports and items to the proposed approach opens the possibilities for modeling of continuous system and support the development in field of process control. Another advantage, connected to the UML/MARTE profile is the possibility for analysis of the designed system and detailed design of the hardware and software platform of the modeled application. Key words: object-oriented modeling, control system, UML, SysML, IEC 61499

  1. Outcome of Open Transcortical Approach in the Management of Intraventricular Lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the outcome of management of intraventricular lesions operated by an open transcortical (nonendoscopic) approach. Study Design: Case series. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Neurosurgery, Dow University of Health Sciences and Civil Hospital, Karachi, from January 2009 to December 2011, with six months follow-up. Methodology: All cases with lesions in the lateral ventricle and anterior third ventricle operated by open transcortical approach, were included after informed consent. Total excision of the lesion was attempted in all cases. Patients were analyzed for outcome in terms of establishment of diagnosis, completeness of resection, morbidity and mortality. Results: A total of 33 patients were operated. Twenty three were males and 10 were females. Colloid cyst was diagnosed in 14 patients (42%), giant cell astrocytoma and choroid plexus papilloma in 4 cases each and subependymoma and central neurocytoma in 2 cases each, epidermoid, choroid plexus carcinoma, oligodendroglioma, metastasis, meningioma, ependymoma and cavernous hemangioma in one patient each. The overall outcome could be labeled as good in 24 out of 33 cases (73%) and in 8 cases (24%) it was fair. One patient died due to ventriculitis and was categorized as poor outcome (3%). Postoperative complications included meningitis, seizures, intraventicular haemorrhage, subdural collection and transient hemiparesis. Nine patients had persistent hydrocephalus requiring ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Conclusion: Conventional open transcortical approach is still effective in getting conclusive biopsy or near total excision of the lesion with minimum morbidity. (author)

  2. Members Matter in Team Training: Multilevel and Longitudinal Relationships between Goal Orientation, Self-Regulation, and Team Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierdorff, Erich C.; Ellington, J. Kemp

    2012-01-01

    Longitudinal data from 338 individuals across 64 teams in a simulation-based team-training context were used to examine the effects of dispositional goal orientation on self-regulated learning (self-efficacy and metacognition). Team goal orientation compositions, as reflected by average goal orientations of team members, were examined for…

  3. Decomposed Approach of Market Orientation and Marketing Mix Capability: Research on Their Relationships with Firm Performance in the Korean Context

    OpenAIRE

    Sohyoun Shin

    2011-01-01

    The notion that market orientation provides firms a source of competitive advantage seems to be widely accepted since the effects of market orientation on business performance have been extensively researched and many studies have confirmed their affirmative relationships. However, aggregated approach of market orientation as one single construct has left the detailed investigations yet unexplored despite its tremendous contribution in marketing strategy arena. Thus, decomposed properties of ...

  4. A global approach for image orientation using Lie algebraic rotation averaging and convex L? minimisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, M.; Heipke, C.

    2014-08-01

    In this paper we present a new global image orientation approach for a set of multiple overlapping images with given homologous point tuples which is based on a two-step procedure. The approach is independent on initial values, robust with respect to outliers and yields the global minimum solution under relatively mild constraints. The first step of the approach consists of the estimation of global rotation parameters by averaging relative rotation estimates for image pairs (these are determined from the homologous points via the essential matrix in a pre-processing step). For the averaging we make use of algebraic group theory in which rotations, as part of the special orthogonal group SO(3), form a Lie group with a Riemannian manifold structure. This allows for a mapping to the local Euclidean tangent space of SO(3), the Lie algebra. In this space the redundancy of relative orientations is used to compute an average of the absolute rotation for each image and furthermore to detect and eliminate outliers. In the second step translation parameters and the object coordinates of the homologous points are estimated within a convex L? optimisation, in which the rotation parameters are kept fixed. As an optional third step the results can be used as initial values for a final bundle adjustment that does not suffer from bad initialisation and quickly converges to a globally optimal solution. We investigate our approach for global image orientation based on synthetic data. The results are compared to a robust least squares bundle adjustment. In this way we show that our approach is independent of initial values and more robust against outliers than a conventional bundle adjustment.

  5. A Bayesian approach for instrumental variable analysis with censored time-to-event outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Lu, Xuyang

    2015-02-20

    Instrumental variable (IV) analysis has been widely used in economics, epidemiology, and other fields to estimate the causal effects of covariates on outcomes, in the presence of unobserved confounders and/or measurement errors in covariates. However, IV methods for time-to-event outcome with censored data remain underdeveloped. This paper proposes a Bayesian approach for IV analysis with censored time-to-event outcome by using a two-stage linear model. A Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling method is developed for parameter estimation for both normal and non-normal linear models with elliptically contoured error distributions. The performance of our method is examined by simulation studies. Our method largely reduces bias and greatly improves coverage probability of the estimated causal effect, compared with the method that ignores the unobserved confounders and measurement errors. We illustrate our method on the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study and the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. PMID:25393617

  6. a New Approach for AN Incremental Orientation of Micro-Uav Image Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, M.; Unger, J.; Rottensteiner, F.; Heipke, C.

    2014-03-01

    Civil applications for small size unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) have become quite important in recent years and so have accurate orientation and navigation of these devices in unknown terrain. In this work we focus on on-line compatible positioning in facade observation based on monocular low resolution still images acquired by a camera mounted on a UAV. Also, a 3D point cloud of the facade is generated. This allows further processing steps, e.g. navigation assistance, collision avoidance or the evaluation of the point cloud density, verifying completeness of the data. To be able to deal with the increasing amount of observations and unknown parameters we implement an incremental bundle adjustment based on automatically determined tie points and sliding image triplets. The tripletwise orientation allows for an efficient double cross-check of the detected feature points and hence guarantees reliable initial values for the nonlinear bundle adjustment. The initial values are estimated within a convex formulation delivering a sound basis for the incremental adjustment. Our algorithm is evaluated by means of imagery we took of the facade of the Welfenschloss in Hannover, captured from a manually flown Microdrones md4-200 micro-UAV.We compare the orientation results of our approach with an approach in which initial values for the unknown object coordinates are computed algebraically.

  7. Creating a Novel Video Vignette Stroke Preparedness Outcome Measure Using a Community-Based Participatory Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skolarus, Lesli E; Murphy, Jillian B; Dome, Mackenzie; Zimmerman, Marc A; Bailey, Sarah; Fowlkes, Sophronia; Morgenstern, Lewis B

    2014-11-01

    Evaluating the efficacy of behavioral interventions for rare outcomes is a challenge. One such topic is stroke preparedness, defined as inteventions to increase stroke symptom recognition and behavioral intent to call 911. Current stroke preparedness intermediate outcome measures are centered on written vignettes or open-ended questions and have been shown to poorly reflect actual behavior. Given that stroke identification and action requires aural and visual processing, video vignettes may improve on current measures. This article discusses an approach for creating a novel stroke preparedness video vignette intermediate outcome measure within a community-based participatory research partnership. A total of 20 video vignettes were filmed of which 13 were unambiguous (stroke or not stroke) as determined by stroke experts and had test discrimination among community participants. Acceptable reliability, high satisfaction, and cultural relevance were found among the 14 community respondents. A community-based participatory approach was effective in creating a video vignette intermediate outcome. Future projects should consider obtaining expert and community feedback prior to filming all the video vignettes to improve the proportion of vignettes that are usable. While content validity and preliminary reliability were established, future studies are needed to confirm the reliability and establish construct validity. PMID:25367896

  8. The Pedagogical Orientations of South African Physical Sciences Teachers Towards Inquiry or Direct Instructional Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramnarain, Umesh; Schuster, David

    2014-08-01

    In recent years, inquiry-based science instruction has become widely advocated in science education standards in many countries and, hence, in teacher preparation programmes. Nevertheless, in practice, one finds a wide variety of science instructional approaches. In South Africa, as in many countries, there is also a great disparity in school demographic situations, which can also affect teaching practices. This study investigated the pedagogical orientations of in-service physical sciences teachers at a diversity of schools in South Africa. Assessment items in a Pedagogy of Science Teaching Test (POSTT) were used to identify teachers' science teaching orientations, and reasons for pedagogical choices were probed in interviews. The findings reveal remarkable differences between the orientations of teachers at disadvantaged township schools and teachers at more privileged suburban schools. We found that teachers at township schools have a strong `active direct' teaching orientation overall, involving direct exposition of the science followed by confirmatory practical work, while teachers at suburban schools exhibit a guided inquiry orientation, with concepts being developed via a guided exploration phase. The study identified contextual factors such as class size, availability of resources, teacher competence and confidence, time constraints, student ability, school culture and parents' expectations as influencing the methods adopted by teachers. In view of the recent imperative for inquiry-based learning in the new South African curriculum, this study affirms the context specificity of curriculum implementation (Bybee 1993) and suggests situational factors beyond the curriculum mandate that need to be addressed to achieve successful inquiry-based classroom instruction in science.

  9. Magic Angle-Oriented Sample Spinning (MAOSS): A New Approach toward Biomembrane Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaubitz, Clemens; Watts, Anthony

    1998-02-01

    The application of magic angle sample spinning (MAS) NMR to uniformly aligned biomembrane samples is demonstrated as a new general approach toward structural studies of membrane proteins, peptides, and lipids. The spectral linewidth from a multilamellar lipid dispersion is dominated, in the case of protons, by the dipolar coupling. For low-? or dilute spins, however, the chemical shift anisotropy dominates the spectral linewidth, which is reduced by the two-dimensional order in a uniformly aligned lipid membrane. The remaining line broadening, which is due to orientational defects ("mosaic spread") can be easily removed at low spinning speeds. This orientational order in the sample also allows the anisotropic intermolecular motions of membrane components (such as rotational diffusion, ? c= 10 -10s) for averaging dipolar interactions to be utilized, e.g., by placing the membrane normal parallel to the rotor axis. The dramatic resolution improvement for protons which are achieved in a lipid sample at only 220 Hz spinning speed in a 9.4 T field is slightly better than any data published to date using ultra-high fields (up to 17.6 T) and high-speed spinning (14 kHz). Additionally, the analysis of spinning sidebands provides valuable orientational information. We present the first 1H, 31P, and 13C MAS spectra of uniformly aligned dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) bilayers. Also, 1H resolution enhancement for the aromatic region of the M13 coat protein reconstituted into DMPC bilayers is presented. This new method combines the high resolution usually achieved by MAS with the advantages of orientational constraints obtained by working with macroscopically oriented samples. We describe the general potential and possible perspectives of this technique.

  10. Media-Oriented Service Composition with Service Overlay Networks: Challenges, Approaches and Future Trends (Invited Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namgon Kim

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The massive and timely delivery of media is gradually integrating itself with the dynamic composition of media-oriented services so that new types of customized media services can be created according to the diverse de- mand of end users. The resulting effective and differentiated networking support will become one of the most important requirements of the network infrastructure in the future. In this survey paper, we first present the emerging trend on the interaction of media-oriented service composition and overlay-based networks by introducing related technical issues. Then, we describe the top-down and the bottom- up approaches that coordinate service mapping using the service overlay networks (SONs and provisioning resources for them, respectively. Finally, we examine latest research on futuristic overlay networks for service realization.

  11. An Aspect-Oriented Approach for Use Case Based Modeling of Software Product Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane S. SOMé

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Software Product Line Development advocates software reuse by modeling common and variable artefacts separately across members of a family of products. Aspect-Oriented Software Development aims at separation of concerns with “aspects” to increase modularity, reusability, maintainability and ease of evolution. In this paper, we apply an as-pect-oriented use case modeling approach to product line system modeling. A use case specification captures stake-holders concerns as interactions between a system and its actors. We adapt our previous work with the introduction of a “variability” relationship for the expression of variabilities. This relationship is used to model variable and common behaviours across a family of products as use cases. A variability composition mechanism enables building of executa-ble behaviour models for each member of a product line family by integrating common elements with the applicable variable elements.

  12. Object-oriented Approach to High-level Network Monitoring and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukkamala, Ravi

    2000-01-01

    An absolute prerequisite for the management of large investigating methods to build high-level monitoring computer networks is the ability to measure their systems that are built on top of existing monitoring performance. Unless we monitor a system, we cannot tools. Due to the heterogeneous nature of the hope to manage and control its performance. In this underlying systems at NASA Langley Research Center, paper, we describe a network monitoring system that we use an object-oriented approach for the design, we are currently designing and implementing. Keeping, first, we use UML (Unified Modeling Language) to in mind the complexity of the task and the required model users' requirements. Second, we identify the flexibility for future changes, we use an object-oriented existing capabilities of the underlying monitoring design methodology. The system is built using the system. Third, we try to map the former with the latter. APIs offered by the HP OpenView system.

  13. Statistical Approach for Predicting Factors of Mood Method for Object Oriented

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firas Ajil Jassim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Object oriented design is becoming more popular in software development and object oriented design metrics which is an essential part of software environment. The main goal in this paper is to predict factors of MOOD method for OO using a statistical approach. Therefore, linear regression model is used to find the relationship between factors of MOOD method and their influences on OO software measurements. Fortunately, through this process a prediction could be made for the line of code (LOC, number of classes (NOC, number of methods (NOM, and number of attributes (NOA. These measurements permit designers to access the software early in process, making changes that will reduce complexity and improve the continuing capability of the design.

  14. Social assistance outcomes in Southern Europe: an actor-centred approach

    OpenAIRE

    Lalioti, Varvara; Bermeo, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    This study analyses the evolution of social assistance in Italy, Spain, Portugal and Greece, and closely examines the four countries’ different experiences with Guaranteed Minimum Income (GMI) schemes. A process-tracing methodology uses data from secondary sources, archival material, and 46 interviews to construct an actor-centred model and pursue a multiple-causality, historical approach. Outcomes are shown to result from interactions among central governments, religious ...

  15. Relations between student perceptions of assessment authenticity, study approaches and learning outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Gulikers, J. T. M.; Bastiaens, Th J.; Kirschner, P. A.; Kester, L.

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the relationships between perceptions of authenticity and alignment on study approach and learning outcome. Senior students of a vocational training program performed an authentic assessment and filled in a questionnaire about the authenticity of various assessment characteristics and the alignment between the assessment and the instruction. Deep or surface study activities and the development of transferable generic skills were measured with a questionnaire as well. Cor...

  16. An Approach to Assess Relative Degradation in Dissimilar Forests: Toward a Comparative Assessment of Institutional Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Krister P.; Tom Evans; Randolph, J. C.; Tucker, Catherine M.; Lauren Persha; Green, Glen M.

    2008-01-01

    A significant challenge in the assessment of forest management outcomes is the limited ability to compare forest conditions quantitatively across ecological zones. We propose an approach for comparing different forest types through the use of reference forests. We tested our idea by drawing a sample of 42 forests from the Midwest USA, Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Brazil, Bolivia, Uganda, and Nepal. We grouped these forests by shared characteristics and selected a reference forest to serve as ...

  17. A Knowledge-Based System Approach for Extracting Abstractions from Service Oriented Architecture Artifacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Goehring

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Rule-based methods have traditionally been applied to develop knowledge-based systems that replicate expert performance on a deep but narrow problem domain. Knowledge engineers capture expert knowledge and encode it as a set of rules for automating the expert’s reasoning process to solve problems in a variety of domains. We describe the development of a knowledge-based system approach to enhance program comprehension of Service Oriented Architecture (SOA software. Our approach uses rule-based methods to automate the analysis of the set of artifacts involved in building and deploying a SOA composite application. The rules codify expert knowledge to abstract information from these artifacts to facilitate program comprehension and thus assist Software Engineers as they perform system maintenance activities. A main advantage of the knowledge-based approach is its adaptability to the heterogeneous and dynamically evolving nature of SOA environments.

  18. Market oriented new product development: How can a means-end chain approach affect the process?

    OpenAIRE

    Søndergaard, Helle Alsted

    2005-01-01

    Few disagree on the advantage of market oriented product development. However, can a well-known theory on consumer behaviour be used as a catalyst for achieving it? This paper describes a case study where means-end chain (MEC) approach was introduced to a cross-functional development team at two different stages of the development process. Results show that MEC data is perceived as a good way of gaining knowledge about consumers; that the information serves well as the basis of discussions an...

  19. Artist Agent: A Reinforcement Learning Approach to Automatic Stroke Generation in Oriental Ink Painting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ning; Hachiya, Hirotaka; Sugiyama, Masashi

    Oriental ink painting, called Sumi-e, is one of the most appealing painting styles that has attracted artists around the world. Major challenges in computer-based Sumi-e simulation are to abstract complex scene information and draw smooth and natural brush strokes. To automatically find such strokes, we propose to model the brush as a reinforcement learning agent, and learn desired brush-trajectories by maximizing the sum of rewards in the policy search framework. We also provide elaborate design of actions, states, and rewards tailored for a Sumi-e agent. The effectiveness of our proposed approach is demonstrated through simulated Sumi-e experiments.

  20. An Object-Oriented Approach To Generate Java Code From Hierarchical-Concurrent and History States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abidi My Abidi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available UML is widely accepted and practiced in industries for modeling and design of software systems. Software requirements and design are very important parts of software development. UML State Machine diagram is an important formalism to model the dynamic behavior of the system. In this paper, we present a new approach to generate compact and efficient Java code from complex state machine involving hierarchical-concurrent states; the proposed code can be used as a Java implementation pattern for automatic code generation for an object-oriented system. The main idea of our study is using Java Enum type with attributes for implementing complex state machines.

  1. Fundamentals of object-oriented information systems specification and design: the OBLOG/TROLL approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrich, Hans-Dieter

    1994-12-01

    A survey of concepts for an information system specification is given, based on the viewpoint that an information system is a community of interacting objects. Objects are self-contained units of structure and behavior capable of operating independently and cooperating concurrently. The approach integrates concepts from semantic data modeling and concurrent processes, adopting structuring principles partly developed in the framework of object-orientation and partly in that of abstract data types. The languages OBLOG and TROLL are based on these concepts and their use is illustrated by examples.

  2. Impact of Different Treatment Approaches on Pregnancy Outcomes in 99 Women Treated for Hodgkin Lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the pregnancy outcomes in women with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) diagnosis, treated between 1972 and 1999 at Department of Radiotherapy and Hematology of University “Sapienza” of Roma. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively studied 99 female patients that conceived after treatment for HL. Fifty-nine (59%) were treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy, 32 (32%) with radiotherapy alone as supradiaphragmatic or as infradiaphragmatic and 8 (8%) patients with chemotherapy alone. Results: Ninety-nine patients reported 145 pregnancies. We observed 132 deliveries (2 of them twin births) after a median of 55 months (range, 14–278 months) from the end of therapy. Twelve women (12%) experienced 13 miscarriages after a median of 50 months (range, 13–120) from the end of therapy. We recorded 9/132 (7%) premature births and 3/134 babies (2%) were underweight at the time of birth. We recorded 2 cases of congenital malformations. No statistical differences were recorded when adverse pregnancy outcomes were analyzed with respect to chemotherapy alone, radiotherapy alone, or combined therapy. Conclusions: No significant associations between pregnancy outcomes and therapeutic approaches were found. In particular, the infradiaphragmatic radiotherapy showed no statistical association with miscarriages, premature birth, and low birth weight at term when compared with other therapeutic approaches.

  3. Impact of Different Treatment Approaches on Pregnancy Outcomes in 99 Women Treated for Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Sanctis, Vitaliana, E-mail: vitaliana.desanctis@uniroma1.it [Department of Radiotherapy, University ' Sapienza' , Rome (Italy); Filippone, Francesco Romeo [Department of Radiotherapy, University ' Sapienza' , Rome (Italy); Alfo, Marco [Statistics, Probability and Applied Statistics, University ' Sapienza' , Rome (Italy); Muni, Roberta [Department of Radiotherapy, University ' Sapienza' , Rome (Italy); Cavalieri, Elena; Pulsoni, Alessandro; Annechini, Giorgia [Department of Hematology, University ' Sapienza' , Rome (Italy); Valeriani, Maurizio; Osti, Mattia Falchetto; Minniti, Giuseppe; Enrici, Riccardo Maurizi [Department of Radiotherapy, University ' Sapienza' , Rome (Italy)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the pregnancy outcomes in women with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) diagnosis, treated between 1972 and 1999 at Department of Radiotherapy and Hematology of University 'Sapienza' of Roma. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively studied 99 female patients that conceived after treatment for HL. Fifty-nine (59%) were treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy, 32 (32%) with radiotherapy alone as supradiaphragmatic or as infradiaphragmatic and 8 (8%) patients with chemotherapy alone. Results: Ninety-nine patients reported 145 pregnancies. We observed 132 deliveries (2 of them twin births) after a median of 55 months (range, 14-278 months) from the end of therapy. Twelve women (12%) experienced 13 miscarriages after a median of 50 months (range, 13-120) from the end of therapy. We recorded 9/132 (7%) premature births and 3/134 babies (2%) were underweight at the time of birth. We recorded 2 cases of congenital malformations. No statistical differences were recorded when adverse pregnancy outcomes were analyzed with respect to chemotherapy alone, radiotherapy alone, or combined therapy. Conclusions: No significant associations between pregnancy outcomes and therapeutic approaches were found. In particular, the infradiaphragmatic radiotherapy showed no statistical association with miscarriages, premature birth, and low birth weight at term when compared with other therapeutic approaches.

  4. From an Object-Oriented Approach to the Financial Reporting: An Open Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Silveira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper developed an Object-Oriented (O-O approach as an open architecture forfinancial reporting that is based on the notation Unified Modelling Language (UML and theRational Rose® tool. The O-O approach integrated into the financial reporting has interoperablebuilding financial statements that must be available to be included in any economic and financialanalysis of a corporation. The implementation of an open architecture for developing financialreporting is supported by the systems analyst work that observes and understands the generaldomain of financial reporting, as well as, input from the specialists, directors and stakeholders of the corporation. Then, with reference to the Portuguese experience, the research scope is towardsa basic structure of financial reporting whose results are applicable to any corporation. Thefurther implication of the architecture for the financial reporting is to built a prototype to answerthe market needs.

  5. Goal-oriented failure analysis - a systems analysis approach to hazard identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goal-Oriented Failure Analysis, GOFA, is a methodology which is being developed to identify and analyse the potential failure modes of a hazardous plant or process. The technique will adopt a structured top-down approach, with a particular failure goal being systematically analysed. A systems analysis approach is used, with the analysis being organised around a systems diagram of the plant or process under study. GOFA will also use checklists to supplement the analysis -these checklists will be prepared in advance of a group session and will help to guide the analysis and avoid unnecessary time being spent on identifying obvious failure modes or failing to identify certain hazards or failures. GOFA is being developed with the aim of providing a hazard identification methodology which is more efficient and stimulating than the conventional approach to HAZOP. The top-down approach should ensure that the analysis is more focused and the use of a systems diagram will help to pull the analysis together at an early stage whilst also helping to structure the sessions in a more stimulating way than the conventional techniques. GOFA will be, essentially, an extension of the HAZOP methodology. GOFA is currently being computerised using a knowledge-based systems approach for implementation. The Goldworks II expert systems development tool is being used. (author)

  6. [An object-oriented intelligent engineering design approach for lake pollution control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Rui; Zhou, Jing; Liu, Yong; Zhu, Xiang; Zhao, Lei; Yang, Ping-Jian; Guo, Huai-Cheng

    2013-03-01

    Regarding the shortage and deficiency of traditional lake pollution control engineering techniques, a new lake pollution control engineering approach was proposed in this study, based on object-oriented intelligent design (OOID) from the perspective of intelligence. It can provide a new methodology and framework for effectively controlling lake pollution and improving water quality. The differences between the traditional engineering techniques and the OOID approach were compared. The key points for OOID were described as object perspective, cause and effect foundation, set points into surface, and temporal and spatial optimization. The blue algae control in lake was taken as an example in this study. The effect of algae control and water quality improvement were analyzed in details from the perspective of object-oriented intelligent design based on two engineering techniques (vertical hydrodynamic mixer and pumping algaecide recharge). The modeling results showed that the traditional engineering design paradigm cannot provide scientific and effective guidance for engineering design and decision-making regarding lake pollution. Intelligent design approach is based on the object perspective and quantitative causal analysis in this case. This approach identified that the efficiency of mixers was much higher than pumps in achieving the goal of low to moderate water quality improvement. However, when the objective of water quality exceeded a certain value (such as the control objective of peak Chla concentration exceeded 100 microg x L(-1) in this experimental water), the mixer cannot achieve this goal. The pump technique can achieve the goal but with higher cost. The efficiency of combining the two techniques was higher than using one of the two techniques alone. Moreover, the quantitative scale control of the two engineering techniques has a significant impact on the actual project benefits and costs. PMID:23745391

  7. Estimation of risk ratios in cohort studies with common outcomes: a Bayesian approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Haitao; Cole, Stephen R

    2010-11-01

    In cohort studies with common outcomes, the odds ratio estimated from a logistic regression analysis is often interpreted as an indirect estimate of the risk ratio. In such settings, the odds ratio will be farther from the null than the risk ratio. Direct and unbiased estimates of the risk ratio may be obtained from a log binomial model fit by maximum likelihood. When the maximum likelihood log binomial model fails to converge (as is common) or provides predicted probability estimates or upper confidence limits greater than 1.0, various approaches have been suggested, but each has drawbacks, as we describe. We propose a novel Bayesian approach for the estimation of the risk ratio from the log binomial model that addresses drawbacks of existing approaches. Posterior computation can be accomplished easily using the WinBUGs code provided. PMID:20844438

  8. Community Partners in Care (CPIC): Video Summary of Rationale, Study Approach / Implementation, and Client 6-month Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Mango, Joseph; Cabiling, Eileen; Jones, Loretta; Lucas-wright, Aziza; Williams, Pluscedia; Wells, Kenneth; Pulido, Esmeralda; Meldrum, Marcia; Ramos, Ana; Chung, Bowen

    2014-01-01

    “Community Partners in Care (CPIC): Video Summary of Rationale, Study Approach / Implementation, and Client 6-month Outcomes” is a 2 minute, 46 second video summarizing the study rationale, study approach, and the 6-month outcomes. The video was produced by four agencies: Healthy African American Families II, a health advocacy organization in South Los Angeles; Behavioral Health Services, the largest substance/alcohol abuse service provider in LA County; UCLA; and RAND Health; contract fi...

  9. Segment-oriented liver resections based on posterior intrahepatic glissonian approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doklesti? Krstina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Segment-oriented liver resections can be performed effective by posterior intrahepatic approach. A significance of such resection is that they are oncologically radical as well as parenchyma- sparing. Methodology: Segmental liver resections were performed in 102 patients with liver tumors. Suprahilar control of the appropriate glissonean pedicle was achieved by the posterior intrahepatic approach. Liver parenchyma was transsected by ultrasonic dissector, under intermittent vascular occlusion (IVO. Pedicle was divided at the end of resection using "endo-GIA" vascular stapler. Results: The overall transection time was 30,14+12,56 min. The amount of blood loss was 285,59+129,92 ml. The postoperative complication rate was 25,49%. R0 resection had 94 (92,16% patients. There was no liver failure or perioperative death. Conclusions: Posterior intrahepatic approach for segmental resection is safe, can expedite the liver transection and reduce intraoperative hemorrhage. This approach provides adequate tumor clearance with preservation of normal parenchyma, as well as the vasculature or the biliary drainage of the contralateral liver.

  10. Decomposed Approach of Market Orientation and Marketing Mix Capability: Research on Their Relationships with Firm Performance in the Korean Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohyoun Shin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The notion that market orientation provides firms a source of competitive advantage seems to be widely accepted since the effects of market orientation on business performance have been extensively researched and many studies have confirmed their affirmative relationships. However, aggregated approach of market orientation as one single construct has left the detailed investigations yet unexplored despite its tremendous contribution in marketing strategy arena. Thus, decomposed properties of market orientation and their relationships with various components of firm success were explored to precisely examine the paths in this study. Furthermore, to resolve conflicting arguments on whether market orientation has a direct influence on firm level consequences, marketing mix capability was suggested as a critical mediator to complete a resource deployment system rather than a resource possession approach, which is equivalent to resource-based view. From an analysis of a survey data of 285 Korean organizations, three dimensions of market orientation, namely customer orientation, competitor orientation, and interfunctional coordination, and four sub-constructs of marketing mix capability, such as product, communication, channel and pricing capability, along with their impacts on business performance were investigated in detail. This study revealed that customer orientation and interfunctional coordination had a direct impact on only customer satisfaction while all three dimensions of market orientation failed to directly link to other firm performance variables like market effectiveness, adaptability, and profitability. To bridge these relationships product and communication capabilities were proven to be a necessary condition while channel capability and pricing capability showed interesting relationships. Findings and implications were discussed and limitations and further research directions were also suggested.

  11. Modeling clinical outcome using multiple correlated functional biomarkers: A Bayesian approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Qi; Zhang, Xiaoxi; Zhao, Yize; Johnson, Brent A; Bostick, Roberd M

    2012-10-14

    In some biomedical studies, biomarkers are measured repeatedly along some spatial structure or over time and are subject to measurement error. In these studies, it is often of interest to evaluate associations between a clinical endpoint and these biomarkers (also known as functional biomarkers). There are potentially two levels of correlation in such data, namely, between repeated measurements of a biomarker from the same subject and between multiple biomarkers from the same subject; none of the existing methods accounts for correlation between multiple functional biomarkers. We propose a Bayesian approach to model a clinical outcome of interest (e.g. risk for colorectal cancer) in the presence of multiple functional biomarkers while accounting for potential correlation. Our simulations show that the proposed approach achieves good performance in finite samples under various settings. In the presence of substantial or moderate correlation, the proposed approach outperforms an existing approach that does not account for correlation. The proposed approach is applied to a study of biomarkers of risk for colorectal neoplasms and our results show that the risk for colorectal cancer is associated with two functional biomarkers, APC and TGF-?, in particular, with their values in the region between the proliferating and differentiating zones of colorectal crypts. PMID:23070593

  12. Computational protein design approaches with significant biological outcomes: progress and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoman Li

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Enzymes are powerful biocatalysts, however, so far there is still a large gap between the number of enzyme-based practical applications and that of naturally occurring enzymes. Multiple experimental approaches have been applied to generate nearly all possible mutations of target enzymes, allowing the identification of desirable variants with improved properties to meet the practical needs. Meanwhile, an increasing number of computational methods have been developed to assist in the modification of enzymes during the past few decades. With the development of bioinformatic algorithms, computational approaches are now able to provide more precise guidance for enzyme engineering and make it more efficient and less laborious. In this review, we summarize the recent advances of method development with significant biological outcomes to provide important insights into successful computational protein designs. We also discuss the limitations and challenges of existing methods and the future directions that should improve them.

  13. Development of novel control strategies for single-stage autotrophic nitrogen removal: A process oriented approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangsgaard, Anna Katrine; Mauricio Iglesias, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    The autotrophic nitrogen removing granular sludge process is a novel and intensified process. However, its stable operation and control remain a challenging issue. In this contribution, a process oriented approach was used to develop, evaluate and benchmark novel control strategies to ensure stable operation and rejection of disturbances. Three novel control strategies were developed, evaluated, and benchmarked against each other: a feedforward control (control structure 1 – CS#1), a rule-based feedback control (CS#2), and a feedforward–feedback controller, in which the feedback loop updates the set point of the feedforward loop (CS#3). The CS#1 gave the best performance against disturbances in the ammonium concentration, whereas the CS#2 provided the best performance against disturbances in the organic carbon concentration and dynamic influent conditions. The CS#3 rejected both disturbances satisfactorily. Thus, the appropriate design will depend on the specific disturbances in the influent generated in the upstream units of the wastewater treatment plant.

  14. Generalized effective mass approach for cubic semiconductor n-MOSFETs on arbitrarily oriented wafers

    CERN Document Server

    Rahman, A; Ghosh, A W; Rahman, Anisur; Lundstrom, Mark S.; Ghosh, Avik W.

    2004-01-01

    The general theory for quantum simulation of cubic semiconductor n-MOSFETs is presented within the effective mass equation approach. The full three-dimensional transport problem is described in terms of coupled transverse subband modes which arise due to quantum confinement along the body thickness direction. Couplings among the subbands are generated for two reasons: due to spatial variations of the confinement potential along the transport direction, and due to non-alignment of the device coordinate system with the principal axes of the constant energy conduction band ellipsoids. The problem simplifies considerably if the electrostatic potential is separable along transport and confinement directions, and further if the potential variations along the transport direction are slow enough to prevent dipolar coupling (Zener tunneling) between subbands. In this limit, the transport problem can be solved by employing two unitary operators to transform an arbitrarily oriented constant energy ellipsoid into a regul...

  15. An equation oriented approach to steady state flowsheeting of methanol synthesis loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An equation-oriented approach was developed for steady state flowsheeting of a commercial methanol plant. The loop consists of fixed bed reactor, flash separator, preheater, coolers, and compressor. For steady sate flowsheeting of the plant mathematical model of reactor and other units are needed. Reactor used in loop is a Lurgi type and its configuration is rather complex. Previously reactor and flash separator are modeled as two important units of plant. The model is based on mass and energy balances in each equipment and utilizing some auxiliary equations such as rate of reaction and thermodynamics model for activity coefficients of liquid. In order to validate the mathematical model for the synthesis loop, some simulation data were performed using operating conditions and characteristics of the commercial plant. The good agreement between the steady state simulation results and the plant data shows the validity of the model

  16. Object-oriented integrated approach for the design of scalable ECG systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boskovic, Dusanka; Besic, Ingmar; Avdagic, Zikrija

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents the implementation of Object-Oriented (OO) integrated approaches to the design of scalable Electro-Cardio-Graph (ECG) Systems. The purpose of this methodology is to preserve real-world structure and relations with the aim to minimize the information loss during the process of modeling, especially for Real-Time (RT) systems. We report on a case study of the design that uses the integration of OO and RT methods and the Unified Modeling Language (UML) standard notation. OO methods identify objects in the real-world domain and use them as fundamental building blocks for the software system. The gained experience based on the strongly defined semantics of the object model is discussed and related problems are analyzed. PMID:19745387

  17. Software engineering techniques applied to agricultural systems an object-oriented and UML approach

    CERN Document Server

    Papajorgji, Petraq J

    2014-01-01

    Software Engineering Techniques Applied to Agricultural Systems presents cutting-edge software engineering techniques for designing and implementing better agricultural software systems based on the object-oriented paradigm and the Unified Modeling Language (UML). The focus is on the presentation of  rigorous step-by-step approaches for modeling flexible agricultural and environmental systems, starting with a conceptual diagram representing elements of the system and their relationships. Furthermore, diagrams such as sequential and collaboration diagrams are used to explain the dynamic and static aspects of the software system.    This second edition includes: a new chapter on Object Constraint Language (OCL), a new section dedicated to the Model-VIEW-Controller (MVC) design pattern, new chapters presenting details of two MDA-based tools – the Virtual Enterprise and Olivia Nova, and a new chapter with exercises on conceptual modeling.  It may be highly useful to undergraduate and graduate students as t...

  18. A Model-based Approach to Integrate e-Learning Platforms and Social Networks using a Service-Oriented Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Rozac, Jernej; Ballester Server, Jose? Vicente; Buendi?a Garci?a, Fe?lix

    2012-01-01

    E-learning is moving beyond traditional Learning Management Systems and Social Networks are raising new ways of learning. This work proposes an approach to integrate social networks and e-learning platforms taking advantage of both kinds of tools. The approach is based on a method which enables the formal representation of social e-learning situations by means of models. A service-oriented framework is proposed to implement such approach in a two way direction between e-learning p...

  19. Applying Adverse Outcome Pathways (AOPs) to support Integrated Approaches to Testing and Assessment (IATA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollefsen, Knut Erik; Scholz, Stefan; Cronin, Mark T; Edwards, Stephen W; de Knecht, Joop; Crofton, Kevin; Garcia-Reyero, Natalia; Hartung, Thomas; Worth, Andrew; Patlewicz, Grace

    2014-12-01

    Chemical regulation is challenged by the large number of chemicals requiring assessment for potential human health and environmental impacts. Current approaches are too resource intensive in terms of time, money and animal use to evaluate all chemicals under development or already on the market. The need for timely and robust decision making demands that regulatory toxicity testing becomes more cost-effective and efficient. One way to realize this goal is by being more strategic in directing testing resources; focusing on chemicals of highest concern, limiting testing to the most probable hazards, or targeting the most vulnerable species. Hypothesis driven Integrated Approaches to Testing and Assessment (IATA) have been proposed as practical solutions to such strategic testing. In parallel, the development of the Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) framework, which provides information on the causal links between a molecular initiating event (MIE), intermediate key events (KEs) and an adverse outcome (AO) of regulatory concern, offers the biological context to facilitate development of IATA for regulatory decision making. This manuscript summarizes discussions at the Workshop entitled "Advancing AOPs for Integrated Toxicology and Regulatory Applications" with particular focus on the role AOPs play in informing the development of IATA for different regulatory purposes. PMID:25261300

  20. A data mining approach in home healthcare: outcomes and service use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curet Olivier

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this research is to understand the performance of home healthcare practice in the US. The relationships between home healthcare patient factors and agency characteristics are not well understood. In particular, discharge destination and length of stay have not been studied using a data mining approach which may provide insights not obtained through traditional statistical analyses. Methods The data were obtained from the 2000 National Home and Hospice Care Survey data for three specific conditions (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart failure and hip replacement, representing nearly 580 patients from across the US. The data mining approach used was CART (Classification and Regression Trees. Our aim was twofold: 1 determining the drivers of home healthcare service outcomes (discharge destination and length of stay and 2 examining the applicability of induction through data mining to home healthcare data. Results Patient age (85 and older was a driving force in discharge destination and length of stay for all three conditions. There were also impacts from the type of agency, type of payment, and ethnicity. Conclusion Patients over 85 years of age experience differential outcomes depending on the condition. There are also differential effects related to agency type by condition although length of stay was generally lower for hospital-based agencies. The CART procedure was sufficiently accurate in correctly classifying patients in all three conditions which suggests continuing utility in home health care.

  1. The role of systematic innovation management in cluster formations based on ecologically oriented approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.H. Melnyk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to study the role of the system of innovation management in cluster formations on the basis of ecologically oriented creative approach for sustainable development. The results of the analysis. The paper studies the problem of system management in the formation of cluster structures as ?copolis in the transition to environmentally sustainable development, addressed organizational and economic background applications eco-creative approach to the establishment and operation of ?copolis as self- reproduction socio-ecological-economic system. Perspective directions of solving the problems systems management in the context of sustainable development, in our view, next: the reproductive mechanism of the economic transformations directed on «green» development areas; dematerialization activation processes at various levels of management; ecologically oriented economic development (dynamic transformation of the economy, taking into account the principles of sustainable development based on innovation; clustering scientific production and educational specialization (ecopolis. Question the beneficial use of environmental conditions and initiatives arise when a key prerequisite for the formation of ecopolis. Conclusions and directions of further researches. It is shown that one of the best ways to achieve these goals, mechanisms that implement ecologically effective management at the regional level, is to create in the country such as forms of ecopolis. These studies need to continue to develop a system of tools and mechanisms to ensure the implementation of the concept of innovation management system such as cluster formations ecopolis in the context of sustainable development. Also it is required the development the organizational and economic development of system management tools cluster units.

  2. Some Outcomes of an Employment-Oriented Post-Secondary Training Program for Educably Mentally Handicapped Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahy, P.; McLean, A.

    The Alberta Vocational Centre (AVC) Transitional Vocational (T-V) Program, in Edmonton, began in 1982. The program currently employs six instructors to provide a postsecondary employment-oriented program for mildly mentally disabled adults. The yearlong program is offered in two sessions and has an approximate enrollment of 30 incoming students…

  3. A Practical Guide to Reality Orientation: A Treatment Approach for Confusion and Disorientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Linda; And Others

    1978-01-01

    This guide provides basic information about the use of reality orientation, particularly with an elderly population. The concepts of reality orientation can be learned quickly and can be used in any setting with patients having a variety of diagnoses. (Author)

  4. Laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy via a reverse-''V'' approach with four ports: Initial experience and perioperative outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao; Yu, Mu-Chuan; Zhao, Rui; Liu, Yan-Feng; Zeng, Jian-Ping; Wang, Xian-Qiang; Tan, Jing-Wang

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy (LPD) using a reverse-“V” approach with four ports. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of selected patients who underwent LPD at our center between April 2011 and April 2012. The following data were collected and reviewed: patient characteristics, tumor histology, surgical outcome, resection margins, morbidity, and mortality. All patients were thoroughly evaluated preoperatively by complete hematologic investigations, triple-phase helical computed tomography, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, and biopsy of ampullary lesions (when present). Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography was performed for doubtful cases of lower common bile duct lesions. RESULTS: There was no perioperative mortality. LPD was performed with tumor-free margins in all patients, including patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (n = 6), ampullary carcinoma (n = 6), intra-ductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (n = 2), pancreatic cystadenocarcinoma (n = 2), pancreatic head adenocarcinoma (n = 3), and bile duct cancer (n = 2). The mean patient age was 65 years (range, 42-75 years). The median blood loss was 240 mL, and the mean operative time was 368 min. CONCLUSION: LPD using a reverse-“V” approach can be performed safely and yields good results in elective patients. Our preliminary experience showed that LDP can be performed via a reverse-“V” approach. This approach can be used to treat localized malignant lesions irrespective of histopathology. PMID:25663778

  5. Improving the Quality of Student Learning: The Influence of Learning Context and Student Approaches to Learning on Learning Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigwell, Keith; Prosser, Michael

    1991-01-01

    Two studies with 143 and 74 students, respectively, investigated the relationship between qualitative differences in learning outcomes, perceptions of learning environment, and students' personal approaches to study in nursing education. Results suggest environments perceived to encourage deep approaches to learning will facilitate higher quality…

  6. Detecting Slums from Quick Bird Data in Pune Using AN Object Oriented Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhar, S.

    2012-07-01

    We have been witnessing a gradual and steady transformation from a pre dominantly rural society to an urban society in India and by 2030, it will have more people living in urban than rural areas. Slums formed an integral part of Indian urbanisation as most of the Indian cities lack in basic needs of an acceptable life. Many efforts are being taken to improve their conditions. To carry out slum renewal programs and monitor its implementation, slum settlements should be recorded to obtain an adequate spatial data base. This can be only achieved through the analysis of remote sensing data with very high spatial resolution. Regarding the occurrences of settlement areas in the remote sensing data pixel-based approach on a high resolution image is unable to represent the heterogeneity of complex urban environments. Hence there is a need for sophisticated method and data for slum analysis. An attempt has been made to detect and discriminate the slums of Pune city by describing typical characteristics of these settlements, by using eCognition software from quick bird data on the basis of object oriented approach. Based on multi resolution segmentation, initial objects were created and further depend on texture, geometry and contextual characteristics of the image objects, they were classified into slums and non-slums. The developed rule base allowed the description of knowledge about phenomena clearly and easily using fuzzy membership functions and the described knowledge stored in the classification rule base led to the best classification with more than 80% accuracy.

  7. Calculation of deformation rate of interstitial solid solutions under irradiation with usage of the object-oriented approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The creep rate is determined by streams of self point defects and mobile complexes impurity - free point defect on the dislocation. These streams are by the numerical method, if the stationary distributions of point defects in a neighbourhood of sinks are known. For solution of this composite system of the nonlinear differential equations the object-oriented approach utilized, which one represents series iterative process consisting of four stages: the analysis, designing, evolution and modification. On the basis of the object-oriented approach, the program application DefRate.exe for research of radiation creep rate is created. The application works in an operating system Windows. As all parameters are set interactive, the designed program can be easily utilized for research of the broad set of materials. The introduced object-oriented method is applicable for research of the broad set of processes controlled by the diffusion, such as the swelling and radiation creep of construction materials, the hydrogen permeability etc

  8. A semiparametric approach to mixed outcome latent variable models: Estimating the association between cognition and regional brain volumes

    OpenAIRE

    Gruhl, Jonathan; Erosheva, Elena A.; Crane, Paul K.

    2014-01-01

    Multivariate data that combine binary, categorical, count and continuous outcomes are common in the social and health sciences. We propose a semiparametric Bayesian latent variable model for multivariate data of arbitrary type that does not require specification of conditional distributions. Drawing on the extended rank likelihood method by Hoff [Ann. Appl. Stat. 1 (2007) 265-283], we develop a semiparametric approach for latent variable modeling with mixed outcomes and prop...

  9. The impact of operative approach on outcome of surgery for gastro-oesophageal tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quinn Martha

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The choice of operation for tumours at or around the gastro-oesophageal junction remains controversial with little evidence to support one technique over another. This study examines the prevalence of margin involvement and nodal disease and their impact on outcome following three surgical approaches (Ivor Lewis, transhiatal and left thoraco-laparotomy for these tumours. Methods A retrospective analysis was conducted of patients undergoing surgery for distal oesophageal and gastro-oesophageal junction tumours by a single surgeon over ten years. Comparisons were undertaken in terms of tumour clearance, nodal yield, postoperative morbidity, mortality, and median survival. All patients were followed up until death or the end of the data collection (mean follow up 33.2 months. Results A total of 104 patients were operated on of which 102 underwent resection (98%. Median age was 64.1 yrs (range 32.1–79.4 with 77 males and 25 females. Procedures included 29 Ivor Lewis, 31 transhiatal and 42 left-thoraco-laparotomies. Postoperative mortality was 2.9% and median survival 23 months. Margin involvement was 24.1% (two distal, one proximal and 17 circumferential margins. Operative approach had no significant effect on nodal clearance, margin involvement, postoperative mortality or morbidity and survival. Lymph node positive disease had a significantly worse median survival of 15.8 months compared to 39.7 months for node negative (p = 0.007, irrespective of approach. Conclusion Surgical approach had no effect on postoperative mortality, circumferential tumour, nodal clearance or survival. This suggests that the choice of operative approach for tumours at the gastro-oesophageal junction may be based on the individual patient and tumour location rather than surgical dogma.

  10. Health outcomes for older Hispanics with HIV in New York City using the Oaxaca Decomposition Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dela Cruz, Juan J; Karpiak, Stephen E; Brennan-Ing, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Although HIV and aging are two well-established medical and economic domains, their intersection represents an emerging area of study. Older adults with HIV, who sill comprise 50% of the US HIV-infected population by 2015, are disadvantaged as evidenced by disproportionately poorer health outcomes. The Oaxaca Decomposition Approach (ODA) was used to analyze data from the Research on Older Adults with HIV (ROAH) Study of 1,000 older adults with HIV in New York City (NYC). This paper establishes the sources of health disparities for Hispanics with HIV compared to a match group of Non-Hispanics with HIV. The ODA analyses shows that Hispanics on average have higher levels of declining health and increased depression attributable to the discrimination factor. PMID:25560348

  11. Unilateral persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous: intensive management approach with excellent outcome beyond visual maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Imran H; Patel, Chetan Kantibhai; Salmon, John F

    2015-01-01

    Persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous (PHPV) is an ocular developmental disorder resulting from incomplete apoptosis of the embryonic hyaloid vasculature. Unilateral PHPV is traditionally associated with a poor prognosis because of the challenges associated with managing progressive anisometropic amblyopia. We report a child with unilateral PHPV who underwent cataract extraction, primary posterior capsulotomy with anterior vitrectomy and intraocular lens implantation followed by combined trabeculectomy/trabeculotomy within the first 8?weeks of life. Intensive optometric and orthoptic input was required for many years to manage the increasing anisometropic amblyopia with final visual acuity of 20/40 unaided in the affected eye and without evidence of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. This case illustrates the excellent visual outcome possible in a child with complex, unilateral PHPV using an intensive management approach comprising: early surgical intervention for congenital cataract and secondary glaucoma, meticulous monitoring of refraction, visual acuity and intraocular pressure and motivated parents who engaged in the management. PMID:25564632

  12. Adding voucher-based incentives to community reinforcement approach improves outcomes during treatment for cocaine dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Fernández, Gloria; Secades-Villa, Roberto; García-Rodríguez, Olaya; Sánchez-Hervás, Emilio; Fernández-Hermida, José R; Higgins, Stephen T

    2011-01-01

    This study compares the efficacy of the Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA) with and without an incentive program for cocaine-dependent patients in Spain. A total of 58 patients were randomly assigned to the CRA or CRA plus vouchers condition. In the CRA plus vouchers group, mean percentage of cocaine-negative samples was 97.07%, versus 79.76% in the no-voucher group. Those treated in the CRA plus vouchers condition also achieved greater improvements in psychosocial functioning than those treated in the CRA condition. The present results show that treatment outcome is better if incentives are delivered contingent upon the submission of cocaine-free urine specimens.? PMID:21838845

  13. Producing a landslide inventory map using pixel-based and object-oriented approaches optimized by Taguchi method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosavi, Vahid; Talebi, Ali; Shirmohammadi, Bagher

    2014-01-01

    Landslides are considered one of the most important natural hazards. Mapping landslides and producing landslide inventory maps have received special attention from a wide range of specialists. The main objective of this study was to produce landslide inventory maps using advanced pixel-based (ANN and SVM) and object-oriented approaches. The most important challenge in this case is to determine the optimum structure of classification methods. The Taguchi method was to perform optimization of the structure of ANN and SVM and segmentation process in the object-oriented classification method. Results showed that the Taguchi method can be effectively used to cope with this problem. It significantly reduces the number of classification tests. We also showed that there were no significant differences existed between ANN and SVM approaches (?2 value of 3.33). However, we demonstrated that object-oriented approaches significantly outperformed the pixel-based classification methods (Z value of 5.70) in producing a landslide inventory map. The accurate map produced using an object-oriented approach (overall accuracy of 0.90) effectively determines the shape of landslides and also efficiently shows the intensifying effects of land use changes in the occurrence of landslides.

  14. Symptom-oriented approach to validation of severe nuclear accidents control strategies for minimization of catastrophic environmental consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper proposes further development of symptom-oriented approaches to identification of initial events list and justification for control strategies of beyond-design emergencies and severe emergencies in shell-type reactors in order to increase overall NPP environmental safety level and to minimize or exclude possible dangerous environmental consequences by scientifically grounded algorithm of severe nuclear emergency control

  15. Variable-Centered and Person-Centered Approaches to Studying Mexican-Origin Mother-Daughter Cultural Orientation Dissonance

    OpenAIRE

    Ba?maca-colbert, Mayra Y.; Gayles, Jochebed G.

    2009-01-01

    The overall aim of the current study was to identify the methodological approach and corresponding analytic procedure that best elucidated the associations among Mexican-origin mother-daughter cultural orientation dissonance, family functioning, and adolescent adjustment. To do so, we employed, and compared, two methodological approaches (i.e., variable-centered and person-centered) via four analytic procedures (i.e., difference score, interactive, matched/mismatched grouping, and latent prof...

  16. Costa Oriental Maya: una acercamiento al comercio y navegación / Mayan Oriental Coast: an approach to trade and navigation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Iván Renato, Zúñiga Carrasco.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available La costa oriental de la Península de Yucatán ofreció un medio ideal para navegantes y mercaderes por la geografía costera peninsular cruzada por extensas redes fluviales que se extienden a lo largo de sus costas y se remontan lejanamente en el interior. El intercambio de productos a través de largas [...] distancias fue un factor básico en la homogeneidad cultural del mundo maya, jugando un papel crítico en el desarrollo de esta antigua civilización. El comercio marítimo maya se remonta al periodo Preclásico Tardío (300 a.C.-300 d.C.) Muchos puertos estaban ubicados en lugares estratégicos para el comercio, como islas, promontorios o a la entrada de ríos y en la mayoría de las veces se ubicaban en lugares protegidos del mar abierto. Las canoas utilizadas por los nativos no se trataba de simples troncos ahuecados; el uso de velas además y remos como puede verse en representaciones en murales y códices. Abstract in english The eastern coast of the Yucatan Peninsula offered the ideal medium for sailors and merchants peninsular coastal geography crossed by extensive river networks that stretch along its shores and distantly back inside. The exchange of goods over long distances was a basic factor in the cultural homogen [...] eity of the Mayan world, playing a critical role in the development of this ancient civilization. Maya maritime trade dates back to the Late Pre classic (300 BC-300 AD) Many ports were strategically placed for trade, as islands, headlands or the entry of rivers and in most cases were located in protected locations open sea. Canoes used by the natives was not simple hollowed logs; the use of oars and sails well as seen in depictions in murals and codices.

  17. USE OF ENVIRONMENTAL APPROACH TO INNOVATION-ORIENTED DEVELOPMENT OF INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergej Petrovich Baranenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate, identify and specify environmental factors influencing sustainable and competitive development of industrial enterprises which are the driver of growth of national economies. External and internal environmental factors are considered in the context of innovation potentialities of companies-and innovations are the key factors which provide sustainable development of business structures. World practice of sustainable development in regard to industrial enterprises and modern theoretical and empirical concepts are investigated which tie-up sustainable development of industrial enterprises to their innovation activity. The result of this study is limited practice-oriented concept of complex character which allows to conclude that the level of innovation activity of an industrial enterprise directly depends on the level of its functioning and development. Practical use of the concept of interrelation of the level of development of industrial enterprises with due regard to above-mentioned restrictions is perspective in terms of formation of new tools considered as optimal limited alternative to current managerial approaches which mainly are response to external environmental changes, while modern business conditions demand pro-activity.

  18. Ontological Engineering Approach towards Trust Oriented Security Framework for Adhoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandeep Verma

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Conventionally, user authentication and access control mechanisms would be almost enough, to handle security for stand-alone computers and small networks. Ad hoc networks are illustrated by multi-hop wireless connectivity and recurrently changing network topology which have made them infrastructure less. Adding trust to the existing security infrastructures would improvise the security of these environments. Describing trust relations and their sub-components using ontologies, creates a methodology and mechanism in order to efficiently design and engineer trust networks. This is going tobe used as a service for providing trust for ad hoc network at any level i.e. routing, authentication or access control. A trust oriented security framework for adhoc network using ontological engineering approach is proposed by modeling ad hoc network, the OLSR (Optimized Link State Routing protocol and trust model as OWL (Ontology Web language ontologies, which are integrated using Jena. In this model, a trustor can calculate its trust about trustee and use the calculated trust values to make decisions depending on the context of the application or interaction about granting or rejecting it. A number ofexperiments with a possible implementation of suggested framework are performed to make out the characteristics of the trust model and its effect on the ad hoc network operations.

  19. An object-oriented software approach for a distributed human tracking motion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micucci, Daniela L.

    2003-06-01

    Tracking is a composite job involving the co-operation of autonomous activities which exploit a complex information model and rely on a distributed architecture. Both information and activities must be classified and related in several dimensions: abstraction levels (what is modelled and how information is processed); topology (where the modelled entities are); time (when entities exist); strategy (why something happens); responsibilities (who is in charge of processing the information). A proper Object-Oriented analysis and design approach leads to a modular architecture where information about conceptual entities is modelled at each abstraction level via classes and intra-level associations, whereas inter-level associations between classes model the abstraction process. Both information and computation are partitioned according to level-specific topological models. They are also placed in a temporal framework modelled by suitable abstractions. Domain-specific strategies control the execution of the computations. Computational components perform both intra-level processing and intra-level information conversion. The paper overviews the phases of the analysis and design process, presents major concepts at each abstraction level, and shows how the resulting design turns into a modular, flexible and adaptive architecture. Finally, the paper sketches how the conceptual architecture can be deployed into a concrete distribute architecture by relying on an experimental framework.

  20. System Level Power Management for Embedded Rtos: An Object Oriented Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur Agarwal

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Power management systems for embedded devices can be developed in real-time operating system (RTOS or in applications. If power management policies are applied in operating system (OS, then designers and developers will not have to worry about complex power management algorithms and techniques. They can rather concentrate on application development. The OS contains specific and accurate information about the various tasks being executed. An RTOS further has a comprehensive set of power management application programming interfaces (APIs for both device drivers and applications within a power management component. Therefore, it is logical to place policies and algorithms in the OS that can place components not being used into lower power states. This can significantly reduce the system energy consumption. We present here an abstract model of a system power manager (PM, device power managers, and application power managers. We present relationship and interactions of these managers with each other using Unified Modeling Language (UML class diagrams, sequence diagrams and state charts. We recommend that the PM must be implemented at the OS level in any embedded device. We also recommend the interfaces for interactions between PM and the devices power manager, as well as PM and application power manager. Device driver and application developers can easily use this object oriented approach to make the embedded system more power efficient, easy to maintain, and faster to develop.

  1. Hybrid Approach for Automatic Evaluation of Emotion Elicitation Oriented to People with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, R.; de Ipiña, K. López; Irigoyen, E.; Asla, N.

    People with intellectual disabilities and elderly need physical and intellectual support to ensuring independent living. This is one of the main issues in applying Information and Communication Technology (ICT) into Assistive Technology field. In this sense the development of appropriated Intelligent Systems (ISs) offers new perspectives to this community. In our project a new IS system (LAGUNTXO) which adds user affective information oriented to people with intellectual disabilities has been developed. The system integrates a Human Emotion Analysis System (HEAS) which attempts to solve critical situations for this community as block stages. In the development of the HEAS one of the critical issues was to create appropriated databases to train the system due to the difficulty to simulate pre-block stages in laboratory. Finally a films and real sequences based emotion elicitation database was created. The elicitation material was categorized with more actual features based on discrete emotions and dimensional terms (pleasant, unpleasant). Classically the evaluation is carried out by a specialist (psychologist). In this work we present a hybrid approach for Automatic Evaluation of Emotion Elicitation databases based on Machine Learning classifiers and K-means clustering. The new categorization and the automatic evaluation show a high level of accuracy with respect to others methodologies presented in the literature.

  2. Recovering Use Case Diagrams from Object Oriented Code: an MDA-based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia T. Pereira

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Modernization of legacy systems requires the existence of technicalframeworks for information integration and tool interoperability that allow managing new platform technologies, design techniques and processes. MDA (Model Driven Architecture, adopted by the OMG (Object Management Group, is aligned with this requirement. Reverse engineering techniques play a crucial role in system modernization. In light of these issues, this article describes a framework to reverse engineering MDA models from object oriented code. This framework distinguishes three different abstraction levelslinked to models, metamodels and formal specifications. At model level,transformations are based on static and dynamic analysis. At metamodel level, transformations are specified as OCL (Object Constraint Languagecontracts between MOF (Meta Object Facility metamodels which control the consistency of these transformations. The level of formal specification includes algebraic specifications of MOF metamodels and metamodel-based transformations. This article shows how to reverse engineering use case diagrams from Java code in the MDA context focusing on transformations at model and metamodel levels. We validate our approach by using Eclipse Modeling Framework, Ecore metamodels and ATL (Atlas Transformation Language.

  3. EFFECTIVENESS OF A PARTICIPATORY ACTION ORIENTED TRAINING INTERVENTION APPROACH AMONG HARVESTERS IN OIL PALM PLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ng Yee Guan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Consistent with the global demand for palm oil, the intensified upstream harvesting activities of oil palms’ fresh fruit bunches, despite the harvesters evidences of various ergonomics risk factors leading to musculoskeletal disorders should be a cause for concern. Thus, this study describes the effectiveness of a modified and locally adapted Participatory Action-Oriented Training intervention program in improving the working environment of the harvesters. A training program modified and customized to the harvesters’ working in oil palm plantation consist of 3 primary instrument (awareness video, interactive lecture and action checklist with 3 reinforcing activities (to increase knowledge, enhance understanding and practical application. Based on the result of post-intervention assessment, the self-reported prevalence of MSD and KAP score among Intervention Group (IG did not significantly differ from Control Group (CG. Instead of decreasing, the prevalence of MSD in the past 12 months and 7 days increased within IG. Qualitative findings in this research show that the negative psychosocial and organizational climate has severely affected the implementation of PAOT rendering the effect of the intervention approach. The interventions were ineffective on the IG as this study suffers from various situational barriers as obstacles to benefit the full extent of PAOT advantages.

  4. Client-Oriented Approach to Managing Marketing Interaction of a Hotel ?????????????????????? ?????? ? ?????????? ????????????? ??????????????? ?????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlenko Iryna G.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in development of the system of management of relations in the market of hotel services on the basis of the client-oriented approach to managing marketing interaction. On the basis of systematisation of scientific works of scientists on marketing of services and relations between producers and consumers the article offers a model of interaction of a hotel with consumers of hotel services, builds up a context diagram of the process of interaction, provides a decomposition diagram of the process of formation of interaction of the hotel with the consumers. The article offers to conduct execution of the marketing interaction with consumers with the help of a model of strategic map of the hotel, which allows a study of internal business processes of modelling marketing interaction of a company with consumers. The prospect of further studies in this direction is determination of the system of key indicators on identification of effectiveness of marketing interaction with consumers at the stage of maintaining marketing relations of Crimean hotels in dynamics.???? ?????? ??????? ? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ?? ????? ??????????? ????? ?? ?????? ????????????????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ????????????? ???????????????. ?? ?????? ?????????????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ????? ? ??????????????? ????? ??????????????? ? ????????????? ???? ?????????? ?????? ?????????????? ????????? ? ????????????? ??????????? ?????, ????????? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ??????????????, ???????????? ???????????????? ????????? ???????? ???????????? ??????????????? ????????? ? ?????????????. ????????????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ? ????????????? ?????????? ????????? ? ??????? ?????? ?????????????? ????? ?????????, ??????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????-???????? ????????????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ? ?????????????. ???????????? ?????????? ???????????? ? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ?? ??????????? ???????????????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ? ????????????? ?? ?????? ??????????? ????????????? ????????? ???????? ?? ???? ? ????????.

  5. A Multiple Model Approach to Track Head Orientation With Delta Quaternions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himberg, Henry; Motai, Yuichi; Bradley, Arthur

    2012-06-01

    Virtual reality and augmented reality environments using helmet-mounted displays create a sense of immersion by closely coupling user head motion to display content. Delays in the presentation of visual information can destroy the sense of presence in the simulation environment when it causes a lag in the display response to user head motion. The effect of display lag can be minimized by predicting head orientation, allowing the system to have sufficient time to counteract the delay. In this paper, a new head orientation prediction technique is proposed that uses a multiple delta quaternion (DQ) extended Kalman filter to track angular head velocity and angular head acceleration. This method is independent of the device used for orientation measurement, relying on quaternion orientation as the only measurement data. A new orientation prediction algorithm is proposed that estimates future head orientation as a function of the current orientation measurement and a predicted change in orientation, using the velocity and acceleration estimates. Extensive experimentation shows that the new method improves head orientation prediction when compared to single filter DQ prediction. PMID:22692926

  6. [An object-oriented remote sensing image segmentation approach based on edge detection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yu-Min; Huai, Jian-Zhu; Tang, Zhong-Shi

    2010-06-01

    Satellite sensor technology endorsed better discrimination of various landscape objects. Image segmentation approaches to extracting conceptual objects and patterns hence have been explored and a wide variety of such algorithms abound. To this end, in order to effectively utilize edge and topological information in high resolution remote sensing imagery, an object-oriented algorithm combining edge detection and region merging is proposed. Susan edge filter is firstly applied to the panchromatic band of Quickbird imagery with spatial resolution of 0.61 m to obtain the edge map. Thanks to the resulting edge map, a two-phrase region-based segmentation method operates on the fusion image from panchromatic and multispectral Quickbird images to get the final partition result. In the first phase, a quad tree grid consisting of squares with sides parallel to the image left and top borders agglomerates the square subsets recursively where the uniform measure is satisfied to derive image object primitives. Before the merger of the second phrase, the contextual and spatial information, (e. g., neighbor relationship, boundary coding) of the resulting squares are retrieved efficiently by means of the quad tree structure. Then a region merging operation is performed with those primitives, during which the criterion for region merging integrates edge map and region-based features. This approach has been tested on the QuickBird images of some site in Sanxia area and the result is compared with those of ENVI Zoom Definiens. In addition, quantitative evaluation of the quality of segmentation results is also presented. Experiment results demonstrate stable convergence and efficiency. PMID:20707163

  7. What Do Resource-Oriented Approaches Mean to General Practitioners and How Can They Be Facilitated in Primary Care? A Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Franziska Prüfer; Stefanie Joos; Antje Miksch

    2013-01-01

    Although resource orientation, as a part of health promotion, should play a major role in general practice, the anchoring and realization of resource-oriented approaches remain small in Germany. The aim of this study was to analyze what resource orientation means to general practitioners (GPs) and develop strategies as to how this can be facilitated in GP practice. Within a qualitative research approach, 19 semi-structured telephone interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using qu...

  8. Short-term outcome after posterior versus lateral surgical approach for total hip arthroplasty - a randomized clinical trial*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witzleb W-C

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose Currently, total hip replacement (THR is most commonly performed via a posterior or a direct lateral approach, but the impact of the latter on the invention's outcome has yet not been quantified. Methods We compared the short-term outcome of cementless THR using the both approaches in a prospective, randomized controlled trial. 60 patients with unilateral osteoarthritis were included. Outcome assessment was performed one day before surgery and one week, four weeks, six weeks and 12 weeks after surgery, respectively, using the Harris Hip score as primary objective. Results We found no significant difference in the intraindividual Harris Hip Score improvement at the pre-and three months post-operative assessments between both treatment groups (p = 0.115. However, Harris Hip scores and most functional and psychometric secondary endpoints showed a consistent tendency of a slightly better three months result in patients implanted via the posterior approach. In contrast a significant shorter operating time of the direct lateral approach was recorded (67 minutes versus 76 minutes, p Conclusion In our opinion this slightly better short-term functional outcome after posterior approach is not clinical relevant. However, to make definitive conclusions all clinical relevant factors (i.e. mid- to long-term function, satisfaction, complication rates and long-term survival have to be taken into account. Level of evidence: I - therapeutic

  9. A New Approach in Consistency of Object Oriented Model and Relational Model in Distributed Systems Base on Heterogeneous Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh kheradmandan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available According to application a database is designed to be object-oriented model or relational model but the important point is distribution and heterogeneity. So a model should be provided which work with different types of database and also be able to work disruption, and heterogeneity So one of the great challenges in the use of distributed database technologies is integrating object-oriented databases with relational databases because the platform-independent technologies have an object-oriented approach But today databases are usualy designed and implemented base on relational model. Hence this paper tries to offer a model that could bring further coordination and integration between these two exsisting database models

  10. Pharmacological versus microvascular decompression approaches for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia: clinical outcomes and direct costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Laurinda Lemos1,2, Carlos Alegria3, Joana Oliveira3, Ana Machado2, Pedro Oliveira4, Armando Almeida11Life and Health Sciences Research Institute (ICVS, School of Health Sciences, Campus de Gualtar, University of Minho, Braga, Portugal; 2Hospital Center of Alto Ave, Unit of Fafe, Fafe, Portugal; 3Department of Neurosurgery, Hospital São Marcos; 4Products and Systems Engineering, Campus de Azurém, University of Minho, Guimarães, PortugalAbstract: In idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia (TN the neuroimaging evaluation is usually normal, but in some cases a vascular compression of trigeminal nerve root is present. Although the latter condition may be referred to surgery, drug therapy is usually the first approach to control pain. This study compared the clinical outcome and direct costs of (1 a traditional treatment (carbamazepine [CBZ] in monotherapy [CBZ protocol], (2 the association of gabapentin (GBP and analgesic block of trigger-points with ropivacaine (ROP (GBP+ROP protocol, and (3 a common TN surgery, microvascular decompression of the trigeminal nerve (MVD protocol. Sixty-two TN patients were randomly treated during 4 weeks (CBZ [n = 23] and GBP+ROP [n = 17] protocols from cases of idiopathic TN, or selected for MVD surgery (n = 22 due to intractable pain. Direct medical cost estimates were determined by the price of drugs in 2008 and the hospital costs. Pain was evaluated using the Numerical Rating Scale (NRS and number of pain crises; the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Sickness Impact Profile, and satisfaction with treatment and hospital team were evaluated. Assessments were performed at day 0 and 6 months after the beginning of treatment. All protocols showed a clinical improvement of pain control at month 6. The GBP+ROP protocol was the least expensive treatment, whereas surgery was the most expensive. With time, however, GBP+ROP tended to be the most and MVD the least expensive. No sequelae resulted in any patient after drug therapies, while after MDV surgery several patients showed important side effects. Data reinforce that, (1 TN patients should be carefully evaluated before choosing therapy for pain control, (2 different pharmacological approaches are available to initiate pain control at low costs, and (3 criteria for surgical interventions should be clearly defined due to important side effects, with the initial higher costs being strongly reduced with time.Keywords: trigeminal neuralgia, carbamazepine, gabapentin associated with ropivacaine, microvascular decompression, clinical outcomes, direct costs 

  11. FAO/IAEA consultants' meeting on integrated approach for improving small scale market oriented dairy systems. Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Consultants' Meeting was held at IAEA, Vienna from 21-24 August 2000 to discuss the need for, and to develop an FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) to demonstrate increases in the productivity of small scale market oriented dairy systems using an integrated approach to improving nutrition, reproductive management and disease control. The meeting was attended by five consultants with expertise in specific aspects of research and development in dairy production, three external resource persons who were funded from their own institutes, a staff member of FAO's Animal Production Service, a representative of the IAEA's Department of Technical Co-operation and staff members of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division's Subprogramme on Animal Production and Health. The list of participants is given. The specific objectives of the meeting were to: Review the current research thrusts that are relevant to the objectives of the project, recommend areas that should be included and determine the most appropriate modalities for supporting these activities; Define the scientific scope of the project and recommend appropriate technologies and methods that should be applied in field and laboratory studies for obtaining the necessary information; Review the background document which has been prepared and make appropriate improvements and modifications; and Develop work plans, time scales, schedule of Research Co-ordination Meetings (RCMs) and the project framework matrix. The meeting was formally opened by Dr Martyn Jeggo, Head of the Animal Production and Health Section, who outlined the Sub-programme's mandate, medium-term strategy and how the planned CRP fits into this strategy. Dr Oswin Perera, the Scientific Secretary of the meeting, outlined the previous activities of the Sub-programme in animal nutrition and reproduction, discussed the background to the proposed project, and presented the objectives and expected outcomes of the meeting. The consultants and resource persons presented reviews on aspects of relevance to the proposed CRP. Subsequently, discussions were held in plenary sessions and in small groups to develop, modify and/or improve specific aspects of the draft project document. Finally, conclusions and recommendations were drafted, discussed and adopted

  12. The possibilities of applying a risk-oriented approach to the NPP reliability and safety enhancement problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarov, Yu. A.

    2014-10-01

    An analysis and some generalizations of approaches to risk assessments are presented. Interconnection between different interpretations of the "risk" notion is shown, and the possibility of applying the fuzzy set theory to risk assessments is demonstrated. A generalized formulation of the risk assessment notion is proposed in applying risk-oriented approaches to the problem of enhancing reliability and safety in nuclear power engineering. The solution of problems using the developed risk-oriented approaches aimed at achieving more reliable and safe operation of NPPs is described. The results of studies aimed at determining the need (advisability) to modernize/replace NPP elements and systems are presented together with the results obtained from elaborating the methodical principles of introducing the repair concept based on the equipment technical state. The possibility of reducing the scope of tests and altering the NPP systems maintenance strategy is substantiated using the risk-oriented approach. A probabilistic model for estimating the validity of boric acid concentration measurements is developed.

  13. Long-Term Outcome of a School-Based, Universal Approach to Prevention of Depression in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Susan H.; Sheffield, Jeanie K.; Donovan, Caroline L.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the 2-, 3-, and 4-year outcomes of a school-based, universal approach to the prevention of adolescent depression. Despite initial short-term positive effects, these benefits were not maintained over time. Adolescents who completed the teacher-administered cognitive-behavioral intervention did not differ…

  14. Experiences with the Application of Services Oriented Approaches to the Federation of Heterogeneous Geologic Data Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervato, C.; Fils, D.; Bohling, G.; Diver, P.; Greer, D.; Reed, J.; Tang, X.

    2006-12-01

    The federation of databases is not a new endeavor. Great strides have been made e.g. in the health and astrophysics communities. Reviews of those successes indicate that they have been able to leverage off key cross-community core concepts. In its simplest implementation, a federation of databases with identical base schemas that can be extended to address individual efforts, is relatively easy to accomplish. Efforts of groups like the Open Geospatial Consortium have shown methods to geospatially relate data between different sources. We present here a summary of CHRONOS's (http://www.chronos.org) experience with highly heterogeneous data. Our experience with the federation of very diverse databases shows that the wide variety of encoding options for items like locality, time scale, taxon ID, and other key parameters makes it difficult to effectively join data across them. However, the response to this is not to develop one large, monolithic database, which will suffer growth pains due to social, national, and operational issues, but rather to systematically develop the architecture that will enable cross-resource (database, repository, tool, interface) interaction. CHRONOS has accomplished the major hurdle of federating small IT database efforts with service-oriented and XML-based approaches. The application of easy-to-use procedures that allow groups of all sizes to implement and experiment with searches across various databases and to use externally created tools is vital. We are sharing with the geoinformatics community the difficulties with application frameworks, user authentication, standards compliance, and data storage encountered in setting up web sites and portals for various science initiatives (e.g., ANDRILL, EARTHTIME). The ability to incorporate CHRONOS data, services, and tools into the existing framework of a group is crucial to the development of a model that supports and extends the vitality of the small- to medium-sized research effort that is essential for a vibrant scientific community. This presentation will directly address issues of portal development related to JSR-168 and other portal API's as well as issues related to both federated and local directory-based authentication. The application of service-oriented architecture in connection with ReST-based approaches is vital to facilitate service use by experienced and less experienced information technology groups. Application of these services with XML- based schemas allows for the connection to third party tools such a GIS-based tools and software designed to perform a specific scientific analysis. The connection of all these capabilities into a combined framework based on the standard XHTML Document object model and CSS 2.0 standards used in traditional web development will be demonstrated. CHRONOS also utilizes newer client techniques such as AJAX and cross- domain scripting along with traditional server-side database, application, and web servers. The combination of the various components of this architecture creates an environment based on open and free standards that allows for the discovery, retrieval, and integration of tools and data.

  15. Gray matter alterations in chronic pain: A network-oriented meta-analytic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Cauda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have attempted to characterize morphological brain changes due to chronic pain. Although it has repeatedly been suggested that longstanding pain induces gray matter modifications, there is still some controversy surrounding the direction of the change (increase or decrease in gray matter and the role of psychological and psychiatric comorbidities. In this study, we propose a novel, network-oriented, meta-analytic approach to characterize morphological changes in chronic pain. We used network decomposition to investigate whether different kinds of chronic pain are associated with a common or specific set of altered networks. Representational similarity techniques, network decomposition and model-based clustering were employed: i to verify the presence of a core set of brain areas commonly modified by chronic pain; ii to investigate the involvement of these areas in a large-scale network perspective; iii to study the relationship between altered networks and; iv to find out whether chronic pain targets clusters of areas. Our results showed that chronic pain causes both core and pathology-specific gray matter alterations in large-scale networks. Common alterations were observed in the prefrontal regions, in the anterior insula, cingulate cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus, periaqueductal gray, post- and pre-central gyri and inferior parietal lobule. We observed that the salience and attentional networks were targeted in a very similar way by different chronic pain pathologies. Conversely, alterations in the sensorimotor and attention circuits were differentially targeted by chronic pain pathologies. Moreover, model-based clustering revealed that chronic pain, in line with some neurodegenerative diseases, selectively targets some large-scale brain networks. Altogether these findings indicate that chronic pain can be better conceived and studied in a network perspective.

  16. Integrated Approach for Improving Small Scale Market Oriented Dairy Systems in Pakistan: Economic Impact of Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghaffar

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA launched a Coordinated Research Program in 10 developing countries including Pakistan involving small scale market oriented dairy farmers to identify and prioritize the constraints and opportunities in the selected dairy farms, develop intervention strategies and assess the economic impact of the intervention. The interventions in animal health (control of mastitis at sub-clinical stage and reduction in calf mortality, nutrition (balanced feed reproduction (mineral supplementation, and general management (training of farmers were identified and implemented in a participatory approach at the selected dairy farms. The calf mortality was reduced from 35 to 13 percent up to the age of 3 months. Use of Alfa Deval post milking teat dips reduced the incidence of sub-clinical mastitis from 34 to 5% showing economical benefits of the interventions. Partial budget technique was used to analyze its impact in the registered herds. The farmers recorded monthly quantities of different feed ingredients and seasonal green fodder offered to the animals. From this data set total metabolizeable energy requirements and availability from feed were computed which revealed that animals were deficient in metabolizeable energy in all locations. This was also confirmed by seasonal variation in body condition scoring. At some selected farms the mineral mixture supplement was introduced which exhibited increased milk yield by 5 % in addition to shorten service period by 30 days. Three sessions of training were arranged to train the farmers to care new born calves, daily farm management and detect the animals in heat efficiently to enhance the over all income of the farmers. The overall income of the farm was increased by 40%.

  17. Gray matter alterations in chronic pain: A network-oriented meta-analytic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauda, Franco; Palermo, Sara; Costa, Tommaso; Torta, Riccardo; Duca, Sergio; Vercelli, Ugo; Geminiani, Giuliano; Torta, Diana M.E.

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have attempted to characterize morphological brain changes due to chronic pain. Although it has repeatedly been suggested that longstanding pain induces gray matter modifications, there is still some controversy surrounding the direction of the change (increase or decrease in gray matter) and the role of psychological and psychiatric comorbidities. In this study, we propose a novel, network-oriented, meta-analytic approach to characterize morphological changes in chronic pain. We used network decomposition to investigate whether different kinds of chronic pain are associated with a common or specific set of altered networks. Representational similarity techniques, network decomposition and model-based clustering were employed: i) to verify the presence of a core set of brain areas commonly modified by chronic pain; ii) to investigate the involvement of these areas in a large-scale network perspective; iii) to study the relationship between altered networks and; iv) to find out whether chronic pain targets clusters of areas. Our results showed that chronic pain causes both core and pathology-specific gray matter alterations in large-scale networks. Common alterations were observed in the prefrontal regions, in the anterior insula, cingulate cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus, periaqueductal gray, post- and pre-central gyri and inferior parietal lobule. We observed that the salience and attentional networks were targeted in a very similar way by different chronic pain pathologies. Conversely, alterations in the sensorimotor and attention circuits were differentially targeted by chronic pain pathologies. Moreover, model-based clustering revealed that chronic pain, in line with some neurodegenerative diseases, selectively targets some large-scale brain networks. Altogether these findings indicate that chronic pain can be better conceived and studied in a network perspective. PMID:24936419

  18. Start-Up Motivations and Growth Orientation of Owners of Family Business – A Care Entrepreneurship Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Rissanen, Sari; Hujala, Anneli; Laukkanen, Virpi; Helisten, Merja; Taskinen, Helena

    2011-01-01

    Comparisons between family business and non-family business are still quite rare in some business areas. The aim of this article is to analyse the start-up motivations and growth orientation of family business in the area of care entrepreneurs. The specific research tasks are: 1) to describe and compare entrepreneurs’ start-up motivations and growth orientation between family firms and non-family firms; 2) to describe the rela-tion of the start-up motivations to the growth orientation of ma...

  19. An Object Oriented Approach to Simulation of TRIGA Mark II Dynamic Response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with the development of a model for the nuclear research reactor TRIGA Mark II operating at University of Pavia. The purpose of the modeling is to reproduce the dynamic behavior of the reactor on the entire operative power range, i.e. 0-250 kW, using the object oriented approach, implemented by the Modelica language. The main advantage is the a-causal formulation of the model, based on equations instead of statement assignment. Equations do not specify which variables are inputs and which are outputs, thus the causality in the model is unspecified and is fixed only when the corresponding equation system is solved. In this way, equations can be solved according to the data flow context in which the solution is computed. The model describes the entire plant, including the heat removal system. The component representing the reactor core contains a series of sub-components linked together through rigorously defined interfaces: in this way, it is possible to consider the interactions between the different physical aspects of the system. Equations governing natural circulation have been implemented in a component which defines the mass flow rate through the core, according to the temperature difference at the ends of the channels. Secondary and tertiary cooling loops are modeled using a simplified heat exchangers configuration: concentric tube version is adopted, which allows recreating the heat exchange dynamics without a great modeling effort. The developthout a great modeling effort. The developed a-causal model has been validated through the comparison with experimental data collected on the site, concerning three different power transients at 100 kW, 50 kW and 1 kW. A corresponding causal model has been referenced as concerns fuel and coolant temperatures evolution during the transients. The predictions of the two main approaches to dynamic modeling have been compared. A very satisfying accordance is found as discrepancies observed on the coolant temperature are comprised between 0.5% and 1% for the three transients. (author)

  20. Effective Youth Ministry: Embracing a family-orientated approach / Effektiewe Jeugbediening: Omhelsing van 'n familie-georiënteerde benadering

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Philippa, Strong.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english This article embraces the Sola Scriptura approach of the reformed theology. Firstly, the article focuses on the crisis in Youth Ministry, namely its inefficiency in leading young people to Christian maturity. It addressed one of the contributing factors to the crisis: the isolation of youth from the [...] adult world, and particularly from their own parents and the larger church community. From the Sola Scriptura principle, a family-orientated approach to effective Youth Ministry is proposed where parents are expected to take responsibility for their children's spiritual growth. The church should then support parents and families in this process. Different role players in a family-orientated Youth Ministry are identified and some new perceptions regarding their different tasks are proposed.

  1. Revealing the Effects of Entrepreneurial Orientation on Firm Performance: A Conceptual Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Hsiung Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to investigate the effects of entrepreneurial orientation on firm performance. Entrepreneurial orientation has emerged as an important construct within the strategic management and entrepreneurship literatures over the past two decades. In recent times, especially with the growth of globalization and other such factors, the performance measurement standards and parameters have changed. This has also led to a significant change in the factors that are now used within the operational sphere of an organization in order to affect the firm performance. Empirical studies on the determinants of firm performance have identified that the entrepreneurial orientation of the firms senior management has a significant positive influence. However, the study suggests that the performance implications of entrepreneurial orientation might vary depending on the firms circumstances.

  2. The relationship between market orientation and performance in the hospital industry: a structural equations modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, P S; Lonial, S C; Gupta, Y P; Ziegler, C

    2000-06-01

    There is general consensus in the research literature that market orientation is related to organizational performance. This study examines this relationship in the hospital industry. One unique feature of this study is that both market orientation and performance are conceptualized as being multi-dimensional constructs. Hence the technique of Structural Equations Modeling (SEM) is used to examine the relationship. Analyses were based on market orientation and performance data obtained from 175 hospitals in a five-state region of the United States. The SEM results confirm the multi-dimensional nature of both market orientation and performance, and the strong relationship between the constructs. Interestingly, this relationship is found to be much stronger for smaller hospitals than for larger hospitals. Implications for the hospital industry are discussed. PMID:10907326

  3. The Control Outcome Calibration Approach for Causal Inference With Unobserved Confounding

    OpenAIRE

    Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Unobserved confounding can seldom be ruled out with certainty in nonexperimental studies. Negative controls are sometimes used in epidemiologic practice to detect the presence of unobserved confounding. An outcome is said to be a valid negative control variable to the extent that it is influenced by unobserved confounders of the exposure effects on the outcome in view, although not directly influenced by the exposure. Thus, a negative control outcome found to be empirically associated with th...

  4. Towards an Aspect-Oriented Approach of Multi-Agent Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Amiguet, Matthieu; Nagy, Adina; Baez, Jose?

    2004-01-01

    Programming large systems requires to cut them in smaller pieces (modules, objects, components, agents, ...). In all but trivial cases, choices must be made about what will be the pieces, and some aspects are inevitably spread out over several parts. In Object-Oriented Programming, these have been identified as "Crosscutting Concerns", and Aspect-Oriented Programming is about a reunification of these transversal aspects of the system. In multi-agent programming, one of the crosscutting concer...

  5. Revealing the Effects of Entrepreneurial Orientation on Firm Performance: A Conceptual Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Kuo-Hsiung Chen; Karen Yuan Wang; Kai-Ping Huang; Jui-Mei Yien

    2011-01-01

    The study aims to investigate the effects of entrepreneurial orientation on firm performance. Entrepreneurial orientation has emerged as an important construct within the strategic management and entrepreneurship literatures over the past two decades. In recent times, especially with the growth of globalization and other such factors, the performance measurement standards and parameters have changed. This has also led to a significant change in the factors that are now used within the operati...

  6. “Identifying the Quality of Object Oriented Software System using Modularization Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ms Pragati D Chowhan, Prof S. S. Dhande

    2013-01-01

    Software developers develop their software with some standard specification, but important issue is how to measure the quality of software modularization. In this paper advanced set of metrics are proposed which measure quality of modularization of an Object-Oriented Software (OOS) System. Metrics are designed with universal standard principles to measure the quality of Object-Oriented software which has been developed. Proposed metrics are coupling based structural metrics, these metrics mea...

  7. A Fuzzy Approach for Integrated Measure of Object-Oriented Software Testability

    OpenAIRE

    Vandana Gupta; Aggarwal, K. K.; Yogesh Singh

    2005-01-01

    For large software systems, testing phase seems to have profound effect on the overall acceptability and quality of the final product. The success of this activity can be judged by measuring the testability of the software. A good measure for testability can better manage the testing effort and time. Different Object Oriented Metrics are used in measurement of object-oriented testability but none of them is alone sufficient to give an overall reflection of software testabi...

  8. A New Focus on Distance Learning for Physically Impaired Students: A Multi-agent Oriented Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Shiladitya Pujari; Subrata Mondal

    2012-01-01

    Physically impaired students cannot continue their studies in the existing education system due to some major problems. A multi-agent oriented distance learning system can be a better solution for disabled students to continue their studies. In this paper, a scheme of a multi-agent oriented distance learning system has been proposed. Agents within the system work on the basis of centralized as well as distributed multi-agent planning for inter-agent communication, collaboration and negotiation.

  9. Design-oriented approach for strain-softening and strain-hardening fibre hybrid reinforced concrete elements failing in bending

    OpenAIRE

    Taheri, Mahsa; Barros, Joaquim A. O.; Salehian, Hamidreza

    2011-01-01

    In the present paper a design oriented model is proposed to evaluate the flexural resistance of elements of fibre reinforced concrete (FRC) of tensile strain-softening or tensile strain-hardening behaviour and strengthened longitudinally by steel bars in the tensile zone of a rectangular cross section. The cross sectional moment-curvature response predicted by this model is used in a numerical approach to predict the load-deflection relationship of beams failing in bending. To ...

  10. A Process-Oriented Approach to Support Multi-Role Multi-Stage E-Assessment: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yongwu; Hermans, Henry

    This chapter presents a process-oriented approach to support assessment in learning networks. Assessment in its broadest sense can be conceived as the ‘systematic gathering of information and evidence about a person’s properties (qualifications), based on a process, a product or the progress of a person, for the purposes of certification, placement or diagnoses in formative and summative contexts’ (Joosten-ten Brinke et al. 2007). This definition includes classical assessment and complex assessment.

  11. Design of the DISCovery project: tailored work-oriented interventions to improve employee health, well-being, and performance-related outcomes in hospital care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niks Irene MW

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well-known that health care workers in today’s general hospitals have to deal with high levels of job demands, which could have negative effects on their health, well-being, and job performance. A way to reduce job-related stress reactions and to optimize positive work-related outcomes is to raise the level of specific job resources and opportunities to recover from work. However, the question remains how to translate the optimization of the balance between job demands, job resources, and recovery opportunities into effective workplace interventions. The aim of the DISCovery project is to develop and implement tailored work-oriented interventions to improve health, well-being, and performance of health care personnel. Methods/Design A quasi-experimental field study with a non-equivalent control group pretest-posttest design will be conducted in a top general hospital. Four existing organizational departments will provide both an intervention and a comparison group. Two types of research methods are used: (1 a longitudinal web-based survey study, and (2 a longitudinal daily diary study. After base-line measures of both methods, existing and yet to be developed interventions will be implemented within the experimental groups. Follow-up measurements will be taken one and two years after the base-line measures to analyze short-term and long-term effects of the interventions. Additionally, a process evaluation and a cost-effectiveness analysis will be carried out. Discussion The DISCovery project fulfills a strong need for theory-driven and scientifically well-performed research on job stress and performance interventions. It will provide insight into (1 how a balance between job demands, job resources, and recovery from work can be optimized, (2 the short-term and long-term effects of tailored work-oriented effects, and (3 indicators for successful or unsuccessful implementation of interventions.

  12. The effects of temperature on service employees' customer orientation: an experimental approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Peter; Gockel, Christine; Werth, Lioba

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated how temperature can affect perceptual, cognitive and psychomotor performance (e.g. Hancock, P.A., Ross, J., and Szalma, J., 2007. A meta-analysis of performance response under thermal stressors. Human Factors: The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 49 (5), 851-877). We extend this research to interpersonal aspects of performance, namely service employees' and salespeople's customer orientation. We combine ergonomics with recent research on social cognition linking physical with interpersonal warmth/coldness. In Experiment 1, a scenario study in the lab, we demonstrate that student participants in rooms with a low temperature showed more customer-oriented behaviour and gave higher customer discounts than participants in rooms with a high temperature - even in zones of thermal comfort. In Experiment 2, we show the existence of alternative possibilities to evoke positive temperature effects on customer orientation in a sample of 126 service and sales employees using a semantic priming procedure. Overall, our results confirm the existence of temperature effects on customer orientation. Furthermore, important implications for services, retail and other settings of interpersonal interactions are discussed. Practitioner Summary: Temperature effects on performance have emerged as a vital research topic. Owing to services' increasing economic importance, we transferred this research to the construct of customer orientation, focusing on performance in service and retail settings. The demonstrated temperature effects are transferable to services, retail and other settings of interpersonal interactions. PMID:22455315

  13. Methodological bases of the use personality oriented to approach for the ground of the system of amateurish athletic education of students of university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belikh S.I.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Methodological bases of the use of the personality oriented approach are considered. Complex application of axiological, culturological and personality oriented approaches in the successful leadthrough of reforms is exposed. Opinion is studied 560 students about correlation of general and physical culture in personality and professional self-determination. It is set, what only 23,6 % acknowledge the presence of such connection, 53,4 % are categorically denied, 22 % - can not be determined with the position. It is marked that an educational process on a physical culture at the personality oriented approach gives possibility every student to realize itself in active cognition of maintenance of educational activity in the educational conduct. Thus a student leans against the capabilities, inclinations, interests, valued orientations and subject experience. Directions of the pedagogical planning of the personality oriented system of amateurish athletic education are rotined in the conditions of separate higher educational establishment.

  14. An approach for modelling multiple correlated outcomes in a network of interventions using odds ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efthimiou, Orestis; Mavridis, Dimitris; Cipriani, Andrea; Leucht, Stefan; Bagos, Pantelis; Salanti, Georgia

    2014-06-15

    A multivariate meta-analysis of two or more correlated outcomes is expected to improve precision compared with a series of independent, univariate meta-analyses especially when there are studies reporting some but not all outcomes. Multivariate meta-analysis requires estimates of the within-study correlations, which are seldom available. Existing methods for analysing multiple outcomes simultaneously are limited to pairwise treatment comparisons. We propose a model for a joint, simultaneous synthesis of multiple dichotomous outcomes in a network of interventions and introduce a simple way to elicit expert opinion for the within-study correlations by utilizing a set of conditional probability parameters. We implement our multiple-outcomes network meta-analysis model within a Bayesian framework, which allows incorporation of expert information. As an example, we analyse two correlated dichotomous outcomes, response to the treatment and dropout rate, in a network of pharmacological interventions for acute mania. The produced estimates have narrower confidence intervals compared with the simple network meta-analysis. We conclude that the proposed model and the suggested prior elicitation method for correlations constitute a useful framework for performing network meta-analysis for multiple outcomes. PMID:24918246

  15. Effects of Task-oriented Approach on Affected Arm Function in Children with Spastic Hemiplegia Due to Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chiang-Soon

    2014-06-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of task-oriented approach on motor function of the affected arm in children with spastic hemiplegia due to cerebral palsy. [Subjects] Twelve children were recruited by convenience sampling from 2 local rehabilitation centers. The present study utilized a one-group pretest-posttest design. All of children received task-oriented training for 6 weeks (40?min/day, 5 days/week) and also underwent regular occupational therapy. Three clinical tests, Box and Block Test (BBT), Manual Ability Measure (MAM-16), and Wee Functional Independence Measure (WeeFIM) were performed 1 day before and after training to evaluate the effects of the training. [Results] Compared with the pretest scores, there was a significant increase in the BBT, MAM-16, and WeeFIM scores of the children after the 6-week practice period. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that a task-oriented approach to treatment of the affected arm improves functional activities, such as manual dexterity and fine motor performance, as well as basic daily activities of patients with spastic hemiplegia due to cerebral palsy. PMID:25013269

  16. Social and behavioral research in genomic sequencing: approaches from the Clinical Sequencing Exploratory Research Consortium Outcomes and Measures Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Stacy W; Martins, Yolanda; Feuerman, Lindsay Z; Bernhardt, Barbara A; Biesecker, Barbara B; Christensen, Kurt D; Joffe, Steven; Rini, Christine; Veenstra, David; McGuire, Amy L

    2014-10-01

    The routine use of genomic sequencing in clinical medicine has the potential to dramatically alter patient care and medical outcomes. To fully understand the psychosocial and behavioral impact of sequencing integration into clinical practice, it is imperative that we identify the factors that influence sequencing-related decision making and patient outcomes. In an effort to develop a collaborative and conceptually grounded approach to studying sequencing adoption, members of the National Human Genome Research Institute's Clinical Sequencing Exploratory Research Consortium formed the Outcomes and Measures Working Group. Here we highlight the priority areas of investigation and psychosocial and behavioral outcomes identified by the Working Group. We also review some of the anticipated challenges to measurement in social and behavioral research related to genomic sequencing; opportunities for instrument development; and the importance of qualitative, quantitative, and mixed-method approaches. This work represents the early, shared efforts of multiple research teams as we strive to understand individuals' experiences with genomic sequencing. The resulting body of knowledge will guide recommendations for the optimal use of sequencing in clinical practice. PMID:24625446

  17. Synthesis of (?-julocrotine and a diversity oriented Ugi-approach to analogues and probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo A. W. Neves Filho

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available An improved total synthesis of (?-julocrotine in three steps from Cbz-glutamine, in 51% overall yield, is presented. To demonstrate the potential of the heterocyclic moiety for diversity oriented synthesis, a series of (?-julocrotine analogues was synthesized by employing the heterocyclic precursor as an amino input in Ugi four-component reactions (Ugi-4CR.

  18. Development, Implementation and Evaluation of a Modular Approach to a Pharmacist-Oriented Course in Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abate, Marie A.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    A project to develop, implement, and evaluate a slide/text modular oncology course teaching disease state and pharmacist-oriented information to pharmacy students, with potential adaptation for pharmacist continuing education, is described. Module effectiveness was evaluated using a pretest, posttest design, with group mean comparisons across both…

  19. Numerical approach of the injection molding process of fiber-reinforced composite with considering fiber orientation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen Thi, T. B., E-mail: thanhbinh.skku@gmail.com, E-mail: yokoyama@kit.ac.jp; Yokoyama, A., E-mail: thanhbinh.skku@gmail.com, E-mail: yokoyama@kit.ac.jp [Department of Advanced Fibro-Science, Kyoto Institute of Technology (Japan); Ota, K., E-mail: kei-ota@toyobo.jp, E-mail: katsuhiro-kodama@toyobo.jp, E-mail: katsuhisa-yamashita@toyobo.jp, E-mail: yumiko-isogai@toyobo.jp, E-mail: kenji-furuichi@toyobo.jp, E-mail: chisato-nonomura@toyobo.jp; Kodama, K., E-mail: kei-ota@toyobo.jp, E-mail: katsuhiro-kodama@toyobo.jp, E-mail: katsuhisa-yamashita@toyobo.jp, E-mail: yumiko-isogai@toyobo.jp, E-mail: kenji-furuichi@toyobo.jp, E-mail: chisato-nonomura@toyobo.jp; Yamashita, K., E-mail: kei-ota@toyobo.jp, E-mail: katsuhiro-kodama@toyobo.jp, E-mail: katsuhisa-yamashita@toyobo.jp, E-mail: yumiko-isogai@toyobo.jp, E-mail: kenji-furuichi@toyobo.jp, E-mail: chisato-nonomura@toyobo.jp; Isogai, Y., E-mail: kei-ota@toyobo.jp, E-mail: katsuhiro-kodama@toyobo.jp, E-mail: katsuhisa-yamashita@toyobo.jp, E-mail: yumiko-isogai@toyobo.jp, E-mail: kenji-furuichi@toyobo.jp, E-mail: chisato-nonomura@toyobo.jp; Furuichi, K., E-mail: kei-ota@toyobo.jp, E-mail: katsuhiro-kodama@toyobo.jp, E-mail: katsuhisa-yamashita@toyobo.jp, E-mail: yumiko-isogai@toyobo.jp, E-mail: kenji-furuichi@toyobo.jp, E-mail: chisato-nonomura@toyobo.jp; Nonomura, C., E-mail: kei-ota@toyobo.jp, E-mail: katsuhiro-kodama@toyobo.jp, E-mail: katsuhisa-yamashita@toyobo.jp, E-mail: yumiko-isogai@toyobo.jp, E-mail: kenji-furuichi@toyobo.jp, E-mail: chisato-nonomura@toyobo.jp [Toyobo Co., LTD. Research Center (Japan)

    2014-05-15

    One of the most important challenges in the injection molding process of the short-glass fiber/thermoplastic composite parts is being able to predict the fiber orientation, since it controls the mechanical and the physical properties of the final parts. Folgar and Tucker included into the Jeffery equation a diffusive type of term, which introduces a phenomenological coefficient for modeling the randomizing effect of the mechanical interactions between the fibers, to predict the fiber orientation in concentrated suspensions. Their experiments indicated that this coefficient depends on the fiber volume fraction and aspect ratio. However, a definition of the fiber interaction coefficient, which is very necessary in the fiber orientation simulations, hasn't still been proven yet. Consequently, this study proposed a developed fiber interaction model that has been introduced a fiber dynamics simulation in order to obtain a global fiber interaction coefficient. This supposed that the coefficient is a sum function of the fiber concentration, aspect ratio, and angular velocity. The proposed model was incorporated into a computer aided engineering simulation package C-Mold. Short-glass fiber/polyamide-6 composites were produced in the injection molding with the fiber weight concentration of 30 wt.%, 50 wt.%, and 70 wt.%. The physical properties of these composites were examined, and their fiber orientation distributions were measured by micro-computed-tomography equipment ?-CT. The simulation results showed a good agreement with experiment results.

  20. Numerical approach of the injection molding process of fiber-reinforced composite with considering fiber orientation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most important challenges in the injection molding process of the short-glass fiber/thermoplastic composite parts is being able to predict the fiber orientation, since it controls the mechanical and the physical properties of the final parts. Folgar and Tucker included into the Jeffery equation a diffusive type of term, which introduces a phenomenological coefficient for modeling the randomizing effect of the mechanical interactions between the fibers, to predict the fiber orientation in concentrated suspensions. Their experiments indicated that this coefficient depends on the fiber volume fraction and aspect ratio. However, a definition of the fiber interaction coefficient, which is very necessary in the fiber orientation simulations, hasn't still been proven yet. Consequently, this study proposed a developed fiber interaction model that has been introduced a fiber dynamics simulation in order to obtain a global fiber interaction coefficient. This supposed that the coefficient is a sum function of the fiber concentration, aspect ratio, and angular velocity. The proposed model was incorporated into a computer aided engineering simulation package C-Mold. Short-glass fiber/polyamide-6 composites were produced in the injection molding with the fiber weight concentration of 30 wt.%, 50 wt.%, and 70 wt.%. The physical properties of these composites were examined, and their fiber orientation distributions were measured by micro-computed-tomography equipment ?-CT. The simulation results showed a good agreement with experiment results

  1. An Achievement Degree Analysis Approach to Identifying Learning Problems in Object-Oriented Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allinjawi, Arwa A.; Al-Nuaim, Hana A.; Krause, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Students often face difficulties while learning object-oriented programming (OOP) concepts. Many papers have presented various assessment methods for diagnosing learning problems to improve the teaching of programming in computer science (CS) higher education. The research presented in this article illustrates that although max-min composition is…

  2. An object-oriented approach to the design of fluid mechanics software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents the guiding principles of the architecture of Trio-U, a new genera:ion of software for thermohydraulic calculations. Trio-U is designed to serve as a thermohydraulic development platform. Its basic conception is object-oriented and it is written in C++. The article demonstrates how this type of design enables an open, modular software architecture. (authors)

  3. A Discovery-Oriented Approach to Solid-Phase Peptide Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockman, Matthew R.; Miedema, Christopher J.; Brennan, Brian B.

    2012-01-01

    In this discovery-oriented laboratory experiment, students use solid-phase synthesis techniques to construct a dipeptide containing an unknown amino acid. Following synthesis and cleavage from the polymeric support, electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry is employed to identify the unknown amino acid that was used in the peptide coupling. This…

  4. Numerical approach of the injection molding process of fiber-reinforced composite with considering fiber orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen Thi, T. B.; Yokoyama, A.; Ota, K.; Kodama, K.; Yamashita, K.; Isogai, Y.; Furuichi, K.; Nonomura, C.

    2014-05-01

    One of the most important challenges in the injection molding process of the short-glass fiber/thermoplastic composite parts is being able to predict the fiber orientation, since it controls the mechanical and the physical properties of the final parts. Folgar and Tucker included into the Jeffery equation a diffusive type of term, which introduces a phenomenological coefficient for modeling the randomizing effect of the mechanical interactions between the fibers, to predict the fiber orientation in concentrated suspensions. Their experiments indicated that this coefficient depends on the fiber volume fraction and aspect ratio. However, a definition of the fiber interaction coefficient, which is very necessary in the fiber orientation simulations, hasn't still been proven yet. Consequently, this study proposed a developed fiber interaction model that has been introduced a fiber dynamics simulation in order to obtain a global fiber interaction coefficient. This supposed that the coefficient is a sum function of the fiber concentration, aspect ratio, and angular velocity. The proposed model was incorporated into a computer aided engineering simulation package C-Mold. Short-glass fiber/polyamide-6 composites were produced in the injection molding with the fiber weight concentration of 30 wt.%, 50 wt.%, and 70 wt.%. The physical properties of these composites were examined, and their fiber orientation distributions were measured by micro-computed-tomography equipment ?-CT. The simulation results showed a good agreement with experiment results.

  5. Different Surgical Approaches for Mesial Temporal Epilepsy: Resection Extent, Seizure, and Neuropsychological Outcomes.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malíková, H.; Krámská, L.; Vojt?ch, Z.; Liš?ák, R.; Šroubek, J.; Lukavský, Ji?í; Druga, R.

    2014-01-01

    Ro?. 92, ?. 6 (2014), s. 372-380. ISSN 1011-6125 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : temporal lobe epilepsy * stereotactic surgery * neuropsychology outcome Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 1.477, year: 2013

  6. Experimental Approaches to Systematic Discovery and Development of Reproductive Adverse Outcome Pathways in Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) are conceptual frameworks that portray causal and predictive linkages between key events at multiple scales of biological organization that connect molecular initiating events and early cellular perturbations (e.g., initiation of toxicity pathways)...

  7. A joint-modeling approach to assess the impact of biomarker variability on the risk of developing clinical outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Feng; Miller, J. Philip; Xiong, Chengjie; Beiser, Julia A.; Gordon, Mae

    2011-01-01

    In some clinical trials and epidemiologic studies, investigators are interested in knowing whether the variability of a biomarker is independently predictive of clinical outcomes. This question is often addressed via a naïve approach where a sample-based estimate (e.g., standard deviation) is calculated as a surrogate for the “true” variability and then used in regression models as a covariate assumed to be free of measurement error. However, it is well known that the measurement error i...

  8. A Seminonparametric Approach to Joint Modeling of A Primary Binary Outcome and Longitudinal Data Measured at Discrete Informative Times

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Song; Zhang, Daowen; Lu, Wenbin; Grifo, James A.; Liu, Mengling

    2012-01-01

    In a study conducted at the New York University Fertility Center, one of the scientific objectives is to investigate the relationship between the final pregnancy outcomes of participants receiving an in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment and their ?-human chorionic gonadotrophin (?-hCG) profiles. A common joint modeling approach to this objective is to use subject-specific normal random effects in a linear mixed model for longitudinal ?-hCG data as predictors in a model (e.g., logistic mo...

  9. Benefits of the Paraspinal Muscle-Sparing Approach Versus the Conventional Midline Approach for Posterior Nonfusion Stabilization: Comparative Analysis of Clinical and Functional Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Eli M.; Bray, Robert S.

    2007-01-01

    Background The influence of approach on outcomes of posterior nonfusion stabilization has not been described. This paper analyzes the influence of surgical approach on functional outcome with nonfusion stabilization. Methods We performed a prospective consecutive cohort outcome analysis of 88 patients who had undergone posterior nonfusion stabilization of the lumbar spine at 178 levels using the Dynesys system (Zimmer Spine, Inc, Warsaw, Indiana). Patients needing decompression (n = 42) were operated through a midline approach using microscopic laminotomy/foraminotomy with or without discectomy, followed by posterior nonfusion stabilization with Dynesys. None of the patients had a complete laminectomy. Patients not needing decompression (n = 46) underwent the procedure via the bilateral paraspinal muscle-sparing approach and were subsequently stabilized. Clinical and functional outcomes data were collected using the visual analog scale (VAS), Treatment Intensity Score (TIS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and SF-36. Average follow-up was 18 months (range, 12–36 mo). Results All outcome measures in both groups showed significant improvement at last follow-up. Between the groups a significant difference was apparent in the reduction of the TIS when measured at 1 week and 6 weeks. The preoperative, 1-week, and 6-week values were 66, 48, and 40, respectively (P < 0.05), for the midline group and 80, 32, and 28 (P < 0.05) for the paraspinal group. This trend continued through 3 to 6 months after the procedure but did not reach statistical significance. In the paraspinal group, pain scores showed a nonsignificant trend toward lower values in the first month, compared with values in the midline group. Patients reported excellent to fair results, with the exception of three patients in the midline group and two in the paraspinal group, who rated the procedure as fair. Conclusions Significantly fewer patients required postoperative narcotics in the paraspinal group than in the midline group. This improvement in early outcomes suggests a significant early benefit to the less tissue-destructive muscle-sparing approach in posterior nonfusion stabilization procedures.

  10. Structuring requirements as necessary premise for customer-oriented development of complex products: A generic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Klute

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Complex products like for example intra-logistical facilities make high demands on developers and producers and involve high investment and operating costs. When planning and developing and also making buying decisions the facility utilization and the thus ensuing requirements on the facility and its components are inadequately considered to date. Nevertheless, with regard to customer-directed product design, these requirements must all be taken into account – especially as they can contribute to possible savings. In this context, it is necessary to survey and systematically regard requirements from a large number of areas like for example the operator, the facility producer and also requirements of external parties such as the law and to implement into adequate product characteristics to produce customer-oriented products. This is, however, a difficult task because of the diversity of stakeholders involved and their numerous and often divergent requirements. Therefore, it is essential to structure the requirements, so that planners and developers are able to manage the large amount of information. Structure models can be used in this context to cluster requirements. Within the German Collaborative Research Centre 696 a 10-dimensional model has been developed. This model allows structuring of all requirements on intra-logistical facilities or respectively complex products in general. In the context of dealing with hundreds of data records, structuring requirements is mandatory to achieve accuracy, clarity and consequently satisfactory results when transforming requirements into product characteristics which fit customer needs. In the paper an excerpt of this model is presented. Design/methodology/approach: In literature a multitude of methods which deal with the topic of structuring exist. The methods have been analysed regarding their purpose and their level of specification, i.e. the number of differentiated categories, to check if they could be applied in the regarded area of intra-logistics. Also potential stakeholders have been identified to ensure that the surveying of requirements is not incomplete. Based on these analyses an own model has been developed which combines, adepts and enlarges the existing methods. Findings: A 10-dimensional model has been developed for structuring requirements on intra-logistical facilities. This model is holistic, because additionally it allows capturing the stakeholders’ feedback to the requirements’ fulfilment. The dimensions of the model can be divided into four groups. The first one serves to structure the requirements regarding their content. These are the dimensions obligations, surroundings, information, qualification, technical-functional requirements and qualification. The second group serves to structure the reference object to which the requirements refer and includes the dimension product. Weighted level of performance and customer satisfaction are part of the third group, which encompasses the evaluation of the requirements’ fulfilment. The fourth group is for the temporal structuring of requirements and includes the dimension time. For applying the model it has been implemented for data processing as component of a large data processing system. The developed model is presented in this paper. Research limitations/implications: A 10-idimensional model for structuring requirements is presented in this paper. Thereby, a sub-division of the dimensions into categories and sub-categories has been made to ensure a topical classification of the requirements and additionally a structuring according to their level of specification. Considering individual dimensions and/or selected categories of dimensions allow a thematic focus to be placed on certain groups of requirements. This is particularly important, not only for the implementation of requirements into solutions but also for focusing on the needs of individual stakeholders, if e.g. requirements on maintenance have to be observed. Using the model, working with lots of requ

  11. Bayesian mixed hidden Markov models: a multi-level approach to modeling categorical outcomes with differential misclassification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Berhane, Kiros

    2014-04-15

    Questionnaire-based health status outcomes are often prone to misclassification. When studying the effect of risk factors on such outcomes, ignoring any potential misclassification may lead to biased effect estimates. Analytical challenges posed by these misclassified outcomes are further complicated when simultaneously exploring factors for both the misclassification and health processes in a multi-level setting. To address these challenges, we propose a fully Bayesian mixed hidden Markov model (BMHMM) for handling differential misclassification in categorical outcomes in a multi-level setting. The BMHMM generalizes the traditional hidden Markov model (HMM) by introducing random effects into three sets of HMM parameters for joint estimation of the prevalence, transition, and misclassification probabilities. This formulation not only allows joint estimation of all three sets of parameters but also accounts for cluster-level heterogeneity based on a multi-level model structure. Using this novel approach, both the true health status prevalence and the transition probabilities between the health states during follow-up are modeled as functions of covariates. The observed, possibly misclassified, health states are related to the true, but unobserved, health states and covariates. Results from simulation studies are presented to validate the estimation procedure, to show the computational efficiency due to the Bayesian approach and also to illustrate the gains from the proposed method compared to existing methods that ignore outcome misclassification and cluster-level heterogeneity. We apply the proposed method to examine the risk factors for both asthma transition and misclassification in the Southern California Children's Health Study. PMID:24254432

  12. Linking Entrepreneurial Orientation with Organizational Performance of Small and Medium Sized Enterprises: A Conceptual Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawad Hussain

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Research examining the relationship between entrepreneurial orientation (EO and business performance hasrecently received considerable attention in the marketing and entrepreneurship literature. Empirical studies onthe determinants of firm performance have shown that the entrepreneurial orientation of a firm has significantpositive influence on the firm performance. However, less attention has been paid to this relationship in thecontext of SMEs. This study therefore contributes to the existing literature by examining this relationship inSMEs context. The current study suggests that the owners/ managers of SMEs should adopt the EO mindset inorder to attain sustainable competitive advantage and superior performance. The current study provides insightsto researchers, practitioners, owners and managers on the importance of the dimensions of entrepreneurialorientation.

  13. “Identifying the Quality of Object Oriented Software System using Modularization Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Pragati D. Chowhan, Prof. S. S. Dhande

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Software developers develop their software with some standard specification, but important issue is how to measure the quality of software modularization. In this paper advanced set of metrics are proposed which measure quality of modularization of an Object-Oriented Software (OOS System. Metrics are designed with universal standard principles to measure the quality of Object-Oriented software which has been developed. Proposed metrics are coupling based structural metrics, these metrics measures the function-call traffic through the API’s of the modules in relation to the overall function-call traffic. It is universally accepted that quality of the software modularization is improved when interaction between modules of system is through published APIs only. The metrics can be validated from the results obtained on human-modularized versions of the software.

  14. Performance Measurement of Service Oriented Enterprise: An EVA-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiran Wang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Service Oriented Enterprise (SOE has brought up requirement for performance measurement of the novel business model in its dynamic and flexible business environment. To solve the problem, conception of SOE is discussed from business perspective firstly, and an operation architecture of SOE is proposed and analyzed. The Service Oriented Economic Value Added (SO-EVA performance measurement model is then presented. The model structure of SO-EVA, construction and calculation of indicators, as well as application are given and discussed in this paper. The SO-EVA model is based on the Economic Value Added (EVA method, extends EVA into multiple levels and introduces Independent Performance Factors (IPF, to focus on value creation and attain comprehensive performance measurement of SOE, with agility and flexibility. A case study is also given, indicating that the presented model not only better reflects the performance of business operation compared to traditional models, but also supports the business model of SOE more effectively.

  15. Maintainability Prediction of Object Oriented Software System by Using Artificial Neural Network Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajnaseni Dash

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Maintainability is an imperative attribute of software quality. However the prediction of this attribute is a cumbersome process. Therefore various methodologies are proposed so far to estimate the maintainability of software. Among them Artificial Neural Network is one of the sophisticated techniques which have immense prediction capability and this paper explores its application to evaluate maintainability of the object-oriented software. In this study maintenance effort was chosen as the dependent variable and principal components of object-oriented metrics as the independent variables. Prediction of maintainability is performed by Multi Layer Perceptron (MLP neural network model. The results obtained from the current study are also compared with other models and it is revealed that the presented model is more useful than the previous one.

  16. Object-oriented approach to preequilibrium and equilibrium decays in Geant4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Geant4 simulation toolkit provides a set of parameterized models that allow to model hadronic showers. However, in order to allow extrapolation beyond the experimental data and to offer an alternative set of models at conventional energies, Geant4 also provides a set of theory based hadronic shower models. We present the Object Oriented Design of a semiclassical exciton model for preequilibrium decays and a set of statistical models for deexcitation of compound nuclei. Our design follows the philosophy of hadronic models in Geant4, allowing for maximum of extendibility and customizability of the underlying physics by means of the use of abstract interfaces. We exploit advanced Software Engineering techniques and Object Oriented technology to achieve those goals. We present also a series of comparisons against experimental data being made in order to test the model. (orig.)

  17. A goal-oriented adaptive finite-element approach for multi-electrode resistivity system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhengyong; Tang, Jingtian

    2014-10-01

    We present a novel accurate and efficient goal-oriented adaptive finite-element method solution for complex multi-electrodes resistivity system with arbitrary smooth surface topographies. A simple Green's function of a half-space model is adopted to eliminate the singularity. A unified boundary value problem for the regular potential is formulated for a multi-electrodes system so that it shares a common system matrix. In addition, a goal-oriented error estimation technique is developed to generate an optimal common grid so that highly accurate solutions are obtained with minimum computation cost. Synthetic models are used to verify our algorithm and excellent agreements are obtained by comparing with other methods.

  18. EFFECTIVENESS OF A PARTICIPATORY ACTION ORIENTED TRAINING INTERVENTION APPROACH AMONG HARVESTERS IN OIL PALM PLANTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Ng Yee Guan; Shamsul Bahri Mohd Tamrin; Ismi Arif Ismail; Gede Pramudya Ananta; Zailina Hashim; Irwan Syah Mohd Yusoff; Baba Md. Deros; Shahriman Abu Bakar; Azmin Sham Rambely

    2014-01-01

    Consistent with the global demand for palm oil, the intensified upstream harvesting activities of oil palms? fresh fruit bunches, despite the harvesters evidences of various ergonomics risk factors leading to musculoskeletal disorders should be a cause for concern. Thus, this study describes the effectiveness of a modified and locally adapted Participatory Action-Oriented Training intervention program in improving the working environment of the harvesters. A training program modified and cus...

  19. Artist Agent: A Reinforcement Learning Approach to Automatic Stroke Generation in Oriental Ink Painting

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Ning; Hachiya, Hirotaka; Sugiyama, Masashi

    2012-01-01

    Oriental ink painting, called Sumi-e, is one of the most appealing painting styles that has attracted artists around the world. Major challenges in computer-based Sumi-e simulation are to abstract complex scene information and draw smooth and natural brush strokes. To automatically find such strokes, we propose to model the brush as a reinforcement learning agent, and learn desired brush-trajectories by maximizing the sum of rewards in the policy search framework. We also pr...

  20. A Quantitative Measure for Object Oriented Design Approach for Large-Scale Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ms. Poornima U S

    2011-01-01

    Object Oriented development methodology is a trend in software development for complex systems. The architecture of the application domain depends on the nature of problem statement in hand. Successdepends on the overall design of a software in terms of flexibility and maintainability. Identifying and rectifying the design faults at early stage of development reduces cost and effort on the project by not exceeding the calendar. Quality metrics are helpful for the designer in measuring solutio...

  1. A problem-orientated approach to management of mental illness in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Essex, B.

    1980-01-01

    A new problem-orientated method has been developed to identify the appropriate management of mental illnesses in cross-cultural primary care settings. It is designed to be used by intermediate level health workers in outpatient clinics in many different developing countries. The research undertaken to develop and evaluate this new method is described, and its implications for improving the quality of mental health care are discussed.

  2. Maintainability Prediction of Object Oriented Software System by Using Artificial Neural Network Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Yajnaseni Dash; Sanjay Kumar Dubey,; (Dr.) Ajay Rana

    2012-01-01

    Maintainability is an imperative attribute of software quality. However the prediction of this attribute is a cumbersome process. Therefore various methodologies are proposed so far to estimate the maintainability of software. Among them Artificial Neural Network is one of the sophisticated techniques which have immense prediction capability and this paper explores its application to evaluate maintainability of the object-oriented software. In this study maintenance effort was chosen as the d...

  3. Integrated Approach for Improving Small Scale Market Oriented Dairy Systems in Pakistan: Economic Impact of Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Ghaffar, A.

    2010-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) launched a Coordinated Research Program in 10 developing countries including Pakistan involving small scale market oriented dairy farmers to identify and prioritize the constraints and opportunities in the selected dairy farms, develop intervention strategies and assess the economic impact of the intervention. The interventions in animal health (control of mastitis at sub-clinical stage and reduction in calf mortality), nutrition (balanced feed) r...

  4. Simultaneous prediction of punitive and rehabilitation-oriented attitudes towards probation: An ecological approach

    OpenAIRE

    Butter, R.; Hermanns, J.; Menger, A.

    2013-01-01

    The concepts punitiveness and rehabilitation orientation in the general public are generally measured by rather broad attitude items that are not directly related to probation. In this study, two separate attitude scales were used that were tailor-made for the probation context and therefore have a high ecological validity. These ‘ecological scales’ were each analysed with the same predictor set. Cognitive emotive variables showed incremental prediction above demographics. Higher knowledg...

  5. [Process orientation as a tool of strategic approaches to corporate governance and integrated management systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sens, Brigitte

    2010-01-01

    The concept of general process orientation as an instrument of organisation development is the core principle of quality management philosophy, i.e. the learning organisation. Accordingly, prestigious quality awards and certification systems focus on process configuration and continual improvement. In German health care organisations, particularly in hospitals, this general process orientation has not been widely implemented yet - despite enormous change dynamics and the requirements of both quality and economic efficiency of health care processes. But based on a consistent process architecture that considers key processes as well as management and support processes, the strategy of excellent health service provision including quality, safety and transparency can be realised in daily operative work. The core elements of quality (e.g., evidence-based medicine), patient safety and risk management, environmental management, health and safety at work can be embedded in daily health care processes as an integrated management system (the "all in one system" principle). Sustainable advantages and benefits for patients, staff, and the organisation will result: stable, high-quality, efficient, and indicator-based health care processes. Hospitals with their broad variety of complex health care procedures should now exploit the full potential of total process orientation. PMID:20951952

  6. Implementing Optimal Outcomes in Social Computing: A Game-Theoretic Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Arpita

    2012-01-01

    In many social computing applications such as online Q&A forums, the best contribution for each task receives some high reward, while all remaining contributions receive an identical, lower reward irrespective of their actual qualities. Suppose a mechanism designer (site owner) wishes to optimize an objective that is some function of the number and qualities of received contributions. When potential contributors are strategic agents, who decide whether to contribute or not to selfishly maximize their own utilities, is such a "best contribution" mechanism, M_B, adequate to implement an outcome that is optimal for the mechanism designer? We first show that in settings where a contribution's value is determined primarily by an agent's expertise, and agents only strategically choose whether to contribute or not, contests can implement optimal outcomes: for any reasonable objective, the rewards for the best and remaining contributions in M_B can always be chosen so that the outcome in the unique symmetric equi...

  7. Extracting epidemiologic exposure and outcome terms from literature using machine learning approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yanxin; Xu, Hua; Peterson, Neeraja B; Dai, Qi; Jiang, Min; Denny, Joshua C; Liu, Mei

    2012-01-01

    Much epidemiologic information resides in literature, which is not in a computable format. To extract information and build knowledge bases of epidemiologic studies, we developed a system to extract noun phrases about epidemiologic exposures and outcomes. The system consists of two components: a natural language processing (NLP) engine; a machine learning (ML) based classifier. Four ML algorithms were applied and compared over different feature sets. To evaluate the performance of the system, we manually constructed an annotated dataset. The system achieved the highest F-measure of 82.0% for extracting exposure terms, and 70% for extracting outcome terms. PMID:23155773

  8. The prediction of breast cancer biopsy outcomes using two CAD approaches that both emphasize an intelligible decision process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mammography is the most effective method for breast cancer screening available today. However, the low positive predictive value of breast biopsy resulting from mammogram interpretation leads to approximately 70% unnecessary biopsies with benign outcomes. To reduce the high number of unnecessary breast biopsies, several computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems have been proposed in the last several years. These systems help physicians in their decision to perform a breast biopsy on a suspicious lesion seen in a mammogram or to perform a short term follow-up examination instead. We present two novel CAD approaches that both emphasize an intelligible decision process to predict breast biopsy outcomes from BI-RADS findings. An intelligible reasoning process is an important requirement for the acceptance of CAD systems by physicians. The first approach induces a global model based on decison-tree learning. The second approach is based on case-based reasoning and applies an entropic similarity measure. We have evaluated the performance of both CAD approaches on two large publicly available mammography reference databases using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, bootstrap sampling, and the ANOVA statistical significance test. Both approaches outperform the diagnosis decisions of the physicians. Hence, both systems have the potential to reduce the number of unnecessary breast biopsies in clinical practice. A comparison of the performance of the proposed decisionf the performance of the proposed decision tree and CBR approaches with a state of the art approach based on artificial neural networks (ANN) shows that the CBR approach performs slightly better than the ANN approach, which in turn results in slightly better performance than the decision-tree approach. The differences are statistically significant (p value <0.001). On 2100 masses extracted from the DDSM database, the CRB approach for example resulted in an area under the ROC curve of A(z)=0.89±0.01, the decision-tree approach in A(z)=0.87±0.01, and the ANN approach in A(z)=0.88±0.01

  9. Improving Outcomes in Mathematics in New Zealand: A Dynamic Approach to the Policy Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Joanna; Parsons, Ro

    2011-01-01

    Intervention at scale with the aim of improving student participation, engagement and outcomes in mathematics education is a challenge for educational policy makers and reformers. This article argues that an iterative annual cycle of policy formulation, implementation and evaluation enabled ongoing adjustments to the strategic focus, the…

  10. Quantity versus Quality: A New Approach to Examine the Relationship between Technology Use and Student Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jing

    2010-01-01

    The author argues that to examine the relationship between technology use and student outcomes, the quality of technology use--how, and what, technology is used--is a more significant factor than the quantity of technology use--how much technology is used. This argument was exemplified by an empirical study that used both angles to examine the…

  11. Dissociation between Judgments and Outcome-Expectancy Measures in Covariation Learning: A Signal Detection Theory Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perales, Jose C.; Catena, Andres; Shanks, David R.; Gonzalez, Jose A.

    2005-01-01

    A number of studies using trial-by-trial learning tasks have shown that judgments of covariation between a cue c and an outcome o deviate from normative metrics. Parameters based on trial-by-trial predictions were estimated from signal detection theory (SDT) in a standard causal learning task. Results showed that manipulations of P(c) when…

  12. Reframing Teacher Professional Learning: An Alternative Policy Approach to Strengthening Valued Outcomes for Diverse Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timperley, Helen; Alton-Lee, Adrienne

    2008-01-01

    This article engages in the debate about what counts as professional knowledge from the perspective of improving outcomes for diverse learners. The authors begin by highlighting the importance of assumptions about appropriate roles for teachers and how those assumptions have shaped the debate about what teachers need to know. Then, they consider…

  13. EASIMAP: a coherent approach to the assessment of learning outcomes on engineering degree programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Maddocks

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaders of accredited engineering degreeprogrammes are expected to be able todemonstrate that students are offeredthe opportunity of achieving the learningoutcomes specified by the professionalinstitution accrediting the programme.These learning outcomes should in turnmap onto the UK Standard for ProfessionalEngineering Competence: The Accreditationof Higher Education Programmes (UK-SPECoutput standards. In addition, programmeleaders are also expected to provideevidence that students have attained theselearning outcomes.The Engineering Subject Centre’s EASIMAPProject seeks to assist programme leadersin these tasks by providing a coherentapproach to the mapping, recording, andassessment of learning outcomes. To thisend, the project has recently developed anelectronic tool that will enable programmeleaders to map and record studentattainment of learning outcomes. In addition,the tool provides assessment feedback tothe student and demonstrates the student’sprogression in meeting the learningoutcomes for the programme of study.This paper explores key issues regardingassessment practice, details the rationalefor and purpose of the project, identifiesstakeholder needs, and describes thedesign framework underpinning thedevelopment of an electronic tool to supportacademics in the assessment of learningoutcomes.

  14. Using Labeled Hyper Multi Digraph for Tabriz Traffic Modeling Data-Oriented Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Habibizad Navin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion has become a major concern in many cities throughout the world, but it is quite difficult to improve the performance of urban traffic efficiently by using traditional methods of modeling because of complexity in the system and Tabriz is not an exception. Modeling the traffic of Tarbiz, to develop an intelligent managing system for control the traffic is crucial. Thus, to do so, the concepts of Labeled Hyper Multi Digraph (LHMD and Labeled Multi Digraph (LMD as data-oriented models are introduced in this study. This will be the first and essential step to design intelligent transportation systems for controlling Tabriz traffic.

  15. An eigenvalue-based approach for the design of reflector systems and prisms with a specified image orientation change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, C.-Y.

    2011-01-01

    The image orientation change (IOC) of an object following its reflection by a system comprising an arbitrary number of flat boundary surfaces can be described using a merit function (?) expressed in the form of a 3×3 matrix. The present study proposes a design methodology for stable-IOC reflector and prism systems in which the merit function is solved using an eigenvalue-based approach. It is shown that a reflector system remains IOC-stable following its rotation about the eigenvector of the IOC merit function, provided that the image can still physically enter the system's aperture. Furthermore, it is shown that an IOC-stable prism can be obtained by adding two refracting flat boundary surfaces at the entrance and exit positions of the light ray in an optical system comprising multiple reflectors provided that the condition n n =? n 1 is maintained. Illustrative examples are provided to demonstrate the validity of the proposed design approach.

  16. Keeping Ma’at: An astronomical approach to the orientation of the temples in ancient Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmonte, Juan Antonio; Shaltout, Mosalam

    2010-08-01

    For various reasons, Archaeoastronomy has not been one of the favourite disciplines of the Egyptologists in the past. Probably because of that, important questions such as the orientation of Egyptian temples and the relevance of astronomy in this respect had never been afforded with the necessary seriousness and deepness. The Egyptian-Spanish Mission for the Archaeoastronomy of ancient Egypt has, among its various priorities, the solution of this problem. In order to achieve that, we have measured the orientation of some 330 temples in the Valley, the Delta, the Oases and the Sinai so far. The aim is to find a correct and almost definitive answer to the question of whether the ancient Egyptian sacred constructions were astronomically aligned or not. Our data seem to answer this question in the affirmative sense. Besides, they offer a very interesting new perspective in the field of landscape archaeology, a new discipline hardly worked in Egypt so far, in which terrestrial landscape, dominated by the Nile, and celestial landscape, dominated by the sun and the stars, would combine in order to permit the establishment of Ma’at, the Cosmic Order, on Earth.

  17. Practical approach in surface modification of biaxially oriented polypropylene films for gravure printability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuntapichedkul, Boonchai; Tantayanon, Supawan; Laohhasurayotin, Kritapas

    2014-09-01

    Biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP) film is one of the most popularly used materials for the gravure printing process in flexible packaging industry. The skin layers of BOPP film were associated with 3-6 weight % of propylene-ethylene copolymer. These films were completely biaxial-oriented by sequential stretching process after which the film surfaces were subjected to corona treatment integrated in the production line. The FT-IR results exhibited that polar functional groups as carbonyl molecules were established on the corona-treated BOPP film. The contact angles of these BOPP films were measured; the surface free energies (SFE) were then calculated. AFM topographical images also agreed well with the SFE which increased as the contents of propylene-ethylene copolymer increased. An approximated 20% increased SFE was obtained for the BOPP film that was associated with 6% propylene-ethylene copolymer. The printing quality on BOPP films was tested by light microscope which confirmed that the chromatic resolution of the printed images improved down to even more smaller groove sizes, 10 or 5 dot%. This improvement was also examined and found to correspond well with the interfacial tensions and work of adhesion between the inks and the modified BOPP films.

  18. Work Process Oriented Learning via Mobile Devices – Theoretical Basics and Examples for a (New Didactical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Spöttl

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Two problems can be identified which counteract the need for further training: On the one hand the clientele of skilled workers is not necessarily keen on further training. On the other hand the time and cost pressure within the sector does not offer any room for time-consuming further training measures far away from the workplace. This is why the project “Virtual Learning on the building site – (Vila-b” was realized in cooperation with the project partners of the University of Bremen (Working group »Digital Media« of the Centre for Information Technology as well as from the economy (Arbeitskreis ökologischer Holzbau e. V. and Claus Holm, pm|c. The project team has tested a concept which facilitated learning adapted to the occupational reality and supported by the advantages of digital media. The central didactical elements for the development of this further training course are the contextual and methodological orientation to real work processes as well as the use of digital mobile media which facilitate learning directly at the workplace. The present article starts with a description of the theoretical basics for learning within the work process and discusses the didactical elements which are necessary for work process oriented learning with digital and mobile media.

  19. Outcomes of care programme approach, dual diagnosis, carer support and psychological therapy inductions

    OpenAIRE

    Kamau, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    An obstacle into psychiatry, for many trainees, is the challenge of an imprecise job design and uncertainty about the psychiatrist’s job design across many complex, often ad hoc care situations involving multiple professions and organizations. The UK’s NHS has introduced inductions for trainee psychiatrists geared towards improving that. Are the induction programmes effective? This article presents an analysis of the outcomes (N = 1,115), revealing a consistent interaction of CPA, dual d...

  20. Rainy Day Politics - An Instrumental Variables Approach to the Effect of Parties on Political Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Lind, Jo Thori

    2014-01-01

    Rain affects electoral turnout both through a direct effect on the cost of voting and by changing the opportunity cost. In a panel of Norwegian municipalities I find that rain on Election Day increases turnout. As turnout affects electoral outcomes, rain provides an exogeneous source of variation, and hence an instrument, for the party composition of the municipal council. I use this to estimate the causal effect of party composition on politics. I find that an increased share to left wing pa...

  1. Reducing volcanic risk on Fogo Volcano, Cape Verde, through a participatory approach: which outcome?

    OpenAIRE

    Texier-teixeira, P.; Chouraqui, F.; Perrillat-collomb, A.; Rom-cadag, J.; Gaillard, J. -c; Lavigne, F.; Grancher, D.

    2014-01-01

    This research paper presents the outcomes of Work Package 5 (socio-economical vulnerability assessment and community-based disaster risk reduction) of the MIAVITA (MItigate and Assess risk from Volcanic Impact on Terrain and human Activities) research programme conducted on Fogo Volcano, Cape Verde. The study lasted for almost 3 years (May 2010 to January 2012), of which most of the time was spent in the village of Chã das Caldeiras, situated within the 9 km wide caldera...

  2. Joint modeling of longitudinal outcomes and survival using latent growth modeling approach in a mesothelioma trial

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ping; Shen, Wei; Boye, Mark Ernest

    2012-01-01

    Joint modeling of longitudinal and survival data can provide more efficient and less biased estimates of treatment effects through accounting for the associations between these two data types. Sponsors of oncology clinical trials routinely and increasingly include patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments to evaluate the effect of treatment on symptoms, functioning, and quality of life. Known publications of these trials typically do not include jointly modeled analyses and results. We formu...

  3. Interrelations among University Students' Approaches to Learning, Regulation of Learning, and Cognitive and Attributional Strategies: A Person Oriented Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkila, Annamari; Niemivirta, Markku; Nieminen, Juha; Lonka, Kirsti

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships among approaches to learning, regulation of learning, cognitive and attributional strategies, stress, exhaustion, and study success. University students (N = 437) from three faculties filled in a questionnaire concerning their self-reported study behaviour, cognitive strategies, and well-being. Their…

  4. An object-oriented approach to risk and reliability analysis : methodology and aviation safety applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dandini, Vincent John; Duran, Felicia Angelica; Wyss, Gregory Dane

    2003-09-01

    This article describes how features of event tree analysis and Monte Carlo-based discrete event simulation can be combined with concepts from object-oriented analysis to develop a new risk assessment methodology, with some of the best features of each. The resultant object-based event scenario tree (OBEST) methodology enables an analyst to rapidly construct realistic models for scenarios for which an a priori discovery of event ordering is either cumbersome or impossible. Each scenario produced by OBEST is automatically associated with a likelihood estimate because probabilistic branching is integral to the object model definition. The OBEST methodology is then applied to an aviation safety problem that considers mechanisms by which an aircraft might become involved in a runway incursion incident. The resulting OBEST model demonstrates how a close link between human reliability analysis and probabilistic risk assessment methods can provide important insights into aviation safety phenomenology.

  5. The Object Oriented Approach to Machine Physics Calculations with Java Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Kadunc, M; Plesko, M; Tkacik, G

    2001-01-01

    At least as much time is spent solving problems addressed by application support as with actual interaction with the control system, if it is not factored into separate libraries but is coded by each programmer time and time again. Our Java libraries, called Abeans, address these issues in a communication platform independent way. Abeans perform connection management, error and timeout handling, logging, reporting, authentication, resource initialization and destruction, policy and configuration management, etc. Abeans also hide the communication details from the programmer and combine with CosyBeans, our GUI Java components, to form SCADA-like control panels. They are successfully used in such different environments such as a synchrotron light source (ANKA, Germany), an e-p collider complex (DESY, Germany), proton cyclotron (Riken, Japan) and a radio telescope (ESO, Germany). The Java library DataBush has a similar function for machine physics programs. The object oriented design of the library gives program...

  6. Collections Digitization Framework: A Service-oriented Approach to Digitization in Academic Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Tharani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available With advances in information technologies, academic libraries are now in a position to offer collections digitization services beyond campus communities. By mobilizing digitization to off-campus communities, academic libraries can reposition themselves as responsive and relevant in the face of a changing digital services landscape. This will also help academic libraries create unique opportunities to access and share hidden knowledge embedded within local and remote communities with rich intellectual traditions. This article proposes a service-oriented framework for academic libraries to reimagine and mobilize collections digitization as part of broader library services. The proposed Collections Digitization Framework is based on the Service Framework for Digital Libraries developed by the Digital Library Federation, whereby digitization activities have been formalized into discrete processes and functions. The issues and challenges that academic libraries may face in mobilizing digitization services are also discussed in the context of a collaborative community digitization initiative undertaken by two Canadian academic libraries.

  7. Towards a Goal-Driven Approach for Business Process Improvement Using Process-Oriented Data Warehouse

    OpenAIRE

    Khurram Shahzad, Muhammad; Giannoulis, Constantinos

    2011-01-01

    An emerging approach for business process analysis is to use business intelligence practices by employing data warehouse and decision-making techniques. However, little work has been done on developing core methods and tools to guide process analysis and improvement. Our research addresses this issue by introducing a goal-driven approach for business process improvement using process warehouse. In this paper, we present our three step method and its evaluation through an empirical study. The...

  8. An Integrated Approach for Extraction of Objects from XML and Transformation to Heterogeneous Object Oriented Databases

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Uzair; Hassan, Mohammad Waseem; Ali, Arshad; Mcclatchey, Richard; Willers, Ian

    2004-01-01

    CERN's (European Organization for Nuclear Research) WISDOM project uses XML for the replication of data between different data repositories in a heterogeneous operating system environment. For exchanging data from Web-resident databases, the data needs to be transformed into XML and back to the database format. Many different approaches are employed to do this transformation. This paper addresses issues that make this job more efficient and robust than existing approaches. I...

  9. Linking the actors and policies throughout the disaster management cycle by "Agreement on Objectives" – a new output-oriented management approach

    OpenAIRE

    Greiving, S.; Pratzler-wanczura, S.; Sapountzaki, K.; Ferri, F.; Grifoni, P.; Firus, K.; Xanthopoulos, G.

    2012-01-01

    Current management of disaster risks is often fragmented due to a lack of coordination between involved actors, i.e. civil protection and spatial planning – a phenomenon which is known as the "problem of interplay". This paper presents an output-oriented risk management approach ("parametric governance"). Here, the modality of the achievement of objectives remains in the hands of the given addressees. This implies a shift from a top-down to a more collaborative, process-oriented form of dec...

  10. Green Buildings in Denmark – From radical ecology to consumer oriented market approaches?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole; Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten

    2004-01-01

    Gram-Hanssen and Jensen explore the development of green buildings in Denmark over the last three decades, identifying differences in design philosophies and techniques. They look at four approaches to green buildings: as energy-saving devices, as ecological grassroots alternatives, as subsidised large-scale urban projects, and as consumer products in a market approach. Using detailed case descriptions, the chapter asks to what extent it is possible to define some buildings or some approaches as more 'green' than others. The authors suggest that in order to more fully understand sustainable buildings we must account for the social structuring of both the identification of environmental problems and their resulting embodiment in built form.

  11. Clinical outcome and immune follow-up of different surgical approaches for human cyst hydatid disease in liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinhua; Chen, Xinmei; Shao, Yingmei; Zhao, Jingming; Li, Haitao; Wen, Hao

    2014-10-01

    A new surgical approach (subadventitial cystectomy) has been developed for liver hydatid disease. We retrospectively compared clinical outcomes and immune status 24 months after a subadventitial cystectomy with traditional surgical approaches. Patients with liver hydatid cysts were treated with a subadventitial cystectomy (N = 11), pericystectomy (N = 16), partial pericystectomy (N = 18), or hepatic resection (N = 12). By the end of the follow-up period, the subadventitial cystectomy group had the fewest post-operative complications and shortest hospital stays. Two recurrences occurred: one recurrence after partial pericystectomy and one recurrence after pericystectomy. The total immunoglobulin E (IgE) level decreased significantly in the subadventitial cystectomy group. The post-surgery IgG level was lower in the subadventitial cystectomy than the pericystectomy and partial pericystectomy groups. In conclusion, subadventitial cystectomy completely removes the parasite, causing lower complication rates and lower immune reactions. PMID:25070996

  12. The Pedagogical Orientations of South African Physical Sciences Teachers towards Inquiry or Direct Instructional Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramnarain, Umesh; Schuster, David

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, inquiry-based science instruction has become widely advocated in science education standards in many countries and, hence, in teacher preparation programmes. Nevertheless, in practice, one finds a wide variety of science instructional approaches. In South Africa, as in many countries, there is also a great disparity in school…

  13. Vital Orientation Feeling and Corporal Experiences in People with Eating Disorder: A Phenomenological and Narrative Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duero, Dante Gabriel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze corporal experiences and the variations in existential feeling, in tree woman that have received mental disorder diagnosis. We have done in-depth interviews. We have used the constant comparison method to configure the categories and analysis. Then, we applied a phenomenological-narrative approach. Based on our results we evaluate and compared cases.

  14. A spectral approach to determine location and orientation of azo dyes within surfactant aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karukstis, Kerry K.; Litz, Jonathan P.; Garber, Matthew B.; Angell, Laura M.; Korir, George K.

    2010-04-01

    The UV-vis absorption properties of azo dyes are known to exhibit a variation with the polarity and acidity of the dye environment. The spectral properties of a series of anionic azo dyes were characterized to further probe the interaction of these dyes with two types of surfactant aggregates: (1) the spherical micelles formed in aqueous solution by alkyltrimethylammonium bromide (C nTAB) surfactants with n = 10-16 and (2) the unilamellar vesicles spontaneously formed in water from binary mixtures of the oppositely-charged double-tailed surfactants cationic didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB) and anionic sodium dioctylsulfosuccinate (Aerosol OT or AOT). The observed dye spectra reflect the solvatochromic behavior of the dyes and suggest the location and orientation of the dye within the surfactant aggregates. Deconvolution of the overall spectra into sums of Gaussian curves more readily displays any contributions of tautomeric forms of the azo dyes resulting from intramolecular hydrogen bonding. The rich variation in UV/vis absorption properties of these anionic azo dyes supports their use as sensitive tools to explore the nanostructures of surfactant aggregates.

  15. An object-oriented based daytime over land fog detection approach using EOS/MODIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xiongfei; Liu, Liangming; Li, Wei; Dong, Pei

    2009-09-01

    A new algorithm is presented for land fog detection from daytime image of Earth Observation System Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (EOS/MODIS) data. Due to its outstanding spatial and spectral resolutions, this image is an ideal data source for fog detection. The algorithm utilizes an object-oriented technique to separate fog from other cloud types. In this paper, MOD35 product is first introduced to exclude cloud-free areas, and high clouds are removed with MODIS 26 band, and then a parameter named Normalized Difference Fog Index (NDFI) is proposed based on Streamer radiative model and MODIS data for fog detection. Through segmenting NDFI image into regions of pixels, and computing attributes (e.g. mean value of brightness temperature) for each region to create objects, each object could be identified based on the attributes selected to determine whether belongs to fog or cloud. Algorithm's performance is evaluated against ground-based measurements over China in winter. The algorithm is proved to be effective in detecting fog accurately based on two different test cases.

  16. Restructuring of burnup sensitivity analysis code system by using an object-oriented design approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new burnup sensitivity analysis code system was developed with help from the object-oriented technique and written in Python language. It was confirmed that they are powerful to support complex numerical calculation procedure such as reactor burnup sensitivity analysis. The new burnup sensitivity analysis code system PSAGEP was restructured from a complicated old code system and reborn as a user-friendly code system which can calculate the sensitivity coefficients of the nuclear characteristics considering multicycle burnup effect based on the generalized perturbation theory (GPT). A new encapsulation framework for conventional codes written in Fortran was developed. This framework supported to restructure the software architecture of the old code system by hiding implementation details and allowed users of the new code system to easily calculate the burnup sensitivity coefficients. The framework can be applied to the other development projects since it is carefully designed to be independent from PSAGEP. Numerical results of the burnup sensitivity coefficient of a typical fast breeder reactor were given with components based on GPT and the multicycle burnup effects on the sensitivity coefficient were discussed. (authors)

  17. A class Hierarchical, object-oriented approach to virtual memory management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Vincent F.; Campbell, Roy H.; Johnston, Gary M.

    1989-01-01

    The Choices family of operating systems exploits class hierarchies and object-oriented programming to facilitate the construction of customized operating systems for shared memory and networked multiprocessors. The software is being used in the Tapestry laboratory to study the performance of algorithms, mechanisms, and policies for parallel systems. Described here are the architectural design and class hierarchy of the Choices virtual memory management system. The software and hardware mechanisms and policies of a virtual memory system implement a memory hierarchy that exploits the trade-off between response times and storage capacities. In Choices, the notion of a memory hierarchy is captured by abstract classes. Concrete subclasses of those abstractions implement a virtual address space, segmentation, paging, physical memory management, secondary storage, and remote (that is, networked) storage. Captured in the notion of a memory hierarchy are classes that represent memory objects. These classes provide a storage mechanism that contains encapsulated data and have methods to read or write the memory object. Each of these classes provides specializations to represent the memory hierarchy.

  18. Management of anterior segment penetrating injuries with traumatic cataract by pentagon approach in paediatric age group: Constraints and outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parihar Jitendra

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of multiple combined procedure (Pentagon approach as single-step secondary repair in cases of extensive keratolenticular trauma in paediatric age group. Methods: Retrospective evaluation of 18 patients of penetrating injuries with sclero-keratolenticular trauma, who underwent multiple procedure as single-step secondary repair by a single team of two surgeons during a 4 year period. Surgical procedure included reconstruction of anterior segment, synechiolysis, excision of membrane, lensectomy, open sky vitrectomy, PC IOL implantation over frill and penetrating keratoplasty. Meticulous antiamblyopia measures were applied in all cases. Results: Extensive vasoproliferative membrane, complicated cataract and anterior vitreous condensation were significant intra-operative hurdles. Moderate uveitis, secondary glaucoma, persistent epithelial defects were problems noted. Eleven (61.22% patients attained good visual outcome. Regrafting was required in remaining cases due to delayed graft failure. Conclusion: Despite being a highly complex technique, Pentagon approach provides effective management profile in terms of graft success and functional outcome, especially in keratolenticular trauma, in children.

  19. Product Service Systems and Non-Market Oriented Approach – Methodological and Ethical Considerations from a Design Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morelli, Nicola; Jonas, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    Macroscopic social and economic changes in the last few years are forcing business companies and public institutions to redefine their approach to social intervention, focusing on local and highly individualised solutions. This change is also calling for a new design approach. The challenge for designers is not only to be able to provide local and highly individualised solutions, but also to propose strategies to transfer and reproduce the solutions, or part of them, into different local contexts, thus creating economy of scope. This would be possible by using forms of codification and modularisation of the most relevant components in local solutions. The code refers to the organisational knowledge included in local components and the way each component interacts with the others. Like software systems, local product-service systems can be built upon a source code. This paper will illustrate how this process was developed in a concrete case. Through this case the authors analyse the possibility to build something similar to a source code for initiatives based on social interaction and investigate the process of construction of such a code Furthermore, the author discuss differences and analogies between design intervention in a social context and in the normal business context. The question of codification suggests a methodological approach for supporting transferability both in the problem space (dealing with complexity) and in the solution space (dealing with contingency). The analysis of differences and similarities between business- and socially-oriented processes suggests a new role for designers and new opportunities for innovation.

  20. Evaluating Model for E-learning Modules According to Selected Criteria: An Object Oriented Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qabas Abdal Zahraa Jabbar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at developing an applied system to evaluate the e-Learning Modules (eLMs depending on selected related criteria. Those criteria concern with many fields as well as many factors like, learning theories, computer science, instructional computer, software engineering, educational sciences, language criteria, economical factors, etc. Therefore the authors expressed the term of selected criteria to reflect the meaning of integrated factors of the environment deals with the developed eLM. However eLM for any subject requires for a systematic steps of integrated work depending on the model which is considered by the developer. Mostly the output of a stage represents the input of the next step. Our model will cover all steps in details. Thus such model could be considered not only to evaluate the developed eLMs but it could be used during process of developing because many items of criteria are designed so as to be a guide for developer during development of eLM. Developer should consider eLMs while he/she develops an eLM. Finally the authors presented selected eLM to apply the evaluating model, outcomes of the evaluations process lead to the needful conclusion.

  1. Comparison of predictor approaches for longitudinal binary outcomes: application to anesthesiology data

    OpenAIRE

    Aktas Samur, Anil; Coskunfirat, Nesil; Saka, Osman

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal data with binary repeated responses are now widespread among clinical studies and standard statistical analysis methods have become inadequate in the answering of clinical hypotheses. Instead of such conventional approaches, statisticians have started proposing better techniques, such as the Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) approach and Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMM) technique. In this research, we undertook a comparative study of modeling binary repeated responses ...

  2. Analyzing Orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    Archaeoastronomical field survey typically involves the measurement of structural orientations (i.e., orientations along and between built structures) in relation to the visible landscape and particularly the surrounding horizon. This chapter focuses on the process of analyzing the astronomical potential of oriented structures, whether in the field or as a desktop appraisal, with the aim of establishing the archaeoastronomical "facts". It does not address questions of data selection (see instead Chap. 25, "Best Practice for Evaluating the Astronomical Significance of Archaeological Sites", 10.1007/978-1-4614-6141-8_25) or interpretation (see Chap. 24, "Nature and Analysis of Material Evidence Relevant to Archaeoastronomy", 10.1007/978-1-4614-6141-8_22). The main necessity is to determine the azimuth, horizon altitude, and declination in the direction "indicated" by any structural orientation. Normally, there are a range of possibilities, reflecting the various errors and uncertainties in estimating the intended (or, at least, the constructed) orientation, and in more formal approaches an attempt is made to assign a probability distribution extending over a spread of declinations. These probability distributions can then be cumulated in order to visualize and analyze the combined data from several orientations, so as to identify any consistent astronomical associations that can then be correlated with the declinations of particular astronomical objects or phenomena at any era in the past. The whole process raises various procedural and methodological issues and does not proceed in isolation from the consideration of corroborative data, which is essential in order to develop viable cultural interpretations.

  3. An Integrated Approach for Extraction of Objects from XML and Transformation to Heterogeneous Object Oriented Databases

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmad, U; Hassan, M W; McClatchey, R; Willers, I; Ahmad, Uzair; Ali, Arshad; Clatchey, Richard Mc; Hassan, Mohammad Waseem; Willers, Ian

    2004-01-01

    CERN's (European Organization for Nuclear Research) WISDOM project uses XML for the replication of data between different data repositories in a heterogeneous operating system environment. For exchanging data from Web-resident databases, the data needs to be transformed into XML and back to the database format. Many different approaches are employed to do this transformation. This paper addresses issues that make this job more efficient and robust than existing approaches. It incorporates the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) XML Schema specification in the database-XML relationship. Incorporation of the XML Schema exhibits significant improvements in XML content usage and reduces the limitations of DTD-based database XML services. Secondly the paper explores the possibility of database independent transformation of data between XML and different databases. It proposes a standard XML format that every serialized object should follow. This makes it possible to use objects of heterogeneous database seamlessly usi...

  4. An Object-Oriented Approach To Generate Java Code From Hierarchical-Concurrent and History States

    OpenAIRE

    Abidi My Abidi; Abdeslam Jakimi; Rachid Alaoui; El Hassan El Kinani

    2013-01-01

    UML is widely accepted and practiced in industries for modeling and design of software systems. Software requirements and design are very important parts of software development. UML State Machine diagram is an important formalism to model the dynamic behavior of the system. In this paper, we present a new approach to generate compact and efficient Java code from complex state machine involving hierarchical-concurrent states; the proposed code can be used as a Java implementation pattern for ...

  5. An approach to recover feature models from object-oriented source code

    OpenAIRE

    Al-msie Deen, Ra Fat; Seriai, Abdelhak; Huchard, Marianne; Urtado, Christelle; Vauttier, Sylvain; Eyal Salman, Hamzeh

    2012-01-01

    Software Product Line (SPL) is a development paradigm that targets the creation of software system variants that belong to the same domain. Usually software system variants, developed with clone-and-own approach, form a starting point for building SPL. To migrate software systems which are deemed similar to a product line, it is necessary to detect the com- mon features and variations between a set of software system variants. Reverse engineering the feature model (FM) of an existing system i...

  6. Ovarian serous adenocarcinoma identified during IVF: diagnostic approach, surgical management, and reproductive outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleeson Noreen C

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To present a diagnostic evaluation and treatment strategy for serous adenocarcinoma of the ovary discovered during an in vitro fertilisation (IVF sequence, and report on reproductive outcome after tumour resection and embryo transfer. Case presentation Cycle monitoring in IVF identified an abnormal ovarian lesion which was subjected to ultrasound-guided needle aspiration. Cytology suggested malignancy, and unilateral oophorectomy was performed after formal staging. After surgery, the patient underwent an anonymous donor oocyte IVF cycle which established a viable twin intrauterine pregnancy. No recurrence of cancer has been detected in the >72 month follow-up interval; mother and twin daughters continue to do well. Conclusion Suspicious adnexal structures noted during controlled ovarian hyperstimulation for IVF warrant assessment, and this report confirms the role of aspiration cytology in such cases. If uterine conservation is possible, successful livebirth can be achieved from IVF if donor oocyes are utilised, as described here.

  7. Motivational Mechanisms and Outcome Expectancies Underlying the Approach Bias toward Addictive Substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, P; de Wit, S; Hommel, Bernhard; Wiers, R W

    2012-01-01

    Human behavior can be paradoxical, in that actions can be initiated that are seemingly incongruent with an individual's explicit desires. This is most commonly observed in drug addiction, where maladaptive behavior (i.e., drug seeking) appears to be compulsive, continuing at great personal cost. Approach biases toward addictive substances have been correlated with actual drug-use in a number of studies, suggesting that this measure can, in some cases, index everyday maladaptive tendencies. At present it is unclear whether this bias to drug cues is a Pavlovian conditioned approach response, a habitual response, the result of a Pavlovian-instrumental transfer process, or a goal-directed action in the sense that expectancy of the rewarding effects of drugs controls approach. We consider this question by combining the theoretical framework of associative learning with the available evidence from approach bias research. Although research investigating the relative contributions of these mechanisms to the approach bias is to date relatively limited, we review existing studies and also outline avenues for future research. PMID:23133434

  8. An Agent-Based and Context-Oriented Approach to Symbol Recognition in Diagrammatic Drawings

    OpenAIRE

    Casella, Giovanni; Deufemia, Vincenzo; Mascardi, Viviana

    2006-01-01

    In the last two decades, one new technology, that of agent-based systems, and one emerging research discipline, that of on-line recognition of hand-drawn diagrams, have gained wide attention and consensus. Since the application of the agent technology to disciplines where, traditionally, more standard approaches are adopted, usually leads to valuable and interesting results, we propose an agent-based system for on-line recognition of hand-drawn diagrams. In our system, agents are used 1) to m...

  9. An Approach to Analysis the Reusability of the Object Oriented Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashi Jain*

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Reusability Metric is use to provide direction to increase productivity and maintainability of the developing application. One must search for good tested software component and reusable. Some of the developed software can be useful for the other developer also. In this manner, it is proving that code specifics to application requirements can be also reused in develop projects related with same requirements. The idea of this research work is to suggest a approach for reusable component. A process that takes source code as a input that will helped to take the approximately judgement which reusable artefacts, particular software should be reused or not

  10. Relations between Students' Approaches to Learning, Experienced Emotions and Outcomes of Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigwell, Keith; Ellis, Robert A.; Han, Feifei

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative analyses conducted on the self-reports of first year university students suggest that there is a relationship between the ways they emotionally experience their course and the approach they take to the learning of that course. Students who more strongly experience positive emotions, such as hope and pride, and more weakly experience…

  11. Comparison of predictor approaches for longitudinal binary outcomes: application to anesthesiology data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas Samur, Anil; Coskunfirat, Nesil; Saka, Osman

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal data with binary repeated responses are now widespread among clinical studies and standard statistical analysis methods have become inadequate in the answering of clinical hypotheses. Instead of such conventional approaches, statisticians have started proposing better techniques, such as the Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) approach and Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMM) technique. In this research, we undertook a comparative study of modeling binary repeated responses using an anesthesiology dataset which has 375 patient data with clinical variables. We modeled the relationship between hypotension and age, gender, surgical department, positions of patients during surgery, diastolic blood pressure, pulse, electrocardiography and doses of Marcain-heavy, chirocaine, fentanyl, and midazolam. Moreover, parameter estimates between the GEE and the GLMM were compared. The parameter estimates, except time-after, Marcain-Heavy, and Fentanyl from the GLMM, are larger than those from GEE. The standard errors from the GLMM are larger than those from GEE. GLMM appears to be more suitable approach than the GEE approach for the analysis hypotension during spinal anesthesia. PMID:25374787

  12. Comparison of predictor approaches for longitudinal binary outcomes: application to anesthesiology data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskunfirat, Nesil; Saka, Osman

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal data with binary repeated responses are now widespread among clinical studies and standard statistical analysis methods have become inadequate in the answering of clinical hypotheses. Instead of such conventional approaches, statisticians have started proposing better techniques, such as the Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) approach and Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMM) technique. In this research, we undertook a comparative study of modeling binary repeated responses using an anesthesiology dataset which has 375 patient data with clinical variables. We modeled the relationship between hypotension and age, gender, surgical department, positions of patients during surgery, diastolic blood pressure, pulse, electrocardiography and doses of Marcain-heavy, chirocaine, fentanyl, and midazolam. Moreover, parameter estimates between the GEE and the GLMM were compared. The parameter estimates, except time-after, Marcain-Heavy, and Fentanyl from the GLMM, are larger than those from GEE. The standard errors from the GLMM are larger than those from GEE. GLMM appears to be more suitable approach than the GEE approach for the analysis hypotension during spinal anesthesia. PMID:25374787

  13. Reliability-oriented multi-objective optimal decision-making approach for uncertainty-based watershed load reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Feifei; Liu, Yong; Su, Han; Zou, Rui; Guo, Huaicheng

    2015-05-15

    Water quality management and load reduction are subject to inherent uncertainties in watershed systems and competing decision objectives. Therefore, optimal decision-making modeling in watershed load reduction is suffering due to the following challenges: (a) it is difficult to obtain absolutely "optimal" solutions, and (b) decision schemes may be vulnerable to failure. The probability that solutions are feasible under uncertainties is defined as reliability. A reliability-oriented multi-objective (ROMO) decision-making approach was proposed in this study for optimal decision making with stochastic parameters and multiple decision reliability objectives. Lake Dianchi, one of the three most eutrophic lakes in China, was examined as a case study for optimal watershed nutrient load reduction to restore lake water quality. This study aimed to maximize reliability levels from considerations of cost and load reductions. The Pareto solutions of the ROMO optimization model were generated with the multi-objective evolutionary algorithm, demonstrating schemes representing different biases towards reliability. The Pareto fronts of six maximum allowable emission (MAE) scenarios were obtained, which indicated that decisions may be unreliable under unpractical load reduction requirements. A decision scheme identification process was conducted using the back propagation neural network (BPNN) method to provide a shortcut for identifying schemes at specific reliability levels for decision makers. The model results indicated that the ROMO approach can offer decision makers great insights into reliability tradeoffs and can thus help them to avoid ineffective decisions. PMID:25688523

  14. MDD-Approach for developing Pervasive Systems based on Service-Oriented Multi-Agent Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge AGÜERO

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The development of Ubiquitous or Pervasive Systems can be considered a complex task, with multiple actors, devices and different hardware environments; where it is difficult to find a compact view of all the components. This work proposes to use a MDD (Model-Driven Development approach to facilitate the development process of Agent-Based Pervasive Systems, providing the user with a set of abstractions that ease the implementation of Pervasive Systems and the deployment of a platform for their execution. The proposal allows designing pervasive applications using high-level abstractions, avoiding the low-level implementation details and, after that, the Pervasive System deployment (with embedded agents and devices is generated by using automatic transformations. In this way, a non-expert programmer will be able to develop Agent-Based Pervasive Systems, reducing the gap between the design and the implementation phases.

  15. Central venous infusion port inserted via high versus low jugular venous approaches: Retrospective comparison of outcome and complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To retrospectively compare immediate and long-term outcome of central venous infusion port inserted via right high versus low jugular vein approaches. Materials and methods: The study included 163 patients (125 women patients, 38 men patients; age range, 18-79 years; mean age, 53 years); 142 patients underwent port insertion with low jugular vein approach and 21 patients with high jugular vein approach. The causes of high jugular vein puncture were metastatic lymphadenopathy (n = 7), operation scar (n = 6), radiation scar (n = 5), failure of low jugular vein puncture (n = 2), and abnormal course of right subclavian artery (n = 1). Medical records and radiologic studies were reviewed retrospectively to determine and compare the outcome and the occurrence of complication related to port. Results: The procedure-related complications were all minor (n = 14, 8.6%) in both groups; hematoma (n = 4, 2.8% in low jugular puncture group and n = 1, 4.8% in high jugular puncture group, p = 0.6295), air embolism (n = 2, 1.4% in low jugular puncture group and n = 0 in high jugular puncture group, p = 0.5842) and minor bleeding (n = 5, 3.5% in low jugular vein puncture group and n = 2, 9.5% in high jugular vein puncture group, p = 0.2054). The average length of follow-up was 431 days for low jugular vein puncture group and 284 days for high jugular vein puncture group. The difference between two groups was significant (p = 0.0349). The reasons for catheter removal were patiehe reasons for catheter removal were patients' death (59 in low jugular puncture group and 14 in high jugular puncture group, p = 0.0465), suspected infection (11 in low jugular vein puncture group and 2 in high jugular vein puncture group, p = 0.8242), catheter occlusion (four in low jugular vein puncture group and one in high jugular vein puncture group, p = 0.6583). The catheter tip migrated upward an average of 1.86 cm (range, -0.5 to 5.0 cm) in low jugular vein puncture group and 1.56 cm (range, 0-3.6 cm) in high jugular vein puncture group and there was no significant difference (p = 0.4232). Conclusions: Right high jugular vein approach can be a feasible alternative to right low jugular vein approach.

  16. Motivational Mechanisms and Outcome Expectancies Underlying the Approach Bias toward Addictive Substances

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, P.; Wit, S.; Hommel, Bernhard; Wiers, R. W.

    2012-01-01

    Human behavior can be paradoxical, in that actions can be initiated that are seemingly incongruent with an individual’s explicit desires. This is most commonly observed in drug addiction, where maladaptive behavior (i.e., drug seeking) appears to be compulsive, continuing at great personal cost. Approach biases toward addictive substances have been correlated with actual drug-use in a number of studies, suggesting that this measure can, in some cases, index everyday maladaptive tendencies. ...

  17. Integration of environmental approaches to strategy of production enterprises - environmentally oriented quality of production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalíková Franti?ka

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper there are presented system approaches, applied in Slovak transformed production enterprises, which solve questions of closing the so called industrial cycle from the side of the wastes' producers. The production quality is connected not only with the technological chain itself and with outputs from it - the utility product, but also with the load of the life environment.The presented possibilities of the liquidation of solid energetic waste ? fly ashes ? represent a an overview of forms and methods of its utilization. By combusting one kind of coal in various boilers, fly ashes with different physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties originate, with the combustion temperature as a dominant factor. The fly ashes are directly (without influencing its composition applied in civil engineering, mining, metallurgy, waste water cleaning, etc. Their utilization after a separation removal of unwanted components is an economically difficult process. Such a unvaluable component is coal combustion residue, evaluated by the annealing loss (carbon-in-ash loss in fly ashes used for special procedures in civil enginering, e.g. in mortars (maximally 4% of c.a.s. loss or in the porous concrete (4-7% of c.a.s. loss. The building industry processes about 20% of solid energetic waste.

  18. A System-Oriented Approach for the Optimal Control of Process Chains under Stochastic Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senn, Melanie; Schäfer, Julian; Pollak, Jürgen; Link, Norbert

    2011-09-01

    Process chains in manufacturing consist of multiple connected processes in terms of dynamic systems. The properties of a product passing through such a process chain are influenced by the transformation of each single process. There exist various methods for the control of individual processes, such as classical state controllers from cybernetics or function mapping approaches realized by statistical learning. These controllers ensure that a desired state is obtained at process end despite of variations in the input and disturbances. The interactions between the single processes are thereby neglected, but play an important role in the optimization of the entire process chain. We divide the overall optimization into two phases: (1) the solution of the optimization problem by Dynamic Programming to find the optimal control variable values for each process for any encountered end state of its predecessor and (2) the application of the optimal control variables at runtime for the detected initial process state. The optimization problem is solved by selecting adequate control variables for each process in the chain backwards based on predefined quality requirements for the final product. For the demonstration of the proposed concept, we have chosen a process chain from sheet metal manufacturing with simplified transformation functions.

  19. An interdisciplinary, outcome-based approach to astmospheric CO2 mitigation with planted southern pine forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, T.; Fox, T.; Peter, G.; Monroe, M.

    2012-12-01

    The Pine Integrated Network: Education, Mitigation and Adaptation Project ("PINEMAP") was funded by National Institute of Food and Agriculture to produce outcomes of enhanced climate change mitigation and adaptation in planted southern pine ecosystems. The PINEMAP project leverages a strong group of existing networks to produce synergy and cooperation on applied forestry research in the region. Over the last 50 years, cooperative research on planted southern pine management among southeastern U.S. universities, government agencies, and corporate forest landowners has developed and facilitated the widespread implementation of improved genetic and silvicultural technology. The impact of these regional research cooperatives is difficult to overstate, with current members managing 55% of the privately owned planted pine forestland, and producing 95% of the pine seedlings planted each year. The PINEMAP team includes the eight major forestry cooperative research programs, scientists from eleven land grant institutions, the US Forest Service, and climate modeling and adaptation specialists associated with the multi-state SE Climate Consortium and state climate offices. Our goal is to create and disseminate the knowledge that enables landowners to: harness planted pine forest productivity to mitigate atmospheric CO2; more efficiently use nitrogen and other fertilizer inputs; and adapt their forest management to increase resilience in the face of changing climate. We integrate our team's infrastructure and expertise to: 1) develop breeding, genetic deployment and innovative management systems to increase C sequestration and resilience to changing climate of planted southern pine forests ; 2) understand interactive effects of policy, biology, and climate change on sustainable management; 3) transfer new management and genetic technologies to private industrial and non-industrial landowners; and 4) educate a diverse cross-section of the public about the relevance of forests, forest management, and climate change. These efforts will enable our stakeholders to enhance the productivity of southern pine forests, while maintaining social, economic, and ecological sustainability.

  20. Assessing the cognitive consequences of the object-oriented approach: a survey of empirical research on object-oriented design by individuals and teams

    OpenAIRE

    De?tienne, Franc?oise

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a state-of-art review of empirical research on object-oriented (OO) design. Many claims about the cognitive benefits of the OO paradigm have been made by its advocates. These claims concern the ease of designing and reusing software at the individual level as well as the benefits of this paradigm at the team level. Since these claims are cognitive in nature, its seems important to assess them empirically. After a brief presentation of the main concepts of...

  1. Information technology for sustainable development : a problem based and project oriented approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holgaard, Jette Egelund; Guerra, Aida

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present different strategies to integrate concerns about sustainability into Information and Communication Technology (ITC) projects by use of problem based learning (PBL) methodology. In alignment with PBL we introduce two different models for problem analysis where students move from a broader theme to a problem formulation designed to fit the time, discipline and theme of study. In the prospect of Education for Sustainable development (ESD) the students are to move from the conceptually complex field of sustainable development (SD) to a specific formulation of a problem that initiate design, implementation and test of ICT for SD. On the empirical level we draw from experiments in autumn 2009 and spring 2013 within the field of Media technology. Observations, text analysis of students’ work as well as reflections from staff has been relied on in order to analyse the practical implications of the different approaches to integrate sustainability. We conclude that students indeed chose divers strategies to integrate sustainability into their projects and those diverse strategies are indeed needed to obtain student engagement. Furthermore, the introduction of an open-ended thematic frame, like sustainability, encouraged students to broaden their perspective on stressing economic, environmental as well as social concerns. However, the experiments also showed that interlinking engineering subjects with sustainability is a rather time-consuming task – and some of the students were struggling with these open-ended themes at the same time as they were struggling with the rather open-ended perspectives on how to manage and structure a problem based and project organised project.

  2. Research-Based Development of a Lesson Plan on Shower Gels and Musk Fragrances Following a Socio-Critical and Problem-Oriented Approach to Chemistry Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Ralf; Eilks, Ingo

    2010-01-01

    A case is described of the development of a lesson plan for 10th grade (age range 15-16) chemistry classes on the chemistry of shower gels. The lesson plan follows a socio-critical and problem-oriented approach to chemistry teaching. This means that, aside from learning about the basic chemistry of the components making up modern shower gels in…

  3. Outcomes of Interventions Via a Transradial Approach for Dysfunctional Brescia-Cimino Fistulas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transradial artery approach to angioplasty has rarely been reported as a method for treating dysfunctional Brescia-Cimino fistulas. This study evaluated the feasibility, safety, and 1-year efficacy of this method for treating dysfunctional Brescia-Cimino fistulas. We retrospectively evaluated 154 consecutive procedures in 131 patients (age, 58.3 ± 11.6 years; male, 48.1%) who underwent the transradial approach in dysfunctional Brescia-Cimino fistulas in the 1-year period after the procedure. The operator determined the use of a regular or a cutting balloon (two cases) in combination with urokinase injection (one case) or catheter thromboaspiration. Radial artery puncture was successful in all cases. Fifty-two cases (33.8%) had totally occluded fibrotic lesions. The overall anatomic success rate and clinical success rate were 61% (94/154) and 81.1% (125/154), respectively. In cases with a totally occluded fibrotic lesion, the clinical success rate was 46%. Successful intervention was associated with a significant reduction in the radial arterial systolic and diastolic pressures. There were no complications of symptomatic arterial embolization or pulmonary embolism, and one complication of venous rupture was successfully treated by compression. The primary patency rates based on intention-to-treat were 75.3% at 30 days and 39.0% at 1 year after the procedure. Excluding the cases with a totally occluded lesion, the clinical success rate was 99% (101/102) and the priuccess rate was 99% (101/102) and the primary patency rates were 84.3% (86/102) and 52.0% (53/102) at 3 months and 1 year after the procedure, respectively. In conclusion, the transradial approach is a feasible, safe, and effective alternative for catheter intervention for dysfunctional Brescia-Cimino fistulas. Its success rate in cases with a totally occluded fibrotic lesion is unsatisfactory.

  4. Object oriented methods

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, Ian

    1994-01-01

    This book is a revision of Ian Graham's successful survey of the whole area of object technology. It covers object- oriented programming, object-oriented design, object- oriented analysis, object-oriented databases and treats several related technologies. New to this edition are more applications of object-oriented methods and more coverage of object-oriented database products available. Graham has also doubled the design and analysis material that examines over 60 different approaches - making this the most comprehensive book on the market. Also new is the foreword by Grady Booch.

  5. Modelling nitrogen transport and turnover at the hillslope scale - a process oriented approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klatt, S.; Haas, E.; Kiese, R.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.; Wlotzka, M.; Heuveline, V.; Kraft, P.; Breuer, L.

    2012-12-01

    Biogeochemical models used for simulating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are mainly designed for the plot scale. Lateral fluxes of nutrients such as nitrate, which may be important drivers for soil GHG emissions, are not or only scarcely considered and explored in such models. This is due to the complexity of microbiological, physic-chemical and plant processes which need to be investigated and simulated along one spatial dimension, the depth, so that the introduction of a second (a hillslope) or third (entire landscapes) spatial dimension is likely to introduce additional complexity which can hardly be handled by most models. However, plot scale models, validated with data obtained at plot scale studies, will systematically under- or overestimate key GHG production and consumption processes if lateral in- or efflux of nutrients to or from a given site is of significant importance. E.g. in laterally connected environments, such as riparian zones denitrification will be fuelled by lateral influx of nitrate from uphill positioned fertilized land. Thus, landscape approaches are needed to identify and realistically simulate GHG emissions. The poster will present a coupled modeling system consisting of the fully distributed hydrology model CMF coupled to the regional ecosystem model LandscapeDNDC. The model coupling was preformed using the OpenPALM coupler from Cerfacs, France which is based on parallel computer technology. The coupler synchronizes the two models with respect to simulation time and performs the exchange of data (water fluxes, nutrient concentrations, etc.) from and to the models. The resulting coupled hydrology-ecosystem model was applied to simulate carbon and nitrogen cycling along a three dimensional virtual hillslope. In the experiment the uphill section of the domain consists of intensive arable land (maize - wheat rotation with up to 300 kg N fertilization) whereas the lowland section and riparian zone consists of extensive grassland. The simulation results show the effect of lateral nutrient transport (nitrate) along the hillslope leading to biomass productivity gradients in the extensive grassland towards the riparian zone associated with high indirect N2O emissions, specially in the riparian zone. Simulation of N cycling with the coupled hydrology - ecosystem model along a hillslope consisting of up to 30 grid cells. N fertilizer added upland will be converted into nitrate leading to biomass production and nutrient transport along the hillslope as well as N2O emissions.

  6. The laparoscopic transperitoneal approach for irreducible inguinal hernias: Perioperative outcome in four patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagad Rajan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Incarceration and strangulation are the most feared complications of inguinal hernia. Till date, incarcerated hernias have traditionally been treated by conventional open repair. Reports are now available for the feasibility of laparoscopic repair of incarcerated inguinal hernia. Here, we described our experience with the transperitoneal approach for incarcerated hernias. Materials and Methods : Between January 2008 and May 2008, four patients were presented with a history of irreducible hernia, abdominal distention and vomiting. All the patients had right-sided inguinal hernia. Reductions of the hernia contents were not possible in any patient. The patients were treated on emergency basis with laparoscopic transabdominal preperitoneal hernia repair. Retrospective analyses of all the patients were done. Results: Reduction of the bowel was achieved in all but one patient, who required the division of the internal ring on lateral side. Transperitoneal mesh repair was performed. No major complications were encountered. One patient developed seroma formation that was treated conservatively. Conclusion: Laparoscopic transperitoneal approach has the advantage of observation of the hernia content for a longer period of time. The division of the internal ring can be done under direct vision. Other intra-abdominal pathology and opposite side hernia can be diagnosed and treated at the same time.

  7. Reducing volcanic risk on Fogo Volcano, Cape Verde, through a participatory approach: which outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texier-Teixeira, P.; Chouraqui, F.; Perrillat-Collomb, A.; Lavigne, F.; Cadag, J. R.; Grancher, D.

    2014-09-01

    This research paper presents the outcomes of Work Package 5 (socio-economical vulnerability assessment and community-based disaster risk reduction) of the MIAVITA (MItigate and Assess risk from Volcanic Impact on Terrain and human Activities) research programme conducted on Fogo Volcano, Cape Verde. The study lasted for almost 3 years (May 2010 to January 2012), of which most of the time was spent in the village of Chã das Caldeiras, situated within the 9 km wide caldera of the volcano inside Fogo Natural Park. The objectives of the programme included assessment of the vulnerability of the community at risk in terms of livelihoods, access to resources, and power relations between the local people and the different public and private institutions. These are important factors that need to be investigated in order to understand the root causes of vulnerability of the local people. This case study shows that the voluntary exposure of people to volcanic threats is linked to daily access to sources of livelihood, especially agriculture and tourism. This is despite the perception of people of the risk to their lives and properties. In order to counter the factors of vulnerability, the study also aimed to identify and enhance local capacities. To achieve such an objective, a participatory three-dimensional mapping (P3DM) activity was conducted to facilitate the dialogue between the local people and the different stakeholders as well as to prepare plans and measures to reduce volcanic risk. The P3DM was a half success considering that it has not yet led to an operational plan which takes into account the local capacities. The main reasons included (1) the non-participatory aspect of the project at the beginning which should have identified priorities for people and let them lead the project to ensure the sustainability of (2) deep conflicts within the community which complicated the focus group discussions around the 3-D map, and the difficulties in involving more marginalised people like women and the youth, and (3) the fact that volcanic risk is not a priority for the people, who are more concerned with daily difficulties due to unsustainable livelihoods, a lack of access to water, land tenure, and the restrictions by the Fogo Natural Park administration and the municipal officials. Still, the study was successful in creating a space for dialogue between the local people and the outside stakeholders such as the Natural Park Administration, the Civil Protection, and the Municipality of Santa Catarina, who have all participated actively during the course of the project.

  8. Longitudinal enhancement of the hyperechoic regions in ultrasonography of muscles using a Gabor filter bank approach: a preparation for semi-automatic muscle fiber orientation estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yongjin; Zheng, Yong-Ping

    2011-04-01

    In this study, to complement our previously proposed method for estimating muscle fiber orientation, the Gabor filter bank (GF) technique was applied to sonograms of the biceps and forearm muscles to longitudinally enhance the coherently oriented and hyperechoic perimysiums regions. The method involved three steps: orientation field estimation, frequency map computation and Gabor filtering. The method was evaluated using a simulated image distorted with multiplicative speckle noises where the "muscles" were arranged in a bipennate fashion with an "aponeurosis" located in the middle. After enhancement using the GF approach, most of the original hyperechoic bands in the simulated image could be recovered. The proposed method was also tested using a group of biceps and forearm muscle sonograms collected from healthy adult subjects. Compared with the sonograms without enhancement, the enhanced images led to the detection of more linear patterns including muscle fascicles and smaller angle differences compared with the mean of manual results from two operators, therefore, were better prepared for the automatic estimation of muscle fiber orientation. The proposed method has the potential of assisting in the visualization of strongly oriented patterns in skeletal muscle sonograms as well as in the semi-automatic estimation of muscle fiber orientations. PMID:21371811

  9. 'Miracle baby': an outcome of multidisciplinary approach to neurotrauma in pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Neville, Grace

    2012-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) warranting neurosurgical intervention in the pregnant population is a rarity. We describe a case of a 27-year-old woman who at 13 weeks of gestation presented with multiple traumas having been involved in a near fatal road traffic accident. Glasgow Coma Scale was 6\\/15. CT brain showed extensive haemorrhagic contusions, diffuse brain swelling and multiple skull and facial fractures. Decompressive craniectomy was performed to control her intracranial pressure during her management in the intensive care. A viable intrauterine pregnancy was confirmed and progressed as maternal stabilisation and rehabilitation continued. At 35+3 weeks a 2770 g male child was delivered via emergency caesarean section after spontaneous onset of labour. The child had no detectable abnormalities and is clinically well. Eight months post-TBI the patient continues to make gradual improvements but is left with severe cognitive impairment and currently undergoing rehabilitation. A multidisciplinary approach was adopted in the management of this patient.

  10. Modeling physical activity outcomes: a two-part generalized-estimating-equations approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Andy H; Xiang, Liming; Hirayama, Fumi

    2010-09-01

    The health benefits of physical activity are well known. Various parameters of physical activity, such as time or energy expenditure, are often assessed in observational and experimental studies. This article highlights several methodologic issues concerning the analysis of physical activity. These include non-normality, presence of many zeros, and violation of the independence assumption. Application of the standard regression model to a (log-transformed) physical activity variable may lead to spurious associations and misleading conclusions. We developed an alternative 2-part generalized-estimating-equations (GEE) approach to analyze the heterogeneous and correlated physical activity data. We first estimated a logistic GEE model for the prevalence of physical activity and factors affecting physical activity participation. We then fit a gamma GEE model to assess the effects of predictors among persons engaging in physical activity. An empirical application to an epidemiologic study of physical activity of community-dwelling older adults illustrates the proposed methodology. PMID:20588183

  11. Concepts and Features of Aspect-Oriented Programming using Aspect.Net Framework: A New Approach to Modularization

    OpenAIRE

    Sakshi Mundra; Vaibhav Vyas; Versha Bansal

    2013-01-01

    Aspect Oriented Programming methodology is based on the idea that computer systems can be programmed very efficiently by specifying the various concerns of a system and some description of their relationships separately and then relying the mechanisms in the underlying AOP environment to weave them together into a coherent program automatically. The term Aspect Oriented Programming includes Multidimensional Separation of Concerns, along with Subject Oriented Programming, Adaptive Programming ...

  12. A New Approach in Consistency of Object Oriented Model and Relational Model in Distributed Systems Base on Heterogeneous Databases

    OpenAIRE

    Tahereh kheradmandan; Hamidreza Hamidi; Shokoh Kermanshahani

    2011-01-01

    According to application a database is designed to be object-oriented model or relational model but the important point is distribution and heterogeneity. So a model should be provided which work with different types of database and also be able to work disruption, and heterogeneity So one of the great challenges in the use of distributed database technologies is integrating object-oriented databases with relational databases because the platform-independent technologies have an object-orient...

  13. A Customer-Oriented Approach to Satisfaction with Public Service Providers. Empirical Findings from a Market Undergoing Liberalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Cristian DABIJA

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Unlike the open competition economic sectors where tens, hundreds or even thousands of companies ‘struggle’ to provide consumers not only with services but also with special utility, the regulated markets (power supply, public transportation, public safety etc. are dominated by a limited number of service providers. Sometimes the situation is pushed to the point where a few companies ‘control’ the market and set the prices. Although the power and gas supply is still ‘dictated’ by the Romanian authorities, the directives of the European Union coerce the government to deregulate the utility sector and liberalize prices. For the companies concerned, this entails a better customer orientation and an adaptation of their services to the customers’ expectations and preferences. From this point forward, the utility suppliers will have to better cope with the public’s various forms of dissatisfaction with prices, performance or communication etc. The authors of the current paper attempt to analyze how some characteristics of the marketing mix of utility providers may contribute to a proper understanding and building satisfaction with two surveyed regional providers. The findings reveal significant management implications which help utility providers better channel their efforts into the proper knowledge of markets and particularly the target segments that they approach.

  14. Sexual Orientation, Human Rights, and Corporate Sponsorship of the Sochi Olympic Games: Rethinking the Voluntary Approach to Corporate Social Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey A Van Detta

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Multi-national enterprises (MNEs have provided substantial sponsorship for the Sochi Winter Olympic Games despite a host-country government that has recently enacted stunningly harsh legislation aimed at the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Intersex (LGBTI communities within Russia. This is a Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR problem. Should Europe address it through voluntary corporate compliance, Europe’s historically preferred mode of promoting CSR? Or should Europe reconsider whether it can more effectively promote CSR compliance legislatively – and if so, by what kind of legislation? To honor the explicit and increased protections of human rights against sexual orientation discrimination in the Treaty of Amsterdam and the Charter of Fundamental Human Rights, more than voluntary, good intentions are needed. Particularly since the United States has effectively bowed out of enforcing CSR through the American federal courts, there now exists a regulatory lacuna that the European Commission is best situated to fill through the precision offered by judicious rulemaking. The article ultimately proposes an approach that combines the public-pressure engine that fuels voluntary CSR with public disclosures mandated by law to optimize the information and mobilization of public opinion and pressure – factors particularly noteworthy given the powerful “branding” benefits that MNEs seek through Olympic sponsorship.

  15. Improving specific disease outcomes through a One Health approach--tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, A L

    2014-08-01

    Early discoveries in the field of tuberculosis more than a century ago indicated that the success of disease control in human populations would depend on the success of control measures in animals, and vice versa. Recognising the zoonotic importance of a cattle-derived pathogen was the beginning of the eradication of bovine tuberculosis from most of the cattle population in Europe. It was a costly and resource-intensive process, but a successful one. The resulting near disappearance of zoonotic tuberculosis from the human population exemplifies probably one of the largest One Health successes in medical history. Since that time many advances in tuberculosis diagnosis, vaccinology, molecular epidemiology and immunopathogenetic studies have been made within the disciplinary divides of human and animal health research. More recently, the discovery of similarities in the interactions between the natural hosts and the causative agents of tuberculosis, as well as similarities in the resulting disease consequences, have led to a renewed appraisal of the benefits of collaborative approaches. It is to be hoped that, in the future, the combined body of scientific knowledge will also provide the basis for practical One Health initiatives at community level. PMID:25707185

  16. Cybernetic approach to the problem of prognosis of the radiation injury outcome in animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cybernetic approach to the problem in question lies in revealing the differences in the quality of control systems of animal physiological functions. For this purpose the ''perturbation'' effect (hypoxic load) is used and with the help of computers the characteristics of transition processes in the systems are analyzed for two classes of animals compared (irradiation survivors and non-survivors). For the irradiation retrieval the forecast error was 9.7 per cent. The experiments were conducted on the white nonlinear mice. Each animal was placed into hermetic chamber and subjected to anoxic hypoxia for 5 min at 10 per cent oxygen content in the inhaled Mixture. Then the mixture was replaced by common air for 2 min and during the subsequent 5 min the aftereffect reaction was recorded after 1.5-2 week examination the animals were gamma irradiated at the dose of 750 R and the dose rate of 355 R/min and the survival was determined by the 30th day

  17. Linear Approach for Initial Recovery of the Exterior Orientation Parameters of Randomly Captured Images by Low-Cost Mobile Mapping Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, F.; Habib, A.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we present a novel linear approach for the initial recovery of the exterior orientation parameters (EOPs) of images. Similar to the conventional Structure from Motion (SfM) algorithm, the proposed approach is based on a two-step strategy. In the first step, the relative orientation of all possible image stereo-pairs is estimated. In the second step, a local coordinate frame is established, and an incremental image augmentation process is implemented to reference all the remaining images into a local coordinate frame. Since our approach is based on a linear solution for both the relative orientation estimation as well as the initial recovery of the image EOPs, it does not require any initial approximation for the optimization process. Another advantage of our approach is that it does not require any prior knowledge regarding the sequence of the image collection procedure, therefore, it can handle a set of randomly collected images in the absence of GNSS/INS information. In order to illustrate the feasibility of our approach, several experimental tests are conducted on real datasets captured in either a block or linear trajectory configuration. The results demonstrate that the initial image EOPs obtained are accurate and can serve as a good initialization for an additional bundle adjustment process.

  18. Determining the interviewer effect on CQ Index outcomes: a multilevel approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winters Sjenny

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The CQ Index for the elderly, a quality-of-care questionnaire administered by conducting interviews, is used to assess clients' experiences in Dutch nursing homes and homes for the elderly. This article describes whether inter-interviewer differences influence the perceived quality of healthcare services reported by residents, the size of this interviewer effect and the influence of the interviewer characteristics on CQ Index dimensions for public reporting. Methods Data from 4345 questionnaires was used. Correlations were calculated, reliability analyses were performed, and a multilevel analysis was used to calculate the degree of correlation between two interviewers within one health care institution. Five models were constructed and the Intra Class Correlation (ICC was calculated. Healthcare institutions were given 1-5 stars on every quality dimensions (1 = worst and 5 = best, adjusted for resident and interviewer characteristics. The effect of these characteristics on the assignment of the stars was investigated. Results In a multilevel approach, the ICC showed a significant amount of variance on five quality dimensions. Of the interviewer characteristics, only previous interviewing experience, the reason of interviewing and general knowledge of health care had a significant effect on the quality dimensions. Adjusting for interviewer characteristics did not affect the overall star assignment to the institutions regarding 7 of 12 quality dimensions. For the other five dimensions (Shared decision-making, Meals, Professional competency, Autonomy, and Availability of personnel a minor effect was found. Conclusions We have shown that training, the use of experienced interviewers, written instructions, supervision and educational meetings do not automatically prevent interviewer effects. While the results of this study can be used to improve the quality of services provided by these institutions, several CQ index dimensions should be interpreted with caution for external purposes (accountability and transparency.

  19. One-Year Outcomes of the SAVE Study: Sirolimus as a Therapeutic Approach for UVEitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohamed A.; Sepah, Yasir J.; Watters, Anthony; Bittencourt, Millena; Vigil, Erin M.; Do, Diana V.; Nguyen, Quan Dong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the efficacy and safety of repeated intravitreal and subconjunctival administrations of sirolimus in patients with noninfectious uveitis at 1 year in the Sirolimus as a Therapeutic Approach UVEitis (SAVE) Study. Methods Open-label, prospective, and randomized interventional clinical trial in which 30 patients with noninfectious intermediate, posterior, or panuveitis were randomized 1:1 to receive sirolimus 352-?g intravitreal or 1320-?g subconjunctival. Sirolimus was administered at days 0, 60, and 120. At month 6, all subjects were allowed to receive sirolimus at intervals greater than or equal to 2 months and until month 12. Changes in vitreous haze (VH), visual acuity (VA), and retinal thickness at month 12 were compared with baseline. Results Of patients with active uveitis at baseline (n = 20), 70% showed greater than or equal to 2 steps reduction of VH at month 12 (P < 0.05), 88% (n = 7) of patients with inactive uveitis at baseline showed either no change or reduction of VH to no haze, 36% (n = 10) of all patients (n = 28) gained greater than or equal to one line of VA, 21% (n = 6) lost greater than or equal to 1 line, and 43% (n = 12) showed no change. At the end of 1 year, no statistical differences in efficacy were found between intravitreal and subconjunctival groups. No serious adverse events were determined to be secondary to sirolimus. Conclusions Repeated subconjunctival/intravitreal injections of sirolimus appear to be tolerated by patients with noninfectious uveitis over 12 months. Results from the index study suggest that sirolimus may provide benefits to patients with uveitis. Both intravitreal and subconjunctival routes demonstrate similar bioactivity/efficacy. The intravitreal route, however, was better tolerated. Translational Relevance The SAVE Study illustrates for the first time the application of local formulations of sirolimus in non-infectious intermediate, posterior, and pan-uveitis. Subconjunctival/Intravitreal sirolimus may help to control inflammation while offering better tolerability/safety profiles than systemic therapies, including immunosuppressants and corticosteroids. PMID:25774330

  20. Effects of dual blockade of the renin–angiotensin system on renal and cardiovascular outcomes in type 2 diabetes with overt nephropathy and hypertension in the ORIENT: a post-hoc analysis (ORIENT–Hypertension)

    OpenAIRE

    Imai, Enyu; Haneda, Masakazu; Yamasaki, Tetsu; Kobayashi, Fumiaki; Harada, Atsushi; Ito, Sadayoshi; Chan, Juliana Cn; Makino, Hirofumi

    2013-01-01

    Combination therapy with angiotensin II receptor blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) requires further evaluation in patients with diabetic nephropathy and hypertension. In a post hoc analysis of the Olmesartan Reducing Incidence of Endstage renal disease in diabetic Nephropathy Trial with hypertension, we examined the effects of olmesartan on renal and cardiovascular outcomes in the presence or absence of an ACEI. Among 563 patients randomized to receive either olmes...

  1. An Adaptive Approach to Family-Centered Intervention in Schools: Linking Intervention Engagement to Academic Outcomes in Middle and High School

    OpenAIRE

    Stormshak, Elizabeth A.; Connell, Arin; Dishion, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the impact of an adaptive approach to family intervention in public schools on academic outcomes from age 11 to 17. Students were randomly assigned to the three-session Family Check-Up (FCU), which is designed to motivate change in parenting practices by using an assessment-driven approach and strengths-based feedback. All services were voluntary, and approximately 25% of the families engaged in the FCU. Compared with matched controls, adolescents whose parents received th...

  2. A Multimodal Approach Including Craniospinal Irradiation Improves the Treatment Outcome of High-risk Intracranial Nongerminomatous Germ Cell Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jun Won [Department of Radiation Oncology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Woo Chul [Department of Radiation Oncology, Inha University College of Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jae Ho [Department of Radiation Oncology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong-Seok; Shim, Kyu-Won [Department of Neurosurgery, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lyu, Chul Joo; Won, Sung Chul [Department of Pediatrics, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Chang-Ok, E-mail: cosuh317@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiation Oncology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether a multimodal approach including craniospinal irradiation (CSI) improves treatment outcome in nongerminomatous germ cell tumor (NGGCT) patients. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the records of 32 patients with NGGCTs. Fourteen patients belonged to the intermediate prognosis group (immature teratoma, teratoma with malignant transformation, and mixed tumors mainly composed of germinoma or teratoma), and 18 patients belonged to the poor prognosis group (other highly malignant tumors). Patients with pure germinoma or mature teratoma were excluded from this study. Nineteen patients were treated with a combination of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy (RT); 9 patients received chemotherapy plus RT; 3 patients received surgery plus RT; and 1 patient received RT alone. Twenty-seven patients received CSI with a median of 36 Gy (range, 20-41 Gy) plus focal boost of 18-30.6 Gy, and 5 patients received whole-brain RT (WBRT) (20-36 Gy) or focal RT (50.4-54 Gy). The rate of total and subtotal resection was 71.9%. The median follow-up for surviving patients was 121 months. Results: Treatment failed in 7 patients. Three of the 5 patients who received focal RT or WBRT had local failure. Four cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) failures occurred after CSI. No failure occurred in the intermediate prognosis group. Ten-year recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) for all patients were 77.6% and 74.6%, respectively. Ten-year RFS for the intermediate and poor prognosis groups were 100% and 61.1%, respectively (p = 0.012). OS for the two groups were 85.1% and 66.7%, respectively (p = 0.215). Tumor histology and CSI were significant prognostic factors for RFS, and CSI was significantly associated with OS. Conclusions: A multimodal approach was effective for treating NGGCTs. CSI should be considered for patients with poor prognostic histology.

  3. A Multimodal Approach Including Craniospinal Irradiation Improves the Treatment Outcome of High-risk Intracranial Nongerminomatous Germ Cell Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate whether a multimodal approach including craniospinal irradiation (CSI) improves treatment outcome in nongerminomatous germ cell tumor (NGGCT) patients. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the records of 32 patients with NGGCTs. Fourteen patients belonged to the intermediate prognosis group (immature teratoma, teratoma with malignant transformation, and mixed tumors mainly composed of germinoma or teratoma), and 18 patients belonged to the poor prognosis group (other highly malignant tumors). Patients with pure germinoma or mature teratoma were excluded from this study. Nineteen patients were treated with a combination of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy (RT); 9 patients received chemotherapy plus RT; 3 patients received surgery plus RT; and 1 patient received RT alone. Twenty-seven patients received CSI with a median of 36 Gy (range, 20–41 Gy) plus focal boost of 18–30.6 Gy, and 5 patients received whole-brain RT (WBRT) (20–36 Gy) or focal RT (50.4–54 Gy). The rate of total and subtotal resection was 71.9%. The median follow-up for surviving patients was 121 months. Results: Treatment failed in 7 patients. Three of the 5 patients who received focal RT or WBRT had local failure. Four cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) failures occurred after CSI. No failure occurred in the intermediate prognosis group. Ten-year recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) for all patients were 77.6% and 74.6%, respectively. Ten-year RFS for the intectively. Ten-year RFS for the intermediate and poor prognosis groups were 100% and 61.1%, respectively (p = 0.012). OS for the two groups were 85.1% and 66.7%, respectively (p = 0.215). Tumor histology and CSI were significant prognostic factors for RFS, and CSI was significantly associated with OS. Conclusions: A multimodal approach was effective for treating NGGCTs. CSI should be considered for patients with poor prognostic histology.

  4. Measuring health outcomes of a multidisciplinary care approach in individuals with chronic environmental conditions using an abbreviated symptoms questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Fox

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Roy Fox1, Tara Sampalli1, Jonathan Fox11Nova Scotia Environmental Health Centre, Fall River, NS, CanadaAbstract: The Nova Scotia Environmental Health Centre is a treatment facility for individuals with chronic environmental conditions such as multiple chemical sensitivity, chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, chronic respiratory conditions and in some cases chronic pain. The premise of care is to provide a patient-centred multidisciplinary care approach leading to self-management strategies. In order to measure the outcome of the treatment in these complex problems, with overlapping diagnoses, symptoms in many body systems and suspected environmental triggers, a detailed symptoms questionnaire was developed specifically for this patient population and validated. Results from a pilot study in which an abbreviated symptoms questionnaire based on the top reported symptoms captured in previous research was used to measure the efficacy of a multidisciplinary care approach in individuals with multiple chemical sensitivity are presented in this paper. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent, type and patterns of changes over time in the top reported symptoms with treatment measured using the abbreviated symptoms questionnaire. A total of 183 active and 109 discharged patients participated in the study where the health status was measured at different time periods of follow up since the commencement of treatment at the Centre. The findings from this study were successful in generating an initial picture of the nature and type of changes in these symptoms. For instance, symptoms such as difficulty concentrating, sinus conditions and tiredness showed early improvement, within the first 6 months of being in treatment, while others, such as fatigue, hoarseness or loss of voice, took longer while others showed inconsistent changes warranting further enquiry. A controlled longitudinal study is planned to confirm the findings of the pilot study.Keywords: multiple chemical sensitivity, multidisciplinary, chronic conditions

  5. Use of a mini-instrument in endoscopic thyroidectomy via a breast approach to improve cosmetic outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Dang, Chenpo; Shan, Chengxiang; Liu, Sheng; Jiang, Zhiguo; Wang, Bin; Qiu, Ming

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the clinical benefits of using a mini-instrument during endoscopic thyroidectomy via a breast approach (ETBA). Surgery-related indices and cosmetic results were compared for 20 patients underwent ETBA with a mini-instrument (ETBA-m) and 20 patients who underwent standard ETBA (sETBA). Patients were closely matched in terms of age, gender, tumor size, and pathology. Patients who underwent sETBA had a significantly larger area of dissection and total length of incisions compared to patients who underwent ETBA-m (136.25 ± 19.22 cm(2)vs. 105.25 ± 9.54 cm(2), p cosmetic appearance after they were shown a picture of the scars of a patient who underwent sETBA. Results of this study revealed that use of a mini-instrument in ETBA is technically safe and feasible and it offers improved cosmetic outcomes compared to sETBA. PMID:25382445

  6. Identifying mangrove species and their surrounding land use and land cover classes using object-oriented approach with a lacunarity spatial measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myint, S.W.; Giri, C.P.; Wang, L.; Zhu, Z.; Gillete, S.C.

    2008-01-01

    Accurate and reliable information on the spatial distribution of mangrove species is needed for a wide variety of applications, including sustainable management of mangrove forests, conservation and reserve planning, ecological and biogeographical studies, and invasive species management. Remotely sensed data have been used for such purposes with mixed results. Our study employed an object-oriented approach with the use of a lacunarity technique to identify different mangrove species and their surrounding land use and land cover classes in a tsunami-affected area of Thailand using Landsat satellite data. Our results showed that the object-oriented approach with lacunarity-transformed bands is more accurate (over-all accuracy 94.2%; kappa coefficient = 0.91) than traditional per-pixel classifiers (overall accuracy 62.8%; and kappa coefficient = 0.57). Copyright ?? 2008 by Bellwether Publishing, Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Strategic Role of Customer Orientation in Differentiation Strategy and Organizational Performance Nexus: A Partial Least Square (PLS) Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Haim Hilman; Narentheren Kaliappen

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the nexus of differentiation strategy and organizational performance with customer orientation as a mediator in setting of the hotel industry in Malaysia. Data were gathered through a survey using mail and email questionnaire with a sample of 60 three to five star hotels. Smart PLS 2.0 (M3) was used to test the hypotheses. Findings suggest that customer orientation mediates the relationship of differentiation strategy and performance. This study is brid...

  8. Agent Oriented Software Engineering. A Motivation for and an Introduction to a Novel Approach to Modeling and Development of Open Distributed Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavsson, Rune

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to give a short motivation for and an introduction to a novel approach of how to view and develop flexible open distributed systems of the future. We propose that the emerging style of Agent Oriented Sofnyare Engineering (AOSE) has high potentials as a candidate for future models of system development. We indicate in this paper some recent and upcoming applications of AO-SE. Furthermore, we round off the paper by giving an overview of an ong...

  9. An Investigation of Export Practices and Performance across Global Mindset Orientations

    OpenAIRE

    Koh, Anthony C.; Gammoh, Bashar S.; Okoroafo, Sam C.

    2013-01-01

    Extant literatures suggest three different approaches to decision making for operating a firm internationally: ethnocentric, polycentric, and geocentric. This study investigated differences in firm characteristics, export marketing strategies and export performance outcomes across these three orientations on a sample of North American (Canadian and U.S.) firms. The findings revealed major differences in examined variables across these decision-making orientations. While global mindset seemed ...

  10. The Use of Quality Improvement and Health Information Technology Approaches to Improve Diabetes Outcomes in African-American and Hispanic Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Arshiya A.; Wilkes, Abigail E.; Davis, Andrew M.; Peek, Monica E.; Huang, Elbert S.; Bell, Douglas S.; Chin, Marshall H.

    2011-01-01

    Differences in rates of diabetes-related lower extremity amputations represent one of the largest and most persistent health disparities found for African-Americans and Hispanics compared to whites in the United States. Since many minority patients receive care in under-resourced settings, quality improvement (QI) initiatives in these settings may offer a targeted approach to improve diabetes outcomes in these patient populations. Health information technology (health IT) is widely viewed as an essential component of health care QI and may be useful in decreasing diabetes disparities in under-resourced settings. This article reviews the effectiveness of health care interventions utilizing health IT to improve diabetes process of care and intermediate diabetes outcomes in African-American and Hispanic patients. Health IT interventions have addressed patient, provider, and system challenges in the provision of diabetes care but require further testing in minority patient populations to evaluate their effectiveness in improving diabetes outcomes and reducing diabetes-related complications. PMID:20675350

  11. A joint-modeling approach to assess the impact of biomarker variability on the risk of developing clinical outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Feng; Miller, J Philip; Xiong, Chengjie; Beiser, Julia A; Gordon, Mae

    2011-03-01

    In some clinical trials and epidemiologic studies, investigators are interested in knowing whether the variability of a biomarker is independently predictive of clinical outcomes. This question is often addressed via a naïve approach where a sample-based estimate (e.g., standard deviation) is calculated as a surrogate for the "true" variability and then used in regression models as a covariate assumed to be free of measurement error. However, it is well known that the measurement error in covariates causes underestimation of the true association. The issue of underestimation can be substantial when the precision is low because of limited number of measures per subject. The joint analysis of survival data and longitudinal data enables one to account for the measurement error in longitudinal data and has received substantial attention in recent years. In this paper we propose a joint model to assess the predictive effect of biomarker variability. The joint model consists of two linked sub-models, a linear mixed model with patient-specific variance for longitudinal data and a full parametric Weibull distribution for survival data, and the association between two models is induced by a latent Gaussian process. Parameters in the joint model are estimated under Bayesian framework and implemented using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods with WinBUGS software. The method is illustrated in the Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study to assess whether the variability of intraocular pressure is an independent risk of primary open-angle glaucoma. The performance of the method is also assessed by simulation studies. PMID:21339862

  12. Concepts and Features of Aspect-Oriented Programming using Aspect.Net Framework: A New Approach to Modularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakshi Mundra

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aspect Oriented Programming methodology is based on the idea that computer systems can be programmed very efficiently by specifying the various concerns of a system and some description of their relationships separately and then relying the mechanisms in the underlying AOP environment to weave them together into a coherent program automatically. The term Aspect Oriented Programming includes Multidimensional Separation of Concerns, along with Subject Oriented Programming, Adaptive Programming and Composition Filters. Multidimensional Separation of Concerns (MDSOC permits the encapsulation of various kinds of concerns simultaneously and the integration of separate concerns. The Aspect.NET Framework is implemented as an add-in to visual studio.NET. Now, the user can use Aspect.NET in combination to the integration development environment provided by Visual Studio.NET and all its various features for the development of software applications using AOP methodology.

  13. Religious orientation and life aspirations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Patrick R; Clayton, Spencer; Swinyard, William

    2015-04-01

    The effects of religiosity on well-being appear to depend on religious orientation, with intrinsic orientation being related to positive outcomes and extrinsic orientation being related to neutral or negative outcomes. It is not clear, however, why intrinsic and extrinsic religiosity has the relationships they do. Self-determination theory may provide a useful framework of intrinsic and extrinsic aspirations that may help to answer this question. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether intrinsic and extrinsic religiosity would be related to intrinsic and extrinsic life aspirations. We hypothesized that intrinsic religiosity would be positively related to intrinsic life aspirations and negatively related with extrinsic life aspirations, and that extrinsic religiosity would be positively related to extrinsic life aspirations and negatively related to intrinsic aspirations, and that life aspirations would partially mediate the relationships between religious orientation and outcome. To study these hypotheses, a random national sample (total number of 425, average age of 52, 59 % female) completed the measures of religious orientation, life aspirations, affect, and life satisfaction. It was found that intrinsic religiosity was positively related to positive affect, life satisfaction, and intrinsic life aspirations and was negatively related to negative affect and extrinsic life aspirations. Extrinsic religiosity was positively related to extrinsic life aspirations and was not related to the intrinsic life aspirations. When both religious orientation and life aspiration variables were included together in the model predicting outcome, both remained significant indicating that religious orientation and life aspirations are independent predictors of outcome. In conclusion, although religious orientation and life aspirations are significantly related to each other and to outcome, life aspirations did not mediate the effects of religious orientation. Therefore, self-determination theory does not appear to completely account for the effects of religious orientation. PMID:24474550

  14. Multiple-Quantum NMR Spectra of Partially Oriented Indene: A New Approach to Estimating Order in a Nematic Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Leslie D.; Ramadan, Saadallah A.; Pierens, Gregory K.

    2002-05-01

    Multiple-quantum proton NMR spectra of the 8-spin system of indene partially oriented in a nematic mesophase were acquired using a magnetic field gradient (MFG) method. Six-, seven- and eight-quantum spectra were solved to yield all intramolecular dipolar couplings (Dij) which were used to determine the molecular shape. The spectral widths of multiple-quantum spectra are dependent on molecular orientation and geometry and a novel method was developed to estimate the Saupe order parameters from the observed spectral widths of the high-order multiple-quantum spectra.

  15. Effect on birth outcomes of a formalised approach to care in hospital labour assessment units: international, randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Hodnett, Ellen D.; Stremler, Robyn; Willan, Andrew R.; Weston, Julie A.; Lowe, Nancy K.; Simpson, Kathleen R.; Fraser, William D.; Gafni, Amiram

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine if a complex nursing and midwifery intervention in hospital labour assessment units would increase the likelihood of spontaneous vaginal birth and improve other maternal and neonatal outcomes.

  16. A Geometric Morphometric Approach to the Analysis of Lip Shape during Speech: Development of a Clinical Outcome Measure

    OpenAIRE

    Popat, Hashmat; Richmond, Stephen; Zhurov, Alexei I.; Rosin, Paul L.; Marshall, David

    2013-01-01

    Objective assessments of lip movement can be beneficial in many disciplines including visual speech recognition, for surgical outcome assessment in patients with cleft lip and for the rehabilitation of patients with facial nerve impairments. The aim of this study was to develop an outcome measure for lip shape during speech using statistical shape analysis techniques. Lip movements during speech were captured from a sample of adult subjects considered as average using a three-dimensional moti...

  17. Object oriented programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is an introduction to object oriented programming techniques. It tries to explain the concepts by using analogies with traditional programming. The object oriented approach not inherently difficult, but most programmers find a relatively high threshold in learning it. Thus, this paper will attempt to convey the concepts with examples rather than explain the formal theory

  18. A Systems Approach towards Intra-Arterial Management of Acute Ischemic Stroke: Need for Novel Outcome Measures and a Focus on Sequence rather than Steps

    OpenAIRE

    Menon, B. K.; Goyal, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this editorial, we seek to focus attention of neurointerventionists and stroke physicians towards a systems approach to the intra-arterial management of acute ischemic stroke. We highlight the need to pay attention to the overall sequence and workflow of a neurointerventional procedure rather than individual steps. We also stress the importance of novel outcome measures in analyzing procedural efficacy when managing patients with acute ischemic stroke.

  19. The Use of Quality Improvement and Health Information Technology Approaches to Improve Diabetes Outcomes in African-American and Hispanic Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Baig, Arshiya A.; Wilkes, Abigail E.; Davis, Andrew M.; Peek, Monica E.; Huang, Elbert S.; Bell, Douglas S.; Chin, Marshall H.

    2010-01-01

    Differences in rates of diabetes-related lower extremity amputations represent one of the largest and most persistent health disparities found for African-Americans and Hispanics compared to whites in the United States. Since many minority patients receive care in under-resourced settings, quality improvement (QI) initiatives in these settings may offer a targeted approach to improve diabetes outcomes in these patient populations. Health information technology (health IT) is widely viewed as ...

  20. Measuring and recording outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, P J

    2012-07-01

    Achieving good health outcomes for patients is the fundamental purpose of healthcare. What really matters to patients is the outcome of an intervention and the effect it will have on their wellbeing and life expectancy. After media coverage, and public enquiry into high mortality rates for paediatric cardiac surgery at the Bristol Royal Infirmary during the early 1990s, mortality rates for paediatric cardiac surgical procedures decreased dramatically both in Bristol and nationally. There can be little doubt that one of the prime 'drivers for change' was the placement of outcome data into the public domain. After events in Bristol, the Society for Cardiothoracic Surgery in Britain and Ireland (SCTS) has taken the lead in measuring and publishing clinical outcome data. It has also discussed how outcome data could be used to assess an individual's clinical performance and how, in the future, this might be linked to continuing professional development, appraisal, and revalidation. Measuring quality and outcome in healthcare is complex. Ideal outcome measures should be specific, sensitive, reliable, responsive, validated, timely, and easy to measure. Monitoring of outcomes can be 'process' orientated or 'clinically' orientated. The 2010 National Health Service (NHS) White Paper aimed for an NHS which 'moves away from centrally driven process targets and focuses on delivering outcomes which matter to people'. Measuring outcome in anaesthesia is problematic. There are issues around clinical coding, risk adjustment, the influence of clinical teamworking, and environmental factors. The National Institute of Academic Anaesthesia (NIAA) has identified that the description of clinical practice in anaesthesia and perioperative medicine is currently limited by a lack of valid, reliable quality measures. The NIAA suggests that there is a requirement for further research into identifying the anaesthetic outcome indicators which are most relevant to patients, and then benchmarking the performance of anaesthetic departments and anaesthetists. PMID:22654098

  1. Use of a group concept mapping approach to define learning outcomes for an interdisciplinary module in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyanov, Slavi; Spoelstra, Howard; Bennett, Deirdre; Sweeney, Catherine; Van Huffel, Sabine; Shorten, George; O'Flynn, Siun; Cantillon-Murphy, Padraig; O'Tuathaigh, Colm; Burgoyne, Louise

    2014-06-01

    Learning outcomes are typically developed using standard group-based consensus methods. Two main constraints with standard techniques such as the Delphi method or expert working group processes are: (1) the ability to generate a comprehensive set of outcomes and (2) the capacity to reach agreement on them. We describe the first application of Group Concept Mapping (GCM) to the development of learning outcomes for an interdisciplinary module in medicine and engineering. The biomedical design module facilitates undergraduate participation in clinician-mentored team-based projects that prepare students for a multidisciplinary work environment. GCM attempts to mitigate the weaknesses of other consensus methods by excluding pre-determined classification schemes and inter-coder discussion, and by requiring just one round of data structuring. Academic members from medicine and engineering schools at three EU higher education institutions participated in this study. Data analysis, which included multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analysis, identified two main categories of outcomes: technical skills (new advancement in design process with special attention to users, commercialization and standardization) and transversal skills such as working effectively in teams and creative problem solving. The study emphasizes the need to address the highest order of learning taxonomy (analysis, synthesis, problem solving, creativity) when defining learning outcomes. PMID:24323801

  2. A new approach for the automatic evaluation of the solidification structure in steel using orientational entropy filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesser, S; O'Leary, P

    2014-02-01

    We present a new method for the automatic evaluation of the dendritic solidification structure in metallurgical micrographs of solidified steel. The evaluation of the microstructural parameters such as the primary dendrite arm spacing and the primary grain size are of high importance due to their direct relationship with the internal quality and mechanical properties of the cast product. Given the repeated geometric features in the micrographs and the regular pattern in colour intensity, we applied a filter mask to determine the local entropies within the masks in order to detect the centre coordinates of each individual dendrite. The orientation of the dendrites was determined by rotating the filter mask over each pixel to find the orientation which corresponds to the lowest entropy value. The segmentation of the microstructure was then performed via Delaunay tessellation and subsequent transformation of the triangular mesh into a rectangular grid, enabling the determination of the desired microstructural parameters. PMID:24350716

  3. Semantic Oriented Agent based Approach towards Engineering Data Management, Web Information Retrieval and User System Communication Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Zeeshan; Gerhard, Detlef

    2010-01-01

    The four intensive problems to the software rose by the software industry .i.e., User System Communication / Human Machine Interface, Meta Data extraction, Information processing & management and Data representation are discussed in this research paper. To contribute in the field we have proposed and described an intelligent semantic oriented agent based search engine including the concepts of intelligent graphical user interface, natural language based information processin...

  4. Valuing the contribution of knowledge-oriented workers to projects: a merit based approach in the construction industry

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrdad Arashpour; Majeed Shabanikia; Mohammadreza Arashpour

    2012-01-01

    Evidence points to the fact that frequent resignation of project engineers from construction companies is primarily the result of dissatisfaction with the factors that shape the salary scale. This research aims to identify the major influencing factors in merit based salary calculation systems for knowledge-oriented engineers so as to more accurately reflect their contribution to construction projects. Results from a questionnaire sent to managers, engineers and HR professionals throughout th...

  5. Facilitating innovation: an action-oriented approach and participatory methodology to improve innovative social practice in agriculture.

    OpenAIRE

    Engel, P. G. H.

    1995-01-01

    This study focuses upon the social organization of innovation. It makes use of insights from knowledge and information systems research, development sociology, management science and applied philosophy and seeks answers to the following questions: What do social actors, individuals and/or organizations, actually do to innovate their practices? How do they organize themselves? Can this be managed or facilitated, and if so, how? The research is exploratory rather than conclusion-oriented and sy...

  6. Semantic Oriented Agent based Approach towards Engineering Data Management, Web Information Retrieval and User System Communication Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, Zeeshan

    2010-01-01

    The four intensive problems to the software rose by the software industry .i.e., User System Communication / Human Machine Interface, Meta Data extraction, Information processing & management and Data representation are discussed in this research paper. To contribute in the field we have proposed and described an intelligent semantic oriented agent based search engine including the concepts of intelligent graphical user interface, natural language based information processing, data management and data reconstruction for the final user end information representation.

  7. Aspect Oriented Requirements Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Yakout A. Mohamed

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Requirements engineering techniques that explicitly recognize the importance of clearly identifying and treating crosscutting concerns are called Aspect-oriented Requirements Engineering Approaches (AORE approaches. The emergence of aspect-oriented programming languages has raised the explicit need to identify crosscutting concerns already during the analysis phase. Besides this observation, the modular representation of crosscutting requirements is a first step to ensure traceability of crosscutting concerns through all other artifacts of the software lifecycle (architecture, design and implementation.Aspect-oriented requirements engineering approaches improve existing requirements engineering approaches through an explicit representation (and modularization of concerns that were otherwise spread throughout other requirements artifacts (such as use cases, goal models, viewpoints, etc..AORE approaches adopt the principle of separation of concerns at the analysis phase (the early separation of concerns. In other words, AORE approaches provide a representation of crosscutting concerns in requirements artifacts.

  8. Origins and Outcomes of Judgments about Work

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Monica Kirkpatrick; Mortimer, Jeylan T.

    2011-01-01

    We evaluate the importance of judgments about work for the attainment process in the “new economy.” Findings show continuing links between social origins and work orientations at age 21/22, as well as significant impacts of work orientations on occupational outcomes at age 31/32. Higher socioeconomic status background, and stronger self-perceived ability, are tied to weaker extrinsic orientations. Young women are more intrinsically oriented than young men. Stronger intrinsic orientations ...

  9. Relação entre gênero e orientação sexual a partir da perspectiva evolucionista Relation between gender and sexual orientation from the evolutionary approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Beckmann Menezes

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo trata da relação entre gênero e orientação sexual a partir da perspectiva interacionista da Psicologia Evolucionista e da análise de diferentes elementos da sexualidade humana. Procurou-se discutir a literatura existente sobre os conceitos de gênero e de orientação sexual, com base nos quatro porquês da Etologia. Propõe-se a existência de múltiplas origens para a orientação sexual, sendo uma delas relacionada aos padrões típicos de gênero e à identidade de gênero. Isso levaria à identificação com indivíduos do mesmo sexo ou do sexo oposto e, consequentemente, à atração pelo grupo diferente daquele com o qual se desenvolveu a identificação. Essa perspectiva integra pré-disposições biológicas à análise de influências culturais, compreendendo, como complementares, vertentes teóricas usualmente tidas como contraditórias.This study addresses the relationship between gender and sexual orientation from the interacionist perspective of Evolutionary Psychology and the analysis of various aspects of human sexuality. This article aimed to discuss existing literature about gender and sexual orientation, based on four questions of Ethology. It's proposed that sexual orientation has multiple origins, and that one of those is related to typical patterns of gender and gender identity. This would lead to identification with same-sex or opposite-sex individuals, and hence, to the attraction for the group different from the one to which identification was established. This approach integrates biological pre-dispositions to the analysis of cultural influences, understanding, as complementary, theoretical views that are usually stated as contradictory.

  10. Revisión de un Enfoque Modular de Programación Orientada a Aspectos / A Review of a Modular Approach of Aspect-Oriented Programming

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cristian L, Vidal; Sabino E, Rivero; Rodolfo F, Schmal; Jenny D, Morales.

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se muestra el enfoque modular de programación orientada a aspectos de interfaces de puntos de unión o JPI para el lenguaje de programación Java, Se analiza también las principales diferencias y ventajas de JPI respecto a la metodología clásica de programación orientada a aspectos par [...] a Java (AspectJ) con el fin de obtener una programación orientada a aspectos de tipo modular. Adicionalmente, se propone una extensión del diagrama de clases UML para el diseño estructural y conceptual de aplicaciones JPI. Como ejemplo de aplicación, se presenta y describe un caso de programación en AspectJ y JPI, junto con un modelo de diagramas de clases UML del programa ejemplo, usando la propuesta de modelación de este trabajo. Se concluye que la propuesta de diagramas de clases UML JPI permite la definición de clases ingenuas, un elemento esencial para lograr una completa adaptación y transformación de soluciones de programación orientada a aspectos en soluciones JPI. Abstract in english In this paper the modular approach of aspect-oriented programming named join point interfaces or JPI for the Java programming language is discussed. Also, the main differences and advantages of JPI over the classical methodology of aspect-oriented programming for Java (AspectJ) are analyzed with the [...] aim of achieving a modular aspect-oriented programming. In addition, an extension of UML class diagram for the structural and conceptual design of JPI applications is proposed. As a study case, a programming example in AspectJ and JPI, along with a UML class diagram model of the study case, using the modeling proposed in this work, is presented. It is concluded that the proposed class diagram UML JPI allows defining an ingenuous class, an essential element for achieving a complete adaptation and transformation of aspect-oriented programming into JPI solutions.

  11. Comparing the Contexts of Middle-Grade Schools, Their Instructional Practices, and Their Outcomes: A Regression Discontinuity Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Elias; Heck, Ronald H.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe an alternative means of estimating school effectiveness, referred to as an "absolute year" of schooling and demonstrate its usefulness as a measure of school effectiveness in the middle grades. More specifically, the study investigated (a) whether the absolute schooling effect in math and reading outcomes

  12. Technology Education Using a Novel Approach in e-Learning-Towards Optimizing the Quality of Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkawi, M. I.; Hawarey, M. M.

    2012-04-01

    Ever since the advent of the new era in presenting taught material in Electronic Form, international bodies, academic institutions, public sectors, as well as specialized entities in the private sector, globally, have all persevered to exploit the power of Distance Learning and e-Learning to disseminate the knowledge in Science and Art using the ubiquitous World Wide Web and its supporting Internet and Internetworking. Many Science & Education-sponsoring bodies, like UNESCO, the European Community, and the World Bank have been keen at funding multinational Distance Learning projects, many of which were directed at an educated audience in certain technical areas. Many countries around the Middle East have found a number of interested European partners to launch funding requests, and were generally successful in their solicitation efforts for the needed funds from these funding bodies. Albeit their intricacies in generating a wealth of knowledge in electronic form, many of the e-Learning schemas developed thus far, have only pursued their goals in the most conventional of ways; In essence, there had been little innovation introduced to gain anything, if any, above traditional classroom lecturing, other than, of course, the gained advantage of the simultaneous online testing and evaluation of the learned material by the examinees. In a sincere effort to change the way in which people look at the merits of e-Learning, and seek the most out of it, we shall propose a novel approach aimed at optimizing the learning outcomes of presented materials. In this paper we propose what shall henceforth be called as Iterative e-Learning. In Iterative e-Learning, as the name implies, a student uses some form of electronic media to access course material in a specific subject. At the end of each phase (Section, Chapter, Session, etc.) on a specific topic, the student is assessed online of how much he/she would have achieved before he/she would move on. If the student fails, due to some delinquency on a particular topic, the online process of e-Learning would take the student at some more detailed and deeper level on the subject matter where he/she had failed; once the student bridges the gap, to this end, then the ongoing e-Learning process would carry him/her further up the next level of the subject matter he/she is pursuing. This process is carried on at all levels of learning: section, chapter, and course level. A student may not progress to the next course level before he/she would pass the entire course at 80% or more. If in the process of repeating some section, chapter, or a whole course, then the student shall be required to score a higher percentage than the mere 80% he was required to attain the first time around; say 5% more per iteration he/she makes. Here, students going through Iterative e-Learning shall be allowed to move on to the next level of learning sooner than others if the time that takes them to learn a particular topic is shorter than would normally require an average student to expend, provided, of course, they make it through all the required assessment phases. Unlike the traditional ways of classroom or online lecturing, a student going through Iterative e-Learning is expected to achieve a quality of learning never before achieved via standard pedagogical methodologies. With Iterative e-Learning, it is expected that poorly accredited academic institutions will be able, for the first time, to produce the quality of graduates who are more capable of competing for highly paying jobs globally, and to be of the quality of contributing in more industry-supported economies.

  13. An adaptive approach to family-centered intervention in schools: linking intervention engagement to academic outcomes in middle and high school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stormshak, Elizabeth A; Connell, Arin; Dishion, Thomas J

    2009-09-01

    This study examined the impact of an adaptive approach to family intervention in public schools on academic outcomes from age 11 to 17. Students were randomly assigned to the three-session Family Check-Up (FCU), which is designed to motivate change in parenting practices by using an assessment-driven approach and strengths-based feedback. All services were voluntary, and approximately 25% of the families engaged in the FCU. Compared with matched controls, adolescents whose parents received the FCU maintained a satisfactory GPA into high school, and intervention engagement was associated with improved attendance. The highest-risk families were the most likely to engage in the family-centered intervention, suggesting the efficacy of integrating supportive services to families in the context of other schoolwide approaches to promote the success and achievement of vulnerable students. PMID:19390971

  14. Linking the actors and policies throughout the disaster management cycle by "Agreement on Objectives" – a new output-oriented management approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Greiving

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Current management of disaster risks is often fragmented due to a lack of coordination between involved actors, i.e. civil protection and spatial planning – a phenomenon which is known as the "problem of interplay". This paper presents an output-oriented risk management approach ("parametric governance". Here, the modality of the achievement of objectives remains in the hands of the given addressees. This implies a shift from a top-down to a more collaborative, process-oriented form of decision-making. The approach has been successfully applied in two hazard cases and three administrative contexts: (a the City of Dortmund (Germany facing flash floods, (b East Attica region (Greece facing forest fires, and (c Lazio Region (Italy also facing forest fires. As proved by the applications of the concept, a dialogue among experts, stakeholders, and decision-makers is indispensable in order to guarantee inclusion of all diverse and competing values, opinions, and claims. Moreover, a structured communication path is needed to meet the requirements of a risk governance process. Finally, a win-win-situation among the involved actors has to be created to reach an agreement on common goals and actions to achieve them in due time.

  15. Ab initio modeling approach towards establishing the structure and docking orientation of the Porphyromonas gingivalis FimA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueno, Marni E; Nagano, Keiji; Imai, Kenichi; Tamura, Muneaki; Yoshimura, Fuminobu; Ochiai, Kuniyasu

    2015-02-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis FimA is a major aetiological agent in periodontal disease development, however, its structure has never been determined. Here, we established the mature P. gingivalis FimA ab initio model of all six FimA variants. We determined the conserved amino acid sequences of each FimA variant and generated mature FimA models. Subsequently, we validated their quality, protein empirical distribution, and radius of gyration. Similarly, structural comparison and topological orientation were elucidated, and the probable protein-protein docking was investigated. We found that the putative mature FimA model is ?-sheet-rich and, likewise, we observed that each mature FimA model has varying levels of structural differences which can be topologically subdivided into the upper, middle, and lower FimA sections. Moreover, we found that the FimA epithelial cell-binding domain (EBD) is structurally conserved within the middle FimA section of all variants and FimA-FimA docking suggests that the FimA EBDs are oriented in opposite and alternating directions of each other. PMID:25424659

  16. Ideological Challenges to Changing Strategic Orientation in Commodity Agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Press, Melea; Arnould, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Why do some firms not change their strategic orientation despite economic incentives to do so? Most current literature on changing strategic orientations focuses on an antecedents and outcomes approach to business orientations. Intimated, but rarely addressed is, first, the idea that strategic orientations may be thought of as ideologies; and second, that such ideologies are likely to contend with each other. Taking such a perspective may be helpful in thinking about why transitioning to more sustainable strategic orientations is challenging even in the presence of financial incentives to make such changes. In assessing the transition to organic production and marketing in a commodity agriculture context we find that contending ideologies restrict its adoption. In addition, we suggest that strategic orientations are not adopted or contested solely within firms but also among them. We find that ideological contestation among firms in this context takes the form of a marketplace drama between a chemical, productonist and an organic orientation in which several forms of legitimacy are mobilized by protagonists.

  17. Maternal and neonatal outcomes of placenta previa and placenta accreta: three years of experience with a two-consultant approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ga, Kassem; Ak, Alzahrani

    2013-01-01

    Gamal A Kassem,1 Ali K Alzahrani21Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, King Abdul-Aziz Specialist Hospital, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaObjective: The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to evaluate maternal and neonatal outcomes in patients with placenta previa (PP) and placenta accreta (PA).Methods: The study population comprised all patients who had a cesarean section for PP and PA at a tertiary referral hospital in Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, ...

  18. A simplified approach for evaluating multiple test outcomes and multiple disease states in relation to the exercise thallium-201 stress test in suspected coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study describes a simplified approach for the interpretation of electrocardiographic and thallium-201 imaging data derived from the same patient during exercise. The 383 patients in this study had also undergone selective coronary arteriography within 3 months of the exercise test. This matrix approach allows for multiple test outcomes (both tests positive, both negative, 1 test positive and 1 negative) and multiple disease states (no coronary artery disease vs 1-vessel vs multivessel coronary artery disease). Because this approach analyzes the results of 2 test outcomes simultaneously rather than serially, it also negates the lack of test independence, if such an effect is present. It is also demonstrated that ST-segment depression on the electrocardiogram and defects on initial thallium-201 images provide conditionally independent information regarding the presence of coronary artery disease in patients without prior myocardial infarction. In contrast, ST-segment depression on the electrocardiogram and redistribution on the delayed thallium-201 images may not provide totally independent information regarding the presence of exercise-induced ischemia in patients with or without myocardial infarction

  19. Decoherence and definite outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Colanero, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    This thesis has three aims: (1) to clarify in detail the relation between the decoherence mechanism and the problem of definite outcomes, (2) to dispel common misconceptions about the measurement problem in quantum mechanics, and (3) to present some recent alternative approaches in the quest for a satisfactory solution of the definite outcomes problem.

  20. An agent-based and semantic service oriented approach for service discovery in Network Centric Warfare (NCW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Barati

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the new age one of the most challenging aspects of the information age is discovering the desired services with most accuracy and speed. In this paper a new semantic model is presented for the service discovering process in network centric warfare (NCW. The model is based on predefined ontology which is determined for the most important aspects of NCW in the application level. Services is based on a service oriented infrastructure and implemented as a grid which is developed as independent services. In the model, service discovery mechanism allows each of service agents to interact with its agent neighbors semantically and form a service chain for a specific task dynamically. The introduced model considered the semantic SOA which can overcome the undesirable time-delays and overhead corresponding to complexity of service discovery at heterogeneous environment such as NCW.

  1. Orienting ESL/EFL Students towards Critical Thinking through Pictorial Inferences and Elucidation: A Fruitful Pedagogic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Singh Thakur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The notions of Critical Thinking (CT and Lifelong Learning (LL are mutually inseparable as both are required in every domain of one’s educational and professional life in order to survive and flourish in today’s world of increased literacy and competition. CT is an important functional skill, needed for students to analyze concepts and ideas to get a clear understanding of them. Review of a host of definitions of CT, included in this paper, suggests that it basically involves a plethora of thinking abilities for the purposes of evaluating one’s own thinking process that results in a meaningful learning experience. However, unlike ordinary thinking, which is an inborn human ability, CT needs to be inculcated through implicit and/or explicit instruction. Many researchers (e.g. Benesch, 1993; Atkinson, 1997; Oster, 1989; Brookfield, 1987; Shor & Freire, 1987; Fox, 1994; etc. explain CT as a means to transform learning and society and they believe that social practice is one of the indispensable components of CT. In view of this, we need to orient our ESL / EFL students towards CT, along with the teaching of language skills, through interactive instructional practices. Considering the role(s CT can play in developing information-based societies and the pedagogical gains that can be made through the use of visuals in teaching language skills and CT, this paper aims to discuss and demonstrate how certain schematic pictorial presentations can be exploited as stimuli to orient ESL / EFL learners towards CT. The significance of this paper also lies in encouraging researches which explicitly link CT with pictorial presentations of cartoons and caricatures.

  2. The effect of posterior and lateral approach on patient-reported outcome measures and physical function in patients with osteoarthritis, undergoing total hip replacement : a randomised controlled trial protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenlund, Signe; Broeng, Leif

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Total hip replacement provides pain relief and improves physical function and quality of life in patients with end-stage hip osteoarthritis. The incidence of hip replacement operations is expected to increase due to the growing elderly population. Overall, the posterior approach and lateral approach are the two most commonly used approaches for hip replacement operations. The posterior approach is associated with an increased risk of revision due to dislocations, and some studies have shown that the lateral approach is associated with reduced patient-reported outcomes, including physical function and pain; however, this has not been investigated in a randomised controlled trial with a twelve-month follow-up. We hypothesized that the lateral approach has an inferior outcome in patient-reported outcome compared with the posterior approach after one year. METHODS/DESIGN: The trial is a prospective, double blinded, parallel-group controlled trial with balanced randomisation [1: 1]. Patients with hip osteoarthritis scheduled for hip replacement surgery, aged 45-70 years, will be consecutively recruited and randomised into two groups. Group A will receive hip replacement using the posterior approach, and Group B will receive hip replacement using the lateral approach. The primary end-point for assessing the outcome of the two interventions will be twelve months after surgery. Follow-up will also be performed after three and six months. The primary outcome is Hip Disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, subscale of "Physical function Short form" (HOOS-PS) Secondary outcome measures include two other subscales of HOOS ("Pain" and "Hip related Quality of Life"), physical activity level (UCLA activity score), limping (HHS) and general health status (EQ-5D-3L). Explorative outcomes include physical function test, 3D-gait-analysis and muscle strength. DISCUSSION: To our knowledge, this is the first randomised controlled trial comparing the posterior approach with the lateral approach with patient reported outcome as the primary outcome and with a twelve-month follow-up. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrial.gov: NCT01616667.

  3. Maternal and neonatal outcomes of placenta previa and placenta accreta: three years of experience with a two-consultant approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kassem GA

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Gamal A Kassem,1 Ali K Alzahrani21Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, King Abdul-Aziz Specialist Hospital, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaObjective: The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to evaluate maternal and neonatal outcomes in patients with placenta previa (PP and placenta accreta (PA.Methods: The study population comprised all patients who had a cesarean section for PP and PA at a tertiary referral hospital in Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, from December 2009 to December 2012. Maternal and neonatal data were obtained from medical records and the hospital database system. PA cases were managed by a multispeciality team, including two obstetric consultants.Results: In total, 122 patients with PP were identified, with PA found in 25 cases. The median intraoperative blood loss in cases of PA was 2,000 (mean 3,000 mL, with a loss of ?2,000 mL occurring in 72%, and ?5,000 mL in 20%. The median packed red blood cell transfusion requirement was 6 (mean 7.7 units, and 28% received ?10 units. Fetal growth restriction was diagnosed in two cases with known maternal medical disorders. Four cases (3.3% were diagnosed as small for gestational age. The mean birth weight of the neonates was at the 10th–50th percentile according to Hadlock fetal growth charts.Conclusion: The presence of a second obstetric consultant among the multispeciality team during surgery for PA was associated with a reduction in blood loss and a decreased need for large-volume blood transfusion. The rate of fetal growth restriction/small for gestational age in PP was average, but the babies were relatively small (level 2 evidence.Keywords: placenta previa, placenta accreta, maternal outcome, neonatal outcome

  4. Selecting Career Outcome Assessments: An Organizational Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiston, Susan C.

    2001-01-01

    Presents a framework for selecting assessments of career outcomes: content (career knowledge and skills, career behaviors, feelings and beliefs, role functioning); information source (client, counselor, observer, relevant other, institution/archive); focus (general, specific); and time orientation (macro-outcome, micro-outcome). (Contains 42…

  5. The use of health-related quality of life (HRQOL in children and adolescents as an outcome criterion to evaluate family oriented support for young carers in Germany: an integrative review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schnepp Wilfried

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Young people below the age of 18, whose lives are affected by looking after a relative with a disability or long-term illness, are called young carers. Evidence based family oriented support for young carers and their families in Germany is currently being developed. To allow for scientific evaluation, an outcome criterion needs to be chosen. Until today, there are no assessment instruments available, which focus on young carer's specific demands and needs. As HRQOL seems to be an adequate alternative outcome criterion, an integrative review of the literature was carried out to verify this assumption. Methods The aim of the integrative review was to get information about a the concept and the common definition of HRQOL in children, b preferable HRQOL assessment techniques in children, and c the relevance of HRQOL measures for the population of young carers. An additional aim of the review was to give advice on which instrument fits best to assess young carer's HRQOL in Germany. Searches were conducted in PubMed in order to obtain papers reporting about a the development or psychometric assessment of instruments measuring HRQOL in children and adolescents up to the age of 18, and b on the conceptual framework of HRQOL in children. Results HRQOL is a multidimensional construct covering physical, emotional, mental, social, and behavioural components of well-being and functioning as subjective perceived by a person depending on the cultural context and value system one is living in. Young carer's problems and needs are well covered by these common domains of HRQOL. Since no specific HRQOL-measures are available to address young carers, a generic one has to be chosen which a has been created for use in children, b allows self- and proxy-report, and c has good psychometric testing results. Comparing four generic measures with currently best published psychometric testing results, items of the KIDSCREEN cover young carer's specific problems most accurate. Conclusion The KIDSCREEN questionnaires seems adequate to evaluate the intervention as their items cover young carer's needs and problems most accurate.

  6. An Integrated Approach Based on Multiplexed Protein Array and iTRAQ Labeling for In-Depth Identification of Pathways Associated to IVF Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicatiello, Anna Emilia; D’Esposito, Vittoria; Longobardi, Salvatore; Colacurci, Nicola; Miraglia, Nadia; Sannolo, Nicola; Farina, Annarita; Chambery, Angela

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of high-throughput protein quantification methodologies has enabled the comprehensive characterization by longitudinal and cross-sectional studies of biological fluids under physiological and pathological conditions. In particular, the simultaneous investigation of cytokines and growth factors signaling pathways and their associated downstream effectors by integrated multiplexed approaches offers a powerful strategy to gain insights into biological networks and processes in living systems. A growing body of research indicates that bioactive molecules of human reproductive fluids, including human follicular fluid (hFF), may affect oocyte quality, fertilization and embryo development, thus potentially influencing the physiopathology of pregnancy-related conditions. In this work, an iTRAQ labeling strategy has been complemented with a multiplexed protein array approach to analyze hFFs with the aim to investigate biological processes and pathways related to in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcome. The iTRAQ labeling strategy lead to the quantification of 89 proteins, 30 of which were differentially expressed in hFFs with successful compared to unsuccessful IVF outcome. The targeted study, based on multiplexed antibody protein arrays, allowed the simultaneous quantification of 27 low abundance proteins, including growth factors, chemokines and cytokines endowed with pro- and anti-inflammatory activity. A significant number of differentially regulated proteins were involved in biological functions related to blood coagulation, acute phase response signaling and complement system. Overall, the present results provide an integrated overview of protein changes in hFFs associated to IVF outcome, thus improving current knowledge in reproductive medicine and fertility research. PMID:24146976

  7. Concept-Oriented Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Savinov, Alexandr

    2008-01-01

    Object-oriented programming (OOP) is aimed at describing the structure and behaviour of objects by hiding the mechanism of their representation and access in primitive references. In this article we describe an approach, called concept-oriented programming (COP), which focuses on modelling references assuming that they also possess application-specific structure and behaviour accounting for a great deal or even most of the overall program complexity. References in COP are co...

  8. Learning Approaches of Undergraduate Medical Students to Physiology in a Non-PBL- and Partially PBL-Oriented Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, R. R.; Vinod, P.; Kamath, M. G.; Asha, K.; Ramnarayan, K.

    2008-01-01

    Melaka Manipal Medical College (Manipal Campus; Manipal, Karnataka, India) conducts the Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery program, for which the admission intakes are during the months of March and September. The present study was undertaken to study the differences in learning approaches to physiology of undergraduate medical students…

  9. SOAP in Practice: Learning Outcomes of a Cross-Institutional Innovation Project Conducted by Teachers, Student Teachers, and Teacher Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seezink, Audrey; Poell, Rob; Kirschner, Paul

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on a case study investigating learning outcomes at the individual and organisational level of a cross-institutional innovation project based on the SOAP approach. SOAP integrates "S"chooling of teachers, "O"rganisational development of schools, "A"ction- and development-oriented research, and "P"rofessional development of…

  10. Understanding Personality and Predicting Outcomes: The Utility of Cognitive-Behavioral Probes of Approach and Avoidance Motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Michael D.; Boyd, Ryan L.; Liu, Tianwei

    2013-01-01

    Approach and avoidance motivation may represent important explanatory constructs in understanding how individuals differ. Such constructs have primarily been assessed in self-reported terms, but there are limitations to self-reports of motivation. Accordingly, the present review concentrates on the potential utility of implicit cognitive-behavioral probes of approach and avoidance motivation in modeling and understanding individual differences. The review summarizes multiple lines of research...

  11. Modeling of short-term mechanism of arterial pressure control in the cardiovascular system: object-oriented and acausal approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulhánek, Tomáš; Kofránek, Ji?í; Mateják, Marek

    2014-11-01

    This letter introduces an alternative approach to modeling the cardiovascular system with a short-term control mechanism published in Computers in Biology and Medicine, Vol. 47 (2014), pp. 104-112. We recommend using abstract components on a distinct physical level, separating the model into hydraulic components, subsystems of the cardiovascular system and individual subsystems of the control mechanism and scenario. We recommend utilizing an acausal modeling feature of Modelica language, which allows model variables to be expressed declaratively. Furthermore, the Modelica tool identifies which are the dependent and independent variables upon compilation. An example of our approach is introduced on several elementary components representing the hydraulic resistance to fluid flow and the elastic response of the vessel, among others. The introduced model implementation can be more reusable and understandable for the general scientific community. PMID:25240104

  12. A VLSI-oriented and power-efficient approach for dynamic texture recognition applied to smoke detection

    OpenAIRE

    Ferna?ndez-berni, J.; Carmona-gala?n, R.; Carranza-gonza?lez, L.

    2009-01-01

    The recognition of dynamic textures is fundamental in processing image sequences as they are very common in natural scenes. The computation of the optic flow is the most popular method to detect, segment and analyse dynamic textures. For weak dynamic textures, this method is specially adequate. However, for strong dynamic textures, it implies heavy computational load and therefore an important energy consumption. In this paper, we propose a novel approach intented to be implemented by very lo...

  13. Outcome of a Standardized Approach to Childhood Urinary Symptoms-Long-Term Follow-Up of 720 Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rittig, Nikolaj; Hagstroem, SØren

    2013-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate the relevance of enuresis subtyping for selection of treatment modality and for long-term outcome in a large consecutive patient cohort. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included all patients referred for urinary incontinence during a 5-year period but excluding recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI). Type and severity of incontinence, prior history, results of examinations performed, number of visits, and effect of all treatments provided, were included in a clinical database. RESULTS: Seven hundred twenty children aged 4-16 years (mean 8.5?±?2.2?years, 239 girls) were included in the analysis (42% with monosymptomatic (MNE), 55% with non-MNE, and 3% with isolated daytime incontinence). Initial evaluation revealed only few underlying causes (one neurological and eight anatomical). Investigations showed significant differences between MNE and non-MNE patients as both maximal voided volume and nocturnal urine volume was lower in non-MNE patients (P?

  14. Translating Response During Therapy into Ultimate Treatment Outcome: A Personalized 4-Dimensional MRI Tumor Volumetric Regression Approach in Cervical Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To assess individual volumetric tumor regression pattern in cervical cancer during therapy using serial four-dimensional MRI and to define the regression parameters' prognostic value validated with local control and survival correlation. Methods and Materials: One hundred and fifteen patients with Stage IB2-IVA cervical cancer treated with radiation therapy (RT) underwent serial MRI before (MRI 1) and during RT, at 2-2.5 weeks (MRI 2, at 20-25 Gy), and at 4-5 weeks (MRI 3, at 40-50 Gy). Eighty patients had a fourth MRI 1-2 months post-RT. Mean follow-up was 5.3 years. Tumor volume was measured by MRI-based three-dimensional volumetry, and plotted as dose(time)/volume regression curves. Volume regression parameters were correlated with local control, disease-specific, and overall survival. Results: Residual tumor volume, slope, and area under the regression curve correlated significantly with local control and survival. Residual volumes ?20% at 40-50 Gy were independently associated with inferior 5-year local control (53% vs. 97%, p <0.001) and disease-specific survival rates (50% vs. 72%, p = 0.009) than smaller volumes. Patients with post-RT residual volumes ?10% had 0% local control and 17% disease-specific survival, compared with 91% and 72% for <10% volume (p <0.001). Conclusion: Using more accurate four-dimensional volumetric regression analysis, tumor response can now be directly translated into individual patients' outcome for clinical aidual patients' outcome for clinical application. Our results define two temporal thresholds critically influencing local control and survival. In patients with ?20% residual volume at 40-50 Gy and ?10% post-RT, the risk for local failure and death are so high that aggressive intervention may be warranted.

  15. An educational approach to improve outcomes in acute kidney injury (AKI): report of a quality improvement project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gang; Baines, Richard; Westacott, Rachel; Selby, Nick; Carr, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the impact of a quality improvement project that used a multifaceted educational intervention on how to improve clinician's knowledge, confidence and awareness of acute kidney injury (AKI). Setting 2 large acute teaching hospitals in England, serving a combined population of over 1.5 million people. Participants All secondary care clinicians working in the clinical areas were targeted, with a specific focus on clinicians working in acute admission areas. Interventions A multifaceted educational intervention consisting of traditional didactic lectures, case-based teaching in small groups and an interactive web-based learning resource. Outcome measures We assessed clinicians’ knowledge of AKI and their self-reported clinical behaviour using an interactive questionnaire before and after the educational intervention. Secondary outcome measures included clinical audit of patient notes before and after the intervention. Results 26% of clinicians reported that they were aware of local AKI guidelines in the preintervention questionnaire compared to 64% in the follow-up questionnaire (?²=60.2, paudit makers showed a trend towards better clinical practice. Conclusions This quality improvement project utilising a multifaceted educational intervention improved awareness of AKI as demonstrated by changes in the clinician's self-reported management of patients with AKI. Elements of the project have been sustained beyond the project period, and demonstrate the power of quality improvement projects to help initiate changes in practice. Our findings are limited by confounding factors and highlight the need to carry out formal randomised studies to determine the impact of educational initiatives in the clinical setting. PMID:24650804

  16. Recommendations for a Core Outcome Set for Measuring Standing Balance in Adult Populations: A Consensus-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibley, Kathryn M.; Howe, Tracey; Lamb, Sarah E.; Lord, Stephen R.; Maki, Brian E.; Rose, Debra J.; Scott, Vicky; Stathokostas, Liza; Straus, Sharon E.; Jaglal, Susan B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Standing balance is imperative for mobility and avoiding falls. Use of an excessive number of standing balance measures has limited the synthesis of balance intervention data and hampered consistent clinical practice. Objective To develop recommendations for a core outcome set (COS) of standing balance measures for research and practice among adults. Methodology A combination of scoping reviews, literature appraisal, anonymous voting and face-to-face meetings with fourteen invited experts from a range of disciplines with international recognition in balance measurement and falls prevention. Consensus was sought over three rounds using pre-established criteria. Data sources The scoping review identified 56 existing standing balance measures validated in adult populations with evidence of use in the past five years, and these were considered for inclusion in the COS. Results Fifteen measures were excluded after the first round of scoring and a further 36 after round two. Five measures were considered in round three. Two measures reached consensus for recommendation, and the expert panel recommended that at a minimum, either the Berg Balance Scale or Mini Balance Evaluation Systems Test be used when measuring standing balance in adult populations. Limitations Inclusion of two measures in the COS may increase the feasibility of potential uptake, but poses challenges for data synthesis. Adoption of the standing balance COS does not constitute a comprehensive balance assessment for any population, and users should include additional validated measures as appropriate. Conclusions The absence of a gold standard for measuring standing balance has contributed to the proliferation of outcome measures. These recommendations represent an important first step towards greater standardization in the assessment and measurement of this critical skill and will inform clinical research and practice internationally. PMID:25768435

  17. Learning Approach for Hand Eye Coordination and the Kinesthetic Outcomes of Learning to Throw-Catch a Ball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusmawati Yusmawati

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects caused by the methods of teaching and eye-hand coordination to kinesthetic outcomes of throwing and catching a ball. The population of this study was 149 third grade elementary school students in a village in East Jakarta. A sample of 80 students was chosen using random cluster sampling. Data was analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA and the significance level is set at 0.05. The results showed that the kinesthetic of ball’s throw-catch by students who were taught with play teaching method is higher than the students who were taught with the guided teaching methods. There is an interaction between teaching methods, gender and hand eye coordination towards the kinesthetic outcomes of throwing and catching a ball. The kinesthetic result of ball’s throw-catch for male students who were taught with play teaching methods is higher than the male students who were taught with guided hand-eye-coordination teaching method. The kinesthetic result of ball’s throw-catch for female students who were taught with play teaching methods is higher than the female students who were taught with guided hand-eye-coordination teaching method. The kinesthetic result of ball’s throw-catch for male students with low hand-eye coordination taught with guided teaching method is higher than those who were taught with the play teaching method. The kinesthetic result of ball’s throw-catch for female students with low hand-eye coordination taught with the guided teaching method is higher than those taught with the play teaching method.

  18. Transcriptome walking: a laboratory-oriented GUI-based approach to mRNA identification from deep-sequenced data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    French Andrew S

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deep sequencing technology provides efficient and economical production of large numbers of randomly positioned, relatively short, estimates of base identities in DNA molecules. Application of this technology to mRNA samples allows rapid examination of the molecular genetic environment in individual cells or tissues, the transcriptome. However, assembly of such short sequences into complete mRNA creates a challenge that limits the usefulness of the technology, particularly when no, or limited, genomic data is available. Several approaches to this problem have been developed, but there is still no general method to rapidly obtain an mRNA sequence from deep sequence data when a specific molecule, or family of molecules, are of interest. A frequent requirement is to identify specific mRNA molecules from tissues that are being investigated by methods such as electrophysiology, immunocytology and pharmacology. To be widely useful, any approach must be relatively simple to use in the laboratory by operators without extensive statistical or bioinformatics knowledge, and with readily available hardware. Findings An approach was developed that allows de novo assembly of individual mRNA sequences in two linked stages: sequence discovery and sequence completion. Both stages rely on computer assisted, Graphical User Interface (GUI-guided, user interaction with the data, but proceed relatively efficiently once discovery is complete. The method grows a discovered sequence by repeated passes through the complete raw data in a series of steps, and is hence termed ‘transcriptome walking’. All of the operations required for transcriptome analysis are combined in one program that presents a relatively simple user interface and runs on a standard desktop, or laptop computer, but takes advantage of multi-core processors, when available. Complete mRNA sequence identifications usually require less than 24 hours. This approach has already identified previously unknown mRNA sequences in two animal species that currently lack any significant genome or transcriptome data. Conclusions As deep sequencing data becomes more widely available, accessible methods for extracting useful sequence information in the biological or medical laboratory will be of increasing importance. The approach described here does not rely on detailed knowledge of bioinformatic algorithms, and allows users with basic knowledge of molecular biology and standard laboratory computing equipment, but limited software or bioinformatics experience, to extract complete gene sequences from deep-sequencing data.

  19. Intensive Remedial Instruction for Children with Severe Reading Disabilities: Immediate and Long-Term Outcomes from Two Instructional Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgesen, Joseph K.; Alexander, Ann W.; Wagner, Richard K.; Rashotte, Carol A.; Voeller, Kytja K. S.; Conway, Tim

    2001-01-01

    Sixty children (ages 8-10) with severe reading disabilities received daily intensive one-to-one instruction that differed in depth and extent of instruction in phonemic awareness and phonemic decoding. Both approaches were highly effective in improving reading accuracy and comprehension although measures of reading rate showed continued severe…

  20. Methods for Predicting Diabetes Phase III Efficacy Outcome From Early Data: Superior Performance Obtained Using Longitudinal Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, J B; Kristensen, N R; Klim, S; Karlsson, M O; Ingwersen, S H; Kjellsson, M C

    2014-01-01

    The link between glucose and HbA1c at steady state has previously been described using steady-state or longitudinal relationships. We evaluated five published methods for prediction of HbA1c after 26/28 weeks using data from four clinical trials. Methods (1) and (2): steady-state regression of HbA1c on fasting plasma glucose and mean plasma glucose, respectively, (3) an indirect response model of fasting plasma glucose effects on HbA1c, (4) model of glycosylation of red blood cells, and (5) coupled indirect response model for mean plasma glucose and HbA1c. Absolute mean prediction errors were 0.61, 0.38, 0.55, 0.37, and 0.15% points, respectively, for Methods 1 through 5. This indicates that predictions improved by using mean plasma glucose instead of fasting plasma glucose, by inclusion of longitudinal glucose data and further by inclusion of longitudinal HbA1c data until 12 weeks. For prediction of trial outcome, the longitudinal models based on mean plasma glucose (Methods 4 and 5) had substantially better performance compared with the other methods. PMID:24988185

  1. A methodological approach of fluvial dynamics oriented towards hydrosystem management: case study of the Loire and Allier rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, Emmanuèle; Piégay, Hervé; Bertaina, Patrick

    This study was conducted as part of the European LIFE Loire Nature program for the conservation and management of a 110-km-long section of the Loire and Allier rivers, an area renowned for its ecological richness. The methodological approach is based on statistical analysis (bivariate and multivariate analyses) of hydro-geomorphologic and biogeographical variables, complemented by reach typology and mapping. The main results show, on the one hand, the great spatial variability of fluvial mosaic complexity along the river continuum and on the other hand, some independence between the riparian forest characteristics and the channel forms. The fluvial pattern (e.g. anabranching) and the forest establishment along the Loire river register specific features.

  2. Approaches to Audiological Rehabilitation with Hearing Aids : studies on pre-fitting strategies and assessment of outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    O?berg, Marie

    2008-01-01

    Fourteen percent of the Swedish population report subjective hearing loss. The number of persons suffering from hearing loss is expected to increase in accordance with the increased length of the average life span, causing an associated increase in the demand for hearing health care services as new patient groups who expect a higher quality of life begin to request hearing care. The main goal of this thesis was to develop new approaches in audiological rehabilitation to meet these demands and...

  3. Electronic structure, molecular orientation, charge transfer dynamics and solar cells performance in donor/acceptor copolymers and fullerene: Experimental and theoretical approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Basabe, Y.; Borges, B. G. A. L.; Rocco, M. L. M., E-mail: lsroman@fisica.ufpr.br, E-mail: luiza@iq.ufrj.br [Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 21941-909 (Brazil); Marchiori, C. F. N.; Yamamoto, N. A. D.; Koehler, M.; Roman, L. S., E-mail: lsroman@fisica.ufpr.br, E-mail: luiza@iq.ufrj.br [Departament of Physics, Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba 81531-990 (Brazil); Macedo, A. G. [Departament of Physics, Technological Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba 80230-901 (Brazil)

    2014-04-07

    By combining experimental and theoretical approaches, the electronic structure, molecular orientation, charge transfer dynamics and solar cell performance in donor/acceptor copolymer poly[2,7-(9,9-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-dibenzosilole)-alt-4,7-bis(thiophen-2-yl) benzo-2,1,3-thiadiazole] (PSiF-DBT) films and blended with 6,6.-phenyl-C 61-butyric acid methyl ester (PSiF-DBT:PCBM) were investigated. Good agreement between experimental and theoretical PSiF-DBT UV-Vis absorption spectrum is observed and the main molecular orbitals contributing to the spectrum were determined using DFT single point calculations. Non-coplanar configuration was determined by geometric optimization calculation in isolated PSiF-DBT pentamer and corroborated by angular variation of the sulphur 1s near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectra. Edge-on and plane-on molecular orientations were obtained for thiophene and benzothiadiazole units, respectively. A power conversion efficiency up to 1.58%, open circuit voltage of 0.51 V, short circuit current of 8.71 mA/cm{sup 2} and a fill factor of 35% was obtained using blended PSiF-DBT:PCBM as active layer in a bulk heterojunction solar cell. Ultrafast electron dynamics in the low-femtosecond regime was evaluated by resonant Auger spectroscopy using the core-hole clock methodology around sulphur 1s absorption edge. Electron delocalization times for PSiF-DBT and PSiF-DBT:PCBM polymeric films were derived for selected excitation energies corresponding to the main transitions in the sulphur 1s NEXAFS spectra. The mixture of PSiF-DBT with PCBM improves the charge transfer process involving the ?* molecular orbital of the thiophene units.

  4. Electronic structure, molecular orientation, charge transfer dynamics and solar cells performance in donor/acceptor copolymers and fullerene: Experimental and theoretical approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By combining experimental and theoretical approaches, the electronic structure, molecular orientation, charge transfer dynamics and solar cell performance in donor/acceptor copolymer poly[2,7-(9,9-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-dibenzosilole)-alt-4,7-bis(thiophen-2-yl) benzo-2,1,3-thiadiazole] (PSiF-DBT) films and blended with 6,6.-phenyl-C 61-butyric acid methyl ester (PSiF-DBT:PCBM) were investigated. Good agreement between experimental and theoretical PSiF-DBT UV-Vis absorption spectrum is observed and the main molecular orbitals contributing to the spectrum were determined using DFT single point calculations. Non-coplanar configuration was determined by geometric optimization calculation in isolated PSiF-DBT pentamer and corroborated by angular variation of the sulphur 1s near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectra. Edge-on and plane-on molecular orientations were obtained for thiophene and benzothiadiazole units, respectively. A power conversion efficiency up to 1.58%, open circuit voltage of 0.51 V, short circuit current of 8.71 mA/cm2 and a fill factor of 35% was obtained using blended PSiF-DBT:PCBM as active layer in a bulk heterojunction solar cell. Ultrafast electron dynamics in the low-femtosecond regime was evaluated by resonant Auger spectroscopy using the core-hole clock methodology around sulphur 1s absorption edge. Electron delocalization times for PSiF-DBT and PSiF-DBT:PCBM polymeric films were derived for selected excitation energies corresponding to the main transitions in the sulphur 1s NEXAFS spectra. The mixture of PSiF-DBT with PCBM improves the charge transfer process involving the ?* molecular orbital of the thiophene units

  5. Electronic structure, molecular orientation, charge transfer dynamics and solar cells performance in donor/acceptor copolymers and fullerene: Experimental and theoretical approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Basabe, Y.; Marchiori, C. F. N.; Borges, B. G. A. L.; Yamamoto, N. A. D.; Macedo, A. G.; Koehler, M.; Roman, L. S.; Rocco, M. L. M.

    2014-04-01

    By combining experimental and theoretical approaches, the electronic structure, molecular orientation, charge transfer dynamics and solar cell performance in donor/acceptor copolymer poly[2,7-(9,9-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-dibenzosilole)-alt-4,7-bis(thiophen-2-yl)benzo-2,1,3-thiadiazole] (PSiF-DBT) films and blended with 6,6.-phenyl-C 61-butyric acid methyl ester (PSiF-DBT:PCBM) were investigated. Good agreement between experimental and theoretical PSiF-DBT UV-Vis absorption spectrum is observed and the main molecular orbitals contributing to the spectrum were determined using DFT single point calculations. Non-coplanar configuration was determined by geometric optimization calculation in isolated PSiF-DBT pentamer and corroborated by angular variation of the sulphur 1s near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectra. Edge-on and plane-on molecular orientations were obtained for thiophene and benzothiadiazole units, respectively. A power conversion efficiency up to 1.58%, open circuit voltage of 0.51 V, short circuit current of 8.71 mA/cm2 and a fill factor of 35% was obtained using blended PSiF-DBT:PCBM as active layer in a bulk heterojunction solar cell. Ultrafast electron dynamics in the low-femtosecond regime was evaluated by resonant Auger spectroscopy using the core-hole clock methodology around sulphur 1s absorption edge. Electron delocalization times for PSiF-DBT and PSiF-DBT:PCBM polymeric films were derived for selected excitation energies corresponding to the main transitions in the sulphur 1s NEXAFS spectra. The mixture of PSiF-DBT with PCBM improves the charge transfer process involving the ?* molecular orbital of the thiophene units.

  6. Formación basada en competencias en educación sanitaria: aproximaciones a enfoques y modelos de competencia. [Outcome-based health education: Possible approaches and models of competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinez-Clares, Pilar

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The great changes taking place in society today call into question traditional training, which is focused on the transmission of knowledge and training skills. Some experts suggest that the introduction of a competency-based approach to training has presented it with an avenue for modernization and cooperation with the needs of the organizational environment. The approach of Outcome Based Education is considered one of the most important changes in health education for the twenty-first century. This approach is predominant in higher education institutions around the world and is the method recommended by major governing bodies and evaluators of health education (or, in a narrower sense, medical education. Los grandes cambios que se están produciendo en la sociedad de hoy en día ponen en entredicho la formación tradicional, centrada en la transmisión de conocimientos y en el entrenamiento de ciertas habilidades. Algunos expertos apuntan que la introducción del enfoque de competencias ha significado para la formación una vía para la actualización y el acercamiento a necesidades del ambiente organizacional. El enfoque de Formación basada en Competencias (FBC, en adelante, más conocido en la literatura internacional como Out Come Based Education, es considerado uno de los cambios más importantes en la educación sanitaria para el siglo XXI. Este enfoque, es el enfoque educativo predominante en las instituciones de educación superior del mundo y el que recomiendan los principales organismos rectores y evaluadores de la educación sanitaria (o educación médica en un sentido mas restringido.

  7. A new approach to determine tumor-to-blood 10B concentration ratios from the clinical outcome of a BNCT treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new approach to determine the tumor-to-blood 10B concentration ratio in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is introduced. It is a statistical method, which uses maximum likelihood estimation on the clinical outcome of a BNCT treatment. Its performance is shown in a clinical case of cutaneous multiple nodular melanomas. The calculations involve a detailed dosimetry analysis, the determination of tumor control probabilities for the different nodules, the maximum likelihood estimation itself, and a parametric bootstrap to obtain confidence intervals for the tumor-to-blood ratio. The obtained ratio is 3.05±0.46 with a 95%-confidence interval. These results are consistent with those found in literature. Moreover, a single patient with multiple nodules proves enough to get statistically relevant results. The proposed method does not involve surgery and can be performed after a BNCT treatment without being invasive for the patient

  8. Maternal and neonatal outcomes of placenta previa and placenta accreta: three years of experience with a two-consultant approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Gamal A; Alzahrani, Ali K

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to evaluate maternal and neonatal outcomes in patients with placenta previa (PP) and placenta accreta (PA). Methods The study population comprised all patients who had a cesarean section for PP and PA at a tertiary referral hospital in Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, from December 2009 to December 2012. Maternal and neonatal data were obtained from medical records and the hospital database system. PA cases were managed by a multispeciality team, including two obstetric consultants. Results In total, 122 patients with PP were identified, with PA found in 25 cases. The median intraoperative blood loss in cases of PA was 2,000 (mean 3,000) mL, with a loss of ?2,000 mL occurring in 72%, and ?5,000 mL in 20%. The median packed red blood cell transfusion requirement was 6 (mean 7.7) units, and 28% received ?10 units. Fetal growth restriction was diagnosed in two cases with known maternal medical disorders. Four cases (3.3%) were diagnosed as small for gestational age. The mean birth weight of the neonates was at the 10th–50th percentile according to Hadlock fetal growth charts. Conclusion The presence of a second obstetric consultant among the multispeciality team during surgery for PA was associated with a reduction in blood loss and a decreased need for large-volume blood transfusion. The rate of fetal growth restriction/small for gestational age in PP was average, but the babies were relatively small (level 2 evidence). PMID:24353442

  9. Statistical Approaches for Analyzing a Continuous Outcome in Experimental Studies / Métodos Estadísticos para Análizar un Resultado Continuo en Estudios Experimentales

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antonio, Sanhueza; Tamara, Otzen; Carlos, Manterola; Nelson, Araneda.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish En estudios experimentales, la variable resultado se mide en el momento inicial y luego en diversas ocasiones. De este modo, se habla de mediciones de "línea de base" y seguimiento respectivamente. Lo interesante de esta materia es poder determinar si una vez aplicada una intervención, existen difer [...] encias significativas entre el grupo al que se asignó un tratamiento de prueba y el grupo de comparación. En este manuscrito se exponen algunas de las estrategias utilizadas para tal propósito; las que incluyen un proceso de simulación mediante datos obtenidos a partir de un estudio experimental. Tres estrategias paramétricas y dos no paramétricas se evalúan teniendo en cuenta sólo una medida de seguimiento. La medida de referencia se incorpora en el contexto de estas estrategias. Abstract in english In experimental studies the outcome variable is measured at initial time, usually called "baseline", and then in several times called "follow-up" measurement(s). The study question of interest in an experimental study is whether there is a significant difference effect between treatment and comparis [...] on group, after intervention. In addition, one wants to estimate the difference effect between groups. This paper studies some of the strategies, including a simulation process, that one can be used for analyzing data coming from an experimental study as above, and considers using or not using the baseline measurements. Three parametric and two non-parametric strategies are evaluated considering only one follow-up measurement. The baseline measurement is incorporated in context in these strategies.

  10. Active Learning Strategies: An illustrative approach to bring out better learning outcomes from Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) students

    OpenAIRE

    Adusumilli Srinath

    2014-01-01

    Teaching in a Teacher centric manner has been the mainframe teaching style in engineering education, however students feel it as a single sided approach and feel they are only passive listeners thus this style has now paved way to a Learner centric style of teaching-learning which is ACTIVE LEARNING, wherein every student is actively involved in one or the other form of learning and thus gets a chance to develop the key aspects of the course either on their own or by being a member of an acti...

  11. Surgical outcomes of mini-open Wiltse approach and conventional open approach in patients with single-segment thoracolumbar fractures without neurologic injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haijun; Yang, Lei; Xie, Hao; Yu, Lipeng; Wei, Haifeng; Cao, Xiaojian

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to introduce a novel mini-open pedicle screw fixation technique via Wiltse approach, and compared it with the traditional posterior open method. A total of 72 cases of single-segment thoracolumbar fractures without neurologic injury underwent pedicle screw fixation via two different approaches. Among them, 37 patients were treated using posterior open surgery, and 35 patients received mini-open operation via Wiltse approach. Crew placement accuracy rate, operative time, blood loss, postoperative drainage, postoperative hospitalization time, radiation exposure time, postoperative improvement in R value, Cobb's angle and visual analog scale (VAS) scores of the two methods were compared. There were no significant differences in the accuracy rate of pedicle screw placement, radiation exposure and postoperative R value and Cobb's angle improvement between the two groups. However, the mini-open method had obvious advantages over the conventional open method in operative time, blood loss, postoperative drainage, postoperative hospitalization time, and postoperative improvement in VAS. The mini-open pedicle screw technique could be applied in treatment of single-segment thoracolumbar fracture without neurologic injury and had advantages of less tissue trauma, short operative and rehabilitative time on the premise of guaranteed accuracy rate and no increased radiation exposure.

  12. Troos as unieke uitkoms in 'n pastoraal-narratiewe benadering tot rousmart / Consolation as a unique outcome within a pastoral-narrative approach to grief

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alfred R., Brunsdon.

    Full Text Available The pastoral counselling of those who grieve, poses new challenges to pastoral care. Because of the shift away from a modernist paradigm, the grief process is now seen as an open-ended process, rather than a closed process that focuses on the mastering of the so-called tasks of mourning, and the avo [...] idance of grief pathology. Recent grief theory suggests that the grief process cannot reach a point of closure. Grief counselling should therefore rather embark on a process of generating new meaning to the problem-saturated discourses surrounding death and loss. Narrative therapy is suggested as a means of grief counselling, as it makes use of the story analogy, which supports the notion of an open end to the grief process. In this study, the narrative is explored within the framework of Practical Theology. Both the master story of God and the grief-saturated stories of people are combined in a pastoral approach that envisages consolation as the unique outcome of the therapeutic process. Consolation is regarded as one of the secondary narratives in the greater narrative of God, as well as in the reformed theological vocabulary. It is suggested that a pastoral-narrative approach to grief will generate the consolation needed by the grief-stricken on their lifelong journey of coming to terms with their loss.

  13. An Investigation of Export Practices and Performance across Global Mindset Orientations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony C. Koh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Extant literatures suggest three different approaches to decision making for operating a firm internationally: ethnocentric, polycentric, and geocentric. This study investigated differences in firm characteristics, export marketing strategies and export performance outcomes across these three orientations on a sample of North American (Canadian and U.S. firms. The findings revealed major differences in examined variables across these decision-making orientations. While global mindset seemed to influence export strategy and performance, it did not affect many aspects of firm characteristics. Implications for export managers and public policy are drawn from the results.

  14. An approach to (103) oriented YBa2Cu3O7-? thin films epitaxially grown on (100) MgO substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preferred growth orientations of YBa2Cu3O7-? (YBCO) thin films on (100) MgO substrates produced by pulsed laser deposition are reported. In particular, (103) perpendicular oriented films were successfully demonstrated. The crystallographic properties of the oriented films were examined by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction pole figure analyses, indicating a 45o tilt of the superconducting CuO2 planes relative to the substrate surface. This work provides a unique pathway to realizing the growth of (103) oriented YBCO films on highly valued electronic and microwave (100) MgO substrates.

  15. Mapper: A distributed object-oriented database application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younger, Herbert; O'Reilly, John; Frogner, Bjorn

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses the results of a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) project. The initial application involved decomposition of a large database across multiple processors to improve the speed of processing compound queries. The commercial outcome was a tourist information system with a point-to-point driving direction program called MAPPER. A distributed, object-oriented approach was used for the general design, while a spatial decomposition was used to divide the database into computationally manageable pieces. The resulting system is highly flexible with respect to both modifications and reuse.

  16. A review of monitoring approaches and outcomes of surface water quality mitigation measures in meso-scale agricultural catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melland, Alice; Jordan, Phil; Murphy, Paul; Mellander, Per-Erik; Shortle, Ger

    2013-04-01

    Critical for an informative feedback loop from scientific monitoring of biophysical change, to making and implementing suitable policy to effect the desired change, are both accurate measurement of biophysical change, and measurement or modelling of the causes of change. For example the European Environment Agency uses the DPSIR framework to assess change in the state (S) of natural resources due to changes in specific drivers (D) and pressures (P) that can have an impact (I) and are the focus of policy responses (R). This paper provides a review of meso-catchment scale studies worldwide that have measured the impacts of agricultural land management practice on surface water quality. Approaches for measuring water quality impacts of agricultural mitigation practices in meso-catchments (1-100 km2) ranged from measuring water quality over a time series, such as before and after a land management change, or over a spatial series such as in paired catchments with and without agricultural practice change (or over a gradient of practices or catchment types), and by cause and effect studies that measure sources, pathways and impacts of practices. Agricultural mitigation measures had no measurable effect, or positive, or negative effects on water quality over periods of 3 to 20 years. In most catchments where beneficial effects of mitigation measures were successfully measured, combinations of measures that address nutrient or pollutant sources, pathways, delivery and impact have been implemented. Successful farm measures included substantial reductions in the intensity of the farming systems, improved engineering and crop management to reduce runoff and drainage transport of nutrients and sediment, as well as high rates of implementation of measures across the catchments. In many cases, the potential to measure improvement in one or more water quality indicators was limited by the impact of a few management or weather events. Reasons that water quality did not improve in some studies included the uncertainty inherent in most nutrient flux measurements and a lack of high flow water quality samples that limited the ability of practice impacts to be measured. In other catchments, it was difficult to verify whether a lack of effect was a result of ineffective measures, or because time lags for improvement of water quality were longer than the monitored period. Data on temporal and spatial nutrient source use was generally scarce in comparison with water quality data. Implications of the efficacy of measures and their monitoring programmes for researchers and policy-makers will be discussed.

  17. CLOUD COMPUTING BASED ORIENTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Jithendar, K.; Srujan Raju, K.; Neeraja, K.

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid increase in the technology internet plays a major role in the society with the existence of the cloud based scenario. Where it is very much useful in the technology based on information related to the software oriented approach. It is mainly concerned about the utilities of the system which is the primary goal. It play a key role in the transmission of the data with a high definition oriented security based analysis respectively. Therefore whenever the user in the form of the c...

  18. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2013-01-01

    Courses d’orientation ce printemps Le Club d’orientation du CERN vous invite à venir découvrir la course d’orientation et vous propose, en partenariat avec d’autres clubs de la région, une dizaine de courses populaires. Celles-ci ont lieu les samedis après-midi, elles sont ouvertes à tous, quel que soit le niveau, du débutant au sportif confirmé, en famille ou en individuel, en promenade ou en course. Si vous êtes débutant vous pouvez profiter d’une petite initiation offerte par l’organisateur avant de vous lancer sur un parcours. Divers types de parcours sont à votre choix lors de chaque épreuve : facile court (2-3 km), facile moyen (3-5 km), technique court (3-4 km), technique moyen (4-5 km) et technique long (5-7 km). Les dates à retenir sont les suivantes : Samedi 23 mars: Pully (Vd) Samedi 13 avril: Pougny...

  19. CLOUD COMPUTING BASED ORIENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Jithendar

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid increase in the technology internet plays a major role in the society with the existence of the cloud based scenario. Where it is very much useful in the technology based on information related to the software oriented approach. It is mainly concerned about the utilities of the system which is the primary goal. It play a key role in the transmission of the data with a high definition oriented security based analysis respectively. Therefore whenever the user in the form of the company based software got the requirement of the cloud oriented scenario then he demands the service provider regarding the particular requirement and buys for a rent or a leased scenario and meets the necessary requirement of the company. When ever in this real time environment an investor used to invest a lot of amount for the purpose of infrastructure with high storage and rapid speed. For this reason there is a cost effective phenomena takes place. But suddenly there is an great improvement in the system that itself provides the resources with high quality and storage with security oriented scenario that is on the basis of lease or rent. Therefore the total amount is got remained as it is whatever has to be invested on the resource allocation. Therefore user may start his work with less investment. Now a days it has become very popular and essential tool for the purpose of any advanced oriented research respectively.  

  20. Dose prescription in carbon ion radiotherapy: a planning study to compare NIRS and LEM approaches with a clinically-oriented strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossati, Piero; Molinelli, Silvia; Matsufuji, Naruhiru; Ciocca, Mario; Mirandola, Alfredo; Mairani, Andrea; Mizoe, Junetsu; Hasegawa, Azusa; Imai, Reiko; Kamada, Tadashi; Orecchia, Roberto; Tsujii, Hirohiko

    2012-11-01

    In carbon ion radiotherapy there is an urgent clinical need to develop objective tools for the conversion of relative biological effectiveness (RBE)-weighted doses based on different models. In this work we introduce a clinically oriented method to compare NIRS-based and LEM-based GyE systems, minimizing differences in physical dose distributions between treatment plans. Carbon ion plans were optimized on target volumes of cubic and spherical shapes, for RBE-weighted dose prescription levels ranging from 3.6 to 4.4 GyE. Plans were calculated for target sizes from 4 to 12 cm defining three beam geometries: single beam, opposed beam and orthogonal beam configurations. The two treatment planning systems currently employed in clinical practice were used, providing the NIRS-based and LEM-based GyE calculations. Physical dose distributions of NIRS-based and LEM-based treatment plans were compared. LEM-based prescription doses that minimize differences in physical dose distributions between the two systems were found. These doses were compared with the mean RBE-weighted dose obtained with a Monte Carlo code (FLUKA) interfaced with LEM I. In the investigated dose range, LEM-based RBE-weighted prescription doses, that minimize differences with NIRS plans, should be higher than NIRS reported prescription doses. The optimal dose depends on target size, shape and position, number of beams and dose level. The opposed beam configuration resulted in the smallest average prescription dose difference (0.45 ± 0.09 GyE). The second approach of recalculating NIRS RBE-weighted dose with a Monte Carlo code interfaced with LEM resulted in no significant difference with the results obtained from the planning study. The delivery of a voxel by voxel iso-effective plan, if different RBE models are employed, is not feasible; it is however possible to minimize differences in a treatment plan with the simple approach presented here. Dose prescription ultimately represents a clinical task under the responsibility of the radiation oncologist, the presented analysis intends to be a quantitative and objective way to assist the clinical decision.

  1. Determining Plausible Forecast Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    COMET

    2010-08-17

    The content of this lesson will assist the forecaster with the third step of the forecast process, namely, determining plausible forecast outcomes forward in time. The lesson will highlight the role of probabilistic forecast tools to assess the degree of uncertainty in a forecast, as well as suggest an approach for evaluating past and present model performance.

  2. The Discovery-Oriented Approach to Organic Chemistry. 6. Selective Reduction in Organic Chemistry: Reduction of Aldehydes in the Presence of Esters Using Sodium Borohydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baru, Ashvin R.; Mohan, Ram S.

    2005-01-01

    A discovery-oriented lab experiment is developed that illustrates the chemoselective nature of reductions using sodium borohydride. Products are of sufficient purity to allow analysis by spectroscopy without further purification.

  3. Outcomes Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaluating and improving methods for measuring cancer outcomes is critically important for NCI's initiatives to enhance the quality of cancer care, reduce cancer-related health disparities, and better understand the individual and population burden of disease. The Applied Research Program's initiatives in this area include developing resources for researchers to learn about psychometric and other tools that aid in assessing and developing outcomes measures.

  4. Learning Chemistry and beyond with a Lesson Plan on Potato Crisps, Which Follows a Socio-Critical and Problem-Oriented Approach to Chemistry Lessons--A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Ralf; Bertram, Stefanie; Eilks, Ingo

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses a chemistry lesson plan on potato crisps for 10th grade (age range 15-16) chemistry classes in Germany. The lesson plan focuses on the discussion about low-fat and low-carb diets as they are presented in everyday media such as TV or newspapers in Germany. The discussion follows a socio-critical and problem-oriented approach to…

  5. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2010-01-01

    Course d’orientation : Coupe Genevoise de printemps 2010 Et c’est reparti pour une nouvelle saison! Pour cette coupe de printemps 2010, le Club d’Orientation du CERN, en partenariat avec d’autres clubs de la région, vous propose le calendrier suivant: – samedi 20 mars : Cossonay (Vd) – samedi 10 avril : Echallens (Vd) – samedi 17 avril : Trélex (Vd) – samedi 24 avril : Genolier (Vd) – samedi 1 mai : Vulbens/Valleiry (74) – samedi 8 mai : Bois de la Rippe (Vd) – samedi 29 mai : Sauvabellin (Vd) : relais – samedi 5 juin: St Cergue (Vd) : grande finale Les courses populaires ont lieu en général le samedi après-midi, elles sont ouvertes à tous, quel que soit le niveau, du débutant au sportif confirmé, en famille ou en individuel, en promenade ou en course. Pour cela, divers types de parcours sont &agr...

  6. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'Orientation

    2013-01-01

    Course d’orientation Face aux Championnats de France des Clubs à Poitiers, et à une météo hivernale (vent glaciale et pluie), il ne restait qu’une cinquantaine d’orienteurs pour participer à l’épreuve organisée le samedi 25 mai à Grange-Malval. Les participants ont tout de même bien apprécié les 5 circuits proposés par le Satus Genève. Les résultats sont disponibles sur notre site http://cern.ch/club-orientation. En plus des résultats, vous pourrez noter des informations sur la nouvelle école de CO encadrée par B. Barge, Prof. EPS à Ferney-Voltaire pour les jeunes à partir de 6 ans. La prochaine étape de la coupe genevoise se déroulera samedi 1er juin à Morez (39). Epreuve organisée par le club O’Jura&nb...

  7. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2010-01-01

    COURSE D’ORIENTATION La finale de la coupe de printemps Après avoir remporté le challenge club, samedi 29 juin lors du relais inter-club à Lausanne, le Club d’orientation du CERN organisait la dernière étape de la coupe genevoise de printemps samedi 5 juin à Saint-Cergue dans les bois de Monteret (Canton de Vaud). Plus de 100 participants se sont déplacés pour venir participer à la finale et découvrir une toute nouvelle carte dans une forêt vallonnée. Les résultats pour chaque circuit de cette étape sont : Technique long : 1. Jurg Niggli du club O’Jura, 2. Clément Poncet, 3. Oystein Midttun. Technique moyen : 1. Zoltan Trocsanyi CO CERN, 2. Christophe Ingold, 3. Christina Falga. Technique court : 1. Pierre-Andre Baum, CARE Vevey, 2. Emese Szunyog, 3. Solène Balay. Facile moyen : 1. Elisa P...

  8. COURSE ORIENTATION

    CERN Document Server

    Club d'orientation du CERN

    2015-01-01

      Les coureurs d’orientation de la région se sont donné rendez-vous samedi dernier dans les bois de Pougny/Challex lors de l’épreuve organisée par le club d’orientation du CERN. La carte proposée pour les 5 circuits offrait aussi bien un coté très technique avec un relief pentu qu’un coté avec de grandes zones plates à forêt claire. Le parcours technique long comportant 20 postes a été remporté par Beat Muller du COLJ Lausanne en 56:26 devançant Denis Komarov, CO CERN en 57:30 et Yvan Balliot, ASO Annecy en 57:46. Pour les autres circuits les résultats sont les suivants: Technique moyen (13 postes): 1er Joël Mathieu en 52:32 à une seconde du 2e Vladimir Kuznetsov, COLJ Lausanne-Jorat, 3e Jean-Bernard Zosso, CO CERN, en 54:01 Technique court (12 postes): 1er Lennart Jirden, ...

  9. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2013-01-01

    Courses d’orientation Le soleil enfin de retour a incité nombre de sportifs et promeneurs à nous rejoindre dans la belle forêt de Challex /Pougny pour la deuxième étape de notre coupe de printemps 2013. Certains sont revenus crottés et fourbus alors que d’autres avaient les joues bien roses après un grand bol d’air frais. Mais tous avaient passé un agréable moment dans la nature. Nous rappelons que nos activités sont ouvertes à tous, jeunes, moins jeunes, sportifs, familles, du CERN ou d’ailleurs, et que le seul inconvénient est que si vous goûtez à la course d’orientation, il vous sera difficile de ne pas y revenir ! Samedi 20 avril 2013, nous serons sur le Mont Mourex (entre Gex et Divonne) pour notre prochaine épreuve et vous y serez les bienvenus. Les inscriptions et les départ...

  10. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'Orientation

    2012-01-01

     Course d’orientation C’est sous un magnifique soleil que s’est tenue la 7e épreuve de la coupe genevoise organisée par le club d’orientation du CERN. Les organisateurs avaient concocté des parcours assez techniques sur le site de La Faucille. Sur le parcours technique long, beau podium avec la victoire de Domenico Lepori (double médaillés aux championnats du monde en 2010 en vétéran) du club Care Vevey en 1:00:23, juste devant Jürg Niggli du club O’Jura en 1:00:56 puis Beat Mueller du club Lausanne-Jorat en 1:04:28. Sur le parcours technique moyen, Franck Longchampt s’est octroyé la première place, sur le parcours technique court, le jeune Julien Vuitton, qui n’a pas tout à fait 11 ans, a remporté son circuit. Coté parcours facile moyen, Victor Kuznetsov a une fois de plus gagn&eacut...

  11. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d’Orientation du CERN

    2015-01-01

    Courses d’orientation Nouvelle saison nouveau programme Le Club d’orientation du CERN, en partenariat avec d’autres clubs de la région, vous propose une dizaine de courses populaires comptant pour la coupe Genevoise de printemps: samedi 28 mars: Vernand Dessus samedi 18 avril: Pougny/Challex samedi 25 avril: Chancy/Valleiry samedi 2 mai: Mauvernay samedi 9 mai: Longchaumois samedi 16 mai: Genolier samedi 30 mai: Prevondavaux samedi 6 juin: Biere-Ballens samedi 13 juin: Haut-Jura samedi 20 juin: Bonmont - Finale Ces courses sont ouvertes à tous, quel que soit le niveau, du débutant au sportif confirmé, en famille ou en individuel, en promenade ou en course. Les inscriptions se font sur place le jour de l’épreuve. Si vous êtes débutant, vous pouvez profiter d’une initiation offerte par l’organisateur avant de vous lancer sur un parcours. Le club propose aussi...

  12. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2013-01-01

    Courses d’orientation Une bonne dizaine de clubs étaient représentés samedi dernier à La Faucille pour participer à la  2e manche de la coupe genevoise organisée par le club du CERN. Les 120 coureurs ont pu découvrir des parcours classés "technique". Ceux du Haut-Jura familiarisés à ce type de terrain ont pu sortir leur épingle du jeu et se sont octroyé la victoire sur 4 des 5 circuits. Samedi 21 septembre, la montagne du Haut-Jura était encore plébiscitée puisque les coureurs étaient attendus à Saint Cergue sur la carte des Pralies. Pour les résultats complets de La Faucille et les informations sur la prochaine étape, consultez le site du club http://cern.ch/club-orientation.

  13. Orientation Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2014-01-01

    COURSE ORIENTATION Résultats de samedi 10 mai    C’est sur une carte entièrement réactualisée dans les bois de Versoix, que plus de 100 coureurs sont venus participer à la course d’orientation, type longue distance, préparée par des membres du club du CERN. Le terrain plutôt plat nécessitait une orientation à grande vitesse, ce qui a donné les podiums suivants :  Technique long avec 17 postes : 1er Jurg Niggli, O’Jura en 52:48, 2e Beat Muller, COLJ Lausanne-Jorat en 58:02, 3e Christophe Vuitton, CO CERN en 58:19 Technique moyen avec 13 postes : 1er Jean-Bernard Zosso, CO CERN, en 46:05 ; 2e Yves Rousselot, Balise 25 Besançon, en 55:11 ; 3e Laurent Merat, O'Jura, en 55:13 Technique court avec 13 postes : 1er Julien Vuitton, CO CERN en 40:59, 2e Marc Baumgartner, CO CERN en 43:18, 3e Yaelle Mathieu en 51:42 Su...

  14. Customizable Time-Oriented Visualizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhail, Mohammad Amin; Pantazos, Kostas

    2012-01-01

    Most commercial visualization tools support an easy and quick creation of conventional time-oriented visualizations such as line charts, but customization is limited. In contrast, some academic visualization tools and programming languages support the creation of some customizable time-oriented visualizations but it is time consuming and hard. To combine efficiency, the effort required to develop a visualization, and customizability, the ability to tailor a visualization, we developed time-oriented building blocks that address the specifics of time (e.g. linear vs. cyclic or point-based vs. interval-based) and consist of inner customizable parts (e.g. ticks). A combination of the time-oriented and other primitive graphical building blocks allowed the creation of several customizable advanced time-oriented visualizations. The appearance and behavior of the blocks are specified using spreadsheet-like formulas. We compared our approach with other popular visualization tools. Evaluation showed that our approachrates well in customizability.

  15. Cognitive-behavioral approaches to children's problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, M J; Nezworski, M T

    1985-09-01

    Selected issues in theory, research, methodology, assessment, and outcome are briefly discussed in the context of cognitive-behavioral approaches to children's problems. Distinctions between rationalistic and developmental varieties of cognitive approaches are delineated. Different assumptions are explored regarding the function and nature of cognitive processes, the nature and mechanisms of psychological change, and the relationship between cognitive and emotional processes. It is concluded that the empirical status of cognitive-behavioral approaches to children's problems is equivocal. The theoretical status of traditional (rationalistic) cognitive treatments is also challenged, and developmental, process-oriented conceptualizations and research are endorsed as more adequate and promising perspectives in this area. PMID:4045014

  16. Customer Orientation and Firm Performance among Nigerian Small and Medium Scale Businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olalekan Asikhia

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the relationship between customer orientation and firm performance among the small andmedium scale businesses in Nigeria. Besides, the study also investigates the moderating effect of marketinginformation system and managerial attitudes on the relationship between customer orientation and firmperformance. Nigeria small and medium business represents the sample of the study. Data was collected usingquestionnaire survey approach. Two hundred and twenty two Nigerian businesses participated in this study.Results of this study indicated that there was a positive and significant relationship between customer orientationand firm performance in the context of Nigerian small and medium scale business. The result also revealed thatmarketing information system and managerial attitude moderated the relationship. The outcome of this studyprovides very important information from a developing country perspective on the need for small and mediumscale businesses to adopt customer orientation as a survival and competitive strategy towards achieving customeradvantage in a turbulent business environment.

  17. Orientation games in kindergarten

    OpenAIRE

    Pis?ek, Anja

    2012-01-01

    The thesis presents the area of general orientation and orientation of the child. The focus is placed on orientation games for preschool children. The first part outlines different definitions of orientation, types of orientation, accessories for orientation and major errors in orientation. It also presents the development of spatial orientation of preschool children, the development of the concept of space according to the level of cognitive development in line with the theory by Piaget,...

  18. The Effect of GVHD on Long-term Outcomes after Peripheral Blood Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation from an HLA-identical Sibling in Adult Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia: A Landmark Analysis Approach in Competing Risks

    OpenAIRE

    Jalali, Arash; Alimoghaddam, Kamran; Mahmoudi, Mahmood; Mohammad, Kazem; Mousavi, Seied Asadollah; Bahar, Babak; Vaezi, Mohammad; Zeraati, Hojjat; Jahani, Mohammad; Ghavamzadeh, Ardeshir

    2014-01-01

    Allogeneic Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the most effective therapy to prevent relapse in acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL). This benefit is affected by non-relapse mortality (NRM) due to complications such as graft versus host disease (GVHD). A new approach in analyzing time-dependent covariates in competing risks is landmark analysis. So, the aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of acute and chronic GVHD on long-term outcomes, relapse and NRM, after allogeneic HSCT...

  19. Measuring Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschenmann, Sandy; Lane, Theodore

    2001-01-01

    Describes the California Community Colleges' goal to advance the state's economic growth through quality economic development programs. Discusses the importance of assessment and presents the results of an outcome evaluation, stating that California will collect $1.42 in taxes over the next 10 years for every dollar it spent on economic…

  20. Club Orientation

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2014-01-01

      COURSE ORIENTATION   Pas moins de 100 concurrents sont venus s’affronter sur les parcours proposés par le club d’orientation du CERN ce samedi 26 avril lors de la 4e étape de la coupe genevoise de printemps. Les podiums ont été attribués à :  Technique long avec 19 postes : 1er Yvan Balliot, ASO Annecy en 1:01:39 ; 2e Dominique Fleurent, ASO Annecy, en 1:05:12 ; 3e Rémi Fournier, SOS Sallanches, en 1:05:40. Technique moyen avec 14 postes : 1er Jean-Bernard Zosso, CO CERN, en 46:42 ; 2e Céline Zosso, CO CERN, en 50:51 ; 3e Clément Poncet, O’Jura Prémanon, en 51:27. Technique court avec 13 postes : 1er Jaakko Murtomaki, YKV Seinaejoki, en 36:04 ; 2e Marc Baumgartner en 41:27 ; 3e Natalia Niggli, O’Jura Prémanon, en 52:43. Sur les parcours facile moyen et facile court, victoire respectivement de Stéphanie...

  1. Outcome based education enacted: teachers' tensions in balancing between student learning and bureaucracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Linda; Silén, Charlotte; Bolander Laksov, Klara

    2014-12-01

    This paper reports on how teachers within health sciences education translate outcome-based education (OBE) into practice when they design courses. The study is an empirical contribution to the debate about outcome- and competency-based approaches in health sciences education. A qualitative method was used to study how teachers from 14 different study programmes designed courses before and after OBE was implemented. Using an interpretative approach, analysis of documents and interviews was carried out. The findings show that teachers enacted OBE either to design for more competency-oriented teaching-learning, or to further detail knowledge and thus move towards reductionism. Teachers mainly understood the outcome-based framework as useful to support students' learning, although the demand for accountability created tension and became a bureaucratic hindrance to design for development of professional competence. The paper shows variations of how teachers enacted the same outcome-based framework for instructional design. These differences can add a richer understanding of how outcome- or competency-based approaches relate to teaching-learning at a course level. PMID:24464366

  2. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2011-01-01

    Coupe genevoise, suite Résultats de la course de Saint-Cergue, sur la carte Les Pralies, samedi 17 septembre. Nouvelle victoire du finlandais Ville Keskisaari, du club COLJ sur le parcours technique long avec une belle avance sur le deuxième concurrent Christophe Vuitton du CO CERN. David Cuenin a remporté le parcours technique moyen, Franck Lonchampt du club O’Jura a, lui aussi, remporté à nouveau le parcours technique court, tout comme Julien Vuitton du club CO CERN sur le facile moyen. Pour finir, Stéphane Clément devance Victor Dannecker sur le parcours facile court. Les résultats complets sont disponibles sur le site du club du CERN http://cern.ch/club-orientation. Un abonnement est pris sur le secteur de Saint-Cergue, puisque le club organise les deux prochaines étapes de la coupe genevoise dans le Haut-Jura suisse. Tout d’abord le samedi 24 septembre, un relais inter-club se courr...

  3. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'Orientation

    2011-01-01

    Course d'orientation Avec la CO en nocturne organisée par le club du CERN vendredi 14 octobre au stade des Eveaux (Ge), et la CO à Savigny (Vd) proposée par le club de Lausanne-Jorat le lendemain, les étapes de la coupe genevoise d’automne s’enchainent rapidement. Il ne reste plus que 3 rendez-vous pour boucler la saison. Les premières places devraient certainement se jouer entre des membres du club du CERN, du O’Jura ou de Lausanne-Jorat. La prochaine course du club est programmée pour samedi 22 octobre à Pomier, près de Cruseilles. L’accueil se fera à partir de 12h30 et les départs s’échelonneront de 13h à 15h. * * * * * * * Nouvelle belle victoire samedi 8 octobre à Saint Cergue du jeune finlandais Ville Keskisaari (COLJ) en 50:56 devant Jürg Niggli (O’Jura) en 1:03:32, et Alexandre...

  4. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2013-01-01

    Course d'orientation Finale de la coupe genevoise Rapide et méthodique, voilà les qualités dont il fallait faire preuve pour remporter la dernière étape de la coupe organisée par le club du CERN dans les bois de Monteret. Il s’agissait d’une course au score où chaque concurrent disposait d’un temps imparti pour poinçonner le maximum de balises. Le parcours technique a été remporté par Tomas Shellman et le parcours facile par Victor Dannecker. Cette dernière étape était aussi décisive pour la désignation des lauréats de la coupe genevoise de printemps. Les résultats officiels étaient donnés par le président du club, L. Jirden : Circuit Technique Long : Berni Wehrle, Bruno Barge, Edvins Reisons Circuit Technique Moyen : J.-Bernard Zosso, ...

  5. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2013-01-01

    Course d'orientation Vers les dernières courses de printemps Une centaine de coureurs se sont déplacés sur le site de la Roche Fendue prés de Morez pour gouter à un des 5 parcours proposés par le club du O’Jura. Le terrain était gras mais que peut-on trouver d’autre avec cette météo! Les vainqueurs de chaque circuit sont : Alina Niggli (O’Jura) facile court, Natalja Niggli (O’Jura) facile moyen, Victor Kuznetsov (COLJ) technique court, Yves Rousselot (Balise 25) technique moyen et pour finir François Gonon (O’Jura) avec une victoire haut la main sur le technique long. Il ne reste plus que deux épreuves pour la coupe genevoise de printemps : à savoir samedi 8 juin, course de type longue distance organisée par le club de Lausanne Jorat (COLJ) dans le bois de Seyte sur Mutrux/Concise, inscription de 12h &...

  6. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2013-01-01

    Finale de la coupe d’automne La dernière épreuve de la coupe d’automne organisée par le club d’orientation du CERN s’est déroulée ce samedi 2 novembre avec une course au score dans le bois Tollot (GE). Les concurrents disposaient d’un temps imparti pour poinçonner le maximum de balises différemment placées selon le circuit choisi. Juerg Niggli (club O’Jura) a remporté le parcours technique long. A l’issue de cette course, le classement général de la coupe d’automne, basé sur les 6 meilleurs résultats de la saison, est le suivant : Circuit technique long : 1er Juerg Niggli (O’Jura), 2e Bruno Barge, 3e Beat Mueller. Circuit technique moyen : 1er Laurent Merat (O’Jura), 2e Jirden Lennart, 3e Daria Niggli. Circuit technique court : 1er Victor Kuznetsov (COLJ), 2e N...

  7. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    CLUB D'ORIENTATION

    2013-01-01

    Calendrier de la coupe d’automne Le Club d’orientation du CERN, en partenariat avec d’autres clubs de la région, vous propose, pour cette nouvelle coupe d’automne genevoise, une série de 10 courses. Le club du O’Jura donnera le coup d’envoi le samedi 31 août. Les courses s’enchaîneront selon le calendrier suivant : Samedi 31 août : Prémanon (39) - longue distance Samedi 14 septembre : La Faucille (01) - longue distance Samedi 21 septembre : Saint Cergue (VD) - longue distance Samedi 28 septembre : Ballens (VD) - relais Samedi 5 octobre : La Pile (VD) - longue distance Vendredi 11 octobre : Les Evaux (GE) - nocturne Samedi 12 octobre : Grand Jorat, Savigny (VD) - longue distance Samedi 19 octobre : Terrasses de Genève (74) - longue distance Samedi 26 octobre : Prémanon (39) - longue distance Samedi 2 novembre : Bois Tollot (GE) - score - Finale Les &a...

  8. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'Orientation

    2012-01-01

    Relais inter-club/Challenge Carlo Milan Samedi dernier, lors de l’épreuve de course d’orientation organisée par le club du O’Jura, le moteur de la discipline était l’esprit d’équipe, puisqu’il était question d’un relais inter-club avec le Challenge Carlo Milan. Les clubs avaient aligné leurs coureurs soit sur le relais technique (trois participants) soit sur le relais facile (deux participants). Côté O’Jura, il fallait noter la participation de François Gonon, champion du monde 2011, côté club du CERN, Marie et Gaëtan Vuitton, jeunes espoirs du club, devaient préparer la piste pour lancer le dernier relayeur. Côté Lausanne-Jorat, il fallait compter sur le très jeune Viktor Kuznetsov. Les 31 équipes engagées n’ont pas m&ea...

  9. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'Orientation

    2012-01-01

     Finale de la coupe de printemps   La dernière course d’orientation comptant pour la Coupe de printemps a eu lieu samedi dernier dans le village des Rousses et vers le Fort. Il s’agissait d’un sprint organisé par le club O’Jura. Les temps de course ont avoisiné les 20 minutes que ce soit pour le parcours technique moyen ou technique long. Tous les habitués étaient au rendez-vous pour venir consolider ou améliorer leur place au classement. A l’issue de cette course, le classement général de la Coupe de printemps prenant en compte les 6 meilleurs résultats des 9 courses était établi et les lauréats de chaque catégorie sont les suivants: Circuit technique long : 1er Berni Wehrle, 2e Bruno Barge, 3e Edvins Reisons. Circuit technique moyen : 1er Jean-Bernard Zosso, 2e Cédric Wehrl&...

  10. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2013-01-01

    De jour comme de nuit Les amateurs de course d’orientation ont pu s’en donner à cœur joie ce week-end puisqu’ils avaient la possibilité de courir sur deux épreuves en moins de 24 heures. En effet, le club du CERN organisait une course de nuit aux Evaux et la 7e étape de la coupe genevoise se tenait samedi après-midi dans les bois du Grand Jorat à Savigny. Les vainqueurs pour chaque course sont : Technique long CO de nuit: Julien Charlemagne, SOS Sallanches CO samedi: Philipp Khlebnikov, ANCO   Technique moyen CO de nuit: Céline Zosso, CO CERN CO samedi: Pavel Khlebnikov, ANCO Technique court CO de nuit: Colas Ginztburger, SOS Sallanches CO samedi: Victor Kuznetsov, COLJ Lausannne Facile moyen CO de nuit: Gaëtan Rickenbacher, CO CERN CO samedi: Tamas Szoke   Facile court CO de nuit:Oriane Rickenbacher, CO CERN CO samedi: Katya Kuznetsov...

  11. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2014-01-01

    Course d'orientation Finale de la coupe d’automne La dernière épreuve de la coupe d’automne organisée par le club s’est déroulée ce samedi 1er novembre avec une course type «one-man-relay» dans la forêt de Trelex (Vd). Les concurrents des circuits techniques devaient parcourir trois boucles et ceux des circuits «faciles» deux boucles, avec changements de carte. Le parcours technique long a été remporté par un membre du club, Berni Wehrle. A l’issue de cette course, le Président du club, L. Jirden annonçait le classement général de la coupe d’automne, basé sur les 6 meilleurs résultats de la saison : Circuit technique long : 1er Juerg Niggli (O’Jura), 2e Berni Wehrle, 3e Beat Mueller. Circuit technique moyen : 1er Laurent Merat (O&r...

  12. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2011-01-01

    Reprise fin août Le Club d’orientation, en partenariat avec d’autres clubs de la région, vous propose une nouvelle série de courses pour cet automne. Le calendrier à retenir est le suivant : Samedi 27 août : Granges Malval (GE) – type classique Samedi 10 septembre : Lamoura (39) – type classique Samedi 17 septembre : La Dôle (F/VD) – type classique Samedi 24 septembre : Monteret (VD) – relais Samedi 8 octobre : Saint Cergue (VD) – type classique Vendredi 14 octobre : Les Evaux (GE) – nocturne Samedi 15 octobre : Grand Jorat (VD) – type classique Samedi 22 octobre : Pomier (74) – type classique Samedi 5 novembre : Echallens (VD) – type classique Samedi 12 novembre : CERN (GE) - sprint - Finale Généralement cinq circuits sont disponibles : ceci va du facile court (2 km) adapt&eacu...

  13. Outcome predictors for 143 patients with superior sulcus tumors treated by multidisciplinary approach at the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Superior sulcus tumors (SST) of the lung are uncommon and constitute approximately 3% of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). These tumors cause specific symptoms and signs, and are associated with patterns of failure that differ from those seen for NSCLC tumors in other nonapical locations. Prognostic factors and most effective treatments are controversial. We conducted a retrospective study at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center to identify outcome predictors for patients with SST treated by a multidisciplinary approach. Methods and Materials: This retrospective review of 143 patients without distant metastasis at presentation is a continuation of a previous M. D. Anderson study now updated to 1994. In this study, we examine the 5-year survival rate by pretreatment tumor and patient characteristics and by the treatments received. Strict criteria were used to define SST. Actuarial life-table analyses and Cox proportional hazard models were used to compare survival rates. Results: Overall predictors of 5-year survival were weight loss (p < 0.01), supraclavicular fossa (p = 0.03), or vertebral body (p = 0.05) involvement, stage of the disease (p < 0.01), and surgical treatment (p < 0.01). Five-year survival for patients with Stage IIB disease was 47% compared to 14% for Stage IIIA, and 16% for Stage IIIB. For patients with Stage IIB disease, surgical treatment (p < 0.01) and weight loss (p = 0.01) were significant independent predictors of 5-yesignificant independent predictors of 5-year survival. Among patients with Stage IIIA disease, the only predictor of survival was Karnofsky performance score (KPS) (p = 0.02). For patients with Stage IIIB disease, the only independent predictor of survival was a right superior sulcus location, which was associated with a worse 5-year survival rate than that for patients with tumors in the left superior sulcus (p = 0.02). More patients with adenocarcinoma than with squamous cell tumors experienced cerebral metastases within 5 years (p < 0.01). Patients without gross residual disease after surgical resection who received postoperative radiation therapy with total doses of 55 to 64 Gy had a 5-year survival rate of 82% as compared with the 5-year survival rate of 56% in patients who received 50 to 54 Gy. Twenty-three patients survived for longer than 3 years. Of these, 4 patients (17%) received radiation therapy alone or in combination with chemotherapy without surgical resection. The other 19 patients (83%) had resection combined with radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy. Conclusions: The findings from this study confirm the importance of the new staging system, separating T3 N0 M0 (Stage IIB) from Stage IIIA, since there was a significant difference in the 5-year survival (p < 0.01). Interestingly, there was no significant 5-year survival difference between Stage IIIA (N2) and Stage IIIB (T4 or N3). This study also suggests that surgery is an important component of the multidisciplinary approach to patients with SST if their nodes were negative. Disease that is minimally invading surrounding normal structures can be resected followed by radiation therapy in doses of 55 to 64 Gy. Further investigation of treatment strategies combining high-dose radiation therapy (?66 Gy) with chemotherapy is indicated for patients with unresectable and/or node-positive (N2) SST

  14. From volume to value? Can a value-based approach help deliver the ambitious aims of the NHS cardiovascular disease outcomes strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar-Rees, Rupert; Panch, Trishan; Dancy, Mark

    2014-06-01

    The last year has seen the publication of two papers which will radically shape the future organisation of healthcare in general, and cardiovascular disease in particular: Cardiovascular Outcomes Strategy (Department of Health) and The Strategy That Will Fix Healthcare (Harvard Business Review). Both publications set out a health delivery mechanism based around improvement of outcomes for groups of patients with similar needs. Instead of organising care around disease categories, it is proposed that the cardiovascular diseases are treated as a single family of diseases. We are reaching the limits of what an activity-based system organised around existing provider structures can sustainably deliver. Unless we find delivery systems which reduce costs while at the same time improving outcomes that are meaningful to patients, then we will be faced with a future of healthcare rationing. The increasing burden of chronic disease and ongoing quality concerns in delivery systems has created a 'burning platform', which must be addressed if we are to maintain a system which offers high-quality care free at the point of delivery. This paper explores what an outcomes and value-based system could look like when applied to cardiovascular disease. It explores what it means for providers and patients if we start to think about outcomes by patients with similar needs, rather than by intervention, or by clinical specialty. As a specific example, the paper explores the features of an Integrated Circulation Service, what the challenges and implications might be, and whether there is any evidence that this would deliver improved outcomes, at a lower cost to the system. PMID:24619245

  15. A Roundabout Approach to Control Morphological Orientation and Solar-Cell Performance by Modulating Side-Chain Branching Position in Benzodithiophene-Based Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyu Cheol; Song, Seyeong; Lee, Junghoon; Kim, Dong Suk; Kim, Jin Young; Yang, Changduk

    2014-10-21

    To be meaningful to guide the rational design of novel high-performance conjugated semiconductors, we prepared three benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene (BDT)-based polymers by systematically moving the branching point of the alkyl chain. The effect of side-chain engineering was thoroughly investigated by a range of techniques. We demonstrate that a subtle change in the branching position in the BDT core can have a critical impact on polymer packing and preferential backbone orientation in thin films; copolymers made from BDT and thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione units (TPD) adopt more of a face-on orientation as the branching point is shifted closer to the backbone, which can be correlated with a dramatic difference in solar-cells performance. The high short-circuit current density (11.6?mA?cm(-2) ) for the copolymer with one carbon atom between the alkoxylated oxygen atom and the branching point results from its predominantly face-on orientation and smoother surface in thin films, which results in power conversion efficiencies as high as 4.56?%. PMID:25334043

  16. Network Oriented Blocking Followed by Misbehaving Oriented Phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moghal Yaseen Pasha

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available By the fast growing generation the network based on the tor provides accessibility of the services based on the internet oriented applications which are based on the private scenario by the connection oriented routers based on the server where the client’s oriented address based on the IP is hidden. Where the performance is somewhat is effective due to the limitation based on the network based connectivity. These problems are faced due to some of the ill conditioning based parameters respectively such as appearance of the network based scenario is quite effective respectively. Administration related websites are completely dependent on the address of the IP oriented phenomena respectively in which the disabling of the access takes due to the ill conditioning of the user baser scenario in terms of the misbehavior oriented phenomena respectively. Now moving towards the practical oriented phenomena this is not the perfect solution based on the blocking of the address based on the IP scenario. Finally resulting in such an oriented phenomena where blocking is done by the help of the admin oriented issue at the nodal side respectively. These particular phenomena plays a vital role and somewhat beneficiary aspect in terms of the controlling the misbehavior of the user. Therefore in order to overcome the above problem a framework is designed by the name of nimble in such a fashion which is used to overcome the above phenomena by the following considerations where the entire action takes place by the help of the server’s oriented approach. Therefore this particular phenomena plays a vital role in order to improve the performance of the system respectively.

  17. Characteristics and Behavioral Outcomes for Youth in Group Care and Family-Based Care: A Propensity Score Matching Approach Using National Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Sigrid; Roesch, Scott; Zhang, Jin Jin

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to answer two questions: (a) Given expected differences in children who are placed in group care compared to those in family-based settings, is it possible to match children on baseline characteristics? (b) Are there differences in behavioral outcomes for youth with episodes in group care versus those in family-based care? Using…

  18. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'Orientation

    2012-01-01

    Course d'orientation Ces deux dernières semaines, le club a organisé la troisième puis la quatrième étape de la coupe de printemps, une dans la forêt de Collogny/Moissey près de Vulbens, l’autre vers le parcours vita de Trélex. Les résultats sont: Facile court Vulbens : 1er Léo Lonchampt, O’Jura (16:04), 2e Timothée Bazin (23:07), 3e Francesco Pieri (26:57) Trélex : 1er Noora Maurent (23:11), 2e Sarah Stuber, COLJ (26:51), 3e T. Bazin (28:17) Facile moyen Vulbens : 1er Victor Kuznetsov, CO CERN (25:36), 2e Didier Descourvières (28:03), 3e Konstantinos Haider, CO CERN (36:53) Trélex : 1er V. Kuznetsov, COLJ (38:01), 2e K. Haider, CO CERN (43:15), 3e ex aequo Olivia Nguyen et Sven Vietmeier (58:11) Technique court Vulbens : 1er Benoit Bazin (41:21), 2e Colas Gintzburger (55:12), 3e Nathan Freydoz (55:48) Trélex : 1...

  19. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2013-01-01

    Courses d’orientation Samedi 20 avril, les organisateurs du Club de CO du CERN ont accueilli au Mont Mourex 70 participants qui n’ont pas hésité à venir malgré la forte bise. Berni Wehrle du CO CERN s’est octroyé la première place en 1:04:49 sur le parcours technique long devant Pyry Kettunen du Saynso Juankoski en 1:06:52, la 3e place revenant à Bruno Barge, CO CERN, à 7 secondes. Les autres parcours ont été remportés par : Technique moyen : 1er Jacques Moisset, Chamonix (47:44), 2e Yves Rousselot, Balise 25 Besançon (57:16), 3e Jean-Bernard Zosso, CO CERN (59:28). Technique court : 1er Victor Kuznetsov, COLJ (51:53), 2e Pierrick Collet, CO CERN (1:12:52), 3e Dominique Balay, CO CERN (1:16:04). Pour les parcours facile moyen et facile court, Ralf Nardini et Léa Nicolas, tous deux du CO CERN, terminaient respectivement premier. Voi...

  20. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2014-01-01

    Course d'orientation C’est sous un beau soleil samedi 4 octobre que s’est déroulée la 6e étape de la Coupe genevoise d’automne organisée par le club. Plus d’une centaine de concurrents provenant de 7 clubs de CO avaient fait le déplacement pour courir sur un des cinq parcours proposés dans les bois de Trélex-Génolier (VD). Le podium est le suivant : Technique long (5,9 km, 19 postes) : 1er Jurg Niggli, O’Jura (1:00:02); 2e Berni Wehrle, CO CERN (1:06:44); 3e Konrad Ehrbar, COLJ (1:07:08) Technique moyen (4,8 km, 18 postes) : 1er Christophe Vuitton, CO CERN (54:25); 2e J.B. Zosso, CO CERN (1:01:19); 3e Jeremy Wichoud, COLJ (1:06:21) Technique court (3,8 km, 14 postes) : 1er Julien Vuitton, CO CERN (36:19); 2e Vladimir Kuznetsov, COLJ (48:47); 3e Natalia Niggli, O’Jura (50:38) Facile moyen (3,2 km, 11 postes) : 1ère Alina Niggli, O&...

  1. Oriental noodles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, G

    2001-01-01

    Oriental noodles have been consumed for thousands of years and remain an important part in the diet of many Asians. There is a wide variety of noodles in Asia with many local variations as result of differences in culture, climate, region and a host of other factors. In this article noodle classification, formulation, processing and evaluation are reviewed, with emphasis on eight major types. Wheat quality requirements, basic flour specifications, ingredient functions, and production variables are identified for different noodles. In the evaluation of flour for noodle making, three key quality attributes are considered: processability, noodle color and texture. Noodle process behavior is particularly important in the modern industrial production. Each noodle type has its own unique color and texture characteristics. Flour color, protein content, ash content, yellow pigment and polyphenol oxidase activity are important factors responsible for noodle color. Starch characteristics, protein content and quality play major roles in governing the texture of cooked noodles. However, the relative importance of starch and proteins varies considerably with noodle type. Starch pasting quality is the primary trait determining the eating quality of Japanese and Korean noodles that are characterized by soft and elastic texture, while protein quantity and strength are very important to Chinese-type noodles that require firm bite and chewy texture. Other factors such as ingredients added in the noodle formula and processing variables used during noodle preparation also affect the cooked noodle texture as well. PMID:11285682

  2. Personal goals in work and private life domains : what are the predictors of approach versus avoidance goal orientation and what are its consequences?

    OpenAIRE

    Schnelle, J.

    2008-01-01

    The present thesis concentrates on goal striving in the realm of personal goals and is dedicated to the investigation on antecedents and consequences of approach and avoidance motivation in personal goals within work and private life domains. Previous research has focussed mainly on stable dispositions as antecedents of approach and avoidance goal selection and cannot explain temporary, individual changes of approach and avoidance goal adoption. Thus, in Part I of the present thesis it is inv...

  3. Service Composition in Service Oriented Product Line

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Mafi; Shahriar Mafi,; Mehran Mohsenzadeh

    2010-01-01

    The paradigm of Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) and Software Product Line Engineering (SPLE) discipline facilitate the development of families of software-intensive products. Software Product Linepractices can be leveraged to support the development of service-oriented applications to promote the reusability of assets throughout the iterative and incremental development of software product families. Such approach enables various service oriented business processes and software products of...

  4. Towards market oriented customer relationship management

    OpenAIRE

    Mo?nkko?nen, Marjaana

    2011-01-01

    Objective of the study: The purpose of the study is to view market orientation (MOR) from the perspective of customer relationship management (CRM) work. The investigation focuses on determining the relationship between MOR and CRM activities as well as the benefits and challenges of market orientation in CRM. The chosen research approach allows viewing market orientation as part of company business processes in a way that adds to existing knowledge on the phenomenon. Research method...

  5. Orientability of Fredholm families and topological degree

    OpenAIRE

    Pejsachowicz, Jacobo

    1994-01-01

    We construct a degree theory for oriented Fredholm mappings of index zero between open subsets of Banach spaces and between Banach manifolds. Our approach is based on the orientation of Fredholm mappings: it does not use Fredholm structures on the domain and target spaces. We provide a computable formula for the change in degree through an admissible homotopy that is necessary for applications to global bifurcation. The notion of orientation enables us to establish rather precise relationship...

  6. Orientalism and India

    OpenAIRE

    Jukka Jouhki

    2006-01-01

    In this article Orientalism, a special hegemonic discourse about "the Orient" by Europeans is discussed by focusing on how it is manifested in a "Western" view of India. Orientalism as a discourse about the Orient is a concept first coined by Edward Said in his book Orientalism (1978) and contains a long history of European way of relating to the Orient as a counterpart of European/Western culture. In this article Orientalist discourses about India by hegemonically Western (and particularly A...

  7. Object-Oriented Performance Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Ian; Schaffer, Scott P.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a framework to support an object-oriented approach to performance analysis and instructional design that includes collaboration, automation, visual modeling, and reusable Web-based repositories of analysis knowledge. Relates the need for a new framework to the increasing concern with the cost effectiveness of student and employee…

  8. Math and Calculation – A Test for Diagnosing Concepts at Pre-school Age – An Example of a Level-oriented Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabi Ricken

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Process-oriented diagnostics require a theoretical framework which allows to describe and interpret individual competence changes. For MARKO-test, a corresponding dimension/scale of mathematical achievement in preschool age was developed on the basis of theoretical assumptions and empirical data. Five essential concepts are: numbers as counting sequence, ordinal number line, cardinal understanding, part – part – whole and concept of congruent intervals. There is empirical evidence for the validity of the model, using a unidimensional Rasch model. Therefore, a concept of testing is available which on the one hand allows to compare individual data with a social norm and on the other hand is usable to make valid statements about individual changes and the current development status of a child.

  9. Agreement on technology? Exploring the political feasibility of technology-oriented agreements and their compatibility with cap-and-trade approaches to address climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change has been on the international policy agenda since the UNFCCC was agreed in 1992. The Kyoto Protocol was the UNFCCC's answer to the call for measures and has been effective in establishing an international carbon market and reducing emissions in some countries and regions. A follow-up of the Kyoto Protocol is currently under discussion. In theory, the economically most efficient form of a global agreement is a global cap-and-trade agreement. It remains highly uncertain whether an effective global climate regime fully founded on another cap-and-trade type of agreement is politically feasible. In addition, it has been suggested that a new agreement would have to be more effective in promoting technology development and diffusion. This report explores the compatibility of a cap-and trade regime with a different form of international agreements to address climate change: technology-oriented agreements (TOAs)

  10. Modelling of long-term and short-term mechanisms of arterial pressure control in the cardiovascular system: an object-oriented approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez de Canete, J; Luque, J; Barbancho, J; Munoz, V

    2014-04-01

    A mathematical model that provides an overall description of both the short- and long-term mechanisms of arterial pressure regulation is presented. Short-term control is exerted through the baroreceptor reflex while renal elimination plays a role in long-term control. Both mechanisms operate in an integrated way over the compartmental model of the cardiovascular system. The whole system was modelled in MODELICA, which uses a hierarchical object-oriented modelling strategy, under the DYMOLA simulation environment. The performance of the controlled system was analysed by simulation in light of the existing hypothesis and validation tests previously performed with physiological data, demonstrating the effectiveness of both regulation mechanisms under physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:24561348

  11. Individual activities as an integrated part of project work - an innovative approach to project oriented and problem-based learning POPBL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesby, Egon; Winther, Hans Henrik

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the authors describe and, on the basis of a recently conducted survey, evaluate a way to increase student learning through the introduction of an individual project activity to the project oriented and problem-based and team-based project work - POPBL. This can be achieved not just by adding an individual activity outside or parallel to the project work, but by having the individual activity embedded as an integrated part of the overall team-based project work. In what the authors have deemed the extended project model, students work individually in the solution phase of the project in an individual activity to subsequently be separately assessed. The results of the individually oriented project work form the platform for final work with the project as a team. The students in each team are expected to evaluate the individual solutions and select the one solution to work on in the final phases of the team-based project work. The extended project model also helps train students’ abilities to makeevaluations among various solutions of which one is their own, thereby learning how to evaluate their personal solutions against the solutions of their peers, and thus to use objective evaluations in order to identify the overall best solution, or else develop a completely new solution model based on their new experiences. Furthermore, by adding individual activities, the problem of free riders can be resolved, as each student must pass the individual part in order to qualify to participate in the examination of the complete project work.

  12. Aspect-oriented programming evaluated

    CERN Document Server

    Kleinschmager, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Hauptbeschreibung Aspect-oriented-programming is a relatively new technique that has evolved on top of the already well-established approach of object-oriented programming. When it is used correctly, it promises to remove many redundant parts of a code that appear repeatedly in an application, essentially untangling the original code. Thus, it can lead to a cleaner, more separated software design, to greater modularity and maintainability. Time-savings in software engineering can also be huge cost-savings, and anything that increases software quality is a welcome sight in an industr

  13. Aftershock Triggering and Estimation of the Coulomb Stress Changes with Approach of Optimally Oriented Fault Planes: Examples of Some Contemporary Earthquakes in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Alper

    2013-04-01

    The Coulomb Stress changes due to the some moderate and large earthquakes are shaped according to the orientations of reciever faults or weakness zones along the corresponding seismogenic zones. In some cases, the determination of the fault plane parameters (e.g. length, width, strike, dip) of the receiver faults are more difficult due to the tectonical complexity of the region. Therefore, in order to understand the aftershock distrubition in such areas Coulomb stress changes can be calculated under the assumption of optimally oriented fault planes which increases the spatial correlation between stress changes and aftershock distribution. In the scope of the present sutdy, aftershock distrubiton of some contemporary earthquakes in Turkey (Simav (Mw 5.8), May 2011; Van (Mw 7.0), Oct 2011 and Gulf of Fethiye (Mw 6.1), June 2012) and their coulomb stress changes were correlated. Fault plane parameters of these earthquakes which suggest three different types of focal mechanism were calculated using moment tensor inversion technique and aftershock location data in a period of 30 days for each corresponding events were taken from Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI) catalog. The focal mechanisms of the selected earthquakes represent normal, strike slip and thrust faulting for the earthquakes of Simav, Gulf of Fethite and Van, respectively. Coulomb Stress Changes were calculated using the open source Matlab based (Coulomb 3.3) codes. The calculations were performed by assuming Poisson's ratio and apparent friction coefficient to be 0.25 and 0.4, respectively. The coulomb stress variations were calculated at fixed depths for each event and aftershocks were selected as ±4 km for corresponding depths. Keeping in mind that the increase of static stress more than 0.5 bar can cause the triggered events in an area, the accordance rates of Coulomb stress changes and aftershock distribution under different tectonic regimes were disscussed. The accordance rates are %84, %80 and %68 in the extensional, strike slip and thrust type faulting, respectively. Keywords: Aftershock Distribution, Coulomb Stress Changes, Fethiye, Optimally orientad fault planes, Simav, Van

  14. A Design-Oriented Approach to the Integration of Thermodynamics, Fluid Mechanics, and Heat Transfer in the Undergraduate Mechanical Engineering Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whale, MacMurray D.; Cravalho, Ernest G.

    This paper describes two parallel efforts that attempt to implement a new approach to the teaching of thermal fluids engineering. In one setting, at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), the subject matter is integrated into a single year-long subject at the introductory level. In the second setting, at Victoria (British Columbia,…

  15. Synthesis of TiO2 nanorods by oriented attachment using EDTA modifier: a novel approach towards 1D nanostructure development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis of TiO2 nanorods with anatase structure has been achieved from the necking of truncated nanoparticles by oriented attachment using titanium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) chelated complex as a molecular precursor. The preparation was carried out under mild conditions using a simple solvothermal process. The influence of EDTA over the growth of nanocrystallites and the various other factors which contribute to the development of 1D TiO2 nanostructure are investigated. At a relatively lower temperature, titania nanopowders are obtained, and the anatase phase crystallization is verified by wide angle X-ray diffraction. The evolution of rod-shaped TiO2 with tapered edges has been confirmed by transmission electron micrographs. The well aligned lattice fringes of TiO2 nanorod towards [001] direction is investigated by HRTEM. The SEM images show the surface configuration of overall aggregates of titania crystallites consisted of primary particles which are densely packed in an orderly texture. The moderate shift in the absorption band towards higher energy region of the absorption spectrum confirms the weak carrier confinement effect in the sample.

  16. Follow-up Studies of Growth Group Outcomes: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimpfer, David G.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews 28 controlled studies of growth group outcomes to evaluate their effectiveness. Assessed outcomes in terms of self-actualization, interpersonal orientation, attitudes, personality, and behavior. Given the low frequency of enduring changes, there seems to be only scant evidence to suggest lasting positive effects due to growth groups.…

  17. Value Chain Restructuring, Work Organization and Labour Outcomes in Football Manufacturing in India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khara, Navjote; Lund-Thomsen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This article seeks to understand why developing country suppliers internalize or outsource labour-intensive aspects of production as well as how these internalization/externalization processes affect working conditions in export-orientated industries in the global South. In order to achieve this aim, the article develops a new analytical framework based upon the global value chain approach. Applying this framework to the football manufacturing industry of Jalandhar, India, the article concludes that value chain restructuring produces both new forms of work organization and highly gendered outcomes for labour in this industry.

  18. The Management of the Citizen Oriented Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion IVAN

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The context of the knowledge based society is presented. The new user requirements in the context of the new society are analyzed. Basic concepts regarding the citizen oriented applications are presented. Issues specific to the citizen oriented applications are presented. The development cycle of the citizen oriented applications is analyzed. The particular elements for developing citizen oriented applications are described. The quality concept for the citizen oriented applications is defined. Quality characteristics and the costs of quality are defined and analyzed. A system of indicators for the quantification of the quality of the citizen oriented applications is developed. Ways of increasing the quality of the applications are analyzed. Issues as improving the users’ training level, implementing new development techniques, advanced testing techniques and the requirement of audit are approached. The concept of optimization is defined. Optimum criteria are defined and analyzed. Ways of optimizing applications are described. Security requirements are enumerated and described. The particularities of the security requirements for the citizen oriented applications are analyzed. Measures for ensuring the security of the citizen oriented applications are described. A citizen oriented application for the analysis of the structured entities is developed. The application collects data regarding the behavior of the users. The collected data are used for verifying the hypotheses regarding the quality characteristics if the citizen oriented informatics applications.

  19. Impact on Clinical and Cost Outcomes of a Centralized Approach to Acute Stroke Care in London: A Comparative Effectiveness Before and After Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Rachael Maree; Davie, Charles; Rudd, Anthony; Thompson, Alan; Walker, Hilary; Thomson, Neil; Mountford, James; Schwamm, Lee; Deanfield, John; Thompson, Kerry; Dewan, Bikash; Mistry, Minesh; Quoraishi, Sadik; Morris, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Background In July 2010 a new multiple hub-and-spoke model for acute stroke care was implemented across the whole of London, UK, with continuous specialist care during the first 72 hours provided at 8 hyper-acute stroke units (HASUs) compared to the previous model of 30 local hospitals receiving acute stroke patients. We investigated differences in clinical outcomes and costs between the new and old models. Methods We compared outcomes and costs ‘before’ (July 2007–July 2008) vs. ‘after’ (July 2010–June 2011) the introduction of the new model, adjusted for patient characteristics and national time trends in mortality and length of stay. We constructed 90-day and 10-year decision analytic models using data from population based stroke registers, audits and published sources. Mortality and length of stay were modelled using survival analysis. Findings In a pooled sample of 307 patients ‘before’ and 3156 patients ‘after’, survival improved in the ‘after’ period (age adjusted hazard ratio 0.54; 95% CI 0.41–0.72). The predicted survival rates at 90 days in the deterministic model adjusted for national trends were 87.2% ‘before’ % (95% CI 86.7%–87.7%) and 88.7% ‘after’ (95% CI 88.6%–88.8%); a relative reduction in deaths of 12% (95% CI 8%–16%). Based on a cohort of 6,438 stroke patients, the model produces a total cost saving of £5.2 million per year at 90 days (95% CI £4.9-£5.5 million; £811 per patient). Conclusion A centralized model for acute stroke care across an entire metropolitan city appears to have reduced mortality for a reduced cost per patient, predominately as a result of reduced hospital length of stay. PMID:23936427

  20. Use of enamel matrix protein derivative with minimally invasive surgical approach in intra-bony periodontal defects: clinical and patient-centered outcomes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fernanda Vieira, Ribeiro; Francisco Humberto, Nociti Júnior; Enilson Antonio, Sallum; Antonio Wilson, Sallum; Márcio Zaffalon, Casati.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os resultados clínicos e centrados no paciente após abordagem cirúrgica minimamente invasiva (CMI) associada à aplicação das proteínas derivadas da matriz do esmalte (PDE) no tratamento de defeitos infra-ósseos. Doze pacientes apresentando um sítio com profundidad [...] e de sondagem >5 mm e sangramento à sondagem , associado à evidência radiográfica de defeito infra-ósseo, foram tratados com CMI e aplicação das PDE. Os parâmetros clínicos foram avaliados imediatamente antes do procedimento e após 3 e 6 meses. A percepção de dor e desconforto do paciente durante o período trans-cirúrgico e ao longo da primeira semana de pós-operatório, bem como a satisfação estética 6 meses após o tratamento, foram avaliadas por meio de questionários. Os resultados mostraram que o uso da CMI associada à aplicação de PDE promoveu melhoras estatisticamente significantes nos parâmetros clínicos, mínima dor e desconforto e máxima satisfação estética aos pacientes. Dentro dos limites do estudo, foi demonstrado que a associação de CMI e PDE, no tratamento de defeitos infra-ósseos, é capaz de promover satisfatórios resultados clínicos e centrados no paciente. Abstract in english This case series evaluated the clinical performance and patient-centered outcomes after a minimally invasive surgical technique (MIST) associated with enamel matrix protein derivative (EMD), for the treatment of intra-bony defects. Twelve patients presenting teeth with probing depth >5 mm and bleedi [...] ng on probing associated with radiographic evidence of intra-bony defect were treated by MIST associated with EMD. Clinical parameters were measured at baseline, 3 and 6 months. Patient perception during the intraoperative period and during the first postoperative week was evaluated. The use of MIST with EDM promoted significant improvements in clinical parameters, minimal pain/discomfort and maximum esthetics satisfaction. Within of limits of the present study, it could be shown that MIST combined with EMD for the treatment of intra-bony defects promotes satisfactory clinical and patient-centered outcomes.

  1. The emergence and outcomes of collective action: an institutional and ecosystem approach A emergência e os resultados da ação coletiva: uma abordagem institucional e ecossistêmica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Futtema

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Participation in collective action is frequently studied through a community-based analysis, with focus on the social features of the participants and on the ecological features of the managed system. This study addresses the importance of scaling down to household level to understand different individual incentives to collaborate (or not as well as scaling up to the landscape level to evaluate the ecological outcome of the local forms of collective action. A study of a riparian community of 33 households in the Lower Amazon located between two distinct ecosystems -a privately owned upland forest and a communally owned floodplain- reveals that household-based analysis uncovers how heterogeneity within the community leads to different incentives for participation in the communal floodplain, while systemic analysis reveals that interconnection between the managed ecosystem and adjacent ecosystem influences the decisions to participate as well as the ecological outcomes of the collective actions.A participação numa ação coletiva é estudada com freqüência por meio de uma análise baseada nas comunidades e enfocada nas características sociais dos participantes e nas características ecológicas do sistema manejado. Este estudo refere-se à importância de se limitar a análise ao nível das famílias para compreender os diferentes incentivos individuais que colaboram (ou não, assim como de se ampliar a análise ao nível da esfera territorial a fim de se avaliar o resultado ecológico das formas locais de ação coletiva. Um estudo feito numa comunidade costeira de 33 famílias na Baixa Amazonia situada entre dois ecosistemas diferentes -uma mata/floresta de propriedade privada situada em terras altas e uma planície pluvial pertencente a uma comunidade- revela que a análise baseada nas famílias mostra que a heterogeneidade dentro da comunidade conduz a diferentes incentivos para participar das atividades na planície pluvial. A análise sistêmica, no entanto, mostra que a interconexão entre o ecosistema manejado e o ecosistema adjacente influi nas decisões para participar assim como nos resultados das ações coletivas.

  2. A source-orientated approach for estimating daytime concentrations of biogenic volatile organic compounds in an upper layer of a boreal forest canopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lappalainen, H.K. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland); Sevanto, S.; Dal Maso, M.; Taipale, R.; Kajos, M. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics; Kolari, P.; Back, J. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology Sciences

    2013-06-01

    Biologically justified statistical models for daytime atmospheric concentrations of methanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, isoprene and monoterpene were tested using measurements at a boreal forest stand in southern Finland in 2006-2007 and in summer 2008. The canopy-scale concentrations of all compounds except monotepene were closely correlated with shoot-scale concentrations indicating a strong link to biological emission source. All the models were based on the exponential relationship between air temperature and atmospheric concentration of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs). The first model - an exponential function of air temperature (T model) - could explain 27%-64% of the variation in BVOC daytime concentrations in the test data. The second model - a Temperature-State of Development model (T-S model) having two explaining variables (air temperature and seasonal photosynthetic efficiency) - was derived from an empirical adjustment of seasonality. This model slightly increased the fraction of explained variation but it still could not explain the high concentration peaks, which accounted for most of the unexplained variation. To better analyse these peaks we tested the Trigger model including two potential environmental triggers, a PAR index (high photosynthetically active photon flux density (PAR) and high ozone concentration, that could increase the concentrations momentarily. However, the Trigger model described the peak concentrations only somewhat better than the T or T-S model. It seems that it is very difficult to explain more than 32%-67% of variation in BVOC concentrations by a straightforward source-oriented modelling without deep understanding of biological and physical processes. In order to improve the models profound studies on specific stress factors and events inducing BVOC emissions are needed. (orig.)

  3. Novel convergence-oriented approach for evaluation and optimization of workflow in single-particle two-dimensional averaging of electron microscope images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Toshio; Mio, Kazuhiro; Sato, Chikara

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) protein structures facilitate the understanding of their biological functions and provide valuable information for developing medicines. Single-particle analysis (SPA) from electron microscopy (EM) is a structure determination method suitable for macromolecules. To achieve a high resolution using combinations of several SPA software packages, 'workflow' optimization and comparative evaluation by scoring results are essential. Two-dimensional (2D) averaging is a key step for 3D reconstruction. The integrated convergence-evaluation oriented system (IC-EOS) proposed here provides an effective tool for customizing 2D averaging. This assesses the behavior and characteristics of workflows and evaluates the convergence of iteration steps without human intervention. We chose five base measurements for quantifying convergence: resolution, variance, similarity, shift-distance and rotation-angle. Curve fitting to history graphs scored their stability. We call this score 'fluctuation'. The number of particle images discarded from the library and the number of classification groups were examined to see their effects on optimization levels and fluctuation of measurements, allowing the IC-EOS to select the most appropriate workflow for the target. A case study using a bacterial sodium channel and a simulation study using GroEL showed that resolution of 2D averaging improved with relatively stricter particle selection. With fewer groups, resolutions of class averages improved, but similarities between class-averages and their constituent particle images degraded. Fluctuation was useful for selecting adequate conditions, even when achieved values alone were not conclusive. The vote method, using fluctuation, was robust against noise and enabled a decision without exhaustive search trials. Thus, the IC-EOS is a step toward full automation of SPA. PMID:23625506

  4. Goldilocks on the couch: Moderate levels of psychodynamic and process-experiential technique predict outcome in psychodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Kevin S; Keefe, John R; Barber, Jacques P

    2014-11-01

    Abstract Objectives: Greater symptom change is often assumed to follow greater technique use, a "more is better" approach. We tested whether psychodynamic techniques, as well as common factors and techniques from other orientations, had a curvilinear relation to outcome (i.e., whether moderate or "just right" intervention levels predict better outcome than lower or higher levels). Methods: For 33 patients receiving supportive-expressive psychodynamic psychotherapy for depression, interventions were assessed at Week 4 using the multitheoretical list of therapeutic interventions and symptoms were rated with the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. Results: Moderate psychodynamic and experiential techniques predicted greater symptom change compared to lower or higher levels. Conclusion: This "Goldilocks effect" suggests a more complex relation of intervention use to outcome might exist. PMID:25364984

  5. Human Computer Interactions in Next-Generation of Aircraft Smart Navigation Management Systems: Task Analysis and Architecture under an Agent-Oriented Methodological Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canino-Rodríguez, José M; García-Herrero, Jesús; Besada-Portas, Juan; Ravelo-García, Antonio G; Travieso-González, Carlos; Alonso-Hernández, Jesús B

    2015-01-01

    The limited efficiency of current air traffic systems will require a next-generation of Smart Air Traffic System (SATS) that relies on current technological advances. This challenge means a transition toward a new navigation and air-traffic procedures paradigm, where pilots and air traffic controllers perform and coordinate their activities according to new roles and technological supports. The design of new Human-Computer Interactions (HCI) for performing these activities is a key element of SATS. However efforts for developing such tools need to be inspired on a parallel characterization of hypothetical air traffic scenarios compatible with current ones. This paper is focused on airborne HCI into SATS where cockpit inputs came from aircraft navigation systems, surrounding traffic situation, controllers' indications, etc. So the HCI is intended to enhance situation awareness and decision-making through pilot cockpit. This work approach considers SATS as a system distributed on a large-scale with uncertainty in a dynamic environment. Therefore, a multi-agent systems based approach is well suited for modeling such an environment. We demonstrate that current methodologies for designing multi-agent systems are a useful tool to characterize HCI. We specifically illustrate how the selected methodological approach provides enough guidelines to obtain a cockpit HCI design that complies with future SATS specifications. PMID:25746092

  6. A Versatile, Production-Oriented Approach to High-Resolution Tree-Canopy Mapping in Urban and Suburban Landscapes Using GEOBIA and Data Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarlath O'Neil-Dunne

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The benefits of tree canopy in urban and suburban landscapes are increasingly well known: stormwater runoff control, air-pollution mitigation, temperature regulation, carbon storage, wildlife habitat, neighborhood cohesion, and other social indicators of quality of life. However, many urban areas lack high-resolution tree canopy maps that document baseline conditions or inform tree-planting programs, limiting effective study and management. This paper describes a GEOBIA approach to tree-canopy mapping that relies on existing public investments in LiDAR, multispectral imagery, and thematic GIS layers, thus eliminating or reducing data acquisition costs. This versatile approach accommodates datasets of varying content and quality, first using LiDAR derivatives to identify aboveground features and then a combination of LiDAR and imagery to differentiate trees from buildings and other anthropogenic structures. Initial tree canopy objects are then refined through contextual analysis, morphological smoothing, and small-gap filling. Case studies from locations in the United States and Canada show how a GEOBIA approach incorporating data fusion and enterprise processing can be used for producing high-accuracy, high-resolution maps for large geographic extents. These maps are designed specifically for practical application by planning and regulatory end users who expect not only high accuracy but also high realism and visual coherence.

  7. Entrepreneurial orientation in a franchised home entertainment system

    OpenAIRE

    Maritz, Alex; Nieman, Gideon

    2006-01-01

    This paper fills the gap in the research undertaken into the entrepreneurial orientation of franchisees. The study identifies entrepreneurial orientation within a defined franchise system, using the entrepreneurial character theme matrix developed by Thompson (2002). Research methodology comprises the survey approach, using electronic media and Surveypro analysis (Dillman, 2000). Hypothesis tests highlight the absence of statistically significant entrepreneurial orientation in the franchise s...

  8. Orientation Strategies for Aerial Oblique Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedemann, A.; Moré, J.

    2012-07-01

    Oblique aerial images become more and more distributed to fill the gap between vertical aerial images and mobile mapping systems. Different systems are on the market. For some applications, like texture mapping, precise orientation data are required. One point is the stable interior orientation, which can be achieved by stable camera systems, the other a precise exterior orientation. A sufficient exterior orientation can be achieved by a large effort in direct sensor orientation, whereas minor errors in the angles have a larger effect than in vertical imagery. The more appropriate approach is by determine the precise orientation parameters by photogrammetric methods using an adapted aerial triangulation. Due to the different points of view towards the object the traditional aerotriangulation matching tools fail, as they produce a bunch of blunders and require a lot of manual work to achieve a sufficient solution. In this paper some approaches are discussed and results are presented for the most promising approaches. We describe a single step approach with an aerotriangulation using all available images; a two step approach with an aerotriangulation only of the vertical images plus a mathematical transformation of the oblique images using the oblique cameras excentricity; and finally the extended functional model for a bundle block adjustment considering the mechanical connection between vertical and oblique images. Beside accuracy also other aspects like efficiency and required manual work have to be considered.

  9. Effect on bleeding, time to revascularization, and one-year clinical outcomes of the radial approach during primary percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzamendi, Dabit; Ly, Hung Quoc; Tanguay, Jean-François; Chan, Mark Yan Yee; Chevallereau, Pierre; Gallo, Richard; Ibrahim, Reda; L'Allier, Philippe; Levesque, Sylvie; Gosselin, Gilbert; Deguise, Pierre; Joyal, Michel; Gregoire, Jean; Bonan, Raoul; Crepeau, Jacques; Doucet, Serge

    2010-07-15

    The radial approach during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has been reported to reduce the incidence of bleeding complications. However, the radial approach still accounts for <10% of procedures worldwide and only 1% in the United States. Our objective was to compare the effect of radial versus femoral vascular access on the time to reperfusion, incidence of bleeding complications, and overall clinical outcomes in the setting of primary PCI. We prospectively collected data on all patients undergoing primary PCI at the Montreal Heart Institute from April 1, 2007 to March 30, 2008. The time to revascularization and major bleeding were prespecified as a co-primary end point, and major adverse cardiac events, including death, myocardial infarction, and target vessel revascularization within 12 months, were considered a secondary end point. A total of 489 patients were included in the present longitudinal cohort study, 234 in the femoral group and 254 in the radial group. In the propensity-adjusted model, the use of the femoral approach was a strong independent predictor of bleeding (odds ratio 4.22, 95% confidence interval 3.17 to 10.60). No significant difference between the radial and femoral groups was observed relative to the time to revascularization (21.4 +/- 11.8 minutes vs 22.8 +/- 10.3 minutes, respectively; p = 0.68). Moreover, the radial approach was associated with a decreased risk of major adverse cardiac events (odds ratio 0.31, 95% confidence interval 0.10 to 0.94). In conclusion, primary PCI using the radial approach was associated with a fourfold reduction in major bleeding, without compromising the time to revascularization. Moreover, the radial approach was associated with a significant reduction in major adverse cardiac events at 12 months. PMID:20598995

  10. A Knowledge-Base Oriented Approach for Automatic Keyword Extraction / El enfoque basado en conocimiento para la extracción automática de palabras clave

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ludovic, Jean-Louis; Michel, Gagnon; Eric, Charton.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish Extracción de palabras clave es una tarea importante del proceso de extracción de información. Esta tarea es difícil de realizar; con la intención de lograrlo muchas distintas técnicas y recursos han sido propuestos. En este artículo se propone el enfoque genérico para extraer palabras clave de docu [...] mentos usando el conocimiento enciclopédico. El enfoque incluye dos etapas; primero se realiza clasificación con el fin de identificar candidatos a palabras clave y luego se aplica el método de aprendizaje de ranking dependiente del perfil de palabras clave definido por el usuario para ordenar los candidatos. La novedad del enfoque se basa en 1) el uso del perfil de palabras clave y 2) las características genéricas derivadas de las categorías de Wikipedia y no necesariamente relacionadas con el contenido del documento. El sistema se ha evaluado sobre conjuntos de datos de palabras clave y corpus de la campaña de evaluación estándar y se ha demostrado que el sistema propuesto mejora el procedimiento global de extracción de palabras clave. Abstract in english Automatic keyword extraction is an important subfield of information extraction process. It is a difficult task, where numerous different techniques and resources have been proposed. In this paper, we propose a generic approach to extract keyword from documents using encyclopedic knowledge. Our two- [...] step approach first relies on a classification step for identifying candidate keywords followed by a learning-to-rank method depending on a user-defined keyword profile to order the candidates. The novelty of our approach relies on i) the usage of the keyword profile ii) generic features derived from Wikipedia categories and not necessarily related to the document content. We evaluate our system on keyword datasets and corpora from standard evaluation campaign and show that our system improves the global process of keyword extraction.

  11. The role of health education in addressing the health divide : evidence from two European health-promotion projects employing a participatory and action-oriented education approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simovska, Venka

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to argue that an approach to health education, consistent with critical education theory echoing Freire’s ideas, has the potential to play a significant role in addressing determinants of health by, first and foremost, providing children and young people with opportunities (as part of teaching and learning processes) to critically examine health issues, including social determinants of health, and to gain experience with initiating health-promoting changes within the everyday realms of their school or its adjacent community.

  12. New approaches for the reliability-oriented structural optimization considering time-variant aspects; Neue Ansaetze fuer die zuverlaessigkeitsorientierte Strukturoptimierung unter Beachtung zeitvarianter Aspekte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuschel, N.

    2000-07-01

    The optimization of structures with respect to cost, weight or performance is a well-known application of the nonlinear optimization. However reliability-based structural optimization has been subject of only very few studies. The approaches suggested up to now have been unsatisfactory regarding general possibility of application or easy handling by user. The objective of this thesis is the development of general approaches to solve both optimization problems, the minimization of cost with respect to constraint reliabilty and the maximization of reliability under cost constraint. The extented approach of an one-level-method will be introduced in detail for the time-invariant problems. Here, the reliability of the sturcture will be analysed in the framework of the First-Order-Reliability-Method (FORM). The use of time-variant reliability analysis is necessary for a realistic modelling of many practical problems. Therefore several generalizations of the new approaches will be derived for the time-variant reliability-based structural optimization. Some important properties of the optimization problems are proved. In addition some interesting extensions of the one-level-method, for example the cost optimization of structural series systems and the cost optimization in the frame of the Second-Order-Reliabiity-Method (SORM), are presented in the thesis. (orig.) [German] Die Optimierung von Tragwerken im Hinblick auf die Kosten, das Gewicht oder die Gestalt ist eine sehr bekannte Anwendung der nichtlinearen Optimierung. Die zuverlaessigkeitsorientierte Strukturoptimierung wurde dagegen weit seltener untersucht. Die bisher vorgeschlagenen Ansaetze koennen bezueglich ihrer allgemeinen Verwendbarkeit oder ihrer nutzerfreundlichen Handhabung nicht befriedigen. Das Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit ist nun die Entwicklung allgemeiner Ansaetze zur Loesung der beiden Optimierungsprobleme, einer Kostenminimierung unter Zuverlaessigkeitsrestriktionen und einer Zuverlaessigkeitsmaximierung bei der Beachtung einer Kostenbeschraenkung. Der erweiterte Ansatz eines Mono-Level-Verfahrens wird fuer zeitinvariante Probleme ausfuehrlich vorgestellt, wobei die Zuverlaessigkeit der Tragwerkselemente im Rahmen der Methode erster Ordnung (FORM) analysiert wird. Fuer eine realitaetsnahe Modellierung vieler praktischer Probleme ist die Verwendung zeitvarianter Zuverlaessigkeitsbetrachtungen notwendig, weshalb verschiedene Verallgemeinerungen der neuen Ansaetze fuer die zeitvariante zuverlaessigkeitsorientierte Strukturoptimierung hergeleitet werden. Einige wichtige Eigenschaften der Optimierungsprobleme werden bewiesen. Ferner werden einige interessante Erweiterungen dieses Mono-Level-Verfahrens, zum Beispiel die Kostenoptimierung von Tragwerkssystemen und die Kostenoptimierung im Rahmen der Zuverlaessigkeitsmethode zweiter Ordnung (SORM), angegeben. (orig.)

  13. An Integrated Approach Based on Multiplexed Protein Array and iTRAQ Labeling for In-Depth Identification of Pathways Associated to IVF Outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Severino, Valeria; Malorni, Livia; Cicatiello, Anna Emilia; D Esposito, Vittoria; Longobardi, Salvatore; Colacurci, Nicola; Miraglia, Nadia; Sannolo, Nicola; Farina, Annarita; Chambery, Angela

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of high-throughput protein quantification methodologies has enabled the comprehensive characterization by longitudinal and cross-sectional studies of biological fluids under physiological and pathological conditions. In particular, the simultaneous investigation of cytokines and growth factors signaling pathways and their associated downstream effectors by integrated multiplexed approaches offers a powerful strategy to gain insights into biological networks and processes in livi...

  14. The emergence and outcomes of collective action: an institutional and ecosystem approach / A emergência e os resultados da ação coletiva: uma abordagem institucional e ecossistêmica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Célia, Futtema; Fábio de, Castro; Maria Clara, Silva-Forsberg; Elinor, Ostrom.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A participação numa ação coletiva é estudada com freqüência por meio de uma análise baseada nas comunidades e enfocada nas características sociais dos participantes e nas características ecológicas do sistema manejado. Este estudo refere-se à importância de se limitar a análise ao nível das famílias [...] para compreender os diferentes incentivos individuais que colaboram (ou não), assim como de se ampliar a análise ao nível da esfera territorial a fim de se avaliar o resultado ecológico das formas locais de ação coletiva. Um estudo feito numa comunidade costeira de 33 famílias na Baixa Amazonia situada entre dois ecosistemas diferentes -uma mata/floresta de propriedade privada situada em terras altas e uma planície pluvial pertencente a uma comunidade- revela que a análise baseada nas famílias mostra que a heterogeneidade dentro da comunidade conduz a diferentes incentivos para participar das atividades na planície pluvial. A análise sistêmica, no entanto, mostra que a interconexão entre o ecosistema manejado e o ecosistema adjacente influi nas decisões para participar assim como nos resultados das ações coletivas. Abstract in english Participation in collective action is frequently studied through a community-based analysis, with focus on the social features of the participants and on the ecological features of the managed system. This study addresses the importance of scaling down to household level to understand different indi [...] vidual incentives to collaborate (or not) as well as scaling up to the landscape level to evaluate the ecological outcome of the local forms of collective action. A study of a riparian community of 33 households in the Lower Amazon located between two distinct ecosystems -a privately owned upland forest and a communally owned floodplain- reveals that household-based analysis uncovers how heterogeneity within the community leads to different incentives for participation in the communal floodplain, while systemic analysis reveals that interconnection between the managed ecosystem and adjacent ecosystem influences the decisions to participate as well as the ecological outcomes of the collective actions.

  15. Analyzing the Software Quality Metrics for Object Oriented Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Parthasarathy

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Metrics are units of measurement. Software engineering metrics are units of measurement that are used to characterize the software engineering products and software engineering processes. Object-oriented design and development is becoming very popular in today`s software development environment. Object-Oriented Programming Structure (OOPS requires not only a different approach to design and implementation; it requires a different approach to software metrics. Since object oriented technology uses objects and not algorithms as its fundamental building blocks, the approach to software metrics for object-oriented programs must be different from the standard metrics set. Object-oriented analysis and design focuses on objects as the primary agents involved in a computation. This study addresses the following questions: (i what are the concepts in object-oriented technology that affect the software quality? (ii How the various metrics found in the literature are useful to measure the critical concepts in object-oriented technology.

  16. Strategies for Establishing Service Oriented Design in Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Stephan Aier

    2012-01-01

    Service orientation is a broadly discussed design paradigm for information systems engineering. Only recently there have been several contributions to individual dimensions of service orientation like service definition, service modeling, service management or service governance. However, a combination of useful solutions for partial problems might not constitute an effective overall approach to service orientation. We argue that the establishment of service orientation is a wicked [design] p...

  17. Reverse Engineering Adverse Outcome Pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, Edward; Chipman, J.K.; Edwards, Stephen; Habib, Tanwir; Falciani, Francesco; Taylor, Ronald C.; Van Aggelen, Graham; Vulpe, Chris; Antczak, Philipp; Loguinov, Alexandre

    2011-01-30

    The toxicological effects of many stressors are mediated through unknown, or poorly characterized, mechanisms of action. We describe the application of reverse engineering complex interaction networks from high dimensional omics data (gene, protein, metabolic, signaling) to characterize adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) for chemicals that disrupt the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal endocrine axis in fathead minnows. Gene expression changes in fathead minnow ovaries in response to 7 different chemicals, over different times, doses, and in vivo versus in vitro conditions were captured in a large data set of 868 arrays. We examined potential AOPs of the antiandrogen flutamide using two mutual information theory methods, ARACNE and CLR to infer gene regulatory networks and potential adverse outcome pathways. Representative networks from these studies were used to predict a network path from stressor to adverse outcome as a candidate AOP. The relationship of individual chemicals to an adverse outcome can be determined by following perturbations through the network in response to chemical treatment leading to the nodes associated with the adverse outcome. Identification of candidate pathways allows for formation of testable hypotheses about key biologic processes, biomarkers or alternative endpoints, which could be used to monitor an adverse outcome pathway. Finally, we identify the unique challenges facing the application of this approach in ecotoxicology, and attempt to provide a road map for the utilization of these tools. Key Words: mechanism of action, toxicology, microarray, network inference

  18. Dynamics of market orientation in Croatian economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana First

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available It was the goal of this research to examine the dynamics of Croatian transformation to market orientation and test whether the market orientation model changes with time as the business environment changes. Based on the literature analysis, we proposed a hypothetical model which relies on behavioural approach in understanding market orientation. To empirically test the hypothetical model, we used data previously collected for 2001, and by replicating the same questionnaire now collected data for 2011. Data was analyzed by hierarchical regression analysis on the two sets of data. Our findings reveal that Croatian organizations reached the level of moderate market orientation leaving space for improvement. Findings also reveal that higher level of market orientation correlates with higher business performance. Furthermore, with development of ICT, the model of market orientation modified in time in a way that in predicting successful market oriented reaction, specific information on consumer satisfaction gains importance, while general information from competitor and consumer databases lose importance. Despite the changes in the relationships among the elements of market orientation, the model itself similarly predicts performance today as it did ten years ago. Managers are advised to increase implementation of market orientation especially focusing on market responsiveness as such behaviour will lead to better performance.

  19. Mastering object-oriented Python

    CERN Document Server

    Lott, Steven F

    2014-01-01

    This book follows a standard tutorial approach with approximately 750 code samples spread through the 19 chapters. This amounts to over 5,900 lines of code that illustrate each concept.This book is aimed at programmers who have already learned the basics of object-oriented Python and need to write more sophisticated, flexible code that integrates seamlessly with the rest of Python. This book assumes a computer science background, with experience of common Python design patterns.

  20. Dynamics in orientationally disordered solids

    OpenAIRE

    Marti?nez Garci?a, Julio Ce?sar

    2011-01-01

    The key features of dynamics of ultraslowing glass forming systems are their universality in diversity. Its origin is recognized as one of the greatest challenges of condensed matter physics and materials engineering in the XXI century. Similar phenomena are observed on approaching the glass transition in low molecular weight supercooled liquids, polymers, colloidal fluids as well as in solids, for instance in orientationally disordered crystals, spin glass-like magnetic, vortex g...