WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Outcomes Oriented Planning, Management, and Evaluation.  

Science.gov (United States)

An outcomes orientation is examined as the dominant focus for formulating improvements in a college's planning, management, and evaluation (PME) system. Outcomes are seen as individual (produced by college personnel or students), program related, or institutional. An outcomes orientation to PME has the advantages of relating to the quality of…

Kinnison, Charles J.

2

How does a risk-oriented "future-self" influence behavior?: A structural-equation-modeling approach with marijuana-related outcomes.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study was conducted to examine the influence of a risk-oriented future self on self-reported marijuana use among college students. Drawing on theoretical work on possible selves, it was hypothesized that the extent to which a future self is viewed as risk-oriented will be associated with reported marijuana use and that effects of a risk-oriented future self on use would be partially mediated by risk-oriented attitudes and perceived attractiveness of users. Analysis of data from an online survey of college students supported hypotheses, with the additional finding that the effect of user attractiveness on use is mediated by attitudes. PMID:23988681

Comello, Maria Leonora G

2015-01-01

3

Process-oriented administration of the picture arrangement test does not affect the quantitative outcome.  

Science.gov (United States)

Extracting the maximum amount of qualitative information of cognitive functioning from tests is one of the major goals, of the process approach to neuropsychological assessment. This study examined whether there is a difference in score in the Picture Arrangement (PA) test of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised for participants who completed the standardized versus a process-oriented administration (i.e., asking the person to "tell the story" immediately following each item). Eighteen traumatic brain injury patients and 20 control participants (i. e., non-brain-injury volunteers) were randomly assigned to the standardized administration or the process-oriented administration of the PA test. A 2 x 2 (Group x Type of Administration) analysis of variance revealed no statistically significant interaction effect or main effect for type of administration. Therefore, the process of maximizing the elicitation of qualitative information does not appear to affect the quantitative outcome of the PA test. PMID:16318454

Gaudette, M D; Smith, J A

1998-01-01

4

Selected outcomes of community-oriented, problem-based nursing programmes in South Africa.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Whilst there is a significant body of research on the outcomes of problem-based learning (PBL) programmes (Albanese and Mitchell, 1993; Vernon and Blake, 1993), there is little information regarding the outcomes of community-oriented programmes (COL) for nursing students. Between 1994 and 1997, four university schools of nursing implemented problem-based, community-oriented learning (COL) programmes. This research sought to describe, evaluate and compare the outcomes of graduates from these f...

Ns, Gwele

2003-01-01

5

Safety objective oriented approach for RWE NPPs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Even with respect to the management of beyond design incidents the safety objective oriented approach for the management of accidents is more universal than the event oriented approach. The potential propagation of an accident can be avoided or the effects of an accident can be limited through the application of the two elements of the safety objective concept. Regardless of the triggering event, the recurrent monitoring of safety objectives by means of safety variables allows the detection of whether the condition of the plant is still safely in the permissible range or whether there is a risk of a critical condition in safety engineering terms. With the measures compiled in the emergency manual the safety reserves can be fully utilized in actual practice using all the available plant technology. As a result, the residual risk still currently featured in the safety studies is further reduced. In order to contribute additional expert knowledge in the event of the hypothetical accidents examined in the paper, the shift personnel will be supported by the management for non-anticipated event sequences. The safety objective concept described has so far been only partly put into practice in the individual RWE (Rheinisch-Westfaelisches Elektrizitaetswerk AG) nuclear power stations. The full implementation of the concept is currently under way. The required documents are currently being drawn up and are being simulator tested to the extent possible. (author). 2 figsextent possible. (author). 2 figs

6

Holistic Approach to Learning and Teaching Introductory Object-Oriented Programming  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes a holistic approach to designing an introductory, object-oriented programming course. The design is grounded in constructivism and pedagogy of phenomenography. We use constructive alignment as the framework to align assessments, learning, and teaching with planned learning outcomes. We plan learning and teaching activities,…

Thota, Neena; Whitfield, Richard

2010-01-01

7

An Heuristic Approach To Object Oriented Paradigm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Quality of software is increasingly important and testing related issues are becoming crucial for software. In order to measure and understand quality, it is necessary to relate it to measurable quantities. Heuristics provide a link between sets of abstract design principles and quantitative software metrics. The aim of object oriented software metrics is to predict quality and improve productivity of the software products. Object-orientation (OO allows software to be structured in a way that helps to manage complexity and change. This paper shows role of heuristics in object oriented software engineering and how object oriented paradigm differentiate from conventional function oriented paradigm.

Deepali Gupta

2011-07-01

8

Secondary Student Motivation Orientations and Standards-Based Achievement Outcomes  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Individual student characteristics such as competence motivation, achievement values, and goal orientations have been related in meaningful ways to task attainment. The standards-based National Certificate of Educational Achievement (NCEA) was developed in New Zealand with the intention of strengthening connections between student…

Meyer, Luanna H.; McClure, John; Walkey, Frank; Weir, Kirsty F.; McKenzie, Lynanne

2009-01-01

9

Comparison between Traditional Approach and Object-Oriented Approach in Software Engineering Development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper discusses the comparison between Traditional approaches and Object-Oriented approach. Traditional approach has a lot of models that deal with different types of projects such as waterfall, spiral, iterative and v-shaped, but all of them and other lack flexibility to deal with other kinds of projects like Object-Oriented. Object-oriented Software Engineering (OOSE) is an object modeling language and methodology. The approach of using object - oriented techniques for designing a syst...

Nabil Mohammed Ali Munassar; Govardhan, Dr A.

2011-01-01

10

An object-oriented approach to energy-economic modeling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper, the authors discuss the experiences in creating an object-oriented economic model of the U.S. energy and agriculture markets. After a discussion of some central concepts, they provide an overview of the model, focusing on the methodology of designing an object-oriented class hierarchy specification based on standard microeconomic production functions. The evolution of the model from the class definition stage to programming it in C++, a standard object-oriented programming language, will be detailed. The authors then discuss the main differences between writing the object-oriented program versus a procedure-oriented program of the same model. Finally, they conclude with a discussion of the advantages and limitations of the object-oriented approach based on the experience in building energy-economic models with procedure-oriented approaches and languages.

Wise, M.A.; Fox, J.A.; Sands, R.D.

1993-12-01

11

An Heuristic Approach To Object Oriented Paradigm  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Quality of software is increasingly important and testing related issues are becoming crucial for software. In order to measure and understand quality, it is necessary to relate it to measurable quantities. Heuristics provide a link between sets of abstract design principles and quantitative software metrics. The aim of object oriented software metrics is to predict quality and improve productivity of the software products. Object-orientation (OO) allows software to be structured in a way t...

Deepali Gupta; Rakesh Kumar

2011-01-01

12

Object oriented approach to B reconstruction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The complexity of full and partial reconstruction of B mesons has led CLEO to use object oriented techniques to do physics data analyses. An object oriented language for HEP data analysis was designed, a compiler which translates the user code into C++ source code, has been written using the UNIX tools, lex and yacc. The resulting C++ code can be linked and run in the normal CLEO data analysis system

13

The Problem-Oriented Approach to Sports Injury Evaluations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The problem-oriented approach to sports injury evaluations is used successfully throughout the United States by various health care providers, and can be used by certified athletic trainers to enhance the evaluation and management of sports injuries. The problem-oriented medical record is used successfully to provide effective communications and as a learning tool in health-related education. In this paper, I present a problem-oriented system for evaluating and keeping medical records on spor...

Gabriel, A. John

1992-01-01

14

Development-oriented elearning tool evaluation: the Edukalibre approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Edukalibre development approach described here offers libre educational tools based on open development model. The paper presents a development-oriented evaluation approach comprising three phases. Phase 1 focused on rapid and distributed usability inspections producing development-oriented feedback for designers, and was built around a usability inspection framework. Phase 2 was conducted through student feedback, and confirmed the results of Phase 1, along with indications about the rea...

Botturi, Luca; Dimitrova, Vania; Matravers, Julika; Tebb, Chris; Withworth, Drew; Geldermann, Jutta; Hubert, Isabelle

2006-01-01

15

THE SUCCESSION OF DATA WAREHOUSE USING OBJECT ORIENTED APPROACH  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper describes techniques for designing both front & back end of a data warehouse in such a way that companies can continue to progress their warehouse and query tools as their business changes,customer demands changes, instead of continuously having to estructure and rewrite their existing tools. Object –Oriented approach are driving the current development of ODBMS that will handle complex objects, inheritance and other features that enable direct implementation technology that is being extended to combine data management capabilities with application of logical rules to provide more refined information to management. Object-oriented approach is used in different areas i.e Software Engg, Database Management System and Latest Approach is used in Data warehouse. Object-Oriented envelopment involves more than learning a program, it includes capability for development. A purely Object –Oriented tool like Java, Smalltalk , or the object –oriented use of C++ requires that problem domains be conceptualized in terms of the paradigm inherent in object technology. Most research in Object-oriented programming (OOP including object –oriented database Management systems (OODBMS, is concerned with supporting users which are not served well by more conventional technology. Our research has been from a different point of view – our primary motivating factor is toshow how existing applications can be enhanced using object –oriented Technology.

DR. PUSHPA SURI

2011-02-01

16

Student Teachers' Achievement Goal Orientations during Teacher Studies: Antecedents, Correlates and Outcomes  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to investigate whether student teachers' achievement goal orientations changed during teacher studies, and how motivational trajectories were related to academically- and teaching-relevant antecedents and outcomes. A total of 170 participants were followed up between two and five time points. Using individual growth models,…

Malmberg, Lars-Erik

2008-01-01

17

Apprehensions and Expectations of the Adoption of Systematically Planned, Outcome-Oriented Practice  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives: The study examined social workers' apprehensions and expectations of the impending adoption of systematically planned, empirically based, outcome-oriented practice (SEOP). Method: Employing a mixed methods longitudinal design, the study used concept mapping to identify and map workers' apprehensions and expectations and a…

Savaya, Riki; Altschuler, Dorit; Melamed, Sharon

2013-01-01

18

Approaches to outcome assessment in pulmonary rehabilitation.  

Science.gov (United States)

A comprehensive assessment is the foundation of a successful pulmonary rehabilitation programme. There is a broad selection of outcome measures that tend to be categorized into measures of exercise performance (including measures of strength) quality of life (health status), psychological well-being, nutritional status and more recently knowledge and self-efficacy. There is a growing interest in the measurement of physical activity too, although this is a current line of research activity. A sophisticated suite of outcomes allows the rehabilitation program to be personalised to the individual and deliver effective rehabilitation. PMID:24874130

Singh, Sally

2014-06-01

19

An Aspect Oriented Process Based Approach To Information Risk Management  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this era of fast paced technological advancements, security issues and risks related to it have become a key concern for all organizations. Enterprise Governance, Risk management and Compliance(GRC) is the popular approach to handle enterprise risks and reduce its impact. This paper focuses on the risk management, especially the risk assessment approaches and proposes an aspect oriented approach to risk management. In this approach, the risk management processes are designed separately fro...

Dhanya Pramod; Raman, R.; Vijayakumar Bharathi, S.

2013-01-01

20

Object-Oriented Software Development Environments : The Mjølner Approach  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The book "Object-Oriented Environments - The Mjølner Approach" presents the collective results of the Mjølner Project. The project was set up to work on the widely recognized problems of developing, maintaining and understanding large software systems. The starting point was to use object-orientation in making advances in methods, languages and tools for this purpose. The environments combine object-orientations with tight integration and incremental techniques to realize highly interactive environments for strongly typed block structures languages. This book describes the developed techniques as well as the developed environments (the Mjølner Orm System, the Mjølner System and tools for O-O SDL). Features include: Object-Oriented modeling, concepts and OSDL Object-oriented programming languages: BETA and Simula Programming in the large: concepts, techniques and realizations Persistence: concepts, techniques and realizations User interfaces for environments and realizations Grammar-based software architectures Structure-based editing Language implementation, runtime organization, garbage collection Incremental compilation techniques

1994-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Risk evaluation: A cost-oriented approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This method provides a structured and cost-oriented way to determine risks associated with loss and destruction of industrial security interests consisting of material assets and human resources. Loss and destruction are assumed to be adversary perpetrated, high-impact events in which the health and safety of people or high-value property is at risk. This concept provides a process for: (1) assessing effectiveness of all integrated protection system, which includes facility operations, safety, emergency and security systems, and (2) a qualitative prioritization scheme to determine the level of consequence relative to cost and subsequent risk. The method allows managers the flexibility to establish asset protection appropriate to programmatic requirements and priorities and to decide if funding is appropriate. The evaluation objectives are to: (1) provide for a systematic, qualitative tabletop process to estimate the potential for an undesirable event and its impact; and (2) identify ineffective protection and cost-effective solutions

22

Service-Oriented Design: The jABC Approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Reviewing our 10 years of experience in service engineering for telecommunication systems from the point of view of Service-Oriented Design then and now, we observe that much is common to the two communities. We aim in our current research at establishing a link to the notions used by the service-oriented programming (SO) community. We are convinced that combined approaches, that blend the flexibility of the current SO-scenario with the rigour and...

Margaria, Tiziana; Steffen, Bernhard; Reitenspieß, Manfred

2006-01-01

23

A user-oriented and quantifiable approach to irrigation design.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A new user-oriented approach is presented to apply marketing research techniques to quantify perceptions, preferences and utility values of farmers. This approach was applied to design an improved water distribution method for an irrigation scheme in Mendoza, Argentina. The approach comprises two subprocesses. The first consists of a diagnostic analysis and the identification of an alternative water distribution system as concept solution to the regional irrigation problems. In contrast to th...

Baars, E.; Bastiaansen, A. P. M.; Menenti, M.

1995-01-01

24

Interpolating orientation fields: An axiomatic approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We develop an axiomatic approach of vector field interpolation, which is useful as a feature extraction preprocessing step. Two operators will be singled out: the curvature operator, appearing in the total variation minimisation for image restoration and inpainting/disocclusion, and the Absolutely Minimizing Lipschitz Extension (AMLE), already known as a robust and coherent scalar image interpolation technique if we relax slightly the axioms. Numerical results, using a multiresolution scheme,...

Chessel, Anatole; Cao, F.; Fablet, Ronan

2006-01-01

25

A Task-oriented Approach to Search Engine Usability Studies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Usability is a multi-dimensional characteristic of a computer system. This paper focuses on usability as a measurement of interaction between the user and the system. The research employs a task-oriented approach to evaluate the usability of a meta search engine. This engine encourages and accepts que...

Isak Taksa; Amanda Spink; Robert Goldberg

2008-01-01

26

A Monitoring Approach for Dynamic Service-Oriented Architecture Systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the context of Dynamic Service-oriented Architecture(SOA), where services may dynamically appear or disappear transparently to the user, classical monitoring approaches which inject monitors into services cannot be used. We argue that, since SOA services are loosely coupled, monitors must also be loosely coupled. In this paper, we describe an ongoing work proposing a monitoring approach dedicated to dynamic SOA systems. We defined two key properties of loosely coupled monitoring systems: d...

Dan, Yufang; Stouls, Nicolas; Fre?not, Ste?phane; Colombo, Christian

2012-01-01

27

APPROACHES TO STUDY EDUCATIONAL AND OCCUPATIONAL TRAJECTORIES AND OUTCOMES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article analyzes the main approaches to study educational and occupational outcomes and trajectories. Young people have to decide when and what to study, later on, where to work. Their life levels will depend on those decisions, but the different ways that in both areas they are able to take and their outcomes in education and in the labor market depend on various factors. Among explications it is possible to identify six large approaches: human capital from economics, cultural and social capital from sociology, the socioeconomic status or familiar background approach and the educational and psychological approaches. These approaches are not contrary necessarily, they can be complementary, and their explanatory power depends on place and time, however, the literature does not have an effort to present together their contributions, methodologies and empirical results. This work seeks to remedy that situation and to point out some methodological and empirical weakness.

Tovar-García, Edgar Demetrio

2012-04-01

28

Business and scientific workflows a web service-oriented approach  

CERN Document Server

Focuses on how to use web service computing and service-based workflow technologies to develop timely, effective workflows for both business and scientific fields Utilizing web computing and Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA), Business and Scientific Workflows: A Web Service-Oriented Approach focuses on how to design, analyze, and deploy web service-based workflows for both business and scientific applications in many areas of healthcare and biomedicine. It also discusses and presents the recent research and development results. This informative reference features app

Tan, Wei

2013-01-01

29

Aspect Oriented Software Development vs. other Techniques (Structured Approach and Object Oriented Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aspects are a natural evolution of the object-oriented paradigm. They provide a solution to some difficulties you may have encountered with modularizing your object-oriented code: sometimes functionality just doesn't fit! You've probably found yourself repeating the same lines of code in lots of different object-oriented classes because those classes each need that functionality, and so you can't easily wrap it up in a single place. Good examples of this kind of code are audit trails, transaction handling, concurrency management, and so on. You can now modularize such code with aspects. Aspect-Oriented Software Development (AOSD. Provides unique and advanced program structuring and modularization techniques. The implementation of software applications using AOSD techniques results in a better implementation structure which has an impact on many important software qualities such as enhanced reusability and reduced complexity. In turn, these software qualities lead to an improved software development lifecycle and, hence, to better software.

Ahmed Yakout A. Mohamed

2010-07-01

30

Integration of the Brief Behavioral Activation Treatment for Depression (BATD) into a College Orientation Program: Depression and Alcohol Outcomes  

Science.gov (United States)

College freshmen face a variety of academic and social challenges as they adjust to college life that can place them at risk for a number of negative outcomes, including depression and alcohol-related problems. Orientation classes that focus on teaching incoming students how to better cope with college-oriented stress may provide an opportunity to…

Reynolds, Elizabeth K.; MacPherson, Laura; Tull, Matthew T.; Baruch, David E.; Lejuez, C. W.

2011-01-01

31

The standardized surgical approach improves outcome of gallbladder cancer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The objective of this study was to examine the extent of surgical procedures, pathological findings, complications and outcome of patients treated in the last 12 years for gallbladder cancer. Methods The impact of a standardized more aggressive approach compared with historical controls of our center with an individual approach was examined. Of 53 patients, 21 underwent resection for cure and 32 for palliation. Results Overall h...

Igna Dorian; Weinrich Malte; Stremovskaia Tatiana; Justinger Christoph; Scheingraber Stefan; Schilling Martin K

2007-01-01

32

Using Game Approach in Improving Learning Outcomes of Pencak Silat  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pencak Silat lesson requires appropriate motor learning model to improve students skill. Game approach, as one of motor learning model, is intended to improve students’ learning outcomes in Pencak Silat class. The objectives of this research are to improve Pencak Silat lecture, to improve students’ performance, to enhance students’ understanding of pencak silat lecture, and to apply game approach on the learning of Pencak Silat basic skills. This research uses action research method, wh...

Widiastuti Widiastuti

2014-01-01

33

Outcome orientation - a misconception of probability that harms medical research and practice  

CERN Document Server

Uncertainty is an everyday experience in medical research and practice, but theory and methods for reasoning clearly about uncertainty were developed only recently. Confirmation bias, selective memory, and many misleading heuristics are known enemies of the insightful clinician, researcher, or citizen; but other snares worth exposing lurk in how we reason about uncertainty in our everyday lives. Here we draw attention to a cognitive bias described by Konold as the "outcome orientation" - little known or possibly unknown to those outside the field of probability pedagogy - and point out how this form of reasoning creates hazards for medical research and practice.

Humphrey, Parris Taylor

2014-01-01

34

The standardized surgical approach improves outcome of gallbladder cancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to examine the extent of surgical procedures, pathological findings, complications and outcome of patients treated in the last 12 years for gallbladder cancer. Methods The impact of a standardized more aggressive approach compared with historical controls of our center with an individual approach was examined. Of 53 patients, 21 underwent resection for cure and 32 for palliation. Results Overall hospital mortality was 9% and procedure related mortality was 4%. The standardized approach in UICC stage IIa, IIb and III led to a significantly improved outcome compared to patients with an individual approach (Median survival: 14 vs. 7 months, mean+/-SEM: 26+/-7 vs. 17+/-5 months, p = 0.014. The main differences between the standardized and the individual approach were anatomical vs. atypical liver resection, performance of systematic lymph dissection of the hepaticoduodenal ligament and the resection of the common bile duct. Conclusion Anatomical liver resection, proof for bile duct infiltration and, in case of tumor invasion, radical resection and lymph dissection of the hepaticoduodenal ligament are essential to improve outcome of locally advanced gallbladder cancer.

Igna Dorian

2007-05-01

35

An Aspect Oriented Process Based Approach To Information Risk Management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this era of fast paced technological advancements, security issues and risks related to it have become a key concern for all organizations. Enterprise Governance, Risk management and Compliance(GRC is the popular approach to handle enterprise risks and reduce its impact. This paper focuses on the risk management, especially the risk assessment approaches and proposes an aspect oriented approach to risk management. In this approach, the risk management processes are designed separately from the core business processes and are weaved to the flow of business process steps wherever necessary.This brings the advantage of separation of concerns of risk management from the business process. The design of business processes then need not look into the design of risk assessment related to it. This will enable handling of risk and its assessment by expert risk advisories, those who are specialized in it.

Dhanya Pramod

2013-06-01

36

An object oriented approach to multisensor data correction  

Science.gov (United States)

The ability to conduct quantitative analysis with multitemporal and multisensor datasets is critical to the future success of remote sensing based resource management and global change monitoring systems. Such analysis needs the data to be co-registered to a common geometric frame of reference requiring the removal of complex geometric image distortions inherent in the raw data. This task, referred to as geocoding, can best be accomplished by using all available a priori knowledge to model the physics of the image acquisition. Given the diverse nature of this knowledge and the need for flexibility to accommodate the multitude of imaging technologies, the object oriented paradigm provides an ideal framework for developing multisensor geocoding software. To demonstrate the utility of this approach, an object-oriented geocoding toolbox was engineered and successfully used to geometrically register an extensive multisensor data set.

Wehn, Hans W.; Robertson, Brian C.

1993-08-01

37

Different roles and different results: how activity orientations correspond to relationship quality and student outcomes in school-based mentoring.  

Science.gov (United States)

This prospective, mixed-methods study investigated how the nature of joint activities between volunteer mentors and student mentees corresponded to relationship quality and youth outcomes. Focusing on relationships in school-based mentoring programs in low-income urban elementary schools, data were obtained through pre-post assessments, naturalistic observations, and in-depth interviews with mentors and mentees. Adopting an exploratory approach, the study employed qualitative case study methods to inductively identify distinctive patterns reflecting the focus of mentoring activities. The activity orientations of relationships were categorized according to the primary functional role embodied by the mentor and the general theme of interactions: teaching assistant/tutoring, friend/engaging, sage/counseling, acquaintance/floundering. Next, these categories were corroborated by comparing the groups on quantitative assessments of relationship quality and change in child outcomes over time. Relationships characterized by sage mentoring, which balanced amicable engagement with adult guidance, were rated most favorably by mentees on multiple measures of relationship quality. Furthermore, students involved in sage mentoring relationships showed declines in depressive symptoms and aggressive behaviors. For disconnected pairs (acquaintances), students reported more negative relationship experiences. Findings suggest effective mentoring relationships represent a hybrid between the friendly mutuality of horizontal relationships and the differential influence of vertical relationships. PMID:22322307

Keller, Thomas E; Pryce, Julia M

2012-02-01

38

An object-oriented approach to nested data parallelism  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes an implementation technique for integrating nested data parallelism into an object-oriented language. Data-parallel programming employs sets of data called 'collections' and expresses parallelism as operations performed over the elements of a collection. When the elements of a collection are also collections, then there is the possibility for 'nested data parallelism.' Few current programming languages support nested data parallelism however. In an object-oriented framework, a collection is a single object. Its type defines the parallel operations that may be applied to it. Our goal is to design and build an object-oriented data-parallel programming environment supporting nested data parallelism. Our initial approach is built upon three fundamental additions to C++. We add new parallel base types by implementing them as classes, and add a new parallel collection type called a 'vector' that is implemented as a template. Only one new language feature is introduced: the 'foreach' construct, which is the basis for exploiting elementwise parallelism over collections. The strength of the method lies in the compilation strategy, which translates nested data-parallel C++ into ordinary C++. Extracting the potential parallelism in nested 'foreach' constructs is called 'flattening' nested parallelism. We show how to flatten 'foreach' constructs using a simple program transformation. Our prototype system produces vector code which has been successfully run on workstations, a CM-2, and a CM-5.

Sheffler, Thomas J.; Chatterjee, Siddhartha

1994-01-01

39

Integration of the Brief Behavioral Activation Treatment for Depression (BATD) Into a College Orientation Program: Depression and Alcohol Outcomes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

College freshmen face a variety of academic and social challenges as they adjust to college life that can place them at risk for a number of negative outcomes, including depression and alcohol-related problems. Orientation classes that focus on teaching incoming students how to better cope with college-oriented stress may provide an opportunity to prevent the development of these adjustment problems. This article outlines a program based on behavioral activation that can be integrated into co...

Reynolds, Elizabeth K.; Macpherson, Laura; Baruch, David E.; Tull, Matthew T.; Lejuez, C. W.

2011-01-01

40

Using Game Approach in Improving Learning Outcomes of Pencak Silat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pencak Silat lesson requires appropriate motor learning model to improve students skill. Game approach, as one of motor learning model, is intended to improve students’ learning outcomes in Pencak Silat class. The objectives of this research are to improve Pencak Silat lecture, to improve students’ performance, to enhance students’ understanding of pencak silat lecture, and to apply game approach on the learning of Pencak Silat basic skills. This research uses action research method, which consists of several stages such as: planing, execution, observation, report and evaluation, and re-planning. Re-planning stage is the planning stage for the next cycle. On the first and second cycle, student have not been able to gain results as expected. On the third cycle, students’ performance improvement has already achieved maximum target. Researcher found that game approach is able to improve students’ learning outcome of Pencak Silat, increase students’ creativity in terms of motor learning, and create supportive learning environment. Students, individually or in group, are able to explore and create motor learning model with game approach.

Widiastuti Widiastuti

2014-02-01

 
 
 
 
41

The person-oriented approach: A short theoretical and practical guide  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A short overview of the person-oriented approach is given as a guide to the researcher interested in carrying out person-oriented research. Theoretical, methodological, and practical considerations of the approach are discussed. First, some historical roots are traced, followed by a description of the holisticinteractionistic research paradigm, which provided the general framework for the development of the modern person-oriented approach. The approach has both a theoretical and a methodologi...

Bergman, Lars R.; Margit Wångby

2014-01-01

42

Mediman: Object oriented programming approach for medical image analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mediman is a new image analysis package which has been developed to analyze quantitatively Positron Emission Tomography (PET) data. It is object-oriented, written in C++ and its user interface is based on InterViews on top of which new classes have been added. Mediman accesses data using external data representation or import/export mechanism which avoids data duplication. Multimodality studies are organized in a simple database which includes images, headers, color tables, lists and objects of interest (OOI's) and history files. Stored color table parameters allow to focus directly on the interesting portion of the dynamic range. Lists allow to organize the study according to modality, acquisition protocol, time and spatial properties. OOI's (points, lines and regions) are stored in absolute 3-D coordinates allowing correlation with other co-registered imaging modalities such as MRI or SPECT. OOI's have visualization properties and are organized into groups. Quantitative ROI analysis of anatomic images consists of position, distance, volume calculation on selected OOI's. An image calculator is connected to mediman. Quantitation of metabolic images is performed via profiles, sectorization, time activity curves and kinetic modeling. Mediman is menu and mouse driven, macro-commands can be registered and replayed. Its interface is customizable through a configuration file. The benefit of the object-oriented approach are discussed from a development point of view from a development point of view

43

A Formal Approach to Domain-Oriented Software Design Environments  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes a formal approach to domain-oriented software design environments, based on declarative domain theories, formal specifications, and deductive program synthesis. A declarative domain theory defines the semantics of a domain-oriented specification language and its relationship to implementation-level subroutines. Formal specification development and reuse is made accessible to end-users through an intuitive graphical interface that guides them in creating diagrams denoting formal specifications. The diagrams also serve to document the specifications. Deductive program synthesis ensures that end-user specifications are correctly implemented. AMPHION has been applied to the domain of solar system kinematics through the development of a declarative domain theory, which includes an axiomatization of JPL's SPICELIB subroutine library. Testing over six months with planetary scientists indicates that AMPHION's interactive specification acquisition paradigm enables users to develop, modify, and reuse specifications at least an order of magnitude more rapidly than manual program development. Furthermore, AMPHION synthesizes one to two page programs consisting of calls to SPICELIB subroutines from these specifications in just a few minutes. Test results obtained by metering AMPHION's deductive program synthesis component are examined. AMPHION has been installed at JPL and is currently undergoing further refinement in preparation for distribution to hundreds of SPICELIB users worldwide. Current work to support end-user customization of AMPHION's specification acquisition subsystem is briefly discussed, as well as future work to enable domain-expert creation of new AMPHION applications through development of suitable domain theories.

Lowry, Michael; Philpot, Andrew; Pressburger, Thomas; Underwood, Ian; Lum, Henry, Jr. (Technical Monitor)

1994-01-01

44

Building a genome database using an object-oriented approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

GOBASE is a relational database that integrates data associated with mitochondria and chloroplasts. The most important data in GOBASE, i. e., molecular sequences and taxonomic information, are obtained from the public sequence data repository at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), and are validated by our experts. Maintaining a curated genomic database comes with a towering labor cost, due to the shear volume of available genomic sequences and the plethora of annotation errors and omissions in records retrieved from public repositories. Here we describe our approach to increase automation of the database population process, thereby reducing manual intervention. As a first step, we used Unified Modeling Language (UML) to construct a list of potential errors. Each case was evaluated independently, and an expert solution was devised, and represented as a diagram. Subsequently, the UML diagrams were used as templates for writing object-oriented automation programs in the Java programming language. PMID:12542407

Barbasiewicz, Anna; Liu, Lin; Lang, B Franz; Burger, Gertraud

2002-01-01

45

Teaching Listening Comprehension Skills: A Test-orientated Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Attributed to a “receptive skill” in the communicative process, listening comprehension would be the most arduous task of all four language skills. It is likely that EFL (English as a foreign language students encounter various predicaments, of e.g. grasping main ideas of the dialogues in contexts, and in turn suffer from learning anxiety. The issue of how to assist the students in improving their listening competency is worth attention. This article is, therefore, intended for illustrating a test-orientated approach to teaching listening comprehension skills to EFL students through an analysis of sample questions about listening comprehension (i.e. Choosing the Right Picture, Short Questions, and Short Conversations on GEPT tests at the elementary level and through provision of tips (i.e. Skim, Scan, Listen, Guess/Infer, Choose & Write and Check on how to answer the questions effectively. Implications for teaching listening comprehension are also made at the end of the paper.

Shao-Wen Su

2012-05-01

46

A Task-oriented Approach to Search Engine Usability Studies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Usability is a multi-dimensional characteristic of a computer system. This paper focuses on usability as a measurement of interaction between the user and the system. The research employs a task-oriented approach to evaluate the usability of a meta search engine. This engine encourages and accepts queries of unlimited size expressed in natural language. A variety of conventional metrics developed by academic and industrial research, including ISO standards, are applied to the information retrieval process consisting of sequential tasks. Tasks range from formulating (long queries to interpreting and retaining search results. Results of the evaluation and analysis of the operation log indicate that obtaining advanced search engine results can be accomplished simultaneously with enhancing the usability of the interactive process. In conclusion, we discuss implications for interactive information retrieval system design and directions for future usability research.

Isak Taksa

2008-01-01

47

Comparison of Advanced Pixel Based (ANN and SVM and Object-Oriented Classification Approaches Using Landsat-7 Etm+ Data  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, the pixel-based and object-oriented image classification approaches were used for identifying different land use types in Karnal district. Imagery from Landsat-7 ETM with 6 spectral bands was used to perform the image classification.Ground truth data were collected from the available maps, personal knowledge and communication with the local people. In order to prepare land use map different approaches: Artificial Neural Network(ANN and Support Vector Machine (SVM were used. For performing object oriented classification eCognition software was used. During the object oriented classification, in first step several differentsets of parameters were used for image segmentation and in second step nearest neighbor classifier was used for classification. Outcome from the classification works show that the object-oriented approach gave more accurate results (including higher producer’s and user’s accuracy for most of the land cover classes than those achieved by pixelbased classification algorithms. It is also observed that ANN performed better as compared to SVM classification approach.

Prasun Kumar Gupta

2010-08-01

48

Employee customer orientation in context: how the environment moderates the influence of customer orientation on performance outcomes.  

Science.gov (United States)

This empirical study evaluated the moderating effects of unit customer orientation (CO) climate and climate strength on the relationship between service workers' level of CO and their performance of customer-oriented behaviors (COBs). In addition, the study examined whether aggregate COB performance influences unit profitability. Building on multisource, multilevel data, the study's results suggest that the influence of employee CO on employee COB performance is positive when the unit's CO climate is relatively high and that the constructs are unrelated when unit CO climate is relatively low. In addition, the data reveal that unit COB performance influences unit profitability by enhancing revenues without a concomitant increase in costs. The study's results underscore the theoretical importance of considering cross-level influencers of employee-level relationships and suggest that managers should focus on creating a climate that is supportive of COBs if their units are to profit from the recruitment, hiring, and retention of customer-oriented employees. PMID:19702367

Grizzle, Jerry W; Zablah, Alex R; Brown, Tom J; Mowen, John C; Lee, James M

2009-09-01

49

A Conceptual Approach to Teaching Object-Orientation to C Programmers  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper describes experiences from a three-day course held as part of a collaborative research project, in which object-oriented programming was taught to a group of engineers who were all proficient C programmers. Our approach to teaching object-oriented programming focuses on conceptual modeling, emphasizing that object-orientation is not a bag of solutions and technology; rather, object-orientation is a means to understand, describe (model) and communicate. The paper describes a general approach to teaching object-oriented programming to C-programmers and reports on the experience from a concrete course.

Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Torgersen, Mads

1998-01-01

50

RF control at SSCL - an object oriented design approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) in Texas, the construction of which was stopped in 1994, would have represented a major challenge in accelerator research and development. This paper addresses the issues encountered in the parallel design and construction of the control systems for the RF equipment for the five accelerators comprising the SSC. An extensive analysis of the components of the RF control systems has been undertaken, based upon the Schlaer-Mellor object-oriented analysis and design (OOA/OOD) methodology. The RF subsystem components such as amplifiers, tubes, power supplies, PID loops, etc. were analyzed to produce OOA information, behavior and process models. Using these models, OOD was iteratively applied to develop a generic RF control system design. This paper describes the results of this analysis and the development of 'bridges' between the analysis objects, and the EPICS-based software and underlying VME-based hardware architectures. The application of this approach to several of the SSCL RF control systems is discussed. ((orig.))

51

Spatial Orientation and Congenital Blindness: A Neuropsychological Approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tests of a neuropsychological model for spatial orientation in the absence of vision were developed and administered to 31 children with congenital blindness. Results support the neuropsychological model and indicate that some congenitally blind subjects had focal brain damage, sufficient to impair their capacity to be accurately oriented in…

Stuart, I.

1995-01-01

52

Agent-Oriented Enterprise Architecture: new approach for Enterprise Architecture  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nowadays, utilizing EA by enterprises with medium and long term goals causes improvement in their productivity and competitiveness. With respect to varied changes in enterprise's business activities and attitudes, flexibility in information systems of EA is a crucial factor. Agent's capacities in implementation of complex systems goal convince huge enterprises to use agent oriented architecture in their EA programs. Combination of EA and agent oriented architecture introduces a new attitude i...

Babak Darvish Rouhani; Fatemeh Nikpay

2012-01-01

53

Orientation Mining-Driven Approach to Analyze Web Public Sentiment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In recent years, Internet provides a unique opportunityto express and spread public sentiment, whichmakes the web contents becoming the largest informationsource of public sentiment. Since web public sentimentreflects people’s attitude to society and politics, the publicopinion’s orientation is significant to decision-makers. In thispaper, we utilize VSM (vector space model) to present thetext orientation of web information and offer data-...

Feng Zhao; Qianqiao Hu; Xiaolin Xu; Runxi Zeng; Yi Lin

2011-01-01

54

Flap reconstruction of the hypopharynx: a defect orientated approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present retrospective analysis evaluated the outcomes of different flap reconstructions for several hypopharyngeal defects in 136 patients who underwent hypopharyngeal reconstruction with a free or pedicled flap after excision of pharyngeal or laryngeal carcinoma.

Putten, L.; Spasiano, R.; Bree, R.; Bertino, G.; Leemans, C. R.; Benazzo, M.

2012-01-01

55

Orientation Mining-Driven Approach to Analyze Web Public Sentiment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent years, Internet provides a unique opportunityto express and spread public sentiment, whichmakes the web contents becoming the largest informationsource of public sentiment. Since web public sentimentreflects people’s attitude to society and politics, the publicopinion’s orientation is significant to decision-makers. In thispaper, we utilize VSM (vector space model to present thetext orientation of web information and offer data-miningapproaches to analyze public opinion’s orientation, whichcan assist decision-makers to steer social information andguide the web public sentiment. To achieve the goal of textorientation analysis, two ways are proposed. Firstly, a noveltext orientation analysis method is described to analyzethe orientation of original web postings and their replies.Secondly, an improved single-pass clustering algorithm isintroduced to cluster the subject of web discussion anddiscover the hot topics.We also construct a prototype system,named WPSAS (web public sentiment analysis system, asexperimental platform to validate the presented methodology. The experimental results show that our methods are effective and efficient.

Feng Zhao

2011-08-01

56

Lingual and didactic potential of personally oriented approach to studying Ukrainian in vocational schools of service sphere  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

? ?????? ???????? ????????????? ??????? ????????? ???????????????? ??????? ? ???????? ??????? ????? ? ???????????????-??????????? ??????? ?????????? ?? ?????????? ???????????? ??? ????? ????????????. The article considers theoretical aspects of personally oriented approach to studying the native language in vocational s...

??????, ?????

2012-01-01

57

Approaches Regarding Business Logic Modeling in Service Oriented Architecture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As part of the Service Oriented Computing (SOC, Service Oriented Architecture (SOA is a technology that has been developing for almost a decade and during this time there have been published many studies, papers and surveys that are referring to the advantages of projects using it. In this article we discuss some ways of using SOA in the business environment, as a result of the need to reengineer the internal business processes with the scope of moving forward towards providing and using standardized services and achieving enterprise interoperability.

Alexandra Maria Ioana FLOREA

2011-01-01

58

An intelligent dynamic simulation environment: An object-oriented approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a prototype simulation environment for nuclear power plants which illustrates the application of object-oriented programming to process simulation. Systems are modeled using this technique as a collection of objects which communicate via message passing. The environment allows users to build simulation models by selecting iconic representations of plant components from a menu and connecting them with the aid of a mouse. Models can be modified graphically at any time, even as the simulation is running, and the results observed immediately via real-time graphics. This prototype illustrates the use of object-oriented programming to create a highly interactive and automated simulation environment. 9 refs., 4 figs

59

An object-oriented approach to evaluating multiple spectral models  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A versatile, spectroscopy analysis engine has been developed by using object-oriented design and analysis techniques coupled with an object-oriented language, C++. This engine provides the spectroscopist with the choice of several different peak shape models that are tailored to the type of spectroscopy being performed. It also allows ease of development in adapting the engine to other analytical methods requiring more complex peak fitting in the future. This results in a program that can currently be used across a wide range of spectroscopy applications and anticipates inclusion of future advances in the field. (author) 6 refs.; 1 fig

60

An object-oriented approach to application generation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The TUBA system consists of a set of integrated tools for the generation of business-oriented applications. Tools and applications have a modular structure, represented by class objects. The article describes the architecture of the environments for file processing, screen handling and report writing.

Hoeve, Frans; Engmann, Rolf

1987-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Electron-impact ionization of oriented molecules using the time-dependent close-coupling approach  

Science.gov (United States)

An overview is given on recent progress on computing triple differential cross sections for electron-impact ionization of the hydrogen molecule using a time-dependent close-coupling approach. Our calculations, when averaged over all molecular orientations, are generally in very good agreement with (e,2e) measurements made on H2, where the molecular orientation is unknown, for a range of incident energies and outgoing electron angles and energies. In this paper, we present TDCS for ionization of H2 at specific molecular orientations. It is hoped that this study will help stimulate future measurements of TDCS from oriented H2 at medium impact energies.

Colgan, J.; Pindzola, M. S.

2011-04-01

62

Service-oriented Software Development and Management: A CASE Tool-based Approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In order to realize Service-Oriented Architecture  (SOA) with Web Services (WSs), a new engineering  approach is required; we refer to it as Service-Oriented  Software Engineering (SOSE). This approach would sketch  out a method, including a process, models, languages, tools,  and notations. It encompasses three dimensions: (i) services,  (ii) compositions, and (iii) management of both services and  compositions. The existing methods have not considered the&...

Youcef Baghdadi; Bashar Alani; Zuhoor Al-Khanjari

2012-01-01

63

A Framework for Assessing the Software Reusability using Fuzzy Logic Approach for Aspect Oriented Software  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Software reusability is very important and crucial attribute to evaluate the system software. Due to incremental growth of software development, the software reusability comes under attention of many researcher and practitioner. It is pretty easier to reuse the software than developing the new software. Software reusability reduces the development time, cost and effort of software product. Software reusability define the depth to which a module can be reused again with very little or no modification. However the prediction of this quality attribute is cumbersome process. Aspect oriented software development is new approach that introduce the concerns to overcome the issues with modular programming and object oriented programming. However many researcher worked on accessing the software reusability on object oriented system but the software reusability of aspect oriented system is not completely explored. This paper explores the various metric that affects the reusability of aspect oriented software and estimate it using fuzzy logic approach.

Pradeep Kumar Singh

2015-01-01

64

A new approach to the orientation of random hypergraphs  

CERN Document Server

A h-uniform hypergraph H=(V,E) is called (l,k)-orientable if there exists an assignment of each hyperedge e to exactly l of its vertices such that no vertex is assigned more than k hyperedges. Let H_{n,m,h} be a hypergraph, drawn uniformly at random from the set of all h-uniform hypergraphs with n vertices and m edges. In this paper, we determine the threshold of the existence of a (l,k)-orientation of H_{n,m,h} for k>=1 and h>l>=1, extending recent results motivated by applications such as cuckoo hashing or load balancing with guaranteed maximum load. Our proof combines the local weak convergence of sparse graphs and a careful analysis of a Gibbs measure on spanning subgraphs with degree constraints. It allows us to deal with a much broader class than the uniform hypergraphs.

Lelarge, Marc

2012-01-01

65

A User-Oriented Approach to Music Information Retrieval  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Search and retrieval of specific musical content (e.g. emotion, melody) has become an important aspect of system development but only little research is user-oriented. The success of music information retrieval technology primarily depends on both assessing and meeting the needs of its users. Potential users of music information retrieval systems, however, draw upon various ways of expressing themselves. But, who are the potential users of MIR systems and how would they describe music qualiti...

Lesaffre, Micheline; Leman, Marc; Martens, Jean-pierre

2006-01-01

66

A Proactive Approach to Semantically Oriented Service Discovery  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Web Service based computing has evolved immensely in recent years, supported by standards bodies, academic research and industry alike. One of the noticeable omissions from the web services architecture is that of standards to support automatic discovery, automatic composition and invocation of web services. While semantic web service discovery implementations exist research into autonomous semantically oriented service discovery is far from an efficient, complete solution to t...

Lynch, David Thomas

2005-01-01

67

An Object-Oriented Approach to Writing Computational Electromagnetics Codes  

Science.gov (United States)

Presently, most computer software development in the Computational Electromagnetics (CEM) community employs the structured programming paradigm, particularly using the Fortran language. Other segments of the software community began switching to an Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) paradigm in recent years to help ease design and development of highly complex codes. This paper examines design of a time-domain numerical analysis CEM code using the OOP paradigm, comparing OOP code and structured programming code in terms of software maintenance, portability, flexibility, and speed.

Zimmerman, Martin; Mallasch, Paul G.

1996-01-01

68

How Changes in Students' Goal Orientations Relate to Outcomes in Social Studies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Do students tend to set similar types of goals throughout the school year, or do their goal orientations shift over time? If students become more oriented toward mastery or performance over the course of the year, do they improve in their academic achievement, have a more positive affect toward class, and develop the cognitive propensities that their teachers might hope for? A diverse sample of 9th- and 10th-grade world history students (N = 917) participated in a study addressing these quest...

Gehlbach, Hunter

2006-01-01

69

Selecting Classifiers Techniques for Outcome Prediction Using Neural Networks Approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents an analysis of different techniques that is designed to aid a researcher in determining which of the classification techniques would be most appropriate to choose the ridge, robust and linear regression methods for predicting outcomes for specific quasi-stationary process.

Shatovskaya, Tatiana

2007-01-01

70

The influence of psychodynamically oriented therapists' attachment representations on outcome and alliance in inpatient psychotherapy [corrected].  

Science.gov (United States)

The Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) was used to study 31 psychotherapists who treated 1,381 patients in intensive multimodal inpatient psychotherapy. AAI dimensional ratings of security versus insecurity and dismissiveness versus preoccupation were used to predict alliance and outcome via multilevel regression techniques (hierarchical linear modeling). There were no main effects of therapists' attachment dimensions. However, higher attachment security of the therapist was associated with both better alliance and outcome in more severely impaired patients. Implications of the findings as well as limitations of the study are discussed. PMID:19844844

Schauenburg, Henning; Buchheim, Anna; Beckh, Kathrin; Nolte, Tobias; Brenk-Franz, Katja; Leichsenring, Falk; Strack, Micha; Dinger, Ulrike

2010-03-01

71

Students' Achievement Values, Goal Orientations, and Interest: Definitions, Development, and Relations to Achievement Outcomes  

Science.gov (United States)

Students' achievement task values, goal orientations, and interest are motivation-related constructs which concern students' purposes and reasons for doing achievement activities. The authors review the extant research on these constructs and describe and compare many of the most frequently used measures of these constructs. They also discuss…

Wigfield, Allan; Cambria, Jenna

2010-01-01

72

The Role of Sustainability Orientation in Outsourcing: Antecedents, Practices, and Outcomes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With growing awareness of environmental issues and firm social responsibilities, outsourcing firms increasinglyrecognize the need to be sustainability-oriented as they pursue competitiveness in the global market. However,firms are not doing this purely for altruist reasons as they still have to make a profit and account to shareholders.Therefore thispaper investigates the antecedents that push firms that adopt outsourcing initiatives to besustainability-oriented. The authors develop a model that identifies the antecedents, goals, practices, andoutcomes associated with the sustainability-outsourcing linkage. The model starts by identifying fourantecedents (regulations, supply chain demand, firm reputation, and marketplace requirements that cause ofsustainability orientation in a firm. Then, internal (i.e., product design and external (i.e., supplier managementpractices thatfirms may adopt in order to cope with their sustainability goals are introduced. Finally, the modelevaluates the impact of these practices on their outsourcing performance from the triple bottom line perspective.So this is a conceptual paper that sheds light on the role of sustainability orientation in outsourcing firms’performance, and calls for more research attention on sustainable outsourcing.

Shuting Li

2014-08-01

73

Linkages between Total Quality Management and the Outcomes-Based Approach in an Education Environment  

Science.gov (United States)

South Africa has embarked on a process of education renewal by adopting outcomes-based education (OBE). This paper focuses on the linkages between total quality management (TQM) and the outcomes-based approach in an education context. Quality assurance in academic programmes in higher education in South Africa is, in some instances, based on the…

de Jager, H. J.; Nieuwenhuis, F. J.

2005-01-01

74

Analyzing Web Service Contracts : an aspect oriented approach  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Web services should be dependable, because businesses rely on them. For that purpose the Service Oriented Architecture has standardized specifications at a syntactical level. In this paper, we demonstrate how such specifications are used to derive semantic models in the form of (timed) automata. These can be used to model check functional and behavioural properties of a given service. Since there might be several specifications dealing with different aspects, one must also check that these automata are consistent, where we propose to set up a suitable simulation relation. The proposed techniques are illustrated with a small case study

Cambronero, M.-Emilia; Okika, Joseph C.

2007-01-01

75

Data clustering in C++ an object-oriented approach  

CERN Document Server

Data clustering is a highly interdisciplinary field, the goal of which is to divide a set of objects into homogeneous groups such that objects in the same group are similar and objects in different groups are quite distinct. Thousands of theoretical papers and a number of books on data clustering have been published over the past 50 years. However, few books exist to teach people how to implement data clustering algorithms. This book was written for anyone who wants to implement or improve their data clustering algorithms. Using object-oriented design and programming techniques, Data Clusterin

Gan, Guojun

2011-01-01

76

Regional Blockade of the Shoulder: Approaches and Outcomes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article reviews the current literature regarding shoulder anesthesia and analgesia. Techniques and outcomes are presented that summarize our present understanding of regional anesthesia for the shoulder. Shoulder procedures producing mild to moderate pain may be managed with a single-injection interscalene block. However, studies support that moderate to severe pain, lasting for several days is best managed with a continuous interscalene block. This may cause increased extremity numbness,...

Bowens, Clifford; Sripada, Ramprasad

2012-01-01

77

Sexual orientation of women does not affect outcome of fertility treatment with donated sperm  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

STUDY QUESTION: Is there a difference in fertility between heterosexual women and lesbians undergoing sperm donation? SUMMARY ANSWER: Women undergoing treatment with donated sperm are equally fertile regardless of sexual orientation. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Lesbians have an increased prevalence of smoking, obesity, sexually transmitted diseases and, possibly, polycystic ovary syndrome, all factors known to affect fertility. Previous studies on sperm donation inseminations (D-IUI) show conflict...

Nordqvist, S.; Sydsjo?, Gunilla; Lampic, C.; Akerud, H.; Elenis, E.; Skoog Svanberg, A.

2014-01-01

78

Multiple Triangulation Analysis: another approach to determine the orientation of magnetic flux ropes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Another approach (Multiple Triangulation Analysis, MTA is presented to determine the orientation of magnetic flux rope, based on 4-point measurements. A 2-D flux rope model is used to examine the accuracy of the MTA technique in a theoretical way. It is found that the precision of the estimated orientation is dependent on both the spacecraft separation and the constellation path relative to the flux rope structure. However, the MTA error range can be shown to be smaller than that of the traditional MVA technique. As an application to real Cluster data, several flux rope events on 26 January 2001 are analyzed using MTA, to obtain their orientations. The results are compared with the ones obtained by several other methods which also yield flux rope orientation. The estimated axis orientations are shown to be fairly close, suggesting the reliability of the MTA method.

X.-Z. Zhou

2006-07-01

79

EdF adopts a state-oriented approach to emergency operations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electricite de France is in the process of changing the way in which emergency operating procedures are handled at its nuclear plants. In contrast to the current event-orientated approach, the new approach is based on continuous monitoring of the basic physical characteristics of the plant - the plant state - and the taking of corrective actions solely on the basis of plant state. (author)

80

Inter-Organizational Learning across Levels: An Object-Oriented Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the research methodology of analyzing learning in inter-organizational networks based on an object-oriented approach. Design/methodology/approach: The paper draws from the cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT), specifically from the concepts of the object of activity, developmental…

Toiviainen, Hanna

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Outcome orientation - a misconception of probability that harms medical research and practice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Uncertainty is an everyday experience in medical research and practice, but theory and methods for reasoning clearly about uncertainty were developed only recently. Confirmation bias, selective memory, and many misleading heuristics are known enemies of the insightful clinician, researcher, or citizen; but other snares worth exposing lurk in how we reason about uncertainty in our everyday lives. Here we draw attention to a cognitive bias described by Konold as the "outcome o...

Humphrey, Parris Taylor; Masel, Joanna

2014-01-01

82

Lecture-free biochemistry: A Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biochemistry courses at Seattle University have been taught exclusively using process oriented guided inquiry learning (POGIL) without any traditional lecture component since 1997. In these courses, students participate in a structured learning environment, which includes a preparatory assignment, an in-class activity, and a follow-up skill exercise. Instructor-designed learning activities provide the content of the course while the cooperative learning structure provides the content-free procedures that promote development of critical process skills needed for learning. This format enables students to initially explore a topic independently, work together in groups to construct and refine knowledge, and eventually develop deep understanding of the essential concepts. These stages of exploration and concept development form the foundation for application to high level biochemical problems. At the end of this course, most students report feeling confident in their knowledge of biochemistry and report substantial gains in independence, critical thinking, and respect for others. PMID:21591084

Minderhout, Vicky; Loertscher, Jennifer

2007-05-01

83

Small Firm Internet Adoption: a market oriented approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fundamental to the development of new customer value offerings via web-based commerce is a small firm’s ability to strategically acquire and exploit knowledge. The focus of this paper is the empirical testing of a normative web-based commerce adoption model developed from a review of the extant literature related to electronic marketing, the Internet and the diffusion of new innovations. A preliminary test of the model’s theoretical contentions lent support to its overall focus, but found that the firm’s existing learning capabilities were diminished during the adoption of web-based commerce. Consequently, sub-optimal adoption outcomes were associated with insufficient knowledge development.

Colin Jones

2002-11-01

84

AUDITING THE LEADERSHIP APPROACHES AND THEIR RELATIONSHIPS TO ORGANIZATIONAL OUTCOMES  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This is a content analysis paper that audits the leadership literature, synthesizes and reports developments regarding organization leadership approaches. The paper is important because it gives updated development in the organization leadership literature for better understanding of different leadership approaches in contemporary organizations. The paper also will help readers to better understand the organizationalleadership dynamics. From this development, therefore, this paper opens u...

ABDU JA’AFARU BAMBALE

2011-01-01

85

The person-oriented approach: A short theoretical and practical guide  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A short overview of the person-oriented approach is given as a guide to the researcher interested in carrying out person-oriented research. Theoretical, methodological, and practical considerations of the approach are discussed. First, some historical roots are traced, followed by a description of the holisticinteractionistic research paradigm, which provided the general framework for the development of the modern person-oriented approach. The approach has both a theoretical and a methodological facet and after presenting its key theoretical tenets, an overview is given of some common person-oriented methods. Central to the person-oriented approach is a system view with its components together forming a pattern regarded as indivisible. This pattern should be understood and studied as a whole, not broken up into pieces (variables that are studied as separate entities. Hence, usually methodological tools are used by which whole patterns are analysed (e.g. cluster analysis. An empirical example is given where the pattern development of school grades is studied.

Lars R. Bergman

2014-04-01

86

Software Cost Estimation Framework for Service-Oriented Architecture Systems using Divide-and-Conquer Approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Due to the complexity of Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA), cost and effort estimation for SOA-based software development is more difficult than that for traditional software development. Unfortunately, there is a lack of published work about cost and effort estimation for SOA-based software. Existing cost estimation approaches are inadequate to address the complex service-oriented systems. This paper proposes a novel framework based on Divide-and-Conquer (D&C) for cost es...

Li, Zheng; Keung, Jacky

2013-01-01

87

Representation and Metrics Extraction from Feature Basis: An Object Oriented Approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This tutorial presents an object oriented approach to data reading and metrics extraction from feature basis. Structural issues about basis are discussed first, then the Object Oriented Programming (OOP) is aplied to modeling the main elements in this context. The model implementation is then discussed using C++ as programing language. To validate the proposed model, we apply on some feature basis from the University of Carolina, Irvine Machine Learning Database.

Fausto Neri da Silva Vanin

2010-01-01

88

Representation and Metrics Extraction from Feature Basis: An Object Oriented Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This tutorial presents an object oriented approach to data reading and metrics extraction from feature basis. Structural issues about basis are discussed first, then the Object Oriented Programming (OOP is aplied to modeling the main elements in this context. The model implementation is then discussed using C++ as programing language. To validate the proposed model, we apply on some feature basis from the University of Carolina, Irvine Machine Learning Database.

Fausto Neri da Silva Vanin

2010-10-01

89

Statistical Approach for Predicting Factors of Mood Method for Object Oriented  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Object oriented design is becoming more popular in software development and object oriented design metrics which is an essential part of software environment. The main goal in this paper is to predict factors of MOOD method for OO using a statistical approach. Therefore, linear regression model is used to find the relationship between factors of MOOD method and their influences on OO software measurements. Fortunately, through this process a prediction could be made for the ...

Firas Ajil Jassim; Fawzi Hasan Altaani

2013-01-01

90

Developing Legal Translation Competence: An Integrative Process-Oriented Approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Building on previous holistic multicomponent paradigms of translation macrocompetence, a legal translation competence model is presented which avoids certain conceptual duplications in the light of professional practice, and incorporates distinctive legal thematic elements. Beyond component description, it is argued that the integral development of legal translation competence requires specific interdisciplinary methodologies for practical problem solving. The integrative approach proposed in...

Prieto Ramos, Fernando

2011-01-01

91

Ultra Low Power Signal Oriented Approach for Wireless Health Monitoring  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent years there is growing pressure on the medical sector to reduce costs while maintaining or even improving the quality of care. A potential solution to this problem is real time and/or remote patient monitoring by using mobile devices. To achieve this, medical sensors with wireless communication, computational and energy harvesting capabilities are networked on, or in, the human body forming what is commonly called a Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN. We present the implementation of a novel Wake Up Receiver (WUR in the context of standardised wireless protocols, in a signal-oriented WBAN environment and present a novel protocol intended for wireless health monitoring (WhMAC. WhMAC is a TDMA-based protocol with very low power consumption. It utilises WBAN-specific features and a novel ultra low power wake up receiver technology, to achieve flexible and at the same time very low power wireless data transfer of physiological signals. As the main application is in the medical domain, or personal health monitoring, the protocol caters for different types of medical sensors. We define four sensor modes, in which the sensors can transmit data, depending on the sensor type and emergency level. A full power dissipation model is provided for the protocol, with individual hardware and application parameters. Finally, an example application shows the reduction in the power consumption for different data monitoring scenarios.

Emanuel Popovici

2012-06-01

92

Recent developments and object-oriented approach in FTU database  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the last two years, the experimental database of Frascati Tokamak Upgrade (FTU) has been changed from several points of view, particularly: (i) the data and the analysis codes have been moved from the IBM main frame to Unix platforms making enabling the users to take advantage of the large quantities of commercial and free software available under Unix (Matlab, IDL, etc); (ii) AFS (Andrew File System) has been chosen as the distributed file system making the data available on all the nodes and distributing the workload; (iii) 'One measure/one file' philosophy (vs. the previous 'one pulse/one file') has been adopted increasing the number of files into the database but, at the same time, allowing the most important data to be available just after the plasma discharge. The client-server architecture has been tested using the signal viewer client jScope. Moreover, an object oriented data model (OODM) of FTU experimental data has been tried: a generalized model in tokamak experimental data has been developed with typical concepts such as abstraction, encapsulation, inheritance, and polymorphism. The model has been integrated with data coming from different databases, building an Object Warehouse to extract, with data mining techniques, meaningful trends and patterns from huge amounts of data

93

Teaching community-oriented primary care (COPC): a practical approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

To improve education in community-oriented primary care (COPC) and to promote its practice in the community, the University of California's School of Public Health in Berkeley and School of Medicine in San Francisco are collaborating in an innovative program in cooperation with several federally-funded community clinics in the San Francisco Bay Area. The School of Public Health designed a COPC track for graduate public health students from various departments of the school who wished to work in community health care. The track includes a seminar given in the spring of the students' first year in which COPC theory is taught and teams of students working with a faculty advisor and a clinic preceptor design COPC projects for the primary care sites. These projects are then implemented in the summer and fall by students who elect to use this experience to satisfy their fieldwork requirement. This paper is a report of the first year's experience with this collaborative effort. PMID:3793967

Osborn, E H; Hearst, N; Lashof, J C; Smith, W M

1986-01-01

94

Framing design research for service orientation through PSS approaches  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In order to respond to the industrial trend towards service design and delivery, design research must address a vast area partially related to value creation, marketing and network theories. However, compared to the space to be explored, there is little insight available. Thus, this paper, as a first step, proposes a way to frame such design research. First, an extensive literature review is performed of over 100 articles on not only PSS-design research but also on related research in fields as PSS in general, service design, innovation, and business models in a broad view. Based on the literature analysis, the authors present three crucial dimensions for service oriented design research, i.e. an offer dimension representing products and services, a provider dimension, and a customer/user dimension. In addition, three research targets are proposed; PSS-offer modelling, PSS development, and PSS potential. Furthermore, several promising future research directions are identified. These include evaluating economic consequences or environmental benefits, establishing terminology, organizational issues, and developing methods and tools to support designers. The boundaries to other research fields are getting blurry and many aspects of other professionalisms must be taken into account. Thus, there is especially need in future research to open towards other research areas.

Sakao, Tomohiko; Sandström, Gunilla Ölundh

2009-01-01

95

Object-oriented approach for gas turbine engine simulation  

Science.gov (United States)

An object-oriented gas turbine engine simulation program was developed. This program is a prototype for a more complete, commercial grade engine performance program now being proposed as part of the Numerical Propulsion System Simulator (NPSS). This report discusses architectural issues of this complex software system and the lessons learned from developing the prototype code. The prototype code is a fully functional, general purpose engine simulation program, however, only the component models necessary to model a transient compressor test rig have been written. The production system will be capable of steady state and transient modeling of almost any turbine engine configuration. Chief among the architectural considerations for this code was the framework in which the various software modules will interact. These modules include the equation solver, simulation code, data model, event handler, and user interface. Also documented in this report is the component based design of the simulation module and the inter-component communication paradigm. Object class hierarchies for some of the code modules are given.

Curlett, Brian P.; Felder, James L.

1995-01-01

96

A risk-based, value-oriented approach to quality requirements  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Quality requirements, i.e. those requirements that pertain to a system's quality attributes, are traditionally regarded to be useful only when they are represented quantitatively so that they can be measured. This article presents a value-oriented approach to specifying quality requirements that deviates from the classic approach. This approach uses a broad range of potential representations that are selected on the basis of risk assessment. Requirements engineers select a quality requirement...

Glinz, M.

2008-01-01

97

Service-oriented Software Development and Management: A CASE Tool-based Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to realize Service-Oriented Architecture  (SOA with Web Services (WSs, a new engineering  approach is required; we refer to it as Service-Oriented  Software Engineering (SOSE. This approach would sketch  out a method, including a process, models, languages, tools,  and notations. It encompasses three dimensions: (i services,  (ii compositions, and (iii management of both services and  compositions. The existing methods have not considered the  three perspectives neither they have considered how these  perspectives can be achieved together through a  comprehensive approach. This paper presents an  architecture, a specification, and an implementation of a  CASE tool for developing and managing Service-Oriented  Software (SOS. The CASE implements: (1 a metadata that  represents WSs from four perspectives: description,  deployment platforms, legacy systems, and composite  software, and (2 a set of management artifacts built on top  of the metadata. The metadata is implemented as repository,  the core component of the CASE tool architecture.

Youcef Baghdadi

2012-11-01

98

A Christian educational perspective on the process oriented approach to intrinsic motivation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Within the classroom context, albeit school or university, intrinsic motivation can effectively be described and changed if a process-oriented approach is employed. The question is posed whether a process-oriented approach to motivation is acceptable to Christian education. To answer this question, intrinsic motivation and the process-oriented approach to motivation are described. A Christian view of self-knowledge and control, which are the main components of a process-oricnted approach to motivation, is subsequently given and the process-oriented approach to motivation is subjected to a Christian evaluation. The conclusions are drawn that this approach can fruitfully be used in Christian education, given that self-knowledge and control arc interpreted within the context of the concept of the student as God’s representative on earth and the fact that God equipped him adequately with cognitive, affective and conative abilities to respond to His call to discover, develop and rule the earth actively.

Mechaéla Scott

1992-03-01

99

Identifying Low-Effort Examinees on Student Learning Outcomes Assessment: A Comparison of Two Approaches  

Science.gov (United States)

This chapter describes a study that compares two approaches (self-reported effort [SRE] and response time effort [RTE]) for identifying low-effort examinees in student learning outcomes assessment. Although both approaches equally discriminated from measures of ability (e.g., SAT scores), RTE was found to have a stronger relationship with test…

Rios, Joseph A.; Liu, Ou Lydia; Bridgeman, Brent

2014-01-01

100

The DPSIR Framework and a Pressure-Oriented Water Quality Monitoring Approach to Ecological River Restoration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Without monitoring anthropogenic pressures on the water environment, it is difficult to set realistic river restoration targets in relation to water quality. Therefore a more holistic approach is needed to systematically explore the links between socio-economic drivers and observed water quality-related impacts on river ecosystems. Using the DPSIR (Drivers-Pressures-State of the Environment-Impacts-Responses framework, this study linked ecological river restoration with the socio-economic sector, with the focus on promoting a pressure-oriented water quality monitoring system. Based on the European Water Framework Directive (WFD and relevant literature, it was found that most water quality-related indicators employed today are state/impacts-oriented, while very few are pressure-oriented. As a response, we call for more attention to a DPR (Drivers-Pressures-Responses framework in developing an industrial ecology-based pressure-oriented water quality monitoring system for aiding ecological river restoration planning. This approach is characterized in general by accounting for material-related flows throughout the socio-economic sector in relation to river ecosystem degradation. Then the obtained information would help decision makers take appropriate measures to alleviate various significant human-induced wastes and emissions at their sources. We believe that such a pressure-oriented monitoring system will substantially complement traditional state/impacts-oriented environmental and ecological monitoring and help develop more proactive planning and decision-making processes for specific river restoration projects and general water quality management.

Björn Frostell

2012-09-01

 
 
 
 
101

Teenage Pregnancy Prevention and Adolescents' Sexual Outcomes: An Experiential Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

This study evaluates the effectiveness of an experiential approach to teen pregnancy (TP) prevention called "Baby Think It Over," a computerized infant simulator, on adolescents' attitudes and behaviors regarding teen pregnancy and sexuality. Recently, a more realistic model called "Real Care Baby" was developed. The small amount of research on…

Somers, Cheryl L.

2006-01-01

102

An object-oriented approach to site characterization decision support  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effective decision support for site characterization is key to determining the nature and extent of contamination and the associated human and environmental risks. Site characterization data, however, present particular problems to technical analysts and decision-makers. Such data are four dimensional, incorporating temporal and spatial components. Their sheer volume can be daunting -- sites with hundreds of monitoring wells and thousands of samples sent for laboratory analyses are not uncommon. Data are derived from a variety of sources including laboratory analyses, non-intrusive geophysical surveys, historical information, bore logs, in-field estimates of key physical parameters such as aquifer transmissivity, soil moisture content, depth-to-water table, etc. Ultimately, decisions have to be made based on data that are always incomplete, often confusing, inaccurate, or inappropriate, and occasionally wrong. In response to this challenge, two approaches to environmental decision support have arisen, Data Quality Objectives (DQOS) and the Observational Approach (OA). DQOs establish criteria for data collection by clearly defining the decisions that need to be made, the uncertainty that can be tolerated, and the type and amount of data that needs to be collected to satisfy the uncertainty requirements. In practice, DQOs are typically based on statistical measures. The OA accepts the fact that the process of characterizing and remediating contaminated sites is always uncertain. Decision-making with the OA is based on what is known about a site, with contingencies developed for potential future deviations from the original assumptions about contamination nature, extent, and risks posed

103

Computer-oriented approach to fault-tree construction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A methodology for systematically constructing fault trees for general complex systems is developed and applied, via the Computer Automated Tree (CAT) program, to several systems. A means of representing component behavior by decision tables is presented. The method developed allows the modeling of components with various combinations of electrical, fluid and mechanical inputs and outputs. Each component can have multiple internal failure mechanisms which combine with the states of the inputs to produce the appropriate output states. The generality of this approach allows not only the modeling of hardware, but human actions and interactions as well. A procedure for constructing and editing fault trees, either manually or by computer, is described. The techniques employed result in a complete fault tree, in standard form, suitable for analysis by current computer codes. Methods of describing the system, defining boundary conditions and specifying complex TOP events are developed in order to set up the initial configuration for which the fault tree is to be constructed. The approach used allows rapid modifications of the decision tables and systems to facilitate the analysis and comparison of various refinements and changes in the system configuration and component modeling

104

Regional Blockade of the Shoulder: Approaches and Outcomes  

Science.gov (United States)

The article reviews the current literature regarding shoulder anesthesia and analgesia. Techniques and outcomes are presented that summarize our present understanding of regional anesthesia for the shoulder. Shoulder procedures producing mild to moderate pain may be managed with a single-injection interscalene block. However, studies support that moderate to severe pain, lasting for several days is best managed with a continuous interscalene block. This may cause increased extremity numbness, but will provide greater analgesia, reduce supplemental opioid consumption, improve sleep quality and patient satisfaction. In comparison to the nerve stimulation technique, ultrasound can reduce the volume of local anesthetic needed to produce an effective interscalene block. However, it has not been shown that ultrasound offers a definitive benefit in preventing major complications. The evidence indicates that the suprascapular and/or axillary nerve blocks are not as effective as an interscalene block. However in patients who are not candidates for the interscalene block, these blocks may provide a useful alternative for short-term pain relief. There is substantial evidence showing that subacromial and intra-articular injections provide little clinical benefit for postoperative analgesia. Given that these injections may be associated with irreversible chondrotoxicity, the injections are not presently recommended. PMID:22792099

Bowens, Clifford; Sripada, Ramprasad

2012-01-01

105

Electron-impact ionization of oriented molecules using the time-dependent close-coupling approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An overview is given on recent progress on computing triple differential cross sections for electron-impact ionization of the hydrogen molecule using a time-dependent close-coupling approach. Our calculations, when averaged over all molecular orientations, are generally in very good agreement with (e,2e) measurements made on H{sub 2}, where the molecular orientation is unknown, for a range of incident energies and outgoing electron angles and energies. In this paper, we present TDCS for ionization of H{sub 2} at specific molecular orientations. It is hoped that this study will help stimulate future measurements of TDCS from oriented H{sub 2} at medium impact energies.

Colgan, J [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Pindzola, M S, E-mail: jcolgan@lanl.gov [Department of Physics, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States)

2011-04-01

106

A collaborative learning approach for service-oriented introductory physics  

Science.gov (United States)

I have taught algebra-based introductory physics for six years to liberal arts students. It was primarily a service course for students majoring in Athletic Training, Physical Therapy, Geology, Biology, and Pre-Med. The typical student was characterized by having a minimal math and problem-solving proficiency. There also was a pattern of students being predisposed to memorizing facts and formulas, and attempting to solve problems by finding the correct formula and "plugging in" numbers to get an answer. The students seemed to have a minimal ability in deductive reasoning and problem solving, starting from basic principles. It is no wonder that they entered the introductory physics service course with extreme trepidation, based upon a strongly perceived physics phobia. A standard lecture format was used for the class size of approximately 25-30 students; and an attempt was always made to engage the students through the Socratic approach, by asking leading questions during the course of the lecture. The students were relatively unprepared and couldn't participate in the class, and often responded antagonistically. They indicated they didn't want to be asked to think about an issue, but would rather just be told the facts so they could take specific notes for subsequent memorization. It was clear from the results of the open book exams given during the semester that the majority of students could not approach problem solving using deductive reasoning based on basic principles, but relied on attempting to force-fit the problem into a worked example in the text (often out of context, with illogical results). The absentee rate in the classroom was usually around 30-40%. The academic administration of my liberal arts university has the policy of formal course evaluations by the students at the end of each semester. The evaluation questionnaire appears to be primarily a measurement of the stress level of the student during the course, and the evaluation score I received for the service physics course was typically on the order of 3 out of a possible 5; a score considered unsatisfactory by the administration.

Smith, Michael R.

1997-03-01

107

Compilation and synthesis for embedded reconfigurable systems an aspect-oriented approach  

CERN Document Server

This book provides techniques to tackle the design challenges raised by the increasing diversity and complexity of emerging, heterogeneous architectures for embedded systems. It describes an approach based on techniques from software engineering called aspect-oriented programming, which allow designers to control today’s sophisticated design tool chains, while maintaining a single application source code.  Readers are introduced to the basic concepts of an aspect-oriented, domain specific language that enables control of a wide range of compilation and synthesis tools in the partitioning and mapping of an application to a heterogeneous (and possibly multi-core) target architecture.  Several examples are presented that illustrate the benefits of the approach developed for applications from avionics and digital signal processing. Using the aspect-oriented programming techniques presented in this book, developers can reuse extensive sections of their designs, while preserving the original application source-...

Diniz, Pedro; Coutinho, José; Petrov, Zlatko

2013-01-01

108

Integrative Educational Approach Oriented Towards Software and System Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper is based on our academic teaching and research work in software and system engineering to effectively develop modern, complex real-life Web application systems. It bridges the gap between academic education and industry needs and illustrates how such collaboration can be successfully developed in the IT area where technology development is rapid. Its scope covers the processes, models, technologies, people, and knowledge that have the capability to contribute to developing such systems. The paper also relates to contributions of some of Harlan D. Mills award recipients for software engineering achievement, to address the needs to: i improve the engineering education in an academic setting, and ii develop real-life software and system projects. Hybrid educational methods are applied for student learning that combine class room approach of teaching fundamental theoretical concepts and practice via real world complex projects embedding intelligence in software and systems products. System thinking demanded by modern design philosophies is applied to interlink prod-ucts, software, and people. Student groups are developing their projects in an interactive and collaborative manner.

Anca Juliana Stoica

2013-01-01

109

Project Management, Critical Praxis, and Process-Oriented Approach to Teamwork  

Science.gov (United States)

To help alleviate issues of free-riding and conflicts in team projects, this study proposes the systematic incorporation of project management methods to introduce a process-oriented approach to and a critical praxis in team projects. We examined how the systematic use of project management methods influenced students' performance in team…

Ding, Huiling; Ding, Xin

2008-01-01

110

Design Patterns as Quality Influencing Factor in Object Oriented Design Approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Object Oriented Design methodology is an emerging software development approach for complex systems with huge set of requirements. Unlike procedural approach, it captures the requirements as a set of data rather than services, encapsulated as a single entity. The success such a project relies on major factors like design patterns framework, key principles, metric standards and best practices adapted by the industry. The patterns are key structures for recursive problem bits ...

S, Poornima U.; V, Suma; H, Vasanth Kumar

2014-01-01

111

Trajectory-Oriented Approach to Managing Traffic Complexity: Operational Concept and Preliminary Metrics Definition  

Science.gov (United States)

This document describes preliminary research on a distributed, trajectory-oriented approach for traffic complexity management. The approach is to manage traffic complexity in a distributed control environment, based on preserving trajectory flexibility and minimizing constraints. In particular, the document presents an analytical framework to study trajectory flexibility and the impact of trajectory constraints on it. The document proposes preliminary flexibility metrics that can be interpreted and measured within the framework.

Idris, Husni; Vivona, Robert; Garcia-Chico, Jose L.

2008-01-01

112

A transdisciplinary, participatory and action-oriented research approach: Sounds nice but what do you mean?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper discusses transdisciplinary, participatory and action-oriented approaches to research on urbansustainable development. Phronetic planning research, as described by Bent Flyvberg (2004), is highlighted as one interesting approach which combines many of the general themes here dealt with. A special section is devoted to discuss quality criteria of transdisciplinary research. The paper is written as a background to a thesis in progress on Malmö and urban sustainable development.

Andre?n, Sabina

2010-01-01

113

An exploration of FMCDM approach for evaluating the outcome/success of GSD projects  

Science.gov (United States)

This study presents a fuzzy multi-criteria decision making (FMCDM) approach for analyzing the influential factors affecting the outcome/success of global software development (GSD) projects. The main aim of this study is to demonstrate the potential of proposed methodology based on FMCDM which is used to measure the offshore/onsite teams' partnership quality dimensions and underlying the influential factors towards the outcome of GSD projects. The uncertainty and subjective vagueness within the decision making process are dealing with fuzzy linguistic terms quantified in an interval scale [0,1]. The proposed FMDCM framework is used to determine the priority weights of partnership quality factors and rating the GSD project outcome/success from the service provider perspective into three dimensions: service quality, schedule and cost improvement. The predicted GSD project outcome values are obtained to facilitate organization and to determine the impact of offshore/on-site teams' partnership quality towards success of GSD project outcome otherwise initiate actions to improve the GSD project outcome. This study established survey research method that involves thirty-eight critical influential factors evaluated by twenty software professionals for their assessment of GSD projects outcome in India.

Sangaiah, Arun Kumar; Thangavelu, Arun Kumar

2013-09-01

114

The Growth of a Family: A family-oriented approach to pregnancy care  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Caring for a family during pregnancy and birth is an ideal opportunity for family physicians to assess family functioning and help the family adjust to the birth of a new child. Stress and support systems can influence the course of pregnancy, including obstetric and perinatal outcomes. A family-centered approach can help patients during this critical stage of family development.

Carroll, June C.; Biringer, Anne

1991-01-01

115

A unified approach to feature-centric analysis of object-oriented software  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Feature-centric comprehension of software is a prerequisite to incorporating modifications requested by users during software evolution and maintenance. However, feature-centric understanding of large object-oriented programs is difficult to achieve due to size, complexity and implicit cha-racter of mappings between features and source code. In this paper, we address these issues through our unified approach to feature-centric analysis of object-oriented software. Our approach supports discovery of feature-code traceability links and their analysis from three perspectives and at three levels of abstraction. We further improve scalability of analysis by partitioning features into canonical groups. To demonstrate feasibility our approach, we use our NetBeans-integrated tool Featureous for conducting a case study of feature-centric analysis of the JHotDraw project. Lastly, we discuss how Featureous supports program comprehension by means of concrete cognitive design elements.

Olszak, Andrzej; JØrgensen, Bo NØrregaard

2010-01-01

116

Primary Hyperparathyroidism in Older People: Surgical Treatment with Minimally Invasive Approaches and Outcome  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction. Elderly patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) are often not referred to surgery because of their associated comorbidities that may increase surgical risk. The aim of the study was to review indications and results of minimally invasive approach parathyroidectomy in elderly patients to evaluate its impact on outcome. Materials and Methods. All patients of 70 years of age or older undergoing minimally approach parathyroidectomy at our Department from May 2005 to May 201...

Nicolò de Manzini; Marta Silvestri; Chiara Dobrinja

2012-01-01

117

Using the Outcome-Driven Innovation Approach to Develop a Customer Value Model for Lighting  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

LED technology is on the cusp of disrupting the entire lighting industry if the industry can develop new lighting products that customers will want to use and purchase. Understanding what customers value from their lighting products is an open question for the industry. To answer this question and to provide a deeper understanding of customer’s needs, I have applied the outcome driven innovation approach. Through this approach the customer value model was developed, which identifies custome...

Dalton, Nonie

2012-01-01

118

Determinants of Learning Outcome for Students at High School in Norway: A Constructivist Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

A vital part of student learning is the construction of mental structures encompassing categories believed to affect learning outcome. In this study we investigate this research question through the lenses of a constructivist approach. As the first study on our research question at high school in Norway, our empirical findings make up the main…

Okland, Gunnar Magne

2012-01-01

119

Amorphization/templated recrystallization method for changing the orientation of single-crystal silicon: An alternative approach to hybrid orientation substrates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We demonstrate that the crystal orientation of single-crystal silicon layers may be changed in selected areas from one orientation to another by an amorphization/templated recrystallization (ATR) process, and then introduce ATR as an alternative approach for fabricating planar hybrid orientation substrates with surface regions of (100)- and (110)-oriented Si. The ATR technique, applied to a starting substrate comprising a thin (50-200 nm) overlayer of (100) or (110) Si on a (110) or (100) Si handle wafer, consists of two process steps: (i) Si+ or Ge+ ion implantation to create an amorphous silicon (a-Si) layer extending from the top of the overlayer to a depth below the overlayer/handle wafer interface, and (ii) a thermal anneal to produce the handle-wafer-templated epitaxial recrystallization of the a-Si layer. Regions exposed to the ATR process assume the orientation of the handle wafer while regions not exposed to the ATR process retain their original orientation. The practicality of this approach is demonstrated with the fabrication of a planar hybrid orientation substrate comprising (100) and (110) Si regions separated by SiO2-filled trenches

120

Outcome of Open Transcortical Approach in the Management of Intraventricular Lesions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To evaluate the outcome of management of intraventricular lesions operated by an open transcortical (nonendoscopic) approach. Study Design: Case series. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Neurosurgery, Dow University of Health Sciences and Civil Hospital, Karachi, from January 2009 to December 2011, with six months follow-up. Methodology: All cases with lesions in the lateral ventricle and anterior third ventricle operated by open transcortical approach, were included after informed consent. Total excision of the lesion was attempted in all cases. Patients were analyzed for outcome in terms of establishment of diagnosis, completeness of resection, morbidity and mortality. Results: A total of 33 patients were operated. Twenty three were males and 10 were females. Colloid cyst was diagnosed in 14 patients (42%), giant cell astrocytoma and choroid plexus papilloma in 4 cases each and subependymoma and central neurocytoma in 2 cases each, epidermoid, choroid plexus carcinoma, oligodendroglioma, metastasis, meningioma, ependymoma and cavernous hemangioma in one patient each. The overall outcome could be labeled as good in 24 out of 33 cases (73%) and in 8 cases (24%) it was fair. One patient died due to ventriculitis and was categorized as poor outcome (3%). Postoperative complications included meningitis, seizures, intraventicular haemorrhage, subdural collection and transient hemiparesis. Nine patients had persistent hydrocephalus requiring ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Conclusion: Conventional open transcortical approach is still effective in getting conclusive biopsy or near total excision of the lesion with minimum morbidity. (author)

 
 
 
 
121

Global processing fosters donations toward charity appeals framed in an approach orientation.  

Science.gov (United States)

People are often influenced by how persuasive appeals are framed. While decisions and preferences seem dependent on the effects of a fit between one's regulatory focus and the motivational orientation of a message, specific cognitive mechanisms involved are not yet clear. This study investigated how perceptual processing styles (global vs local) linked with the scope of attention (broad vs narrow) influence decisions depending on motivation-dependent framing (approach vs avoidance). We found that a global processing style fits approach-oriented message appeals and fosters monetary allocation toward charities framed in eager motivational terms. We discuss implications of the findings on processing styles in relation to affective versus deliberate modes of processing and the need to address in detail the role of attentional scope-dependent processing styles in decision making. PMID:24442836

Mukherjee, Sumitava; Srinivasan, Narayanan; Manjaly, Jaison A

2014-08-01

122

Query Data with Fuzzy Information in Object-Oriented Databases an Approach Interval Values  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, we propose methods of handling attributive values of object classes in object oriented database with fuzzy information and uncertainty based on quantitatively semantics based hedge algebraic. In this approach we consider to attributive values (as well as methods) object class is interval values and the interval values are converted into sub interval in [0, 1] respectively. That its the fuzziness of the elements in the hedge algebra is also sub interval in [0,1]. So, we present ...

Doan Van Thang; Doan Van Ban

2011-01-01

123

An algebra for structured documents in the context of the object-oriented approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this paper consists in defining an algebra allowing the request of structured documents in the context of object oriented approach. The operators of this algebra are defined in conformity with the concepts of the object model. It takes into consideration not only the embedding of structures and links between them, but also the informational aspect of the document as well as its structural aspect. The operands of the proposed algebra are only one type: they are subdatabases. A subda...

Schwer, Sylviane; Hamza, Haider; Flory, Andre?

1999-01-01

124

A psychotherapeutic approach to task-oriented groups of severely ill patients.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents a conceptual approach for leading various types of groups of chronically mentally ill patients. Although these groups may have a concrete, task-oriented purpose, with skillful leadership they also function as psychotherapy groups. The developmental deficits in ego functions, object relations, and social skills that severely impair such groups can be compensated by non-interpretative actions of the therapists. The group leader must actively work to provide for the structure...

Wilson, W. H.; Diamond, R. J.; Factor, R. M.

1985-01-01

125

A Template-driven Approach for Maintainable Service-oriented Information Systems Integration  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Service-oriented architecture (SOA) is currently the predominant software integration framework. Web services provide the predominant platform for SOA. SOA as an integration architecture solution supports a range of application scenarios. We present a solution for the integration of business information systems based on SOA and Web services. We discuss maintainability requirements in relation to information-specific integration and architecture aspects. A template-based approach based on modu...

Pahl, Claus; Zhu, Yaoling; Gacitua-decar, Veronica

2009-01-01

126

The Influence of Game Features on Collaborative Gaming: A Process-oriented approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Game technology and design are creating powerful collaborative gaming experiences that can be exploited pedagogically. Building on a research trends from various fields, a process-oriented model is adopted to evaluate the instructional potential of games, considering both their surface and deep structure. Two experimental approaches are adopted. Through reflective evaluation the Neurocognitive skills employed, ‘Perceived Competence Facilitation' and ‘Perceived usefulness' of games are det...

Bonanno, Philip

2007-01-01

127

Client-Oriented Approach to Managing Marketing Interaction of a Hotel ?????????????????????? ?????? ? ?????????? ????????????? ??????????????? ?????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The goal of the article lies in development of the system of management of relations in the market of hotel services on the basis of the client-oriented approach to managing marketing interaction. On the basis of systematisation of scientific works of scientists on marketing of services and relations between producers and consumers the article offers a model of interaction of a hotel with consumers of hotel services, builds up a context diagram of the process of interaction, provides a decomp...

Pavlenko Iryna G.

2013-01-01

128

Can Rational Prescribing Be Improved by an Outcome-Based Educational Approach? A Randomized Trial Completed in Iran  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction: An outcome-based education approach has been proposed to develop more effective continuing medical education (CME) programs. We have used this approach in developing an outcome-based educational intervention for general physicians working in primary care (GPs) and evaluated its effectiveness compared with a concurrent CME program in…

Esmaily, Hamideh M.; Silver, Ivan; Shiva, Shadi; Gargani, Alireza; Maleki-Dizaji, Nasrin; Al-Maniri, Abdullah; Wahlstrom, Rolf

2010-01-01

129

Members Matter in Team Training: Multilevel and Longitudinal Relationships between Goal Orientation, Self-Regulation, and Team Outcomes  

Science.gov (United States)

Longitudinal data from 338 individuals across 64 teams in a simulation-based team-training context were used to examine the effects of dispositional goal orientation on self-regulated learning (self-efficacy and metacognition). Team goal orientation compositions, as reflected by average goal orientations of team members, were examined for…

Dierdorff, Erich C.; Ellington, J. Kemp

2012-01-01

130

A new approach to texture measurements: Orientation distribution function (ODF) determination by Rietveld refinement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The preferred orientation of crystal grains within a manufactured part is described most fully by its orientation distribution function (ODF), which is a mapping of the probability of each of the possible grain orientations with respect to the exterior dimensions. Traditionally, an ODF is determined from pole figures for a relatively small number of reflections. These pole figures are measured with x-rays or neutrons using short detector scans over the center of an individual diffraction peak for a large number of different sample orientations. This is efficient if the selected diffraction peaks are reasonably strong (relative to background) and well separated, such as in pure fcc and bcc metals. It is also appropriate for constant wavelength sources where collection of individual diffraction peak intensities is a reasonably efficient use of the source. However, the traditional method is not very efficient for neutron diffraction at a spallation source such as LANSCE where the entire diffraction pattern is accessible for each sample setting. Moreover, a different approach is necessary for complicated diffraction patterns, such as from composite materials, intermetallic compounds, high Tc ceramics, polyphasic minerals and polymers where there is expected to be heavy overlap of adjacent diffraction peaks. In addition, the large number of settings normally collected for an individual pole figure may not be necessary, since the entire pattern is obtained at each setting. Thus, a new method of ODF analysis needs to be developed to handle the more complex diffraction patterns obtained from modern technological materials as well as take advantage of the particular characteristics of spallation neutron sources. This project sought to develop the experimental procedures and the mathematical treatment needed to produce an orientation distribution function (ODF) directly from full diffraction patterns from a sample in a limited number of orientations

131

A Bayesian approach for instrumental variable analysis with censored time-to-event outcome.  

Science.gov (United States)

Instrumental variable (IV) analysis has been widely used in economics, epidemiology, and other fields to estimate the causal effects of covariates on outcomes, in the presence of unobserved confounders and/or measurement errors in covariates. However, IV methods for time-to-event outcome with censored data remain underdeveloped. This paper proposes a Bayesian approach for IV analysis with censored time-to-event outcome by using a two-stage linear model. A Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling method is developed for parameter estimation for both normal and non-normal linear models with elliptically contoured error distributions. The performance of our method is examined by simulation studies. Our method largely reduces bias and greatly improves coverage probability of the estimated causal effect, compared with the method that ignores the unobserved confounders and measurement errors. We illustrate our method on the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study and the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25393617

Li, Gang; Lu, Xuyang

2015-02-20

132

Creating a Novel Video Vignette Stroke Preparedness Outcome Measure Using a Community-Based Participatory Approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Evaluating the efficacy of behavioral interventions for rare outcomes is a challenge. One such topic is stroke preparedness, defined as inteventions to increase stroke symptom recognition and behavioral intent to call 911. Current stroke preparedness intermediate outcome measures are centered on written vignettes or open-ended questions and have been shown to poorly reflect actual behavior. Given that stroke identification and action requires aural and visual processing, video vignettes may improve on current measures. This article discusses an approach for creating a novel stroke preparedness video vignette intermediate outcome measure within a community-based participatory research partnership. A total of 20 video vignettes were filmed of which 13 were unambiguous (stroke or not stroke) as determined by stroke experts and had test discrimination among community participants. Acceptable reliability, high satisfaction, and cultural relevance were found among the 14 community respondents. A community-based participatory approach was effective in creating a video vignette intermediate outcome. Future projects should consider obtaining expert and community feedback prior to filming all the video vignettes to improve the proportion of vignettes that are usable. While content validity and preliminary reliability were established, future studies are needed to confirm the reliability and establish construct validity. PMID:25367896

Skolarus, Lesli E; Murphy, Jillian B; Dome, Mackenzie; Zimmerman, Marc A; Bailey, Sarah; Fowlkes, Sophronia; Morgenstern, Lewis B

2014-11-01

133

Relations between student perceptions of assessment authenticity, study approaches and learning outcome  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article examines the relationships between perceptions of authenticity and alignment on study approach and learning outcome. Senior students of a vocational training program performed an authentic assessment and filled in a questionnaire about the authenticity of various assessment characteristics and the alignment between the assessment and the instruction. Deep or surface study activities and the development of transferable generic skills were measured with a questionnaire as well. Cor...

Gulikers, J. T. M.; Bastiaens, Th J.; Kirschner, P. A.; Kester, L.

2006-01-01

134

Exploring feature-based approaches in PET images for predicting cancer treatment outcomes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Accumulating evidence suggests that characteristics of pre-treatment FDG-PET could be used as prognostic factors to predict outcomes in different cancer sites. Current risk analyses are limited to visual assessment or direct uptake value measurements. We are investigating intensity-volume histogram metrics and shape and texture features extracted from PET images to predict patient's response to treatment. These approaches were demonstrated using datasets from cervix and head and neck cancers,...

El Naqa, I.; Grigsby, P.; Apte, A.; Kidd, E.; Donnelly, E.; Khullar, D.; Chaudhari, S.; Yang, D.; Schmitt, M.; Laforest, Richard; Thorstad, W.; Deasy, J. O.

2009-01-01

135

Machine Learning Approach for the Outcome Prediction of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Surgery  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Epilepsy surgery is effective in reducing both the number and frequency of seizures, particularly in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Nevertheless, a significant proportion of these patients continue suffering seizures after surgery. Here we used a machine learning approach to predict the outcome of epilepsy surgery based on supervised classification data mining taking into account not only the common clinical variables, but also pathological and neuropsychological evaluations. We have generated...

Arman?anzas, Rube?n; Alonso-nanclares, Lidia; Defelipe-oroquieta, Jesu?s; Kastanauskaite, Asta; Sola, Rafael G.; Defelipe, Javier; Bielza, Concha; Larran?aga, Pedro

2013-01-01

136

Experimental Approach for Assessing the Outcome Accuracy of Antibody Microarray Experiments  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An experimental strategy for quality control of antibody microarray analyses is proposed. The method utilizes proteins that are prepared for regular antibody microarray experiments. There is no need to use exogenous positive or negative reference markers and no need to determine the absolute concentration of each individual protein in the sample. Validation experiments support the basic principle of the proposed approach. This method can be a useful tool for assessing the outcome accuracy of ...

Gu, Qiang; Sivanandam, Thamil Mani; Haymore, Jessica

2007-01-01

137

A bootstrap approach for assessing the uncertainty of outcome probabilities when using a scoring system  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Scoring systems are a very attractive family of clinical predictive models, because the patient score can be calculated without using any data processing system. Their weakness lies in the difficulty of associating a reliable prognostic probability with each score. In this study a bootstrap approach for estimating confidence intervals of outcome probabilities is described and applied to design and optimize the performance of a scoring system for morbidity ...

Cevenini Gabriele; Barbini Paolo

2010-01-01

138

Object-oriented Approach to High-level Network Monitoring and Management  

Science.gov (United States)

An absolute prerequisite for the management of large investigating methods to build high-level monitoring computer networks is the ability to measure their systems that are built on top of existing monitoring performance. Unless we monitor a system, we cannot tools. Due to the heterogeneous nature of the hope to manage and control its performance. In this underlying systems at NASA Langley Research Center, paper, we describe a network monitoring system that we use an object-oriented approach for the design, we are currently designing and implementing. Keeping, first, we use UML (Unified Modeling Language) to in mind the complexity of the task and the required model users' requirements. Second, we identify the flexibility for future changes, we use an object-oriented existing capabilities of the underlying monitoring design methodology. The system is built using the system. Third, we try to map the former with the latter. APIs offered by the HP OpenView system.

Mukkamala, Ravi

2000-01-01

139

Statistical Approach for Predicting Factors of Mood Method for Object Oriented  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Object oriented design is becoming more popular in software development and object oriented design metrics which is an essential part of software environment. The main goal in this paper is to predict factors of MOOD method for OO using a statistical approach. Therefore, linear regression model is used to find the relationship between factors of MOOD method and their influences on OO software measurements. Fortunately, through this process a prediction could be made for the line of code (LOC, number of classes (NOC, number of methods (NOM, and number of attributes (NOA. These measurements permit designers to access the software early in process, making changes that will reduce complexity and improve the continuing capability of the design.

Firas Ajil Jassim

2013-01-01

140

Endoscopic endonasal transclival approaches: case series and outcomes for different clival regions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective?Transclival endoscopic endonasal approaches to the skull base are novel with few published cases. We report our institution's experience with this technique and discuss outcomes according to the clival region involved. Design?Retrospective case series. Setting?Tertiary care academic medical center Participants?All patients who underwent endoscopic endonasal transclival approaches for skull base lesions from 2008 to 2012. Main Outcome Measures?Pathologies encountered, mean intraoperative time, intraoperative complications, gross total resection, intraoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak, postoperative CSF leak, postoperative complications, and postoperative clinical course. Results?A total of 49 patients underwent 55 endoscopic endonasal transclival approaches. Pathology included 43 benign and 12 malignant lesions. Mean follow-up was 15.4 months. Mean operative time was 167.9 minutes, with one patient experiencing an intraoperative internal carotid artery injury. Of the 15 cases with intraoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks, 1 developed postoperative CSF leak (6.7%). There were six other postoperative complications: four systemic complications, one case of meningitis, and one retropharyngeal abscess. Gross total resection was achieved for all malignancies approached with curative intent. Conclusions?This study provides evidence that endoscopic endonasal transclival approaches are a safe and effective strategy for the surgical management of a variety of benign and malignant lesions. Level of Evidence?4. PMID:25093148

Little, Ryan E; Taylor, Robert J; Miller, Justin D; Ambrose, Emily C; Germanwala, Anand V; Sasaki-Adams, Deanna M; Ewend, Matthew G; Zanation, Adam M

2014-08-01

 
 
 
 
141

Handwriting Verification : An Approach to Verify Handwriting Using Feature Extraction of Orientation and Curvature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The writer identification task lies in the definition of a feature space common to all the handwritten documents. In this study we have extended this principle to the whole document database Identifying handwritten documents is a herculuies task. This paper consists approach used to identify an individual writer’s handwriting by extracting features of orientation , curvature and width of characters. It is the approach to study individual’s characteristics . In this approach we train the classifier with sample words from an writer . Classifier identifies the trainned samples and displays writer’s name present in database otherwise it displays that writer’s name who writing stlye matches to the sample.

V Swetha D. Rao

2014-05-01

142

A Knowledge-Based System Approach for Extracting Abstractions from Service Oriented Architecture Artifacts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rule-based methods have traditionally been applied to develop knowledge-based systems that replicate expert performance on a deep but narrow problem domain. Knowledge engineers capture expert knowledge and encode it as a set of rules for automating the expert’s reasoning process to solve problems in a variety of domains. We describe the development of a knowledge-based system approach to enhance program comprehension of Service Oriented Architecture (SOA software. Our approach uses rule-based methods to automate the analysis of the set of artifacts involved in building and deploying a SOA composite application. The rules codify expert knowledge to abstract information from these artifacts to facilitate program comprehension and thus assist Software Engineers as they perform system maintenance activities. A main advantage of the knowledge-based approach is its adaptability to the heterogeneous and dynamically evolving nature of SOA environments.

George Goehring

2013-03-01

143

A goal-oriented adaptive finite-element approach for plane wave 3-D electromagnetic modelling  

Science.gov (United States)

We have developed a novel goal-oriented adaptive mesh refinement approach for finite-element methods to model plane wave electromagnetic (EM) fields in 3-D earth models based on the electric field differential equation. To handle complicated models of arbitrary conductivity, magnetic permeability and dielectric permittivity involving curved boundaries and surface topography, we employ an unstructured grid approach. The electric field is approximated by linear curl-conforming shape functions which guarantee the divergence-free condition of the electric field within each tetrahedron and continuity of the tangential component of the electric field across the interior boundaries. Based on the non-zero residuals of the approximated electric field and the yet to be satisfied boundary conditions of continuity of both the normal component of the total current density and the tangential component of the magnetic field strength across the interior interfaces, three a-posterior error estimators are proposed as a means to drive the goal-oriented adaptive refinement procedure. The first a-posterior error estimator relies on a combination of the residual of the electric field, the discontinuity of the normal component of the total current density and the discontinuity of the tangential component of the magnetic field strength across the interior faces shared by tetrahedra. The second a-posterior error estimator is expressed in terms of the discontinuity of the normal component of the total current density (conduction plus displacement current). The discontinuity of the tangential component of the magnetic field forms the third a-posterior error estimator. Analytical solutions for magnetotelluric (MT) and radiomagnetotelluric (RMT) fields impinging on a homogeneous half-space model are used to test the performances of the newly developed goal-oriented algorithms using the above three a-posterior error estimators. A trapezoidal topographical model, using normally incident EM waves at both MT and RMT frequencies, is adopted to further test the convergence of the newly developed algorithms against a surface integral approach. Next, the 3D-1 benchmark model from the COMMEMI project is used to show the efficiency of the goal-oriented adaptive algorithm and to compare our solutions against volume integral solutions and other finite-element solutions. For all three test cases, we found that the error estimator using face jumps of normal components of current density embedded in the goal-oriented adaptive refinement procedure shows the most robust performance.

Ren, Zhengyong; Kalscheuer, Thomas; Greenhalgh, Stewart; Maurer, Hansruedi

2013-08-01

144

Estimating Orientation Using Magnetic and Inertial Sensors and Different Sensor Fusion Approaches: Accuracy Assessment in Manual and Locomotion Tasks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Magnetic and inertial measurement units are an emerging technology to obtain 3D orientation of body segments in human movement analysis. In this respect, sensor fusion is used to limit the drift errors resulting from the gyroscope data integration by exploiting accelerometer and magnetic aiding sensors. The present study aims at investigating the effectiveness of sensor fusion methods under different experimental conditions. Manual and locomotion tasks, differing in time duration, measurement volume, presence/absence of static phases, and out-of-plane movements, were performed by six subjects, and recorded by one unit located on the forearm or the lower trunk, respectively. Two sensor fusion methods, representative of the stochastic (Extended Kalman Filter and complementary (Non-linear observer filtering, were selected, and their accuracy was assessed in terms of attitude (pitch and roll angles and heading (yaw angle errors using stereophotogrammetric data as a reference. The sensor fusion approaches provided significantly more accurate results than gyroscope data integration. Accuracy improved mostly for heading and when the movement exhibited stationary phases, evenly distributed 3D rotations, it occurred in a small volume, and its duration was greater than approximately 20 s. These results were independent from the specific sensor fusion method used. Practice guidelines for improving the outcome accuracy are provided.

Elena Bergamini

2014-10-01

145

Artist Agent: A Reinforcement Learning Approach to Automatic Stroke Generation in Oriental Ink Painting  

Science.gov (United States)

Oriental ink painting, called Sumi-e, is one of the most appealing painting styles that has attracted artists around the world. Major challenges in computer-based Sumi-e simulation are to abstract complex scene information and draw smooth and natural brush strokes. To automatically find such strokes, we propose to model the brush as a reinforcement learning agent, and learn desired brush-trajectories by maximizing the sum of rewards in the policy search framework. We also provide elaborate design of actions, states, and rewards tailored for a Sumi-e agent. The effectiveness of our proposed approach is demonstrated through simulated Sumi-e experiments.

Xie, Ning; Hachiya, Hirotaka; Sugiyama, Masashi

146

An Object-Oriented Approach To Generate Java Code From Hierarchical-Concurrent and History States  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available UML is widely accepted and practiced in industries for modeling and design of software systems. Software requirements and design are very important parts of software development. UML State Machine diagram is an important formalism to model the dynamic behavior of the system. In this paper, we present a new approach to generate compact and efficient Java code from complex state machine involving hierarchical-concurrent states; the proposed code can be used as a Java implementation pattern for automatic code generation for an object-oriented system. The main idea of our study is using Java Enum type with attributes for implementing complex state machines.

Abidi My Abidi

2013-12-01

147

Self-oriented nanoparticles for site-selective immunoglobulin G recognition via epitope imprinting approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Molecular imprinting is a polymerization technique that provides synthetic analogs for template molecules. Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) have gained much attention due to their unique properties such as selectivity and specificity for target molecules. In this study, we focused on the development of polymeric materials with molecular recognition ability, so molecular imprinting was combined with miniemulsion polymerization to synthesize self-orienting nanoparticles through the use of an epitope imprinting approach. Thus, L-lysine imprinted nanoparticles (LMIP) were synthesized via miniemulsion polymerization technique. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) was then bound to the cavities that specifically formed for L-lysine molecules that are typically found at the C-terminus of the Fc region of antibody molecules. The resulting nanoparticles makes it possible to minimize the nonspecific interaction between monomer and template molecules. In addition, the orientation of the entire IgG molecule was controlled, and random imprinting of the IgG was prevented. The optimum conditions were determined for IgG recognition using the imprinted nanoparticles. The selectivity of the nanoparticles against IgG molecules was also evaluated using albumin and hemoglobin as competitor molecules. In order to show the self-orientation capability of imprinted nanoparticles, human serum albumin (HSA) adsorption onto both the plain nanoparticles and immobilized nanoparticles by anti-human serum albumin antibody (anti-HSA antibody) was also carried out. Due to anti-HSA antibody immobilization on the imprinted nanoparticles, the adsorption capability of nanoparticles against HSA molecules vigorously enhanced. It is proved that the oriented immobilization of antibodies was appropriately succeeded. PMID:25454659

Çorman, Mehmet Emin; Armutcu, Canan; Uzun, Lokman; Say, R?dvan; Denizli, Adil

2014-11-01

148

A bootstrap approach for assessing the uncertainty of outcome probabilities when using a scoring system  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Scoring systems are a very attractive family of clinical predictive models, because the patient score can be calculated without using any data processing system. Their weakness lies in the difficulty of associating a reliable prognostic probability with each score. In this study a bootstrap approach for estimating confidence intervals of outcome probabilities is described and applied to design and optimize the performance of a scoring system for morbidity in intensive care units after heart surgery. Methods The bias-corrected and accelerated bootstrap method was used to estimate the 95% confidence intervals of outcome probabilities associated with a scoring system. These confidence intervals were calculated for each score and each step of the scoring-system design by means of one thousand bootstrapped samples. 1090 consecutive adult patients who underwent coronary artery bypass graft were assigned at random to two groups of equal size, so as to define random training and testing sets with equal percentage morbidities. A collection of 78 preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative variables were considered as likely morbidity predictors. Results Several competing scoring systems were compared on the basis of discrimination, generalization and uncertainty associated with the prognostic probabilities. The results showed that confidence intervals corresponding to different scores often overlapped, making it convenient to unite and thus reduce the score classes. After uniting two adjacent classes, a model with six score groups not only gave a satisfactory trade-off between discrimination and generalization, but also enabled patients to be allocated to classes, most of which were characterized by well separated confidence intervals of prognostic probabilities. Conclusions Scoring systems are often designed solely on the basis of discrimination and generalization characteristics, to the detriment of prediction of a trustworthy outcome probability. The present example demonstrates that using a bootstrap method for the estimation of outcome-probability confidence intervals provides useful additional information about score-class statistics, guiding physicians towards the most convenient model for predicting morbidity outcomes in their clinical context.

Cevenini Gabriele

2010-08-01

149

From an Object-Oriented Approach to the Financial Reporting: An Open Architecture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper developed an Object-Oriented (O-O approach as an open architecture forfinancial reporting that is based on the notation Unified Modelling Language (UML and theRational Rose® tool. The O-O approach integrated into the financial reporting has interoperablebuilding financial statements that must be available to be included in any economic and financialanalysis of a corporation. The implementation of an open architecture for developing financialreporting is supported by the systems analyst work that observes and understands the generaldomain of financial reporting, as well as, input from the specialists, directors and stakeholders of the corporation. Then, with reference to the Portuguese experience, the research scope is towardsa basic structure of financial reporting whose results are applicable to any corporation. Thefurther implication of the architecture for the financial reporting is to built a prototype to answerthe market needs.

Clara Silveira

2007-09-01

150

An Object-Oriented Modeling Approach for Collaboration Management in Virtual Enterprises  

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Full Text Available For the rapid progress of Internet technologies in recent years, Electronic Commerce (EC has gained attention as a major theme for enterprises to keep their competitiveness. From the perspective of effective resources utilization, it becomes now an important group for an enterprise to promote its performance and competitiveness through integrating itself and relevant suppliers and consumer as a virtual goal to achieve the so-called Business-to- Business EC. In this paper, we propose an object-oriented modeling approach that addresses the management of collaboration on the Internet between enterprises. The approach divides those required mechanisms for collaboration management into three layers: commitment, role, and activity ones. With this architecture, two enterprises may collaborate via the establishment and maintenance of commitment, the collaboration and coordination between roles and the interaction and coordination between activities. For specification, an object-oriented model is presented for each layer that describes the working details of that layer. To illustrate, these models are applied in a simplified supply chain management among various enterprises.

Jyhjong Lin

2002-01-01

151

[An object-oriented intelligent engineering design approach for lake pollution control].  

Science.gov (United States)

Regarding the shortage and deficiency of traditional lake pollution control engineering techniques, a new lake pollution control engineering approach was proposed in this study, based on object-oriented intelligent design (OOID) from the perspective of intelligence. It can provide a new methodology and framework for effectively controlling lake pollution and improving water quality. The differences between the traditional engineering techniques and the OOID approach were compared. The key points for OOID were described as object perspective, cause and effect foundation, set points into surface, and temporal and spatial optimization. The blue algae control in lake was taken as an example in this study. The effect of algae control and water quality improvement were analyzed in details from the perspective of object-oriented intelligent design based on two engineering techniques (vertical hydrodynamic mixer and pumping algaecide recharge). The modeling results showed that the traditional engineering design paradigm cannot provide scientific and effective guidance for engineering design and decision-making regarding lake pollution. Intelligent design approach is based on the object perspective and quantitative causal analysis in this case. This approach identified that the efficiency of mixers was much higher than pumps in achieving the goal of low to moderate water quality improvement. However, when the objective of water quality exceeded a certain value (such as the control objective of peak Chla concentration exceeded 100 microg x L(-1) in this experimental water), the mixer cannot achieve this goal. The pump technique can achieve the goal but with higher cost. The efficiency of combining the two techniques was higher than using one of the two techniques alone. Moreover, the quantitative scale control of the two engineering techniques has a significant impact on the actual project benefits and costs. PMID:23745391

Zou, Rui; Zhou, Jing; Liu, Yong; Zhu, Xiang; Zhao, Lei; Yang, Ping-Jian; Guo, Huai-Cheng

2013-03-01

152

Outcomes and Complications of the Midline Anterior Approach 3 Years after Lumbar Spine Surgery  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a new questionnaire to assess outcomes related to the midline anterior lumbar approach and to identify risk factors for negative patient responses. Methods. A retrospective review of 58 patients who underwent anterior lumbar surgery at a single institution for either degenerative disc disease or spondylolisthesis in 2009 was performed. The outcome measures included our newly developed Anterior Lumbar Surgery Questionnaire (ALSQ), ODI, and EQ-5D. Results. There were 58 patients available for followup, 27 women and 31 men. The average age at surgery was 50.8 years, with an average followup of 2.92 years. The average change in ODI was 34.94 (22.7) and EQ-5D was 0.28 (0.29). The rate of complications with the anterior approach was 10.3% and there was one male patient (3.2%) with retrograde ejaculation. Determination of the effectiveness of the new ALSQ revealed that it significantly correlated to the EQ-5D and ODI (P Surgery Questionnaire determines patient perceived complications related to the midline anterior lumbar surgical approach.

Braaksma, Brian; Weinreb, Jeffrey H.; Nalbandian, Matthew; Spivak, Jeffrey M.; Petrizzo, Anthony

2014-01-01

153

Radiological and Clinical Factors Predicting the Facial Nerve Outcome following Retrosigmoid Approach for Large Vestibular Schwannomas (VSs).  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective The aim of our study was to identify the radiological and clinical factors that predict postoperative facial nerve outcome following retrosigmoid approach for large vestibular schwannomas (VSs). Methods A total of 72 patients with large (? 3 cm) vestibular schwannomas was included in this retrospective study. Various parameters evaluated were age, gender, clinical presentation, tumor diameter in three planes, intrameatal extension, and pattern of growth. Results Age of the patient and presenting symptoms such as headache, ataxia, or preoperative facial nerve dysfunction correlated with poorer facial nerve outcome (p acoustic meatus did not correlate with the outcome (p > 0.05). Of the various examined factors, preoperative facial nerve function independently predicted postoperative facial nerve outcome. Conclusion Our study suggests that young patients with small tumor volume and normal facial nerve function at presentation are more likely to experience a good postoperative facial nerve outcome. These clinical and radiological parameters can be used to predict facial nerve outcome prior to surgery. PMID:24436931

Sharma, Mayur; Sonig, Ashish; Ambekar, Sudheer; Nanda, Anil

2013-10-01

154

Decomposed Approach of Market Orientation and Marketing Mix Capability: Research on Their Relationships with Firm Performance in the Korean Context  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The notion that market orientation provides firms a source of competitive advantage seems to be widely accepted since the effects of market orientation on business performance have been extensively researched and many studies have confirmed their affirmative relationships. However, aggregated approach of market orientation as one single construct has left the detailed investigations yet unexplored despite its tremendous contribution in marketing strategy arena. Thus, decomposed properties of market orientation and their relationships with various components of firm success were explored to precisely examine the paths in this study. Furthermore, to resolve conflicting arguments on whether market orientation has a direct influence on firm level consequences, marketing mix capability was suggested as a critical mediator to complete a resource deployment system rather than a resource possession approach, which is equivalent to resource-based view. From an analysis of a survey data of 285 Korean organizations, three dimensions of market orientation, namely customer orientation, competitor orientation, and interfunctional coordination, and four sub-constructs of marketing mix capability, such as product, communication, channel and pricing capability, along with their impacts on business performance were investigated in detail. This study revealed that customer orientation and interfunctional coordination had a direct impact on only customer satisfaction while all three dimensions of market orientation failed to directly link to other firm performance variables like market effectiveness, adaptability, and profitability. To bridge these relationships product and communication capabilities were proven to be a necessary condition while channel capability and pricing capability showed interesting relationships. Findings and implications were discussed and limitations and further research directions were also suggested.

Sohyoun Shin

2011-12-01

155

Visual and refractive outcome of one-site phacotrabeculectomy compared with temporal approach phacoemulsification  

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Full Text Available Daniela Vaideanu, Kaveri Mandal, Anthony Hildreth, Scott G Fraser, Peter S PhelanGlaucoma Unit, Sunderland Eye Infirmary, Sunderland, UKBackground: We aimed to compare visual and refractive outcome following phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implant (IOL and combined one-site phacotrabeculectomy.Method: We performed a retrospective study of case records of patients who had temporal incision phacoemulsification with IOL or one-site phacotrabeculectomy, between June 1997 and June 2001. The patients were matched for age group, operating list and IOL type. All patients were operated on under local anesthesia by the same surgeon. Each arm of the study had 90 patients, age range 60 to 75 years. We collected pre- and postoperative visual acuity, pre- and postoperative refraction within six months after surgery, and intended refraction. The intraocular pressure control was not recorded, as it was not the aim of our study.Results: In the phacotrabeculectomy group, 76.6% of patients achieved aimed spherical equivalent, 15.5% of patients had against-the-rule (ATR astigmatism induced by the surgery, and 90% of the patients had best corrected visual acuity (BCVA more than 6/12. In the temporal incision phacoemulsification group, 81.1% of patients achieved aimed spherical equivalent, 10% of the patients had induced ATR by the surgery and 95.55% of patients achieved BCVA more than 6/12.Conclusion: In this study the visual outcome of the phacotrabeculectomy group did not differ significantly from the visual outcome of temporal approach phacoemulsification.Keywords: refractive outcome, phacoemulsifi cation, phacotrabeculectomy, astigmatism

Daniela Vaideanu

2008-10-01

156

An object oriented approach for quantitative assessment of building damage in urban areas using very high resolution images  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Very high resolution images are particularly well adapted to damage assessment methodology in urban area because on one hand it allows an analysis focused on the buildings solely through an object-oriented analysis, and on the other hand it permits a quantitative evaluation of this damage assessment using a visually established ground truth. We propose in this paper a method of damage assessment that uses these two benefits. First an original object oriented approach to register the images is...

Chesnel, Anne-lise; Binet, Renaud; Wald, Lucien

2007-01-01

157

Applying Adverse Outcome Pathways (AOPs) to support Integrated Approaches to Testing and Assessment (IATA).  

Science.gov (United States)

Chemical regulation is challenged by the large number of chemicals requiring assessment for potential human health and environmental impacts. Current approaches are too resource intensive in terms of time, money and animal use to evaluate all chemicals under development or already on the market. The need for timely and robust decision making demands that regulatory toxicity testing becomes more cost-effective and efficient. One way to realize this goal is by being more strategic in directing testing resources; focusing on chemicals of highest concern, limiting testing to the most probable hazards, or targeting the most vulnerable species. Hypothesis driven Integrated Approaches to Testing and Assessment (IATA) have been proposed as practical solutions to such strategic testing. In parallel, the development of the Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) framework, which provides information on the causal links between a molecular initiating event (MIE), intermediate key events (KEs) and an adverse outcome (AO) of regulatory concern, offers the biological context to facilitate development of IATA for regulatory decision making. This manuscript summarizes discussions at the Workshop entitled "Advancing AOPs for Integrated Toxicology and Regulatory Applications" with particular focus on the role AOPs play in informing the development of IATA for different regulatory purposes. PMID:25261300

Tollefsen, Knut Erik; Scholz, Stefan; Cronin, Mark T; Edwards, Stephen W; de Knecht, Joop; Crofton, Kevin; Garcia-Reyero, Natalia; Hartung, Thomas; Worth, Andrew; Patlewicz, Grace

2014-09-27

158

A Fuzzy Approach for Integrated Measure of Object-Oriented Software Testability  

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Full Text Available For large software systems, testing phase seems to have profound effect on the overall acceptability and quality of the final product. The success of this activity can be judged by measuring the testability of the software. A good measure for testability can better manage the testing effort and time. Different Object Oriented Metrics are used in measurement of object-oriented testability but none of them is alone sufficient to give an overall reflection of software testability. Thus an integrated measure considering the effect of all these measures is required to well define the testability. The paper combines OO software metric values into a single overall value (called Testability Index that can be used to calculate the testability of a class. The approach uses fuzzy techniques and concepts (fuzzification of crisp metric values, inference and aggregation, defuzzification of fuzzy output. We include empirical data of testing time of 25 different Java classes, which proves that individual metric values are not sufficient to arrive at the testability of a class and validates the testability index as a good integrated measure for arriving at the testability of the class.

Vandana Gupta

2005-01-01

159

Software engineering techniques applied to agricultural systems an object-oriented and UML approach  

CERN Document Server

Software Engineering Techniques Applied to Agricultural Systems presents cutting-edge software engineering techniques for designing and implementing better agricultural software systems based on the object-oriented paradigm and the Unified Modeling Language (UML). The focus is on the presentation of  rigorous step-by-step approaches for modeling flexible agricultural and environmental systems, starting with a conceptual diagram representing elements of the system and their relationships. Furthermore, diagrams such as sequential and collaboration diagrams are used to explain the dynamic and static aspects of the software system.    This second edition includes: a new chapter on Object Constraint Language (OCL), a new section dedicated to the Model-VIEW-Controller (MVC) design pattern, new chapters presenting details of two MDA-based tools – the Virtual Enterprise and Olivia Nova, and a new chapter with exercises on conceptual modeling.  It may be highly useful to undergraduate and graduate students as t...

Papajorgji, Petraq J

2014-01-01

160

An equation oriented approach to steady state flowsheeting of methanol synthesis loop  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An equation-oriented approach was developed for steady state flowsheeting of a commercial methanol plant. The loop consists of fixed bed reactor, flash separator, preheater, coolers, and compressor. For steady sate flowsheeting of the plant mathematical model of reactor and other units are needed. Reactor used in loop is a Lurgi type and its configuration is rather complex. Previously reactor and flash separator are modeled as two important units of plant. The model is based on mass and energy balances in each equipment and utilizing some auxiliary equations such as rate of reaction and thermodynamics model for activity coefficients of liquid. In order to validate the mathematical model for the synthesis loop, some simulation data were performed using operating conditions and characteristics of the commercial plant. The good agreement between the steady state simulation results and the plant data shows the validity of the model

 
 
 
 
161

An inverse approach to constraining strain and vorticity using rigid clast shape preferred orientation data  

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We describe a three-part approach for modeling shape preferred orientation (SPO) data of spheroidal clasts. The first part consists of criteria to determine whether a given SPO and clast shape are compatible. The second part is an algorithm for randomly generating spheroid populations that match a prescribed SPO and clast shape. In the third part, numerical optimization software is used to infer deformation from spheroid populations, by finding the deformation that returns a set of post-deformation spheroids to a minimally anisotropic initial configuration. Two numerical experiments explore the strengths and weaknesses of this approach, while giving information about the sensitivity of the model to noise in data. In monoclinic transpression of oblate rigid spheroids, the model is found to constrain the shortening component but not the simple shear component. This modeling approach is applied to previously published SPO data from the western Idaho shear zone, a monoclinic transpressional zone that deformed a feldspar megacrystic gneiss. Results suggest at most 5 km of shortening, as well as pre-deformation SPO fabric. The shortening estimate is corroborated by a second model that assumes no pre-deformation fabric.

Davis, Joshua R.; Giorgis, Scott

2014-11-01

162

[Outcome-oriented Barolin Neurorehabilitation Scale: 476 cases over 6 years--multi-nodal statistical correlation of neurorehabilitation groups in diagnosis, prognosis and outcome].  

Science.gov (United States)

This evaluation documents practicability and scientific value of the scale, since many years developed in our institute and in use there. Patients with left hemispheric lesions suffer from stronger disturbances of eating than others. Systematic neurological rehabilitations leads to a marked increased unnecessity of catheterism and by that to a marked better social integration. Associate depression (after Barolin) is a main source of rehabilitation hospitalism (as called by Barolin). Multiple sclerosis and Morbus Parkinson give better outcomes than cerebro-vascular patients. A new finding that also proofs to be neurophysiologically interesting is that higher agedness is mostly a non-limiting factor for rehabilitation, as far as not lesser endavours produce a self fulfilling prophecy. However a slight limitation in higher age groups is to be found in the patients with lesions on the dominant hemisphere, whereas lesions on the subdominant hemisphere produce no limitation to rehabilitation at all by higher age. PMID:8571600

Koppi, S; Kaufmann, C; Barolin, G S

1995-01-01

163

A gene sets approach for identifying prognostic gene signatures for outcome prediction  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression profiling is a promising approach to better estimate patient prognosis; however, there are still unresolved problems, including little overlap among similarly developed gene sets and poor performance of a developed gene set in other datasets. Results We applied a gene sets approach to develop a prognostic gene set from multiple gene expression datasets. By analyzing 12 independent breast cancer gene expression datasets comprising 1,756 tissues with 2,411 pre-defined gene sets including gene ontology categories and pathways, we found many gene sets that were prognostic in most of the analyzed datasets. Those prognostic gene sets were related to biological processes such as cell cycle and proliferation and had additional prognostic values over conventional clinical parameters such as tumor grade, lymph node status, estrogen receptor (ER status, and tumor size. We then estimated the prediction accuracy of each gene set by performing external validation using six large datasets and identified a gene set with an average prediction accuracy of 67.55%. Conclusion A gene sets approach is an effective method to develop prognostic gene sets to predict patient outcome and to understand the underlying biology of the developed gene set. Using the gene sets approach we identified many prognostic gene sets in breast cancer.

Kim Yong Sung

2008-04-01

164

A NTCP approach for estimating the outcome in radioiodine treatment of hyperthyroidism  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioiodine has been in use for over 60 years as a treatment for hyperthyroidism. Major changes in clinical practice have led to accurate dosimetry capable of avoiding the risks of adverse effects and the optimization of the treatment. The aim of this study was to test the capability of a radiobiological model, based on normal tissue complication probability (NTCP), to predict the outcome after oral therapeutic 131I administration. Following dosimetric study, 79 patients underwent treatment for hyperthyroidism using radioiodine and then 67 had at least a one-year follow up. The delivered dose was calculated using the MIRD formula, taking into account the measured maximum uptake of administered iodine transferred to the thyroid, U0, and the effective clearance rate, Teff and target mass. The dose was converted to normalized total dose delivered at 2 Gy per fraction (NTD2). Furthermore, the method to take into account the reduction of the mass of the gland during radioiodine therapy was also applied. The clinical outcome and dosimetric parameters were analyzed in order to study the dose-response relationship for hypothyroidism. The TD50 and m parameters of the NTCP model approach were then estimated using the likelihood method. The TD50, expressed as NTD2, resulted in 60 Gy (95% C.I.: 45-75 Gy) and 96 Gy (95% C.I.: 86-109 Gy) for patients affected by Graves or autonomous/multinodular disease, respectivelyonomous/multinodular disease, respectively. This supports the clinical evidence that Graves' disease should be characterized by more radiosensitive cells compared to autonomous nodules. The m parameter for all patients was 0.27 (95% C.I.: 0.22-0.36). These parameters were compared with those reported in the literature for hypothyroidism induced after external beam radiotherapy. The NTCP model correctly predicted the clinical outcome after the therapeutic administration of radioiodine in our series

165

Assessing poverty-alleviation outcomes of an enterprise-led approach to sanitation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Inadequate sanitation negatively affects the lives of billions of people in the base of the pyramid (BoP) in the developing world, and has a particularly substantial impact on the well-being of millions of young children. Given the magnitude of the challenge and the limitations of existing approaches, enterprise-led approaches to providing public goods are generating growing interest. Emphasizing convergent innovation, enterprises targeting the BoP are presented as potentially sustainable and scalable interventions that generate positive poverty-alleviation effects. Yet our understanding of who is affected, and how, remains limited. To begin to address this gap, we apply a multidimensional framework to an urban-based, sanitation-oriented BoP enterprise, focusing on its poverty-alleviation effects on young children. Our analysis indicates that the enterprise's effects include changes in capability, economic, and relationship well-being and that these changes can be positive or negative. We also find that the impact varies depending on the role of the stakeholder in the business model and the age of the child. Our results contribute to a better understanding of how to assess the effectiveness of a sanitation intervention and how to evaluate the poverty-alleviation implications of an enterprise-led approach. PMID:24697785

London, Ted; Esper, Heather

2014-12-01

166

Adolescent Maternal Lifecourse Outcomes: Implications from an Integrated Mental Health Services Approach  

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Full Text Available Family intervention literature on adolescent parenting describes the pathways between outcomes for adolescent mothers and their children and the contexts of the pregnancy itself (e.g., poverty, low or no prenatal care, lower educational attainment. The aim of these descriptions is often to inform intervention designs that promote adaptive functioning for the child, the mother, and the dyad. Mental health services are an important component of many of these interventions; these services may be delivered by a clinician within the organization providing the intervention, or the organization may connect mothers with external mental health services in their communities. Using in-house clinicians rather than external providers may be beneficial by decreasing the high attrition rates common to this population. Although this service delivery approach is theoretically appealing, it has not been subject to rigorous empirical evaluation. In the current randomized study, we examine outcomes for teenage mothers based on two service delivery methods: Integrated Mental Health Services (IMHS and the Standard of Care (SoC which outsources clients’ mental health needs through community referrals. Information about the effectiveness of service delivery strategies can help program providers make decisions about how best to allocate limited funds to provide effective services.

Beth S. Russell

2014-06-01

167

Object-oriented change detection approach for high-resolution remote sensing images based on multiscale fusion  

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Aiming at the difficulties in change detection caused by the complexity of high-resolution remote sensing images that exist in varied ecological environments and artificial objects, in order to overcome the limitations in traditional pixel-oriented change detection methods and improve the detection precision, an innovative object-oriented change detection approach based on multiscale fusion is proposed. This approach introduced the classical color texture segmentation algorithm J-segmentation (JSEG) to change detection and achieved the multiscale feature extraction and comparison of objects based on the sequence of J-images produced in JSEG. By comprehensively using the geometry, spectrum, and texture features of objects, and proposing two different multiscale fusing strategies, respectively, based on Dempster/Shafer evidence theory and weighted data fusion, the algorithm further improves the divisibility between changed and unchanged areas, thereby establishing an integrated framework of object-oriented change detection based on multiscale fusion. Experiments were performed on high-resolution airborne and SPOT 5 remote sensing images. Compared with different object-oriented and pixel-oriented detection methods, results of the experiments verified the validity and reliability of the proposed approach.

Wang, Chao; Xu, Mengxi; Wang, Xin; Zheng, Shengnan; Ma, Zhenli

2013-01-01

168

Detecting Slums from Quick Bird Data in Pune Using AN Object Oriented Approach  

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We have been witnessing a gradual and steady transformation from a pre dominantly rural society to an urban society in India and by 2030, it will have more people living in urban than rural areas. Slums formed an integral part of Indian urbanisation as most of the Indian cities lack in basic needs of an acceptable life. Many efforts are being taken to improve their conditions. To carry out slum renewal programs and monitor its implementation, slum settlements should be recorded to obtain an adequate spatial data base. This can be only achieved through the analysis of remote sensing data with very high spatial resolution. Regarding the occurrences of settlement areas in the remote sensing data pixel-based approach on a high resolution image is unable to represent the heterogeneity of complex urban environments. Hence there is a need for sophisticated method and data for slum analysis. An attempt has been made to detect and discriminate the slums of Pune city by describing typical characteristics of these settlements, by using eCognition software from quick bird data on the basis of object oriented approach. Based on multi resolution segmentation, initial objects were created and further depend on texture, geometry and contextual characteristics of the image objects, they were classified into slums and non-slums. The developed rule base allowed the description of knowledge about phenomena clearly and easily using fuzzy membership functions and the described knowledge stored in the classification rule base led to the best classification with more than 80% accuracy.

Shekhar, S.

2012-07-01

169

An applications-oriented approach to the development of virtual environments  

Science.gov (United States)

The field of Virtual Reality (VR) is diverse, ranging in scope from research into fundamental enabling technologies to the building of full-scale entertainment facilities. However, the concept of virtual reality means many things to many people. Ideally, a definition of VR should derive from how it can provide solutions to existing challenges in building advanced human computer interfaces. The measure of success for VR lies in its ability to enhance the assimilation of complex information, whether to aid in difficult decision making processes, or to recreate real experiences in a compelling way. This philosophy is described using an example from a VR-based advertising project. The common and unique elements of this example are explained, though the fundamental development process is the same for all virtual environments that support information transfer. In short, this development approach is an applications oriented approach that begins by establishing and prioritizing user requirements and seeks to add value to the information transfer process through the appropriate use of VR technology.

Crowe, Michael X.

1994-01-01

170

Unilateral persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous: intensive management approach with excellent outcome beyond visual maturation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous (PHPV) is an ocular developmental disorder resulting from incomplete apoptosis of the embryonic hyaloid vasculature. Unilateral PHPV is traditionally associated with a poor prognosis because of the challenges associated with managing progressive anisometropic amblyopia. We report a child with unilateral PHPV who underwent cataract extraction, primary posterior capsulotomy with anterior vitrectomy and intraocular lens implantation followed by combined trabeculectomy/trabeculotomy within the first 8?weeks of life. Intensive optometric and orthoptic input was required for many years to manage the increasing anisometropic amblyopia with final visual acuity of 20/40 unaided in the affected eye and without evidence of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. This case illustrates the excellent visual outcome possible in a child with complex, unilateral PHPV using an intensive management approach comprising: early surgical intervention for congenital cataract and secondary glaucoma, meticulous monitoring of refraction, visual acuity and intraocular pressure and motivated parents who engaged in the management. PMID:25564632

Yusuf, Imran H; Patel, Chetan Kantibhai; Salmon, John F

2015-01-01

171

Health Outcomes for Older Hispanics With HIV in New York City Using the Oaxaca Decomposition Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although HIV and aging are two well-established medical and economic domains, their intersection represents an emerging area of study. Older adults with HIV, who sill comprise 50% of the US HIV-infected population by 2015, are disadvantaged as evidenced by disproportionately poorer health outcomes. The Oaxaca Decomposition Approach (ODA was used to analyze data from the Research on Older Adults with HIV (ROAH Study of 1,000 older adults with HIV in New York City (NYC. This paper establishes the sources of health disparities for Hispanics with HIV compared to a match group of Non-Hispanics with HIV. The ODA analyses shows that Hispanics on average have higher levels of declining health and increased depression attributable to the discrimination factor.

Juan J. Dela Cruz

2014-07-01

172

Assessment of clinical outcomes in breast cancer patients treated with taxanes: multi-analytical approach.  

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Polymorphisms in genes encoding CYPs (Phase I) and ABCB1 (Phase III) enzymes may attribute to variability of efficacy of taxanes. The present study aims to find the influence of CYP and ABCB1 gene polymorphisms on taxanes based clinical outcomes. 132 breast cancer patients treated with taxanes based chemotherapy were genotyped for CYP3A4*1B, CYP3A5*3, CYP1B1*3, CYP2C8*3, ABCB1 1236C>T, 2677G>T/A and 3435C>T polymorphisms using PCR-RFLP. Associations of genetic variants with clinical outcomes in terms of response in 58 patients receiving neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (NACT), and chemo-toxicity in 132 patients were studied. Multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) analysis was performed to evaluate higher order gene-gene interactions with clinical outcomes. Pathological response to taxane based NACT was associated with GA genotype as well as A allele of CYP3A5*3 polymorphism (Pcorr=0.0465, Pcorr=0.0465). Similarly, association was found in dominant model of CYP3A5*3 polymorphism with responders (Pcorr=0.0465). Haplotype analysis further revealed ACYP3A4-ACYP3A5 haplotype to be significantly associated with responders (Pcorr=0.048). In assessing toxicity, significant association of variant (TT) genotype and T allele of ABCB1 2677G>T/A polymorphism, was found with 'grade 1 or no leucopenia' (Pcorr=0.0465, Pcorr=0.048). On evaluating higher order gene-gene interaction models by MDR analysis, CYP3A5*3; ABCB11236C>T and ABCB1 2677G>T/A; ABCB1 3435C>T and CYP1B1*3 showed significant association with treatment response, grade 2-4 anemia and dose delay/reduction due to neutropenia (P=0.024, P=0.004, P=0.026), respectively. Multi-analytical approaches may provide a better assessment of pharmacogenetic based treatment outcomes in breast cancer patients treated with taxanes. PMID:24704000

Tulsyan, Sonam; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Singh, Abhishek Kumar; Agarwal, Gaurav; Lal, Punita; Agrawal, Sushma; Mittal, Rama Devi; Mittal, Balraj

2014-06-10

173

Three pedagogical approaches to introductory physics labs and their effects on student learning outcomes  

Science.gov (United States)

This dissertation presents the results of an experiment that measured the learning outcomes associated with three different pedagogical approaches to introductory physics labs. These three pedagogical approaches presented students with the same apparatus and covered the same physics content, but used different lab manuals to guide students through distinct cognitive processes in conducting their laboratory investigations. We administered post-tests containing multiple-choice conceptual questions and free-response quantitative problems one week after students completed these laboratory investigations. In addition, we collected data from the laboratory practical exam taken by students at the end of the semester. Using these data sets, we compared the learning outcomes for the three curricula in three dimensions of ability: conceptual understanding, quantitative problem-solving skill, and laboratory skills. Our three pedagogical approaches are as follows. Guided labs lead students through their investigations via a combination of Socratic-style questioning and direct instruction, while students record their data and answers to written questions in the manual during the experiment. Traditional labs provide detailed written instructions, which students follow to complete the lab objectives. Open labs provide students with a set of apparatus and a question to be answered, and leave students to devise and execute an experiment to answer the question. In general, we find that students performing Guided labs perform better on some conceptual assessment items, and that students performing Open labs perform significantly better on experimental tasks. Combining a classical test theory analysis of post-test results with in-lab classroom observations allows us to identify individual components of the laboratory manuals and investigations that are likely to have influenced the observed differences in learning outcomes associated with the different pedagogical approaches. Due to the novel nature of this research and the large number of item-level results we produced, we recommend additional research to determine the reproducibility of our results. Analyzing the data with item response theory yields additional information about the performance of our students on both conceptual questions and quantitative problems. We find that performing lab activities on a topic does lead to better-than-expected performance on some conceptual questions regardless of pedagogical approach, but that this acquired conceptual understanding is strongly context-dependent. The results also suggest that a single "Newtonian reasoning ability" is inadequate to explain student response patterns to items from the Force Concept Inventory. We develop a framework for applying polytomous item response theory to the analysis of quantitative free-response problems and for analyzing how features of student solutions are influenced by problem-solving ability. Patterns in how students at different abilities approach our post-test problems are revealed, and we find hints as to how features of a free-response problem influence its item parameters. The item-response theory framework we develop provides a foundation for future development of quantitative free-response research instruments. Chapter 1 of the dissertation presents a brief history of physics education research and motivates the present study. Chapter 2 describes our experimental methodology and discusses the treatments applied to students and the instruments used to measure their learning. Chapter 3 provides an introduction to the statistical and analytical methods used in our data analysis. Chapter 4 presents the full data set, analyzed using both classical test theory and item response theory. Chapter 5 contains a discussion of the implications of our results and a data-driven analysis of our experimental methods. Chapter 6 describes the importance of this work to the field and discusses the relevance of our research to curriculum development and to future work in physics education research.

Chambers, Timothy

174

Calculation of deformation rate of interstitial solid solutions under irradiation with usage of the object-oriented approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The creep rate is determined by streams of self point defects and mobile complexes impurity - free point defect on the dislocation. These streams are by the numerical method, if the stationary distributions of point defects in a neighbourhood of sinks are known. For solution of this composite system of the nonlinear differential equations the object-oriented approach utilized, which one represents series iterative process consisting of four stages: the analysis, designing, evolution and modification. On the basis of the object-oriented approach, the program application DefRate.exe for research of radiation creep rate is created. The application works in an operating system Windows. As all parameters are set interactive, the designed program can be easily utilized for research of the broad set of materials. The introduced object-oriented method is applicable for research of the broad set of processes controlled by the diffusion, such as the swelling and radiation creep of construction materials, the hydrogen permeability etc

175

Producing a landslide inventory map using pixel-based and object-oriented approaches optimized by Taguchi method  

Science.gov (United States)

Landslides are considered one of the most important natural hazards. Mapping landslides and producing landslide inventory maps have received special attention from a wide range of specialists. The main objective of this study was to produce landslide inventory maps using advanced pixel-based (ANN and SVM) and object-oriented approaches. The most important challenge in this case is to determine the optimum structure of classification methods. The Taguchi method was to perform optimization of the structure of ANN and SVM and segmentation process in the object-oriented classification method. Results showed that the Taguchi method can be effectively used to cope with this problem. It significantly reduces the number of classification tests. We also showed that there were no significant differences existed between ANN and SVM approaches (?2 value of 3.33). However, we demonstrated that object-oriented approaches significantly outperformed the pixel-based classification methods (Z value of 5.70) in producing a landslide inventory map. The accurate map produced using an object-oriented approach (overall accuracy of 0.90) effectively determines the shape of landslides and also efficiently shows the intensifying effects of land use changes in the occurrence of landslides.

Moosavi, Vahid; Talebi, Ali; Shirmohammadi, Bagher

2014-01-01

176

Comparison of Advanced Pixel Based (ANN and SVM) and Object-Oriented Classification Approaches Using Landsat-7 Etm+ Data  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study, the pixel-based and object-oriented image classification approaches were used for identifying different land use types in Karnal district. Imagery from Landsat-7 ETM with 6 spectral bands was used to perform the image classification.Ground truth data were collected from the available maps, personal knowledge and communication with the local people. In order to prepare land use map different approaches: Artificial Neural Network(ANN) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) were used. F...

Prasun Kumar Gupta; Gaurav Kalidas Pakhale

2010-01-01

177

A problem-oriented approach to understanding adaptation: lessons learnt from Alpine Shire, Victoria Australia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Climate change is gaining attention as a significant strategic issue for localities that rely on their business sectors for economic viability. For businesses in the tourism sector, considerable research effort has sought to characterise the vulnerability to the likely impacts of future climate change through scenarios or ‘end-point' approaches (Kelly & Adger, 2000). Whilst useful, there are few demonstrable case studies that complement such work with a ‘start-point' approach that seeks to explore contextual vulnerability (O'Brien et al., 2007). This broader approach is inclusive of climate change as a process operating within a biophysical system and allows recognition of the complex interactions that occur in the coupled human-environmental system. A problem-oriented and interdisciplinary approach was employed at Alpine Shire, in northeast Victoria Australia, to explore the concept of contextual vulnerability and adaptability to stressors that include, but are not limited to climatic change. Using a policy sciences approach, the objective was to identify factors that influence existing vulnerabilities and that might consequently act as barriers to effective adaptation for the Shire's business community involved in the tourism sector. Analyses of results suggest that many threats, including the effects climate change, compete for the resources, strategy and direction of local tourism management bodies. Further analysis of conditioning factors revealed that many complex and interacting factors define the vulnerability and adaptive capacity of the Shire's tourism sector to the challenges of global change, which collectively have more immediate implications for policy and planning than long-term future climate change scenarios. An approximation of the common interest, i.e. enhancing capacity in business acumen amongst tourism operators, would facilitate adaptability and sustainability through the enhancement of social capital in this business community. Kelly, P. M., & Adger, W. N. (2000). Theory and practice in assessing vulnerability to climatic change and facilitating adaptation. Climatic Change, 47, 325-352. O'Brien, K., Eriksen, S., Nygaard, L. P., & Schjolden, A. (2007). Why different interpretations of vulnerability matter in climate change discourses. Climate Policy, 7, 73-88.

Roman, Carolina

2010-05-01

178

Aspect-Oriented Development Method for Non-Functional Characteristics of Cyber Physical Systems Based on MDA Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cyber physical systems have many non-functional requirements, which always crosscut the whole system modules. That may cause the code tangle and scatter, make the systems hard to design, reuse and maintain, and affect performance of systems badly. AOP is a new software development paradigm, which could attain a higher level of separation of concerns in both functional and non-functional matters by introducing aspect, for the implementation of crosscutting concerns. Different aspects can be designed separately, and woven into systems. In this paper, we propose an aspect-oriented MDA approach for non-functional properties to develop cyber physical systems. An aspect-oriented UML profile is built to develop cyber physical systems. Aspect-oriented UML models are designed as Platform Independent Models (PIM for target-platform implementation, which deal with non-functional properties. OCL formal language is used to restrict the model in every stages of MDA, and the real-time extension of OCL formal language is made to describe the timing constraints of cyber physical systems. Finally, the model- based development and aspect-oriented approach, the formal methods and the cyber physical system are integrated effectively. A case study illustrates the aspect oriented MDA development of cyber physical systems.

Lichen Zhang

2012-03-01

179

Anterior Microsurgical Approach to Ventral Lower Cervical Spine Meningiomas: Indications, Surgical Technique and Long Term Outcome.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ventral lower cervical spinal meningiomas with posterior displacement of the spinal cord are rare and anterior approach has been rarely reported in the literature. The authors present their experience about eight patients operated through anterior microsurgical approach. Exposure of meningiomas was achieved through one or two corpectomies, according to meningioma extension. Tumour removal was performed thanks to the aid of a dedicated ultrasonic aspirator, and intraoperative evoked potentials were employed. Particular care was taken with the materials adopted for reconstruction of the anterior dural plane, to avoid postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leak. Vertebral fusion and stabilization were achieved by tantalum cage or titanium graft in case of one or two corpectomies respectively; anterior titanium plate fixed with screws was applied in all patients. Extent of tumour removal was related to the presence of a conserved arachnoidal plane between the tumour and the spinal cord: total removal was achieved in 2 patients, while gross total removal in the other six ones. Postoperative neurological outcome, which was favourable in all patients, was related mostly to preoperative neurologic status. No recurrence after total removal and no remnant growth after gross total removal occurred during an average follow-up period of 6, 7 years. PMID:24645744

Fraioli, M F; Marciani, M G; Umana, G E; Fraioli, B

2014-03-17

180

Indigenous Education for Critical Democracy: Teacher Approaches and Learning Outcomes in a K-5 Indian Education for All Program  

Science.gov (United States)

This article focuses on how three dimensions of critical democracy preparation (place-based geographical knowledge, social and political awareness of American Indian history and culture, and orientations conducive to the development of personal connections with American Indians) were impacted by different instructional approaches introduced when…

Ngai, Phyllis B.; Koehn, Peter H.

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

An Object-Oriented Language-Database Integration Model: The Composition-Filters Approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper introduces a new model, based on so-called object-composition filters, that uniformly integrates database-like features into an object-oriented language. The focus is on providing persistent dynamic data structures, data sharing, transactions, multiple views and associative access, integrated with the object-oriented paradigm. The main contribution is that the database-like features are part of this new object-oriented model, and therefore, are uniformly integrated with object-orie...

Aksit, Mehmet; Bergmans, Lodewijk; Vural, Sinan

1992-01-01

182

Clinical Approach to the Standardization of Oriental Medical Diagnostic Pattern Identification in Stroke Patients  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In Korea, many stroke patients receive oriental medical care, in which pattern-identification plays a major role. Pattern-identification is Oriental Medicine's unique diagnostic system. This study attempted to standardize oriental medical pattern-identification for stroke patients. This was a community-based multicenter study that enrolled stroke patients within 30 days after their ictus. We assessed the patients' general characteristics and symptoms related to pattern-identification. Each pa...

Woo Sang Jung; Jung Mi Park; Sang Kwan Moon; Seong Uk Park; Hyung Sup Bae; Han Jung Kim

2011-01-01

183

Innovative Community-Based Approaches Doubled Tuberculosis Case Notification and Improve Treatment Outcome in Southern Ethiopia  

Science.gov (United States)

Background TB Control Programmes rely on passive case-finding to detect cases. TB notification remains low in Ethiopia despite major expansion of health services. Poor rural communities face many barriers to service access. Methods and Findings A community-based intervention package was implemented in Sidama zone, Ethiopia. The package included advocacy, training, engaging stakeholders and communities and active case-finding by female Health Extension Workers (HEWs) at village level. HEWs conducted house-to-house visits, identified individuals with a cough for two or more weeks, with or without other symptoms, collected sputum, prepared smears and supervised treatment. Supervisors transported smears for microscopy, started treatment, screened contacts and initiated Isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) for children. Outcomes were compared with the pre-implementation period and a control zone. Qualitative research was conducted to understand community and provider perceptions and experiences. HEWs screened 49,857 symptomatic individuals (60% women) from October 2010 to December 2011. 2,262 (4·5%) had smear-positive TB (53% women). Case notification increased from 64 to 127/100,000 population/year resulting in 5,090 PTB+ and 7,071 cases of all forms of TB. Of 8,005 contacts visited, 1,949 were symptomatic, 1,290 symptomatic were tested and 69 diagnosed with TB. 1,080 children received IPT. Treatment success for smear-positive TB increased from 77% to 93% and treatment default decreased from 11% to 3%. Service users and providers found the intervention package highly acceptable. Conclusions Community-based interventions made TB diagnostic and treatment services more accessible to the poor, women, elderly and children, doubling the notification rate and improving treatment outcome. This approach could improve TB diagnosis and treatment in other high burden settings. PMID:23723975

Yassin, Mohammed A.; Datiko, Daniel G.; Tulloch, Olivia; Markos, Paulos; Aschalew, Melkamsew; Shargie, Estifanos B.; Dangisso, Mesay H.; Komatsu, Ryuichi; Sahu, Suvanand; Blok, Lucie; Cuevas, Luis E.; Theobald, Sally

2013-01-01

184

Recovering Use Case Diagrams from Object Oriented Code: an MDA-based Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Modernization of legacy systems requires the existence of technicalframeworks for information integration and tool interoperability that allow managing new platform technologies, design techniques and processes. MDA (Model Driven Architecture, adopted by the OMG (Object Management Group, is aligned with this requirement. Reverse engineering techniques play a crucial role in system modernization. In light of these issues, this article describes a framework to reverse engineering MDA models from object oriented code. This framework distinguishes three different abstraction levelslinked to models, metamodels and formal specifications. At model level,transformations are based on static and dynamic analysis. At metamodel level, transformations are specified as OCL (Object Constraint Languagecontracts between MOF (Meta Object Facility metamodels which control the consistency of these transformations. The level of formal specification includes algebraic specifications of MOF metamodels and metamodel-based transformations. This article shows how to reverse engineering use case diagrams from Java code in the MDA context focusing on transformations at model and metamodel levels. We validate our approach by using Eclipse Modeling Framework, Ecore metamodels and ATL (Atlas Transformation Language.

Claudia T. Pereira

2012-07-01

185

EFFECTIVENESS OF A PARTICIPATORY ACTION ORIENTED TRAINING INTERVENTION APPROACH AMONG HARVESTERS IN OIL PALM PLANTATION  

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Full Text Available Consistent with the global demand for palm oil, the intensified upstream harvesting activities of oil palms’ fresh fruit bunches, despite the harvesters evidences of various ergonomics risk factors leading to musculoskeletal disorders should be a cause for concern. Thus, this study describes the effectiveness of a modified and locally adapted Participatory Action-Oriented Training intervention program in improving the working environment of the harvesters. A training program modified and customized to the harvesters’ working in oil palm plantation consist of 3 primary instrument (awareness video, interactive lecture and action checklist with 3 reinforcing activities (to increase knowledge, enhance understanding and practical application. Based on the result of post-intervention assessment, the self-reported prevalence of MSD and KAP score among Intervention Group (IG did not significantly differ from Control Group (CG. Instead of decreasing, the prevalence of MSD in the past 12 months and 7 days increased within IG. Qualitative findings in this research show that the negative psychosocial and organizational climate has severely affected the implementation of PAOT rendering the effect of the intervention approach. The interventions were ineffective on the IG as this study suffers from various situational barriers as obstacles to benefit the full extent of PAOT advantages.

Ng Yee Guan

2014-01-01

186

A Multiple Model Approach to Track Head Orientation With Delta Quaternions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Virtual reality and augmented reality environments using helmet-mounted displays create a sense of immersion by closely coupling user head motion to display content. Delays in the presentation of visual information can destroy the sense of presence in the simulation environment when it causes a lag in the display response to user head motion. The effect of display lag can be minimized by predicting head orientation, allowing the system to have sufficient time to counteract the delay. In this paper, a new head orientation prediction technique is proposed that uses a multiple delta quaternion (DQ) extended Kalman filter to track angular head velocity and angular head acceleration. This method is independent of the device used for orientation measurement, relying on quaternion orientation as the only measurement data. A new orientation prediction algorithm is proposed that estimates future head orientation as a function of the current orientation measurement and a predicted change in orientation, using the velocity and acceleration estimates. Extensive experimentation shows that the new method improves head orientation prediction when compared to single filter DQ prediction. PMID:22692926

Himberg, Henry; Motai, Yuichi; Bradley, Arthur

2012-06-01

187

A HOLISTIC APPROACH TO DEVELOP ENGINEERING PROGRAMME OUTCOMES: A CASE STUDY OF TAYLOR'S UNIVERSITY  

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Full Text Available Part fulfilment of providing an engineering programme which implements outcome based education includes various outcomes that are tied to what the graduate should achieve after, during and before graduation. The programme outcomes are specifically crafted to encapsulate attributes that must be attained by a student upon graduation. The following paper details the principles used to craft the programme outcomes of an engineering undergraduate degree programme. The principles used were chosen based its importance and innovative content as well as being aligned to the purpose of the university which is running the degree programme. Upon crafting the prescribed outcomes, the paper will also detail how stakeholders were engaged and how their opinion was accounted for in the final crafting of the new set of programme outcomes. The paper also highlights how a gap analysis was performed to capture areas which were not covered by the previous programme outcomes.

FLORENCE CHOONG

2013-04-01

188

Clinical outcomes measures for assessment of longevity in the dental implant literature: ORONet approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Oral Rehabilitation Outcomes Network (ORONet) Longevity Working Group undertook a search of the literature from 1995 to 2009 on randomized controlled trials related to longevity of osseointegrated implants. Outcomes measures used in these studies were identified and subjected to the OMERACT component criteria of truth, validity, and feasibility. Through this process, it was a challenge to identify clinical outcomes measures that fully met the criteria. An attenuated version of the component criteria was applied, and clinical measures were identified for implant outcomes, prosthetic outcomes, and indices. A recommendation on standardized reporting periods was also presented for future consideration. The endpoint of the evaluation process is to develop consensus on clinical outcomes measures that can be applied across broad populations for osseointegrated implant care. The present ORONet initiative represents a beginning toward continual improvement and consensus development for clinical outcomes measures for osseointegrated implants. PMID:23837161

Bassi, Francesco; Carr, Alan B; Chang, Ting-Ling; Estafanous, Emad; Garrett, Neal R; Happonen, Risto-Pekka; Koka, Sreenivas; Laine, Juhani; Osswald, Martin; Reintsema, Harry; Rieger, Jana; Roumanas, Eleni; Estafanous, Emad; Salinas, Thomas J; Stanford, Clark M; Wolfaardt, Johan

2013-01-01

189

Object oriented classification for land cover mapping  

Science.gov (United States)

We applied an object-oriented image analysis approach to high resolution image in order to improve the land cover classification accuracy. Remotely sensing image, Aster was used to carry out the image classification. During the implementation, we tested three different sets of parameters for image segmentation and classified the image with the nearest neighbor classifier. The outcome show that the object-oriented approach classify land cover with an overall accuracy 94%(Kappa 0.9),which is higher than the traditional pixel-based approach. The results of this preliminary analysis suggest that the object-oriented approach effectively avoid the annoying salt-and pepper effect, highly improve the classification accuracy, update the database of GIS timely. Key Words: object-oriented, image segmentation, classification accuracy .

Wuyi, Y.; Xiaoping, Qi; Wentong, Dong

2009-04-01

190

Pharmacological versus microvascular decompression approaches for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia: clinical outcomes and direct costs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Laurinda Lemos1,2, Carlos Alegria3, Joana Oliveira3, Ana Machado2, Pedro Oliveira4, Armando Almeida11Life and Health Sciences Research Institute (ICVS, School of Health Sciences, Campus de Gualtar, University of Minho, Braga, Portugal; 2Hospital Center of Alto Ave, Unit of Fafe, Fafe, Portugal; 3Department of Neurosurgery, Hospital São Marcos; 4Products and Systems Engineering, Campus de Azurém, University of Minho, Guimarães, PortugalAbstract: In idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia (TN the neuroimaging evaluation is usually normal, but in some cases a vascular compression of trigeminal nerve root is present. Although the latter condition may be referred to surgery, drug therapy is usually the first approach to control pain. This study compared the clinical outcome and direct costs of (1 a traditional treatment (carbamazepine [CBZ] in monotherapy [CBZ protocol], (2 the association of gabapentin (GBP and analgesic block of trigger-points with ropivacaine (ROP (GBP+ROP protocol, and (3 a common TN surgery, microvascular decompression of the trigeminal nerve (MVD protocol. Sixty-two TN patients were randomly treated during 4 weeks (CBZ [n = 23] and GBP+ROP [n = 17] protocols from cases of idiopathic TN, or selected for MVD surgery (n = 22 due to intractable pain. Direct medical cost estimates were determined by the price of drugs in 2008 and the hospital costs. Pain was evaluated using the Numerical Rating Scale (NRS and number of pain crises; the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Sickness Impact Profile, and satisfaction with treatment and hospital team were evaluated. Assessments were performed at day 0 and 6 months after the beginning of treatment. All protocols showed a clinical improvement of pain control at month 6. The GBP+ROP protocol was the least expensive treatment, whereas surgery was the most expensive. With time, however, GBP+ROP tended to be the most and MVD the least expensive. No sequelae resulted in any patient after drug therapies, while after MDV surgery several patients showed important side effects. Data reinforce that, (1 TN patients should be carefully evaluated before choosing therapy for pain control, (2 different pharmacological approaches are available to initiate pain control at low costs, and (3 criteria for surgical interventions should be clearly defined due to important side effects, with the initial higher costs being strongly reduced with time.Keywords: trigeminal neuralgia, carbamazepine, gabapentin associated with ropivacaine, microvascular decompression, clinical outcomes, direct costs 

Almeida A

2011-08-01

191

Exploring the Synergies between the Object Oriented Paradigm and Mathematics: A Java Led Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

While the object oriented paradigm and its instantiation within programming languages such as Java has become a ubiquitous part of both the commercial and educational landscapes, its usage as a visualization technique within mathematics undergraduate programmes of study has perhaps been somewhat underestimated. By regarding the object oriented

Conrad, Marc; French, Tim

2004-01-01

192

Nine-Year Psychiatric Trajectories and Substance Use Outcomes: An Application of the Group-Based Modeling Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

This study identifies longitudinal psychiatric trajectories of 934 adult individuals entering chemical dependency treatment in a private, managed care health plan and examines the relationship of these trajectories with substance use (SU) outcomes. The authors apply a group-based modeling approach to identify trajectory groups based on repeated…

Chi, Felicia W.; Weisner, Constance M.

2008-01-01

193

A New Approach in Consistency of Object Oriented Model and Relational Model in Distributed Systems Base on Heterogeneous Databases  

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Full Text Available According to application a database is designed to be object-oriented model or relational model but the important point is distribution and heterogeneity. So a model should be provided which work with different types of database and also be able to work disruption, and heterogeneity So one of the great challenges in the use of distributed database technologies is integrating object-oriented databases with relational databases because the platform-independent technologies have an object-oriented approach But today databases are usualy designed and implemented base on relational model. Hence this paper tries to offer a model that could bring further coordination and integration between these two exsisting database models

Tahereh kheradmandan

2011-02-01

194

FAO/IAEA consultants' meeting on integrated approach for improving small scale market oriented dairy systems. Report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A Consultants' Meeting was held at IAEA, Vienna from 21-24 August 2000 to discuss the need for, and to develop an FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) to demonstrate increases in the productivity of small scale market oriented dairy systems using an integrated approach to improving nutrition, reproductive management and disease control. The meeting was attended by five consultants with expertise in specific aspects of research and development in dairy production, three external resource persons who were funded from their own institutes, a staff member of FAO's Animal Production Service, a representative of the IAEA's Department of Technical Co-operation and staff members of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division's Subprogramme on Animal Production and Health. The list of participants is given. The specific objectives of the meeting were to: Review the current research thrusts that are relevant to the objectives of the project, recommend areas that should be included and determine the most appropriate modalities for supporting these activities; Define the scientific scope of the project and recommend appropriate technologies and methods that should be applied in field and laboratory studies for obtaining the necessary information; Review the background document which has been prepared and make appropriate improvements and modifications; and Develop work plans, time scales, schedule of Research Co-ordination Meetings (RCMs) and the project framework matrix. The meeting was formally opened by Dr Martyn Jeggo, Head of the Animal Production and Health Section, who outlined the Sub-programme's mandate, medium-term strategy and how the planned CRP fits into this strategy. Dr Oswin Perera, the Scientific Secretary of the meeting, outlined the previous activities of the Sub-programme in animal nutrition and reproduction, discussed the background to the proposed project, and presented the objectives and expected outcomes of the meeting. The consultants and resource persons presented reviews on aspects of relevance to the proposed CRP. Subsequently, discussions were held in plenary sessions and in small groups to develop, modify and/or improve specific aspects of the draft project document. Finally, conclusions and recommendations were drafted, discussed and adopted

195

The possibilities of applying a risk-oriented approach to the NPP reliability and safety enhancement problem  

Science.gov (United States)

An analysis and some generalizations of approaches to risk assessments are presented. Interconnection between different interpretations of the "risk" notion is shown, and the possibility of applying the fuzzy set theory to risk assessments is demonstrated. A generalized formulation of the risk assessment notion is proposed in applying risk-oriented approaches to the problem of enhancing reliability and safety in nuclear power engineering. The solution of problems using the developed risk-oriented approaches aimed at achieving more reliable and safe operation of NPPs is described. The results of studies aimed at determining the need (advisability) to modernize/replace NPP elements and systems are presented together with the results obtained from elaborating the methodical principles of introducing the repair concept based on the equipment technical state. The possibility of reducing the scope of tests and altering the NPP systems maintenance strategy is substantiated using the risk-oriented approach. A probabilistic model for estimating the validity of boric acid concentration measurements is developed.

Komarov, Yu. A.

2014-10-01

196

Integrated Approach for Improving Small Scale Market Oriented Dairy Systems in Pakistan: Economic Impact of Interventions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA launched a Coordinated Research Program in 10 developing countries including Pakistan involving small scale market oriented dairy farmers to identify and prioritize the constraints and opportunities in the selected dairy farms, develop intervention strategies and assess the economic impact of the intervention. The interventions in animal health (control of mastitis at sub-clinical stage and reduction in calf mortality, nutrition (balanced feed reproduction (mineral supplementation, and general management (training of farmers were identified and implemented in a participatory approach at the selected dairy farms. The calf mortality was reduced from 35 to 13 percent up to the age of 3 months. Use of Alfa Deval post milking teat dips reduced the incidence of sub-clinical mastitis from 34 to 5% showing economical benefits of the interventions. Partial budget technique was used to analyze its impact in the registered herds. The farmers recorded monthly quantities of different feed ingredients and seasonal green fodder offered to the animals. From this data set total metabolizeable energy requirements and availability from feed were computed which revealed that animals were deficient in metabolizeable energy in all locations. This was also confirmed by seasonal variation in body condition scoring. At some selected farms the mineral mixture supplement was introduced which exhibited increased milk yield by 5 % in addition to shorten service period by 30 days. Three sessions of training were arranged to train the farmers to care new born calves, daily farm management and detect the animals in heat efficiently to enhance the over all income of the farmers. The overall income of the farm was increased by 40%.

A. Ghaffar

2010-02-01

197

An Object Oriented Approach to Simulation of TRIGA Mark II Dynamic Response  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper deals with the development of a model for the nuclear research reactor TRIGA Mark II operating at University of Pavia. The purpose of the modeling is to reproduce the dynamic behavior of the reactor on the entire operative power range, i.e. 0-250 kW, using the object oriented approach, implemented by the Modelica language. The main advantage is the a-causal formulation of the model, based on equations instead of statement assignment. Equations do not specify which variables are inputs and which are outputs, thus the causality in the model is unspecified and is fixed only when the corresponding equation system is solved. In this way, equations can be solved according to the data flow context in which the solution is computed. The model describes the entire plant, including the heat removal system. The component representing the reactor core contains a series of sub-components linked together through rigorously defined interfaces: in this way, it is possible to consider the interactions between the different physical aspects of the system. Equations governing natural circulation have been implemented in a component which defines the mass flow rate through the core, according to the temperature difference at the ends of the channels. Secondary and tertiary cooling loops are modeled using a simplified heat exchangers configuration: concentric tube version is adopted, which allows recreating the heat exchange dynamics without a great modeling effort. The developthout a great modeling effort. The developed a-causal model has been validated through the comparison with experimental data collected on the site, concerning three different power transients at 100 kW, 50 kW and 1 kW. A corresponding causal model has been referenced as concerns fuel and coolant temperatures evolution during the transients. The predictions of the two main approaches to dynamic modeling have been compared. A very satisfying accordance is found as discrepancies observed on the coolant temperature are comprised between 0.5% and 1% for the three transients. (author)

198

Effective Youth Ministry: Embracing a family-orientated approach / Effektiewe Jeugbediening: Omhelsing van 'n familie-georiënteerde benadering  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english This article embraces the Sola Scriptura approach of the reformed theology. Firstly, the article focuses on the crisis in Youth Ministry, namely its inefficiency in leading young people to Christian maturity. It addressed one of the contributing factors to the crisis: the isolation of youth from the [...] adult world, and particularly from their own parents and the larger church community. From the Sola Scriptura principle, a family-orientated approach to effective Youth Ministry is proposed where parents are expected to take responsibility for their children's spiritual growth. The church should then support parents and families in this process. Different role players in a family-orientated Youth Ministry are identified and some new perceptions regarding their different tasks are proposed.

Philippa, Strong.

2014-02-01

199

Ideas for a pattern-oriented approach towards a VERA analysis ensemble  

Science.gov (United States)

Ideas for a pattern-oriented approach towards a VERA analysis ensemble For many applications in meteorology and especially for verification purposes it is important to have some information about the uncertainties of observation and analysis data. A high quality of these "reference data" is an absolute necessity as the uncertainties are reflected in verification measures. The VERA (Vienna Enhanced Resolution Analysis) scheme includes a sophisticated quality control tool which accounts for the correction of observational data and provides an estimation of the observation uncertainty. It is crucial for meteorologically and physically reliable analysis fields. VERA is based on a variational principle and does not need any first guess fields. It is therefore NWP model independent and can also be used as an unbiased reference for real time model verification. For downscaling purposes VERA uses an a priori knowledge on small-scale physical processes over complex terrain, the so called "fingerprint technique", which transfers information from rich to data sparse regions. The enhanced Joint D-PHASE and COPS data set forms the data base for the analysis ensemble study. For the WWRP projects D-PHASE and COPS a joint activity has been started to collect GTS and non-GTS data from the national and regional meteorological services in Central Europe for 2007. Data from more than 11.000 stations are available for high resolution analyses. The usage of random numbers as perturbations for ensemble experiments is a common approach in meteorology. In most implementations, like for NWP-model ensemble systems, the focus lies on error growth and propagation on the spatial and temporal scale. When defining errors in analysis fields we have to consider the fact that analyses are not time dependent and that no perturbation method aimed at temporal evolution is possible. Further, the method applied should respect two major sources of analysis errors: Observation errors AND analysis or interpolation errors. With the concept of an analysis ensemble we hope to get a more detailed sight on both sources of analysis errors. For the computation of the VERA ensemble members a sample of Gaussian random perturbations is produced for each station and parameter. The deviation of perturbations is based on the correction proposals by the VERA QC scheme to provide some "natural" limits for the ensemble. In order to put more emphasis on the weather situation we aim to integrate the main synoptic field structures as weighting factors for the perturbations. Two widely approved approaches are used for the definition of these main field structures: The Principal Component Analysis and a 2D-Discrete Wavelet Transform. The results of tests concerning the implementation of this pattern-supported analysis ensemble system and a comparison of the different approaches are given in the presentation.

Gorgas, T.; Dorninger, M.

2010-09-01

200

Revealing the Effects of Entrepreneurial Orientation on Firm Performance: A Conceptual Approach  

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Full Text Available The study aims to investigate the effects of entrepreneurial orientation on firm performance. Entrepreneurial orientation has emerged as an important construct within the strategic management and entrepreneurship literatures over the past two decades. In recent times, especially with the growth of globalization and other such factors, the performance measurement standards and parameters have changed. This has also led to a significant change in the factors that are now used within the operational sphere of an organization in order to affect the firm performance. Empirical studies on the determinants of firm performance have identified that the entrepreneurial orientation of the firms senior management has a significant positive influence. However, the study suggests that the performance implications of entrepreneurial orientation might vary depending on the firms circumstances.

Kuo-Hsiung Chen

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

A Comprehensive Assessment of Object-Oriented Software Systems Using Metrics Approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Demand for efficient software is increasing day by day and object-oriented design technique became able to fulfill this demand because it is the most powerful mechanism to develop efficient software systems. It can not only help in reducing the cost but also helps in the development of high quality software systems. Software developers need appropriate metrics to develop efficient software system. Object-oriented metrics can play important role in this aspect due to their importance in the de...

Sanjay Kumar Dubey; Prof. (Dr.) Ajay Rana

2010-01-01

202

A New Focus on Distance Learning for Physically Impaired Students: A Multi-agent Oriented Approach  

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Full Text Available Physically impaired students cannot continue their studies in the existing education system due to some major problems. A multi-agent oriented distance learning system can be a better solution for disabled students to continue their studies. In this paper, a scheme of a multi-agent oriented distance learning system has been proposed. Agents within the system work on the basis of centralized as well as distributed multi-agent planning for inter-agent communication, collaboration and negotiation.

Shiladitya Pujari

2012-08-01

203

Software Quality Analysis by Object Oriented Approach in Design Phase Using UML  

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Full Text Available Software Quality is the degree to which a finished product conforms to its specifications. The earlier a fault is detected and is removed the easier it is to fix. Object oriented metrics focus on the combination of functions and data as an integrated object. Object oriented paradigm substantially improves productivity due to the effect of reuse. Requirement specifications, designs and test plans are all artifacts that could potentially be fully or partially be reused in different projects.Object O

Anand Handa

2011-12-01

204

Towards an Aspect-Oriented Approach of Multi-Agent Programming  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Programming large systems requires to cut them in smaller pieces (modules, objects, components, agents, ...). In all but trivial cases, choices must be made about what will be the pieces, and some aspects are inevitably spread out over several parts. In Object-Oriented Programming, these have been identified as "Crosscutting Concerns", and Aspect-Oriented Programming is about a reunification of these transversal aspects of the system. In multi-agent programming, one of the crosscutting concer...

Amiguet, Matthieu; Nagy, Adina; Baez, Jose?

2004-01-01

205

A New Focus on Distance Learning for Physically Impaired Students: A Multi-agent Oriented Approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Physically impaired students cannot continue their studies in the existing education system due to some major problems. A multi-agent oriented distance learning system can be a better solution for disabled students to continue their studies. In this paper, a scheme of a multi-agent oriented distance learning system has been proposed. Agents within the system work on the basis of centralized as well as distributed multi-agent planning for inter-agent communication, collaboration and negotiation.

Shiladitya Pujari; Subrata Mondal

2012-01-01

206

A Process-Oriented Approach to Support Multi-Role Multi-Stage E-Assessment: A Case Study  

Science.gov (United States)

This chapter presents a process-oriented approach to support assessment in learning networks. Assessment in its broadest sense can be conceived as the ‘systematic gathering of information and evidence about a person’s properties (qualifications), based on a process, a product or the progress of a person, for the purposes of certification, placement or diagnoses in formative and summative contexts’ (Joosten-ten Brinke et al. 2007). This definition includes classical assessment and complex assessment.

Miao, Yongwu; Hermans, Henry

207

Design-oriented approach for strain-softening and strain-hardening fibre hybrid reinforced concrete elements failing in bending  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the present paper a design oriented model is proposed to evaluate the flexural resistance of elements of fibre reinforced concrete (FRC) of tensile strain-softening or tensile strain-hardening behaviour and strengthened longitudinally by steel bars in the tensile zone of a rectangular cross section. The cross sectional moment-curvature response predicted by this model is used in a numerical approach to predict the load-deflection relationship of beams failing in bending. To ...

Taheri, Mahsa; Barros, Joaquim A. O.; Salehian, Hamidreza

2011-01-01

208

School Outcomes in New South Wales and Queensland: A Regression Discontinuity Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines the differences in school (NAPLAN) outcomes between New South Wales and Queensland. It shows that there are pronounced differences in Year 3 NAPLAN results between these states, though these dissipate when later class years are considered. The reasons for these state effects in school outcomes are explored using an empirical…

Miller, Paul W.; Voon, Derby

2014-01-01

209

Magnetic orientation of the Common Toad: establishing an arena approach for adult anurans  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Magnetic orientation is a taxonomically widespread phenomenon in the animal kingdom, but has been little studied in anuran amphibians. We collected Common Toads (Bufo bufo during their migration towards their spawning pond and tested them shortly after displacement for possible magnetic orientation in arena experiments. Animals were tested in two different set-ups, in the geomagnetic field and in a reversed magnetic field. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study testing orientation of adult anurans with a controlled magnetic field of a known strength and alignment. Results After displacement, toads oriented themselves unimodally under the geomagnetic field, following their former migration direction (d-axis. When the magnetic field was reversed, the distribution of bearings changed from a unimodal to a bimodal pattern, but still along the d-axis. The clustering of bearings was only significant after the toads reached the outer circle, 60.5 cm from their starting point. At a virtual inner circle (diameter 39 cm and at the start of the experiment, orientation of toads did not show any significant pattern. Conclusions The experimental set-up used in our study is suitable to test orientation behaviour of the Common Toad. We speculate that toads had not enough time to relocate their position on an internal map. Hence, they followed their former migration direction. Bimodality in orientation when exposed to the reversed magnetic field could be the result of a cue conflict, between magnetic and possibly celestial cues. For maintaining their migration direction toads use, at least partly, the geomagnetic field as a reference system.

Gollmann Günter

2011-03-01

210

Promulgate: an approach to Optimize the data transfer in Service Oriented Architecture  

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Full Text Available The main potential benefit of Service-oriented architecture (SOA is applying across multiple solution environments based on the request and reply paradigm. Service-oriented architecture integrates both enterprise and application architectures. When the services and size of the workflow increases, the SOA orchestration reaches the scalability limits and same effected on the data transmission between services, a standard orchestration desires to transport all the data through a workflow engine when communicate on the web service without any third party data transfer, which results redundant data transfer and engine to become a bottleneck to execution of a workflow. As a solution, we present Promulgate, an alternative service-oriented architecture. Promulgate proposed an orchestration model as central control in grouping with a choreography model of optimized distributed data transport. We are using Data caching techniques by using dynamic proxy deployment and SOAP compression techniques by using zipped SOAP for this hybrid architecture to optimize the data transfer in SOA.

B. Chandra Mouli , Prof. C. Rajendra

2012-06-01

211

Numerical approach of the injection molding process of fiber-reinforced composite with considering fiber orientation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of the most important challenges in the injection molding process of the short-glass fiber/thermoplastic composite parts is being able to predict the fiber orientation, since it controls the mechanical and the physical properties of the final parts. Folgar and Tucker included into the Jeffery equation a diffusive type of term, which introduces a phenomenological coefficient for modeling the randomizing effect of the mechanical interactions between the fibers, to predict the fiber orientation in concentrated suspensions. Their experiments indicated that this coefficient depends on the fiber volume fraction and aspect ratio. However, a definition of the fiber interaction coefficient, which is very necessary in the fiber orientation simulations, hasn't still been proven yet. Consequently, this study proposed a developed fiber interaction model that has been introduced a fiber dynamics simulation in order to obtain a global fiber interaction coefficient. This supposed that the coefficient is a sum function of the fiber concentration, aspect ratio, and angular velocity. The proposed model was incorporated into a computer aided engineering simulation package C-Mold. Short-glass fiber/polyamide-6 composites were produced in the injection molding with the fiber weight concentration of 30 wt.%, 50 wt.%, and 70 wt.%. The physical properties of these composites were examined, and their fiber orientation distributions were measured by micro-computed-tomography equipment ?-CT. The simulation results showed a good agreement with experiment results.

Nguyen Thi, T. B., E-mail: thanhbinh.skku@gmail.com, E-mail: yokoyama@kit.ac.jp; Yokoyama, A., E-mail: thanhbinh.skku@gmail.com, E-mail: yokoyama@kit.ac.jp [Department of Advanced Fibro-Science, Kyoto Institute of Technology (Japan); Ota, K., E-mail: kei-ota@toyobo.jp, E-mail: katsuhiro-kodama@toyobo.jp, E-mail: katsuhisa-yamashita@toyobo.jp, E-mail: yumiko-isogai@toyobo.jp, E-mail: kenji-furuichi@toyobo.jp, E-mail: chisato-nonomura@toyobo.jp; Kodama, K., E-mail: kei-ota@toyobo.jp, E-mail: katsuhiro-kodama@toyobo.jp, E-mail: katsuhisa-yamashita@toyobo.jp, E-mail: yumiko-isogai@toyobo.jp, E-mail: kenji-furuichi@toyobo.jp, E-mail: chisato-nonomura@toyobo.jp; Yamashita, K., E-mail: kei-ota@toyobo.jp, E-mail: katsuhiro-kodama@toyobo.jp, E-mail: katsuhisa-yamashita@toyobo.jp, E-mail: yumiko-isogai@toyobo.jp, E-mail: kenji-furuichi@toyobo.jp, E-mail: chisato-nonomura@toyobo.jp; Isogai, Y., E-mail: kei-ota@toyobo.jp, E-mail: katsuhiro-kodama@toyobo.jp, E-mail: katsuhisa-yamashita@toyobo.jp, E-mail: yumiko-isogai@toyobo.jp, E-mail: kenji-furuichi@toyobo.jp, E-mail: chisato-nonomura@toyobo.jp; Furuichi, K., E-mail: kei-ota@toyobo.jp, E-mail: katsuhiro-kodama@toyobo.jp, E-mail: katsuhisa-yamashita@toyobo.jp, E-mail: yumiko-isogai@toyobo.jp, E-mail: kenji-furuichi@toyobo.jp, E-mail: chisato-nonomura@toyobo.jp; Nonomura, C., E-mail: kei-ota@toyobo.jp, E-mail: katsuhiro-kodama@toyobo.jp, E-mail: katsuhisa-yamashita@toyobo.jp, E-mail: yumiko-isogai@toyobo.jp, E-mail: kenji-furuichi@toyobo.jp, E-mail: chisato-nonomura@toyobo.jp [Toyobo Co., LTD. Research Center (Japan)

2014-05-15

212

Process Recording Revisited: A Learning-Oriented Thematic Approach Integrating Field Education and Classroom Curriculum  

Science.gov (United States)

A learning-oriented thematic model of process recording is proposed in which the student's recording is based on internal and external learning themes, pre-selected by the student and the field education instructor. The themes, which serve as the organizing focus of the recording, parallel classroom curricula, agency service, and student learning…

Black, Phyllis N.; Feld, Allen

2006-01-01

213

Applying a Constructive-Developmental Approach to Issues of Sexual Orientation and Religion in Career Counseling  

Science.gov (United States)

An individual's constructive development, or system of meaning making, is relevant to the process of career counseling. A description of constructive-developmental theory and how that theory may be integrated in career counseling is provided, focusing on a case study that addresses issues of sexual orientation and religious identity. Methods for…

Paul, Parrish L.

2008-01-01

214

Orientation and Mobility Content for Children and Youths: A Delphi Approach Pilot Study  

Science.gov (United States)

A panel of 20 experts in orientation and mobility (O&M) reached consensus on concepts and skills that O&M specialists should teach to students who are blind or have low vision. Panelists also agreed on visual, environmental, and behavioral conditions that would require a formal O&M assessment.

Emerson, Robert S. Wall; Corn, Anne L.

2006-01-01

215

Numerical approach of the injection molding process of fiber-reinforced composite with considering fiber orientation  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the most important challenges in the injection molding process of the short-glass fiber/thermoplastic composite parts is being able to predict the fiber orientation, since it controls the mechanical and the physical properties of the final parts. Folgar and Tucker included into the Jeffery equation a diffusive type of term, which introduces a phenomenological coefficient for modeling the randomizing effect of the mechanical interactions between the fibers, to predict the fiber orientation in concentrated suspensions. Their experiments indicated that this coefficient depends on the fiber volume fraction and aspect ratio. However, a definition of the fiber interaction coefficient, which is very necessary in the fiber orientation simulations, hasn't still been proven yet. Consequently, this study proposed a developed fiber interaction model that has been introduced a fiber dynamics simulation in order to obtain a global fiber interaction coefficient. This supposed that the coefficient is a sum function of the fiber concentration, aspect ratio, and angular velocity. The proposed model was incorporated into a computer aided engineering simulation package C-Mold. Short-glass fiber/polyamide-6 composites were produced in the injection molding with the fiber weight concentration of 30 wt.%, 50 wt.%, and 70 wt.%. The physical properties of these composites were examined, and their fiber orientation distributions were measured by micro-computed-tomography equipment ?-CT. The simulation results showed a good agreement with experiment results.

Nguyen Thi, T. B.; Yokoyama, A.; Ota, K.; Kodama, K.; Yamashita, K.; Isogai, Y.; Furuichi, K.; Nonomura, C.

2014-05-01

216

An Achievement Degree Analysis Approach to Identifying Learning Problems in Object-Oriented Programming  

Science.gov (United States)

Students often face difficulties while learning object-oriented programming (OOP) concepts. Many papers have presented various assessment methods for diagnosing learning problems to improve the teaching of programming in computer science (CS) higher education. The research presented in this article illustrates that although max-min composition is…

Allinjawi, Arwa A.; Al-Nuaim, Hana A.; Krause, Paul

2014-01-01

217

Structuring requirements as necessary premise for customer-oriented development of complex products: A generic approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: Complex products like for example intra-logistical facilities make high demands on developers and producers and involve high investment and operating costs. When planning and developing and also making buying decisions the facility utilization and the thus ensuing requirements on the facility and its components are inadequately considered to date. Nevertheless, with regard to customer-directed product design, these requirements must all be taken into account – especially as they can contribute to possible savings. In this context, it is necessary to survey and systematically regard requirements from a large number of areas like for example the operator, the facility producer and also requirements of external parties such as the law and to implement into adequate product characteristics to produce customer-oriented products. This is, however, a difficult task because of the diversity of stakeholders involved and their numerous and often divergent requirements. Therefore, it is essential to structure the requirements, so that planners and developers are able to manage the large amount of information. Structure models can be used in this context to cluster requirements. Within the German Collaborative Research Centre 696 a 10-dimensional model has been developed. This model allows structuring of all requirements on intra-logistical facilities or respectively complex products in general. In the context of dealing with hundreds of data records, structuring requirements is mandatory to achieve accuracy, clarity and consequently satisfactory results when transforming requirements into product characteristics which fit customer needs. In the paper an excerpt of this model is presented. Design/methodology/approach: In literature a multitude of methods which deal with the topic of structuring exist. The methods have been analysed regarding their purpose and their level of specification, i.e. the number of differentiated categories, to check if they could be applied in the regarded area of intra-logistics. Also potential stakeholders have been identified to ensure that the surveying of requirements is not incomplete. Based on these analyses an own model has been developed which combines, adepts and enlarges the existing methods. Findings: A 10-dimensional model has been developed for structuring requirements on intra-logistical facilities. This model is holistic, because additionally it allows capturing the stakeholders’ feedback to the requirements’ fulfilment. The dimensions of the model can be divided into four groups. The first one serves to structure the requirements regarding their content. These are the dimensions obligations, surroundings, information, qualification, technical-functional requirements and qualification. The second group serves to structure the reference object to which the requirements refer and includes the dimension product. Weighted level of performance and customer satisfaction are part of the third group, which encompasses the evaluation of the requirements’ fulfilment. The fourth group is for the temporal structuring of requirements and includes the dimension time. For applying the model it has been implemented for data processing as component of a large data processing system. The developed model is presented in this paper. Research limitations/implications: A 10-idimensional model for structuring requirements is presented in this paper. Thereby, a sub-division of the dimensions into categories and sub-categories has been made to ensure a topical classification of the requirements and additionally a structuring according to their level of specification. Considering individual dimensions and/or selected categories of dimensions allow a thematic focus to be placed on certain groups of requirements. This is particularly important, not only for the implementation of requirements into solutions but also for focusing on the needs of individual stakeholders, if e.g. requirements on maintenance have to be observed. Using the model, working with lots of requ

Sandra Klute

2011-10-01

218

A goal-oriented adaptive finite-element approach for multi-electrode resistivity system  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a novel accurate and efficient goal-oriented adaptive finite-element method solution for complex multi-electrodes resistivity system with arbitrary smooth surface topographies. A simple Green's function of a half-space model is adopted to eliminate the singularity. A unified boundary value problem for the regular potential is formulated for a multi-electrodes system so that it shares a common system matrix. In addition, a goal-oriented error estimation technique is developed to generate an optimal common grid so that highly accurate solutions are obtained with minimum computation cost. Synthetic models are used to verify our algorithm and excellent agreements are obtained by comparing with other methods.

Ren, Zhengyong; Tang, Jingtian

2014-10-01

219

Performance Measurement of Service Oriented Enterprise: An EVA-Based Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Service Oriented Enterprise (SOE has brought up requirement for performance measurement of the novel business model in its dynamic and flexible business environment. To solve the problem, conception of SOE is discussed from business perspective firstly, and an operation architecture of SOE is proposed and analyzed. The Service Oriented Economic Value Added (SO-EVA performance measurement model is then presented. The model structure of SO-EVA, construction and calculation of indicators, as well as application are given and discussed in this paper. The SO-EVA model is based on the Economic Value Added (EVA method, extends EVA into multiple levels and introduces Independent Performance Factors (IPF, to focus on value creation and attain comprehensive performance measurement of SOE, with agility and flexibility. A case study is also given, indicating that the presented model not only better reflects the performance of business operation compared to traditional models, but also supports the business model of SOE more effectively.

Weiran Wang

2011-05-01

220

Maintainability Prediction of Object Oriented Software System by Using Artificial Neural Network Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Maintainability is an imperative attribute of software quality. However the prediction of this attribute is a cumbersome process. Therefore various methodologies are proposed so far to estimate the maintainability of software. Among them Artificial Neural Network is one of the sophisticated techniques which have immense prediction capability and this paper explores its application to evaluate maintainability of the object-oriented software. In this study maintenance effort was chosen as the dependent variable and principal components of object-oriented metrics as the independent variables. Prediction of maintainability is performed by Multi Layer Perceptron (MLP neural network model. The results obtained from the current study are also compared with other models and it is revealed that the presented model is more useful than the previous one.

Yajnaseni Dash

2012-05-01

 
 
 
 
221

North American Oriented Strand Board Markets, Arbitrage Activity, and Market Price Dynamics: A Smooth Transition Approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Price dynamics for North American oriented strand board (OSB) markets are examined. The role of transactions costs are explored vis-a-vis the law of one price. Weekly data, February 3rd, 1995 through October 9th, 2009, are used in the analysis. Nonlinearities induced by unobservable transactions costs are modeled by estimating Time-Varying Smooth Transition Autoregressions (TV-STARs). Results indicate that nonlinearity and structural change are important features of these markets; price...

Goodwin, Barry K.; Holt, Matthew T.; Prestemon, Jeffery P.

2008-01-01

222

Problem-Oriented Approaches in the Context of Health Care Education: Perspectives and Lessons  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The current study aimed to explore and articulate some of the key issues in problem-oriented learning (POL), in the context of health care education. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with faculties representing four different health care disciplines around common issues identified in a prior survey study. Thematic analysis of the interview data revealed that POL practice among health care educators includes both problem-based learning (PBL) in the strict sense, and a much broader int...

Kang, Weiqun Courtney; Jordan, Elizabeth; Porath, Marion

2009-01-01

223

Designing Logical Topology for Wireless Sensor Networks: A Multi-Chain Oriented Approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An optimal logical topology of a wireless sensor network (WSN) facilitates the deployed sensor nodes tocommunicate with each other with little overheads,lowers energy consumption, lengthens lifetime of thenetwork, provides scalability, increases reliability, and reduces latency. Designing an optimal logicaltopology for a WSN thus needs to consider numerousfactors. Chain oriented topologies have been foundto offer a number of improvements in energy consumptions, lifetime, and load balancing th...

Quazi Mamun

2013-01-01

224

A Quantitative Measure for Object Oriented Design Approach for Large-Scale Systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Object Oriented development methodology is a trend in software development for complex systems. The architecture of the application domain depends on the nature of problem statement in hand. Successdepends on the overall design of a software in terms of flexibility and maintainability. Identifying and rectifying the design faults at early stage of development reduces cost and effort on the project by not exceeding the calendar. Quality metrics are helpful for the designer in measuring solutio...

Ms. Poornima U S

2011-01-01

225

A Novel Approach for Troubleshooting Microprocessor based Systems using An Object Oriented Expert System  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper presents an object oriented fault diagnostic expert system framework which analyses observations from the unit under test when fault occurs and infers the causes of failures. The frame work is characterized by two basic features. The first includes a fault diagnostic strategy which utilizes the fault classification and checks knowledge about unit under test. The fault classification knowledge reduces the complexity in fault diagnosis by partitioning the fault section. The second cha...

D V Kodavade, S. D. Apte

2012-01-01

226

The prediction of breast cancer biopsy outcomes using two CAD approaches that both emphasize an intelligible decision process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mammography is the most effective method for breast cancer screening available today. However, the low positive predictive value of breast biopsy resulting from mammogram interpretation leads to approximately 70% unnecessary biopsies with benign outcomes. To reduce the high number of unnecessary breast biopsies, several computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems have been proposed in the last several years. These systems help physicians in their decision to perform a breast biopsy on a suspicious lesion seen in a mammogram or to perform a short term follow-up examination instead. We present two novel CAD approaches that both emphasize an intelligible decision process to predict breast biopsy outcomes from BI-RADS findings. An intelligible reasoning process is an important requirement for the acceptance of CAD systems by physicians. The first approach induces a global model based on decison-tree learning. The second approach is based on case-based reasoning and applies an entropic similarity measure. We have evaluated the performance of both CAD approaches on two large publicly available mammography reference databases using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, bootstrap sampling, and the ANOVA statistical significance test. Both approaches outperform the diagnosis decisions of the physicians. Hence, both systems have the potential to reduce the number of unnecessary breast biopsies in clinical practice. A comparison of the performance of the proposed decisionf the performance of the proposed decision tree and CBR approaches with a state of the art approach based on artificial neural networks (ANN) shows that the CBR approach performs slightly better than the ANN approach, which in turn results in slightly better performance than the decision-tree approach. The differences are statistically significant (p value <0.001). On 2100 masses extracted from the DDSM database, the CRB approach for example resulted in an area under the ROC curve of A(z)=0.89±0.01, the decision-tree approach in A(z)=0.87±0.01, and the ANN approach in A(z)=0.88±0.01

227

COMO An approach to Object Oriented Analysis and Design for High Energy Physics applications of algorithmic nature  

CERN Document Server

The emergence of the Object Oriented technology is having major consequences on the evolution of the software for High Energy Physics. Given the lack of maturity of the commercial products currently available, it is too early to make a statement on which OO languages and methodologies will survive up to the start of the Large Hadron Collider. The opinion of the author is that many traditional design features successfully tested during the last two decades are rather independent from any specific language characteristics. They still appear as valuable and could be seamlessly transposed into the Object world. They constitute the skeleton of the COMO approach presented in this note.

Bruyant, F

1996-01-01

228

Assessing asthma control: An evidence-based approach to improve skills and outcomes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The goal of asthma therapy is to achieve and maintain good asthma control. By utilizing evidence-based guidelines recommended by the National Asthma Education Prevention Program Expert Panel-3 Report, nurse practitioners can improve assessment of asthma control, and ultimately improve asthma outcomes. PMID:23695712

Yates, Christy

2013-06-10

229

Evaluating Pharmacy Students' Ability-Based Educational Outcomes Using an Assessment Center Approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

A Purdue University (Indiana) project assessed four outcomes of pharmaceutical education: group interaction; problem solving; written communication skills; and interpersonal communication skills. Four instruments were developed, and eight groups of four students were assessed using them. Students also self-assessed performance and later met…

Purkerson, Dana L.; And Others

1996-01-01

230

Ovarian serous adenocarcinoma identified during IVF: diagnostic approach, surgical management, and reproductive outcome  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background To present a diagnostic evaluation and treatment strategy for serous adenocarcinoma of the ovary discovered during an in vitro fertilisation (IVF) sequence, and report on reproductive outcome after tumour resection and embryo transfer. Case presentation Cycle monitoring in IVF identified an abnormal ovarian lesion which was subjected to ultrasound-guided needle aspiration. Cytology suggested malignancy, and unilateral oophorectomy was perform...

Gleeson Noreen C; Shkrobot Lyuda V; Sills Eric; Walsh David J; Sheppard Mary N; Ph, Walsh Anthony

2009-01-01

231

Breastfeeding and the child cognitive outcomes: a propensity score matching approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

To estimate the effect of breastfeeding initiation and duration on child development outcomes. 3,271 children and their mothers participating in the Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics provide data for these analyses. Main outcomes include Woodcock Johnson Psycho-Educational Battery-Revised (WJ-R) test score (letter word, passage comprehension, applied problem, and broad reading), and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) test score at the 2002 survey. Controlled variables include family, maternal, and child characteristics, many of which can be traced back to the year the child was born. The analytic technique is propensity score matching with multiple imputations. After using propensity scores to adjust for confounding factors, breastfeeding initiation showed statistically significant effects but the practical scale remains small. Breastfeeding duration showed a non-linear effect on those outcomes and most of the effects are not significant. The effects of breastfeeding on child's cognitive outcomes are modest in practical terms. The non-linear effects suggest that selection into breastfeeding may account for the increased score of children who are breastfed. PMID:20848171

Jiang, Miao; Foster, E Michael; Gibson-Davis, Christina M

2011-11-01

232

Learner differences and learning outcomes in an introductory biochemistry class: attitude toward images, visual cognitive skills, and learning approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

The practice of using images in teaching is widespread, and in science education images are used so extensively that some have argued they are now the "main vehicle of communication" (C. Ferreira, A. Arroio Problems Educ. 21st Century 2009, 16, 48-53). Although this phenomenon is especially notable in the field of biochemistry, we know little about the role and importance of images in communicating concepts to students in the classroom. This study reports the development of a scale to assess students' attitude toward biochemical images, particularly their willingness and ability to use the images to support their learning. In addition, because it is argued that images are central in the communication of biochemical concepts, we investigated three "learner differences" which might impact learning outcomes in this kind of classroom environment: attitude toward images, visual cognitive skills, and learning approach. Overall, the students reported a positive attitude toward the images, the majority agreeing that they liked images and considered them useful. However, the participants also reported that verbal explanations were more important than images in helping them to understand the concepts. In keeping with this we found that there was no relationship between learning outcomes and the students' self-reported attitude toward images or visual cognitive skills. In contrast, learning outcomes were significantly correlated with the students' self-reported approach to learning. These findings suggest that images are not necessarily the main vehicle of communication in a biochemistry classroom and that verbal explanations and encouragement of a deep learning approach are important considerations in improving our pedagogical approach. PMID:23382135

Milner, Rachel E

2014-01-01

233

The Effects of Discipline on Deep Approaches to Student Learning and College Outcomes  

Science.gov (United States)

"Deep learning" represents student engagement in approaches to learning that emphasize integration, synthesis, and reflection. Because learning is a shared responsibility between students and faculty, it is important to determine whether faculty members emphasize deep approaches to learning and to assess how much students employ these approaches.…

Nelson Laird, Thomas F.; Shoup, Rick; Kuh, George D.; Schwarz, Michael J.

2008-01-01

234

A Development-Oriented IS Evaluation Approach: Case Demonstration for DSS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Information systems (IS development research needs a broader conceptual lens for evaluating IS design qualities. Most conventional IS evaluation approaches are focused on narrow objectives, such as the process and content rather than the development process as a whole. This paper describes a qualitative evaluation of a new approach that extends evaluation strategies to incorporate development phases, specifically within decision support systems (DSS development. The conceptual approach is based on a mental model from the design science research paradigm and evaluates DSS development at various design checkpoints. This paper also describes qualitative findings on the applicability of the conceptual approach in a socio-technical design context.

Shah J Miah

2012-04-01

235

Orientation of human optokinetic nystagmus to gravity: a model-based approach  

Science.gov (United States)

Optokinetic nystagmus (OKN) was induced by having subjects watch a moving display in a binocular, head-fixed apparatus. The display was composed of 3.3 degrees stripes moving at 35 degrees/s for 45 s. It subtended 88 degrees horizontally by 72 degrees vertically of the central visual field and could be oriented to rotate about axes that were upright or tilted 45 degrees or 90 degrees. The head was held upright or was tilted 45 degrees left or right on the body during stimulation. Head-horizontal (yaw axis) and head-vertical (pitch axis) components of OKN were recorded with electro-oculography (EOG). Slow phase velocity vectors were determined and compared with the axis of stimulation and the spatial vertical (gravity axis). With the head upright, the axis of eye rotation during yaw axis OKN was coincident with the stimulus axis and the spatial vertical. With the head tilted, a significant vertical component of eye velocity appeared during yaw axis stimulation. As a result the axis of eye rotation shifted from the stimulus axis toward the spatial vertical. Vertical components developed within 1-2 s of stimulus onset and persisted until the end of stimulation. In the six subjects there was a mean shift of the axis of eye rotation during yaw axis stimulation of approximately 18 degrees with the head tilted 45 degrees on the body. Oblique optokinetic stimulation with the head upright was associated with a mean shift of the axis of eye rotation toward the spatial vertical of 9.2 degrees. When the head was tilted and the same oblique stimulation was given, the axis of eye rotation rotated to the other side of the spatial vertical by 5.4 degrees. This counterrotation of the axis of eye rotation is similar to the "Muller (E) effect," in which the perception of the upright is counterrotated to the opposite side of the spatial vertical when subjects are tilted in darkness. The data were simulated by a model of OKN with a "direct" and "indirect" pathway. It was assumed that the direct visual pathway is oriented in a body, not a spatial frame of reference. Despite the short optokinetic after-nystagmus time constants, strong horizontal to vertical cross-coupling could be produced if the horizontal and vertical time constants were in proper ratio and there were no suppression of nystagmus in directions orthogonal to the stimulus direction. The model demonstrates that the spatial orientation of OKN can be achieved by restructuring the system matrix of velocity storage. We conclude that an important function of velocity storage is to orient slow-phase velocity toward the spatial vertical during movement in a terrestrial environment.

Gizzi, M.; Raphan, T.; Rudolph, S.; Cohen, B.

1994-01-01

236

An object-oriented approach to the management of meteorological and hydrological data  

Science.gov (United States)

An interface to several meteorological and hydrological databases have been developed that enables researchers efficiently to access and interrelate data through a customized menu system. By extending a relational database system with object-oriented concepts, each user or group of users may have different 'views' of the data to allow user access to data in customized ways without altering the organization of the database. An application to COHMEX and WetNet, two earth science projects within NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's Earth Science and Applications Division, are described.

Graves, S. J.; Williams, S. F.; Criswell, E. A.

1990-01-01

237

Approaches to help people with diabetes overcome barriers for improved health outcomes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diabetes has reached epidemic proportions, and studies have shown that many patients do not reach optimal glycemic control. Evidence suggests that often there is a long lapse between treatment failure and therapy advancement. A better understanding of the pharmacotherapeutic treatment options, realistic goal-setting, and continued follow-up to support treatment adherence are crucial to improving diabetes care and outcomes. Many possible barriers prevent patients from achieving the desired level of glycemic control, eg, side effects of medications, psychosocial issues, and access to support services. Strategies to overcome these barriers will be presented. Pramlintide, an adjunct to insulin therapy, is the first antihyperglycemic agent to be approved for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes since insulin was developed. Educating patients about the dosing, administration, and side effects of pramlintide before adding it to insulin therapy may improve patient adherence and ultimately optimize treatment outcomes and success. PMID:18268002

Siminerio, Linda M

2008-01-01

238

Human reliability assessment in surgery--a new approach for improving surgical performance and clinical outcome.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Surgical operative performance is currently assessed by audit of morbidity, mortality and, especially in patients with cancer, in terms of long-term outcome. Its chief merit is the identification of problems and sub-optimal results by individual surgeons/centres. There is one aspect of audit that constitutes its intrinsic weakness, the verdict on performance it gives is always retrospective--the problem is identified because of the bad results thrown up by analysis of the data. As a result, t...

Cuschieri, A.

2000-01-01

239

???????????? ??? ?????????? ??? service oriented computing ?? ????????? ???????????? ????????????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

?? ?????????? ??? Service Oriented computing ?????????? ?? ??? ?????? ??? ???????, ????? ??? ???????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ??? Service Oriented ?????????????, ??????? ?? ??? ????? ?? ????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ??? ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ?? ???????? ????????. ? ????????...

???????????, ?????????????-????????

2012-01-01

240

Mindful attention regulation and non-judgmental orientation in depression: a multi-method approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of questionnaires to measure two facets of mindfulness, 'regulation of attention' and 'non-judgmental orientation,' has been criticized. Furthermore, the assumption that depressed individuals show deficits in both facets has not yet been proven. In an attempt to minimize several biases associated with mindfulness questionnaires, we asked 43 currently depressed and 36 never-depressed participants to observe their breathing. The 'regulation of attention' facet of mindfulness was measured by the number of times participants' focus drifted off of their breathing. The 'non-judgmental orientation' facet was assessed using skin conductance response (SCR) and corrugator activity measured by electromyography (EMG), as indicators associated with arousal and negative emotions following drifting, and also by a self-report questionnaire. Depressed patients showed deficits in both facets of mindfulness. Specifically, compared to never-depressed controls, depressed patients drifted focus from their breathing more often, had significantly higher self-reported self-criticism, and displayed an increase in corrugator activity after drifting from breathing. PMID:25038301

Rohde, Katharina; Adolph, Dirk; Dietrich, Detlef E; Michalak, Johannes

2014-09-01

 
 
 
 
241

Practical approach in surface modification of biaxially oriented polypropylene films for gravure printability  

Science.gov (United States)

Biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP) film is one of the most popularly used materials for the gravure printing process in flexible packaging industry. The skin layers of BOPP film were associated with 3-6 weight % of propylene-ethylene copolymer. These films were completely biaxial-oriented by sequential stretching process after which the film surfaces were subjected to corona treatment integrated in the production line. The FT-IR results exhibited that polar functional groups as carbonyl molecules were established on the corona-treated BOPP film. The contact angles of these BOPP films were measured; the surface free energies (SFE) were then calculated. AFM topographical images also agreed well with the SFE which increased as the contents of propylene-ethylene copolymer increased. An approximated 20% increased SFE was obtained for the BOPP film that was associated with 6% propylene-ethylene copolymer. The printing quality on BOPP films was tested by light microscope which confirmed that the chromatic resolution of the printed images improved down to even more smaller groove sizes, 10 or 5 dot%. This improvement was also examined and found to correspond well with the interfacial tensions and work of adhesion between the inks and the modified BOPP films.

Nuntapichedkul, Boonchai; Tantayanon, Supawan; Laohhasurayotin, Kritapas

2014-09-01

242

The Influence of Surgical Approach on Outcome in Birmingham Hip Resurfacing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Various approaches have been described for metal-on-metal hip resurfacing. We compared the posterolateral and direct lateral approaches for complications, pain, function, and implant survival in the short and medium term for two surgeons in a consecutive series of 790 patients (909 hips; July 1997 to July 2004) followed until July 2007. The direct lateral approach group included 135 resurfacing procedures and the posterolateral group included 774 procedures. There was no difference between th...

Mcbryde, Callum W.; Revell, Matthew P.; Thomas, Andrew M.; Treacy, Ronan B.; Pynsent, Paul B.

2008-01-01

243

Interrelations among University Students' Approaches to Learning, Regulation of Learning, and Cognitive and Attributional Strategies: A Person Oriented Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the relationships among approaches to learning, regulation of learning, cognitive and attributional strategies, stress, exhaustion, and study success. University students (N = 437) from three faculties filled in a questionnaire concerning their self-reported study behaviour, cognitive strategies, and well-being. Their…

Heikkila, Annamari; Niemivirta, Markku; Nieminen, Juha; Lonka, Kirsti

2011-01-01

244

The Object Oriented Approach to Machine Physics Calculations with Java Technology  

CERN Document Server

At least as much time is spent solving problems addressed by application support as with actual interaction with the control system, if it is not factored into separate libraries but is coded by each programmer time and time again. Our Java libraries, called Abeans, address these issues in a communication platform independent way. Abeans perform connection management, error and timeout handling, logging, reporting, authentication, resource initialization and destruction, policy and configuration management, etc. Abeans also hide the communication details from the programmer and combine with CosyBeans, our GUI Java components, to form SCADA-like control panels. They are successfully used in such different environments such as a synchrotron light source (ANKA, Germany), an e-p collider complex (DESY, Germany), proton cyclotron (Riken, Japan) and a radio telescope (ESO, Germany). The Java library DataBush has a similar function for machine physics programs. The object oriented design of the library gives program...

Kadunc, M; Plesko, M; Tkacik, G

2001-01-01

245

XML and the VITAL standard: the document-oriented approach for open telemedicine applications.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes an effort to create a common, document-oriented architecture for the interchange of medical data in healthcare telemedicine applications. Key components are: The VITAL standard specifying a common (medical device independent) representation of Vital Signs Information and the Extensible Markup Language (XML) specifying the document specifications form, an architecture that, in aggregate, define the semantics and structural constraints necessary for the exchange of vital signs and related medical data. The modelling and design technique for the described application has been the Unified Modelling Language (UML). The XMI (XML Metadata Interchange Format) of the Object Management Group (OMG) provided the meta-model for this application, for sharing objects using XML, via the transfer of the application's UML model to XML documents and DTDs. PMID:11604709

Anagnostaki, A; Pavlopoulos, S; Koutsouris, D

2001-01-01

246

Economic Regulation of Regional Development: Target Orientation and Functional Content (Conceptual Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article studies theoretical features, target orientation and functional content of economic regulation of regional development. It identifies the content of the “economic regulation of regional development” notion with respect to the region as a territory, economic system and economic space. It establishes that economic regulation of regional development is a system impact on certain parameters, revision of which would ensure positive dynamics in revision of basic characteristics of regions such as properties, features and boundaries. It identifies the main goal and complex of tasks (complexity, target character, variability, resource provision, addressness and manageability of economic regulation of regional development. It shows directions of increase of efficiency of the system of economic regulation of regional development.

Medvid Viktoriia Yu.

2014-03-01

247

Application of object-oriented approach to high resolution remote sensing image classification  

Science.gov (United States)

Compared with the low or middle resolution image, the high resolution Remote Sensing image has the richer structure information and the texture information, and the traditional statistical classification technology based on pixels' spectrum can not obtain the ideal effect; it's produced lots of " pepper and salt noises", "the foreign matter same spectrum" and "the same thing different spectrum". The idea of object-oriented technology produces homogeneous image objects through multi-scale segmentation technology, and provides a way to analyze object's features, such as spectral, shape, topology, texture and so on. And then it carries out the information extraction by fuzzy classification using spectral features and shape features classification, and realizes the functions of discriminating various species and automatic classification.

Wei, Feiming; Li, Xiaowen; Gu, Xingfa; Liu, Shumin; Xu, Hua

2007-11-01

248

Teaching Software Engineering Subjects Using a Practical Oriented Approach at the University of Mumbai  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The University of Mumbai is one of the oldest and renowned universities in India, catering to nearly 20,000 students in the Computer Engineering and Information Technology Engineering disciplines. This translates to approximately 12,000 qraduates entering the software industry. The structure of the coursework related to Software Engineering subjects - Software Engineering, Software Testing and Quality Assurance, Sofware Project Management and Software Architectures - relies heavily on theoretical classroom teaching. In this paper, we suggest changes to the structure of the coursework by shifting the focus to a project-oriented system, that will give the students a real-world-like experience of the Software Engineering subjects. Graduates with a higher level of practical experience of Software Engineering subjects is a win-win situation for everyone concerned, the software industry, the research institutes, and the students themselves.

Mayur S Gondhalekar

2013-12-01

249

Towards a Goal-Driven Approach for Business Process Improvement Using Process-Oriented Data Warehouse  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An emerging approach for business process analysis is to use business intelligence practices by employing data warehouse and decision-making techniques. However, little work has been done on developing core methods and tools to guide process analysis and improvement. Our research addresses this issue by introducing a goal-driven approach for business process improvement using process warehouse. In this paper, we present our three step method and its evaluation through an empirical study. The...

Khurram Shahzad, Muhammad; Giannoulis, Constantinos

2011-01-01

250

An aspect-oriented approach towards enhancing optimistic access control with usage control  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

With the advent of agile programming, lightweight software processes are being favoured over the highly formalised approaches of the 80s and 90s, where the emphasis is on "people, not processes". Likewise, access control may benefit from a less prescriptive approach and an increasing reliance on users to behave ethically. These ideals correlate with optimistic access controls. However, such controls alone may not be adequate as they are retrospective rather proactive. Optimistic access contro...

Padayachee, Keshnee

2010-01-01

251

Using an Epidemiological Approach to Examine Outcomes Affecting Young Children with Down Syndrome and Their Families  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we utilise an approach drawn from the field of epidemiology to explore what is known and unknown about young children with Down syndrome and their families. After describing what we mean by an epidemiological approach, we review basic findings for children with intellectual disabilities, as well as challenges to performing such…

Hodapp, Robert M.; Urbano, Richard C.; So, Stephanie A.

2006-01-01

252

Toward a domain-specific approach to the study of parental psychological control: distinguishing between dependency-oriented and achievement-oriented psychological control.  

Science.gov (United States)

Theory and research suggest that psychologically controlling parenting can be driven by parental concerns in two different domains, that is, interpersonal closeness and achievement. Three studies addressing this hypothesis are presented. Study 1 provides evidence for the validity of the Dependency-Oriented and Achievement-Oriented Psychological Control Scale (DAPCS), a new measure assessing psychological control in these two domains. Study 2 showed that dependency-oriented and achievement-oriented psychological control were related in expected ways to parental separation anxiety and perfectionism in a sample of mothers and fathers. Finally, Study 3 showed that dependency-oriented and achievement-oriented psychological control were differentially related to middle adolescent dependency and self-criticism and that these personality features act as specific intervening variables between the domain-specific expressions of psychological control and depressive symptoms. It is argued that the distinction between two domain-specific expressions of psychological control may allow for a more intricate analysis of the processes involved in intrusive parenting. PMID:20433618

Soenens, Bart; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Luyten, Patrick

2010-02-01

253

A Person-centered Approach to Studying the Linkages among Parent–Child Differences in Cultural Orientation, Supportive Parenting, and Adolescent Depressive Symptoms in Chinese American Families  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This longitudinal study examined whether supportive parenting mediates relations between parent– child differences in cultural orientation (generational dissonance) and depressive symptoms with a sample of 451 first and second generation Chinese American parents and adolescents (12–15 years old at time 1). Using a person-centered approach, meaningful typologies of cultural orientation were derived for fathers, mothers, and adolescents. Overall, results provided support, though qualified, ...

Weaver, Scott R.; Kim, Su Yeong

2008-01-01

254

Green Buildings in Denmark – From radical ecology to consumer oriented market approaches?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Gram-Hanssen and Jensen explore the development of green buildings in Denmark over the last three decades, identifying differences in design philosophies and techniques. They look at four approaches to green buildings: as energy-saving devices, as ecological grassroots alternatives, as subsidised large-scale urban projects, and as consumer products in a market approach. Using detailed case descriptions, the chapter asks to what extent it is possible to define some buildings or some approaches as more 'green' than others. The authors suggest that in order to more fully understand sustainable buildings we must account for the social structuring of both the identification of environmental problems and their resulting embodiment in built form.

Jensen, Jesper Ole; Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten

2004-01-01

255

Health Outcomes for Better Information and Care (HOBIC): integrating patient outcome information into nursing undergraduate curricula.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nursing-sensitive outcomes provide common information across sectors, thus eliminating duplication that frequently occurs as individuals move across settings. These outcomes also facilitate increased trust among colleagues and support common understandings of patient care needs, thus enhancing continuity of care. Outcomes-oriented information is also likely to increase patient safety and improve overall quality of care. Shared standards and data support consistent decision-making, as nursing decisions can be tracked back over time to assess patient care outcomes. Consequently, nurses will have the means to determine the impact of their interventions on patient outcomes. At the same time, adoption of common approaches to patient assessment leads to greater professional accountability and moves nursing care from a task orientation to an outcomes focus. For administrators, such improvements in monitoring and evaluating patient outcomes translate into improvements in efficiencies and effectiveness, thus providing a return on investment in implementing these outcomes within their agency. For nurses, integration and utilization of outcomes information increases the visibility and significance of their decision-making and patient care. Together with patients, nurses can utilize the outcomes information to make evidence-based decisions and advocate for appropriate care. At an aggregate level, the use of outcomes information creates a continuous feedback loop that is essential to ensuring evidence-based care and the best possible patient outcomes, not only for individuals, but also for families, communities and populations. Outcomes-oriented care provides a gateway for transforming the way we care for patients; puts safe, ethical, high-quality care for patients first; embodies the principles of evidence-based practice; ensures that the value of nursing is clearly understood within the larger system; and ensures that the requirements for measurability and accountability can be achieved. This journey is continuous and is being expanded to engage all other health disciplines in understanding and documenting their contributions to patient care, both as individual practitioners and as members of a healthcare team. Preparing nursing students in an outcomes approach will facilitate systemwide adoption of HOBIC patient outcomes over time and provide a means to determine the impact of nursing care on our patients. PMID:17039994

Orchard, Carole; Reid-Haughian, Cheryl; Vanderlee, Rick

2006-09-01

256

Component-oriented approach to the development and use of numerical models in high energy physics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We discuss the main concepts of a component approach to the development and use of numerical models in high energy physics. This approach is realized as the NiMax software system. The discussed concepts are illustrated by numerous examples of the system user session. In appendix chapter we describe physics and numerical algorithms of the model components to perform simulation of hadronic and nuclear collisions at high energies. These components are members of hadronic application modules that have been developed with the help of the NiMax system. Given report is served as an early release of the NiMax manual mainly for model component users

257

A gene sets approach for identifying prognostic gene signatures for outcome prediction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Gene expression profiling is a promising approach to better estimate patient prognosis; however, there are still unresolved problems, including little overlap among similarly developed gene sets and poor performance of a developed gene set in other datasets. Results We applied a gene sets approach to develop a prognostic gene set from multiple gene expression datasets. By analyzing 12 independent breast cancer gene expression datasets compris...

Kim Yong Sung; Kim Seon-Young

2008-01-01

258

Collaborative Evaluation within a Framework of Stakeholder-Oriented Evaluation Approaches  

Science.gov (United States)

Collaborative Evaluation systematically invites and engages stakeholders in program evaluation planning and implementation. Unlike "distanced" evaluation approaches, which reject stakeholder participation as evaluation team members, Collaborative Evaluation assumes that active, on-going engagement between evaluators and program staff, result in…

O'Sullivan, Rita G.

2012-01-01

259

Making the Black Box of Collaborative Learning Transparent: Combining Process-Oriented and Cognitive Load Approaches  

Science.gov (United States)

Traditional research on collaborative learning employs a "black box" approach that makes it difficult to gain a deeper understanding of the differential effects of collaborative learning. To make the black box transparent, researchers have studied the process of collaboration, in order to establish which interaction features are likely to make…

Janssen, Jeroen; Kirschner, Femke; Erkens, Gijsbert; Kirschner, Paul A.; Paas, Fred

2010-01-01

260

A Semantic-Oriented Approach for Organizing and Developing Annotation for E-Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a solution to extend the IEEE LOM standard with ontology-based semantic annotations for efficient use of learning objects outside Learning Management Systems. The data model corresponding to this approach is first presented. The proposed indexing technique for this model development in order to acquire a better annotation of…

Brut, Mihaela M.; Sedes, Florence; Dumitrescu, Stefan D.

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Vital Orientation Feeling and Corporal Experiences in People with Eating Disorder: A Phenomenological and Narrative Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we analyze corporal experiences and the variations in existential feeling, in tree woman that have received mental disorder diagnosis. We have done in-depth interviews. We have used the constant comparison method to configure the categories and analysis. Then, we applied a phenomenological-narrative approach. Based on our results we evaluate and compared cases.

Duero, Dante Gabriel

2012-12-01

262

The Pedagogical Orientations of South African Physical Sciences Teachers towards Inquiry or Direct Instructional Approaches  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, inquiry-based science instruction has become widely advocated in science education standards in many countries and, hence, in teacher preparation programmes. Nevertheless, in practice, one finds a wide variety of science instructional approaches. In South Africa, as in many countries, there is also a great disparity in school…

Ramnarain, Umesh; Schuster, David

2014-01-01

263

The impact of psilocybin on visual perception and spatial orientation – neuropsychological approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Psilocybin is a substance of natural origin, occurring in hallucinogenic mushrooms (most common in the Psilocybe family. After its synthesis in 1958 research began on its psychoactive properties, particularly strong effects on visual perception and spatial orientation. Due to the very broad spectrum of psilocybin effects research began on the different ranges of its actions – including the effect on physiological processes (such as eye saccada movements. Neuro-imaging and neurophysiological research (positron emission tomography - PET and electroencephalography - EEG, indicate a change in the rate of metabolism of the brain and desync cerebral hemispheres. Experimental studies show the changes in visual perception and distortion from psilocybin in the handwriting style of patients examined. There are widely described subjective experiences reported by the subjects. There are also efforts to apply testing via questionnaire on people under the influence of psilocybin, in the context of the similarity of psilocybin-induced state to the initial stages of schizophrenia, as well as research aimed at creating an ‘artificial’ model of the disease.

Jastrz?bski, Miko?aj

2013-12-01

264

A class Hierarchical, object-oriented approach to virtual memory management  

Science.gov (United States)

The Choices family of operating systems exploits class hierarchies and object-oriented programming to facilitate the construction of customized operating systems for shared memory and networked multiprocessors. The software is being used in the Tapestry laboratory to study the performance of algorithms, mechanisms, and policies for parallel systems. Described here are the architectural design and class hierarchy of the Choices virtual memory management system. The software and hardware mechanisms and policies of a virtual memory system implement a memory hierarchy that exploits the trade-off between response times and storage capacities. In Choices, the notion of a memory hierarchy is captured by abstract classes. Concrete subclasses of those abstractions implement a virtual address space, segmentation, paging, physical memory management, secondary storage, and remote (that is, networked) storage. Captured in the notion of a memory hierarchy are classes that represent memory objects. These classes provide a storage mechanism that contains encapsulated data and have methods to read or write the memory object. Each of these classes provides specializations to represent the memory hierarchy.

Russo, Vincent F.; Campbell, Roy H.; Johnston, Gary M.

1989-01-01

265

Restructuring of burnup sensitivity analysis code system by using an object-oriented design approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new burnup sensitivity analysis code system was developed with help from the object-oriented technique and written in Python language. It was confirmed that they are powerful to support complex numerical calculation procedure such as reactor burnup sensitivity analysis. The new burnup sensitivity analysis code system PSAGEP was restructured from a complicated old code system and reborn as a user-friendly code system which can calculate the sensitivity coefficients of the nuclear characteristics considering multicycle burnup effect based on the generalized perturbation theory (GPT). A new encapsulation framework for conventional codes written in Fortran was developed. This framework supported to restructure the software architecture of the old code system by hiding implementation details and allowed users of the new code system to easily calculate the burnup sensitivity coefficients. The framework can be applied to the other development projects since it is carefully designed to be independent from PSAGEP. Numerical results of the burnup sensitivity coefficient of a typical fast breeder reactor were given with components based on GPT and the multicycle burnup effects on the sensitivity coefficient were discussed. (authors)

266

Modification of Human Islet Preparation: An Effective Approach to Improve Graft Outcome After Islet Transplantation?  

Science.gov (United States)

Revascularisation of transplanted islets is an essential prerequisite for graft survival and function. However, current islet isolation procedures deprive the islets of endothelial tubulets. This may have a detrimental effect on the revascularisation process of islets following transplantation. We hypothesise that modification of the isolation procedure that preserves islet endothelial vessels may improve the islet revascularisation process following transplantation. Here, we present a modified islet isolation method by which a substantial amount of endothelial cells still attached to the islets could be preserved. The islets with preserved endothelial cells isolated by this method were revascularised within 3 days, not observed in islets isolated by standard methods. Further, we observed that grafts of islets isolated by standard methods had more patches of dead tissue than islet grafts obtained by the modified method, indicating that attached endothelial cells may play an important role in the islet revascularisation process and potentially help to improve the transplantation outcome. PMID:25372780

Zhao, M; Choudhary, P; Srinivasan, P; Tang, H; Heaton, N; Fung, M; Barthel, A; Bornstein, S; Amiel, S A; Huang, G C

2014-11-01

267

Product Service Systems and Non-Market Oriented Approach – Methodological and Ethical Considerations from a Design Perspective  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Macroscopic social and economic changes in the last few years are forcing business companies and public institutions to redefine their approach to social intervention, focusing on local and highly individualised solutions. This change is also calling for a new design approach. The challenge for designers is not only to be able to provide local and highly individualised solutions, but also to propose strategies to transfer and reproduce the solutions, or part of them, into different local contexts, thus creating economy of scope. This would be possible by using forms of codification and modularisation of the most relevant components in local solutions. The code refers to the organisational knowledge included in local components and the way each component interacts with the others. Like software systems, local product-service systems can be built upon a source code. This paper will illustrate how this process was developed in a concrete case. Through this case the authors analyse the possibility to build something similar to a source code for initiatives based on social interaction and investigate the process of construction of such a code Furthermore, the author discuss differences and analogies between design intervention in a social context and in the normal business context. The question of codification suggests a methodological approach for supporting transferability both in the problem space (dealing with complexity) and in the solution space (dealing with contingency). The analysis of differences and similarities between business- and socially-oriented processes suggests a new role for designers and new opportunities for innovation.

Morelli, Nicola; Jonas, Wolfgang

2008-01-01

268

Evaluating Model for E-learning Modules According to Selected Criteria: An Object Oriented Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper aims at developing an applied system to evaluate the e-Learning Modules (eLMs depending on selected related criteria. Those criteria concern with many fields as well as many factors like, learning theories, computer science, instructional computer, software engineering, educational sciences, language criteria, economical factors, etc. Therefore the authors expressed the term of selected criteria to reflect the meaning of integrated factors of the environment deals with the developed eLM. However eLM for any subject requires for a systematic steps of integrated work depending on the model which is considered by the developer. Mostly the output of a stage represents the input of the next step. Our model will cover all steps in details. Thus such model could be considered not only to evaluate the developed eLMs but it could be used during process of developing because many items of criteria are designed so as to be a guide for developer during development of eLM. Developer should consider eLMs while he/she develops an eLM. Finally the authors presented selected eLM to apply the evaluating model, outcomes of the evaluations process lead to the needful conclusion.

Qabas Abdal Zahraa Jabbar

2012-07-01

269

Motivational mechanisms and outcome expectancies underlying the approach bias towards addictive substances  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Human behavior can be paradoxical, in that actions can be initiated that are seemingly incongruent with an individual’s explicit desires. This is most commonly observed in drug addiction, where maladaptive behavior (i.e. drug seeking appears to be compulsive, continuing at great personal cost. Approach biases towards addictive substances have been correlated with actual drug-use in a number of studies, suggesting that this measure can, in some cases, index everyday maladaptive tendencies. At present it is unclear whether this bias to drug cues is a Pavlovian conditioned approach response, a habitual response, the result of a Pavlovian-instrumental transfer process or a goal-directed action in the sense that expectancy of the rewarding effects of drugs controls approach. We consider this question by combining the theoretical framework of associative learning with the available evidence from approach bias research. Although research investigating the relative contributions of these mechanisms to the approach bias is to date relatively limited, we review existing studies and also outline avenues for future research.

BernhardHommel

2012-10-01

270

Target-Oriented Approach to Identification of Business Processes of a Company ??????????????????? ?????? ? ????????????? ??????-????????? ???????????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article identifies essence of the procedure of identification of business processes and its place in creation of a process model of a company. It shapes a set of properties of the business process, which should be determined at its identification. It considers approaches to construction of a process model of a company and identifies its advantages and shortcomings. It considers procedures of structurisation and identification of business processes of a company, which are alternative ones ...

Kotlik Andrey V.

2013-01-01

271

A Novel Online Encyclopedia-Oriented Approach for Large-Scale Knowledge Base Construction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the process of constructing large-scale knowledge base, manual-based construction approach lacks efficiency as well as flexibility. Therefore, automatically extracting of massive knowledge from online encyclopedia has attracted attention from an increasing number of scholars. Current research is mainly focused on the extracting of data from English online encyclopedia, whereas research about knowledge extraction from Chinese or other language data sources is rare. For such reason, the p...

Ting Wang; Ruihua Di; Jicheng Song

2014-01-01

272

Placement and storage of bio-inspired information: mobile agent-oriented approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis addresses the issue of information management in peer-to-peer networks. The goal of our approach is to provide mechanisms for investment and research of dynamic information, intelligent, robust, and completely decentralized. We propose a layered architecture composed of a peer-to-peer network responsible for the decentralization of service, inherited from information theory to ensure the availability and security of data applications, and mobile agents carrying information. We pro...

Pommier, Hugo

2010-01-01

273

Component-based software architecture recovery from an object oriented system. A search-based approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Software architecture modeling and representation are a main phase of the development process of complex systems. In fact, software architecture representation provides many advantages during all phases of software life cycle. Nevertheless, for many systems, like legacy or eroded ones, there is no available representation of their architectures. In order to benefit from this representation, we propose, in this thesis, an approach called ROMANTIC which focuses on recovering a component-based a...

Chardigny, Sylvain

2009-01-01

274

The competence-oriented approach to the planning of graduates' information training in educational institutions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The author proposes the approach to the planning of graduates' information training in educational institutions in the frame of informational and communicational technologies. The author views the method of formation and classification of competencies, based on the Federal State Educational Standart "Professional Training". The author gives the algorithm for scheduling the information training process for students with various levels of basic education.

Sergei Bogatenkov

2013-05-01

275

An Embedded Software Modeling and Process by Using Aspect-Oriented Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent years, mobile devices have become widespread and refined, and they have offered increased convenience in human life. For these reasons, a variety of embedded systems have been designed. Therefore, improving methods for developing of embedded software systematically has become an important issue. Platform-based design is one example of an embedded-system design method that can reduce the design cost via improving a design’s abstraction level. However, platform-based design lacks precise definitions for platforms and design processes. This paper provides an approach that combines the aspects and platform-based design methods for developing embedded software. The approach is built on platform-based design methodology and uses the separating of concerns (SoC concept to define the aspects and to reduce the crosscutting concerns in embedded system modeling. For aspect issues, we use the extended UML notation with aspects to describe both the static structure and the dynamic structure of the embedded system. We used an example of a digital photo frame system to demonstrate our approach.

Yong-Yi FanJiang

2011-02-01

276

A data-gathering broker as a future-orientated approach to supporting EPR users.  

Science.gov (United States)

With the continued expansion of electronic patient record systems ahead of comprehensive evidence, metrics, or future-proofing, health informatics in Europe and beyond is embarking on a faith-driven adventure that also risks data swamping of end-users. An alternative approach is an information broker system, drawing from departmental data sources. A 3-year study in health and social care has produced a first demonstrator which can search for specified information in heterogeneous distributed data stores, with source-specific permission can copy it, and then merge the search results into one integrated picture in a real-time process which is also captured in an audit system. The research project has addressed a number of issues during the study, including updating the concepts of role-based access, semantic interoperability, and harnessing web-based services bound at the time of need. A demonstrator now exists, and provides a platform for further application and development research. This paper summarises how this opens up a viable alternative approach for the next generation of health record systems, enabling record searching and integration as and when it is needed for specific patient-related purposes, whilst being independent of organisations, diagnostic approaches, or service delivery structures, and reducing the risks of data swamping. PMID:17010664

Rigby, Michael; Budgen, David; Turner, Mark; Kotsiopoulos, Ioannis; Brereton, Pearl; Keane, John; Bennett, Keith; Russell, Michelle; Layzell, Paul; Zhu, Fujun

2007-01-01

277

A biology-driven approach identifies the hypoxia gene signature as a predictor of the outcome of neuroblastoma patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypoxia is a condition of low oxygen tension occurring in the tumor microenvironment and it is related to poor prognosis in human cancer. To examine the relationship between hypoxia and neuroblastoma, we generated and tested an in vitro derived hypoxia gene signature for its ability to predict patients' outcome. Results We obtained the gene expression profile of 11 hypoxic neuroblastoma cell lines and we derived a robust 62 probesets signature (NB-hypo taking advantage of the strong discriminating power of the l1-l2 feature selection technique combined with the analysis of differential gene expression. We profiled gene expression of the tumors of 88 neuroblastoma patients and divided them according to the NB-hypo expression values by K-means clustering. The NB-hypo successfully stratifies the neuroblastoma patients into good and poor prognosis groups. Multivariate Cox analysis revealed that the NB-hypo is a significant independent predictor after controlling for commonly used risk factors including the amplification of MYCN oncogene. NB-hypo increases the resolution of the MYCN stratification by dividing patients with MYCN not amplified tumors in good and poor outcome suggesting that hypoxia is associated with the aggressiveness of neuroblastoma tumor independently from MYCN amplification. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that the NB-hypo is a novel and independent prognostic factor for neuroblastoma and support the view that hypoxia is negatively correlated with tumors' outcome. We show the power of the biology-driven approach in defining hypoxia as a critical molecular program in neuroblastoma and the potential for improvement in the current criteria for risk stratification.

Fardin Paolo

2010-07-01

278

High-grade undifferentiated sarcomas of the uterus: diagnosis, outcomes, and new treatment approaches.  

Science.gov (United States)

High-grade undifferentiated sarcomas (HGUS) are rare malignancies accounting for 6 % of all uterine sarcomas and have a very poor outcome. Histological classification of HGUS is currently debated as a subgroup with uniform nucleoli, and frequently YWHAE-FAM22 transcript has been described, constituting a potential target for new therapies. In localized HGUS, surgery involving total hysterectomy and bilateral oophorectomy is recommended. Adjuvant radiotherapy has recently been suggested in a retrospective study to decrease local recurrence and improve survival versus observation in localized HGUS. In metastatic or recurrent disease, chemotherapy with doxorubicin with or without ifosfamide constitutes the standard of care. Gemcitabine plus docetaxel also seems to be an interesting alternative. Targeted therapies such as pazopanib are now available for soft tissue sarcomas and so could be proposed for uterine sarcoma patients after first- or second-line chemotherapy in the metastatic phase. Further investigations are needed to determine their indications and targets. A European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) randomized trial testing maintenance therapy with cabozantinib after first-line chemotherapy in HGUS is ongoing. PMID:25123078

Philip, Charles-André; Pautier, Patricia; Duffaud, Florence; Ray-Coquard, Isabelle

2014-10-01

279

Process-Oriented Inquiry--A Constructivist Approach to Early Childhood Science Education: Teaching Teachers to Do Science  

Science.gov (United States)

Process-oriented inquiry can help preservice and inservice early childhood teachers implement constructivist science education in their own classrooms. In this article, we discuss the basic elements of process-oriented inquiry applied to early childhood science education, show how we foster the development of process-oriented inquiry teaching…

Martin, David Jerner; Jean-Sigur, Raynice; Schmidt, Emily

2005-01-01

280

Matching the graphical display of data to avoidance versus approach motivation increases outcome expectancies.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study is the first demonstration of the effect of motivational focus (approach vs. avoidance) on the interpretation of graphical view of personal data, specifically, weight loss progress. In two experiments, participants were randomly assigned to see the bogus weight loss data charted against either a goal or a baseline reference line. In the first experiment, we accessed participants' chronic motivational focus. In the second study, we primed motivation by exposing the participants to either a gain- or loss-focused health message. The results demonstrate that participants with either chronic or manipulated approach motivation predicted higher future weight loss in the goal reference line condition than in the baseline reference line condition. The opposite pattern was observed for participants with either chronic or manipulated avoidance motivation. The potential of matching graphical data display to personality characteristics to promote effective health management is discussed. PMID:22468423

Braverman, Julia; Frost, Jeana H

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Evolution of latin american approaches to integrated coastal management (ICM): paths, outcomes, and governance baselines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Latin America is a mosaic of social, economic, political and environmental realities where thousands of ICM efforts have been implemented, and only a few successful cases have been documented. This thesis focuses on governance of the coastal zone, and identifies and synthesizes the evolution of approaches to Integrated Coastal Management (ICM) in Latin America, and puts into such context the Governance Baselines methodology. In order to achieve such objective, and as no IC...

Perez Bolde, Carlos Francisco Castellanos

2010-01-01

282

Improving outcomes for youth with ADHD: a conceptual framework for combined neurocognitive and skill-based treatment approaches.  

Science.gov (United States)

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent and chronic mental health condition that often results in substantial impairments throughout life. Although evidence-based pharmacological and psychosocial treatments exist for ADHD, effects of these treatments are acute, do not typically generalize into non-treated settings, rarely sustain over time, and insufficiently affect key areas of functional impairment (i.e., family, social, and academic functioning) and executive functioning. The limitations of current evidence-based treatments may be due to the inability of these treatments to address underlying neurocognitive deficits that are related to the symptoms of ADHD and associated areas of functional impairment. Although efforts have been made to directly target the underlying neurocognitive deficits of ADHD, extant neurocognitive interventions have shown limited efficacy, possibly due to misspecification of training targets and inadequate potency. We argue herein that despite these limitations, next-generation neurocognitive training programs that more precisely and potently target neurocognitive deficits may lead to optimal outcomes when used in combination with specific skill-based psychosocial treatments for ADHD. We discuss the rationale for such a combined treatment approach, prominent examples of this combined treatment approach for other mental health disorders, and potential combined treatment approaches for pediatric ADHD. Finally, we conclude with directions for future research necessary to develop a combined neurocognitive + skill-based treatment for youth with ADHD. PMID:25120200

Chacko, Anil; Kofler, Michael; Jarrett, Matthew

2014-12-01

283

An interdisciplinary, outcome-based approach to astmospheric CO2 mitigation with planted southern pine forests  

Science.gov (United States)

The Pine Integrated Network: Education, Mitigation and Adaptation Project ("PINEMAP") was funded by National Institute of Food and Agriculture to produce outcomes of enhanced climate change mitigation and adaptation in planted southern pine ecosystems. The PINEMAP project leverages a strong group of existing networks to produce synergy and cooperation on applied forestry research in the region. Over the last 50 years, cooperative research on planted southern pine management among southeastern U.S. universities, government agencies, and corporate forest landowners has developed and facilitated the widespread implementation of improved genetic and silvicultural technology. The impact of these regional research cooperatives is difficult to overstate, with current members managing 55% of the privately owned planted pine forestland, and producing 95% of the pine seedlings planted each year. The PINEMAP team includes the eight major forestry cooperative research programs, scientists from eleven land grant institutions, the US Forest Service, and climate modeling and adaptation specialists associated with the multi-state SE Climate Consortium and state climate offices. Our goal is to create and disseminate the knowledge that enables landowners to: harness planted pine forest productivity to mitigate atmospheric CO2; more efficiently use nitrogen and other fertilizer inputs; and adapt their forest management to increase resilience in the face of changing climate. We integrate our team's infrastructure and expertise to: 1) develop breeding, genetic deployment and innovative management systems to increase C sequestration and resilience to changing climate of planted southern pine forests ; 2) understand interactive effects of policy, biology, and climate change on sustainable management; 3) transfer new management and genetic technologies to private industrial and non-industrial landowners; and 4) educate a diverse cross-section of the public about the relevance of forests, forest management, and climate change. These efforts will enable our stakeholders to enhance the productivity of southern pine forests, while maintaining social, economic, and ecological sustainability.

Martin, T.; Fox, T.; Peter, G.; Monroe, M.

2012-12-01

284

L’approche autobiographique : regards anthropologique et épistémologique, et orientations méthodologiques An Anthropological and Epistemological Look at the Autobiographical Approach, and Methodological Orientations. Narrative of a career  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available À partir d’une thèse qui affirme l’irréductibilité du sujet de la parole aux figures du soi-même que fomente le récit autobiographique, l’auteur montre comment la mise en récit produit cet effet de subjectivation. Parce que le sujet de l’acte de dire ne peut qu’être exclu des énoncés qu’il articule, lui est ouvert l’horizon des possibles constitutifs de son projet d’exister. C’est sur la base de tels principes que peuvent se déduire les traits significatifs des dispositifs de formation et de recherche que nous promouvons dans le champ des pratiques autobiographiques. Les outils d’analyse et d’interpré­tation que nous proposons permettent de développer une véritable clinique textuelle. “Approche clinique” ne signifie cependant pas que la méthode du récit autobiographique relève nécessairement des pratiques thérapeutiques. Ses domaines d’application sont pluriels et les passages de frontières méritent d’être bien repérés. Le mouvement de la réflexion s’achève par une mise en cause sévère de certains usages de la notion d’identité pour rendre compte des effets de transformation repérables en formation, en thérapie ou en psychanalyse. Nous soutenons que c’est en raison de la non-identité de soi à soi que le sujet opère les changements qui pourront le rapprocher de sa quête. Pour ne pas conclure, nous terminons le récit de notre itinéraire dans le monde du récit autobiographique en proposant deux axes de recherches.Based on a thesis affirming the irreducibility of the subject of speech to the figures of oneself the autobiographical narrative foments, the author shows how the setting in narrative produces the effect of subjectification. Since the subject of the act of speaking cannot but be excluded from the statements he makes, the horizon of possibilities constitutive of his project of existing opens out to him. The significant features of the training and research techniques we promote in the field of autobiographical practices can be deduced on the basis of such principles. The analytical and interpretational tools we propose facilitate the development of a veritable textual clinic. However, a “clinical approach” does not mean that the method of autobiographical narrative necessarily involves therapeutic practices. Its areas of application are plural and the border crossings deserve to be delineated. This reflective process is brought to a close with a severe challenge against certain uses of the notion of identity to account for transformational effects noted in training, therapy or psychoanalysis. We contend that it is because of the non-identity of self to self that the subject brings to bear the chan­ges capable of bringing him nearer to his goal. In order not to conclude, we close the narrative of our journey into the world of autobiographical narrative in proposing two research orientations.

Guy de Villers

2011-09-01

285

A Novel Online Encyclopedia-Oriented Approach for Large-Scale Knowledge Base Construction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the process of constructing large-scale knowledge base, manual-based construction approach lacks efficiency as well as flexibility. Therefore, automatically extracting of massive knowledge from online encyclopedia has attracted attention from an increasing number of scholars. Current research is mainly focused on the extracting of data from English online encyclopedia, whereas research about knowledge extraction from Chinese or other language data sources is rare. For such reason, the present paper proposes an automatic construction scheme for large-scale knowledge base based on Chinese online Encyclopedia. (iIn the first phase of the scheme, self-expanded learning is performed on the semantic relations between subjects and objects among the knowledge triples. (iiIn the second phase, semantic relations between the marked attributes and their entities is predicted using Conditional Random Fields (CRFs and Support vector machine (SVM classifier. A large-scale knowledge base is automatically constructed based on the scheme, and the experiment results indicate that the scheme possesses feasibility and effectiveness.

Ting Wang

2014-02-01

286

Plastic covered vineyard extraction from airborne sensor data with an object-oriented approach  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, the wide-spreading of vineyard cultivation in the Apulia Region, Italy) has showed negative consequences on the hydrogeological balance of soils as well as on the visual quality of rural landscape which has been significantly altered by the heavy diffusion of artificial plastic coverings. In order to monitor and manage this phenomenon, a detailed site mapping has become essential. With the increase of spatial resolution, pixel based approaches no longer capture the characteristics of classification targets. Consequently, classification accuracy is poor. Object-based image classification techniques overcome this issue by first segmenting the image into meaningful multipixel objects of various sizes and then assigning segments to classes using fuzzy methods and hierarchical decision keys. In this study an object-based classification procedure from Very High Spatial Resolution (VHSR) true color aerial data was developed on a test area located between the Apulian municipalities of Ginosa and Palagiano in order to support the update of the existing land use database aimed at plastic covered vineyard monitoring.

Tarantino, E.; Aiello, A.

2011-11-01

287

Integration of environmental approaches to strategy of production enterprises - environmentally oriented quality of production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the paper there are presented system approaches, applied in Slovak transformed production enterprises, which solve questions of closing the so called industrial cycle from the side of the wastes' producers. The production quality is connected not only with the technological chain itself and with outputs from it - the utility product, but also with the load of the life environment.The presented possibilities of the liquidation of solid energetic waste ? fly ashes ? represent a an overview of forms and methods of its utilization. By combusting one kind of coal in various boilers, fly ashes with different physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties originate, with the combustion temperature as a dominant factor. The fly ashes are directly (without influencing its composition applied in civil engineering, mining, metallurgy, waste water cleaning, etc. Their utilization after a separation removal of unwanted components is an economically difficult process. Such a unvaluable component is coal combustion residue, evaluated by the annealing loss (carbon-in-ash loss in fly ashes used for special procedures in civil enginering, e.g. in mortars (maximally 4% of c.a.s. loss or in the porous concrete (4-7% of c.a.s. loss. The building industry processes about 20% of solid energetic waste.

Michalíková Franti?ka

2001-12-01

288

Assessing the cognitive consequences of the object-oriented approach: a survey of empirical research on object-oriented design by individuals and teams  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents a state-of-art review of empirical research on object-oriented (OO) design. Many claims about the cognitive benefits of the OO paradigm have been made by its advocates. These claims concern the ease of designing and reusing software at the individual level as well as the benefits of this paradigm at the team level. Since these claims are cognitive in nature, its seems important to assess them empirically. After a brief presentation of the main concepts of...

De?tienne, Franc?oise

1997-01-01

289

Information technology for sustainable development : a problem based and project oriented approach  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper we present different strategies to integrate concerns about sustainability into Information and Communication Technology (ITC) projects by use of problem based learning (PBL) methodology. In alignment with PBL we introduce two different models for problem analysis where students move from a broader theme to a problem formulation designed to fit the time, discipline and theme of study. In the prospect of Education for Sustainable development (ESD) the students are to move from the conceptually complex field of sustainable development (SD) to a specific formulation of a problem that initiate design, implementation and test of ICT for SD. On the empirical level we draw from experiments in autumn 2009 and spring 2013 within the field of Media technology. Observations, text analysis of students’ work as well as reflections from staff has been relied on in order to analyse the practical implications of the different approaches to integrate sustainability. We conclude that students indeed chose divers strategies to integrate sustainability into their projects and those diverse strategies are indeed needed to obtain student engagement. Furthermore, the introduction of an open-ended thematic frame, like sustainability, encouraged students to broaden their perspective on stressing economic, environmental as well as social concerns. However, the experiments also showed that interlinking engineering subjects with sustainability is a rather time-consuming task – and some of the students were struggling with these open-ended themes at the same time as they were struggling with the rather open-ended perspectives on how to manage and structure a problem based and project organised project.

Holgaard, Jette Egelund; Guerra, Aida

2013-01-01

290

Research-Based Development of a Lesson Plan on Shower Gels and Musk Fragrances Following a Socio-Critical and Problem-Oriented Approach to Chemistry Teaching  

Science.gov (United States)

A case is described of the development of a lesson plan for 10th grade (age range 15-16) chemistry classes on the chemistry of shower gels. The lesson plan follows a socio-critical and problem-oriented approach to chemistry teaching. This means that, aside from learning about the basic chemistry of the components making up modern shower gels in…

Marks, Ralf; Eilks, Ingo

2010-01-01

291

'Miracle baby': an outcome of multidisciplinary approach to neurotrauma in pregnancy.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) warranting neurosurgical intervention in the pregnant population is a rarity. We describe a case of a 27-year-old woman who at 13 weeks of gestation presented with multiple traumas having been involved in a near fatal road traffic accident. Glasgow Coma Scale was 6\\/15. CT brain showed extensive haemorrhagic contusions, diffuse brain swelling and multiple skull and facial fractures. Decompressive craniectomy was performed to control her intracranial pressure during her management in the intensive care. A viable intrauterine pregnancy was confirmed and progressed as maternal stabilisation and rehabilitation continued. At 35+3 weeks a 2770 g male child was delivered via emergency caesarean section after spontaneous onset of labour. The child had no detectable abnormalities and is clinically well. Eight months post-TBI the patient continues to make gradual improvements but is left with severe cognitive impairment and currently undergoing rehabilitation. A multidisciplinary approach was adopted in the management of this patient.

Neville, Grace

2012-01-01

292

[Usability first. Model-based approach for the use-oriented risk analysis of medical devices].  

Science.gov (United States)

Due to increasing automation, the number and complexity of technical components have increased in the medical context (e.g., in the clinic or in the home care sector) in recent years. Besides new effective and efficient therapeutic and diagnostic options, these devices entail a wide range of functions and very complex (often computer-based) user interfaces that may lead to human-induced risk potential. A systematic and early human risk analysis and a usability evaluation allow medical device manufacturers to identify and control risks within the human-machine interaction very efficiently. At the Department of Medical Engineering in the Helmholtz Institute for Biomedical Engineering at the RWTH Aachen University, a formal-analytical methodology and a corresponding software tool for prospective human-risk analysis and model-based usability evaluation has been developed. Based on a twofold approach, user interactive process sequences and their potential impacts on the overall process are identified and the resulting use-related risks are assessed. For this, the tasks are categorized (in system and user tasks) and modeled and temporally related within the framework of a high-level task analysis. Within a subsequent cognitive low-level task analysis, potentially critical parallel process sequences are then tested in order to detect a potential resource overload of the user. The subsequent corresponding human-risk analysis is developed according to a knowledge base (checklist) of taxonomies related to human error. The HiFEM (human-function effect modeling) methodology is universally applicable and can be used for the evaluation of human-computer interfaces as well as for the analysis of purely mechanical control interfaces and simple hand-held instruments (such as a scalpel and implant). In a comparative study, the HiFEM method clearly outperforms the classic FMEA (failure modes and effects analysis) process with regard to effectiveness, efficiency, learnability, and user satisfaction. Especially small and medium-sized enterprises that constitute the medical device industry can be supported by the new methodology in the context of risk management according to ISO 14971 as well as usability engineering in accordance with IEC 62366 and IEC 60601-1-6 as well as EN ISO 9241. PMID:25367174

Janß, A; Radermacher, K

2014-12-01

293

Modelling nitrogen transport and turnover at the hillslope scale - a process oriented approach  

Science.gov (United States)

Biogeochemical models used for simulating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are mainly designed for the plot scale. Lateral fluxes of nutrients such as nitrate, which may be important drivers for soil GHG emissions, are not or only scarcely considered and explored in such models. This is due to the complexity of microbiological, physic-chemical and plant processes which need to be investigated and simulated along one spatial dimension, the depth, so that the introduction of a second (a hillslope) or third (entire landscapes) spatial dimension is likely to introduce additional complexity which can hardly be handled by most models. However, plot scale models, validated with data obtained at plot scale studies, will systematically under- or overestimate key GHG production and consumption processes if lateral in- or efflux of nutrients to or from a given site is of significant importance. E.g. in laterally connected environments, such as riparian zones denitrification will be fuelled by lateral influx of nitrate from uphill positioned fertilized land. Thus, landscape approaches are needed to identify and realistically simulate GHG emissions. The poster will present a coupled modeling system consisting of the fully distributed hydrology model CMF coupled to the regional ecosystem model LandscapeDNDC. The model coupling was preformed using the OpenPALM coupler from Cerfacs, France which is based on parallel computer technology. The coupler synchronizes the two models with respect to simulation time and performs the exchange of data (water fluxes, nutrient concentrations, etc.) from and to the models. The resulting coupled hydrology-ecosystem model was applied to simulate carbon and nitrogen cycling along a three dimensional virtual hillslope. In the experiment the uphill section of the domain consists of intensive arable land (maize - wheat rotation with up to 300 kg N fertilization) whereas the lowland section and riparian zone consists of extensive grassland. The simulation results show the effect of lateral nutrient transport (nitrate) along the hillslope leading to biomass productivity gradients in the extensive grassland towards the riparian zone associated with high indirect N2O emissions, specially in the riparian zone. Simulation of N cycling with the coupled hydrology - ecosystem model along a hillslope consisting of up to 30 grid cells. N fertilizer added upland will be converted into nitrate leading to biomass production and nutrient transport along the hillslope as well as N2O emissions.

Klatt, S.; Haas, E.; Kiese, R.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.; Wlotzka, M.; Heuveline, V.; Kraft, P.; Breuer, L.

2012-12-01

294

A multi-institutional approach to implement fruit fly low prevalence and free areas in Central America: Outcomes and constraints  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: For the purpose of boosting the fruit and vegetable exports of the Central American countries through fruit fly suppression/eradication actions, new approaches are used: - A multilateral alliance instead of isolated efforts. Thus, four international organisations, two donors Government institutions and the region's seven countries joined their efforts, coordinated by the IAEA; - A strategy of incremental enlargement of isolated low prevalence or free areas, instead of the old approach of attempting to eradicate the pest from the entire region; and - The use of pilot experimental areas, on which all elements that play a key role in a pest-free production-exports system are applied, instead of focusing only on some technologies in the field. Outcomes include the implementation of medfly-free areas in Honduras, Nicaragua and Costa Rica, and Panama is also in the process of doing so. Guatemala is presently negotiating with the Mexican Government the export of peach from its fruit fly-free zone in the Department of Quetzaltenango. Major constraints encountered are: - Weak alliances among the international organisations, - Troublesome coordination between Governments and the producers-exporters, - Insufficient trained civil servants in the Government and, - Insufficient funding to transfer the actions to bigger areas. (author)

295

Improving classroom quality with the RULER Approach to Social and Emotional Learning: proximal and distal outcomes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The RULER Approach to Social and Emotional Learning ("RULER") is designed to improve the quality of classroom interactions through professional development and classroom curricula that infuse emotional literacy instruction into teaching-learning interactions. Its theory of change specifies that RULER first shifts the emotional qualities of classrooms, which are then followed, over time, by improvements in classroom organization and instructional support. A 2-year, cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted to test hypotheses derived from this theory. Sixty-two urban schools either integrated RULER into fifth- and sixth-grade English language arts (ELA) classrooms or served as comparison schools, using their standard ELA curriculum only. Results from multilevel modeling with baseline adjustments and structural equation modeling support RULER's theory of change. Compared to classrooms in comparison schools, classrooms in RULER schools exhibited greater emotional support, better classroom organization, and more instructional support at the end of the second year of program delivery. Improvements in classroom organization and instructional support at the end of Year 2 were partially explained by RULER's impacts on classroom emotional support at the end of Year 1. These findings highlight the important contribution of emotional literacy training and development in creating engaging, empowering, and productive learning environments. PMID:23444004

Hagelskamp, Carolin; Brackett, Marc A; Rivers, Susan E; Salovey, Peter

2013-06-01

296

A New Approach in Consistency of Object Oriented Model and Relational Model in Distributed Systems Base on Heterogeneous Databases  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

According to application a database is designed to be object-oriented model or relational model but the important point is distribution and heterogeneity. So a model should be provided which work with different types of database and also be able to work disruption, and heterogeneity So one of the great challenges in the use of distributed database technologies is integrating object-oriented databases with relational databases because the platform-independent technologies have an object-orient...

Tahereh kheradmandan; Hamidreza Hamidi; Shokoh Kermanshahani

2011-01-01

297

Concepts and Features of Aspect-Oriented Programming using Aspect.Net Framework: A New Approach to Modularization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aspect Oriented Programming methodology is based on the idea that computer systems can be programmed very efficiently by specifying the various concerns of a system and some description of their relationships separately and then relying the mechanisms in the underlying AOP environment to weave them together into a coherent program automatically. The term Aspect Oriented Programming includes Multidimensional Separation of Concerns, along with Subject Oriented Programming, Adaptive Programming ...

Sakshi Mundra; Vaibhav Vyas; Versha Bansal

2013-01-01

298

An innovative community-oriented approach to prevention and early intervention with refugees in the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thousands of refugees from around the world resettle in the United States every year. Many refugees suffer from mental health disorders as a result of experiences living in or escaping from their turbulent homelands, and many also experience mental health issues as they settle in their new host countries. As such, it is important to intervene during the early stages of refugee resettlement to help prevent or mitigate mental illness symptoms. However, because of several access and utilization barriers, such as stigma, refugees are not apt to receive needed mental health services. Moreover, the traditional Western model of treatment can be culturally incongruent with refugee practices. Alternative, culturally sensitive, community-based approaches must be considered. This article presents a community-oriented prevention and early intervention model that can be used with newly arrived refugees with limited English proficiency. Goals of the model are to increase knowledge of mental health and mental health service options to refugees, as well as support the process of adjusting to life in the United States. The New Refugee Services Project, developed by the Center for Survivors of Torture department of Asian Americans for Community Involvement (AACI) in San Santa Clara County, California is presented as an example case study. The structure outlined in this article aims to support the development, implementation, and assessment of future preventative interventions for refugee populations. PMID:25384000

Nazzal, Kristel Heidi; Forghany, Marzieh; Geevarughese, M Charis; Mahmoodi, Venus; Wong, Jorge

2014-11-01

299

Sink-oriented Dynamic Location Service Protocol for Mobile Sinks with an Energy Efficient Grid-Based Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sensor nodes transmit the sensed information to the sink through wireless sensor networks (WSNs. They have limited power, computational capacities and memory. Portable wireless devices are increasing in popularity. Mechanisms that allow information to be efficiently obtained through mobile WSNs are of significant interest. However, a mobile sink introduces many challenges to data dissemination in large WSNs. For example, it is important to efficiently identify the locations of mobile sinks and disseminate information from multi-source nodes to the multi-mobile sinks. In particular, a stationary dissemination path may no longer be effective in mobile sink applications, due to sink mobility. In this paper, we propose a Sink-oriented Dynamic Location Service (SDLS approach to handle sink mobility. In SDLS, we propose an Eight-Direction Anchor (EDA system that acts as a location service server. EDA prevents intensive energy consumption at the border sensor nodes and thus provides energy balancing to all the sensor nodes. Then we propose a Location-based Shortest Relay (LSR that efficiently forwards (or relays data from a source node to a sink with minimal delay path. Our results demonstrate that SDLS not only provides an efficient and scalable location service, but also reduces the average data communication overhead in scenarios with multiple and moving sinks and sources.

Hyunseung Choo

2009-03-01

300

Sink-oriented Dynamic Location Service Protocol for Mobile Sinks with an Energy Efficient Grid-Based Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

Sensor nodes transmit the sensed information to the sink through wireless sensor networks (WSNs). They have limited power, computational capacities and memory. Portable wireless devices are increasing in popularity. Mechanisms that allow information to be efficiently obtained through mobile WSNs are of significant interest. However, a mobile sink introduces many challenges to data dissemination in large WSNs. For example, it is important to efficiently identify the locations of mobile sinks and disseminate information from multi-source nodes to the multi-mobile sinks. In particular, a stationary dissemination path may no longer be effective in mobile sink applications, due to sink mobility. In this paper, we propose a Sink-oriented Dynamic Location Service (SDLS) approach to handle sink mobility. In SDLS, we propose an Eight-Direction Anchor (EDA) system that acts as a location service server. EDA prevents intensive energy consumption at the border sensor nodes and thus provides energy balancing to all the sensor nodes. Then we propose a Location-based Shortest Relay (LSR) that efficiently forwards (or relays) data from a source node to a sink with minimal delay path. Our results demonstrate that SDLS not only provides an efficient and scalable location service, but also reduces the average data communication overhead in scenarios with multiple and moving sinks and sources. PMID:22573964

Jeon, Hyeonjae; Park, Kwangjin; Hwang, Dae-Joon; Choo, Hyunseung

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Frame-of-Reference Training Effectiveness: Effects of Goal Orientation and Self-Efficacy on Affective, Cognitive, Skill-Based, and Transfer Outcomes  

Science.gov (United States)

Empirical evidence supporting frame-of-reference (FOR) training as an effective intervention for calibrating raters is convincing. Yet very little is known about who does better or worse in FOR training. We conducted a field study of how motivational factors influence affective, cognitive, and behavioral learning outcomes, as well as near transfer…

Dierdorff, Erich C.; Surface, Eric A.; Brown, Kenneth G.

2010-01-01

302

Linear Approach for Initial Recovery of the Exterior Orientation Parameters of Randomly Captured Images by Low-Cost Mobile Mapping Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we present a novel linear approach for the initial recovery of the exterior orientation parameters (EOPs) of images. Similar to the conventional Structure from Motion (SfM) algorithm, the proposed approach is based on a two-step strategy. In the first step, the relative orientation of all possible image stereo-pairs is estimated. In the second step, a local coordinate frame is established, and an incremental image augmentation process is implemented to reference all the remaining images into a local coordinate frame. Since our approach is based on a linear solution for both the relative orientation estimation as well as the initial recovery of the image EOPs, it does not require any initial approximation for the optimization process. Another advantage of our approach is that it does not require any prior knowledge regarding the sequence of the image collection procedure, therefore, it can handle a set of randomly collected images in the absence of GNSS/INS information. In order to illustrate the feasibility of our approach, several experimental tests are conducted on real datasets captured in either a block or linear trajectory configuration. The results demonstrate that the initial image EOPs obtained are accurate and can serve as a good initialization for an additional bundle adjustment process.

He, F.; Habib, A.

2014-11-01

303

A Multimodal Approach Including Craniospinal Irradiation Improves the Treatment Outcome of High-risk Intracranial Nongerminomatous Germ Cell Tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To evaluate whether a multimodal approach including craniospinal irradiation (CSI) improves treatment outcome in nongerminomatous germ cell tumor (NGGCT) patients. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the records of 32 patients with NGGCTs. Fourteen patients belonged to the intermediate prognosis group (immature teratoma, teratoma with malignant transformation, and mixed tumors mainly composed of germinoma or teratoma), and 18 patients belonged to the poor prognosis group (other highly malignant tumors). Patients with pure germinoma or mature teratoma were excluded from this study. Nineteen patients were treated with a combination of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy (RT); 9 patients received chemotherapy plus RT; 3 patients received surgery plus RT; and 1 patient received RT alone. Twenty-seven patients received CSI with a median of 36 Gy (range, 20–41 Gy) plus focal boost of 18–30.6 Gy, and 5 patients received whole-brain RT (WBRT) (20–36 Gy) or focal RT (50.4–54 Gy). The rate of total and subtotal resection was 71.9%. The median follow-up for surviving patients was 121 months. Results: Treatment failed in 7 patients. Three of the 5 patients who received focal RT or WBRT had local failure. Four cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) failures occurred after CSI. No failure occurred in the intermediate prognosis group. Ten-year recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) for all patients were 77.6% and 74.6%, respectively. Ten-year RFS for the intectively. Ten-year RFS for the intermediate and poor prognosis groups were 100% and 61.1%, respectively (p = 0.012). OS for the two groups were 85.1% and 66.7%, respectively (p = 0.215). Tumor histology and CSI were significant prognostic factors for RFS, and CSI was significantly associated with OS. Conclusions: A multimodal approach was effective for treating NGGCTs. CSI should be considered for patients with poor prognostic histology.

304

A Multimodal Approach Including Craniospinal Irradiation Improves the Treatment Outcome of High-risk Intracranial Nongerminomatous Germ Cell Tumors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: To evaluate whether a multimodal approach including craniospinal irradiation (CSI) improves treatment outcome in nongerminomatous germ cell tumor (NGGCT) patients. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the records of 32 patients with NGGCTs. Fourteen patients belonged to the intermediate prognosis group (immature teratoma, teratoma with malignant transformation, and mixed tumors mainly composed of germinoma or teratoma), and 18 patients belonged to the poor prognosis group (other highly malignant tumors). Patients with pure germinoma or mature teratoma were excluded from this study. Nineteen patients were treated with a combination of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy (RT); 9 patients received chemotherapy plus RT; 3 patients received surgery plus RT; and 1 patient received RT alone. Twenty-seven patients received CSI with a median of 36 Gy (range, 20-41 Gy) plus focal boost of 18-30.6 Gy, and 5 patients received whole-brain RT (WBRT) (20-36 Gy) or focal RT (50.4-54 Gy). The rate of total and subtotal resection was 71.9%. The median follow-up for surviving patients was 121 months. Results: Treatment failed in 7 patients. Three of the 5 patients who received focal RT or WBRT had local failure. Four cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) failures occurred after CSI. No failure occurred in the intermediate prognosis group. Ten-year recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) for all patients were 77.6% and 74.6%, respectively. Ten-year RFS for the intermediate and poor prognosis groups were 100% and 61.1%, respectively (p = 0.012). OS for the two groups were 85.1% and 66.7%, respectively (p = 0.215). Tumor histology and CSI were significant prognostic factors for RFS, and CSI was significantly associated with OS. Conclusions: A multimodal approach was effective for treating NGGCTs. CSI should be considered for patients with poor prognostic histology.

Kim, Jun Won [Department of Radiation Oncology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Woo Chul [Department of Radiation Oncology, Inha University College of Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jae Ho [Department of Radiation Oncology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong-Seok; Shim, Kyu-Won [Department of Neurosurgery, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lyu, Chul Joo; Won, Sung Chul [Department of Pediatrics, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Chang-Ok, E-mail: cosuh317@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiation Oncology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2012-11-01

305

Personalized integrative oncology: targeted approaches for optimal outcomes: the 11th international conference of the society for integrative oncology.  

Science.gov (United States)

The 11th International Conference of the Society for Integrative Oncology (SIO) brought together more than 300 clinicians, researchers, patients, and advocates to hear and interact with world-leading experts about the latest research in the areas of nutrition, exercise, acupuncture, health services research, meditation, and other integrative disciplines. The conference theme, "Personalized Integrative Oncology: Targeted Approaches for Optimal Outcomes," highlighted innovations in personalized medicine and ways this growing field will advance the evolution of individualized integrative cancer care to the next level. This year's conference also featured a clinical track focusing on clinical information for the practicing health care professional. The conference's rigorous schedule included 3 keynotes, 4 plenary sessions, 2 interdisciplinary tumor boards, 5 workshops, 45 concurrent oral sessions, and 106 posters. In addition to the conference theme, keynote and plenary sessions presented topics on stress and cancer, the importance of sleep for cancer patients, epigenetic mechanisms of lifestyle and natural products, recently published Journal of the National Cancer Institute monograph on integrative oncology, SIO's clinical practice guidelines for breast cancer survivors, and a joint session of the American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine and SIO about supportive care and symptom management. This highly successful conference helped further the mission of the SIO to advance evidence-based, comprehensive, integrative health care to improve the lives of people affected by cancer. PMID:25505022

Lee, Richard T; Yang, Peiying; Greenlee, Heather; Bauer-Wu, Susan; Balneaves, Lynda G; Zick, Suzanna

2015-01-01

306

Student-oriented vesus teacher-centred: the effect of learning at workstations about birds and bird flight on cognitive achievement and motivation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract The study investigated cognitive and motivational effects of two educational interventions, a conventional versus a student-oriented approach. We monitored the impact on the cognitive achievement outcome and the motivation of students. Both approaches dealt with the subject of birds and bird flight; the student-oriented approach consisted of a unit based on workstations, the conventional one was taught in a more teacher-centred manner. 326 secondary school pupils of the hi...

Sturm, Heike; Bogner, Franz X.

2008-01-01

307

Identifying mangrove species and their surrounding land use and land cover classes using object-oriented approach with a lacunarity spatial measure  

Science.gov (United States)

Accurate and reliable information on the spatial distribution of mangrove species is needed for a wide variety of applications, including sustainable management of mangrove forests, conservation and reserve planning, ecological and biogeographical studies, and invasive species management. Remotely sensed data have been used for such purposes with mixed results. Our study employed an object-oriented approach with the use of a lacunarity technique to identify different mangrove species and their surrounding land use and land cover classes in a tsunami-affected area of Thailand using Landsat satellite data. Our results showed that the object-oriented approach with lacunarity-transformed bands is more accurate (over-all accuracy 94.2%; kappa coefficient = 0.91) than traditional per-pixel classifiers (overall accuracy 62.8%; and kappa coefficient = 0.57). Copyright ?? 2008 by Bellwether Publishing, Ltd. All rights reserved.

Myint, S.W.; Giri, C.P.; Wang, L.; Zhu, Z.; Gillete, S.C.

2008-01-01

308

Design of the DISCovery project: tailored work-oriented interventions to improve employee health, well-being, and performance-related outcomes in hospital care  

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Abstract Background It is well-known that health care workers in today’s general hospitals have to deal with high levels of job demands, which could have negative effects on their health, well-being, and job performance. A way to reduce job-related stress reactions and to optimize positive work-related outcomes is to raise the level of specific job resources and opportunities to recover from work. However, the question remains how to translate the optimization of the balanc...

Mw, Niks Irene; de Jonge Jan; Mp, Gevers Josette; Ld, Houtman Irene

2013-01-01

309

Principles of object-oriented modeling and simulation with Modelica 3.3 a cyber-physical approach  

CERN Document Server

Fritzson covers the Modelica language in impressive depth from the basic concepts such as cyber-physical, equation-base, object-oriented, system, model, and simulation, while also incorporating over a hundred exercises and their solutions for a tutorial, easy-to-read experience. The only book with complete Modelica 3.3 coverage Over one hundred exercises and solutions Examines basic concepts such as cyber-physical, equation-based, object-oriented, system, model, and simulation

Fritzson, Peter

2014-01-01

310

Agent Oriented Software Engineering. A Motivation for and an Introduction to a Novel Approach to Modeling and Development of Open Distributed Systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this paper is to give a short motivation for and an introduction to a novel approach of how to view and develop flexible open distributed systems of the future. We propose that the emerging style of Agent Oriented Sofnyare Engineering (AOSE) has high potentials as a candidate for future models of system development. We indicate in this paper some recent and upcoming applications of AO-SE. Furthermore, we round off the paper by giving an overview of an ong...

Gustavsson, Rune

1994-01-01

311

A novel and cost-effective monitoring approach for outcomes in an Australian biodiversity conservation incentive program.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report on the design and implementation of ecological monitoring for an Australian biodiversity conservation incentive scheme - the Environmental Stewardship Program. The Program uses competitive auctions to contract individual land managers for up to 15 years to conserve matters of National Environmental Significance (with an initial priority on nationally threatened ecological communities). The ecological monitoring was explicitly aligned with the Program's policy objective and desired outcomes and was applied to the Program's initial Project which targeted the critically endangered White Box-Yellow Box-Blakely's Red Gum Grassy Woodland and Derived Native Grassland ecological community in south eastern Australia. These woodlands have been reduced to <3% of their original extent and persist mostly as small remnants of variable condition on private farmland. We established monitoring sites on 153 farms located over 172,232 sq km. On each farm we established a monitoring site within the woodland patch funded for management and, wherever possible, a matched control site. The monitoring has entailed gathering data on vegetation condition, reptiles and birds. We also gathered data on the costs of experimental design, site establishment, field survey, and data analysis. The costs of monitoring are approximately 8.5% of the Program's investment in the first four years and hence are in broad accord with the general rule of thumb that 5-10% of a program's funding should be invested in monitoring. Once initial monitoring and site benchmarking are completed we propose to implement a novel rotating sampling approach that will maintain scientific integrity while achieving an annual cost-efficiency of up to 23%. We discuss useful lessons relevant to other monitoring programs where there is a need to provide managers with reliable early evidence of program effectiveness and to demonstrate opportunities for cost-efficiencies. PMID:23236399

Lindenmayer, David B; Zammit, Charles; Attwood, Simon J; Burns, Emma; Shepherd, Claire L; Kay, Geoff; Wood, Jeff

2012-01-01

312

Treatment outcome and prognostic factor analysis in transplant-eligible Chinese myeloma patients receiving bortezomib-based induction regimens including the staged approach, PAD or VTD  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background We have reported promising outcomes using a staged approach, in which bortezomib/thalidomide/dexamethasone was used only in 14 patients with suboptimal response to VAD (vincristine/adriamycin/dexamethasone before autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT. Here we compared the outcomes of the staged approach with frontline PAD (bortezomib/doxorubicin/dexamethasone or VTD (bortezomib/thalidomide/dexamethasone induction, and analysed prognostic factors for outcome. Patients and methods Ninety-one transplant-eligible Chinese patients received three induction regimens prior to ASCT [staged approach (N?=?25, PAD (N?=?31, VTD (N?=?35]. and received thalidomide maintenance for 2?years post-ASCT. Results 43 (47.3% patients had International Staging System (ISS III disease. By an intention-to-treat analysis, the overall CR/nCR rate were 37.4% post-induction, and 62.6% post-ASCT. Five-year overall (OS and event-free (EFS survivals were 66% and 45.1%. There was no difference of the post-induction CR/nCR rate, EFS or OS between patients induced by these three regimens. Moreover, ISS III disease did not affect CR/nCR rates. Multivariate analysis showed that ISS and post-ASCT CR/nCR impacted OS while ISS and post-induction CR/nCR impacted EFS. Conclusions These three induction regimens produced comparable and favorable outcomes in myeloma. The unfavorable outcome of ISS stage III persisted despite upfront/early use of bortezomib. CR/nCR predicted favorable survivals.

Chim Chor

2012-06-01

313

New approaches to cross-cultural research on education's outcomes amongst the poor: reflections on RECOUP's methodology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Research Consortium on Educational Outcomes and Poverty (RECOUP), one of the three DFID consortia funded in 2005 to produce policy-relevant research in international education, has as its remit to investigate the outcomes of education for the poor. In this paper, at the mid-point of the research, we reflect on the research design for one of the three themes of RECOUP's work - human and social outcomes - in the light of the assumptions made at the time and subsequent experiences. We identi...

Jeffery, Roger; Colclough, Christopher; Singal, Nidhi

2008-01-01

314

Piloting an outcome-based programme evaluation tool in undergraduate medical education  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aims: Different approaches to performance-oriented allocation of resources according to teaching quality are currently being discussed within German medical schools. The implementation of these programmes is impeded by a lack of valid criteria to measure teaching quality. An assessment of teaching quality should include structural and procedural aspects but focus on learning outcome itself. The aim of this study was to implement a novel, outcome-based evaluation tool within the clinical phase...

Raupach, Tobias; Schiekirka, Sarah; Mu?nscher, Christian; Beißbarth, Tim; Himmel, Wolfgang; Burckhardt, Gerhard; Pukrop, Tobias

2012-01-01

315

Untangling Locality and Orientation Constraints in the L2 Acquisition of Anaphoric Binding: A Feature-Based Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

This study offers a Minimalist analysis of the L2 acquisition of binding properties whereby cross-linguistic differences arise from the interaction of anaphoric feature specifications and operations of the computational system (Reuland 2001, 2011; Hicks 2009). This analysis attributes difficulties in the L2 acquisition of locality and orientation

Dominguez, Laura; Hicks, Glyn; Song, Hee-Jeong

2012-01-01

316

Object oriented programming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper is an introduction to object oriented programming techniques. It tries to explain the concepts by using analogies with traditional programming. The object oriented approach not inherently difficult, but most programmers find a relatively high threshold in learning it. Thus, this paper will attempt to convey the concepts with examples rather than explain the formal theory

317

Policies, practices and outcomes of demand oriented community water supply in Ghana: The National Community Water and Sanitation Programme 1994 - 2004  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study deals with the implications of policies of the so-called demand-driven approach of community water supply in rural and small urban areas in Ghana. In the context of comprehensive reforms in the water sector a transition of roles and responsibilities as well as the establishment of new institutions and actors were supported by numerous international donor organisations. Reorienting the water sector policies resulted, among others, in the National Community Water and Sanitation Progr...

Fuest, Veronika

2005-01-01

318

Description of a methodological approach to verify the outcome-optimization of tailored therapeutic choices and test application to PCI vs. CABG.  

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Full Text Available Background. The decision process between Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI and Bypass Graft Surgery (CABG is based on inconclusive evidence. Yet, it is generally regarded as capable of optimizing patient outcomes. Objectives. To verify this belief through a statistical approach investigating effect modification by propensity score (PS. Methods The probability of receiving PCI as the revascularisation strategy – PS - was calculated for all the 11750 patients with severe coronary disease who underwent coronary revascularization between 2002 and 2008 in Emilia-Romagna, Italy. Long-term risks of PCI vs. CABG for death, myocardial infarction, repeat revascularization and stroke were calculated by Cox regression in each decile of PS. The homogeneity of the Hazard Ratios (HR across deciles was assessed with a likelihood ratio test and by visual inspection. Results. Repeat revascularization was the only outcome that significantly differed across deciles of PS (p=0.05 and whose trend supported a favorable effect of the decision process. Conclusions In agreement with the current scientific uncertainty, but contrary to common opinion, the medical decision process between PCI and CABG based on demographic and clinical factors is marginally capable of optimizing the post-procedural outcomes. The proposed methodology is limited by the assumption that clinicians considered only the variables that entered the PS calculation. Keywords Outcome And Process Assessment (Health Care, Coronary Disease, Coronary Artery Bypass, Angioplasty, Patient Selection, Propensity Score

Stefano Di Bartolomeo

2012-12-01

319

A new approach for the automatic evaluation of the solidification structure in steel using orientational entropy filtering.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a new method for the automatic evaluation of the dendritic solidification structure in metallurgical micrographs of solidified steel. The evaluation of the microstructural parameters such as the primary dendrite arm spacing and the primary grain size are of high importance due to their direct relationship with the internal quality and mechanical properties of the cast product. Given the repeated geometric features in the micrographs and the regular pattern in colour intensity, we applied a filter mask to determine the local entropies within the masks in order to detect the centre coordinates of each individual dendrite. The orientation of the dendrites was determined by rotating the filter mask over each pixel to find the orientation which corresponds to the lowest entropy value. The segmentation of the microstructure was then performed via Delaunay tessellation and subsequent transformation of the triangular mesh into a rectangular grid, enabling the determination of the desired microstructural parameters. PMID:24350716

Griesser, S; O'Leary, P

2014-02-01

320

Coping Experiences: A Pathway towards Different Coping Orientations Four and Twelve Months after Myocardial Infarction—A Grounded Theory Approach  

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Background. Patients recovering from a myocardial infarction (MI) are faced with a number of serious challenges. Aim. To create a substantive theory on myocardial infarction patients' coping as a continuum. Methods. Grounded theory method was used. Data were collected by using individual interviews. The informants were 28 MI patients. Results. The core category “coping experiences—a pathway towards different coping orientations” includes 2 main categories: “positive and negative copin...

Salminen-tuomaala, Mari; A?stedt-kurki, Pa?ivi; Rekiaro, Matti; Paavilainen, Eija

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Developing a Short Form of Benton’s Judgment of Line Orientation Test: An Item Response Theory Approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Judgment of Line Orientation (JLO) test was developed to be, in Arthur Benton’s words, “as pure a measure of one aspect of spatial thinking, as could be conceived.” The JLO test has been widely used in neuropsychological practice for decades. The test has a high test-retest reliability (Franzen, 2000), as well as good neuropsychological construct validity as shown through neuroanatomical localization studies (Tranel, Vianna, Manzel, Damasio, & Grabowski, 2009). Despite its popularit...

Calamia, Matthew; Markon, Kristian; Denburg, Natalie L.; Tranel, Daniel

2011-01-01

322

Facilitating innovation: an action-oriented approach and participatory methodology to improve innovative social practice in agriculture.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study focuses upon the social organization of innovation. It makes use of insights from knowledge and information systems research, development sociology, management science and applied philosophy and seeks answers to the following questions: What do social actors, individuals and/or organizations, actually do to innovate their practices? How do they organize themselves? Can this be managed or facilitated, and if so, how? The research is exploratory rather than conclusion-oriented and sy...

Engel, P. G. H.

1995-01-01

323

Estimating Orientation Using Magnetic and Inertial Sensors and Different Sensor Fusion Approaches: Accuracy Assessment in Manual and Locomotion Tasks  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Magnetic and inertial measurement units are an emerging technology to obtain 3D orientation of body segments in human movement analysis. In this respect, sensor fusion is used to limit the drift errors resulting from the gyroscope data integration by exploiting accelerometer and magnetic aiding sensors. The present study aims at investigating the effectiveness of sensor fusion methods under different experimental conditions. Manual and locomotion tasks, differing in time duration, measurement...

Elena Bergamini; Gabriele Ligorio; Aurora Summa; Giuseppe Vannozzi; Aurelio Cappozzo; Angelo Maria Sabatini

2014-01-01

324

An agent-based and semantic service oriented approach for service discovery in Network Centric Warfare (NCW)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the new age one of the most challenging aspects of the information age is discovering the desired services with most accuracy and speed. In this paper a new semantic model is presented for the service discovering process in network centric warfare (NCW). The model is based on predefined ontology which is determined for the most important aspects of NCW in the application level. Services is based on a service oriented infrastructure and implemented as a grid which is developed as independen...

Masoud Barati; Mohammad Sajjad Khaksar Fasaei

2011-01-01

325

Incorporating a client-centered approach in the development of occupational therapy outcome domains for mental health care settings in South Africa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Occupational therapists use a client-centered approach as part of embracing a philosophy of respect for, and partnership with people receiving services. This approach must also be incorporated in measuring outcomes of the service and clients must have input in evaluating the outcomes of their interv [...] ention. This article reports on a specific phase of a larger study in which clients have been included in confirming the domains for an outcome measure in occupational therapy in mental health care settings. A case study strategy was used which enabled mental health care users to express their needs and expectations of the occupational therapy service. These were captured during 12 individual interviews and two focus groups. The findings were thematically analysed and constantly compared with the domains identified by occupational therapy clinicians in Phase 1 of the larger study. Results from this study indicated that the service which the participating occupational therapy clinicians were rendering, were in keeping with the needs and expectations of the mental health care users.

Daleen, Casteleijn; Margot, Graham.

326

Application of object-oriented approach in SPOT5 image classification: a case study of interpretation of mudstone in Taiwan  

Science.gov (United States)

SPOT5 imagery is widely used in urban planning, investigation of land utilization, environmental management etc. for its relatively high-resolution. Object-oriented classification techniques based on image segmentation are being actively studied in the high-resolution image process and interpretation to extract a variety of thematic information. Different from the pixel-based image analysis, the processing of the object-oriented method is based on image segment, not single pixel. The object-oriented classification includes two consecutive processes. An image is subdivided into separated regions according to the spectral and spatial heterogeneity in the image segmentation process. Then the objects are assigned to a specific class according to the class's detailed description in the image classification process. As a case study, the study area is a part of the Taiwan, whose mudstone bare-land is a significant problem due to the poor condition of the soil-physical and microclimate. The SPOT-5 image in March of 2006 is segmented and then these segments are classified to hierarchically linked objects by the eCognition software. By using manual interpreted aerial photo of the same area and traditional classification results as reference for accuracy assessment, this study has higher accuracy compared with the traditional classification.

Meng, Yu; Zhao, Zhongming; Peng, Shu

2007-11-01

327

Aspect Oriented Requirements Engineering  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Requirements engineering techniques that explicitly recognize the importance of clearly identifying and treating crosscutting concerns are called Aspect-oriented Requirements Engineering Approaches (AORE approaches. The emergence of aspect-oriented programming languages has raised the explicit need to identify crosscutting concerns already during the analysis phase. Besides this observation, the modular representation of crosscutting requirements is a first step to ensure traceability of crosscutting concerns through all other artifacts of the software lifecycle (architecture, design and implementation.Aspect-oriented requirements engineering approaches improve existing requirements engineering approaches through an explicit representation (and modularization of concerns that were otherwise spread throughout other requirements artifacts (such as use cases, goal models, viewpoints, etc..AORE approaches adopt the principle of separation of concerns at the analysis phase (the early separation of concerns. In other words, AORE approaches provide a representation of crosscutting concerns in requirements artifacts.

Ahmed Yakout A. Mohamed

2010-10-01

328

Relação entre gênero e orientação sexual a partir da perspectiva evolucionista Relation between gender and sexual orientation from the evolutionary approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este estudo trata da relação entre gênero e orientação sexual a partir da perspectiva interacionista da Psicologia Evolucionista e da análise de diferentes elementos da sexualidade humana. Procurou-se discutir a literatura existente sobre os conceitos de gênero e de orientação sexual, com base nos quatro porquês da Etologia. Propõe-se a existência de múltiplas origens para a orientação sexual, sendo uma delas relacionada aos padrões típicos de gênero e à identidade de gênero. Isso levaria à identificação com indivíduos do mesmo sexo ou do sexo oposto e, consequentemente, à atração pelo grupo diferente daquele com o qual se desenvolveu a identificação. Essa perspectiva integra pré-disposições biológicas à análise de influências culturais, compreendendo, como complementares, vertentes teóricas usualmente tidas como contraditórias.This study addresses the relationship between gender and sexual orientation from the interacionist perspective of Evolutionary Psychology and the analysis of various aspects of human sexuality. This article aimed to discuss existing literature about gender and sexual orientation, based on four questions of Ethology. It's proposed that sexual orientation has multiple origins, and that one of those is related to typical patterns of gender and gender identity. This would lead to identification with same-sex or opposite-sex individuals, and hence, to the attraction for the group different from the one to which identification was established. This approach integrates biological pre-dispositions to the analysis of cultural influences, understanding, as complementary, theoretical views that are usually stated as contradictory.

Aline Beckmann Menezes

2010-06-01

329

Technology Education Using a Novel Approach in e-Learning-Towards Optimizing the Quality of Learning Outcomes  

Science.gov (United States)

Ever since the advent of the new era in presenting taught material in Electronic Form, international bodies, academic institutions, public sectors, as well as specialized entities in the private sector, globally, have all persevered to exploit the power of Distance Learning and e-Learning to disseminate the knowledge in Science and Art using the ubiquitous World Wide Web and its supporting Internet and Internetworking. Many Science & Education-sponsoring bodies, like UNESCO, the European Community, and the World Bank have been keen at funding multinational Distance Learning projects, many of which were directed at an educated audience in certain technical areas. Many countries around the Middle East have found a number of interested European partners to launch funding requests, and were generally successful in their solicitation efforts for the needed funds from these funding bodies. Albeit their intricacies in generating a wealth of knowledge in electronic form, many of the e-Learning schemas developed thus far, have only pursued their goals in the most conventional of ways; In essence, there had been little innovation introduced to gain anything, if any, above traditional classroom lecturing, other than, of course, the gained advantage of the simultaneous online testing and evaluation of the learned material by the examinees. In a sincere effort to change the way in which people look at the merits of e-Learning, and seek the most out of it, we shall propose a novel approach aimed at optimizing the learning outcomes of presented materials. In this paper we propose what shall henceforth be called as Iterative e-Learning. In Iterative e-Learning, as the name implies, a student uses some form of electronic media to access course material in a specific subject. At the end of each phase (Section, Chapter, Session, etc.) on a specific topic, the student is assessed online of how much he/she would have achieved before he/she would move on. If the student fails, due to some delinquency on a particular topic, the online process of e-Learning would take the student at some more detailed and deeper level on the subject matter where he/she had failed; once the student bridges the gap, to this end, then the ongoing e-Learning process would carry him/her further up the next level of the subject matter he/she is pursuing. This process is carried on at all levels of learning: section, chapter, and course level. A student may not progress to the next course level before he/she would pass the entire course at 80% or more. If in the process of repeating some section, chapter, or a whole course, then the student shall be required to score a higher percentage than the mere 80% he was required to attain the first time around; say 5% more per iteration he/she makes. Here, students going through Iterative e-Learning shall be allowed to move on to the next level of learning sooner than others if the time that takes them to learn a particular topic is shorter than would normally require an average student to expend, provided, of course, they make it through all the required assessment phases. Unlike the traditional ways of classroom or online lecturing, a student going through Iterative e-Learning is expected to achieve a quality of learning never before achieved via standard pedagogical methodologies. With Iterative e-Learning, it is expected that poorly accredited academic institutions will be able, for the first time, to produce the quality of graduates who are more capable of competing for highly paying jobs globally, and to be of the quality of contributing in more industry-supported economies.

Malkawi, M. I.; Hawarey, M. M.

2012-04-01

330

Revisión de un Enfoque Modular de Programación Orientada a Aspectos / A Review of a Modular Approach of Aspect-Oriented Programming  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este trabajo se muestra el enfoque modular de programación orientada a aspectos de interfaces de puntos de unión o JPI para el lenguaje de programación Java, Se analiza también las principales diferencias y ventajas de JPI respecto a la metodología clásica de programación orientada a aspectos par [...] a Java (AspectJ) con el fin de obtener una programación orientada a aspectos de tipo modular. Adicionalmente, se propone una extensión del diagrama de clases UML para el diseño estructural y conceptual de aplicaciones JPI. Como ejemplo de aplicación, se presenta y describe un caso de programación en AspectJ y JPI, junto con un modelo de diagramas de clases UML del programa ejemplo, usando la propuesta de modelación de este trabajo. Se concluye que la propuesta de diagramas de clases UML JPI permite la definición de clases ingenuas, un elemento esencial para lograr una completa adaptación y transformación de soluciones de programación orientada a aspectos en soluciones JPI. Abstract in english In this paper the modular approach of aspect-oriented programming named join point interfaces or JPI for the Java programming language is discussed. Also, the main differences and advantages of JPI over the classical methodology of aspect-oriented programming for Java (AspectJ) are analyzed with the [...] aim of achieving a modular aspect-oriented programming. In addition, an extension of UML class diagram for the structural and conceptual design of JPI applications is proposed. As a study case, a programming example in AspectJ and JPI, along with a UML class diagram model of the study case, using the modeling proposed in this work, is presented. It is concluded that the proposed class diagram UML JPI allows defining an ingenuous class, an essential element for achieving a complete adaptation and transformation of aspect-oriented programming into JPI solutions.

Cristian L, Vidal; Sabino E, Rivero; Rodolfo F, Schmal; Jenny D, Morales.

331

Visualizing and Assessing a Compositional Approach to Service-Oriented Business Process Design Using Unified Modelling Language (UML  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the context of Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA, complex systems can be realized through the visualization of business driven processes. The automation of Service Supported Systems (SSS is the future integral part of core SOA which provides preprocessed information and solution suggestions for the Cloud Computing Users (CCU. CCU requires compact and fast decision supporting displays and user interface in order to handle the increasing work load. This requires intelligent, intuitive and robust preprocessing system as a backbone for automation lifecycle management. Complex business management processes often entail complex environmental decision-making procedures. This process can be greatly enhanced if it is based on an exploratory-envisioning system such as Information Exploration and Visualization Environment. Current scientific research has taken advantage of e-science to enhance distributed simulation, analysis and visualization. Many of these infrastructures use one or more collaborative software paradigms like Grid Computing, High Level Architecture (HLA and Service Oriented Architecture (SOA, which together provide an optimal environment for heterogeneous and distant, real-time collaboration. While significant progress has been made using these collaborative platforms, often there is no particular software suite that fulfils all requirements for an entire organization or case study. End-user must cope manually with a collection of tools and its exporting/importing capabilities to obtain the output needed for a particular purpose. We presents how service oriented architecture can be utilized in automation services support system using RCD framework as underlying composition platform. The introduced framework combines rapid analysis development and intelligent process state visualization for CCU and discusses the challenges met in building reliable cloud computing services for web services. Unified Modeling Language (UML is used as a specification technique for the system analysis and design process which is the only way to visualize one’s design and check it against requirements before developers start to code.

Latef Oladimeji Yusuf

2011-04-01

332

Maternal and neonatal outcomes of placenta previa and placenta accreta: three years of experience with a two-consultant approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Gamal A Kassem,1 Ali K Alzahrani21Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, King Abdul-Aziz Specialist Hospital, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaObjective: The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to evaluate maternal and neonatal outcomes in patients with placenta previa (PP) and placenta accreta (PA).Methods: The study population comprised all patients who had a cesarean section for PP and PA at a tertiary referral hospital in Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, ...

Ga, Kassem; Ak, Alzahrani

2013-01-01

333

A simplified approach for evaluating multiple test outcomes and multiple disease states in relation to the exercise thallium-201 stress test in suspected coronary artery disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study describes a simplified approach for the interpretation of electrocardiographic and thallium-201 imaging data derived from the same patient during exercise. The 383 patients in this study had also undergone selective coronary arteriography within 3 months of the exercise test. This matrix approach allows for multiple test outcomes (both tests positive, both negative, 1 test positive and 1 negative) and multiple disease states (no coronary artery disease vs 1-vessel vs multivessel coronary artery disease). Because this approach analyzes the results of 2 test outcomes simultaneously rather than serially, it also negates the lack of test independence, if such an effect is present. It is also demonstrated that ST-segment depression on the electrocardiogram and defects on initial thallium-201 images provide conditionally independent information regarding the presence of coronary artery disease in patients without prior myocardial infarction. In contrast, ST-segment depression on the electrocardiogram and redistribution on the delayed thallium-201 images may not provide totally independent information regarding the presence of exercise-induced ischemia in patients with or without myocardial infarction

334

Linking the actors and policies throughout the disaster management cycle by "Agreement on Objectives" – a new output-oriented management approach  

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Full Text Available Current management of disaster risks is often fragmented due to a lack of coordination between involved actors, i.e. civil protection and spatial planning – a phenomenon which is known as the "problem of interplay". This paper presents an output-oriented risk management approach ("parametric governance". Here, the modality of the achievement of objectives remains in the hands of the given addressees. This implies a shift from a top-down to a more collaborative, process-oriented form of decision-making. The approach has been successfully applied in two hazard cases and three administrative contexts: (a the City of Dortmund (Germany facing flash floods, (b East Attica region (Greece facing forest fires, and (c Lazio Region (Italy also facing forest fires. As proved by the applications of the concept, a dialogue among experts, stakeholders, and decision-makers is indispensable in order to guarantee inclusion of all diverse and competing values, opinions, and claims. Moreover, a structured communication path is needed to meet the requirements of a risk governance process. Finally, a win-win-situation among the involved actors has to be created to reach an agreement on common goals and actions to achieve them in due time.

S. Greiving

2012-04-01

335

The Outcomes of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus after a Telecare Approach Are Not Inferior to Traditional Outpatient Clinic Visits  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the feasibility of a telemedicine system based on Internet and a short message service in pregnancy and its influence on delivery and neonatal outcomes of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM. Methods. 100 women diagnosed of GDM were randomized into two parallel groups, a control group based on traditional face-to-face outpatient clinic visits and an intervention group, which was provided with a Telemedicine system for the transmission of capillary glucose data and short text messages with weekly professional feedback. 97 women completed the study (48/49, resp.. Main Outcomes Measured. The percentage of women achieving HbA1c values <5.8%, normal vaginal delivery and having a large for-gestational-age newborn were evaluated. Results. Despite a significant reduction in outpatient clinic visits in the experimental group, particularly in insulin-treated women (2.4 versus 4.6 hours per insulin-treated woman resp.; P<.001, no significant differences were found between the experimental and traditional groups regarding HbA1c levels (all women had HbA1c <5.8% during pregnancy, normal vaginal delivery (40.8% versus 54.2%, resp.; P>.05 and large-for-gestational-age newborns (6.1% versus 8.3%, resp.; P>.05. Conclusions. The system significantly reduces the need for outpatient clinic visits and achieves similar pregnancy, delivery, and newborn outcomes.

Laura del Valle

2010-01-01

336

The effect of posterior and lateral approach on patient-reported outcome measures and physical function in patients with osteoarthritis, undergoing total hip replacement : a randomised controlled trial protocol  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Total hip replacement provides pain relief and improves physical function and quality of life in patients with end-stage hip osteoarthritis. The incidence of hip replacement operations is expected to increase due to the growing elderly population. Overall, the posterior approach and lateral approach are the two most commonly used approaches for hip replacement operations. The posterior approach is associated with an increased risk of revision due to dislocations, and some studies have shown that the lateral approach is associated with reduced patient-reported outcomes, including physical function and pain; however, this has not been investigated in a randomised controlled trial with a twelve-month follow-up. We hypothesized that the lateral approach has an inferior outcome in patient-reported outcome compared with the posterior approach after one year. METHODS/DESIGN: The trial is a prospective, double blinded, parallel-group controlled trial with balanced randomisation [1: 1]. Patients with hip osteoarthritis scheduled for hip replacement surgery, aged 45-70 years, will be consecutively recruited and randomised into two groups. Group A will receive hip replacement using the posterior approach, and Group B will receive hip replacement using the lateral approach. The primary end-point for assessing the outcome of the two interventions will be twelve months after surgery. Follow-up will also be performed after three and six months. The primary outcome is Hip Disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, subscale of "Physical function Short form" (HOOS-PS) Secondary outcome measures include two other subscales of HOOS ("Pain" and "Hip related Quality of Life"), physical activity level (UCLA activity score), limping (HHS) and general health status (EQ-5D-3L). Explorative outcomes include physical function test, 3D-gait-analysis and muscle strength. DISCUSSION: To our knowledge, this is the first randomised controlled trial comparing the posterior approach with the lateral approach with patient reported outcome as the primary outcome and with a twelve-month follow-up. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrial.gov: NCT01616667.

Rosenlund, Signe; Broeng, Leif

2014-01-01

337

Supporting Browsing of Blogs via Text Clustering and Concept Analysis Techniques: A Task-Oriented Evaluation Approach  

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Full Text Available Blogs are a good online tool that encourages information exchange and knowledge sharing. However, blog users often face two challenges. First, blog contents are often categorized vaguely or inadequately by authors. Second, many popular blogs sort content by date. Consequently, when a blog user does not possess the right keywords forinformation retrieval, he or she must take time to browse the contents by chronological order until the relevant content is identified. This study addressed the problems by using the hierarchical agglomerative clustering and formal concept analysis methods to re-classify blog contents. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed automated text clustering solution, we further conducted user task-oriented evaluation. The results showed that the technique can help authors (bloggers definenew categories and refine existing categories. In addition, the concept hierarchy applied in each category helped the blog users to quickly discover the needed information.

I-Chin Wu

2009-12-01

338

A Rapid, Object-Oriented Approach to Regional-Scale Wetland Mapping in the Congo River Basin  

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Wetlands continue to be lost and degraded faster than any other ecosystem despite their importance to hydrology, biogeochemistry and biodiversity. A rapid, regional-scale method for creating wetland inventories is urgently needed to improve hydrological and biogeochemical models as well as conservation efforts, especially for threatened areas that lack baseline information. The wetlands of the Congo River Basin are among the world's largest but are understudied and face imminent development pressures. The potential of combining radar imagery (JERS-1/SAR GRFM) with elevation data (SRTM-derived DEM and derivatives) using object-oriented analysis to rapidly map Congo wetlands is investigated in this study. Findings are comparable to previous, sub-regional wetland analyses of the basin. An accuracy assessment will be presented that compares the results to a partial, reclassified reference map of the basin (FAO Africover). The method shows promise for deriving basic wetland inventories and monitoring programs for the Congo River Basin and other large tropical riverine environments.

Bunker, G. W.; Lehner, B. L.

2009-05-01

339

An agent-based and semantic service oriented approach for service discovery in Network Centric Warfare (NCW  

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Full Text Available In the new age one of the most challenging aspects of the information age is discovering the desired services with most accuracy and speed. In this paper a new semantic model is presented for the service discovering process in network centric warfare (NCW. The model is based on predefined ontology which is determined for the most important aspects of NCW in the application level. Services is based on a service oriented infrastructure and implemented as a grid which is developed as independent services. In the model, service discovery mechanism allows each of service agents to interact with its agent neighbors semantically and form a service chain for a specific task dynamically. The introduced model considered the semantic SOA which can overcome the undesirable time-delays and overhead corresponding to complexity of service discovery at heterogeneous environment such as NCW.

Masoud Barati

2011-09-01

340

Maternal and neonatal outcomes of placenta previa and placenta accreta: three years of experience with a two-consultant approach  

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Full Text Available Gamal A Kassem,1 Ali K Alzahrani21Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, King Abdul-Aziz Specialist Hospital, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaObjective: The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to evaluate maternal and neonatal outcomes in patients with placenta previa (PP and placenta accreta (PA.Methods: The study population comprised all patients who had a cesarean section for PP and PA at a tertiary referral hospital in Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, from December 2009 to December 2012. Maternal and neonatal data were obtained from medical records and the hospital database system. PA cases were managed by a multispeciality team, including two obstetric consultants.Results: In total, 122 patients with PP were identified, with PA found in 25 cases. The median intraoperative blood loss in cases of PA was 2,000 (mean 3,000 mL, with a loss of ?2,000 mL occurring in 72%, and ?5,000 mL in 20%. The median packed red blood cell transfusion requirement was 6 (mean 7.7 units, and 28% received ?10 units. Fetal growth restriction was diagnosed in two cases with known maternal medical disorders. Four cases (3.3% were diagnosed as small for gestational age. The mean birth weight of the neonates was at the 10th–50th percentile according to Hadlock fetal growth charts.Conclusion: The presence of a second obstetric consultant among the multispeciality team during surgery for PA was associated with a reduction in blood loss and a decreased need for large-volume blood transfusion. The rate of fetal growth restriction/small for gestational age in PP was average, but the babies were relatively small (level 2 evidence.Keywords: placenta previa, placenta accreta, maternal outcome, neonatal outcome

Kassem GA

2013-11-01

 
 
 
 
341

Orienting ESL/EFL Students towards Critical Thinking through Pictorial Inferences and Elucidation: A Fruitful Pedagogic Approach  

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Full Text Available The notions of Critical Thinking (CT and Lifelong Learning (LL are mutually inseparable as both are required in every domain of one’s educational and professional life in order to survive and flourish in today’s world of increased literacy and competition. CT is an important functional skill, needed for students to analyze concepts and ideas to get a clear understanding of them. Review of a host of definitions of CT, included in this paper, suggests that it basically involves a plethora of thinking abilities for the purposes of evaluating one’s own thinking process that results in a meaningful learning experience. However, unlike ordinary thinking, which is an inborn human ability, CT needs to be inculcated through implicit and/or explicit instruction. Many researchers (e.g. Benesch, 1993; Atkinson, 1997; Oster, 1989; Brookfield, 1987; Shor & Freire, 1987; Fox, 1994; etc. explain CT as a means to transform learning and society and they believe that social practice is one of the indispensable components of CT. In view of this, we need to orient our ESL / EFL students towards CT, along with the teaching of language skills, through interactive instructional practices. Considering the role(s CT can play in developing information-based societies and the pedagogical gains that can be made through the use of visuals in teaching language skills and CT, this paper aims to discuss and demonstrate how certain schematic pictorial presentations can be exploited as stimuli to orient ESL / EFL learners towards CT. The significance of this paper also lies in encouraging researches which explicitly link CT with pictorial presentations of cartoons and caricatures.

Vijay Singh Thakur

2015-01-01

342

Learning Outcomes in Two Different Teaching Approach in Nursing Education in Iran: E-Learning versus Lecture  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Traditional teaching methods used in medical education couldn't meet the need for keeping pace with up to date information. Present study has conducted in order to compare the effect of lecture and e-learning methods on nursing students' learning outcomes in the context of Iran. A cross-over design was applied. Study sample was consisted of 32 students which were in third semester of nursing bachelor program and were passing Maternal Child nursing course. The first part of the course was taug...

Neda Mehrdad; Mitra Zolfaghari; Naser Bahrani; Sana Eybpoosh

2011-01-01

343

Learning Approach for Hand Eye Coordination and the Kinesthetic Outcomes of Learning to Throw-Catch a Ball  

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The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects caused by the methods of teaching and eye-hand coordination to kinesthetic outcomes of throwing and catching a ball. The population of this study was 149 third grade elementary school students in a village in East Jakarta. A sample of 80 students was chosen using random cluster sampling. Data was analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the significance level is set at 0.05. The results showed that the kinesthetic of ball’s thr...

Yusmawati Yusmawati

2014-01-01

344

Comparing Dichotomous and Trichotomous Approaches to Achievement Goal Theory: An Example Using Motivational Regulations as Outcome Variables  

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Background: It is commonly assumed that there is conceptual equivalence between the task and ego achievement goals proposed by Nicholl's (1989) dichotomous achievement goal theory (Nicholls, 1989), and the mastery and performance approach goals advanced by Elliot's (1997) trichotomous hierarchical model of approach and avoidance achievement…

Barkoukis, Vassilis; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Nikitaras, Nikitas

2007-01-01

345

The use of health-related quality of life (HRQOL in children and adolescents as an outcome criterion to evaluate family oriented support for young carers in Germany: an integrative review of the literature  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Young people below the age of 18, whose lives are affected by looking after a relative with a disability or long-term illness, are called young carers. Evidence based family oriented support for young carers and their families in Germany is currently being developed. To allow for scientific evaluation, an outcome criterion needs to be chosen. Until today, there are no assessment instruments available, which focus on young carer's specific demands and needs. As HRQOL seems to be an adequate alternative outcome criterion, an integrative review of the literature was carried out to verify this assumption. Methods The aim of the integrative review was to get information about a the concept and the common definition of HRQOL in children, b preferable HRQOL assessment techniques in children, and c the relevance of HRQOL measures for the population of young carers. An additional aim of the review was to give advice on which instrument fits best to assess young carer's HRQOL in Germany. Searches were conducted in PubMed in order to obtain papers reporting about a the development or psychometric assessment of instruments measuring HRQOL in children and adolescents up to the age of 18, and b on the conceptual framework of HRQOL in children. Results HRQOL is a multidimensional construct covering physical, emotional, mental, social, and behavioural components of well-being and functioning as subjective perceived by a person depending on the cultural context and value system one is living in. Young carer's problems and needs are well covered by these common domains of HRQOL. Since no specific HRQOL-measures are available to address young carers, a generic one has to be chosen which a has been created for use in children, b allows self- and proxy-report, and c has good psychometric testing results. Comparing four generic measures with currently best published psychometric testing results, items of the KIDSCREEN cover young carer's specific problems most accurate. Conclusion The KIDSCREEN questionnaires seems adequate to evaluate the intervention as their items cover young carer's needs and problems most accurate.

Schnepp Wilfried

2008-12-01

346

Learning Outcomes in Two Different Teaching Approach in Nursing Education in Iran: E-Learning versus Lecture  

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Full Text Available Traditional teaching methods used in medical education couldn't meet the need for keeping pace with up to date information. Present study has conducted in order to compare the effect of lecture and e-learning methods on nursing students' learning outcomes in the context of Iran. A cross-over design was applied. Study sample was consisted of 32 students which were in third semester of nursing bachelor program and were passing Maternal Child nursing course. The first part of the course was taught using lecture method during first four weeks; an e-learning method was the technique used to educate the remained part of the course during the second four weeks. Students' learning outcomes in each method, opinion toward and participation with both educational methods was assessed. No significant difference was found between students exam scores in both methods. Considering students' opinion toward educational methods, no significant difference was found between two methods in general but students reported better "capability" and "independency" in e-learning method while lecture was obtained higher scores in "effectiveness on learning" and "motivation" characteristics. E-learning can be used in teaching some nursing courses. It is recommended to use e-learning method with appropriate interactive strategies and attractive virtual environments to motivate students

Neda Mehrdad

2011-05-01

347

Learning outcomes in two different teaching approach in nursing education in Iran: e-learning versus lecture.  

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Traditional teaching methods used in medical education couldn't meet the need for keeping pace with up to date information. Present study has conducted in order to compare the effect of lecture and e-learning methods on nursing students' learning outcomes in the context of Iran. A cross-over design was applied. Study sample was consisted of 32 students which were in third semester of nursing bachelor program and were passing Maternal Child nursing course. The first part of the course was taught using lecture method during first four weeks; an e-learning method was the technique used to educate the remained part of the course during the second four weeks. Students' learning outcomes in each method, opinion toward and participation with both educational methods was assessed. No significant difference was found between students exam scores in both methods. Considering students' opinion toward educational methods, no significant difference was found between two methods in general but students reported better "capability" and "independency" in e-learning method while lecture was obtained higher scores in "effectiveness on learning" and "motivation" characteristics. E-learning can be used in teaching some nursing courses. It is recommended to use e-learning method with appropriate interactive strategies and attractive virtual environments to motivate students. PMID:21713747

Mehrdad, Neda; Zolfaghari, Mitra; Bahrani, Naser; Eybpoosh, Sana

2011-01-01

348

SOAP in Practice: Learning Outcomes of a Cross-Institutional Innovation Project Conducted by Teachers, Student Teachers, and Teacher Educators  

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This paper reports on a case study investigating learning outcomes at the individual and organisational level of a cross-institutional innovation project based on the SOAP approach. SOAP integrates "S"chooling of teachers, "O"rganisational development of schools, "A"ction- and development-oriented research, and "P"rofessional development of…

Seezink, Audrey; Poell, Rob; Kirschner, Paul

2010-01-01

349

Relação entre gênero e orientação sexual a partir da perspectiva evolucionista / Relation between gender and sexual orientation from the evolutionary approach  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo trata da relação entre gênero e orientação sexual a partir da perspectiva interacionista da Psicologia Evolucionista e da análise de diferentes elementos da sexualidade humana. Procurou-se discutir a literatura existente sobre os conceitos de gênero e de orientação sexual, com base nos q [...] uatro porquês da Etologia. Propõe-se a existência de múltiplas origens para a orientação sexual, sendo uma delas relacionada aos padrões típicos de gênero e à identidade de gênero. Isso levaria à identificação com indivíduos do mesmo sexo ou do sexo oposto e, consequentemente, à atração pelo grupo diferente daquele com o qual se desenvolveu a identificação. Essa perspectiva integra pré-disposições biológicas à análise de influências culturais, compreendendo, como complementares, vertentes teóricas usualmente tidas como contraditórias. Abstract in english This study addresses the relationship between gender and sexual orientation from the interacionist perspective of Evolutionary Psychology and the analysis of various aspects of human sexuality. This article aimed to discuss existing literature about gender and sexual orientation, based on four quest [...] ions of Ethology. It's proposed that sexual orientation has multiple origins, and that one of those is related to typical patterns of gender and gender identity. This would lead to identification with same-sex or opposite-sex individuals, and hence, to the attraction for the group different from the one to which identification was established. This approach integrates biological pre-dispositions to the analysis of cultural influences, understanding, as complementary, theoretical views that are usually stated as contradictory.

Aline Beckmann, Menezes; Regina Célia Souza, Brito; Alda Loureiro, Henriques.

2010-06-01

350

Sexual Orientation and Outcomes in College  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been well documented that sexual minority individuals are significantly more likely to be college educated than heterosexual individuals [Black, D., Gates, G., Sanders, S., & Taylor, L. (2000). Demographics of the gay and lesbian population in the United States: Evidence from available systematic data sources. "Demography," 37(2), 139-154;…

Carpenter, Christopher S.

2009-01-01

351

CLOUD COMPUTING BASED ORIENTATION  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

With the rapid increase in the technology internet plays a major role in the society with the existence of the cloud based scenario. Where it is very much useful in the technology based on information related to the software oriented approach. It is mainly concerned about the utilities of the system which is the primary goal. It play a key role in the transmission of the data with a high definition oriented security based analysis respectively. Therefore whene...

Jithendar, K.; Srujan Raju, K.; Neeraja, K.

2013-01-01

352

[The woman, who saw her husband approach upside down: disorder of spatial orientation after removal of an acoustic neuroma].  

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A 60-year-old woman experienced a severe spatial disorientation after sudden interruption of the right vestibulocochlear nerve (on removal of an acustic neurinoma). She saw her husband approaching to her bed upside-down. This "reversal of vision metamorphopsia" resolved after a few hours. PMID:10483564

Kommerell, G

1999-08-01

353

Outcome of a Standardized Approach to Childhood Urinary Symptoms-Long-Term Follow-Up of 720 Patients  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

AIMS: To investigate the relevance of enuresis subtyping for selection of treatment modality and for long-term outcome in a large consecutive patient cohort. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included all patients referred for urinary incontinence during a 5-year period but excluding recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI). Type and severity of incontinence, prior history, results of examinations performed, number of visits, and effect of all treatments provided, were included in a clinical database. RESULTS: Seven hundred twenty children aged 4-16 years (mean 8.5?±?2.2?years, 239 girls) were included in the analysis (42% with monosymptomatic (MNE), 55% with non-MNE, and 3% with isolated daytime incontinence). Initial evaluation revealed only few underlying causes (one neurological and eight anatomical). Investigations showed significant differences between MNE and non-MNE patients as both maximal voided volume and nocturnal urine volume was lower in non-MNE patients (P?

Rittig, Nikolaj; Hagstroem, SØren

2013-01-01

354

Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in elderly patients: long-term outcome and prognostic factors in an interdisciplinary treatment approach.  

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The number of elderly patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is increasing with the aging of the population. However, management recommendations based on long-term outcome data and analyses of prognostic factors are scarce. Our study focused exclusively on elderly patients aged ? 60 years at the onset of SAH. Patients were selected from an in-house database and compared in cohorts of age 60-69, 70-79, and ? 80, regarding pre-existing medical conditions, treatment, clinical course including complications, and outcome. A multivariate analysis was conducted to identify prognostic factors for death and disability. A total of 256 patients (138 aged 60-69, 93 aged 70-79, 25 aged ? 80) with putative aneurysmal SAH who had been admitted to our hospital between January 1, 1996 and June 30, 2007 were extracted. The median follow-up of our total cohort was 35.5 months (range <1-154 months). Endovascular or conservative aneurysm treatment was applied more often with increasing age (p < 0.006). The 1-year survival rate was 78, 65, and 38 % in the three age groups, respectively (p = 0.0002); most of the patients died from the initial hemorrhage or from medical complications. Patients aged <70 with an initial World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS) score of I-III showed the best clinical recovery. WFNS score, age, and clipping/coiling were extracted as prognostic factors from the Cox model. Elderly patients who get admitted with a good WFNS score (I-III) seem to benefit from aggressive treatment whereas caution seems to be warranted particularly in patients ? 70 years of age who get admitted in a WFNS score of IV and V because of their limited short- and long-term prognosis. PMID:23224052

Schöller, Karsten; Massmann, Maike; Markl, Gertraud; Kunz, Mathias; Fesl, Gunther; Brückmann, Hartmut; Pfefferkorn, Thomas; Tonn, Jörg-Christian; Schichor, Christian

2013-04-01

355

Assessing the children's views on foods and consumption of selected food groups: outcome from focus group approach.  

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The food choices in childhood have high a probability of being carried through into their adulthood life, which then contributes to the risk of many non-communicable diseases. Therefore, there is a need to gather some information about children's views on foods which may influence their food choices for planning a related dietary intervention or programme. This paper aimed to explore the views of children on foods and the types of foods which are usually consumed by children under four food groups (snacks, fast foods, cereals and cereal products; and milk and dairy products) by using focus group discussions. A total of 33 school children aged 7-9 years old from Selangor and Kuala Lumpur participated in the focus groups. Focus groups were audio-taped, transcribed and analyzed according to the listed themes. The outcomes show that the children usually consumed snacks such as white bread with spread or as a sandwich, local cakes, fruits such as papaya, mango and watermelon, biscuits or cookies, tea, chocolate drink and instant noodles. Their choices of fast foods included pizza, burgers, French fries and fried chicken. For cereal products, they usually consumed rice, bread and ready-to-eat cereals. Finally, their choices of dairy products included milk, cheese and yogurt. The reasons for the food liking were taste, nutritional value and the characteristics of food. The outcome of this study may provide additional information on the food choices among Malaysian children, especially in urban areas with regard to the food groups which have shown to have a relationship with the risk of childhood obesity. PMID:23610606

Sharif Ishak, Sharifah Intan Zainun; Shohaimi, Shamarina; Kandiah, Mirnalini

2013-04-01

356

Consolation as a unique outcome within a pastoral-narrative approach to grief Troos as unieke uitkoms in ‘n pastoraal-narratiewe benadering tot rousmart  

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Full Text Available Abstract Consolation as a unique outcome within a pastoral-narrative approach to grief The pastoral counselling of those who grieve, poses new challenges to pastoral care. Because of the shift away from a modernist paradigm, the grief process is now seen as an open-ended process rather than a closed process which focuses on the mastering of the so-called tasks of mourning and the avoidance of grief pathology. Recent grief theory suggests that the grief process cannot reach a point of closure. Grief counselling should therefore rather embark on a process of generating new meaning to the problem-saturated discourses surrounding death and loss. Narrative therapy is suggested as a means of grief counselling as it makes use of the story analogy which supports the notion of an open end to the grief process. In this study the narrative is explored within the framework of practical theology. Both the master Story of God and the grief-saturated stories of people are combined in a pastoral approach which envisages consolation as the unique outcome of the therapeutic process. Consolation is regarded as one of the secondary narratives in the greater narrative of God as well as the reformed theological vocabulary. It is suggested that a pastoral-narrative approach to grief will generate the consolation needed by the grief-stricken on their life-long journey of coming to terms with their loss.Consolation as a unique outcome within a pastoral-narrative approach to grief

The pastoral counselling of those who grieve poses new challenges to pastoral care. Because of the shift away from a modernist paradigm, the grief process is now seen as an open-ended process, rather than a closed process that focuses on the mastering of the so-called tasks of mourning, and the avoidance of grief pathology. Recent grief theory suggests that the grief process cannot reach a point of closure. Grief counselling should therefore rather embark on a process of generating new meaning to the problem-saturated discourses surrounding death and loss. Narrative therapy is suggested as a means of grief counselling, as it makes use of the story analogy, which supports the notion of an open end to the grief process. In this study, the narrative is explored within the framework of Practical Theology. Both the master story of God and the grief-saturated stories of people are combined in a pastoral approach that envisages consolation as the unique outcome of the therapeutic process. Consolation is regarded as one of the secondary narratives in the greater narrative of God, as well as in the reformed theological vocabulary. It is suggested that a pastoralnarrative approach to grief will generate the consolation needed by the grief-stricken on their lifelong journey of coming to terms with their loss.

How to cite this article: Brunsdon, A.R, 2009, ‘Troos as unieke uitkoms in ‘n pastoraal-narratiewe benadering tot rousmart’, HTS Teologiese Studies/ Theological Studies 65(1, Art. #275, 7 pages. DOI: 10.4102/hts.v65i1.275

Alfred R. Brunsdon

2009-09-01

357

Fifteen-year Single Center Experience with the "Giessen Hybrid" Approach for Hypoplastic Left Heart and Variants: Current Strategies and Outcomes.  

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Presented is a retrospective outcome study of a 15-year single institutional experience with a contemporary cohort of patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome and complex that underwent a "Giessen Hybrid" stage I as initial palliation. Hybrid approach consisting of surgical bilateral pulmonary artery banding and percutaneous duct stenting with or without atrial septum manipulation was developed from a rescue approach to a first-line procedure. Comprehensive Aristotle score defined pre-operative condition. Fifteen-year follow-up mortality is reported as occurring within the staged univentricular palliation or before and after biventricular repair. Hybrid stage I was performed in 154 patients; 107 should be treated by single ventricle palliation, 33 by biventricular repair (BVR), 7 received heart transplantation, and 7 were treated by comfort care, respectively. Overall 34 children died. The Aristotle score (mean value 18.2 ± 3) classified for univentricular circulations in newborns did not have statistical impact on the outcome. Two patients died during stage I (1.2 %), and the interstage I mortality was 6.7 %, and stage II mortality 9 %, respectively. Stage III was up to now performed in 57 patients without mortality. At 1 year, the overall unadjusted survival of HLHS and variants was 84 % and following BVR 89 %, respectively. The Fifteen-year survival rate for HLHS and variants was 77 %, with no significant impact of birth weight of less than 2.5 kg. In conclusion, Hybrid stage I fulfilled the criteria of life-saving approach. In our institution, Hybrid procedure replaced Norwood-staged palliation with a considerable mid- and long-term survival rate. Considering interstage mortality close surveillance is mandatory. PMID:25179460

Schranz, Dietmar; Bauer, Anna; Reich, Bettina; Steinbrenner, Blanka; Recla, Sabine; Schmidt, Dorle; Apitz, Christian; Thul, Josef; Valeske, Klaus; Bauer, Jürgen; Müller, Matthias; Jux, Christian; Michel-Behnke, Ina; Akintürk, Hakan

2015-02-01

358

A new approach towards the self-adaptability of Service-Oriented Architectures to the context based on workflow  

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Full Text Available Distributed information systems are needed to be autonomous, heterogeneous and adaptable to the context. This is the reason why they resort Web services based on SOA Based on the advanced technology of SOA. These technologies can evolve in a dynamic environment in a well-defined context and according to events automatically, such as time, temperature, location, authentication, etc... This is what we call self-adaptability to context. In this paper, we are interested in improving the different needs of this criterion and we propose a new approach towards a self-adaptability of SOA to the context based on workflow and showing the feasibility of this approach by integration the workflow under a platform and test this integration by a case study.

Faîçal Felhi

2013-01-01

359

Modeling of short-term mechanism of arterial pressure control in the cardiovascular system: object-oriented and acausal approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

This letter introduces an alternative approach to modeling the cardiovascular system with a short-term control mechanism published in Computers in Biology and Medicine, Vol. 47 (2014), pp. 104-112. We recommend using abstract components on a distinct physical level, separating the model into hydraulic components, subsystems of the cardiovascular system and individual subsystems of the control mechanism and scenario. We recommend utilizing an acausal modeling feature of Modelica language, which allows model variables to be expressed declaratively. Furthermore, the Modelica tool identifies which are the dependent and independent variables upon compilation. An example of our approach is introduced on several elementary components representing the hydraulic resistance to fluid flow and the elastic response of the vessel, among others. The introduced model implementation can be more reusable and understandable for the general scientific community. PMID:25240104

Kulhánek, Tomáš; Kofránek, Ji?í; Mateják, Marek

2014-11-01

360

A complementary mobile phase approach based on the peak count concept oriented to the full resolution of complex mixtures.  

Science.gov (United States)

Situations of minimal resolution are often found in liquid chromatography, when samples that contain a large number of compounds, or highly similar in terms of structure and/or polarity, are analysed. This makes full resolution with a single separation condition (e.g., mobile phase, gradient or column) unfeasible. In this work, the optimisation of the resolution of such samples in reversed-phase liquid chromatography is approached using two or more isocratic mobile phases with a complementary resolution behaviour (complementary mobile phases, CMPs). Each mobile phase is dedicated to the separation of a group of compounds. The CMPs are selected in such a way that, when the separation is considered globally, all the compounds in the sample are satisfactorily resolved. The search of optimal CMPs can be carried out through a comprehensive examination of the mobile phases in a selected domain. The computation time of this search has been reported to be substantially reduced by application of a genetic algorithm with local search (LOGA). A much simpler approach is here described, which is accessible to non-experts in programming, and offers solutions of the same quality as LOGA, with a similar computation time. The approach makes a sequential search of CMPs based on the peak count concept, which is the number of peaks exceeding a pre-established resolution threshold. The new approach is described using as test sample a mixture of 30 probe compounds, 23 of them with an ionisable character, and the pH and organic solvent contents as experimental factors. PMID:21782192

Ortín, A; Torres-Lapasió, J R; García-Álvarez-Coque, M C

2011-08-26

 
 
 
 
361

A VLSI-oriented and power-efficient approach for dynamic texture recognition applied to smoke detection  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The recognition of dynamic textures is fundamental in processing image sequences as they are very common in natural scenes. The computation of the optic flow is the most popular method to detect, segment and analyse dynamic textures. For weak dynamic textures, this method is specially adequate. However, for strong dynamic textures, it implies heavy computational load and therefore an important energy consumption. In this paper, we propose a novel approach intented to be implemented by very lo...

Ferna?ndez-berni, J.; Carmona-gala?n, R.; Carranza-gonza?lez, L.

2009-01-01

362

A mathematical approach to find long-term strategies for the implementation of resource-orientated sanitation.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present discussion of sustainability centralised water infrastructures are exposed to new challenges, which may cause a conceptual alteration in urban water management. If technologies for closing urban water and nutrient cycles are to at least partially replace existing systems, then intensive reconstruction work becomes essential. The paper presents the development and implementation of a mathematical approach to minimise environmental impact and economic costs on the way to more source-controlled future states in urban water management. To find an optimal transformation strategy, a simultaneous project scheduling and network flow problem was defined as a bi-criteria mixed-integer program. An optimal solution is found by minimising two objective functions concurrently - the economic costs and 'ecologic costs' for the period of consideration. This paper discusses the influence of the weighting of these two costs on optimal transformation strategies for a real catchment in Germany. The results show that the approach can very well support decision makers when showing all impacts of transformation processes in detail. All in all, the developed model can be seen as a first step in strategy-finding for transformations in existing urban water systems. PMID:23552231

Kaufmann Alves, I

2013-01-01

363

Outcome of Trans-Axillary Approach for Surgical Decompression of Thoracic Outlet: A Retrospective Study in a Tertiary Care Hospital  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the trans-axillary surgical approach in patients with thoracic outlet syndrome. Methods: This retrospective study is comprised of data acquired from January 1998 until Oct 2008. Case histories of all the patients were reviewed from the Medical Records Department of Sher-i-Kashmir Institute. Relevant information and follow-up of the patients was carried out by examining the relevant clinical notes available by telephone interviews and person...

Mohd Riyaz Lattoo; Abdul Majeed Dar; Mohd Lateef Wani; Mohd Akbar Bhat; Abdul Gani Ahangar; Gh Nabi Lone; Shyam Singh; Muzaffar Zaman; Reyaz Ahmad Lone

2014-01-01

364

Outcome of type-1 tympanoplasty.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

The overall success rate coincided with published literature from elsewhere. The factors presumed to influence the outcome of tympanoplasty type-1 surgery showed no significant difference, except the permeatal approach as compared to endaural approaches.

Fadl A. Fadl

2003-01-01

365

Formación basada en competencias en educación sanitaria: aproximaciones a enfoques y modelos de competencia. [Outcome-based health education: Possible approaches and models of competence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The great changes taking place in society today call into question traditional training, which is focused on the transmission of knowledge and training skills. Some experts suggest that the introduction of a competency-based approach to training has presented it with an avenue for modernization and cooperation with the needs of the organizational environment. The approach of Outcome Based Education is considered one of the most important changes in health education for the twenty-first century. This approach is predominant in higher education institutions around the world and is the method recommended by major governing bodies and evaluators of health education (or, in a narrower sense, medical education. Los grandes cambios que se están produciendo en la sociedad de hoy en día ponen en entredicho la formación tradicional, centrada en la transmisión de conocimientos y en el entrenamiento de ciertas habilidades. Algunos expertos apuntan que la introducción del enfoque de competencias ha significado para la formación una vía para la actualización y el acercamiento a necesidades del ambiente organizacional. El enfoque de Formación basada en Competencias (FBC, en adelante, más conocido en la literatura internacional como Out Come Based Education, es considerado uno de los cambios más importantes en la educación sanitaria para el siglo XXI. Este enfoque, es el enfoque educativo predominante en las instituciones de educación superior del mundo y el que recomiendan los principales organismos rectores y evaluadores de la educación sanitaria (o educación médica en un sentido mas restringido.

Martinez-Clares, Pilar

2008-11-01

366

A coordinated research programme to develop methodologies for an integrated approach to improve small scale market oriented dairy systems in developing countries.  

Science.gov (United States)

A five-year Coordinated Research Project (CRP) entitled 'Integrated approach for improving small scale market oriented dairy systems' is currently being implemented by the Food and Agriculture Organization and the International Atomic Energy Agency, through their Joint Programme on 'Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture'. The objectives are to (a) identify and prioritize the constraints and opportunities in the selected dairy farms; (b) determine the most important limiting factors; (c) develop intervention strategies; (c) assess the economic impact of the interventions; (d) develop methodologies for recording and demonstrating the economic impact; and (e) promote the adoption and dissemination of proven strategies and methodologies. Fifteen institutes in developing as well as developed countries are participating in the project, through ten research contracts (Bangladesh, Cameroon, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, Tunisia and Venezuela), one technical contract (Peru) and four research agreements (Malaysia, U.K., U.S.A. and Uruguay). The initial phase of the project, which focused on the conduct of Participatory Rural Appraisals and Economic Opportunity Surveys in the countries of the research contract holders, has now been completed. This paper describes the background to the CRP approach and the procedures used for developing, initiating and implementing this project. PMID:18265863

Perera, B M A O

2007-12-01

367

Nursing approaches for pain diagnosis and classification of outcomes / Condutas de enfermagem no diagnóstico da dor e a classificação dos resultados  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O enfermeiro deve exercer seu papel no controle da dor, e tem responsabilidade na avaliação diagnóstica, na intervenção, na monitorização dos resultados e no tratamento, como membro da equipe de saúde. O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar as condutas de acadêmicos de e [...] nfermagem sobre as intervenções a partir do diagnóstico de enfermagem de dor, segundo a taxonomia II da North American Nursing Diagnosis Association e a associação dos resultados de enfermagem perante as medidas de intervenção. MÉTODOS: Estudo do tipo transversal de natureza quantitativa, utilizando como instrumento um caso clínico. A amostra estudada foi composta por 60 acadêmicos de enfermagem cursando o último período da graduação. A pesquisa deu-se em duas Instituições de Ensino Superior Públicas, ambas localizadas no estado de Pernambuco. RESULTADOS: Da amostra analisada a maior proporção dos acadêmicos (69%) não apresentou intervenções para o caso clínico. Dos 31% que apresentaram intervenções, apenas 58% apresentaram os resultados esperados, segundo a Classificação dos Resultados de Enfermagem com base nas intervenções planejadas. Vale ressaltar o número expressivo de acadêmicos (42%) que não realizaram a Classificação dos Resultados de Enfermagem. CONCLUSÃO: Baseando-se nos resultados desta pesquisa torna-se necessária uma reflexão sobre a avaliação do paciente com dor, assim como sobre as condutas de enfermagem necessárias para suprir ou amenizar tal problemática. Acrescenta-se a esta pesquisa a falta de preparo dos futuros profissionais e a necessidade de mudança de postura perante o domínio técnico-científico exigido pela profissão. Abstract in english BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Nurses, as members of the health team, have to play their role to control pain, and are accountable for diagnostic evaluation, intervention and monitoring of treatment outcomes. This study aimed at identifying nursing students' approaches on interventions as from pain nur [...] sing diagnosis, according to taxonomy II of the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association and the association of nursing outcomes regarding interventions. METHODS: This is a transversal and quantitative study using as tool a clinical case. Studied sample was made up of 60 nursing students in the last graduation period. The research was carried out in two Public Universities, both in the state of Pernambuco. RESULTS: From the evaluated sample, most students (69%) have not presented interventions for the clinical case. From 31% presenting interventions, only 58% have presented expected outcomes, according to Nursing Outcomes Classification based on planned interventions. It is worth stressing the large number of students (42%) who have not performed the Nursing Outcomes Classification. CONCLUSION: Based on the results of this research, it is necessary a reflection about painful patients' evaluation, as well as about nursing approaches needed to solve or minimize such problem. One should add to this research the lack of qualification of future professionals and the need to change posture with regard to technical-scientific knowledge required by the profession.

Simone Regina Alves de Freitas, Barros; Ana Paula dos Santos, Albuquerque.

2014-04-01

368

Electronic structure, molecular orientation, charge transfer dynamics and solar cells performance in donor/acceptor copolymers and fullerene: Experimental and theoretical approaches  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

By combining experimental and theoretical approaches, the electronic structure, molecular orientation, charge transfer dynamics and solar cell performance in donor/acceptor copolymer poly[2,7-(9,9-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-dibenzosilole)-alt-4,7-bis(thiophen-2-yl) benzo-2,1,3-thiadiazole] (PSiF-DBT) films and blended with 6,6.-phenyl-C 61-butyric acid methyl ester (PSiF-DBT:PCBM) were investigated. Good agreement between experimental and theoretical PSiF-DBT UV-Vis absorption spectrum is observed and the main molecular orbitals contributing to the spectrum were determined using DFT single point calculations. Non-coplanar configuration was determined by geometric optimization calculation in isolated PSiF-DBT pentamer and corroborated by angular variation of the sulphur 1s near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectra. Edge-on and plane-on molecular orientations were obtained for thiophene and benzothiadiazole units, respectively. A power conversion efficiency up to 1.58%, open circuit voltage of 0.51 V, short circuit current of 8.71 mA/cm{sup 2} and a fill factor of 35% was obtained using blended PSiF-DBT:PCBM as active layer in a bulk heterojunction solar cell. Ultrafast electron dynamics in the low-femtosecond regime was evaluated by resonant Auger spectroscopy using the core-hole clock methodology around sulphur 1s absorption edge. Electron delocalization times for PSiF-DBT and PSiF-DBT:PCBM polymeric films were derived for selected excitation energies corresponding to the main transitions in the sulphur 1s NEXAFS spectra. The mixture of PSiF-DBT with PCBM improves the charge transfer process involving the ?* molecular orbital of the thiophene units.

Garcia-Basabe, Y.; Borges, B. G. A. L.; Rocco, M. L. M., E-mail: lsroman@fisica.ufpr.br, E-mail: luiza@iq.ufrj.br [Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 21941-909 (Brazil); Marchiori, C. F. N.; Yamamoto, N. A. D.; Koehler, M.; Roman, L. S., E-mail: lsroman@fisica.ufpr.br, E-mail: luiza@iq.ufrj.br [Departament of Physics, Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba 81531-990 (Brazil); Macedo, A. G. [Departament of Physics, Technological Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba 80230-901 (Brazil)

2014-04-07

369

Electronic structure, molecular orientation, charge transfer dynamics and solar cells performance in donor/acceptor copolymers and fullerene: Experimental and theoretical approaches  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By combining experimental and theoretical approaches, the electronic structure, molecular orientation, charge transfer dynamics and solar cell performance in donor/acceptor copolymer poly[2,7-(9,9-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-dibenzosilole)-alt-4,7-bis(thiophen-2-yl) benzo-2,1,3-thiadiazole] (PSiF-DBT) films and blended with 6,6.-phenyl-C 61-butyric acid methyl ester (PSiF-DBT:PCBM) were investigated. Good agreement between experimental and theoretical PSiF-DBT UV-Vis absorption spectrum is observed and the main molecular orbitals contributing to the spectrum were determined using DFT single point calculations. Non-coplanar configuration was determined by geometric optimization calculation in isolated PSiF-DBT pentamer and corroborated by angular variation of the sulphur 1s near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectra. Edge-on and plane-on molecular orientations were obtained for thiophene and benzothiadiazole units, respectively. A power conversion efficiency up to 1.58%, open circuit voltage of 0.51 V, short circuit current of 8.71 mA/cm2 and a fill factor of 35% was obtained using blended PSiF-DBT:PCBM as active layer in a bulk heterojunction solar cell. Ultrafast electron dynamics in the low-femtosecond regime was evaluated by resonant Auger spectroscopy using the core-hole clock methodology around sulphur 1s absorption edge. Electron delocalization times for PSiF-DBT and PSiF-DBT:PCBM polymeric films were derived for selected excitation energies corresponding to the main transitions in the sulphur 1s NEXAFS spectra. The mixture of PSiF-DBT with PCBM improves the charge transfer process involving the ?* molecular orbital of the thiophene units

370

Electronic structure, molecular orientation, charge transfer dynamics and solar cells performance in donor/acceptor copolymers and fullerene: Experimental and theoretical approaches  

Science.gov (United States)

By combining experimental and theoretical approaches, the electronic structure, molecular orientation, charge transfer dynamics and solar cell performance in donor/acceptor copolymer poly[2,7-(9,9-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-dibenzosilole)-alt-4,7-bis(thiophen-2-yl)benzo-2,1,3-thiadiazole] (PSiF-DBT) films and blended with 6,6.-phenyl-C 61-butyric acid methyl ester (PSiF-DBT:PCBM) were investigated. Good agreement between experimental and theoretical PSiF-DBT UV-Vis absorption spectrum is observed and the main molecular orbitals contributing to the spectrum were determined using DFT single point calculations. Non-coplanar configuration was determined by geometric optimization calculation in isolated PSiF-DBT pentamer and corroborated by angular variation of the sulphur 1s near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectra. Edge-on and plane-on molecular orientations were obtained for thiophene and benzothiadiazole units, respectively. A power conversion efficiency up to 1.58%, open circuit voltage of 0.51 V, short circuit current of 8.71 mA/cm2 and a fill factor of 35% was obtained using blended PSiF-DBT:PCBM as active layer in a bulk heterojunction solar cell. Ultrafast electron dynamics in the low-femtosecond regime was evaluated by resonant Auger spectroscopy using the core-hole clock methodology around sulphur 1s absorption edge. Electron delocalization times for PSiF-DBT and PSiF-DBT:PCBM polymeric films were derived for selected excitation energies corresponding to the main transitions in the sulphur 1s NEXAFS spectra. The mixture of PSiF-DBT with PCBM improves the charge transfer process involving the ?* molecular orbital of the thiophene units.

Garcia-Basabe, Y.; Marchiori, C. F. N.; Borges, B. G. A. L.; Yamamoto, N. A. D.; Macedo, A. G.; Koehler, M.; Roman, L. S.; Rocco, M. L. M.

2014-04-01

371

Impact of risk adjusted clinical outcomes methodology--quality measures on hospital mortality data: a statistical and case study approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effectiveness of risk adjustment in improving mortality as a performance measure for hospitals remains uncertain. New techniques of risk adjustment should be empirically tested, and health care professionals, using the data derived from such measures, should be queried before final acceptance of these technologies of measurement is warranted. The Risk Adjusted Clinical Outcomes Methodology-Quality Measures (RACOM-QM), a relatively new risk-adjustment methodology developed by the QuadraMed Corporation, was used by Maryland hospitals for risk adjustment for the first time in 1997. A research study was undertaken by the Maryland Hospital Association to determine the impact of RACOM-QM on mortality rates, its empirical validity, and its acceptance in the field. The relationship between RACOM-QM mean risk scores and mortality rates was examined using inpatient hospital mortality data for Maryland in 1996. Using these same data, the empirical relationship between risk-adjusted and unadjusted mortality by diagnosis-related group (DRG) was also investigated. Case studies were undertaken to glean information about the use and acceptability of this new methodology in 2 hospital settings in Maryland. There was a strong relationship between mean mortality risk scores and mortality rates. The analysis of the empirical relationship between risk-adjusted and unadjusted mortality by DRG yielded support for the impact of RACOM-QM in adjusting inpatient mortality rates. The case studies supported the utility of this method of risk adjustment in increasing the interpretation of mortality data and in helping to identify areas in which to investigate quality in more depth in 2 hospital settings. This study provides overall support for the usefulness of risk adjustment and, specifically, the RACOM-QM, in increasing the interpretation of inpatient mortality rates in Maryland's acute care hospitals. This study also suggests that use of the RACOM-QM improved comparative analysis of inpatient mortality rates among Maryland hospitals. Finally, the results of the case study analysis suggest that improved internal review of mortality rates and increased clinician acceptance of these rates as indicators of performance were enhanced by the use of a risk adjustment methodology. PMID:10624030

Lied, T R; Kazandjian, V A; Hohman, S F

1999-01-01

372

Understanding service-oriented software.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Service-oriented software is being hailed as the next revolutionary approach to software development. Service orientation allows organizations to rapidly and dynamically form new software applications to meet changing business needs, thus alleviating the software evolution problems that occur with traditional applications. The largest of these problems is the need to understand existing software before changing it. This article looks ahead toward the automated construction of service-oriented...

Gold, N. E.; Knight, C.; Mohan, A.; Munro, M.

2004-01-01

373

Troos as unieke uitkoms in 'n pastoraal-narratiewe benadering tot rousmart / Consolation as a unique outcome within a pastoral-narrative approach to grief  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: Afrikaner Abstract in english The pastoral counselling of those who grieve, poses new challenges to pastoral care. Because of the shift away from a modernist paradigm, the grief process is now seen as an open-ended process, rather than a closed process that focuses on the mastering of the so-called tasks of mourning, and the avo [...] idance of grief pathology. Recent grief theory suggests that the grief process cannot reach a point of closure. Grief counselling should therefore rather embark on a process of generating new meaning to the problem-saturated discourses surrounding death and loss. Narrative therapy is suggested as a means of grief counselling, as it makes use of the story analogy, which supports the notion of an open end to the grief process. In this study, the narrative is explored within the framework of Practical Theology. Both the master story of God and the grief-saturated stories of people are combined in a pastoral approach that envisages consolation as the unique outcome of the therapeutic process. Consolation is regarded as one of the secondary narratives in the greater narrative of God, as well as in the reformed theological vocabulary. It is suggested that a pastoral-narrative approach to grief will generate the consolation needed by the grief-stricken on their lifelong journey of coming to terms with their loss.

Alfred R., Brunsdon.

374

Quality of Life Measurement in the Field of Intellectual Disabilities: Eight Principles for Assessing Quality of Life-Related Personal Outcomes  

Science.gov (United States)

As the concept of quality of life (QOL) has evolved from a theoretical concept to both a measurable construct and an action-oriented change agent in the field of intellectual disabilities, there has emerged a corresponding need to develop, implement, and use a systematic approach to the assessment of domain-referenced quality of life outcomes. The…

Claes, Claudia; Van Hove, Geert; van Loon, Jos; Vandevelde, Stijn; Schalock, Robert L.

2010-01-01

375

The Tinnitus Research Initiative (TRI database: A new approach for delineation of tinnitus subtypes and generation of predictors for treatment outcome  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Tinnitus, the phantom perception of sound, is a frequent disorder that causes significant morbidity and treatment is elusive. A large variety of different treatment options have been proposed and from most of them some patients benefit. However, a particular treatment that helps one patient may fail for others. This suggests that there are different forms of tinnitus which differ in their pathophysiology and their response to specific treatments. Therefore, it is a major challenge for tinnitus treatment to identify the most promising therapy for a specific patient. However, most published clinical treatment studies have enrolled only relatively small patient samples, making it difficult to identify predictors of treatment response for specific approaches. Furthermore, inter-study comparability is limited because of varying methods of tinnitus assessment and different outcome parameters. Performing clinical trials according to standardized methodology and pooling the data in a database should facilitate both clinical subtypisation of different forms of tinnitus, and identification of promising treatments for different types of tinnitus. This would be an important step towards the goal of individualized treatment of tinnitus. For these reasons, an international database of tinnitus patients, who undergo specific treatments, and are assessed during the course of this treatment with standardized instruments (e.g., psychoacoustic measures, questionnaires has been established. The primary objectives of this database are (1 collecting a standardized set of data on patient characteristics, treatments, and outcomes from tinnitus patients consulting specialized tinnitus clinics all over the world (at present 13 centers in 8 countries, (2 delineating different subtypes of tinnitus based on data that has been systematically collected and (3 identifying predictors for individual treatment response based on the clinical profile. Starting in 2008, the database currently contains data from more than 400 patients. It is expected that more centers will join the project and that the patient numbers will rapidly grow, so that this international database will further facilitate future research and contribute to the development of evidence based on individualized treatment.

Staudinger Susanne

2010-08-01

376

The Interprofessional Psychosocial Oncology Distance Education (IPODE) project: perceived outcomes of an approach to healthcare professional education.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Interprofessional Psychosocial Oncology Distance Education (IPODE) project was designed as an approach to the problems of feasibility and accessibility in specialty health professional education, in this case, psychosocial oncology (PSO). In this article, we report the evaluation findings from the first three years of the project in relation to one IPODE course, which was offered as a graduate level university elective in nine Canadian universities and as a continuing education (CE) option to health professionals between January 2008 and May 2010. The evaluation included a pre and post questionnaire that explored how an interprofessional (IP), web-based, PSO course influenced participants' knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about IP, person-centered PSO care. It also examined what attributes of a web-based platform were most effective in delivering an IP PSO course. The study yielded two key findings. First, web-based learning in a pan-Canadian and cross-university collaboration is a viable alternative to providing specialty education and significantly improves knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about IP, person-centered PSO care. Second, a web-based platform with real-time seminars, discussion boards and multiple audio visual resources that privilege first person illness narratives were important elements in expanding knowledge and shifting attitudes about IP practice and person-centered care in regards to PSO. In their evaluation, course participants highlighted a variety of ways in which the course expanded their vision about what constitutes an IP team and increased their confidence in interacting with healthcare professionals from professions other than their own. PMID:24354498

McLeod, Deborah; Curran, Janet; Dumont, Serge; White, Maureen; Charles, Grant

2014-05-01

377

Limits to social innovation. Shifts in Flemish strategic projects towards market oriented approaches Grenzen aan sociale innovatie. Verschuivingen in Vlaamse strategische projecten naar marktgerichte benaderingen  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available According to recent analyses, many strategic projects are part of a “New Urban Policy” favouring private developments and enhancing gentrification and social exclusion. Alternative projects should be more transformative, integrated and emancipatory. In order to test these claims for the Flemish region, I use Moulaert and Nussbaumer’s model (2005a on the concept of social innovation to evaluate the socio-spatial innovation capacity of two Flemish strategic projects. The analysis suggests that social innovation is possible but that Flemish strategic projects are strongly affected by market, property and management oriented approaches.Volgens recente analyses zijn vele strategische projecten onderdeel van een “Nieuw Stedelijk Beleid”, dat private ontwikkeling, sociale verdringing en exclusie bevordert. Alternatieve projecten zouden meer transformatief, geïntegreerd en emancipatorisch (moeten zijn. Om deze uitspraken te testen voor de Vlaamse situatie, gebruikt dit artikel een model van Moulaert en Nussbaumer’s (2005a concept van sociale innovatie en evalueert daarmee de sociaal-ruimtelijke innovatiecapaciteit van twee Vlaamse strategische projecten. De analyse suggereert dat sociale innovatie mogelijk is, maar dat Vlaamse strategische projecten sterk beïnvloed worden door markt-, eigendoms- en managementgerichte benaderingen.

Pieter Van den Broeck

2012-12-01

378

An approach to (103) oriented YBa2Cu3O7-? thin films epitaxially grown on (100) MgO substrates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The preferred growth orientations of YBa2Cu3O7-? (YBCO) thin films on (100) MgO substrates produced by pulsed laser deposition are reported. In particular, (103) perpendicular oriented films were successfully demonstrated. The crystallographic properties of the oriented films were examined by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction pole figure analyses, indicating a 45o tilt of the superconducting CuO2 planes relative to the substrate surface. This work provides a unique pathway to realizing the growth of (103) oriented YBCO films on highly valued electronic and microwave (100) MgO substrates.

379

Mapper: A distributed object-oriented database application  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper discusses the results of a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) project. The initial application involved decomposition of a large database across multiple processors to improve the speed of processing compound queries. The commercial outcome was a tourist information system with a point-to-point driving direction program called MAPPER. A distributed, object-oriented approach was used for the general design, while a spatial decomposition was used to divide the database into computationally manageable pieces. The resulting system is highly flexible with respect to both modifications and reuse.

Younger, Herbert; O'Reilly, John; Frogner, Bjorn

1995-01-01

380

Managing Multiple Chronic Conditions: A Strategic Framework for Improving Health Outcomes and Quality of Life  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The escalating problem of multiple chronic conditions (MCC) among Americans is now a major public health and medical challenge, associated with suboptimal health outcomes and rising health-care expenses. Despite this problem's growth, the delivery of health services has continued to employ outmoded “siloed” approaches that focus on individual chronic diseases. We describe an action-oriented framework—developed by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services with additional input pro...

Parekh, Anand K.; Goodman, Richard A.; Gordon, Catherine; Koh, Howard K.

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Determining Plausible Forecast Outcomes  

Science.gov (United States)

The content of this lesson will assist the forecaster with the third step of the forecast process, namely, determining plausible forecast outcomes forward in time. The lesson will highlight the role of probabilistic forecast tools to assess the degree of uncertainty in a forecast, as well as suggest an approach for evaluating past and present model performance.

2014-09-14

382

Student performance and their perception of a patient-oriented problem-solving approach with audiovisual aids in teaching pathology: a comparison with traditional lectures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Arjun SinghDepartment of Pathology, Sri Venkateshwara Medical College Hospital and Research Centre, Pondicherry, IndiaPurpose: We use different methods to train our undergraduates. The patient-oriented problem-solving (POPS system is an innovative teaching–learning method that imparts knowledge, enhances intrinsic motivation, promotes self learning, encourages clinical reasoning, and develops long-lasting memory. The aim of this study was to develop POPS in teaching pathology, assess its effectiveness, and assess students’ preference for POPS over didactic lectures.Method: One hundred fifty second-year MBBS students were divided into two groups: A and B. Group A was taught by POPS while group B was taught by traditional lectures. Pre- and post-test numerical scores of both groups were evaluated and compared. Students then completed a self-structured feedback questionnaire for analysis.Results: The mean (SD difference in pre- and post-test scores of groups A and B was 15.98 (3.18 and 7.79 (2.52, respectively. The significance of the difference between scores of group A and group B teaching methods was 16.62 (P < 0.0001, as determined by the z-test. Improvement in post-test performance of group A was significantly greater than of group B, demonstrating the effectiveness of POPS. Students responded that POPS facilitates self-learning, helps in understanding topics, creates interest, and is a scientific approach to teaching. Feedback response on POPS was strong in 57.52% of students, moderate in 35.67%, and negative in only 6.81%, showing that 93.19% students favored POPS over simple lectures.Conclusion: It is not feasible to enforce the PBL method of teaching throughout the entire curriculum; However, POPS can be incorporated along with audiovisual aids to break the monotony of dialectic lectures and as alternative to PBL.Keywords: medical education, problem-solving exercise, problem-based learning

Arjun Singh

2010-12-01

383

Petroclival meningiomas resected via a combined transpetrosal approach: surgical outcomes in 60 cases and a new scoring system for clinical evaluation.  

Science.gov (United States)

OBJECT Petroclival meningiomas are among the most challenging intracranial tumors to treat surgically. Many skull base approaches have been described to improve resection and decrease patient morbidity. The authors undertook this study to evaluate the results of their treatment of petroclival meningiomas using objective measurements of tumor volume and a new impairment scoring system to assess neurological symptoms that severely affect the patient's quality of life, such as impairment of swallowing and speaking, motor function, and consciousness and communication. METHODS Between January 1990 and December 2009, the authors used a combined transpetrosal approach to treat 60 patients with benign (WHO Grade I) petroclival meningiomas. In this retrospective study, all 60 cases were analyzed in detail with regard to tumor volume, extent of resection (EOR), long-term tumor control, neurological outcome, and the patient condition. In addition, patients were divided into 2 groups according to the period during which the surgery was performed: the early group, from 1990 to 1999, and the late group, from 2000 to 2009. A new scoring system, the petroclival meningioma impairment scale (PCMIS), was created for quantitative assessment of 8 categories of neurological functions, with scores assigned in each category according to the level of disability and its impact on the patient. The PCMIS was used preoperatively, at 3 months after surgery, and at the time of the last follow-up examination, and the results for the 2 groups were compared. RESULTS There were 24 cases in the early group (1990-1999), and the mean duration of follow-up was 149.3 months. The mean EOR was 96.1%, and good long-term tumor control was obtained in 22 patients (91.7%). One of patients died because of a postoperative complication in the perioperative period. The PCMIS improved in 3 patients (12.5%), remained stable in 1 (4.2%), and worsened in 20 (83.3%). There were 36 cases in the late group (2000-2009), and the mean duration of follow-up was 77.9 months. The mean EOR was 92.7%, and good long-term tumor control was obtained in 34 patients (94.4%). The PCMIS score improved in 23 patients (63.9%), remained stable in 5 (13.9%), and worsened in 8 (22.2%). CONCLUSIONS The combined transpetrosal approach has provided satisfactory functional improvements and excellent tumor control for patients with petroclival meningiomas. The PCMIS provides a specific tool for quantitative assessment of the patient's state. PMID:25380114

Morisako, Hiroki; Goto, Takeo; Ohata, Kenji

2014-11-01

384

Mother-child mutually responsive orientation and conscience development: from toddler to early school age.  

Science.gov (United States)

We examined whether positive implications of mother-child mutually responsive orientation, demonstrated earlier at toddler and preschool age, extend longitudinally into early school age. The focus of the present study was on the long-term consequences of mutually responsive orientation for the development of conscience. Mutually responsive orientation encompassed shared cooperation and shared positive affect between mother and child. It was measured as a composite of those qualities observed in dyadic naturalistic interactions and reported by mothers, at toddler and preschool age. Children's conscience was assessed at early school age (N = 83) using multiple measures, including observations of moral behavior, alone and in the peer context, and moral cognition. Mother-child mutually responsive orientation at toddler and preschool ages predicted children's future conscience, even after controlling for the developmental continuity of conscience. Model-fitting analyses revealed that mutually responsive orientation at toddler age had a direct effect on future conscience, not mediated by such orientation at preschool age. The findings extend those of earlier work that revealed the importance of mother-child mutually responsive orientation for socialization, and they confirm the value of the relationship approach to social development, including long-term outcomes. PMID:10834474

Kochanska, G; Murray, K T

2000-01-01

385

Two-Year Follow-Up of a Code-Oriented Intervention for Lower-Skilled First-Graders: The Influence of Language Status and Word Reading Skills on Third-Grade Literacy Outcomes  

Science.gov (United States)

For 2 years we followed lower-performing English learner (EL) and native English speaking (non-EL) students who participated in an efficacy trial of a supplemental first-grade code-oriented intervention implemented by paraeducators. At the end of grade three, across all students (n = 180 of the original 187 students), treatment effects were…

Vadasy, Patricia F.; Sanders, Elizabeth A.

2013-01-01

386

Orienteering Club  

CERN Multimedia

 Course d’orientation C’est sous un magnifique soleil que s’est tenue la 7e épreuve de la coupe genevoise organisée par le club d’orientation du CERN. Les organisateurs avaient concocté des parcours assez techniques sur le site de La Faucille. Sur le parcours technique long, beau podium avec la victoire de Domenico Lepori (double médaillés aux championnats du monde en 2010 en vétéran) du club Care Vevey en 1:00:23, juste devant Jürg Niggli du club O’Jura en 1:00:56 puis Beat Mueller du club Lausanne-Jorat en 1:04:28. Sur le parcours technique moyen, Franck Longchampt s’est octroyé la première place, sur le parcours technique court, le jeune Julien Vuitton, qui n’a pas tout à fait 11 ans, a remporté son circuit. Coté parcours facile moyen, Victor Kuznetsov a une fois de plus gagn&eacut...

Club d'Orientation

2012-01-01

387

Orienteering club  

CERN Multimedia

COURSE D’ORIENTATION  De La Rippe à Sauvabellin, la coupe genevoise continue ! Le rendez-vous était donné samedi 8 mai aux amateurs de course d’orientation dans les bois de La Rippe (Canton de Vaud). Cette 6e épreuve était organisée par le Club Satus Grutli de Genève. Il est dommage que les participants n’aient pas été aussi nombreux que lors des dernières courses, les Championnats de France des clubs à Dijon ayant certainement retenus plus d’un compétiteur. La première place est revenue à : – Technique long : Berni Wehrle – Technique moyen : Jean-Bernard Zosso – Technique court : Berni Wehrle – Facile moyen : Peter Troscanyi – Facile court : Claire Droz. Il ne restera plus que deux épreuves ...

Club d'orientation

2010-01-01

388

Orienteering Club  

CERN Multimedia

COURSE D’ORIENTATION La finale de la coupe de printemps Après avoir remporté le challenge club, samedi 29 juin lors du relais inter-club à Lausanne, le Club d’orientation du CERN organisait la dernière étape de la coupe genevoise de printemps samedi 5 juin à Saint-Cergue dans les bois de Monteret (Canton de Vaud). Plus de 100 participants se sont déplacés pour venir participer à la finale et découvrir une toute nouvelle carte dans une forêt vallonnée. Les résultats pour chaque circuit de cette étape sont : Technique long : 1. Jurg Niggli du club O’Jura, 2. Clément Poncet, 3. Oystein Midttun. Technique moyen : 1. Zoltan Trocsanyi CO CERN, 2. Christophe Ingold, 3. Christina Falga. Technique court : 1. Pierre-Andre Baum, CARE Vevey, 2. Emese Szunyog, 3. Solène Balay. Facile moyen : 1. Elisa P...

Club d'orientation

2010-01-01

389

Orienteering club  

CERN Multimedia

Courses d’orientation Le soleil enfin de retour a incité nombre de sportifs et promeneurs à nous rejoindre dans la belle forêt de Challex /Pougny pour la deuxième étape de notre coupe de printemps 2013. Certains sont revenus crottés et fourbus alors que d’autres avaient les joues bien roses après un grand bol d’air frais. Mais tous avaient passé un agréable moment dans la nature. Nous rappelons que nos activités sont ouvertes à tous, jeunes, moins jeunes, sportifs, familles, du CERN ou d’ailleurs, et que le seul inconvénient est que si vous goûtez à la course d’orientation, il vous sera difficile de ne pas y revenir ! Samedi 20 avril 2013, nous serons sur le Mont Mourex (entre Gex et Divonne) pour notre prochaine épreuve et vous y serez les bienvenus. Les inscriptions et les départ...

Club d'orientation

2013-01-01

390

Orientation Club  

CERN Document Server

COURSE ORIENTATION Résultats de samedi 10 mai    C’est sur une carte entièrement réactualisée dans les bois de Versoix, que plus de 100 coureurs sont venus participer à la course d’orientation, type longue distance, préparée par des membres du club du CERN. Le terrain plutôt plat nécessitait une orientation à grande vitesse, ce qui a donné les podiums suivants :  Technique long avec 17 postes : 1er Jurg Niggli, O’Jura en 52:48, 2e Beat Muller, COLJ Lausanne-Jorat en 58:02, 3e Christophe Vuitton, CO CERN en 58:19 Technique moyen avec 13 postes : 1er Jean-Bernard Zosso, CO CERN, en 46:05 ; 2e Yves Rousselot, Balise 25 Besançon, en 55:11 ; 3e Laurent Merat, O'Jura, en 55:13 Technique court avec 13 postes : 1er Julien Vuitton, CO CERN en 40:59, 2e Marc Baumgartner, CO CERN en 43:18, 3e Yaelle Mathieu en 51:42 Su...

Club d'orientation

2014-01-01

391

A framework for the application of physically-oriented glacio-hydrological models in the Himalaya-Karakorum region based on a new approach of uncertainty evaluation  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of physically-oriented approaches to model glacio-hydrological processes offers the advantage that model parameters can be estimated directly from measurements or from literature, while in conceptual models parameters do not correspond to physical properties. However, in the case of remote high-elevation catchments, the lack of knowledge about local variables due to the difficult survey conditions increases the uncertainty of model parameters and, therefore, that of the model outputs. It has been demonstrated in previous work (Ragettli and Pellicciotti, WRR 2012) that data obtained locally by ad-hoc short-term field campaigns can be used efficiently to constrain model parameters. The design of field campaigns in terms of timing and location of measurements remains, however, a challenge for high-elevation catchments due to their large size, bad accessibility and geomorphological heterogeneity. Field work is particularly important in the Himalaya-Karakorum (H-K) region, where the heterogeneous response of glaciers to recent climatic changes calls for targeted data collection. This work presents a new computational method where, by means of sensitivity analysis, a priori parameters are used in a distributed glacio-hydrological model to assess the spatially and temporally variable capacity of individual parameters and model components to explain the total uncertainty of the simulated hydrological response. The method allows detailed suggestions about timing and location of field measurements, thus permitting to constraining model uncertainty through minimal field data collection. The method is applied to two catchments in the H-K: the Langtang River Basin in the Greater Himalaya (Nepal) and the Hunza River Basin in the Karokoram (Pakistan). While recent studies have reported rapid declines in glacier area from the Greater Himalaya, several central Karakoram glaciers have expanded in the late 1990s. Differences in glacier fluctuations must be mainly explained by distinct climatic patterns. Our results suggest that in both regions, melt below debris covered glaciers and gravitational snow redistribution are key processes that need to be represented accurately by the model. The application of the method was finally iterated using a unique dataset of locally acquired field data from the debris covered Lirung glacier in the Langtang catchment, which allowed repeating the sensitivity analysis with a new set of better constrained parameters. The results suggest that an iterative framework based on the presented methodology feeding local data collection and vice versa can efficiently reduce overall model uncertainty.

Ragettli, S.; Pellicciotti, F.

2013-12-01

392

Customizable Time-Oriented Visualizations  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Most commercial visualization tools support an easy and quick creation of conventional time-oriented visualizations such as line charts, but customization is limited. In contrast, some academic visualization tools and programming languages support the creation of some customizable time-oriented visualizations but it is time consuming and hard. To combine efficiency, the effort required to develop a visualization, and customizability, the ability to tailor a visualization, we developed time-oriented building blocks that address the specifics of time (e.g. linear vs. cyclic or point-based vs. interval-based) and consist of inner customizable parts (e.g. ticks). A combination of the time-oriented and other primitive graphical building blocks allowed the creation of several customizable advanced time-oriented visualizations. The appearance and behavior of the blocks are specified using spreadsheet-like formulas. We compared our approach with other popular visualization tools. Evaluation showed that our approachrates well in customizability.

Kuhail, Mohammad Amin; Pantazos, Kostas

2012-01-01

393

Customer Orientation and Firm Performance among Nigerian Small and Medium Scale Businesses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study examines the relationship between customer orientation and firm performance among the small andmedium scale businesses in Nigeria. Besides, the study also investigates the moderating effect of marketinginformation system and managerial attitudes on the relationship between customer orientation and firmperformance. Nigeria small and medium business represents the sample of the study. Data was collected usingquestionnaire survey approach. Two hundred and twenty two Nigerian businesses participated in this study.Results of this study indicated that there was a positive and significant relationship between customer orientationand firm performance in the context of Nigerian small and medium scale business. The result also revealed thatmarketing information system and managerial attitude moderated the relationship. The outcome of this studyprovides very important information from a developing country perspective on the need for small and mediumscale businesses to adopt customer orientation as a survival and competitive strategy towards achieving customeradvantage in a turbulent business environment.

Olalekan Asikhia

2010-04-01

394

Designs for qualitatively orientated research  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It is shown that contemporary psychology appears to be hindered by its orientation to natural science and experimental methodology. An opening to more combinations of methods, to an integration of qualitative and quantitative approaches is needed. Several foundations for such an integration (pragmatism, constructivism, dialectics) are given. An integration is only possible if qualitatively orientated studies have a clear conception, a study design, and a research process model which fits into...

Philipp Mayring

2007-01-01

395

Discursos expositivos de arte oriental  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This Master of Museum Studies Thesis deals with museological and museographic issues concerning the treatment, approach and presentation of Oriental Art, detailing the mask collections of No Theatre. Starting from the analasys of museum realities and exhibitions, both in Portugal and in Europe (selected according to the representativity of these collections), we were able to confirm the exixtence of several types of presentations/readings which outline two paradigms: the oriental testimony, n...

Peixoto, Luis Miguel Andrade Batista

2006-01-01

396

Outcome based education enacted: teachers' tensions in balancing between student learning and bureaucracy.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reports on how teachers within health sciences education translate outcome-based education (OBE) into practice when they design courses. The study is an empirical contribution to the debate about outcome- and competency-based approaches in health sciences education. A qualitative method was used to study how teachers from 14 different study programmes designed courses before and after OBE was implemented. Using an interpretative approach, analysis of documents and interviews was carried out. The findings show that teachers enacted OBE either to design for more competency-oriented teaching-learning, or to further detail knowledge and thus move towards reductionism. Teachers mainly understood the outcome-based framework as useful to support students' learning, although the demand for accountability created tension and became a bureaucratic hindrance to design for development of professional competence. The paper shows variations of how teachers enacted the same outcome-based framework for instructional design. These differences can add a richer understanding of how outcome- or competency-based approaches relate to teaching-learning at a course level. PMID:24464366

Barman, Linda; Silén, Charlotte; Bolander Laksov, Klara

2014-12-01

397

Club Orientation  

CERN Multimedia

  COURSE ORIENTATION   Pas moins de 100 concurrents sont venus s’affronter sur les parcours proposés par le club d’orientation du CERN ce samedi 26 avril lors de la 4e étape de la coupe genevoise de printemps. Les podiums ont été attribués à :  Technique long avec 19 postes : 1er Yvan Balliot, ASO Annecy en 1:01:39 ; 2e Dominique Fleurent, ASO Annecy, en 1:05:12 ; 3e Rémi Fournier, SOS Sallanches, en 1:05:40. Technique moyen avec 14 postes : 1er Jean-Bernard Zosso, CO CERN, en 46:42 ; 2e Céline Zosso, CO CERN, en 50:51 ; 3e Clément Poncet, O’Jura Prémanon, en 51:27. Technique court avec 13 postes : 1er Jaakko Murtomaki, YKV Seinaejoki, en 36:04 ; 2e Marc Baumgartner en 41:27 ; 3e Natalia Niggli, O’Jura Prémanon, en 52:43. Sur les parcours facile moyen et facile court, victoire respectivement de Stéphanie...

Club d'orientation

2014-01-01

398

Filling in the Information Literacy Blank: Developing a Library Orientation for Incoming Community College Students  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Library orientation literature suggests a need for hands-on activities to reinforce learning outcomes. Cleveland State Community College Library, while constrained by time, staffing, and renovation, was able to collaborate with the campus orientation committee to develop an interactive, activity-based library orientation session during the college new student orientation.

Monica Twork

2013-01-01

399

Outcome predictors for 143 patients with superior sulcus tumors treated by multidisciplinary approach at the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: Superior sulcus tumors (SST) of the lung are uncommon and constitute approximately 3% of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). These tumors cause specific symptoms and signs, and are associated with patterns of failure that differ from those seen for NSCLC tumors in other nonapical locations. Prognostic factors and most effective treatments are controversial. We conducted a retrospective study at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center to identify outcome predictors for patients with SST treated by a multidisciplinary approach. Methods and Materials: This retrospective review of 143 patients without distant metastasis at presentation is a continuation of a previous M. D. Anderson study now updated to 1994. In this study, we examine the 5-year survival rate by pretreatment tumor and patient characteristics and by the treatments received. Strict criteria were used to define SST. Actuarial life-table analyses and Cox proportional hazard models were used to compare survival rates. Results: Overall predictors of 5-year survival were weight loss (p < 0.01), supraclavicular fossa (p = 0.03), or vertebral body (p = 0.05) involvement, stage of the disease (p < 0.01), and surgical treatment (p < 0.01). Five-year survival for patients with Stage IIB disease was 47% compared to 14% for Stage IIIA, and 16% for Stage IIIB. For patients with Stage IIB disease, surgical treatment (p < 0.01) and weight loss (p = 0.01) were significant independent predictors of 5-yesignificant independent predictors of 5-year survival. Among patients with Stage IIIA disease, the only predictor of survival was Karnofsky performance score (KPS) (p = 0.02). For patients with Stage IIIB disease, the only independent predictor of survival was a right superior sulcus location, which was associated with a worse 5-year survival rate than that for patients with tumors in the left superior sulcus (p = 0.02). More patients with adenocarcinoma than with squamous cell tumors experienced cerebral metastases within 5 years (p < 0.01). Patients without gross residual disease after surgical resection who received postoperative radiation therapy with total doses of 55 to 64 Gy had a 5-year survival rate of 82% as compared with the 5-year survival rate of 56% in patients who received 50 to 54 Gy. Twenty-three patients survived for longer than 3 years. Of these, 4 patients (17%) received radiation therapy alone or in combination with chemotherapy without surgical resection. The other 19 patients (83%) had resection combined with radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy. Conclusions: The findings from this study confirm the importance of the new staging system, separating T3 N0 M0 (Stage IIB) from Stage IIIA, since there was a significant difference in the 5-year survival (p < 0.01). Interestingly, there was no significant 5-year survival difference between Stage IIIA (N2) and Stage IIIB (T4 or N3). This study also suggests that surgery is an important component of the multidisciplinary approach to patients with SST if their nodes were negative. Disease that is minimally invading surrounding normal structures can be resected followed by radiation therapy in doses of 55 to 64 Gy. Further investigation of treatment strategies combining high-dose radiation therapy (?66 Gy) with chemotherapy is indicated for patients with unresectable and/or node-positive (N2) SST

400

From volume to value? Can a value-based approach help deliver the ambitious aims of the NHS cardiovascular disease outcomes strategy?  

Science.gov (United States)

The last year has seen the publication of two papers which will radically shape the future organisation of healthcare in general, and cardiovascular disease in particular: Cardiovascular Outcomes Strategy (Department of Health) and The Strategy That Will Fix Healthcare (Harvard Business Review). Both publications set out a health delivery mechanism based around improvement of outcomes for groups of patients with similar needs. Instead of organising care around disease categories, it is proposed that the cardiovascular diseases are treated as a single family of diseases. We are reaching the limits of what an activity-based system organised around existing provider structures can sustainably deliver. Unless we find delivery systems which reduce costs while at the same time improving outcomes that are meaningful to patients, then we will be faced with a future of healthcare rationing. The increasing burden of chronic disease and ongoing quality concerns in delivery systems has created a 'burning platform', which must be addressed if we are to maintain a system which offers high-quality care free at the point of delivery. This paper explores what an outcomes and value-based system could look like when applied to cardiovascular disease. It explores what it means for providers and patients if we start to think about outcomes by patients with similar needs, rather than by intervention, or by clinical specialty. As a specific example, the paper explores the features of an Integrated Circulation Service, what the challenges and implications might be, and whether there is any evidence that this would deliver improved outcomes, at a lower cost to the system. PMID:24619245

Dunbar-Rees, Rupert; Panch, Trishan; Dancy, Mark

2014-06-01

 
 
 
 
401

Orienteering Club  

CERN Document Server

Relais inter-club/Challenge Carlo Milan Samedi dernier, lors de l’épreuve de course d’orientation organisée par le club du O’Jura, le moteur de la discipline était l’esprit d’équipe, puisqu’il était question d’un relais inter-club avec le Challenge Carlo Milan. Les clubs avaient aligné leurs coureurs soit sur le relais technique (trois participants) soit sur le relais facile (deux participants). Côté O’Jura, il fallait noter la participation de François Gonon, champion du monde 2011, côté club du CERN, Marie et Gaëtan Vuitton, jeunes espoirs du club, devaient préparer la piste pour lancer le dernier relayeur. Côté Lausanne-Jorat, il fallait compter sur le très jeune Viktor Kuznetsov. Les 31 équipes engagées n’ont pas m&ea...

Club d'Orientation

2012-01-01

402

Orienteering Club  

CERN Multimedia

Finale de la coupe d’automne La dernière épreuve de la coupe d’automne organisée par le club d’orientation du CERN s’est déroulée ce samedi 2 novembre avec une course au score dans le bois Tollot (GE). Les concurrents disposaient d’un temps imparti pour poinçonner le maximum de balises différemment placées selon le circuit choisi. Juerg Niggli (club O’Jura) a remporté le parcours technique long. A l’issue de cette course, le classement général de la coupe d’automne, basé sur les 6 meilleurs résultats de la saison, est le suivant : Circuit technique long : 1er Juerg Niggli (O’Jura), 2e Bruno Barge, 3e Beat Mueller. Circuit technique moyen : 1er Laurent Merat (O’Jura), 2e Jirden Lennart, 3e Daria Niggli. Circuit technique court : 1er Victor Kuznetsov (COLJ), 2e N...

Club d'orientation

2013-01-01

403

Orienteering Club  

CERN Multimedia

Calendrier de la coupe d’automne Le Club d’orientation du CERN, en partenariat avec d’autres clubs de la région, vous propose, pour cette nouvelle coupe d’automne genevoise, une série de 10 courses. Le club du O’Jura donnera le coup d’envoi le samedi 31 août. Les courses s’enchaîneront selon le calendrier suivant : Samedi 31 août : Prémanon (39) - longue distance Samedi 14 septembre : La Faucille (01) - longue distance Samedi 21 septembre : Saint Cergue (VD) - longue distance Samedi 28 septembre : Ballens (VD) - relais Samedi 5 octobre : La Pile (VD) - longue distance Vendredi 11 octobre : Les Evaux (GE) - nocturne Samedi 12 octobre : Grand Jorat, Savigny (VD) - longue distance Samedi 19 octobre : Terrasses de Genève (74) - longue distance Samedi 26 octobre : Prémanon (39) - longue distance Samedi 2 novembre : Bois Tollot (GE) - score - Finale Les &a...

CLUB D'ORIENTATION

2013-01-01

404

Orienteering club  

CERN Multimedia

Course d'orientation Finale de la coupe genevoise Rapide et méthodique, voilà les qualités dont il fallait faire preuve pour remporter la dernière étape de la coupe organisée par le club du CERN dans les bois de Monteret. Il s’agissait d’une course au score où chaque concurrent disposait d’un temps imparti pour poinçonner le maximum de balises. Le parcours technique a été remporté par Tomas Shellman et le parcours facile par Victor Dannecker. Cette dernière étape était aussi décisive pour la désignation des lauréats de la coupe genevoise de printemps. Les résultats officiels étaient donnés par le président du club, L. Jirden : Circuit Technique Long : Berni Wehrle, Bruno Barge, Edvins Reisons Circuit Technique Moyen : J.-Bernard Zosso, ...

Club d'orientation

2013-01-01

405

Orienteering Club  

CERN Multimedia

Course d'orientation Avec la CO en nocturne organisée par le club du CERN vendredi 14 octobre au stade des Eveaux (Ge), et la CO à Savigny (Vd) proposée par le club de Lausanne-Jorat le lendemain, les étapes de la coupe genevoise d’automne s’enchainent rapidement. Il ne reste plus que 3 rendez-vous pour boucler la saison. Les premières places devraient certainement se jouer entre des membres du club du CERN, du O’Jura ou de Lausanne-Jorat. La prochaine course du club est programmée pour samedi 22 octobre à Pomier, près de Cruseilles. L’accueil se fera à partir de 12h30 et les départs s’échelonneront de 13h à 15h. * * * * * * * Nouvelle belle victoire samedi 8 octobre à Saint Cergue du jeune finlandais Ville Keskisaari (COLJ) en 50:56 devant Jürg Niggli (O’Jura) en 1:03:32, et Alexandre...

Club d'Orientation

2011-01-01

406

Orienteering Club  

CERN Multimedia

Finale de la coupe d’automne   La coupe d’automne organisée par le club d’orientation du CERN s’est terminée ce samedi 10 novembre avec une course sprint à Prévessins. C’était la 12e épreuve de la saison. En stage dans la région, Tanya Ryabkina, championne d’Europe en titre et médaillée de bronze en moyenne distance lors des championnats du monde à La Givrine cet été, a fait l’honneur de sa présence et termine 2e à 8 secondes de Trygve Buanes, norvégien du club de Bergen. A l’issue de cette dernière épreuve, le classement général de la coupe d’automne, basé sur les 8 meilleurs résultats de la saison, est ainsi le suivant : Circuit technique long : 1er Jurg Niggli (O&rsqu...

Club d'orientation

2012-01-01

407

Orienteering Club  

CERN Multimedia

Course d'orientation Le coup d’envoi de la coupe genevoise a été donné samedi 31 août dans les bois de Combe Froide à Prémanon. Plus de 150 coureurs avaient fait le déplacement. Les parcours facile court, facile moyen et technique court ont été remportés par des coureurs du club O’Jura - Ulysse Dannecker, Léo Lonchampt, Franck Lonchampt, le technique moyen par Pekka Marti du club Ol Biel Seeland et le technique long par Térence Risse du CA Rosé – également membre de l’équipe nationale suisse des moins de 20 ans. Pour le club du CERN, les meilleures résultats ont été obtenus pas Emese Szunyog sur technique court et Marie Vuitton sur technique moyen avec une 4e place. La prochaine course aura lieu samedi 14 septembre à La Faucille. Le club propose aussi...

Club d'orientation

2013-01-01

408

Orienteering club  

CERN Multimedia

Course d'orientation Vers les dernières courses de printemps Une centaine de coureurs se sont déplacés sur le site de la Roche Fendue prés de Morez pour gouter à un des 5 parcours proposés par le club du O’Jura. Le terrain était gras mais que peut-on trouver d’autre avec cette météo! Les vainqueurs de chaque circuit sont : Alina Niggli (O’Jura) facile court, Natalja Niggli (O’Jura) facile moyen, Victor Kuznetsov (COLJ) technique court, Yves Rousselot (Balise 25) technique moyen et pour finir François Gonon (O’Jura) avec une victoire haut la main sur le technique long. Il ne reste plus que deux épreuves pour la coupe genevoise de printemps : à savoir samedi 8 juin, course de type longue distance organisée par le club de Lausanne Jorat (COLJ) dans le bois de Seyte sur Mutrux/Concise, inscription de 12h &...

Club d'orientation

2013-01-01

409

Orienteering Club  

CERN Multimedia

 Finale de la coupe de printemps   La dernière course d’orientation comptant pour la Coupe de printemps a eu lieu samedi dernier dans le village des Rousses et vers le Fort. Il s’agissait d’un sprint organisé par le club O’Jura. Les temps de course ont avoisiné les 20 minutes que ce soit pour le parcours technique moyen ou technique long. Tous les habitués étaient au rendez-vous pour venir consolider ou améliorer leur place au classement. A l’issue de cette course, le classement général de la Coupe de printemps prenant en compte les 6 meilleurs résultats des 9 courses était établi et les lauréats de chaque catégorie sont les suivants: Circuit technique long : 1er Berni Wehrle, 2e Bruno Barge, 3e Edvins Reisons. Circuit technique moyen : 1er Jean-Bernard Zosso, 2e Cédric Wehrl&...

Club d'Orientation

2012-01-01

410

Orienteering club  

CERN Multimedia

Course d'orientation Finale de la coupe d’automne La dernière épreuve de la coupe d’automne organisée par le club s’est déroulée ce samedi 1er novembre avec une course type «one-man-relay» dans la forêt de Trelex (Vd). Les concurrents des circuits techniques devaient parcourir trois boucles et ceux des circuits «faciles» deux boucles, avec changements de carte. Le parcours technique long a été remporté par un membre du club, Berni Wehrle. A l’issue de cette course, le Président du club, L. Jirden annonçait le classement général de la coupe d’automne, basé sur les 6 meilleurs résultats de la saison : Circuit technique long : 1er Juerg Niggli (O’Jura), 2e Berni Wehrle, 3e Beat Mueller. Circuit technique moyen : 1er Laurent Merat (O&r...

Club d'orientation

2014-01-01

411

Orienteering Club  

CERN Multimedia

De jour comme de nuit Les amateurs de course d’orientation ont pu s’en donner à cœur joie ce week-end puisqu’ils avaient la possibilité de courir sur deux épreuves en moins de 24 heures. En effet, le club du CERN organisait une course de nuit aux Evaux et la 7e étape de la coupe genevoise se tenait samedi après-midi dans les bois du Grand Jorat à Savigny. Les vainqueurs pour chaque course sont : Technique long CO de nuit: Julien Charlemagne, SOS Sallanches CO samedi: Philipp Khlebnikov, ANCO   Technique moyen CO de nuit: Céline Zosso, CO CERN CO samedi: Pavel Khlebnikov, ANCO Technique court CO de nuit: Colas Ginztburger, SOS Sallanches CO samedi: Victor Kuznetsov, COLJ Lausannne Facile moyen CO de nuit: Gaëtan Rickenbacher, CO CERN CO samedi: Tamas Szoke   Facile court CO de nuit:Oriane Rickenbacher, CO CERN CO samedi: Katya Kuznetsov...

Club d'orientation

2013-01-01

412

Orienteering club  

CERN Multimedia

Reprise fin août Le Club d’orientation, en partenariat avec d’autres clubs de la région, vous propose une nouvelle série de courses pour cet automne. Le calendrier à retenir est le suivant : Samedi 27 août : Granges Malval (GE) – type classique Samedi 10 septembre : Lamoura (39) – type classique Samedi 17 septembre : La Dôle (F/VD) – type classique Samedi 24 septembre : Monteret (VD) – relais Samedi 8 octobre : Saint Cergue (VD) – type classique Vendredi 14 octobre : Les Evaux (GE) – nocturne Samedi 15 octobre : Grand Jorat (VD) – type classique Samedi 22 octobre : Pomier (74) – type classique Samedi 5 novembre : Echallens (VD) – type classique Samedi 12 novembre : CERN (GE) - sprint - Finale Généralement cinq circuits sont disponibles : ceci va du facile court (2 km) adapt&eacu...

Club d'orientation

2011-01-01

413

Orienteering Club  

CERN Multimedia

Coupe genevoise, suite Résultats de la course de Saint-Cergue, sur la carte Les Pralies, samedi 17 septembre. Nouvelle victoire du finlandais Ville Keskisaari, du club COLJ sur le parcours technique long avec une belle avance sur le deuxième concurrent Christophe Vuitton du CO CERN. David Cuenin a remporté le parcours technique moyen, Franck Lonchampt du club O’Jura a, lui aussi, remporté à nouveau le parcours technique court, tout comme Julien Vuitton du club CO CERN sur le facile moyen. Pour finir, Stéphane Clément devance Victor Dannecker sur le parcours facile court. Les résultats complets sont disponibles sur le site du club du CERN http://cern.ch/club-orientation. Un abonnement est pris sur le secteur de Saint-Cergue, puisque le club organise les deux prochaines étapes de la coupe genevoise dans le Haut-Jura suisse. Tout d’abord le samedi 24 septembre, un relais inter-club se courr...

Club d'orientation

2011-01-01

414

Does Early Childhood Teacher Education Affect Students' Cognitive Orientations?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Early childhood teachers may differ regarding the knowledge base they use when making professional decisions. In this study two orientations are distinguished: the orientation towards scientific knowledge vs. the orientation towards intuition and subjective experience. As different tracks in early childhood teacher education qualify for professional practice, and as education of early childhood teachers matters with regard to developmental outcomes of children, knowledge orientations of prospective early childhood teachers attending universities and attending vocational schools are investigated and compared. Knowledge orientations were assessed by means of a questionnaire. After propensity score matching of 402 beginners and 402 graduates, multilevel analyses indicate that scientific orientation at the end of teacher education was higher and subjective orientation was lower than at the beginning. Furthermore, scientific knowledge orientation of BA-students was higher, subjective orientation was lower than of students at professional schools. Implications of these results regarding education of early childhood teachers are discussed.

Christoph Mischo

2014-01-01

415

Math and Calculation – A Test for Diagnosing Concepts at Pre-school Age – An Example of a Level-oriented Approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Process-oriented diagnostics require a theoretical framework which allows to describe and interpret individual competence changes. For MARKO-test, a corresponding dimension/scale of mathematical achievement in preschool age was developed on the basis of theoretical assumptions and empirical data. Five essential concepts are: numbers as counting sequence, ordinal number line, cardinal understanding, part – part – whole and concept of congruent intervals. There is empirical evidence for the...

Gabi Ricken; Annemarie Fritz; Lars Balzer

2011-01-01

416

A Roundabout Approach to Control Morphological Orientation and Solar-Cell Performance by Modulating Side-Chain Branching Position in Benzodithiophene-Based Polymers.  

Science.gov (United States)

To be meaningful to guide the rational design of novel high-performance conjugated semiconductors, we prepared three benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene (BDT)-based polymers by systematically moving the branching point of the alkyl chain. The effect of side-chain engineering was thoroughly investigated by a range of techniques. We demonstrate that a subtle change in the branching position in the BDT core can have a critical impact on polymer packing and preferential backbone orientation in thin films; copolymers made from BDT and thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione units (TPD) adopt more of a face-on orientation as the branching point is shifted closer to the backbone, which can be correlated with a dramatic difference in solar-cells performance. The high short-circuit current density (11.6?mA?cm(-2) ) for the copolymer with one carbon atom between the alkoxylated oxygen atom and the branching point results from its predominantly face-on orientation and smoother surface in thin films, which results in power conversion efficiencies as high as 4.56?%. PMID:25334043

Lee, Kyu Cheol; Song, Seyeong; Lee, Junghoon; Kim, Dong Suk; Kim, Jin Young; Yang, Changduk

2014-10-21

417

Network Oriented Blocking Followed by Misbehaving Oriented Phenomena  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available By the fast growing generation the network based on the tor provides accessibility of the services based on the internet oriented applications which are based on the private scenario by the connection oriented routers based on the server where the client’s oriented address based on the IP is hidden. Where the performance is somewhat is effective due to the limitation based on the network based connectivity. These problems are faced due to some of the ill conditioning based parameters respectively such as appearance of the network based scenario is quite effective respectively. Administration related websites are completely dependent on the address of the IP oriented phenomena respectively in which the disabling of the access takes due to the ill conditioning of the user baser scenario in terms of the misbehavior oriented phenomena respectively. Now moving towards the practical oriented phenomena this is not the perfect solution based on the blocking of the address based on the IP scenario. Finally resulting in such an oriented phenomena where blocking is done by the help of the admin oriented issue at the nodal side respectively. These particular phenomena plays a vital role and somewhat beneficiary aspect in terms of the controlling the misbehavior of the user. Therefore in order to overcome the above problem a framework is designed by the name of nimble in such a fashion which is used to overcome the above phenomena by the following considerations where the entire action takes place by the help of the server’s oriented approach. Therefore this particular phenomena plays a vital role in order to improve the performance of the system respectively.

Moghal Yaseen Pasha

2013-08-01

418

EDITORIAL: Optical orientation Optical orientation  

Science.gov (United States)

Boris Petrovitch Zakharchenya (1928-2005) This issue is dedicated to the memory of Boris Petrovich Zakharchenya, who died at the age of 77 in April 2005. He was an eminent scientist and a remarkable man. After studying physics at Leningrad University he joined the Physico-Technical Institute (now the A F Ioffe Institute) in 1952 and became the co-worker of Evgeny Feodorovich Gross, shortly after the exciton was discovered in his laboratory. The experiments on cuprous oxide crystals in the visible spectral range showed a hydrogen-like spectrum, which was interpreted as excitonic absorption. The concept of the exciton had been conceived some years earlier by Jacov Frenkel at the Physico-Technical Institute. Immediately after joining Gross, Zakharchenya succeeded in producing spectra of unprecedented quality. Subsequently the heavy and the light hole series were found. Also, Landau splitting was discovered when a magnetic field was applied. The interpretation of the discovery was thrown into doubt by Russian colleagues and it took some time, before the correct interpretation prevailed. Shortly before his death, Boris wrote the history of the discovery of the exciton, which has recently been published in Russian in a book celebrating the 80th anniversary of his birth [1]. The book also contains essays by Boris on various themes, not only on physics, but also on literature. Boris was a man of unusually wide interests, he was not only fascinated by physics, but also loved literature, art and music. This can be seen in the first article of this issue The Play of Light in Crystals which is an abbreviated version of his more complete history of the discovery of the exciton. It also gives a good impression of the personality of Boris. One of us (GL) had the privilege to become closely acquainted with him, while he was a guest professor at the University of Würzburg. During that time we had many discussions, and I recall his continuing rage on the wrong attribution of the priority of the discovery in the literature, which was partly caused by the existence of the Iron Curtain. I had already enjoyed contact with Boris in the 1980s when the two volumes of Landau Level Spectroscopy were being prepared [2]. He was one of the pioneers of magneto-optics in semiconductors. In the 1950s the band structure of germanium and silicon was investigated by magneto-optical methods, mainly in the United States. No excitonic effects were observed and the band structure parameters were determined without taking account of excitons. However, working with cuprous oxide, which is a direct semiconductor with a relative large energy gap, Zakharchenya and his co-worker Seysan showed that in order to obtain correct band structure parameters, it is necessary to take excitons into account [3]. About 1970 Boris started work on optical orientation. Early work by Hanle in Germany in the 1920s on the depolarization of luminescence in mercury vapour by a transverse magnetic field was not appreciated for a long time. Only in the late 1940s did Kastler and co-workers in Paris begin a systematic study of optical pumping, which led to the award of a Nobel prize. The ideas of optical pumping were first applied by Georges Lampel to solid state physics in 1968. He demonstrated optical orientation of free carriers in silicon. The detection method was nuclear magnetic resonance; optically oriented free electrons dynamically polarized the 29Si nuclei of the host lattice. The first optical detection of spin orientation was demonstrated by with the III-V semiconductor GaSb by Parsons. Due to the various interaction mechanisms of spins with their environment, the effects occurring in semiconductors are naturally more complex than those in atoms. Optical detection is now the preferred method to detect spin alignment in semiconductors. The orientation of spins in crystals pumped with circularly polarized light is deduced from the degree of circular polarization of the recombination radiation. The major results of the systematic work on optical orientation, both experimental and

SAME ADDRESS *, Yuri; Landwehr, Gottfried

2008-11-01